ya य

Definition: prn. rel. (n. -d) who, that, which, what: nearly always followed by the ordinary correlative tad (± etad or idam) or less frequently idam (m. ayam), adas (m. asau), îdris, tâdrisa, etâvat (tathâ sts. corresponding to the n. yad); occasionally either the rel. or the corr. is dropped. Ya is sts. inaccurately employed in the sense of if any (one). Uses of the relative calling for special mention are the following: 1. Ya is often added (without the copula) to emphasize a subject (e.g. âtma parityâgena yad âsritânam rakshanam, tan nîtividâm na sammatam, protection of dependents at the sacrifice of one's own life is not approved by moralists).Sts. it is thus used without emphasis by the side of a simple subject (e. g. andhah sthaviras ka yah, a blind man and one who is old); rarely a nm. rel. of this kind=an ac. (e.g. sarvân rasân apo heta pasavo ye ka mânushâh, he should avoid selling all sorts of condiments, cattle, and human beings). The n. sg. yad of this emphatic rel. is frequently employed without regard to gender or number, when it may be translated by as for, as regards (e.g. asidhâ râvratam idam manye yad arinâ saha samvâ sah, as for dwelling with an enemy, that I consider as hard as the sword-blade vow); before a noun this yad=that is to say (Br.). Immediately following oratio recta ending with iti yad=at the thought that (cp. cj. yad). 2. Two relatives often occur in the same sentence, when the second may be translated by any (e.g. yad rokate yasmai, bhavet tat tasya sundaram, what pleases any one, that to him is beautiful). 3. The meaning of the rel. when repeated (sts. separated by hi) is generalised, ya ya being=whoever, whichever, whatever (followed by the doubled or single corr. tad). 4. Ya is often combined with other prns.: (a) w. tvam, sa, esha, ayam, asau; (b) w. aham (tvam, etc.): yo &zip; ham, I who=since I, or (after a question) that I; (c) w. tad, any soever: yad vâ tad vâ, any, any kind of; anything; (d) w. tvad=or any other (Br., rare); (e) w. intr. ka + ka (V., C., common), + kid (C., very common), + kid api (C., not common), + kana (E., rare), + vâ (C., rare), or + api (C., late, not yet in Manu), immediately following or sts. sepa rated (m. yah kás ka, kas kid, kas kid api, kas kana, ko vâ, or ko &zip; pi, n. yad kim ka, kim kid, kim kid api, kim kana, kim vâ or kim api), whoever, whatever, any soever, any one, no matter who.

Dictionary: Macdonell
Literary Sources: