vṛtti वृत्ति

Definition: treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; cf. R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; cf. M. Bh. on P. I.4. 109, Vārt. 4; also I.l.69 Vārt.ll; (5) nature cf. गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; cf. अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nir. II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; cf. परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; (11) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: cf. वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; cf. तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.


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