tṛtīyā तृतीया

Definition: the third case; affixes of the third case (instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an instrument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: cf. P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; cf. Kas. on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sentence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word i.e. हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् etc.; cf. Kas. on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; e.g. पृथग्देवदत्तेन etc. स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; cf. Kas. on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the tad. affix after them has been elided; e.g. पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; cf. P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; e.g.तुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; cf. P. II.3.72.


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