pramāṇam प्रमाणम्

Definition: प्रमाणम् 1 A measure in general (of length, breadth &c.); न प्रमाणेन नोत्साहात् सत्त्वस्थो भव पाण्डव Mb.3.33.63. ('प्रमाणं नित्यमर्यादासंघवादिप्रमादिषु' Viśva.); Mb.1.222. 31; दृष्टो हि वृण्वन् कलभप्रमाणो$प्याशाः पुरोवातमवाप्य मेघः R.18. 38. -2 Size, extent, magnitude. -3 Scale, standard; पृथिव्यां स्वामिभक्तानां प्रमाणे परमे स्थितः Mu.2.21. -4 Limit, quantity; वञ्चयित्वा तु राजानं न प्रमाणे$वतिष्ठसि Rām.2.37. 22. -5 Testimony, evidence, proof. -6 Authority, warrant; one who judges or decides, one whose word is an authority; श्रुत्वा देवः प्रमाणम् Pt.1 'having heard this your Majesty will decide (what to do)'; आर्यमिश्राः प्रमाणम् M.1; Mu.1.1; सतां हि संदेहपदेषु वस्तुषु प्रमाणमन्तः- करणप्रवृत्तयः Ś.1.22; व्याकरणे पाणिनिः प्रमाणम्; Ms.2.13; Pt.1.24; sometimes in pl.; वेदाः प्रमाणाः. -7 A true or certain knowledge, accurate conception or notion. -8 A mode of proof, a means of arriving at correct knowledge; (the Naiyāyikas recognize only four kinds; प्रत्यक्ष, अनुमान, उपमान and शब्द, the Vedāntins and Mīmāṁsakas add two more, अनुपलब्धि and अर्थापत्ति; while the Sāṅkhyas admit प्रत्यक्ष, अनुमान and शब्द only; cf. अमुभव also.). -9 Principal, capital. -1 Unity. -11 Scripture, sacred authority. -12 Cause, reason. -13 Rule, sanction, precept. -14 The first term in a rule of three. -15 An epithet of Viṣṇu. -16 Freedom from apprehension. -17 The prosodial lengh of a vowel. -18 An eternal matter; L. D. B. -19 (In music) A measure (such as द्रुत, मध्य, विलम्बित); Rām.1.4.8. -2 The measure of a square. -णः, -णी A rule, standard, authority. -Comp. -अधिक a. more than ordinary, inordinate, excessive; श्वासः प्रमाणाधिकः Ś.1.29. -अनुरूप a. corresponding to physical strength. -अन्तरम् another mode of proof. -अभावः absence of authority. -कुशल, -प्रवीण a. skilful in arguing. -कोटिः the point in an argument which is regarded as actual proof. -ज्ञ a. knowing the modes of proof, (as a logician). (-ज्ञः) an epithet of Śiva. -दृष्ट a. sanctioned by authority. -पत्रम् a written warrant. -पथः the way of proof. -पुरुषः an arbitrator, a judge, an umpire. -वाधितार्थकः a kind of Tarka in Nyāyasāstra. -भूत (˚णीभूत) a. authoritative. (-तः) an epithet of Śiva. -राशिः the quantity of the first term in a rule of three sums. -वचनम्, -वाक्यम् an authoritative statement. -शास्त्रम् 1 scripture. -2 the science of logic. -सूत्रम् a measuring cord. -स्थ a. 1 of normal size. -2 unperturbed.

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