dharmaḥ धर्मः

Definition: धर्मः [ध्रियते लोको$नेन, धरति लोकं वा धृ-मन्; cf. Uṇ 1. 137] 1 Religion; the customary observances of a caste, sect, &c. -2 Law, usage, practice, custom, ordinance, statue. -3 Religious or moral merit, virtue, righteousness, good works (regarded as one of the four ends of human existence); अनेन धर्मः सविशेषमद्य मे त्रिवर्ग- सारः प्रतिभाति भाविनि Ku.5.38, and see त्रिवर्ग also; एक एव सुहृद्धर्मो निधने$प्यनुयाति यः H.1.63. -4 Duty, prescribed course of conduct; षष्ठांशवृत्तेरपि धर्म एषः Ś.5.4; Ms.1.114. -5 Right, justice, equity, impartiality. -6 Piety, propriety, decorum. -7 Morality, ethics -8 Nature. disposition, character; उत्पत्स्यते$स्ति मम को$पि समानधर्मा Māl.1.6; प्राणि˚, जीव˚. -9 An essential quality, peculiarity, characteristic property, (peculiar) attribute; वदन्ति वर्ण्यावर्ण्यानां धर्मैक्यं दीपकं बुधाः Chandr.5.45; Pt.1.34. -1 Manner, resemblance, likeness. -11 A sacrifice. -12 Good company, associating with the virtuous -13> Devotion, religious abstraction. -14 Manner, mode. -15 An Upaniṣad q. v. -16 Name of Yudhiṣṭhira, the eldest Pāṇḍava. -17 Name of Yama, the god of death. -18 A bow. -19 A drinker of Soma juice. -2 (In astrol.) Name of the ninth lunar mansion. -21 An Arhat of the Jainas. -22 The soul. -23 Mastery, great skill; दिव्यास्त्रगुणसंपन्नः परं धर्मं गतो युधि Rām.3.31.15. -र्मम् A virtuous deed. -Comp. -अक्षरम् (pl.) holy mantras; a formula of faith; धर्माक्षराण्युदाहरामि Mk.8.45-46. -अङ्गः (-ङ्गा f.) the Indian crane. -अधर्मौ m. (du.) right and wrong, religion and irreligion; धर्माधर्मौ सपदि गलितौ पुण्यपापे विशीर्णे. ˚विद् m. a Mīmāṁsaka who knows the right and wrong course of action. -अधिकरणम् 1 administration of the laws. 1 a court of justice. (-णः) a judge. -अधिकरणिकः, -अधिकारिन् m. a judge, magistrate, any judicial functionary. -अधिकरणिन् m. a judge, magistrate. -अधिकारः 1 superintendence of religious affairs; Ś1. -2 administration of justice. -3 the office of a judge. -अधि- ष्ठानम् a court of justice. -अध्यक्षः 1 a judge. -2 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -अनुष्ठानम् acting according to religion, virtuous or moral conduct. -अनुसारः conformity to virtue or justice. -अपेत a. deviating from virtue, wicked, immoral, irreligious. (-तम्) vice, immorality, injustice. -अयनम् course of law, law-suit. -अरण्यम् a sacred or penance grove, a wood inhabited by ascetics; धर्मारण्यं प्रविशति गजः Śi.1.32. -अर्थौः religious merit and wealth; धर्मार्थौ यत्र न स्याताम् Ms.2.112. -अर्थम् ind. 1 for religious purposes. -2 justly, according to justice or right. -अलीक a. having a false character. -अस्तिकायः (with Jainas) the category or predicament of virtue; cf. अस्तिकाय. -अहन् Yesterday. -आगमः a religious statute, lawbook. -आचार्यः 1 a religious teacher. -2 a teacher of law or customs. -आत्मजः an epithet of Yudhiṣṭhira q. v. -आत्मता religiousmindedness; justice, virtue. -आत्मन् a. just righteous, pious, virtuous. (-m.) a saint, a pious man. -आश्रय, -आश्रित a. righteous, virtuous; धर्माश्रयं पापिनः (निन्दन्ति) Pt.1.415. -आसनम् the throne of justice, judgmentseat, tribunal; न संभावितमद्य धर्मासनमध्यासितुम् Ś.6; धर्मासनाद्विशति वासगृहं नरेन्द्रः U.1.7. -इन्द्रः, -ईशः an epithet of Yama; पितॄणामिव धर्मेन्द्रः Mb.7.6.6. -ईप्सु a. wishing to gain religious merit; Ms.1.127. -उत्तर a. 'rich in virtue,' chiefly characterized by justice, eminently just and impartial; धर्मोत्तरं मध्यममाश्रयन्ते R.13.7. -उपचायिन् a. religious; यच्च वः प्रेक्षमाणानां सर्व- धर्मोपचायिनाम् Mb.5.137.16. -उपदेशः 1 instruction in law or duty, religious or moral instruction. आर्षं धर्मोपदेशं च वेदशास्त्राविरोधिना । यस्तर्केणानुसंधत्ते स धर्मं वेद नेतरः ॥ Ms.12.16. -2 the collective body of laws. -उपदेशकः 1 a teacher of the law. -2 a spiritual teacher, a Guru. -कथकः an expounder of law. -कर्मन् n., -कार्यम्, -क्रिया 1 any act of duty or religion, any moral or religious observance, a religious act or rite. -2 virtuous conduct. -कथादरिद्रः the Kali age. -काम a. 1 devoted to virtue. -2 observing duty or right. -कायः 1 an epithet of Buddha. -2 a Jaina saint. -कारणम् Cause of virtue. -कीलः 1 a grant, royal edict or decree. -2 husband. -कृत् a. observing duty, acting justly. (-m.) 1 Name of Viṣṇu. -2 a pious man. धर्मा- धर्मविहीनो$पि धर्ममर्यादास्थापनार्थं धर्ममेव करोतीति धर्मकृत् Bhāg. -केतुः an epithet of Buddha. -कोशः, -षः the collective body of laws or duties; धर्मकोषस्य गुप्तये Ms.1.99. -क्रिया, -कृत्यम् any act of religion, any moral or religious rite. -क्षेत्रम् 1 Bhāratavarṣa (the land of religion). -2 Name of a plain near Delhi, the scene of the great battle between the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas; धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः Bg.1.1. (-त्रः) a virtuous or pious man. -गुप्त a. observing and protecting religion. (-प्तः) Name of Viṣṇu. -ग्रन्थः a sacred work or scripture. -घटः a jar of fragrant water offered daily (to a Brāhmaṇa) in the month of Vaiśākha; एष धर्मघटो दत्तो ब्रह्माविष्णुशिवात्मकः । अस्य प्रदानात् सफला मम सन्तु मनोरथाः ॥ -घ्न a. immoral, unlawful. -चक्रः 1 The wheel or range of the law; Bhddh. Jain. -2 a Buddha. ˚मृत् m. a Buddha or Jaina. -चरणम्, -चर्या observance of the law, performance of religious duties; शिवेन भर्त्रा सह धर्मचर्या कार्या त्वया मुक्तविचारयेति Ku.7.83; वयसि प्रथमे, मतौ चलायां बहुदोषां हि वदन्ति धर्मचर्याम्Bu. Ch.5.3. चारिन् a. practising virtue, observing the law, virtuous, righteous; स चेत्स्वयं कर्मसु धर्मचारिणां त्वमन्त- रायो भवसि R.3.45. (-m.) an ascetic. चारिणी 1 a wife. -2 a chaste or virtuous wife. cf. सह˚; इयं चोर्वशी यावदायुस्तव सहधर्मचारिणी भवत्विति V.5.19/2. -चिन्तक a. 1 studying or familiar with duty. -2 reflecting on the law. -चिन्तनम्, चिन्ता study of virtue, consideration of moral duties, moral reflection. -च्छलः fraudulent transgression of law or duty. -जः 1 'duly or lawfully born', a legitimate son; cf. Ms.9.17. -2 Name of युधिष्ठिर; Mb.15.1.44. -जन्मन् m. Name of युधिष्ठिर. -जिज्ञासा inquiry into religion or the proper course of conduct; अथातो धर्मजिज्ञासा Jaimini's Sūtra. -जीवन a. one who acts according to the rules of his caste or fulfils prescribed duties. (-नः) a Brāhmaṇa who maintains himself by assisting other men in the performance of their religious rites; यश्चापि धर्मसमयात्प्रच्युतो धर्मजीवनः Ms.9.273. -ज्ञ a. 1 knowing what is right, conversant with civil or religious law; Ms.7.141;8.179;1.127. -2 just, righteous, pious. -त्यागः abandoning one's religion, apostacy. -दक्षिणा a fee for instruction in the law. -दानम् a charitable gift (made without any self-interest.) पात्रेभ्यो दीयते नित्यमनपेक्ष्य प्रयोजनम् । केवलं धर्मबुद्ध्या यद् धर्मदानं प्रचक्षते ॥ Ms.3.262. -दुघा a cow milked for religious purposes only. -द्रवी Name of the Ganges. -दारा m. (pl.) a lawful wife; स्त्रीणां भर्ता धर्मदाराश्च पुंसाम् Māl. 6.18. -द्रुह् a. voilating the law or right; निसर्गेण स धर्मस्य गोप्ता धर्मद्रुहो वयम् Mv.2.7. -द्रोहिन् m. a demon. -धातुः an epithet of Buddha. -ध्वजः -ध्वजिन् m. a religious hypocrite, an impostor; Bhāg.3.32.39. -नन्दनः an epithet of युधिष्ठिर. -नाथः a legal protector, rightful master. -नाभः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -निबन्धिन् a. pious, holy. -निवेशः religious devotion. -निष्ठ a. devoted to religion or virtue; श्रीमन्तः पान्तु पृथ्वीं प्रशमित- रिपवो धर्मनिष्ठाश्च भूपाः Mk.1.61. -निष्पत्तिः f. 1 discharge or fulfilment of duty. -2 moral or religious observance; -पत्नी a lawful wife; R.2.2,2,72;8.7; Y.2.128. -पथः the way of virtue, a virtuous course of conduct. -पर a. religious-minded, pious, righteous. -परिणामः rise of righteous conduct in the heart (Jainism); cf. also एतेन भूतेन्द्रियेषु धर्मलक्षणावस्थापरिणामा व्याख्याताः Yoga-darśana. -पाठकः a teacher of civil or religious law; Ms.12.111. -पालः 'protector of the law', said metaphorically of (दण्ड) 'punishment or chastisement', or 'sword'. -पाडा transgressing the law, an offence against law. -पुत्रः 1 a lawful son, a son begotten from a sense of duty and not from mere lust or sensual pleasure. -2 an epithet of युधिष्ठिर. -3 any one regarded as a son for religious purposes, a spiritual son. -प्रचारः (fig.) sword. -प्रतिरूपकः a counterfeit of virtue; Ms.11.9. -प्रधान a. eminent in piety; धर्मप्रधानं पुरुषं तपसा हतकिल्बिषम् Ms.4.243. -प्रवक्तृ m. 1 an expounder of the law, a legal adviser. -2 a religious teacher, preacher. -प्रवचनम् 1 the science of duty; U.5.23. -2 expounding the law. (-नः) an epithet of Buddha. -प्रेक्ष्य a. religious or virtuous (धर्मदृष्टि); Rām.2.85.16. -बाणिजिकः, -वाणिजिकः 1 one who tries to make profit out of his virtue like a merchant. -2 one who performs religious rites with a view to reward, like a merchant dealing in transactions for profit. -बाह्यः a. contrary to religion or what is right. -भगिनी 1 a lawful sister. -2 a daughter of the spiritual preceptor. -3 a spiritual sister, any one regarded as a sister or discharging the same religious duties एतस्मिन्विहारे मम धर्मभगिनी तिष्ठति Mk.8.46/47. -भागिनी a virtuous wife. -भाणकः a lecturer or public reader who reads and explains to audiences sacred books like the Bhārata, Bhāgavata, &c. -भिक्षुकः a mendicant from virtuous motives; Ms. 11.2. -भृत् m. 1 'a preserver or defender of justice,' a king. -2 a virtuous person. -भ्रातृ m. 1 a fellow religious student, a spiritual brother. -2 any one regarded as a brother from discharging the same religious duties. वानप्रस्थयतिब्रह्मचारिणां रिक्थभागिनः । क्रमेणाचार्यसच्छिष्य- धर्मभ्रात्रेकतीर्थिनः ॥ Y.2.137. -महामात्रः a minister of religion, a minister in charge of religious affairs. -मूलम् the foundation of civil or religious law, the Vedas. -मेघः a particular Samādhi. -युगम् the Kṛita age; अथ धर्मयुगे तस्मिन्योगधर्ममनुष्ठिता । महीमनुचचारैका सुलभा नाम भिक्षुकी Mb.12.32.7. -यूपः, -योनिः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -रति a. 'delighting in virtue or justice', righteous, pious, just; तस्य धर्मरतेरासीद् वृद्धत्वं जरसा विना R.1.23. -रत्नम् Name of a Jaina स्मृतिग्रन्थ prepared by Jīmūtavāhana. -राज् -m. an epithet of Yama. -राज a. धर्मशील q. v.; धर्मराजेन जनकेन महात्मना (विदेहान् रक्षितान्) Mb.12.325 19. -राजः an epithet of 1 Yama. -2 Jina. -3 युधिष्ठिर. -4 a king. -राजन् m. Name of युधिष्ठिर. -राजिका a monument, a stūpa (Sārnāth Inscrip. of Mahīpāla; Ind. Ant. Vol.14, p.14.) -रोधिन् a. 1 opposed to law, illegal, unlawful. -2 immoral. -लक्षणम् 1 the essential mark of law. -2 the Vedas. (-णा) the Mīmāṁsā philosophy. -लोपः 1 irreligion, immorality. -2 violation of duty; धर्मलोपभयाद्राज्ञीमृतुस्नातामिमां स्मरन् R. 1.76. -वत्सल a. loving piety or duty. -वर्तिन् a. just, virtuous. -वर्धनः an epithet of Śiva. -वादः discussion about law or duty, religious controversy; अनुकल्पः परो धर्मो धर्मवादैस्तु केवलम् Mb.12.165.15. -वासरः 1 the day of full moon. -2 yesterday. -वाहनः 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 a buffalo (being the vehicle of Yama). -विद् a. familiar with the law (civil or religious). ˚उत्तमः Name of Viṣṇu. -विद्या knowledge of the law or right. -विधिः a legal precept or injunction; एष धर्मविधिः कृत्स्नश्चातुर्वर्ण्यस्य कीर्तितः Ms.1.131. -विप्लवः violation of duty, immorality. -विवेचनम् 1 judicial investigation; यस्य शूद्रस्तु कुरुते राज्ञो धर्मविवेचनम् । तस्य सीदति तद्राष्ट्रं पङ्के गौरिव पश्यतः ॥ Ms.8.21. -2 dissertation on duty. -वीरः (in Rhet.) the sentiment of heroism arising out of virtue or piety, the sentiment of chivalrous piety; the following instance is given in R. G.:-- सपदि विलयमेतु राज्यलक्ष्मीरुपरि पतन्त्वथवाकृपाणधाराः । अपहरतुतरां शिरः कृतान्तो मम तु मतिर्न मनागपैतु धर्मात् ॥ स च दानधर्मयुद्धैर्दयया च समन्वितश्चतुर्धा स्यात् S. D. -वृद्ध a. advanced in virtue or piety; न धर्मवृद्धेषु वयः समीक्ष्यते Ku.5.16. -वैतंसिकः one who gives away money unlawfully acquired in the hope of appearing generous. -व्यवस्था m. judicial decision, decisive sentence. -शाला 1 a court of justice, tribunal. -2 any charitabla institution. -शासनम्, शास्त्रम् a code of laws, jurisprudence; न धर्मशास्त्रं पठतीति कारणम् H.1.17; Y.1.5. [मनुर्यमो वसिष्ठो$त्रिः दक्षो विष्णुस्तथाङ्गिराः । उशना वाक्पतिर्व्यास आपस्तम्बो$ थ गौतमः ॥ कात्यायनो नारदश्च याज्ञवल्क्यः पराशरः । संवर्तश्चैव शङ्खश्च हारीतो लिखितस्तथा ॥ एतैर्यानि प्रणीतानि धर्मशास्त्राणि वै पुरा । तान्येवातिप्रमाणानि न हन्तव्यानि हेतुभिः ॥] -शील a. just, pious, virtuous. -शुद्धिः a correct knowledge of the law; प्रत्यक्षं चानुमानं च शास्त्रं च विविधागमम् । त्रयं सुविदितं कार्यं धर्मशुद्धिमभीप्सता ॥ Ms.12.15. -संहिता a code of laws (especially compiled by sages like Manu, Yājñavalkya, &c.). -संगः 1 attachmet to justice or virtue. -2 hypocrisy. -संगीतिः 1 discussion about law. -2 (with Buddhists) a council. -सभा a court of justice. -समयः a legal obligation; यश्चापि धर्मसमयात्प्रच्युतो धर्मजीवनः Ms.9.273. -सहायः a partner or companion in the discharge of religious duties. -सूः m. the fork-tailed shrike. -सूत्रम् a book on पूर्वमीमांसा written by Jaimini. -सेतुः an epithet of Śiva. -सेवनम् fulfilment of duties. -स्थः a judge; धर्मस्थः कारणैरेतैर्हीनं तमिति निर्दिशेत् Ms.8.57. -स्थीय a. Concerning law; धर्मस्थीयं तृतीयं प्रकरणम् Kau. A.3. -स्वामिन् m. an epithet of Buddha.


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