ind. (fr. pronominal base e-;probably connected with 1. ev/a-), thus, in this way, in such a manner, such, (it is not found in the oldest hymns of the veda-, where its place is taken by 1. ev/a-,but occurs in later hymns ind. in the brāhmaṇa-s, especially in connection withvid-,"to know", and its derivatives[ exempli gratia, 'for example'ya evaṃ veda-,he who knows so; seeevaṃ-v/id-, column 3];in classical Sanskrit evam-occurs very frequently, especially in connection with the roots vac-,"to speak", and śru-,"to hear", and refers to what precedes as well as to what follows[ exempli gratia, 'for example'evam uktvā-,having so said; evam evaitat-,this is so; evam astu-or evam bhavatu-,be it so, I assent; asty evam-,it is so; yady evam-,if this be so; kim evam-,how so? what is the meaning of it? what does this refer to? maivam-,not so! evam-- yathā-or yathā-- evam-,so - as]) etc.
ind. a particle of emphasis and affirmation, generally placed after a word and laying stress on it (it is usually translatable by"indeed","truly","certainly","verily","just" etc.;it is very rare in the ;more frequent in the , and very common in the brāhmaṇa-s and in works that imitate their style;in the sūtra-s it is less frequent and almost restricted to the combination yady u vai-;in manu- and the kāvya-s it mostly appears at the end of a line, and as a mere expletive. In it is frequently followed by u-in the combination v/ā u-[both particles are separated ];it is also preceded by u-and various other particles exempli gratia, 'for example' by /id-, /aha-, ut/a-;in the brāhmaṇa-s it often follows ha-, ha sma-, eva-;in later language api-and tu-.Accord. to some it is also a vocative particle).
ind. (in veda- also y/adī-,sometimes yadi cit-, yadi ha vai-, y/ad/īt-, y/ady u-, yady u vai-) if, in case that etc. etc. In the earlier language yadi- may be joined with Indic.subjunctive or leṭ-Potential , or future , the consequent clause of the conditional sentence being generally without any particle. In the later language yadi- may be joined with present tense (followed in consequent clause by another present tenseexempli gratia, 'for example'yadi jīvati bhadrāṇi paśyati-,"if he lives he beholds prosperity", or by future or by imperative or by Potential or by no verb) ; or it may be joined with Potential (exempli gratia, 'for example'yadi rājā daṇḍaṃ na praṇayet-,"if the king were not to inflict punishment", followed by another Potential or by Conditional or by present tense or by imperative or by future or by no verb) ; or it may be joined with future (exempli gratia, 'for example'yadi na kariṣyanti tat-,"if they will not do that", followed by another future or by present tense or by imperative or by no verb) ; or it may be joined with Conditional (exempli gratia, 'for example'yady anujñām adāsyat-,"if he should give permission", followed by another Conditional or by Potential or by Aorist) ; or it may be joined with Aorist (exempli gratia, 'for example'yadi prajā-patir na vapur arsrākṣīt-,"if the Creator had not created the body", followed by Conditional or by Potential or by perfect tense) ; or it may be joined with imperative or even with perfect tense (exempli gratia, 'for example'yady āha-,"if he had said") . There may be other constructions, and in the consequent clauses some one of the following may be used: atha-, atra-, tad-, tena-, tatas-, tataḥ param-, tadā-, tarhi-, tadānīm-. Observe that yadi- may sometimes = "as sure as"(especially in asseverations, followed by imperative with or without tathā-or tena-or followed by Potential with tad-) etc.; or it may ="whether"(followed by present tense or Potential or no verb exempli gratia, 'for example'yadi-na vā-,"whether-or not", and sometimes kim-is added) ; or it may ="that"(after verbs of"not believing"or"doubting" , with present tense or Potentialexempli gratia, 'for example'nāśaṃse yadi jīvanti-,"I do not expect that they are alive" see) ; or if placed after duṣkaraṃ- or kathaṃ cid- it may ="hardly","scarcely" ; or it may = "if perchance","perhaps"(with Potential with or without iti-,or with future or present tense) etc. The following are other combinations: yadi tāvat-,"how would it be if"(with present tense or imperative)
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