bahu vrīhi a compound similar in meaning to the word बहुव्रीहि ( possessed of much rice ) which, in sense shows quite a distinct object than those which are shown by the constituent members of the compound; a relative or adjective compound. There are various kinds of the Bahuvrihi compound such as समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुव्रीहि, दिग्बहुव्रीहि, सहबहुव्रीहि, नञ्बहुव्रीहि, and अनेकपदबहुव्रीहि which depend upon the specific peculiarity noticed in the various cases. Panini in his grammar has not given any definition of बहुव्रीहि, but has stated that a compound other than those already given viz. अव्ययीभाव, द्वन्द्व and तत्पुरुष, is बहुव्रीहि and cited under Bahuvrihi all cases mentioned ; cf शेषो बहुव्रीहिः II. 3.23-28; also a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः confer, compare on P. II. 1.6; II. 1.20; II. 1.49. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). bahu vrīhipāda conventional term used for the second pada of the sixth adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi. bahu vrīhiprakṛtisvara the accent peculiar to, or specifically mentioned in the case of the Bahuvrihi compound viz. the retention of its own accents by the first member, in spite of the general rule that a compound word has the last vowel accented acute उदात्त. id est, that is बहुव्रीहौ प्रकृत्या पूर्वपदम्. P. VI. 2.1. The expression बहुव्रीहिस्वर in this very sense is used in the Mahabhasya confer, compare बहुव्रीहिस्वरं शास्ति समासान्तविधेः सुकृत् confer, compare on P. VI. 2.1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). anaḍ (1) substitute अन् as Samāsānta at the end of a Bahuvrīhi in the feminine for the last letter of the word ऊधस् and for that of धनुस् in all genders compound कुण्डोघ्नी (by applying ई to कुण्डोधन्), शार्ङ्गधन्वा, अधिज्यधन्वा; exempli gratia, for example P V.4.131, 132; (2) substitute अन् for the last letter of the words अस्थि, दधि confer, compare before the affixes of the instrumental and the following cases beginning with a vowel e. g. अस्थ्ना, दध्ना, अक्ष्णा et cetera, and others et cetera, and others P. VII. 1.75; (3) substitute अन् for the last letter of the word सखि, of words ending in ऋ,as also of उशनस् and others before the nominative confer, compare affix सु. e. g. सखा, कर्ता, उशना singular. P. VII.1.93, 94. confer, compare antaraṅga a highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himsel The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 feminine. 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). , it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken pl a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष). accusative case. ap (1) kṛt affix अ, in the sense of verbal activity (भाव) or any verbal relation (कारक) excepting that of an agent, (कर्तृ) applied to roots ending in ऋ or उ and the roots ग्रह्,वृ,दृ mentioned in P. III.3.58 and the following rules in preference to the usual affix घञ. et cetera, and others करः, गरः, शरः, यवः, लवः, पवः, ग्रहः, स्वनः etc, exempli gratia, for example P.III, 3.57-87 ; (2) compound-ending अप् applied to Bahuvrīhi compounds in the feminine gender ending with a Pūraṇa affix as also to Bahuvrīhi compounds ending with लोमन् preceded by अन्त् or वहिर् e. g. कल्याणीपञ्चमा रात्रयः, अन्तर्लोमः,बहिर्लोमः पटः confer, compare P. V. 4.116, 117. confer, compare as (1) case affix of the nominative and accusative plural and the ablative and genitive singular (जस् , शस्, ङसि and ङस् ) (2) taddhita affix अस् ( असि ) added to पूर्व, अधर and अवर, by P.V.3.39: (3) compoundending अस् ( असिच् ) applied to the words प्रजा and मेधा standing at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound (P.V.4.122): (4) Uṇādi affix अस् prescribed by the rule सर्वधातुभ्योऽसुन् and subsequent rules (628-678) to form words such as मनस्,सरस् (5) ending syllable अस्, with or without sense, of words in connection with which special operations are given in grammar; et cetera, and others P.VI.4.14; confer, compare also अनिनस्मन्ग्रहणान्यर्थवता चानर्थकेन च तदन्तविधिं प्रयोजयन्ति Par.Śek. Pari. 16. confer, compare ic (1) short wording or pratyāhāra for vowels except अ. इजोदश्च गुरुमतोSनृच्छः P.III.1.36; cf also VI. I.104, VI.3.68. VIII.4.31,32; (2) Samāsānta affix इ after Bahuvrīhi compounds showing a mutual exchange of actions. confer, compare केशाकेशि, दण्डादण्डि exempli gratia, for example इच् कर्मव्यतिहारे P.V.4. 127 also 128. confer, compare k (1) affix क applied to the words of the ऋश्य group in the four senses called चातुरर्थिक e. g. ऋश्यकः, अनडुत्कः, वेणुकः taddhita affix. , et cetera, and others P.IV.2.80; (2) confer, compare affix क applied to nouns in the sense of diminution, censure, pity taddhita affix. e. g. अश्वक्रः, उष्ट्रकः, पुत्रकः, et cetera, and others P.V. 3.70-87: (3) confer, compare affix क in the very sense of the word itself ( स्वार्थे ) taddhita affix. अविकः, यावकः, कालकः; exempli gratia, for example P.V.4.2833; (4) Uṇādi affix क confer, compare कर्क, वृक, राका, एक, भेक, काक, पाक, शल्क exempli gratia, for example by Uṇādi sūtras III. 40-48 before which the angment इट् is prohibited by P. VII.2.9; (5) kṛt affix क ( अ ) where क् is dropped by P. I. 3.8, applied, in the sense of agent, to certain roots mentioned in P.III.1.135, 136, 144, III. 2.3 to 7, III.2.77 and III.3.83 et cetera, and others बुध:, प्रस्थः, गृहम्, कम्बलदः, द्विपः, मूलविभुजः, सामगः, सुरापः exempli gratia, for example ; (6) substitute क for the word किम् before a case affix, et cetera, and others P.VII.2.103; (7) the Samāsānta affix कप् (क) at the end of Bahuvrīhi compounds as prescribed by P.V.4.151-160. confer, compare kap (1) kṛt affix क prescribed after the root दुह् कामदुघा, exempli gratia, for example P.III.2. 70;(2) the Samāsānta अ at the end of Bahuvrīhi compounds confer, compare व्वूढोरस्कः, बहुदण्डिका, बहुकुमारीकः,बहुकर्तृकः, exempli gratia, for example P.V.4.151-154. For its prohibition, see P.V.4.155-160. confer, compare kratvādi a class of words headed by the word क्रतु, which have their first vowel accented acute in a Bahuvrīhi dompound, provided the first member of the compound is the word सु; सुक्रतुः, सुप्रपूर्तिः exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. VI.2.118. confer, compare puṃvadbhāva restoration of the masculine form in the place of the feminine one as noticed in compound words, formed generally by the Karmadhāraya and the Bahuvrīhi compounds, where the first member is declinable in all the three genders; e. g. दीर्घजङ्घः. This restoration to the masculine form is also noticed before the affixes तस्, तर, तम्, रूप्य, पाश, त्व as also before क्यङ् and the word मानिन्. For details, see P. VI, 3.34 to 42 and commentaries thereon. See also page 334, Vol. VII of the Pātańjala Mahābhāșya D. E. Society's edition. taddhita affix.