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Grammar Search
"vide" has 4 results
vide: masculine dative singular stem: vid
vide: neuter dative singular stem: vid
vide: feminine dative singular stem: vid
vide: first person singular present present class 2 ātmanepadavid
Monier-Williams Search
Results for vide
videgham. (older form of vi-deha- q.v) Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videhaSee sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videhamfn. bodiless, incorporeal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videhamfn. deceased, dead (also videha-prāpta-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videham. (/a-) (see vi-degh/a-) Name of a country (= the modern Tirhut) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videham. a king of vi-deha- (especially applied to janaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videham. Name of a medical author (also called -pati-,or dhipa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videf. the capital city of vi-deha- id est mithilā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videham. plural the people of vi-deha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videhādhipam. - See viheha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videhādhipatim. equals ha-rāja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videhajāf. "daughter of janaka-", Name of sītā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videhakam. (fr. vi-deha-) Name of a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videhakan. Name of a varṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videhakaivalyaprāptif. the attainment of emancipation after death View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videhamuktif. deliverance through release from the body ( videhamuktikathana ti-kathana-n. and videhamuktyādikathana ty-ādi-kathana- n.Name of two treatises) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videhamuktikathanan. videhamukti
videhamuktyādikathanan. videhamukti
videhanagaran. (), the city of mithilā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videhanagarīf. (), the city of mithilā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videhapatim. lord of mithilā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videharājam. a king of vi-deha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videhatvan. bodilessness (accusative with gataḥ-= deceased, dead) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videśaSee sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videśam. another country, foreign country, abroad etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videśam. a particular place (see -stha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videśagamfn. going abroad View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videśagamanan. the act of going abroad or on a journey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videśagatamfn. gone abroad View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videśajamfn. "born or produced abroad", foreign, exotic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videśaniratamfn. taking delight in going abroad View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videśasthamfn. remaining abroad, living in a foreign country etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videśasthamfn. standing apart or in a particular place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videśasthamfn. occurring elsewhere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videśavāsam. staying abroad, absence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videśavāsinmfn. dwelling abroad View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videśinmfn. belonging to another country, foreign View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videśīyamfn. belonging to another country, foreign View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videśyamfn. foreign (opp. to saṃ-deśya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videvamfn. (v/i--) godless, hostile to gods (as demons)
videvamfn. performed without gods (as a sacrifice)
videvam. (for 1.See) game at dice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videvamind. unerotically (confer, compare su-- deva-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videvanan. dicing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videyamfn. to be given or granted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videyaSee under vi--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videvatākamfn. whose divinities are the aśvin-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvideham. "2 bodied", Name of gaṇeśa- (sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvidevatamfn. relating or belonging to 2 deities, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvidevatan. the constellation viśākhā- (presided over by agni- and indra-; see -daivatyā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvidevatyamfn. equals prec. mfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvidevatyam. (scilicet graha-) a ladleful for 2 deities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvidevatyapātran. plural the ladles used for such libations, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kosalavideham. plural the kosala-s and the videha-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvidehan. Name of a mythical country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvidef. (with vṛtti-,in the yoga- system) Name of a certain condition of the manas- or mind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvavideham. the country of the eastern videha-s (with Buddhists"one of the 4 continents") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvavidehalipif. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ravidevam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tuvideṣṇa(v/i--) mfn. giving much (indra-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
Apte Search
Results for vide2 results
videha विदेह a. 1 Bodiless, incorporeal. -2 Trunkless. -3 Dead. -हाः (m. pl.) N. of a country, the ancient Mithilā; तौ विदेहनगरीनिवासिनां गां गताविव दिवः पुनर्वसू R.11. 36;12.26. -2 The natives of this country. -हः 1 The district Videha. -2 N. of Janaka. -हा The same as विदेह. -Comp. -मुक्तिः deliverance through release from the body.
videśaḥ विदेशः Another country, foreign land or country; भजते विदेशमधिकेन जितस्तदनुप्रवेशमथवा कुशलः Śi.9.48; को वीरस्य मनस्विनः स्वविषयः को वा विदेशस्तथा H.1; को विदेशः सविद्यानां किं दूरं व्यवसायिनाम् Chāṇakyaśataka. -Comp. -ज a. exotic, foreign. -प्रवृत्तिज्ञानम् knowledge or forecast of the foreign affairs; Kau. A.1.1. विदेशिन् vidēśin विदेशीय vidēśīya विदेशिन् विदेशीय a. Foreign, exotic. -m. A foreigner.
Macdonell Vedic Search
2 results
2. dā divide, IV. dáya wield, ii. 33, 10.
dha 1. dhá put, III. dádhāti, v. 83, 1; supply with (inst.), ii. 35, 12; bestow, ipv. dhehí, x. 14, 11; dhattá, i. 85, 12; ii. 12, 5; x. 15, 7; dadhāta, x. 15, 4. [237] 7; dadhātana, x. 15, 11; dhattá̄m, iv. 51, 11; dadhantu, vii. 63, 6; perform, ipf. dhatta, i. 85, 9; bestow, s ao. sb. dhāsathas, i. 160, 5; establish,pf. dadhé, x. 129, 7; ds. desire to bestow, didhiṣanti, ii. 35, 5; support, dídhiṣāmi, ii. 35, 12 [Gk. τἰθημι]. ádhi- put on (acc.): pf. dadhire, i. 85, 2; ao. ádhita, x. 127, 1. á̄- deposit, root ao. sb. dhās, v. 83, 7. ní- deposit, root ao. dhātam, vii. 71, 5; ps. ao. ádhāyi, viii. 48, 10. pári- put around, vi. 54, 10. prá- put from (ab.) into (lc.), vii. 61, 3. ví- impose: pf. dadhur, iv. 51, 6; divide, ipf. ádadhur, x. 90, 11. purás- place at the head, appoint Purohita: pf. dadhire, iv. 50, 1.
Macdonell Search
Results for vide3 results
videha a. bodiless, deceased: -tva, n. release from the body: -m prâpta, dead.
videha m. [=videgha] N. of a country in the modern Tirhut, with the capi tal Mithilâ: pl. the people; sg. prince of Videha: -nagarî, f.=Mithilâ.
videśa m. foreign country; par ticular place: -stha, a. residing abroad; standing apart; occurring elsewhere.
Vedic Index of
Names and Subjects
Results for vide3 resultsResults for vide2 results
videgha Is the name of a man, Māthava, in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. It is legitimate to assume that it is a name given to him as king of the Videghas who are the later Videhas.
videha Is the name of a people who are not mentioned before the Brāhmaṇa period. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the legend of Videgha Māthava preserves clearly a tradition that in Videha culture came from the Brahmins of the West, and that Kosala was brahminized before Videha. The Videhas, however, derived some fame later from the culture of their king Janaka,who figures in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad as one of the leading patrons of the Brahman doctrine. In the Kausītaki Upaniṣad the Videhas are joined with the Kāśis ; in the list of peoples in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa the Videhas are passed over, probably because, with Kosala and Kāśi, they are included in the term Prāeyas, easterners.’ Again, in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra it is recorded that the Kāśi, Kosala, and Videha kingdoms had each the one Purohita, Jala Jātūkarṇya; and in another passage of the same text the connexion between the Videha king, Para Átṇāra, and the Kosala king, Hiraṇya- nābha, is explained, while the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa speaks of Para Atṇāra as the Kosala king, descendant of Hiranyanābha. Another king of Videha was Namī Sāpya, mentioned in the Pañcavirpśa Brāhmaṇa. In the Samhitās of the Yajurveda ‘cows of Videha’ seem to be alluded to, though the com¬mentator on the Taittirīya Samhitā merely takes the adjective vaidehī as ‘having a splendid body’ (viśista-deha-sambandhinī), and the point of a place name in the expression is not very obvious. The Videhas also occur in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra in Brāhmana-like passages. The boundary of Kosala and Videha was the Sadānīrā, probably the modern Gandak (the Kondochates of the Greek geographers), which, rising in Nepal, flows into the Ganges opposite Patna. Videha itself corresponds roughly to the modern Tirhut.
Bloomfield Vedic
Results for vide3 resultsResults for vide2 results40 results
indro vide tam u stuṣe (Mahānāmnyaḥ, stuhi) ā.4.5c; Mahānāmnyaḥ 5d.
prajāṃ videya vājavatīṃ suvīrām KS.31.14d.
tad vide kāmam ūrjam āpaḥ AVś.9.1.9d. See iṣam ūrjaṃ rāyaspoṣaṃ.
agnaye janavide svāhā # AVP.1.35.1; Kauś.78.10; ApMB.1.4.3 (ApG.2.5.2); MG.1.10.8; VārG.14.10. Cf. agnir janavin.
agniṃ somam (āvaha) # Aś.1.3.8. Perhaps to be divided into agnim (āvaha), and somam (āvaha).
agnir janavin mahyaṃ jāyām imām adāt # AVP.1.34.1; Kauś.78.10. Cf. agnaye janavide, and agnir janitā.
agnī rakṣas tapatu yad videvam # AVś.12.3.43a. P: agnī rakṣaḥ Kauś.62.14.
adha svapnasya nir vide # RV.1.120.12a. P: adha svapnasya śG.1.4.2; Rvidh.1.25.1.
astṛtas tvābhi rakṣatu # AVś.19.46.1e--3e,4d,5e--7e; AVP.4.23.1e--3e,4d,5e,7e. AVP.4.23.6 divides differently, see payasvāṃś cāstṛtas.
ahaṃ hitvā śarīraṃ jarasaḥ parastāt # TB. Falsely divided, for hitvā śarīraṃ etc., q.v.
ahann indro yathā vide # RV.1.132.2d.
ahaṃ prajāṃ vīravatīṃ videya # TB.; Apś.4.8.5d.
ā vaḥ somaṃ nayāmasi # MS.1.3.15b: 36.6 (text, vaḥ somaṃ nayāmasi, preceded by haviṣā, from which ā must be divided off). See under abhi somaṃ.
indram arca yathā vide # RV.8.49 (Vāl.1).1b; 69.4b; AVś.20.22.4b; 51.1b; 92.1b; SV.1.168b,235b; 2.161b,839b.
iyam agne nārī patiṃ videṣṭa # AVś.2.36.3a; AVP.2.21.2a.
iṣam ūrjaṃ rāyaspoṣaṃ tad videya # Lś.3.5.15d. See tad vide.
iheṣam ūrjaṃ yaśaḥ saha ojaḥ saneyam # TB. Divided incorrectly: see iṣam etc.
uta śravo vivide śyeno atra # RV.4.26.5d.
ūrjasvāṃś ca payasvāṃś ca # AVś.19.46.6d. AVP.4.23.6 divides differently, putting ūrjasvāṃś ca at the end of pāda c, and payasvāṃś ca at the beginning of pāda d. See śaṃbhūś ca, and payasvāṃś cāstṛtas.
ṛtuyājān dvidevatyān # Aś.5.5.21a. See dvidevatyān.
kalyāṇi sarvavide mā pari dehi # AVś.6.107.4a.
gandharvāya janavide (ApMB. jani-) svāhā # ApMB.1.4.2 (ApG.2.5.2); MG.1.10.8; VārG.14.10.
tantuṃ tanuṣva pūrvyam (RV.8.13.14c, pūrvyaṃ yathā vide) # RV.1.142.1c; 8.13.14c.
tantuṃ tanvānas trivṛtaṃ yathā vide # RV.9.86.32b.
tmanā deveṣu vivide mitadruḥ # RV.7.7.1d.
dātāram adya savitā videya # TB.
dṛḍhā cid asmā anu dur yathā vide # RV.1.127.4a.
na deveṣu vivide marḍitāram # RV.4.18.13b.
nahi vaḥ śatrur vivide adhi dyavi # RV.1.39.4a.
nābhā yajñasya saṃ dadhur yathā vide # RV.8.13.29c.
nota śravo vivide saṃgameṣu # RV.10.131.3b; AVś.20.125.3b.
pūṣṇe jñātivide (Kauś. jāti-, read jñāti-) svāhā # AVP.1.35.3; Kauś.78.10.
pra devāya matīvide # VS.22.12c.
brāhmaṇam adya videyaṃ (VSK. videya) pitṛmantaṃ paitṛmatyam ṛṣim ārṣeyaṃ sudhātudakṣiṇam # VS.7.46; VSK.9.2.6; śB. P: brāhmaṇam adya Kś.10.2.19. See prec. two.
sakhyuḥ śūnam ā vide # RV.8.45.36a.
mūlaṃ prajāṃ vīravatīṃ videya # TB.
yajñebhir gīrbhir viśvamanuṣāṃ marutām iyakṣasi # RV.8.46.17cd. Doubtful metre, to be divided after gīrbhir ?.
yaṃ bahava upajīvanti yo janānām asad vaśī taṃ videya prajāṃ videya # Aś.1.11.1. Two metrical pādas at the beginning.
yasmai mīyante svaravaḥ svarvide # AVś.4.24.4b; AVP.4.39.4b.
yaḥ saṃdeśyo varuṇo yo videśyaḥ # AVś.4.16.8b; AVP.5.32.7b.
Dictionary of Sanskrit Search
"vide" has 92 results
akṣarapaṅktiname given to the dvipada virāj verses divided into padās of five syllables. cf विराजो द्विपदाः केचित् सर्वा आहुश्चतुष्पदाः । कृत्वा पञ्चाक्षरान्पादांस्तास्तथाSक्षरपङ्क्तयः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII. 50.
adarśanaa term in ancient grammars and Prātiśākhyas meaning nonappearance of a phonetic member वर्णस्यादर्शनं लोपः (V. Pr 1. 141),explained as अनुपलब्धिः by उव्वट. Later on, the idea of non-appearance came to be associated with the idea of expectation and the definition of लोप given by Pāṇini in the words अदर्शनं लोपः (as based evidently on the Prātiśākhya definition) was explained as non-appearance of a letter or a group of letters where it was expected to have been present. See Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4 and Kaiyaṭa thereon.
adyatanītech. term of ancient grammarians signifying in general the present time of the day in question, the occurrence of the immediate past or future events in which is generally expressed by the aorist (लुड्) or the simple future ( लृट् ); the other two corresponding tenses imperfect and first future (viz. लड् and लुट्) being used in connection with past and future events respectively, provided the events do not pertain to that day which is in question; confer, compare 'वा चाद्यतन्याम्' M.Bh. P.III.2.102 Vār.6, वादृतन्याम् P, VI.4.114. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (2) term for the tense showing immediate past time called लुङ् in Pāṇini's grammar e. g. मायोगे अद्यतनी । मा कार्षीत् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.III. 1.22, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III. 3.11.
anabhihitanot conveyed or expressed by another id est, that is by any one of the four factors viz.verbal affix, kṛt affix,taddhita affix and compound. The rule अनभिहिते (P. II.3.I) and the following rules lay down the different case affixes in the sense of the different Kārakas or auxiliaries of the verbal activity, provided they are not shown or indicated in any one of the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned four ways; e. g. see the acc. case in कटं करोति, the inst, case in दात्रेण लुनाति, the dative case case in देवदत्ताय गां ददाति, the ablative case. case in ग्रामादा गच्छति, or the locative casecase in स्थाल्यां पचति.
anudāttataraquite a low tone, completely grave; generally applied to the tone of that grave or anudātta vowel which is immediately followed by an acute ( उदात्त ) vowel. When the three Vedic accents were sub-divided into seven tones viz. उदात्त, उदात्ततर्, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितस्थोदात्त and एकश्रुति corresponding to the seven musical notes, the अनुदात्ततर was the name given to the lowest of them all. अनुदात्ततर was termed सन्नतर also; confer, compare उदात्तस्वरितपरस्य सन्नतरः P.I.2.40; confer, compare also M, Bh. on I.2.33.
anudāttetliterally one whose mute significatory letter is uttered with a grave accent: a term applied to a root characterized by an indicatory mute vowel accented grave, the chief feature of such a root being that it takes only the Ātmanepada affixes c. g. आस्ते, वस्ते, et cetera, and others; confer, compare अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; such a root, in forming a derivative word in the sense of habit, takes the affix युच् e. g. वर्त्तनः, वर्धन: et cetera, and others provided the root begins with a consonant; confer, compare अनुदात्तेतश्र हलादेः P. III.2.149.
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
abhivyādānaabsorption of a vowel when two long vowels of the same kind come together exempli gratia, for example ता आपः = तापः, अवसा आ = अवसा, the resultant vowel being pronounced specially long consisting of some more mātrā, which is evidently, a fault of pronunciation. confer, compare आदानं आरम्भः; विपुलं विशालं वा आदानं व्यादानम् । अभिव्याप्तं अभिभूतं व्यादानं अभिव्यादानम् Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 27.
abhisvaritaprovided with a svarita or circumflex accent.
avyapavṛktaunseparated, undivided, inseparable, mixed; confer, compare नाव्यपवृक्तस्य अवयवे तद्विधिः यथा द्रव्येषु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva-sutra 4.V.9 whereon Kaiyaṭa remarks व्यपवृक्तं भेदः । अव्यपवृक्तं अभिन्नबुद्धिविषयमेकत्वालम्बनज्ञानग्राह्यं समुदायरूपम् ।
āśvalāyanaprātiśākhyaan authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the Ṛksaṁhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa.
uṇādisūtradaśapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable.
uṇādisūtrapañcapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into five chapters which is possessed of a scholarly commentary written by Ujjvaladatta. There is a commentary on it by Bhaṭṭoji Dīkṣita also.
upakādia class of words headed by the word उपक after which the taddhita affix, added in the sense of गोत्र ( grand-children et cetera, and others ) is optionally elided, provided the word is to be used in the plural number; confer, compare उपकलमकाः भ्रष्टककपिष्ठलाः also उपकाः, औपकायनाः; लमकाः, लामकायना ; भ्रष्टकाः भ्राष्टकयः । Kāś. on P. II.4.69.
upagrahaa term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मनेपदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेशव्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.
uṣṇih(उष्णिक्)name of the second of the main seven Vedic metres which are known by the name प्रजापतिच्छन्दस्. The Uṣṇik metre consists of 28 syllables divided into three padas of 8, 8 and 12 sylla bles. It has got many varieties such as पुरउष्णिह्, ककुभ् and others; for details see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI 20-26.
ūryādia class of words headed by the words ऊरी उररी et cetera, and others ending in the taddhita affix च्वि, which are given the designation गति provided they are related to a verbal activity, and as a result, which can be compounded with kṛdanta words ending in त्वा, तुम्, et cetera, and others cf ऊरीकृत्य, ऊरीकृतम् et cetera, and others: Kāś on P, I.4.61.
kacchādia class of words headed by कच्छ to which the taddhita affix अण् is added in the miscellaneous (शैषिक) senses, provided the word, to which the affix अण् is to be added, is the name of a country; exempli gratia, for example ऋषिकेषु जातः आर्षिकः similarly माहिषिकः, ऐक्ष्वाकः; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.2.133.
kambojādia class of words headed by the word कम्बोज, the affix अञ् placed after which is elided, provided the words कम्बोज and others are names of countries; exempli gratia, for example कम्बोजः चोलः, केरलः, शकः, यवनः et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV.1.175.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
kātantraparibhāṣāpāṭhaname given to a text consisting of Paribhāṣāsūtras, believed to have been written by the Sūtrakāra himself as a supplementary portion to the main grammar. Many such lists of Paribhāṣāsūtras are available, mostly in manuscript form, containing more than a hundred Sūtras divided into two main groups-the Paribhāṣā sūtras and the Balābalasūtras. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
kāryakālaalong with the operation; confer, compare कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् , rules laying down technical terms and regulating rules are to be interpreted along with the rules that prescribe or enjoin operations ( provided the technical terms occur in those rules, or, the regulating rules concern those rules). See Pari. Śek. Pari 3.
kiṃśulakādia class of words headed by the word किंशुलक, which get their final vowel lengthened when the word गिरि is placed after them as a second member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e. g. किंशुलकागिरिः, अञ्जनागिरिः; confer, compare Kāś. on P. VI.3.117.
kulālādia class of words headed by the word कुलाल to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुञ्) is applied in the sense of 'made by', provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e g.कौलालकम् , वारुडकम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.3.118.
kṛtādeia class of words such as कृत, मित, मत, भूत, उक्त and others with which the words श्रेणि, एक, पूग, कुण्ड, राशि and others are compounded, provided both the words forming the compound are in the same case;.exempli gratia, for example श्रेणिकृता:, एककृताः, कुण्डभूताः et cetera, and others cf Kāś. on P.II.1.59.
koṭarādia class of words headed by the word कोटर which get their final vowel lengthened when the word वन is placed after them as a seconditional member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; exempli gratia, for example कोटरावणम्, मिश्रकावणम्. confer, compare Kāś. on P.VI.3.117.
ktvākṛt (affix). affix त्वा added to roots (1) in the sense of prohibition conveyed by the word अलं or खलु preceding the root, exempli gratia, for example अलं कृत्वा, खलु कृत्वा; confer, compare P. III.4.18; (2) in the sense of exchange in the case of the root मा, e. g. अपमित्य याचते; confer, compare P. III.4.19; (3) to show an activity of the past time along with a verb or noun of action showing comparatively a later time, provided the agent of the former and the latter activities is the same; exempli gratia, for example भुक्त्वा व्रजति, स्नात्वा पीत्वा भुक्त्वा व्रजति; confer, compare P. III.4. 21. This kṛt affix is always added to roots when they are without any prefix; when there is a prefix the indeclinable, ending in त्वा, is always compounded with the prefix and त्वा is changed into य (ल्यप्), exempli gratia, for example प्रकृत्य, प्रहृत्य; confer, compare समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1.37. The substitution of य is at will in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कृष्णं वासो यजमानं परिधापयित्वा ( instead of परिधाप्य ), confer, compare P. VII.1.38, while sometimes, य is added after त्वा as an augment e. g. दत्वाय सविता धियः confer, compare P. VII.l.47, as also sometimes त्वी or त्वीनम् is substituted for त्वा e. g. इष्ट्वीनं देवान्, स्नात्वी मलादिव, confer, compare P. VII.1.48, 49.
kratvādia class of words headed by the word क्रतु, which have their first vowel accented acute in a Bahuvrīhi dompound, provided the first member of the compound is the word सु; exempli gratia, for example सुक्रतुः, सुप्रपूर्तिः et cetera, and others; confer, compare confer, compare Kāś. on P. VI.2.118.
khamuñkṛt affix अम् applied to the root कृ when preceded by a word standing as the object of the root, provided an abuse is meant, e. g. चोरंकारं आक्रोशति; confer, compare P. III. 4.25.
khyunkṛt affix अन applied to the root कृ in the sense of an instrument when preceded by the words अाढ्य, सुभग, स्थूल et cetera, and others provided the whole word is similar in sense to cvi-formation ( च्व्यर्थ ), exempli gratia, for example अाढ्यं करणम् , सुभगंकरणम्; confer, compare P. III. 2.56; feminine. अाढ्यंकरणी, confer, compare नञ्स्नञीकक्ख्युंस्तरुणतलुनानामुपसंख्यानम् P.IV.1.15.Vārttika.
gati(1)literally motion; stretching out, lengthening of a syllable. The word is explained in the Prātiśakhya works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel इ or उ after it, exempli gratia, for example हाइ or हायि for हा; similarly आ-इ or अा -यि ; (2) a technical term used by Pāṇini in connection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called गति, confer, compare P.I.4.60-79. The words called gati can be compounded with the following word provided the latter is not a verb, the compound being named tatpuruṣa e.g, प्रकृतम् , ऊरीकृत्य confer, compare P.II.2.18; the word गति is used by Pāṇini in the masculine gender as seen in the Sūtra गतिरनन्तरः P.VI. 2.49 and hence explained as formed by the addition of the affix क्तिच् to गम्, the word being used as a technical term by the rule क्तिच्क्तौ च संज्ञायाम् P.III.3.174; (3) realization, understanding; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.9; सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 76; अगत्या हि परिभाषा अाश्रीयते Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva Pari. Pāṭha 119.
goṣadādia class of words to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुन् ) is added in the sense of possession provided the word so formed refers to a chapter ( अध्याय ) or a section ( अनुवाक ) c. दैवासुरः, वैमुक्तः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.62.
ṅamudaugment ङम् i. e. ङ्, ण् or न् prefixed to a vowel at the beginning of a word provided that vowel is preceded by ङ्, ण् or न् standing at the end of the preceding word. See ङ् (3).
ñyaṅtaddhita affix. affix in the sense of 'a descendant' added to words beginning with अा, ऐ, ओ or ending with इ, as also to the words कौसल and अजाद् provided they mean a country and a Ksatriya too; exempli gratia, for example सौवीर्यः, आवन्त्यः, कौन्त्यः कौसल्यः, अाजाद्यः; confer, compare P. IV.1.171.
ṇamulkrt affix अम्, causing vrddhi to the final vowel or to the penultimate अ, (!) added to any root in the sense of the infinitive in Vedic Literature when the connected root is शक्: exempli gratia, for example अग्निं वै देवा विभाजं नाशक्नुवन; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 4.14; (2) added to any root to show frequency of a past action, when the root form ending with णमुल् is repeated to convey the sense of frequency : exempli gratia, for example भोजं भोजं व्रजति, पायंपायं व्रजति, confer, compare Kas on P. III. 4.22; (3) added to a root showing past action and preceded by the word अग्रे, प्रथम or पूर्व, optionally along with the krt affix क्त्वा; exempli gratia, for example अग्रेभोजं or अग्रे भुक्त्वा व्रजति; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.24;(4) added in general to a root specified in P.III.4.25 to 64, showing a subordinate action and having the same subject as the root showing the main action, provided the root to which णमुल् is added is preceded by an antecedent or connected word, such as स्वादुम् or अन्यथा or एवम् or any other given in Panini's rules; confer, compare P. III.4.26 to III.4.64; exempli gratia, for example स्वादुंकारं भुङ्क्ते, अन्यथाकारं भुङ्क्ते, एवंकारं भुङ्क्ते, ब्राह्मणवेदं भोजयति, यावज्जीवमधीते, समूलकाषं कषति, समूलघातं हन्ति, तैलपेषं पिनष्टि, अजकनाशं नष्टः et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.26-64. When णमुल् is added to the roots कष्, पिष्, हन् and others mentioned in P. III. 4. 34 to 45, the same root is repeated to show the principal action. The word ending in णमुल् has the acute accent (उदात) on the first vowel (confer, compare P.VI.I. 94) or on the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare P. VI.1.193.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
tumkrt affix तुम् of the infinitive (1) added to a root optionally with ण्वुल् when the root refers to an action for the purpose of which another action is mentioned by the principal verb ; exempli gratia, for example भोक्तुं व्रजति or भोजको व्रजति्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.3.11; (2) added to a root connected with ' another root in the sense of desire provided both have the same subject; exempli gratia, for example इच्छति भोक्तुम् ; confer, compare P. III. 3.158; (3) added to a root connected with the words काल, समय or वेला; exempli gratia, for example कालो भोक्तुम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.3.167; (4) added to any root which is connected with the roots शक्, धृष्, ज्ञा, ग्लै, घट्, रभ्, लभ्, क्रम्, सह्, अर्ह् and अस् or its synonym, as also with अलम्, or its synonym; exempli gratia, for example शक्नोति भोक्तुम्, भवति भोक्तुम्, वेला भोक्तुम्, अलं भोक्तुम्, पर्याप्तः कर्तुम् : confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4. 65, 66.
tṛtīyāthe third case; affixes of the third case ( instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति ) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an instrument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: confer, compare P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sentence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word id est, that is हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; exempli gratia, for example पृथग्देवदत्तेन et cetera, and others स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the taddhita affix. affix after them has been elided; exempli gratia, for example पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; confer, compare P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; exempli gratia, for exampleतुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; confer, compare P. II.3.72.
tṛn(1)krt affix तृ with the acute accent on the first vowel of the word formed by its application, applied to any root in the sense of 'an agent' provided the agent is habituated to do a thing, or has his nature to do it, or does it well; exempli gratia, for example वदिता जनापवादान् , मुण्डयितारः श्राविष्ठायना -भवन्ति वधूमूढाम् , कर्ता कटम्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.2.135; words ending with तृन् govern the noun connected with them in the accusative case; (2) the term तृन् , used as a short term ( प्रत्याहार ) standing for krt affixes beginning with those prescribed by the rule लटः शतृशानचौ (P.III.2.124) and ending with the affix तृन् (in P.III.3.69); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.69.
taittirīyaprātiśākhyacalled also कृष्णयजुःप्रातिशाख्य and hence representing possibly all the different branches or Sakhas of the कृष्णयजुर्वेद, which is not attributed definitely to a particular author but is supposed to have been revised from time to time and taught by various acaryas who were the followers of the Taittiriya Sakha.The work is divided into two main parts, each of which is further divided into twelve sections called adhyayas, and discusses the various topics such as letters and their properties, accents, euphonic changes and the like, just as the other Pratisakhya works. It is believed that Vararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya wrote Bhasyas on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, but at present, only two important commentary works on it are available(a) the 'Tribhasyaratna', based upon the three Bhasyas mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. as the title shows, written by Somayarya and (b) the 'Vaidikabharana' written by Gopalayajvan. For details see Introduction to 'Taittiriya Pratisakhya' edition Govt Oriental Library Series, Mysore.
thakankrt affix थक added to the root गै 'to sing,' in the sense of agent provided he is skilled: e. g. गाथकः ; confer, compare P. III. 1.146.
dthird consonant of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणता;(2) consonant द् substituted for the final letter of nouns ending with the affix वस् as also for the final letter of स्रंस्, ध्वंस् and अनडुह् provided the final letter is at the end of a pada; exempli gratia, for example विद्वद्भयाम् et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, VIII. 2.72; (3) consonant द् substituted for the final स् of roots excepting the root.अस्, before the personal ending तिप् of the third person. singular.; e. g. अचकाद् भवान् ; confer, compare P. VIII. 3.93.
durghaṭavṛttiname of a grammar work explaining words which are difficult to derive according to rules of Panini. The work is written in the style of a running commentary on select sutras of Panini, devoted mainly to explain difficult formations. The author of it, Saranadeva, was an eastern grammarian who, as is evident from the number of quotations in his work, was a great scholar of the 12th or the 13th century.
kāryayogasimultaneous occurrence of two grammatical operations resulting into a conflict and creating a doubt as to which of the two should take place first; confer, compareद्विकार्ययोगो हि विप्रतिषेधः M.Bh. on P.I.1.3 Vart. 6; I.1.12; et cetera, and others The term विप्रतिषेध occurring in the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I.4.2 is evidently defined in this way by the word द्विकार्ययोग in the Mahabhsya.
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
nāmannoun, substantive; one of the four categories of words given in the Nirukta and other ancient grammer works; confer, compare चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्याते चोपसर्गनिपाताश्च, Nirukta of Yāska.I.1. The word is defined as सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि by standard grammarians; confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1.; confer, compare also सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII.8; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 49 and commentary thereon. Panini divides words into two categories only, viz. सुबन्त and तिङन्त and includes नामन् ,उपसर्ग and निपात under सुबन्त. The Srngarapraksa defines नामन् as follows-अनपेक्षितशब्दव्युत्पत्तीनि सत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायीनि नामानि। तानि द्विविधानि। आविष्टलिङ्गानि अनाविष्टलिङ्गानि च । The word नामन् at the end of a sasthitatpurusa compound signifies a name or Samjna e. g. सर्वनामन्, दिङ्नामन् , छन्दोनामन्; confer, compare also. Bhasavrtti on संज्ञायां कन्थोशीनरेषु P. II.4. 20 and संज्ञायां भृत्. P. III. 2.46 where the author of the work explains the word संज्ञायां as नाम्नि. The word is used in the sense of 'a collection of words' in the Nirukta, confer, compare अन्तरिक्षनामानि, अपत्यनामानि, ईश्वरनामानि, उदकनामानि, et cetera, and others
niṣkādia class of words headed by the word निष्क to which the affix इक ( ठक् ) is added, provided these words are not members of a compound; e. g. नैष्किकम् , पादिकम् , माषिकम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.1.20.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padakāraliterally one who has divided the Samhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada-text. The term is applied to ancient Vedic Scholars शाकल्य, आत्रेय, कात्यायन and others who wrote the Padapātha of the Vedic Samhitās. The term is applied possibly through misunderstanding by some scholars to the Mahābhāsyakāra who has not divided any Vedic Samhitā,but has, in fact, pointed out a few errors of the Padakāras and stated categorically that grammarians need not follow the Padapāțha, but, rather, the writers of the Padapāțha should have followed the rules of grammar. Patañjali, in fact, refers by the term पदकार to Kātyāyana, who wrote the Padapātha and the Prātiśākhya of the Vājasaneyi-Samhitā in the following statement--न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम्। यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.1. 109; VI. 1. 207; VIII. 2.16; confer, compare also अदीधयुरिति पदकारस्य प्रत्याख्यानपक्षे उदाहरणमुपपन्नं भवति ( परिभाषासूचन of व्याडि Pari. 42 ) where Vyādi clearly refers to the Vārtika of Kātyāyana ' दीधीवेव्योश्छन्दोविषयत्वात् ' P. I. 1.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I. The misunderstanding is due to passages in the commentary of स्कन्दस्वामिन् on the Nirukta passage I. 3, उब्वटटीका on ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य XIII. 19 and others where the statements referred to as those of Patañjali are, in fact, quotations from the Prātiśākhya works and it is the writers of the Prātiśākhya works who are referred to as padakāras by Patañ jali in the Mahābhāsya.
padavākyaratnākaraa disquisition on grammar dealing with the different ways in which the sense of words is conveyedition The work consists of a running commentary on his own verses by the author Gokulanātha Miśra who, from internal evidence, appears to have flourished before Koņdabhațța and after Kaiyața.
parśvādia class of words headed by the word पर्शु to which the taddhita affix. affix अ ( अण् ) is added without any change of sense provided the words पर्शु and others, to which the affix अ is to be added mean fighting clans; e. g. पार्शव , आसुरः, राक्षसः, दाशार्हः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kaas. on V. 3.117.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtracalled also by the name अष्टक or पाणिनीय-अष्टक; name given to the SUtras of Paanini comprising eight adhyaayaas or books. The total number of SUtras as commented upon by the writers of the Kasika and the Siddhaantakaumudi is 3983. As nine sUtras out of these are described as Vaarttikas and two as Ganasutras by Patanjali, it is evident that there were 3972 SUtras in the Astaka of Paanini according to Patanjali. A verse current among Vaiyakarana schools states the number to be 3996; confer, compare त्रीणि सूत्रसहस्राणि तथा नव शतानि च । षण्णवतिश्च सूत्राणां पाणिनिः कृतवान् स्वयम् । The traditional recital by Veda Scholars who look upon the Astadhyayi as a Vedaanga, consists of 3983 Sutras which are accepted and commented upon by all later grammarians and commentators. The SUtras of Paanini, which mainly aim at the correct formation of words, discuss declension, conjugation, euphonic changes, verbal derivatives, noun derivatives and accents. For details see Vol.VII, Vyaakarana Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's edition pp. 152-162.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
pāṇinisūtravṛttia gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiin his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known.
puṣkarādia class of words headed by the word पुष्कर, to which the taddhita affix इन् ( इनि ) is added provided the word ending with the affix forms the name of a district. e. g. पुष्करिणी, पद्मिनी et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.135.
pragāthaa couple of Vedic hymns divided into three hymns for purposes of singing as Saman; confer, compare यत्र द्वे ऋचौ प्रग्रथनेन तिस्रः क्रियन्ते स प्रगाथनात् प्रकर्षगानाद्वा प्रगाथ इत्युच्यते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV 2.55.
prātipadikagrahaṇaexpress mention by wording of a noun-base as in दित्यदित्यादित्य , सुधातुरकङ् च et cetera, and others, and not by description as अदन्त in अत इञ् (P.IV.1.95) or in a group of words ( गण ) ; confer, compare प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम् Par. Sek. Pari. 71, which recommends the feminine form of the base for an operation, provided the base is specifically expressed and not merely describedition e. g युवतिः खलतिः युवखलतिः, चटकस्यापत्यं चाटकैरः, वह्नीनां पूरणी बहुतिथी et cetera, and others
bṛhacchabdaratnaa learned commentary on the commentary मनोरमा of भट्टोजीदीक्षित; the commentary was written by हरिदीक्षित the grandson of Bhattoji. The work is called बृहच्छब्दरत्न in contrast with the लघुशब्दरत्न of the same author (हरिदीक्षित) which is generally studied at the Pathasalas all over the country. The work बृहच्छब्दरत्न is only in a Manuscript form at present. Some scholars believe that it was written by Nagesabhatta, who ascribed it to his preceptor Hari Diksita, but the belief is not correct as proved by a reference in the Laghusabdaratna, where the author himself remarks that he himself has written the बृहच्छब्दरत्न, and internal evidences show that लबुशब्दरत्न is sometimes a word-forword summary of the बृहच्छब्दरत्न. confer, compareविस्तरस्तु अस्मत्कृते बृहच्छब्दरत्ने मदन्तेवासिवृतलधुशब्देन्दुशेखरे च द्रष्टव्यः Laghusabdaratna. For details see Bhandarkar Ins. Journal Vol. 32 pp.258-60.
bṛhatsaṃjñāthe same as महत्संज्ञा or महती संज्ञा; a bigger terminology as contrasted with लघुसंज्ञा brief terminology such as टि, घु, भ et cetera, and others for which (latter) Panini is very particular. The bigger terms such as सर्वनाम, अात्मनेपद, परस्मैपद and others are evidently borrowed by Panini from the ancient grammarians who lived before him.
bhartṛharia very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. confer, compare शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'.
bhūtaliterally what has become or happened, The word is used in books on grammar in the sense of past tense in general, which has been subdivided into (a) unseen past (परीक्षभूत or लिट् ), (b) past, not of today (अनद्यतनभूत or लङ् ) and (c) past in general (सामान्यभूत or लुङ्),confer, compare भूते P.III.2.84, परोक्षे लिट् P.III.2.116 and अनद्यतने लङ् P.III.2.111.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mācākīyaan ancient writer of a Pratisakhya work, who is quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya as one, holding the view that य and व् preceded by अ and followed by उ and ओ respectively, are dropped provided they stand at the beginning of a Pada ( word ). माचाकीय, who belonged to the Yajurveda school, is said to have held this view which is generally held by the followers of the Rgveda: confer, compare उकारौकारपरौ लुप्यते माचाकी यस्य(Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.X.29) on which the commentator adds वह्वृचानामयं पक्षः.
yuvanliterally young person; masculine; the word is given as a technical term in grammar in the sense of one, who is the son of the grandson or his descendant, provided his father is alive; the term is also applied to a nephew, brother, or a paternal relative of the grandson or his descendant, provided his elderly relative, if not his his father, is alive; it is also applied to the grandson, in case respect is to be shown to him: confer, compare P. IV. 1.163-167. The affixes prescribed in the sense of युवन् are always applied to a word ending with a taddhita affix. affix applied to it in the sense of an offspring (अपत्य) or grandson (गोत्र), in spite of the ruling that in the sense of grandson or his descendant (गोत्र), one affix only इञ् or अण् or the like is added to the base; exempli gratia, for example गार्ग्यस्यापत्यं गार्ग्यायण:, दाक्षेरपत्यं दाक्षाय्ण: गार्ग्ये जीवति तस्य भ्राता सपिण्डो वा गाम्यार्यण: तत्रभवान् गार्ग्यः; गार्ग्यायणो वा.
yogavibhāgadivision of a rule which has been traditionally given as one single rule, into two for explaining the formation of certain words, which otherwise are likely to be stamped as ungrammatical formations. The writer of the Varttikas and the author of the Mahabhasya have very frequently taken recourse to this method of योगविभाग; confer, compare P.I.1.3 Vart. 8, I.1.17 Vart.1,I.1.61, Vart. 3; I. 4.59 Vart. 1, II. 4. 2. Vart.2, III.1.67 Vart. 5, III.4.2. Vart. 6, VI.I. I Vart. 5, VI.1.33 Vart.1 et cetera, and others Although this Yogavibhaga is not a happy method of removing difficulties and has to be followed as a last recourse, the Varttikakara has suggested it very often, and sometimes a sutra which is divided by the Varttikakara into two,has been recognised as a couple of sutras in the Sutrapatha which has come down to us at present.
yaugapadyasimultaneity of occurrence; simultaneous possibility of the application of two rules which evidently cannot apply simultaneously, but scope has to be given to one of the two, the priority being decided on the criteria of परत्व, नित्यत्व, अन्तरङ्गत्व and अपवादत्व;confer, compare न चास्ति यौगपदद्येन संभव: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.57; cf also M.Bh. on I. 4.1 , I. 4.2, II. 1.3 et cetera, and others
ru(1)substitute र् for the consonant स् at the end of a word as also for the ष् of सजुत्र् , न् of अहन् and optionally with र् for the final स् of अम्नस्, ऊधस् and अवस् in Veda; exempli gratia, for example अग्निरत्र, वायुरत्र, सजूर्देवोभिः confer, compare P.VIII.2.66; the र् of this रु (as contrasted with the substitute र् which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) is further changed into उ before a soft consonant and before the vowel अ provided it is preceded by the vowel अ, while र् , prescribed as substitute र (which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.), remains unchanged; e g. शिवोर्च्यः, शिवो वन्द्य: as contrasted with अहरत्र, अहर्गण:; (2) substitute र् for the final ज् of अवयज् (e. g, अवयाः), for ह् of श्वेतवह् (exempli gratia, for example श्वेतवाः), and for श् of पुरोडाश् (exempli gratia, for example पुगेडा:) before the case affix सु ; confer, compareP.VIII.4.67;(3)substitute र् (or द्) for the final स् or द् of a verb-form ending with the personal ending सिप् of the 2nd person. sing; confer, compare P. VIII.2.74,75;(4)substitute र् for the final न् of words ending with the affix मत् or वस् in Veda; exempli gratia, for example मरुत्व: हरिवः ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VIII.3.1; (5) substitute र् for the final न् at the end of a word when it is followed by a छव् letter id est, that is the first or a second consonant excepting ख् and फ्; exempli gratia, for example भवांश्चिनोति; confer, compare P.VIII. 3.7; (6) substitute र् for the final न् of नॄन् before the letter प् as also for the final न् of स्वतवान् and कान् under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VIII.3. 10.12.
liṅga(1)sign or characteristic mark; generally the mute letter prefixed or suffixed to roots,affixes, or augments and their substitutes with a specific purpose; confer, compare किंचिल्लिङ्गमासज्य वक्ष्यामि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on I.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).7, अवयवे कृतं लिङ्ग समुदायस्य विशेषकं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.62 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5; (2) proof, evidence ( प्रमाण ); the word is often used in the Paribhāșendușekhara and other works in connection with a rule or part of a rule quoted as an evidence to deduce some general dictum or Paribhāșā; (3) gender; confer, compare लिङ्ग स्त्रीलिङ्गपुंलिङ्गनपुंसकानि Kāś. on P. II. 3. 46; confer, compare also प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम्. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa.Pari.71.The gender of a word in Sanskrit language does not depend on any specific properties of a thing; it simply depends on the current usage; confer, compare लोकाश्रयत्वाल्लिङ्गस्य which is often quoted in the Mahābhāsya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.36, II.2.29, II.4.12, IV. 1.3, V.3.66, V.4.68, VIII.1.15. For details see Mahābhāșya on P.IV.1. 3 where after a long enlightening discussīon the definition संस्त्यानप्रसवौ लिङ्गम् is given.
vākyabhedaa serious fault of expression when a sentence is required to be divided into two sentences for the sake of its proper interpretation: cf केचिद्वा सुप्यापिशलेरित्यनुवर्तयन्ति तद्वाक्य भेदेन सुब्धातौ विकल्पं करोति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. onP.VI. 1.94: cf also तद्धि ( स्थानेग्रहणं ) तृतीयया विपरिणमय्य वाक्यभेदेन स्थानिन: प्रसङ्गे जायमानः et cetera, and others Par. Sek. on Pari. 13.
vārttikakārabelieved to be Katyayana to whom the whole bulk of the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya is attributed by later grammarians. Patafijali gives the word वार्तिककार in four places only (in the Mahabhasya on P.I.1.34, III.1.44: III.2.118 and VII.1.1) out of which his statement स्यादिविधिः पुरान्तः यद्यविशेषणं भवति किं वार्तिककारः प्रातिषेधेनं करोति in explanation of the Slokavarttika स्यादिविधिः...इति हुवता कात्यायनेनेहृ, shows that Patanjali gives कात्यायन as the Varttikakara (of Varttikas in small prose statements) and the Slokavarttika is not composed by Katyayana. As assertions similar to those made by other writers are quoted with the names of their authors ( भारद्वाजीयाः, सौनागाः, कोष्ट्रियाः et cetera, and others) in the Mahabhasya, it is evident that the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya(even excluding the Slokavarttikas) did not all belong to Katyayana. For details see pp. 193-200, Vol. VII, Vyakarana Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition.
vāsarūpanyāyathe dictum of applying optionally any two or more krt affixes to a root if they become applicable at one and the same time, only provided that those affixes are not in the topic of स्त्रियाम् (P.III.3.94 et cetera, and others) and are not the same in appearance such as ण, अ, क etc , which are the same viz. अ; confer, compare वासरूपेSस्त्रियाम् P.III.1.94; confer, compare also वासरूपन्यायेन ण्वुलपि भावेष्यति M.Bh. on P.III.2.146 Vart.1;confer, comparealso M.Bh. on P.III.2.150 Vart. 1, The word वासरूप and वासरूपविधि are also used in the same sense: confer, compare ताच्छीलिका वासरूपेण न भवन्तीति M.Bh. on P.III. 2.150 Vart. 2, as also ताच्छीलिकेषु वासरूपविधिर्नास्ति Par. Sek. Pari. 67.
vigrahalit, separation of the two parts of a thing; the term is generally applied to the separation of the constituent words of a compound word: it is described to be of two kinds : ( a ) शास्त्रीयविग्रहृ or technical separation; e. g. राजपुरुष्: into राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु and ( 2 ) लौकिकविग्रहं or common or popular separation ; e. g. राजपुरूष: into राज्ञ: पुरुष:. It is also divided into two kinds according to the nature of the constituent words (a) स्वपदाविग्रह separation by means of the constituent words, exempli gratia, for example राजहितम् into राज्ञे हृितम्;(b) अस्वपदविग्रह, e. g. राजार्थम् into राज्ञे इदम् ;or exempli gratia, for example सुमुखीं into शोभनं मुखं अस्याः confer, compare M.Bh. on P.V.4.7. The compounds whose separation into constituent words cannot be shown by those words (viz. the constituent words) are popularly termed nityasamsa. The term नित्यसमास is explained as नित्यः समासो नित्यसमासः | यस्य विग्रहो नास्ति । M.Bh. on P.II.2.19 Vart. 4. The upapadasamsa is described as नित्यसमास. Sometimes especially in some Dvandva compounds each of the two separated words is capable of giving individually the senses of both the words exempli gratia, for example the words द्यावा and क्षामा of the compound द्यावाक्षामा. The word विग्रह is found used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the separate use of a word as contrasted with the use in a compound; cf अच्छेति विग्रहे प्लुतं भवति R.Pr.VII.1. विग्रहृ is defined as वृत्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः in the Siddhantakaumudi.
vibhaktiliterally division, separation; separation of the base id est, that is that factor which shows the base separately। The word विभक्ति is generally used in the sense of case affixes; but in Pāṇini's grammar the term विभक्ति is applied also to personal endings applied to roots to form verbs; confer, compareविभक्तिश्च । सुप्तिङौ विभक्तिसंज्ञौ स्तः S.K.on Pāṇ. I.4.104. The term is also applied to taddhita affix.affixes which are applied to pronouns, किम् and बहु, ending in the ablative or in the locative case or in other cases on rare occasions. Such affixes are तस् (तसिल् ), त्र, (त्रल्), ह, अत्, दा, ऋहिल्, दानीम्, था ( थाल् ) and थम् given in P.V.3.1 to V.3.26.The case affixes are further divided into उपपदविभक्ति affixes and कारकविभक्ति affixes. For details see P.II.3.1 to 73.
vibhāṣāoptionally, alternatively; the word is explained by Pāṇini as नवा in the rule न वेति विभाषा (P.I.1.44)in consonance with its derivation from the root भाष् with वि; confer, compare नेति प्रतिषेधे वेति विकल्पस्तयोः प्रतिषेधविकल्पयोर्विभाषेत्ति संज्ञा भवति । विभाषाप्रदेशेषु प्रतिषेधविकल्पावुपतिष्ठते | तत्र प्रतिषेधेन समीकृते विषये प्रश्चाद्विकल्पः प्रवर्तते. The option (विभाषा) is further divided into three kind प्राप्ते विभाषा, अप्राप्ते विभाषा and उभयत्र विभाषा. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P. I.1.44.
vimuktādia class of words headed by the word विमुक्त to which the taddhita affix अ ( अण् ) is added in the sense of 'possessed of', provided the word so formed, denotes a chapter or a lesson of a sacred work; confer, compareविमुक्तशब्दोस्मिन्नस्ति वैमुक्तकोध्यायः अनुवाको वा | दैवासुरः । Kāś. on P. V. 2.61.
virāmaan ancient term used in the Prātiśākhya works for a stop or : pause in general at the end of a word, or at the end of the first member of a compound, which is shown split up in the Padapāṭha, or inside a word, or at the end of a word, or at the end of a vowel when it is followed by another vowel. The duration of this virāma is different in different circumstances; but sometimes under the same circumstances, it is described differently in the different Prātiśākhyas. Generally,there is no pause between two consonants as also between a vowel and a consonant preceding or following it.The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya has given four kinds of विराम (a) ऋग्विराम,pause at the end of a foot or a verse of duration equal to three mātrās or moras, (b) पदविराम pause between two words of duration equal to two matras; e. g. इषे त्वा ऊर्जे त्वा, (c) pause between two words the preceding one of which ends in a vowel and the following begins with a vowel, the vowels being not euphonically combined; this pause has a duration of one matra e,g. स इधान:, त एनम् , (d) pause between two vowels inside a word which is a rare occurrence; this has a duration of half a mātrā;e.gप्रउगम्, तितउः; confer, compare ऋग्विरामः पदविरामो विवृत्तिविरामः समानपदविवृत्तिविरामस्त्रिमात्रो द्विमात्र एकमात्रोर्धमात्र इत्यानुपूर्व्येण Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 13. The word विवृत्ति is explained as स्वरयोरसंधिः. The vivṛttivirāma is further divided into वत्सानुसति which has the preceding vowel short and the succeeding long, वत्सानुसारिणी which has the preceding vowel a long one and the succeeding vowel a short one, पाकवती which has both the vowels short, and पिपीलिका which has got both , the vowels long. This fourfold division is given in the Śikṣā where their duration is given as one mātrā, one mātrā, three-fourths of a mātrā and one-fourth of a mātrā respectively. The duration between the two words of a compound word when split up in the पदपाठ is also equal to one mātrā; confer, compare R.Pr.I.16. The word विराम occurs in Pāṇini's rule विरामोs वसानम् P.I. 4.110 where commentators have explained it as absence; confer, compare वर्णानामभावोवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् S.K.on P. I.4.110: confer, compare also विरतिर्विरामः । विरम्यते अनेन इति वा विरामः Kāś. on P.I.4.110. According to Kāśikā even in the Saṁhitā text, there is a duration of half a mātrā between the various phonetic elements, even between two consonants or between a vowel and a consonant, which, however, is quite imperceptible; confer, compare परो यः संनिकर्षो वर्णानां अर्धमात्राकालव्यवधानं स संहितासंज्ञो भवति Kāś. on P. I.4.109 confer, compare also विरामे मात्रा R.T.35; confer, compare also R.Pr.I.16 and 17. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P.I.4.109 and I.4.110.
vispaṣṭādia class of words headed by the word विस्पष्ट which retain their own accents in a compound when they are the first members of a compound, provided that any word of quality is the second member e. g. विस्पष्टकटुकम् | व्यक्तलवणम् where the words विस्पष्ट and व्यक्त are used in the sense of clear, referring to the different tastes; confer, compare Kāś. On P. VI. 2.24.
vṛddha(1)a term used in Paninis grammar for such words or nouns ( प्रातिपदिक ) which have for their first vowel a vrddhi vowel, i. e. either अा or ऐ or अौ: exempli gratia, for example शाला, माला et cetera, and others; confer, compare वृद्धिर्यस्य अचामादिस्तद् वृद्धम् ; (2) a term applied to the eight pronouns headed by त्यत् for purposes of the addition of taddhita affix. affixes prescribed for the Vrddha words, such as छ by वृद्धाच्छ: P. IV.2.114: (3) a term applied to words having ए or ओ as the first vowel in them, provided such words denote districts of Eastern India, e. g. गोनर्द, भोजकट et cetera, and others confer, compare एङ् प्राचां देशे, P.I.1.73, 74 and 75; (4) a term used in the Pratisakhya works for a protracted vowel ( प्लत ) which has three matras; cf तिस्रॊ वृद्धम् Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.44.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudīan extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita.
vyāghrādia class of words headed by व्याघ्र which, as standards of comparison, are compounded with words showing objects of comparison provided the common property is not mentioned: exempli gratia, for example पुरुषव्याघ्र:, नृसिंहः et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. onP.II. 1.56.
śapa vikarana affix ( conjugational sign ) applied to roots of the first conjugation and in general to all secondary roots i. e. roots formed from nouns and from other roots before personal-endings which are Sarvadhatuka and which possess the sense of agent, provided there is no other vikarana affix prescribed: e. g. भवति, एधते, कारयति, हारयति, बुभूपति, पुत्रीयति, पुत्रकाम्यति, कामयते, गेीपांयति, कण्ङ्कयति, पटयति, दिनन्ति (यामिन्य:) et cetera, and others confer, compare कर्तरि शप् , P. III.1 .68. This affix शप् is dropped after roots of the second conjugation (अदादि } and those of the third conjugation ( जुहोत्यादि) and in Vedic Literature wherever observed; confer, compare P.II.4.72, 73, 75, 76.
śabarasvāmina grammarian to whom a metrical treatise on genders named लिङ्गानुशासन is ascribedition This शवरस्वामिन् was comparatively a modern grammarian who was given the title बालयोगीश्वर. This लिङ्गानुशासन has a commentary written by हृर्षवर्धन Evidently these grammarians शबरस्वामिन् and हृर्षवर्धन are different from the famous author of the मीमांसाभाष्य and the patron of the poet Bana respectively.
śuklayajuḥprātiśākhyaname of the Pratisakhya treatise pertaining to the White Yajurveda which is also called the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. This work appears to be a later one as compared with the other PratiSakhya works and bears much similarity with some of the Sutras of Panini. It is divided into eight chapters by the author and it deals with letters, their origin and their classification, the euphonic and other changes when the Samhita text is rendered into the Pada text, and accents. The work appears to be a common work for all the different branches of the White Yajurveda, being probably based on the individually different Pratisakhya works of the different branches of the Shukla Yajurveda composed in ancient times. Katyayana is traditionally believed to be the author of the work and very likely he was the same Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini.
śaunakādia class of words headed by the word शौनक to which the taddhita affix इन् ( णिनि ) is added in the sense of 'instructed by', provided the word so formed is a portion of what is looked upon as a part of the sacred Vedic Literature; confer, compare शौनकेन प्रोक्तमधीयते शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिन: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV. 3.106.
śreṇyādia class of words headed by the word श्रेणि, which are compounded with words like कृत if they stand in apposition, provided the word so compounded has got the sense of the affix च्वि i. e. having become what was not before: confer, compare अश्रेणयः श्रेणय: कृताः श्रेणिकृता:, एककृता: Kas, on P. II. 1. 59.
saṃyogādilopathe elision of the first of the conjunct consonants if it is स् or क्, provided the conjunct consonants are at the end of a word or followed by a consonant which is not a semi-vowel nor a nasal; e. g. तक्, तष्टवान् from the root तक्ष्; confer, compare स्कोः संयोगाद्योरन्ते च P. VIII. 2.99.
saṃyogāntalopathe elision of the final of the conjunct consonants when they are at the end of a word provided they are not formed of र् as the first member and any consonant except स् as the second member: e.gगोमान्, ऊर्क् et cetera, and others; confer, compare संयोगान्तस्य लोपः,रात्सस्य P.VIII.2.23,24.
sapādasaptādhyāyīa term used in connection with Panini's first seven books and a quarter of the eighth, as contrasted with the term Tripadi, which is used for the last three quarters of the eighth book. The rules or operations given in the Tripadi, are stated to be asiddha or invalid for purposes of the application of the rules in the previous portion, viz. the Sapadasaptadhyayi, and hence in the formation of' words all the rules given in the first seven chapters and a quarter, are applied first and then a way is prepared for the rules of the last three quarters. It is a striking thing that the rules in the Tripadi mostly concern the padas or formed words, the province, in fact, of the Pratisakhya treatises, and hence they should, as a matter of fact, be applicable to words after their formation and evidently to accomplish this object, Panini has laid down the convention of the invalidity in question by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII. 2,1.
svara(l)vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
svarabhaktia vowel part; appearance of a consonant as a vowel; the character of a vowel borne by a consonant. Many times a semivowel which consists of one letter has to be divided especially for purposes of metre, as also for accentuation into two letters or rather, has to be turned into two letters by inserting a vowel before it or after it, for instance य् is to be turned into इय् e. g, in त्रियम्बकं यजामहे, while र् or रेफ is to be turned into र् ऋ as for instance in कर्हि चित् which is to be uttered as कर् ऋ हृि चित्. This prefixing or suffixing of a vowel is called स्वरभक्तिः confer, compare स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गं द्राघीयसी सार्धमात्रेतरे च | अधोनान्या ( Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 32.35; confer, compare also न संयोगं स्वरभाक्तिर्विहृान्ति Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 35; confer, compare also रेफात् खरोपहिताद् व्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णा स्वरभक्तिरुत्तरा: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 46. In Panini's grammar, however, the word अज्भाक्त, which means the same is used for स्वरभक्ति; cf ऋति ऋ वा लृति लृ वा इत्युभयत्रापि विधेयं वर्णद्वयं द्विमात्रम् | अाद्यस्य मध्ये द्वौ ; रेफौ तयोरेकां मात्रा । अभितेाज्भक्तेरपरा। S. K. on VI. 1.101.
svārthikaprescribed (after a base) in the sense of itself; id est, that is in the sense of the base. The word is used in connection with a large number of taddhita affix. affixes which are prescribed without any special sense attached to them; vide P. V.3.36 to P. V. 4.67. The Samasanta affixes prescribed from P.V.4.68 onwards can also be called स्वार्थिक;confer, compareस्वार्थिकाश्च प्रकृतितो लिङ्गवचनान्यनुवर्तन्ते | M.Bh. on P. V. 4. 14, 27. See the word स्वार्थ.
Vedabase Search
Results for vide19 results
videha Mahārāja JanakaSB 2.7.43-45
videha-jaḥ because of being born from the body of Mahārāja Nimi, who had left his material bodySB 9.13.13
videha-jaḥ because of being born from the body of Mahārāja Nimi, who had left his material bodySB 9.13.13
videha-nagare in the city named VidehaSB 11.8.22
videha-nagare in the city named VidehaSB 11.8.22
videhaḥ Nimi MahārājaSB 11.2.26
videhaḥ without any material bodySB 9.13.11
videhān the country of VidehaSB 10.2.3
videhān to the kingdom of VidehaSB 10.86.21
videhān to the Videha kingdomSB 10.86.17
videhānām of the residents of VidehaSB 11.8.34
videhasya with Janaka, King of VidehaSB 11.2.14
videheṣu in the kingdom of VidehaSB 10.86.14
videśa in foreign regionsSB 10.45.15-16
saṃvide who is the bestowerSB 8.3.11
saṃvide who is knownSB 10.16.46
śrī-videhaḥ uvāca King Videha saidSB 11.2.28
śrī-videhaḥ uvāca King Videha saidSB 11.2.28
śrī-videhaḥ uvāca King Videha saidSB 11.2.28
Results for vide7 results
videha noun (masculine) a king of Videha (esp. applied to Janaka) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a country (the modern Tirhut) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a medical author (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5183/72933
videha adjective bodiless (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dead (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
deceased (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
incorporeal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13763/72933
vide noun (feminine) Mithilā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the capital city of Videha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 65596/72933
videśa noun (masculine) a particular place (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
abroad (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
another country (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
foreign country (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11081/72933
dvidevakula noun (masculine neuter) name of a Tīrtha at Śrīśaila
Frequency rank 55217/72933
bhadravideha noun (masculine) name of a son of Devakī and Śauri
Frequency rank 60551/72933
mahāvide noun (feminine) (in the Yoga system) name of a certain condition of the Manas or mind (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29620/72933


(daiva.bala.pravṛtta.vyādhi) diseases caused by divine will or providence.


day; divided.


refreshing; that which provides relief by subsiding thirst, sweat et Century


a large body of texts in pre-Panini Sanskrit belonging to ancient Indian literature. The vedic verses were divided into 4 sections Ṛgveda, Yajurveḍa, Sāmaveda and Atharvaveḍa. Some verses are recited in religious functions.


a geographical region in ancient India corresponding to southern Nepal; Mithila region.

Wordnet Search
"vide" has 15 results.


videśīya, parakīya, anyadeśīya, pārakya   

anyat deśasthaḥ।

pratidine bhārate naike videśīyāḥ paryaṭakāḥ āgacchanti।


anaṅga, akāya, agātra, atanu, videha   

yasya śarīraṃ nāsti।

vetālādayaḥ anaṅgāḥ santi।



videśe vikrayaṇam।

bhārate vinirmītānāṃ naikānāṃ vastūnāṃ videśavikrayaṇaṃ bhavati।


videśaḥ, paradeśaḥ, pararāṣṭram   

svasya deśāt bhinnaḥ deśaḥ।

mohanaḥ videśe kāryaṃ karoti।


videśī, paradeśī, vaideśikaḥ, videśīyaḥ   

anyadeśasya nivāsī।

asmākaṃ deśam āgatāḥ videśinaḥ asmābhiḥ samādartavyāḥ।


videśin, videśīya, vaideśya, paradeśin   


asmin hāṭe prāyaḥ sarvāṇi videśīni vastūni santi।



yaḥ videśavikreyaṇaṃ karoti।

vastrasya videśavikrayekasya śreṣṭhinaḥ hyaḥ nidhanam abhavat।



vikrayaṇārthaṃ deśāt bahiḥ preṣitaṃ vastu।

videśavikrītānāṃ krayavastūnām arucitvāt āyātakartā tāni krayavastūni pratyadadat।


vaideśikaḥ, videśīyaḥ   

anyasmāt nagarāt deśāt vā āgataḥ।

eṣaḥ gaṇaḥ vaideśikān parivañcayati।



paurāṇikaḥ ṛṣiḥ।

videghasya varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu prāpyate।



videśavikrayaṇe dīyamānaṃ mūlyam।

śāsanaḥ videśavikrayaṇamūlyasya vardhanaviṣaye cintayati।



saḥ vibhāgaḥ yaḥ videśasambandhi kāryaṃ karoti।

amerīkādeśasya videśavibhāgasya pravaktā ākṣepāṇāṃ khaṇḍanaṃ karoti।



videśasambandhināṃ kāryāṇāṃ yatra nirīkṣaṇaṃ kriyate athavā yad videśamantriṇaḥ kāryālayaḥ vartate।

videśa-mantrālayasya kāryaṃ samyak pracalati।



videśamantriṇaḥ kāryālayaḥ।

vayam adya videśa-mantrālayaṃ gatavantaḥ।



lekhakaviśeṣaḥ ।

vaidyakīyānāṃ viṣayāṇāṃ lekhakasya asya ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāsu asti

Parse Time: 1.522s Search Word: vide Input Encoding: IAST: vide