m. (prob.)"friend of all", Name of a celebrated ṛṣi- or Sage (having the patronymicgāthina-, gādheya-, and jāhnava-;he was at first a functionary, together with vasiṣṭha-, of su-dās-, king of the tṛtsu-s;seeing vasiṣṭha- preferred by the king, he went over to the bharata-s, but could not prevent their being defeated by su-dās-, although he caused the waters of the rivers vipāś- and śutudrī- to retire and so give the bharata-s free passage ;he was born as a kṣatriya-, deriving his lineage from an ancestor of kuśika-, named purū-ravas-, of the lunar race of kings, and himself sovereign of kanyā-kubja- or Kanoj;his fame rests chiefly on his contests with the great Brahman vasiṣṭha-, and his success in elevating himself. though a kṣatriya-, to the rank of a BrahmanSee : the rāmāyaṇa-, which makes him a companion and counsellor of the young rāma-candra-, records [ ] how viśvāmitra-, on his accession to the throne, visited vasiṣṭha-'s hermitage, and seeing there the cow of plenty [probably typical of go-,"the earth"], offered him untold treasures in exchange for it, but being refused, prepared to take it by force;a long contest ensued between the king and the saint [symbolical of the struggles between the kṣatriya- and Brahmanical classes], which ended in the defeat of viśvāmitra-, whose vexation was such that, in order to become a Brahman and thus conquer his rival, he devoted himself to intense austerities [during which he was seduced by the nymph menakā- and had by her a daughter, śakuntalā-], gradually increasing the rigour of his mortification through thousands of years, till he successively earned the titles of rājarṣi-, ṛṣi-, maharṣi-, and finally brahmarṣi-;he is supposed to be the author of nearly the whole of ;moreover, a law-book, a dhanurveda-, and a medical work are attributed to him) etc.
f.viśvāmitra-'s creation (in allusion to several things fabled to have been created by this saint in rivalry of brahmā-exempli gratia, 'for example' the fruit of the Palmyra in imitation of the human skull, the buffalo in imitation of the cow, the ass of the horse etc.)
विश्वामित्रः [विश्वं मित्रं यस्य, विश्वस्य मित्रं वा पूर्वपददीर्घः; P.VI.3.13] N. of a celebrated sage. [He was originally a Kṣatriya, being the king of Kānyakubja and son of Gādhi. One day while out hunting, he went to the hermitage of the great sage Vasiṣṭha, and seeing there the cow of plenty, offered him untold treasures in exchange for it, but being refused he tried to take it by force. A long contest thereupon ensued, in which king Viśvāmitra was signally defeated; and so great was his vexation, and withal so greatly
was he impressed with the power inherent in Brāhmanism that he devoted himself to the most rigorous austerities till he successively got the titles Rājarṣi, Riṣi, Maharṣi, and Brahmarṣi, but he was not contented till Vasiṣṭha himself called him by the name Brahmarṣi, which, however, took place after several thousands of years. Viśvāmitra several times tried to excite Vasiṣṭha -for example by killing his one hundred sons--but the great sage was not in the least perturbed. His power, even before he finally became a Brahmarśi, was very great, as was seen in his transporting Triśaṅku to the skies, in saving Sunahśepa from the hands of Indra, in creating things after the style of Brahman &c. &c. He was the companion and counsellor of young Rāma to whom he gave several miraculous missiles.] -Comp. -प्रियः Cocoanut (tree and fruit); L. D. B. -सृष्टिः the thing created by विश्वामित्र (these are several as Palmyra, buffalo, ass &c.).
(‘Friend of all ’) is the name of a Rṣi who is mentioned in the Rigveda, and to whom the third Maṇdala is attributed by tradition. In one hymn which appears to be his own composition, he praises the rivers Vipāś (Beas) and śutudrī (Sutlej'). There he calls himself the son of Kuśika, and seems unquestionably to be the helper of the Bharatas, whom he mentions. The tribe, engaged in a raid, apparently came to the rivers from the east. Anxious to cross them, they The Viśvāmitras are mentioned in several other passages of the Rigveda, and are also designated as a family by the term Kuśikas. In the Epic Viśvāmitra is represented as a king, who becomes a Brahmin. There is no trace of his kingship in the Rigveda, but the Nirukta calls his father, Kuśika, a king; the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa10 refers to śunahśepa as succeeding to the lordship of the Jahnus, as well as the ‘divine lore’ (daiva vedd) of the Gāthinsj^and the Pañcavirçiśa Brāhmana17 mentions Viśvāmitra as a king. But there is no real trace of this kingship of Viśvāmitra: it may probably be dismissed as a mere legend, with no more foundation at most than that Viśvā¬mitra was of a family which once had been royal. But even this is doubtful.
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