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     Grammar Search "vati" has 2 results.
     
vaṭī: feminine nominative singular stem: vaṭa
vāti: third person singular present present class 2 parasmaipada
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"vati" has 1 results.
    
        Root Word (Pāṇini Dhātupāṭha:)Full Root MarkerSenseClassSutra
√vaṭivaṭivibhājane10306
     Amarakosha Search  
22 results
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
abhayā2.2.59FeminineSingularśivā, haimavatī, pūtanā, avyathā, śreyasī, harītakī, kāyasthā, cetakī, amṛtā, pathyā
balabhadraḥ1.1.23-24MasculineSingularbaladevaḥ, balaḥ, saṅkarṣaṇaḥ, tālāṅkaḥ, halāyudhaḥ, revatīramaṇaḥ, pralambaghnaḥ, kālindībhedanaḥ, halī, rauhiṇeyaḥ, kāmapālaḥ, acyutāgrajaḥ, ānakadundubhiḥ, sīrapāṇiḥ, musalī, nīlāmbaraḥ, rāmaḥbalaram
brāhmīFeminineSingularvāṇī, sarasvatī, bhāratī, bhāṣā, gīḥ, vākthe goddess of spech
dyūtaḥ2.10.45MasculineSingularpaṇaḥ, akṣavatī, kaitavam
kārtikeyaḥMasculineSingularmahāsenaḥ, kumāraḥ, śikhivāhanaḥ, bāhuleyaḥ, senānīḥ, ṣaḍānanaḥ, śaktidharaḥ, viśākhaḥ, guhaḥ, skandaḥ, śarajanmā, krauñcadāruṇaḥ, ṣāṇmāturaḥ, tārakajit, agnibhūḥ, pārvatīnandanaḥkaarttik
nadī1.10.29-30FeminineSingularkūlaṅkaṣā, sravantī, dhunī, śaivalinī, rodhovakrā, apagā, dvīpavatī, hradinī, taraṅgiṇī, nirjhariṇī, nimnagā, srotasvatī, taḍinī, sarit, sarasvatīa river
natanāsikaḥ2.6.45MasculineSingularavaṭīṭaḥ, avanāṭaḥ, avabhraṭaḥ
pākasthānam2.9.27NeuterSingularmahānasam, rasavatī
paṭuparṇīFeminineSingularhaimavatī, svarṇakṣīrī, himāvatī
rajasvalā2.6.20FeminineSingularātreyī, malinī, puṣpavatī, ṛtumatī, strīdharmiṇī, udakyā, aviḥ
śampā1.3.9FeminineSingularcañcalā, taḍit, hrādinī, vidyut, kṣaṇaprabhā, śatahradā, capalā, saudāminī, airāvatīlighting
saritaḥ1.10.34FemininePluralcandrabhāgā, sarasvatī, kāverī, śarāvatī, vetravatīsavarmati(river)
śraddhāluḥ2.6.21FeminineSingulardohadavatī
taruṇī2.6.8FeminineSingularyuvati
umā1.1.44FeminineSingularkātyāyanī, haimavatī, bhavānī, sarvamaṅgalā, durgā, ambikā, girijā, cāmuṇḍā, gaurī, īśvarī, rudrāṇī, aparṇā, mṛḍānī, āryā, menakātmajā, carmamuṇḍā, kālī, śivā, śarvāṇī, pārvatī, caṇḍikā, dākṣāyaṇī, karmamoṭī, carcikābhavaani
amarāvatīFeminineSingularthe city of indra
kumudvatī1.10.38FeminineSingularkumudinīa place abounding in water-lillies
vṛkṣavāṭikā2.4.2FeminineSingular
icchāvatī2.6.9FeminineSingularkāmukā
prajāvatī2.6.30FeminineSingularbhrātṛjāyā
bhogavatī3.3.76FeminineSingularchandaḥ, daśamam
svātiḥ3.5.38Ubhaya-lingaSingular
     Monier-Williams
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100 results for vati
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
vatiSee under 1. van-, p.917. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vatif. (prob.) asking, begging View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vati= vadi-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adobhavatihe becomes that. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anvatisicto pour out over or along View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṣṭanavatif. equals aṣṭ/ā-n- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṣṭānavati(aṣṭ/ā--) f. ninety-eight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṣṭanavatitamamfn. = View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avatitīrṣumfn. intending to descend View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhusvatikam. or n. "arm-cross", the arms crossed ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ballavayuvatif. (- ), a young cowherdess, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāgavatim. (prob.) patronymic fr. bhaga-vat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bisavati(b/isa--) f. a place abounding in lotus-fibres View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturnavatif. 94, in compound caturnavatitama -tama- mfn. the 94th (a chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturnavatitamamfn. caturnavati
dvānavatif. 92 , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvinavatif. 92 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvinavatitamamfn. the 92nd View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekanavatif. ninety-one View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekanavatitamamfn. the ninety-first. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
etāvatithamf(ī-)n. the so-manieth (varia lectio tima-), , Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haimavatikam. plural the inhabitants of the himālaya- mountains View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ibhayuvatif. an elephant's cub. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
janavatiind. locative case on a spot filled with people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madakalayuvatif. a young woman intoxicated with love
navanavatif. 99 (in for any large number) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navanavatitamamf(ī-)n. the 99th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navati( also -) f. 90 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navatidhāind. 90 fold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navatidhanusm. Name of an ancestor of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navatif. (fr. navat/i-) a paint-brush containing 90 hairs View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navatiprakrama(t/i--) mf(ā-)n. 90 steps long View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navatiratham. Name of an ancestor of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navatirupatimāhātmya(?) n. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navatiśasind. 90 by 90. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navatiśatan. 190 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navatitamamf(ī-)n. the 90th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcanavatif. 95 (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcanavatitamamf(ī-)n. 95th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcanavatitamamf(ī-)n. the 95th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārāvatim. patronymic of vasu-rocis- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārāvatim. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parayuvatigam. equals -dārin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parvatif. a rock, stone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārvatim. patronymic of dakṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārvatim. see Pan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārvatikan. a multitude of mountains, mountain-range View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiyuvatif. a concubine, female rival View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raivatikam. metron. fr. revatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raivatikam. varia lectio for prec. (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raivatikīyamfn. (fr. prec.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājavatiind. rājavat
revatif. equals revatī-, the wife of bala-rāma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
revatif. Name of rati- (wife of kāma-deva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
revatiputram. a son of revati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sābhravatif. equals -matī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadyuvatif. a good young woman, virtuous maiden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasranāmārthaślokasahasrāvatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaṇṇavatif. 96 etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaṇṇavatiśrāddhanirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaṇṇavatiśrāddhaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaṇṇavatitanmamfn. the 96th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntvatif. Clerodendrum Siphonantus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptanavatif. 97 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptanavatitamamfn. the 97th, chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarasvatiin compound for sarasvatī-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarasvatikṛta(s/ari-) mfn. made by sarasvatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarasvativatmfn. accompanied by sarasvatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvatim. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvatiktāf. Solanum Indicum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāśvatikamfn. equals śāśvaṭa-, eternal, constant, permanent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāśvatikatāf. the being eternal, eternity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saudhāvatim. patronymic fr. sudhā-vat- gaRa bāhv-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
surayuvatif. "celestial maiden", an apsaras- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vatiind. loc so far View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vatikamfn. bought for or worth so much View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vatithamfn. (2, 53 and 77) the so manieth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trayonavatif. 93 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trinavatif. 93 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trinavatitamamfn. equals vata- (chs. of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ūrdhvatilakan. an upright or perpendicular sectarian mark on the forehead. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ūrdhvatilakinmfn. having the above mark. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varayuvati f. a beautiful young woman or girl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varayuvatif. a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārayuvatif. equals -kanyakā-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
veśayuvati() f. a harlot, prostitute. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣṇvatikramam. plural Name of particular texts of the taittirīya-saṃhitā-
vrajayuvatif. a young cowherdess, young shepherdess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhayuvatif. a procuress View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhayuvatif. a midwife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyavatiṣṭhamānaSee vyava-sthā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyavatiṣṭhamānamfn. standing apart View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vatiind. as long as, as far as etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yavatiktāf. a species of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vatimamfn. (varia lectio for yāvatitha-), , Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vatithamfn. (a kind of ordinal of yāvat-; see ) "the how-manieth","as manieth", to whatever place or point, in how many soever (degrees advanced) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuvatif. a girl, young woman, any young female animal etc. etc. (in applied to uṣas-, Night and Morning, Heaven and Earth etc.;with śaryā-,prob."an arrow just shot off";but see yuv/ā-; in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' as f.for yuvan-,a youth exempli gratia, 'for example' sa-bāla-vṛddhayuvatiḥ purī-,a town with boys, old and young men, ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuvatif. turmeric View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuvatif. bestowing young women View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuvatijanam. a young woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
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vati वतिः (वा-$तिः नित् Uṇ.5.6) The wind. -f. (वन्- अन्त्यलोपः झलादौ विङ्ति P.V1.4.37) Asking, begging.
añjanāvati अञ्जनावति [अञ्जनं विद्यते अस्याः अधिककृष्णवर्णत्वात्] 1 N. of the female elephant of the north-east quarter. -2 N. of a tree कावाञ्जनवृक्ष.
vatika तावतिक तावत्क a. Bought for so much, worth so much, of so much value.
navati नवतिः f. Ninety; नवनवतिशतद्रव्यकोटीश्वरास्ते Mu.3. 27; R.3.69.
navati नवतिका 1 Ninety. -2 A paint-brush (said to contain 9 hairs).
parvati पर्वतिः f. (Ved.) A rock, stone.
pārvatikam पार्वतिकम् A multitude of mountains, a mountainrange.
vatitha यावतिथ a. 1 To whatever place or point. -2 In howmany soever (degree advanced); यो यो यावतिथश्चैषां स स तावद्गुणः स्मृतः Ms.1.2.
yuvati युवतिः ती f. [युवन्-ति ङीप् वा] 1 A young woman, any young female (whether of men or animals); सुर- युवतिसंभवं किल मुनेरपत्यम् Ś.2.9; युवतिजनकथामूकभावः परेषाम् Bh.; so इभयुवतिः. -ती 1 The sign virgo of the zodiac. -2 Turmeric (also युवतिः). -Comp. -इष्टा yellow jasmine. -जनः a young woman.
śāśvatika शाश्वतिक a. (-की f.) Eternal, permanent, perpetual, constant; शाश्वतिको विरोधः 'natural antipathy'; शाश्वतिकं वरोधमपहाय K.
haimavatika हैमवतिक a. Living in the Himālaya mountain; स हैमवतिकान् जित्वा करं सर्वानदापयत् Mb.3.254.6.
     Macdonell Vedic Search  
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av av help, I. P. ávati, i. 85, 7; ii. 12, 14; 35, 15; iv. 50, 9. 11; vii. 49, 1-4; 61, 2; x. 15, 1. 5; quicken, v. 83, 4.
inv i-nv go, I. P. ínvati [secondary root from i go according to class v.: i-nu]. sam- bring, i. 160, 5.
vā blow, II. P. váti [Av. vaiti, Gk. ἄησι = ἄ-ϝη-σι; cf. Go. waian, German wehen ‘blow’]. prá- blow forth, v. 83, 4.
     Macdonell Search  
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aṣṭānavati f. ninety-eight; -pañkâsat, f. fifty-eight.
navati f. ninety.
vatitha a. whichever in order.
yuvati a. f. (of yuvan) young; f. young woman, maiden (said of the Dawn, the fingers, and in du. of night and morn ing, heaven and earth: V.); Virgo (sign of the zodiac).
varayuvati f. beautiful maiden; -yogya, fp. worthy of a boon; fit for a husband, marriageable; -yoshit, f. beautiful woman; -ra, a. granting boons; -ruki, a. fond of boons (Siva); m. N. of a poet, physician, grammarian, and lexicogra pher, sts. identified with Kâtyâyana, and enumerated among the nine gems at the court of Vikramâditya; -varana, n. choice of a boon; choice of a bridegroom; -varna, m. (?) gold; -varnin, a. having a beautiful com plexion: -î, f. fair-faced, beautiful, or excel lent woman; ep. of Durgâ; -vrita, pp. chosen as a boon.
vārayuvati f. (woman taken in turn), courtezan; -yoshit, -vadhû, -vanitâ, f. id.; -vâla, m. N. of an Agrahâra; -vilâs inî, f. (dallying in turn), courtezan; -½a&ndot; ganâ, f. id.
ṣaṇavati f. ninety-six; -mâtra, a. containing six morae; -mâsa, m. (?) six months: ab. after six months: -nikaya, a. provisioned for six months, -½abhyantara, n. space of six months; -mâsika, a.given every six months (clothes); occurring twice a year; (shán)-mâsya, a. occurring every six months; n. period of six months; -mukha, a. six mouthed or six-faced; m. ep. of Skanda; N.
surayuvati f. celestial maiden, Apsaras; -yoshit, f. id.; -râga, m. king of the gods, ep. of Indra: -tâ, f. Indra's rank, -vriksha, m. Indra's (Pârigâta) tree; -loka, m. world of the gods, heaven: -sundarî, f. Apsaras; -vadhû, f. id.; -vara, m. chief of the gods, ep. of Indra: -nagara, n. Indra's city; -varman, m. N. of a king; -vâhinî, f. celestial Ganges; -vesman, n. house of god, temple; -satru, m. foe of the gods, Asura; -sâkhin, m. tree of the gods (=kal pa-vriksha).
     Vedic Index of
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apacit This word occurs several times in the Atharvaveda. It is held by Roth, Zimmer, and others to denote an insect whose sting produced swellings, etc. (glau). But Bloomfield shows that the disease, scrofulous swellings, is what is really meant, as is shown by the rendering (ganda-mālā, ‘ inflammation of the glands of the neck ’) of Keśava and Sāyana, and by the parallelism of the later disease, apacī, the derivation being from apa and ci, ‘.to pick off.’
abhyāvartin cāyamāna Appears in a Dānastuti (‘ Praise of Gifts ’) in the Rigveda,and as conqueror of the Vrcīvants under the leader Varaśikha. It is probable, though not abso­lutely certain, that he is identical with the Srñjaya Daivavāta, mentioned in the same hymn as having the Turvaśas and Vrcīvants defeated for him by Indra. In this case he would be prince (samrāj) of the Syñjayas. Daivavāta is mentioned elsewhere as a worshipper of Agni. Abhyāvartin is also referred to as a Pārthava. Ludwig and Hillebrandt maintained that he is thus a Parthian, the latter using the evidence of the two places mentioned in the descrip¬tion of Daivavāta’s victories, Hariyūpīyā and Yavyāvatī, as proofs for the western position of Abhyāvartin’s people in Arachosia, in Iran. But Zimmer is probably right in holding that the name Pārthava merely means ‘ a descendant of Prthu,’ and that its similarity to the Iranian Parthians is only on a par with the numerous other points of identity between the Indian and Iranian cultures
avi Sheep ’ are repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda, and later, often in conjunction with goats (aja). The wolf (vrka) was their great enemy, and they were tended by shepherds. Sheep as well as kine were captured from the enemy. The Soma sieve was made of sheep’s wool, and is repeatedly referred to (avi, mesī, avya, avyaya).Considerable herds must have existed, as Rjrāśva is said to have slain one hundred rams, and in a Dānastuti (‘ Praise of Gifts ’) β a hundred sheep are mentioned as a gift. The (mesa, vrsnis) ram was sometimes castrated (petva). The main use of sheep was their wool; hence the expression ‘woolly’ (ūrnāvatī) is employed to designate a sheep. In the Vājasaneyi Samhitā the ram is described as ‘woolly,’ and as ‘ the skin of beasts, quadruped and biped,’ with reference to the use of its wool as clothing for men and shelter for animals. Pūsan is said to weave raiment from the wool of sheep. Normally the sheep stayed out at pasture; in an obscure passage of the Rigveda reference appears to be made to rams in stall. Gandhāra ewes were famous for their wool. Pischel considers that the Parusnī was named from its richness in sheep, parus denoting the ‘ flocks ’ of wool.
aśva Is the commonest word for ‘horse’ in the Vedic literature. The horse is also called ‘the runner' (atya), ‘the swift’ (arvant), ‘the strong,’ for pulling ([vājin), ‘the runner’ (sapti), and ‘ the speeding ’ (haya). The mare is termed aśvā, atyā, arvatī, vadavā, etc. Horses of various colour were known, dun (harita, hart), ruddy (aruna, arusa, piśañga, rohita), dark brown (śyāυa), white (śveta), etc. A white horse with black ears is mentioned in the Atharvaveda as of special value. Horses were highly prized, and were not rare, as Roth thought, for as many as four hundred mares are mentioned in one Dānastuti (‘Praise of Gifts’). They were on occasion ornamented with pearls and gold. Mares were preferred for drawing chariots because of their swiftness and sureness. They were also used for drawing carts, but were not ordinarily so employed. No mention is made of riding in battle, but for other purposes it was not unknown. Horses were often kept in stalls, and fed there. But they were also allowed to go out to grass, and were then hobbled. They were watered to cool them after racing. Their attendants are frequently referred to (aśva-pāla,u aśva-pa,15 aśva-pati).16 Stallions were frequently castrated (vadhri). Besides reins (;mśmayah), reference is made to halters (aśvābhidhānī),18 and whips (aśvājani).19 See also Ratha. Horses from the Indus were of special value,20 as also horses from the Sarasvatī.
ahi This word occurs frequently from the Rigveda onwards to denote ‘snake.’ Reference is several times made to its casting its slough. Mention is also made of the serpent’s peculiar movement, which earns for it the designation of ‘ the toothed rope ’ (datvatī rajjufy). The poisonous character of its bite is spoken of, as well as the torpidity of the reptile in winter, when it creeps into the earth. The cast skin is used as an amulet against highwaymen. Mention is made of a mythical horse, Paidva, which the Aśvins gave to Pedu as a protection against snakes, and which is invoked as a destroyer of serpents.The ichneumon (nakula) is regarded as their deadly enemy, and as immune against their poison through the use of a healing plant, while men kill them with sticks or strike off their heads. Many species of snakes are mentioned: see Aghāśva, Ajagara, Asita, Kañkaparvan, Karikrata, Kalmāsagrīva, Kasarnīla, Kumbhīnasa, Tiraścarāji, Taimāta, Darvi, Daśo- nasi, Puskarasāda, Prdāku, Lohitāhi, Sarkota, Svitra, Sarpa.
āpayā Is the name of a river mentioned once only in the Rigveda, when it occurs between the Drsadvatī and the Sarasvatī. Ludwig was inclined to identify it with the Apagā as a name for the Ganges, but Zimmer correctly places it near the Sarasvatī, either as the small tributary which flows past Thānesar or the modern Indramatī farther west, while Pischel4 assigns it to Kuruksetra, of which the Apayā is mentioned as a famous river in the Mahābhārata.
āsaṅga plāyogi Is a king who appears in a Dānastuti (‘Praise of Gifts’) in the Rigveda as a generous patron. Owing, however, to the addition of a curious phallic verse to the hymn, and its early misunderstanding, a legend was invented that he lost his manhood and became a woman, but by the intercession of Medhyātithi was transformed into a man, much to the delight of his wife, Saśvatī, whose existence is based on a misunderstanding of the phrase * every woman ’ (saśvatī nārī) in the added verse. Another misunderstanding of the Dānastuti4 gives him a son Svanad-ratha, really a mere epithet, and makes him a descendant of Yadu.
ibha Is a word of somewhat doubtful sense and inter­pretation. It is found only in the Samhitās, and especially in the Rigveda. According to Roth and Ludwig the sense is ‘retainer,’ and Zimmer thinks that it includes not only dependants and servants, but also the royal family and the youthful cadets of the chief families. In the opinion of Pischel and Geldner® it denotes ‘elephant.’ This view is supported by the authority of the commentators Sāyana and Mahīdhara; the Nirukta, too, gives ‘elephant’ as one of the senses of the word. Megasthenes and Nearchos tell us that elephants were a royal prerogative, and the derivative word Ibhya may thus be naturally explained as denoting merely ‘ rich ’ (lit., ‘ possessor of elephants ’).
upaniṣad in the Brāhmanas normally denotes the secret sense ’ of some word or text, sometimes the * secret rule ’ of the mendicant. But in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad it is already used in the plural as the designation of a class of writings, no doubt actually existing and similar to the Upanisads in the nature of their subject-matter and its treatment. Similarly the sections of the Taittirīya Upanisad end with the words ily upanisad. The Aitareya Aranyaka commences its third part with the title The Upanisad of the Samhitā/ and the title occurs also in the Sāñkhāyana Aranyaka. The exact primary sense of the expression is doubtful. The natural derivation, adopted by Max Muller and usual ever since, makes the word mean firstly a session of pupils, hence secret doctrine, and secondly the title of a work on secret doctrine. Oldenberg, however, traces the use of the word to the earlier sense of ‘worship’ {cf. upāsana). Deussen considers the original sense to have been ‘secret word,’ next ‘secret text,’ and then ‘ secret import,’ but this order of meaning is im¬probable. Hopkins8 suggests that Upanisad denotes a sub¬sidiary treatise, but this sense does not account naturally for the common use as ‘ secret meaning,’ which is far more frequent than any other.
urvarā Is with Ksetra the regular expression, from the Rigveda onwards, denoting a piece of ‘ploughland’ (άρουρα). Fertile (apnasvatī) fields are spoken of as well as waste fields (ārtanā). Intensive cultivation by means of irrigation is clearly referred to both in the Rigveda and in the Atharva­veda, while allusion is also made to the use of manure. The fields (iksetra) were carefully measured according to the Rigveda. This fact points clearly to individual ownership in land for the plough, a conclusion supported by the reference of Apālā, in a hymn of the Rigveda, to her father's field (urvarā), which is put on the same level as his head of hair as a personal possession. Consistent with this are the epithets ‘winning fields ’ (urvarā-sā, urvarā-jit, ksetra-sā), while ‘ lord of fields ’ used of a god is presumably a transfer of a human epithet (urvarā-pati). Moreover, fields are spoken of in the same connexion as children, and the conquest of fields (ksetrāni sam-ji) is often referred to in the Samhitās. Very probably, as suggested by Pischel, the ploughland was bounded by grass land (perhaps denoted by Khila, Khilya) which in all likelihood would be joint property on the analogy of property elsewhere. There is no trace in Vedic literature of communal property in the sense of ownership by a community of any sort, nor is there mention of communal cultivation. Individual property in land seems also presumed later on. In the Chāndogya Upanisad the things given as examples of wealth include fields and houses («ūyatanāni). The Greek evidence also points to individual ownership. The precise nature of the ownership is of course not determined by the expression ‘ individual ownership.’ The legal relationship of the head of a family and its members is nowhere explained, and can only be conjectured (see Pitr). Very often a family may have lived together with undivided shares in the land. The rules about the inheritance of landed property do not occur before the Sūtras. In the Satapatha Brāhmana the giving of land as a fee to priests is mentioned, but with reproof: land was no doubt even then a very special kind of property, not lightly to be given away or parted with. On the relation of the owners of land to the king and others see Grāma; on its cultivation see Krsi.
ūrṇā ‘Wool,’ is very frequently mentioned from the Rigveda onwards. The Parusnī country was famous for its wool, like Gandhāra for its sheep. The term for the separate tufts was parvan4 or parus.‘ Soft as wool ’ (ūrna-mradas) is not a rare epithet. The sheep is called ‘woolly’ (ūrnāvatī). ‘Woollen thread ’ (ūrnā-sūtra) is repeatedly referred to in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas. The word ūrnā was not restricted to the sense of sheep’s wool, but might denote goat’s hair also.
ūrṇāvatī In the hymn of the Rigveda which celebrates the rivers Ludwig finds a reference to an affluent of the Indus called Urnāvatī. This interpretation, however, seems certainly wrong. Roth renders the word merely as ‘ woolly,’ and Zimmer rejects Ludwig’s explanation on the ground that it throws the structure of the hymn into confusion. Pischel makes the word an epithet of the Indus, ‘rich in sheep.’
oṣadhi Roughly speaking, the vegetable world is divided in Vedic literature between Osadhi or Vīrudh ‘plants’ and Vana or Vrksa ‘trees.’ Osadhi is employed in opposition to Vīrudh to denote plants as possessing a healing power or some other quality useful to men, while Vīrudh is rather a generic term for minor vegetable growths, but sometimes, when occur­ring beside Osadhi, signifies those plants which do not possess medicinal properties. A list of the minor parts of which a plant is made up is given in the later Samhitās. It comprises the root 0mfdd), the panicle (tfda), the stem (kāηda), the twig (valśa), the flower (puspa), and the fruit (phala), while trees have, in addition, a corona (skaηdha), branches [śākhā), and leaves (parηa). The Atharvaveda gives an elaborate, though not very intelligible, division of plants into those which expand (pra-strηatīh), are bushy (stambiηīh), have only one sheath (eka-śtmgāh), are creepers (pra-taηvatīh), have many stalks (amśumatīh), arejointed (kāndinīh), or have spreading branches (vi-śākhāh). In the Rigveda plants are termed ‘ fruitful ’ (phalinīh), blossom¬ing ’ (puspavatīh), and ‘ having flowers ’ (pra-sūvarīh).
aupamanyava ‘Descendant of Upamanyu,’ is the patro­nymic of various persons: see Kāmboja, Prācīnaśāla, Mahā- śāla. The best known bearer of the name is the grammarian who disagreed with the onomatopoetic theory of the derivation of names, and who is mentioned by Yāska. An Aupamanyavī- putra occurs in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra as a teacher.
kāṇva See Kanva: among others, Devātithi, Medhātithi, Vatsa, were prominent members of the Kanva family.
kāśi The name Kāśi denotes (in the plural1) the people of Kāśi (Benares), and Kāśya, the king of Kāśi. The Satapatha Brāhmana tells of Dhrtarāstra, king of Kāśi, who was defeated by Satānīka Sātrājita, with the result that the Kāśis, down to the time of the Brāhmana, gave up the kindling of the sacred fire. Sātrājita was a Bharata. We hear also of Ajātaśatru as a king of Kāśi; and no doubt Bhadrasena Ajātaśatrava, a contemporary of Uddālaka, was also a king of Kāśi. The Kāśis and Videhas were closely connected, as was natural in view of their geographical position. The compound name Kāśi-Videha occurs in the Kausītaki Upanisad; in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad Gārgī describes Ajātaśatru as either a Kāśi or a Videha king. The Sāñkhāyana Srauta Sūtra mentions one Purohita as acting for the kings of Kāśi, Kosala, and Videha; and the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra mentions Kāśi and Videha in close proximity. Weber,8 indeed, throws out the suggestion that the Kāśis and the Videhas together con¬stitute the Uśīnaras, whose name is very rare in Vedic literature. As Kosala and Videha were in close connexion, Kāśi and Kosala are found combined in the compound name Kāśi- Kauśalyas of the Gopatha Brāhmana. Though Kāśi is a late word, it is quite possible that the town is older, as the river Varanāvatī referred to in the Athar¬vaveda may be connected with the later Vārānasī (Benares).It is significant that while the Kāśis, Kosalas, and Videhas were united, any relations which the Kuru-Pañcala peoples may have had with them were hostile. It is a fair conclusion that between these two great groups of peoples there did exist some political conflict as well as probably a difference of culture in some degree. The śatapatha Brāhmana,11 in the story of the advance of Aryan civilization over Kosala and Videha, preserves a clear tradition of this time, and a piece of evidence that in the Kuru-Pañcāla country lay the real centre of the Brāhmana culture (see also Kuru-Pañcāla). That the Kosala-Videhas were originally settlers of older date than the Kuru-Pañcālas is reasonably obvious from their geographical position, but the true Brāhmana culture appears to have been brought to them from the Kuru-Pañcala country. It is very probable that the East was less Aryan than the West, and that it was less completely reduced under Brahmin spiritual supremacy, as the movement of Buddhism was Eastern, and the Buddhist texts reveal a position in which the Ksatriyas rank above Brāhmanas. With this agrees the fact that the later Vedic texts display towards the people of Magadha a marked antipathy, which may be reasonably explained by that people’s lack of orthodoxy, and which may perhaps be traced as far back as the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. It is, of course, possible that the Kosala-Videhas and Kāśis actually were merely offshoots of the tribes later known as the Kuru-Pañcālas, and that they by reason of distance and less complete subjugation of the aborigines lost their Brahminical culture. This hypothesis, however, appears less likely, though it might be supported by a literal inter-pretation of the legend of the Aryan migration in the śatapatha Brāhmana.
kuru The Kurus appear as by far the most important people in the Brāhmana literature. There is clear evidence that it was in the country of the Kurus, or the allied Kuru- Pañcālas, that the great Brāhmanas were composed. The Kurus are comparatively seldom mentioned alone, their name being usually coupled with that of the Pañcālas on account of the intimate connexion of the two peoples. The Kuru-Pañcālas are often expressly referred to as a united nation. In the land of the Kuru-Pañcālas speech is said to have its particular home ; the mode of sacrifice among the Kuru-Pañcālas is proclaimed to be the best ; the Kuru-Pañcāla kings perform the Rājasūya or royal sacrifice ; their princes march forth on raids in the dewy season, and return in the hot season Later on the Kuru-Pañcāla Brahmins are famous in the Upanisads. Weber and Grierson have sought to find traces in Vedic literature of a breach between the two tribes, the latter scholar seeing therein a confirmation of the theory that the Kurus belonged to the later stream of immigrants into India, who were specially Brahminical, as opposed to the Pañcālas, who were anti-Brahminical. In support of this view, Weber refers to the story in the Kāthaka Samhitā of a dispute between Vaka Dālbhya and Dhrtarāstra Vaicitravīrya, the former being held to be by origin a Pañcāla, while the latter is held to be a Kuru. But there is no trace of a quarrel between Kurus and Pañcālas in the passage in question, which merely preserves the record of a dispute on a ritual matter between a priest and a prince: the same passage refers to the Naimisīya sacrifice among the Kuru-Pañcālas, and emphasizes the close connexion of the two peoples. Secondly, Weber conjectures in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā that Subhadrikā of Kāmpīla was the chief queen of the king of a tribe living in the neighbour¬hood of the clan, for whose king the horse sacrifice described in the Samhitā was performed. But the interpretation of this passage by Weber is open to grave doubt ; and in the Kānva recension of the Samhitā a passage used at the Rājasūya shows that the Kuru-Pañcālas had actually one king. More¬over, there is the evidence of the Satapatha Brāhmana that the old name of the Pañcālas was Krivi. This word looks very like a variant of Kuru, and Zimmer plausibly conjectures that the Kurus and Krivis formed the Vaikarna of the Rigveda, especially as both peoples are found about the Sindhu and the Asikni.The Kurus alone are chiefly mentioned in connexion with the locality which they occupied, Kuruksetra. We are told, however, of a domestic priest (Purohita) in the service of both the Kurus and the Srñjayas, who must therefore at one time have been closely connected. In the Chāndogya Upanisad reference is made to the Kurus being saved by a mare (aśvā), and to some disaster which befel them owing to a hailstorm. In the Sūtras, again, a ceremony (Vājapeya) of the Kurus is mentioned. There also a curse, which was pronounced on them and led to their being driven from Kuruksetra, is alluded to. This possibly adumbrates the misfortunes of the Kauravas in the epic tradition. In the Rigveda the Kurus do not appear under that name as a people. But mention is made of a prince, Kuruśravana (‘ Glory of the Kurus ^, and of a Pākasthāman Kaurayāna. In the Atharvaveda there occurs as a king of the Kurus Pariksit, whose son, Janamejaya, is mentioned in the śata¬patha Brāhmana as one of the great performers of the horse sacrifice.It is a probable conjecture of Oldenberg’s that the Kuru people, as known later, included some of the tribes referred to by other names in the Rigveda. Kuruśravana, shown by his name to be connected with the Kurus, is in the Rigveda called Trāsadasyava, * descendant of Trasadasyu,’ who is well known as a king of the Pūrus. Moreover, it is likely that the Trtsu- Bharatas, who appear in the Rigveda as enemies of the Pūrus, later coalesced with them to form the Kuru people. Since the Bharatas appear so prominently in the Brāhmana texts as a great people of the past, while the later literature ignores them in its list of nations, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that they became merged in some other tribe. Moreover, there is evidence that the Bharatas occupied the territory in which the Kurus were later found. Two of them are spoken of in a hymn of the Rigveda as having kindled fire on the Drsadvatī, the Apayā, and the Sarasvatī—that is to say, in the sacred places of the later Kuruksetra. Similarly, the goddess Bhāratī (‘ belonging to the Bharatas ’) is constantly mentioned in the Aprī (‘ propitiatory ’) hymns together with Sarasvatī. Again, according to the śatapatha Brāhmana, one Bharata king was victorious over the Kāśis, and another made offerings to Gañgā and Yamunā, while raids of the Bharatas against the Satvants are mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmana. Nor is it without importance that the Bharatas appear as a variant for the Kuru-Pañcālas in a passage of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, and that in the list of the great performers of the horse sacrifice the names of one Kuru and two Bharata princes are given without any mention of the people over which they ruled, while in other cases that information is specifically given.The territory of the Kuru-Pañcālas is declared in the Aitareya Brāhmana to be the middle country (Madhyadeśa). A group of the Kuru people still remained further north—the Uttara Kurus beyond the Himālaya. It appears from a passage of the śatapatha Brāhmana that the speech of the Northerners— that is, presumably, the Northern Kurus—and of the Kuru- Pañcālas was similar, and regarded as specially pure. There seems little doubt that the Brahminical culture was developed in the country of the Kuru-Pañcālas, and that it spread thence east, south, and west. Traces of this are seen in the Vrātya Stomas (sacrifices for the admission of non - Brahminical Aryans) of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, and in the fact that in the śāñkhāyana Áranyaka it is unusual for a Brahmin to dwell in the territory of Magadha. The repeated mention of Kuru- Pañcāla Brahmins is another indication of their missionary activity. The geographical position of the Kuru-Pañcālas renders it probable that they were later immigrants into India than the Kosala-Videha or the Kāśis, who must have been pushed into their more eastward territories by a new wave of Aryan settlers from the west. But there is no evidence in Vedic literature to show in what relation of time the immigration of the latter peoples stood to that of their neighbours on the west. It has, however, been conjectured, mainly on the ground of later linguistic phenomena, which have no cogency for the Vedic period, that the Kurus were later immigrants, who, coming by a new route, thrust themselves between the original Aryan tribes which were already in occupation of the country from east to west. Cf. also Krtvan. For other Kuru princes see Kauravya.
kurukṣetra (‘ land of the Kurus ’) is always regarded in the Brāhmana texts as a particularly sacred country. Within its boundaries flowed the rivers Drsadvatī and Sarasvatī, as well as the Apayā. Here, too, was situated Saryanāvant, which appears to have been a lake, like that known to the Satapatha Brāhmana by the name of Anyatah-plaksā. According to Pischel, there was also in Kuruksetra a stream called Pastyā, which he sees in certain passages of the Rigveda. The boun¬daries of Kuruksetra are given in a passage of the Taittirīya Áranyaka as being Khāndava on the south, the Tūrghna on the north, and the Parīnah on the west. Roughly speaking, it corresponded to the modern Sirhind.
kṛṣi ‘ploughing.’ The cultivation of the soil was no doubt known to the Indians before they separated from the Iranians, as is indicated by the identity of the expressions yavam krs and sasya in the Rigveda with yao karesh and hahya in the Avesta, referring to the ploughing in of the seed and to the grain which resulted. But it is not without significance that the expressions for ploughing occur mainly in the first and tenth books of the Rigveda, and only rarely in the so-called ‘ family ’ books (ii.-vii.). In the Atharvaveda Prthī Vainya is credited with the origination of ploughing, and even in the Rigveda the Aśvins are spoken of as concerned with the sowing of grain by means of the plough. In the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas ploughing is repeatedly referred to. Even in the Rigveda there is clear proof of the importance attached to agriculture. In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana the Vrātyas, Hindus without the pale of Brahminism, are de¬scribed as not cultivating the soil.The plough land was called Urvarā or Ksetra; manure (Sakan, Karīsa) was used, and irrigation was practised (Khani- tra). The plough (Lāñgala, Sira) was drawn by oxen, teams of six, eight, or even twelve being employed. The operations of agriculture are neatly summed up in the śatapatha Brāhmana as ‘ ploughing, sowing, reaping, and threshing ’ (
kravya Raw flesh,’ is never mentioned in Vedic literature as eaten by men. Demons alone are spoken of as consuming it, apart from Agni being called kravyād, ‘ eating raw flesh,’ as consumer of the bodies of the dead. The man who in the Rigveda is compelled by starvation to eat dog’s flesh, never­theless cooks it.
gaṅgā The modern Ganges, is mentioned directly in the Rigveda only once, in the Nadī-stuti or Praise of Rivers.’ But it is also referred to in the derivative form gāúgyah as an epithet of Urukaksa. The name of this river does not occurin the other Samhitās, but appears in the śatapatha Brāhmana, where victories of Bharata Dauhsanti on both Gañgā and Yamunā are referred to, and in the Taittirīya Aranyaka especial honour is assigned to those who dwell between the Gañgā and the Yamunā, this being, no doubt, the region in which that text originated. The identification of the Gañgā with the Apayā made by Ludwig must be rejected: see Apayā.
gāndhāra A king of Gandhāra ’ named Nagnajit, is mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmana. In the śatapatha Brāhmana he or some descendant figures as Svarjit Nāgnajita or Nagnajit, and as giving an opinion on the ritual, which is rejected with the observation that the author was merely a princely person (rājaηya-baηdhu).
grāma The primitive sense of this word, which occurs frequently from the Rigveda onwards, appears to have been village.’ The Vedic Indians must have dwelt in villages which were scattered over the country, some close together, some far apart, and were connected by roads.The village is regularly contrasted with the forest (
camū Is a term of somewhat doubtful sense occurring repeatedly in the Rigveda, and connected with the preparation of Soma. Zimmer considers that in the dual it denotes the two boards between which, in his opinion, the Soma was crushed (cf. Adhisavana). Roth, however, appears to be right in taking the normal sense to designate a vessel into which the Soma was poured from the press, and Hillebrandt shows clearly that when it occurs in the plural it always has this sense, corresponding to the Graha-pātras of the later ritual, and that sometimes it is so used in the singular or dual also. In some cases, however, he recognizes its use as denoting the mortar in which the Soma was pressed: he may be right here, as this mode of preparation was probably Indo-Iranian. In a derivative sense Camū appears in the śatapatha Brāh¬mana to denote a trough, either of solid stone or consisting of bricks, used by the Eastern people to protect the body of the dead from contact with the earth, like modern stone-lined graves or vaults.
jartila ‘wild sesamum,’ is mentioned in the Taittirīya Samhitā as an unsuitable sacrificial offering. In the śatapatha Brāhmana sesamum seeds are regarded as combining the qualities of cultivation (viz., edibility) with those of wild growth (because they are produced on unploughed land).
jaitrāyaṇa sahojit Is apparently in the Kāthaka Samhitā the name of a prince who celebrated the Rājasūya, or ‘ royal consecration.’ Von Schroeder quotes in support of Jaitrā­yana as a proper name the derivative Jaitrāyani, ‘descendant of Jaitra/ formed according to the Gana harηādi, which is referred to by Pānini; but it should be noted that in the parallel passage of the Kapisthala Samhitā the reading is different, and no proper personal name appears, the subject being Indra, the god. This reading seems much more probable, for the verse should be general, and suit every king performing the rite.
taṇḍula ‘Grain/ especially ‘rice grain/ is mentioned very often in the Atharvaveda and later, but not in the Rigveda. This accords with the fact that rice cultivation seems hardly known in the Rigveda. Husked (karηa) and unhusked (akarηa) rice is referred to in the Taittirīya Samhitā. Tata, ‘dada,’ is the pet name for ‘father’ in the Rigveda and later. Cf Tāta and Pitr.
tirīṭa Is found in the Atharvaveda in the adjectival derivative tirītin used of a demon, and presumably meaning ‘ adorned with a tiara.’
tilvaka Is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmana as a tree (Symplocos racemosa), near which it is inauspicious to construct a grave. The adjectival derivative tailvaka, ‘ made of the wood of the Tilvaka,’ is found in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and is employed to describe the yūpa, or sacrificial post, in the Sadvimśa Brāhmana.
turvaśa Occurs frequently in the Rigveda as the name of a man or of a people, usually in connexion with Yadu. The two words usually occur in the singular without any connecting particle, Turvaśa Yadu or Yadu Turvaśa. In a plural form the name Turvaśa occurs once with the Yadus, and once alone in a hymn in which the singular has already been used. In one passage the dual Turvaśā-Yadñ actually occurs, and in another Yadus Turvaś ca, ‘Yadu and Turva.’ In other passages Turvaśa appears alone, while in one Turvaśa and Yādva occur. From these facts Hopkins deduces the erroneousness of the ordinary view, according to which Turvaśa is the name of a tribe, the singular denoting the king, and regards Turvaśa as the name of the Yadu king. But the evidence for this is not conclusive. Without laying any stress on the argument based on the theory that the five peoples’ of the Rigveda are the Anus, Druhyus, Turvaśas, Yadus, and Pūrus, it is perfectly reasonable to hold that the Turvaśas and Yadus were two distinct though closely allied tribes. Such they evidently were to the seers of the hymns which mention in the dual the Turvaśā-Yadū and speak of Yadus Turvaś ca. This explanation also suits best the use of the plural of Turvaśa in two Rigvedic hymns. In the Rigveda the chief exploit of Turvaśa was his partici¬pation in the war against Sudās, by whom he was defeated. Hopkins suggests that he may have been named Turvaśa because of his fleet (tura) escape from the battle. His escape may have been assisted by Indra, for in some passages Indra’s aid to Turvaśa (and) Yadu is referred to; it is also significant that the Anu, and apparently the Druhyu, kings are mentioned as having been drowned in the defeat, but not the Turvaśa and Yadu kings, and that Turvaśa appears in the eighth book of the Rigveda as a worshipper of Indra with the Anu prince, the successor, presumably, of the one who was drowned. Griffith, however, proposes to refer these passages to a defeat by Turvaśa and Yadu of Arna and Citraratha on the Sarayu ; but the evidence for this is quite inadequate. Two passages of the Rigveda seem to refer to an attack by Turvaśa and Yadu on Divodāsa, the father of Sudās. It is reasonable to suppose that this was an attack of the two peoples on Divodāsa, for there is some improbability of the references being to the Turvaśa, who was concerned in the attack on Sudās, the son. Zimmer considers that the Turvaśas were also called Vrcī- vants. This view is based on a hymn in which reference is made to the defeat of the Vrcīvants on the Yavyāvatī and Hariyūpīyā in aid of Daivarāta, and of Turvaśa in aid of Srñjaya, the latter being elsewhere clearly the son of Deva- rāta. But as this evidence for the identification of the Turvaśas with the Vrcīvants is not clear, it seems sufficient to assume that they were allies. Later, in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Turvaśas appear as allies of the Pañcālas, Taurvaśa horses, thirty-three in number, and armed men, to the number of 6,ooo, being mentioned. But otherwise the name disappears: this lends probability to Oldenberg’s conjecture that the Turvaśas became merged in the Pañcāla people. Hopkins considers that in the śatapatha passage the horses were merely named from the family of Turvaśa; but this view is less likely, since it ignores the difficulty involved in the reference to the men. It is impossible to be certain regarding the home of the Turvaśas at the time of their conflict with Sudās. They apparently crossed the Parusnī, but from which side is dis¬puted. The view of Pischel and Geldner, that they advanced from the west towards the east, where the Bharatas were (see Kuru), is the more probable.
tṛtsu Occurs in the Rigveda, once in the singular and several times in the plural, as a proper name. The Trtsus were clearly helpers of Sudās in the great battle against the ten kings, Simyu, the Turvaśa, the Druhyu, Kavasa, the Pūru, the Anu, Bheda, Sambara, the two Vaikarnas, and perhaps the Yadu, who led with them as allies the Matsyas, Pakthas, Bhalānas, Alinas, Visānins, Sivas, Ajas, Sigrus, and perhaps Yaksus. The defeat of the ten kings is celebrated in one hymn of the Rigveda, and is evidently alluded to in two others. The great battle took place on the Parusnī, but there was also a fight on the Yamunā with Bheda, the Ajas, Sigrus, and Yaksus. As the Yamunā and the Parusnī represent opposite ends of the territory of the Trtsus (for we cannot with Hopkins safely identify the streams), it is difficult to see exactly how the ten kings could be confederated, but it should be noted that the references to the ten kings occur in the two later hymns, and not in the hymn describing the battle itself; besides, absolute numerical accuracy cannot be insisted upon.It is difficult exactly to determine the character of the Trtsus, especially in their relation to the Bharatas, who under Visvamitra’s guidance are represented as prospering and as advancing to the Vipāś and Sutudrī. Roth ingeniously brought this into connexion with the defeat of his enemies by Sudās, which is celebrated in the seventh book of the Rigveda—a book attributed to the Vasistha family—and thought that there was a reference in one verse to the defeat of the Bharatas by Sudās. But it seems certain that the verse is mistranslated, and that the Bharatas are really represented as victors with Sudās. Ludwig accordingly identifies the Trtsus and the Bharatas. Oldenberg, after accepting this view at first, later expressed the opinion that the Trtsus were the priests of the Bharata people, and therefore identical with the Vasisthas. This view is supported by the fact that in one passage the Trtsus are clearly described as wearing their hair in the peculiar manner affected by the Vasisthas, and would in that passage thus seem to represent the Vasisthas. But Geldner has suggested with great probability that Trtsu, who is once mentioned in the singular, means the Trtsu king—that is, Sudās. This explanation alone justifies the description of the Bharatas as Trtsūnām viśah, ‘ subjects of the Trtsus,’ meaning the Trtsu Gotra or family, for the people could not be said to be subjects of a body of priests. The Vasisthas might be called Trtsus because of their close con¬nexion with the royal house of that people. The reverse process is also quite possible, but is rendered improbable by the fact that the Pratrdah are referred to as receiving Vasistha. This name of the Trtsu dynasty is probably older than its connexion with Vasistha in the time of Sudās, a conclusion supported by the name of Pratardana, who is mentioned later as a descendant of Divodāsa, an ancestor of Sudās. The Trtsu dynasty could therefore hardly have been referred to as Vasisthas. For the further history of the dynasty and its relation with Vasistha and Viśvāmitra, see Sudās. If the Trtsus and their subjects, the Bharatas, were in the Rigvedic period at war with the tribes on either side of the territory between the Parusnī and the Yamunā, it is clear that later on they coalesced with the Pūrus and probably others of those tribes to form the Kuru people. Already in the Rigveda the Trtsus are allied with the Srñjayas, and in the śatapatha Brāhmana one Purohita serves both Kurus and Srñjayas. Hillebrandt considers that the Trtsus cannot be identified with the Bharatas, but that Sudās and the Bharatas represent an invading body, which, however, became allied with the Trtsus and the Vasistha priests. He also thinks that the Rigveda reveals a time when Divodāsa, the grandfather or ancestor of Sudās, was living in Arachosia, on the Sarasvatī, and warring against the Panis, whom he identifies with the Parnians. But this conjecture cannot be regarded as probable. In the Sarasvatī it is not necessary to see any other river than the later Sarasvatī, in the middle country, which flowed within the boundaries of the Trtsus: it is also significant that there are references to contests between Turvaśa Yadu and Atithigva or Divodāsa. Thus there is no reason to doubt that Divodāsa and the Bharatas were in the middle country, and not in Iran.
trasadasyu Son of Purukutsa, is mentioned in the Rigveda as king of the Pūrus. He was born to Purukutsa by his wife, Purukutsānī, at a time of great distress; this, according to Sāyana, refers to Purukutsa’s captivity: possibly his death is really meant. Trasadasyu was also a descendant of Giriksit and Purukutsa was a descendant of Durgaha. The genealogy, therefore, appears to be: Durgaha, Giriksit, Purukutsa, Trasa­dasyu. Trasadasyu was the ancestor of Tpksi, and, according to Ludwig, had a son Hiranin. Trasadasyu’s chronological position is determined by the fact that his father, Purukutsa, was a contemporary of Sudās, either as an opponent or as a friend. That Purukutsa was an enemy of Sudās is more probable, because the latter’s predecessor, Divodāsa, was apparently at enmity with the Pūrus, and in the battle of the ten kings Pūrus were ranged against Sudās and the Trtsus. Trasadasyu himself seems to have been an energetic king. His people, the Pūrus, were settled on the Sarasvatī, which was, no doubt, the stream in the middle country, that locality according well with the later union of the Pūrus with the Kuru people, who inhabited that country. This union is exemplified in the person of Kuruśravana, who is called Trāsadasyava, ‘ descendant of Trasadasyu,’ in the Rigveda, whose father was Mitrātithi, and whose son was Upamaśravas. The relation of Mitrātithi to Trksi does not appear. Another descendant of Trasadasyu was Tryaruna Traivrsna, who is simply called Trasadasyu in a hymn of the Rigveda. He was not only a 4 descendant of Trivrsan,’ but, according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, he was also Traidhātva, descendant of Tridhātu.’ The order of these two predecessors of Tryaruna cannot be determined in any way from Vedic literature. According to the later tradition, a prince named Tridhanvan preceded Tryaruna in the succession. Vedic tradition further fails to show in what precise relation Trasadasyu stood to Trivrsan or Tryaruna.
triplakṣa masc. plur., ‘The three fig-trees,’ is the name of the place where the Drsadvatī disappeared, near the Yamunā, according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana.
dātreya Is the patronymic of Arāda Saunaka in the Vamśa Brāhmana. Possibly Dārteya, ‘ descendant of Drti,’ should be read, but the word may have the same derivation as the latter form with metathesis.
dāsa Like Dasyu, sometimes denotes enemies of a demoniac character in the Rigveda, but in many passages the word refers to human foes of the Aryans. The Dāsas are described as having forts (purafy), and their clans {viśah) are mentioned. It is possible that the forts, which are called ‘ autumnal ’ (śāradīh), may be mythical, but it is not essential, for the epithet may allude to their being resorted to in the autumn season. The Dāsa colour (Varna)6 is probably an allusion to the black skin of the aborigines, which is also directly mentioned. The aborigines (as Dasyus) are called anās, ‘nose¬less’ (?), and mrdhra-vāc, ‘ of hostile speech/9 and are probably meant by the phallus-worshippers (śiśna-devāh, ‘whose deity is a phallus ’) of the Rigveda. It is significant that constant. reference is made to the differences in religion between Arya and Dāsa or Dasyu. Since the Dāsas were in many cases reduced to slavery, the word Dāsa has the sense of * slave ’ in several passages of the Rigveda. Dāsī, the feminine, always has this sense from the Atharvaveda onwards. Aboriginal women were, no doubt, the usual slaves, for on their husbands being slain in battle they would naturally have been taken as servants. They would sometimes also become concubines; thus Kavasa was taunted with being the son of a female slave (dāsyāh putrah) in the Aitareya Brāhmana. Ludwig considers that in some passages Dāsa is applied, in the sense of enemy,’ to Aryan foes, but this is uncertain. Zimmer and Meyer think that Dāsa originally meant enemy in general, later developing in Iran into the name of the Dahae of the Caspian steppes, and in India into a desig¬nation of the aborigines. On the other hand, Hillebrandt argues that, as the Dāsas and the Panis are mentioned together, they must be deemed to be closely related tribes, identifying the Panis with the Parnians and the Dāsas of the Rigveda with the Dahae. This view, of course, necessitates a transfer of the scenes of the Rigveda, where Dāsas are prominent, and especially those in which Divodāsa—‘ the heavenly Dāsa’—plays an important part, to the far west. Hillebrandt justifies this by regarding the scene of the sixth book of the Rigveda as quite different from that of the seventh and third, in which Sudās, the Bharatas, Vasistha, and Viśvāmitra appear. The Sarasvatī of the sixth book he locates in Arachosia, that of the seventh in the Middle Country.’ It is, however, extremely doubtful whether this theory can be upheld. That Divodāsa should have been a Dāsa, and yet have fought against other Dāsas, is not in itself likely, especially when his son Sudās appears as a protagonist of Aryan civilization. It also seems unreasonable to seek in Arachosia for the river Sarasvatī, which it is natural to locate in the Middle Country. ’The wealth of the Dāsas was no doubt considerable, but in civilization there is no reason to suppose that they were ever equal to the invaders. Leading Dāsas were Ilībiśa, Cumuri and Dhuni, Pipru, Varcin, Sambara. For names of aboriginal tribes, see Kirāta, Kīkata, Candāla, Parnaka, Simyu.
divodāsa atithigva Is one of the leading princes of the early Vedic age. He was a son of Vadhryaśva, and father, or more probably grandfather, of Sudās, the famous king of the Trtsu family, among the Bharatas. Probably Pijavana was the son and Sudās the grandson. Divodāsa was naturally a Bharata, and, like Sudās, was an opponent of the Turvaśas and Yadus. His great enemy was śambara, the Dāsa, who was apparently chief of a mountain people, and whom he repeatedly defeated. He was also, it seems, like his father Vadhryaśva, an energetic supporter of the fire ritual, for Agni is once called by his name in the Rigveda. On the other hand, he was defeated, with Ayu and Kutsa, by Indra’s aid. In several passages he seems closely connected with the singer family, the Bharadvājas. From one passage, where Divodāsa is said to have fought against the Panis, the Pārāvatas, and Brsaya, Hillebrandt has inferred that he was engaged in conflicts with the tribes of Arachosia, and interpreting the name as the ‘heavenly Dāsa’ conjectures that he was himself a Dāsa. This conclusion is not probable, for the Sarasvatī on which the battle in question took place, and which can hardly be the Haraqaiti of Arachosia, would naturally designate the later Sarasvatī, while the Pārāvatas are mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, as in the east, about the Yamunā. Bergaigne’s opinion that Divodāsa and Atithigva were different people cannot be supported in view of the complete parallelism in the acts of the two persons. See also Pratardana. The people of Divodāsa are referred to in a hymn of the Rigveda.
dṛṣadvatī Stony,’ is the name of a river which flows into the Sarasvatī after running for a time parallel to it. It is mentioned in the Rigveda,1 along with the Sarasvatī and the Apayā, as the scene of action of the Bharata princes. In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana2 and later3 the Drsadvatī and the Sarasvatī are the scene of special sacrifices. In Manu4 these two rivers form the western boundary of the Middle Country.
devavāta (Desired of the gods ’) is the name of a Bharata prince in the Rigveda, where he is mentioned as sacrificing on the Drsadvatī, Sarasvatī, and Apayā.
devaśravas Is the name of a Bharata prince who with Devavāta appears as a sacrificer on the Drsadvatī, Sarasvatī, and Apayā in the Rigveda.
deśa ‘Land,’ is a word that does not come into use till the time of the Upanisads and Sūtras, excepting one occurrence in the latest period of the Brāhmana literature, and one in a much-discussed passage of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, where the Sarasvatī is mentioned as having five tributaries. This passage militates against the view that Sarasvatī was a name of the Indus, because the use of Deśa here seems to indicate that the seer of the verse placed the Sarasvatī in the Madhya- deśa or * Middle Country,’ to which all the geographical data of the Yajurvedas point.
dhānya (neut.), A derivative from the preceding word, denotes ‘grain’ in general. It is found in the Rigveda and later. According to the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, there are ten cultivated (grāmyāηi) kinds of grain : rice and barley (vrīhi- yavāh), sesamum and beans (tila-māsāh), Panicum Miliaceum and Italicum (aηu-priyciηgavah), maize (godhūmāh), lentils (masūrāh), Khalvāh and Dolichos uniflorus (khala-kulab). The horse is called ‘ corn-eating {dhānyādd) in the Aitareya and śatapatha Brāhmanas, and men are mentioned as * purifying corn ’ (dhānyā-krt) in the Rigveda.
dhenu In the Rigveda and later means * milch cow,’ which is often mentioned with special reference to the production of milk, and is contrasted with the bull ’ (vrsabha, pumāmsf aηadvāh). In the plural the word denotes * draughts of milk.’ The derivative, dheηukā, means merely * female.’
dhvasan dvaitavana (‘Descendant of Dvitavana ’) is the name in the śatapatha Brāhmana of the king of the Matsyas who celebrated an Aśvamedha, or ‘horse sacrifice,’ near the Sarasvatī.
nakṣatra Is a word of obscure origin and derivation. The Indian interpreters already show a great divergence of opinion as to its primary meaning. The śatapatha Brāhmana re­solves it into na-ksatra (‘ no power ’), explaining it by a legend. The Nirukta refers it to the root naks, ‘obtain/ following the Taittirīya Brāhmana. Aufrecht and Weber derived it from nakta-tra, ‘ guardian of night/ and more recently the derivation from nak-ksatra, ‘ having rule over night/ seems to be gaining acceptance. The generic meaning of the word therefore seems to be ‘star/ The Naksatras as Stars in the Rigveda and Later.—The sense of star ’ appears to be adequate for all or nearly all the passages in which Naksatra occurs in the Rigveda. The same sense occurs in the later Samhitās also : the sun and the Naksatras are mentioned together, or the sun, the moon, and the Naksatras, or the moon and the Naksatras, or the Naksatras alone; but there is no necessity to attribute to the word the sense of lunar mansion ’ in these passages. On the other hand, the names of at least three of the Naksatras in the later sense occur in the Rigveda. Tisya, however, does not seem to be mentioned as a lunar mansion. With Aghās (plur.) and Arjunī (dual) the case is different: it seems probable that they are the later lunar mansions called Maghās (plur.) and Phālgunī (dual). The names appear to have been deliberately changed in the Rigveda, and it must be remembered that the hymn in which they occur, the wedding hymn of Sūryā, has no claim to great age. Ludwig and Zimmer have seen other references to the Naksatras as 27 in the Rigveda, but these seem most improbable. Nor do the adjectives revatī (£ rich ’) and punarvasīi (‘ bringing wealth again’) in another hymn appear to refer to the Naksatras. The Naksatras as Lunar Mansions.—In several passages of the later Samhitās the connexion of the moon and the Naksatras is conceived of as a marriage union. Thus in the Kāthaka and Taittirīya Samhitās it is expressly stated that Soma was wedded to the mansions, but dwelt only with Rohinī; the others being angry, he had ultimately to undertake to live with them all equally. Weber hence deduced that the Naksatras were regarded as of equal extent, but this is to press the texts unduly, except in the sense of approximate equality. The number of the mansions is not stated as 27 in the story told in the two Samhitās: the Taittīriya has, and the Kāthaka no number; but 27 appears as their number in the list which is found in the Taittirīya Samhitā and elsewhere. The number 28 is much less well attested: in one passage of the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is practically marked as a new comer, though in a later book, in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and in the Atharvaveda list,27 it has found acceptance. It is perfectly possible that 28 is the earlier number, and that Abhijit dropped out because it was faint, or too far north, or because 27 was a more mystic (3x3x3) number: it is significant that the Chinese Sieou and the Arabic Manāzil are 28 in number.28 Weber, however, believes that 27 is the older number in India. The meaning of the number is easily explained when it is remembered that a periodic month occupies something between 27 and 28 days, more nearly the former number. Such a month is in fact recognized in the Lātyāyana and Nidāna Sūtras as consisting of 27 days, 12 months making a year of 324 days, a Naksatra year, or with an intercalary month, a year of 351 days. The Nidāna Sūtra makes an attempt to introduce the Naksatra reckoning into the civil or solar (sāvana) year of 360 days, for it holds that the sun spends 13J• days in each Naksatra (13^x27 = 360). But the month of 27 or 28 days plays no part in the chronological calculations of the Veda. The Names of the Naksatras.—In addition to the two mentioned in the Rigveda, the earlier Atharvaveda gives the names of Jyesthaghnī (the later Jyesthā) and Vicrtau, which are mentioned as in close connexion, and of Revatīs (plural) and Kyttikās. With reference to possible times for the ceremony of the Agnyādhāna, or Maying of the sacred fires/ the Kāthaka Samhitā, the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and the Taittirīya Brāhmana mention the Naksatras called Krttikās, Rohinī, Phalgunyas, Hasta; the latter Brāhmana adds Punar- vasū, and in an additional remark excludes Pūrve Phālgunī in favour of Uttare Phālgunī. The śatapatha Brāhmana adds Mrgaśīrsa and Citrā as possibilities. On the other hand, Punarvasū is recommended by all authorities as suitable for the Punarādheya, 'relaying of the sacred fires,’ which takes place if the first fire has failed to effect the aim of its existence, the prosperity of the sacrificer. The Kāthaka Samhitā, however, allows Anurādhās also. In the ceremony of the Agnicayana, or 'piling of the fire- altar,’ the bricks are assumed to be equal in number to the Naksatras. The bricks number 756, and they are equated to 27 Naksatras multiplied by 27 secondary Naksatras, reckoned as 720 (instead of 729), with the addition of 36 days, the length of an intercalary month. Nothing can be usefully derived from this piece of priestly nonsense. But in connexion with this ceremony the Yajurveda Samhitās enumerate the 27, The Taittirīya Brāhmana has a list of the Naksatras which agrees generally with the list of the Samhitās. It runs as follows: Kyttikās, Rohinī, Invakās, Bāhū (dual), Tisya, Aśleṣās, Maghās, Pūrve Phālgunī, Uttare Phālgunī, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Rohinī, Mūlabarhanī, Pūrvā Asādhās', Uttarā Asādhās, Sronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Pūrve Prosthapadās, Uttare Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Apabharanīs. In a later book, however, the list grows to 28, and the full moon is inserted after number 14, and the new moon after number, as an attempt to bring the Naksatra (lunar) month into accordance with the Sāvana (solar) month of 30 days. The names in this second list are as in the Samhitās with the following exceptions. The seven stars of the Krttikās are named as Ambā, Dulā, Nitatnī, Abhrayantī, Meghayantī, Varsayantī, Cupunīkā, names found also in the Taittirīya and Kāthaka Samhitās. Beside Mrgaśīrsa, Invakās are also mentioned. Then come Ardrā, Punarvasū, Tisya, Aśresās, Maghās (beside which Anaghās, Agadās, and Arun- dhatīs are also mentioned), Phalgunyas (but elsewhere in the dual, Phalgunyau), Phalgunyas, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Jyesthā, Mūla, Asādhās, Asā(jhās, Abhijit, śronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Prosthapadās, Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas, but also Apabharanīs. Abhijit, which occurs also in an earlier part of the Brāhmana, is perhaps interpolated. But Weber’s argument that Abhijit is out of place in this list because Brāhmana is here mentioned as the 28th Naksatra, loses some force from the fact (of course unknown to him) that the list in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā contains 28 Naksatras, including Abhijit, and adds Brāhmana at the end as another. In another passage the Taittirīya Brāhmana divides the Naksatras into two sets, the Deva Naksatras and the Yama Naksatras, being 1-14 and 15-27 (with the omission of Abhijit) respectively. This division corresponds with one in the third book of the Brāhmana60 where the days of the light half of the month and those of the dark half are equated with the Naksatras. The Brāhmana treats the former series as south, the latter as north; but this has no relation to facts, and can only be regarded as a ritual absurdity. The late nineteenth book of the Atharvaveda contains a list of the Naksatras, including Abhijit. The names here (masc.), Viśākhe, Anurādhā, Jyesthā, Mūla, Pūrvā Asādhās, Uttarā Asādhās, Abhijit, śravana, śravisthās, śatabhisaj, Dvayā Prosthapadā, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas. The Position of the Naksatras.—There is nothing definite in Vedic literature regarding the position of most of the Naksatras, but the later astronomy precisely locates all of them, and its statements agree on the whole satisfactorily with what is said in the earlier texts, though Weber was inclined to doubt this. The determinations adopted below are due to Whitney in his notes on the Sūrya Siddhānta. 1.Krttikās are unquestionably η Tauri, etc., the Pleiades. The names of the seven stars forming this constellation, and given above from Yajurveda texts, include three --------abhrayantī, forming clouds meghayantī, ‘making cloudy’; varsayantī, ‘causing rain’—which clearly refer to the rainy Pleiades. The word krttikā possibly means ‘web/ from the root krt, spin.’ 2. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy,’ is the name of the conspicuously reddish star, a Tauri or Aldebaran, and denotes the group of the Hyades, <* θ y 8 e Tauri. Its identification seems absolutely assured by the legend of Prajāpati in the Aitareya Brāhmana. He is there represented as pursuing his daughter with incestuous intention, and as having been shot with an arrow (Isu Trikāndā, ‘ the belt of Orion ’) by the huntsman ’ (Mrgavyādha, Sirius ’). Prajāpati is clearly Orion (Mrgaśiras being the name of the little group of stars in Orion’s head). 3.Mrgaśīrsa or Mrgaśiras, also called Invakā or Invagā, seems to be the faint stars λ, φ,1 φ2 Orionis. They are called Andhakā, * blind,’ in the śāntikalpa of the Atharvaveda, probably because of their dimness. 4.Ardrā, ‘ moist,’ is the name of the brilliant star, α Orionis. But the names by which it is styled, in the plural as Árdrās in the śāñkhāyana Grhya Sūtra and the Naksatrakalpa, and in the dual as Bāhú, in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, point to a constellation of two or more stars, and it may be noted that the corresponding Chinese Sieou includes the seven brilliant stars composing the shoulders, the belt, and the knees of Orion. 5. Punarvasu, the two that give wealth again,’ denotes the two stars, a and β Geminorum, on the heads of Castor and Pollux. The name is no doubt connected with the beneficent character of the Aśvins, who correspond to the Dioscuri. 6.Tisya or Pusya includes the somewhat faint group in the body of the Crab, 7, δ, and θ Cancri. The singular is rather curious, as primarily one star would seem to have been meant, and none of the group is at all prominent. 7. Aśresās or Aślesās, which in some texts is certainly to be read Aśresās or Aślesas, denotes δ, e, η, p, σ, and perhaps also ζ, Hydrse. The word means ‘embracer,’ a name which admirably fits the constellation. 8. Maghās, the ‘bounties,’ are the Sickle, or α, γ, ζ, μ, e Leonis. The variants Anaghā, the ‘ sinless one,’ etc.,clearly refer to the auspicious influence of the constellation. 9. 10. Phālgunī, Phalgunyau, Phalgū, Phalg-unīs, Phal- gunyas, is really a double constellation, divided into Pūrve, ‘ former,’ and Uttare, ‘latter.’ The former is δ and θ Leonis, the latter β and Leonis. According to Weber, the word denotes, like Arjunī, the variant of the Rigveda, a ‘ bright- coloured ’ constellation. 11. Hasta, ‘hand,’ is made up of the five conspicuous stars (δ> Ί, e, a, β) in Corvus, a number which the word itself suggests. According to Geldner, the ‘ five bulls ’ of the Rigveda are this constellation. 12. Citrā, ‘bright,’ is the beautiful star, a Virginis. It is mentioned in a legend of Indra in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, and in that of the ‘ two divine dogs ’ (divyau śvānau) in the śatapatha Brāhmana. 13. Svāti or Nistyā is later clearly the brilliant star Arcturus or a Bootis, its place in the north being assured by the notice in the śāntikalpa, where it is said to be ‘ ever traversing the northern way ’ (nityam uttara-mārgagam). The Taittirīya Brāhmana, however, constructs an asterismal Prajāpati, giving him Citrā (α Virginis) for head, Hasta (Corvus) for hand, the Viśākhe (α and β Librae) for thighs, and the Anurādhās (β, δ, and 7r Scorpionis) for standing place, with Nistyā for heart. But Arcturus, being 30° out, spoils this figure, while, on the other hand, the Arabic and Chinese systems have respectively, instead of Arcturus, Virginis and κ Virginis, which would well fit into the Prajāpati figure. But in spite of the force of this argument of Weber’s, Whitney is not certain that Nistyā here must mean a star in Virgo, pointing out that the name Nistyā, ‘outcast,’ suggests the separation of this Naksatra from the others in question. 14.Viśākhe is the couple of stars a and β Librae. This mansion is later called Rādhā according to the Amarakośa, and it is curious that in the Atharvaveda the expression rādho Viśākhe, the Viśākhe are prosperity,’ should occur. But probably Rādhā is merely an invention due to the name of the next Naksatra, Anurādhā, wrongly conceived as meaning that which is after or follows Rādhā.’ 15. Anūrādhās or Anurādhā, propitious,’ is β, δ, and tγ (perhaps also p) Scorpionis. 16. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy ’; Jyesthaghnī, * slaying the eldest ’; or Jyesthā, ‘eldest,’ is the name of the constellation σ, α, and τ Scorpionis, of which the central star, a, is the brilliant reddish Antares (or Cor Scorpionis). 17.Vicrtau, ‘ the two releasers ’; Mūla, ‘ root or Mūla- barhanī, ‘ uprooting,’ denote primarily λ and v at the extremity of the tail of the Scorpion, but including also the nine or eleven stars from e to v. 18.19. Asādhās (‘ unconquered ’), distinguished as Pūrvās, ‘ former,’ and Uttarās, ‘ latter,’ are really two constellations, of which the former is composed of γ, δ, e, and η Sagittarii, or of 8 and e only, and the latter of θ, σ, t, and ξ Sagittarii, or of two, σ and ζ, only. It is probable that originally only four stars forming a square were meant as included in the whole constellation —viz., σ and f, with 8 and e. 20. Abhijit is the brilliant star a Lyrse with its two companions e and ζ. Its location in 6o° north latitude is completely discordant with the position of the corresponding Arabian and Chinese asterisms. This fact is considered by Oldenberg to support the view that it was a later addition to the system; its occurrence, however, as early as the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, which he does not note, somewhat invalidates that view. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is said to be ‘over Asādhās, under śronā,’ which Weber held to refer to its position in space, inferring thence that its Vedic position corresponded to that of the Arab Manāzil and the Chinese Sieou—viz., a, β Capricorni. But Whitney argues effectively that the words ‘ over ’ and ‘ under ’ really refer to the place of Abhijit in the list, ‘ after ’ Asādhās and ‘ before ’ Sronā. 21. Sronā, ‘lame,’ or Sravana, ‘ ear,’ denotes the bright star a Aquilai with β below and 7 above it. Weber very need- lessly thinks that the name Sravana suggested two ears and the head between. It is quite out of correspondence with the Manāzil and the Sieou, and is clearly an Indian invention. 22. śravisthās, ‘ most famous,’ or later Dhanisthās, ‘most wealthy,’ is the diamond-shaped group, α, β, δ, and 7, in the Dolphin, perhaps also ζ in the same constellation. Like the preceding Naksatra, it is out of harmony with the Manāzil and Sieou. 23. Satabhisaj or śatabhisa, ‘having a hundred physicians,’ seems to be λ Aquarii with the others around it vaguely conceived as numbering a hundred. 24. 25. Prostha-padās (fem. plur.), ‘ feet of a stool,’ or later Bhadra-padās,100 ‘auspicious feet,’ a double asterism forming a square, the former (pūrva) consisting of a and β Pegasi, the latter (uttara) of γ Pegasi and a Andromedse. 26. Revatī, ‘ wealthy,’ denotes a large number of stars (later 32), of which ζ Piscium, close upon the ecliptic where it was crossed by the equator of about 570 a.d., is given as the southernmost. 27. Aśva-yujau, ‘the two horse-harnessers,’ denotes the stars β and ζ Arietis. Aśvinyau101 and Aśvinī102 are later names. 28. Apabharanīs, Bharanīs, or Bharanyas, ‘ the bearers,’ is the name of the small triangle in the northern part of the Ram known as Musca or 35, 39, and 41 Arietis. The Naksatras and the Months.—In the Brāhmanas the Naksatra names are regularly used to denote dates. This is done in two ways. The name, if not already a feminine, may be turned into a feminine and compounded with pūrna-māsa, ‘the full moon,’ as in Tisyā-pūrnamāsa, ‘the full moon in the Naksatra Tisya.’103 Much more often, however, it is turned into a derivative adjective, used with paurnamāsī, ‘the full moon (night)/ or with amāvāsyā, ‘the new moon (night)/ as in Phālgunī paurnamāsl, ‘the full-moon night in the Naksatra Phālgunī’;104 or, as is usual in the Sūtras, the Naksatra adjective alone is used to denote the full-moon night. The month itself is called by a name derived105 from that of a Naksatra, but only Phālguna,106 Caitra,107 Vaiśākha,108 Taisya,109 Māgha110 occur in the Brāhmanas, the complete list later being Phālguna, Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyaistha, Asādha, Srāvana, Prausthapada, Aśvayuja, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrsa, Taisya, Māgha. Strictly speaking, these should be lunar months, but the use of a lunar year was clearly very restricted: we have seen that as early as the Taittirīya Brāhmana there was a tendency to equate lunar months with the twelve months of thirty days which made up the solar year (see Māsa). The Naksatras and Chronology.—(i) An endeavour has been made to ascertain from the names of the months the period at which the systematic employment of those names was intro¬duced. Sir William Jones111 refers to this possibility, and Bentley, by the gratuitous assumption that śrāvana always marked the summer solstice, concluded that the names of the months did not date before b.c. Ii8I. Weber112 considered that there was a possibility of fixing a date by this means, but Whitney113 has convincingly shown that it is an impossible feat, and Thibaut114 concurs in this view. Twelve became fixed as the number of the months because of the desire, evident in the Brāhmanas, somehow or other to harmonize lunar with solar time; but the selection of twelve Naksatras out of twenty-seven as connected with the night of full moon can have no chronological significance, because full moon at no period occurred in those twelve only, but has at all periods occurred in every one of the twenty-seven at regularly recurrent intervals. (2) All the lists of the Naksatras begin with Krttikās. It is only fair to suppose that there was some special reason for this fact. Now the later list of the Naksatras begins with Aśvinī, and it was unquestionably rearranged because at the time of its adoption the vernal equinox coincided with the star ζ Piscium on the border of Revatī and Aśvinī, say in the course of the sixth century A.D. Weber has therefore accepted the view that the Krttikās were chosen for a similar reason, and the date at which that Naksatra coincided with the vernal equinox has been estimated at some period in the third millennium B.C. A very grave objection to this view is its assumption that the sun, and not the moon, was then regarded as connected with the Naksatras; and both Thibaut and Oldenberg have pronounced decidedly against the idea of connecting the equinox with the Krttikās. Jacobi has contended that in the Rigveda the commencement of the rains and the summer solstice mark the beginning of the new year and the end of the old, and that further the new year began with the summer solstice in Phālgunī.121 He has also referred to the distinction of the two sets of Deva and Yama Naksatras in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as supporting his view of the connexion of the sun and the Naksatras. But this view is far from satisfactory: the Rigveda passages cannot yield the sense required except by translating the word dvādaśa123 as 4 the twelfth (month) * instead of consisting of twelve parts,’ that is, ‘year/ the accepted interpretation; and the division of the Naksatras is not at all satisfactorily explained by a supposed connexion with the sun. It may further be mentioned that even if the Naksatra of Krttikās be deemed to have been chosen because of its coincidence with the vernal equinox, both Whitney and Thibaut are pre¬pared to regard it as no more than a careless variant of the date given by the Jyotisa, which puts the winter solstice in Māgha. (3) The winter solstice in Māgha is assured by a Brāhmana text, for the Kausītaki Brāhmana12® expressly places it in the new moon of Māgha (māghasyāmāυāsyāyām). It is not very important whether we take this with the commentators as the new moon in the middle of a month commencing with the day after full moon in Taisa, or, which is much more likely, as the new moon beginning the month and preceding full moon in Māgha. The datum gives a certain possibility of fixing an epoch in the following way. If the end of Revatī marked the vernal equinox at one period, then the precession of the equinoxes would enable us to calculate at what point of time the vernal equinox was in a position corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha, when the solstitial colure cut the ecliptic at the beginning of Sravisthās. This would be, on the strict theory, in the third quarter of Bharanī, 6f asterisms removed from Sravisthās, and the difference between that and the beginning of Aśvinī = if asterisms = 23 (27 asterisms being = 360°). Taking, the starting-point at 499 a.d., the assured period of Varāha Mihira, Jones arrived at the date B.C. 1181 for the vernal equinox corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha—that is, on the basis of ι° = 72 years as the precession. Pratt arrived at precisely the same date, taking the same rate of precession and adopting as his basis the ascertained position in the Siddhantas of the junction star of Maghā, a Leonis or Regulus. Davis and Colebrooke arrived at a different date, B.C. 1391, by taking as the basis of their calculation the junction star of Citrā, which happens to be of uncertain position, varying as much as 30 in the different textbooks. But though the twelfth century has received a certain currency as the epoch of the observation in the Jyotisa, it is of very doubtful value. As Whitney points out, it is impossible to say that the earlier asterisms coincided in position with the later asterisms of 13J0 extent each. They were not chosen as equal divisions, but as groups of stars which stood in conjunction with the moon; and the result of subsequently making them strictly equal divisions was to throw the principal stars of the later groups altogether out of their asterisms. Nor can we say that the star ζ Piscium early formed the eastern boundary of Revatī; it may possibly not even have been in that asterism at all, for it is far remote from the Chinese and Arabic asterisms corresponding to Revatī. Added to all this, and to the uncertainty of the starting-point— 582 a.d., 560 a.d., or 491 a.d. being variants —is the fact that the place of the equinox is not a matter accurately determin¬able by mere observation, and that the Hindu astronomers of the Vedic period cannot be deemed to have been very accurate observers, since they made no precise determination of the number of days of the year, which even in the Jyotisa they do not determine more precisely than as 366 days, and even the Sūrya Siddhānta136 does not know the precession of the equinoxes. It is therefore only fair to allow a thousand years for possible errors,137 and the only probable conclusion to be drawn from the datum of the Kausītaki Brāhmana is that it was recording an observation which must have been made some centuries B.C., in itself a result quite in harmony with the probable date of the Brāhmana literature,138 say B.C. 800-600. (4) Another chronological argument has been derived from the fact that there is a considerable amount of evidence for Phālguna having been regarded as the beginning of the year, since the full moon in Phālgunī is often described as the ‘ mouth (mukham) of the year.’139 Jacobi140 considers that this was due to the fact that the year was reckoned from the winter solstice, which would coincide with the month of Phālguna about B.C. 4000. Oldenberg and Thibaut, on the other hand, maintain that the choice of Phālguna as the ‘ mouth ’ of the year was due to its being the first month of spring. This view is favoured by the fact that there is distinct evidence of the correspondence of Phālguna and the beginning of spring : as we have seen above in the Kausītaki Brāhmana, the new moon in Māgha is placed at the winter solstice, which puts the full moon of Phālgunī at a month and a half after the winter solstice, or in the first week of February, a date not in itself improbable for about B.C. 800, and corresponding with the February 7 of the veris initium in the Roman Calendar. This fact accords with the only natural division of the year into three periods of four months, as the rainy season lasts from June 7-10 to October 7-10, and it is certain that the second set of four months dates from the beginning of the rains (see Cāturmāsya). Tilak, on the other hand, holds that the winter solstice coincided with Māghī full moon at the time of the Taittirīya Samhitā (b.c. 2350), and had coincided with Phālgunī and Caitrī in early periods—viz., B.C. 4000-2500, and B.C. 6000¬4000. (5) The passages of the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, which treat the full moon in Phālguna as the beginning of the year, give as an alternative the full moon in Caitra. Probably the latter month was chosen so as to secure that the initial day should fall well within the season of spring, and was not, as Jacobi believes, a relic of a period when the winter solstice corresponded with Caitra. Another alternative is the Ekāstakā, interpreted by the commentators as the eighth day after the full moon in Maghās, a time which might, as being the last quarter of the waning half of the old year, well be considered as representing the end of the year. A fourth alternative is the fourth day before full moon; the full moon meant must be that of Caitra, as Álekhana quoted by Ápastamba held, not of Māgha, as Asmarathya, Laugāksi and the Mīmāmsists believed, and as Tilak believes. (6) Others, again, according to the Grhya ritual, began the year with the month Mārgaśīrsa, as is shown by its other name Agrahāyana (‘ belonging to the commencement of the year ’). Jacobi and Tilak think that this one denoted the autumn equinox in Mrgaśiras, corresponding to the winter solstice in Phālgunī. But, as Thibaut shows clearly, it was selected as the beginning of a year that was taken to commence with autumn, just as some took the spring to commence with Caitra instead of Phālguna. (7) Jacobi has also argued, with the support of Buhler, from the terms given for the beginning of Vedic study in the Grhya Sūtras, on the principle that study commenced with the rains (as in the Buddhist vassā) which mark the summer solstice. He concludes that if Bhādrapada appears as the date of commencing study in some texts, it was fixed thus because at one time Prosthapadās (the early name of Bhadra- padās) coincided with the summer solstice, this having been the case when the winter solstice was in Phālguna. But Whitney155 has pointed out that this argument is utterly illegitimate; we cannot say that there was any necessary connexion between the rains and learning—a month like Srāvana might be preferred because of its connexion with the word Sravana, 4 ear ’—and in view of the precession of the equinoxes, we must assume that Bhādrapada was kept because of its traditional coincidence with the beginning of the rains after it had ceased actually so to coincide. the other astronomical phenomena; the discovery of a series of 27 lunar mansions by them would therefore be rather surprising. On the other hand, the nature of such an operation is not very complicated ; it consists merely in selecting a star or a star group with which the moon is in conjunction. It is thus impossible a priori to deny that the Vedic Indians could have invented for themselves a lunar Zodiac. But the question is complicated by the fact that there exist two similar sets of 28 stars or star groups in Arabia and in China, the Manāzil and the Sieou. The use of the Manāzil in Arabia is consistent and effective ; the calendar is regulated by them, and the position of the asterisms corresponds best with the positions required for a lunar Zodiac. The Indians might therefore have borrowed the system from Arabia, but that is a mere possibility, because the evidence for the existence of the Manāzil is long posterior to that for the existence of the Naksatras, while again the Mazzaroth or Mazzaloth of the Old Testament may really be the lunar mansions. That the Arabian system is borrowed from India, as Burgess held, is, on the other hand, not at all probable. Biot, the eminent Chinese scholar, in a series of papers published by him between. 1839 and 1861, attempted to prove the derivation of the Naksatra from the Chinese Sieou. The latter he did not regard as being in origin lunar mansions at all. He thought that they were equatorial stars used, as in modern astronomy, as a standard to which planets or other stars observed in the neighbourhood can be referred; they were, as regards twenty-four of them, selected about B.C. 2357 on account of their proximity to the equator, and of their having the same right ascension as certain circumpolar stars which had attracted the attention of Chinese observers. Four more were added in B.C. IIOO in order to mark the equinoxes and solstices of the period. He held that the list of stars commenced with Mao (= Krttikās), which was at the vernal equinox in B.C. 2357. Weber, in an elaborate essay of i860, disputed this theory, and endeavoured to show that the Chinese literary evidence for the Sieou was late, dating not even from before the third century B.C. The last point does not appear to be correct, but his objections against the basis of Biot’s theory were rein¬forced by Whitney, who insisted that Biot’s supposition of the Sieou’s not having been ultimately derived from a system of lunar mansions, was untenable. This is admitted by the latest defender of the hypothesis of borrowing from China, Lśopold de Saussure, , but his arguments in favour of a Chinese origin for the Indian lunar mansions have been refuted by Oldenberg, who has also pointed out that the series does not begin with Mao ( = Krttikās). There remains only the possibility that a common source for all the three sets—Naksatra, Manāzil, and Sieou—may be found in Babylonia. Hommel has endeavoured to show that recent research has established in Babylonia the existence of a lunar zodiac of twenty-four members headed by the Pleiades ( = Krttikās); but Thibaut’s researches are not favourable to this claim. On the other hand, Weber, Whitney, Zimmer, and Oldenberg all incline to the view that in Babylonia is to be found the origin of the system, and this must for the present be regarded as the most probable view, for there are other traces of Babylonian influence in Vedic literature, such as the legend of the flood, perhaps the Adityas, and possibly the word Manā.
nahus Occurs several times in the Rigveda, but the exact sense is not certain. Ludwig sees in the Nahus a tribe on the Sindhu (Indus) or Sarasvatī, rich in horses, allied with the Bharatas and Simyus, connected with Kaksīvant and the Vārsāgiras, and having as kings Maśarśāra and Ayavasa. Roth, on the other hand, sees in Nahus the general sense of ‘ neighbour ’ as opposed to a member of one’s own people (Viś); this interpretation is supported by the occurrence of the phrase ηahuso ηahustam? ‘ closer than a neighbour.’ Nahusa has the same sense as Nahus in two passages of the Rigveda, but in one it seems to be intended for the proper name of a man. Possibly Nahus was originally a man like Manu.
napita ‘Barber,’ is mentioned in the Satapatha Brāhmana and later. But the older word is Vaptr, a derivative of vap, ‘shave,’ with forms of which verb shaving is referred to as early as the Rigveda. The dead were shaved before burial.
niṣtya Means in the Rigveda and later an outsider or stranger. Hence the constellation usually known as Svāti (see Naksatra) is named Nistyā in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, because it occupies a position markedly away from the ecliptic.
naitandhava Is mentioned as a place on the Sarasvatī in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana and the Sūtras.
pañcajanāḥ The ‘five peoples,’ are mentioned under various names in Vedic literature. Who are meant by the five is very uncertain. The Aitareya Brāhmana explains the five to be gods, men, Gandharvas and Apsarases, snakes, and the Fathers. Aupamanyava held that the four castes (Varna) and the Nisādas made up the five, and Sāyana is of the same opinion. Yāska thinks that the five are the Gandharvas, fathers, gods, Asuras, and Raksases. No one of these explanations can be regarded as probable. Roth and Geldner think that all the peoples of the earth are meant: just as there are four quarters (Diś), there are peoples at the four quarters (N. E. S. W.), with the Aryan folk in the middle. Zimmer opposes this view on the ground that the inclusion of all peoples in one expression is not in harmony with the distinction so often made between Aryan and Dāsa ; that neither janāsah, ‘ men,’ nor mānusāh, ‘people,’ could be used of non-Aryans; that the Soma is referred to as being among the five tribes; that the five tribes are mentioned as on the Sarasvatī, and that Indra is pāñca- jany a, ‘ belonging to the five peoples.’ Pie concludes that Aryans alone are meant, and in particular the five tribes of the Anus, Druhyus, Yadus, Turvaśas, and Pūrus, who are all mentioned together in one or perhaps two hymns of the Rigveda, and four of whom occur in another hymn. But he admits that the expression might easily be used more generally later. Hopkins has combated Zimmer’s view, but his own opinion rests mainly on his theory that there was no people named Turvaśa, but only a king of the Yadus called Turvaśa, and that theory is not very probable. In the śatapatha Brāhmana and the Aitareya Brāhmana the five peoples are opposed to the Bharatas, and in the former work seven peoples are alluded to.
paṇi In the Rigveda appears to denote a person who is rich, but who does not give offerings to the gods, or bestow Daksinās on the priests, and who is therefore an object of intense dislike to the composers of the Samhitā. Hence the gods are asked to attack the Panis, who are also referred to as being defeated with slaughter. The Pani is opposed to the pious sacrificer as a niggard, and is spoken of as a wolf, the symbol of enmity. In some passages the Panis definitely appear as mythological figures, demons who withhold the cows or waters of heaven, and to whom Saramā goes on a mission from Indra. Among the Panis Brbu was apparently important. In one passage of the Rigveda they are described as Beka- nā^as, or ‘usurers’ (?). In another they are called Dasyus, and styled mrdhra-vāc, probably ‘ of hostile speech,’ and grathin, a word of uncertain meaning. Hillebrandt thinks that the latter epithet refers to the continuous flow of a speech which is not understood, and that mrdhra-vāc means * speaking an enemy’s speech,’ though not necessarily with reference to non-Aryans. In two passages the Panis appear as Dāsas, and in one a Pani is mentioned in connexion with wer- geld (Vaira), being apparently regarded as equal to a man merely in the price put on his life, but in other respects as inferior. It is difficult to be certain exactly who a Pani was. Roth thinks that the word is derived from pan, ‘barter,’ and that the Pani is properly the man who will give nothing without return, hence the niggard, who neither worships the gods nor rewards their priests. This view is accepted by Zimmer and by Ludwig. The latter scholar thinks the apparent references to fights with Panis are to be explained by their having been aboriginal traders who went in caravans—as in Arabia and Northern Africa—prepared to fight, if need be, to protect their goods against attacks which the Aryans would naturally deem quite justified. He supports this explanation by the references to the Panis as Dasyus and Dāsas. It is, however, hardly necessary to do more than regard the Panis generally as non-worshippers of the gods favoured by the singers; the term is wide enough to cover either the aborigines or hostile Aryan tribes, as well as demons. Hillebrandt, however, thinks that a real tribe is meant, the Parnians of Strabo, and that they were associated with the Dahae (Dāsa). Moreover, he finds them associated in one passage with the Pārāvatas, whom he identifies with the Iϊαρουήται of Ptolemy, and with Brsaya, whom he connects with Bapσaevτηç of Arrian; he also con¬siders that the frequent mention of the Panis as opponents of Divodāsa shows that the latter was on the Arachosian Haraqaiti (Sarasvatī) fighting against the Parnians and Dahae, as well as other Iranian tribes. But the identification of Pani and the Parnians is needless, especially as the root pan, which is found also in the Greek πέρνημι, shows a satisfactory derivation, while the transfer of Divodāsa to the Haraqaiti is improbable. See also Divodāsa and Bekanāta.
parisāraka Is the name of a place, an island formed by the Sarasvatī ‘flowing around’ it, according to a story in the Aitareya Brāhmana.
paruṣṇī Is the name of a river which is mentioned in the Nadī-stuti (‘Praise of Rivers’), and in the song of Sudās’ victory over the ten kings, which seems to have been made decisive by the rise of the river drowning the fugitives. In these passages and one of the eighth book of the Rigveda, where it is called a ‘ great stream ’ (mahenadi), the name is certainly that of the river later called Ravi (Irāvatī), as recog­nized by Yāska. Pischel sees a reference to it in two other passages of the Rigveda, where ‘ wool ’ (ūrnā) is connected with the word parusnī, and the allusion to the river is accepted by Max Muller and Oldenberg, though they are not fully agreed as to the exact sense of the passages in question. Pischel suggests that the name is derived from the ‘flocks’ (parus) of wool, not from the bends of the river, as understood by the Nirukta, or from its reeds, as Roth suggests. The mention of the Parusnī and the Yamunā in the hymn celebrating the victory of Sudās has given rise to the conjectures of Hopkins, that the Yamunā in that hymn is merely another name for the Parusnī, and of Geldner, that the Parusnī there is merely a tributary of the Yamunā (Jumna). But neither interpretation is either essential or even probable. The hymn is a condensed one, and may well be taken as celebrating two great victories of Sudās. There is a doubtful reference to the Parusnī in the Atharvaveda.
pastyā (fem. pi.) Is a word occurring in several passages of the Rigveda. Roth ascribes to it the meaning of‘house’ or ‘ dwelling,’ in the wide sense of the term, as well as that of the ‘family’ living in the house; and this view is accepted by Zimmer. On the other hand, Pischel finds in two of the passages usually referred to Pastyā the neuter Pastya, which appears in Pastya-sad and in Pastyā-vant (where the length of the second syllable is not primitive), and which is certainly found in the Rigveda in the metaphorical sense of ‘ dwelling,’ ascribed to it in the Naighantuka. In the other passages he thinks the word means ‘rivers’ or ‘ waters ’; in particular, where Soma in the middle of the Pastyās is spoken of, he sees a reference to Kuruksetra, with its several rivers, Apayā, Drsadvatī, and Sarasvatī (c/. 2. Pastyāvant). In some passages he sees in Pastyā the proper name of a stream, just as Sindhu primarily means ‘river,’ then the ‘Indus.’ a rich householder seems meant, and in the two others reference to a ‘house’ is clear.
pāman Occurs in the Atharvaveda as the name of a skin disease. The derivative adjective, Pāmana, ‘suffering from skin disease,’ is found in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas. Since it is mentioned as an accompaniment of fever, probably a cutaneous eruption or scab consequent on fever is meant.
pāra In accordance with its derivation (pr, ‘bring across’), denotes the ‘ farther bank ’ of a river or stream, in which sense it occurs in the Rigveda and later.
pārāvata Occurs in several passages of the Rigveda. Roth thinks that in most places it means ‘coming from a distance,’ but in two passages he regards it as the proper name of a people on the Yamunā (Jumna). It is certain that in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana the Pārāvatas are a people on that river (cf. Turaśravas). Hillebrandt sees in all the passages5 the name of a people, comparing the ΙΙαρνήται of Ptolemy, who apparently were settled on the northern border of Gedrosia, or the īlapoυτat, who were found in Apeιa. He suggests that they were originally mountaineers ’ (cf. Parvata). Ludwig holds a similar view, and Geldner recognizes a people as meant. The mention of the Sarasvatī in connexion with the Pārāvatas in the Rigveda accords generally with their position on the Yamuna in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana.
pīlumatī Is in the Atharvaveda the name of the intermediate heaven lying between the udanvatī, watery,’ and the pra-dyauh, farthest heaven.’ It presumably means * rich in Pīlu.’ Cf Div.
pūru Is the name of a people and their king in the Rigveda. They are mentioned with the Anus, Druhyus, Turvaśas, and Yadus in one passage. They also occur as enemies of the TrtSUS in the hymn of Sudās’ victory. In another hymn Agni of the Bharatas is celebrated as victorious over the Pūrus, probably a reference to the same decisive overthrow. On the other hand, victories of the Pūrus over the aborigines seem to be referred to in several passages. The great kings of the Pūrus were Purukutsa and his son Trasadasyu, whose name bears testimony to his prowess against aboriginal foes, while a later prince was Trksi Trāsa- dasyava. In the Rigveda the Pūrus are expressly mentioned as on the Sarasvatī. Zimmer thinks that the Sindhu (Indus) is meant in this passage. But Ludwig and Hillebrandt with much greater probability think that the eastern Sarasvatī in Kuruksetra is meant. This view accords well with the sudden disappearance of the name of the Pūrus from Vedic tradition, a disappearance accounted for by Oldenberg’s conjecture that the Pūrus became part of the great Kuru people, just as Turvaśa and Krivi disappear from the tradition on their being merged in the Pañcāla nation. Trāsadasyava, the patronymic of Kuruśravana in the Rigveda, shows that the royal families of the Kurus and the Pūrus were allied by intermarriage. Hillebrandt, admitting that the Pūrus in later times lived in the eastern country round the Sarasvatī, thinks that in earlier days they were to be found to the west of the Indus with Divodāsa. This theory must fall with the theory that Divodāsa was in the far west. It might, however, be held to be supported by the fact that Alexander found a Πώρος—that is, a Paurava prince on the Hydaspes, a sort of half-way locality between the Sarasvatī and the West. But it is quite simple to suppose either that the Hydaspes was the earlier home of the Pūrus, where some remained after the others had wandered east, or that the later Paurava represents a successful onslaught upon the west from the east. In several other passages of the Rigveda the Purus as a people seem to be meant. The Nirukta recognizes the general sense of ‘man,’ but in no passage is this really necessary or even probable. So utterly, however, is the tradition lost that the śatapatha Brāhmana explains Pūru in the Rigveda as an Asura Rakṣas; it is only in the Epic that Pūru revives as the name of a son of Yayāti and śarmiṣṭhā.
potṛ Is the name of one of the priests (Rtvij) of the sacri­ficial ritual. Already known to the Rigveda, he is frequently mentioned later in the Brāhmanas. But as Oldenberg observes, the Potṛ is not in the later literature a priest of any importance, but is practically a mere name. Judging by the derivation of the name from the root pū, ‘purify,’ it would seem that he was properly engaged in the purification of the Soma pavamāna, Soma purifying itself,’ and was perhaps employed to sing hymns to this Soma. Potra4 denotes both the office and the Soma vessel of the Potr.
paulkasa Is the name of one of the victims at the Puruṣa- medha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda. The name also occurs in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as that of a despised race of men, together with the Cāndāla. The Maitrāyaηī Samhitā has the variant Puklaka or Pulkaka, clearly the same as Pulkasa, of which Paulkasa is a derivative form, showing that a caste is meant (cf Kaulāla, Pauñji§tha). In the accepted theory the Pulkasa is the son of a Niṣāda or śūdra by a Kṣatriya woman, but this is merely speculative; the Paulkasa may either have been a functional caste, or, as Fick5 believes, an aboriginal clan living by catching wild beasts, and only occasionally reduced to menial tasks.
plakṣa prāsravaṇa Is the name of a locality, forty-four days’ journey from the spot where the Sarasvatī disappears. It is mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa and the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmaṇa. In the latter text it is said that the middle of the earth is only a span (Prādeśa) to the north of it. In the Rigveda Sūtras3 the locality is called Plākṣa Prasravaṇa, and is apparently meant to designate the source of the Sarasvatī rather than the place of its reappearance.
plāyogi ‘Descendant of Playoga,’ is the patronymic of Asanga in the Rigveda. According to the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra, Asañga was a woman, but became a man. This version, repeated by Sāyaṇa in his commentary on the Rigveda, is a mere blunder based on the fact that an additional verse, tacked on to the hymn, contains the expression śaśvatl mrī, which has been taken to mean ‘his wife śaśvatī,’ instead of merely * every woman.’
bharata Is the name of a people of great importance in the Rigveda and the later literature. In the Rigveda they appear prominently in the third and seventh Maṇdalas in connexion with Sudās and the Tftsus, while in the sixth Maṇdala they are associated with Divodāsa. In one passage the Bharatas are, like the Tṛtsus, enemies of the Pūrus: there can be little doubt that Ludwig’s view of the identity of the Bharatas and and Tṛtsus is practically correct. More precisely Oldenberg considers that the Tṛtsus are the Vasiṣhas, the family singers of the Bharatas; while Geldner recognizes, with perhaps more probability, in the Tṛtsus the royal family of the Bharatas. That the Tṛtsus and Bharatas were enemies, as Zimmer holds, is most improbable even on geographical grounds, for the Tṛtsus in Zimmer’s view occupied the country to the east of the Paruçṇī (Ravi), and the Bharatas must therefore be regarded as coming against the Tṛtsus from the west, whereas the Rigveda recognizes two Bharata chiefs on the Sarasvatī, Ápayā, and Dpçadvatī that is, in the holy land of India, the Madhyadeśa. Hillebrandt sees in the connexion of the Tṛtsus and the Bharatas a fusion of two tribes; but this is not supported by any evidence beyond the fact that in his opinion some such theory is needed to explain Divodāsa's appearing in connexion with the Bharadvāja family, while Sudās, his son, or perhaps grandson {cf. Pijavana), is connected with the Vasiṣthas and the Viśvāmitras. In the later literature the Bharatas appear as especially famous. The śatapatha Brāhmaṇa mentions Bharata Dauh- ṣanti as a king, sacrificer of the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and śatānīka Sātrājita, as another Bharata who offered that sacrifice. The Aitareya Brāhmaṇa mentions Bharata Dauh- ṣanti as receiving the kingly coronation from Dlrghatamas Māmateya, and śatānīka as being consecrated by Somaśuçman Vājaratnāyana, a priest whose name is of quite late origin. The geographical position of the Bharata people is clearly shown by the fact that the Bharata kings win victories over the Kāśis, and make offerings on the Yamunā (Jumna) and Gañgfā (Ganges). Moreover, in the formula of the king’s proclamation for the people, the variants recorded include Kuravah, Pañcālāh, Kuru-Pañcālāh,, and Bharatāh ; and the Mahābhārata consistently recognizes the royal family of the Kurus as a Bharata family. It is therefore extremely probable that Oldenberg is right in holding that the Bharatas in the times of the Brāhmaṇas were merging in the Kuru-Pañcāla people. The ritual practices of the Bharatas are repeatedly mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, and the Taittirīya Aranyaka. Already in the Rigveda there is mention made of Agni Bhārata (‘of the Bharatas’). In the Apr! hymns occurs a goddess Bhāratī, the personified divine protective power of the Bharatas : her association in the hymns with Sarasvatī reflects the connexion 'of the Bharatas with the Sarasvatī in the Rigveda. Again, in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa Agni is referred to as brāhmana Bhārata, ‘priest of the Bharatas,’ and is invited to dispose of the offering Manusvat Bharatavat, ‘like Manu,’ ‘like Bharata.’ In one or two passages Sudās or Divodāsa and, on the other hand, Purukutsa or Trasadasyu appear in a friendly relation. Possibly this points, as Oldenberg suggests, to the union of Bharatas and Pūrus with the Kurus. A Bharata is referred to in the fifth Mandala of the Rigveda who he was is uncertain.
bhrātṛ Is the common designation of ‘ brother ’ from the Rigveda onwards. The word is also applied to a relation or close friend generally, but here the persons concerned are, it should be noted; in the Rigveda deities, who are brothers of one another or of the worshipper. Thus in the early literature the word has not really lost its precise sense. The derivation from the root bhr, ‘support,’ is probably correct, designating the brother as the support of his sister. This harmonizes with the fact that in Vedic literature the brother plays the part of protector of his sister when bereft of her father, and that maidens deprived of their brothers (ablirātr) meet an evil fate. The gradation of the relations in the home is shown by the order in the Chāndogya Upanisad, where father, mother, brother, and sister are successively mentioned. Strife between brothers is occasionally referred to.
madhyadeśa The ‘Middle Country,’ is, according to the Mānava Dharma śāstra, the land between the Himālaya in the north, the Vindhya in the south, Vinaáana in the west, and Prayāga (now Allahabad) in the east that is, between the place where the Sarasvatī disappears in the desert, and the point of the confluence of the Yamunā (Jumna) and the Gañgā (Ganges). The same authority defines Brahmarsi-deśa as denoting the land of Kuruksetra, the Matsyas, Pañcālas, and śūrasenakas, and Brahmāvarta as meaning the particularly holy land between the Sarasvatī and the Drṣadvatī. The Baudhāyana Dharma Sūtra4 defines Áryāvarta as the land east of Vinaśana; west of the Kālaka-vana, ‘ Black Forest,’ or rather Kanakhala, near Hardvār; south of the Himālaya; and north of the Pāriyātra or the Pāripātra Mountains; adding that, in the opinion of others, it was confined to the country between the Yamunā and the Gañgā, while the Bhāllavins took it as the country between the boundary-river (or perhaps the Saras-vatī) and the region where the sun rises. The Mānava Dharma śāstra, in accord with the Vasiṣṭha Dharma Sūtra, defines Áryāvarta as the region between the Vindhya and the Himālaya, the two ranges which seem to be the boundaries of the Aryan world in the Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad also. The term Madhyadeśa is not Vedic, but it is represented in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa by the expression madhyamā pratisthā diś, ‘ the middle fixed region,’ the inhabitants of which are stated to be the Kurus, the Pañcālas, the Vaśas, and the Uśīnaras. The latter two peoples practically disappear later on, the Madhyadeśa being the country of the Kuru-Pañcālas, the land where the Brāhmaṇas and the later Samhitās were produced, bounded on the east by the Kosala-Videhas, and on the west by the desert. The western tribes are mentioned with disapproval both in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, while the tradition of the Brahminization of the Kosalas and the Videhas from the Kuru-Pañcāla country is preserved in the former Brāhmaṇa.
maru In the plural, is mentioned in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, as the utkara (‘mound of earth thrown up ’ from the excavation of the altar) of Kurukçetra. This seems to mean that the Maru deserts (the later Maru-sthala) were so called because they stood to the ‘altar,’ Kurukṣetra, in the same relation as the waste earth of the utkara to the altar at the sacrifice.
marya In the Rigveda denotes a ‘man’ especially re­garded as young and a lover, being constantly mentioned as in company with maidens (yuvatī).
rajju In the Rigveda and later denotes ‘rope.’ In the' Atharvaveda the serpent is called the ‘ toothed rope’ (rajju datvatī).
rasā Is found in three passages of the Rigveda, clearly as the name of a real stream in the extreme north-west of the Vedic territory. Elsewhere it is the name of a mythic stream at the ends of the earth, which as well as the atmosphere it encompasses. It is reasonable to assume that, as in the case of the Sarasvatī, the literal is the older sense, and to see in the river a genuine stream, perhaps originally the Araxes or Jaxartes, because the Vendidad mentions the Ranhā, the Avestan form of Rasā. But the word seems originally to allude merely to the ‘ sap ’ or ‘ flavour ’ of the waters,3 and so could be applied to every river, like Sarasvatī.
lakṣaṇa Denotes the ‘mark’ made on cattle by branding to distinguish ownership. According to the Maitrā- yaṇī Saiṇhitā, it was to be made under the Nakṣatra Revatī, clearly because of the property indicated in the name (‘ wealthy ’) of that Nakṣatra. See Aṣtakarṇī.
vadhū Is a frequent word for ‘woman’ in the Rigveda and later. It denotes, according to Delbriick, the woman as either married or as seeking a husband, or as a bride in the wedding ceremony. The word appears to be derived from a form of the root vah, ‘ to carry,’ as is vahatu, ‘ the bridal pro­cession,’ thus meaning ‘ she who is to be or has been conducted home.’ Zimmer, however, objects to this explanation, regarding vadhū as a derivative from a different root meaning 'to marry.’
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
vinaśana ‘Disappearance,’ is the name of the place where the Sarasvatī is lost in the sands of the desert. It is mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa1 and the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa. The locality is the Patiala district of the Panjab. Cf. Plakça Prāsravaṇa.
viṣāṇakā Is the name of a plant in the Atharvaveda. Bloom­field, however, thinks that the word may merely mean ‘horn.’ It is used as a remedy against the disease Vātīkāra. That disease is of doubtful character : Zimmer thinks that it is one ‘caused by wounds,’ comparing the adjective a-vāta, uninjured,’ in the Rigveda, but Bloomfield shows that ‘wind’ in the body is meant as causing the disease.
vrātya Is included in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda, where, however, no further explanation of the name is given. Fuller information is furnished by the Atharvaveda, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, and the Sūtras, which describe at length a certain rite intended for the use of Vrātyas. According to the Pañcavimśa Brāh­maṇa, there are four different kinds of ‘outcasts’—viz., the hīna, who are merely described as ‘depressed’; those who have become outcasts for some sin (nindita); those who become out­casts at an early age, apparently by living among outcasts; and those old men who, being impotent (śama-nīcamedhra), have gone to live with outcasts. The last three categories are by no means of the same importance as the first. The motive of the fourth is hard to understand: according to Rājārām Rām- krishṇa Bhāgavat,5 they were men who had enfeebled their constitutions by undue intercourse with women in the lands of the outcasts, and returned home in a debilitated state. But this is not stated in the text. It seems probable that the really important Vrātyas were those referred to as Itlna, and that the other classes were only subsidiary. According to Rāj'ārām,® there were two categories of the first class: (a) The depressed (hīna), who were non- Aryan ; and (6) degraded Aryans (gara-gir). This, however, is a mere guess, and devoid of probability. There seems to have been but one class of Vrātyas. That they were non-Aryan is not probable, for it is expressly said7 that, though unconse¬crated, they spoke the tongue of the consecrated: they were thus apparently Aryans. This view is confirmed by the state-ment that ‘they call what is easy of utterance, difficult to utter’: probable they had already a somewhat Prakritic form of speech (cf. Vāc). The Sūtras mention their Arhants (‘saints’) and Yaudhas (‘warriors’), corresponding to the Brahminical Brāhmana and Kṣatriya. Other particulars accord with the view that they were Aryans outside the sphere of Brahmin culture. Thus they are said not to practise agriculture or commerce (an allusion to a nomadic life), nor to observe the rules of Brahmacarya—i.e., the principle regulating the Brahminic order of life. They were also allowed to become members of the Brahminical community by performance of the ritual prescribed, which would hardly be so natural in the case of non-Aryans. Some details are given of the life and dress of the Vrātyas. Their principles were opposed to those of the Brahmins: they beat those unworthy of correction. Their leader (Gṛhapati) or householder wore a turban (Uçṇīçε), carried a whip (Pratoda), a kind of bow (Jyāhroda), was :lothed in a black (krçnaśa) garment and two skins (Ajina), blxk and white (krsna-valaksa), and owned a rough wagon (Vijatha) covered with planks (phalakāstīrna). The others, subordinate to the leader, had garments with fringes of red (valūkāntāni dāmatūsām), two fringes on each, skins folded double (dvisamhitāny ajinūni), and sandals (Upānah). The leader wore also an ornament (Niçka) of silver, which Rājārām converts into a silver coinage. The Vrātyas, on becoming consecrated, were expected to hand over their goods to the priest. Many other details are given in the Sūtras (e.g., that the shoes or sandals were of variegated black hue and pointed), but these are not authenticated by the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa. The locality in which the Vrāiyas lived cannot be stated with certainty, but their nomad life suggests the western tribes beyond the Sarasvatī. But they may equally well have been in the east: this possibility is so far supported by the fact that the Sūtras make the Brahmin receiving the gift of the Vrātya's outfit an inhabitant of Mag’adha. The Atharvaveda does not help, for it treats the Vrātya in so mystical a way that he is represented as being in all the quarters. Indeed, Roth believed that it was here not a case of the Vrātya of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa at all, but of a glorification of the Vrātya as the type of the pious vagrant or wandering religious mendicant (Parivrājaka). This view is clearly wrong, as the occurrence of the words usnīsa, vipatha, and pratoda shows. It is probable that the 15th Book of the Atharvaveda, which deals with the Vrātya, and is of a mystical character, exalts the converted Vrātya as a type of the perfect Brahmacārin, and, in so far, of the divinity.
śaryaṇāvant Occurs in several passages of the Rigveda, in all of which Sāyaṇa sees a local name. According to his account, Saryaṇāh (masc. plur.) is a district in Kurukçetpa, śaryanāvant being a lake not far from it in the back part (jaghanārdhe) of Kurukṣetra. The unusual consistency of his statements on this point is in favour of the word being a place name; it is also to be noted that Kurukṣetra contained the lake Anyatahplakçā. Roth, however, thought that in two passages the word denoted merely a ‘lake,’ literally ‘ (water) covered with a thicket of reeds ’ (śaryana), and in the others a Soma vessel. Zimmer inclines to this rendering. On the other hand, Pischel accepts Sāyaṇa's view. Hillebrandt also sees in the word a place name, but he is inclined to locate it among the ‘five tribes,’ which is not quite inconsistent with its being in Kurukṣetra, for the connexion of the PūPUS with the later Kupus is known; or perhaps, he suggests, śaryaṇāvant is an old name for the Wular sea of Kaśmīr, which was only a reminiscence in Vedic times. This is not probable; still less so is Ludwig’s hypothesis that the śaryanāvant is the later eastern Sapasvatī. Bergaigne regards the name as that of a celestial preparer of Soma.
śastra Is the technical term for the ‘recitation’ of the Hotr priest, as opposed to the Stotra of the Udgātṛ. The recitations at the morning offering of Soma are called the Ajya and Praūga ; at the midday offering, the Marutvatīya and the Niṣkevalya; at the evening offering, the Vaiśvadeva and the Agnimāruta.
śūdra Is the designation of the fourth caste in the Vedic state (see Varṇa). It is quite unknown in the Rigveda except in the Purusasūkta (‘hymn of man’) in the tenth Maṇdala, where in the earliest version of the origin of the castes the śūdra for the first time appears. The Rigveda, on the other hand, knows Dasyu and Dāsa, both as aborigines independent of Aryan control and as subjugated slaves: it is reasonable to reckon the śūdra of the later texts as belonging to the aborigines who had been reduced to subjection by the Aryans. Strictly speaking, the defeated aborigines must have been regarded as slaves, but it is obvious that, except on occasions when most of the men were slain, which may have occurred quite often, there must have remained too many of them to be used as slaves of individual owners. The villages of the aborigines must have continued to subsist, but under Aryan lordship and control: there may be this amount of truth in Baden Powell’s theory, which practically traced all the early cultivating villages in India to Dravidian origin. On the other hand, the term śūdra would also cover the wild hill tribes which lived by hunting and fishing, and many of which would acknowledge the superiority of their Aryan neighbours: it could, in fact, be applied to all beyond the pale of the Aryan state. This view of the śūdra suits adequately the Vedic references to his condition, which would not apply adequately to domestic slaves only. The śūdra is continually opposed to the Aryan, and the colour of the śūdra is compared with that of the Aryan, just as his ways are so contrasted. The Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, in its account of the castes, declares that the śūdra is anyasya presya, ‘the servant of another’; kāmotthāpya, ‘to be expelled at will’; andyathākāmaυadhya, ‘to be slain at will.’ All these terms well enough describe the position of the serf as the result of a conquest: the epithets might have been applied to the English serf after the Norman Conquest with but slight inaccuracy, especially if his master had received a grant of jurisdiction from the Crown. The Pañcavimśa Brāh- mapa explains that even if prosperous (bahu-paśu, having many cows’) a śūdra could not be other than a servant: his business was pādāvanejya, ‘ the washing of the feet ’ of his superiors. The Mahābhārata says out and out that a śūdra has no property (a hi svam asti śūdrasya, ‘ the śūdra has nothing he can call his own’). On the other hand, just as in England the royal justice would protect the serf in life and limb,8 so it appears that the slaying of a śūdra involved a wergeld of ten cows according to both Baudhāyana and Ápastamba. It may, indeed, be held that this wergeld was only due in case of murder by another than the master, but such limitation is nowhere stated. In sacred matters the distinction between Aryan and śūdra was, of course, specially marked. The texts do not hesitate to declare that the upper castes were ‘all,’ ignoring the śūdras; the śūdra is prohibited from milking the cow for the milk required at the Agnihotra (‘oblation to Agni ’); and the śatapatha Brāhmana forbids a man who has been consecrated (1dlksita) for a sacrifice to speak to a śūdra at all for the time, though the śāṭyāyanaka seems to have relaxed this rule by confining it to cases in which the śūdra was guilty of some sin. At the sacrifice itself the śūdra could not be present in the śālā, ‘hall’; he is definitely classed in the śatapatha Brāh¬mana and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana10 as unfit for ‘ sacrifice ’ (ayajñtya); and declared in the Kāçhaka Samhitā not to be admitted to drink Soma. At the Pravargya (introductory Soma) rite the performer is not allowed to come in contact with a śūdra, who here, as in the Kāthaka Samhitā,17 is reckoned as excluded from a share in the Soma-draught. On the other hand, the śūdra is one of the victims at the Puruṣa- medha (‘ human sacrifice ’) in the Yaj’urveda, and a fight between an Aryan and a śūdra, in which, of course, the former wins, forms a part of the Mahāvrata rite, being perhaps a precursor of the Indian drama. Other indications, however, exist, showing that it would be undesirable to ignore the real importance of the śūdra, which again reminds us of the condition of the serf, who, though legally restrained, still gradually won his way to the rank of a free man. Rich śūdras are mentioned in the early texts, just as śūdra gahapatis, ‘householders,’ occur in the Buddhist texts, and śūdra kings in the legal literature. Sin against śūdra and Aryan is mentioned; prayers for glory on behalf of śūdras, as well as of the other castes occur; and the desire to be dear to śūdra as well as to Aryan is expressed. The Sūtras also, while they emphasize as general rules points earlier not insisted on, such as their inferiority in sitting, etc., their exclusion from the study of the Vedas, the danger of contact with them or their food, still recognize that śūdras can be merchants, or even exercise any trade.Moreover, the Sūtras permit the marriage of a śūdrā woman with members of all castes. Though it was a reproach to Vatsa and to Kavaṣa that they were the sons of a śūdrā and a Dāsī respectively, still the possibility of such a reproach shows that marriages of this kind did take place. Moreover, illicit unions of Arya and śūdrā, or śūdra and Aryā, are referred to in the Samhitās of the Yajurveda. The origin of the term śūdra is quite obscure, but Zimmer points out that Ptolemy mentions tvBpoi as a people, and he thinks that the Brāhui may be meant. Without laying any stress on this identification, it is reasonable to accept the view that the term was originally the name of a large tribe opposed to the Aryan invasion. See also Niṣāda.
sapta sindhavaḥ The seven rivers,' occur only once in the Rigveda as the designation of a definite country, while else­where the seven rivers themselves are meant. Max Muller thinks that the five streams of the Panjab, with the Indus and the Sarasvatī, are intended; others4 hold that the Kubhā should be substituted for the Sarasvatī, or that perhaps the Oxus6 must originally have been one of the seven. Zimmer is prob­ably right in laying no stress at all on any identifications; 'seven' being one of the favourite numbers in the Rigveda and later.
sarayu Is mentioned thrice in the Rigveda as the name of a river. Citraratha and Arṇa are said to have been defeated apparently by the Turvaśas and Yadus who crossed the vol. Sarayu.1 Sarayu appears in one passage with Sarasvatī and Sindhu,2 and in another with Rasā, Anitabhā, and Kubhā.3 Later, in the post-Vediç period, Sarayū, rarely Sarayu, is the name of a river in Oudh, the modern Sarjū.4 Zimmer5 regards this as the river meant in all the Vedic passages, seeing in the last,3 which may be used as an argument for locating the Sarayu in the Panjab, a reference to the north-east monsoon as well as to the usual monsoon from the west. Hopkins0 thinks that the Sarayu is to be found in the west, and Ludwig7 identifies it with the Kurum (Krumu). Vivien de St. Martin considered it to be probably identical with the united course of the śutudrī (Sutlej) and Vipāś (Beas).
sarasvatī Is the name of a river frequently mentioned in the Rigveda and later. In many passages of the later texts it is certain the river meant is the modern Sarasvatī, which loses itself in the sands of Patiala (see Vinaśana). Even Roth admits that this river is intended in some passages of the Rigveda. With the Drṣadvatī it formed the western boundary of Brahmāvarta (see Madhyadeśa). It is the holy stream of early Vedic India. The Sūtras mention sacrifices held on its banks as of great importance and sanctity. In many other passages of the Rigveda, and even later, Roth held that another river, the Sindhu (Indus), was really meant: only thus could it be explained why the Sarasvatī is called the ‘foremost of rivers’ (nadītamā), is said to go to the ocean, and is referred to as a large river, on the banks of which many kings, and, indeed, the five tribes, were located. This view is accepted by Zimmer and others. On the other hand, Lassen and Max Muller maintain the identity of the Vedic Sarasvatī with the later Sarasvatī. The latter is of opinion that in Vedic times the Sarasvatī was as large a stream as the Sutlej, and that it actually reached the sea either after union with the Indus or not, being the 'iron citadel,’ as the last boundary on the west, a frontier of the Panjab against the rest of India. There is no conclusive evidence of there having been any great change in the size or course of the Sarasvatī, though it would be impossible to deny that the river may easily have diminished in size. But there are strong reasons to accept the identification of the later and the earlier Sarasvatī throughout. The insistence on the divine character of the river is seen in the very hymn which refers to it as the support of the five tribes, and corresponds well with its later sacredness. Moreover, that hymn alludes to the Pārāvatas, a people shown by the later evidence of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa to have been in the east, a very long way from their original home, if Sarasvatī means the Indus. Again, the Pūrus, who were settled on the Sarasvatī, could with great difficulty be located in the far west. Moreover, the five tribes might easily be held to be on the Sarasvatī, when they were, as they seem to have been, the western neighbours of the Bharatas in Kurukçetra, and the Sarasvatī could easily be regarded as the boundary of the Panjab in that sense. Again, the ‘seven rivers’ in one passage clearly designate a district: it is most probable that they are not the five rivers with the Indus and the Kubhā (Cabul river), but the five rivers, the Indus and the Sarasvatī. Nor is it difficult to see why the river is said to flow to the sea: either the Vedic poet had never followed the course of the river to its end, or the river did actually penetrate the desert either completely or for a long distance, and only in the Brāhmaṇa period was its disappear ance in the desert found out. It is said, indeed, in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā21 that the five rivers go to the Sarasvatī, but this passage is not only late (as the use of the word Deśa shows), but it does not say that the five rivers meant are those of the Panjab. Moreover, the passage has neither a parallel in the other Samhitās, nor can it possibly be regarded as an early production; if it is late it must refer to the later Sarasvatī. Hillebrandt,22 on the whole, adopts this view of the Saras¬vatī,23 but he also sees in it, besides the designation of a mythical stream, the later Vaitaraṇī,24 as well as the name of the Arghandab in Arachosia.25 This opinion depends essentially on his theory that the sixth Mandala of the Rigveda places the scene of its action in Iranian lands, as opposed to the seventh Maṇdala: it is as untenable as that theory itself. Brunn-hofer at one time accepted the Iranian identification, but later decided for the Oxus, which is quite out of the question. See also Plakṣa Prāsravaṇa.
sindhu In the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda often means 'stream' merely (cf. Sapta Sindhavah), but it has also the more exact sense of ‘the stream’ par excellence, ‘the Indus.’ The name is, however, rarely mentioned after the period of the Samhitās, always then occurring in such a way as to suggest distance. The horses from the Indus (saindhaυa) were famous. See Saindhava. Cf. also Sarasvatī.
sṛñjaya Is the name of a people mentioned as early as the Rigveda. Sṛñjaya (that is, the king of this people) Daivavāta is celebrated as victorious over the Turvaśas and the Vrcī- vants, and his sacrificial fire is referred to. In connexion with Daivavāta is also mentioned Sāhadevya Somaka, no doubt another prince; for in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa we find Somaka Sāhadevya and his father, Sahadeva (originally Suplan) Sārñjaya, as kings who were anointed by Parvata and Nārada. The Rigveda has also a Dānastuti (‘praise of gifts’) of Prastoka, a Sṛñjaya, who is lauded along with Divodāsa. Moreover, Vītahavya seems to have been a Sṛñjaya, though Zimmer prefers to take the derivative word, Vaitahavya, not as a patronymic, but as an epithet. It seems probable that the Sṛñjayas and the Tptsus were closely allied, for Divodāsa and a Sṛñjaya prince are celebrated together, and the Turvaśas were enemies of both. This view is borne out by the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, which recognizes Devabhāga śrautarṣa as Purohita of the Kurus and the Sṛñjayas. On the other hand, some disaster certainly befel the Srujayas, at least the Vaitahavyas, for they are said in the Atharvaveda to have offended the BhrgTUS and to have ended miserably. There is, it is true, no precise confirmation of this notice, but both the Kāthaka Saiphitā and the Taittirīya Samhitā, in independent passages, refer to the Sṛñjayas having sustained some serious loss, though the notice is in each case coupled with a ritual error, much as in the Old Testament the fate of kings depends on their devotion to Jahve or their dis¬obedience. It is justifiable to recognize some disaster in this allusion. The geographical position of the Sṛñjayas is uncertain. Hillebrandt suggests that in early times they must be looked for west of the Indus with Divodāsa; he also mentions, though he does not definitely adopt, the suggestion of Brunnhofer that the Sṛñjayas are to be compared with the Xapáyyai10 of the Greeks, and to be located in Drangiana. Zimmer is inclined to locate them on the upper Indus; but it is difficult to decide definitely in favour of any particular location. They may well have been a good deal farther east than the Indus, since their allies, the Tṛtsus, were in the Madhyadeśa, and were certainly absorbed in the Kurus. Of the history of this clan we have one notice. They expelled Duçtarītu Pauηisāyana, one of their kings, from the hereditary monarchy—of ten generations—and also drove out Revottaras Pā^ava Cākra Sthapati, probably his minister, who, however, succeeded in effecting the restoration of the king, despite the opposition of the Kuru prince, Balhika Prātīpya. Very probably this Kuru prince may have been at the bottom of the movement which led to the expulsion of the king and his minister. But the restoration of the king can hardly be regarded, in accordance with Bloomfield’s view, as a defeat of the Sṛñjayas.
sṛbinda Is the name of a foe of Indra in the Rigveda. The word may denote a real foe, since it has no obvious Aryan derivation.
hariyūpīyā Is mentioned in a hymn of the Rigveda as the scene of the defeat of the Vrcīvants by Abhyāvartin Cāya- mana. It may denote either a place or a river, since many battles seem to have been fought on the banks of rivers. Ludwig took it as the name of a town on the river Yavyāvatī, which is identified with it in Sāyaṇa’s commentary on the passage. Hillebrandt thinks that it is the river Iryāb (Haliāb), a tributary of the Kurum (Krumu), but this is not at all probable.
       Bloomfield Vedic
         Concordance  
682 results
     
devī vātīkṛtasya ca AVP.15.15.8d.
akavārī cetati vājinīvatī # RV.7.96.3b.
akṣāḥ phalavatīṃ dyuvam (AVP. divam) # AVś.7.50.9a; AVP.1.49.2a.
akṣitām upa jīvati # AVś.18.4.32d.
agachataṃ kṛpamāṇaṃ parāvati # RV.1.119.8a.
agniṃ hitaprayasaḥ śaśvatīṣv ā # RV.8.60.17c.
agnijyotiṣaṃ tvā vāyumatīṃ prāṇavatīṃ svargyāṃ svargāyopadadhāmi bhāsvatīm # VSK.3.2.1; Vait.7.9; Kś.4.14.13.
agniṃ dhīṣu prathamam agnim arvati # RV.8.71.12c.
agnir jambhais tigitair atti bharvati # RV.1.143.5c.
agnir dvārā vy ṛṇvati # RV.1.128.6g; TB.2.5.4.4g (text urṇvati; schol. ṛṇvati).
agnir dhiyā sam ṛṇvati # RV.3.11.2c; VS.22.16c; TS.4.1.11.4c; MS.4.10.1c: 144.1; KS.19.14c.
agne vīravatīm iṣam # RV.8.43.15c; KS.2.14c.
agra eti yuvatir ahrayāṇā # RV.7.80.2c.
agre rathānāṃ bhavati prajānan # RV.7.44.4b.
aṅgaṃ ca yajñe bhavati # Vait.4.23c.
achinnaṃ tantuṃ payasā sarasvatī # VS.20.43c; MS.3.11.1c: 140.11; KS.38.6c; TB.2.6.8.4c.
ajātaśatrum ajarā svarvati # RV.5.34.1a. P: ajātaśatrum śś.9.14.3.
ajaiḥ svarvatīr apaḥ # RV.8.40.11e. Cf. jeṣat etc., and jeṣaḥ etc.
atimanyate bhrātṛvyān nainaṃ bhrātṛvyā atimanyante tasmān matto mattam atimanyate 'dhipatir bhavati svānāṃ cānyeṣāṃ ca ya evaṃ veda # AVP.11.16.10.
ati hvarāṃsi dhāvati # RV.9.3.2b; SV.2.611b.
atha devānāṃ vaśanīr bhavāti # AVś.18.2.5d. See athā etc.
atha martyo 'mṛto bhavati # śB.14.7.2.9c; BṛhU.4.4.9c; KU.6.14c,15c.
athā gavāṃ gopatir no bhavāti # RV.10.108.3d.
athā devānāṃ vaśanīr bhavāti # RV.10.16.2d; TA.6.1.4d. See atha etc.
atho devi sarasvati # AVP.2.63.1b.
atho payasvatīnām (AVP. -vatāṃ payaḥ) # AVś.3.24.1c; AVP.5.30.1c. See under apāṃ payaso.
aditiṣ ṭvā (TS.KS. aditis tvā) devī viśvadevyāvatī (MS. -devyavatī) pṛthivyāḥ sadhasthe aṅgirasvat (TS. 'ṅgirasvat) khanatv avaṭa # VS.11.61; TS.4.1.6.1; MS.2.7.6: 81.9; 3.1.8: 9.18; 4.9.1: 121.11; KS.16.6; śB.6.5.4.3. Ps: aditis tvā devī viśvadevyāvatī KS.19.7; aditis tvā devī (Mś. aditiṣ ṭvā devī) Apś.16.5.8; Mś.6.1.2.15; aditiṣ ṭvā (TS. aditis tvā) TS.5.1.7.1; Kś.16.4.9.
ado giribhyo adhi yat pradhāvasi # TB.2.5.6.4a. Cf. under ado yad avadhāvati, and amuṣmād adhi parvatāt.
ado yad avadhāvati # AVś.2.3.1a. P: ado yat Kauś.25.6. Cf. ado giribhyo, amī ye ke, and asau yo 'vasarpati.
adya devi sarasvati # AVś.4.4.6b; AVP.4.5.8b.
adhvaryo yeṣāṃ vā anādhṛṣṭāṃ (also anādhṛṣyāṃ, anāptāṃ, anāpyāṃ, anilayāṃ, annapatnīṃ, annādīṃ, apabhayāṃ, apūrvāṃ, abhrātṛvyāṃ, vai kalyāṇīṃ, vai bhadrāṃ) prajāpates tanvaṃ vidvān hotā bhavaty anādhṛṣṭo vai sa hotā bhavati (also anādhṛṣyo, anāpto, anāpyo, and further variations) anādhṛṣṭās te yajamānā bhavanti (also anādhṛṣyās, anāptās, anāpyās, and further variations) # śś.10.19.2. Cf. annādā cānnapatnī etc.
anādhṛṣṭāḥ sīdata sahaujaso (TSṃS.KS. sīdatorjasvatīr) mahi kṣatraṃ (TSṃS.KS. varcaḥ) kṣatriyāya dadhatīḥ (KS. dadatīḥ) # VS.10.4; TS.1.8.12.1; MS.2.6.8: 68.8; 4.4.2: 51.9; KS.15.6; śB.5.3.4.28. P: anādhṛṣṭāḥ sīdata TB.1.7.6.1; Kś.15.4.47; Apś.18.13.21; Mś.9.1.2.37.
anumatiḥ sarasvatī # AVP.1.50.3a.
anuvidvān vitāvati # AVś.12.2.38d,52d.
antar lomavati hrade # AVś.20.133.6b; śś.12.22.1.6b.
antarvatnī (KSṃś. -vatī) janyaṃ jātavedasam # KS.7.12c; TB.1.2.1.13c; Apś.5.8.6c; Mś.1.5.2.3c.
anyad-anyad bhavati rūpam asya # Mś.2.5.4.24b. See anyo 'nyo.
anyad yuṣmākam antaraṃ babhūva (TS. bhavāti) # RV.10.82.7b; VS.17.31b; TS.4.6.2.2b; MS.2.10.3: 135.1; KS.18.1b; N.14.10b.
anyo 'nyo (AVP.Vait. anyo-anyo) bhavati varṇo asya # AVP.2.39.5b; TB.3.7.13.2b; Vait.24.1b. See anyad-anyad bhavati.
aparimitapoṣāyai tvātisṛjāmi # Kauś.24.20.
apaśyaṃ yuvatiṃ nīyamānām # AVś.18.3.3a. P: apaśyaṃ yuvatim Kauś.81.20. See apaśyāma yuvatim.
apaśyāma yuvatim ācarantīm # TA.6.12.1a. See apaśyaṃ yuvatiṃ.
apāṃ retāṃsi jinvati # RV.8.44.16c; SV.1.27c; 2.882c; VS.3.12c; 13.14c; 15.20c; TS.1.5.5.1c; 4.4.4.1c; MS.1.5.1c: 65.9; 1.5.5: 73.9; KS.6.9c; śB.2.3.4.11c; TB.3.5.7.1c.
apākāc cid yam avati # RV.8.2.35b.
apātām aśvinā sarasvatīndraḥ sutrāmā vṛtrahā somān surāmṇaḥ # TB.2.6.15.2.
apād eti prathamā padvatīnām # RV.1.152.3a; AVś.9.10.23a.
apāṃ payaso yat payaḥ # AVś.18.3.56c; TS.1.5.10.3c; TB.3.7.4.7c; Mś.1.4.1.5c. See next, and atho payasvatīnām.
api parṇena jīvati # JB.3.166b.
apur aśvinā sarasvatīndraḥ sutrāmā surāsomān # VS.21.60.
apo divyāḥ payasvatīḥ # KS.37.9d.
apnasvatīm aśvinā vācam asme # RV.1.112.24a; VS.34.29a; śB.14.1.3.33; Apś.15.8.13. P: apnasvatīm Kś.26.4.10; Mś.4.2.35.
abhi droṇāni dhāvati # RV.9.28.4c; 37.6b; SV.2.633c,647b.
abhi no vīro arvati (AVP. 'rvatīḥ) kṣameta # RV.2.33.1c; AVP.7.3.10c; TB.2.8.6.9c; AB.3.34.4. Cf. tvaṃ no vīro.
abhi śūlaṃ nihatasyāvadhāvati # RV.1.162.11b; VS.25.34b; TS.4.6.8.4b; MS.3.16.1b: 182.16; KSA.6.5b.
abhy anīkaiḥ paśubhir bhavāti # AVP.4.27.5b.
abhraṃ bhavati yat sameti vyeti ca # AVP.13.7.3d.
amī ye ke sarasyakā avadhāvati # HG.2.7.2a; ApMB.2.16.7c (ApG.7.18.1). Cf. ado yad avadhāvati, and ado giribhyo.
amī ye subhage divi # TA.2.6.1a. See udagātāṃ bhagavatī, and amū ye.
amūṃ chaśvatībhyaḥ samābhyaḥ # AVś.5.8.8d. See śaśvatībhyaḥ.
ayaṃ sarāṃsi dhāvati # RV.9.54.2b; SV.2.106b.
ayajñiyo hatavarcā bhavati # AVś.12.2.37a.
ayaṃ te śaryaṇāvati # RV.8.64.11a.
ayaṃ no jīvaṃ śarado vyāpet # AVP.1.9.2d. Cf. śataṃ jīvāti.
ayam u te sarasvati vasiṣṭhaḥ # RV.7.95.6a; MS.4.14.7a: 226.7.
ayāmi srug ghṛtavatī suvṛktiḥ # RV.6.11.5b; TB.2.4.3.2b.
araṃ hito bhavati vājināya # RV.10.71.10d; AB.1.13.14.
araṃ te somas tanve (TB. tanuve) bhavāti # RV.6.41.5b; TB.2.4.3.12b.
aram asmai bhavati yāmahūtau # RV.10.117.3c.
ariṣṭāsas ta urvi tamasvati # AVś.19.47.2c; AVP.6.20.2c.
arvāk stutaṃ yadi vātiṣṭutaṃ yat # Lś.2.1.6b.
ava syūmeva cinvatī maghonī # RV.3.61.4a.
avāhan navatīr nava # RV.9.61.1c; SV.1.495c; 2.560c.
avindac charyaṇāvati # see avindañ.
avindañ śaryaṇāvati (KS. -dac cha-) # MS.2.13.6c: 154.14; KS.39.12c. See tad vidac charyaṇāvati.
aveyam aśvaid yuvatiḥ purastāt # RV.1.124.11a.
avyo (SV.JB.PB. avyaṃ) vāraṃ vi dhāvati # RV.9.28.1c = SV.2.630c; RV.9.106.10b = SV.1.572b; 2.290b = PB.12.11.3b; JB.3.78b. Cf. next two.
avyo vāraṃ vi pavamāna dhāvati # RV.9.74.9b. Cf. prec. two.
aśmanvatī rīyate (TA. revatīḥ) saṃ rabhadhvam # RV.10.53.8a; AVś.12.2.26a; VS.35.10a; śB.13.8.4.3a; TA.6.3.2a; AG.1.8.2; 4.6.13. Ps: aśmanvatī rīyate (TA. revatīḥ) TA.6.4.2; 9.2; Kauś.71.24; 86.27; aśmanvatī śś.4.15.5; 16.13.13; Vait.12.11; Kś.21.4.22 (aśmanvatīr iti !); śG.1.15.18. Cf. prec.
aśrīrā (AVś.ApMB. aślīlā) tanūr bhavati # RV.10.85.30a; AVś.14.1.27a; ApMB.1.17.8a (ApG.3.9.11).
aśvājani (Mś. aśvājini) vājini vājeṣu vājinīvati # TS.1.7.8.1; Mś.7.1.2.34 (the text has aśvājinīṃ again right after the mantra). P: aśvājani Apś.18.4.16.
aśvāvati prathamo goṣu gachati # RV.1.83.1a; AVś.20.25.1a. P: aśvāvati Aś.6.4.10.
aśvāvatīṃ somāvatīm # RV.10.97.7a; AVP.11.6.10a; VS.12.81a; TS.4.2.6.4a; MS.2.7.13a: 93.15; KS.16.13a; TB.2.8.4.8. P: aśvāvatīm MS.4.14.6: 224.4.
aśvāvatī gomatī sūnṛtāvatī (śG. sīlamāvatī) # AVś.3.12.2b; AVP.3.20.2b; śG.3.3.1b; PG.2.17.9a; 3.4.4a; HG.1.27.3b.
aśvāvatīṃ pra tara yā suśevā # AVś.18.2.31a. P: aśvāvatīm Kauś.82.10.
aśvinakṛtasya te sarasvatikṛtasyendreṇa sutrāmṇā kṛtasya, upahūta upahūtasya bhakṣayāmi # VS.20.35.
aśvinā yajñaṃ savitā sarasvatī # VS.19.80c; MS.3.11.9c: 153.2; KS.38.3c; TB.2.6.4.1c.
aśvinā sūnṛtāvatī # RV.1.22.3b; VS.7.11b; TS.1.4.6.1b; MS.1.3.8b: 33.2; KS.4.2b; śB.4.1.5.17b; KA.1.198.6b.
aśvineḍā (VSK. -lā) sarasvatī # VS.21.54b; VSK.23.53b; MS.3.11.5b: 147.11. See sarasvaty aśvinā bhāratīḍā.
aśvinendraṃ sarasvatīm # VS.21.29b; MS.3.11.2b: 141.2; TB.2.6.11.1b.
aśvinobhā sarasvatī # VS.20.56b,69b; MS.3.11.3b: 143.11; 3.11.4b: 145.5; KS.38.8b,9b; TB.2.6.12.1b; 13.1b.
aśvinor bhavati priyaḥ # AVś.9.1.11b.
aśvinau sarasvatīm indraṃ sutrāmāṇaṃ yaja # śB.5.5.4.25.
aśvibhyāṃ dugdhaṃ bhiṣajā sarasvatyā (MS. sarasvatī) # VS.19.95c; MS.3.11.9c: 155.4; KS.38.3c; TB.2.6.4.6c.
asann eva sa bhavati # TA.8.6.1a; TU.2.6.1a.
asaścantī bhūridhāre payasvatī # RV.6.70.2a; N.5.2.
asau jīva śaradaḥ śatam # PG.1.18.3. See atho jīva, adhā jīvema, jīvataḥ, jīvāti, jīvāni, jīvāmi, jīvāhi, jīvema, jīveva, and sa jīva śaradaḥ.
asmabhyaṃ vājinīvati # RV.1.92.13b; 4.55.9c; SV.2.1081b; VS.34.33b; N.12.6b.
asmā ahne bhavati tat patitvanam # RV.10.40.9d.
asmān siṣakta revatīḥ # RV.10.19.1b; Mś.9.4.1.22b (corrupt).
asmin na indra pṛtsutau yaśasvati # RV.10.38.1a. Cf. BṛhD.7.39.
asmin ma antarikṣe vāyuś ca vṛṣṭiś cādhipatī vāyuś ca vṛṣṭiś ca maitasyai diśaḥ pātāṃ vāyuṃ ca vṛṣṭiṃ ca sa devatānām ṛchatu yo no 'to 'bhidāsati # śś.6.3.6. Cf. ye 'ntarikṣāj juhvati, and vāyur māntari-.
asmin sunvati yajamāna āśiṣaḥ svāhākṛtāḥ samudreṣṭhā gandharvam ā tiṣṭhatānu # TS.3.5.6.3.
asmai vo dhātā savitā suvāti # AVś.14.1.33d.
asya prajāvati gṛhe # RV.8.31.4a.
asyāṃ ma udīcyāṃ diśi somaś ca rudraś cādhipatī somaś ca rudraś ca maitasyai diśaḥ pātāṃ somaṃ ca rudraṃ ca sa devatānām ṛchatu yo no 'to 'bhidāsati # śś.6.3.4. Cf. ya uttarato juhvati.
asyāṃ ma ūrdhvāyāṃ diśi bṛhaspatiś cendraś cādhipatī bṛhaspatiś cendraś ca maitasyai diśaḥ pātāṃ bṛhaspatiṃ cendraṃ ca sa devatānām ṛchatu yo no 'to 'bhidāsati # śś.6.3.5. Cf. ya upariṣṭād juhvati.
asyāṃ me dakṣiṇasyāṃ diśi yamaś ca mṛtyuś cādhipatī yamaś ca mṛtyuś ca maitasyai diśaḥ pātāṃ yamaṃ ca mṛtyuṃ ca sa devatānām ṛchatu yo no 'to 'bhidāsati # śś.6.3.2. Cf. ye dakṣiṇato juhvati.
asyāṃ me pṛthivyām agniś cānnaṃ cādhipatī agniś cānnaṃ ca maitasyai diśaḥ pātām agniṃ cānnaṃ ca sa devatānām ṛchatu yo no 'to 'bhidāsati # śś.6.3.7. Cf. ye 'dhastāj juhvati.
asyāṃ me pratīcyāṃ diśi mitraś ca varuṇaś cādhipatī mitraś ca varuṇaś ca maitasyai diśaḥ pātāṃ mitraṃ ca varuṇaṃ ca sa devatānām ṛchatu yo no 'to 'bhidāsati # śś.6.3.3. Cf. ye paścād juhvati.
asyāṃ me prācyaṃ diśi sūryaś ca candraś cādhipatī sūryaś ca candraś ca maitasyai diśaḥ pātāṃ sūryaṃ ca candraṃ ca sa devatānām ṛchatu yo no 'to 'bhidāsati # śś.6.3.1. Cf. ye purastāj juhvati.
ahaṃ prajāṃ vīravatīṃ videya # TB.3.7.6.14d; Apś.4.8.5d.
ahnā rātrī samāvatī # AVś.4.18.1b; AVP.5.24.1b.
ā kalaśeṣu dhāvati # RV.9.17.4a; 67.14a; Aś.2.12.4; 5.12.15a (bis); śś.7.15.8.
āgnīdhraṃ yat sarasvatī # VS.19.18b.
ācāryo garbhī bhavati # śB.11.5.4.12a.
ājuhvānaḥ sarasvatīm # VS.21.32b; MS.3.11.2b: 141.10; TB.2.6.11.3b. Cf. ājuhvānā sa-.
ājuhvānā sarasvatī # VS.20.58a; MS.3.11.3a: 143.15; KS.38.8a; TB.2.6.12.2a. Cf. ājuhvānaḥ sa-.
ājye marutvatīye ca # Vait.19.20c.
ātmānam aṅgaiḥ samadhāt sarasvatī # VS.19.93b; MS.3.11.9b: 154.13; KS.38.3b; TB.2.6.4.6b.
ā dadhātu sarasvatī # AVś.19.31.9d; AVP.10.5.9d.
ād asya vāto anu vāti śociḥ # RV.1.148.4c; 7.3.2c; SV.2.570c; VS.15.62c; TS.4.4.3.3c; MS.2.8.14c: 118.10; KS.17.10c; JB.3.207; śB.8.7.3.12c.
ā dāśuṣe suvati bhūri vāmam # RV.6.71.4d; AB.5.8.7.
ānumatī vā bhavati # Kauś.73.12c.
āpo divyāḥ payasvatīḥ # AVś.4.8.4d,6b; 8.2.14f; AVP.4.2.5d; 4.27.4f. See divyena payasā.
āpo devīs sarasvatīḥ # ApMB.2.11.18b.
āpo revatīḥ kṣayathā hi vasvaḥ # RV.10.30.12a; Aś.4.13.7; 7.11.7a; PG.3.5.3a. P: āpo revatīḥ KS.12.15; AB.2.16.1; KB.11.4; śś.6.3.11; 9.20.7.
āpo revatīḥ śṛṇutā havaṃ me # RV.10.30.8d.
ā pyāyadhvam aghniyā devabhāgam ūrjasvatīḥ payasvatīḥ prajāvatīr anamīvā ayakṣmāḥ # TS.1.1.1.1; TB.3.2.1.4 (in fragments). See under prec.
ā pyāyadhvam aghnyā indrāya bhāgaṃ (KS. aghnyā devabhāgaṃ) prajāvatīr anamīvā ayakṣmāḥ # VS.1.1; KS.1.1; 30.10; śB.1.7.1.6,7. See under prec. but one.
ā pyāyasva sam etu te # RV.1.91.16a; 9.31.4a; VS.12.112a; TS.3.2.5.3a; 4.2.7.4a; MS.2.7.14a: 96.6; KS.16.14a; AB.1.17.1; 7.33.7; PB.1.5.8a; śB.7.3.1.46; Aś.1.10.5; 4.5.3; 5.6.27; 12.15; śś.7.5.17; 15.4; Apś.12.25.24; 14.28.1; 16.20.12; 19.11.9; Kauś.68.10a; KBU.2.8. Ps: āpyāyasva sam etu JG.2.9; ā pyāyasva TS.2.3.14.3; 5.12.1; 3.1.11.1; MS.4.13.10: 213.2; KS.35.13; GB.2.3.6; TB.3.5.12.1; 7.13.4; TA.6.6.2; śś.1.15.4; Vait.19.19; Lś.2.5.9; Kś.9.12.5; 17.3.16; Apś.13.20.8; Mś.2.4.1.46; 6.1.6.11; Kauś.68.9; HG.1.16.1; BDh.4.5.12; GDh.27.5; ParDh.11.32; VHDh.8.29; BṛhPDh.7.28; 9.305. Designated as āpīnavatī (sc. ṛk) AB.1.17.4; as āpyānavatī (sc. ṛk) śB.7.3.1.45; 2.1.
ā prāgād bhadrā yuvatiḥ # ArS.3.7a.
ā me dhanaṃ sarasvatī # AVś.19.31.10a; AVP.10.5.10a.
āyatīnāṃ prathamā śaśvatīnām # RV.1.113.8b.
āyuṣmān bhavati yo bibharti # AVś.19.26.2d; AVP.1.82.2d.
āyoṣ ṭvā sadane sādayāmy avataś chāyāyāṃ samudrasya hṛdaye (VS.śB. hṛdaye raśmīvatīṃ bhāsvatīm) # VS.15.63; PB.6.4.3; JB.1.70 (bis, once in fragments); śB.8.7.3.13. Ps: āyoṣ ṭvā Kś.17.12.26; āyoḥ Lś.1.7.4. See prec., and āyos tvā.
ā revatī cāśvayujau bhagaṃ me # AVś.19.7.5c; Nakṣ.10.5c.
ā revatī rodasī citram asthāt # RV.3.61.6b.
ārjīke pastyāvati # RV.8.7.29b.
ālāktā yā ruruśīrṣṇī # RV.6.75.15a. See alavatī.
ā vāṃ rathaṃ yuvatis tiṣṭhad atra # RV.1.118.5a.
āvivāsantī yuvatir manīṣā # RV.5.47.1c.
āsthāpayanta yuvatiṃ yuvānaḥ # RV.1.167.6a.
āhaṃ sarasvatīvatoḥ # RV.8.38.10a; AB.6.7.10; 23.3; GB.2.5.13.
iḍāvatī dhenumatī hi bhūtam # KS.2.10a. See irāvatī etc.
iḍā sarasvatī bhāratī # VS.27.19b; TS.4.1.8.2b; MS.4.13.8b: 210.10; KS.18.17b; 19.13b; TB.3.6.13.1b. See next but one.
iḍā sarasvatī bhāratī mahīḥ (TB. mahī) # VS.28.8c; TB.2.6.7.4c.
iḍā sarasvatī mahī # RV.1.13.9a; 142.9c; 5.5.8a; AVś.5.27.9b; AVP.9.1.8b; MS.2.12.6b: 150.14. See prec. but one.
iḍe rante 'dite sarasvati priye preyasi mahi viśruti # TS.7.1.6.8. P: iḍe rante Apś.22.16.7. See next two.
iḍe rante (Mś. rante juṣṭe) sarasvati mahi viśrute # PB.20.15.15; Mś.9.4.1.28. See prec. and next.
idaṃ te havyaṃ ghṛtavat sarasvati # AVś.7.68.2a; MS.4.12.6a: 198.10; TB.2.5.4.6a; Kauś.81.39. P: idaṃ te havyam MS.4.14.3: 219.10.
idam ahaṃ tāvatithena vajreṇa (sc. avabādhe) # Kś.3.1.9.
idam-idam evāsya rūpaṃ bhavati # AVś.9.5.24a.
indraṃ vananvatī matiḥ # RV.8.6.34c.
indravatīm upacitim ihā vaha # AVP.1.53.1b. See indrāvatīm apacitīm.
indrāgnī navatiṃ puraḥ # RV.3.12.6a; SV.2.926a,1054a; TS.1.1.14.1a; MS.4.10.5a: 155.9; 4.11.1: 159.1; KS.4.15a. P: indrāgnī navatim Mś.5.1.4.10; 5.1.5.10.
indrāgnyor bhavati priyaḥ # AVś.9.1.12b.
indrāya kṛṇvatī bhāgam # AB.5.27.4c; 7.3.2c; JB.1.58c; TB.1.4.3.1c,2c; śB.12.4.1.9c; Aś.3.11.2c; śś.3.20.2c; Kś.25.1.14c; Apś.9.5.2c; Mś.3.2.1c.
indrāyenduṃ sarasvatī # VS.20.57a; MS.3.11.3a: 143.13; TB.2.6.12.1a.
indrāvatīm apacitīm ihāvaha # TS.5.7.4.3b. See indravatīm upacitim.
indriyāvī priya indrasya bhavati ya evaṃ veda # AVP.9.21.11.
indro yo dasyūṃr adharāṃ avātirat # RV.1.101.5c.
imaṃ me gaṅge yamune sarasvati # RV.10.75.5a; TA.10.1.13a; MahānU.5.4a; N.9.26a. P: imaṃ me gaṅge Vāsū.2; VHDh.8.12. Cf. BṛhD.2.137 (B).
imā gāvo vijāvatīḥ prajāvatīḥ # AVP.5.15.4a.
imā brahma sarasvati # RV.2.41.18a.
ime svargasya ūrjasvatī payasvatī # JB.2.259.
iyaṃ sītā phalavatī # AVP.8.18.5a.
iyaṃ ta ṛtviyāvatī # RV.8.12.10a.
iyaṃ dhīr ṛtviyāvatī # RV.8.80.7c.
iyam indraṃ johuvatī manīṣā # RV.7.24.2d.
irāvatī dhenumatī hi bhūtam # RV.7.99.3a; VS.5.16a; TS.1.2.13.2a; MS.1.2.9a: 18.19; śB.3.5.3.14a; TA.1.8.2a; Aś.3.8.1. Ps: irāvatī dhenumatī Apś.11.7.1; Mś.2.2.2.18; irāvatī Kś.8.3.35; ParDh.11.35. See iḍāvatī etc.
ile rante mahi viśruti śukre candre havye kāmye 'dite sarasvati # JB.2.251. See under iḍe rante havye.
iṣirā yoṣā yuvatir damūnāḥ # AVś.19.49.1a; AVP.14.8.1a.
iṣe tvā sumaṅgali prajāvati susīme # Kauś.76.23. See under iṣa ekapadī.
iṣṭaṃ pūrtaṃ śaśvatīnāṃ samānām # TB.2.5.5.2c.
iha dhriyadhvaṃ śaraṇaṃ sarasvatīḥ # AVP.2.40.3d.
īyuṣīṇām upamā śaśvatīnām # RV.1.113.15c; 124.2c.
ugro balavān (text valavān) bhavati mārutaṃ śardha ity enam āhur adhipatir bhavati svānāṃ cānyeṣāṃ ca ya evaṃ veda # AVP.11.16.8.
uccā vy akhyad yuvatiḥ punarbhūḥ # RV.1.123.2c.
uta nagnā bobhuvatī (AVP. bobhavatī) # AVś.5.7.8a; AVP.7.9.5a.
uta me 'rapad yuvatir mamanduṣī # RV.5.61.9a.
uta syā naḥ sarasvatī # RV.6.61.7a. P: uta syā naḥ sarasvatī ghorā śś.10.3.5; 6.7.
uta syā naḥ sarasvatī juṣāṇā # RV.7.95.4a; MS.4.14.7a: 225.15; AB.5.18.8; KB.25.2; 26.11; Aś.3.7.6; 8.10.1; śś.10.10.4; 17.8.10.
uta svasārā yuvatī bhavantī # RV.3.54.7c.
utendra śaryaṇāvati # RV.8.6.39b.
utem agniḥ sarasvatī junanti # RV.7.40.3c.
utaiṣa yakṣmaṃ bhavati # AVP.11.10.5a.
uto marutvatīr viśo abhi prayaḥ # RV.8.13.28c.
uttiṣṭhaṃs tretā bhavati # AB.7.15.4c. See utthitas.
utthitas tretā bhavati # śś.15.19c. See uttiṣṭhaṃs.
ut pātaya śimidāvati # AVP.6.23.10a.
ud agātāṃ bhagavatī # AVś.2.8.1a; 6.121.3a; AVP.1.99.2a; 3.2.4a. P: ud agātām Kauś.26.41. See amū ye, and amī ye subhage.
udanyā ivāti gāhemahi dviṣaḥ # SMB.1.2.5d.
udanvatī dyaur avamā # AVś.18.2.48a. P: udanvatī Kauś.80.35.
ud īrṣvātaḥ pativatī (ApMB. -vati) hy eṣā # RV.10.85.21a; ApMB.1.10.2a (ApG.3.8.10). P: ud īrṣvātaḥ pativatī śś.16.13.13; śG.1.19.1. Cf. next.
ud ehi vājinīvati # AVP.8.12.7c; 8.18.4a.
undatīs suphenā jyotiṣmatīs tamasvatīḥ # KS.11.9b. See jyotiṣmatīs, and śundho.
upaprayanto adhvaram # RV.1.74.1a; SV.2.729a; VS.3.11a; TS.1.5.5.1a; 7.1; MS.1.5.1a: 65.6; 1.5.5: 72.4; 1.5.6: 74.3; KS.6.9a; 7.4; AB.4.29.4; KB.11.4; 22.1; śB.2.3.4.10; śś.2.11.2; 6.4.1; 10.2.2; 14.51.12; Apś.6.16.4; Mś.1.6.2.4. P: upaprayantaḥ Aś.4.13.7; 7.10.3; Kś.4.12.3. Cf. BṛhD.3.120. Designated as upavatī (sc. ṛk) śB.2.3.4.9,16.
upa mām uccā yuvatir babhūyāḥ (VārG. -yāt) # RV.10.183.2c; ApMB.1.11.2c; MG.1.14.16c; VārG.16.1c.
upa māsva bṛhatī revatīr iṣaḥ # RV.9.72.9c.
upa yam eti yuvatiḥ sudakṣam # RV.7.1.6a; TS.4.3.13.6a.
upastutyā cikituṣā sarasvatī # RV.6.61.13d.
upasthāśā mitravatīdam ojaḥ # KS.22.14b. See prec.
upo ruruce yuvatir na yoṣā # RV.7.77.1a. P: upo ruruce śś.6.5.6.
ubhe sahasvatī bhūtvā (RV. bhūtvī) # RV.10.145.5c; AVś.3.18.5c; ApMB.1.15.5c.
urudhārā payasvatī # VS.8.42b; TS.7.1.6.6b; JB.2.251d; śB.4.5.8.9; Mś.9.4.1.27b.
uṣā uvāsa manave svarvatī # RV.10.11.3b; AVś.18.1.20b.
ūrjam asmā ūrjasvatī dhattam # AVś.2.29.5a; AVP.1.13.2a.
ūrjasvatīḥ payasvatīḥ # TS.1.1.1.1; MS.2.8.14c: 118.18; 3.3.4: 36.6; TB.3.2.1.5. See ūrjasvatīḥ svadhā-.
ūrjasvatī ghṛtavatī payasvatī # AVś.3.12.2c; AVP.3.20.2c. See under ūrjasvatī payasā.
ūrjasvatī ca payasvatī ca # MS.4.13.9: 212.3; TB.3.5.10.2; śB.1.9.1.7; śś.8.19.1. See ūrjasvatī payasvatī.
ūrjasvatī ca me payasvatī caidhi # TB.3.7.6.6; Apś.4.6.2.
ūrjasvatī cāsi payasvatī ca # VS.1.27; śB.1.2.5.11. P: ūrjasvatī Kś.2.6.31.
ūrjasvatī payasā pinvamānā # VS.12.70c; TS.4.2.5.6c; śB.7.2.2.10; TA.10.42.1c; HG.1.8.4c; 27.3c; MahānU.16.7. See ūrjasvatī ghṛtavatī, ūrjasvatīr ghṛtavatīḥ, and ūrjo bhāgaṃ madhumat.
ūrjasvatī payasvatī # AVś.9.3.16a; Aś.1.9.1; śś.1.14.5; VārG.1.7. See ūrjasvatī ca pa-.
ūrjasvatīr ghṛtavatīḥ payasvatīḥ # AVP.8.18.3c. See under ūrjasvatī payasā.
ūrjasvatīḥ svadhāvinīḥ (KS. svadhāyinīḥ) # TS.4.4.11.4c; KS.17.10. See ūrjasvatīḥ payasvatīḥ.
ūrjasvī tejasvī bhavati pra sāhasrān paśūn āpnoty adhipatir bhavati svānāṃ cānyeṣāṃ ca ya evaṃ veda # AVP.11.16.5.
ūrje tvā (sc. sumaṅgali prajāvati susīme) # Kauś.76.24. See ūrje dvipadī, and dve ūrje.
ūrjo bhāgaṃ madhumat pinvamānā (Apś.KS.40.5b, sūnṛtāvat) # MS.2.7.12c: 92.8; KS.16.12c; 40.5b; Apś.16.34.4b. See under ūrjasvatī payasā, and cf. ūrjāvad agne.
ūrṇamradā yuvatir (AVś. -mradāḥ pṛthivī) dakṣiṇāvate (TA. dakṣiṇāvatī) # RV.10.18.10c; AVś.18.3.49c; TA.6.7.1c.
ūrṇāvatī yuvatiḥ sīlamāvatī # RV.10.75.8c.
ūrdhvo bhavati sotave # RV.1.28.1b.
ṛtaṃ satyaṃ vijigyānaṃ vivācanam anto vāco vibhuḥ sarvasmād uttaraṃ jyotir ūdhar aprativādaḥ pūrvaṃ sarvaṃ vāk parāg arvāk sapru salilaṃ dhenu pinvati # ā.5.3.2.1.
ṛtūṃs tanvate (KS. -vatīḥ) kavayaḥ prajānatīḥ # TS.4.3.11.3c; MS.2.3.10c: 161.9; KS.39.10c; PG.3.3.5c.
ṛtena tvaṃ sarasvati # MS.4.14.17b: 244.8; TB.3.7.12.2b; TA.2.3.1b.
ṛdhyāsmedaṃ sarasvati # AVś.6.94.3d.
ṛbhūṇāṃ bhavati priyaḥ # AVś.9.1.13b.
ṛṣayaḥ sapta juhvati # AVP.4.11.7d.
ekatriṃśad aśvavatīḥ # AVP.15.18.10a.
ekarṣir iva tapaty ekarṣir iva dīdāyaikarṣir ivānnādo bhavati ya evaṃ veda # AVP.9.21.1.
ekācetat sarasvatī nadīnām # RV.7.95.2a; MS.4.14.7a: 226.2; Aś.3.7.6. Cf. BṛhD.2.137.
etad bhavadbhyo bhavatībhyo 'stu cākṣayam # ViDh.74.8.
etāny agne navatiṃ sahasrā # RV.10.98.11a.
etāny agne navatir nava tve # RV.10.98.10a.
emā agman revatīr jīvadhanyāḥ # RV.10.30.14a; AB.2.20.26; KB.12.2; Aś.5.1.19.
eṣa divaṃ vi dhāvati # RV.9.3.7a; SV.2.612a.
eṣā vyenī bhavati dvibarhāḥ # RV.5.80.4a.
aitu rājā varuṇo revatībhiḥ # Kś.25.5.28a; AG.2.9.5a. See praitu.
ainaṃ catvāri vāmāni gachanti niṣkaḥ kaṃso 'śvataro hasty adhipatir bhavati svānāṃ cānyeṣāṃ ca ya evaṃ veda # AVP.11.16.13.
aiṣu cetad vṛṣaṇvatī # RV.8.68.18a.
oktā devī sarasvatī # AVP.7.2.1b. See otā etc.
ojasvinīḥ (Mś. -vinī) stha # MS.2.6.7: 68.2; KS.15.6; Mś.9.1.2.36. See ojasvatī stha.
ojasvī vīryāvān indriyāvī bhavati pra rājasabhāyāṃ madhuparkam āpnoty adhipatir bhavati svānāṃ cānyeṣāṃ ca ya evaṃ veda # AVP.11.16.7.
otā devī sarasvatī # AVś.5.23.1b; 6.94.3b. See oktā etc.
oṣadhīṃ vīryāvatīm # AVP.15.15.7b.
kanye putravatī bhava # MG.1.10.17c.
karīṣiṇīṃ phalavatīm # AVś.19.31.3a; AVP.10.5.3a.
karmakṛtaḥ sukṛto vīryāvatīḥ # TB.3.1.2.4b.
kalaśāṃ abhi dhāvati # RV.9.60.3b.
kaliḥ śayāno bhavati (śś. śayānaḥ puruṣaḥ) # AB.7.15.4a; śś.15.19a.
kalpante asmā iḍa iḍāṃ priyo bhavati ya evaṃ veda # AVP.9.21.10.
kalpante asmā ṛtavo na ṛtuṣv āvṛścata ṛtūnāṃ priyo bhavati ya evaṃ veda # AVP.9.21.6.
kalpante asmai diśo diśāṃ priyo bhavati ya evaṃ veda # AVP.9.21.4.
kalpante asmai māsā māsāṃ priyo bhavati ya evaṃ veda # AVP.9.21.9.
kalpante asmai viśve devāḥ priyo viśveṣāṃ devānāṃ bhavati ya evaṃ veda # AVP.9.21.12.
kalyāṇībhir yuvatibhir na maryaḥ # RV.10.30.5b.
kavaṣyo na vyacasvatīḥ # VS.20.60a; 21.34b; MS.3.11.2b: 141.15; 3.11.3a: 144.1; KS.38.8a; TB.2.6.11.4b; 12.3a.
kāryaṃ kṛtvā pra dhāvati # AVś.20.136.14d.
kiṃ bhrātāsad yad anāthaṃ bhavāti # RV.10.10.11a; AVś.18.1.12a.
kiyāty ā yat samayā bhavāti # RV.1.113.10a.
kīlālodhnī payasvatī # AVś.12.1.59b.
kumāraṃ mātā yuvatiḥ samubdham # RV.5.2.1a; JB.3.96a.
kulāyinī ghṛtavatī puraṃdhiḥ # VS.14.2a; MS.2.8.1a: 106.9; KS.17.1a; śB.8.2.1.5,15. See next.
kṛtabrahmā samaryo bhavāti # RV.7.70.6b.
kṛtyaiṣā padvatī bhūtvā (RV. bhūtvī) # RV.10.85.29c; AVś.14.1.25c; ApMB.1.17.7c.
kṛdhi prajāvatīr iṣaḥ # RV.9.23.3c.
kevalāgho (TB., both text and comm., kevalādyo) bhavati kevalādī # RV.10.117.6d; TB.2.8.8.3d; N.7.3.
kratve dakṣāya suprajāvatīm iṣam # RV.1.111.2b.
kva prepsantī yuvatī virūpe # AVś.10.7.6a.
kṣatraṃ brahma jinvati brāhmaṇasya # MS.2.7.7c: 84.9; 3.1.9c: 13.4.
kṣudrān paśūn rakṣatu revatī naḥ # TB.3.1.2.10a.
kṣemeṇa dhenāṃ maghavā yad invati # RV.1.55.4d.
gaṇatvāyai tvātisṛjāmi # Kauś.24.20.
gambhīre cid bhavati gādham asmai # RV.6.24.8d.
garbhaṃ dhehi sarasvati # RV.10.184.2b; AVś.5.25.3b; AVP.12.3.4b; SMB.1.4.7b; ApMB.1.12.2b; HG.1.25.1b; MG.2.18.2b; JG.1.22b. See prec., and cf. jāyāṃ devī, and putraṃ devī.
gavyayī tvag bhavati nirṇig avyayī # RV.9.70.7d.
gāyatreṇa tvā chandasodūhāmy auṣṇihena tvānuṣṭubhena tvā vārhatena tvā pāṅktena tvā traiṣṭubhena tvā jāgatena tvā vairājena tvā dvaipadena tvātichandasā tvā # ā.5.1.4.3.
gāvo ma uta payasvatīḥ # AVP.2.76.3d.
giro vā yābhir nṛvatīr uruṣyāḥ # RV.7.3.8b.
gṛdhraḥ suparṇaḥ kuṇapaṃ ni ṣevati (TA. ṣevase) # MS.4.9.19c: 136.1; TA.4.29.1c.
gṛhe yām asya juhvati # JB.1.20d (bis); śB.11.3.1.7d,8d.
gnās tvā devīr viśvadevyāvatīḥ (MS. -devyavatīḥ) pṛthivyāḥ sadhasthe aṅgirasvat pacantūkhe (TS. aṅgirasvac chrapayantūkhe; MS. aṅgirasvañ śrapayantūkhe) # VS.11.61; TS.4.1.6.2; MS.2.7.6: 81.12; 3.1.8: 10.6; KS.16.6; śB.6.5.4.7. P: gnās tvā TS.5.1.7.2; KS.19.7.
ghṛtavatī bhuvanānām abhiśriyā # RV.6.70.1a; SV.1.378a; VS.34.45a; MS.4.11.1a: 162.12; KS.13.15a; KB.21.3; 22.5; ṣB.5.1; AdB.1; Aś.7.7.7; 9.5.5. Ps: ghṛtavatī bhuvanānām śś.10.4.14; 14.3.12; Mś.5.1.5.68; ghṛtavatī KS.20.15; ṣB.5.5; AdB.5; Svidh.1.7.11; 8.1.
ghṛtavatīm adhvaryo (Aś. -yoḥ) srucam āsyasva # TS.2.5.9.6; śB.1.5.2.1; TB.3.5.4.1; Aś.1.4.11; śś.1.6.16. P: ghṛtavatīm Kś.3.2.16.
ghorā yad arya samṛtir bhavāti # RV.4.16.17c.
caturbhiḥ sākaṃ navatiṃ ca nāmabhiḥ # RV.1.155.6a.
caturvīraṃ parvatīyaṃ yad āñjanam # AVś.19.45.3c; AVP.15.4.3c.
catuḥśikhaṇḍā yuvatiḥ supeśāḥ (KS. supatnī) # KS.31.14a; TB.1.2.1.27a; 3.7.6.4a,5a; 7.14a; Apś.4.5.1a; 6.2a; 11.5.3a. See catuṣkapardā.
catuḥśikhaṇḍe yuvatī kanīne # Apś.7.5.1a.
catuṣkapardā yuvatiḥ supeśāḥ # RV.10.114.3a. See catuḥśikhaṇḍā.
candrāṇi devaḥ savitā suvāti # RV.5.42.3d.
citrā rodhasvatīr anu # RV.1.38.11b.
codayitrī maghonaḥ sūnṛtāvatī # RV.7.81.6c.
chandaḥpakṣe etc. # see chandasvatī etc.
jaghāna navatīr nava # RV.1.84.13c; AVś.20.41.1c; SV.1.179c; 2.263c; MS.2.13.6c: 154.10; KS.39.12c; JB.3.65c; TB.1.5.8.1c.
janayas tvāchinnapatrā devīr viśvadevyāvatīḥ (MS. -devyavatīḥ) pṛthivyāḥ sadhasthe aṅgirasvat pacantūkhe # VS.11.61; MS.2.7.6: 81.14; 3.1.8: 10.10; KS.16.6; śB.6.5.4.8. P: janayas tvāchinnapatrāḥ KS.19.7. See varūtrayo janayas.
janayituḥ putro bhavati sāṃparāye # ApDh.2.6.13.6c.
jarāmṛtyur bhavati yo bibharti # RVKh.10.128.6d; AVś.19.26.1d; AVP.1.82.1d.
jāyāṃ devī sarasvatī # AVP.2.9.5b. Cf. under garbhaṃ dhehi sarasvati.
jigṛtam asme revatīḥ puraṃdhīḥ # RV.1.158.2c.
jihvā jyā bhavati kulmalaṃ vāk # AVś.5.18.8a; AVP.9.18.3a.
jihvā pavitram aśvināsan (TB. aśvinā saṃ) sarasvatī # VS.19.88b; MS.3.11.9b: 154.2; KS.38.3b; TB.2.6.4.4b.
jihve varcasvatī bhava # AVP.4.22.5c.
jīmūtasyeva bhavati pratīkam # RV.6.75.1a; AVP.15.10.1a; VS.29.38a; TS.4.6.6.1a; MS.3.16.3a: 185.10; KSA.6.1a; TB.3.9.4.3; AG.3.12.3. P: jīmūtasyeva Apś.20.16.4; Mś.9.2.3.19 (text, erroneously, jīmu-); VHDh.6.31. Designated as jīmūta-sūkta Rvidh.2.24.3. Cf. BṛhD.5.128.
jīvalā vīryāvatī # AVP.15.16.3b.
jīvasūr devakāmā (HG. vīrasūḥ) syonā # ApMB.1.1.4c; HG.1.20.2c; JG.1.21c. See prajāvatī vīra-, and vīrasūr.
jīvātu śaradaḥ etc. # see jīvāti śaradaḥ.
juṣasva vājinīvati # RV.2.41.18b.
jeṣat svarvatīr apaḥ # RV.8.40.10e. Cf. jeṣaḥ etc., and ajaiḥ etc.
jeṣaḥ svarvatīr apaḥ # RV.1.10.8c. Cf. jeṣat etc., and ajaiḥ etc.
jyog jīvati sarvam āyur eti na purā jarasaḥ pramīyate ya evaṃ veda # AVP.9.21.2,7.
jyotir viśvasmai bhuvanāya kṛṇvatī (RV.4.14.2b, kṛṇvan) # RV.1.92.4c; 4.14.2b.
jyote 'dite sarasvati mahi viśruti # VS.8.43b; śB.4.5.8.10b.
taṃ śaśvatīṣu mātṛṣu # RV.4.7.6a.
taṃ hed agnir vidhāvati # MS.4.11.6c: 176.5. See taṃ ghed.
taṃ ghed agnir vṛdhāvati # RV.8.75.14c; TS.2.6.11.3c. See taṃ hed.
taj jāyā jāyā bhavati # AB.7.13.10a; śś.15.17a.
tato me pathye revati # AVP.1.43.4c.
tathā devī sarasvatī # AVP.11.14.4e.
tadāśā upadhāvati # JB.3.166d.
tad it somo 'vati hanty āsat # RV.7.104.12d; AVś.8.4.12d.
tad vidac charyaṇāvati # RV.1.84.14c; AVś.20.41.2c (vulgate, erroneously, yad vidac); SV.2.264c; JB.3.64c; TB.1.5.8.1c. See avindañ śarya-.
tad viśvam upa jīvati # RV.1.164.42d; TB.2.4.6.12d; TA.10.11.1d; MahānU.11.2d; N.11.41d.
tad vai rāṣṭram ā sravati # AVś.5.19.8a; AVP.9.19.4a.
tanūpāc (Poona ed. text and comm. tanūnapāc) ca sarasvatī # TB.2.6.18.1b. See tanūpāś ca.
tanūpāś ca sarasvatī # VS.21.13b; KS.38.10b. See tanūpāc ca.
tantuṃ tataṃ peśasā saṃvayantī # VS.20.41c. See peśasvatī.
tantram eke yuvatī virūpe # AVś.10.7.42a.
taṃ tvā marutvatī pari # RV.7.31.8a.
tan naḥ prajāṃ vīravatīṃ sanotu # TB.3.1.1.10c.
tan no bhagavatī pracodayāt # MahānU.3.13c.
tam id gachanti juhvas tam arvatīḥ # RV.1.145.3a.
tam ūhathur naubhir ātmanvatībhiḥ # RV.1.116.3c; TA.1.10.2c.
tam evaṃ vidvān amṛta iha bhavati # TA.3.12.7c; 13.1c. See tam eva viditvā-, and cf. tam eva vidvān.
tam eva viditvāti mṛtyum eti # VS.31.18c; śvetU.3.8c; 6.15c. See under tam evaṃ vi-.
tarat sa mandī dhāvati # RV.9.58.1a,1c,2c,3c,4c; SV.1.500a,500c; 2.407a,407c,408c,409c,410c; JB.2.272; JG.1.13; N.13.6a,6c; BṛhPDh.2.137. Designations of the hymn and its stanzas: tarat-samandī GDh.24.2; Svidh.2.1.7; tarat-sa-mandīya BDh.2.3.5.8; 4.2.5; ViDh.56.6; MDh.11.254; Rvidh.3.2.2; 3.4; tarat-sa-mandyaḥ GDh.20.12; BDh.4.2.4; tarat-samāḥ VāDh.28.11; BDh.4.3.8; LAtDh.3.11; VAtDh.3.11; BṛhPDh.5.250.
tarantaṃ yahvatīr apaḥ # RV.1.105.11d.
talīdyam avatiṣṭhati # AVś.7.76.3b.
tava lakṣmīḥ payasvatī # AVP.10.2.1d.
tasmai te dyāvāpṛthivī revatībhiḥ # AVś.13.1.5c. See asmabhyaṃ dyāvā-.
tasmai sarasvatī duhe # RV.9.67.32c; SV.2.649c; TB.1.4.8.4c.
asmabhyam ayakṣmā anamīvā anāgasaḥ # VS.4.12c; śB.3.2.2.19c. See prec., and irāvatīr anamīvā.
te dātrāṇi taviṣā sarasvati # RV.6.61.1d; MS.4.14.7d: 226.5; KS.4.16d.
naḥ payasvatīḥ śivāḥ # AVś.8.7.17c.
tān aśvinā sarasvatī (MS. sarasvatīndraḥ) # VS.21.42i; MS.3.11.4i: 145.17; TB.2.6.11.10i.
naḥ santu payasvatīḥ # Apś.7.17.1c; AG.2.10.6c; śG.3.9.3c.
no vājavatīr iṣaḥ # RV.6.60.12a; SV.2.501a.
tāṃ tvāhārṣaṃ sahasvatīm # AVP.4.13.1d. Cf. tām abhakṣi.
tām abhakṣi sahasvatīm # AVś.2.25.1d. Cf. tāṃ tvāhārṣaṃ.
tāṃ mā baṭ (read ma avāṭ ?) sarasvatī # AVP.8.12.11d.
tāsāṃ śvanvatīnām # AVP.7.13.1c--14c. Cf. śataṃ śvan-, and śataṃ ca śvan-.
tās tvā vadhu prajāvatīm # AVś.14.2.7c. See te tvā vadhu.
tiro dhanvātirocate # RV.10.187.2b; AVś.6.34.3b; N.5.5.
tilamiśrāḥ svadhāvatīḥ # AVś.18.3.69b; 4.26b,43b.
tilvilāstām irāvatīm (śG. tilvilā sthājirāvatī; MG. tilvalā sthirāvatī; ApMB. tilvilā syād irāvatī) # AG.2.8.16b; śG.3.3.1b; MG.2.11.12b; ApMB.2.15.3b.
tisra iḍā sarasvatī # VS.21.19a; KS.38.10a; TB.2.6.18.3a. See tisro devīr iḍā.
tisras tredhā sarasvatī # VS.20.63a; MS.3.11.3a: 144.7; KS.38.8a; TB.2.6.12.4a.
tisraḥ sarasvatīr aduḥ # AVś.6.100.1c.
tisro divaḥ pṛthivīs tisra invati # RV.4.53.5c.
tubhyaṃ juhvati juhvataḥ # AVś.17.1.18d.
tubhyam uṣāsaḥ śucayaḥ parāvati # RV.1.134.4a.
tṛtīye santu rajasi prajāvatīḥ # RV.9.74.6b.
te tvā vadhu prajāvatīm # ApMB.1.7.9c. See tās tvā vadhu.
tena te 'ti cṛtāmasi # AVP.2.59.11d. See tena tvāti etc.
tena tvāti cṛtāmasi # AVś.5.28.12d. See tena te 'ti etc.
tena me vājinīvati # TB.2.5.8.6c; Apś.4.14.4c; Mś.1.4.3.10c; JG.1.4c.
tenābhi yāhi bhañjaty anasvatīva # AVś.10.1.15c.
te no rudraḥ sarasvatī sajoṣāḥ # RV.6.50.12a.
trāyamāṇāṃ sahamānāṃ sahasvatīm # AVś.8.2.6c.
trāyamāṇā sahamānā sahasvatī # AVP.8.2.11c.
trir vājavatīr iṣo aśvinā yuvam # RV.1.34.3c.
trī ca śatā navatiś copa ṣaṭ ca # JB.2.72b.
tvaṃ vṛtrahā vasupate sarasvatī # RV.2.1.11d.
tvaṃ śuṣṇam avātiraḥ # RV.1.11.7b.
tvaṃ śuṣṇasyāvatiro vadhatraiḥ # RV.8.96.17c; AVś.20.137.11c.
tvaṃ hi śaśvatīnām # RV.8.95.3c; 98.6a; AVś.20.64.3a; SV.2.599a; JB.3.233a.
tvaṃ devi sarasvati # RV.6.61.6a.
tvaṃ no vīro arvati kṣamethāḥ # AB.3.34.4. ūha of abhi no vīro etc.
tvaṃ puro navatiṃ dambhayo nava # RV.1.54.6d.
tvayā juṣṭa ṛṣir bhavati devī (read devi) # TA.10.39.1a; MahānU.16.4a.
tvayā vayaṃ pravataḥ śaśvatīr apaḥ # RV.7.32.27c; AVś.20.79.2c; SV.2.807c; JB.2.391c; PB.4.7.6.
tvaṣṭā rūpāṇi dadhatī (śB.Kś. dadatī) sarasvatī # śB.11.4.3.7a; TB.2.5.3.3a; Aś.2.11.4a; śś.3.7.4a; Kś.5.12.21a.
tvaṣṭā savitā suyamā sarasvatī # RV.9.81.4d.
tvaṣṭed enaṃ sauśravasāya jinvati # RV.1.162.3d; VS.25.26d; TS.4.6.8.1d; MS.3.16.1d: 182.1; KSA.6.4d.
tve viśvā sarasvati # RV.2.41.17a.
tveṣaṃ cakṣur dadhire codayanvati (RV. -mati) # RV.5.8.6d; TB.1.2.1.12d; Apś.5.6.3d.
tveṣas te dhūma ṛṇvati (AVś. ūrṇotu) # RV.6.2.6a; AVś.18.4.59a; SV.1.83a; Lś.4.10.3; 8.8.36; Kś.22.6.16; Mś.1.5.3.4; --8.19.21; JG.2.4. P: tveṣas te Vait.6.11.
tveṣā vipākā marutaḥ pipiṣvatī # RV.1.168.7b.
dāyo bhavati dharmataḥ # N.3.4b.
divodāsāya navatiṃ ca nava # RV.2.19.6c.
divyena payasā saha # AVP.4.2.7b; 8.10.10b; TB.2.7.15.4b. See āpo divyāḥ payasvatīḥ.
dīdyāno bhavati druhaṃtaraḥ # RV.1.127.3b; SV.2.1165b.
dudvā ca dudvatī ca sthaḥ # AVP.1.86.5a.
durvartuḥ smā bhavati bhīma ṛñjan # RV.4.38.8d.
duhe kāmān sarasvatī # VS.20.60d; KS.38.8d; TB.2.6.11.4e. See duhe dhenuḥ.
duhe dhenuḥ sarasvatī # VS.20.55c,65d; 21.34e; MS.3.11.2e: 142.1; 3.11.3c: 143.10; 3.11.3d: 144.12; KS.38.8c; TB.2.6.12.1c,4d. See duhe kāmān.
dūre cit san taḍid ivāti rocase # RV.1.94.7b; AVP.13.5.7b; N.3.11. Lopez' edition reads saṃ, with two mss., instead of san.
devajūte sahasvati # RV.10.145.2b; AVś.3.18.2b. See under sahamāne sa-.
devaṃ barhiḥ sarasvatī # VS.21.48a; MS.3.11.5a: 147.1; TB.2.6.14.1a. P: devaṃ barhiḥ Kś.19.7.9.
devānāṃ tvā patnīr devīr viśvadevyavatīḥ pṛthivyāḥ sadhasthe aṅgirasvad dadhatu mahāvīrān # MS.4.9.1: 121.12.
devānāṃ tvā patnīr devīr viśvadevyāvatīḥ (MS. -devya-) pṛthivyāḥ sadhasthe aṅgirasvad (TS. 'ṅg-) dadhatūkhe # VS.11.61; TS.4.1.6.1,2; MS.2.7.6: 81.10; 3.1.8: 10.1; KS.16.6; śB.6.5.4.4. Ps: devānāṃ tvā patnīḥ TS.5.1.7.1; KS.19.7; Apś.16.5.8; Mś.6.1.2.16; devānāṃ tvā Kś.16.4.11.
devāvyaṃ manuṣe pinvati tvacam # RV.9.74.5b.
devi goptri sarasvati # śG.2.13.5b.
devitame sarasvati # RV.2.41.16b.
devī joṣṭrī aśvinā # TB.2.6.14.2a. See devī joṣṭrī sarasvatī.
devī joṣṭrī sarasvatī # VS.21.51a; MS.3.11.5a: 147.5. See devī joṣṭrī aśvinā.
dehi bhikṣāṃ bhavati # Kauś.57.18; JG.1.12.
daivīṃ vācam udyāsaṃ (śivām ajasrāṃ juṣṭāṃ devebhyas svadhāvatīṃ pitṛbhyaś śuśrūṣeṇyāṃ manuṣyebhyaḥ) # KA.1.208E; 3.208E. See under next.
daivī medhā manuṣyajā (TA. var. lect. sarasvatī) # TA.10.41.1c; HG.1.8.4c; JG.1.12c; MahānU.16.6. See next.
dyāvāpṛthivī payasā payasvatī (MSṭB. payobhiḥ) # AVś.6.62.1c; AVP.10.9.5c; MS.3.11.10c: 156.8; TB.1.4.8.3c.
dyaur naḥ pitā pitryāc (TA. pitṛyāc) chaṃ bhavāti (TA. bhavāsi) # AVś.6.120.2c; TA.2.6.2c.
drapsaḥ purāṃ bhettā śaśvatīnām # SV.1.275c. See drapso bhettā.
drapso bhettā purāṃ śaśvatīnām # RV.8.17.14c. See drapsaḥ purāṃ.
draviṇodā vīravatīm iṣaṃ naḥ # RV.1.96.8c.
draṣṭāro navatir nava # AVś.19.47.3b; AVP.6.20.3b. See yuktāso.
dve niyute navatiś cāti ṣaṭ ca # GB.1.5.23d. See niyute dve.
dhanor adhi pravata ā sa ṛṇvati # RV.1.144.5c.
dhārā sutasya dhāvati # RV.9.100.4b.
dhāvantam anu dhāvati # AVś.20.136.11b; śś.12.24.2.4b.
dhiyā rathaṃ na kuliśaḥ sam ṛṇvati # RV.3.2.1d; KB.19.9.
dhiṣaṇāsi parvatī (MS.KSṃś. pārvatī) # VS.1.19; MS.1.1.7 (bis): 4.3,4; KS.1.6; 31.5; śB.1.2.1.15; Mś.1.2.2.26 (bis). P: dhiṣaṇāsi Kś.2.5.3. See next.
dhiṣaṇās tvā devīr viśvadevyāvatīḥ (MSṃś. dhiṣaṇā tvā devī viśvadevyavatī) pṛthivyāḥ sadhasthe aṅgirasvad (TS. 'ṅgi-) abhīndhatām (MS.2.7.6, abhīnddhām; MS.3.1.8, abhīndhātām) ukhe # VS.11.61; TS.4.1.6.2; MS.2.7.6: 81.11; 3.1.8: 10.4; KS.16.6; śB.6.5.4.5. Ps: dhiṣaṇās tvā devīḥ Apś.16.5.9; dhiṣaṇā tvā devī Mś.6.1.2.17; dhiṣaṇās tvā TS.5.1.7.2; KS.19.7; Kś.16.4.12.
dhūrva taṃ yo 'smān dhūrvati # VS.1.8; TS.1.1.4.1; śB.1.1.2.10; TB.3.2.4.4. See dhvara.
dhenuḥ sarasvatī bhiṣak # VS.21.33d; MS.3.11.2d: 141.14; TB.2.6.11.4d.
dhyāyed yaś ca sarasvatīm # RVKh.9.67.17b.
dhrūkṣṇāṃ pāpīṃ śimidvatīm # AVP.8.16.5b.
dhvasrā apinvad yuvatīr ṛtajñāḥ # RV.4.19.7b.
na tat prātaḥ kṣudho 'vati (HG. prātar avati kṣudhaḥ) # Apś.10.13.11b; HG.1.17.4b. See na prātar.
nadaṃ yoyuvatīnām # RV.8.69.2b; SV.2.862b; ā.1.3.5.3; 5.1.6.5.
nadīr imā udanvatīḥ # HG.2.12.10a.
na niṣat kiṃcanāvati # śś.15.19d.
na bhūmiṃ vāto ati (AVP. 'ti) vāti # AVś.4.5.2a; AVP.4.6.2a.
namas te 'stu bhagavati vidma tvā sā naś śivaidhi # JB.2.45.
na mā brūyā vīryavatī tathā syām # N.2.4d. See na māṃ brūyā.
na māṃ brūyā vīryavatī tathā syām # ViDh.29.9d; VāDh.2.8d. See na mā brūyā.
namucer dhiyā sarasvatī # VS.20.67b; MS.3.11.4b: 145.1; KS.38.9b; TB.2.6.13.1b.
namyā yad indra sakhyā parāvati # RV.1.53.7c; AVś.20.21.7c.
nayāmy arvatīr iva # AVś.10.4.21c.
narāśaṃso bhavati yad vijāyate # RV.3.29.11b.
narmāya bhadravatīm # TB.3.4.1.15.
nava cakhvāṃsaṃ navatiṃ ca bāhūn # RV.2.14.4b.
nava ca me navatiś ca me (AVP. omits me) # AVś.5.15.9a; AVP.8.5.9a.
nava ca yan navatiṃ ca sravantīḥ # RV.1.32.14c; AVP.12.13.4c.
nava ca yā navatiḥ (AVś. navatiś ca) # AVś.6.25.3a; AVP.8.16.1a.
nava puro navatiṃ ca śnathiṣṭam # RV.7.99.5b; TS.3.2.11.3b; MS.4.12.5b: 192.4.
navabhir vājair navatī ca vājinam # RV.10.39.10b.
nava yat puro navatiṃ ca sadyaḥ # RV.7.19.5b; AVś.20.37.5b. Cf. next but one.
nava yad asya navatiṃ ca bhogān # RV.5.29.6a.
nava yo navatiṃ puraḥ # RV.8.93.2a; AVś.20.7.2a; SV.2.801a. Cf. prec. but one.
nava vrādhato navatiṃ ca vakṣayam # RV.10.49.8d.
nava sākaṃ navatīḥ śambarasya # RV.4.26.3b.
navānāṃ navatīnām # RV.1.191.13a; AVP.3.9.7a; 4.17.7a; 4.19.8a.
navo-navo bhavati (AVś.JUB. bhavasi) jāyamānaḥ # RV.10.85.19a; AVś.7.81.2a; 14.1.24a; TS.2.3.5.3; 4.14.1a; MS.4.12.2a: 181.5; KS.10.12a; TB.3.1.3.1; Aś.9.8.3; HG.1.16.1; BDh.3.8.10; JUB.3.27.11 (Vedic allusion which continues in quasi metrical style); N.11.6a. Ps: navo-navo bhavati VHDh.5.487; navo-navaḥ śś.14.32.4; GDh.27.5. Cf. BDh.3.8.14.
naśyantv ataś cinvatīḥ # AVP.1.29.2d.
na smā varante yuvatiṃ na śaryām # RV.10.178.3d; AB.4.20.31d; N.10.29d.
na svadhitir vananvati # RV.8.102.19b.
nānnadīṃ vartakāvatīm # AVP.12.2.3b.
nānya indrāt karaṇaṃ bhūya invati # RV.8.15.11c.
nābhir yuvā bhavati rocanasya # RV.10.46.3d.
nityāritrāṃ padvatīṃ rāsy agne # RV.1.140.12b.
niriṇāno vi dhāvati # RV.9.14.4a.
ni svaṣṭrān yuvati hanti vṛtram # RV.10.42.5d; AVś.20.89.5d.
nīlalohitaṃ bhavati # RV.10.85.28a; AVś.14.1.26a. P: nīlalohitam śG.1.12.8. See nīlalohite bha-.
naitad bhūyo bhavati no kanīyaḥ # TB.2.8.8.2d.
nyag vāto 'va vāti (AVś.AVP. vāto vāti) # RV.10.60.11a; AVś.6.91.2a; AVP.1.111.1a.
pakṣī ha bhūtvāti divaḥ (AVP. bhūtvāpi divaṃ) sam eti # AVś.4.34.4d; AVP.6.22.5b.
pañca nadyaḥ sarasvatīm # VS.34.11a.
patiṃ tad ṛtviyāvatī # AVP.2.70.2c.
patiḥ sindhūnām asi revatīnām # RV.10.180.1d; TS.3.4.11.4d; MS.4.12.3d: 184.16; KS.38.7d; TB.2.6.9.1d; 3.5.7.4d.
pathā me pathye revati # AVP.2.9.4c.
pathyā revatīr bahudhā virūpāḥ # AVś.3.4.7a; AVP.3.1.7a. P: pathyā revatīḥ Vait.13.2.
payasendraṃ sarasvatī # TB.2.6.14.3b.
payasvatīr (KS. payasvatīr āpa) oṣadhayaḥ # RV.10.17.14a; AVś.3.24.1a; 18.3.56a; AVP.5.30.1a; TS.1.5.10.2a; KS.35.4a; TB.3.7.4.7a; Mś.1.4.1.5a; Apś.4.2.3,9; 9.17.1. P: payasvatīḥ Kauś.21.1; 82.9. Cf. BṛhD.7.10.
payo asmai (AVP. payo 'smai) payasvatī dhattam # AVś.2.29.5b; AVP.1.13.2b.
paramasyāṃ parāvati # AVP.1.94.3a; 12.2.6b; śś.8.16.1.
parameṣṭhī tvā sādayatu divas (MS.KS. divaḥ) pṛṣṭhe jyotiṣmatīm (KS. adds vyacasvatīṃ prathasvatīṃ bhāsvatīṃ raśmivatīm) # VS.15.58; MS.2.7.16: 99.12; KS.40.5; śB.8.7.1.21. P: parameṣṭhī tvā Kś.17.12.24. See next.
parameṣṭhī tvā sādayatu divas (TSṃS. divaḥ) pṛṣṭhe vyacasvatīṃ prathasvatīm (TS. adds vibhūmatīṃ prabhūmatīṃ paribhūmatīm; MS. adds bhāsvatīṃ raśmīvatīm) # VS.15.64; TS.4.4.3.3; MS.2.8.14: 118.4; śB.8.7.3.14,18. Ps: parameṣṭhī tvā sādayatu divaḥ pṛṣṭhe Apś.17.3.8; parameṣṭhī tvā sādayatu Mś.6.2.2.8; 6.2.3.13. See prec.
parameṣṭhī bhavati gachati parameṣṭhitām adhipatir bhavati svānāṃ cānyeṣāṃ ca ya evaṃ veda # AVP.11.16.14.
pari vaḥ sikatāvatī (AVP. sikatāmayam) # AVś.1.17.4a; AVP.1.94.4a.
pareṇa datvatī rajjuḥ # AVś.4.3.2c; 19.47.8a; AVP.6.20.8c.
pareṇehi navatiṃ nāvyā ati # AVś.10.1.16c. Cf. navatiṃ nāvyā.
parjanyo retasāvati # AVś.8.7.21d.
parṇaṃ na ver anu vāti pragardhinaḥ # RV.4.40.3b; VS.9.15b; TS.1.7.8.3b; MS.1.11.2b: 163.4; KS.13.14b; śB.5.1.5.20b.
pary enaṃ svāś ca viśyāś cāvaśyanty adhipatir bhavati svānāṃ cānyeṣāṃ ca ya evaṃ veda # AVP.11.16.11.
parṣad viśvāti duritā gṛṇantam # RV.3.20.4d.
pavamāno vi dhāvati # RV.9.37.3b; SV.2.644b.
pātu no devī (text, devo) subhagā sarasvatī # AVś.6.3.2c.
pāthaḥ sumekaṃ svadhitir vananvati # RV.10.92.15d.
pāvakā naḥ sarasvatī # RV.1.3.10a; SV.1.189a; VS.20.84a; MS.4.10.1a: 142.7; 4.10.3: 150.1; 4.11.2: 166.2; KS.4.16a; TB.2.4.3.1a; ā.1.1.4.16a; Aś.2.8.3; śś.2.4.4; 7.10.15; Mś.5.1.6.26; 7.2.6.7; N.11.26a. P: pāvakā naḥ KS.11.13; 20.15; Kś.9.8.17.
pāhi naktaṃ sarasvati # VS.20.62b; MS.3.11.3b: 144.5; KS.38.8b; TB.2.6.12.3b.
piśaṅgarūpo bhavati # AVP.9.3.6a.
puṃsi vai reto bhavati (śG. vai puruṣe retaḥ) # AVś.6.11.2a; śG.1.19.8a.
puṃso bhavati vasyasī # RV.5.61.6b.
puṇyaṃ ślokaṃ yajamānāya kṛṇvatī # TB.3.1.2.6d.
putraṃ devī sarasvatī # AVP.5.11.6b. Cf. under garbhaṃ dhehi sarasvati.
putro bhavati dādhṛṣiḥ # AVś.20.128.3b; śś.12.20.2.2b.
punar jyotir yuvatiḥ pūrvathākaḥ # RV.5.80.6d.
punarbhuvā yuvatī svebhir evaiḥ # RV.1.62.8b.
purāṇī devi yuvatiḥ puraṃdhiḥ # RV.3.61.1c.
purodayāj juhvati ye 'gnihotram # AB.5.30.6d; 31.6b.
puro yad indra śāradīr avātiraḥ # RV.1.131.4b; AVś.20.75.2b.
puṣṭimatī paśumatī prajāvatī gṛhamedhinī bhūyāsam # Apś.3.10.9.
puṣṭiś cātisarasvatī # MG.2.13.6b.
puṣpavatīḥ (TS.ViDh. puṣpā-) prasūvarīḥ (AVś.AVP.KS. -sūmatīḥ; TS. -sūvatīḥ) # RV.10.97.3b; AVś.8.7.27a; AVP.11.6.3a; VS.12.77b; TS.4.2.6.1a; MS.2.7.13a: 93.5; KS.16.13a. P: puṣpāvatīḥ ViDh.65.9.
puṣyāt kṣeme abhi yoge bhavāti # RV.5.37.5a.
pūrṇām anupadasvatīm (SMB. aparipādinīm) # AVś.2.36.5b; AVP.2.21.5b; SMB.2.5.14b.
pūrvāgāt padvatībhyaḥ # RV.6.59.6b; SV.1.281b; VS.33.93b.
pūṣā no gobhir avasā sarasvatī # śB.11.4.3.6c; TB.2.5.3.3c; Aś.2.11.3c; śś.3.7.4c; Kś.5.12.20c.
pūṣā bhagaḥ sarasvatī juṣanta # RV.5.46.2d; VS.33.48d.
pūṣā viṣṇur havanaṃ me sarasvatī # RV.8.54 (Vāl.6).4a.
pūṣā sarasvatī mahī # Kauś.45.16b.
pṛthivyās tvā mūrdhann ā jigharmi devayajana iḍāyāḥ (MS. jigharmi yajñiyā iḍāyās) pade ghṛtavati svāhā # TS.1.2.5.1; 6.1.8.2; MS.1.2.4: 13.9; 3.7.6: 83.8; KS.2.5; 24.4. P: pṛthivyās tvā mūrdhann ā jigharmi Apś.10.23.2; Mś.2.1.3.40. See adityās tvā etc.
pṛthvī (Varadaū. pṛthivī) suvarcā yuvatiḥ sajoṣāḥ # TB.3.1.1.12a; Varadaū.3.
pṛśniparṇi sahasvati # AVP.4.13.4d,6d. Cf. prec.
potā viśvaṃ tad invati # RV.2.5.2d.
pra ca suvāti savitā # RV.5.82.9c; MS.4.12.6c: 198.2; KS.10.12c.
prajananaṃ vai pratiṣṭhā loke sādhuprajāyās (MahānU. sādhuprajāvāṃs) tantuṃ tanvānaḥ pitṝṇām anṛṇo bhavati tad eva tasyānṛṇam # TA.10.63.1; MahānU.22.1.
prajāṃ videya vājavatīṃ suvīrām # KS.31.14d.
prajāpatineṣitām ṛtviyāvatīm # AVP.6.10.4a.
prajāpatiṣ ṭvā sādayatv apāṃ pṛṣṭhe samudrasyeman vyacasvatīṃ prathasvatīm # VS.13.17; śB.7.4.2.6.
prajāpatis tvā (MSṃś. -patiṣ ṭvā) sādayatu pṛthivyāḥ pṛṣṭhe (KS. pṛṣṭhe jyotiṣmatīṃ vyacasvatīṃ prathasvatīm; TS. pṛṣṭhe vyacasvatīṃ prathasvatīm) # TS.4.2.9.1; KS.39.3; MS.2.8.14: 117.15; 4.9.16: 135.3; Apś.16.23.1; Mś.6.1.5.34. P: prajāpatiṣ ṭvā sādayatu Mś.6.1.7.9. See prajāpatiṣ ṭvā sādayatu pṛṣṭhe.
prajāvatīḥ sūyavasaṃ (AVś. sūyavase) ruśantīḥ (RV. riśantīḥ) # RV.6.28.7a; AVś.4.21.7a; 7.75.1a; TB.2.8.8.12a. P: prajāvatīḥ Kauś.19.14; 21.10.
prajāvarīr yaśase viśvarūpāḥ # Mś.1.1.3.7b. See prajāvatīr etc.
pra ṇo devī sarasvatī # RV.6.61.4a; TS.1.8.22.1a. P: pra ṇo devī TS.2.5.12.1; 3.1.11.2; śś.10.5.5.
prati tvā parvatī (TSṭB. parvatir; MS.KSṃś. pārvatī) vettu # VS.1.19; TS.1.1.6.1; MS.1.1.7: 4.4; KS.1.6; 31.5; śB.1.2.1.17; TB.3.2.6.3; Mś.1.2.2.26.
prati stomaṃ sarasvati juṣasva # RV.7.95.5b; MS.4.14.3b: 219.6; KS.4.16b; TB.2.4.6.1b.
pratīcy etv araṇī datvatī tān # AVś.7.108.1c.
pra te mahe sarasvati # MS.4.12.6a: 198.8; TB.2.5.4.6a.
pradātopa jīvati # AVś.3.29.4c,5c.
pra pātaya śimidāvati # AVP.6.23.10b.
pra pūṣā pra bṛhaspatiḥ (VSK. sarasvatī) # VS.9.29b; VSK.10.5.6b; KS.14.2b; śB.5.2.2.11b. See pra bhagaḥ.
pra yā bhūmiṃ (TS.ApMB. bhūmi) pravatvati # RV.5.84.1c; TS.2.2.12.2c; MS.4.12.2c: 181.2; KS.10.12c; ApMB.2.18.9c; N.11.37c.
pravatvatī dyaur bhavati prayadbhyaḥ # RV.5.54.9b.
prācī diśāṃ sahayaśā yaśasvatī # AVP.15.1.5a; TS.4.4.12.2a; MS.3.16.4a: 188.6; KS.22.14a; Aś.4.12.2a.
prāṇena sarasvatī vīryam # VS.20.80b.
prāsya pāraṃ navatiṃ nāvyānām # RV.1.121.13c.
priyaṃ paśūnāṃ bhavati # AVś.12.4.40a.
priyaḥ sūrye priyo agnā bhavāti # RV.5.37.5c; 10.45.10c; VS.12.27c; TS.4.2.2.4c; MS.2.7.9c: 87.4; KS.16.9c; ApMB.2.11.29c.
priyā deveṣu juhvati # RV.2.41.18d.
praitu rājā varuṇo revatībhiḥ # MG.2.11.17a. See aitu etc.
phalavatyo (MS.KSA. -vatīr) na oṣadhayaḥ pacyantām # VS.22.22; MS.3.12.6: 162.10; KSA.5.14; śB.13.1.9.10. See phalinyo.
badhāna deva savitaḥ paramasyāṃ pṛthivyāṃ (TS. parāvati) śatena pāśaiḥ (MS. savitaḥ śatena pāśaiḥ paramasyāṃ parāvati) # VS.1.25,26 (bis); TS.1.1.9.1,2 (bis); MS.1.1.10 (ter): 5.14; 6.1,4; 4.1.10: 13.2; KS.1.9 (ter); 31.8; śB.1.2.4.16,17,19. Ps: badhāna deva savitaḥ paramasyāṃ parāvati TB.3.2.9.3; badhāna deva savitaḥ Apś.2.1.6; Mś.1.2.4.13; badhāna Kś.2.6.19.
bāṭyāḥ parvatīyā uta # AVś.19.44.6d. See bāhyāḥ etc.
bāhyāḥ parvatīyā uta # AVP.1.100.1d; 15.3.6d. See bāṭyāḥ etc.
brahma sruco ghṛtavatīḥ # AVś.19.42.2a; AVP.8.9.6a; TB.2.4.7.10a.
brahmā bhavati sārathiḥ # RV.1.158.6d.
brahmā samid bhavati sāhutir vām # RV.10.52.2d.
brahmāha kṣatraṃ jinvati kṣatriyasya # MS.2.7.7b: 84.8; 3.1.9b: 13.2.
brāhmaṇavarcasī bhavati ya evaṃ veda # AVP.9.21.3.
brāhmaṇo vai brāhmaṇam upadhāvaty upa tvā dhāvāmi (JG. -dhāvati taṃ tvopadhāvāmi) # SMB.2.4.6; JG.1.2.
bhagaṃ devī sarasvatī # AVP.8.10.11b.
bhagabhaktā bhagavatī suvīrā # AVP.2.66.2d.
bhagaṃ bhavati dehi me # YDh.1.290b. See bhagavati.
bhagavati bhagaṃ me dehi # MG.2.14.30. See bhagaṃ bhavati.
bhago na vāram ṛṇvati # RV.5.16.2d.
bhadram id bhadrā kṛṇavat sarasvatī # RV.7.96.3a.
bhadraṃ bhavāti naḥ puraḥ # RV.2.41.11c; AVś.20.20.6c; 57.9c.
bhadrāṃ bhagavatīṃ kṛṣṇām # RVKh.10.127.3c.
bhadrā vadhūr bhavati yat supeśāḥ # RV.10.27.12c.
bhavān bhikṣāṃ dadātu # AG.1.22.8. Cf. bhavati bhi-.
bhānuneyaṃ sarasvatī # RVKh.7.34.3b.
bhāmaṃ sarasvatī bhiṣak # VS.21.39e; MS.3.11.2e: 142.16; TB.2.6.11.8e.
bhāratīḍe sarasvati # RV.1.188.8a. Cf. sarasvatīḍe.
bhikṣāṃ bhavatī dadātu (JG. bhavati dehi) # Kauś.57.17; JG.1.12.
bhinat puro navatim indra pūrave # RV.1.130.7a.
bhiṣajaṃ na (MS. naḥ) sarasvatīm # VS.21.38d; MS.3.11.2d: 142.12; TB.2.6.11.7b.
bhiṣajendre (MS. -draṃ) sarasvatī # VS.21.49b; MS.3.11.5b: 147.2; TB.2.6.14.1b,2b.
bhūtir bhavati karmaṇām # PG.2.17.9b.
bhūmiṃ saṃtanvatīr ita # AVś.8.7.16c.
bhūmir iyam ṛtviyavatī # MS.2.7.12c: 92.6.
bheṣajaṃ naḥ sarasvatī # VS.20.64b; MS.3.11.3b: 144.9; KS.38.8b; TB.2.6.12.4b.
madhye chandasaḥ pari yanti bhāsvatīḥ # TS.4.3.11.3d; MS.2.13.10d: 161.9; KS.39.10d; PG.3.3.5d.
manāyur vā bhavati vasta usrāḥ # RV.4.25.2b.
mamac cana tvā yuvatiḥ parāsa # RV.4.18.8a.
mamedam iṣṭaṃ na mithurbhavāti # TB.3.7.5.12b; Apś.2.20.6b.
mayā patyā prajāvatī # RVKh.10.85.6c; AVś.14.1.52c; PG.1.8.19c; ApMB.1.8.9c.
marya iva yuvatibhiḥ sam arṣati (AVś. iva yoṣāḥ sam arṣase) # RV.9.86.16c; AVś.18.4.60c; SV.1.557c; 2.502c.
mahasvī mitravāho bhavaty utainena svā nandanty asmākam ayam iti tasmāt sarvo vṛṣṭe mahīyate 'dhipatir bhavati svānāṃ cānyeṣāṃ ca ya evaṃ veda # AVP.11.16.9.
maho arṇaḥ sarasvatī # RV.1.3.12a; VS.20.86a; N.11.27a.
mahyaṃ devī sarasvatī # AVś.6.89.3b; AVP.2.35.5b; 2.90.5b.
māhaṃ bhavatībhyaś cauṣīḥ # HG.1.18.3.
mitro agnir bhavati yat samiddhaḥ # RV.3.5.4a.
mihaṃ na vāto vi ha vāti bhūma # RV.10.31.9b. See mahī no vātā.
mukham aṅgdhi (JG. aṅdhi) sarasvati (Mś. adds varcasā) # TB.2.5.8.6d; Apś.4.14.4d; Mś.1.4.3.10d; JG.1.4d.
muniṃ nagnaṃ kṛṇvatīr moghahāsinam # AVP.12.8.5b.
mūrdhā bhuvo bhavati naktam agniḥ # RV.10.88.6a; N.7.27a.
mūlaṃ prajāṃ vīravatīṃ videya # TB.3.1.2.2a.
mṛgeṣv api dhāvati # AVP.1.85.2b.
mṛtyur dhāvati pañcamaḥ # TA.8.8.1d; TU.2.8.1d; NṛpU.2.4d.
mṛtyor ātmā vivasvati # śB.10.5.2.4d.
medasvatīṃ ghṛtavatīṃ svadhāvatīm # HG.2.15.2c.
medhāṃ devī sarasvatī # RVKh.10.151.2b; TA.10.40.1b; MahānU.16.5b; AG.1.15.2b; PG.2.4.8b; HG.1.6.4b; 8.4b; ApMB.2.12.2b.
medhām ahaṃ prathamāṃ brahmaṇvatīm # AVś.6.108.2a.
meṣa iva vai saṃ ca vi corv acyase (KS.Apś. iva yad upa ca vi ca carvati) # AVś.6.49.2a; KS.35.14a; Apś.14.29.3a.
meṣaḥ sarasvatī bhiṣak # VS.21.31c; MS.3.11.2c: 141.7; TB.2.6.11.2c.
ya ādityānāṃ bhavati praṇītau # RV.2.27.13d; TS.2.1.11.4d; MS.4.14.14d: 239.6.
ya invati draviṇāni pracetāḥ # RV.6.5.1c.
ya uttarato juhvati jātavedaḥ # AVś.4.40.4a. Cf. asyāṃ ma udīcyāṃ.
ya upariṣṭāj juhvati jātavedaḥ # AVś.4.40.7a. Cf. asyāṃ ma ūrdhvāyāṃ.
yake sarasvatīm anu # RV.8.21.18b.
yac chakrāsi parāvati # RV.8.13.15a; 97.4a; SV.1.264a.
yac chalmalau bhavati yan nadīṣu # RV.7.50.3a.
yajamāne sunvati dakṣiṇāvati # RV.8.96.2c; AVś.20.55.3c.
yaj jīvati sa jīvati # RVKh.10.142.9d.
yajñaṃ dadhe sarasvatī # RV.1.3.11c; VS.20.85c; TS.4.1.11.2c.
yajñasya peśaḥ sudughe payasvatī # RV.2.3.6d.
yatāyai yatāyai śāntāyai śāntivāyai bhadrāyai bhadrāvati syonāyai śagmāyai śivāyai # Kauś.39.9.
yat parjanyaḥ pṛthivīṃ retasāvati # RV.5.83.4d; MS.4.12.5d: 193.2; TA.6.6.2d. See parjanyemāṃ.
yatra prācī sarasvatī # RVKh.9.113.5b.
yatrāmūr yahvatīr āpaḥ # RV.9.113.8c.
yathā jīvāty agado bhavāti # AVP.12.19.2d.
yathāpa oṣadhīṣu yaśasvatīḥ # AVś.6.58.2b.
yathā bhargasvatīṃ vācam # AVś.6.69.2c. See yathā varcasvatīṃ.
yathā manau vivasvati # RV.8.52 (Vāl.4).1a. The stanzas of this hymn are to be compared with those of RV.8.51 (Vāl.3).
yathā varcasvatīṃ vācam # AVś.9.1.19c. See yathā bhargasvatīṃ.
yathaitam etā ūrdhvā upatiṣṭhanty evainam ūrdhvā upa tiṣṭhanty adhipatir bhavati svānāṃ cānyeṣāṃ ca ya evaṃ veda # AVP.11.16.1.
yathaitam etāsāṃ syandamānānāṃ vaśam ādatta evā dviṣatāṃ vaśam ādatte 'dhipatir bhavati svānāṃ cānyeṣāṃ ca ya evaṃ veda # AVP.11.16.4.
yathaitā etasminn udyati praskandanty evāsminn āyati praskandanty adhipatir bhavati svānāṃ cānyeṣāṃ ca ya evaṃ veda # AVP.11.16.2.
yathaitā etasyāṃ praṇutās takantīr yanty evainena dviṣantaḥ praṇutā yanty adhipatir bhavati svānāṃ cānyeṣāṃ ca ya evaṃ veda # AVP.11.16.3.
yad agna eṣā samitir bhavāti # RV.10.11.8a; AVś.18.1.26a; MS.4.14.15a: 241.10; ā.5.1.1.24. Cf. ā.5.1.1.25, where variants of this stanza are said to occur in another Vedic school (śākhāntare): see atra vibhajātha.
yad adya devaḥ savitā suvāti # RV.7.40.1c.
yad adya sthaḥ parāvati # RV.5.73.1a; śś.6.6.4.
yad apsu te sarasvati # TB.2.5.8.6a; Apś.4.14.4a; Mś.1.4.3.10a; JG.1.4,4a.
yad arvāvati vṛtrahan # RV.8.13.15b; 97.4b; SV.1.264b.
yad asya vāto anuvāti śociḥ # RV.4.7.10b. Cf. yadā te vāto.
yadā te vāto anuvāti śociḥ # RV.10.142.4c. Cf. yad asya vāto.
yadā yamo bhavati harmye hitaḥ # RV.10.114.10d.
yad u devī sarasvatī # RVKh.10.128.7b. See yad vā devī.
yad upāvati ciccikaḥ # RV.10.146.2b; TB.2.5.5.6b.
yad ūvadhyam udarasyāpavāti # RV.1.162.10a; VS.25.33a; TS.4.6.8.4a; MS.3.16.1a: 182.12; KSA.6.4a.
yad dha krāṇā vivasvati (SV. -te) # RV.1.139.1d; SV.1.461d.
yad dha nūnaṃ parāvati # RV.8.50 (Vāl.2).7a.
yad vā devī sarasvatī # AVś.5.25.6b. See yad u devī.
yad vā śakra parāvati # RV.8.12.17a; AVś.20.111.2a.
yad vidac charyaṇāvati # AVś.20.41.2c. Error for tad vidac etc., q.v.
yad vo revatī revatyaṃ yad vo haviṣyā haviṣyaṃ yad vo jagatīr jagatyaṃ tenāsmai yajñapataya āśāsānā madhunā madhumatīs saṃpṛcyadhvam (Mś. haviṣyaṃ yad va ojo yac ca nṛmṇaṃ taṃ va ūrmiṃ madhumantaṃ devayajyāyai juṣṭaṃ gṛhṇāmi) # KS.1.8; Mś.1.2.1.11. P: yad vo revatī revatyaṃ yad vo haviṣyā haviṣyaṃ yad vo jagatīr jagatyam KS.31.7.
yan nāsatyā parāvati # RV.1.47.7a; 8.8.14a.
yan me retaḥ prasicyate (śś. pradhāvati; Vait. prasidhyati) # TA.1.30.1a; Aś.2.16.19a; śś.3.8.27a; Vait.8.16a; Lś.4.12.16a. Designated as retasyā (sc. ṛk) GDh.23.20; BDh.2.1.1.29.
yam aśvinā sarasvatī # VS.20.68a; MS.3.11.4a: 145.3; KS.38.9a; TB.2.6.13.1a.
yamasya dūtaś ca vāg vidhāvati # MS.4.9.19b: 136.1. See next.
yam indraṃ yāvatī # KA.3.172.
yas tvā devi sarasvati # RV.6.61.5a.
yas tvā pibati jīvati # AVś.5.5.2a; AVP.6.4.2a.
yasminn ājā bhavati kiṃ cana priyam # RV.7.83.2b.
yasmai dattaṃ sa jīvati # Mś.11.1.5b.
yasyām idaṃ jinvati prāṇad ejat # AVś.12.1.3c.
yaḥ sunvantam avati yaḥ pacantam # RV.2.12.14a; AVś.20.34.15a; AVP.12.15.5a.
yāḥ kṛtyāḥ pāśyāvatīḥ # AVP.2.64.4b.
yāḥ kṛtyā nīlavatīḥ # AVP.2.64.4a.
te agne yogavatī priyā tanūḥ svarśokhārādvākhāta tayeda pātram ārohati tasmai te namaḥ svāhā # Mś.8.23.21 (corrupt: read svarṣukhadvārākhyātā tayedaṃ pātram āroha ?).
devy asīṣṭake prāṇadā vyānadā apānadāś (Apś. prāṇadā apānadā vyānadāś) cakṣurdāḥ (Apś. -dā) śrotradā vāgdā ātmadāḥ pṛthividā antarikṣadā dyaurdāḥ (Apś. -dā) svardāḥ kumārīdāḥ prapharvīdāḥ (Apś. -vidāḥ) prathamaupaśadā yuvatidā upaśīvarī sā mām upaśeṣva jāyeva patim it sadā # KS.39.9; Apś.17.5.16.
devy asīṣṭake yuvatir upaśīvarī sā mopaśeṣva jāyeva sadam it patim # MS.2.13.16: 164.9.
yābhir idaṃ jīvati viśvam ejat # AVP.14.2.5c.
yābhiḥ satyaṃ bhavati yad vṛṇīṣe # AVś.9.2.25b.
yābhiḥ sūryaṃ pariyāthaḥ parāvati # RV.1.112.13a.
rākā yā sarasvatī # RV.2.32.8b.
rudrasyāśvinor yāvatīs tāḥ # AVP.2.36.2b.
yāvatīḥ kṛtyā upavāsane # AVś.14.2.49a. P: yāvatīḥ kṛtyāḥ Kauś.79.23.
yāvatī dyāvāpṛthivī mahitvā (AVś.AVP. varimṇā) # AVś.4.6.2a; 9.2.20a; AVP.5.8.1a; 5.27.3a; TS.3.2.6.1a. P: yāvatī dyāvāpṛthivī Apś.13.3.3. See prec.
yāvat kṛṣṇo 'bhidhāvati # VāDh.1.15c.
yāvad brahma viṣṭhitaṃ tāvatī vāk # RV.10.114.8d; ā.1.3.8.9.
vahasi puru spārhaṃ vananvati # RV.7.81.3c.
yāvān agniś ca pṛthivī ca tāvaty asya mātrā tāvatīṃ ta etāṃ mātrāṃ dadāmi (HG. mātrā tāvān asya mahimā) # ApMB.2.19.14; HG.2.13.1.
yāvān ādityaś ca dyauś ca tāvaty asya mātrā tāvatīṃ ta etāṃ mātrāṃ dadāmi (HG. mātrā tāvān asya mahimā) # ApMB.2.19.16; HG.2.13.1.
yāvān vāyuś cāntarikṣaṃ ca tāvaty asya mātrā tāvatīṃ ta etāṃ mātrāṃ dadāmi (HG. mātrā tāvān asya mahimā) # ApMB.2.19.15; HG.2.13.1.
vṛtrahā parāvati # RV.8.45.25a.
sarasvatī viśobhagīnā tasyāṃ me rāsva tasyās te bhaktivāno bhūyāsma # Apś.4.13.7. See the two after next.
sarasvatī viśobhagīnā tasyai svāhā # Apś.3.10.2. See next but three.
sarasvatī veśabhaginī tasyā no rāsva tasyās te bhaktivāno bhūyāsma # KS.5.4. See prec. but one, and next.
sarasvatī veśabhagīnā tasyās te bhaktivāno bhūyāsma # MS.1.4.3: 51.8. P: yā sarasvatī veśabhagīnā Mś.1.4.3.3. See prec., and prec. but two.
sarasvatī veśabhagīnā tasyai svāhā # Apś.3.10.2.
sarasvatī veśayamanī tasyai svāhā # MS.1.4.3: 51.7. P: yā sarasvatī veśayamanī MS.1.4.8: 56.14; Mś.1.3.5.12. See prec. but three.
sarasvatī vaiśambhalyā (Apś. -balyā, with variants) tasyāṃ me rāsva tasyās te bhakṣīya tasyās te bhūyiṣṭhabhājo bhūyāsma # TB.2.5.8.6,7; Apś.4.14.4.
yuktāso navatir nava # RV.4.48.4b; RVKh.10.127.2b; śś.9.28.10b. See draṣṭāro.
yukṣvā hi vājinīvati # RV.1.92.15a. See yuṅkṣvā etc.
yuṅkṣvā hi vājinīvati # SV.2.1083a. See yukṣvā etc.
yuvo rāṣṭraṃ bṛhad invati dyauḥ # RV.7.84.2a.
yūthatvāyai tvātisṛjāmi # Kauś.24.20.
yūthe na sāhvāṃ ava vāti vaṃsagaḥ # RV.1.58.5b.
ye antā yāvatīḥ sicaḥ # AVś.14.2.51a. P: ye antāḥ Kauś.79.26.
ye arvāvati sunvire # RV.8.93.6b; 9.65.22b; AVś.20.112.3b; SV.2.513b.
ye arvāvatīndavaḥ # RV.8.53 (Vāl.5).3d.
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vati(1)taddhita affix. affix वत् in the sense of similar activity or thing; e. g. राजवद्वर्तते, मथुरावत् स्त्रुघ्ने प्राकार:; confer, compare तेन तुल्यं क्रिया चेद्वतिः | तत्र तस्येव P.V.1.115, 116; (2) taddhita affix. affix वत् in the sense of deserving;e.g, राजवत् पालनम् ; confer, compare तदर्हम् P.V.1.117; (3) taddhita affix. affix वत् applied to prefixes in Vedic Literature without any sense of its own ; e.g यदुद्वतो निवतो याति बप्सत् ; confer, compare उपसर्गाच्छन्दसि धात्वर्थे P.V. 1. 118.
vatīthe posssssive affix वत् ( मतुप् ) with feminine. ई added; confer, compare विश्वदेव्यसोमौ वत्याम् ( दीर्धमापद्येते ) V.Pr.III.117.
dayānandasarasvatia brilliant Vedic scholar of the nineteenth century belonging to North India who established on a sound footing the study of the Vedas and Vyakarana and encouraged the study of Kasikavrtti. He has written many books on vedic studies.
raivatikādia class of words headed by रैवतिक to which the taddhita affix ईय ( छ ) is added in the sense of 'belonging to'; e. g. रैवतिकीय:, औदवाहीयः, बैजवापीय: et cetera, and others confer, compare Kaś. on P. IV. 3.131.
vatinirdeśaspecific statement by putting the word वत् for the sake of extended application ( अतिदेश ) ; exempli gratia, for example ब्राह्मणवदधीते: confer, compare स तर्हि वतिनिदेश: कर्तव्यः । न ह्यन्तरेण वतिमातदेशो गम्यते । M.Bh.on P. I.1.23 Vart. 4.
śāśvatikaeternal or permanent, as contrasted with कार्य id est, that is produced; confer, compareएतस्मिन्वाक्ये इन्दुमैत्रेययो: शाश्वतिको विरोधः Siradeva Pari.36; cf also एके वर्णाञू शाश्वतिकान् न कार्यान् R.Pr.XIII.4.
anudāttetliterally one whose mute significatory letter is uttered with a grave accent: a term applied to a root characterized by an indicatory mute vowel accented grave, the chief feature of such a root being that it takes only the Ātmanepada affixes c. g. आस्ते, वस्ते, et cetera, and others; confer, compare अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; such a root, in forming a derivative word in the sense of habit, takes the affix युच् e. g. वर्त्तनः, वर्धन: et cetera, and others provided the root begins with a consonant; confer, compare अनुदात्तेतश्र हलादेः P. III.2.149.
avayavamember or portion, as opposed to the total or collection (समुदाय) which is called अवयविन्; confer, compare अवयवप्रसिद्धेः समुदायप्रसिद्धिर्बलीयसी Par.Śek. Pari. 98. The conventional sense is more powerful than the derivative sense.
avibhāgapakṣaa view of grammarians according to which there are words which are looked upon as not susceptible to derivation. The terms अखण्डपक्ष and अव्युत्पन्नपक्ष are also used in the same sense.
avyutpattipakṣathe view held generally by grammarians that all words are not necessarily susceptible to analysis or derivation, an alternative view opposed to the view of the etymologists or Nairuktas that every word is derivable; confer, compare पाणिनेस्त्वव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष एवेति शब्देन्दुशेखरे निरूपितम् Pari. Śekh. Pari. 22; वाचक उपादान: स्वरूपवानिति अव्युत्पत्तिपक्षे Vyāḍi's Saṁgraha.
āśvalāyanaprātiśākhyaan authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the Ṛksaṁhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa.
indraname of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; confer, compare the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya edition by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
utthānaelevation of tone.
uddhātaelevation; named also उच्चीभाव.
upapadasamāsathe compound of a word, technically termed as उपपद by Pāṇini according to his definition of the word in III.1.92., with another word which is a verbal derivative; confer, compare कुम्भकारः, नगरकारः Here technically the compound of the words कुम्भ, नगर et cetera, and others which are upapadas is formed with कार,before a case-termination is added to the nominal base कार; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 75.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
ubhayaprāptia case or a matter in which both the alternatives occur, as for instance, the genitive case for the subject and the object of a verbal derivative noun (कृदन्त); confer, compare उभयप्राप्तौ कर्मणि । उभयोः प्राप्तिः यस्मिन् कृति सोयमुभयप्राप्तिः तत्र कर्मण्येव षष्ठी स्यात् न कर्तरि । आश्चर्यो गवां दोहः अगोपालकेन Kāś. on P. II.3.66.
kaṇvādia class of words forming a portion of the class of words called गर्गादि, and headed by the word कण्व, to the derivatives of which, formed by the afix यञ् by the rule गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् (P.IV.1.105) the affix अण् is added in the miscellaneous senses; exempli gratia, for example काण्वाः छात्राः; similarly गौकक्षाः, शाकलाः , अगस्तयः, कुण्डिनाः etc: confer, compare P.IV.2.111 and II. 4.70.
kartṛagent of an action, subject; name of a kāraka or instrument in general, of an action, which produces the fruit or result of an action without depending on any other instrument; confer, compare स्वतन्त्रः कर्ता P. I.4.54, explained as अगुणीभूतो यः क्रियाप्रसिद्धौ स्वातन्त्र्येण विवक्ष्यते तत्कारकं कर्तृसंज्ञं भवति in the Kāśikā on P.I. 4.54. This agent, or rather, the word standing for the agent, is put in the nominative case in the active voice (confer, compare P.I.4.54), in the instrumental case in the passive voice (cf P. II.3.18), and in the genitive case when it is connected with a noun of action or verbal derivative noun, (confer, compare P.II.3.65).
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantraprakriyāa name given to the Kātantra Sūtras which were written in the original form as a Prakriyāgrantha or a work discussing the various topics such as alphabet, euphonic rules, declension, derivatives from nouns, syntax, conjugation derivatives from roots et cetera, and others et cetera, and others
kārakavibhakticase affix governed by a verb or verbal derivative as contrasted with उपपदविभक्ति a case affix governed by a noun, not possessing any verbal activity. See the word कारक a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., See also the word उपपदविभक्ति.
kṛtliterally activity; a term used in the grammars of Pāṇini and others for affixes applied to roots to form verbal derivatives; confer, compare कृदतिङ् । धातोः ( ३ ।१।९१ ) इत्यधिकारे तिङ्कवर्जितः प्रत्ययः कृत् स्यात् । Kāś. on III.1.93, The kṛt affixes are given exhaustively by Pāṇini in Sūtras III.1.91 to III.4. I17. कृत् and तद्धित appear to be the ancient Pre-Pāṇinian terms used in the Nirukta and the Prātiśākhya works in the respective senses of root-born and noun-born words ( कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त according to Pāṇini's terminology), and not in the sense of mere affixes; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः Nirukta of Yāska.I.14: अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; तिङ्कृत्तद्धितसमासा: शब्दमयम् V.Pr. I.27; also confer, compare V.Pr. VI.4. Patañjali and later grammarians have used the word कृत् in the sense of कृदन्त; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari Śek.Pari.75. The kṛt affixes are given by Pāṇini in the senses of the different Kārakas अपादान, संप्रदान, करण, अाधकरण, कर्म and कर्तृ, stating in general terms that if no other sense is assigned to a kṛt affix it should be understood that कर्ता or the agent of the verbal activity is the sense; confer, compare कर्तरि कृत् । येष्वर्थनिर्देशो नास्ति तत्रेदमुपतिष्ठते Kāś. on III.4.67. The activity element possessed by the root lies generally dormant in the verbal derivative nouns; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति, क्रियावदपि । M.Bh.on V.4.19 and VI. 2.139
kṛtrimaartificial; technical, as opposed to derivative. In grammar, the term कृत्रिम means 'technical sense', as contrasted with अकृत्रिम 'ordinary sense'; confer, compare कृत्रिमाकृत्रिमयोः कृत्रिमे कार्यसंप्रत्यय: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 9.
kṛdvṛttia short treatise by a grammarian named मोक्षेश्वर who lived in the fifteenth century. The work deals with verbal derivatives.
ktvāntagerund; a mid-way derivative of a verbal root which does not leave its verbal nature on the one hand although it takes the form of a substantive on the other hand.
tattvabodhinīname of the well-known commentary on Bhattoji's Siddhnta Kaumudi written by his pupil Jnanendrasarasvati at Benares. Out of the several commentaries on the Siddhantakaumudi, the Tattvabodhini is looked upon as the most authoritative and at the same time very scholarly.
dhātupārāyaṇaa grammatical treatise dealing with roots written as a supplementary work by Jumaranandin to his grammar work called Rasavati,which itself was a thoroughly revised and enlarged edition of the रसवती a commentary written by Kramadisvara on his own grammar named संक्षिप्तसार.Jumaranandin is believed to have been a Jain writer who lived in the fifteenth century A.D.
nighaṇṭua name given to a collection of words which are mainly Vedic. In ancient times such collections were possibly very general and numerous and the works or treatises on derivation such as the Nirukta of Yaska were based upon them; confer, compare निघण्टवः कस्मात् । निगमा इमे भवन्ति । छन्दोभ्यः समाहृत्य समाहृत्य समाम्नातास्ते निगन्तव एव सन्तो निगमनान्निघण्टव उच्यन्ते इत्यौपमन्यवः । अपि वा आहननादेव स्युः | समाहता भवन्ति । यद्वा समाहृता भवन्ति (Nir.I.1) where the word is derived from गम्,or हन् or हृ. The word निघण्टु is taken as synonymous with निगम by Durgacarya.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
nipātanaa word given, as it appears, without trying for its derivation,in authoritative works of ancient grammarians especially Panini;confer, compareदाण्डिनायनहास्तिनयनo P. VI.4.174, as also अचतुरविचतुरo V.4.77 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others The phrase निपातनात्सिद्धम् is very frequently used by Patanjali to show that some technical difficulties in the formation of a word are not sometimes to be taken into consideration, the word given by Panini being the correct one; confer, compare M.Bh.on I.1.4, III.1.22 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others; cf also the usual expression बाधकान्येव निपातनानि. The derivation of the word from पत् with नि causal, is suggested in the Rk Pratisakhya where it is stated that Nipatas are laid down or presented as such in manifold senses; cf Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XII.9; cf also घातुसाधनकालानां प्राप्त्यर्थं नियमस्य च । अनुबन्घविकाराणां रूढ्यर्थ च निपातनम् M. Bh Pradipa on P. V.1.114: confer, comparealso Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.27.
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
nirvacanainterpretation by means of etymology as found in the Nirukta works; the act of fully uttering the meaning hidden in words that are partially or wholly unintelligible in respect of their derivation, by separating a word into its component letters; confer, compare निष्कृष्य विगृह्य निर्वचनम्, Durgavrtti on Nirukta of Yāska.II. 1.For details see Nirukta II.1.
nairukta(1)obtained by derivation, etymological; (2) etymologist, writer of a Nirukta work.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
paribhāṣāsegraha'a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his paribhasa.work named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundredition
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtracalled also by the name अष्टक or पाणिनीय-अष्टक; name given to the SUtras of Paanini comprising eight adhyaayaas or books. The total number of SUtras as commented upon by the writers of the Kasika and the Siddhaantakaumudi is 3983. As nine sUtras out of these are described as Vaarttikas and two as Ganasutras by Patanjali, it is evident that there were 3972 SUtras in the Astaka of Paanini according to Patanjali. A verse current among Vaiyakarana schools states the number to be 3996; confer, compare त्रीणि सूत्रसहस्राणि तथा नव शतानि च । षण्णवतिश्च सूत्राणां पाणिनिः कृतवान् स्वयम् । The traditional recital by Veda Scholars who look upon the Astadhyayi as a Vedaanga, consists of 3983 Sutras which are accepted and commented upon by all later grammarians and commentators. The SUtras of Paanini, which mainly aim at the correct formation of words, discuss declension, conjugation, euphonic changes, verbal derivatives, noun derivatives and accents. For details see Vol.VII, Vyaakarana Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's edition pp. 152-162.
pārṣada parṣadi bhavaṃ pārṣadamliterally the interpretation or theory discussed and settled at the assembly of the learnedition The word is used in the sense of works on Nirukti or derivation of words as also works of the type of the Prātiśākhyās; confer, compare पदप्रकृतीनि सर्वचरणानां पार्षदानि Nirukta of Yāska.I. 17 and the commentary of, दुर्गाचार्यः confer, compare also पार्षदकृतिरेषा तत्रभवतां नैव लोके नान्यस्मिन्वेदे अर्ध एकारः अर्ध ओकारो वास्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1. 48: see also pp. 104, 105 Vol. VII Mahābhāsya D. E. Society's edition. See पारिषद.
puruṣakāraname of a commentary on the Sarasvatikaņthābharaņa of Bhoja by Kŗşņalilāśukamuni.
pratikaṇṭhamvocally, pronouncedly, expressly without any attention to the derivation or the formation of the word; ( 2 ) irregular formation; c.. सर्वशास्त्रार्थं प्रतिकण्ठमुक्तम् where प्रतिकण्ठ is explained as निपातन by Uvvata; confer, compare प्रतिकण्ठं निपातनम् : उत्सर्गविधिभिः साधयितुमशक्या अपि प्रयोगविशेषा निपात्यन्ते शास्त्रसंपूर्तये. Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.23.
bahuprakruti(l)consisting of a large number of verbal parts in derivation; बह्वयः प्रकृतयो यत्र; (2) a compound in which the constituent words are all in the plural number, confer, compare सर्वे द्वन्द्वो विभाषैकवद्भवति । बहुप्रकृतिरिति वक्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.4.12 Vart.l ; (3) a compound word ( पद ) made up of many constituent words; confer, compare बहूनि पदानि यत्र तद् बहुप्रकृति पदम् Vaj. Prat. V. 7.
bṛṃhaṇakeeping: preservation;confer, compare क्रमादतोप्यृग्यजुषां च बृंहणम् | बृंहणं संधारणम् ;Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI. 37.
bhaṭṭojīsurnamed Diksita; a stalwart grammarian of the Panini system who flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century and wrote many independent books and commentaries such as the Siddhantakaumudi, the Praudhamanorama, the Vaiyakaranasiddhantakarika, the Sabdakaustubha and others. The most reputed work out of these, however, is the Siddhantakaumudi which is very popular even today and which has almost set aside other works of its kind such as the Prakriyakaumudi and others. Bhattoji was a Telagu Brahmana, as generally believed, and although he belonged to the South, he made Varanasi his home where he prepared a school of learned Grammarians. Although he carried on his work silently in Varanasi, he was envied by the reputed rhetorician of his time Pandita Jagannātha, who criticised his work ( Bhattojis work ) named Manorama very severely. See प्रौढमनोरमा a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got many commentaries of which the Tattvabodhini written by Bhattoji's pupil Jnanendrasarasvati is appreciated much by learned grammarians.
bhāva(1)becoming; existence. The word is used many times in the sense of धात्वर्थthe sense of a root which is 'incomplete activity' or 'process of evolving'; confer, compare तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातु: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 5; confer, compare also षड् भावविकारा भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 36; पूर्वापरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेन आचष्टे व्रजतिपचतीत्युपक्रमप्रभृति अपवर्गपर्यन्तम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1 ; (2) activity as opposed to instruments ( साधन or कारक ); confer, compare भावगर्हायाम् । धात्वर्थगर्हायाम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.24; confer, compare also भावः क्रिया, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम् P. II. 3.37; (3) completed action which is shown, not by a verb, but by a verbal derivative noun; confer, compare धात्वर्थश्च धातुनैवोच्यते | यस्तस्य सिद्धता नाम धर्मस्तत्र घञादयः प्रत्यया विधीयन्ते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on 'भावे' P. III. 3.18; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.19, III. 1.67, IV. 1.3, V. 4.19; confer, compare also भावस्त्वेक: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.67; (4) the radical factor for the use of a word; प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त; confer, compare भवतोत्मादभिधानप्रत्ययौ इति भावः | शब्दस्य प्रवृत्तिनिमित्तं भावशब्देनोच्यते | अश्वत्वम् , अश्वता | Kāś, on P. 5.1.119; (5) thing, object cf सिद्धशब्दः कूटस्थेषु भावेष्वविचालिषु वर्तते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Āhnika l; (6) transformation, substitution; change into the nature of another; confer, compare तत्र प्रथमास्तृतीयभावम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 4. confer, compare also the words मूर्धन्यभाव, अभिनिधानभाव et cetera, and others {7) possession of the qualities, nature; तदर्थस्य भाव: तादर्थ्यम्: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.13; (8) relationship; confer, compare गुणप्रधानभाव, प्रकृतिविकृतिभाव et cetera, and others
bhāvakartṛkahaving for its subject a verbal derivative in the sense of the भाव or the root activity. The word भाववचन is explained as भावकर्तृक in the Kāṡikāvŗtti. e. g. the word रोग: in चौरस्य रुजति रोगः Kāṡ. on P. II. 3.54: confer, compare भाववचनानां भावकर्तृकाणां Kāṡ. on P II. 3.54.
bhāvavacana(1)expressive of भाव or the completed verbal activity; exempli gratia, for example the word भाव itself, as also कृती, राग, and others; (2) having for their subject a verbal derivative in the form of the verbal activity. See भावकर्तृक.
mahābhāṣyapradīpavivaraṇa(1)original name of the learned commentary on the 'Pradipa' of Kaiyata written by Nagesabhatta, a stalwart and epoch-making grammarian of the 18th century. The commentary is known popularly by the name 'Uddyota' or Pradipoddyota; (2) name of the commentary on Kaiyata's Pradipa by Nityaananda Parvatiya. The commentary is also known by the name दीपप्रभा.
yadṛcchāśabdliterally a chance-word: Samjna-sabda or proper noun which is given accidentally without any found used attention to derivation or authority confer, compare अयं , तर्हि यदृच्छाशब्दोsपरिहार्यः। लृफिङ्: लृफिङ्ङ् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on Siva Stra2.
yāskaa reputed ancient Niruktakara or etymologist, of the 6th century B.C. or even a few centuries before that, whose work, the Nirukta, is looked upon as the oldest authoritative treatise regarding derivation of Vedic words. Yaska was preceded by a number of etymologists whom he has mentioned in his work and whose works he has utilisedition Yaska's Nirukta threw into the back-ground the older treatises on etymology, all of which disappeared gradually in the course of time.
yogarūḍhaa word that can be derived, but is always used in a specific sense, the derivative sense which is wider being limited: exempli gratia, for example पङ्कजम्.
yaugikabased on derivation; etymological; one of the kinds of words रूढ, यौगिक, योगरूढ and यौगिकरूढ; confer, compare सैन्धवशब्दो लवणे उभयलिङ्ग:। यौगिकस्याभिधेयवल्लिङ्गम् l Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.4.31.
rūḍhaconventional; traditional; one of the four senses in which words are usedition The senses are यौगिक (derivative ), रूढ (conventional), योगरूढ and यौगिकरूढ; The term रूढ is also used in the sense of ' a conventional word ' confer, compare प्रथमाशब्दो विभक्तिविशेषे रूढः Kās. on P. VI. 1.102.
rūḍhiconvention; usage; custom. The word रूढि is given along with योग ( derivation ) as the basis of the use of words which are described to be of four kinds; see रूढ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. confer, compare नैगमरूढिभवं हि सुसाधु P. III 3. 1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1.
rūpa(1)word-form which is complete with प्रकृति ( the base ) and प्रत्यय, id est, that is the affix which is attached to it; confer, compare रूपनिर्ग्रहश्च शब्दस्य नान्तरेण लौकिकं प्रयोगम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.22 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; confer, compare also the usual expression का रूपसिद्धिः in the Mahābhāșya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.51, 1.2.58 et cetera, and others ; the word is also used in the sense of a word-base ( धातु or प्रातिपदिक ); confer, compare स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा P. I. 1.68; (2) the word form as characterized by its derivation and properties confer, compare तस्य रूपान्यत्वे वर्णान्यत्वम् explained as तस्य शब्दस्य अनुप्रदानादिभिः कारणौ रूपभेदे जन्यमाने वर्णभेदः संपद्यते Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 2
vibhāṣāoptionally, alternatively; the word is explained by Pāṇini as नवा in the rule न वेति विभाषा (P.I.1.44)in consonance with its derivation from the root भाष् with वि; confer, compare नेति प्रतिषेधे वेति विकल्पस्तयोः प्रतिषेधविकल्पयोर्विभाषेत्ति संज्ञा भवति । विभाषाप्रदेशेषु प्रतिषेधविकल्पावुपतिष्ठते | तत्र प्रतिषेधेन समीकृते विषये प्रश्चाद्विकल्पः प्रवर्तते. The option (विभाषा) is further divided into three kind प्राप्ते विभाषा, अप्राप्ते विभाषा and उभयत्र विभाषा. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P. I.1.44.
byāḍiname of an ancient grammarian with a sound scholarship in Vedic phonetics, accentuation,derivation of words and their interpretation. He is believed to have been a relative and contemporary of Panini and to have written a very scholarly vast volume on Sanskrit grammar named *Samgraha which is believed to have consisted of a lac of verses; confer, compare संग्रहो व्याडिकृतो लक्षसंख्ये ग्रन्थ: NageSa's Uddyota; confer, compare also इह पुरा पाणिनीये अस्मिन्व्याकरणे ब्याड्युपरचितं लक्षग्रन्थपरिमाणं निबन्धनमासीत् Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Tika. The work is not available at present. References to Vyadi or to his work are found in the Pratisakhya works, the Mahabhasya, the Varttikas, the Vakyapadiya and many subsequent treatises. A work on the Vyakarana Paribhasas, believed to have been written by Vyadi, is available by the name परिभाषासूचन which from its style and other peculiarities seems to have been written after the Varttikas, but before the Mahabhasya. Vyadi is well-known to have been the oldest exponent of the doctrine that words denote an individual object and not the genus. For details see pp. 136-8, Vol. 7 Vyakarana Mahabhasya DE. Society's Edition.
vyutpattiderivation of a word from a root which formed a special feature of the Nairukta school of Vedic scholars in ancient times; the word निर्वचन is used in the same sense: confer, compare सति संभवे व्युत्पत्तिरन्यथा कर्तव्या रूढेरनियमात् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 2.93.
vyutpattivāda(l)name given to a topic in grammar which deals with the derivation of words as suitable to the sense: (2) name given to treatises discussing the derivation and interpretation of words.
vyutpannatvaderivation, correct understanding of the sense by derivation.
śabdavyutpattiderivation of a word by tracing it to the root from which it is formedition
śabdavyutpattikaumudīa small treatise on the derivation of words written by a grammarian named RajaramaSastrin.
ṣaṣṭhīthe sixth case; the genitive case. This case is generally an ordinary case or विभक्ति as contrasted with कारकविभक्ति. A noun in the genitive case shows a relation in general, with another noun connected with it in a sentence. Commentators have mentioned many kinds of relations denoted by the genitive case and the phrase एकशतं षष्ठ्यर्थाः (the genitive case hassenses a hundred and one in all),. is frequently used by grammarians confer, compare षष्ठी शेषे P. II. 3.50; confer, compare also बहवो हि षष्ठ्यर्थाः स्वस्वाम्यनन्तरसमीपसमूहविकारावयवाद्यास्तत्र यावन्त: शब्दे संभवन्ति तेषु सर्वेषु प्राप्तेषु नियमः क्रियते षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा इति । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.49. The genitive case is used in the sense of any karaka when that karaka ; is not to be considered as a karaka; confer, compare कारकत्वेन अविवक्षिते शेषे षष्ठी भविष्यति. A noun standing as a subject or object of an activity is put in the genitive case when that activity is expressed by a verbal derivative , and not by a verb itself; confer, compare कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति P. II. 3 .65. For the senses and use of the genitive case, confer, compare P. II. 3.50 to 73.
samāsaplacing together of two or more words so as to express a composite sense ; compound composition confer, compare पृथगर्थानामेकार्थीभावः समासः। Although the word समास in its derivative sense is applicable to any wording which has a composite sense (वृत्ति), still it is by convention applied to the समासवृत्ति only by virtue of the Adhikarasutra प्राक् कडारात् समास: which enumerates in its province the compound words only. The Mahabhasyakara has mentioned only four principal kinds of these compounds and defined them; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थ प्रधानोव्ययीभावः। उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः। अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः । उभयपदार्थप्रधानो द्वन्द्वः । M.Bh. on P.II.1.6; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.II.1.20, II.1.49,II.2.6, II.4.26, V.1.9. Later grammarians have given many subdivisions of these compounds as for example द्विगु, कर्मधारय and तत्पुरुष (with द्वितीयातत्पुरुष, तृतीयातत्पुरुष et cetera, and othersas also अवयवतत्पुरुष, उपपदतत्पुरुष and so on) समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुवीहि, समाहारद्वन्द्व, इतरेतरद्वन्द्व and so on. समासचक्र a short anonymous treatise on compounds which is very popular and useful for beginners. The work is attributed to वररुचि and called also as समासपटल. The work is studied and committed to memory by beginners of Sanskrit ] studies in the PathaSalas of the old type.
sāmānyagrahaṇāvighātathe preservation of the inclusion of two or more terms by such a wording as is common to those two or more terms; exempli gratia, for example ङी for ङीप् ङीष् and ङीन्; आप् for टाप्, डाप् and चाप्: confer, compare अथवा अवश्यमत्र सामान्यग्रहणाविघातार्थः ककारोनुबन्धः कर्तव्यः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III, 1.83 Vart.. 7. The phrase सामान्यग्रहणाविघातार्थ is very frequently used in the Kasikavrtti.
sārasvataname of a grammar work which was once very popular on account of its brevity, believed to have been written in the sutra form by an ancient grammarian named Narendra who is said to have composed 700 sutras under the inspiration of Sarasvati.The exposition of these Sutras by a reputed grammarian named Anubhutisvarupacarya who possibly flourished in the thirteenth century A. D., is known by the name सारस्वतप्रक्रिया which has remained as a text book on grammar to the present day in some parts of India. This प्रक्रिया is popularly known as सारस्वतव्याकरण. The technical terms in this grammar are the current popular ones.
siddhāntakaumudīvādārthaan explanatory work, discussing the difficult sentences and passages of the Siddhantakaumudi, written by a grammarian named Ramakrisna. सिद्धान्तरत्न a gloss on the Sarasvatisutra written by a grammarian natmed Jinacandra. सिद्धान्तरत्नाङ्कुर name of a commentary on the Katantraparisista by Sivaramacakravartin.
subdhātua root formed from a noun or a subanta by the addition of any of the following affixesक्यच् ( by P. III. 1.8, 10 and l9), काम्यच् (by P.III.1.9), क्यङ् (by P. III.1.1 1, 12 and 14-18), क्यष् (by P.III.1.13),णिङ् (by P III.1.20), णिच् (by P.III.1.21 and 25) and यक् (by P.III.1.27)and also by क्विप् or zero affix by P. III. b.l l Varttika 3. All these formations ending with the affixes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are termed roots by the rule सनाद्यन्ता धातव: (P.III. 1. | 32) and are regularly conjugated in all the ten tenses and moods with the general conjugational sign शप् added to them in the conjugational tenses, and स्य, तास् and others in the other tenses and moods, and have verbal derivatives also formed by the addition of suitable krt affixes.
hṛdayahāriṇīname of a commentary written by a grammrian named दण्डनाथ on the Sarasvatikanthabharana of Bhojarja.
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
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abaddhavati irregularly composedSB 1.5.11
abaddhavati is irregularly composedSB 12.12.52
abhibhavati transformsBG 1.39
abhidhāvati he runs afterSB 5.13.5
abhidhāvati runs afterSB 5.14.10
abhidhāvati runs after them on the full-moon night and the dark-moon daySB 5.24.2
abhidhāvati chasesSB 8.9.26
abhidravati coming towardsSB 1.8.10
ādhāvati he runs aboutSB 11.28.16
vṛkṣe ajīvati if the tree is not livingSB 8.19.39
antardhāvati chasesSB 3.32.37
anubhavati the conditioned soul feelsSB 5.14.17
anvatiṣṭhat performedSB 3.20.1
anvatiṣṭhata stood in one placeSB 8.12.26
avati atti maintains and annihilatesSB 1.3.36
avati atti annihilatesSB 1.5.6
avati atti also maintains and annihilatesSB 1.10.24
avati atti maintains and annihilatesSB 1.3.36
avati atti annihilatesSB 1.5.6
avati maintainsSB 1.8.16
avati atti also maintains and annihilatesSB 1.10.24
avati give protectionSB 2.2.5
avati maintainsSB 3.11.27
avati maintainsSB 4.11.25
avati maintainsSB 6.15.6
avati maintain sSB 7.3.26-27
avati maintainsSB 7.8.8
avati maintainsSB 10.46.40
avati maintainsSB 10.57.15
avati protectsSB 10.60.2
avati maintainsSB 10.74.20-21
avati maintainsSB 10.84.17
avati protectsSB 12.11.50
avati protectsCC Madhya 23.114
avatiṣṭhate becomes establishedBG 2.65
avatiṣṭhate becomes situatedBG 6.18
avatiṣṭhate can be fixedSB 2.2.12
avatiṣṭhate presently existsSB 3.22.20
avatiṣṭhate he remainsSB 3.28.44
avatiṣṭhate standsSB 5.24.27
avatiṣṭhate develops firmlySB 12.4.34
avatiṣṭhati remainsBG 14.22-25
avatiṣṭhati sometimes standsSB 5.26.14
āvirbhavati appearsNBS 80
āviṣkurvati He manifestsCC Adi 17.281
āviṣkurvati He manifestsCC Madhya 9.150
bhagavati unto the Personality of GodheadSB 1.2.7
bhagavati unto the Personality of GodheadSB 1.2.18
bhagavati the Personality of GodheadSB 1.2.22
bhagavati unto the Personality of GodheadSB 1.5.32
bhagavati unto the Personality of GodheadSB 1.9.32
bhagavati unto the Personality of GodheadSB 1.9.39
bhagavati unto HimSB 1.9.43
bhagavati unto the Supreme Lord, Śrī KṛṣṇaSB 1.15.33
bhagavati the personality of GodheadSB 1.15.50
bhagavati unto the Personality of GodheadSB 1.18.2
bhagavati the Personality of GodheadSB 1.18.35
bhagavati unto Lord Śrī KṛṣṇaSB 1.19.16
bhagavati the Personality of GodheadSB 2.2.33
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 2.3.11
bhagavati the Personality of GodheadSB 2.4.3-4
bhagavati the Personality of GodheadSB 2.6.31
bhagavati unto the LordSB 2.7.52
bhagavati of the Personality of GodheadSB 3.10.1
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 3.14.44-45
bhagavati in the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 3.15.33
bhagavati unto the LordSB 3.20.7
bhagavati the Personality of GodheadSB 3.24.45
bhagavati in the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 3.24.46
bhagavati towards the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 3.25.19
bhagavati the Personality of GodheadSB 3.28.34
bhagavati the Personality of GodheadSB 3.32.23
bhagavati in the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 3.33.26
bhagavati on the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 3.33.37
bhagavati to ŚivaSB 4.2.21
bhagavati of the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 4.11.14
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 4.11.30
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 4.12.18
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 4.12.46
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 4.13.1
bhagavati unto the Personality of GodheadSB 4.23.10
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 4.23.37
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 4.23.39
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 4.24.69
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 4.28.39
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 4.29.36-37
bhagavati in the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 4.31.8
bhagavati in the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.1.6
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.1.27
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.5.35
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.6.16
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.7.6
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.7.7
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.7.12
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.8.29
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, ViṣṇuSB 5.15.7
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.16.3
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.17.3
bhagavati to the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.18.12
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.19.20
bhagavati in the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.20.25
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.24.19
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 6.2.24-25
bhagavati on the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 6.2.38
bhagavati to the Supreme Personality of Godhead (not to the demigods)SB 6.3.22
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 6.3.26
bhagavati in the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 6.9.36
bhagavati in the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 6.9.39
bhagavati Personality of GodheadSB 6.10.11
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 6.12.21
bhagavati to the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 6.12.22
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 6.14.1
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 6.17.31
bhagavati the Personality of GodheadSB 7.1.14-15
bhagavati in the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 7.1.20
bhagavati the Personality of GodheadSB 7.1.28-29
bhagavati unto Lord Viṣṇu, the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 7.4.4
bhagavati in the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 7.4.34
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 7.4.36
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 7.5.23-24
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 7.5.41
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 7.7.29
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 7.7.33
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 7.7.53
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 7.9.55
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 7.15.26
bhagavati the Personality of GodheadSB 8.7.40
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 8.17.2-3
bhagavati unto the LordSB 9.2.11-13
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 9.4.17
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 9.4.21
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 9.16.11
bhagavati the Supreme LordSB 9.21.16
bhaktiḥ bhagavati the cult of bhakti, devotional service unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 10.8.51
bhagavati for the Personality of GodheadSB 10.15.35
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 10.16.20
bhagavati directed toward the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 10.23.20-21
bhagavati for the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 10.23.39
bhagavati in regard to the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 10.29.16
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 10.30.1
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 10.33.39
bhagavati for the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 10.38.2
bhagavati the Supreme LordSB 10.39.2
bhagavati for the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 10.46.29
bhagavati the lordSB 10.46.47
vāsudeve bhagavati unto Lord Vāsudeva, Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 10.47.23
bhagavati for the Supreme LordSB 10.47.25
bhagavati for the Supreme LordSB 10.69.45
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 10.80.5
bhagavati for the LordSB 10.81.41
bhagavati the Personality of GodheadSB 10.83.31
bhagavati on the Supreme LordSB 10.85.59
bhagavati in the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 11.2.45
bhagavati of the Personality of GodheadSB 11.5.38-40
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 12.2.22
bhagavati the Personality of GodheadSB 12.3.48
bhagavati for the Supreme LordSB 12.10.6
bhagavati for the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 12.10.34
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Adi 8.58
bhagavati in the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Adi 13.77
bhagavati in the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Madhya 8.275
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Madhya 9.259-260
bhagavati in the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Madhya 22.72
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Madhya 22.76
bhagavati the LordCC Madhya 24.157
bhagavati the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Madhya 25.76
bhagavati in the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Madhya 25.129
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Antya 3.84
bhagavati unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Antya 5.48
bhaktiḥ bhagavati the cult of bhakti, devotional service unto the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 10.8.51
bhavati it so becomesBG 1.43
bhavati takes placeBG 2.63
bhavati becomes possibleBG 3.14
bhavati become manifestedBG 4.7
bhavati comesBG 4.12
bhavati becomesBG 6.2
bhavati becomesBG 6.17
bhavati takes birthBG 6.42
bhavati becomesBG 7.23
bhavati becomesBG 9.31
bhavati becomesBG 14.3
bhavati becomes prominentBG 14.10
bhavati isBG 14.21
bhavati becomesBG 17.2
bhavati becomesBG 17.3
bhavati there isBG 17.7
bhavati comesBG 18.12
bhavati comes into beingSB 1.2.18
bhavati isSB 3.26.7
bhavati becomesSB 4.23.34
bhavati isSB 5.11.7
bhavati becomesSB 5.14.4
bhavati becomesSB 5.16.20-21
bhavati is possibleSB 5.19.19
bhavati isSB 5.26.3
bhavati becomesSB 5.26.9
bhavati come into beingSB 6.1.54
bhavati isSB 6.9.36
bhavati can it beSB 6.16.45
bhavati becomesSB 7.13.16-17
sat bhavati becomes factual and permanentSB 8.9.29
tat bhavati becomes beneficialSB 8.9.29
bhavati becomesSB 9.4.12
bhavati becomesSB 9.5.16
bhavati it isSB 10.11.18
bhavati becomesSB 10.12.42
bhavati isSB 10.14.57
bhavati my good ladySB 10.82.38
bhavati isSB 11.2.55
bhavati one becomesSB 12.12.60
bhavati there isCC Adi 3.22
bhavati isCC Adi 3.27
bhavati becomesCC Madhya 8.72
bhavati isCC Madhya 25.128
bhavati isCC Antya 7.15
bhavati isCC Antya 8.67-68
bhavati becomesNoI 7
bhavati arisesBs 5.61
bhavati isMM 11
bhavati there isMM 51
bhavati becomesNBS 4
bhavati becomesNBS 4
bhavati becomesNBS 4
bhavati becomesNBS 5
bhavati becomesNBS 6
bhavati becomesNBS 6
bhavati becomesNBS 6
bhavati becomesNBS 46
bhavati becomesNBS 47
bhavati becomesNBS 48
śreyāya bhavati is to be considered betterNBS 57
bhavati becomesNBS 71
bhavati becomesNBS 82
bhavati becomesNBS 84
bruvati speakingSB 10.22.13
bruvati having spokenSB 10.70.32
bruvati when He had spokenSB 11.4.9
bruvati while he was speakingSB 11.30.44
dhāvati movesSB 3.11.15
dhāvati he also used to walkSB 4.25.57-61
dhāvati he runsSB 5.13.4
dhāvati runsSB 6.2.12
dhāvati he wentSB 9.4.51
dhāvati speculatesSB 10.1.42
dhāvati was runningSB 10.34.30
gatavati mayi when I am goneSB 4.28.18
gatavati having goneSB 10.87.10
guṇa-vati at the qualified momentCC Antya 1.184
he jāmbavati O daughter of JāmbavānSB 10.83.6-7
hrasvati diminishesSB 12.3.22
hṛtavati act of diminishingSB 1.9.35
he jāmbavati O daughter of JāmbavānSB 10.83.6-7
vati livesBG 3.16
vati still livingSB 1.14.28-29
vati is livingSB 4.5.8
vati is livingSB 6.14.54
vati remains aliveSB 7.2.40
vati livesSB 7.2.40
vati livesSB 7.5.37
vati while he is aliveSB 10.38.41
vati He is livingSB 10.55.32
juhvati offerBG 4.26
juhvati they sacrificeBG 4.26
juhvati offerBG 4.27
juhvati offerBG 4.29
juhvati sacrificeBG 4.29
juhvati execute sacrificeSB 7.15.9
juhvati offersSB 7.15.52
kapaṭa-yuvati-veṣaḥ appearing as a false young girlSB 8.12.47
vibhavati kriyāya by the verb vibhavati ('flourishes')CC Adi 16.66
maghavati in famine and scarcitySB 1.16.20
gatavati mayi when I am goneSB 4.28.18
nabhasvati air respirationSB 2.10.20
navati ninetySB 5.4.10
ṣaṭ-ṇavati ninety-sixSB 5.24.16
navatim ninetySB 3.30.24
navatim ninetySB 12.1.29-31
paridhāvati runs aroundSB 5.14.8
paridhāvati sometimes runs here and thereSB 5.26.14
paridhāvati chasing all aroundSB 11.19.26
prabhavati is manifestBG 8.19
prabhavati able to influenceSB 5.24.14
prabhavati can have its effectSB 11.2.54
prabhavati manifestsCC Madhya 8.182
pradhāvati runs afterSB 4.29.18-20
pradhāvati runs awaySB 8.2.33
prajā-vati who begot a sonSB 6.14.38
pratyavatiṣṭhate it appearsSB 3.27.20
sampradhāvati perfectly enteringSB 3.7.15
ṣaṭ-ṇavati ninety-sixSB 5.24.16
sat bhavati becomes factual and permanentSB 8.9.29
sravati run outSB 11.16.43
sravati flowsBs 5.56
śreyāya bhavati is to be considered betterNBS 57
sthitavati while staying thereSB 1.9.35
tat bhavati becomes beneficialSB 8.9.29
vati even thus (being defeated)SB 10.50.41
udanvati down to the seaSB 1.8.42
udanvati in the water of the oceanSB 7.9.19
udanvati in the water of devastationSB 8.24.37
udanvati into the seaSB 10.55.3
upadhāvati worshipsSB 5.3.13
upadhāvati runs afterSB 5.14.6
upadhāvati approaches for material acquisitionSB 5.14.12
upadhāvati worshipsSB 5.17.16
upadhāvati worships in devotional serviceSB 5.18.29
upadhāvati worshipSB 5.18.34
upadhāvati followsSB 11.3.39
upajīvati resorts toSB 10.24.19
upajīvati utilizing for one's bodily maintenanceSB 11.18.40-41
upajuhvati offerBG 4.25
vāsudeve bhagavati unto Lord Vāsudeva, Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 10.47.23
prajā-vati who begot a sonSB 6.14.38
guṇa-vati at the qualified momentCC Antya 1.184
kapaṭa-yuvati-veṣaḥ appearing as a false young girlSB 8.12.47
vibhavati flourishesCC Adi 16.41
vibhavati kriyāya by the verb vibhavati ('flourishes')CC Adi 16.66
vṛkṣe ajīvati if the tree is not livingSB 8.19.39
kapaṭa-yuvati-veṣaḥ appearing as a false young girlSB 8.12.47
yuvatibhiḥ their everlastingly youthful wivesSB 5.16.20-21
yuvatibhiḥ very youngSB 7.12.8
yuvatibhiḥ in the company of young girlsSB 10.10.4
yuvatibhiḥ by the girlsSB 10.33.23
yuvatibhiḥ with young womenSB 10.71.31-32
yuvatibhiḥ by the young womenSB 10.90.11
     DCS with thanks   
42 results
     
vati noun (neuter) (gramm.) the particle vat
Frequency rank 30038/72933
vati noun (feminine) (prob.) asking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
begging (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[gramm.] the suffix -vat
Frequency rank 64518/72933
anavatiṣṭhamāna adjective
Frequency rank 42770/72933
aṣṭanavati noun (feminine) aṣṭ
Frequency rank 32814/72933
aṣṭanavatitama adjective
Frequency rank 26803/72933
aṣṭānavati noun (feminine) ninety-eight (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15494/72933
ekanavati noun (feminine) ninety-one (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 47963/72933
ekanavatitama adjective the 91st
Frequency rank 27261/72933
ekonanavati noun (feminine) 89
Frequency rank 48044/72933
ekonanavatitama adjective the 89th
Frequency rank 33671/72933
kavati noun (masculine) [gramm.] root ku
Frequency rank 48913/72933
caturṇavati noun (feminine) 94
Frequency rank 51997/72933
caturnavati noun (feminine) 94
Frequency rank 34864/72933
caturnavatitama adjective the 94th
Frequency rank 27950/72933
cyavati noun (masculine) [gramm.] root cyu
Frequency rank 52481/72933
trinavati noun (feminine) 93 (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53941/72933
trinavatitama adjective the 93rd
Frequency rank 28264/72933
dravati noun (masculine) [gramm.] root dru
Frequency rank 55100/72933
dvinavati noun (feminine) 92 (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28508/72933
dvinavatitama adjective the 92nd
Frequency rank 28509/72933
navati noun (feminine) 90 (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7430/72933
navatitama adjective the 90th (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28584/72933
navanavatitama adjective the 99th
Frequency rank 36126/72933
pañcanavati noun (feminine) 95
Frequency rank 36553/72933
pañcanavatitama adjective the 95th
Frequency rank 28819/72933
pārvati noun (feminine) name of a river
Frequency rank 57862/72933
pratiyuvati noun (feminine) a concubine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
female rival (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 58876/72933
pravati noun (masculine) [gramm.] root pru
Frequency rank 59362/72933
plavati noun (masculine) [gramm.] root plu
Frequency rank 59830/72933
bhavati noun (masculine) [gramm.] the verb bhū
Frequency rank 37782/72933
yavatiktā noun (feminine) a species of plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16034/72933
vatitha adjective in how many soever (degrees advanced) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to whatever place or point (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 63031/72933
yuvati noun (feminine) a girl (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any young female animal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
turmeric (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
young woman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4651/72933
vārayuvati noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 39223/72933
śāśvatika adjective śāśvaṭa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
constant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
eternal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
permanent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 30504/72933
ṣaṇṇavati noun (feminine) 96 (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14506/72933
ṣaṇṇavatitama adjective the 96th
Frequency rank 30659/72933
saptanavati noun (feminine) 97 (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 68815/72933
saptanavatitama adjective the 97th
Frequency rank 30703/72933
sarvatiktā noun (feminine) Solanum Indicum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40532/72933
suvati noun (masculine) [gramm.] the verb sū
Frequency rank 71199/72933
sravati noun (feminine) [gramm.] the verbal root sru
Frequency rank 41271/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
     Purchase Kindle edition

agnituṇḍivaṭi

herbo-mineral preparation used in digestive disorders.

ārogyavardhanīvaṭi

herbo-mineral preparation used in hepatic diseases

candraprabhāvaṭi

herbomineral preparation used in urinary diseases.

candrārka

the derivative of sixteen parts of silver and twelve parts of copper melted together.

carmanvati

river Chambal in north India.

elādivaṭi

medicine used in cough and asthma.

kopana

irritating, aggravating factor.

kośāmra

Plant pickling mango, Himalyan mango, fruit of Mangifera sylvatica.

kriyākāla

duration of an action, rise and falls of humors in the body: accumulation (sancaya), aggravation (prakopa), flow (prasara), translocation (sthānasamsraya), manifestation (vyaktībhāva), becoming chronic and incurable (bheda).

lālāpraseka

excess salivation.

navati

ninety

nirukti

syntactical derivation, etymology (one of the vedāngas)

nirvacana

etymological derivation, one of tantrayuktis, etymology, definition.

niṣṭīvana

spitting, salivation.

pakvātisāra

chronic diarrhoea.

pārvati

1. mountain stream; 2. rock; 3. kind of pepper.

prabhākaravaṭi

a herbo-mineral medicine to treat heart dieseases and more.

prakopa

abnormal increase, aggravation, vitiation, excitation.

prāṇāyāma

extenion of breath; suspending the breath; cultivation of breath.

praseka,lālāpraseka

salivation; excessive salivation

ratnaprabhāvaṭi

medicine made from mineral substances like diamond et Century and used in chronic diseases: tuberculosis, heart diseases et Century

revati

1. one of the seizing planets (graha), 2. bloodlessness, vit. B deficiency; 3. star Zeta Piscium.

śankhavaṭi

ayurvedic medicine used in gastritis.

santoṣa

contentment, cultivation of satisfaction, happyness.

sarasvati

Go to brāhmi

svāti

star Arcturus in the path of the moon.

tejovati

Plant stem bark & dried fruit of Zanthoxylum alatum, Z. armatum.

udīcya

1. northern region, country to the north and west of river sarasvati, 2. kind of perfume; 2. uśīra.

upacaya

accumulation, increase, prosperity, elevation, excess.

uttāpana

elevating.

varanāga

the derivative of loha and nīlānjana (galena) blown strongly.

vaṭi,vaṭika

tablet, pill.

yoṣādivaṭi

medicine used in cough and other respiratory diseases. It contains trikaṭu or three hot substances.

vyutpatti

etymological derivation.

     Wordnet Search "vati" has 373 results.
     

vati

śaniḥ, śanaiścaraḥ, śauriḥ, sauraḥ, sauriḥ, revatibhavaḥ, chāyāsutaḥ, chāyātanayaḥ, chāyātmajaḥ   

khagolīyapiṇḍaḥ yaḥ sauramālāyāṃ saptamasthāne asti।

śaniḥ pṛthivīgrahād atidūre asti।

vati

vīṇā, ghoṣavatī, vipañcī, vipañcikā, vallakī   

svanāmakhyātam tantuvādyam।

māte śārade tvaṃ kutra vīṇāṃ vādayasi।

vati

aśvayānavān, aśvayānavatī   

yaḥ aśvayānaṃ cālayati।

aśvayānavatā aśvayānaṃ ruddhaṃ tadā vayaṃ sarve tasyopari āruḍhāḥ।

vati

atasī, umā, caṇakā, kṣaumī, rudrapatnī, suvarcalā, pichilā, devī, nadagandhā, madotkaṭā, kṣumā, haimavatī, sunīlā, nīlapuṣpikā   

sasyaviśeṣaḥ, kṛṣṇapuṣpavān kṣudravṛkṣaḥ yasya tailadāni bījāni santi।

atasyaḥ pakvebhyaḥ bījebhyaḥ tailaṃ nikṛṣyate।

vati

kāntā, sundarī, rucirā, sudṛśyā, śobhanā, vāmā, rūpavatī, rūpiṇī, surūpī, manoramā, manojñā, lāvaṇyavatī, sādhvī, saumyā, śrīyuktā, sumukhī, abhirāmā, suṣamā, cārvī, peśalā, rucyā, mañjuḥ, mañjulā, vṛndārā   

sā strī yā rūpeṇa cāru asti।

te kānte vārtālāpaṃ kurutaḥ।

vati

sūkṣmagaṇḍaḥ, avagaṇḍaḥ, kṣudravraṇaḥ, varaṇḍaḥ, varaṇḍakaḥ, raktaspoṭaḥ, raktaspoṭakaḥ, kṣudrasphoṭaḥ, sūkṣmasphoṭaḥ, raktapiṇḍaḥ tanuvraṇaḥ, sūkṣmavraṇaḥ, kacchapikā, raktavaraṭī, raktavaṭī, piḍakaḥ, piḍakā, naraṅgaḥ, muramaṇḍaḥ, irāvellikā   

yuvāvasthāyām mukhādiṣu jātaḥ gaṇḍaḥ।

sā sūkṣmagaṇḍe candanādi lepayati।

vati

vṛddhā, jīrṇā, sthavirā, gatāyūḥ, vayogatā, jaraṇā, jaraṭhā, jarāturā, jarāpariṇatā, jaraṇḍā, jīrṇavatī, vayaskā, pravayāḥ, vayodhikā, jīnā, jaratī, palitā, paliknī   

yā gatavayaskā asti।

divākaraḥ vṛddhāṃ mārgapāraṃ kṛtvā dadāti।

vati

puṣpavāṭikā, kusumodyānam, puṣpavanam, kusumākaraḥ, kusumālayaḥ   

puṣpopacayahetuḥ bhūbhāgaḥ।

asyāṃ puṣpavāṭikāyāṃ vibhinnāni puṣpāṇi santi।

vati

saccaritrā, caritravatī, śīlavatī, sadācāriṇī, sādhvī   

yasyāḥ caritraṃ śobhanam।

saccaritrameva saccaritrāyāḥ nāryāḥ ābhūṣaṇam।

vati

sarasvatī, brahmanadī, plakṣajātā, plakṣādevī, brahmasatī, vedagarbhā, siṃdhumātā, sindhumātā, kuṭilā   

pañjābaprāntasya prācīnā nadī।

sarasvatyāḥ gaṇanaṃ bhāratasya bṛhatyāṃ nadyāṃ bhavati।

vati

bhūmigṛham, guptiḥ, bhūtikīla, avaṭaḥ, avaṭiḥ   

gṛhasyādhastād bhūmau khātaḥ koṣṭhaḥ।

tena sarvaṃ dhanaṃ bhūmigṛhe rakṣitam।

vati

parvatīya   

yaḥ parvate nivasati।

naike janāḥ bhārate parvatīyāḥ iti khyātāḥ।

vati

rātriḥ, niśā, rajanī, kṣaṇadā, kṣapā, śarvarī, niś, nid, triyāmā, yāninī, yāmavatī, naktam, niśīthinī, tamasvinī, vibhāvarī, tamī, tamā, tamiḥ, jyotaṣmatī, nirātapā, niśīthyā, niśīthaḥ, śamanī, vāsurā, vāśurā, śyāmā, śatākṣī, śatvarī, śaryā, yāmiḥ, yāmī, yāmikā, yāmīrā, yāmyā, doṣā, ghorā, vāsateyī, tuṅgī, kalāpinī, vāyuroṣā, niṣadvarī, śayyā, śārvarī, cakrabhedinī, vasatiḥ, kālī, tārakiṇī, bhūṣā, tārā, niṭ   

dīpāvacchinna-sūryakiraṇānavacchinnakālaḥ।

yadā dikṣu ca aṣṭāsu meror bhūgolakodbhavā। chāyā bhavet tadā rātriḥ syācca tadvirahād dinam।

vati

pārvatī, ambā, umā, girijā, gaurī, bhagavatī, bhavānī, maṅgalā, mahāgaurī, mahādevī, rudrāṇī, śivā, śailajā, himālayajā, ambikā, acalakanyā, acalajā, śailasutā, himajā, śaileyī, aparṇā, śailakumārī, śailakanyā, jagadjananī, tribhuvanasundarī, sunandā, bhavabhāminī, bhavavāmā, jagadīśvarī, bhavyā, pañcamukhī, parvatajā, vṛṣākapāyī, śambhukāntā, nandā, jayā, nandinī, śaṅkarā, śatākṣī, nityā, mṛḍa़ाnī, hemasutā, adritanayā, haimavatī, āryā, ilā, vāruṇī   

śivasya patnī।

pārvatī gaṇeśasya mātā asti।

vati

nityaḥ, nityam, nityā, śāśvatam, śāśvatī, śāśvataḥ, sadātanī, sadātanaḥ, sadātanam, sanātanaḥ, sanātanī, sanātanam   

niyamena bhavaḥ,kālatrayavyāpī;

īśvaraḥ śāśvataḥ asti। /mā niṣāda pratiṣṭhāṃ tvamagamaḥ śāśvatīḥ samāḥ yat krauñcamithunād ekamavadhīḥ kāmamohitam।

vati

baladevaḥ, balabhadraḥ, saṃkarṣaṇaḥ, haladharaḥ, balaḥ, madhupriyaḥ, balarāmaḥ, tālāṅkaḥ, pralambaghnaḥ, acyutāgrajaḥ, revatīramaṇaḥ, rāmaḥ, kāmapālaḥ, halāyudhaḥ, nīlāmbaraḥ, rauhiṇeyaḥ, tālāṅkaḥ, suṣalī, halī, saṅkarṣaṇaḥ, sīrapāṇiḥ, kālindībhedanaḥ, rukmidarpaḥ, halabhṛt, hālabhṛt, saunandī, guptavaraḥ, saṃvartakaḥ, balī, musalī   

kṛṣṇasya jyeṣṭhaḥ bhrātā yaḥ rohiṇyāḥ putraḥ āsīt।

balarāmaḥ śeṣanāgasya avatāraḥ asti iti manyante।

vati

avatīrṇa   

yaḥ avataritaḥ।

yadā pṛthivyāṃ pāpaṃ vardhate tadā īśvaraḥ manuṣyasya rūpe avatīrṇaḥ bhavati।

vati

kārajaḥ, kārujaḥ, vāsantaḥ, ibhapoṭā, ibhayuvati   

dantavihīnaḥ puṃjātīyaḥ gajaśiśuḥ।

gajayuthasya ante ekaḥ kārajaḥ mandagatyā gacchati।

vati

yuvatī   

sā bālikā yā yuvāvasthāyāṃ praviśati।

asmin saṃvatsare bhāratasya ekayā sundaryā yuvatyā viśvasundarīpadaṃ prāptam।

vati

sarasvatī, prajñā, bhāratī, vāgīśvarī, vāgdevī, vīṇāvādinī, śāradā, haṃsavāhinī, girā, ilā, brāhmī, irā, jñānadā, gīrdevī, īśvarī, vācā, vacasāmīśā, varṇamātṛkā, gauḥ, śrīḥ, vākyeśvarī, antyasandhyeśvarī, sāyaṃsandhyādevatā, gaurī   

vidyāyāḥ vāṇyaḥ ca adhiṣṭhātrī devatā।

sarasvatyāḥ vāhanaṃ haṃsaḥ asti।

vati

udyānam, vāṭikā, upavanam, ārāmaḥ, puṣpavāṭīkā, tevanam   

tat kṛtrimaṃ vanaṃ yatra naikānāṃ puṣpaphalavṛkṣāṇāṃ ropaṇaṃ kṛtam।

bālakāḥ udyāne bījapūrāṇi lūnāti।

vati

vāyuḥ, vātaḥ, anilaḥ, pavanaḥ, pavamānaḥ, prabhañjanaḥ, śvasanaḥ, sparśanaḥ, mātariśvā, sadāgatiḥ, pṛṣadaśvaḥ, gandhavahaḥ, gandhavāhaḥ, āśugaḥ, samīraḥ, mārutaḥ, marut, jagatprāṇaḥ, samīraṇaḥ, nabhasvān, ajagatprāṇaḥ, khaśvāsaḥ, vābaḥ, dhūlidhvajaḥ, phaṇipriyaḥ, vātiḥ, nabhaḥprāṇaḥ, bhogikāntaḥ, svakampanaḥ, akṣatiḥ, kampalakṣmā, śasīniḥ, āvakaḥ, hariḥ, vāsaḥ, sukhāśaḥ, mṛgavābanaḥ, sāraḥ, cañcalaḥ, vihagaḥ, prakampanaḥ, nabhaḥ, svaraḥ, niśvāsakaḥ, stanūnaḥ, pṛṣatāmpatiḥ, śīghraḥ   

viśvagamanavān viśvavyāpī tathā ca yasmin jīvāḥ śvasanti।

vāyuṃ vinā jīvanasya kalpanāpi aśakyā।

vati

pākaśālā, rasavatī, pākasthānam, mahānasam   

randhanagṛham।

sītā pākaśālāyām bhojanasāmagrīṃ svasthāne sthāpayati।

vati

dvānavati   

gaṇanāyāṃ navatyādhikaṃ dvau।

adhunā pratiśataṃ dvānavatiḥ aṅkān prāptvāpi apekṣitaḥ viṣayaḥ na prāpyate।

vati

śivā, haritakī, abhayā, avyathā, pathyā, vayaḥsthā, pūtanā, amṛtā, haimavatī, cetakī, śreyasī, sudhā, kāyasthā, kanyā, rasāyanaphalā, vijayā, jayā, cetanakī, rohiṇī, prapathyā, jīvapriyā, jīvanikā, bhiṣgavarā, bhiṣakpriyā, jīvanti, prāṇadā, jīvyā, devī, divyā   

haritakīvṛkṣasya phalaṃ yad haritapītavarṇīyam asti।

śuṣkakāse śivā atīva upayuktā asti।

vati

kuṭī, kuṭīram, kuṭikā, kuṭiḥ, tṛṇakuṭiḥ, palliḥ, pallī, pārṇaḥ, vāṭī, vāṭīkā   

tṛṇādibhyaḥ vinirmitaṃ laghugṛham।

rāmeṇa grāmāt bahiḥ kuṭī vinirmitā।

vati

durgā, umā, kātyāyanī, gaurī, brahmāṇī, kālī, haimavatī, īśvarā, śivā, bhavānī, rudrāṇī, sarvāṇī, sarvamaṅgalā, aparṇā, pārvatī, mṛḍānī, līlāvatī, caṇaḍikā, ambikā, śāradā, caṇḍī, caṇḍā, caṇḍanāyikā, girijā, maṅgalā, nārāyaṇī, mahāmāyā, vaiṣṇavī, maheśvarī, koṭṭavī, ṣaṣṭhī, mādhavī, naganandinī, jayantī, bhārgavī, rambhā, siṃharathā, satī, bhrāmarī, dakṣakanyā, mahiṣamardinī, herambajananī, sāvitrī, kṛṣṇapiṅgalā, vṛṣākapāyī, lambā, himaśailajā, kārttikeyaprasūḥ, ādyā, nityā, vidyā, śubhahkarī, sāttvikī, rājasī, tāmasī, bhīmā, nandanandinī, mahāmāyī, śūladharā, sunandā, śumyabhaghātinī, hrī, parvatarājatanayā, himālayasutā, maheśvaravanitā, satyā, bhagavatī, īśānā, sanātanī, mahākālī, śivānī, haravallabhā, ugracaṇḍā, cāmuṇḍā, vidhātrī, ānandā, mahāmātrā, mahāmudrā, mākarī, bhaumī, kalyāṇī, kṛṣṇā, mānadātrī, madālasā, māninī, cārvaṅgī, vāṇī, īśā, valeśī, bhramarī, bhūṣyā, phālgunī, yatī, brahmamayī, bhāvinī, devī, acintā, trinetrā, triśūlā, carcikā, tīvrā, nandinī, nandā, dharitriṇī, mātṛkā, cidānandasvarūpiṇī, manasvinī, mahādevī, nidrārūpā, bhavānikā, tārā, nīlasarasvatī, kālikā, ugratārā, kāmeśvarī, sundarī, bhairavī, rājarājeśvarī, bhuvaneśī, tvaritā, mahālakṣmī, rājīvalocanī, dhanadā, vāgīśvarī, tripurā, jvālmukhī, vagalāmukhī, siddhavidyā, annapūrṇā, viśālākṣī, subhagā, saguṇā, nirguṇā, dhavalā, gītiḥ, gītavādyapriyā, aṭṭālavāsinī, aṭṭahāsinī, ghorā, premā, vaṭeśvarī, kīrtidā, buddhidā, avīrā, paṇḍitālayavāsinī, maṇḍitā, saṃvatsarā, kṛṣṇarūpā, balipriyā, tumulā, kāminī, kāmarūpā, puṇyadā, viṣṇucakradharā, pañcamā, vṛndāvanasvarūpiṇī, ayodhyārupiṇī, māyāvatī, jīmūtavasanā, jagannāthasvarūpiṇī, kṛttivasanā, triyāmā, jamalārjunī, yāminī, yaśodā, yādavī, jagatī, kṛṣṇajāyā, satyabhāmā, subhadrikā, lakṣmaṇā, digambarī, pṛthukā, tīkṣṇā, ācārā, akrūrā, jāhnavī, gaṇḍakī, dhyeyā, jṛmbhaṇī, mohinī, vikārā, akṣaravāsinī, aṃśakā, patrikā, pavitrikā, tulasī, atulā, jānakī, vandyā, kāmanā, nārasiṃhī, girīśā, sādhvī, kalyāṇī, kamalā, kāntā, śāntā, kulā, vedamātā, karmadā, sandhyā, tripurasundarī, rāseśī, dakṣayajñavināśinī, anantā, dharmeśvarī, cakreśvarī, khañjanā, vidagdhā, kuñjikā, citrā, sulekhā, caturbhujā, rākā, prajñā, ṛdbhidā, tāpinī, tapā, sumantrā, dūtī, aśanī, karālā, kālakī, kuṣmāṇḍī, kaiṭabhā, kaiṭabhī, kṣatriyā, kṣamā, kṣemā, caṇḍālikā, jayantī, bheruṇḍā   

sā devī yayā naike daityāḥ hatāḥ tathā ca yā ādiśaktiḥ asti iti manyate।

navarātrotsave sthāne sthāne durgāyāḥ pratiṣṭhāpanā kriyate।

vati

nadī, sarit, taraṅgiṇī, śaivalinī, taṭinī, dhunī, srotasvatī, dvīpavatī, sravantī, nimnagā, āpagā, srotasvinī, srotovahā, sāgaragāminī, apagā, nirjhariṇī, sarasvatī, samudragā, kūlaṅkaṣā, kūlavatī, śaivālinī, samudrakāntā, sāgaragā, rodhovatī, vāhinī   

jalasya saḥ pravāhaḥ yaḥ parvatāt ārabhya viśiṣṭamārgeṇa sāgaraṃ prati gacchati।

parvatapradeśe pāṣāṇasikatādiṣu nadī mārgam ākramati ।/ pāṇineḥ na nadī gaṅgā yamunā na nadī sthalī।

vati

gauḥ, māheṣī, saurabheyī, usrā, mātā, śṛṅgiṇī, arjunī, aghnyā, rohiṇī, māhendrī, ijyā, dhenuḥ, aghnā, dogdhrī, bhadrā, bhūgimahī, anaḍuhī, kalyāṇī, pānavī, gaurī, surabhiḥ, mabā, nilināciḥ, surabhī, anaḍvāhī, adhamā, bahulā, mahī, sarasvatī, usriyā, ahī, aditiḥ, ilā, jagatī, śarkarī   

grāmyapaśuviśeṣaḥ,yaḥ sāsnālāṅgulakakudakhuraviṣāṇī tathā ca tasyāḥ dugdhaṃ manuṣyāya puṣṭīkārakam iti manyante।

hindudharmīyāṇāṃ kṛte gauḥ avadhyā asti।

vati

veśyā, gaṇikā, paṇyastrī, vārastrī, sādhāraṇastrī, vārāṅganā, bhogyā, paṇyāṅganā, bandhurā, vāravadhū, vārayuvatī, vāranārī, vāramukhī, vāravāṇī, vāravilāsinī, vārasundarī, vārakanyā, paṇasundarī, paṇastrī, veśayuvatī, veśavadhū, veśavanitā, veśastrī, veśmastrī, rūpajīvinīvāravadhū   

yā paṇyayogena sambhogaṃ kārayati।

kāścana mugdhāḥ bālikāḥ balāt veśyāḥ bhavanti।

vati

bhakṣ(bhakṣati/te), bhakṣ (bhakṣayati), bhuj, khād, aś, ghas, khad, hu, carba, cham, cam (camati), vī, vevī, cam (camnoti), valbh, jakṣ, caṣ, (vi)cam, carv (carvati), carv (carvayati), kuḍ, am, (sam) añj, car, kūḍ, kruḍ, skhad, snus, (upa)yuj (upayunakti), (upa)yuj (upayuṅkte), bhrakṣ, bhlakṣ, plakṣ   

annasya gala-bilādhaḥ-saṃyogānukūla-vyāpāraḥ।

bho māṇavaka, bhakṣaya etat phalam।

vati

garbhavatī, garbhiṇī, antarvatnī, gurviṇī, dohadavatī, sasatvā, āpannasatvā, udariṇī, gurvī   

yasyāḥ udare garbhaḥ asti।

garbhavatyāḥ suśruṣā samyak kartavyā।

vati

vaṭikā, vaṭaḥ, gulī, gulikā   

bheṣajayuktā guṭikā।

roganivāraṇārthe vaṭikā bhakṣaṇīyā।

vati

vijayāvaṭī   

vijayāyāḥ saḥ piṇḍaḥ yaṃ khāditvā janāḥ mattāḥ bhavanti।

holikotsave janāḥ vijayāvaṭīṃ khāditvā mattāḥ bhavanti।

vati

masūrikā, śītalā, raktavaṭī, vasantaḥ, masūrī, gulī, visphoṭaḥ, pāparogaḥ   

rogaviśeṣaḥ,yasmin duṣṭaraktena gostanaja-naragātrajeṣu masūri-sadṛśa-pūyāḥ dṛśyante।

grīṣme masūrikāyāḥ prakarṣeṇa prādurbhāvaḥ bhavati।

vati

bhāṣā, bhāṣaṇam, vāk, vāṇī, vācā, goḥ, girā, uktiḥ, vākśaktiḥ, vadantiḥ, nigadaḥ, nigādaḥ, vyāhāraḥ, vyāhṛtiḥ, vacanam, vādaḥ, tāpaḥ, abhilāpaḥ, lapitam, lapanam, bhaṇitiḥ, bhāratī, sarasvatī, rādhanā, kāsūḥ   

mukhanirgataḥ sārthakaḥ dhvanisamūhaḥ।

bhāṣā samparkasya mādhyamam ।

vati

dyūtam, dyūtakrīḍā, devanam, akṣavatī, kaitavam, paṇaḥ   

krīḍāviśeṣaḥ- kamapi dravyaṃ paṇaṃ kṛtvā tasya svāmibhāvārthaṃ kriyamāṇā akṣadevanayuktā aprāṇikaraṇakā krīḍā।

dyūte pāṇḍavāḥ draupadīm ahāsīt।

dyūtam etat purākalpe sṛṣṭaṃ vairakaram mahat। tasmāt dyūtama na seveta hāsyārtham api buddhimān॥ [manu. 9।227]

vati

cambalanadī, carmāvatī   

madhyabhārate vartamānā nadī।

grīṣmakāle cambalanadyaḥ jalastaraṃ nyūnībhavati।

vati

hiṇḍiraḥ, vārtākī, vaṅganam, hiṅgulī, siṃhī, bhaṇṭākī, duṣpradharṣiṇī, vārtā, vātīṅgaṇaḥ, vārtākaḥ, śākabilvaḥ, rājakuṣmāṇḍaḥ, vṛntākaḥ, vaṅgaṇaḥ, aṅgaṇaḥ, kaṇṭavṛntākī, kaṇṭāluḥ, kaṇṭapatrikā, nidrāluḥ, māṃsaphalakaḥ, mahoṭikā, citraphalā, kaṇcakinī, mahatī, kaṭphalā, miśravarṇaphalā, nīlaphalā, raktaphalā, śākaśreṣṭhā, vṛttaphalā, nṛpapriyaphalā   

vanaspativiśeṣaḥ yasyāḥ phalāni śākarūpeṇa upayujyante।

kṛṣakaḥ kṛṣikṣetre hiṇḍiraṃ ropayati।

vati

vārtākī, vaṅganam, hiṅgulī, siṃhī, bhaṇṭākī, duṣpradharṣiṇī, vārtā, vātīṅgaṇaḥ, vārtākaḥ, śākabilvaḥ, rājakuṣmāṇḍaḥ, vṛntākaḥ, vaṅgaṇaḥ, aṅgaṇaḥ, kaṇṭavṛntākī, kaṇṭāluḥ, kaṇṭapatrikā, nidrāluḥ, māṃsaphalakaḥ, mahoṭikā, citraphalā, kaṇcakinī, mahatī, kaṭphalā, miśravarṇaphalā, nīlaphalā, raktaphalā, śākaśreṣṭhā, vṛttaphalā, nṛpapriyaphalam   

phalaviśeṣaḥ yaḥ śākārthe upayujyate।

mātā śākārthe vārtākīm utkṛntati।

vati

svātinakṣatram, svāti   

tad kālam yasmin candraḥ svāti-nakṣatre vartate।

svāti -nakṣatre varṣājalena śuktau mauktikāni udbhavati

vati

jyotiṣmatī, pārāvatāṅghrī, kaṭabhī, piṇyā, pārāvatapadī, nagaṇā, sphuṭabandhanī, pūtitailā, iṅgudī, svarṇalatā, analaprabhā, jyotirlatā, supiṅgalā, dīptā, medhyā, matidā, durjarā, sarasvatī, amṛtā   

latāviśeṣaḥ-yasyāḥ bījāt tailaṃ prāpyate tathā ca yā vātakaphahāriṇī asti।

jyotiṣmateḥ bījasya tailaṃ bahu upayuktam asti।

vati

brāhmī, somalatā, sarasvatī, saumyā, suraśreṣṭhā, śāradā, suvarcalā, kapotavagā, vaidhātrī, divyatejāḥ, mahauṣadhī, svayaṃbhuvī, saumyalatā, sureṣṭā, brahmakanyakā, maṇaḍūkamātā, maṇḍukī, surasā, medhyā, vīrā, bhāratī, varā, parameṣṭhinī, divyā, śāradā   

kṣupaviśeṣaḥ-yaḥ bheṣajarupeṇa upayujyate yasya guṇāḥ vātāmlapittanāśitvaṃ tathā ca buddhiprajñāmedhākārītvam।

brāhmī prāyaḥ gaṅgātaṭe haridvāranagarasya samīpe dṛśyate।

vati

vidyut, taḍit, vajrasphuliṅgaḥ, śampā, śatahradā, hrādinī, airāvatī, kṣaṇaprabhā, taḍit, saudāminī, cañcalā, capalā, vījā, saudāmnī, cilamīlikā, sarjjūḥ, aciraprabhā, saudāmanī, asthirā, meghaprabhā, aśaniḥ, vajrā   

pṛthivyāḥ vāyumaṇḍalasthāyāḥ vaidyutāyāḥ ūrjāyāḥ utsargaḥ yad meghānāṃ gharṣaṇāt prādurbhavati tathā ca ākāśe prakāśaṃ tathā ca ghoṣadhvaniṃ janayati।

ākāśe vidyut dedīpyate।

vati

bhrātṛjāyā, bhrātṛbhāryā, prajāvatī   

bhrātuḥ jāyā।

avyāpannāmavihatagatirdrakṣyasi bhrātṛjāyām। [megha. 1.10]

vati

arjunī, arvatī, ijyā, bhojyā, masūrikā, dūtī, māsopavāsinī, ratatālī, vibhāvarī, vṛddhayuvatiḥ, mādhavī, śamphalī, śambalī, śambhalī, saṅghāṭikā, sañcārikā, sanālī, sambhalī, akkā, karālā   

kalahaṃ kārayitrī।

arjunyāḥ vacanāni viśvasya sītā ca gītā ca kalahaṃ kṛtavatyau।

vati

yuvatī, yuvatiḥ, taruṇī, yūnī, talunī, dikkarī, dhanikā, dhanīkā, madhyamā, dṛṣṭarajāḥ, madhyamikā, īśvarī, varyā   

prāptayauvanā strī। (prāg yauvanā yuvatiḥ iti vātsyāyanaḥ।);

yo yaṃ vicintayati yāni sa tanmayatvam। yassmād ataḥ subhagayā iva gatā yuvatyaḥ॥

vati

kuṭṭanī, raṅgamātā, lākṣā, raṅgamātṛkā, arjunī, arvatī, dūtī, bhojyā, ratatālī   

yā strīṇāṃ parapuruṣaiḥ saha melanaṃ kārayati tāḥ vimārgaṃ nayati ca।

kuṭṭanyāḥ kāryaṃ kriyamāṇā mohanī baddhā jātā।

vati

saubhāgyavatī   

yasyāḥ patiḥ jīvitaḥ asti।

karavā cautha iti saubhāgyavatīnāṃ vratam asti।

vati

elā, elīkā, bahulagandhā, aindrī, drāviḍī, kapotaparṇī, bālā, balavatī, himā, candrikā, sāgaragāminī, gandhālīgarbhaḥ, kāyasthā, upakuñcikā, tutthā, koraṅgī, tripuṭā, truṭiḥ   

phalaviśeṣaḥ-tat phalaṃ yasya sugandhitāni bījāni upaskararupeṇa upayujyante।

mohanaḥ svādāya kaṣāye elāṃ yojayati।

vati

caturnavati   

navatiḥ adhikaṃ catur abhidheyā।

asmin sammelane caturnavatiḥ vidvāṃsaḥ paryupāsyante।

vati

ṣaṇṇavati   

navatiḥ adhikaṃ ṣaḍ abhidheyā।

asyāṃ kakṣāyāṃ ṣaṇṇavatiḥ chātrāḥ santi।

vati

ṣaṇṇavati   

navatyadhikaṃ ṣaḍ abhidheyā।

śatāt catvāri nyūnīkṛtya ṣaṇṇavatiḥ prāpyate।

vati

trinavati   

tryadhikaṃ navatiḥ abhidheyā।

asyāṃ naukāyāṃ trinavatiḥ janāḥ santi।

vati

navati   

daśādhikam aśītiḥ abhidheyā।

yāne navatiḥ janāḥ santi।

vati

ekonanavati   

navādhikaṃ aśītiḥ abhidheyā।

mama pitāmahasya āyuḥ ekonanavatiḥ varṣāṇi asti।

vati

navanavati   

navādhikaṃ navatiḥ।

asya vastunaḥ mūlyaṃ navanavatiḥ rūpyakāṇi asti।

vati

pañcanavati   

pañcādhikaṃ navatiḥ।

tasya mātāmahyāḥ āyuḥ pañcanavatiḥ varṣāṇi asti।

vati

kuṭīraḥ, kuṭīram, kuṭī, kuṭiḥ, kuṭikā, gañjā, palliḥ, pallī, mathikā, vāṭī, vāṭikā, khadā   

mṛdā tathā ca tṛṇādibhiḥ nirmitaṃ nivāsasthānam।

asyāḥ nadyaḥ taṭe dhīvarasya naikāni kuṭīrāṇi dṛśyante।

vati

atasī, umā, caṇakā, kṣaumī, rudrapatnī, suvarcalā, pichilā, devī, nadagandhā, madotkaṭā, kṣumā, haimavatī, sunīlā, nīlapuṣpikā, varadā, ekamūlā, caṇḍikā, niḥsnehā   

dhānya-viśeṣaḥ, kṛṣṇa-puṣpa-kṣudra-vṛkṣasya tailadāḥ bījāḥ (āyurvede asya uṣṇatva-tiktatva-amlatvādayaḥ guṇāḥ proktāḥ vātahāritvaṃ śleṣma-pittakāritvaṃ ca);

atasī madhurā tiktā snigdhā pāke kaṭurguru [śa ka]

vati

vaṭikā, vaṭī   

laghvī gullikā।

vaidyaḥ pīḍitāya bheṣajasya dve vaṭike dattavān।

vati

vāyugaṇḍaḥ, udarādhmānam, vātaphullatā, vāyupūrṇatā, vātikatvam   

pacanasaṃsthāyām ajīrṇasya kāraṇāt utpannaḥ vāyuḥ।

udare āmlapramāṇasya ādhikyatvena vāyugaṇḍaḥ bhavati।

vati

rajasvalā, ṛtumatī, ṛtumati, rajavatī, puṣpavatī   

yasyā rajaḥ pravahati।

rajasvalā strī garbhaṃ dhāraṇaṃ kartuṃ śakyate।

vati

svāti   

aśvinyādisaptaviṃśatinakṣatrāntargatapañcadaśanakṣatram;

svātyām sāgaraśuktisampuṭagatam sanmauktikam jāyate [bhartṛ2.67]

vati

dhaniṣṭhā, śraviṣṭhā, vasudaivatā, bhūtiḥ, nidhānam, dhanavatī   

aśvinyādisaptaviṃśatinakṣatrāntargatatrayoviṃśannakṣatram।

pañcatārakāyuktaṃ nakṣatraṃ bhavati dhaniṣṭhā yat navasu ūrdhvanakṣatreṣu vartate।

vati

revatī, antyabham, pauṣṇam   

aśvinyādisaptaviṃśatinakṣatrāntargatāntimanakṣatram।

revatī candrapathe antimaṃ nakṣatram asti।

vati

revatī   

saḥ kālaḥ yasmin candraḥ revatīnakṣatre vartate।

purohitena etat kāryaṃ revatyāṃ karaṇīyam iti kathitam।

vati

mahimāvān, mahimāvatī, mahimāvat   

mahimā asya asti iti;

śivaḥ mahimāvān asti

vati

vṛtta, kuṇḍalākāra, cakra, kuṇḍalin, cakravata, cakkala, cakraka, cakruvṛtta, cākra, cākrika, parimaṇḍala, parimaṇḍalita, parivartula, vaṭin   

vartulasya ākāraḥ iva ākāraḥ yasya saḥ।

asya vṛkṣasya phalāni vṛttāni santi।

vati

śraddhāvān, śraddhāvatiḥ, śraddhāluḥ   

yasya manasi śraddhā vartate।

mandirasya prāṅgaṇe naike śraddhāvantaḥ santi।

vati

yavatiktā   

śākaviśeṣaḥ।

yavatiktāyāṃ lohasya mātrā adhikā bhavati।

vati

revatī, mahāraudrī, ādyā, kālī, bheruṇḍā, kālikā   

navadurgāsu ekā yā kṛṣṇavarṇīyā asti।

navarātri-utsave saptame dine revatyāḥ pūjanaṃ kriyate।

vati

parvatīya   

parvatasambandhī।

saḥ parvatīye kṣetre vasati।

vati

vetravatī, kṣamā   

bundelakhaṇḍe vartamānā ekā nadī।

vetravatī yamunāyāṃ vilīyate।

vati

aśokavāṭikā   

rāmāyaṇe varṇitā vāṭikā yatra rāvaṇena bandīkṛtā sītā āsīt।

hanumatā aśokavāṭikā naṣṭā।

vati

aṣṭanavati   

aṣṭādhikaṃ navatiḥ abhidheyā।

asmin saṃvatsare mandire aṣṭanavatiḥ jyotīṃṣi prājvalan।

vati

aṣṭanavati   

navateḥ evam aṣṭānāṃ ca yogena prāptā saṃkhyā।

aṣṭanavatiḥ likhitā chātraiḥ।

vati

bhavatī   

viṣāktaḥ bāṇabhedaḥ।

vyādhaḥ bhavatīm upayujya vyāghraṃ prahṛtavān।

vati

māṣavaṭī   

māṣeṇa nirmitā śuṣkā vaṭikā।

adya mama gṛhe dvijāṃ māṣavaṭīṃ ca upayujya śākaṃ nirmitam।

vati

āmrātakaḥ, pītanaḥ, kapītanaḥ, varṣapākī, pītanakaḥ, kapicūḍā, amravāṭikaḥ, bhṛṅgīphalaḥ, rasāḍhyaḥ, tanukṣīraḥ, kapipriyaḥ, ambarātakaḥ, ambarīyaḥ, kapicūḍaḥ, āmrāvartaḥ   

amlarasayuktaphalaviśiṣṭaḥ vṛkṣaḥ।

markaṭaḥ āmrātakam āruhya upaviṣṭaḥ।

vati

navati   

aśītyā daśa militvā prāptā saṅkhyā।

navateḥ pañca ūnayitvā kati avaśiṣṭāḥ।

vati

navatitama   

gaṇanāyāṃ navatisthāne vartamānaḥ।

sañjanāyai navatitamā śāṭikā api na rocate।

vati

ekanavati   

ekādhikaṃ navatiḥ abhidheyā।

asyāḥ culyāyāḥ kṛte ekanavatiḥ iṣṭikāḥ upayuktāḥ।

vati

ekanavatitama   

gaṇanāyām ekanavateḥ sthāne vartamānaḥ।

bhūmipatinā svasya ekanavatitamā bhūmiḥ vikritā।

vati

ekanavati   

navateḥ ekasya ca yogena prāptā saṃkhyā।

ekanavatau kati aṅkāḥ santi।

vati

dvinavati   

navateḥ dvayoḥ ca yogena prāptā saṃkhyā।

dvinavateḥ dvayoḥ aṅkayoḥ yogaḥ kiyān bhavati।

vati

dvinavatitama, dvinavata, dvānavata   

gaṇanāyāṃ dvinavateḥ sthāne vartamānaḥ।

draviḍena dvinavatitamā dhāvā nirmitā।

vati

trinavatitama, trinavata   

gaṇanāyāṃ trinavateḥ sthāne vartamānaḥ।

sacinasya trinavatitamaṃ śatakaṃ pūrṇaṃ jātam।

vati

trinavati   

navateḥ trayāṇāṃ ca yogena prāptā saṃkhyā।

trinavatiḥ ekā viṣamasaṃkhyā asti।

vati

caturṇavati   

navateḥ caturṇāṃ ca yogena prāptā saṃkhyā।

trinavatau caturṇavatau ca ekasya antaraṃ vartate।

vati

caturṇavatitama, caturṇavata   

gaṇanāyāṃ caturṇavateḥ sthāne vartamānaḥ।

rānātuṅgāḥ caturṇavatitame kanduke ṣaṭkāraṃ tāḍitavān।

vati

pañcanavati   

navateḥ pañcānāṃ ca yogena prāptā saṃkhyā।

ekonaviṃśateḥ pañcaguṇakaṃ pañcanavatiḥ bhavati।

vati

pañcanavatitama   

gaṇanāyāṃ pañcanavatisthāne vartamānaḥ।

bālakena pañcanavatitamasya upahārasya anāvaraṇaṃ kṛtam।

vati

saptanavati   

saptādhikaṃ navatiḥ abhidheyā।

vidyut vibhāgena saptanavateḥ gṛhāṇāṃ vidyut cheditā।

vati

ṣaṇṇavatitama, ṣaṇṇavata   

gaṇanāyāṃ ṣaṇṇavateḥ sthāne vartamānaḥ।

avasathasya ṣaṇṇavatitamaṃ gṛhaṃ dagdham।

vati

saptanavati   

navateḥ saptānāṃ ca yogena prāptā saṃkhyā।

saptanavatiḥ pañcanavateḥ dvābhyāmeva adhikā asti।

vati

saptanavatitama, saptanavata   

gaṇanāyāṃ saptanavateḥ sthāne vartamānaḥ।

parāmarśaṃ svīkartum āgataḥ saptanavatitamaḥ bālaḥ luptaḥ।

vati

aṣṭanavatitama, aṣṭhanavata   

gaṇanāyām aṣṭanavateḥ sthāne vartamānaḥ।

asmin saṃvatsare asya eṣaḥ aṣṭanavatitamaḥ upavāsaḥ asti।

vati

navanavati   

navateḥ navānāṃ ca yogena prāptā saṃkhyā।

śatāt ekena eva nyūnaḥ asti navanavatiḥ।

vati

navanavatitama, navanavata   

gaṇanāyāṃ navanavateḥ sthāne vartamānaḥ।

eṣā mama asya saṃvatsarasya navanavatitamā yātrā asti।

vati

dāruharidrā, pītadruḥ, kālīyakaḥ, haridravaḥ, dārvī, pacampacā, parjanī, pītikā, pītadāru, sthirarāgā, kāminī, kaṭaṅkaṭerī, parjanyā, pītā, dāruniśā, kālīyakam, kāmavatī, dārūpītā, karkaṭinī, dāru, niśā, haridrā   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ।

dāruharidrāyāḥ kāṇḍaḥ mūlaṃ ca auṣadharūpeṇa upayujyate।

vati

mālāvatī   

ekā saṃkararāgiṇī।

saṃgītajñaḥ mālāvatīṃ śrāvayati।

vati

sarasvatī   

ekā rāgiṇī।

śrotāraḥ saṅgītajñāya sarasvastyaḥ svarāḥ spaṣṭīkartuṃ kathayanti।

vati

anannāsam, pāravatī   

phalaviśeṣaḥ-tat phalaṃ yad madhuram āmlaṃ ca asti।

anannāse sī iti jīvanasatvam adhikam asti।

vati

jayāvatī   

ekā saṅkarā rāgiṇī।

jayāvatī dhavalaśrīḥ bilāvalaḥ tathā ca sarasvatī ityeteṣāṃ yogena bhavati।

vati

candāvatī   

ekā rāgiṇī।

śrotṛvargasya abhyarthanayā saṅgītajñaḥ candāvatīṃ śrāvayati।

vati

rasavatī   

ekā rāgiṇī।

rasavatī sampūrṇajāteḥ ekā rāgiṇī asti।

vati

bhaumavatī   

ekā rākṣasī।

bhaumavatī bhaumāsurasya patnī āsīt।

vati

jāmbavatī   

jāmbavataḥ kanyā।

jāmbavatyāḥ vivāhaḥ kṛṣṇena saha abhavat।

vati

rāvī, irāvatī   

bhāratadeśe vartamānā ekā nadī।

rāvī pañjābaprānte pravahati।

vati

dīpāvatī   

ekā saṅkarā rāgiṇī।

dīpāvatī dīpakasya tathā ca sarasvatyāḥ yogena bhavati।

vati

satyavatī, matsyagandhā, matsyodarī, yojanagandhā, dāśeyī, mīnagandhā   

ekā dhīvarakanyā yasyāḥ vivāhaḥ rājñā śantanunā saha jātaḥ।

satyavatyāḥ apekṣāpūrtyarthe bhīṣmaḥ vacanabaddhaḥ āsīt।

vati

punarnavā, śothaghnī, varṣābhūḥ, prāvṛṣāyaṇī, kaṭhillakaḥ, vṛścīrāḥ, cirāṭikā, viśākhaḥ, kaṭhillaḥ, śaśivāṭikā, pṛthvī, sitavarṣābhūḥ, ghanapatraḥ   

auṣadhīyoṣadhiḥ yā dvitryaṅgulā unnatā evaṃ varṣakāle udbhavati uṣṇakāle nirgacchati ca।

punarnavāyāḥ laghuphalaṃ śleṣmabījayuktaṃ bhavati।

vati

satyavatī   

ṛcīkasya patnī।

satyavatī viduṣī āsīt।

vati

khambhāvatī   

ekā rāgiṇī।

khambhāvati ardharātrau gīyate।

vati

dharmavatī   

purāṇeṣu varṇitā ekā nadī।

dharmavatī svarge vartate।

vati

yavatiktā   

latāviśeṣaḥ।

yavatiktā auṣadharūpeṇa prayujyate।

vati

bhāgavatī   

kaṇṭhīprakāraḥ।

vaiṣṇavaḥ kaṇṭhe bhāgavatīṃ dhārayati।

vati

dhātupuṣpikā, subhikṣā, agnijvālā, vahnipuṣpī, tāmrapuṣpī, dhāvanī, pārvatī, dhātakī, bahupuṣpikā, kusudā, sīdhupuṣpī, kuñjarā, madyavāsinī, gucchapuṣpī, sandhapuṣpī, rodhrapuṣpiṇī, tīvrajvālā, vahniśikhā, madyapuṣpā, dhātṛpuṣpī, dhātupuṣpī, dhātṛpuṣpikā, dhātrī, dhātupuṣpikā   

auṣadhopayogī vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ।

dhātupuṣpikā unnatā sundarā ca bhavati।

vati

pratibhāvān, pratibhāvatī, pratibhāśālī, dhīmān, dhīmatī, prajñaḥ, prajñā, sudhīḥ, guṇī, guṇinī, guṇavān, guṇavatī, dakṣaḥ, dakṣā   

pratibhāyuktaḥ।

asmākaṃ prayogaśālāyāṃ pratibhāśālinām abhāvaḥ nāsti।

vati

elā, bahvalagandhā, aindrī, drāviḍī, kapotaparṇī, bālā, balavatī, himā, candrikā, sāgaragāminī, gandhālīgarbhaḥ, elikā, kāyasthā   

ekaḥ sāṃvatsaraḥ vṛkṣaḥ yasya phalebhyaḥ prāptāni sugandhitāni bījāni vyañjane prayujyante।

asyāṃ vāṭikāyāṃ elāyāḥ vṛkṣāṇi santi।

vati

amarāvatī, pūṣabhāsā, devapūḥ, mahendranagarī, amarā, surapurī, indralokaḥ, surendralokaḥ, sureśalokaḥ, sudarśanā   

indrasya nagarī।

amarāvatyāḥ adhipatiḥ bhavati indraḥ।

vati

bāṇāvatī   

bāṇasurasya patnī।

bāṇāvatyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu labhyate।

vati

devavatī   

grāmaṇī iti nāmnaḥ gandharvasya mātā।

devavatī sukeśaḥ iti nāmnaḥ rākṣasasya patnī āsīt ।

vati

parvatīya   

parvateṣu jāyamānaḥ।

saḥ parvatīyaiḥ vṛkṣaiḥ sambaddhaṃ jñānam arjayati।

vati

mitravatī   

kṛṣṇasya putrī।

mitravatyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu asti।

vati

śālāvatī   

viśvāmitrasya kanyā।

śālāvatyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu asti।

vati

rajasvalā, ṛtumatī, puṣpitā, ṛtumatī, kusumavatī, udakyā, madhyamikā, puṣpavatī, puṣpahāsā, avi, dṛṣṭapuṣpā, brahmaghātinī, mlānāṅgī   

sā strī yasyāḥ rajaṃ pravahati।

garbhasya dhāraṇāya akṣamā rajasvalā janaiḥ pīḍitā।

vati

revatī   

balarāmasya patnī।

revatyāḥ varṇanaṃ bhāgavate vartate।

vati

bhadravatī   

kṛṣṇasya ekā kanyā।

bhadravatyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu vartate।

vati

mādravatī   

rājā parīkṣitasya patnī।

mādravatyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu vartate।

vati

abhimānī, garvitaḥ, avaliptaḥ, sagarvaḥ, sadarpaḥ, utsiktaḥ, sāṭopaḥ, sāhaṃkāraḥ, ahaṃmānī, mattaḥ, samunnaddhaḥ, dhṛṣṭaḥ, pratibhāvān, garvitacittaḥ, madoddhataḥ, darpādhmātaḥ, smayākulaḥ, ahaṃkṛtaḥ, abhimāninī, garvitā, avaliptā, sagarvā, sadarpā, utsiktā, sāṭopā, sāhaṃkārī, ahaṃmāninī, mattā, samunnaddhā, dhṛṣṭā, pratibhāvatī, garvitacittā, madoddhatā, darpādhmātā, smayākulā, ahaṃkṛtā   

yasya abhimānaḥ vartate।

ahaṃ tasya abhimāninaḥ chāyāyāḥ api dūraṃ sthātum icchāmi।

vati

kopalatā, ardhacandrikā, analaprabhā, kaṭabhī, kanakaprabhā, kukundanī, kaiḍaryaḥ, gīrlatā, jyotiṣkā, jyotirlatā, tīktakā, tīkṣṇā, dīptaḥ, niphalā, paṇyā, parāpatapadī, pītatailā, piṇyā, pūtitailā, bahurasā, matidā, lagaṇā, latā, latāpuṭakī, lavaṇaḥ, vāyasādanī, śṛṅgin, śleṣmaghnī, sarasvatī, supiṅgalā, suvegā, suvarṇalatā, svarṇalatā, sumedhas, sphuṭavalkalī, sphuṭaraṅgiṇī   

ekā latā।

kopalatā oṣadhyāṃ prayujyate।

vati

sarasvatī-rahasya-upaniṣad, sarasvatī-rahasyaḥ   

ekā upaniṣad।

sarasvatī-rahasya-upaniṣad yajurvedena sambandhitā।

vati

vaṃśaḥ, ikṣuyoniḥ, ikṣuvāṭikā, ikṣuvāṭī   

ikṣuviśeṣaḥ।

adya vaṃśaṃ jalena siñcatu।

vati

dvārakā, abdhinagarī, dvāravatī, dvārakānagarī, dvārakāpurī   

kāṭhiyāvāḍaprāntasya prācīnā pavitrā purī।

dvārakā hindudharmīyāṇāṃ caturṣu tīrtheṣu ekam।

vati

paṅkavāṭikā   

trayodaśānām akṣarāṇāṃ varṇavṛttaviśeṣaḥ।

paṅkajavāṭikāyāḥ praticaraṇe ekaḥ bhagaṇaḥ ekaḥ nagaṇaḥ dvau jagaṇau ante ca ekaḥ laghuḥ bhavati।

vati

prayojanavatī-lakṣaṇā   

lakṣaṇāviśeṣaḥ yasyām vācyārthāt bhinnaḥ arthaḥ prakaṭībhavati।

tvaṃ gardabhaḥ iti vākye prayojanavatī-lakṣaṇā prayuktā।

vati

dohadavatī, śraddhāluḥ, dohadānvitā, daurhṛdinī   

annapānādidravyaviśeṣābhilāṣavatī garbhavatī।

dohadavatyai viśeṣā śraddhā deyā।

vati

sātvatī   

śiśupālasya mātā।

sātvatyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu vartate।

vati

amarāvatīnagaram   

mahārāṣṭrarājyasya nagaraviśeṣaḥ।

amarāvatīnagaram akolānagarasya samīpe asti।

vati

amarāvatimaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

amarāvatimaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ amarāvatinagare asti।

vati

jaṭāmāṃsī, tapasvinī, jaṭā, māṃsī, jaṭilā, lomaśā, misī, naladam, vahninī, peṣī, kṛṣṇajaṭā, jaṭī, kirātinī, jaṭilā, bhṛtajaṭā, peśī, kravyādi, piśitā, piśī, peśinī, jaṭā, hiṃsā, māṃsinī, jaṭālā, naladā, meṣī, tāmasī, cakravartinī, mātā, amṛtajaṭā, jananī, jaṭāvatī, mṛgabhakṣyā, miṃsī, misiḥ, miṣikā, miṣiḥ   

auṣadhīyavanaspateḥ sugandhitaṃ mūlam।

jaṭāmāṃsyāḥ upayogaḥ vibhinneṣu auṣadheṣu bhavati।

vati

vedavatī   

purāṇeṣu varṇitā ekā kanyā yā tapasā viṣṇuṃ svapatirūpeṇa icchati sma paraṃ rāvaṇena kṛtena abhadreṇa ācaraṇena sā dārucityāṃ prāveśat।

kayācit kathayā anusāreṇa sītā vedavatyāḥ avatāraḥ।

vati

pṛthivī, bhūḥ, bhūmiḥ, acalā, anantā, rasā, viśvambharā, sthirā, dharā, dharitrī, dharaṇī, kṣauṇī, jyā, kāśyapī, kṣitiḥ, sarvasahā, vasumatī, vasudhā, urvī, vasundharā, gotrā, kuḥ, pṛthvī, kṣmā, avaniḥ, medinī, mahī, dharaṇī, kṣoṇiḥ, kṣauṇiḥ, kṣamā, avanī, mahiḥ, ratnagarbhā, sāgarāmbarā, abdhimekhalā, bhūtadhātrī, ratnāvatī, dehinī, pārā, vipulā, madhyamalokavartmā, dhāraṇī, gandhavatī, mahākāntā, khaṇḍanī, girikarṇikā, dhārayitrī, dhātrī, acalakīlā, gauḥ, abdhidvīpā, iḍā, iḍikā, ilā, ilikā, irā, ādimā, īlā, varā, ādyā, jagatī, pṛthuḥ, bhuvanamātā, niścalā, śyāmā   

martyādyadhiṣṭhānabhūtā।

pṛthivī pañcamam bhūtam

vati

pārvatīnadī   

mālavākṣetre vahantī nadī।

pārvatīnadī cambalanadyāḥ sahāyyikā nadī asti।

vati

śailāṭaḥ, parvatārohī, pulindaḥ, pārvatīyaḥ   

parvatam āruhyamāṇaḥ।

nepālasthaṃ sagaramāthākhyaṃ parvataśikharaṃ praprathamam āruhyamāṇau śailāṭau eḍamaṇḍa-hilarīmahodayaḥ tathā ca tenasiṃhaḥ staḥ।

vati

parvatākāra, mālyavat, mahīdharavat, śailavat, adrivat, girivat, acalākāra, nagavat, nagākāra, bhīdharavat, bhūdharākāra, pārvata, pārvatīya, samahīdhara   

tat yat parvatam iva mahat parvatākārakaṃ vā asti।

hanumataḥ śarīraṃ parvatākāraṃ babhūva।/ sāgarataṭe parvatākārāḥ ullolāḥ dṛśyante।

vati

medā, medodbhavā, jīvanī, śreṣṭhā, maṇicchidrā, vibhāvarī, vasā, svalpaparṇikā, medaḥsārā, snehavatī, medinī, madhurā, snigdhā, medhā, dravā, sādhvī, śalyadā, bahurandhrikā, puruṣadantikā, jīvanī   

auṣadhiviśeṣaḥ।

medā jvarasya nivāraṇārtham upayuktā bhavati।

vati

bhikṣā, yācñā, yācanā, yācanam, bhikṣaṇam, paropasarpaṇam, prayācanam, vati   

dainyatāvaśāt kim api prārthanātmikā kriyā।

atra bhikṣā keṣāñcan janānām upajīvikā asti।

vati

amarāvatī   

brahmadeśasya rājadhānī।

saḥ amarāvatyāṃ nivasati।

vati

dṛṣadvatī   

paurāṇikī mahilā।

dṛṣadvatī viśvāmitrasya patnī āsīt।

vati

dṛṣadvatī   

prācīnā nadī yā idānīṃ tu luptā jātā।

dṛṣadvatyāḥ varṇanaṃ ṛgvede asti।

vati

dharmavatī   

marīcimuneḥ patnī।

dharmavatyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu asti।

vati

prabhāvatī   

ekā āsurī।

prabhāvatyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu asti।

vati

māyāvatī   

ekā āsurī।

māyāvatyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu asti।

vati

niṣadhāvatī, niṣadhāvatīnadī   

paurāṇikīnadīviśeṣaḥ yasyāḥ prabhavaḥ vindhyaparvatāt asti iti manyate।

niṣadhāvatyāḥ varṇanaṃ mārkaṇḍeyapurāṇe asti।

vati

tārāvatī   

ikṣvākuvaṃśīyasya rājñaḥ candraśekharasya patnī।

tārāvatyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu asti।

vati

garbhavatī, antaḥsattvā, āpannasattvā, āptagarbhā, udariṇī, gurviṇī, daurhṛdinī, sagarbhā, sasattvā, dohadavatī, gurvī   

garbhayuktā strī।

garbhavatīnāṃ viśeṣaṃ rakṣaṇaṃ karaṇīyam।

vati

devātithiḥ   

vaidikaḥ ṛṣiviśeṣaḥ।

devātitheḥ varṇanaṃ ṛgvede prāpyate।

vati

vīṇāvatī   

apsaraso viśeṣaḥ।

vīṇāvatyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu prāpyate।

vati

somavatī   

candradevasya mātā।

somavatyāḥ varṇanaṃ dhārmikeṣu grantheṣu prāpyate।

vati

sarasvatī   

daśavidheṣu saṃnyāsiṣu ekaḥ।

sarasvatyaḥ śṛṅgeryāṃ nivasanti।

vati

anavaguṇṭhitā, anavaguṇṭhanavatī, anavaguṇṭhitamukhā, anupāvṛtā, apariguṇṭhitā, aparivāritā   

yasyāḥ mukham avaguṇṭhitaṃ nāsti।

mullāmahodayaḥ anavaguṇṭhitābhiḥ lalanābhiḥ saha bahu hāsyavinodam akurvata।

vati

pañcavaṭī   

nāsikanagarasya uttaradiśi vartamānaḥ ekaḥ vibhāgaḥ।

vanavāsakāle rāmaḥ pañcavaṭyāṃ nyavasat।

vati

līlāvatī   

ekā rāgiṇī।

līlāvatī sampūrṇāyāḥ jāteḥ rāgiṇī asti।

vati

līlāvatī   

mātrikaḥ chandoviśeṣaḥ।

līlāvatyāṃ daśame aṣṭame caturdaśe ca sthāne virāmeṇa saha āhatya dvātriṃśat mātrāḥ santi।

vati

avatīrṇa   

upariṣṭāt adhodiśam āgataḥ।

idānīm eva avatīrṇāt vimānayānāt yātriṇaḥ bahiḥ āgacchanti।

vati

kāminī, kāmavatī   

maithunābhilāṣiṇī strī।

tasyāḥ sātvikena vārtālāpena kāminī śāntā jātā।

vati

manovatī   

gandharvasya citrāṅgadasya putrī।

manovatyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu prāpyate।

vati

aśokavāṭikā   

aśokavṛkṣasya udyānam।

yātriṇaḥ aśokavāṭikāyāṃ viśrāmyanti।

vati

mālyavatī   

ekā nadī yasyāḥ varṇanaṃ rāmāyaṇe vartate।

mālyavatī citrakūṭasya samīpaṃ vahati।

vati

indrāvatīnadī   

bhāratīyā nadī yā utkalaprāntāt prabhūya chattīsagaḍarājye vahati।

indrāvatīnadyāḥ dairghyam anumānataḥ 240 krośakam iti asti।

vati

citrāvatīnadī   

bhāratīyā nadī।

citrāvatīnadī pennāranadyāḥ sahāyikā nadī asti।

vati

bhadramadā, irāvatī   

kaśyapaṛṣeḥ ekā patnī।

bhadramadā airāvatasya mātā āsīt।

vati

irāvatīnadī   

brahmadeśe vartamānā nadī।

brahmadeśasya anyāsu nadīṣu irāvatīnadī dīrghā vartate।

vati

vāṭī, vāṭaḥ   

valayitaṃ laghu udyānam।

nagarāt bahiḥ asmākaṃ vāṭī asti।

vati

parvatīyasthānam   

samīpasthāt samatalabhāgāt unnataṃ parvate vartamānaṃ nagaraṃ grāmaṃ vā।

parvatīyasthāne grīṣme kāle adhikāḥ janāḥ bhavanti।

vati

irāvatī   

ekā nāgakanyā ।

irāvatī suśravasaḥ kanyā asti

vati

irāvatī   

ekaḥ kṣupaviśeṣaḥ ।

irāvatyāḥ varṇanaṃ kośakāreṇa kṛtam

vati

kaṭabhī, analaprabhā, kukundanī, pārāpatapadī, pītatailā, kanakaprabhā, gīrlatā, jyotirlatā, jyotiṣkā, tejasvinī, tejohvā, tiktakā, niphalā, paṇyā, pārāvatapadī, piṇyā, pūtitailā, bahurasā, lagaṇā, nagaṇā, latā, latāpuṭakī, lavaṇakiṃśukā, śleṣmaghnī, sārasvatī, supiṅgalā, sphuṭaraṅgiṇī, sphuṭavalkalī, sumedhā, suvarṇalatā, suvegā, svarṇalatā, dīptaḥ, lavaṇaḥ, śṛṅgī, nagnaḥ   

kṣupaviśeṣaḥ ।

kaṭabhyāḥ varṇanaṃ suśrutena kṛtam

vati

pūrvātithiḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

pūrvātithiḥ gṛham gacchati

vati

vidyendrasarasvatī   

lekhakaviśeṣaḥ ।

vivaraṇapustikāyāṃ vidyendrasarasvatyāḥ varṇanam asti

vati

vinayavatī   

prācīne granthe varṇitā kācit mahilā ।

vinayavatyāḥ varṇanaṃ kathāsaritsāgare daśakumāracarite pañcatantre ca prāpyate

vati

vibhramavatī   

ekā sevikā ।

vibhramavatyāḥ varṇanaṃ prabodhacandrodayaḥ iti granthe asti

vati

kāmavatī   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

kāmavatyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇe vartate

vati

gandhavatī   

ekā nadī ।

gandhavatyāḥ varṇanaṃ meghadūte vartate

vati

gandhavatī   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

skandapurāṇānusāreṇa gandhavatyāḥ adhipatiḥ vāyuḥ asti

vati

gandhavatī   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

gandhavatyāḥ adhipatiḥ varuṇaḥ asti

vati

vilāsavatī   

striyaḥ nāmaviśeṣaḥ ।

kādambarī iti granthe bahūnāṃ strīṇām nāma vartate

vati

vivasvatī   

sūryanagarī ।

vivasvatyāḥ varṇanaṃ medinyāṃ prāpyate

vati

dharmavatī   

ekā mudrā ।

dharmavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ bauddhasāhitye vartate

vati

dharmavatī   

ekā strī ।

dharmavatyā ullekhaḥ kathāsaritsāgare vartate

vati

nīlasarasvatī   

ekā devatā ।

nīlasarasvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

vati

vāsudevatīrthaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

vāsudevatīrthasya ullekhaḥ kośe asti

vati

vegavatī   

ekā nadī ।

vegavatyāḥ varṇanaṃ rāmāyaṇe asti

vati

vetrāvatī   

ekā nadī ।

vetrāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

vati

vyomavatī   

ekaḥ ṭīkāgranthaḥ ।

vyomavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

pārvatīyaḥ   

ekaḥ samrāṭ ।

pārvatīyaḥ parvate rājyam akarot

vati

pārvatīyaḥ   

ekā jāti ।

pārvatīyasya ullekhaḥ kośe asti

vati

puṣpavatī   

snānārthe vartamānaṃ puṇyasthānam ।

puṣpavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate vartate

vati

prabhāvatī   

ekā bauddhadevatā ।

prabhāvatyāḥ varṇanaṃ lalitavistare vartate

vati

prabhāvatī   

sūryasya patnī ।

prabhāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate vartate

vati

prabhāvatī   

ekaḥ anucaraḥ ।

prabhāvatī skandasya mātuḥ anucarī āsīt

vati

prabhāvatī   

ekā apsarā ।

prabhāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ viṣṇupurāṇe vartate

vati

prabhāvatī   

ekā surāṅganā ।

prabhāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ vikramādityacaritre vartate

vati

prabhāvatī   

indradamanāsurasya svasā ।

prabhāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

vati

prabhāvatī   

vajranābhasya kanyā ।

prabhāvatī pradyumnasya patnī āsīt

vati

prabhāvatī   

citrarathasya patnī ।

prabhāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate vartate

vati

prabhāvatī   

suvīrasya kanyā ।

prabhāvatī marutaḥ mātā āsīt

vati

prabhāvatī   

ekā tāpasī ।

prabhāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate vartate

vati

prabhāvatī   

malleḥ mātā ।

prabhāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

vati

prabhāvatī   

śreṣṭhinaḥ somadattasya kanyā ।

prabhāvatī madanasya mātā āsīt

vati

prabhāvatī   

ekā nadī ।

prabhāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

vati

kuntalasvātikarṇa:   

eko rājaputraḥ ।

viṣṇupurāṇe kuntalasvātikarṇaḥ samullikhitaḥ

vati

kuśavatī, kuśāvatī , kuśasthalī   

ekā nagarī ।

kuśavatī mahābhārate ullikhitā asti

vati

kṛṇuṣvapājavatī   

ekaḥ adhyāyaḥ ।

kṛṇuṣvapājavatī ṛgvede ullikhitā dṛśyate

vati

kṛtavatī   

ekā nadī ।

kṛtavatī viṣṇupurāṇe varṇitā asti

vati

manovatī   

ekā strī ।

manovatyāḥ ullekhaḥ harivaṃśe vartate

vati

manovatī   

ekā apsarā ।

manovatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

vati

manovatī   

vidyādharacitrāṅgadasya kanyā ।

manovatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kathāsaritsāgare vartate

vati

manovatī   

asurapati-sumāyasya patnī ।

manovatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

vati

manovatī   

tad adbhūtaṃ nagaraṃ yad meruparvate vartate iti manyate ।

manovatyāḥ ullekhaḥ bhāgavatapurāṇe vartate

vati

śivasvātiḥ   

ekaḥ rājā ।

śivasvāteḥ ullekhaḥ purāṇe asti

vati

śīlavatī   

ekā mahilā ।

śīlavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kathāsaritsāgare asti

vati

śuddhavatī   

ekā ṛk ।

śuddhavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ ṛgvede asti

vati

śubhravatī   

ekā nadī ।

śubhravatyāḥ ullekhaḥ harivaṃśe asti

vati

śuṣkarevatī   

ekā rākṣasī yā bālakānāṃ kṛte ahitakāriṇī asti ।

śuṣkarevatyāḥ ullekhaḥ matsyapurāṇe asti

vati

pūrvātithiḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

pūrvātithiḥ gṛham gacchati

vati

prasthāvatī   

ekā nadī ।

harivaṃśe prasthāvatī nadī samullikhitā

vati

bakavatī   

ekā nadī ।

rājataraṅgiṇyāṃ bakavatī varṇitā dṛśyate

vati

śṛṅgāravatī   

ekā strī ।

śṛṅgāravatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kathāsaritsāgare asti

vati

śobhanavatī   

ekaḥ grāmaḥ ।

śobhanavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

śobhāvatī   

ekaḥ grāmaḥ ।

śobhāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kathāsaritsāgare asti

vati

bālasarasvatī   

ekaḥ lekhakaḥ ।

kośeṣu bālasarasvatī varṇitaḥ

vati

bṛhadvatī   

ekā nadī ।

mahābhārate bṛhadvatī nadī varṇitā āsīt

vati

kuntalasvātikarṇa:   

eko rājaputraḥ ।

viṣṇupurāṇe kuntalasvātikarṇaḥ samullikhitaḥ

vati

kuśavatī, kuśāvatī , kuśasthalī   

ekā nagarī ।

kuśavatī mahābhārate ullikhitā asti

vati

kṛṇuṣvapājavatī   

ekaḥ adhyāyaḥ ।

kṛṇuṣvapājavatī ṛgvede ullikhitā dṛśyate

vati

kṛtavatī   

ekā nadī ।

kṛtavatī viṣṇupurāṇe varṇitā asti

vati

bālasarasvatī   

ekaḥ lekhakaḥ ।

kośeṣu bālasarasvatī varṇitaḥ

vati

bṛhadvatī   

ekā nadī ।

mahābhārate bṛhadvatī nadī varṇitā āsīt

vati

mālyavatī   

ekā nadī ।

mālyavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ rāmāyaṇe vartate

vati

ratnāvatī   

ekā strī ।

ratnāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ harṣacarite vartate

vati

ratnāvatī   

ekaṃ sthānam ।

ratnāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

vati

rasavatī   

granthaprakāraviśeṣaḥ ।

rasavatī iti naikeṣāṃ śāstre vartamānaḥ granthaprakāraḥ asti

vati

revatī   

ślokaviśeṣaḥ ।

revatī ṛgvede vartate

vati

revatī   

ekā rākṣasī ।

revatyāḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate vartate

vati

revatī   

mitrasya patnī ।

revatyāḥ ullekhaḥ bhāgavatpurāṇe vartate

vati

revatī   

kānteḥ kanyā ।

revatyāḥ ullekhaḥ mārkaṇḍeyapurāṇe vartate

vati

revatī   

amṛtodanasya patnī ।

revatyāḥ ullekhaḥ bauddhasāhitye vartate

vati

revatī   

strīnāmaviśeṣaḥ ।

naikāsāṃ strīṇāṃ nāma revatī asti

vati

līlāvatī   

mayasya patnī ।

līlāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kathāsaritsāgare vartate

vati

līlāvatī   

ekā surāṅganā ।

līlāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ vikramādityacarite vartate

vati

līlāvatī   

avīkṣitasya patnī ।

līlāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ mārkaṇḍeyapurāṇe vartate

vati

līlāvatī   

ekā vaṇikkanyā ।

līlāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ hitopadeśe vartate

vati

līlāvatī   

granthaprakāraviśeṣaḥ ।

līlāvatī iti granthaprakāraḥ naikeṣu śāstreṣu dṛśyate

vati

līlāvatī   

ekaḥ granthaḥ ।

līlāvatī iti bhāskarācāryeṇa likhitaḥ granthaḥ khyātaḥ

vati

keśavatī   

ekā nadī ।

keśavatī kośe ullikhitā asti

vati

koṅkaṇāvatī   

ekā nadī ।

koṅkaṇāvatī harivaṃśe varṇitā asti

vati

kṣīravatī   

ekā nadī ।

kṣīravatī mahābhārate ullikhitā asti

vati

kṣemavatī   

ekā mahilā ।

kṣemavatī bauddhasāhitye ullikhitā asti

vati

kṣemāvatī   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

kṣemāvatī divyāvadāne ullikhitā asti

vati

śyāmāvatī   

ekā strī ।

śyāmāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ divyāvadāne asti

vati

śrāddhatattvaṭīkā   

ekaḥ ṭīkāgranthaḥ ।

śrāddhatattvaṭīkāyāḥ racayitā kāśirāmaḥ asti

vati

śrīkṛṣṇasarasvatī   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

śrīkṛṣṇasarasvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

śvabhravatī   

ekā nadī ।

śvabhravatyāḥ ullekhaḥ harivaṃśe asti

vati

ṣaṣṭhavatī   

ekā nadī ।

ṣaṣṭhavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ bhāgavatapurāṇe asti

vati

ṣaṣṭhavatī   

ekā nadī ।

ṣaṣṭhavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ bhāgavatapurāṇe asti

vati

saccidānandasarasvatī   

viduṣāṃ nāmaviśeṣaḥ ।

saccidānandasasvatī iti nāmakāḥ naike vidvāṃsaḥ āsan

vati

saccidānandasarasvatī   

lekhakanāmaviśeṣaḥ ।

saccidānandasarasvatī iti nāmakāḥ naike lekhakāḥ āsan

vati

satyābhinavatīrthaḥ   

ekaḥ lekhakaḥ ।

satyābhinavatīrthasya ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

vati

sadānandasarasvatī   

ekaḥ lekhakaḥ ।

sadānandasarasvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

saptavatī   

ekā nadī ।

saptavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ bhāgavatapurāṇe asti

vati

sarasvatīkuṭumbaḥ   

ekaḥ kaviḥ ।

sarasvatīkuṭumbasya ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

vati

sarasvatītantram   

kṛtiviśeṣaḥ ।

sarasvatītantram iti nāmake dve kṛtī staḥ

vati

sarasvatītīrthaḥ   

ekaḥ lekhakaḥ ।

sarasvatītīrthasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

sarasvatīprakriyā   

sarasvatīsūtram iti granthasya ṭīkāgranthaḥ ।

sarasvatīsūtrasya racayitā anubhūti-svarūpaḥ asti

vati

sarasvatīvilāsaḥ   

kṛtiviśeṣaḥ ।

sarasvatīvilāsaḥ iti nāmakāḥ naikāḥ kṛtayaḥ santi

vati

sarasvatīsaraḥ   

ekaḥ pavitraḥ taḍāgaḥ ।

sarasvatīsarasaḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

sarasvatīsūktam   

ekaṃ sūktam ।

sarasvatīsūktasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

sarasvatīstavaḥ   

ekaḥ ślokaḥ ।

sarasvatīstavasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

sarasvatīstotram   

ekaṃ stotram ।

sarasvatīstotrasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

sarasvatīsvāmī   

ekaḥ lekhakaḥ ।

sarasvatīsvāminaḥ ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

vati

sarvati   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

sarvateḥ ullekhaḥ maitrāyaṇī-saṃhitāyām asti

vati

sarvatīrtham   

ekaḥ grāmaḥ ।

sarvatīrthasya ullekhaḥ rāmāyaṇe asti

vati

brahmāvatī   

ekā strī ।

divyāvadāne brahmāvatī samullikhitā

vati

bhagavatīdāsaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

kośeṣu bhagavatīdāsaḥ samullikhitaḥ

vati

sarvātithyam   

ekaḥ taḍāgaḥ ।

sarvātithyasya ullekhaḥ śukasaptatyām asti

vati

salilāvatī   

ekaṃ sthānam ।

salilāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

vati

sahasrabhāgavatī   

ekā devatā ।

sahasrabhāgavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ sāmavede asti

vati

sāmbavatī   

ekā gaṇikā ।

sāmbavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ rājataraṅgiṇyām asti

vati

siddhavaṭī   

ekā devī ।

siddhavaṭyāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

sarasvatī   

ekā devatā ।

sarasvatī buddheḥ devatā asti

vati

svātiḥ   

sūryasya patnī ।

svātiḥ iti sūryasya ekā patnī vartate

vati

hairaṇvatī   

ekā nadī ।

hairaṇvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate asti

vati

śṛṅgāravatī   

ekaḥ grāmaḥ ।

śṛṅgāravatyāḥ ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

vati

satyavatī   

gādheḥ putrī ।

satyavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate harivaṃśe rāmāyaṇe purāṇe ca asti

vati

satyavatī   

śivarājabhaṭṭasya patnī ।

satyavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ vāsavadattāyām asti

vati

vilāsavatī   

ekaṃ nāṭakam ।

vilāsavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ sāhityadarpaṇe asti

vati

vīravatī   

ekā strī ।

vīravatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kathāsaritsāgare asti

vati

sarasvatītīrthaḥ   

ekaṃ tīrtham ।

sarasvatītīrthasya ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

vati

keśavatī   

ekā nadī ।

keśavatī kośe ullikhitā asti

vati

koṅkaṇāvatī   

ekā nadī ।

koṅkaṇāvatī harivaṃśe varṇitā asti

vati

kṣīravatī   

ekā nadī ।

kṣīravatī mahābhārate ullikhitā asti

vati

kṣemavatī   

ekā mahilā ।

kṣemavatī bauddhasāhitye ullikhitā asti

vati

kṣemāvatī   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

kṣemāvatī divyāvadāne ullikhitā asti

vati

gīrvāṇendrasarasvatī   

ekaḥ śikṣakaḥ ।

gīrvāṇendrasarasvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

vati

gṛhavṛkṣavāṭikā   

ekaḥ sāhityikagranthaḥ ।

gṛhavṛkṣavāṭikāyāḥ varṇanaṃ kośe vartate

vati

gojī, phalguḥ, malapūḥ, jaghanephalā, malayuḥ, phalguphalā, kākoḍumbaraḥ, phalavāṭikā, bahuphalā, kākodumbarikā, kṛṣṇodumbarikā, kharapatrī, rājikā, kṣudrodumbarikā, kuṣṭhaghno, phalguvāṭikā, ajājī, phalgunī, citrabheṣajā, dhmāṅkṣanāmnī   

ekaḥ tīkṣṇaparṇīyaḥ vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ asya guṇāḥ śītatvam kaṣāyatvam vraṇanāśitvam garbharakṣāhitatvam stanadugdhapradatvañca ।

gojī suśrutena ullikhitā asti

vati

ghṛtavatī   

ekā nadī ।

ghṛtavatī mahābhārate ullikhitā

vati

cakradantī, dantī, śīghrā, śyenaghaṇṭā, nikumbhī, nāgasphotā, dantinī, upacitrā, bhadrā, rūkṣā, recanī, anukūlā, niḥśalyā, viśalyā, madhupuṣpā, eraṇḍaphalā, taruṇī, eraṇḍapatrikā, aṇurevatī, viśodhanī, kumbhī, uḍumbaradalā   

ekaḥ kṣupaḥ asyā guṇāḥ kaṭutvam uṣṇatvam śūlāmatvagdoṣārśovraṇāśmarī-śalyaśodhanatvam dīpanatvañca ।

cakradantī kośe varṇitā asti

vati

haṃsāvatī   

ekā strī ।

haṃsāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ daśakumāracarite asti

vati

harṣavatī   

ekā rājakanyā ।

harṣavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kathāsaritsāgare asti

vati

hariharasarasvatī   

ekaḥ śikṣakaḥ ।

hariharasarasvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

vati

harāvatī   

ekaḥ deśaḥ ।

harāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ praśastyām asti

vati

svātikarṇaḥ   

ekaḥ rājā ।

svātikarṇasya ullekhaḥ viṣṇupurāṇe asti

vati

stambavatī   

ekā strī ।

stambavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ harivaṃśe asti

vati

stambhavatī   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

stambhavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ vikramādityasya caritre asti

vati

skandhasvātiḥ   

ekaḥ rājā ।

skandhasvāteḥ ullekhaḥ viṣṇupurāṇe asti

vati

hiraṇvatī   

nadīnāmaviśeṣaḥ ।

hiraṇvatī iti nāmakānāṃ naikeṣāṃ lekhakānām ullekhaḥ mahābhārate rāmāyaṇe mārkaṇḍeyapurāṇe ca asti

vati

puṣpāvatī   

ekaḥ grāmaḥ ।

puṣpāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

vati

puṣkalāvatī   

ekam nagaram ।

puṣkalāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

purīṣavatī   

iṣṭikāyāḥ ekaḥ prakāraḥ ।

purīṣavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ śatapathabrāhmaṇe asti

vati

puṇyavatī   

ekaḥ deśaḥ ।

puṇyavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ avadānaśatake asti

vati

mandāravatī   

ekā strī ।

vetāla-pañcaviṃśatikāyāṃ mandāravatī ullikhitā

vati

malayāvatī   

ekā strī ।

kośeṣu malayāvatī ullikhitā

vati

maśakāvatī   

ekaḥ janapadaḥ nadī vā ।

pāṇinīya-vyākaraṇasya ṭīkāyāṃ maśakāvatī samullikhitā

vati

pāṭalāvatī   

ekā nadī ।

pāṭalāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate viṣṇupurāṇe ca asti

vati

pavitravatī   

ekā nadī ।

pavitravatyāḥ ullekhaḥ bhāgavatapurāṇe asti

vati

karvaṭī   

ekā nadī ।

karvaṭyāḥ ullekhaḥ rāmāyaṇe asti

vati

karīravatī   

eka strī ।

karīravatyāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

kamalavatī   

ekā rājaputrī ।

kamalavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kathāsaritsāgare asti

vati

kapīvatī   

ekā nadī ।

kapīvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ rāmāyaṇe asti

vati

kanakavatī   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

kanakavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

kanakavatī   

ekā strī ।

kanakavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kathāsaritsāgare asti

vati

tilakavatī   

ekā nadī ।

tilakavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kāvyālaṅkāravṛtyāṃ vartate

vati

tīrthavatī   

ekā nadī ।

tīrthavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ bhāgavatapurāṇe vartate

vati

tejasvatī   

ekaḥ rājaputraḥ ।

tejasvatī ityasya ullekhaḥ kathāsaritsāgare vartate

vati

tejovatī   

ekaṃ mūlam ।

tejovatī nighaṇṭunā parigaṇitā

vati

tejovatī   

ekā rājakanyā ।

tejovatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kathāsaritsāgare vartate

vati

oghavatī   

ekā nadī ।

oghavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ viṣṇupurāṇe asti

vati

oghavatī   

oghavataḥ putrī ।

oghavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate asti

vati

airāvatī, airāvatā   

candrasya mārgasya ekaḥ viśiṣṭaḥ bhāgaḥ ।

airāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ varāhamihirayoḥ bṛhatsaṃhitāyām asti

vati

ūrjasvatī   

strīnāmaviśeṣaḥ ।

ūrjasvatī iti nāmakānāṃ naikāsāṃ strīṇām ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

utpalāvatī   

ekā nadī ।

utpalāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate asti

vati

utpalāvatī   

ekā apsarāḥ ।

utpalāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

uḍumbarāvatī   

ekā nadī ।

uḍumbarāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

āvaṭikaḥ   

ekaḥ vidyālayaḥ ।

āvaṭikasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

āmrāvatī   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

āmrāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ rāmāyaṇe asti

vati

pippalāvatī   

ekā nadī ।

pippalāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ viṣṇupurāṇe asti

vati

pārijātasarasvatīmantraḥ   

viśiṣṭāḥ siddhimantrāḥ ।

pārijātasarasvatīmantrasya ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

vati

pārāvatī   

ekā nadī ।

pārāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

pārvatīsvayaṃvaraḥ   

ekaṃ nāṭakam ।

pārvatīsvayaṃvarasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

nīlasarasvatīmanuḥ   

ekaḥ mantraḥ ।

nīlasarasvatīmanoḥ ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

vati

candrāvatī   

ekaṃ tīrthakṣetram ।

candrāvatī kośe ullikhitā vartate

vati

candrāvatī   

rājñaḥ dharmasenasya patnī ।

candrāvatī vetāla-pañcaviṃśatikāyām ullikhitā vartate

vati

nimbavatī   

ekā strī ।

nimbavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ daśakumāracarite asti

vati

vīravatī   

ekā nadī ।

vīravatyāḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate asti

vati

chattravatī   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

chattravatyāḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate asti

vati

jñānendrasarasvatīḥ   

ekaḥ paṇḍitaḥ ।

jñānendrasarasvatyaḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

vati

tilakavatī   

ekā nadī ।

tilakavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kāvyālaṅkāravṛtyāṃ vartate

vati

tīrthavatī   

ekā nadī ।

tīrthavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ bhāgavatapurāṇe vartate

vati

tejasvatī   

ekaḥ rājaputraḥ ।

tejasvatī ityasya ullekhaḥ kathāsaritsāgare vartate

vati

tejovatī   

ekaṃ mūlam ।

tejovatī nighaṇṭunā parigaṇitā

vati

tejovatī   

ekā rājakanyā ।

tejovatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kathāsaritsāgare vartate

vati

kalyāṇavatī   

ekā rājakanyā ।

kalyāṇavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

vati

kāmavatī   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

kāmavateḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

vati

dhūmāvatī   

ekaṃ tīrthasthānam ।

dhūmāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate asti

vati

dhṛtavatī   

ekā nadī ।

dhṛtavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate asti

vati

dhvajāgravatī   

gaṇanasya dvau prakārau ।

dhvajāgravatyāḥ ullekhaḥ lalita-vistare asti

vati

narmavatī   

ekaṃ nāṭakam ।

narmavatyāḥ ullekhaḥ sāhityadarpaṇe asti

vati

dhārāvatī   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

dhārāvatyāḥ ullekhaḥ padmapurāṇe asti

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