P. (only perfect tense in , -vav/arta-) A1.-vartate- (Aorist 3. sg./āvṛtsata-; infinitive mood-v/ṛte-) to turn or draw round or back or near ; to turn or go towards ; to turn round or back, return, revolve etc.: CausalP.-vartayati- (Ved. subjunctive-vav/artati-Potential-vavṛtyāt-,etc.) A1.-vartayate- (Ved. Potential-vavṛtīta-,etc.) to cause to turn, roll ; to draw or turn towards ; to lead near or towards ; to bring back ; to turn round or back etc. ; to repeat, recite, say repeatedly ; to pray etc.: Intensive-varīvartti- , to move quickly or repeatedly.
A1.-vartate- (Epic also ti-; ind.p.-vṛtya-,or parī-vartam-), to turn round, revolve, move in a circle or to and fro, roll or wheel or wander about, circumambulate (accusative) etc. ; (with hṛdi-or hṛdaye-) to run in a person's mind ; to return, go or come back to (accusative) ; to be reborn in (locative case) ; (also with anyathā-) to change, turn out different ; to abide, stay, remain etc. ; to act, proceed, behave : Causal-vartayati-, to cause to turn or move round or back or to and fro etc. ; (A1.) to roll or bring near (subjunctive-vartayāte-) ; to overthrow, upset (a carriage) ; to invert, put in a reverse order (read -vartya-for -vṛtya-) ; to change, barter, exchange etc. ; to renew (an agreement) ; to understand or explain wrongly (words etc.) ; to turn topsy-turvy id est search thoroughly ; to destroy, annihilate ; to straiten, contract ; (A1.) to cause one's self to be turned round (in having one's head shaved all round) (see-vartana-): Intensive-v/avartti-, to turn (intrans.) continually
m.Name of a grammarian (also a poet, lexicographer, and writer on medicine, sometimes identified with kātyāyana-, the reputed author of the vārttika-s or supplementary rules of pāṇini-; he is placed by some among the nine gems of the court of vikramāditya-, and by others among the ornaments of the court of bhoja-; he was the author of the Prakrit grammar called prākṛta-prakāśa-, and is said to be the first grammarian who reduced the various dialects of Prakrit to a system)
n. an explanatory or supplementary rule, critical gloss or annotation (added to a grammatical or philosophical sūtra- and defined to be"the exposition of the meaning, of that which is said, of that which is left unsaid, and of that which is ill or imperfectly said";the term vārttika- is, however, especially applied to kātyāyana-'s critical annotations on the aphorisms of pāṇini-'s grammar, the object of which is to consider whether pāṇini-'s rules are correct or not, and to improve on them where this may be found to be necessary;and also to similar works on various matters by kumārila-, sureśvara- etc.; seetantra-v-, śloka-v-)
cl.1 A1. () v/artate- (rarely ti-;in veda- also vavartti-and [once in ] vartti-; subjunctivevav/artat-, vavartati-, vavṛtat-; Potentialvavṛtyāt-, vavṛtīya-; imperativevavṛtsva-; imperfect tense/avavṛtran-, tranta-; perfect tensevav/arta-, vavṛt/us-, vavṛt/e- [here also vāvṛt/e-]etc.; Aoristavart-, avṛtran-subjunctivev/artat-, vartta-; avṛtat- etc.; avartiṣṭa-grammar;3. pluralavṛtsata-;2. sg.vartithās-; precedingvartiṣīṣṭa-grammar; futurevartitā-grammar; vartsy/ati-, te- etc.; vartiṣyati-, te- etc.; Conditionalavartsyat-; avartiṣyata-grammar; infinitive mood-v/ṛte-; -v/ṛtas-; vartitum- etc.; ind.p.vartitvā-and vṛttvā-grammar; -v/ṛtya- etc.; -v/artam- etc.), to turn, turn round, revolve, roll (also applied to the rolling down of tears) etc. ; to move or go on, get along, advance, proceed (with instrumental case"in a particular way or manner"), take place, occur, be performed, come off etc. ; to be, live, exist, be found, remain, stay, abide, dwell (with ātmani na-,"to be not in one's right mind";with manasi-or hṛdaye-,"to dwell or be turned or thought over in the mind";with mūrdhni-,"to be at the head of","to be of most importance"; kathaṃ vartate-with Nominal verb or kiṃ vartate-with genitive case,"how is it with?") ; to live on, subsist by (instrumental case or ind.p.), etc. ; to pass away (as time, ciraṃ vartate gatānām-,"it is long since we went") ; to depend on (locative case) ; to be in a particular condition, be engaged in or occupied with (locative case), etc. ; to be intent on, attend to (dative case) ; to stand or be used in the sense of (locative case) ; to act, conduct one's self, behave towards (locative casedative case,or accusative;also with itaretaram-or parasparam-,"mutually") etc. ; to act or deal with, follow a course of conduct (also with vṛttim-), show, display, employ, use, act in any way (instrumental case or accusative) towards (locative case with parājñayā-,"to act under another's command";with prajā-rūpeṇa-,"to assume the form of a son";with priy/am-,"to act kindly";with svāni-,"to mind one's own business"; kim idam vartase-,"what are you doing there?") etc. ; to tend or turn to, prove as (dative case) ; to be or exist or live at a particular time, be alive or present (confer, comparevartamāna-, vartiṣyamāṇa-,and vartsyat-,p.925) etc. ; to continue (with an ind.p., atītya vartante-,"they continue to excel"; iti vartate me buddhiḥ-,"such continues my opinion") etc. ; to hold good, continue in force, be supplied from what precedes ; to originate, arise from (ablative) or in (locative case) ; to become ; to associate with (saha-) ; to have illicit intercourse with (locative case) : Causalvart/ayati- (Aoristavīvṛtat-or avavartat-;in also A1.avavarti-; infinitive moodvartay/adhyai-; Passive voicevartyate-), to cause to turn or revolve, whirl, wave, brandish, hurl etc. ; to produce with a turning-lathe, make anything round (as a thunderbolt, a pill etc.) ; to cause to proceed or take place or be or exist, do, perform, accomplish, display, exhibit (feelings), raise or utter (a cry), shed (tears) etc. ; to cause to pass (as time), spend, pass, lead a life, live, subsist on or by (instrumental case), enter upon a course of conduct etc. (also with vṛttim-or vṛttyā-or vṛttena-;with bhaikṣeṇa-,"to live by begging"), conduct one's self, behave etc. ; to set forth, relate, recount, explain, declare ; to begin to instruct (dative case) ; to understand, know, learn ; to treat ; (in law, with śiras-or śīrṣam-) to offer one's self to be punished if another is proved innocent by an ordeal ; "to speak"or"to shine" (bhāṣārthe-or bhāsārthe-) : Desiderativev/ivṛtsati-, te- (), vivartiṣate- () , to wish to turn etc.: Intensive (Vedic or Veda , rarely in later language) v/arvartti-, varīvartti-, varīvarty/ate-, varīvartate-, parasmE-padav/arvṛtat- and v/arvṛtāna-imperfect tense 3. sg.avarīvar-, 3. pluralavarīvur- (grammar also varivartti-, varīvṛtīti-, varvṛtīti-, varīvṛtyate-), to turn, roll, revolve, be, exist, prevail [ confer, compareLatin vertere; Slavonic or Slavonian vru8te8ti,vratiti; Lithuanian varty4ti; Gothic wai4rthan; German werden; English -ward.]
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