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WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
adharaḥ3.3.197MasculineSingularuttamaḥ, dūram, anātmā
ādram3.1.105MasculineSingularuttam, sāndram, klinnam, timitam, stimitam, samunnam
añjanam2.9.101NeuterSingularvi‍tunnakam, ‍mayūrakam, tutthāñjanam
dhruvaḥMasculineSingularauttānapādiḥthe polar star
nīlīFeminineSingulardolā, śrīphalī, grāmīṇā, droṇī, rañjnī, klītakikā, nīlinī, tutt, madhuparṇikā, kālā
pataṅgikā2.5.29FeminineSingularputtikā
pradhānam3.1.58NeuterSingularagryaḥ, agraḥ, pravarhaḥ, mukhyaḥ, pravekaḥ, agriyaḥ, prāgryaḥ, parārdhyaḥ, vareṇyaḥ, uttamaḥ, pramukhaḥ, agrīyaḥ, prāgraharaḥ, anavarārdhyaḥ, varyaḥ, anuttamaḥ
prativākyam1.6.10NeuterSingularuttaraman answer
prāvāraḥ2.6.118MasculineSingularuttarāsaṅgaḥ, bṛhatikā, saṃvyānam, uttarīyam
preritaḥ3.1.86MasculineSingularkṣiptaḥ, nuttaḥ, nunnaḥ, astaḥ, niṣṭhyūtaḥ, āviddhaḥ
śikhigrīvam2.9.102NeuterSingulardārvikā, tuttham
śiraḥ2.6.96NeuterSingularśīrṣam, mūrdhan, mastakaḥ, uttamāṅgam
stanaṃdhayī2.6.41MasculineSingularuttānaśayā, ḍimbhā, stanapā
upakuñcikāFeminineSingulartruṭiḥ, tutt, koraṅgī, tripuṭā
uttamarṇaḥ2.9.5MasculineSingular
uttānamMasculineSingularshallow
uttaptam2.6.64NeuterSingularśuṣkamāṃsam, vallūram
uttaraḥ3.3.198MasculineSingularmahān, dātā
uttemanam2.9.45NeuterSingularniṣṭhānam
utthānam3.3.125NeuterSingularakṣiloma, kiñjalkaḥ, tantvādyaṃśaḥ
utthitaḥ3.3.91MasculineSingularkṣīṇarāgaḥ, vṛddhaḥ
varārohā2.6.4FeminineSingularuttamā, varavarṇinī, mattakāśinī
vyutthānam3.3.125NeuterSingulartithibhedaḥ, kṣaṇaḥ
anuttaraḥ3.3.198MasculineSingularanyaḥ, nīcaḥ
     Monier-Williams
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878 results for utt
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
उत्तSee . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तmfn. moistened, wet (see unna-, column 3.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तब्धmfn. upheld View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तब्धmfn. erected View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तब्धिf. support, upholding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तभितmfn. upheld, uplifted, supported View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तक्ष्(ud-- takṣ-) P. (imperative 2. dual number /ut-takṣatam- ) to form (anything) out of (any other thing), ([ ]) ; to take out of (anything), ([ ]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तालmfn. great, strong, high, elevated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तालmfn. impetuous, violent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तालmfn. formidable, horrid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तालmfn. abundant, plentiful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तालmfn. best, excellent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तालmfn. tall, loud View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तालmfn. swift, speedy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तालm. an ape View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तालn. a particular number () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तालीभवनn. impetuous proceeding. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तम्(ud-tam-) P. -tāmyati-, to be out of breath or exhausted ; to lose heart, faint View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमmfn. (superlative fr. 1. ud-;opposed to avama-, adhama-,etc.; see an-uttama-), uppermost, highest, chief View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमmfn. most elevated, principal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमmfn. best, excellent etc. (often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound', exempli gratia, 'for example' dvijottama-,best of the twice-born id est a Brahman ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमmfn. first, greatest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमmfn. the highest (tone) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमmfn. the most removed or last in place or order or time etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमmfn. at last, lastly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमm. the last person (= in European grammars the first person) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमm. Name of a brother of dhruva- (son of uttāna-pāda- and nephew of priya-vrata-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमm. of a son of priya-vrata- and third manu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमm. of the twenty-first vyāsa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमm. plural Name of people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमाf. a kind of piḍakā- or pustule View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमm. the plant Oxystelma Esculentum (Asclepias Rosea Roxb.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमm. an excellent woman (one who is handsome, healthy, and affectionate) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमबलmfn. of excellent strength, very strong View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमचरित्रm. Name (also title or epithet) of a prince, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमदर्शनmfn. of excellent appearance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमाधमmfn. high and low View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमाधममध्यमmfn. good, bad, and indifferent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमाधममध्यमmfn. high, low, and middling. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमगन्धाढ्यmfn. possessing abundantly the most delicate scent or delicious fragrance. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमगायmfn. (either from 2. gāya-) highly celebrated (or from 1. gāya-) wide-striding (said of viṣṇu-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमाहm. the last or latest day, a fine day (?), a lucky day (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमजनm. plural excellent men ( etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमलाभm. great profit, a double return. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमम्ind. most, in the highest degree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तममणिm. a kind of gem View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमाम्भस्n. (in sāṃkhya- philosophy) one of the nine kinds of tuṣṭi- q.v , sāṃkhya-kaumudī- (quoted by ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमाङ्गn. the highest or chief part of the body, the head View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमपदn. a high office. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमफलिनीf. the plant Oxystelma Esculentum (Asclepias Rosea Roxb.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमपुरुषm. the last person in verbal conjugation id est "I, we two, we"(= in European grammars the first person, our third person being regarded in Hindu grammars as the prathama-puruṣa- q.v; see also madhyama-puruṣa-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमपुरुषm. the Supreme Spirit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमपूरुषm. equals -puruṣa- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमपूरुषm. the Supreme Spirit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमपूरुषm. an excellent man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमारणीf. the plant Asparagus Racemosus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमार्धm. the last half or part View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमार्धm. the best half. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमार्ध्यmfn. relating to or connected with the last part or the best half View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमर्णm. (uttama-ṛṇa-) a creditor etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमर्णm. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमर्णिकm. a creditor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमर्णिन्m. a creditor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमसाहसn. the highest of the three fixed mulcts or fines (a fine of 1000 or of 80,000 paṇa-s;capital punishment, branding, banishment, confiscation, mutilation, and death). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमशाखm. Name of a region, (gaRa gahādi- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमशाखीयmfn. belonging to that region. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमसंग्रहm. intriguing with another man's wife, addressing her privately, casting amorous looks etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमश्लोकm. (uttam/a-) the most excellent renown View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमश्लोकmfn. possessing the most excellent fame, highly renowned, illustrious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमश्लोकतीर्थm. Name of a teacher. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमश्रुतmfn. possessing the utmost learning
उत्तमस्त्रीसंग्रहण equals -saṃgraha- above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमसुखm. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमताf. excellence, superiority View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमताf. goodness, good quality. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमतेजस्mfn. having extraordinary splendour, very glorious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमत्वn. excellence, superiority View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमत्वn. goodness, good quality. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमौदार्यmfn. very noble-hearted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमौजस्m. "of excellent valour", Name of one of the warriors of the mahā-bhārata-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमवर्णmfn. having an excellent colour (also being of the best caste) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमवयसn. the last period of life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमवेषm. "having the most excellent dress"Name of śiva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमविद्mfn. having supreme knowledge, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमाय्यmfn. (future Passive voice parasmE-pada of a Nom. uttamāya-?) to be raised or celebrated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तम्भ्( ud-stambh- ;the radical s-appears in augmented and reduplicated forms and if [in veda-] the preposition is separated from the verb) P. -(s)tabhnāti- (imperative 2. sg. -(s)tabhān/a- imperfect tense /ud-astabhnāt-, Aorist -astāmpsīt- -astambhīt- ) to uphold, stay, prop ; to support etc.: Causal -tambhayati-, to lift up, raise, erect etc. ; to bring up ; to irritate, excite ; to raise in rank ; to honour, make respectable. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तम्भm. support, prop, upholding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तम्भनn. a prop, stay View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तम्भितmfn. supported, upheld View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तम्भितmfn. raised View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तम्भितmfn. excited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तम्भितव्यmfn. to be supported or upheld etc. commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमीयmfn. (gaRa gahādi- ) belonging to anything excellent or best or last etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमोपपदmfn. one to whom the best term is applicable, best, good. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमोत्तमmfn. the best among the best, the very best. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमोत्तमकn. a kind of song or conversation in a play, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमोत्तमिक n. a kind of song or conversation in a play, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमोत्तरीयm. Name of a grammarian. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तंसm. ( tan-), a crest, chaplet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तंसm. a wreath worn on the crown of the head View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तंसm. an earring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तंसm. (figuratively) an ornament View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तंसकm. idem or 'm. (figuratively) an ornament ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तंसयNom. P. uttaṃsayati-, to adorn with a crest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तंसिकm. Name of a nāga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तंसितmfn. used as crest or ornament for the head View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तंसितmfn. crested View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तन्(ud-- tan-) A1. (Aorist 3. plural -atnata- ) to stretch one's self upwards, endeavour to rise ; to stretch out. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानmfn. stretched out, spread out, lying on the back, sleeping supinely or with the face upwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानmfn. upright etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानmfn. turned so that the mouth or opening is uppermost (as a vessel), concave etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानmfn. spreading out over the surface View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानmfn. shallow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानmfn. open View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानm. Name of an āṅgirasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानSee ut-tan-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानबर्हिस्m. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानहस्तmfn. (uttān/a-) having the hand, extended, extending them in prayer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानहस्तm. dual number (au-) the two hands with the fingers stretched out (but with the backs towards the ground) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानहयm. Name of a son of śatājit- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानहृदय(PrakrituttANahiaa), open-hearted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानकm. a species of Cyperus grass View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानकूर्मकn. a particular posture in sitting. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानपद्f. (uttān/a-) one whose legs are extended (in parturition) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानपद्f. Name of a peculiar creative agency View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानपद्f. vegetation, the whole creation of upward-germinating plants, ([ ]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानपादm. the star in the little bear (personified as son of vīra- or manu- svāyambhuva- and father of dhruva-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानपादजm. a Name of dhruva- (or the polar-star) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानपाणिद्वयmfn. having the two hands with the palms turned upwards. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानपर्ण(uttān/a--) mfn. having extended leaves View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानपर्णकm. a species of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानपत्त्रकm. a species of Ricinus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानरेचितm. (sc. hasta-) a particular position of the hands.
उत्तानार्थmfn. superficial, shallow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानशयmfn. lying on the back, sleeping with the face upwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानशयm. a little child View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानशायिन्mfn. lying on the back. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानशीवन्mf(arī-)n. lying extended, stagnant (as water) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानिकाf. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानीकृto open wide (the mouth), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानीकृभूto spread, extend View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तानितmfn. wide open (as the mouth) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तङ्कand uttaṅka-megha- vv.ll. for utaṅka- and utaṅka-megha-, qq.v. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तनूरुहmfn. with bristling hair, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तप्(ud-- tap-) P. -tapati-, to make warm or hot ; to heat thoroughly etc. ; to pain, torment, press hard etc.: A1. -tapate-, to shine forth, give out heat ; to warm one's self or a part of one's body on : Causal -tāpayati-, to warm up, heat ; to excite, urge on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तापm. great heat, glow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तापm. ardour, effort, excessive energy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तापm. affliction, distress View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तापm. excitement, anxiety View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तापSee ut-tap-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तपनm. a particular kind of fire. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तापनn. paining, distressing, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तपनीयmfn. (said of a kind of fire), BaudhP View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तापितmfn. heated, made hot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तापितmfn. pained, distressed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तापितmfn. excited, roused. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तप्तmfn. burnt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तप्तmfn. heated, red hot, glowing, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तप्तmfn. pained, tormented, pressed hard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तप्तmfn. bathed, washed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तप्तmfn. anxious, excited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तप्तn. dried flesh View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तप्तn. great heat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तप्तवैडूर्यनिर्भासm. Name (also title or epithet) of a tathāgata-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरmfn. (Comparative degree fr. 1. ud-;opposed to adhara-;declined a-), upper, higher, superior (exempli gratia, 'for example' uttare dantās-,the upper teeth) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरmfn. northern (because the northern part of India is high) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरmfn. left (opposed to dakṣiṇa-or right, because in praying the face being turned to the east the north would be on the left hand) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरmfn. later, following, subsequent, latter, concluding, posterior, future etc. (opposed to pūrva-,etc. exempli gratia, 'for example' uttaraḥ kālaḥ-,future time; uttaraṃ vākyam-,a following speech, answer, reply; phalam uttaram-,subsequent result, future consequence; varṣottareṣu-,in future years) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरmfn. followed by (exempli gratia, 'for example' smottara smottara- mfn.followed by"sma-") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरmfn. superior, chief, excellent, dominant, predominant, more powerful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरmfn. gaining a cause (in law) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरmfn. better, more excellent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरm. Name of a son of virāṭa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरm. of a king of the nāga-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरm. Name of a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरm. of several men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरm. plural Name of a school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराf. (ā-), of. (scilicet diś-) the northern quarter, the north etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराf. Name of each of the nakṣatra-s that contain the word" uttara- " (see uttara-phalgunī-,etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराf. Name of a daughter of virāṭa- and daughter-in-law of arjuna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराf. of a female servant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराf. dual number (e-) the second and third verse of a tṛca- (or a stanza consisting of three verses) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराf. plural the second part of the sāma-saṃhitā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरn. upper surface or cover etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरn. the north View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरn. the following member, the last part of a compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरn. answer, reply etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरn. (in law) a defence, rejoinder, a defensive measure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरn. contradiction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरn. (in the mīmāṃsā- philosophy) the answer (the fourth member of an adhikaraṇa- or case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरn. superiority, excellence, competency etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरn. result, the chief or prevalent result or characteristic, what remains or is left, conclusion, remainder, excess, over and above, (often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' exempli gratia, 'for example' bhayottara-,attended with danger, having danger as the result; dharmottara-,chiefly characterized by virtue; ṣaṣṭy-uttaraṃ sahasram-,one thousand with an excess of sixty, id est 1060; saptottaraṃ śatam-,107) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरn. remainder, difference (in arithmetic) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरn. Name of a song View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरn. Name of each of the nakṣatra-s that contain the word" uttara- " View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरn. a particular figure in rhetoric View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरn. Name of the last book of the rāmāyaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराind. north, northerly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराind. northward (with genitive case or ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराind. (uttarā-patha-,etc.See .) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरfor 2. See ut-tṝ-, column 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तारmfn. (fr. tārā-with 1. ud-in the sense of "apart") (an eye) from which the pupil is taken out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तारmfn. (for 2. ut-tāra-etc.See ut-tṝ-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरmfn. (for 1.See) , crossing over View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरmfn. to be crossed (see dur-uttara-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तारm. (for 1.See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order above) transporting over View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तारm. landing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तारm. delivering, rescuing
उत्तारm. ejecting, getting rid of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तारm. vomiting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तारm. passing away, instability View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तारmfn. surpassing others, excellent, pre-eminent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरबर्हिस्n. the sacrificial grass on the north of the fire. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरभद्रपदा f. Name of a lunar mansion (see bhādrapadā-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरभाद्रपदाf. Name of a lunar mansion (see bhādrapadā-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरभागm. the second participle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरभक्तिकmfn. employed after eating
उत्तराभासm. a false or indirect or prevaricating reply View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराभासताf. inadequacy of a reply, the semblance without the reality. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराभासत्वn. inadequacy of a reply, the semblance without the reality. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराभिमुखmfn. turned towards the north. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरच्छदm. a cover thrown over anything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरदन्तm. a tooth of the upper mandible commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरदायकmfn. replying, giving an answer, impertinent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरदेशm. the country towards the north, the up-country. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराधरmfn. superior and inferior, higher and lower View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराधरn. upper and under lip View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराधरn. the lips (See adharottara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराधरविवरn. the mouth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरधारयmfn. one who has to give an answer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरधर्मm. Name of a teacher () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरधेयmfn. to be done or applied subsequently. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराधिकारm. right to property in succession to another person, heirship View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराधिकारताf. right of succession. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराधिकारत्वn. right of succession. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराधिकारिन्mfn. an heir or claimant subsequent to the death of the original owner, an heir who claims as second in succession View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरधुरीणmfn. yoked on the left pole of a carriage (as a horse) on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरदिगीशm. Name of kuvera-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरदिक्स्थmfn. situated in the north, northern. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरदिश्f. the north quarter. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराद्रिm. "northern mountain", the himālaya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरद्रुm. an upper beam (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरगmfn. flowing towards the north View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरागारn. an upper room, garret View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरगार्ग्यthe younger gārgya- (Name (also title or epithet) of work) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरघृतmfn. sprinkled over with ghee, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरगीताf. Name of a section of the sixth book of the mahābhārata-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरग्रन्थm. Name of a supplement of the yoni-grantha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराहm. the following day on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरहनुf. the upper jaw-bone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराहिind. northerly, from the north (with ablative ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरजmfn. born in the latter (or last-mentioned kind of wedlock) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरजmfn. born subsequently or afterwards. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरज्याf. the versed sine of an arc, the second half of the chord halved by the versed sine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरज्योतिषn. Name of a country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तारकm. "a deliverer", Name of śiva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरकालm. future time View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरकालm. time reckoned from full moon to full moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरकालmfn. future View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरकालम्ind. afterwards, after View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरकालतस्ind. afterwards, after View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरकल्पm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरकामाख्यतन्त्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरकाण्डn. following or concluding book View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरकाण्डn. the seventh book of the rāmāyaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरकाण्डn. also the last book of the adhyātma-rāmāyaṇa-.
उत्तरकायm. the upper part of the body View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरखण्डn. last section View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरखण्डn. the concluding book of the padma-purāṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरखण्डn. also of the śiva-purāṇa- and of other works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरखण्डनn. cutting off a reply, refutation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरकोशलाf. the city ayodhyā- (the modern Oude) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरक्रमm. objection, refutation, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरक्रियाf. the last (sacred) action, funeral rites, obsequies. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरकुरुm. n. one of the nine divisions of the world (the country of the northern kuru-s, situated in the north of India, and described as the country of eternal beatitude). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरलmf(ī-)n. trembling, shuddering, quivering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरलक्षणn. the indication of an actual reply View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरलक्षणmfn. marked on the left side View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरलक्ष्मन्mfn. marked above or on the left side View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरलायNom. A1. uttaralāyate-, to shudder, quiver, tremble View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरलीकृto cause to quiver ; to cause to skip, let leap
उत्तरलितmfn. caused to tremble, excited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरलोमन्(/uttara-) mfn. having the hairs turned upwards or outwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरम्ind. at the conclusion, at the end exempli gratia, 'for example' bhavad-uttaram-, having the word" bhavat- "at the end View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरम्ind. asrottaram īkṣitā-, looked at with tears at the close id est with a glance ending in tears View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरम्ind. afterwards, thereafter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरम्ind. behind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरम्ind. in the following part (of a book) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरम्ind. ([ confer, compare Greek .]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरमानसn. Name of a tīrtha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरमन्द्राf. (/uttara-) a loud but slow manner of singing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरमन्द्राद्याf. a particular mūrchanā- (in music). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरमार्गm. the way leading to the north. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरमतिm. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरमात्रn. a mere reply, only a reply. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरंग(1. uttaraṃ-ga-;for 2.See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order) n. a wooden arch surmounting a door frame View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरंगm. (for 1.See) , a high wave View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरंगmfn. rough with high waves, washed over by waves View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरंगmfn. inundated, flooded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरंगNom. A1. uttaraṃgate-, to surge ; to break or burst (like a wave) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरंगयNom. P. uttaraṃgayati-, to cause to wave or undulate, to move to and fro View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरंगिmfn. surging, heaving, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरमीमांसाf. the vedānta- philosophy (an inquiry into the jñāna-kāṇḍa- or second portion of the veda-;opposed to pūrva-mīmāṃsā-;See mimāṃsā-): View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराम्नायm. Name of a sacred book of the śākta-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरांसm. the left shoulder (the clavicle ?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरमूल(/uttara-) mfn. having the roots above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरणmfn. coming out of, crossing over etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरणn. coming forth or out of (especially out of water) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरणn. landing, disembarking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरणn. crossing rivers etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तारणmfn. transporting over View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तारणmfn. bringing over, rescuing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तारणn. the act of landing, delivering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तारणn. rescuing, helping to cross over or escape View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तारणn. transportation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरनाभिf. the cavity on the north of the sacrificial fire commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरनारायणm. the second part of the nārāyaṇa-- or puruṣa--hymn () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरणसेतुm. a bridge for crossing over (genitive case), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराङ्गn. the last sound of combined consonants commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपदn. the last member of a compound word etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपादm. a division of legal practice (that part which relates to the reply or defence, four divisions being admitted in every suit). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपदकीयmfn. relating to or studying the last word or term commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानmfn. (a compound) in which the sense of the last member is the chief one (said of tatpuruṣa- compounds) on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपदिक mfn. relating to or studying the last word or term commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपक्षm. the northern or left wing (side) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपक्षm. second or following part of an argument, the reply, refutation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपक्षm. the answer to the first or objectionable argument (see pūrva-pakṣa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपक्षm. the right argument, demonstrated truth, or conclusion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपक्षm. the minor proposition in a syllogism View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपक्षताf. conclusion, demonstration, reply. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपक्षत्वn. conclusion, demonstration, reply. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपर्वतm. the northern mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपश्चार्धm. the north-western half. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपश्चिमmfn. north-western View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपश्चिमाf. (scilicet diś-) the north-west. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपटm. an upper garment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपथm. the northern way, the way leading to the north View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपथm. the northern country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरापथm. the northern road or direction, the northern country, north View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपथिकmfn. inhabiting the northern country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरफल्गुनी f. Name of lunar mansions (see proṣṭhapadā-, phalgunī-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरफाल्गुनीf. Name of lunar mansions (see proṣṭhapadā-, phalgunī-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरप्रच्छदm. a cover-lid, quilt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरप्रत्युत्तरn. "reply and rejoinder", a dispute, altercation, discussion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरप्रत्युत्तरn. the pleadings in a lawsuit. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरप्रोष्ठपदाf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपूजाf. highest worship (sevenfold with Buddhists), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपुराणn. Name of a jaina- work. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपुरस्तात्ind. north-eastward (with genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपूर्वmfn. north-eastward View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपूर्वmfn. one who takes the north for the east View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरपूर्वाf. (scilicet diś-) the north-east. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तररहितmfn. devoid of reply, having no answer. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तररामचम्पूf. Name (also title or epithet) of a poem View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तररामचरित(or caritra-) n. "the further or later deeds of rāma-", Name of a drama of bhava-bhūti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरारणिf. the upper araṇi- (q.v) which is also called pramantha- or churner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरार्चिकn. Name of the second part of the sāmaveda-saṃhitā- (also called uttarāgrantha-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरार्धn. the upper part (of the body) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरार्धn. the northern part View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरार्धn. the latter half View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरार्धn. the further end View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरार्धपश्चार्धm. north-west, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरार्धपूर्वार्धn. the eastern part of the northern side (of the fire) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरार्ध्य(fr. uttarārdha-) mfn. being on the northern side View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरार्कm. Name of one of the twelve forms of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरार्थmfn. (done etc.) for the sake of what follows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तररूपn. the second of two combined vowels or consonants commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराशाf. the northern quarter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरासद्mfn. seated northward or on the left View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराषाढाf. Name of a lunar mansion (see aṣāḍhā-)
उत्तरसाधकmfn. effective of a result, assisting at a ceremony, befriending View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरसाधकmfn. an assistant, helper, friend View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरसाधकmfn. establishing a reply View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराशाधिपतिm. "lord of the north", Name of kuvera-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरशैलm. plural Name of a Buddhist school. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरसाक्षिन्m. witness for the defence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरसाक्षिन्m. a witness testifying from the report of others. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरसक्थn. the left thigh View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरशलङ्कटsee śal-, parasmE-pada 1059 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरसंज्ञितmfn. designated in the reply (a witness etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरसंज्ञितmfn. learnt from report, hearsay evidence. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरासङ्गm. an upper or outer garment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरशान्तिf. final consecration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराश्मकmfn. belonging to the above country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराश्मन्mfn. having high rocks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराश्मन्m. Name of a country, (gaRa ṛśyādi- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराश्रमिन्m. (a Brahman) who enters into the next āśrama- (or period of religious life) commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तराश्रितmfn. having gone to or being in the northern direction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरात्ind. from the left View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरात्ind. from the north View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरतःपश्चात्ind. north-westward (with genitive case ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरतन्त्रn. "concluding doctrine", Name of a supplementary section in the medical manual of suśruta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरतन्त्रn. also of supplementary portions of several other works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरतापनीयn. Name of the second part of the nṛsiṃha-tāpanīyopaniṣad-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरतरmfn. (Comparative degree ft. uttara-), still further removed, still more distant, still higher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरतस्ind. at the top, above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरतस्ind. from the north, northward etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरतस्ind. to the left (opposed to dakṣiṇa-tas-) etc. (in some cases it is not to be decided whether"northward"or"to the left"is meant) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरतस्ind. afterwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरतस्ind. behind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरतस्ind. from the north, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरत्रind. in what follows, after, subsequently, later, further on, beyond, below (in a work) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरत्रind. northward, (pūrvatra-,in the first case or place; uttaratra-,in the second) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरात्सद्mfn. equals uttarā-sad- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरात्तात्ind. from the north View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरौष्ठm. the upper lip View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरौष्ठm. the upper part of a pillar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरवादिन्m. a replicant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरवादिन्m. a defendant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरवादिन्m. one whose claims are of later date than another's View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरवल्लीf. Name of the second section of the kāṭhakopaniṣad- (when divided into two adhyāya-s). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरवासस्n. an upper garment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरवस्तिf. a small syringe, a urethra injection pipe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरवस्त्रn. an upper garment. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरावत्mfn. being above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरावत्mfn. victorious, overpowering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरवयसn. the latter or declining years of life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरवेदिf. the northern altar made for the sacred fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरवीथिf. (in astronomy) the northern orbit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरयNom. P. uttarayati-, to reply ; to defend one's self. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरायणn. the progress (of the sun) to the north View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरायणn. the period of the sun's progress to the north of the equator, the summer solstice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरयुगn. a particular measure (= 13 aṅgula-s), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरेद्युस्ind. on a subsequent day, on the day following, to-morrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरेणind. (with genitive case ablative accusative,or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') northward View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरेणind. on the left side of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरेतराf. (scilicet diś-) "other or opposite to the northern", the southern quarter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरिकाf. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरिन्mfn. increasing, becoming more and more intense View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तारिन्mfn. transporting across View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तारिन्mfn. unsteady, inconstant, changeable, tremulous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तारिन्mfn. sick View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरीयn. an upper or outer garment etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरीयn. a blanket View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरीयकn. an upper or outer garment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरीयताf. the state of being an upper garment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तर्जनn. ( tarj-), violent threatening View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तर्जनीकmfn. threatening, menacing, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरोष्ठ m. the upper lip View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरोष्ठm. the upper part of a pillar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरोत्तरmfn. more and more, higher and higher, further and further View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरोत्तरmfn. always increasing, always following etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरोत्तरmfn. each following View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरोत्तरn. reply to an answer, reply on reply View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरोत्तरn. a rejoinder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरोत्तरn. conversation etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरोत्तरn. excess, exceeding quantity or degree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरोत्तरn. succession, gradation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरोत्तरn. descending View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरोत्तरम्ind. higher and higher, more and more, in constant continuation, one on the other etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरोत्तरप्रच्छलाf. Name of a section of the sāmaveda-cchalā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरोत्तरवक्तृm. one who never fails to answer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरोत्तरिन्mfn. one following the other View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरोत्तरिन्mfn. constantly increasing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तार्यmfn. to be made to land View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तार्यmfn. to be ejected View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तार्यmfn. to be thrown up by vomiting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तार्य ind.p. having caused to come out etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तटmfn. overflowing its banks (as a river) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्ततmfn. stretching one's self upwards, rising upwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तथ्यm. Name of a son of devaputra- (see utathya-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तेजकmfn. instigating, stimulating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तेजनf(ā-)n. incitement, instigation, encouragement, stimulation, exciting, animating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तेजनf(ā-)n. sending, despatching View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तेजनf(ā-)n. urging, driving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तेजनf(ā-)n. whetting, sharpening, furbishing, polishing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तेजनf(ā-)n. an inspiring or exciting speech View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तेजनf(ā-)n. an incentive, inducement, stimulant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तेजनn. (in dramatic language) challenging, provocation, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तेजितmfn. incited, animated, excited, urged View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तेजितmfn. sent, despatched View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तेजितmfn. whetted, sharpened, furbished, polished View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तेजितn. an incentive, inducement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तेजितn. sidling one of a horse's five paces View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तेजितn. moderate velocity in a horse's pace View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तेरितn. (said to be fr. uttṝ-), one of the five paces of a horse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्था( ud-sthā- ; see ut-tambh-, column 1) P. A1. (but not A1.in the sense of,"rising, standing up") -tiṣṭhati-, -te- (perfect tense -tasthau- Aorist -asthāt-etc.) to stand up, spring up, rise, raise one's self, set out etc. ; to rise (from the dead) ; to rise (from any occupation), leave off ; to finish etc. ; to come forth, arise, appear, become visible, result ; to spring, originate from etc. ; to come in (as revenues) ; to rise (for the performance of any action) ; to be active or brave ; to make efforts, take pains with, strive for ; to excel etc.: Causal -thāpayati- (Aorist 1. sg. /ud-atiṣṭhipam- ) to cause, to stand up, raise, rouse, start etc. ; to set up, lift up, erect etc. ; to get out ; to drive out, send out, push out : ; to excite ; to produce ; to arouse, awaken, raise to life, make alive, animate ; to stir up, agitate etc.: Desiderative -tiṣṭhāsati-, to wish or intend to stand up ; to intend to leave off (a sacrifice) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थmfn. (generally in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') standing up, rising, arising etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थmfn. coming forth, originating, derived from etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थm. arising, coming forth ; ([ confer, compare Zend usta.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. the act of standing up or rising etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. rising (of the moon etc.) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. resurrection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. rising up to depart View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. leaving off etc.: starting on a warlike expedition etc.
उत्थानn. coming forth, appearing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. bursting open View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. tumult, sedition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. rise, origin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. effort, exertion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. manly exertion, manhood etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. evacuating (by stool etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. an army View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. joy, pleasure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. a book View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. a court-yard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. a shed where sacrifices are offered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. a term, limit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. business of a family or realm, the care of subjects or dependants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. reflection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानn. proximate cause of disease View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानmfn. causing to arise or originate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानहीनmfn. inactive, lazy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानैकादशीf. the eleventh day in the light or former half of the month kārttikā- (when viṣṇu- rises from his sleep). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानशील mfn. active, zealous, diligent. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानशीलिन्mfn. active, zealous, diligent. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानवत्mfn. possessed of effort or energy, ready for action, zealous, diligent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानवीरm. a man of action, one who makes efforts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानयुक्तmfn. possessed of effort or energy, ready for action, zealous, diligent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थानीयmfn. belonging to the completion, forming the conclusion commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापकmfn. lifting up, causing to get up, who or what raises etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापकmfn. exciting, animating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापकm. a waiting-man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापकm. a particular composition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापनn. causing to rise or get up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापनn. raising, elevating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापनn. causing to leave (a house etc., with accusative of the person made to leave) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापनn. causing to come forth, bringing forth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापनn. exciting, instigating, bringing about, causing to cease, finishing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापनn. (in mathematics) the finding of the quantity sought, answer to the question, substitution of a value, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापनn. (in dramatic language) defiance, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापनीf. (scilicet ṛc-) a concluding verse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापनीयmfn. to be raised or made to get up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापनीयmfn. able to raise or arouse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापयितृm. one who raises or erects. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापितmfn. caused to stand up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापितmfn. raised, lifted up, elevated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापितmfn. made to get up or out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थापितmfn. aroused, instigated, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थाप्यmfn. to be raised View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थाप्यmfn. to be sent away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थाप्यmfn. (in mathematics) to be brought out (as a result) by substitution, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थाप्य ind.p. having raised or caused to rise, having roused or instigated etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थातव्यmfn. (impersonal or used impersonally) to be stood up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थातव्यmfn. to be set out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थातव्यmfn. to be active View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थातृm. one who rises View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थातृm. resolving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थाय ind.p. having risen (from a seat etc.), having risen (in rank etc.), standing up etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थायम् ind.p. having risen on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थायिन्mfn. rising (from one's bed) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थायिन्mfn. coming forth, becoming visible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थायिन्mfn. exerting one's self, active View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थायित्वn. exertion, energy, activity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थायोत्थायind. every time one rises (from one's bed) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थितmfn. risen or rising (from a seat etc.) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थितmfn. risen (from a sickness) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थितmfn. elevated, high etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थितmfn. come forth, arisen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थितmfn. born, produced, originated etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थितmfn. come in (as revenue) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थितmfn. endeavouring, striving, exerting one's self, active etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थितmfn. happened, occuring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थितmfn. advancing, increasing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थितmfn. extended View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थितmfn. high, lofty, eminent (said of a pragātha- consisting of ten pāda-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थितn. (/ut-thitam-) rising, arising View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थिताङ्गुलिm. the palm of the hand with the fingers extended View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थितताf. state of activity or readiness to serve View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थितिf. elevation, rising up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तिज्(ud-- tij-), Causal P. -tejayati-, to excite, stimulate, incite, instigate, animate, encourage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तिङ्गm. a species of insect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तिङ्गm. a particular insect, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तीरम्ind. on the shore, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तीर्णSee column 3. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तीर्णmfn. landed, crossed, traversed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तीर्णmfn. rescued, liberated, escaped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तीर्णmfn. released from obligation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तीर्णmfn. thrown off View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तीर्णmfn. one who has completed his studies, experienced, clever. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तीर्णविकृतिmfn. one who has escaped any change View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तीर्य ind.p. having crossed, having landed etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तिष्ठासाf. the intention to leave off View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तिष्ठासाf. the wish to leave (a sacrifice etc.) unfinished View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तितीर्षुmfn. about to pass out of (water), wishing to land View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तोलनn. lifting up, raising, elevating (by means of a counterpoise or balance) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तोलनSee ut-tul-, column 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तोलितmfn. raised, lifted up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तोरणmfn. decorated with raised or upright arches View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तोरणपताकmfn. decorated with raised arches and flags View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तॄ( ud-tṝ-) P. -tarati- and -tirati- (Ved.) to pass out of (especially jalāt-,water, with ablative) to disembark ; to come out of etc. ; to escape from (a misfortune, affliction, etc.) ; to come down, descend, alight, put up at ; to pass over ; to cross (a river, with accusative) ; to vanquish etc. ; to give up, leave ; to elevate, strengthen, increase : Causal -tārayati-, to cause to come out ; to deliver, assist, rescue etc. ; to make any one alight, take down, take off ; to cause to pass over ; to convey or transport across, land, disembark ; to vomit up: Desiderative -titīrṣati-, to wish to cross View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तॄ(Causal also) to remove (the nails), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्त्रस्(ud-- tras-), Causal P. -trāsayati-, to frighten, alarm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्त्रासm. fear, terror View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्त्रासकmfn. frightening, alarming View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्त्रस्तmfn. frightened View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तृद्(ud-- tṛd-) P. -tṛṇatti-, to split or cut through : Desiderative (parasmE-pada -titṛtsat-) to wish to split or cut through View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्त्रिपदn. an upright tripod View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्त्रुट्(ud-- truṭ-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्त्रुटितmfn. torn, broken View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तु(ud-- tu-) P. /ut-tavīti- () , to effect, bring about ; to prosper, increase ([ ]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तुद्(ud-- tud-) P. -tudati-, to push up, tear up ; to push open ; to stir up, urge on. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तुदmfn. one who stirs up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तुल्(ud-- tul-) P. -tolayati-, to take up (a sword) ; to erect, set up commentator or commentary on ; to raise up (by means of a counterpoise) ; to weigh ; to raise, excite (anger etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तुण्डितn. the head of a thorn etc. which has entered the skin ([ ]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तुङ्गmfn. lofty, high, tall View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तुङ्गmfn. swollen (as a stream) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तुङ्गताf. height, loftiness, elevation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तुङ्गत्वn. height, loftiness, elevation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तुङ्गितmfn. lifted up, raised, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तुषm. fried grain (freed from the husks) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्त्यागm. throwing up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्त्यागm. abandonment, quitting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्त्यागm. secession from worldly attachments View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्त्यज्(ud-- tyaj-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्त्यक्तmfn. thrown upwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्त्यक्तmfn. left, abandoned View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्त्यक्तmfn. free from worldly passion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्युत्था( sthā-), (imperfect tense -/udatiṣṭhat-; perf. -/ut-tasthau-) to rise for going towards (accusative) etc. ; to rise from a seat to do any one (accusative) honour etc. ; (with ātithya-karma-) idem or '(3. plural -/ut-taranti-) to cross ; (1. plural -tarema-) to cross over towards, penetrate to (accusative) ' ; to rise in rebellion ; to leave off, desist from (ablative) commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्युत्थानn. rising from a seat through politeness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्युत्थानn. rising, setting out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्युत्थानn. rebellion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्युत्थानn. elevation, gaining a high position, gaining authority, respectability View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्युत्थानn. (said of destiny) gaining efficacy, power View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्युत्थानn. rise, origin, birth
अभ्युत्थायिन्mfn. rising from a seat to do any one honour commentator or commentary on (an-- negative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्युत्थेयmfn. to be greeted reverentially (id est by rising from one's seat) commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्युत्थितmfn. risen etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्युत्थितmfn. risen from the seat to do any one (accusative) honour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्युत्थितmfn. appeared, visible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्युत्थितmfn. risen for doing anything, making one's self ready for (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्युत्थितmfn. (Inf.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्युत्थितmfn. ready View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्युत्थितिf. rising from a seat, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्युत्तॄ(3. plural -/ut-taranti-) to cross ; (1. plural -tarema-) to cross over towards, penetrate to (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आबुत्तm. (in dramatic language) a sister's husband (probably a Prakrit word) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अध्युत्था( sthā-) to turn away from View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अहमुत्तरn. idem or 'm. Name (also title or epithet) of a divine being, ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अहमुत्तरत्वn. idem or 'n. idem or 'm. Name (also title or epithet) of a divine being, ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तmfn. not cast down, invincible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्त(according to to some) = /anu-- tta- (for anu-- datta-), admitted. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तमmf(ā-)n. unsurpassed, incomparably the best or chief, excellent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तमmf(ā-)n. excessive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तमmf(ā-)n. not the best View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तमmf(ā-)n. (in grammar) not used in the uttama-, or first person. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तमाम्भस्n. (in sāṃkhya- philosophy) indifference to and consequent abstinence from sensual enjoyment (as fatiguing) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तमाम्भसिकn. indifference to and abstinence from sensual enjoyment (as involving injury to external objects). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तमन्य(/a-nutta--) m. "of invincible wrath", indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तानmfn. lying with the face towards, the ground View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तानmfn. not supine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तानmfn. not flat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तरmfn. chief, principal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तरmfn. best, excellent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तरmfn. without a reply, unable to answer, silent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तरmfn. fixed, firm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तरmfn. low, inferior, base View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तरmfn. south, southern View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तरn. a reply which is coherent or evasive and therefore held to be no answer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तरm. plural a class of gods among the jaina-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तरंगmfn. not surging or billowy, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तरपूजाf. (with Buddhists) highest worship (of seven kinds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तरपूजा confer, compare vandana-), . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तरयोगतन्त्रn. title of the last of the four bauddhatantra-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तरोपपातिकm. plural a class of gods View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तरोपपातिकदशाf. plural title of the ninth aṅga- of the jaina-s treating of those gods. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्थानn. ( sthā-), the not rising, want of exertion or of energy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्थितmfn. not risen, not grown up (as grain). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तुण्डितmfn. not having the front protruding, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अपनुत्तिf. removing, taking or sending away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अपनुत्तिf. expiation and View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अप्रत्युत्थायुकmfn. not rising before (wrong reading yika-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउत्तमेयm. a descendant of auttami-
अउत्तमिm. a descendant of uttama-, Name of the third manu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउत्तमिकmfn. (fr. uttama-), relating to the gods who are in the highest place (in the sky) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउत्तानपादm. a descendant of uttāna-pāda-, Name of dhruva- (or the polar star) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउत्तानपादिm. idem or 'm. a descendant of uttāna-pāda-, Name of dhruva- (or the polar star) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउत्तङ्कmf(ī-)n. relating or belonging to uttaṅka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउत्तरmfn. (fr. 1. uttara-), living in the northern country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउत्तरभक्तिकmfn. (fr. bhakta-with uttara-), employed or taken after a meal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउत्तराधर्यn. (fr. uttarādhara-), the state of being below and above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउत्तराधर्यn. the state of one thing being over the other View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउत्तराधर्यn. confusion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउत्तराहmfn. (fr. uttarāha-), of or belonging to the next day vArttika on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउत्तरपदिकmfn. (fr. uttara-pada-), belonging to or occurring in the last member of a compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउत्तरपथिकmfn. (fr. uttara-patha-), coming from or going towards the northern country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउत्तरार्धिकmfn. (fr. uttarārdha-), being on or belonging to the upper or northern side View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउत्तरवेदिकmfn. (fr. uttara-vedi-), relating to or performed on the northern altar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउत्तरेयm. a descendant of uttarā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउत्थानिकmfn. (fr. ut-thāna-), relating to the getting up or sitting up (of a child) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आवुत्तsee ābutta-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बर्हिरुत्थm. "arising from grass", fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भवदुत्तरम्ind. with bhavat- at the end View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भ्रातृव्यापनुत्तिf. equals vya-parāṇutti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भ्रातृव्यपराणुत्ति(bhr/ā-) f. the driving away a rivals
ब्रह्मनुत्त(br/ahma--) mfn. driven away by a sacred text or spell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहदुत्तरतापिनीf. Name of an upaniṣad-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहस्पतिप्रणुत्त(bṛhas-p/ati-.) mfn. expelled by bṛhaspati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरुत्तरmfn. increasing by 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरुत्तरस्तोमm. with gotamasya- Name of an ekāha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दध्युत्तरn. equals -agra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दध्युत्तराf. bulb-milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दध्युत्तरगn. equals dhy-uttara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दुरुत्तरmfn. (fr. 1. uttara-) unanswerable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दुरुत्तरmfn. (fr. 2. uttara-or Prakrit for dus-tara-) difficult to be crossed or overcome on
दुत्थोत्थदवीर(astrology) Name of the 13th yoga-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्यौत्त्रn. light, splendour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्यौत्त्रn. forked lightning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्युत्तmfn. broken, torn or rent asunder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गुरुतल्पापनुत्तिf. the violation of a teacher's bed, 107 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कामसमुत्थmfn. sprung from desire, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
करुत्थामm. Name of a son of duṣyanta- (and father of ākrīḍa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
करुत्थामm. (varia lectio karūtthāma-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
काष्ठपुत्तलिकाf. a wooden image, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
खर्परीतुत्थn. a kind of collyrium View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
खसमुत्थmfn. produced in the sky, ethereal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
खत्तखुत्तm. idem or 'm. Name of an astronomer.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षुत्तृडुद्भवmfn. beginning to feel hungry and thirsty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षुत्तृषान्वितmfn. suffering from hunger and thirst View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षुत्तृष्णोपपीडितmfn. idem or 'mfn. suffering from hunger and thirst ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षुत्तृट्परीतmfn. suffering from hunger and thirst View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कुत्थ(in astronomy) the fifteenth yoga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लघुसमुत्थानmfn. rising quickly to work, active, alert View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मधुषुत्तमmfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महात्रिपुरसुन्दरीतापनीयोपनिषदर्युत्तरतापनीf. Name of two upaniṣad-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मह्युत्तरm. plural Name of a people (varia lectio samantara-and brahimottara-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मह्युत्तरSee . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मरुत्तm. (equals marud-datta- according to to on Va1rtt. 4) Name of various kings etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मरुत्तm. wind, a gale (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मरुत्तकm. a species of plant (prob. wrong reading for maruvaka-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मरुत्तमmfn. (mar/ut--) very or altogether equal to the marut-s, as swift as the marut-s (said of the aśvin-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मरुत्तमm. wrong reading for marutta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मरुत्तनयm. "son of the Wind", Name of hanumat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मरुत्तनयm. of bhīma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मरुत्तरुणीf. Name of a vidyā-dharī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मयूरतुत्थn. a kind of blue vitriol View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मूषातुत्थn. a kind of vitriol View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नानारूपसमुत्थानmfn. following various occupations View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नानासमुत्थानmfn. of different duration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निरुत्तरmfn. having no superior View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निरुत्तरmfn. answerless, silenced etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निरुत्तरn. equals -tantra- n. Name of a tantra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निरुत्तरीकृto make unable to answer, silence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निरुत्थmfn. irrecoverable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नुत्तmfn. pushed or driven away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नुत्तmfn. despatched, sent, ordered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नुत्तm. Name of a plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नुत्तिf. driving away, removing, destroying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
न्युत्तmfn. dipped in, sprinkled with (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पङ्क्त्युत्तराf. a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पापापनुत्तिf. "removal of sins", expiation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पराणुत्तिf. driving away, expulsion, removal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परुत्त्नmfn. belonging to last year, last year's Va1rtt. 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पर्युत्था( sthā-) P. -ut-tiṣṭhati- to rise from (ablative) ; to appear to (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पर्युत्थानn. standing up, rising View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पौत्तिकn. (fr. puttikā-) a kind of honey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
फञ्जिपुत्त्रिकाf. Salvinia Cucullata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रागुत्तरmf(ā-)n. north-eastern View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रागुत्तराf. (with or scilicet diś-) the north-east View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रागुत्तरदिग्भागm. the north-eastern side of (genitive case) () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रागुत्तरदिग्विभागm. the north-eastern side of (genitive case) () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रागुत्तरतस्ind. north-eastwards, to the north-east of (with ablative or genitive case) [ ] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रागुत्तरेणind. north-eastwards, to the north-east of (with ablative or genitive case) [ ] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रणुत्त(pr/a--) mfn. pushed away, repelled, set in motion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्यभ्युत्थानn. ( sthā-) rising from a seat through politeness (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्युत्तब्धिf. upholding, propping up, supporting, fixing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्युत्तम्भ्( stambh-) P. -tabhnāti-, or -tabhnoti- to prop up, support View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्युत्तम्भm. () idem or 'f. upholding, propping up, supporting, fixing ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्युत्तम्भनn. () idem or 'm. () idem or 'f. upholding, propping up, supporting, fixing ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्युत्तरn. a reply to an answer, rejoinder, answer etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्युत्तरetc. See p.664. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्युत्तरीकरणn. replying, an answer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्युत्तरीकृto answer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्युत्था( sthā-) P. -tiṣṭhati- to rise up before (accusative), rise to salute, go to meet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्युत्थानn. rising from a seat to welcome a visitor, respectful salutation or reception etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्युत्थानn. rising up against, hostility (varia lectio abhy-utth-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्युत्थायिक varia lectio (or wrong reading) for yuka-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्युत्थायिन्mfn. rising again View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्युत्थायुकmfn. rising respectfully (a-pratyutth-) (varia lectio yika-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्युत्थेयmfn. to be honoured or saluted by rising from the seat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्युत्थितmfn. risen to meet (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्युत्तॄ(only ind.p. -uttīrya-), to come home, return ; to betake one's self to (accusative) idem or 'etc. See p.664.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पृषदाज्यप्रणुत्तmfn. (jy/a--) driven away from the oblation of ghee and curds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुनरुत्थानn. rising again, resurrection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुत्तलm. (prob. fr. putra-) a puppet, doll, small statue, effigy, image ( puttaladahana -dahana- n. puttalavidhāna -vidhāna- n.and puttalavidhi -vidhi- m.burning an effigy in place of the body of one who has died abroad) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुत्तलदहनn. puttala
पुत्तलकmf(ikā-). equals puttala-, - View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुत्तलकm. liko- vidhiḥ- equals puttala-v- above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुत्तलविधानn. puttala
पुत्तलविधिm. puttala
पुत्तलीf. = m. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुत्तलीf. an idol View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुत्तलीचालनn. a particular game with dolls View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुत्तलीपूजाf. idol-worship, idolatry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुत्तिकाf. a doll, puppet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुत्तिकाf. the white ant or termite (so called from its doll-like form) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुत्तिकाf. equals pataṃgikā-, a small kind of bee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुत्तिकाf. a gnat equals pluṣi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ऋगुत्तमmfn. ending in a ṛc- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
षडुत्तरmfn. larger by six View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सदुत्तरn. a proper answer, good reply View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सकृद्विद्युत्तmf(ā-)n. flashing or gleaning once View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सकृद्विद्युत्तn. the act of flashing once View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समभ्युत्था( sthā-) A1. -tiṣṭhate-, to rise (said of a planet) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्तानmfn. equals uttāna-, having the palms turned upwards (said of the hands) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्तरn. equals uttara-, answer, reply View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्तारm. passing over safely, deliverance from (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्तेजकmfn. exciting, stimulating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्तेजनn. the act of exciting or inflaming greatly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्तेजितmfn. (fr. Causal) greatly excited or inflamed or irritated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्था( -ud-sthā-) P. A1. -tiṣṭhati- te-, to rise up together ; to rise up (as from death), get up (from sleep etc.) etc. ; to recover (from sickness) ; to rise (in the sky), gather (as clouds) ; to come forth, spring from (ablative), appear, become visible etc. ; to arise for action, prepare for or to (locative case or infinitive mood) : Causal -thāpayati- to cause to rise together, lift or raise up, elevate ; to awaken, excite, arouse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्थmf(ā-)n. rising up, risen, appearing, occurring in, occasioned by, sprung or Produced or derived from (compound,rarely ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्थानn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) the act of rising up together, getting up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्थानn. hoisting (of a flag) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्थानn. recovering from sickness or injury View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्थानn. healing, cure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्थानn. swelling (of the abdomen) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्थानn. augmentation, increase, growth (of property) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्थानn. rise, origin (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' = "rising or springing from") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्थानn. performance of work, active operation, effort, industry (ekī-s-or sambhūya-s-"common enterprise","co-operation","partnership")
समुत्थानn. indication or symptom of disease View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्थानव्ययm. the expense of recovery or cure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्थापकmfn. (fr. Causal) rousing up, awakening, stirring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्थाप्यmfn. (fr. idem or 'mfn. (fr. Causal) rousing up, awakening, stirring ') to be raised or elevated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्थेयn. (impersonal or used impersonally) it is to be risen (for action) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्थितmfn. risen up together, risen, raised (as dust), towering above (as a peak), surging (as waves), gathered (as clouds) appeared, grown, sprung or obtained or derived from (ablative or compound; dhanaṃ daṇa-samutthitam-,"money derived from fines") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्थितmfn. ready, prepared for (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्थितmfn. one who withstands all (opponents) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्थितmfn. cured, healed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्थितmfn. swollen up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्तिज्Caus. -tijayati-, to excite, fire with enthusiasm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्तीर्णmfn. come forth from, escaped from, passed through, crossed, landed etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्तीर्णmfn. broken through View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्तॄP. -tarati- (ind.p. -tīrya-), to pass or come out of (ablative;with or without jalāt-,"to step or emerge out of the water") etc. ; to escape from, get rid of (ablative) etc. ; to break through, pass over or beyond, cross over, cross View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्त्रस्Caus. -trāsayati-, to frighten thoroughly, terrify View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्त्रस्तmfn. thoroughly frightened, greatly alarmed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुत्तुङ्गmfn. equals uttuṅga-, lofty, high View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संवर्तमरुत्तीयmfn. relating to the muni-s saṃvarta- and marutta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सर्वलोकधातूपद्रवोद्वेगप्रत्युत्तीर्णm. Name of a buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सौत्थितिm. patronymic fr. tthita- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सायकप्रणुत्त(s/āy-) mfn. driven away or put to flight by arrows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सिंहासनद्वात्रिंशत्पुत्तलिकावार्त्ताf. Name of a work consisting of 32 stories in praise of vikramāditya- (= vikrama-carita-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मयनुत्तिf. the driving away or pulling down of pride View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्वसमुत्थmfn. arising within self View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्वसमुत्थmfn. produced or existing by self, natural View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ताप्युत्थसंज्ञकn. idem or '(n.?) pyrites or another mineral substance ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तौत्तायनSee tott-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
थुत्थुकारकmfn. one who smacks his lips in eating (not admitted into the brotherhood) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्र्युत्तरीभावm. progression by 3 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तुत्थn. (m. ) blue vitriol (used as an eye-ointment) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तुत्थn. fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तुत्थn. a collyrium View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तुत्थn. a rock k. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तुत्थाf. the indigo plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तुत्थाf. small cardamoms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तुत्थकn. blue vitriol View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तुत्थकn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तुत्थाञ्जनn. blue vitriol as an ointment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तुत्थयNom. P. to cover View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्वगुत्तरासङ्गवत्mfn. having an upper garment made of bark View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्वगुत्थाf. "skin-produced", chyle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वागुत्तरn. the last word, end of a speech View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वागुत्तरn. speech and reply View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वैबाधप्रणुत्त(dh/a--) mfn. forced asunder by the aśvattha- tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वसुत्ति(v/asu--) f. (for -datti-; see bhaga-tti-, maghatti-) the granting of wealth, enrichment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विनुत्तिf. dispelling, removal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विनुत्तिf. Name of an ekāha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यपपनुत्तिf. driving away, removal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्युत्तmfn. well sprinkled or wetted, drenched View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्युत्था( -ud-sthā-) P. A1. -tiṣṭhati-, te-, to rise in different directions (as light) ; to turn away from (ablative), give up, abandon ; to swerve from duty, forget one's self. ; to come back (from sea see vy-ut-pad-) : Causal -thāpayati-, to cause to rise up etc. ; to call in question, disagree about (accusative) ; to seduce, win over ; to set aside, remove, depose (from a place) ; to abandon treacherously View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्युत्थानn. rising up, awakening (a particular stage in yoga-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्युत्थानn. yielding, giving way (in a-vy-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्युत्थानn. swerving from the right course, neglect of duties View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्युत्थानn. opposition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्युत्थानn. independent action View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्युत्थानn. a kind of dancing or gesticulation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्युत्थापितmfn. (fr. Causal) made to rise up. roused, brought up. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्युत्थातव्यn. (impersonal or used impersonally) it is to be desisted from (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्युत्थितmfn. greatly divergent in opinion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्युत्थितmfn. strongly excited or agitated (See compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्युत्थितmfn. swerving from duty (with or scilicet dharmāt-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्युत्थितचित्तmfn. strongly excited in mind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्युत्थित्ताश्वm. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्युत्थित्तेन्द्रियmfn. greatly agitated in the senses or feelings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्युत्तॄCaus. -tārayati-, to pour cut in different directions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्युत्त्रस्Caus. -trāsayati-, to scare or frighten away, disperse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यजुरुत्तम(y/ajur--) mfn. ending with verses of the yajur-veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यष्ट्युत्थानn. rising with the help of a staff View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यावदुत्तमम्ind. up to the furthest limit or boundary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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utta उत्त See उन्द्.
uttāla उत्ताल a. 1 Great, strong; अनुत्तालतालवृन्तवात K.251. -2 (a) Violent, loud (as sound); Māl.1; उत्तेरुरुत्ता- लखुरारवं द्रुताः Śi.12.31. (b) Roaring, gusty (wind); उत्तालः किङ्किणीनामनवरतरणत्कारहेतुः पताकाः Māl.5.4. -3 Formidable, terrific, fierce; उत्तालास्त इमे गभीरपयसः पुण्याः सरित्संगमाः U.2.3; ˚तुमुल U.6; Śi.2.68; Māl.5. 11.23. -4 Huge, of monstrous shape; ˚ताडका Mv.1.37. शिवश्चोत्तालकुन्ताग्रः Śiva. B.13.53. -5 Arduous, difficult. -6 Manifest, distinctly visible; तूर्यारावैराहितोत्तालतालैः Śi.18.54.7. Speedy, swift. -8 Best, excellent; Śi.12.31. -9 Elevated, lofty, tall; उत्तालतालीवनम् Śi.3.8. -लः An ape. -लम् A particular number.
uttalita उत्तलित Thrown or cast upwards.
uttam उत्तम् 4 P. 1 To be afflicted or distressed, lose heart, faint. -2 To be uneasy or impatient, be anxious; हृदय मा उत्ताम्य Ś.1; K.85,231,268,275; Māl.3.
uttama उत्तम a. [उद्-तमप्] 1 Best, excellent (oft. in comp.); उत्तमे शिखरे देवी Mahānār. Up.15.5. स उत्तमः पुरुषः Ch. Up.8.12.3. उत्तमः पुरुषस्त्वन्यः Bg.15.17. द्विजोत्तमः the best of Brāhmaṇas; so सुर˚, नर˚ &c.; प्रायेणाधममध्यमोत्तमगुणः संसर्गतो जायते Bh.2.67. -2 Foremost, uppermost, highest (opp. हीन, जघन्य). -3 Most elevated, chief, principal. -4 Greatest, first; स गच्छत्युत्तमस्थानम् Ms.2.249. -मः 1 N. of Viṣṇu. -2 The third person (= first person according to English phraseology). (pl.) N. of a people; Mb. -मा 1 An excellent woman. -2 A kind of pustule or pimple. -3 The plant Asclepias Rosea Roxb. (दुग्धिका; Mar. भुई- आंवळी, अळिता). -Comp. -उङ्गम् 'the best limb of the body', the head; कश्चिद् द्विषत्खङ्गहृतोत्तमाङ्गः R.7.51; Ms.1.93,8.3; Ku.7.41; Bg.11.27. the back; तान् क्षिप्रं व्रज सतताग्निहोत्रयाजिन् । मत्तुल्यो भव गरुडोत्तमाङ्गयानः ॥ Mb.7.143.48. -अधम a. high and low; ˚मध्यम good, middling, and bad; high, low, and middling; (the order is often reversed); cf. भक्षयित्वा बहून्मत्स्यानुत्तमाधम- मध्यमान् Pt.1.21. -अम्भस् n. a sort of satisfaction (acquiescence) one of the nine kinds of तुष्टि in Sāṅ. Phil. -अरणी the plant Asparagus Racemosus (इन्दीवरी शतावरी). -अर्धः 1 the best half. -2 the last half or part. -अर्ध्य a. pertaining to the best half. -अहः the last or latest day; a fine or lucky day. -उपपद a. one to whom the best term is applicable, best, excellent. ऋणः, ऋणिकः (उत्तमर्णः) a creditor (opp. अधमर्णः) धारेरुत्तमर्णः P.I.4.35; अधमर्णार्थसिद्धयर्थमुत्तमर्णेन चोदितः Ms.8.47,5; Y.2.42. Śukra.4.831. (pl.) N. of a people; V. P., Mārk. P. -ओजस् a. of excellent valour, N. of one of the warriors of the Mahābhārata; उत्तमौजाश्च वीर्यवान् Bg.1.6. -गन्धाढ्य a. possessing copiously the most delicious fragrance. -गुण a. of the best qualities, best, highest; विघ्नैः पुनः पुनरपि प्रतिहन्यमानाः प्रारब्धमुत्तमगुणा न परित्यजन्ति Mu.2.17. (v. l.) -दशतालम् A sculptural measurement in which the whole height of an image is generally divided into 12 equal parts. The same measurement in 112 equal parts is called उत्तमनवताल. -पदम् a high office. -पु (पू)- रुषः 1 the third person in verbal conjugation; (= first person according to English phraseology; in Sanskrit, verbs are conjugated by putting the English I st person last and 3 rd person first). -2 the Supreme Spirit. -3 an excellent man. -फलिनी f. The plant Oxystelma Esculentum (Mar. दुधी, दुधाणी). -लाभः an excellent profit. -वयसम् The last period of life; Śat. Br.12.9.1.8. -व्रता A wife devoted to the husband; हृदयस्येव शोकाग्निसंतप्तस्योत्तमव्रताम् Bk.9.87. -वेशः N. of Śiva. -शाखः 1 a tree having excellent branches. -2 N. of a region. -श्रुत a. Possessing the utmost learning. Rām. -श्लोक a. of excellent fame, illustrious, glorious, well-known, famous. -कः N. of Vi&stoa;ṇu, क उत्तमश्लोक- गुणानुवादात् पुमान् विरज्येत विना पशुघ्नात् Bhāg.1.1.4. -संग्रहः (˚स्त्री˚) intriguing with another man's wife, i. e. speaking with her privately, looking amorously at her &c. -साहसः, -सम् 1 the highest (of the fixed) pecuniary punishments; a fine of 1 (or according to some 8,) paṇas; Ms.9.24; Y.1.366; पणानां द्वे शते सार्धे प्रथमः साहसः स्मृतः । मध्यमः पञ्च विज्ञेयः सहस्रं त्वेष चोत्तमः ॥ Capital punishment, banishment, confiscation, and mutilation are also regarded as forms of this punishment.
uttamanam उत्तमनम् Losing heart, impatience.
uttamara उत्तमर a. Excellent.
uttamatā उत्तमता त्वम् 1 Excellence. -2 Goodness, good quality.
uttamāyya उत्तमाय्य a. Ved. Made excellent.
uttambh उत्तम्भ् 5, 9, P. [उद्-स्तम्भ्] To stay, prop, support, hold up; K.281, Ve.6; स्कन्धोत्तम्भिततीर्थवारिकलशाः Ve.6; Śi.4.25; प्राणेन हीदं सर्वमुत्तब्धम् Bṛi. Up.1.3.23. -Caus. 1 To increase, heighten, rouse; प्रभवन्त्यभिमानशा- लिनां मदमुत्तम्भयितुं विभूतयः Ki.2.48. -2 To bind up.
uttambhaḥ उत्तम्भः म्भनम् [P.VIII.4.61. उदः स्थास्तम्भोः पूर्वस्य] 1 Upholding, propping, supporting; भुवनोत्तम्भनस्त- म्भान् K.26; Śi.18.46. -2 A prop; stay, support. -3 Stopping, arresting. -4 A Kind of rectangular building (Garuda P.47.21-22).
uttamīya उत्तमीय a. Uppermost, highest, best, principal.
uttaṃsa उत्तंस a. Sharpening, whetting (as जिह्वाजाड्य): तथाम्ललवणोत्तंसैर्विविधै रागखाण्डवैः Rām.5.11.18.
uttaṃsaḥ उत्तंसः [उद् तंस् अच्] 1 A crest, chaplet, an ornament worn on the crown of the head; उत्तंसानहरत वारि मूर्ध- जेभ्यः Śi.8.57; सुधांशुकलितोत्तंसस्तापं हरतु वः शिवः Chandr. 5.59; cf. कर्णोत्तंस. -2 An ear-ring; Māl.5.18; Bv.2.55. नोत्तंसं क्षिपति क्षितौ श्रवणतः S. D.
uttaṃsayati उत्तंसयति Den. P. 1 To cause to serve as a crest, to deck, adorn. -2 To tie or bind up (as hair); उत्तंसयिष्यति कचांस्तव देवि भीमः Ve.1.21
uttaṃsita उत्तंसित a. 1 Having ear-rings. -2 Put or worn on the crest; चूडोत्तंसितचारुचन्द्रकलिका Bh.3.129; अञ्जलिकिसलय˚ Dk.99.
uttan उत्तन् 8 U. 1 To stretch upwards or out. -2 To try to rise.
uttāna उत्तान a. 1 Stretched out, spread out, expanded, dilated; उत्तानतारकस्य लोचनयुगलस्य K.143; U.3.23. -2 (a) Lying on the back, with the face upwards, supine; Māl.3; उत्तानोच्छूनमण्डूकपाटितोदरसंनिभे K. P.7; पितृपात्रं तदुत्तानं कृत्वा विप्रान्विसर्जयेत् Y.1.248. (b) Upright, erect. -3 Open, turned upwards; उत्तान आस्येन हविर्जुहोति Mb.12.245.27. उत्तानपाणिद्वयसंनिवेशात् Ku.3.45; ˚रश्मिषु Pt.3.151. -4 Open, unreserved, frank, candid; स्वभावोत्तानहृदयम् Ś5; frank-minded. -5 Elevated; Māl.7. -6 Concave; having the mouth upwards. -7 Shallow -Comp. -अर्थ a. Superficial, shallow. -कूर्मकम् a particular posture in sitting. -पट्टम् A pavement; व्यूढं चोत्तान- पट्टं सकलकनखले ... यश्चकार ... (An Abu inscription in the reign of Bhūmadeva. Ind. Ant. Vol. XI). -पत्रकः a. species of Ricinus (रक्तैरण्ड). -पद् f. 1 vegetation, the whole creation of upward germinating plants (Sāy.). -2 One whose legs are extended (in parturition). -पाद a. with extended legs (children). (-दः) 1 N. of a king, father of Dhruva. -2 the Supreme Spirit. ˚जः N. of Dhruva, the polar star. -शय a. sleeping supinely or on the back, lying with the face upwards; कदा उत्तानशयः पुत्रकः जनयिष्यति मे हृदयाह्लादम् K.62. (-यः, -या) a little child, suckling, infant. -शीवन् a. lying extended; stagnant. आप उत्तानशीवरीः Av.3.21.1. -हस्त a, having the hands stretched out in prayers. (-स्तौ) (du.) the two hands with the fingers stretched out and with the backs turned towards the ground. -हृदय Open-hearted.
uttāna उत्तान see under उत्तन्.
uttānakaḥ उत्तानकः A species of the Cyperus grass (उच्चटा).
uttānikā उत्तानिका N. of a river.
uttānita उत्तानित a. 1 Raised, up-lifted; K.38,29,298. -2 Dilated, expanded; K.82,84. -3 Wide open (the mouth); K.
uttap उत्तप् 1 P. 1 To warm, make hot, heat thoroughly, scorch, burn, sear; उत्तप्तनाराचलीलाम् Śi.11.5; उत्तपति सुवर्णं सुवर्णकारः Mbh. melts; so चैत्रो मैत्रस्य पाणिमुत्तपति. (Used in the Ā. when used intransitively 'to shine', or when it has a limb of the body for its object; उत्तपमानः आतपः Bk.8.15 scorching heat; Śi.2.4; उत्तपते पाणी Mbh.). -2 To pain, torment, torture by heat; कुसुमेषुरुत्तपति यद्विशिखैः Śi.9.67. -3 To excite, urge on, press hard. -Caus. To warm, heat.
uttāpaḥ उत्तापः 1 Great heat, inflammation. -2 Affliction, torment, distress. -3 Excitement, passion; प्रत्यूहः सर्व- सिद्धीनामुत्तापः प्रथमः किल H.3.38. -4 Anxiety, ardour. -5 Energy, effort.
uttapanaḥ उत्तपनः A particular kind of fire.
uttāpita उत्तापित a. 1 Heated, made hot. -2 Tormented, distressed. -3 Excited, urged, roused.
uttapta उत्तप्त p. p. 1 Burnt, heated, seared, made red-hot. ˚कनक K.43,36; U.5.14. -2 Bathed, washed. -3 Anxious. -4 Enraged, inflamed, fired; Ve.2. -प्तम् 1 Dried flesh. -2 Great heat.
uttara उत्तर a. [उद्-तरप्] 1 Being or produced in the north, northern (declined like a pronoun). -2 Upper, higher P.I.1.34 (opp. अधर); उत्तरे-अधरे दन्ताः Śat. Br.; अवनतोत्तरकायम् R.9.6; P.II.2.1. -3 (a) Later-latter, following, subsequent (opp. पूर्व); पूर्वमेघः, उत्तरमेघः, ˚मीमांसा; उत्तरार्धः &c. ˚रामचरितम् later adventures of Rāma U.1.2; पूर्वः उत्तरः former-latter H.1.9; एतानि मान्यस्थानानि गरीयो यद्यदुत्तरम् Ms.2.136. (b) Future; concluding; ˚कालः subsequent time; ˚फलम्; ˚वचनम् a reply. -4 Left (opp. दक्षिण). -5 Superior, chief, excellent; dominant, power- ful. आनयेङ्गुदिपिण्याकं चीरमाहर चोत्तरम् Rām.2.13.2; वाद्यमानेषु तूर्येषु मल्लतारोत्तरेषु च Bhāg.1.42.36. -6 Exceeding, transgressing, beyond; तर्कोत्तराम् Mv.2.6. -7 More, more than (generally as the last member of a comp. with numerals); षडुत्तरा विंशतिः 26; अष्टोत्तरं शतं 18; दशनागबलाः केचित् केचिद्दशगुणोत्तराः Rām.5.43.22. -8 Accompanied or attended with, full of, consisting chiefly of, followed by (at the end of comp.); राज्ञां तु चरितार्थता दुःखोत्तरैव Ś.5; चषकोत्तरा R.7.49; अस्रोत्तर- मीक्षिताम् Ku.5.61; उत्सवोत्तरो मङ्गलविधिः Dk.39,166; K.311; H.1.15; प्रवाल ˚पुष्पशय्ये R.6.5 over spread with; धर्मोत्तरम् 13.7 rich in; 18.7; कम्प ˚ 13.28;17.12; 19.23. -9 To be crossed over. -रः 1 Future time, futurity. -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -3 N. of Śiva. -रा 1 The north; अस्त्युत्तरस्यां दिशि देवतात्मा Ku.1.1. -2 A lunar mansion. -3 N. of the daughter of Virāṭa and wife of Abhimanyu. -4 N. of a plant (Mar. पिंपरी). -रम् 1 An answer, reply; प्रचक्रमे च प्रतिवक्तुमुत्तरम् R.3.47; उत्तरादुत्तरं वाक्यं वदतां संप्रजायते Pt.1.6; a reply is suggested to a reply वचस्तस्य सपदि क्रिया केवलमुत्तरम् Śi. -2 (In law) Defence, a rejoinder. -3 The last part or following member of a compound. -4 (In Mīm.) The fourth member of an अधिकरण q. v. the answer. -5 The upper surface or cover. -6 Conclusion. -7 Remainder, rest, what followed or took place next; शान्तमथवा किमिहोत्तरेण U.3.26. -8 Superiority, excellence. -9 Result, the chief or prevalent result or characteristic. -1 Excess, over and above; see above (उत्तर a. 8). -11 Remainder, difference (in arith.). -12 A rectangular moulding (Mānasāra 13.67.) -13 The next step, further action; उत्तरं चिन्तयामास वानरो मरुतात्मजः Rām.5.13.59. -14 A cover (आच्छादन); सूस्करं सोत्तरबन्धुरेषम् Mb.6.6.9. -रम् ind. 1 Above. -2 Afterwards, after; तत उत्तरम्, इत उत्तरम् &c. शापं तं ते$भिविज्ञाय कृतवन्तः किमुत्तरम् Mb.1.36.1. -Comp. -अगारम् An upper room, garet. -अधर a. higher and lower (fig. also). (-रौ du.) the upper and under lip, the two lips; पुनर्विवक्षुःस्फुरितोत्तराधरः Ku.5.83 (स्फुरण- भूयिष्ठो$धरो यस्य Malli.). -अधिकारः, -रिता, -त्वम् right to property, heirship, inheritance. -अधिकारिन् m. an heir or claimant (subsequent to the death of the original owner). -अपरा north-west. -अभिमुख a. Turned towards the north. -अयनम् (˚यणं. न being changed to ण) 1 the progress of the sun to the north (of the equator); अग्निर्ज्योतिरहः शुक्लः षण्मासा उत्तरायणम् Bg.8.24. cf. भानोर्मकरसंक्रान्तेः षण्मासा उत्तरायणम् । कर्कादेस्तु तथैव स्यात् षण्मासा दक्षिणायनम् ॥ -2 the period or time of the summer solstice. -अरणिः, -णी f. the upper अरणि (which by cutting becomes the प्रमन्थ or churner); दारुपात्राणि सर्वाणि अरणिं चोत्तरारणिम् (दत्त्वा) Rām.6.111.116. -अर्थ a. for the sake of what follows. -अर्धम् 1 the upper part of the body. -2 the northern part. -3 the latter half (opp. पूर्वार्ध). -4 the further end. -अर्ध्य a. being on the northern side. -अहः the following day. -आभासः a false reply, an indirect, evasive, or prevaricating reply. ˚ता, -त्वम् the semblance of a reply without reality. -आशा the northern direction. ˚अधिपतिः, -पतिः the regent of the northern direction, an epithet of Kubera. -आषाढा 1 the 21st lunar mansion consisting of three stars. -2 N. of bread-fruit or Jak tree (Mar. फणस). -आसङ्गः 1 an upper garment; कृतोत्तरासङ्गम् K.43; Śi.2.19; Ku.5.16. -2 contact with the north. -इतर a. other than उत्तर i. e. southern. (-रा) the southern direction. -उत्तर a. [उत्तरस्मादुत्तरः] 1 more and more, higher and higher, further and further. -2 successive, ever increasing; ˚स्नेहेन दृष्टः Pt. 1; Y.2.136. (-रम्) 1 a reply to an answer, reply on reply; अलमुत्तरोत्तरेण Mu.3. -2 conversation, a rejoinder. -3 excess, exceeding quantity or degree. -4 succession, gradation, sequence. -5 descending. (-रम्) ind. higher and higher, in constant continuation, more and more. उत्तरोत्तरमुत्कर्षः K. P.1; उत्तरोत्तरं वर्धते H.1. -उत्तरिन् a. 1 ever-increasing. -2 one following the other. -ओष्ठः the upper lip (उत्तरो-रौ-ष्ठः). Vārt. on P.VI.1.94. ओत्वोष्ठयोस्समासे वा -काण्डम् the seventh book of the Rāmāyaṇa. -कायः the upper part of the body; तं वाहनादवनतोत्तरकायमीषत् R.9.6. -कालः 1 future time. -2 time calculated from one full moon to another. -कुरु (m. pl.) one of the nine divisions of the world, the country of the northern Kurus (said to be a country of eternal beatitude). -कोसलाः (m. pl.) the northern Kosalas; पितुरनन्तरमुत्तरकोसलान् R.9.1. -कोशला the city of Ayodhyā; यदुपतेः क्व गता मथुरा पुरी रघुपतेः क्व गतोत्तरकोशला ॥ Udb. -क्रिया funeral rites, obsequies. -खण्डम् the last section of book. -खण्डनम् refutation. -गीता N. of a section of the sixth book of the Mahābhārata. -ग्रन्थः supplement to a work. -च्छदः a bed-covering, covering (in general); शय्योत्तरच्छदविमर्द- कृशाङ्गरागम् R.5.65,17.21; नागचर्मोत्तरच्छदः Mb. -ज a. born subsequently or afterwards; चतुर्दश प्रथमजः पुनात्युत्तरजश्च षट् Y.1.59. -ज्या the versed sine of an arc (Wilson); the second half of the chord halved by the versed sine (B. and R.). -ज्योतिषाः (m. pl.) the northern Jyotiṣas. -ततिः f. Ectype (lit. subequent proceedings) उत्तरस्यां ततौ तत्प्रकृतित्वात् MS.1.4.25. शबर explains उत्तरस्यां ततौ as विकृतौ), -तन्त्रम् N. of a supplementary section in the medical work of Suśruta. -तापनीयम् N. of the second part of the नृसिंहतापनीयो- पनिषद्. -दायक a. replying, disobedient, pert, impertinent; दुष्टा भार्या शठं मित्रं भृत्याश्चोत्तरदायकाः H.2.11. -दिश् f. the north. ˚ईशः, -पालः 1 Kubera, the regent of the north. -2 the planet बुध. ˚बलिन् 1 the planet Venus. -2 the moon. -देशः the country towards the north. -धेय a. to be done subsequently. -नारायणः the second part of the नारायणसूक्त or पुरुषसूक्त (Rv.1.9.). -पक्षः 1 the northern wing or side. -2 the dark half of a lunar month. -3 the second part of an argument, i. e. a reply, the reason pro. (opp. पूर्वपक्ष); प्रापयन् पवनव्याधेर्गिरमुत्तरपक्षताम् Śi.2.15. -4 a demonstrated truth or conclusion. -5 the minor proposition in a syllogism. -6 (in Mīm.) the fifth member of an Adhikaraṇa, q. v. -पटः 1 an upper garment. -2 a bed-covering (उत्तरच्छदः). -पथः the northern way, way leading to the north; the northern country; P.V.1 77. उत्तरपथेनाहृतं च. -पथिक a. travelling in the northern country. -पदम् 1 the last member of a compound. -2 a word that can be compounded with another. -पदिक, -पदकीय a. relating to, studying, or knowing the last word or term. -पर्वतकम् A variety of hides. Kāu. A.2.11. -पश्चार्धः the northwestern half. -पश्चिम a. northwestern. (-मः) the north-western country. (-मा) [उत्तरस्याः पश्चिमायाश्च दिशोन्तरालम्] the north-west; आलोकयन्नुत्तरपश्चिमेन Mb.12.335.8. -पादः the second division of a legal plaint, that part which relates to the reply or defence; पूर्वपक्षः स्मृतः पादो द्वितीयश्चोत्तरः स्मृतः । क्रियापादस्तृतीयः स्याच्चतुर्थो निर्णयः स्मृतः ॥ -पुरस्तात् ind. north-eastward (with gen.). -पुराणम् N. of a Jaina work. -पुरुषः = उत्तमपुरुषः q. v. -पूर्व a. north-eastern. (-र्वा) the north-east. -प्रच्छदः a cover lid, quilt. -प्रत्युत्तरम् 1 a dispute, debate, a rejoinder, retort. -2 the pleadings in a law-suit. -फ (फा) ल्गुनी the twelfth lunar mansion consisting of two stars (having the figure of a bed). -भागः The second part. -भाद्रपद्, -दा 1 the 26 th lunar mansion consisting of two stars (figured by a couch). -2 N. of a plant (Mar. कडुनिंब). -मन्द्रा a loud but slow manner of singing. ˚मन्द्राद्या a. particular मूर्च्छना in music. -मात्रम् a mere reply. -मीमांसा the later Mīmāmsā, the Vedānta Philosophy, an inquiry into the nature of Brahman or Jñāna Kāṇḍa (distinguished from मीमांसा proper which is usually called पूर्वमीमांसा). -युगम् A particular measure (= 13 Aṅgulas). -रहित a. without a reply. -रामचरितम् -त्रम् N. of a celebrated drama by Bhavabhūti, which describes the later life of Rāma. -रूपम् The second of two combined vowels or consonants. -लक्षणम् the indication of an actual reply. -लोमन् a. having the hair turned upwards. -वयसम्, -स् n. old age, the declining period of life. -वरितः a kind of small syringe. -वल्ली f. N. of the second section of the काठकोपनिषद् when divided into two अध्यायs. -वस्त्रम्, -वासस् n. an upper garment, mantle, cloak; जग्राह तामुत्तरवस्त्रदेशे Mb.3.268. 24. -वादिन् m. 1 a defendant, respondent; (Opp. पूर्ववादिन्.) साक्षिषूभयतः सत्मु साक्षिणः पूर्ववादिनः । पूर्वपक्षे$धरीभूते भवन्त्युत्तरवादिनः ॥ Y.2.17. -2 one whose claims are of later date than another's. -विद् -वेदन or वेदिन् An elephant sensitive to slight stimuli (Mātaṅga L.1.29; 9.39). -वीथिः f. The northern orbit; Bṛi. S. -वेदिः 1 the northern altar made for the sacred fire. -2 N. of a Tīrtha near the कुरुक्षेत्र. -सक्थम् the left thigh. -संझित a. denoted or named in reply (as a witness). (-तः) hearsay-witness. -साक्षिन् m. 1 a witness for the defence. -2 a witness deposing to facts from the reports of others. -साधक a. 1 finishing what remains or follows, assisting at a ceremony. -2 who or what proves a reply. (-कः) an assistant, helper -हनुः Ved. the upper jaw-bone.
uttara उत्तर a. 1 Crossing over. -2 To be crossed over, as in दुरुत्तर.
uttāra उत्तार a. 1 Surpassing others, excellent, preeminent. -2 Having the eye-balls turned up (as eyes). -रः 1 Transporting over, conveying. -2 Fording, crossing; सुखोत्तारताम् K.326. -3 Landing, disembarking. -4 Delivering, rescuing. -5 Getting rid of. -6 Vomiting. -7 Instability.
uttarāhi उत्तराहि ind. [उत्तर-आहि] उत्तराञ्च P.V.3.38. Northerly, to the north of (with abl.); उत्तराहि वसन् रामः समुद्रात् ... Bk.8.17.
uttārakaḥ उत्तारकः 1 A deliverer, saviour. -2 N. of Śiva.
uttaraṇa उत्तरण a. Coming out of, crossing. -णम् 1 Coming forth or out of (water &c). -2 Landing, disembarking. -3 Crossing, passing over; संसारसमुद्र˚; सज्जनदुःखा- नामुत्तरणसेतुः Mk.1.14.
uttāraṇa उत्तारण a. Transporting or bringing over, conveying; rescuing, delivering. -णः N. of Viṣṇu. -णम् 1 The act of landing, delivering or rescuing. -2 Transportation, conveying across.
uttaraṅga उत्तरङ्ग a. 1 Ruffled or washed by waves, inundated; trembling, tremulous; कशाप्रहारभयेन जातकम्पोत्तरङ्गाः (तुरङ्गाः) Mu.6.3. -2 With surging waves; प्रत्यग्रहीत् पार्थिववाहिनीं तां भागीरथीं शोण इवोत्तरङ्गः R.7.36; Ku.3.48. -3 Bouncing; Dk.1. -रः A high wave. Ks.123.196.
uttaraṅgam उत्तरङ्गम् [उत्तरमङ्गं शकन्ध्वा˚ गण] A wooden arch surmounting the door-frame.
uttaraṅgi उत्तरङ्गि a. Heaving, panting; Māl.7.
uttarataḥ उत्तरतः रात् ind. 1 From the north; to the north; -2 To the left (opp. दक्षिणतः). -3 At the top, obove. -4 Behind. -5 Afterwards.
uttaratara उत्तरतर a. Still further, or higher, remote, distant.
uttaratra उत्तरत्र ind. 1 Subsequently, later or further on, below (in a work), in the sequel. -2 In the second case (opp. पूर्वत्र in the first case). -3 Northward.
uttaredyuḥ उत्तरेद्युः ind. P.V.3.22. On a subsequent day, on the day following, to-morrow.
uttareṇa उत्तरेण ind. [उत्तर-एनप्] (with gen., acc. or at the end of comp.) Northward, on the north side of; तत्रागारं धनपतिगृहानुत्तरेणास्मदीयम् Me.77. v. l., K.12; निषधस्योत्तरेण तु V. P., Māl.9.24.
uttarin उत्तरिन् a. Superior. -2 Increasing, becoming more and more intensive.
uttārin उत्तारिन् 1 Transporting over. -2 Unsteady, unstable, changeable. -3 Sick.
uttarīya उत्तरीय यकम् [उत्तर-छ-वा-कप्] An upper garment; स्तनोत्तरीयाणि भवन्ति सङ्गान्निर्मोकपट्टाः फणिभिर्विमुक्ताः R.16.17.43.
uttarjanam उत्तर्जनम् [उच्चैस्तर्जनम्] Violent threatening.
uttārya उत्तार्य pot. p. 1 To be vomited; अज्ञानभुक्तं तूत्तार्यं शोध्यं वाप्याशु शोधनैः Ms.11.16. -2 To be made to land. -3 To be crossed over.
uttaṭa उत्तट a. [उत्क्रान्तः तटम्] Overflowing the bank; उत्तटा इव नदीरयाः स्थलीम् R.11.58.
uttāvala उत्तावल a. Impatient, hurrying Mk.9.
uttejaka उत्तेजक a. 1 Instigating, stirring up. -2 Exciting, stimulating; क्षुध˚, काम˚ &c.
uttejanam उत्तेजनम् ना 1 Excitement, instigation, animating, stirring up; ˚समर्थः श्लोकैः Mu.4; Mv.2. -2 Urging on, driving. -3 Sending, despatching. -4 Whetting, sharpening, furbishing, polishing (weapons &c.); मन्दरकूटकोटिव्याघट्टनोत्तेजना Śi.3.6. -5 An exciting speech. -6 An inducement, incentive, stimulant.
uttejita उत्तेजित p. p. 1 Instigated, excited. -2 Animated. -3 Sent. -4 Sharpened, polished &c. -तम् 1 An inducement. -2 One of the five paces of a horse, sidling; moderate velocity in a horse's pace; उत्तेजितं मध्य- वेगं योजनं श्लथवल्गया ।
utteritam उत्तेरितम् One of the five paces of a horse.
uttha उत्थ a. [उद्-स्था-क] (Used only at the end of comp.) 1 Born or produced from, arising, springing up, or originating from; दरीमुखोत्थेन समीरणेन Ku.1.8; भवत्संभा- वनोत्थाय परितोषाय मूर्च्छते 6.59; R.12.82; आनन्दोत्थं नयनसलिलम् Me.v.1; Pt.1.274. -2 Standing up, coming up or forth. -त्थः Arising, coming forth.
utt उत्था 1 P. [उद्-स्था] 1 To get up, stand, rise, raise oneself; उत्तिष्ठेत्प्रथमं चास्य Ms.2.194; R.9.59; Śi.9.39. -2 To get up from, leave, give up or cease from; अनाशनादुत्तिष्ठति Pt.4. -3 To rise, come up (as the sun &c.). -4 To rebound (as a ball); कराभिघातोत्थितकन्दुकेयम् R.16.83, -5 To come forth, arise, spring or originate from, accrue from; ग्रामाच्छतमुत्तिष्ठति Mbh; यदुत्तिष्ठति वर्णेभ्यो नृपाणां क्षयि तत्फलम् Ś.2.14; अन्यदमृतादुत्थितम् K.136; उदतिष्ठन् प्रशंसावाचः Dk.49 shouts of applause burst forth (were heard); असंशयं सागरभागुदस्थात् N.22.44. -6 To rise, increase in strength or power, grow, (as an enemy, disease &c.); (Ātm.) उत्तिष्ठमानस्तु परो नोपेक्ष्यः पथ्यमिच्छता Śi.2.1 (= Pt.1.234.) -7 To become animated, rise (from the dead) मृतोत्थिता; Ku.7.4. -8 To be active or brave, rise up; हृदयदौर्बल्यं त्यक्त्वोत्तिष्ठ Bg.2.3,37; Mv.2; Pt.3.21. -9 To make efforts; take pains, strive, try; उत्तिष्ठमानं मित्रार्थे कस्त्वां न बहु मन्यते Bk.8.12; 2.18; Mv.4.6; मुक्तावुत्तिष्ठते जनः Ki.11.13; उदस्थित ऋतौ Śi.14.17. -1 To excel, surpass. -Caus. (उत्थापयति) 1 To cause to stand up, raise, lift up; उत्थाप्यते ग्रावा H.3.35; R.14.59; raise or throw up (as dust); R.7.39. -2 To instigate, excite, rouse to action; त्वामुत्थापयति द्वयम् Śi.2.57,12; Kām.5.4; H.3.85; Dk.17. -3 To arouse, awaken, raise to life, make alive; प्राणो हीदं सर्वमुत्थापयति Śat. Br. -4 To support, feed, aid; अत्र परिकरोत्थापितो$र्थान्तरन्यासालङ्कारः Malli. on Ki.8.4.
utthāna उत्थान a. Causing to arise or spring up. -नम् 1 The act of rising or standing up, getting up; शनैर्यष्टयुत्थानम् Bh.3.9. -2 Rising (as of luminaries); इन्दुं नवोत्थानमि- वेन्दुमत्यै R.6.31 newly risen. -3 Rise, origin. -4 Resurrection. -5 (a) Effort, exertion, activity; मेदच्छेद- कृशोदरं लघु भवत्युत्थानयोग्यं वपुः Ś.2.5; ˚शीलः Dk.153 disposed to work; Mv.6.23; यद्युत्थानं भवेत्सह Ms.9.215, effort (for money), acquisition of property. (b) Manly exertion, manhood, Mb.1.2.6; राज्ञो हि व्रतमुत्थानम् Kau. A.1.19. also अर्थस्य मूलमुत्थानम् -5 Energy. उत्थानेन सदा पुत्र प्रयतेथा युधिष्ठिर । न हयुत्थानमृते दैवं राज्ञामर्थं प्रसाधयेत् ॥ Mb.12.56.14. -6 Joy, pleasure. -7 War, battle. -8 An army. -9 Evacuating (by stool &c.). -1 A book. -11 A court-yard. -12 A shed where sacrifices are offered. -13 A term, limit, boundary. -14 Business (cares &c.) of a family or realm. -15 Reflection. -16 Proximate cause of a disease. -17 Awakening. -18 A monastery. -19 Readiness of the army for fight; युद्धानुकूलव्यापार उत्थानमिति कीर्तितम् Śukra.1.325. -Comp. -एकादशी the eleventh day in the light fortnight of Kārttika when Viṣṇu rises from his four month's sleep (also called प्रबोधिनी) -वीरः A man of action, one who makes effort; Mb. -शीलिन् a. Industrious; Mb.2.
utthāpaka उत्थापक a. 1 Raising up, causing to get up. -2 Exciting, instigating, animating. -कः 1 Awaiting man; Charaka. -2 A particular composition.
utthāpanam उत्थापनम् 1 Causing to rise, come up, or get up. -2 Raising, elevating. -3 Causing to leave (a house). -4 Exciting, instigating. -5 Awakening, rousing (fig. also). -6 Vomiting. -7 Finishing, completing. -8 Bringing about. -9 Bringing forth. -1 (In Math.) Finding the quantity sought, an answer to the question, substitution of a value (Colebr.). -नी The concluding verse (ऋच्).
utthāpya उत्थाप्य pot. p. 1 To be raised or lifted. -2 To be excited or animated. -3 To be mixed. -4 (In math.) To be brought out by substitution; Big.45.
utthātṛ उत्थातृ a. Ved. 1 One who rises or gets up; निद्रालस्यप्रमादोत्थम् Bg.18.39; यदा बली भवत्यथोत्थाता भवति Ch. Up.7.8.1. -2 Resolving; उत्थातुरब्रुवन् पदः Av.9.4.14.
utthāyin उत्थायिन् a. 1 Rising (fig. also); coming forth, becoming visible; चन्द्रगुप्तसहोत्थायिनाम् Mu.3; Pt.3.153. -2 Exerting one's self, active.
utthita उत्थित p. p. 1 Risen or rising (as from a seat); वचो निशम्योत्थितमुत्थितः सन् R.2.61,7.1,3.61; Ku.7.61; बिल्वोत्थितां भूमिमिवोरगाणाम् Śi.1.15. -2 Raised, gone up; पांशुः Śi.5.11; R.6.33; Śi.4.1,17.7. -3 Rescued, saved, Ratn.4. -4 Born, produced, sprung up, arisen; वचः R.2.61,12.49; broken out (as fire); अग्निः Ratn.4.14; हृदये$ग्निरिवोत्थितः R.4.2. burst into a flame. -5 Striving, active, diligent; Kām.1.17;8.49. -6 Increasing, growing (in strength), advancing. -7 Bounded up, rebounded; पतिता उत्थिता Mu.1. -8 Occurring. -9 High, lofty, eminent. -1 Extended, stretched; आपर्वभाग˚ Ś.4.5. -11 An epithet of a Pragātha consisting of ten Pādas. -तम् Rising, arising; शुनं नो अस्तु चरितमुत्थितं च Av.3.15.4. -Comp. -अङ्गुलिः the palm of the hand with the fingers extended.
utthitiḥ उत्थितिः f. Elevation, rising up. उत्पक्ष्मन् utpakṣman उत्पक्ष्मल utpakṣmala उत्पक्ष्मन् उत्पक्ष्मल a. With up-turned eye lashes; उत्पक्ष्मणोर्नयनयोरुपरुद्धवृत्तिम् Ś.4.15; V.2.
uttij उत्तिज् Caus. P. To excite, stimulate, instigate, stir up, animate, provoke.
uttīrṇa उत्तीर्ण p. p. 1 Landed, crossed, passed over. -2 Rescued, delivered. -3 Released from obligation. -4 One who has finished his course of studies; experienced, clever.
uttolanam उत्तोलनम् Lifting up, raising (by means of a balance).
uttoraṇa उत्तोरण a. [उन्नतं तोरणमत्र] Adorned with raised or upright arches; उत्तोरणं राजपथं प्रपेदे Ku.7.63; उत्तोरणा- मन्वयराजधानीम् R.14.1.
utt उत्तॄ 1 P. 1 To pass out of (water), disembark, come out of; उत्तेरे तरलतरङ्गरङ्गलीलानिष्णातैरथ सरसः प्रियासमूहैः Śi.8.63,64; to get or jump out of, rise from; 12.31; पल्वलोत्तीर्ण R.2.17; अभिषेकोत्तीर्णाय, स्नानोत्तीर्णः Ś.4. -2 To cross, pass or get over (a river &c.); उदतारिषुरम्भो- धिम् Bk.15.33,1; शोकसागरमुत्तीर्य Ve.3; तेनोत्तीर्य तथा R.12.71,16.33; Me.49. -3 To vanquish, overcome, get out of, escape from (a difficulty); व्यसनमहार्णवादपारादुत्तीर्णम् Mk.1.49. -4 To descend, alight; तद्गृहे उत्तीर्णौ Vet. -5 To give up, leave, quit. -6 To raise, strengthen, increase. -Caus. 1 To cause to come out, deliver, lift up, rescue; जलनिधिजलमध्यादेष उत्तार्यते$र्कः Śi.11.44.; Dk.3,77. -2 To take down, to take off (as ornaments); let down, place down. -3 To cause to cross over, convey, transport across. -4 To land, disembark. -5 To vomit up, emit.
uttras उत्त्रस् 1, 4 P. To be afraid. -Caus. To frighten, alarm.
uttrāsaḥ उत्त्रासः Extreme fear, terror, alarm.
uttrasta उत्त्रस्त a. Frightened.
uttripadam उत्त्रिपदम् An upright tripod.
uttruṭita उत्त्रुटित a. Torn, broken.
uttul उत्तुल् 1 P. 1 To raise up (by means of a balance). -2 To raise, erect, lift up. -3 To weigh.
uttuṇḍitam उत्तुण्डितम् The head of a thorn (which enters the skin).
uttuṅga उत्तुङ्ग a. 1 Lofty, high, tall. करप्रचेयामुत्तुङ्गः प्रभु- शक्तिं प्रथीयसीम् Śi.2.89; ˚हेमपीठानि 2.5. -2 Swollen, increased (as a stream).
uttuṣaḥ उत्तुषः [उद्गतः तुषो$स्मात्] 'Freed from husks', fried grain.
uttyāgaḥ उत्त्यागः 1 Abandonment, leaving. -2 Throwing, throwing up, tossing. -3 Renunciation of all worldly attachments.
uttyakta उत्त्यक्त a. 1 Abandoned, left. -2 Thrown, tossed. -3 Free from passion or attachment.
anutta अनुत्त a. Ved. [उन्द्-क्त न. त. P.VIII.2.61] 1 Not moistened or wet; तुभ्यमिद्रिवो$नुत्तम् Rv.1.8.7. -2 Not set, driven forth or urged (अप्रेरित); invincible(?).
anuttama अनुत्तम a. [न उत्तमो यस्मात्] 1 Than which there is nothing better, having no superior or better, unsurpassed, the very best or highest, incomparably or preeminently the best, सर्वद्रव्येषु विद्यैव द्रव्यमाहुरनुत्तमम् H. Pr.4; कान् गतिमनुत्तमाम् Ms.2.242; Y.1.87; अद्रस्त्वया नुन्नमनुत्तमं तमः Śi.1.27 all-pervading; Bg.7.18; Ms.2.9;5.158; 8.81. -2 Not the best. -3 (in gram.) Not used in the उत्तम or first person. -मः N. of Śiva or Viṣṇu. -Comp. -अम्भस्, -अम्भसिकम् a term in Sāṅkhya Philosophy, said to mean 'indifference to and abstinence from sensual enjoyment, as fatiguing or involving injury to external objects.'
anuttara अनुत्तर a. [नास्ति उत्तरो यस्मात्] 1 Principal, chief. -2 Best, excellent; अनुत्तराणि विलसितानि Dk.162 unsurpassed. शरीरसौख्यार्थमनुत्तरस्य निपेततुर्मूर्धनि तस्य सौम्ये । Bu. ch.1.35. -3 [नास्ति उत्तरं यस्य] Without a reply, silent, unable to answer; भवत्यवज्ञा च भवत्यनुत्तरात् Naiṣadha. -4 Fixed, firm (न उत्तरति चलति). अर्थ्यं तथ्यं हितं वाक्यं लघुयुक्तमनुत्तरम् Mb.2.2.5. -5 Low, inferior, base, mean. -6 Southern. -रम् [न. त.] No reply, a reply which, being evasive, is considered to be no reply. -राः (pl.) A class of gods among Jainas (˚उपपातिक). -उपपातिकदशाः f. Title of the ninth aṅga of the Jainas treating of those gods. -रा The south. ...अनुत्तरः । नोदीच्यां नोपरि श्रेष्ठे...। Nm. -Comp. -योगतन्त्रम् Title of the last of the four Bauddhatantras.
anuttaraṅga अनुत्तरङ्ग a. Steady, not ruffled (by waves); अपा- मिवाधारमनुत्तरङ्गम् Ku.3.48.
anuttālaḥ अनुत्तालः A melodious note; Hch.4.
anutthānam अनुत्थानम् Absence of exertion. अनुत्थाने ध्रुवो नाशः Kau. A.
apanuttiḥ अपनुत्तिः f. -नोदः, -नोदनम् Removing, taking away, removal, destroying, driving away; सुखायान्यापनुत्तये Bhāg.7.13.25. expiation, atonement (as of a sin); पापानामपनुत्तये Ms.11.29,139,92; Y.3.35; गुरुतल्प˚ Ms.11.16; ब्रह्महत्यापनोदाय 11.75; कृच्छ्रो$यं सर्वपापापनोदनः 11.215,252,26.
abhyutt अभ्युत्था 1 P. To rise for another, rise in honour of, rise to greet; नाभ्युत्तिष्ठन्ति गुरून् K.18; Ś.3; मामियमभ्यु- त्तिष्ठति देवी M.5.6; Śi.4.68.
abhyutthānam अभ्युत्थानम् 1 Rising (from a seat) to do honour, rising in honour of; नाभ्युत्थानक्रिया यत्र Pt.2.62. -2 Starting, departure, setting out; arrangements for starting; अभ्युत्थानं त्वमद्यैव कृष्णपक्षचतुर्दशी । कृत्वा निर्याह्यमावास्यां विजयाय बलैर्वृतः ॥ Rām.6.92.62. -3 Rise (lit. and fig.), elevation, exaltation, prosperity, dignity, a position of dignity or authority; (तस्य) नवाभ्युत्थानदर्शिन्यो ननन्दुः सप्रजाः प्रजाः R.4.3; यदा यदा हि धर्मस्य ग्लानिर्भवति भारत । अभ्युत्थान- मधर्मस्य तदात्मानं सृजाम्यहम् Bg.4.7 when impiety increases or is in the ascendant. -4 Sunrise.
abhyutthāyin अभ्युत्थायिन् a. Rising to greet or in honour of.
abhyutthita अभ्युत्थित p. p. 1 Risen, arisen, gone up. -2 Blazing, flaming (fire); R.1.53. -3 Elevated, exalted.
ābutta आबुत्त = आवुत्त q. v.
āvuttaḥ आवुत्तः A sister's husband; brother-in-law; U.1; &Sacute.6.
auttaṅka औत्तङ्क a. of उत्तङ्क; औत्तङ्कीं गुरुवृत्तिं वै प्राप्नुयामेति भारत Mb.14.56.3.
auttamarṇikam औत्तमर्णिकम् Debt; सवृद्धिकं गृहीतं यदृणं तच्चौत्तमर्णिकम् Śukra.2.317.
auttamiḥ औत्तमिः N. of the third of the fourteen Manus; Ms.1.62.
auttamika औत्तमिक a. (-की f.) Referring to the gods who are in the highest place.
auttara औत्तर a. (-री-रा) [उत्तर-अण्] Northern, living in the north. -Comp. -अह a. belonging to the following day. -पथिक a. going in the north direction. -पदिक a. comprehended in the last word or term. -भक्तिक a. Taken after meal; Charaka.
auttareyaḥ औत्तरेयः [उत्तरायाः अपत्यं ढक्] N. of Parīkṣit, son of Abhimanyu and Uttarā; औत्तरेयेण दत्तानि न्यवसत्तन्निदेशकृत् Bhāg.1.17.4.
auttānapādaḥ औत्तानपादः दिः [उत्तानपाद-अण् इञ् वा] 1 N. of Dhruva; यत् ते हि वः प्राणनिरोध आसीदौत्तानपादिर्मयि सङ्गतात्मा Bhāg.4.8.82. -2 The polar star.
autthitāsanikaḥ औत्थितासनिकः An officer in charge of arranging seats; Rāmaganj Copper-plate of Īśvaraghoṣa (Inscription of Bengal, P.149.).
kuttha कुत्थ (in Astr.) The fifteenth Yoga.
tutth तुत्थ् 1 U. (तुत्थयति-ते) 1 To praise. -2 To cover, screen; पांशुर्दिशां मुखमतुत्थयदुत्थितो$द्रेः Śi.5.11. -3 To spread.
tutthaḥ तुत्थः [तुद्-थक्] 1 Fire. -2 A stone. -त्थम् Sulphate of copper, usually applied to the eyes as a sort of collyrium or medical ointment. -त्था 1 Small cardamoms. -2 The indigo plant. -Comp. -अञ्जनम् blue vitriol applied to the eyes as a medical ointment.
tutthakam तुत्थकम् Blue vitriol.
nutta नुत्त (न्न) p. p. 1 Pushed, driven onward, propelled &c. -2 Driven away, dispelled; प्रणुन्नं सर्वतो दिग्भ्यः सिंहनुन्ना मृगा इव Rām.7.27.34. -3 Despatched, sent, ordered.
nuttiḥ नुत्तिः f. Driving away, removing.
parāṇuttiḥ पराणुत्तिः f. Driving away, expelling, removing.
paryutthānam पर्युत्थानम् Standing up.
puttalaḥ पुत्तलः ली 1 An image, idol, a statue, effigy. -2 A doll, puppet. -Comp. -दहनम्, -विधिः burning an effigy in place of the body of one who has died abroad or whose corpse is lost. -पूजा idolatry. पुत्तलकः puttalakḥ पुत्तलिका puttalikā पुत्तलकः पुत्तलिका A doll &c.
puttikā पुत्तिका 1 A small kind of bee; पुलाका इव धान्येषु पुत्तिका इव पक्षिषु । तद्विधास्ते मनुष्याणां येषां धर्मो न कारणम् ॥ Mb.12.181.7. -2 The white ant. -3 A doll.
pauttikam पौत्तिकम् A kind of honey (pale-coloured).
praṇutta प्रणुत्त p. p. 1 Driven away, repelled. -2 Scared away.
pratyutthānam प्रत्युत्थानम् 1 Rising against; मङ्गलाद्यप्रयोगं च प्रत्युत्थानं च सर्वतः Rām.2.1.67. -2 Making preparations for war. -3 Rising from one's seat (as a mark of respect) to welcome a visitor; असवर्णास्तु संपूज्याः प्रत्युत्थानाभिवादनैः Ms.2.21. -4 Making preparations for, undertaking.
pratyutthita प्रत्युत्थित p. p. Risen to meet or encounter (a friend, foe &c.).
maruttaḥ मरुत्तः N. of a king of the solar race, who is said to have performed a sacrifice in which the gods took the part of waiters &c.; cf. तदप्येष श्लोको$भिगीतो मरुतः परिवेष्टारो मरुत्तस्यावसन् गृहे । आविक्षितस्य कामप्रेर्विश्वेदेवाः सभासद इति ॥
maruttakaḥ मरुत्तकः The Marubaka plant.
vidyuttam विद्युत्तम् A flash of lightning; यथा सकृद्विद्युत्तं सकृद्विद्युत्तेव ह वा अस्य श्रीर्भवति Bṛi. Up.2.3.6.
vyutt व्युत्था 1 Ā. 1 To get up, rise. -2 To increase in strength or power, grow strong. -3 To oppose, resist, say something in opposition; इति व्युत्तिष्ठमानायां तस्यामूचे नलः प्रियाम् N.2.124. -Caus. 1 To excite, instigate, rouse. -2 To disagree about. -3 To win over. -4 To remove. व्युत्थानम् vyutthānam व्युत्थितिः vyutthitiḥ व्युत्थानम् व्युत्थितिः f. 1 Great activity. -2 Rising up against, opposition, obstruction. -3 Independent action, following one's own bent of mind; व्युत्थानं च विकाङ्क्षद्भिः कथाभिः प्रतिलोभ्यते Mb.12.111.43. -4 The completion of religious abstraction or abstract meditation (in Yoga phil.). -5 A kind of dance. -6 Causing (an elephant) to rise; यावच्चक्रे नाञ्जनं बोधनाय व्युत्थानज्ञो हस्तिचारी मदस्य Śi.18.26. -7 Contradicting.
vyutthita व्युत्थित p. p. 1 Greatly divergent in opinion. -2 Swerving from duty (उच्छास्त्रवर्तिन्); व्युत्थितोत्पत्तिविज्ञानमाकाशे च गतिः शुभा Mb.6.15.9.
vyutta व्युत्त p. p. Wetted, drenched.
samutt समुत्था 1 P. 1 To stand up, rise. -2 To rise from death or insensibility, return to life or consciousness. -3 To rise together with. -4 To arise or spring from. -Caus. 1 To raise up, lift up, elevate. -2 To revive, restore to life.
samuttha समुत्थ a. 1 Rising, getting up. -2 Sprung or produced from, born from (at the end of comp.); इच्छाद्वेष- समुत्थेन Bg.7.27; अथ नयनसमुत्थं ज्योतिरत्रेरिव द्योः R.2.75. -3 Occurring, occasioned.
samutthānam समुत्थानम् 1 Rising, getting up. -2 Resurrection. -3 Perfect cure, complete recovery. -4 Healing (as of a wound); समुत्थानव्ययं दाप्यः Ms.8.287; Y.2.222. -5 A symptom of disease. -6 Engaging in industry, active occupation; as in संभूयसमुत्थानम् Ms.8.4. -7 Increase or growth. -8 Industry; यज्ञो विद्या समुत्थानम् Mb.12.23. 1. -9 Hoisting (of a flag). -1 Swelling (of the abdomen).
samutthita समुत्थित p. p. 1 Risen, raised. -2 Recovered, cured. -3 Arisen, produced, born.
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uttara út-tara, cpv. a. upper, i. 154, 1 [úd up].
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uttabdha pp. √ stabh; -tabh-ita, id.
uttāla a. violent; luxuriant; ter rible, gruesome; excellent.
uttama spv. highest, supreme; most excellent, best, chief (among, --°ree;); superior to, higher or better than (ab.); last: -m, °ree;--, ad.; m. (last=our) first person (gr.).
uttamagandhāḍhya a. rich in delicious fragrance; -gana, m. pl. superior people; -tegas, a. supremely brilliant or mighty; -purusha, m. supreme spirit; (last =our) first person (gr.).
uttamāṅga n. head.
uttamarṇa m. creditor; i-ka, m. id.
uttamavarṇa a. most beautifully coloured; -sâhasa, n. highest fine.
uttaṃsa m. wreath, crest; ornament.
uttaṃsaya den. P. deck with a wreath: pp. ita, worn as a wreath.
uttāna a. outspread; extended; face upwards; upturned; shallow, superficial; wide open; ready to hand; i-ta, cs. pp. opened wide; î-kri, open wide; î-bhû, be spread out.
uttāpa m. great heat; ardour, passion.
uttarā (in.) ad. northwards; north of (ab., g.).
uttara cpv. upper; higher, better; later (than, ab.); left; northern; north of (ab.); posterior; following; latter, subsequent, future; superior; mightier; victorious; win ning (a suit); m. N. of a mtn.; n.surface, cover (--°ree;, a.); north; latter part of a compound; an swer, discussion; legal defence; contradiction (-m dâ, contradict); superiority; surplus (--°ree;, a.=increased by, plus); main part (--°ree;, a. hav ing asits chief object, consisting chiefly of; ad. overwhelmed by); consequence (--°ree;, a. followed by); later period (--°ree;=later); kind of song.
uttarā f. (sc. dis) north.
uttāra m. crossing (--°ree;); rescue; -ana, a. saving; n. deliverance; -ayitri, a. about to cross (ac.); -ya, fp. to be vomited.
uttaracchada m. cover, coverlet; -ga, a. born of the last mentioned marriage.
uttarādhara a. being above and below; n. upper and lower lip; lips: -vivara, n. mouth.
uttarāhi ad. northwards.
uttarakāya m. upper part of the body; -kâla, m. subsequent period, future; a. future; -kosala, m. pl. northern Kosalas; -khanda, m. n. designation of last section in various works.
uttarala a. trembling, quivering.
uttaralāya den. Â. shudder, quiver.
uttaraloman a. having the hairy side uppermost; -vâdin, a. answering; making the later claims (leg.).
uttarām ad. further away.
uttaram ad. further; forward; af terwards, thereupon.
uttaraṃga den. Â. break forth like waves.
uttaraṃga m. high wave; a. having high waves.
uttaraṇa a. crossing; n. crossing, passing over (--°ree;).
uttarāpatha m. (way to the north), north country.
uttarāt (ab.) ad. from the north or left.
uttaratas ad. northwards; to the north, to the left of (g.): -paskât, to the north-west; -dâyaka, a. answering, contra dicting, impertinent; -paksha, m. northern or left wing; answer to an opponent's ob jection (ph.); -pada, n. latter part of a com pound; -paskima, a. north-westerly.
uttarāyaṇa n. northward course (of the sun); half-year in which the sun moves northwards; commencement of the sun's northward course = winter solstice (in the month Pausha); -½araní, f.the upper fire-stick; -½artha, a. being for the sake of what follows; -½ardhá, n. upper part of the body; &asharp;-vat, a. superior; -½âsâ, f. northern quarter; -½asman, a. having lofty crags; -½âsa&ndot;ga, m. upperor outer gar ment; covering.
uttaredyus ad. on the following day.
uttareṇa (in.) ad. to the north or left of (ac., ab., g., --°ree;).
uttarīya n. upper or outer gar ment, covering; coverlet: -ka, n. id.
uttaroṣṭha, ˚rauṣṭha m. upper lip.
uttarottara a. ever increas ing; following in succession: -m, ad. higher and higher; more and more; in constant suc cession; n. reply to answer, rejoinder; dis cussion: -bhâva, a. in which one is always above the other, -½ukta, pp. subsequently stated in each case.
uttaṭa a. having overflowed its banks.
uttejanā f. whetting.
uttha a. arising; springing up; pro ceeding from, originating in (--°ree;); -thâ-ta vya, fp. n. one should rise; one should be up and doing; -th&asharp;na, m. originator; n. rising; rise (of heavenly bodies); resurrection; insurrection, tumult; exertion, activity; origin: -vat, a. strenuous, -vîra, m. man of action; -thâpana, n. raising; awakening; -thâya, gd. having arisen; -thây-in, a. rising; appearing; active, strenuous: -i-tva, n. abst. n.; -thita, pp. √ sthâ.
uttitīrṣu des. a. wishing to come out of (ab.); desirous of crossing (ac.).
uttoraṇa a. adorned with erected arches: -patâka, a. adorned with erected arches and flying flags.
uttuṅga a. prominent, high; -ita, pp. raised aloft; -î-kri, raise aloft.
anabhyutthāyin a. not rising to greet.
anutta pp. invincible.
anutta pp. √ dâ.
anuttama a. (without a highest), highest, most excellent; mightiest; -uttara, a. not answering; unanswerable; n. unsatis factory answer in court: -tva, n. abst. n.; -uttara&ndot;ga, a. not billowy; -utthâna, n. lack of energy; -utpatti, f. non-production; -utpâda, m. id.; non-appearance; -utsâha, m. absence of energy; -utsâhin, a. weak willed; -utsuka-tâ, f. unassumingness, mo desty; -utsûtra-pada-nyâsa, a.without a step against the rules of policy; without a word against grammatical rules; -utseka, m. lack of presumption, modesty; -utsekin, a. unassuming, modest, humble.
ābutta m. sister's husband (drama).
auttarādharya n. being above and below, promiscuousness.
kuṭṭa kutta, ˚ka a. crushing or grinding with (--°ree;).
taduttha a. arising from or caused by that man; -upahita, pp. transferred to him.
tuttha n. blue vitriol.
tvaguttarāsaṅgavat a. wearing an outer garment of bark; -dosha, m. skin-disease, eruption; -doshin, a. af fected with skin-disease; -bheda-ka, a. break ing or tearing the skinof another.
nutti f. expulsion, removal.
puttikā f. [Pr. for putr-ikâ, little daughter], doll; white ant.
prāguttara a. (east-northern, i. e.) north-eastern: in. or -tas, in the north-east, of (ab., g.), -dig-bhâga, -dig-vibhâga, m. north-eastern side of (g.); -utpatti, f. first appearance; -uda&ndot;-mukha,a. facing north eastwards or to the east or the north; -udañk, a. (f. -udîkî) north-eastern; n. -udak, ad.; f. -udîkî, (east-north, i. e.) north-east; -ûdhâ, pp. f. formerly married.
barhiruttha m. (arising from grass), fire.
bhavaduttaram ad. with &open;bha vat&close; at the end; -vakana, n. your speech; -vidha, a. one like you (in respectful address).
marutta m. N. of various princes; -tarunî, f. (wind-maiden), fairy; -pata, m. sail; -pati, m. lord of the Maruts, ep. of In dra; -patha, m. path of the winds, atmo sphere; -pâla, m. guardian of the Maruts, ep. of Indra.
sutthāna a. very strenuous.
     Vedic Index of
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uttāna āṅgirasa Is mentioned in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as a quasi-mythical person who received all good things, and yet was not harmed, as he was really a form of the earth, according to Sāyaṇa’s explanation. His name occurs also in the Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, and the Taittirīya Araṇyaka.
uttara kuru The Uttara Kurus, who play a mythical part in the Epic and later literature, are still a historical people in the Aitareya Brāhmana, where they are located beyond the Himalaya (parena Himavantam). In another passage, how­ever, the country of the Uttara Kurus is stated by Vāsiçtha Sātyahavya to be a land of the gods (deva-ksetra), but Jānam- tapi Atyarāti was anxious to conquer it, so that it is still not wholly mythical. It is reasonable to accept Zimmer’s view that the northern Kurus were settled in Kaśmīr, especially as Kuruksetra is the region where tribes advancing from Kaśmīr might naturally be found. Cf. Udīcyas.
uttara madra Is the name of a tribe mentioned with the Uttara Kurus in the Aitareya Brāhmana as living beyond the Himālaya. Zimmer points out that in the Vamśa Brāhmana Kāmboja Aupamanyava is a pupil of Madragāra, and thence infers that Kambojas and Madras were not far distant in space. This conclusion is perfectly reasonable in view of the probable position of the Kambojas.
aṣāḍha uttara pārāśarya Is mentioned as a teacher in a Vamśa or Genealogy in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana
marutta ávikṣita (‘Descendant of Avikṣit ’) Kāma-ppi (‘ descendant of Kāmapra ’) is the name of a king who was anointed by Samvarta according to the Aitareya Brāhmana. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa account of the same king he is called Áyograva.
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uttabhnuvan pṛthivīṃ dyām uto pari TA.6.8.1b (bis). Cf. ut te stabhnāmi.
uttama āsanam ācaran AVś.20.127.8b; śś.12.17.1.2b.
uttamaṃ tu mahāvratam Aś.8.13.31b.
uttamaṃ nākaṃ roheyam śś.16.17.1c.
uttamaṃ nākam (AVP.VSṃS.KS.śB. uttame nāke) adhi rohayemam (VSṃS.KS.śB. rohayainam; TA. rohemam; AVP. tiṣṭhehi) AVś.1.9.2d,4d; 6.63.3d; 84.4d; 11.1.4d; AVP.1.75.2b; VS.12.63d; TS.4.2.5.3d; MS.2.7.12d: 90.18; KS.16.12d; śB.7.2.1.10; TA.6.4.2d. Cf. svar ārohanto abhi, svo ruhāṇā adhi, and saro ruhāṇā adhi.
uttamaṃ nākaṃ paramaṃ vyoma AVś.11.1.30d.
uttamāni vi bhejire AVś.5.4.8d; AVP.1.31.2d.
uttamāñjanī nvartmanyāt Vait.32.25. So also mss. at AVś.20.133.6c, for uttarāñjanīṃ vartmabhyām, q.v.
uttamāñjanim etc. see uttarāñjanīm āñjanyām.
uttamarātrī ṇāma mṛtyo te mātā Kauś.135.9a.
uttamāyā diśaḥ prajāpatinā rājñādhyakṣeṇa AVP.4.30.7b.
uttame devā jyotiṣi dhattanemam AVP.1.19.4d.
uttame devā jyotiṣi dhārayantu AVP.1.19.1d. See uttarasmiṃ jyotiṣi etc.
uttame nāka iha mādayantām (Mś. mādayadhvam !) TS.3.5.1.1d; TB.3.1.1.12d; Apś.7.5.1d; Mś.6.2.3.8d. See nākasya pṛṣṭhe sam.
uttame nāke adhi etc. see uttamaṃ nākam adhi etc.
uttame loka ā dadhat AVś.11.4.11d.
uttame śikhare devī (TA. vḷ. jāte) TA.10.30.1a; MahānU.15.5a.
uttamebhyaḥ svāhā AVś.19.22.12. Cf. Kauś.26.40; 41.15; 50.14.
uttamena tanūbhis tanūr jinva VS.15.7.
uttamena pavinendrāya somaṃ suṣutaṃ madhumantaṃ payasvantaṃ vṛṣṭivanim TS.1.4.1.1. See under indrāya tvā suṣuttamam.
uttamena pavinorjasvantam VS.6.30c; śB.3.9.4.5.
uttamena haviṣā (AVś. brahmaṇā) jātavedaḥ AVś.1.9.3b; TS.3.5.4.2b; MS.1.4.3b: 50.14; KS.5.6b. See uttareṇa brahmaṇā jātavedaḥ.
uttamo asy (AVP. 'sy) oṣadhīnām AVś.6.15.1a; 8.5.11a; 19.39.4a; AVP.7.10.4a. P: uttamo asi Kauś.19.26. See tvam uttamāsy.
uttamo nāma kuṣṭhāsi AVś.5.4.9a. Cf. next but one.
uttamo nāma te pitā AVś.5.4.9b; AVP.1.31.3b. Cf. jīvanto nāma, jīvalo nāma etc., vihalho nāma etc., and sarūpo nāma etc.
uttamo nāmāsi AVP.1.31.3a. Cf. prec. but one.
uttamo 'sy oṣadhīnām see uttamo asy oṣadhīnām.
uttamo 'haṃ bhūyāsam adhare matsapatnāḥ KS.31.14 (quinq.). See uttaras tvam, and uttaro 'haṃ.
uttamo haviṣāṃ kṛtaḥ AVś.6.15.3b.
uttānā garbham ādadhe RVKh.10.184.2b; MG.2.18.4b. See tiṣṭhantī garbham, bhūtānāṃ garbham, and vṛddhaiva garbham.
uttānā hi devagavā vahanti Apś.11.7.6.
uttānāḥ pādaghātinīḥ AVP.7.13.6b.
uttānahastā namasādhi vikṣu RV.10.79.2d.
uttānahastā namasopasadya RV.3.14.5b; VS.18.75b.
uttānahasto namasā vivāset RV.6.16.46d.
uttānahasto yuvayur vavanda RV.6.63.3c.
uttānām ūrdhvo adhayaj juhūbhiḥ RV.5.1.3d; SV.2.1098d.
uttānapādam ardaya AVP.5.10.4d.
uttānaparṇāṃ subhagām AVP.7.12.7a. Cf. next.
uttānaparṇe subhage RV.10.145.2a; AVś.3.18.2a; ApMB.1.15.2a (ApG.3.9.6). Cf. BṛhPDh.9.322. Cf. prec.
uttānas tvāṅgīrasaḥ prati gṛhṇātu TB.2.3.2.5; 4.6; TA.3.10.2,4; Apś.14.11.2; 12.2.
uttānās tvā pratīcīṃ yat AVś.12.1.34c.
uttānāya tvāṅgirasāya mahyaṃ varuṇo dadāti MS.1.9.4: 134.14. P: uttānāya tvā Mś.5.2.14.12; --11.1.4.
uttānāyā (TS. uttānāyai) hṛdayaṃ yad vikastam (TS. viliṣṭam) VS.11.39b; TS.4.1.4.1b; MS.2.7.4b: 78.7; KS.16.4b; śB.6.4.3.4.
uttānāyai śayānāyai see uttānāyāṃ etc.
uttānāyāṃ śayānāyām (śś. uttānāyai śayānāyai) AVś.20.133.4a; śś.12.22.1,4a.
uttānāyāṃ daśa yuktā vahanti RV.1.164.14b; AVś.9.9.14b.
uttānāyām ajanayan suṣūtam RV.2.10.3a.
uttānāyām ava bharā cikitvān RV.3.29.3a; VS.34.14a.
uttānāyāṅgīrasāyānaḥ TB.2.2.5.3; TA.3.10.4.
uttānayoś camvor yonir antaḥ RV.1.164.33c; AVś.9.10.12c; N.4.21c.
uttarā aṣāḍhā nakṣatram KS.39.13.
uttarā śvaśruvā bhava AVP.4.10.3a. Cf. samrājñī śvaśrvāṃ.
uttarā sūr adharaḥ putra āsīt RV.1.32.9c; AVP.12.12.9c.
uttarāc cāpy udumbaram GG.4.7.22d.
uttarād adharād abhayaṃ no astu AVś.19.15.5d; AVP.3.35.5d.
uttarād adharād uta AVś.11.2.4b. Cf. mottarād etc., and sottarād etc.
uttarād vā sadānvāḥ AVP.1.36.2b.
uttarādvāto vātaḥ TS.4.3.3.2; MS.2.7.20: 105.14; KS.39.7.
uttarāham uttarābhyaḥ AVP.7.12.3a. Cf. next.
uttarāham uttare RV.10.145.3a; AVś.3.18.4a; ApMB.1.15.3a (ApG.3.9.6). Cf. prec.
uttaraṃ rāṣṭraṃ prajayottarāvat AVś.12.3.10a.
uttaraṃ dviṣato mām ayam AVś.10.6.31a.
uttarāṃ devayajyām āśāste TB.3.5.10.5; śB.1.9.1.14; Aś.1.9.5; śś.1.14.17.
uttarāṃ pṛthivīm abhi AVś.8.2.15c.
uttarām-uttarāṃ samām RV.4.57.7d; AVś.3.10.1d; 17.4d; 12.1.33d; AVP.1.104.1d; 2.22.5d; VS.38.28c; TS.4.3.11.5d; MS.2.13.10d: 161.13; KS.39.10d; śB.14.3.1.31d; SMB.1.8.8d; 2.2.1d,17d; 8.1; PG.3.3.5d.
uttarān marutas tvā AVś.10.9.8b.
uttarān mā śacīpatiḥ AVś.19.16.1d; 27.14d; AVP.10.8.4d; 12.6.5d.
uttarāñjanīṃ vartmabhyām (Aś. vartanyām) AVś.20.133.6; Aś.8.3.19. See uttamāñjanī nvartmanyāt.
uttarāñjanīm (Vait. uttamāñjanim) āñjanyām AVś.20.133.5; Aś.8.3.19; Vait.32.25.
uttarāparasyāṃ etc. see uttarapūrvasyāṃ etc.
uttarapūrvasyāṃ diśi viṣādī (and uttarāparasyāṃ diśy aviṣādī) narakaḥ, tasmān naḥ pari pāhi TA.1.19.1.
uttaras tvam adhare te sapatnāḥ (AVP. adhare santv anye) AVś.4.22.6a; AVP.3.21.6a; TB.2.4.7.8a. See under uttamo 'haṃ.
uttarasmiṃ jyotiṣi dhārayantu AVś.1.9.1d. See uttame devā jyotiṣi etc.
uttarasmiṃś canāyuṣi AVP.6.23.9d.
uttarasyāṃ diśy uttaraṃ dhehi pārśvam AVś.4.14.8b.
uttarasyāṃ devayajyāyām upahūtaḥ TS.2.6.7.5; śB.1.8.1.30; TB.3.5.8.3. Cf. next, and upahūto 'yaṃ yajamāna uttarasyāṃ.
uttarasyāṃ devayajyāyām upahūtā TB.3.5.13.3. Cf. prec.
uttarāt tvā somaḥ saṃ dadātai AVś.12.3.24d.
uttarataḥ parīta Apś.3.4.4; Mś.1.3.3.14.
uttarato madhyato antarikṣāt AVś.18.4.9d.
uttarāva śrava ā dhehy asmai AVP.11.5.6b.
uttaravaktrāya namaḥ Mś.11.7.1.14.
uttare nāma stha teṣāṃ va upari gṛhā ūrdhvā dik teṣāṃ vo varṣam iṣavaḥ AVP.2.56.5. Cf. adhipatayo nāma stha, and AVś.3.26; AVP.3.11.
uttare proṣṭhapadā nakṣatram KS.39.13.
uttare loka āsate AVP.8.19.6d.
uttarebhyaḥ svāhā AVś.19.22.13. Cf. Kauś.48.36.
uttared uttarābhyaḥ (AVP. adharābhyaḥ) RV.10.145.3b; AVś.3.18.4b; AVP.7.12.3b; ApMB.1.15.3b.
uttareṇa tu tāv ubhau Vait.9.12b.
uttareṇa brahmaṇā jātavedaḥ AVP.1.19.3b. See uttamena etc.
uttareṇa brahmaṇā vi bhāhi AVP.1.19.2c.
uttareṇeva gāyatrīm AVś.10.8.41a.
uttaro dviṣatāṃ (AVP. dviṣato) bhava AVś.5.28.10d; AVP.2.59.8d; 10.2.2d.
uttaro dhuro vahati pradediśat RV.10.102.10d.
uttaro nāma bhūmyām AVś.12.1.54b.
uttaro 'sāni brahmacāribhyaḥ Kauś.55.14.
uttaro 'sau dviṣadbhyaḥ ApMB.2.7.12.
uttaro 'haṃ bhūyāsam adhare matsapatnāḥ Kauś.6.10. See under uttamo 'haṃ.
utthapatrā īḍyo gṛbhītaḥ MS.3.3.8: 40.16. Misprint for ukthapatrā etc., q.v.
utthāpaya sīdato budhna enān AVś.12.3.30a.
utthāsyantaṃ sarīsṛpam AVP.7.11.2b. Cf. niṣatsnuṃ.
utthāsyate svāhā TS.7.1.19.3.
utthātur abruvan padaḥ AVś.9.4.14c.
utthāya bṛhatī see ut tiṣṭha bṛhatī.
utthitas tretā bhavati śś.15.19c. See uttiṣṭhaṃs.
utthitāya svāhā VS.22.8; TS.7.1.19.3; MS.3.12.3: 161.3.
uttiṣṭha Mś.11.9.2.12.
uttiṣṭhad brāhmaṇāḥ saṃ vadadhvam AVP.8.15.9a.
uttiṣṭhaṃs tretā bhavati AB.7.15.4c. See utthitas.
uttiṣṭhan vindate śriyam śś.15.19c.
uttiṣṭhan voce pari barhiṣo nṝn RV.7.33.1c.
uttiṣṭhann ojasā saha RV.8.76.10a; AVś.20.42.3a; SV.2.338a; VS.8.39a; TS.1.4.30.1a; JB.3.89; PB.13.2.5; śB.4.5.4.10a; Aś.7.2.3; 8.12.7; śś.12.1.4; 18.2.2; 7.15; Vait.41.17. Ps: uttiṣṭhann ojasā śś.10.13.6; uttiṣṭhan Kś.12.3.2; Apś.12.15.10.
uttiṣṭhate svāhā TS.7.1.19.3.
uttudas tvot tudatu AVś.3.25.1a. P: uttudas tvā Kauś.35.22. Cf. stokas tvottuda.
atinutto nāvyā etu srotyāḥ # AVś.8.7.15d.
anuttaṃ vajrin vīryam # RV.1.80.7b; SV.1.412b.
anuttamanyum ajaram # RV.8.6.35c.
anuttamanyur yo aheva revān # RV.8.96.19b.
anuttam asmai kṣatraṃ viśvāyu # RV.7.34.11b.
anuttam ā te maghavan nakir nu (MS. ṇu) # RV.1.165.9a; VS.33.79a; MS.4.11.3a: 169.7; KS.9.18a. P: anuttam ā te śś.11.2.5.
anutt carṣaṇīdhṛtiḥ # SV.1.248d; 2.761d. See next but one.
anutta svād āsthānāt # śB.11.5.5.8c.
anuttā carṣaṇīdhṛtā # RV.8.90.5d. See prec. but one.
apanuttaḥ śaṇḍaḥ # Apś.12.22.2. Cf. apamṛṣṭaḥ etc.
apanuttā # see apanuttau.
apanutto markaḥ # Apś.12.22.2. Cf. apamṛṣṭo etc.
apanuttau (KS. -ttā) śaṇḍāmarkau (MS.4.6.3, ṣaṇḍā-) saha tena yaṃ dviṣmaḥ # MS.1.3.12: 34.7; 4.6.3: 81.7; KS.4.4; 27.8. P: apanuttau śaṇḍāmarkau Mś.2.4.1.7. See next.
apanuttau śaṇḍāmarkau sahāmunā # TS.6.4.10.2; TB.1.1.1.5; Apś.12.22.2. See prec.
aparāṇuttā mahasā modamānāḥ # AVP.7.6.3c.
kṣuttṛṣṇābhyāṃ taṃ yo gāṃ vikṛntantaṃ māṃsaṃ bhikṣamāṇa upa tiṣṭhate # TB.3.4.1.16. See kṣudhe yo.
nuttāḥ putthajño mayā # AVP.8.16.1d--3d.
nuttā dhāvata brahmaṇā # AVś.8.8.19b.
nutt acyutaṃ sadasas pari svāt # RV.6.17.5d.
putthagi ni layiṣyate # AVP.8.16.8d.
putthajñīṃ pra mṛṇīmasi # AVP.8.16.4d.
pṛṣadājyapraṇuttānām # AVś.11.10.19c.
bṛhaspatipraṇuttānām # AVś.8.8.19c.
brahmanuttam apāyati # AVś.10.1.13d.
maruttasyāvasan gṛhe # AB.8.21.14b; śB.13.5.4.6b; śś.16.9.16b. Cf. Mahābh.12.29.18b.
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"utt" has 236 results.
     
anuttamaother than उत्तम or the first person; confer, compare विभाषितं सोपसर्गमनुत्तमम् P. VII.1.53 and Kāśika thereon.
uttama(1)the best,the highest,the last: (2) the last letter of the consonantclasses, the nasal; cf, A.Pr.II.4.14; R.Pr.IV.3; confer, compare also अनुत्तम meaning non-nasal; (3) the उत्तमपुरुष or the premier or the first person constituting the affixes मि, वस् and मस् and their substitutes, confer, compare P.I.4.107.
uttara(1)following, subsequent, e. g. उत्तरपद, the latter part of a compound word; (2) end of a word, पदान्त; confer, compare उत्तरे पदान्ते वर्तमानः Com. on T.Pr. III.1.
uttarakālamsubsequently, then, afterwards; confer, compare तत् उत्तरकालमिदं दृष्टम् M.Bh. on I.1.1.
uttaratrain subsequent rules; confer, compare उत्तरत्रानुवर्तिष्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.23.
uttarapadathe latter member or portion of a compound word as contrasted with पूर्वपद; confer, compare पतिरुत्तरपदमाद्युदात्तम् Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II. 3. 11; cf also अलुगुत्तरपदे P. VI. 3.1.
uttararūpaulterior form.
uttarārthaserving a purpose in subsequent rules; of use in a subsequent rule; confer, compare योगविभाग उत्तरार्थः, क्त्वाग्रहणमुत्तरार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.22.
utthānaelevation of tone.
auttarapadikapertaining to the ulterior member of a compound confer, compare औत्तरपदिके ह्रस्वत्व (P.VI.3.61) कृते तुक् प्राप्नोति M.Bh. on I.1.62.
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
a,k(ೱ),(ೱ)जिह्वामूलीय, represented by a sign like the वज्र in writing, as stated by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. who remarks वज्राकृतिर्वर्णो जिह्वामूलीयसंज्ञो भवति. the Jihvāmūlīya is only a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the guttural letter क् or ख् . It is looked upon as a letter (वर्ण), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. e. g. विष्णु ೱ करोति.
a,pೱ,(ೱ)Upadhmānīya represented by a sign like the temple of an elephants stated by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. who remarks "गजकुम्भाकृतिर्वर्ण उपध्मानीयसंज्ञो भवति." Kāt.I. It is a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the labial letter p ( प् ) or ph ( फ ). It is looked upon as a letter ( वर्ण ), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. अ:कार name given to the nominative case. case in the Taittiriya Prātiśākhya. cf अ:कार इति प्रथमाविभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 23.
akampitanot shaken; tremulous: said with respect to vowels in Vedic utterance, kampa being looked upon as a fault of utterance., cf अकम्पितान् । कम्पनं नाम स्वराश्रितपाठदोषः प्रायेण दाक्षिणात्यानां भवति । तमुपलक्ष्य स वर्ज्य:। R.Pr.III.31
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
akṣarāṅgaforming a part of a syllable just as the anusvāra ( nasal utterance ) or svarabhakti (vowelpart) which forms a part of the preceding syllable. confer, compare अनुस्वारो व्यञ्जनं चाक्षराङ्गम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.22, also स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.32.
aghoṣaunvoiced, merely breathed; a term applied to the surd consonants, ś, ṣ s, and visarga which are uttered by mere breathing and which do not produce any sonant effect. confer, compare T. Pr.I.12; R.Pr.I.11. The term jit ( जित् ) is used for these letters as also for the first two consonants of a class in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya confer, compare द्वौ द्वौ प्रथमौ जित्; ऊष्माणश्च हवर्जम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.50.51.
atatkālanot taking that much time only which is shown by the letter (vowel) uttered, but twice or thrice, as required by its long or protracted utterance ; the expression is used in connection with vowels in Pāṇini's alphabet, which, when used in Pāṇini's rules, except when prescribed or followed by the letter त्, includes their long, protracted and nasalized utterances: confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः I.1.69.
atiprayatnaintense effort; characteristic effort as required for uttering a vowel with विक्रमस्वरित.
ativyastaquite apart, used with respect to lips which are widely apart ( विश्लिष्टौ ) in the utterance of long अा and ओ; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II.12, 13.
ātisparśaexcess of contact, which to a certain extent spoils the pronunciation and leads to.a fault. अतिस्पर्श is the same as दुःस्पर्श, the letter ळ being called दुःस्पृष्ट on account of excess of contact. This excess of contact ( अतिस्पर्श) in the case of the utterance of the letter र् results into a fault as it practically borders on stammering; confer, compare अतिस्पर्शो बर्बरता च रेफे, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 26.
atyalpaspṛṣṭahaving a very slight contact (with the organ producing sound),as in the case of the utterance of a vowel.
atyuccanīcacharacterized by a sharp utterance; a name of the grave accent
atyupasaṃhṛtavery closely uttered, uttered with close lips and jaws, (said in connection with the utterance of the vowel अ ); confer, compare T. Pr II. 12. See अतिसंश्लिष्ट.
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
anākṛtinot capable of presenting (on its mere utterance) any tangible form or figure the word is used in connection with a technical term (संज्ञाशब्द) which presents its sense by a definition actually laid down or given in the treatise: confer, compare अनाकृति: संज्ञा । अाकृतिमन्तः संज्ञिनः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.
anukaraṇa(1)imitation; a word uttered in imitation of another; an imitative name: confer, compare अनुकरणे चानितिपरम् P.I.4.62; अनुकरणं हि शिष्टशिष्टाप्रतिषिद्धेषु यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु, Śiva sūtra 2 Vārt 1; confer, compare also प्रकृतिवद् अनुकरणं भवति an imitative name is like its original Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 36; also M.Bh. on VIII. 2.46; (2) imitative word, onomatopoetic word; confer, compare एवं ह्याहुः कुक्कुटाः कुक्कुड् इति । नैवं त आहुः । अनुकरणमेतत्तेषाम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.48. confer, compare also दुन्दुभि: इति शब्दानुकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.IX. 12.
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.id est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
anudāttetliterally one whose mute significatory letter is uttered with a grave accent: a term applied to a root characterized by an indicatory mute vowel accented grave, the chief feature of such a root being that it takes only the Ātmanepada affixes c. g. आस्ते, वस्ते, et cetera, and others; confer, compare अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; such a root, in forming a derivative word in the sense of habit, takes the affix युच् e. g. वर्त्तनः, वर्धन: et cetera, and others provided the root begins with a consonant; confer, compare अनुदात्तेतश्र हलादेः P. III.2.149.
anunādaa fore-sound : a preceding additional sound which is looked upon as a fault: e. g. ह्वयामि whom pronounced as अह्वयामि. This sound is uttered before an initial sonant consonant. It is also uttered before initial aspirates or visarga. confer, compare घोषवतामनुनादः पुरस्ताद् आदिस्थानां, क्रियते धारणं वा । सोष्मोष्माणामनुनादोप्यनादः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.18,19.
anunāsika(a letter)uttered through the nose and mouth both, as different from anusvāra which is uttered only through the nose. confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिकःP.I.1.8, and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). thereon. The anunāsika or nasal letters are the fifth letters of the five classes ( id est, that is ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न्, म् ) as also vowels अ, इ, उ and semivowels when so pronounced, as ordinarily they are uttered through the mouth only; ( exempli gratia, for example अँ, आँ, et cetera, and others or य्यँ, व्वँ, ल्लँ et cetera, and others in सय्यँन्ता, सव्वँत्सरः, सँल्लीनः et cetera, and others) The अनुनासिक or nasalized vowels are named रङ्गवर्ण and they are said to be consisting of three mātras. confer, compare अष्टौ आद्यानवसानेsप्रगृह्यान् आचार्या आहुरनुनासिकान् स्वरान् । तात्रिमात्रे शाकला दर्शयन्ति Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.63.64; confer, compare also अप्रग्रहाः समानाक्षराणि अनुनासिकानि एकेषाम् T. Pr XV.6. Trivikrama, a commentator on the Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Sūtras, explains अनुनासिक as अनु पश्चात् नासिकास्थानं उच्चारणं एषां इत्यनुनासिकाः । पूर्वं मुखस्थानमुच्चारणं पश्चान्नासिकास्थानमुच्चारणमित्यर्थः । अनुग्रहणात्केवलनासिकास्थानोच्चारणस्य अनुस्वारस्य नेयं संज्ञा । and remarks further पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्धसंज्ञेयमन्वर्था । Com. by Tr. on Kat. I 1.13. Vowels which are uttered nasalized by Pāṇini in his works viz. सूत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ et cetera, and others are silent ones i. e. they are not actually found in use. They are put by him only for the sake of a complete utterance, their nasalized nature being made out only by means of traditional convention. e. g. एध, स्पर्ध et cetera, and others confer, compare उपदेशेSजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2; confer, compare also प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः Kāś on I.3.2.
anuprayogasubsequent utterance; literally post-position as in the case of the roots कृ, भू and अम् in the periphrastic perfect forms; confer, compare आम्प्रत्ययवत् कृञोऽ नुप्रयोगस्य, P.I.3.63; यथाविध्यनुप्रयोगः पूर्वस्मिन् III.4.4.
antarainterval between two phonetic elements when they are uttered one after another; hiatus, pause; वर्णान्तरं परमाणु, R.T. 34; also विरामो वर्णयोर्मध्येप्यणुकालोप्यसंयुते Vyāsaśikṣā; (2) space between two phonetic elements, e. g. स्वरान्तरे explained as स्वरयोरन्तरे (between two vowels) by Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.confer, compare अन्तस्थान्तरोपलिङ्गी विभाषितगुणः Nir X.17.
antaratamavery close or very cognate being characterized (l) by the same place of utterance, or (2) by possessing the same sense, or (3) by possessing the same qualities, or (4) by possessing the same dimension ; cf स्थानेन्तरतमः P.I. I.50 and Kāś. thereon अान्तर्यं स्थानार्थगुणुप्रमाणतः स्थानतः दण्डाग्रम् , अर्थतः वतण्डी चासौ युवतिश्च वातण्ड्ययुवतिः । गुणतः पाकः, त्यागः, रागः । प्रमाणतः अमुष्मै अमूभ्याम् ॥
anvavasargarelaxation or wide opening of the sound-producing organs as done for uttering a vowel of grave accent. confer, compare अन्ववसर्गः गात्राणां विस्तृतता Tait. Pr. XXII.10.
apabhraṃśadegraded utterance of standard correct forms or words: corrupt form: e. g. गावी, गोणी and the like, of the word गो, confer, compare गौः इत्यस्य शब्दस्य गावी गोणी गोता गोपोतलिका इत्येवमादयः अपभ्रंशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.l.l ; cf शब्दसंस्कारहीनो यो गौरिति प्रयुयुक्षिते । तमपभ्रंशमिच्छन्ति विशिष्टार्थनिवेशिनम् Vāk. Pad I.149: सर्वस्य हि अपभ्रंशस्य साधुरेव प्रकृतिः commentary on Vāk. Pad I. 149.
abhikramathe first of the two utterances of a word which characterise the krama method of recital; e. g in the krama recital of प्रण इन्दो et cetera, and others प्र णः । न इन्दो । the first recial प्र णः is called अभिक्रम, or प्रथमवचन while न इन्दो is called द्वितीयवचनः confer, compare अभिक्रमे पूर्वविधानमाचरेत् पुनर्ध्रुवंस्तूत्तरकारितं क्रमे Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI.21.
abhighātadepression or sinking of the voice as required for the utterance of a circumflex vowel.
abhinidhānaliterally that which is placed near or before; the first of the doubled class consonants; a mute or sparṣa consonant arising from doubling and inserted before a mute; confer, compare अघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथमः अभिनिधानः स्पर्शपरात्तस्य सस्थानः ( Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 9. ) explained by त्रिभाष्यरत्न as स्पर्शपरादघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथम आगमस्तस्य स्पर्शस्य समानस्थानः अभिनिधानो भवति । अभिनिधीयते इत्यभिनिधानः आरोपणीयः इत्यर्थः । यथा यः क्कामयेत अश्मन्नूर्जम् । यः प्पाप्मना । The Ṛk. prātiśākhya explains the term अभिनिधान somewhat differently; confer, compare अभिनिधानं कृतसंहितानां स्पर्शन्ति:स्थानामपवाद्य रेफम् । संघारणं संवरणं श्रुतेश्च स्पर्शोदयानामपि चावसाने Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 5, explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शपराणां स्पर्शानां रेफं वर्जयित्वा अन्तःस्थानां च वर्णानां कृतसंहितानां च सतां संधारणं वर्णश्रुतेश्च संवरणं भवति । तदेतद् अभिनिधानं नाम । यथा उष मा षड् द्वा द्वा । ऋ. सं ८।६८।१४ इह षड् इत्यत्र अभिनिधानम् ॥ अभिनिघान possibly according to उव्वट here means the first of the doubled letter which, although the second letter is attached to it, is separately uttered with a slight pause after it. अभिनिधान means, in short, something like 'suppression.' The Ṛk. Tantra takes a still wider view and explains अभिनिधान as the first of a doubled consonant, cf ; अभिनिधानः । क्रमजं च पूर्वान्ततस्वरं भवति । Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 21.
abhiniṣṭānaResonance (of a visarga utterance).
abhyāhataomission of any sound; a fault of utterance. अम् (1)a technical brief term in Panini's grammar including vowels, semivowels, the letter ह् and nasals; (2) a significant term for the accusative case showing change or substitution or modification: confer, compare अं विकारस्य Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.28 explained as अमिति शब्दे विकारस्याख्या भवति । अमिति द्वितीय विभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् । (3) augment अ applied to the penultimate vowel of सृज् & दृश् (P. VI.1.58, 59 and VII.1.99) (4) substitute tor Ist person. singular. affix मिप्, by P.III.4.101 (5) Acc. singular. case affix अम् .
ambūkṛtautterance (of words) accompanied by water drops coming out of the mouth; a fault of utterance or pronunciation; मुखात् विप्रुषो निर्गमनम् . It is explained differently in the Rk. Prātiśākhya; confer, compare ओष्ठाभ्यां नद्धं अम्बूकृतम्म्वृ (Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.2.) held tight between the lips which of course, is a fault of pronunciation; confer, compareग्रस्तं निरस्तमविलम्बितं निर्हतं अम्बूकृतं ध्मात मथो विकम्पितम्. MBh. I. 1. पस्पशाह्निक.
ayogavāhathe letters or phonetic elements अनुस्वार,विसर्ग,जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय and यम called so,as they are always uttered only in combination with another phonetic element or letter such as अ or the like, and never independently; confer, compare अकारादिना वर्णसमाम्नायेन संहिताः सन्तः ये वहन्ति आत्मलाभं ते अयेागवाहाः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Vāj.Pr.VIII.18. These अयोगवाह letters possess the characteristics of both, the vowels as well as consonants;confer, compareअयोगवाहानामट्सु उपदेशः कर्तव्यः णत्वं प्रयोजनम् । शर्षु जष्भावत्वे प्रयोजनम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on शिवसूत्र हयवरट्.
arkathe strong blowing of air from the mouth at the time of the utterance of the surd consonants; cf Vāj. Śikṣā. 280.
ardhakaa fault in the utterance of a vowel of the kind of abridgment of a long utterance. अर्धह्रस्वम् explained as ह्रस्वस्यार्धम्-half the utterance of the short vowel; confer, compare तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P. I.2.32. confer, compare also तस्यादिरुच्चैस्तरामुदात्तादनन्तरं यावदर्द्धे ह्रस्वस्य Tai. Pr. I.44.
ardhamātrāhalf of a mātra or 'mora'., confer, compare अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणाः Par. Śekh. Pari. 122, signifying that not a single element of utterance in Pāṇini's grammar is superfluous. In other words, the wording of the Sūtras of Pāṇini is the briefest possible, not being capable of reduction by even half a mora.
ardhamātrikataking for its utterance the time measured by the utterance of half a mātrā or mora; a consonant, as it requires for its utterance that time which is measured by half a mātrā (mātrā being the time required for the utterance of short अ); confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.16, T. Pr.I.37, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.59.
alpaprāṇa(1)non-aspirate letters letters requiring little breath from the mouth for their utterance as opposed to mahāprāṇa; (2) non-aspiration; one of the external articulate efforts characterizing the utterance of non-aspirate letters.
avagraha(1)separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; exempli gratia, for example पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originatedition The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. (Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; confer, compare also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।(Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.36); also confer, compare यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ exempli gratia, for example शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; confer, compare समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.
avagrahavirāmathe interval or pause after the utterance of the first member of a compound word when the members are uttered separately. This interval is equal to two moras according to Tait. Pr. while, it is equal to one mora according to the other Prātiśākhyas.
avilambitaname of a fault in pronouncing a word where there is the absence of a proper connection of the breath with the place of utterance; 'अविलम्बितः वर्णान्तरासंभिन्नः' Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on M.Bh I.1.1. There is the word अवलम्बित which is also used in the same sense; confer, compare ग्रस्तं निरस्तमवलम्बितं निर्हतम् ० M. Bh on I.1.1.
aspṛṣṭanot in contact with any vocal organ; the term is used in connection with the effort required for the utterance of vowels, अनुस्वार and sibilants when no specific contact with a vocal organ is necessary: confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारेाष्मणामस्पृष्टं करणं स्थितम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 3.
asvarakauntoned; a word without an accent, as different from a word which has an accent,but which is not uttered with that accent: cf अक्रियमाणे ह्युपदेशिवद्भावे...अान्तर्यत अांदेशा अस्वरकाणामस्वरकाः स्युः M.Bh. on VII. 1.2, VII. 1. 89.
ākṣipta(1)taken as understood, being required to complete the sense; confer, compare क्विबपि अाक्षिप्तो भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2. 178;(2) a term used for the circumflex accent or स्वरित as it is uttered by a zig-zag motion of the organ in the mouth caused by the air producing sound; confer, compare आक्षेपो नाम तिर्यग्गमनं गात्राणां वायुनिमित्तं तेन य उच्यते स स्वरितः Uvaṭa on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.
ācāra(1)customary usage of putting or employing words in rules; confer, compare आचार्याचारात्संज्ञासिद्धिः, P.I,1.1, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4. (2) behaviour;confer, compare उपमानादाचारे P.III. 1.10; cf also निवासत आचारतश्च M.Bh. on VI.3.109.
ānunāsikyanasalization; utterance through the nose, an additional property possessed by vowels and the fifth letters of the 5 classes (ङ्, ञ्, ण् ,न्, म्) confer, compare आनुनासिक्यं तेषामधिको गुणः M.Bh. on I.1.9.
aāyāmatension of the limbs or organs producing sound, which is noticed in the utterance of a vowel which is accented acute ( उदात्त ) अायामो गात्राणां दैघ्र्यमाकर्षणं वा; commentary on Tait. Prāt. XXII. 9; confer, compare ऊर्ध्वगमनं गात्राणाम् वायुनिमित्तं U1. varia lectio, another reading,on R. Prāt. III.1; confer, compare also ऊर्ध्वगमनं शरीरस्य commentary on Vāj. Prāt I.31; confer, compare also आयामो दारुण्यमणुता रवत्येत्युच्चैःकराणि शाब्दस्य M.Bh. on P. I.2.29.
āsya(1)place of articulation, the mouth, confer, compare अत्यन्त्यनेन वर्णान् इति अास्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.9; (2) found in the place of articulation; e g. the effort made for the utterance of words confer, compareआस्ये भवमास्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.9, also स्पृष्टादिप्रयत्नपञ्चकमास्यम् Laghuvṛtti on Śāk. I.1.6.
ikpadopasthitithe presence of the word इक् (vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ) in a rule, where the operations गुण and वृद्धि are prescribed by putting the words गुण and वृद्धि; exempli gratia, for example सिचि वृद्धिः परस्मैपदेषु P.VII.2.1; confer, compare इको गुणवृद्वी P.I.1.3.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
īṣacchvāsaan external effort ( बाह्य-प्रयत्न) in the production of sound charactorized by the emission of breath, when the cavity made by the cords of the throat is kept wide apart, as found in the utterance of the consonants श्, ष् and स.
īṣatspṛṣṭaan external effort ( बाह्यप्रयत्न) in the production of sound charactorized by only a slight contact of the cords of the throat, made in the utteranee ofsemi-vowels confer, compare ईषत्स्पृष्टमन्तःस्थानाम् S.K. on P.I.1.9.
u(1)labial vowel standing for the long ऊ and protracted ऊ3 in Pāṇini's grammar unless the consonant त् is affixed to it, उत् standing for the short उ only: (2) Vikaraṇa affix उ of the 8th conjugation ( तनादिगण ) and the roots धिन्व् and कृण्व्;confer, compareP.III. 1.79-80; (3) substitute (उ) for the vowel अ of कृ,exempli gratia, for example कुरुतः, कृर्वन्ति before weak Sārvadhātuka affixes, confer, compareP.VI 4.110; (4) kṛt (affix). affix उ added to bases ending in सन् and the roots आशंस्, भिक्ष्, विद्, इष् as also to bases ending in क्यच् in the Vedic Literature,exempli gratia, for example चिकीर्षुः भिक्षुः, बिन्दुः,इच्छुः,सुम्नयु; confer, compare P. III. 2.168-170; (5) Uṅādi affix उ ( उण् ) e.g, कारुः, वायुः, साधुः, et cetera, and others; confer, compare Uṅādi I.1; (6) mute vowel उ added to the first letters of a class of consonants in Pāṇini's grammar to show the whole class of the five letters; exempli gratia, for example कु, चु, टु, तु, पु which stand for the Guttural, the palatal the lingual, the dental and the labial classes respectively; confer, compare also ष्टुना ष्टुः P.VIII.4.41(7) उ added to न् showing the consonant न् as nasalized n; cf, नुः V.Pr. III.133.
uccaritapronounced or uttered; the phrase उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः is used in connection with the mute indicatory letters termed इत् in Pāṇini's grammar, as these letters are not actually found in use in the language and are therefore supposed to vanish immediately after their purpose has been servedition The phrase 'उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनोSनुबन्धा:' has been given as a Paribhāṣā by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.(Pari.11), in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 14), in the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa (Pari.54) and also in the Kalāpa Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 71). Patañjali has used the expression उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः in connection with ordinary letters of a word, which have existence for a moment and which also vanish immediately after they have been uttered; confer, compare उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः खल्वपि वर्णा: ...न वर्णो वर्णस्य सहायः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4. 109.
uccaritapradhvaṃsinvanishing immediately after utterance. See उच्चरित.
uccāraṇapronunciation, enunciation (in the Śāstra). The phrase उच्चारणसामर्थ्यात् is often found used in the Mahābhāṣya and elsewhere in connection with the words of Pāṇini, everyone of which is believed to , have a purpose or use in the Śāstra, which purpose, if not clearly manifest, is assigned to it on the strength (सामर्थ्य) of its utterance; confer, compare उच्चारणसामर्थ्यादत्र ( हिन्येाः ) उत्वं न भविष्यति M.Bh. on III.4.89 V.2; confer, compare also M.Bh. on IV.4.59, VI.4.163, VII.1.12,50, VII.2.84, In a few cases, a letter is found used by Pāṇini which cannot be assigned any purpose but which has been put there for facility of the use of other letters. Such letters are said to be उच्चारणार्थ; confer, compare जग्धि: । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:। नानुबन्धः । Kāś. on II.4.36.च्लि लुडि. । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:; चकारः स्वरार्थः । Kāś, on III.1. 43. The expressions मुखसुखार्थः and श्रवणार्थः in the Mahābhāṣya mean the same as उच्चारणार्थः.
upagītaa fault in the pronunciation of letters, noticed sometimes in the utterance of a letter adjoining such a letter as is coloured with a musical tone on account of the proximity of the adjacent letter which is uttered in a musical note and which therefore is called 'प्रगीत'; confer, compare प्रगीतः सामवदुच्चारितः । उपगीतः समीपवर्णान्तरगीत्यानुरक्तः Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on M.Bh. I. Āhnika 1.
upadhmānīyaa letter or a phonetic element substituted for a visarga followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class. Visarga is simply letting the breath out of the mouth. Where the visarga is followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class, its pronunciation is coloured by labial utterance. This coloured utterance cannot be made independently; hence this utterance called 'उपध्मानीय' ( similar to a sound blown from the mouth ) is not put in, as an independent letter, in the वर्णसमाम्नाय attributed to महेश्वर. Patañjali, however, has referred to such dependent utterances by the term अयोगवाहवर्ण. See अयेागवाह; confer, compare xक इति जिह्वामूलीयः । जिह्वामूलेन जन्यत्वात् । xप इत्युपध्मानीयः । उपध्मानेन जन्यत्वात्. अयेगवाह is also called अर्धविसर्ग. See अर्धविसर्ग.
upasarjana(1)vanishing immediately after utterance. See उच्चरित.
upasthitaa word used father technically in the sense of the word इति which is used in the Krama and other recitals when Vedic reciters show separately the two words compounded together by uttering the compound word first, then the word इति and then the two compound words, exempli gratia, for example सुश्लोक ३ इति सु-श्लोक। विभावसो इति विभा-वसो. The Kāśikā defines the word उपस्थित as समुदायादवच्छिद्य पदं येन स्वरूपे अवस्थाप्यते तद् उपस्थितम् । इतिशब्दः । Kāś.on VI.1.129. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya explains the word rather differently, but in the same context.The word after which इति is placed is called upasthita exempli gratia, for example the word बाहू in बाहू इति or विभावसौ in विभावसो इति as contrasted with स्थित id est, that is the word without इति exempli gratia, for example बाहू or विभावसो, as also contrasted with स्थितोपस्थित id est, that is the whole word विभावसो इति विभाsवसो which is also called संहित or मिलित; (2) occurring, present; cf कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् . यत्र कार्यं तत्रोपस्थितं द्रष्टव्यम् । Par.Śek. Pari.3.
upāṃśuliterally inaudible. The word is explained in the technical sense as the first place or stage in the utterance of speech where it is perfectly inaudible although produced; confer, compare उपांशु इति प्रथमं वाचः स्थानम् Com. on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII, 5.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
ekaśrutithat which has got the same accent or tone; utterance in the same tone; monotone. The word is applied to the utterance of the vocative noun or phrase calling a man from a distance, as also to that of the vowels or syllables following a Svarita vowel in the Saṁhitā id est, that is the continuous utterance of Vedic sentences; confer, compare एकश्रुति दूरात्संबुद्वौ and the foll. P.I.2.33-40 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon. In his discussion on I.2.33 Patañjali has given three alternative views about the accent of Ekaśruti syllables : (a) they possess an accent between the उदात्त (acute) and अनुदात्त (grave), (b) they are in the same accent as is possessed by the preceding vowel, (c) Ekaśruti is looked upon as the seventh of the seven accents; confer, compare सैषा ज्ञापकाभ्यामुदात्तानुदात्तयोर्मध्यमेकश्रुतिरन्तरालं ह्रियते। ... सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति | उदात्तः, उदात्ततर:, अनुदात्तः, अनुदात्ततर:, स्वरितः स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः, एकश्रुतिः सप्तमः । M.Bh. on P.I.2.33.
oṣṭhayaliterally produced upon the lip: a letter ofthe labial class;letters उ,ऊ, ओ, औ, प्, फ्, ब्, भ्, म् and व् are given as ओष्ठय letters in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. See the word ओष्ठ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For the utterance of the letter व् tips of the teeth. are also employed; hence the letter व् is said to have दन्तौष्ठ as its स्थान.. ओस् the case affix ओस् of the genitive case and the loc, dual number
or विसर्गः literally letting out breath from the mouth; sound or utterance caused by breath escaping from the mouth; breathing. The Visarjanīya, just like the anusvāra, is incapable of being independently utteredition Hence, it is written for convenience as अः although its form for writing purposes is only two dots after the vowel preceding it; confer, compare अः इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः इति कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसर्जनीयसंज्ञो भवति । Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Vyāk. I.1.16. See अः a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 2.
ᳵjihvāmūlīyaa phonetical element or unit called Jihvāmūlīya, produced at the root of the tongue, which is optionally substituted in the place of the Visarga (left 0ut breath) directly preceding the utterance of the letter क् or ख् and hence shown as ᳵ क्. See अ ᳵ क् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 2.
m̐ nāsikyaa nasal letter or utterance included among the अयोगवाह letters analogous to anusvāra and yama letters. It is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as हुँ इति नासिक्यः on which Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.makes the remark अयमृक्शाखायां प्रसिद्धः. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya mentions नासिक्य, यम and अनुस्वार as नासिक्य or nasal letters, while Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.defines नासिक्य as a letter produced only by the nose; confer, compare केवलनासिकया उच्चार्यमाणे वर्णॊ नासिक्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya calls the letter ह् as nāsikya when it is followed by the consonant न् or ण् or म् and gives अह्नाम् , अपराह्णे and ब्रह्म as instances. The Pāṇinīya Śikṣā does not mention नासिक्य as a letter. The Mahābhāṣya mentions नासिक्य as one of the six ayogavāha letters; confer, compare के पुनरयोगवाहाः । विसर्जनीयजिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयानुस्वारानुनासिक्ययमाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Śivasūtra 5 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, where some manuscripts read नासिक्य for अानुनासिक्य while in some other manuscripts there is neither the word आनुनासिक्य nor नासिक्य. It is likely that the anunāsika-colouring given to the vowel preceding the consonant सू substituted for the consonants म, न् and others by P. VIII. 3.2. to 12, was looked upon as a separate phonetic unit and called नासिक्य as for instance in सँस्कर्ता, मा हिँसीः, सँशिशाधि et cetera, and others
yamaa letter called यम which is uttered partly through the nose. A class consonant excepting the fifth, when followed by the fifth viz. ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न or म् , gets doubled in the Vedic recital, when the second of the doubled consonant which is coloured by the following nasal consonant is called यम. This यम letter is not independent. It necessarily depends upon the following nasal consonant and hence it is called अयोगवाह. The nasalization is shown in script as xx followed by the consonant; e. g. पलिक्क्नी, अगूग्रे, et cetera, and others The pronunciation of this yama or twin letter is seen in the Vedic recital only; confer, compare पलिक्कनी ... कखगघेभ्य; परे तत्सदृशा एव यमाः S. K. on P. VIII. 2.1. confer, compare कु खु गु घु इति यमाः विंशतिसंख्याका भवन्ति Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII.24.
k(1)the consonant क्; the first con. sonant of the consonant group as also of the guttural group; (2) substitute क् for consonants ष्, and ढ् before the consonant स्;confer, compareV.P.2.41. For the elision ( लोप ) of क् on account of its being termed इत् see P.I.3.3 and 8.
kaṇṭhatālavyagutturo-palatal. The diphthongs ए and ऐ are called Kaṇṭhatālavya, as they are produced in the Kaṇṭhatalu-sthāna.
kaṇṭhoṣṭhya,kaṇṭhauṣṭhyagutturo-labial, the diphthongs ओ and औ are called Kaṇṭhoṣṭhya as they are produced at both the Kaṇṭha and the Oṣṭha Sthānas.
kaṇṭhyaproduced at the throat or at the glottis; the vowel अ, visarga and the consonant ह् are called कण्ठ्यं in the Prātiśākhyas, while later grammarians include the guttural consonants क्, ख् ग्, घ् and ङ् among the Kaṇṭhya letters; confer, compare अकुहविसर्जनीयानां कण्ठः Sid. Kau.on तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.I.1.9. See कण्ठ.
kampanaa fault in uttering an accented vowel especially a vowel with the circumflex accent which is not properly uttered by the Southerners as remarked by Uvvata; cf कम्पनं नाम रचराश्रितपाठदोषः । स च प्रायेण दाक्षिणात्यानां भवति । स च वर्ज्यः । Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.18.
karaṇa(1)lit instrument; the term signifies the most efficient means for accomplishing an act; confer, compare क्रियासिद्धी यत् प्रकृष्टोपकारकं विवक्षितं तत्साधकतमं कारकं करणसंज्ञं भवति, Kāś. on साधकतमं करणम् P.I.4.42, e. g. दात्रेण in दात्रेण लुनाति; (2) effort inside the mouth (अाभ्यन्तर-प्रयत्न ) to produce sound; e. g. touching of the particular place ( स्थान ) inside the mouth for uttering consonants; confer, compare स्पृष्टं स्पर्शानां करणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P, I.1.10 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (3) disposition of the organ which produces the sound; confer, compare श्वासनादोभयानां विशेषः करणमित्युच्यते । एतच्च पाणिनिसंमताभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न इति भाति । Com. on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII.3;confer, compare also स्थानकरणानुप्रदानानि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.32: confer, compare also अनुप्रदानात्संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् । जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 2. where karaṇa is described to be of five kinds अनुप्रदान (id est, that is नाद or resonance), संसर्ग (contact), स्थान, करणविन्यय and परिमाण; confer, compareअकारस्य तावत् अनुप्रदानं नादः, संसर्गः कण्ठे, स्थानं हनू, करणविन्ययः ओष्ठौ, परिमाणं मात्राकालः । अनुप्रदानादिभिः पञ्चभिः करणैर्वर्णानां वैशेष्यं जायते Com. on Tai. Pr. XXIII.2. The Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya mentions two karaṇas संवृत and विवृत; confer, compare द्वे करणे संवृतविवृताख्ये वायोर्भवतः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 11; (4) use of a word exempli gratia, for example इतिकरणं, वत्करणम्; confer, compare किमुपस्थितं नाम । अनार्षं इतिकरणः M.Bh.on. P.VI.1.129.
karṇamūlīyaproduced at the root of the ear; the utterance of a circumflex vowel is described as Karṇamūliya.
kalaa fault of pronunciation consequent upon directing the tongue to a place in the mouth which is not the proper one, for the utterance of a vowel; a vowel so pronounced; confer, compare संवृतः कलो ध्मात: ... रोमश इति confer, comparealso निवृत्तकलादिकामवर्णस्य प्रत्यापत्तिं वक्ष्यामि M.Bh. Āhnika 1.
kavargathe class of guttural consonants consisting of the five consonants क्, ख्, ग्, घ् ङ्
kālanotion of time created by different contacts made by a thing with other things one after another. Time required for the utterance of a short vowel is taken as a unit of time which is called मात्रा or कालमात्रा, literally measurement of time; (2) degree of a vowel, the vowels being looked upon as possessed of three degrees ह्रस्व,दीर्घ,& प्लुत measured respectively by one, two and three mātrās; confer, compare ऊकालोSझ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P.I.2.27; (3) time notion in general, expressed in connection with an activity in three ways past (भूत), present (वर्तमान), and future (भविष्यत्) to show which the terms भूता, वर्तमाना and भविष्यन्ती were used by ancient grammarians; cf the words पूर्वकाल, उत्तरकाल; also confer, compare पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम् Kāś. on P. II. 4.21 ; (4) place of recital ( पाठदेश ) depending on the time of recital, confer, compare न परकालः पूर्वकाले पुनः (V.Pr.III. 3) a dictum similar to Pāṇini's पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1.
kālabhedadifference in the time of utterance; confer, compare किमुच्यते विवारभेदादिति । न पुनः कालभेदादपि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 1.
ku(1)guttural class of consonants, ie the consonants क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ् The vowel उ added to क्, signifies the class of क्. e. g. चजोः कु घिण्यतो, VII.3.52, कुहोश्चुः VII.4.62, चोः कुः VIII.2.30, किन्प्रत्ययस्य कुः; VIII.2.62; confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P.I.1.69; (2) substitute कु for किम् confer, compare P.VII.2. 104.
kutvasubstitution of the consonants of the क् class or guttural consonants
kumata word containing a guttural letter in it;.confer, compare कुमति च P. VIII.4. 13.
kuvyavāyaintervention by a letter of the guttural class;confer, compare कुव्यवाये हादेशेषु प्रतिषेधो वक्तव्यः । प्रयोजनं वृत्रघ्नः, स्रुघ्नः प्राघानीति, P.VIII.4.2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4,5.
kṣitīśacandra(चक्रवर्तिन्)or K. C. CHATTERJI a scholar of Sanskrit grammar who has written a work on technical terms in Sanskrit, who has edited several grammar works and is at present editing the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa and conducting the Sanskrit journal named Mañjūṣa at Calcutta.
kṣveḍanahissing or whizzing sound given as a fault in the utterance of sibilants; confer, compare क्ष्चेडनमधिको वर्णस्य सरूपो ध्वनि: । commentary on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 6.
khsecond consonant of the guttural class of consonants possessed of श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष and विवार qualities.
gthird letter of the guttural class of consonants, possessed of the properties घोष, संवृत, नाद and अल्पप्राण; some grammarians look upon the word क्ङित् (P.I.1.5) as made up of क् , ग् and ङ् and say that the Guna and Vṛddhi substitutes do not take place in the vowels इ, उ, ऋ, and लृ if an affix or so, marked by the mute letter ग् follows.
gati(1)literally motion; stretching out, lengthening of a syllable. The word is explained in the Prātiśakhya works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel इ or उ after it, exempli gratia, for example हाइ or हायि for हा; similarly आ-इ or अा -यि ; (2) a technical term used by Pāṇini in connection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called गति, confer, compare P.I.4.60-79. The words called gati can be compounded with the following word provided the latter is not a verb, the compound being named tatpuruṣa e.g, प्रकृतम् , ऊरीकृत्य confer, compare P.II.2.18; the word गति is used by Pāṇini in the masculine gender as seen in the Sūtra गतिरनन्तरः P.VI. 2.49 and hence explained as formed by the addition of the affix क्तिच् to गम्, the word being used as a technical term by the rule क्तिच्क्तौ च संज्ञायाम् P.III.3.174; (3) realization, understanding; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.9; सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 76; अगत्या हि परिभाषा अाश्रीयते Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva Pari. Pāṭha 119.
grastaa fault of pronunciation due to the utterance of a letter hindered or held back at the throat; confer, compare जिह्वामूलनिग्रहे ग्रस्तमेतत् R.Pr.XIV.3; confer, compare also ग्रस्तं निरस्तमवलम्बितम् । ग्रस्तः जिह्वामूले गृहीतः । अव्यक्त इत्यपरे । Pradipa on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1.
grāsaa fault in the utterance of a letter which makes it indistinct by being held up at the throat.Seeग्रस्त.
gh(1)fourth consonant of the guttural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदानत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2)the consonant घ at the beginning of a taddhita affix. affix which is always changed into इय्; confer, compare P. VII. 1. 9; (3) substitute for ह् at the end of roots beginning with द्, as also of the root नह् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.VIII.2.32,33,34; (4) substitute for the consonant व् of मतुव् placed after the pronouns किम् and इदम् which again is changed into इय् by VII.1.9: exempli gratia, for example कियान्, इयान्: confer, compare P.V. 2.40.
ghitaffixes having the mute letter घ्, as for instance, घञ् घ, घच् et cetera, and otherswhich cause the substitution of a guttural in the place of the palatal letter च् or ज् before it: exempli gratia, for example त्याग: राग: confer, compare P.VII.3.52.
ghoṣavata consonant characterized by the property घोष, at the time of its utterance; confer, compare तृतीयचतुर्थाः संवृतकण्ठाः नादानुप्रदाना घोषवन्तः M.Bh. on P,I.1.9.
(1)fifth letter of the guttural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदान, अल्पप्राणत्व and अानुनासिक्य; (2) the consonant ङ् getting the letter ,क as an augment added to it, if standing at the end of a word and followed by a sibilant, e. g. प्राङ्कूशेते confer, compare ङ्णो: कुक् टुक् शरि P. VIII. 3.28; (3) the consonant ङ् which, standing at the end of a word and preceded by a short vowel, causes the vowel following it to get the augment ङ् prefixed to it; e. g, प्रत्यङ्ङास्ते confer, compare ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण् नित्यम् P. VIII.3.32.
ṅa(1)fifth consonant of the guttural class of consonants which is a nasal ( अनुनासिक ) consonant; the vowel अ being added at the end for facility of pronunciation; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.21; (2) a conventional term used for all the nasal consonants in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ca(l)the letter च्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance, cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) a Bratyahara or short term standing for the palatal class of consonants च्, छ्, ज्,झ् and ञ्; cf इचशेयास्तालौ Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 66; (3) indeclinable च called Nipata by Panini; confer, compare चादयोSसत्त्वे P. I. 4.57, च possesses four senses समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 2.29. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2.29 Vart. 15 for a detailed explanation of the four senses. The indeclinable च is sometimes used in the sense of 'a determined mention' or avadharana; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 1.48 and 72. It is also used for the purpose of अनुवृत्ति or अनुकर्षण i. e. drawing a word from the previous rule to the next rule; (confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.90) with a convention that a word drawn thus, does not proceed to the next rule; confer, compare चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र Par. Sek Pari. 78; (4) a conventional term for अभ्यास (reduplicative syllable) used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; confer, compare चविकारेषु अपवादा उत्सर्गान्न बाधन्ते Kat. Pari. 75.
cakārathe consonant च् , the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance and कार as an affix to show that only the consonant च् is meant there; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 16, 2l.
jihvāmūlasthāna(l)having the root of the tongue as the place of its production;the phonetic element or letter called जिह्वामूलीय; (2) name given to that phonetic element into which a visarga is changed when followed by क् or ख्; cf X क इति जिह्वामूलीयः V.Pr.VIII.19. The जिह्वामूलीय letter is called जिह्व्य also; see Nyasa on I. 1.9. The Rk. Pratisakhya looks upon ऋ, लृ, जिह्वामूलीय, and the guttural letters as जिह्वामूलस्थान.
ṭa(1)the consonant ट्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance; confer, compare अकारो व्यञ्जनानाम्, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) short term, (प्रत्याहार) standing for टवगे or the lingual class of consonants, found used mostly in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare RT. 13, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 64, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 27: (3) taddhita affix. affix ( अ ) added to the word फल्गुनी in the sense ' तत्र जातः' e. g. फल्गुनी, confer, compare P. IV. 3.34, Vart. 2; (4) krt affix ( अ ) added to the root चर्, सृ and कृ under certain conditions; e. g. कुरुचर:, अग्रेसुर:, यशस्करी ( विद्या ) दिवाकरः, वेिभकरः कर्मकरः et cetera, and others confer, compare P. III. 2.16-23.
ṭakārathe consonant ट्, कार being added for facility of utterance; confer, compare वर्णात्कारः P. III. 3.108 Vart. 3; confer, compare also V. Pr, I.17.
(1)fifth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties, नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्यः (2) the mute letter ण् indicating the substitution of vrddhi ( confer, compare P. VII. 2. 115-117) when attached to affixes; (3) the consonant ण् at the beginning of roots which is changed into न्; the roots, having ण् at the beginning changeable to न्, being called णोपदेशः (4) ण् as a substitute for न् following the letters ऋ, ॠ, र्, and ष् directly, or with the intervention of consonants of the guttural and labial classes, but occurring in the same word, Such a substitution of ण् for न् is called णत्व; confer, compare P.VIII.4. I-39. For णत्व in Vedic Literature; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)V.20-28, T.Pr.VII.1-12. V.Pr.III.84-88;(5) the consonant ण् added as an augment to a vowel at the beginning of a word when it follows the consonant ण् at the end of the previous word; confer, compare P. VIII. 3. 32. In the Vedic Pratisakhyas this augment ण् is added to the preceding ण् and looked upon as a part of the previous word.
ṇopadeśaa root mentioned in the Dhatupatha by Panini as beginning with ण् which subsequently is changed to न् ( by P. VI. 1.65) in all the forms derived from the root; e. g. the roots णम, णी and others. In the case of these roots the initial न् is again changed into ण् after a prefix like प्र or परा having the letter र् in it and having a vowel or a consonant of the guttural or labial class intervening between the letter र् and the letter न्; e. g. प्रणमति, प्रणयकः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.14.
tthe first consonant of the dental class of consonants which has got the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When used as a mute letter by Panini, त् signifies the Svarita accent of the vowel of that affix or so, which is marked with it: e. g. कार्यम्, हार्यम्, पयस्यम् confer, compare P. VI.1.185. When appied to a vowel at its end, त् signifies the vowel of that grade only, possessed by such of its varieties which require the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with त् , e. g. अात् stands for अा with any of the three accents as also pure or nasalised; अात् does not include अं or अ 3 confer, compare तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70. The use of the indicatory mute त् for the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. purpose is seen also in the Pratis akhya works; confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 114 Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 234.
tatkālarequiring the same time for utterance as for example one matra for short vowels, two for long ones and three for protracted ones, although those vowels are nasalised or pure, or acute, grave or circumflex. See the word तपर.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
taparakaraṇaaddition of the mute letter त् after a vowel to signify the inclusion of only such varieties of the vowel as take the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with त्; confer, compare P. I. 1.70. See त्.
tācchabdya(1)use of a word for that word (of which the sense has been conveyed); the expression तादर्थ्या त्ताच्छब्द्यम् is often used by grammarians just like a Paribhasa; confer, compare अस्ति तादर्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यम् । बहुव्रीह्यर्थानि पदानि बहुव्रीहिरिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.29; similarly तृतीयासमास;for तृतीयार्थानि पदानि M.Bh. on P.I.1.30 or समासार्थे शास्त्रं समासः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.43; (2) use of a word for that word of which there is the vicinity; confer, compare अथवा साहचर्यात् ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति। कालसहचरितो वर्णः। वर्णॊपि काल एव; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.27 where the letter उ is taken in the sense of time required for its utterance, the reason being that sound and time go together; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.I.2.70, IV.3.48, V.2.79; (3) use of a word for that which resides there; confer, compare तात्स्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति M.Bh. on V.4.50 Vart. 3. At all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. places, the use of one word for another is by Laksana.
tīkṣṇautterance with a sharp tone characterizing the pronunciation of the Abhinihita kind of circumflex vowel as opposed to the utterance which is called मृदु when the circumflex, called पादवृत्त, is pronounced; confer, compare सर्वतीक्ष्णोऽभिनिहितः प्रश्लिष्टस्तदनन्तरम्, ततो मृदुतरौ स्वारौ जात्यक्षैप्रावुभौ स्मृतौ । ततो मृदुतरः स्वारस्तैरोव्यञ्जन उच्यते । पादवृत्तो मृदुतमस्त्वेतत्स्वारबलाबलम् Uvvata on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 125.
d(1)the consonant द्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance or use; (2) a technical term used in the Jainendra Vyakarana for the term आत्मनेपद in the grammar of Panini.
dagghaa fault of pronunciation where the letters are uttered indistinct ( अस्पष्ट ).
dantaplace where the utterance of dental letters originates;confer, compare ऌतुलसानां दन्ताः S. K. on P. I. 1.9.
dīptiexplained as स्फूर्ति or throbbing in utterance. Out of the seven svaras or yamas क्रुष्ट, प्रथम, द्वितीय, तृतीय, चतुर्थ, मन्द्र and अतिस्वार्य, the throbbing ( दीप्ति ) of the latter and latter tone leads to the perception of the former and former one: confer, compare तेषां दीप्तिजोपलब्धि: Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 15.
drutaliterally rapid; the vice of rapidity in utterance;a fault of speech especially in connection with the utterance of vowels in Vedic recital when on account of haste the utterance of letters becomes indistinct. confer, compare संदृष्टमेणीकृतमर्धकं द्रुतं विकीर्णमेताः स्वरद्रोषभावनाः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1 vart. 18.
drutāone of the three Vrttis or styles of utterance mentioned in the Pratisakhya works and quoted in the Mahabhasya; confer, compareतित्रो वृत्तीरुपदिशन्ति वाचो विलम्बितां मध्यमां च दुतां च । अभ्यासार्थे दुतां वृत्तिं प्रयोगार्थे तु मध्यमाम् । शिष्याणामुपदेशार्थे कुर्याद् वृत्ति विलम्बिताम् । Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 18, 19; confer, compare ये हि द्रुतायां वृत्तौ वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते मध्यमायां, ये मध्यमायां वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते विलाम्बितायाम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.70, Vart. 4. The utterance of a letter takes ,1/3 rd time more in the मध्यमवृत्ति than in the द्रुतवृत्ति, while in the विलम्बितवृत्ति it takes 1/3 rd more than in the मध्यमवृत्ति. In short, the utterance of the same letter takes in the three vrttis, Druta, Vilambita and Madhyama the quantity of time in the proportion of 9:12:16 respectively.
dviḥprayogadoubling, putting a word or word element twice;the words द्वित्व and द्विर्वचन are used in the same sense.
dviruccāraṇaphonemic utterance a second time; see द्वित्व.
dhmātaname of a fault in the pronunciation of a vowel when on account of fullness of breath it appears as uttered long (दीर्घ ), although really it is short; confer, compare श्वासभूयिष्ठतया ह्रस्वोपि दीर्घ इव लक्ष्यते, Kaiyata on I. 1. Ahnika 1. Vart. 18.
dhvePersonal-ending of the second. person. Pl. Atmanepada in the present and perfect tenses. न् fifth consonant of the dental class of consonants which is possessed of the properties घोष, नादानुप्रदान, अल्पप्राणत्व, संवृतकण्ठत्व and अानुनासिक्य. In Panini's grammar the nasal consonant न् (a)is added as an augment prescribed\ \नुट् or नुम् which originally is seen as न्, but afterwards changed into अनुस्वार or परसवर्ण as required, as for example in पयांसि, यशांसि, निन्दति, वन्दति et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII. 1.58-73, VII. 1.7983; VIII. 3.24; (b) is changed into ण् when it directly follows upon ऋ, ॠ, र् or ष् or even intervened by a vowel, a semivowel except ल् , a guttural consonant, a labial consonant or an anusvara; confer, compare P. VIII. 4.1.1-31. (c) is substituted for the final म् of a root, e. g. प्रशान्, प्रतान् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.64, 65.
na(1)the consonant न् (see न् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) with the vowel added to it for facility of utterance, confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21 ; (2) taddhita affix. affix न added to words headed by पामन् in the sense of possession; exempli gratia, for example पामनः, हेमनः et cetera, and others, cf P. V. 2.100; (3) taddhita affix. affix न as found in the word ज्योत्स्ना derived from ज्योतिष्, cf P. V. 2.114; (4) unadi affix न as found in the word स्योनः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI.4.19; (5) the krt affix नङ् as also नन् prescribed after the roots यज्, याच्, यत्, विच्छ्, प्रच्छ्, रक्ष् and स्वप् , e g. यज्ञ:, याञ्चा, प्रश्नः et cetera, and others, cf P. III. 3.90, 91; (6) the negative particle न given by Panini as नञ् and referred to in the same way, which (id est, that is न.) when compounded with a following word is changed into अ or अन् or retained in rare cases as for instance in नभ्राट्, नासत्यौ, नक्षत्रम् et cetera, and others cf P. VI.3.73-75;(7) taddhita affix.affix न (नञ्) applied to the words स्त्री and पुंस् in senses given from P. IV. 1.92 to V. 2.1 e. g. स्त्रैणं, पौंस्नम् confer, compare IV. 1.87.
nakārathe consonant न to which the vowel अ and the affix कार are added for facility of utterance; e. g. तथा नकार उदये नकारे Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV.; confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 17, 21.
nāsikāsthānaa place in the nose where a nasal letter such as ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न् or म् and anusvara get a tinge of nasalization while passing through it. The yama letters e.g the nasal क्, ख् ,ग् , घ् get nasalization in the utterance of the words पलिक्किनः, चख्ख्नतुः, अग्ग्निः, घ्घ्नन्ति; confer, compare यमो नाम वर्णः प्रातिशाख्ये प्रसिद्धः S.K. on P. VIII. 2. 1. confer, compare also यमानुस्वारनासिक्यानां नासिके Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 74, Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 12.
nimada mode of utterance of words at the performance of a sacrifice. Seven such modes are given in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya; confer, compare उपांशुध्वाननिमदोपव्दिमन्मन्द्रमध्यमताराणि T.Pr.XXIII. 5
nirastaa fault of pronunciation when a vowel is harshly pronounced and hence is not properly audible; confer, compare निरस्तं निष्ठुरम् Pradipa on M.Bh. I. 1. Ahn. 1. The fault occurs when the place and the means of utterance are pressed and drawn in;confer, compare निरस्तं स्थानकरणापकर्षे Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 2.
nirvacanainterpretation by means of etymology as found in the Nirukta works; the act of fully uttering the meaning hidden in words that are partially or wholly unintelligible in respect of their derivation, by separating a word into its component letters; confer, compare निष्कृष्य विगृह्य निर्वचनम्, Durgavrtti on Nirukta of Yāska.II. 1.For details see Nirukta II.1.
nirhataa fault of pronunciation by which a letter is uttered harsh or rude; confer, compare निर्हतो रूक्षः Kaiyata on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).I.1. Ahnika 1 .
nyaṅkvādia class of words headed by the word न्यङ्कु, which are formed by means of the substitution of a guttural consonant in the place of a consonant of any other class belonging to the root from which these words are formed; exempli gratia, for example न्यङ्कुः मद्गुः, भृगुः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kās, on P.VII.3. 53.
padapāṭhathe recital of the Veda text pronouncing or showing each word separately as detached from the adjoining word. It is believed that the Veda texts were recited originally as running texts by the inspired sages, and as such, they were preserved by people by oral tradition. Later on after several centuries, their individually distinct words were shown by grammarians who were called Padakāras. The पदपाठ later on had many modifications or artificial recitations such as क्रम, जटा, घन et cetera, and others in which each word was repeated twice or more times, being uttered connectedly with the preceding or the following word, or with both. These artificial recitations were of eight kinds, which came to be known by the term अष्टविकृतयः.
padavirāmapause between two words measuring two mātrās, or equal to the time required for the utterance of a long vowel; e. g. in इषे त्वोर्जे त्वा, the pause between इषे and त्वा is measured by two mātrās; confer, compare पदविरामो द्विमात्रः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII.13.Some Prātiśākhya texts declare that the pause between two words is of one mātra as at avagraha; confer, compare R Pr. II.1 and Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 35-38.
paramāṇua time-unit equal to one-half of the unit called अणु, which forms one-half of the unit called मात्रा which is required for the purpose of the utterance of a consonant; confer, compare परमाणु अर्धाणुमात्रा V. Pr.I.61. परमाणु, in short, is the duration of very infinitesimal time equal to the pause between two individual continuous sounds. The interval between the utterances of two consecutive consonants is given to be equivalent to one Paramanu; confer, compare वर्णान्तरं परमाणु R.T.34.
parimāṇaa word used by Panini in तदस्य परिमाणम् V.1.19 and explained by Patanjali as सर्वतो मानम् .Samkhya ( number ) is also said to be a parimana. Parimana is of two kindsनियत or definite as in the case of Khaari, drona etc; and अनियत, as in the case of Gana, Samgha, PUga, Sartha, Sena et cetera, and others The term परिमाण, in connection with the utterance of letters, is used in the sense of मात्राकाल or one mora.
paśyantīname of the second out of the four successive stages in the origination or utterance of a word from the mouth. According to the ancient writers on Phonetics, sound or word ( वाक् ) which is constituted of air ( वायु ) originates at the Mulaadhaaracakra where it is called परा. It then springs up and it is called पश्यन्ती in the second stage. Thence it comes up and is called मध्यमा in the third stage; rising up from the third stage when the air strikes against the vocal chords in the glottis and comes in contact with the different parts of the mouth, it becomes articulate and is heard in the form of different sounds. when it is called वैखरी; confer, compare वैखर्या मध्यमायाश्च पश्यन्त्याश्चैतदद्भुतम् । अनेकतीर्थभेदायास्त्रय्या वाचः परं पदम् Vaakyapadiya I. 144, and also confer, compare पश्यन्ती तु सा चलाचलप्रतिबद्धसमाधाना संनिविष्टज्ञेयाकारा प्रतिलीनाकारा निराकारा च परिच्छिन्नार्थप्रत्ययवभासा संसृष्टार्थप्रत्यवभासा च प्रशान्तसर्वार्थप्रत्यवभासा चेत्यपरिमितभेदा । पश्यन्त्या रूपमनपभ्रंशामसंकीर्ण लोकव्यवह्यरातीतम् । commentary on Vaakyapadiya I. 144. confer, compare also तत्र श्रोत्रविषया वैखरी । मध्यमा हृदयदशेस्था पदप्रत्यक्षानुपपत्त्या व्यवहारकारणम् । पश्यन्ती तु लोकव्यवहारातीता। योगिनां तु तत्रापि प्रकृतिप्रत्ययविभागावगतिरस्ति | परायां तु न इति त्रय्या इत्युक्तम् । Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on चत्वारि वाक्परिमिता पदानि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1.
pīḍanacompression; a fault in the pronunciation of vowels and consonants caused by the compression or contraction of the place of utterance: confer, compare विहारसंहारयोर्व्यासपीडने स्थानकरणयोर्विस्तारे व्यासो नाम दोष:, संहारे संकोचने पीडनं नाम । Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 2; confer, compare also व्यञ्जनानामतिप्रयत्नेनोच्चारणं पीडनं Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 5.
prakampadepression of the voice after raising it as noticed in connection with the utterance of the svarita vowels in certain cases and in certain Vedic schools with a view to show the svarita nature of the vowel distinctly, in spite of the fact that such a depression is generally looked upon as a.fault; confer, compare असन्दिग्धान् स्वरान् ब्रूयादविकृष्टानकाम्पितान् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.18 as also जात्योभिानिहितश्चैव क्षैप्रः प्रश्लिष्ट एव च । एते स्वराः प्रकम्पन्ते यत्रोच्चस्वरितोदयाः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 19.
pragītaa fault of utterance or recital where a simple word in conversation or recital is uttered in a tone proper for singing or in a manner suitable for singing; cf प्रगीत: सामवदुच्चारितः Kaiy. on M.Bh.Ahni.1.
pracaya(1)a specific feature or quality ( धर्म ) of the grave (अनुदात्त) accent when a vowel, accented grave, is preceded by a स्वरित (circumflex . vowel) and is followed upon by another grave-accented vowel. These grave vowels in succession, id est, that is the grave vowels which are not followed by an acute or a circumflex vowel are uttered neither distinctly circumflex nor distinctly grave; cf also R. Pr, III.II-14. They are uttered like the acute, but slightly so; e. g. the vowels after मे and before ति in इमं मे गङ्गे' यमुने सरस्वति; confer, compare स्वरितात्संहितायामनुदात्तानां प्रचय उदात्तश्रुतिः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXI.10, 11 also confer, compare P.I.2.39, where the term एकश्रुति is used for the word प्रचय; (2) the connection of one word with many words; exempli gratia, for example राज्ञो गोश्चाश्वश्च पुरुषश्च where राज्ञः is connected with गौ, अश्व and पुरुष; confer, compare प्रचये समासप्रतिषेधो: वक्तव्य: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.1 Vart, 6.
pratyādānaliterally taking again; uttering a word already utttered in the Krama and other recitations of the Vedas; confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिकम्य प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयो: । प्रत्यादाय पुनर्गृहीत्वा Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X-1.
pratyāhāraliterally bringing together; bringing together of several letters ( or words in a few cases, such as roots or nouns ) by mentioning the first and the last only for the sake of brevity; the term प्रत्याहार is generally used in connection with brief terms such as अण्, अक् , अच् , हल् and the like, created by Panini in his grammar by taking any particular letter and associating it with any mute final letter ( अनुबन्ध ) of the fourteen Sivasutras, with a view to include all letters beginning with the letter uttered and ending with the letter which precedes the ( mute ) letter. The practice of using such abbreviations was in existence before Panini, possibly in the grammar attributed to Indra. The term प्रत्याहार is not actually used by Panini; it is found in the Rk. Tantra; confer, compare प्रत्याहारार्थो वर्णोनुबन्धो व्यञ्जनम् R.T.I.3. The term appears to have come into use after Panini. Panini has not given any definition of the term प्रत्याहार. He has simply given the method of forming the Pratyaharas and he has profusely used them; confer, compare आदिरन्त्येन सहेता P. I. 1.71. The word कृञ् in P. III.1.40 and तृन् in P. II. 3.69 are used as Pratyaharas. For a list of the Pratyharas which are used by Panini see Kasika on the Maheswara Sutras.
prayoga(1)employment or use of a word in language and literature about which, laying down rules is looked upon as the purpose of grammar; confer, compare प्रयोगमूलत्वाद् व्याकरणस्मृतेः Kaiy.on P. V. 1.16, लोकतोर्थप्रयुक्ते शब्दप्रयोगे शास्त्रेण धर्मनियमो यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika I. Vart. 1; (2) use of speech; utterance; confer, compare मध्यमेन स वाक्प्रयोगः प्रणवात्मकः कर्तव्यः, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVIII. 4.
prasvāraa word or utterance in three matras or moras; confer, compare स ओमिति प्रस्वरति त्रिमात्रः प्रस्वारः स्थाने स भवत्युदात्तः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV.3 whereon Uvvata remarks त्रिमात्र: प्रस्वारः । See the word ओंकार
prāmādikafaulty, uttered or expressed with a fault; inaccurate.
baor बकार the letter ब्, the vowel अ as also the word कार being added for facility of utterance; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.17.21, The letter ब् is sometimes used for व् especially when it stands at the beginning of a word, for which scholars use the expression वबयेारभेद:
barbaratāa fault in pronunciation of the type of roughness or barbarousness in the utterance of the letter र् : confer, compare बर्बरता असौकुमार्ये रेफे Uvvata on R.Pr.XIV. 8.
barsvya(written as बर्त्स्व्य or बर्त्स्य possibly through mistake in the printed Calcutta Edition)connected with the socket of the teeth. As the utterance of र् proceeds from the socket of the teeth, र् is called बर्स्व्य. confer, compare उपसंहृततरे च जिह्वाग्रमृकारर्कारल्कारेषु बर्स्वेषूपसंहरति T.Pr.II.18.बर्स्व is explained here by the commentator as दन्तपङ्क्तेरुपरिष्टादुच्चप्रदेशेषु ऋकारस्य ॠकारस्य ऌकारस्य च बर्स्वाः स्थानम् । The word उपरिष्टात् in the explanation given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. is questionable;the explanation given by Uvvata in his comment on वर्त्स्यमेकं इच्छन्ति रेफम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20.viz. वर्त्सशब्देन दन्तमूलादुपरिष्टादुच्छूनः प्रदेश उच्यते appears better although apparently वर्त्स is written in the text for बर्स्व or वर्त्स्व.
binduanusvara, letter pronounced only through the nose; a dot to indicate the nasal phonetic element shown in writing a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. or sometimes after that letter or vowel, after which it is uttered; confer, compare अं इत्यनुस्वारः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः इति बिन्दुमात्रो वर्णोनुस्वारसंज्ञो भवति ।। Kat. I.1.19.
bha(1)the letter or sound भ् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; (2) a technical term in the Grammar of Panini given to a noun base before such case and taddhita affixes as begin with any vowel or with the consonant य्. The utility of this designation of भ to the base is (l) to prevent the substitutes which are enjoined for the final vowel or consonant of a pada (a word ending with a case-affix or a base before case and taddhita affix. affixes beginning with any consonant excepting य् ) just as the substitution of Visarga, anusvara, the first or third consonant, and others given in P. VIII. 4.37 and the following. For the various changes and operations for a base termed भ see P. VI. 4.129 to 175.
bhakārathe consonant भ् with the vowel अ and the affix कार added for facility of utterance: confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 17,21.
bhuktaliterally swallowed or eaten up; the term is used in connection with letters that are uttered imperfectly on account of the proximity of similar letters.
bhrūmadhyaliterallycentre of the brows, or eyebrows which is described as the place of air ( which produces utterance or speech) at the time of the evening soma-pressing or sacrifice: confer, compare प्रात:सवनमाध्यन्दिनसवनतृतीयसवनक्रमेण उर:कण्ठभ्रूमध्यानि त्रीणि स्थानानि वायोर्भर्वान्त Vāj. Prāt. I. 30; confer, compare also भ्रुवोर्मध्ये प्राणमावेश्य सम्यक्.
ma(1)the consonant म् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.2.1 ; (2) The substitute म for मस् of the 1st person. plural in the perfect tense confer, compare P परस्मैपदानां ... णल्वमाः III. 4.82 and in the present tense also in the case of the root विद्; (3) taddhita affix. affix म added to the word मध्य in the Śaiṣika senses,and to the words द्यु and द्रु in the sense of possession; confer, compare P.IV.3.8,V.2. 108.
madhyama(1)the middle person ( मध्यमपुरुष ), confer, compare युष्मद्युपपदे...मध्यम: P. I. 4.105; confer, compare also Nirukta of Yāska.VII. 7; (2) middling tone or effort confer, compare मध्यमेन स वाक्ययोग: Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVIII. 4, where the commentator explains the word as उच्चनीचसमाहारविलक्षण: वाक्प्रयोगः | the word मध्यमा is used in this sense as qualifying a mode of utterance. वृत्ति; confer, compare अभ्यासार्थे द्रुतां वृत्तिं प्रयोगार्थे तु मध्यमाम् ! Ṟ. Pr. XIII. 19; cf also चतुष्कला मध्यमायार्म् Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 32; (3) one of the seven modes of speech or tones. cf सप्त वाचः स्थानानि भवन्ति | उपांशुध्वाननिमदेापव्दिमन्मन्द्रमध्यमताराणि Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII.4 and 5 and also कण्ठे मध्यमम् XVIII.11 where the commentatator explains मध्यम as यत्र कण्ठे स्थाने प्रयोग उपलभ्यते तन्मध्यमं नाम षष्ठं वाचस्स्थानम् | (4) one of the seven musical notes originating or proceeding from the Svarita accent confer, compare, स्वारतप्रभवा ह्येते षड्जमध्यमपञ्चमाः Pāṇ Śikṣā.
mālāa variety of the utterance of the Veda-Samhita ( वेदपाठ): a kind of Krama-Patha, one of the eight artificial recitations.
mukhaaperture of the mouth; the main place of the utterance of a letter.
mukhanāsikāvacanadefinition of अनुनासक, a letter which is pronounced through both-the mouth and the nose-as contrasted with नासिक्य a letter which is uttered only through the nose; exempli gratia, for example ड्, ञ् , ण्, न् , म् and the nasalized vowels and nasalized य् , व् and ल्; confer, compare मुखनासिक्रावचनेीSनुनासिकः Paan. I. 1.8: confer, compare also अनुस्वारोत्तम अनुनासिकाः (Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II.30), where the fifth letters and the anusvaara are called anunaasika. According to Bhattoji, however, anusvaara cannot be anunaasika as it is pronounced through the nose alone, and not through both-the mouth and the nose. As the anusvaara is pronounced something like a nasalized ग् according to the Taittiriyas it is called a consonant in the Taittiriya Praatisaakhya: confer, compare ' अनुस्वारोप्युत्तमवह्यञ्जनमेव अस्मच्छाखायाम् ! अर्धगकाररूपत्वात् / Com. on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 30.
mukhasukhārthaa mute letter added to an affix or a substitute cr the like, which does not really form a part of the affix et cetera, and others, but which simply facilitates the utterance of it: confer, compare अथ मुखसुखार्थस्तकार: दकारोपि ! Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1, VI.1.87; confer, compare also अादति तकारो मुखसुखार्थः, न त्वयं तपरः Kaas. on P. III.2.171.
mūrdhanthe top of the orifice of the mouth; the place of utterance ( स्थान ) of the letters ऋ, ॠ, ट् ,ठ् ,ड् ढ् and ण्, र् and ष्; confer, compare ऋटुरषाणां मूर्धा S. K. on P. I. 1.9; cf also षटौ मूर्धनि V.Pr.I.67,R.T.6,R.Pr.I.19,and T.Pr. II.37 where र् appears excludedition
mūla(1)the root of the teeth given as the place of origin for the letter र् in the Rk Tantra : confer, compare रेफस्तु दन्त्यो दन्तमूले वा. Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 8; (2) the main instrutment of the utterance of letters known as मूलकरण or अनुप्रदान.
mṛdu(1)soft in utterance ; the term is used in the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya for the क्षैप्र, प्रश्लिष्ट, तैरोव्यञ्जन, and पादवृत्त varieties of the circumflex accent (स्वरित) out of which the पादवृत्त is the softest ( मृदुतम ) and consequently always called मृदु, while the others are called मृदु only with respect to the preceding one in the order given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; viz.अभिनिहत, क्षैप्र et cetera, and othersconfer, compareसर्वतीक्ष्णोभिनिहत:प्राश्लिष्टस्तदनन्तरम् । ततो मृदुतरौ स्वरौ जात्यक्षेप्रावुभौ स्मृतौ | ततो मृदुतर: स्वारस्तैरोव्यञ्जन उच्यते | पादवृत्तो मृदुतमस्त्वेतत्स्वारबलाबलम् Uvvata on V.Pr. I. !25; (2) soft, as opposed to hard; the term is used in connection with the first,third and fifth consonants of the five classes.
mleccha(1)a word although correct,yet looked upon as incorrect owing to its faulty utterance; (2) a person like the uncultured people, who is not able to pronounce words correctly confer, compare म्लेच्छा मा भूमेत्यध्येयं व्याकरणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1, Ahnika 1.
yatna(1)effort in the utterance of a letter: the word which is generally used for such an effort is प्रयत्न. This effort is described to be oftwo kinds अाभ्यन्तर internal id est, that is below the root of the tongue and बाह्य a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the root of the tongue id est, that is inside the mouth; confer, compare यत्नं द्विधा | अाभ्यन्तरो बाह्यश्च | S. K. on P. I. 1.9; (2) specific effort, by adding a word to a rule for drawing some inference, with a view to removing some technical difficulty: cf तेन पये धावतीत्यादौ यत्नान्तरमास्थेयम् Kaas. on P. VIII. 2. 25. The phrase कर्तव्योत्र यत्न: often occurs in the Mahaabhaasya.
yuckrt affix यु changed into अन, (1) applied in the sense of 'a habituated agent' to intransitive roots in the sense of movement or utterance, to Atmanepadi roots beginning with a consonant, to the roots जु, चेकम् सृ, शुच्, कुघ्, as also to roots in the sense of decoration: exempli gratia, for example चलन:, शब्दन:: cf P.III. 2. 148-15I: (2) applied to causal roots, as also to the roots आस् श्रन्थ् and others in the sense of verbal activity when the word so formed has always the feminine gender; exempli gratia, for example कारणा, हृरणा, आसना, घट्टना,वेदना et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.3.107 and the Varttikas thereon; (3) applied to roots ending in अा and preceded by the indeclinables ईषद्, दुस् or सु in the sense of easy or difficult for obtainment and, wherever seen to any root in the Vedic language, as also to some other roots as found in actual use in the classical literature; e. g. ईषद्दानो गौर्मवता, दु्ष्पानः, सुपान: et cetera, and others सूपसदन:, दुर्योधनः, दुर्मर्षण: et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.III.8.128-130.
r(1)the consonant र, generally cited as रेफ; the vowel अ is added to र् for facility of utterance: confer, compare T. Pr.' I.21 ; (2) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) for र् and ल्; confer, compare उरण् रपरः, P. I. 1.51: (3) krt affix र applied to the roots नम्रः, कम्प्रः et cetera, and others in the sense of agent who is habituated to, or expert in the action expressed by the root; e. g, नम्रः, कम्प्र:; confer, compare नमिकम्पिस्म्यजसकमहिंसदीपो रः P. III. 2. 167; (4) taddhita affix. affix र as a Caturarthika affix applied to the words headed by अश्मन्: e. g. अश्मरः; confer, compare वुञ्छण् P. IV. 2. 80; (5) tad affix र in the sense of possession affixed to the words ऊष, सुषि, मुष्क, मधु, and तमस् with अ of तमस् changed to इ: e. g. ऊषरम्, सुषिरम्, मधुर:, तमिस्रा: confer, compare Kas on. P.V. 2.107 and 114: (6) taddhita affix. affix र in the sense of diminution affixed to the words कुटी, शमी and शुण्डा: exempli gratia, for example कुटीर:, शमीर, शुण्डार:: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3. 88: (7) taddhita affix. affix रक् which see below; (8) krt affix रक् which see below; (9) a term for द्विगुसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
laghu(1)a term used in the sense of light or short as contrasted with गुरु meaning heavy or long, which is applied to vowels like अ, इ et cetera, and others confer, compare ह्रस्वं लघु P.I. 4. 10; (2) brevity; brief expression;confer, compare लघ्वर्थे हि संज्ञाकरणम् M.Bh. on P.I.2,27 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6 also संज्ञा हि नाम यतो न लघीय:; (3) small, as qualifying an effort in writing or explaining something as also in utterance; confer, compare व्यॊर्लघुप्रयत्नतरः शाकटायनस्य P.VIII.3.18.
laghunyāsa(1)short writing, brief putting in, brief expression; confer, compare सोयमेवं लघुना न्यासेन सिद्धे et cetera, and others; (2) the word is given as a name to a grammatical work, written by देवेन्द्रसूरि on the शब्दानुशासन of Hemacandra, possibly in contrast with the बृहन्न्यास written by Hemacandra himself or with Kāśikāvivaranapańjikā popularly called न्यास written by Jinendrabuddhi on the Kāśikāvŗti of Jayāditya and Vāmana. See न्यास.
laghuprayatnatararequiring still less effort for utterance than that required for the usual utterance; the term is used in connection with the utterance of the consonant य् which is substituted for Visarga following upon long अा and followed by any vowel. In such cases य् is not pronounced at all according to Śākalya, while it is somewhat audibly pronounced according to Śākațāyana; confer, compare व्योर्लघुप्रयत्नतरः शाकटायनस्य P. VIII. 3.18.
leśasuch a slow or indistinct utterance or pronunciation of the letter य् or व् preceded by अ, as shows that it is almost droppedition This indistinct or slurred utterance of य् or व, which is described as advocated by the Prātiśākhyakāra Vātsapra, corresponds to the utterance of य् or व् with a very low tone as mentioned by Pāņini in the rule व्योर्लघुप्रयत्नतरः शाकटायनस्य; exempli gratia, for example अाप उन्दन्तु; या जाता ओषधयः et cetera, and others; confer, compare लेशो वात्सप्रस्य एतयोः T.Pr. 10.23; confer, compare also लेशेन प्रयत्नशैथिल्येन ब्यञ्जनानां वचनमुच्चारणं क्रियते Uvvața on R.Pr. XIV.5.
lomaśyathe utterance of an aspirate letter rather harshly, with a stress on it, when that utterance is looked upon as a fault; confer, compare ऊष्मणां घोषाणां लोमश्यमसौकुमार्ये श्र्वेडनम् अधिको वर्णस्य ध्वनिः Uvvața on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.6.
laukikaprevalent in common utterance.of the people as contrasted with वैदिक;confer, compareयथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु कृतान्तेषु M.Bh.on Āhnika 1.See लोक a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.
v(1)fourth letter of the class of consonants headed by य्, which are looked upon as semi-vowels; व् is a dental, soft, non-aspirate consonant pronounced as ब् in some provinces and written also sometimes like ब्, especially when it stands at the beginning of a word; (2) substitute for उ which is followed by a vowel excepting उ; e. g, मधु+अरि: = मध्वरि:; confer, compare इको यणचि P. VI. I. 77; (3) the consonant व्, which is sometimes uttered with very little effort when it is at the end of a word and followed by a vowel or a semivowel, or a fifth, fourth or third consonant or the consonant ह्. In such cases it is called लघूच्चारण; confer, compare यस्योच्चारणे जिह्वाग्रोपाग्रमध्यमूलानां शैथिल्यं जायते स लघूच्चारण: S. K. on P.VIII.3. 18;(4) solitary remnant of the affixes क्विप्,क्विन्, ण्वि and the like, when the other letters which are mute are dropped and the affix क्वप् or the like becomes a zero affix. This व् also is finally dropped; confer, compare वेरपृक्तस्य P. VI.1.67.
vakārathe consonant व् with the vowel अ and कार being added for facility of utterance; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 17, 21, also वर्णात्कारः P. III.3.108, Vart. 3.
vaktramouth, or orifice of the mouth which, in general is the place of utterance for all letters, but especially for the vowel अ; confer, compare सर्वमुखस्थानमवर्णस्य केचिदिच्छन्ति I
vacana(1)literally statement; an authoritative statement made by the authors of the Sutras and the Varttikas as also of the Mahabhasya; confer, compare अस्ति ह्यन्यदेतस्य वचने प्रयोजनम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 1 Vart. 1 The word is also used predicatively in the sense of वक्तव्यम् by the Varttikakara; confer, compare ऌति ऌ वावचनम् , ऋति ऋ वावचनम् ; (2) number, such as एकवचन, द्विवचन, बहुवचन et cetera, and others; confer, compare वचनमेकत्वद्वित्वबहुत्वानि Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.I.2.51 ; cf लुपि युक्तिवद् व्यक्तिवचने | लुकि अभिधेयवल्लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति। लवणः सूपः। लवणा यवागू:। M.Bh.on P.I. 2.57; (3) expressive word; confer, compare गुणवचनब्राह्मणादिभ्यः कर्मणि च P. V.1.124 where the Kasika explains the word गुणवचन as गुणमुक्तवन्तो गुणवचनाः; confer, compare also the terms गुणवचन, जातिवचन, क्रियावचन et cetera, and others as classes of words; confer, compare also अभिज्ञावचने लृट् P.III.2.112; (4) that which is uttered; confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिक:। मुखसहिता नासिका मुखनासिका । तया य उच्चार्यते असौ वर्ण: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.1.8.
vatinirdeśaspecific statement by putting the word वत् for the sake of extended application ( अतिदेश ) ; exempli gratia, for example ब्राह्मणवदधीते: confer, compare स तर्हि वतिनिदेश: कर्तव्यः । न ह्यन्तरेण वतिमातदेशो गम्यते । M.Bh.on P. I.1.23 Vart. 4.
vākyasaṃskārapakṣathe grammarian's theory that as the individual words have practically no existence as far as the interpretation or the expression of sense is concerned, the sentence alone being capable of conveying the sense, the formation of individual words in a sentence' is explained by putting them in a sentence and knowing their mutual relationship. The word गाम् cannot be explained singly by showing the base गो and the case ending अम् unless it is seen in the sentence गाम् अानय; confer, compare यथा वाक्यसंस्कारपक्षे कृष्णादिसंबुद्धयन्त उपपदे ऋधेः क्तिनि कृते कृष्ण ऋध् ति इति स्थिते असिद्धत्वात्पूर्वमाद्गुणे कृते अचो रहाभ्यामिति द्वित्वं .. Pari. Bhaskara Pari. 99The view is put in alternation with the other view, viz. the पदसंस्कारपक्ष which has to be accepted in connection with the गौणमुख्यन्याय; cf पदस्यैव गौणार्थकत्वस्य ग्रहेण अस्य ( गौणमुख्यन्यायस्य) पदकार्यविषयत्वमेवोचितम् | अन्यथा वाक्यसंस्कारपक्षे तेषु तदनापत्तिः Par. Sek. on Pari. 15, The grammarians usually follow the वाक्यसंकारपक्ष.
vākyārthathe meaning of a sentence, which comes as a whole composite idea when all the constituent words of it are heard: confer, compare पदानां सामान्ये वर्तमानानां यद्विशेषेSवस्थानं स वाक्यार्थ:, M.Bh. on P.I.2.45 Vart. 4. According to later grammarians the import or meaning of a sentence ( वाक्यार्थ ) flashes out suddenly in the mind of the hearer immediately after the sentence is completely uttered, The import is named प्रतिभा by Bhartrhari, confer, compare Vakyapadiya II.45; confer, compare also वाक्यार्थश्च प्रतिभामात्रविषय: Laghumanjusa. For details and the six kinds of vakyartha, see Vakyapadiya II.154.
vāc(1)expression from the mouth ; speech; series of sounds caused by expelling the air from the lungs through differently shaped positions of the mouth and the throat: cf स संघातादीन् प्राप्य वाग्भवति Vaj. Pr.I.9; see the word वाणी; (2) the sacred or divine utterance referring to the Veda: confer, compare त्रय्या वाचः परं पदम् ; (3) term used for उपपद in the Jainendra Vyākarana: confer, compare वाग्विभक्ते कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Jain Pari 104.
vāṇīspeech; utterance; the same as वाच् which is believed to be of four kinds as cited by the grammarians and explained by Bhartrhari; the four kinds are based upon the four places of origin, the three first places belonging to the inarticulate speech and the fourth belonging to the articulate one: cfचत्वारि वाक्परिमिता पदानि तानि विदुर्ब्राह्मण य मनीषिणः | गुहा त्रीणि निहिता नेङ्गयन्तिं तुरीयं वाचेी मनुष्या वदन्ति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I Ahnika l and the Pradipa and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon.
vātsapraan ancient writer of Pratisakhya works who believed in the very feeble utterance ( लघुप्रयत्नतर ) of the consonants य and व, when preceded by अ and standing at the end of a word. See लघुप्रयत्न.
vikampitaa fault in the pronunciation of vowels, the utterance being attended with a kind of tremor; confer, compare ग्रस्तं निरस्त...विकम्पितम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). at the end of Ahnika 1.
vikarṣa(1)a fault in the utterance of a vowel with its proper accent (acute,grave or circumflex) which results from the proper accent being mixed with another in the utterance: confer, compareविकर्षो नामाश्लिष्टता Uvvata ' on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 18: (2) protraction of the accent especially of the circumflex accent.
vikīrṇaa fault in the utterance of a vowel when one vowel appears, or is heard as another, confer, compareविकीर्णो वर्णान्तरे प्रसृतः । एकोप्यनेकनिभसीत्यपरे Pradipa on the Mahabhasya Ahn. 1 end.
vikṛtanirdeśautterance of a word in its mutilated form with some object in view; e. g. दीव्यत् for दीव्यति in प्राग्दीव्यतोSण् P. IV. 1. 83; confer, compare किं पुनः कारणं विकृतनिर्दशः क्रियते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV.1.83; confer, compare also कर्ष इति विकृतनिर्देश: कृतार्निवृत्त्यर्थ: Kas on P. VI. 1. 159;. confer, compare also गोह इति विकृतिकरणं विषयार्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VI. 4. 89.
vikliṣṭaa fault in the utterance of a letter when there does not take place the necessary contact with the proper place of the utterance of a word; confer, compare हन्वोः प्रकर्षेणे सर्वतश्चलने विक्लिष्टं नाम दोषो भवति | विक्लिष्टं नाम असंयुक्तम् R.Pr.XIV.3.
viccheda(1)breach or break (in the Samhitapatha); utterance of words separately by breaking their coalescence: confer, compare पदविच्छेद: असंहितः V. Pr.I.156; (2) doubling of a consonant technically called यम ; confer, compare अन्त:पदे अपञ्चमः पञ्चमेषु विच्छेदम् V.Pr. IV.163.
vibhajyānvākhyānaa method of forming a word, or of arriving at the complete form of a word by putting all the constituent elements of the word such as the base, the affix, the augment, the modification, the . accent, et cetera, and others one after another and then arriving at the form instead of completing the formation stage by stage; e. g. in arriving at the form स्नौघ्नि the wording स्नौघ्न + अ +ई is to be considered as it stands and not स्नौघ्न + अ = स्नौघ्न and then स्नौघ्न +ई. The विभज्यान्वाख्यानपक्ष in connection with the formation of a word corresponds to the पदसंस्कारपक्ष in connection with the formation of a sentence.
virāgaomission of a consonant, sometimes when it is preceded and also followed by another consonant, as if it were squeezed between the two; this is no doubt looked upon as a fault; exempli gratia, for example the omission of the consonant द् in उपमा षट् द्रा द्वा uttered as उपमा षट् वा द्वा; confer, compareअन्योन्येन व्यञ्जनानां विरागः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XIV where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.explains विराग as लोप्.
vilambitaa kind of tone where the interval between the utterance of two letters as also the time required for the utterance of a letter is comparatively longer than in the other two kinds, viz. द्रुत and मध्य; confer, compare ये हि द्रुतायां वृत्तौ वर्णाः त्रिभागाधिकास्ते मध्यमायाम्,ये मध्यमायां वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते विलम्बितायाम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.70: confer, compare also द्रुतविलम्बितयोश्चानुपदेशात् P. I.1.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 11.
vilambitā vṛttiretarding or slow manner of speech in which the letters are uttered quite distinctly; this kind of speech is followed by the preceptor while teaching Veda to his pupils; confer, compare अभ्यासार्थे द्रुतां वृत्ति प्रयोगार्थे तु मध्यमाम् । शिष्याणामुपदेशार्थे कुर्याद् वृत्तिं विलम्बिताम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 19. confer, compare also Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 24. See विलम्बित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
visargaaspiration, leaving of the breath generally at the completion of the utterance of a word when there is a pause; the term विसर्जनीय was in use in ancient times. Although not mentioned in his alphabet by Pāṇini, this Phonetic element, visarga, is looked upon as a letter; it is mentioned as one of the letters in the Śikṣā and the Prātiśākhya works and Patañjali has advised its inclusion in the alphabet. As visarga cannot be found in use independently of another letter (which is any vowel after which it occurs) it is called अयोगवाह.
visthānabelonging to a position of utterance (स्थान) other than the one assigned,or referred to; confer, compare विस्थाने स्पर्श उदये मकार; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 3.
vihāraexpansion of the position ( स्थान ) and the means of utterance ( करण ) of a sound beyond the necessary extent, which produces a fault of pronunciation, called व्यास; confer, compare विहारसंहारयेाव्यासपीडने । स्थानकरणयोर्विहारे विस्तारे व्यासो नाम दोषो जायते Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV 2.
vyāhṛtior व्याहृती literally the utterance of a word the word is generally used in the sense of the specific utterance of the words भू:, भुव: etc: confer, compare एताभिर्व्याहृतीभिः प्रजापति: Tait. Sarh I. 6. 10, confer, compare also भुवश्च महाव्याहृतेः P. VIII. 2.71.
vrīṅganalowering of the chin, resulting in a fault of utterance: confer, compare हन्वीव्रर्डिने नीचैर्भावे संदष्टं नाम दोषो भवति Uvvata on R.Pr. XIV.8.
śīghrataraliterallyover-rapid; an extra quickness of breath (प्राण) which characterizes the utterance of a sibilant which has got one more property viz. ऊष्मत्व in addition to the three properties (बाह्यप्रयत्न ) possessed by the other consonants: confer, compare शीघ्रतरं सोष्मसु प्राणमेके | Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 6.
śīghrīa person reciting Vedic passages more rapidly, when his recital results into a fault of utterance.
śīrṣaṇyaprincipal; chief ; the word is used in connection with the utterance of Veda passages which are uttered loudly at the time of the third pressing ( तृतीयसवन ): confer, compare शिरसि तारम् T. Pr.XXIII.12; confer, compare शीर्षण्यः स्वरः M.Bh. on P. VI.l.61.
śūnautterance with a swollen mouth which is looked upon as a fault of Vedic recital: confer, compare दुष्टं मुखेन सुषिरेण शूनम् R.Pr.XIV.2.
śrutaliterally what is actually heard; the word is used in connection with such statements as are made by the authoritative grammarians, Panini and the Varttikakara by their actual utterance or wording, as contrasted with such dictums as can be deduced only from their writings. confer, compare श्रुतानुभितंयोः श्रौतः संबन्धो बलीयान्. Par. Sek Pari. 104.
śruti(1)literally hearing sound.confer, compare श्रुतौ च रूपग्रहणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64; perception, as a proof contrasted with inference; confer, compare ननु च श्रुतिकृतोपि भेदोस्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VII. 1.72 Vart. 1; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VIII. 2.25; cf also तस्मादुच्चश्रुतीनि Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 61; (2) authoritative word; the word is sometimes used in connection with the utterances of the Sutrakaras viz. the Sutra.
śvāsaliterally breath; the voiceless breath required for uttering some letters; the term is used in the Pratisakhya and Vyakarana books in the sense of breath which is prominently required in the utterance of the hard consonants, sibilants, visarga and the Jihvamuliya and Upadhmaniya letters; the term is used in connection with these letters also; the usual term in use is, of course, श्वासानुप्रदान, the term श्वास showing the property of the breath, with which these letters are characterizedition
(l)a sibilant letter of the cerebral class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, कण्ठविवार and महाप्राण ; (2) mute indicatory letter ष्, attached to nouns as also to affixes with which nouns are formed, such as ष्वुन्, ष्कन्, ष्टरच्, ष्ट्रन् et cetera, and others showing the addition of the feminine affix ई ( ङीष् ); confer, compare षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च P. IV. 1.41 ; (3) changeable to स् when placed at the beginning of roots in the Dhatupatha except in the case of the roots formed from nouns and the roots ष्ठिव् and ष्वष्क्; (4) substitute for the last consonant of the roots ब्रश्च, भ्रस्ज्, सृज्, मृज्, यज्, राज्, भ्राज्, as also of the roots ending in छ् and श् before a consonant excepting a nasal and a semivowel, as also when the consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् et cetera, and others cf P. VIII.2.36 (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 3.39: confer, compare also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष्; e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे , वृक्षष्टकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.41.
ṣaṭkārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaknown also as कारकखण्डनमण्डन a grammar-work on consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् et cetera, and others cf P. VIII.2.36 (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 3.39: confer, compare also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष्; e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे , वृक्षष्टकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.41.
ṣatvachange of the consonant स् into ष् in certain conditions in the formation of a word, or after prepositions in the case of verbs beginning with स्. This cerebralization of स् was a peculiar phonetic change which naturally occurred when स् in utterance came after a vowel excepting अ. Some of the Pratisakhya works have exhaustively treated this change and Panini has also mentioned many rules in connection with it.
saṃghāta(1)aggregate, collection ; the word is often used in grammar in connection with letters ( वर्ण ); confer, compare वर्णसंघात; पदम् confer, compare also संघातस्यैकार्थ्यात् सुबभावो वर्णात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva sutra 5 Vart. 13; the word is also used in connection with a collection of words; confer, compare संघातस्य समाससंज्ञा प्राप्नोति । ऋद्धस्य राज्ञ पुरुष: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4.13 Vart. 8; (2) effort made in the utterance of a word; cf संघातो नाम प्रयत्नः स बाह्याभ्यन्तरत्वेन द्विधा । अनन्तभट्टभाप्य on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 9. confer, compare also स संघातादीन् वाक् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.9.
saṃdaṣṭaa fault of pronunciation when the constituent letters of a word are uttered with the teeth kept close together. Kaiyata has ex-plained the word as वर्धित.
saṃdhāraṇaputting very close in utterance; slurring of a phonetic element when it appears as almost suppressed; confer, compare संधारणं वर्णश्रुतेः संवरणम् Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 5.
saṃdhieuphonic combination; phonetic combination of two vowels or two consonants or one vowel and one consonant resulting from their close utterance; many kinds of such combinations and varieties are given in the Pratisakhya works. In the Siddhantakaumudi, Bhattoji Diksita has given five kinds of such Sandhis at the beginning of his work; confer, compare पदान्तपदाद्योः संधिः । यः कश्चिद्वैदिकशास्त्रसंधिरुच्यते स पदान्तपदाद्योर्वेदितव्यः।ते संधयश्चत्वारो भवन्ति । स्वरयोः व्यञ्जनयो: स्वरव्यञ्जनयोश्च Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 3.
saṃnidhāpanaputting together too close, so that the two phonetic elements which are so placed, coalesce together and result into a third, or one of the two merges into another.
saṃprasāraṇaliterally extension; the process of changing a semi-vowel into a simple vowel of the same sthana or place of utterance; the substitution of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ for the semi-vowels य्, व् , र् and ल् respectively; cf इग्यणः संप्रसारणम् P. 1.1.45. The term संप्रसारण is rendered as a 'resultant vowel' or as 'an emergent vowel'. The ancient term was प्रसारण and possibly it referred to the extension of य् and व्, into their constituent parts इ +अ, उ+अ et cetera, and others the vowel अ being of a weak grade but becoming strong after the merging of the subseguent vowel into it exempli gratia, for example confer, compare सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P. III. 2.8 Vart.1. For the words taking this samprasarana change, see P. VI. 1 .13 to .19. According to some grammarians the term संप्रसारण is applied to the substituted vowels while according to others the term refers to the operation of the substitution: confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.15. The substitution of the samprasarana vowel is to be given preference in the formation of a word; , confer, compare संप्रसारणं तदाश्रयं च कार्यं बलवत् Pari. Sek. Pari. 1 19. संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्व the relative superior strength of the samprasarana change in comparison with other operations occurring simultaneotisly. The phrase न वा संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्वात् is often used in the Mahabhasya which is based upon the dictum of the superior strength of the samprasarana substitution, which is announced by the writer of the Varttikas; P. VI. 1.17 Vart, 2. , See संप्रसारण.
saṃbandhiśibdarelative term; the term refers to words connected in such a way by their meaning that if one of them is uttered, the other has to be anticipated and understood; e. g. पितृ, भ्रातृ, मातृ, भार्या et cetera, and others confer, compare तद्यथा । संबन्धिशब्दाः । मातरि वर्तितव्यम् । पितरि शूश्रूषितव्यम् । न चोच्यते स्वस्यां मातरि स्वस्मिन्वा पितरि इति । confer, compare also M.Bh. on I 1.71 ; confer, compare also प्रधानमुपसर्जनं च संबन्धिशब्दावेतौ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.43 Vart. 5; I. 2.48 Vart, 4,
saṃvāraone of the external efforts in the production of a sound when the gullet is a little bit contracted as at the time of the utterance of the third, fourth and the fifth of the class-consonants; confer, compare कण्ठबिलस्य संकोचः संवार: Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on P. I. 1.9.
saṃsvādaa peculiar phonetic element described along with another one named निगार both of which have got no definite place of utterance in the mouth; confer, compare अविशेषस्थानौ संस्वादानगारौ । पकारनकारयकारा: वा संस्वादे । हकारमकारना. सिक्या वा निगारे I commentary on R.T.11.
saṃhāraunnecessary contraction of the place (स्थान)as also of the instrument ( करण ), which results into a fault of utterance called पीडन; confer, compare विहारसंहायोर्व्यासपींडने Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XIV.2.
samabhivyāhārautterance together of several vocal elements or words; verbal concomitance; cf अनया परिभाषया स्त्रीप्रत्ययसमभिव्यहारे तद्रहिते दृष्टानां ... पर्याप्तत्वमतिदिश्यते Par. Sek. Pari. 71.
sarvamukhasthānathe whole orifice of the mouth as a place of utterance, as for example for the vowel अ: confer, compare सर्वमुखस्थानमवर्णमक इच्छन्ति I M.Bh. on P. I. 1.9 Vart. 2.
sarvavibhaktyantaliterally ending with all cases; the term is used as an adjective of the word समास and refers to a compound which can be dissolved by putting the first member in any case: cf सर्वविभक्यन्तः समासो यथा विज्ञायेत | अल: परस्य विधिः; अलि विधिरित्यादि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.56. सर्वस्यद्वेपाद conventional name given to the first pada of the eighth adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi which begins with the Sutra सर्वस्य द्बे VIII.1.1.
savarṇacognate, homophonic: a letter belonging to the same technical category of letters possessing an identical place of utterance and internal effort confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. 1, 1. 9. For example, the eighteen varieties of अ, due to its short, long and protracted nature as also due to its accents and nasalization, are savarna to each other. The vowels ऋ and लृ are prescribed to be considered as Savarna although their place of utterance differs. The consonants in each class of consonants are savarna to one another, but by the utterance of one, another cannot be taken except when the vowel उ has been applied to the first. Thus कु stands for क्, ख्, ग्, घ् and ङ्. confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. 1, I. 9 and अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्यय: P. I. 1. 69.
savarṇagrahaṇataking or including the cognate letters; a convention of grammarians to understand by the utterance of a vowel like अ, इ or उ all the 18 types of it which are looked upon as cognate ( सवर्ण ), as also to understand all the five consonants of a class by the utterance of the first consonant with उ added to it: e. g. कु denoting all the five consonants क्, खू, ग्, घ् and ङ्; confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्यय: P.I. 1.69.
sasaṃkhyapossessed of the same number एकवचन, द्विवचन or बहुवचन: confer, compare कृत्स्न: पदार्थाभिधीयेत सद्रव्यः सलिङ्गः ससंख्य: । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2. 24 Vart. 8. सस्थान having got an identical place of utterance; the word is much used in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare सस्थानेन घोषिणां घोर्षिणैव Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 5.
sānunāsikanasalized; uttered partly through the nose: confer, compare सन्ति हि यणः सानुनासिका निरनुनासिकाश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1. 67.
sthānaplace of articulation; place of the production of sound, which is one of the chief factors in the production of sound; confer, compare अनुप्रदानात् संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् | जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात्, T.Pr. XXIII. 2. Generally there are given five places of the production of sound viz. कण्ठ, तालु, मूर्धन् , दन्त and ओष्ठ, respectively for the articulation of guttural, palatal cerebral, dental and labial letters and नासिका as an additional one for the articulation of the nasal consonants ञू, मू,ङू, णू and नू For the Jihvamuliya sound (क ), जिंह्वामूल is given as a specific one. For details and minor differences of views, see Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.III, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) 1.18 to 20,Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 2-10; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 65 to 84 and M. Bh, on P. I. 1. 9. (2) place, substratum, which is generally understood as the sense of the genitive case-affix in rules which prescribe substitutes; confer, compare षष्ठी स्थोनोयागा. P. I. 1. 49.
sthitiutterance of a pada or padas in the Padapatha without इति; the utterance with इति being called उपस्थिति; confer, compare पदं यदा केवलमाह सा स्थितिः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI.15; (2) established practice or view: confer, compare शाकल्यस्य स्थविरस्येतरा स्थितिः। Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 44.
sparśaa contact consonant: a term used in connection with the consonants of the five classes, verily because the karana or the tip of the tongue touches the place of utterance in the mouth in their pronunciation; confer, compare कादयो भावसानाः स्पर्शाः S.K. Samjnaprakarana on P. VIII. 2.1; confer, compare also अाद्या: स्पर्शाः पञ्च ते पञ्चवर्गाः R.Pr. I.78: confer, compare also T.Pr.I.7.
svara(l)vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
svarabhaktia vowel part; appearance of a consonant as a vowel; the character of a vowel borne by a consonant. Many times a semivowel which consists of one letter has to be divided especially for purposes of metre, as also for accentuation into two letters or rather, has to be turned into two letters by inserting a vowel before it or after it, for instance य् is to be turned into इय् e. g, in त्रियम्बकं यजामहे, while र् or रेफ is to be turned into र् ऋ as for instance in कर्हि चित् which is to be uttered as कर् ऋ हृि चित्. This prefixing or suffixing of a vowel is called स्वरभक्तिः confer, compare स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गं द्राघीयसी सार्धमात्रेतरे च | अधोनान्या ( Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 32.35; confer, compare also न संयोगं स्वरभाक्तिर्विहृान्ति Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 35; confer, compare also रेफात् खरोपहिताद् व्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णा स्वरभक्तिरुत्तरा: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 46. In Panini's grammar, however, the word अज्भाक्त, which means the same is used for स्वरभक्ति; cf ऋति ऋ वा लृति लृ वा इत्युभयत्रापि विधेयं वर्णद्वयं द्विमात्रम् | अाद्यस्य मध्ये द्वौ ; रेफौ तयोरेकां मात्रा । अभितेाज्भक्तेरपरा। S. K. on VI. 1.101.
ha(1)representation of the consonant हू with अ added for facility of pronunciation; (2) a technical term for the internal effort between विवृत and संवृत, which causes घोष in the consonants; confer, compare संवृतविवृतयोर्मध्ये मध्यमप्रक्रारे यः शब्दः क्रियते स हकारसंज्ञो भवति। संज्ञायाः प्रयेाजनं ' हकारो हचतुर्थेषु ' इति ( तै. प्रा.श ९)Tribhasyaratna on T.Pr. II.6; (3) name of an external effort causing घोष: confer, compare सांप्रतिके प्रकृतिस्थे कण्ठे सति हृकारो नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नः क्रियते | तेन च व्यञ्जनेषु घोषो जायते। Vaidikabharana on T.Pr. II.6; (4) name of a kind of external effort of the type of अनुप्रदान found in the utterance of the consonant ( ह् ) and the fourth class-consonants; confer, compare हकारौ हृचतुर्थेषु T.Pr.II.9.
hrasvashort, a term used in connection with the short vowels taking a unit of time measured by one matra for their utterance; confer, compare ऊकालोज्ङ्ररस्वदीर्घप्लुत: P. I. 2.27.
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uttabhita raised highSB 10.21.13
uttabhita upraisedSB 10.55.10
uttama all of the foremost qualityCC Madhya 14.25
uttama bestCC Madhya 8.295
SB 1.8.6
uttamā bestSB 12.12.12
uttama by superior backgroundSB 11.17.15
uttama celestialSB 2.9.13
uttama enlightenedSB 2.1.9
uttama excellentSB 10.43.19
SB 10.90.1-7
uttama first classCC Antya 19.13
CC Madhya 22.64
CC Madhya 22.69
SB 4.24.47-48
uttama first-classCC Madhya 12.178
CC Madhya 12.179
CC Madhya 6.42
CC Madhya 6.76
uttama goodCC Adi 5.208
uttamā highly situatedSB 4.28.28
uttama most excellentSB 10.69.9-12
uttamā most perfectSB 10.42.8
uttama of a superiorSB 10.60.15
uttama one who is greaterSB 4.20.13
uttama superexcellentSB 10.84.43
uttama the bestCC Madhya 24.180
uttamā the highestCC Adi 4.214
uttama topmostCC Antya 18.103
uttama transcendentalSB 1.2.18
uttama upperSB 2.3.21
uttama very goodCC Madhya 1.120
uttama very niceCC Antya 5.99
CC Madhya 16.116
CC Madhya 3.102
CC Madhya 3.103
CC Madhya 4.3-4
uttama very wellCC Antya 7.54
uttama anna fine riceCC Antya 2.110
uttama anna fine riceCC Antya 2.110
uttama bhoga first-class foodsCC Madhya 4.114
uttama bhoga first-class foodsCC Madhya 4.114
uttama brāhmaṇa a high-class brāhmaṇaCC Madhya 17.11
uttama brāhmaṇa a high-class brāhmaṇaCC Madhya 17.11
uttama hañā although being very much exaltedCC Antya 20.22
uttama hañā although being very much exaltedCC Antya 20.22
CC Antya 20.25
uttama hañā although being very much exaltedCC Antya 20.25
uttama hañā although very respectableCC Madhya 13.17
uttama hañā although very respectableCC Madhya 13.17
uttama hañā being actually superior in every respectCC Madhya 16.263-264
uttama hañā being actually superior in every respectCC Madhya 16.263-264
uttama kariyā so nicelyCC Antya 12.132
uttama kariyā so nicelyCC Antya 12.132
uttama prakāre very nicelyCC Madhya 9.217
uttama prakāre very nicelyCC Madhya 9.217
uttamā prītī first-class pleasureSB 10.11.36
uttamā prītī first-class pleasureSB 10.11.36
uttama randhana first-class cookingCC Madhya 15.64
uttama randhana first-class cookingCC Madhya 15.64
uttama uttama very first-classCC Madhya 6.249
uttama uttama very first-classCC Madhya 6.249
uttama vyañjana first-class vegetablesCC Antya 12.93
uttama vyañjana first-class vegetablesCC Antya 12.93
uttama-adhikārī the topmost devoteeCC Madhya 22.65
uttama-adhikārī the topmost devoteeCC Madhya 22.65
uttama-ańgaiḥ headsBG 11.26-27
uttama-ańgaiḥ headsBG 11.26-27
uttama-anna first-class riceCC Madhya 5.102
uttama-anna first-class riceCC Madhya 5.102
uttama-āptibhiḥ by attainment of the highest platform of perfectionCC Madhya 24.181
uttama-āptibhiḥ by attainment of the highest platform of perfectionCC Madhya 24.181
uttama-āsanam a high seatSB 12.3.38
uttama-āsanam a high seatSB 12.3.38
uttama-bhoga first-class foodCC Madhya 13.197
uttama-bhoga first-class foodCC Madhya 13.197
uttama-bhrātā the brother of UttamaSB 8.1.27
uttama-bhrātā the brother of UttamaSB 8.1.27
uttama-dhanam a great treasureSB 5.3.3
uttama-dhanam a great treasureSB 5.3.3
uttama-gāya of Lord Viṣṇu (of excellent renown)SB 4.12.21
uttama-gāya of Lord Viṣṇu (of excellent renown)SB 4.12.21
uttama-kalpakaiḥ with very opulent paraphernaliaSB 9.11.1
uttama-kalpakaiḥ with very opulent paraphernaliaSB 9.11.1
uttama-kulam the highest classSB 3.16.23
uttama-kulam the highest classSB 3.16.23
uttama-michari lozengesCC Madhya 19.179
uttama-michari lozengesCC Madhya 19.179
uttama-prasāda very palatable foodCC Antya 10.109
uttama-prasāda very palatable foodCC Antya 10.109
uttama-pūruṣaḥ the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 11.6.15
uttama-pūruṣaḥ the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 11.6.15
uttama-pūruṣau the Supreme PersonalitiesSB 10.43.20
uttama-pūruṣau the Supreme PersonalitiesSB 10.43.20
uttama-śloka my dear LordSB 11.11.26-27
uttama-śloka my dear LordSB 11.11.26-27
uttama-śloka O Lord, who are praised by selected versesSB 4.20.25
uttama-śloka O Lord, who are praised by selected versesSB 4.20.25
uttama-śloka O Lord, who are praised with excellent versesSB 6.19.14
uttama-śloka O Lord, who are praised with excellent versesSB 6.19.14
uttama-śloka of the Personality of GodheadSB 1.3.40
uttama-śloka of the Personality of GodheadSB 1.3.40
uttama-śloka of the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 4.15.23
uttama-śloka of the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 4.15.23
uttama-śloka one who is praised by selected poemsSB 1.19.19
uttama-śloka one who is praised by selected poemsSB 1.19.19
uttama-śloka the all-good Personality of GodheadSB 2.3.17
uttama-śloka the all-good Personality of GodheadSB 2.3.17
uttama-śloka the Personality of Godhead, of whom the Vedic hymns singSB 1.18.4
uttama-śloka the Personality of Godhead, of whom the Vedic hymns singSB 1.18.4
uttama-śloka the Personality of Godhead, who is glorified by transcendental prayersSB 1.1.19
uttama-śloka the Personality of Godhead, who is glorified by transcendental prayersSB 1.1.19
uttama-śloka the Supreme Lord, who is praised by excellent versesSB 11.2.4
uttama-śloka the Supreme Lord, who is praised by excellent versesSB 11.2.4
uttama-śloka the Supreme, who is praised by selected poetrySB 1.10.20
uttama-śloka the Supreme, who is praised by selected poetrySB 1.10.20
uttama-śloka-guṇa-anuvādaḥ discussion of the pastimes and glories of the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.12.13
uttama-śloka-guṇa-anuvādaḥ discussion of the pastimes and glories of the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.12.13
uttama-śloka-guṇa-anuvādaḥ discussion of the pastimes and glories of the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.12.13
uttama-śloka-guṇa-anuvādaḥ discussion of the pastimes and glories of the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.12.13
uttama-śloka-janeṣu among devotees who are simply attached to the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 6.11.27
uttama-śloka-janeṣu among devotees who are simply attached to the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 6.11.27
uttama-śloka-janeṣu among devotees who are simply attached to the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 6.11.27
uttama-śloka-lālasaḥ being captivated by the transcendental qualities, pastimes and association of the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Antya 6.137
uttama-śloka-lālasaḥ being captivated by the transcendental qualities, pastimes and association of the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Antya 6.137
uttama-śloka-lālasaḥ being captivated by the transcendental