t undādi a very small class of words headed by the word तुन्द to which the taddhita affix इल ( इलच् ) is added in the sense of possession ( मत्वर्थ ). The affix इल is optional and the other affixes इन् , इक and मत् are also added; तुन्दिल, तुन्दी, तुन्दिकः, तुन्दवान् ; similarly उदरिलः exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others confer, compare on P.V.2.117. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. nandas undara a Jain grammarian who wrote a gloss (अवचूरि) on the हैमशब्दानुशासनवृत्ति. puṇyas undaragāṇi a jain grammarian who has written a commentary work । on the धातुपाठ of हेमचन्द्र. sādhus undara a scholar of grammar who was a pupil of साधुकीर्तिप्रवर and who wrote a short work on grammar named उक्तिरत्नाकर. a (1) the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the per feminine. second. and first and third plural person. ; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा singular. et cetera, and others अ प्रत्ययात् confer, compare (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 et cetera, and others अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. exempli gratia, for example भवति, तुदति exempli gratia, for example ; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; et cetera, and others द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imper exempli gratia, for example and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् feminine. P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, confer, compare in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's et cetera, and others ; (9) Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ taddhita affix. in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the et cetera, and others of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73. inst. instrumental case. akriyāja not a result of a verbal activity; the expression is used in connection with qualities ( on a substance) as opposed to the activities found in it. अाधेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोs सत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः confer, compare on IV. 1.44. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). akhaṇḍaśābdabodha unitary import; the meaning of a sentence collectively understood. aṅgādhikāra a large section of Pāṇini's covering five quarters (VI.4.1 to the end of VII) in which the various operations undergone by crude bases before various affixes Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. are prescrib et cetera, and others edition ajbhakti See under स्वरभक्ति. aṇu the minimum standard of the guantity of sound, which is not perceived by the senses, being equal to one-fourth of a Mātrā; अणोस्तु तत्प्रमाणं स्यात् मात्रा तु चतुराणवात् ॥ see T.Pr. 21.3, confer, compare 1.60, A.Pr. III.65. Ṛk. tantra, however, defines अणु as half-a-mātrā. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. अर्धमणु ( R.T. 1.41 ). confer, compare atirikta surplus, redundant: confer, compare IV.20; see Kaiyaṭa on Nirukta of Yāska. V. 1.131. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). atyalpaspṛṣṭa having a very slight contact (with the organ producing sound),as in the case of the utterance of a vowel. atyādigaṇa the group of prepositions headed by अति which are compounded with a noun in the acc. case ; अत्यादयः क्रान्ताद्यर्थे द्वितीयया confer, compare om P. II. 2.18. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). adhikāra governing rule consisting of a word ( प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः exempli gratia, for example ) or words ( et cetera, and others ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे exempli gratia, for example ) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; et cetera, and others अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeat confer, compare The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if oppo edition These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; singular. सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥ confer, compare adhyātmādi name of a class of words headed by the word अध्यात्मन् to which the affix ठञ् is added in the sense of 'तत्र भवः' taddhita affix. found therein, or existing therein. e. g. आध्यात्मिकम्, आधिदैविकम्, id est, that is cf M.Bh. on IV.3.60. et cetera, and others anabhidhāna inability to express the meaning desir The expression न वा अनभिधानात् frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya referring to such words or phrases as could be formed by rules of grammar or could be used according to rules but,are not found in current use recognized by learned persons or scholars; edition तच्चानभिधानं यत्राप्तैरुक्तं तत्रैव, अन्यत्र तु यथालक्षणं भवत्येव Padamañj. on III. 2.1;also confer, compare अनभिधानाद् व्यधिकरणानां बहुव्रीहिर्न भविष्यति । यत्र त्वभिधानमस्ति तत्र वैयधिकरण्येपि भवत्येव समासः, कण्ठेकाल इति; confer, compare on II. 2.24: for examples of अनभिधान, sec also M.Bh.अभिधानलक्षणाः कृत्तद्धितसमासाः अनभिधानान्न भविष्यन्ति Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on III.3.19. also on III. 2.1. V.5, IV.2.1. See Kāś. on III,1.22, III.3.158. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). anabhihita not conveyed or expressed by another by any one of the four factors viz.verbal affix, kṛt affix,taddhita affix and compound. The rule अनभिहिते (P. II.3.I) and the following rules lay down the different case affixes in the sense of the different Kārakas or auxiliaries of the verbal activity, provided they are not shown or indicated in any one of the id est, that is mentioned four ways; e. g. see the acc. case in कटं करोति, the inst, case in दात्रेण लुनाति, the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. case in देवदत्ताय गां ददाति, the dative case case in ग्रामादा गच्छति, or the ablative case. case in स्थाल्यां पचति. locative case anavasthita undetermined, indefinite; See M.Bh. quoted on अनवस्थान; cf also आर्धधातुकीयाः सामान्येन भवन्ति अनवस्थितेषु प्रत्ययेषु । a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on I.1.56; III.1.4, VII.2.10, VII.4.9. The substitutes caused by an ārdhadhātuka affix are, in fact, effected by virtue of the prospective application of the ārdhadhātuka affix before its actual application. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). anitya (1) not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or paribhāṣā whose application is voluntary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obligatory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be us On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see edition on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). anirdaprathama an underived word: an ancient term used by writers of the Prātiśākhyas to signify 'original' words which cannot be subjected to निर्वचन. aniṣṭa an undesired consequence or result; अनिष्टं च प्राप्नोति इष्टे च न सिध्यति confer, compare on I.3.1 , also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). नानिष्टार्था शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः confer, compare on VI.1.2. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). anukarṣaṇa dragging (from the preceding rule) to the following rule taking the previous rule or a part of it as understood in the following rule or rules in order; the same as अनुवृत्ति; अनुकर्षणार्थश्चकारः Kāś. on II. 4.18, III.2.26, VII. 1.48: cf also the Paribhāṣā; चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र -that which is attracted from a preceding rule by the particle च is not valid in the rule that follows; confer, compare Pari. 78. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. anudātta non-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless. अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः id est, that is उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works; confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य confer, compare on I.2.29,30. C Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ feminine. III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ). Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) anunāda a fore-sound : a preceding additional sound which is looked upon as a fault: e. g. ह्वयामि whom pronounced as अह्वयामि. This sound is uttered before an initial sonant consonant. It is also uttered before initial aspirates or visarga. घोषवतामनुनादः पुरस्ताद् आदिस्थानां, क्रियते धारणं वा । सोष्मोष्माणामनुनादोप्यनादः confer, compare XIV.18,19. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) anunāsika (a letter) uttered through the nose and mouth both, as different from anusvāra which is uttered only through the nose. मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिकःP.I.1.8, and confer, compare thereon. The anunāsika or nasal letters are the fifth letters of the five classes ( Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न्, म् ) as also vowels अ, इ, उ and semivowels when so pronounced, as ordinarily they are uttered through the mouth only; ( id est, that is अँ, आँ, exempli gratia, for example or य्यँ, व्वँ, ल्लँ et cetera, and others in सय्यँन्ता, सव्वँत्सरः, सँल्लीनः et cetera, and others ) The अनुनासिक or nasalized vowels are named रङ्गवर्ण and they are said to be consisting of three mātras. et cetera, and others अष्टौ आद्यानवसानेsप्रगृह्यान् आचार्या आहुरनुनासिकान् स्वरान् । तात्रिमात्रे शाकला दर्शयन्ति confer, compare I.63.64; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also अप्रग्रहाः समानाक्षराणि अनुनासिकानि एकेषाम् T. Pr XV.6. Trivikrama, a commentator on the confer, compare Sūtras, explains अनुनासिक as अनु पश्चात् नासिकास्थानं उच्चारणं एषां इत्यनुनासिकाः । पूर्वं मुखस्थानमुच्चारणं पश्चान्नासिकास्थानमुच्चारणमित्यर्थः । अनुग्रहणात्केवलनासिकास्थानोच्चारणस्य अनुस्वारस्य नेयं संज्ञा । and remarks further पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्धसंज्ञेयमन्वर्था । Com. by Tr. on Kat. I 1.13. Vowels which are uttered nasalized by Pāṇini in his works viz. सूत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra. are silent ones i. e. they are not actually found in use. They are put by him only for the sake of a complete utterance, their nasalized nature being made out only by means of traditional convention. e. g. एध, स्पर्ध et cetera, and others et cetera, and others उपदेशेSजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2; confer, compare also प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः Kāś on I.3.2. confer, compare anupradāna an effort outside the mouth in the production of sound at the different vocal organs such as कण्ठ, तालु which is looked upon as an external effort or bāhyaprayatna. अनुप्रदान is one of the three main factors in the production of sound which are ( 1 ) स्थान, ( 2 ) करण or आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न and ( 3 ) अनुप्रदान or बाह्यप्रयत्न; et cetera, and others स्थाकरणप्रयत्नेभ्यो वर्णा जायन्ते Cān. The commentator on confer, compare describes अनुप्रदान as the मूलकारण or उपादानकारण, the main cause in the production of articulate sound Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. अनुप्रदीयते अनेन वर्णः इति अनुप्रदानम्: cf also अनुप्रदीयते इत्यनुप्रदानं प्रयत्न इत्यर्थः; confer, compare on Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works. XIII. I. Generally two main varieties of बाह्यप्रयत्न are termed अनुप्रदान which are mentioned as (i) श्वासानुप्रदान (emission of breath) and नादानुप्रदान (resonance), the other varieties of it such as विवार, संवार, घोष, अघोष, अल्पप्राण, मह्मप्राण, उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित being called merely as बाह्यप्रयत्न. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) anubandha a letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् ) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् ( et cetera, and others going or disappearing) by Pāṇini ( literally उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् confer, compare I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, et cetera, and others अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, confer, compare Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughter Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. edition anuvidhi operation in conformity with what is found. The expression छन्दसि दृष्टानुविधिः is often found in the Mahābhāṣya: confer, compare on I.1.5, I.1.6, I.1.21, III.1.9, III.1.13, VI.1.6, VI.1.77, VI.1.79, VI. 4.128,VI.4.141, VIII.2.108. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). anusvāra see under अं a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. anaikāntika undetermined, indefinite एतद्प्यनैकान्तिकं यदल्पप्राणस्य सर्वोच्चैस्तन्महाप्राणस्य सर्वनीचै: on I.2.30, also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 1.37; not invariable, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). अनैकान्तिकं ज्ञापकम् confer, compare on VII.2.102, VIII.3.34 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). antaraṅga a highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himsel The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 feminine. 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). , it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken pl a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष). accusative case. antasthā also अन्तस्थः semi-vowel; see under अन्त:स्थ. feminine. antodātta a word with its last vowel accented acute. Roots, crude : noun bases and compound words generally have their last vowel accented acute; फिषः (प्रातिपदिकस्य ) अन्त उदात्तः स्यात् Phiṭ Sūtra 1-1; धातोः (P. VI.1.162} अन्त उदात्तः स्यात्; समासस्य ( P.VI.1.223) अन्त उदात्तः स्यात् । confer, compare anvarthaka given in accordance with the sense; generally applied to a technical term which is found in accordance with the sense conveyed by the constituent parts of it; e. g. सर्वनामसंज्ञा, महत्याः संज्ञायाः करणे एतत् प्रयोजनमन्वर्थसंज्ञा यथा विज्ञायेत confer, compare on P. I.1.23. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). anvavasarga relaxation or wide opening of the sound-producing organs as done for uttering a vowel of grave accent. अन्ववसर्गः गात्राणां विस्तृतता Tait. Pr. XXII.10. confer, compare ap (1) kṛt affix अ, in the sense of verbal activity (भाव) or any verbal relation (कारक) excepting that of an agent, (कर्तृ) applied to roots ending in ऋ or उ and the roots ग्रह्,वृ,दृ mentioned in P. III.3.58 and the following rules in preference to the usual affix घञ. et cetera, and others करः, गरः, शरः, यवः, लवः, पवः, ग्रहः, स्वनः etc, exempli gratia, for example P.III, 3.57-87 ; (2) compound-ending अप् applied to Bahuvrīhi compounds in the feminine gender ending with a Pūraṇa affix as also to Bahuvrīhi compounds ending with लोमन् preceded by अन्त् or वहिर् e. g. कल्याणीपञ्चमा रात्रयः, अन्तर्लोमः,बहिर्लोमः पटः confer, compare P. V. 4.116, 117. confer, compare apakarṣa (1) deterioration of the place or instrument of the production of sound resulting in the fault called निरस्त; स्थानकरणयेारपकर्षेण निरस्तं नाम दोष उत्पद्यते, confer, compare XIV.2; (2) drawing back a word or words from a succeeding rule of grammar to the preceding one; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) "वक्ष्यति तस्यायं पुरस्तादपकर्षः, confer, compare on II.2.8. (3) inferiority (in the case of qualities) न च द्रव्यस्य प्रकर्षापकर्षौ स्तः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). aprayukta not found in popular or current use, the words ऊष, तेर, चक्र exempli gratia, for example यद्यप्यप्रयुक्ता अवश्यं दीर्घसत्त्रवल्लक्षणेनानुविधेयाः et cetera, and others on I.1.1, also यथालक्षणमप्रयुक्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.I.24 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). aprayogin not-found in actual use among the people although mentioned in the śāstra-texts; a mute indicatory letter or letters. अप्रयोगी इत् Sāk. I.1.5 Hem I.1.37 Jain.I.2.3 and M.Bh. confer, compare on III.8.31. Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa. abhyāhata omission of any sound; a fault of utterance. अम् (1)a technical brief term in Panini's grammar including vowels, semivowels, the letter ह् and nasals; (2) a significant term for the accusative case showing change or substitution or modification: अं विकारस्य confer, compare I.28 explained as अमिति शब्दे विकारस्याख्या भवति । अमिति द्वितीय विभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् । (3) augment अ applied to the penultimate vowel of सृज् & दृश् (P. VI.1.58, 59 and VII.1.99) (4) substitute tor Ist Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. person. affix मिप्, by P.III.4.101 (5) Acc. singular. case affix अम् . singular. aluksamāsa a compound in which the case-affixes are not dropp The Aluk compounds are treated by Pāṇini in VI.3.I to VI.3.24. edition alaukikavigraha the dissolution of a compound not in the usual popular manner. e. g. राजपुरुष: dissolved as राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु, as contrasted with the लौकिकविग्रह viz. राज्ञः पुरुष: । see also अधिहरि dissolved as हरि ङि in the अलौकिकविग्रह. alpāctara having a smaller number of vowels in it; such a word is generally placed first in a Dvandva compound; cf अल्पाच्तरम्, P.II.2.34. अल्पाच्तरे पूर्वं भवति प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ अपाच्तर is the same as अल्पाच्क used in the प्रक्रियाकौमुदी or अल्पस्वरतर in Kātantra (Kāt, II.5.12). avagraha (1) separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originat exempli gratia, for example The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. ( edition II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।( confer, compare on IV.2.36); also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् ( confer, compare on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; exempli gratia, for example समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः ( confer, compare V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. avagrahavirāma the interval or pause after the utterance of the first member of a compound word when the members are uttered separately. This interval is equal to two moras according to Tait. Pr. while, it is equal to one mora according to the other Prātiśākhyas. avibhaktika without the application of a case termination.The term is used frequently in connection with such words as are found used by Pāṇini without any case-affix in his Sūtras; sometimes, such usage is explained by commentators as an archaic usage; अविभक्तिको निर्देशः । कृप उः रः लः । confer, compare I 1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 2; also Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. on I.1.3 ; III.1.36, VII.1.3 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). et cetera, and others aviravikanyāya a maxim mentioned by Patañjali in connection with the word आविक where the taddhita affix ठक् (इक), although prescribed after the word अवि in the sense of 'flesh of sheep' (अवेः मांसम्), is actually put always after the base अविक and never after अवि. The maxim shows the actual application of an affix to something allied to, or similar to the base, and not to the actual base as is sometimes found in popular use द्वयोः शब्दयोः समानार्थयोरेकेन विग्रहोऽपरस्मादुत्पत्तिर्भविष्यति अविरविकन्यायेन । तद्यथा अवेर्मांसमिति विगृह्य अविकशब्दादुत्पत्तिर्भवति । confer, compare on IV.1.88; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also confer, compare on IV.1.89; IV.2.60; IV.3.131,V.1.7,28; VI.2.11. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). avyapavṛkta unseparated, undivided, inseparable, mixed; नाव्यपवृक्तस्य अवयवे तद्विधिः यथा द्रव्येषु confer, compare on Siva-sutra 4.V.9 whereon Kaiyaṭa remarks व्यपवृक्तं भेदः । अव्यपवृक्तं अभिन्नबुद्धिविषयमेकत्वालम्बनज्ञानग्राह्यं समुदायरूपम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). avyaya indeclinable, invariant, not undergoing a change. Pāṇini has used the word as a technical term and includes in it all such words as स्वर्, अन्तर् , प्रातर् etc, or composite expressions like अव्ययीभावसमास, or such taddhitānta words as do not take all case affixes as also kṛdanta words ending in म् or ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. He gives such words in a long list of Sutras P. I.1.37 to 41; literally सदृशं त्रिषु लिङ्गेषु सर्वासु च विभक्तिषु । वचनेषु च सर्वेषु यन्न व्येति तदव्ययम् Kāś. on P.I.1.37. confer, compare avyayībhāva name of a compound so called on account of the words forming the compound, being similar to indeclinables: e. g. निर्मक्षिकम् , अधिहरि, यथामति, यावज्जीवम् ; et cetera, and others अनव्ययं अव्ययं भवतीत्यव्ययीभावः confer, compare on II.I.5. The peculiarity of the avyayībhāva compound is that the first member of the compound plays the role of the principal word; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानोऽव्ययीभावः confer, compare on II.1.6. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). avyutpanna underived, unanalysable; उणादयोऽव्युत्पन्नानि प्रा तिपदिकानि confer, compare I. 1.61 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 4: Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). Pari. 22. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. aśvaghāsādi compounds like अश्वघास which cannot be strictly correct as चतुथींसमास, but can be षष्ठीसमास if the word तदर्थ in the rule चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः be understood in the sense of 'meant for' a particular thing which is to be formed out of it: विकृतिः प्रकृत्येति चेदश्वघासादीनामुपसंख्यानम् M.Bh. on II.1.36. confer, compare aṣṭādhyāyī name popularly given to the Sūtrapāṭha of Pāṇini consisting of eight books (adhyāyas) containing in all 3981 Sūtras,as found in the traditional recital, current at the time of the authors of the Kāśika. Out of these 398l Sūtras, seven are found given as Vārtikas in the Mahābhāṣya and two are found in Gaṇapāṭha.The author of the Mahābhāṣya has commented upon only 1228 of these 3981 sūtras. Originally there were a very few differences of readings also, as observed by Patañjali ( see Mbh on I.4.1 ); but the text was fixed by Patañjali which, with a few additions made by the authors of the Kāśika,as observed , has traditionally come down to the present day. The a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. is believed to be one of the six Vedāṅga works which are committed to memory by the reciters of Ṛgveda. The text of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is recited without accents. The word अष्टाध्यायी was current in Patañjali's time; Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. शिष्टज्ञानार्था अष्टाध्यायी confer, compare on VI. 3.109. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). as (1) case affix of the nominative and accusative plural and the ablative and genitive singular (जस् , शस्, ङसि and ङस् ) (2) taddhita affix अस् ( असि ) added to पूर्व, अधर and अवर, by P.V.3.39: (3) compoundending अस् ( असिच् ) applied to the words प्रजा and मेधा standing at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound (P.V.4.122): (4) Uṇādi affix अस् prescribed by the rule सर्वधातुभ्योऽसुन् and subsequent rules (628-678) to form words such as मनस्,सरस् (5) ending syllable अस्, with or without sense, of words in connection with which special operations are given in grammar; et cetera, and others P.VI.4.14; confer, compare also अनिनस्मन्ग्रहणान्यर्थवता चानर्थकेन च तदन्तविधिं प्रयोजयन्ति Par.Śek. Pari. 16. confer, compare asaṃpratyaya failure to understand the sense; इतरथा ह्यसंप्रत्ययोऽकृत्रिमत्वाद्यथा लोके confer, compare on I.1.23 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 3. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). asamartha (1) syntactically not connected, e. g. राज्ञः and पुरुषः in the sentence भार्या राज्ञः पुरुषो देवदत्तस्य (2) unable to enter into a compound word, the term is used in connection with a word which cannot be compounded with another word, although related in sense to it, and connected with it by apposition or by a suitable case affix, the reason being that it is connected more closely with another word: सापेक्षमसमर्थं भवति confer, compare II.1.1.; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). the words कष्टं and श्रितः in the sentence महत् कष्टं श्रितः. exempli gratia, for example asamarthasamāsa a compound of two words, which ordinarily is inadmissible, one of the two words being more closely connected with a third word, but which takes place on the authority of usage, there being no obstacle in the way of understanding the sense to be conveyed; e. g. देवदत्तस्य गुरुकुलम् । देवदत्तस्य दासभार्या । असूर्यंपश्यानि मुखानि, अश्राद्धभोजी ब्राह्मणः on II.1.1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). asamasta not compounded, not entered into a compound with another word; समासे असमस्तस्य confer, compare II.3.13. Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. asamāsa (1) absence of a compound. उपसर्गादसमासेपि णोपदेशस्य P. VIII.4.14; (2) an expression conveying the sense of a compound word although standing in the form of separate words: चार्थे द्वन्द्ववचने असमासेपि वार्थसंप्रत्ययादनिष्टं प्राप्नोति । अहरहर्नयमानो गामश्वं पुरुषं पशुम् on II.2.29. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). asiddha invalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidat Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the edition invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given confer, compare . Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. asvapadavigraha a term used for those compounds, the dissolution of which cannot be shown by the members of the compound: e. g. सुमुखी; भवति वै कश्चिदस्वपदविग्रहोपि बहुव्रीहिः । तद्यथा । शोभनं मुखमस्याः सुमुखीति । M.Bh. on V.4.5. confer, compare ākāṅkṣā expectancy with regard to sense-completion, generally in compounds such as साकाङ्क्ष, निराकाङ्क्ष et cetera, and others अस्त्यस्मिन्नाकाङ्क्षा इत्यतः साकाङ्क्षम् confer, compare on III.2.114. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). aākṛtigaṇa a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operation; श्रेण्यादयः कृतादिभिः । श्रेण्यादयः पठ्यन्ते कृतादिराकृतिगणः confer, compare on II.1.59. Haradatta defines the word as प्रयोगदर्शनेन आकृतिग्राह्यो गणः अाकृतिगण:। अत्र अादिशब्दः प्रकारे । अाकृतिगणेपि उदाहरणरूपेण कतिपयान् पठति कृत मत इत्यादि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.I.59 ; Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. confer, compare of Kaiyaṭa also on II.1. 59.Some of the gaṇas mentioned by Pāṇini are ākṛtigaṇas, Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa. अर्शआदिगण, मूलविभुजादिगण, स्नात्व्यादिगण, शिवादिगण, पचादिगण, and others. exempli gratia, for example ākṣipta (1) taken as understood, being required to complete the sense; क्विबपि अाक्षिप्तो भवति confer, compare on III.2. 178;(2) a term used for the circumflex accent or स्वरित as it is uttered by a zig-zag motion of the organ in the mouth caused by the air producing sound; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). आक्षेपो नाम तिर्यग्गमनं गात्राणां वायुनिमित्तं तेन य उच्यते स स्वरितः Uvaṭa on confer, compare III. 1. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) aākhyāta verbal form, verb; भावप्रधानमाख्यातं सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि confer, compare I.1; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्यातोपसर्गनिपाताश्च Nirukta of Yāska. I.1. Āhnika 1 ; also A.Prāt. XII. 5, अाकार अाख्याते पदादिश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.2.37 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 2, आख्यातमाख्यातेन क्रियासातत्ये Sid. Kau. on II.1.72, क्रियावाचकमाख्यातं Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). V.1; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. भारद्वाजकमाख्यातं भार्गवं नाम भाष्यते । भारद्वाजेन दृष्टत्वादाख्यातं भारद्वाजगोत्रम् V. Prāt. VIII. 52; confer, compare also Athar. Prāt.I.I.12, 18; 1.3.3,6; II.2.5 where ākhyāta means verbal form. The word also meant in ancient days the root also,as differentiated from a verb or a verbal form as is shown by the lines तन्नाम येनाभिदधाति सत्त्वं, तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातुः R.Pr.XII.5 where 'आख्यात' and 'धातु' are used as synonyms As the root form such as कृ, भृ confer, compare as distinct from the verbal form, is never found in actual use, it is immaterial whether the word means root or verb.In the passages quoted et cetera, and others from the Nirukta and the Mahābhāṣya referring to the four kinds of words, the word ākhyāta could be taken to mean root (धातु) or verb (क्रियापद). The ākhyāta or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being and bccoming while nouns (नामानि) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the activities and things in this world but with every process and entity; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. पूर्वापूरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे Nir.I.;अस्तिभवतिविद्यतीनामर्थः सत्ता । अनेककालस्थायिनीति कालगतपौर्वापर्येण क्रमवतीति तस्याः क्रियात्वम् । Laghumañjūṣā. When a confer, compare affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a word ending with a kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of bhāva or verbal activity is treated as a noun and regularly declined; kṛt (affix). कृदभिहितो भावे द्रव्यवद् भवति M.Bh. on II.2.19 and III. 1.67, where the words गति, व्रज्या, पाक and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words ending with confer, compare affixes such as कर्तुं, कृत्वा, and others, the modern grammarians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be,in a way, looked upon as ākhyātas; kṛt (affix). अव्ययकृतो भावे Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa. confer, compare aāgantuka adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form literally वदि, एधि, सर्ति exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 confer, compare 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः confer, compare on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word. Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. aātmanebhāṣa a technical term used for such roots as speak for the agent himself; the term अात्मनेभाष means the same as the term अात्मनेपदिन्. The term अात्मनेभाष is not mentioned by Pāṇini; but the writer of the Vārtikas explains it, आत्मनेभाषपरस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI.3.7 and 8 confer, compare 1; Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). also आत्मनेपदिनश्च धातवो वैयाकरणैरात्मनेभाषशब्देन व्यवह्रियन्ते,Kaiyaṭa on VI.3.7.The term is found in the Atharva-Prātiśākhya. III. 4.7. It cannot be said whether the term came in use after Pāṇini or, although earlier, it belonged to some school other than that of Pāṇini or, Pāṇini put into use the terms Ātmanepada and Parasmaipada for the affixes as the ancient terms Ātmanebhāṣa and Parasmaibhāṣa were in use for the roots. confer, compare aānaṅ substitute आन् in the place of the last letter (ऋ) of the first member of dvandva compounds of words meaning deities or of words showing blood-relationship which end with the vowel ऋ; होतापोतारौ, मातापितरो exempli gratia, for example P.VI.3.25, 26. confer, compare ānantarya (1) close proximity; absence of any intermediary element generally of the same nature: अनन्तरस्य भावः आनन्तर्यम्; नाजानन्तर्ये वहिष्ट्वप्रक्लृप्तिः confer, compare I.4.2. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 21: Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). Pari. 51. This close proximity of one letter or syllable or so, with another, is actually Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. phonetically required and generally so found out also, but sometimes such proximity is theoretically not existing as the letter required for proximity is technically not present there by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्. In such cases, a technical absence is not looked upon as a fault. id est, that is कचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्ये शास्त्रकृतमनानन्तर्ये यथा ष्टुत्वे, क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतं यथा जश्त्वे । यत्र कुतश्चिदेवानन्तर्यं तदाश्रयिष्यामः confer, compare on VIII.3.13. (2) close connection by mention together at a common place Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). ; et cetera, and others सर्वाद्यानन्तर्यं कार्यार्थम् confer, compare on I.1.27. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). ānupūrvyasaṃhitā the saṁhitā-pāṭha or recital of the running Vedic text in accordance with the constituent words; शुनः शेपं चित् निदितम् or नरा शंसं वा पूषणम्, as opposed to the अनानुपूर्व्यसंहिता which is actually found in the traditional recital exempli gratia, for example शुनश्चिच्छेपं निदितम् Ṛk saṁh. V 2.7 or नरा वा शंसं पूषणम् Ṛk saṁh. X.64.3. See R. Prāt. II 43. exempli gratia, for example aāpatti (1) production; resulting of something into another; change; cf दन्त्यस्य मूर्धन्यापत्तिः नतिः मूर्धन्यापत्तिः मूर्धन्यभावः V. Prāt. I. 42 and Uvaṭa's thereon; cf also यमापत्तिं explained as यमभावं commentary VI. 9. (2) modification; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) अापद्यते श्वासतां नादतां वा R.Pr.XIII.1.; (3) contingency, undesired result. confer, compare āpatya patronymic affix such as अण् and others. The term अापत्य, which is the same as the usual term अपत्य in तस्यापत्यम् P.IV.I, is found sometimes used in the Vārttikas and in the Mahābhāṣya; आयत्याज्जीवद्वंश्यात्स्वार्थे द्वितीयो युवसंज्ञ: P.IV.1.163 Vārt 6. confer, compare aāpya to be obtained by an activity: (the same as vyāpya). The term is used in connection with the object of a verb which is to be obtained by the verbal activity. The word अाप्य is found used in the sense of Karman or object in the grammars of Jainendra, Śākaṭāyana, Cāndra and Hemacandra; Cāndra II I. 43; Jainendra I. 2.119; Śāk.IV.3.120: confer, compare III.3.31. Hence, the term साप्य is used for a transitive root in these grammars. Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. aābhyantaraprayatna internal effort made in producing a sound, as contrasted with the external One called बाह्यप्रयत्न. There are four kinds of internal efforts described in the Kāsikāvrtti.; चत्वार आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्नाः सवर्णसंज्ञायामाश्रीयन्ते स्पृष्टता, ईषत्स्पृष्टता, संवृतता, विवृतता चेति । Kās. on P. 1.1.9. See also यत्नो द्विधा । आभ्यन्तरो बाह्यश्च confer, compare Si. Kau. on I.1.9. et cetera, and others āmreḍitasamāsa an iterative compound: आम्रेडितसमासे तु । A. Prāt. III.1.5. confer, compare aāyāma tension of the limbs or organs producing sound, which is noticed in the utterance of a vowel which is accented acute ( उदात्त ) अायामो गात्राणां दैघ्र्यमाकर्षणं वा; on Tait. Prāt. XXII. 9; commentary ऊर्ध्वगमनं गात्राणाम् वायुनिमित्तं U confer, compare on R. Prāt. III.1; 1. varia lectio, another reading, also ऊर्ध्वगमनं शरीरस्य confer, compare on Vāj. Prāt I.31; commentary also आयामो दारुण्यमणुता रवत्येत्युच्चैःकराणि शाब्दस्य M.Bh. on P. I.2.29. confer, compare ārdhadhātuka a term used in contrast to the term सार्वधातुक for such verbal and kṛt affixes, as are not personal endings of verbs nor marked with the mute letter श् तिङ्शित् सार्वधातुकम् । आर्धधातुकं शेषः। P.III.4.113 and 114. The personal endings of verbs in the perfect tense and the benedictive mood are termed ārdhadhātuka, confer, compare P. III. 4.115, 116; while both the terms are promiscuously found utilised in the Vedic Literature; confer, compare P. III. 4. 117. The main utility of the ārdhadhātuka term is the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to the ārdhadhātuka affixes. The term आर्धधातुका was in use in works of the old Vaiyākaraṇas; confer, compare अथवा आर्धधातुकासु इति वक्ष्यामि कासु आर्धधातुकासु । उक्तिषु युक्तिषु रूढिषु प्रतीतिषु श्रुतिषु संज्ञासु M.Bh. on II. 4.35. It cannot be said how the term ārdhadhātuka originat confer, compare Probably such affixes or pratyayas, like the kṛt affixes generally, as could be placed after certain roots only were called ārdhadhātuka, as contrasted with the verbal and the present participle affixes which were termed sārvadhātuka on account of their being found in use after every root. edition ārṣa derived from the holy sages; founded on sacred tradition, such as the Vedāṅgas; कृत्स्नं च वेदाड्गमनिन्द्यमार्षम् R. Prāt. XIV 30. The word is explained as स्वयंपाठ by the confer, compare on Vāj Prāt. IX.2I, and as Vaidika saṁdhi on X.l3. Patañjali has looked upon the pada-pāṭha or Pada-text of the Saṁhitās of the Vedas, as anārṣa, as contrasted with the Saṁhitā text which is ārṣa; commentary आर्ष्याम् in the sense संहितायाम् R. Prāt. II.27; confer, compare also पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् M.Bh. on III.1.109. confer, compare āsya (1) place of articulation, the mouth, अत्यन्त्यनेन वर्णान् इति अास्यम् confer, compare on I.1.9; (2) found in the place of articulation; e g. the effort made for the utterance of words Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). आस्ये भवमास्यम् confer, compare on I.1.9, also स्पृष्टादिप्रयत्नपञ्चकमास्यम् Laghuvṛtti on Śāk. I.1.6. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). āhitāgnyādi a class of compound words headed by the word आहिताग्नि in which the past passive voice. is optionally placed first. participle. आहिताग्निः अग्नयाहितः; जातपुत्रः पुत्रजातः The class आहिताम्न्यादि is stated to be आकृतिगण, exempli gratia, for example Kāś.on P.II.2.37. confer, compare i (1) the vowel इ, representing all its eighteen forms viz. short, long protracted, acute, grave, circumflex, pure and nasalised; इ in यस्येति च P.VI.4.128;(2) Uṅādi affix ई(3)tad-affix इच्(इ)applied to Bahuvrihi compounds in the sense of exchange of action or as seen in words like द्विदण्डि exempli gratia, for example केशाकेशि, दण्डादण्डि, द्विमुसलि exempli gratia, for example et cetera, and others इच् कर्मव्यतिहारे P.V.4. 127,also V.4.128; (4) confer, compare affix कि (इ) kṛt (affix). उपसर्गे घोः किः P.III.3.92; (5) augment इट् (इ); see इट् (6) conjugational affix इट् of the 1st confer, compare person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada ikan affix इक applied to compound words with पद as the latter member taddhita affix. पूर्वपदिक exempli gratia, for example इकन्पदोत्तरपदात् P.IV.2.60 confer, compare Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). iṅgya a separable word as opposed to अनिङ्ग्य; part of a compound word which is separated or may be separated from the remaining part when the word is split up into its constituent parts. Generally the word is applied to the first part of a compound word when it is split up in the recital of the padapāṭha. The 'iṅgya' word is shown by a pause or avagraha after it which is shown in writing by the sign (ऽ): इङ्गयेत विभागेन चाल्यते इति इङ्गयम् । इङ्गयमिति विभागपदस्य संशा confer, compare on Tait. Prāt. 1.48. सावग्रहं पदमिङ्गयम् Com.on T.Pr. I.48. commentary ic (1) short wording or pratyāhāra for vowels except अ. इजोदश्च गुरुमतोSनृच्छः P.III.1.36; cf also VI. I.104, VI.3.68. VIII.4.31,32; (2) Samāsānta affix इ after Bahuvrīhi compounds showing a mutual exchange of actions. confer, compare केशाकेशि, दण्डादण्डि exempli gratia, for example इच् कर्मव्यतिहारे P.V.4. 127 also 128. confer, compare it (1) a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, 1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; ( Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । confer, compare P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, et cetera, and others P.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compare P.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past confer, compare affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; participle. P.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्; confer, compare P.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compare VII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist, confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past confer, compare participle. P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compare P.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel; confer, compare P.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed; confer, compare P.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compare P I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the confer, compare affix ई (ङीप्) feminine. P.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compare P.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel. confer, compare P.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि, confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217，ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compare P.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the confer, compare affix ई ( ङीप् ) feminine. P.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation confer, compare सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 exempli gratia, for example (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: et cetera, and others शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34. confer, compare itac , affix इत in the sense of 'found or produced in', which is afixed to words तारका,पुष्प, मुकुल and others; taddhita affix. तारकित, मुकुलित, सुखित, दुःखित exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others तदस्य संजातं तारकादिभ्य इतच् P.V.2.36. confer, compare itaretarayoga mutual relationship with each other. Out of the four senses of the indeclinable च viz. समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार, the Dvandva compound is formed of words connected in the last two ways and not in the first two ways. The instances of द्वन्द्व in the sense of इतरेतरयोग are धवखदिरपलाशाः, प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ etc; Kāś.on P. II.2.29 confer, compare also प्लक्षश्च न्यग्रोधश्चेत्युक्ते गम्यत एतत्प्लक्षोपि न्यग्रोधसहायो न्यग्रोधोपि प्लक्षसहाय इति M.Bh. on II.2.29; confer, compare also इतरेतरयोगः स यदा उद्रिक्तावयवभेदो भवति confer, compare Pari. 16. Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti indumitra author of अनुन्यास, a commentary on , the well-known commentary on the Kāśikavṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi. Many quotations from the Anunyāsa are found in the Paribhāṣāvṛtti of Sīradeva. The word इन्दु is often used for इन्दुमित्र; Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. एतस्मिन् वाक्ये इन्दुमैत्रेययोः शाश्वतिको विरोध: Sīra. Pari. 36. confer, compare indra name of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya confer, compare by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127. edition īṣacchvāsa an external effort ( बाह्य-प्रयत्न) in the production of sound charactorized by the emission of breath, when the cavity made by the cords of the throat is kept wide apart, as found in the utterance of the consonants श्, ष् and स. īṣatspṛṣṭa an external effort ( बाह्यप्रयत्न) in the production of sound charactorized by only a slight contact of the cords of the throat, made in the utteranee ofsemi-vowels ईषत्स्पृष्टमन्तःस्थानाम् S.K. on P.I.1.9. confer, compare īṣadasamāpti stage of the quality of a thing or of an undertaking which is almost complete,to show which,the tad-affixes कल्प, देश्य and देशीय are applied to a word: पटुकल्पः,पटुदेश्यः; पटुदेशीयः, पचतिकल्पम्, जल्पतिकल्पम्, exempli gratia, for example P, V.3.67. confer, compare īṣannāda an external effort characterized by slight resonance or sounding of throat cords when they slightly touch one another. īhā effort made for the production of sound; अापद्यते श्वासतां नादतां वा वक्त्रीहायां उभयं वान्तरौभौ । ईहायाम् चेष्टायाम R.Pr.XIII.1. confer, compare ukta prescribed, taught, lit, said (already). उक्तं वा is a familiar expression in the Mahābhāṣya and the Vārttikas referring usually to something already express Sometimes this expression in the Mahābhāṣya, referring to something which is not already expressed, but which could be found subsequently expressed, leads to the conclusion that the Mahābhāṣyakāra had something like a 'Laghubhāṣya' before him at the time of teaching the Mahābhāṣya. See Kielhorn's Kātyāyana and Patañjali, also Mahābhāṣya D.E. S.Ed. Vol. VII, pages 71, 72. edition uktipada उक्तिपदानि a short anonymous treatise on case-relations, compounds written mostly in Gujarati. et cetera, and others uktiratnākara' a short grammar work, written by साधुसुन्दर, explaining declension, cases and their meanings, compounds, and giving a list of Prākṛta words with their Sanskrit equivalents. et cetera, and others ukthādi a class of words headed by the word उक्थ to which the taddhita affix इक (ठक् ) is applied in the sense of 'one who studies and understands'; उक्थमधीते वेद वा औक्थिकः, similarly लौकायतिकः Kāś. on P.IV.2.60. confer, compare uccarita pronounced or uttered; the phrase उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः is used in connection with the mute indicatory letters termed इत् in Pāṇini's grammar, as these letters are not actually found in use in the language and are therefore supposed to vanish immediately after their purpose has been serv The phrase 'उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनोSनुबन्धा:' has been given as a Paribhāṣā by edition (Pari.11), in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 14), in the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa (Pari.54) and also in the Kalāpa Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 71). Patañjali has used the expression उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः in connection with ordinary letters of a word, which have existence for a moment and which also vanish immediately after they have been uttered; Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana. उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः खल्वपि वर्णा: ...न वर्णो वर्णस्य सहायः confer, compare on I.4. 109. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). uccāraṇa pronunciation, enunciation (in the Śāstra). The phrase उच्चारणसामर्थ्यात् is often found used in the Mahābhāṣya and elsewhere in connection with the words of Pāṇini, everyone of which is believed to , have a purpose or use in the Śāstra, which purpose, if not clearly manifest, is assigned to it on the strength (सामर्थ्य) of its utterance; उच्चारणसामर्थ्यादत्र ( हिन्येाः ) उत्वं न भविष्यति M.Bh. on III.4.89 V.2; confer, compare also M.Bh. on IV.4.59, VI.4.163, VII.1.12,50, VII.2.84, In a few cases, a letter is found used by Pāṇini which cannot be assigned any purpose but which has been put there for facility of the use of other letters. Such letters are said to be उच्चारणार्थ; confer, compare जग्धि: । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:। नानुबन्धः । Kāś. on II.4.36.च्लि लुडि. । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:; चकारः स्वरार्थः । Kāś, on III.1. 43. The expressions मुखसुखार्थः and श्रवणार्थः in the Mahābhāṣya mean the same as उच्चारणार्थः. confer, compare uṇādi affixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; et cetera, and others Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriv confer, compare The derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; edition उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. confer, compare on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; et cetera, and others confer, compare on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). uṇādiprātipadika word form or crude base, ending with an affix of the uṇ class, which is looked upon as practically underived, the affixes un and others not being looked upon as standard affixes applied with regular meanings attached to them and capable of causing operations to the preceding base as prescribed by rules of grammar; उणादयोS व्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि । व्युत्पन्नानीति शाकटायनरीत्या । पाणिनेस्त्वव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष एवेति शब्देन्दुशेखरे निरूपितम्. Pari. Śek. on Paribhāṣa 22. confer, compare uttara (1) following, subsequent, e. g. उत्तरपद, the latter part of a compound word; (2) end of a word, पदान्त; उत्तरे पदान्ते वर्तमानः Com. on T.Pr. III.1. confer, compare uttarapada the latter member or portion of a compound word as contrasted with पूर्वपद; पतिरुत्तरपदमाद्युदात्तम् confer, compare II. 3. 11; cf also अलुगुत्तरपदे P. VI. 3.1. Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. udayakīrti author of a treatise giving rules for the determination of the pada or padas of roots; the treatise is named पदव्यवस्थासूत्रकारिकाटीका He was a Jain grammarian, and one of the pupils of Sādhusundara. udātta the acute accent defined by Pāṇini in the words उचैरुदात्त: P.I.2. 29. The word उच्चैः is explained by Patañjali in the words 'आयामो दारुण्यं अणुता स्वस्य इति उचैःकराणि शब्दस्य' where आयाम (गात्रनिग्रह restriction of the organs), दारुण्य (रूक्षता rudeness ) and स्वस्य अणुता ( कण्ठस्य संवृतता closure of the glottis) are given as specific characteristics of the acute accent. The acute is the prominent accent in a word-a simple word as also a compound word-and when a vowel in a word is possessed of the acute accent, the remaining vowels have the अनुदात्त or the grave accent. Accent is a property of vowels and consonants do not possess any independent accent. They possess the accent of the adjoining vowel connected with it. The acute accert corresponds to what is termed 'accent' in English and other languages. udāttanirdeśa conventional understanding about a particular vowel in the wording of a sūtra being marked acute or Udātta, when ordinarily it should not have been so, to imply that a Paribhāṣā is to be applied for the interpretation of that Sūtra: उदात्तनिर्देशात्सिद्धम् P.VI.1.13 confer, compare 14, also Sīra. Pari. 112. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). upagraha a term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's . The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मनेपदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेशव्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him. Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. upadeśin such a word as is found in the original instruction. upadhmānīya a letter or a phonetic element substituted for a visarga followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class. Visarga is simply letting the breath out of the mouth. Where the visarga is followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class, its pronunciation is coloured by labial utterance. This coloured utterance cannot be made independently; hence this utterance called 'उपध्मानीय' ( similar to a sound blown from the mouth ) is not put in, as an independent letter, in the वर्णसमाम्नाय attributed to महेश्वर. Patañjali, however, has referred to such dependent utterances by the term अयोगवाहवर्ण. See अयेागवाह; xक इति जिह्वामूलीयः । जिह्वामूलेन जन्यत्वात् । xप इत्युपध्मानीयः । उपध्मानेन जन्यत्वात्. अयेगवाह is also called अर्धविसर्ग. See अर्धविसर्ग. confer, compare upapada a word placed near; an adjoining word. In Pāṇini's grammar, the term उपपद is applied to such words as are put in the locative case by Pāṇini in his rules prescribing kṛt affixes in rules from 1 II. 1, 90 to III. 4 end; literally तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम् P.III.1.92; confer, compare कर्मणि in कर्मण्यण् P. III.2.1. The word is also used in the sense of an adjoining word connected in sense. e. g. युष्मद्युपपदे as also प्रहासे च मन्योपपदे P.I.4.105,106; exempli gratia, for example also क्रियार्थायां क्रियायामुपपदे धातोर्भविष्यति काले तुमुन्ण्वुलौ भवतः Kāś. on P.III.3.10; confer, compare also इतरेतरान्योन्योपपदाच्च P.I.3.10, मिथ्योपपदात् कृञोभ्यासे P.I.3.71, as also उपपदमतिङ् P.II.2.19; and गतिकारकोपपदात्कृत् P. VI.2.139. Kaiyaṭa on P.III.1. 92 confer, compare 2 explains the word उपपद as उपोच्चारि or उपोच्चारितं पदं उपपदम्. The word उपपद is found used in the Prātiśākhya literature where it means a word standing near and effecting some change: Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). च वा ह अह एव एतानि चप्रभृतीनि यान्युपपदानि उक्तानि आख्यातस्य विकारीणिo Uvaṭa on confer, compare VI. 23. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. upapadasamāsa the compound of a word, technically termed as उपपद by Pāṇini according to his definition of the word in III.1.92., with another word which is a verbal derivative; कुम्भकारः, नगरकारः Here technically the compound of the words कुम्भ, नगर confer, compare which are upapadas is formed with कार,before a case-termination is added to the nominal base कार; et cetera, and others गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः confer, compare Pari. 75. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. upamā a well-known term in Rhetorics meaning the figure of speech ' simile ' or ' comparison '. The word is often found in the Nirukta in the same sense; अथात उपमाः | 'यत् अतत् तत्सदृशम्'इति गार्ग्यः । Nir III.13. Generally an inferior thing is compared to another that is superior in quality. confer, compare upamāna standard of comparison. The word is found in the Pāṇinisūtra उपमानानि सामान्यवचनैः P.II.I.55 where the Kāśikāvṛtti explains it as उपमीयतेऽनेनेत्युपमानम् । upamita an object which is compar The word is found in Pāṇinisūtra उपमितं व्याघ्रादिभिः P.II.1.56, where the Kāśikā paraphrases it by the word उपमेय and illustrates it by the word पुरुष in पुरुषव्याघ्र. edition upalakṣaṇa implication, indication: a thing indicatory of another thing. The term is very frequently found in commentary works in connection with a word which signifies something beyond it which is similar to it; the indication is generally inclusive; Kāśikā on भीस्म्योर्हेतुभये P.I.3.68 भयग्रहणमुपलक्षणार्थं विस्मयोपि तत एव । as also मन्त्रग्रहणं तु च्छन्दस उपलक्षणार्थम् Kāś. on II.4.80. The verbal forms of लक्ष् and उपलक्ष् as also the words लक्षयितुम्, लक्षणीय, लक्षित confer, compare possess the sense of 'expressing the meaning not primarily, but secondarily by indication or implication'. et cetera, and others upaśleṣa immediate contact, as for instance, of one word with another: शब्दस्य च शब्देन कोन्योभिसंबन्धो भवितुमर्हति अन्यदत उपश्लेषात् । M.Bh. on VI. 1.72. The word उपश्लिष्ट is also found in the Mahābhāṣya in the same context. confer, compare upasaṃkhyāna mention, generally of the type of the annexation of some words to words already given, or of some limiting conditions or additions to what has been already stat The word is often found at the end of the statements made by the Vārttikakāra on the sūtras of Pāṇini.: edition P.I.1.29 confer, compare 1: I.1.36 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). The words वाच्य and वक्तव्य are also similarly us et cetera, and others The word is found similarly used in the Mahābhāṣya also very frequently. edition upasamasta compounded together, joined together by special grammatical connection called समास; न केवल; पथिशब्दः स्त्रियां वर्तते । उपसमस्तस्तर्हि वर्तते confer, compare on VII.1.1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 18. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). upasarga preposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': सोपसर्गेषु नामसु confer, compare XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; et cetera, and others उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् confer, compare I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, Nirukta of Yāska. ), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see et cetera, and others I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Nirukta of Yāska. 7 and Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa. thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attach Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa. It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः edition XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 15, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. upasthita a word used father technically in the sense of the word इति which is used in the Krama and other recitals when Vedic reciters show separately the two words compounded together by uttering the compound word first, then the word इति and then the two compound words, सुश्लोक ३ इति सु-श्लोक। विभावसो इति विभा-वसो. The Kāśikā defines the word उपस्थित as समुदायादवच्छिद्य पदं येन स्वरूपे अवस्थाप्यते तद् उपस्थितम् । इतिशब्दः । Kāś.on VI.1.129. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya explains the word rather differently, but in the same context.The word after which इति is placed is called upasthita exempli gratia, for example the word बाहू in बाहू इति or विभावसौ in विभावसो इति as contrasted with स्थित exempli gratia, for example the word without इति id est, that is बाहू or विभावसो, as also contrasted with स्थितोपस्थित exempli gratia, for example the whole word विभावसो इति विभाsवसो which is also called संहित or मिलित; (2) occurring, present; cf कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् . यत्र कार्यं तत्रोपस्थितं द्रष्टव्यम् । Par.Śek. Pari.3. id est, that is upācāra change of Visarga into s (स्); sibilation of Visarga, e. g. ब्रह्मणः पतिः = ब्रह्मणस्पतिः. The words उपचार and उपाचरित are found used in the same sense by ancient Grammarians. See उपचार; समापाद्यं नाम वदन्ति षत्वं, तथा णत्वं सामवशांश्च सन्धीन् । ...उपाचारं लक्षणतश्च सिद्धम् , आचार्या व्यालिशाकल्यगार्ग्याः confer, compare VIII.12. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) upānta near the last; penultimate. The word is generally found used in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa. literally upāntya see उपान्त; the word is generally found used in the grammars of Śākaṭāyana and Hemacandra. ubhayatobhāṣa speaking or showing both the padas or voices; possessed of both the padas viz. the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada. The word is found commonly used in the Dhātupaṭha of Pāṇini. literally ubhayaniyama a restriction understood in both the ways; सिद्धं तूभयनियमात् उभयनियमोयम् । प्रकृतिपर एव प्रत्ययः प्रयोक्तव्यः, प्रत्ययपरैव च प्रकृतिरिति । confer, compare on P. III.1.2, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 11; cf also Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). on VI.2.148. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). ubhayapada (1) double voice--the Parasmaipada as well as the Ātmanepada; (2) both the words or members (in a compound); उभयपदार्थप्रधानो द्वन्द्वः Kāś on P.I.2.57. confer, compare uraḥprabhṛti a class of words headed by the word उरस् to which the samāsānta affix क (कप् ) is added, when these words stand at the end of Bahuvrihi compounds; व्यूढमुरोस्य व्यूढोरस्कः similarly प्रियसर्पिष्कः, Kāś. on P.V.I.151. confer, compare uv (उवङ्) substitute for the vowel उ belonging to the Vikaraṇa श्रु, to roots and to the noun भ्रू under certain conditions: cf अचि श्नुधातुर्भ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ P.VI.4.77. ūṭh (1) saṁprasāraṇa vowel ऊ substituted for the व् of वाह् under certain conditions , ऊढः, exempli gratia, for example वाह ऊठ् P.VI.4.132; (2) substitute ऊ for व् before certain affixes; e. g. द्यूतः, द्यूत्वा, जूर्तिः, तूर्तिः confer, compare et cetera, and others च्छ्वोः शूडनुनासिके च P.VI.4.19, 20. confer, compare ūna deficient, wanting; often in compounds पादोन, ह्यून, एकोन; exempli gratia, for example व्यूहैः संपत्समीक्ष्योने confer, compare VIII. 28; एकह्यूनाधिकता सैव निवृदूनाधिका भुरिक् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII.1. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ūryādi a class of words headed by the words ऊरी उररी ending in the taddhita affix च्वि, which are given the designation गति provided they are related to a verbal activity, and as a result, which can be compounded with kṛdanta words ending in त्वा, तुम्, et cetera, and others cf ऊरीकृत्य, ऊरीकृतम् et cetera, and others : Kāś on P, I.4.61. et cetera, and others ūṣman aspiration letters, spirants called breathings also: the name is given to letters or sounds produced with unintonated breath through an open posision of the mouth; विवृतमूष्मणाम् M. Bh, on P.I.1.10 Vārt, 3. The word refers to the letters श्, ष्, सु, ह्, visarga, jihvāmūlīya, upadhmāniya and anusvāra; confer, compare ऊष्मा वायुस्तत्प्रधाना वर्णा ऊष्माणः confer, compare I.12; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also confer, compare I.10. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. eka (1) Singular number, ekavacana: नो नौ मे मदर्थं त्रिह्येकेषु. V. Pr.II.3: the term is found used in this sense of singular number in the Jainendra, Śākaṭāyana and Haima grammars ( 2 ) single ( vowel ) substitute (एकादेश) for two (vowels); cf एकः पूर्वपरयोः P.VI. 1.84; अथैकमुभे T.Pr. X.1; ( 3 ) many, a certain number : (used in confer, compare in this sense), plural इह चेत्येके मन्यते， confer, compare on P.I. 4.21 . Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). ekadeśin ( a thing or a substance ) composed of parts; cf the term एकदेशिसमास or एकदेशितत्पुरुष, used in connection with compounds of words such as पूर्व, पर and others with words showing the constituted whole ( एकदेशिन्) prescribed by the rule पूर्वपराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनेकाधिकरणे P. II. 2.1 ; (2) a partisan; the word सिद्धान्त्येकदेशिन् used often by commentators. confer, compare ekamunipakṣa a view or doctrine propounded by one of the many ancient sages or munis who are believed to be the founders of a Sastra; a view propounded only by Pāṇini, to the exclusion of Kātyāyana and Patañjali; एकमुनिपक्षे तु अचो ञ्णितीत्यत्राच इति योगं विभज्य...व्यवस्थितविभाषात्रोक्ता Durghaṭa-Vṛtti I.1.5; see also I.4.24, II.3.18. confer, compare ekavacana singular number; affix of the singular numberin Pāṇini's grammar applied to noun-bases ( प्रातिपदिक) and roots when the sense of the singular number is to be conveyed; the singular sense can be of the form of an individual or collection or genus. The word एकवचन in the technical sense of singular number is found used in the Prātiśākhyas and Nirukta also. ekavibhakti a pada having the same case in the various dissolutions of the compound word; e. g. the word कौशाम्बी in the compound word निष्कौशाम्बिः, which stands only in the ablative case कौशाम्ब्याः, although the word निष्क्रान्त, which stands for the word निस्, could be used in many cases. The word नियतविभक्तिक is also used in the same sense. ekaśeṣa a kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः confer, compare अजा feminine. अश्वाः feminine. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original masculine gender. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona. Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. ekārtha (1) possessed of one sense as contrasted with बह्वर्थ, द्व्यर्थ etc: (2) synonym, बहवो हि शब्दा एकार्था भवन्ति । तद्यथा इन्द्रः शक्रः पुरुहूतः पुरंदरः । confer, compare on I.2.45 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 9; (3) Possessed of a composite sense; Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). समासे पुनरेकार्थानि confer, compare on II. 1.1 Vārt I. The words एकार्थ्य and एकार्थत्व derived from the word एकार्थ are often found used in the sense of 'possession of a composite sense' एकार्थस्य भाव: एकार्थता,ऐकार्थ्ये एकार्थत्वं वा; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). समासस्यैकार्थत्वंत्संज्ञाया अप्रसिद्धिः confer, compare on P.I.2.42 Vārt 1; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also the word एकार्थीभावः (4) potent to be connected; समर्थ; confer, compare सुप्सुपा एकार्थम् ( समस्यते ) C. Vy. II.2.1; (5) analogous समानाधिकरण confer, compare एकार्थं चानेकं च । एकः समानः अर्थः अधिकरणं यस्य तदेकार्थं समानाधिकरणम् confer, compare Vy. III. 1.22: Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. also एकार्थे च । Śāk. II.1.4. confer, compare elu tad-affix चेलु in the sense of unable to bear, found in Vedic Literature only; हिमेलुः exempli gratia, for example हिमाक्चेलुर्वक्तव्यः । P.V.2.122 confer, compare 7. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). aikapadya treatment as one single word especially found in the case of compound words (सामासिकपद) which, as a result of such treatment, have only one accent (acute) and one case affix after the whole word; अयं खल्वपि बहुव्रीहिरस्त्येव प्राथमकल्पिकः । यस्मिन्नैकपद्यमैकस्व र्यमेकविभक्तित्वं च confer, compare on P.I.1.29. See एकपद. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). aikasvarya having only one principal accent (Udātta or Svarita) for the whole compound word which is made up of two or more individual words confer, compare on P. I.1.29. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). aikārthya possession of a single composite sense (by all words together in a compound); cf संंघातस्य ऐकार्थ्यात् सुबभावो वर्णात् M.Bh. on I. 2.45 Vārt 10; also confer, compare on II.2.29 Vārt, 7; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also नाम नाम्नैकार्थ्ये समासो बहुलम् confer, compare III.1.18 where the commentator explains ऐकार्थ्य as एकार्थीभावः In the Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. on commentary III 2.8 ऐकार्थ्य is explained as ऐकपद्य Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. aindra name of an ancient school of grammar and of the treatise also, belonging to that school, believed to have been written under instructions of Indra. The work is not available. Patañjali mentions that Bṛhaspati instructed Indra for one thousand celestial years and still did not finish his instructions in words': ( I.1.1 ). The Taittirīya Saṁhitā mentions the same. Pāṇini has referred to some ancient grammarians of the East by the word प्राचाम् without mentioning their names, and scholars like Burnell think that the grammar assigned to Indra is to be referred to by the word प्राचाम्. The Bṛhatkathāmañjarī remarks that Pāṇini's grammar threw into the background the Aindra Grammar. Some scholars believe that Kalāpa grammar which is available today is based upon Aindra,just as Cāndra is based upon Pāṇini's grammar. References to Aindra Grammar are found in the commentary on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa, in the Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva as also in the commentary upon the Mahābhārata by Devabodha.Quotations, although very few, are given by some writers from the work. All these facts prove that there was an ancient pre-Pāṇinian treatise on Grammar assigned to इन्द्र which was called Aindra-Vyākaraṇa.For details see Dr.Burnell's 'Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians' as also Vol. VII pages 124-126 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya, edited by the D.E.Society, Poona. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). auttarapadika pertaining to the ulterior member of a compound औत्तरपदिके ह्रस्वत्व (P.VI.3.61) कृते तुक् प्राप्नोति M.Bh. on I.1.62. confer, compare ḥ or विसर्गः letting out breath from the mouth; sound or utterance caused by breath escaping from the mouth; breathing. The Visarjanīya, just like the anusvāra, is incapable of being independently utter literally Hence, it is written for convenience as अः although its form for writing purposes is only two dots after the vowel preceding it; edition अः इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः इति कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसर्जनीयसंज्ञो भवति । confer, compare Vyāk. I.1.16. See अः Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra. on page 2. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. k (1) affix क applied to the words of the ऋश्य group in the four senses called चातुरर्थिक e. g. ऋश्यकः, अनडुत्कः, वेणुकः taddhita affix. , et cetera, and others P.IV.2.80; (2) confer, compare affix क applied to nouns in the sense of diminution, censure, pity taddhita affix. e. g. अश्वक्रः, उष्ट्रकः, पुत्रकः, et cetera, and others P.V. 3.70-87: (3) confer, compare affix क in the very sense of the word itself ( स्वार्थे ) taddhita affix. अविकः, यावकः, कालकः; exempli gratia, for example P.V.4.2833; (4) Uṇādi affix क confer, compare कर्क, वृक, राका, एक, भेक, काक, पाक, शल्क exempli gratia, for example by Uṇādi sūtras III. 40-48 before which the angment इट् is prohibited by P. VII.2.9; (5) kṛt affix क ( अ ) where क् is dropped by P. I. 3.8, applied, in the sense of agent, to certain roots mentioned in P.III.1.135, 136, 144, III. 2.3 to 7, III.2.77 and III.3.83 et cetera, and others बुध:, प्रस्थः, गृहम्, कम्बलदः, द्विपः, मूलविभुजः, सामगः, सुरापः exempli gratia, for example ; (6) substitute क for the word किम् before a case affix, et cetera, and others P.VII.2.103; (7) the Samāsānta affix कप् (क) at the end of Bahuvrīhi compounds as prescribed by P.V.4.151-160. confer, compare karkyādi a class of words headed by the word कर्की, the word प्रस्थ after which in a compound, does not have the acute accent on its first vowel. e. g. कर्कीप्रस्थः; P.VI.2.87. confer, compare kaḍārādi a class of words headed by the word कडार which, although adjectival,are optionally placed first in the Karmadhāraya compound, कडारजैमिनिः जैमिनिकडारः; exempli gratia, for example Kāś. on II.2.38. confer, compare kaṇṭha glottis: cavity in the throat holding vocal cords; the place of the production of the sounds अ, अI and ह; अहविसर्जनीयाः कण्ठे V, Pr.I. 71; cf, also कण्ठ्योsकारः प्रथमपञ्चमौ च R.Pr.I.18. confer, compare kap (1) kṛt affix क prescribed after the root दुह् कामदुघा, exempli gratia, for example P.III.2. 70;(2) the Samāsānta अ at the end of Bahuvrīhi compounds confer, compare व्वूढोरस्कः, बहुदण्डिका, बहुकुमारीकः,बहुकर्तृकः, exempli gratia, for example P.V.4.151-154. For its prohibition, see P.V.4.155-160. confer, compare kampa vibration of the larynx which produces thc sound. karaṇa (1) lit instrument; the term signifies the most efficient means for accomplishing an act; क्रियासिद्धी यत् प्रकृष्टोपकारकं विवक्षितं तत्साधकतमं कारकं करणसंज्ञं भवति, Kāś. on साधकतमं करणम् P.I.4.42, e. g. दात्रेण in दात्रेण लुनाति; (2) effort inside the mouth (अाभ्यन्तर-प्रयत्न ) to produce sound; e. g. touching of the particular place ( स्थान ) inside the mouth for uttering consonants; confer, compare स्पृष्टं स्पर्शानां करणम् confer, compare on P, I.1.10 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 3; (3) disposition of the organ which produces the sound; Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). श्वासनादोभयानां विशेषः करणमित्युच्यते । एतच्च पाणिनिसंमताभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न इति भाति । Com. on confer, compare XIII.3; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also स्थानकरणानुप्रदानानि confer, compare on I.2.32: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also अनुप्रदानात्संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् । जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात् confer, compare XXIII. 2. where karaṇa is described to be of five kinds अनुप्रदान ( Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. नाद or resonance), संसर्ग (contact), स्थान, करणविन्यय and परिमाण; id est, that is अकारस्य तावत् अनुप्रदानं नादः, संसर्गः कण्ठे, स्थानं हनू, करणविन्ययः ओष्ठौ, परिमाणं मात्राकालः । अनुप्रदानादिभिः पञ्चभिः करणैर्वर्णानां वैशेष्यं जायते Com. on Tai. Pr. XXIII.2. The Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya mentions two karaṇas संवृत and विवृत; confer, compare द्वे करणे संवृतविवृताख्ये वायोर्भवतः confer, compare I. 11; (4) use of a word Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. इतिकरणं, वत्करणम्; exempli gratia, for example किमुपस्थितं नाम । अनार्षं इतिकरणः M.Bh.on. P.VI.1.129. confer, compare kartṛsthakriya (a root) whose activity is found functioning in the subject; यत्र क्रियाकृतविशेषदर्शनं कर्तरि Kaiyata on P.III.1.87 confer, compare 3. Such roots, although transitive do not have any Karmakartari construction by the rule कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III. 1.87. as Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). ग्रामं गच्छति देवदत्तः has no कर्मकर्तरि construction; exempli gratia, for example कर्मस्थभावकानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां वा कर्ता कर्मवद् भवतीति वक्तव्यम् । कर्तृस्थभावकानां कर्तृस्थक्रियाणां वा कर्ता कर्मवन्मा भूदिति confer, compare on III. 1.87. Vārt, 3. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). karmakartṛ object of the transitive verb which functions as the subject when there is a marked facility of action: ओदन is karmakartariobject, functioning as subject, in पच्यते ओदनः स्वयमेव. The word कर्मकर्तृ is used also for the कर्मकर्तरि प्रयोग where the object, on which the verb-activity is found, is turned into a subject and the verb which is transitive is turned into intransitive as a result. exempli gratia, for example karmadhāraya name technically given to a compound-formation of two words in apposition i. e. used in the same case, technically called समानाधिकरण showing the same substratutm; तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः I 2.42. The karmadhāraya compound is looked upon as a variety of the tatpuruṣa compound. There is no satisfactory explanation of the reason why such a compound is termed कर्मधारय. Śākaṭāyana defines Karmadhāraya as विशेषणं व्यभिचारि एकार्थं कर्मधारयश्च where the word विशेषण is explained as व्यावर्तक or भेदक (distinguishing attribute) showing that the word कर्म may mean भेदकक्रिया. The word कर्मधारय in that case could mean 'कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयति असौ कर्मधारयः' a compound which gives a specification of the thing in hand. confer, compare karman (1) object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म confer, compare II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; et cetera, and others अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित confer, compare . Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. ; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. confer, compare कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः exempli gratia, for example It is called अभिहित in such cases; et cetera, and others P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित confer, compare .The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; et cetera, and others घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; exempli gratia, for example निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् confer, compare on I.4.49: Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also confer, compare on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; exempli gratia, for example confer, compare on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and confer, compare thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; commentary उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति confer, compare I. 3.4, where Nirukta of Yāska. explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ). Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta. kasun kṛt affix अस् found in Vedic Literature, in the sense of the infinitive: e. g. ईश्वरो विलिखः (विलि-खितुम्) P. III.4.13, 17. The word ending in this कसुन् becomes an indeclinable: cf क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः P.I.1.40. confer, compare kaskādi a class of compound-words headed by कस्क in which the visarga occurring at the end of the first member is noticed as changed into स् against the usual rules e. g. कस्क:, कौतस्कुतः भ्रातुष्पुत्रः, सद्यस्कालः, धनुष्कपालम् and others; P. VIII.3.48. As this कस्कादिगण is said to be अाकृतिगण, similar words can be said to be in the कस्कादिगण although they are not actually mentioned in the गणपाठ. confer, compare kātantra name of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. . A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375. Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. kātantraparibhāṣāpāṭha name given to a text consisting of Paribhāṣāsūtras, believed to have been written by the Sūtrakāra himself as a supplementary portion to the main grammar. Many such lists of Paribhāṣāsūtras are available, mostly in manuscript form, containing more than a hundred Sūtras divided into two main groups-the Paribhāṣā sūtras and the Balābalasūtras. See परिभाषासंग्रह by B. O. R. I. Poona. edition kātantraparibhāṣāvṛtti (1) name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha written by Bhāvamiśra, probably a Maithila Pandit whose date is not known. He has explained 62 Paribhāṣās deriving many of them from the Kātantra Sūtras. The work seems to be based on the Paribhāṣā works by and others on the system of Pāṇini, suitable changes having been made by the writer with a view to present the work as belonging to the Kātantra school; (2) name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha of the Kātantra school explaining 65 Paribhāṣās. No name of the author is found in the Poona manuscript. The India Office Library copy has given Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana. as the author's name; but it is doubted whether Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. was the author of it. See परिभाषासंग्रह Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. by B. O. R. I. Poona. edition kārtakaujapādi a class of words headed by the word कार्तकौजप, which are all dvandva compounds, and which have their first member retaining its own accent; e. g. कार्तकौजपौ, आवन्त्यश्मकाः et cetera, and others Kāś. on P.VI.2.37. confer, compare kārmanāmika the word is found used in Yāska's Nirukta as an adjective to the word संस्कार where it means belonging to nouns derived fromroofs (कर्मनाम)"like पाचक,कर्षक The changes undergone by the roots in the formation of such words i. e. words showing action are termed कार्मनामिकसंस्कार; et cetera, and others कर्मकृतं नाम कर्मनाम। तस्मिन् भवः कार्मनामिकः Durgavṛtti on confer, compare I.13. कार्य(l) brought.into existence by activity (क्रियया निर्वृत्तं कार्यम् ) as oppo- sed to नित्य eternal; Nirukta of Yāska. एके वर्णाञ् शाश्वतिकान् न कार्यान् R.Pr. XIII.4 confer, compare also ननु च यस्यापि कार्याः ( शब्दाः ) तस्यापि पूजार्थम् confer, compare on I.1.44 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 17;(2) which should be done, used in connection with a grammatical operation: Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). कार्य एत्वे सयमीकारमाहुः ।| अभैष्म इत्येतस्य स्थाने अभयीष्मेति । R.Pr. XIV.16; confer, compare also विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I.4.2; (3) a grammatical opera- tion as for instance in the phrases द्विकार्ययोगे, त्रिकार्ययोगे confer, compare ; et cetera, and others also गौणमुख्ययोर्मुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्ययः confer, compare Pari. 15;(4) object of a transitive verb: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. शेषः कार्ये Śāk. confer, compare kāryin the word or wording that undergoes the operation; सतो हि कार्यिणः कार्येण भवितव्यम् confer, compare on I.1. 1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 7, also कार्यमनुभवन् हि कार्यो निमित्ततया नाश्रीयते Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). Pari. 10. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. kāśikā (1) name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe. Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. kāṣṭhādi a class of words headed by the word काष्ठ after which a word standing as a second member in a compound gets the grave accent for it,e. g. काष्ठाध्यापकः, परमाध्यापक et cetera, and others P. VIII.1.67. confer, compare ki (1) kṛt affix इ prescribed after धु roots with a prefix attached; प्रदिः प्रधिः exempli gratia, for example P.III.3.92, 93; (2) kṛt affix इ looked upon as a perfect termination and, hence, causing reduplication and accusative case of the noun connected, found in Vedic Literature added to roots ending in अा, the root ऋ, and the roots गम्, हन् and जन्; confer, compare पपि; सोमं, जगुरिः, जग्मिः exempli gratia, for example , et cetera, and others P. III.2.171: (2) a term used in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for the term संबुद्वि. confer, compare kiṃśulakādi a class of words headed by the word किंशुलक, which get their final vowel lengthened when the word गिरि is placed after them as a second member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e. g. किंशुलकागिरिः, अञ्जनागिरिः; Kāś. on P. VI.3.117. confer, compare kīlhārn Kielhorn F., a sound scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who brought out excellent editions of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya and the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and wrote an essay on the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana. For details see Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya Vol VII.p.40, D. E society edition, Poona. kumbhapadyādi a class of words headed by कुम्भपदी in which the word पाद at the end of the compound is changed into पाद् and further changed into पद् before the feminine affix ई; कुम्भपदी, शतपदी, द्रुपदी, पञ्चपदी exempli gratia, for example ; cf Kāś. on P. V.4.138, 139. et cetera, and others kurvat a term found in the Brāhmaṇa works and used by ancient grammarians for the 'present tense'. kṛt activity; a term used in the grammars of Pāṇini and others for affixes applied to roots to form verbal derivatives; literally कृदतिङ् । धातोः ( ३ ।१।९१ ) इत्यधिकारे तिङ्कवर्जितः प्रत्ययः कृत् स्यात् । Kāś. on III.1.93, The kṛt affixes are given exhaustively by Pāṇini in Sūtras III.1.91 to III.4. I17. कृत् and तद्धित appear to be the ancient Pre-Pāṇinian terms used in the Nirukta and the Prātiśākhya works in the respective senses of root-born and noun-born words ( कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त according to Pāṇini's terminology), and not in the sense of mere affixes; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः confer, compare I.14: अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nirukta of Yāska. II.2; तिङ्कृत्तद्धितसमासा: शब्दमयम् V.Pr. I.27; also Nirukta of Yāska. V.Pr. VI.4. Patañjali and later grammarians have used the word कृत् in the sense of कृदन्त; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari Śek.Pari.75. The kṛt affixes are given by Pāṇini in the senses of the different Kārakas अपादान, संप्रदान, करण, अाधकरण, कर्म and कर्तृ, stating in general terms that if no other sense is assigned to a kṛt affix it should be understood that कर्ता or the agent of the verbal activity is the sense; confer, compare कर्तरि कृत् । येष्वर्थनिर्देशो नास्ति तत्रेदमुपतिष्ठते Kāś. on III.4.67. The activity element possessed by the root lies generally dormant in the verbal derivative nouns; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति, क्रियावदपि । M.Bh.on V.4.19 and VI. 2.139 confer, compare kṛtādei a class of words such as कृत, मित, मत, भूत, उक्त and others with which the words श्रेणि, एक, पूग, कुण्ड, राशि and others are compounded, provided both the words forming the compound are in the same case;. श्रेणिकृता:, एककृताः, कुण्डभूताः exempli gratia, for example cf Kāś. on P.II.1.59. et cetera, and others kṛtya that which should be done; the word कृत्य is used as a tech nical term in grammar in the sense of kṛt affixes which possess the sense 'should be done'. Pāṇini has not defined the term कृत्य but he has introduced a topic ( अधिकार ) by the name कृत्य (P. III.1.95), and mentioned kṛt afixes therein which are to be called कृत्य right on upto the mention of the affix ण्वुल्. in P.III. 1.133; literally कृत्याः प्राङ् ण्वुलः P. III. 1.95 The kṛtya affixes, commonly found in use, are तव्य, अनीय and य ( यत्, क्यप् and ण्यत् ). confer, compare kṛtsvara the same as कृदुत्तरपदप्रकृतिस्वर, the retention of its accent by the second member of a tatpuruṣa compound, if the first member is a word termed Gati or Kāraka, by the rule गतिकारकोपपदात् कृत् P.VI.2. 139; अव्ययस्वरस्य कृत्स्वरः M.Bh. on VI.2.52; confer, compare विभक्तीषत्स्वरात्कृत्स्वरः M.Bh. VI.2.52 Vārt, 6. confer, compare kṛdanta the word ending with a kṛt affix; the term कृत् is found used in the sūtras of Pāṇini for कृदन्त; कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I.2.46. The term कृदन्त for root-nouns, or nouns derived from roots, is found in the Atharvaprātiśākhya (I.1.10, II.3.8, II1.2.4), the Mahābhāṣya and all the later works on grammar. See the word कृत्. confer, compare kṛlluk the elision of a kṛt affix: the word is found used along with the words प्रकृतिप्रत्यापत्तिः, and प्रकृतिवत् कारकं भवति in the Vārttika अाख्यानात्कृतस्तदाचष्टे इतेि कृल्लुक् प्रकृतिप्रत्यापत्तिः प्रकृतिवच्च कारकम् by means of which the phrase कंसं घातयति is formed for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे. kṛllopa the dropping or removal of the verbal noun(कृदन्त)after the words प्र, परा etc when they are compounded with the following noun; the dropping of गत from the expression निर्गतः कौशाम्ब्याः when it is compounded into निष्कौशाम्बिः । exempli gratia, for example कृल्लोपे निष्कौशाम्बिः, निर्वाराणसिः M.Bh. on P.I.4.l. confer, compare 18. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). ken affix ए in the sense of कृत्य (Pot. kṛt (affix). passive voice. ) found in Vedic Literature; participle. नावगाहे = नावगाहितव्यम् exempli gratia, for example Kāś. on P.III.4.14. confer, compare kevala isolated;a term applied to a letter or a word when it is not combined with another letter or another word in a compound; धर्मादनिच् केवलात् । केवलान्न पदसमुदायात् Kāś. on P.V.4.124; (2) simple (word) without an affix added: confer, compare अर्थवत्ता नोपपद्यते केवलेन अवचनात् । P. I. 2.45 confer, compare 7, also कृत्तद्धितान्तं चैवार्थवत् । न केवलाः कृतस्तद्धिता बा M.Bh.on P.I.4.14. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). koṭarādi a class of words headed by the word कोटर which get their final vowel lengthened when the word वन is placed after them as a se member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; conditional कोटरावणम्, मिश्रकावणम्. exempli gratia, for example Kāś. on P.VI.3.117. confer, compare ktvā affix त्वा added to roots (1) in the sense of prohibition conveyed by the word अलं or खलु preceding the root, kṛt (affix). अलं कृत्वा, खलु कृत्वा; exempli gratia, for example P. III.4.18; (2) in the sense of exchange in the case of the root मा, e. g. अपमित्य याचते; confer, compare P. III.4.19; (3) to show an activity of the past time along with a verb or noun of action showing comparatively a later time, provided the agent of the former and the latter activities is the same; confer, compare भुक्त्वा व्रजति, स्नात्वा पीत्वा भुक्त्वा व्रजति; exempli gratia, for example P. III.4. 21. This kṛt affix is always added to roots when they are without any prefix; when there is a prefix the indeclinable, ending in त्वा, is always compounded with the prefix and त्वा is changed into य (ल्यप्), confer, compare प्रकृत्य, प्रहृत्य; exempli gratia, for example समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1.37. The substitution of य is at will in Vedic Literature; confer, compare कृष्णं वासो यजमानं परिधापयित्वा ( instead of परिधाप्य ), exempli gratia, for example P. VII.1.38, while sometimes, य is added after त्वा as an augment e. g. दत्वाय सविता धियः confer, compare P. VII.l.47, as also sometimes त्वी or त्वीनम् is substituted for त्वा e. g. इष्ट्वीनं देवान्, स्नात्वी मलादिव, confer, compare P. VII.1.48, 49. confer, compare ktvānta gerund; a mid-way derivative of a verbal root which does not leave its verbal nature on the one hand although it takes the form of a substantive on the other hand. kratvādi a class of words headed by the word क्रतु, which have their first vowel accented acute in a Bahuvrīhi dompound, provided the first member of the compound is the word सु; सुक्रतुः, सुप्रपूर्तिः exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. VI.2.118. confer, compare īśeḥ (VII.2.77) अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, confer, compare VI. l to 4; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः confer, compare on Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works. VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ confer, compare X. 1. For details and special features, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) confer, compare ch. X and XI: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also confer, compare IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. kramādi a class of words headed by the word क्रम to which the taddhita affix अक (वुञ् ) is added in the sense of 'one who studies and understands'; e. g. क्रमकः, पदकः, मीमांसकः, शिक्षकः et cetera, and others Kāś. on IV. 2.61. confer, compare krauḍyādi a class of words headed by the word क्रौडि which do not take the feminine affix ई when they stand at the end of a compound; कल्याणक्रौडा, सुभगा, पृथुजघना exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others Kāś. on P.IV.1.56. confer, compare kvasu kṛt affix वस्, taking the affix ई (ङीप्) in the feminine gender, prescribed in the sense of perfect tense, which is mostly found in Vedic Literature and added to some roots only such as सद्, वस्, श्रु feminine. in the spoken language; e. g. जक्षिवान् पपिवान् उपसेदिवान् कौत्स; पाणिनिम्; et cetera, and others Kāś. on P.III.2.107-109. confer, compare kvin kṛt zero affix, an affix of which every letter is dropped and nothing remains, added to the roots स्पृश्, यज्, सृज्, दृश्, id est, that is under certain conditions; et cetera, and others घृतस्पृक्, ऋत्विक्, यादृक्, तादृक्; exempli gratia, for example Kāś. on P.III.2.58-60. confer, compare kvip (1) kṛt affix zero, added to the roots सद्, सू, द्विष् and others with a preceding word as upapada or with a prefix or sometimes even without any word, as also to the root हन् preceded by the words ब्रह्मन्, भ्रूण and वृत्र, and to the root कृ preceded by सु, कर्मन् , and to the roots सु, and चि under certain conditions et cetera, and others उपसत्, सूः, प्रसूः, पर्णध्वत्, ब्रह्महा, वृत्रहा, सोमसुत्, अग्निचित्; exempli gratia, for example P.III. 2.61, 76, 77, 87-92: 177-179; (2) the denominative affix zero applied to any substantive in the sense of behaviour अश्वति, गर्दभति confer, compare ; et cetera, and others M.Bh. and Kāś, on P.III.1.11. confer, compare kvibanta a substantive ending with the kṛt affix क्विप् (zero affix) added to a root to form a noun in the sense of the verbal action (भाव). The words ending with this affix having got the sense of verbal activity in them quite suppressed, get the noun terminations सु, औ, जस् and not ति, तः et cetera, and others placed after them; et cetera, and others कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद् भवति. However, at the same time, these words undergo certain operations peculiar to roots simply because the kṛt affix entirely disappears and the word formed, appears like a root; confer, compare क्विबन्ता धातुत्वं न जहति. Kaiyaṭa's Prad. on VII.1.70. confer, compare kṣveḍana hissing or whizzing sound given as a fault in the utterance of sibilants; क्ष्चेडनमधिको वर्णस्य सरूपो ध्वनि: । confer, compare on commentary XIV. 6. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) kha affix, always changed into ईन, (l) applied to the word कुल in the sense of a descendant, taddhita affix. कुलीनः, आढ्यकुलीन:; exempli gratia, for example P. IV. 1.139; (2) applied to the words अवार, पार, पारावार and अवारपार in the Śaīṣika senses, e. g. अवारीणः, पारीणः confer, compare ; et cetera, and others P.IV.2.93 and Vārttikas 2, 3 on it; (3) applied to words ending in the word वर्ग ( which does not mean 'sound' or 'letter' ) in the sense of 'present there,' e. g. वासुदेववर्गीणः, युधिष्ठिरवर्गीणः; confer, compare P. IV. 3.64; (4) applied to the words सर्वधुर and एकधुर in the sense of 'bearing,' and to ओजसू , वेशोभग, यशोभग and पूर्व, confer, compare ओजसीनः exempli gratia, for example , et cetera, and others P.IV.4.78, 79, 130, 132, 133; (5) applied in the sense of 'favourable to' to the words आत्मन् , विश्वजन, confer, compare (P.V.1.9), to विंशतिक, (32) to अाढक, अाचित, पात्र and others (53-55), to समा (85-86), to रात्रि, अहन् , संवत्सर and वर्ष (87-88) and संवत्सर and परिवत्सर (92); e. g. आत्मनीनः, आढकीनः पात्रीणः, समीनः, संवत्सरीणः et cetera, and others ; (6) to the words सर्वचर्मन्, यथामुख et cetera, and others e. g. सर्वचर्मीणः et cetera, and others P.V. 2.5 to 17; (7) to the words अषडक्ष, अशितंगु confer, compare et cetera, and others P.V.4.7,8. e. g. अषडक्षीणः. (8) ख is also a technical term in the sense of elision or लोप in the Jainendra Grammar confer, compare Jain I. 1.61. (9) The word ख is used in the sense of 'glottis' or the hole of the throat ( गलबिल ) in the ancient Prātiṣākhya works. confer, compare khaś kṛt affix added to the roots यज् (causal), ध्मा, धे,रुज्, वह्, लिह्, पच् , दृश् , तप्, मन् preceded by certain specified upapada words. The root undergoes all the operations such as the addition of the conjugational sign et cetera, and others before this खश् on account of the mute letter श् which makes खश् a Sārvadhātuka affix, and the augment म् is added to the preceding उपपद if it is not an indeclinable on account of the mute letter ख्; e. g. जनमेजयः, स्तनंधयः, नाडिंधमः, असूयै. पश्यः पण्डितंमन्यः etc,; et cetera, and others Pāṇ. III2.28-37, 83. confer, compare gaṅgeśaśarmā writer of Kātantra-kaumudī possibly different from the reputed Gaṅgeśa Upādhyāa who is looked upon as the founder of the Navyanyāya school of modern Naiyāyikas, and who lived in the twelfth century A. D. gajakumbhākṛti a graphic description of the Jihvāmūlīya letter as found in script, given by ; Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. गजकुम्भाकृतिर्वर्ण उपध्मानीयसंज्ञो भवति confer, compare 's Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. on commentary I.1. 18. see ( उपधानीय ). Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra. gaṇa a class of words, as found in the sūtras of Pāṇini by the mention of the first word followed by the word इति; स्वरादि, सर्वादि, ऊर्यादि, भ्वादि, अदादि, गर्गादि exempli gratia, for example The ten gaṇas or classes of roots given by Pāṇini in his dhātupātha are given the name Daśagaṇī by later grammarians. et cetera, and others gaṇasūtra a statement of the type of a Sūtra in the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini where mention of a word or words in the Gaṇapāṭha is made along with certain conditions; e. g. पूर्वपुरावरo, स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् , in the सर्वादिगण, and क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः, तसिलादय: प्राक्पाशपः in the स्वरादिगण. Some of the gaṇasūtras are found incorporated in the Sūtrapāṭha itself Many later grammarians have appended their own gaṇapāṭha to their Sūtrapāṭha. gati (1) motion; stretching out, lengthening of a syllable. The word is explained in the Prātiśakhya works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel इ or उ after it, literally हाइ or हायि for हा; similarly आ-इ or अा -यि ; (2) a technical term used by Pāṇini in connection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called गति, exempli gratia, for example P.I.4.60-79. The words called gati can be compounded with the following word provided the latter is not a verb, the compound being named tatpuruṣa e.g, प्रकृतम् , ऊरीकृत्य confer, compare P.II.2.18; the word गति is used by Pāṇini in the masculine gender as seen in the Sūtra गतिरनन्तरः P.VI. 2.49 and hence explained as formed by the addition of the affix क्तिच् to गम्, the word being used as a technical term by the rule क्तिच्क्तौ च संज्ञायाम् P.III.3.174; (3) realization, understanding; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति confer, compare Pari.9; सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 76; अगत्या हि परिभाषा अाश्रीयते Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. adeva Pari. Pāṭha 119. Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti. gatisamāsa a compound with the preceding gati word prescribed by the rule कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18; गतिसमास । निष्कौशाम्बिः, निर्वाराणसि: M.Bh. on II. 4. 26 . confer, compare gantavya that which should be understood; the word is used in the sense of अवगन्तव्य; तत्र संबन्धादेतद्गन्तव्यम् confer, compare on I. 1.9. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). gamya to be understood, not expressed; यस्यार्थो गम्यते न च शब्दः प्रयुज्यते स गम्यः। confer, compare on commentary II. 2. 62. Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. gavāśvaprabhṛti the dvandva compound words गवाश्व, गवाविक गवैडक, अजाविक, कुब्जमाणवक, पुत्रपौत्र मांसशोणित and others which are to be declined in the neuter gender and singular number; P. II. 4.11. confer, compare guṇakarman a term used by the ancient grammarians for the गौणकर्मन् or indirect object of a verb. having two objects.The word is found quoted in the Mahabhaya; कथिते लादयश्चेत्स्युः षष्टीं कुर्यात्तदा गुणे । गुणे गुणकर्मणि । confer, compare also गुणकर्मणि लादिविधि: सपरे M.Bh. on I. 4.51. confer, compare guṇādi a class of words headed by the word गुण, which, when preceded by the word बहु in a Bahuvrihi compound, do not have their last vowel acute; e. g. बहुगुणा रज्जुः; बह्वक्षरं पदम् , This class of गुणादि words is considered as आकृतिगण; et cetera, and others Kas, on P. VI. 2.176. confer, compare gotra family. The word is used by Panini in the technical sense of a descendant except the son or a daughter; literally अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम् P. IV. 1.162. The word गोत्रापत्य is also used in the same sense. The affix, which is found many times in the sense of gotra, barring the usual अण् , is यञ् ; confer, compare गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् P. IV. 1.105. confer, compare gopīcandra known also by the name गेयींचन्द्र who .has written several commentary works on the grammatical treatises of the Samksipatasara or Jaumāra school of Vyakarana founded by Kramdisvara and Jumaranandin in the 12th century, the well-known among them being the संक्षिप्तसाटीका, संक्षितसारपरिभात्रासूत्रटीका and तद्धितपरिशिष्टटीका. He is believed to have lived in the thirteenth century A. D. golḍsṭyūkara a well known German scholar who made a sound study of Paini's Sanskrit Vyakarana and wrote a very informative treatise entitled 'Panini, his place in Sanskrit Literature.' He lived in the latter half of the 19th century. gotrinda ( चक्रवर्तिन् ) writer of Samasavada, a short treatise on the sense conveyed by compound words. goṣṭhac a affix applied to words like गो and others in the sense of 'a place'; taddhita affix. गेष्ठजादयः स्थानादिषु पशुनाम। पशुनामादिभ्य उपसंख्यानम् | गवां स्थानं गोगोष्ठम्, अश्वगोष्ठम्: महिषीगोष्ठम् confer, compare on P. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. 2.29 It is very likely that words like गोष्ठ, दघ्न and others were treated as pratyayas by Panini and katyayana who followed Panini, because they were found always associated with a noun preceding them and never independently. 1. varia lectio, another reading, gaurādi a class of words to which the affix ई ( ङीष्) is added to form the feminine base; गौरी, मत्सी, हयी, हरिणी; the class contains a large number of words exceeding 150; for details see Kasika on P.IV.1. 41; (2) a small class of eleven words, headed by the word गौर which do not have the acute accent on the last syllable in a tatpurusa compound when they are placed after the preposition उप; exempli gratia, for example P. VI.2.194. confer, compare gh (1) fourth consonant of the guttural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदानत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2)the consonant घ at the beginning of a affix which is always changed into इय्; taddhita affix. P. VII. 1. 9; (3) substitute for ह् at the end of roots beginning with द्, as also of the root नह् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.VIII.2.32,33,34; (4) substitute for the consonant व् of मतुव् placed after the pronouns किम् and इदम् which again is changed into इय् by VII.1.9: confer, compare कियान्, इयान्: exempli gratia, for example P.V. 2.40. confer, compare gha (l) consonant घ्, अ being added at the end for facility of pronunciation; Tai. Pr.I.21; (2) technical term for the confer, compare affixes तरप् and तमप्, taddhita affix. P.I.1.22, causing the shortening of ई at the end of bases before it, under certain conditions, confer, compare P. VI. 3.43-45, and liable to be changed into तराम् and तमाम् after किम्, verbs ending in ए, and indeclinables; confer, compare P.V.4.11; (3) confer, compare affix घ ( इय) in the sense of 'a descendant' applied to क्षत्र, and in the sense of 'having that as a deity' applied to अपोनप्तृ अपांनप्तृ and also to महेन्द्र and to the words राष्ट्र taddhita affix. , et cetera, and others क्षत्रियः, अपोनाप्त्रिय:, अपांनप्त्रियः, महेन्द्रियम्,राष्ट्रियः exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others P. IV.1.138, IV.2.27, 29, 93; (4) confer, compare affix घ, applied to अग्र, समुद्र and अभ्र in the sense of 'present there', to सहस्र in the sense of 'possession', to, नक्षत्र without any change of sense, and to यज्ञ and ऋत्विज् in the sense of 'deserving'; taddhita affix. P.IV.4.117,118,135, 136,141, V.1.71 ; (5) krt affix अ when the word to which it has been applied becomes a proper noun confer, compare a noun in a specific sense or a technical term; id est, that is III.3. 118, 119,125. confer, compare ghac affix इय, as found in the word क्षेत्रिय; taddhita affix. क्षेत्रियच् परक्षेत्रे चिाकत्स्यः P.V.2.92 and Kāsikā thereon. confer, compare ghi (1) a tech. term applied to noun bases or Prātipadikas ending in इ and उ excepting the words सखि and पति and those which are termed नदी; P. I. 4.79; (2) a conventional term for लधु ( a short vowel) found used in the Jainendra Vyakarana. confer, compare ṅit (l) affixes with the mute letter ङ् attached to them either before or after, with a view to preventing the guna and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding इ, उ, ऋ, or लृ, as for example, the affixes चङ्, अङ् and others (2) affixes conventionally called ङित् after certain bases under certain conditions; गाङ्कुटादिम्यो ञ्णिन्ङित् P. I. 2. 1-4; (3) roots marked with the mute letter ङ् signifying the application of the Atmanepada terminations to them: (4) substitutes marked with mute ङ् which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which they are prescribed as substitutes; (5) case affixes marked with mute letter ङ् which cause the substitution of guna to the last vowel इ or उ of words termed घि. confer, compare ṅīp affix ई which is anudatta (grave) added (a) to words ending in the vowel ऋ or the consonant न् ( feminine. P.IV.1.5), (b) to words ending with affixes marked with mute उ,ऋ or लृ; confer, compare P.IV.1.6 (c) to words ending with affixes marked with mute ट् as also ending with the affixes ढ, अण्, अञ्, द्वयसच् दघ्नच्,मात्रच्, तयप्, ठक्, ठञ्, कञ् and क्वरप् ( confer, compare P.IV.1.15) and to certain other words under certain conditions; confer, compare P. IV. 1.16-24. confer, compare ṅīṣ afix ई, which is udatta, applied to words in the class of words headed by गौर, as also to noun bases ending in affixes marked with.mute ष्, as also to words mentioned in the class headed by बहुः feminine. P.IV.1.41-46.It is also added in the sense of 'wife of' to any word denoting a male person; confer, compare P. IV. 1. 48, and together with the augment आनुक् (आन्) to the words इन्द्र, वरुण etc confer, compare इन्द्राणी, वरुणानि, यवनानि meaning 'the script of the Yavanas' exempli gratia, for example P. IV. 1.49. It is also added words ending in क्रीत and words ending in क्त and also to words expressive of ' limbs of body ' under certain conditions; confer, compare P.IV.1. 50-59 and IV. 1.61-65. confer, compare caturthīsamāsa the tatpurusa compound with the first word in the dative case in its dissolution; वतुर्थीसमासे सति पूर्वपदकृतिस्वरत्वेन भवितव्यम् confer, compare on II. 1.36. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). candra a famous Buddhist Sanskrit grammarian whose grammar existing in the Tibetan script, is now available in the Devanagar script. The work consists of six chapters or Adhyayas in which no technical terms or sanjnas like टि, घु are found. There is no section on Vedic Grammar and accents. The work is based on Panini's grammar and is believed to have been written by Candra or Candragomin in the 5th centnry A. D. Bhartrhari in his Vakyapadiya refers to him; स नीतो बहुशाखत्वं चन्द्राचार्यादिभिः पुनः Vakyapadiya II. 489. A summary of the work is found in the Agnipurana, ch. 248-258. confer, compare carcāguṇa repetition of a word in the पद्पाठ, क्रमपाठ, जटापाठ where the several Pathas appear to be called चर्चा.In the पदपाठ a word in a compound is repeated twice, in the क्रमपाठ every word is repeated twice, in the जटापाठ, six times. et cetera, and others caṃrcāpada component words of a running text or of a compound word. cārtha the meaning of the indeclinable च to convey which, as existing in different individuals, the dvandva compound is prescrib Out of the four senses possessed by the inde clinable च, the Dvandva compound is prescribed in two senses viz.इतरेतरयोग and समाहार out of the four समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार: edition कः पुनश्चेन कृतोर्थः समुच्चयोन्वाचय इतरेतरयोगः समाहार इति confer, compare on P.II.2.29; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also Candra Vyakarana II.2.48 confer, compare cidasthimālā name of a commentary on the Laghusabdendusekhara by Vaidyanatha Payagunde,one of the distinguished disciples of Nagesabhatta. cintya questionable; contestable: which cannot be easily admitt The word is used in connection with a statement made by a sound scholar which cannot be easily brushed aside; edition एतेन यत्कैयटे केचिदित्यादिना अस्यैव वाग्रहृणस्य तदनित्यत्वज्ञापकतोक्ता सापि चिन्त्या, Par. Sekh. Pari. 93. 5. confer, compare cha affix ईय, added ( 1 ) to the words स्वसृ, भ्रातृ and to words ending with the taddhita affix. affix फिञ्: taddhita affix. P. IV. 1.143,144 and 149; (2) to the dvandva compound of words meaning constellations,to the words अपोनप्तृ, अपांनप्तृ, महेन्द्र, द्यावापृथिवी, शुनासीर confer, compare as also to शर्करा, उत्कर , नड et cetera, and others in certain specified senses, et cetera, and others P. IV. 2.6, 28, 29, 32, 48, 84, 90 &91 ;(3) to words beginning with the vowel called Vrddhi (आ,ऐ or औ),to words ending with गर्त, to words of the गह class, and to युष्मद् and अस्मद् in the शैषिक senses, confer, compare P. IV. 3.114, 137-45 and IV. 3.1 ; (4) to the words जिह्वामूल, अङ्गुलि, as also to words ending in वर्ग in the sense of 'present there '; confer, compare P.IV.3.62-64; (5) to the words शिशुक्रन्द, यमसम, dvandva compounds, इन्द्रजनन and others in the sense of 'a book composed in respect of', confer, compare P.IV. 3.88; (6)to words meaning warrior tribes, to words रैवतिक etc, as also अायुध, and अग्र, in some specified senses: cf P.IV. 3.91, 131, IV. 4.14, 117; (7) to all words barring those given as exceptions in the general senses mentioned in the confer, compare V.I.1-37; (8) to the words पुत्र, कडङ्कर, दक्षिण, words ending in वत्सर, अनुप्रवचन second. होत्रा, अभ्यमित्र and कुशाग्र in specified senses; et cetera, and others P. V. 1. 40, 69,70,91,92, 111,112,135, V. 2.17, V.3.105; (9) to compound words in the sense of इव; e. g. काकतालीयम् , अजाकृपाणीयम् confer, compare et cetera, and others V. 3. 106;and (10) to words ending in जति and स्थान in specified senses; confer, compare P. V.4, 9,10. confer, compare chandas (1) Vedic Literature in general as found in the rule बहुलं छन्दसि which has occurred several times in the Sutras of Panini, छन्दोवत्सूत्राणि भवन्ति confer, compare on I.1.1, and I.4.3; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also confer, compare I. 1, 4; (2) Vedic Samhita texts as contrasted with the Brahmana texts; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. छन्दोब्राह्मणानि च तद्विषयाणि P, IV.2.66; () metre, metrical portion of the Veda. confer, compare chāndasa found in the Vedic Literature; Vedic; cf छान्दसा अपि क्वचिद् भाषायां प्रयुज्यन्ते Bhasavrtti on P. IV.4.143; also छान्दसमेतत् । दृष्टानुविधिश्च च्छन्दसि भवति; confer, compare on I.1.5. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). jahatsvārthā ( वृत्ति ) a composite expression where the constituent members give up their individual sense. In compound words such as राजपुरुष in the sentence राजपुरुषमानय the word राजन् gives up its sense in as much as he, the king,is not brought; पुरुष also gives up its sense as every man is not brought. It is of course to be noted that although the sense is given up by cach word, it is not completely given up: cf जहदप्यसेो स्वार्थ नात्यन्ताय जहाति; on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 2. For detailed explanation see Mahabhasya on P. II. I. I. Vart. 2. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). jātīyar affix जातीय in the sense of प्रकार or variety; e. g. पटुजातीयः, मृदुजातीयः; cf taddhita affix. on P. V. 3.69. Originally जातीय was possibly an independent word, but as its use, especially as a noun, was found restricted, it came to be looked upon as an affix on the analogy of the affixes कल्प, देश्य, देशीय and others. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. jātya name of a variety of the Svarita or circumflex accent; the original svarita accent as contrasted with the svarita for the grave which follows upon an acute as prescribed by P. in VIII. 4.67, and which is found in the words इन्द्रः, होता The jatya svarita is noticed in the words स्वः, क्व, न्यक्, कन्या et cetera, and others ; . et cetera, and others उदात्तपूर्वं स्वरितमनुदात्तं पदेक्षरम्। अतोन्यत् स्वरितं स्वारं जात्यमाचक्षते पदे॥ जात्या स्वभावेनैव उदात्तानुदात्तसंगतिं विना जातो जात्यः । तं जात्यमाचक्षतै व्याडिप्रभृयः confer, compare and Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 4. commentary jit (l) affix marked with the mute letter ज्; e. g. जस्, जसि, जुस्. the word जित् is not however found used in this sense; (2) a word supposed to be marked with the mute indicatory letter ज्.The word is used in this sense by the Varttikakara saying that such a word does not denote itself but its synonyms; literally जित् पर्यायवचनस्यैव राजांद्यर्थम् P.I.1.68 Vart. 7. In the Sutra सभा राजामनुष्यपूर्वा P.II. 4. 23, the word राजन् is supposed to be जित् and hence it denotes इन्, ईश्वर confer, compare ; but not the word राजन् itself; (3) In the Pratisakhya works जित् means the first two consonants of each class (वर्ग); et cetera, and others क्, ख्,च्, छ्. exempli gratia, for example which are the same as खय् letters in Panini's terminology; et cetera, and others द्वौ द्वौ प्रथमौ जित्, V. Pr.I.50;III.13. confer, compare jñāpaka indirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, literally M.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 confer, compare The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given et cetera, and others , is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their syste a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given manuscript. ;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. jñāpakasamuccaya a work giving a collection of about 400 Jñāpakas or indicatory wordings found in the Sūtras of Pānini and the conclusions drawn from them. It was written by Purușottamadeva, a Buddhist scholar of Pāņini's grammar in the twelfth century A. D., who was probably the same as the famous great Vaiyākaraņa patronized by Lakșmaņasena.See पुरुषेत्तमदेव. jhit a term, meaning 'having झ् as इत्' used by the Varttikakra in connection with those words in the rules of Panini which themselves as well as words referring to their special kinds, are liable to undergo the prescribed operation; झित् तस्य च तद्विशेषाणां च मत्स्याद्यर्थम्। पक्षिमत्स्यमृगान् हन्ति। मात्त्प्यिक;। तद्विशेषाणाम्। शाफरिकः शाकुलिकः । M.Bh.on P.I. 1. 68 Vart. 8. confer, compare ñya taddhita affix य signifying the substitution of vrddhi as also the acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is add It is added (1) to words headed by प्रगदिन् in the four senses termed वंतुरर्थ edition प्रागृद्यम्, शारद्यम् exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others P.IV. 2.80; (2).to the word गम्भीर and अव्ययीभाव compounds in the sense of present there', confer, compare गाम्भीर्यम् , पारिमुख्यम् exempli gratia, for example et cetera, and others P.IV.3.58, 59 (3) to the word विदूर confer, compare वैदुर्य; exempli gratia, for example P. IV.3.84;.(4) to the words headed by शण्डिक in the sense of 'domicile of', confer, compare शाण्डिक्यः ; exempli gratia, for example P. IV.3.92; (5) to the words छन्दोग, औक्थिक, नट confer, compare in the sense of duty (धर्म) or scripture (अाम्नाय) e. g. छान्दोग्यम् , औविथक्यम् नाट्यम् et cetera, and others ; et cetera, and others P. IV. 3.129; (6) to the word गृहपति in the sense of ’associated with'; confer, compare गार्हपत्यः (अग्निः); exempli gratia, for example P.IV.4.90;(7) to the words ऋषभ and उपानह् ; confer, compare P. V.1.14; .(8) to the words अनन्त, आवसथ confer, compare , et cetera, and others P. V.4.23; (9) to the word अतिथि; confer, compare P.V.4.26; and (10) to the words in the sense of पूग(wandering tribes for earning money), as also to the words meaning व्रात (kinds of tribes) as also to words ending with the affix च्फञ् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.V.3. 112, 113. confer, compare ṭa (1) the consonant ट्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance; अकारो व्यञ्जनानाम्, confer, compare I. 21; (2) short term, (प्रत्याहार) standing for टवगे or the lingual class of consonants, found used mostly in the Pratisakhya works; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. RT. 13, confer, compare I. 64, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. I. 27: (3) Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. affix ( अ ) added to the word फल्गुनी in the sense ' तत्र जातः' e. g. फल्गुनी, taddhita affix. P. IV. 3.34, Vart. 2; (4) krt affix ( अ ) added to the root चर्, सृ and कृ under certain conditions; e. g. कुरुचर:, अग्रेसुर:, यशस्करी ( विद्या ) दिवाकरः, वेिभकरः कर्मकरः confer, compare et cetera, and others P. III. 2.16-23. confer, compare ṭak krt affix अ, not admitting गुण or वृद्धि to the preceding vowel and causing ङीप् in the feminine ( by P.IV. 1.15), added to the roots गा, पा and हन् under certain conditions; e. g. समग;, सुरापः, पतिघ्नी ; et cetera, and others P. IV. 2.8, 52, 53, 54, 55. confer, compare ṭac the samasanta affix अ added to certain specified words at the end of the tatpurusa and other compounds राजसखः, पञ्चगवम्, महानसम्, समक्षम् , अध्यात्मम् exempli gratia, for example cf P.V.4.91-112. et cetera, and others ṭhañ affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) causing Vrddhi and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, applied (1) to महृाराज, प्रोष्ठपद and क्वाचिन् in the specifi taddhita affix. senses, edition P. IV.2.35, 4l e. g. माहृाराजिक, प्रौष्ठपदिक confer, compare ; (2) to words काशि, चेदि, संज्ञा and others, along with ञिठ, e. g. काशिकी, काशिका, also with ञिठ to words denoting villages in the Vahika country et cetera, and others शाकलिकी शाकलिका; as also to words ending in उ forming names of countries in all the Saisika senses exempli gratia, for example P. IV.2.116-120; (3) to compound words having a word showing direction as their first member, to words denoting time, as also to the words शरद्, निशा and प्रदोष in the Saisika senses; cf P. IV.3.6, 7, 1115; (4) to the words वर्षा (1n Vedic Literature), and to हेमन्त and वसन्त in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P.IV.3.1921; (5) to संवत्सर, अाग्रहायणी, words having अन्तः as the first member, to the word ग्राम preceded by परि or अनु, to multisyllabic words having their last vowel accented acute, to words denoting sacrifices, to words forming names of sages, to words ending in ऋ and to the word महाराज in the specific senses which are mentioned; confer, compare P. IV.3.50, 60, 61, 67, 68, 69, 78, 79, 97; (6) to the words गोपुच्छ, श्वगण, आक्रन्द, लवण, परश्वध, compound words having a multisyllabic words as their first member, and to the words गुड confer, compare in the specified senses; et cetera, and others P.IV.4.6,II, 38, 52, 58, 64, 103;(7) to any word as a general confer, compare affix (अधिकारविहित), unless any other affix has been specified in the specified senses ' तेन क्रीतम् ' ' तस्य निमित्तम्' ... ' तदर्हम्' mentioned in the section of sutras V. 1. 18. to 117; (8) to the words अय:शूल, दण्ड, अजिन, compound words having एक or गो as their first member as also to the words निष्कशत and निष्कसहस्र; taddhita affix. P.V.2.76, 118,119. confer, compare ḍa (1) krt affix अ applied to the root गम् preceded by अन्त, अत्यन्त, अध्वन् , as also to the roots हन् and जन् under certain conditions; et cetera, and others P. III.2,48,49, 50, 97-101 and to the root क्रन् to form the word नक्र confer, compare P. VI. 3.75; (2) confer, compare affix अ applied to words ending in दशन्, words ending in शत् and the word विंशति in the sense of 'more than' taddhita affix. एकादशं शतम्, एकत्रिंशम्, एकविंशम्, cf P.V.2.45, 46. exempli gratia, for example ḍaca samasanta (अ) added to a Bahu vrihi compound meaning a numeral उपदशाः उपविंशाः exempli gratia, for example P.V.474. confer, compare ḍāc affix आ applied to dissyllabic words, used as imitation of sounds, or used as onomatopoetic, when connected with the root कृ or भू or अम्. The word to which डाच् is applied becomes generally doubled; c. g पटपटाकरोति, पटपटाभवति पटपटास्यात्; taddhita affix. P.V.4.57. The affix डाच् is also applied to द्वितीय, तृतीय, to compound words formed of a numeral and the word गुण, as also to the words सपत्र, निष्पत्र, सुख, प्रिच etc when these words are connected with the root कृ; confer, compare द्वितीयाकरोति,तृतीया करोति, द्विगुणाकरोति, सपत्राकरोति, सुखाकरोति exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others P.V.4. 58 to 67. confer, compare ḍāp affix आ added optionally to words ending in मन् and to Bahuvrihi compounds ending in अन् to show feminine gender, the words remaining as they are when the optional affix डाप् is not applied; feminine. दामा, सीमा, सुपर्वा; exempli gratia, for example P. IV. I.l l, 12, 13. confer, compare ḍhakañ affix एयक applied (1) to the word कुल optionally along with यत् and ख, when it is not a member of a compound;.e. g. कौलेयकः, कुल्यः, कुलीनः; taddhita affix. P.'IV. 1. 140; (2) to the words कत्त्रि and others in the Saisika senses as also to the words कुल, कुक्षि and ग्रीवा, if the words formed with the affix added, respectively mean dog, sword and ornament : e. g. कात्त्रेयकः कौलेयक: (श्वा), कौक्षेयकः (असिः), ग्रैवेयकः (अलंकारः): confer, compare confer, compare on P.IV 2.95,96. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. ṇatva cerebralization; lingualization ; the substitution of ण् for न् under certain conditions; P. VIII.4. 1-39. See ण. confer, compare ṇamultatpuruṣa a term used in connection with the compound of the णमुलन्त with its उपपदं which precedes; अग्रेभोजम् , मूलकोपदंशम् : exempli gratia, for example P. II. 2.20, 21. confer, compare ṇya affix य (l) applied in the sense of 'descendant' as also in a few other senses, mentioned in rules from IV. 1. 92 to IV.3.168, applied to the words दिति, अदिति, अादित्य and word; with पति as the उत्तरपद in a compound, c. g. दैत्यः, आदित्यः, प्राजापत्यम् taddhita affix. et cetera, and others confer, compare on P. IV.1 84; (2) applied in the sense of a descendant ( अपत्य ) applied to the words कुरु, गर्ग, रथकार, कवि, मति, दर्भ Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. , e.gकौरव्यः, गार्ग्यः et cetera, and others et cetera, and others Kas:, on P. IV. I.15I ; (3) applied in the sense of अपत्य or descendant to words ending in सेना,to the word लक्षण and to words in the sense of artisans, e.gकारिषेण्यः, लाक्षण्यः, तान्तुवाय्यः, कौम्भकार्यः; confer, compare confer, compare on P.IV.1.152; (4) applied in the Catuararthika senses to the words संकाश, काम्पिल्थ, कश्मीर Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. , et cetera, and others साङ्काश्यम्, काम्पिल्यम् exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others confer, compare on P. IV. 2.80; (5) applied to the word परिषद् and optionally with the affix ठक् to the word सेना in the specified senses; e. g. परिषदं समवैति, परिषदि साधुर्वा पारिषद्य्ः, सेनां समवेति सैन्यः सैनिको वा; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. Kas on P. IV. 44, 45, 101 ; (6) applied as a confer, compare affix called ' tadraja , to the word कुरु and words beginning with न e. g. कौरव्यः नैषध्यः; taddhita affix. Kas on P. IV. 1.172; कुरवः, निषधाः confer, compare are the et cetera, and others nominative case. for plural manuscript. takāra the consonant त्, the vowel अ and the word कार being placed after it for facility in understanding; confer, compare I. 17, 21. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. tatpuruṣa name of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष id est, that is P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, confer, compare , and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; et cetera, and others परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, confer, compare on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: confer, compare राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; exempli gratia, for example P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compare P.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona. confer, compare tadguṇasaṃvijñāna connection with what is denoted by the constituent members; the word refers to a kind of Bahuvrihi compound where the object denoted by the compound includes also what is denoted by the constituent members of the compound; e g. the compound word सर्वादि in the rule सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि includes the word सर्व among the words विश्व, उभय and others, which alone form the अन्यपदार्थ or the external thing and not merely the external object as mentioned in Panini's rule अनेकमन्यमपदार्थे (P.II. 2. 24): literally भवति बहुर्वीहौ तद्गुणसंविज्ञानमपि । तद्यथा । चित्रवाससमानय। लोहितोष्णीषा ऋत्विजः प्रचरन्ति । तद्गुण आनीयते तद्गुणाश्च प्रचरन्ति M.Bh. on I.1.27. For details confer, compare Mahabhasya on P.1.1.27 as also Par. Sek. Pari. 77. confer, compare tācchabdya (1) use of a word for that word (of which the sense has been conveyed); the expression तादर्थ्या त्ताच्छब्द्यम् is often used by grammarians just like a Paribhasa; अस्ति तादर्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यम् । बहुव्रीह्यर्थानि पदानि बहुव्रीहिरिति confer, compare on P. I.1.29; similarly तृतीयासमास;for तृतीयार्थानि पदानि M.Bh. on P.I.1.30 or समासार्थे शास्त्रं समासः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.43; (2) use of a word for that word of which there is the vicinity; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). अथवा साहचर्यात् ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति। कालसहचरितो वर्णः। वर्णॊपि काल एव; confer, compare on P.I.2.27 where the letter उ is taken in the sense of time required for its utterance, the reason being that sound and time go together; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also M.Bh. on P.I.2.70, IV.3.48, V.2.79; (3) use of a word for that which resides there; confer, compare तात्स्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति M.Bh. on V.4.50 Vart. 3. At all the confer, compare places, the use of one word for another is by Laksana. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. tāthābhāvya name given to the grave (अनुदात्त) vowel which is अवग्रह which occurs at the end of the first member of a compound and which is placed between two acute vowels id est, that is is preceded by and followed by an acute vowel; id est, that is तनूSनप्त्रे, तनूSनपत्: exempli gratia, for example उदाद्यन्तो न्यवग्रहस्ताथाभाव्यः । V.Pr.I.120. The tathabhavya vowel is recited as a kampa ( कम्प ) ; confer, compare तथा चोक्तमौज्जिहायनकैर्माध्यन्दिनमतानुसारिभिः'अवग्रहो यदा नीच उच्चयॊर्मध्यतः क्वचित् । ताथाभाव्यो भवेत्कम्पस्तनूनप्त्रे निदर्शनम्'. Some Vedic scholars hold the view that the ताथाभाव्य vowel is not a grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel, but it is a kind of स्वरित or circumflex vowel. Strictly according to Panini "an anudatta following upon an udatta becomes Svarita": confer, compare P.VIII.4.66, V.Pr. IV. 1.138: cf also R.Pr.III. 16. confer, compare ti (1) personal ending तिप् of the 3rd person. ; (2) common term for the krt affixes क्तिन् and क्तिच् as also for the unadi affix ति; see क्तिन् and क्तिच्; (3) singular. affix ति added to the word युवन्. e. g. युवतिः feminine. P. IV. 1.77; (4) confer, compare affix ति as found in the words पङ्क्ति and विंशति taddhita affix. confer, compare on P.V.1.59; (5) Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. affix added to the word पक्ष in the sense of 'a root,' and to the words कम् and शम् in the sense of possession (मत्वर्थे ); taddhita affix. पक्षतिः, कन्तिः, शान्तिः, exempli gratia, for example Kas, on P. V.2.25, 138; (6) a technical term for the term गति in Panini's grammar, confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे; गतिश्च P. 1.4.59, 60. The term ति for गति is used in the Jainendra Vyakarana. confer, compare tikakitavādi a class of compound words headed by the dvandva compound तिककितव in which the taddhita affixes added to the constituent members of the compound are dropped when the dvandva compound is to be used in the plural number; तैकायनयश्च कैतवायनयश्च तिककितवाः; confer, compare on P. II. 4.68. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. tiṣṭhadguprabhṛti compound words headed by the word तिष्ठद्गु which are termed as avyayibhava compounds and treated as indeclinables; तिष्ठद्गु, वहद्गु असंप्रति, प्राह्णम् exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others confer, compare on P.II. 1.17. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. tairovirāma a kind of स्वरित, or a vowel with a circumflex accent which follows an acute-accented vowel characterized by avagraha i. e. coming at the end of the first member of a compound; गेापताविति गॊSपतौ यज्ञपतिमिति यज्ञSपतिं. Here the vowel अ of प following upon the avagraha is called तैरोविरामस्वरित; exempli gratia, for example उदवग्रहस्तैरोविराम: confer, compare I. 118, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. tripada made up of a collection of three padas or words; the word is used in connection with a Rk or a portion of the kramapatha: यथॊक्तं पुनरुक्तं त्रिपदप्रभृति T.Pr.I.61. The word is found used in connection with a bahuvrihi compound made up of three words; confer, compare the term त्रिपदबहुव्रीहि. confer, compare thīma (THIEME, PAUL) a sound scholar of the present day, well versed in Sanskrit Grammar and Vedic Literature, who has written a critical treatise named "Panini and the Veda." dadhipayaādi a class of compound words headed by the word दधिपयस् which are not compounded as समाहारद्वन्द्व which ends in the neuter gender and singular number; दधिपयसी, शिववैश्रवणौ, श्रद्धातपसी exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others confer, compare on P.II. 4.14. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. dayānandasarasvati a brilliant Vedic scholar of the nineteenth century belonging to North India who established on a sound footing the study of the Vedas and Vyakarana and encouraged the study of Kasikavrtti. He has written many books on vedic studies. dāsībhārādi a class of words headed by the word दासीभार which,although they are tatpurusa compounds, retain the accents of the first member of the compound: P. VI.2.42. confer, compare diksamāsa the bahuvrihi compound prescribed by the rule दिङ्नामान्यन्तराले, पूर्वोत्तरा (north-east) or उत्तरपश्चिमा (north-west): exempli gratia, for example दिक्समासः दिगुपदिष्टः समासः, confer, compare on P.I. 1.28. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. durgasiṃha the famous commentator of the Katantra sutras, whose Vrtti on the sutras is the most popular one. It is called , कातन्त्रसूत्रवृत्ति or कातन्तवृत्ति or दौर्गसिंहीवृत्ति , also. A work on Paribhasas named परिभाषावृति, in which Paribhasas are explained and established as based on the Katantra Vyakarana sutras, is attributed to Durgasimha. It is doubtful whether this commentator Durgasimha is the same as Durgacarya, the famous commentator of Yaska's Nirukta. There is a legend that Durgasimha was the brother of Vikramaditya, the founder of the Vikrama Era. Besides the gloss on the Katantra sutras, some grammar works such as a gloss on the unadi sutras, a gloss ( वृत्ति ) on Kalapa-Vyakarana Sutras, a commentary on Karakas named षट्कारकरत्न, Namalinganusasana and Paribhasavrtti are ascribed to Durgasimha. Some scholars believe that the term अमरसिंह was only a title given to Durgasimha for his profound scholarship, and it was Durgasimha who was the author of the well-known work Amarakosa. dūṣaṇa fault, objection; the word is used in connection with a fault found with, or objection raised against an argument advanced by, a writer by his opponent or by the writer himself who replies it to make his argument well established; नित्यवादी कार्यपक्षे दूषणमाह-कार्येष्विति Maha. Prad. on P.I. 1.44 Vart.!6. hed; confer, compare नित्यवादी कार्यपक्षे दूषणमाह-कार्येष्विति Maha. Prad. on P.I. 1.44 Vart.!6. confer, compare devatādvandva a compound word called द्वन्द्व whose members are names of deities; the peculiarities of this Dvandva compound are (a) that generally there are changes at the end of the first member, by virtue of which it appears similar to a word ending in the dual number, and (b) that both the words retain their original accents. इन्द्रासोमौ, सौमापूषणा, अग्नीषोमाभ्यां, मित्रावरुणाभ्याम् ; for changes, exempli gratia, for example P. VI.3.25-31; for accent, confer, compare देवताद्वन्द्वानि चानामन्त्रितानि (द्विरुदात्तानिं) । इन्द्राबृहस्पतिभ्याम्, इन्द्राबृहस्पती इति त्रीणि confer, compare II.48, 49; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. also देवताद्वन्द्वे च P. VI, 2.141. confer, compare ghua technical term in the Jainendra Vyakarana for the term उत्तरपद (the latter or the second member of-a compound word ) which is used in Panini's grammar. dravya substance, as opposed to गुण property and क्रिया action which exist on dravya. The word सत्त्व is used by Yaska, Panini and other grammarians in a very general sense as something in completed formation or existence as opposed to 'bhava' or kriya or verbal activity, and the word द्रव्य is used by old grammarians as Synonymous with सत्त्व; चादयोSसत्वे। चादयो निपातसंज्ञा भवन्ति न चेत्सत्वे वर्तन्ते, confer, compare Kas on P. I. 4.57; confer, compare S.K. also on P. I.4.57. (2)The word द्रव्य is also found used in the sense of an individual object, as opposed to the genus or generic notion ( अाकृति ); confer, compare द्रव्याभिधानं व्याडिः, confer, compare on P. I. 2. 64. Vart. 45.(3)The word द्रव्य is found used in the sense of Sadhana or means in Tait. Prati. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). तत्र शब्दद्रव्याण्युदाहरिष्यामः । शब्दरूपाणि साधनानि वर्णयिष्यामः Tai, Pr. XXII. 8. confer, compare dravyavadbhāva behaviour like a dravya as noticed in the case of the bhava or kriya found in a root after a krt afix is added to it कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति. confer, compare on II.2.19, III.1.67 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). et cetera, and others dvanddha name of a compound, formed of two or more words used in the same case, showing their collection together; चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II.2.29. Out of the four meanings of the indeclinable च, viz. समुच्चय अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार, the dvandva compound is sanctioned in the last two senses only called इतरेतरद्वन्द्व (as in प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ confer, compare ) and समाहारद्वन्द्व (as in वाक्त्वचम् et cetera, and others ) respectively For details see Mahabhasya on II.2.29. The dvandva compound takes place only when the speaker intends mentioning the several objects together et cetera, and others when there is, in short, सहविवक्षा orयुगपदधिकरणवचनता; id est, that is अनुस्यूतेव मेदाभ्यां एका प्रख्योपजायते । यस्यां सहविवक्षां तामाहुर्द्वन्द्वैकशेषयोः । Sr. Pr. II. The gender of a word in the द्वन्द्वसमास is that of the last word in the case of the इतरेतरद्वन्द्व, while it is the neuter gender in the case of the समाहारद्वन्द्व. confer, compare dvikhaṇḍa a compound expression or word separated into two by avagraha in the Padapatha; the word is misstated as दुखण्ड by some vedic reciters. dvigu name of a compound with a numeral as the first member. The compound is looked upon as a subdivision of the Tatpurusa comPoundThe dvigu compound, having collection as its general sense, is declined in the neuter gender and singular number; when it ends in अ the affix ङी is added generally, e. g. पञ्चपात्रम्, त्रिभुवनम्, पञ्चमूली. The Dvigu comPound also takes place when a karmadharaya compound, having a word denoting a direction or a numeral as its first member, (a) has a feminine. affix added to it taddhita affix. पञ्चकपाळः (पुरोडाशः), or (b) has got a word placed after it in a compound e. g. पशञ्चगवधनः or (c) has a collective sense exempli gratia, for example पञ्चपूली; exempli gratia, for example तद्वितार्थोत्तरपदसमाहारे च ( P. II.1.51 ) also, cf confer, compare and S. K. om P.II.1.51,52. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. dvidaṇḍyādi a class of words, which are headed by the word द्विदण्डि and which are all bahuvrihi compounds, to which the affix इ is found added as a Samasanta affix e. gद्विदण्डिः, सपदि ; cf et cetera, and others on P. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. 4.128. 1. varia lectio, another reading, dhātu a root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; et cetera, and others ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् exempli gratia, for example P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, confer, compare अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; exempli gratia, for example P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा confer, compare शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; exempli gratia, for example P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) confer, compare गोप्ता, गेीपिता, exempli gratia, for example P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past confer, compare passive voice. participle. क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, exempli gratia, for example P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, confer, compare अगमत् exempli gratia, for example P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past confer, compare passive voice. participle. लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् confer, compare on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona. confer, compare dhruva (1) fixed,stationary, as contrasted with moving (ध्रुव) which is termed अपादान and hence put in the ablative case; cf ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् P. I. 4.24; (2) repeated sound ( नाद ) of a third or a fourth consonant of the class consonants when it occurs at the end of the first word of a split up compound word; confer, compare VI. II and XI. 24. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) dhvani (1) sound; ध्वनिं कुर्वन्नेवमुच्यतेशब्दं कुरु शब्दं मा कार्षीः confer, compare I. 1. Ahnika 1; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also confer, compare I. 77; Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. also स्फोटः शब्दः, ध्वनिः शब्दगुणः, M.Bh. on I. 1.70 Vart. 5. ध्वनि or sound is said to be the indicator (सूचक्र or व्यञ्जक) of स्फोट the eternal sound. confer, compare dhvanita suggested, as opposed to उक्त expressed; the word is found frequently used in the Paribhasendusekhara and other works in connection with such dictums as are not actually made, but indicated in the Mahabhasya. na (1) the consonant न् (see न् ) with the vowel added to it for facility of utterance, a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. confer, compare I. 21 ; (2) Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. affix न added to words headed by पामन् in the sense of possession; taddhita affix. पामनः, हेमनः exempli gratia, for example , cf P. V. 2.100; (3) et cetera, and others affix न as found in the word ज्योत्स्ना derived from ज्योतिष्, cf P. V. 2.114; (4) unadi affix न as found in the word स्योनः; cf taddhita affix. on P. VI.4.19; (5) the krt affix नङ् as also नन् prescribed after the roots यज्, याच्, यत्, विच्छ्, प्रच्छ्, रक्ष् and स्वप् , e g. यज्ञ:, याञ्चा, प्रश्नः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. , cf P. III. 3.90, 91; (6) the negative particle न given by Panini as नञ् and referred to in the same way, which ( et cetera, and others न.) when compounded with a following word is changed into अ or अन् or retained in rare cases as for instance in नभ्राट्, नासत्यौ, नक्षत्रम् id est, that is cf P. VI.3.73-75;(7) et cetera, and others affix न (नञ्) applied to the words स्त्री and पुंस् in senses given from P. IV. 1.92 to V. 2.1 e. g. स्त्रैणं, पौंस्नम् taddhita affix. IV. 1.87. confer, compare nañtatpuruṣa a compound with न as its first member which is changed into अ or अन्, or remains unchanged, the indeclinable न (नञ् ) possessing any one of the six senses given under न (6); e. g अब्राह्मणः, अनश्वः, नमुचिः a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. ; et cetera, and others P. VI. 3 73-77. confer, compare nañsamāsa a compound with न (नञ् ) as its first member; the term is found used in the Mahabhasya for both the नञ्तत्पुरुष as well as the नञ्बहुव्रीहि compounds; M.Bh. on P.I.4.1 Vart. 19, also on P. II.1.1. confer, compare nāgeśa the most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundr He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the edition on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa. D. E. Society, Poona. edition nāda (1) voice; resonance; tone; the sound caused by the vibration of the vocal chords in the open glottis when the air passes through them; वर्णाोत्पत्त्यनन्तरभावी अनुरणनरूपः शब्दः नादः confer, compare on Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa. on P. I. 1.9; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also संवृते कण्ठे यः शब्दः क्रियते स नादसंज्ञो भवति confer, compare II. 4; (2) sound, articulate sound generally without sense, which is momentary; (3) the highest sound. See परा. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. nāman noun, substantive; one of the four categories of words given in the Nirukta and other ancient grammer works; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्याते चोपसर्गनिपाताश्च, confer, compare I.1. The word is defined as सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि by standard grammarians; Nirukta of Yāska. confer, compare I. 1.; Nirukta of Yāska. also सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम, confer, compare XIII.8; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VIII. 49 and Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. thereon. Panini divides words into two categories only, viz. सुबन्त and तिङन्त and includes नामन् ,उपसर्ग and निपात under सुबन्त. The Srngarapraksa defines नामन् as follows-अनपेक्षितशब्दव्युत्पत्तीनि सत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायीनि नामानि। तानि द्विविधानि। आविष्टलिङ्गानि अनाविष्टलिङ्गानि च । The word नामन् at the end of a sasthitatpurusa compound signifies a name or Samjna e. g. सर्वनामन्, दिङ्नामन् , छन्दोनामन्; commentary also. Bhasavrtti on संज्ञायां कन्थोशीनरेषु P. II.4. 20 and संज्ञायां भृत्. P. III. 2.46 where the author of the work explains the word संज्ञायां as नाम्नि. The word is used in the sense of 'a collection of words' in the Nirukta, confer, compare अन्तरिक्षनामानि, अपत्यनामानि, ईश्वरनामानि, उदकनामानि, confer, compare et cetera, and others nigāra a kind of sound which apparently is made up of a combination of three phonetic elements ह्, म् and नासिक्य. It is a peculiar sound through both the mouth and the nose, although no specific place of production is assigned to it; cf अविशेषस्थानौ संस्वांदनिगारौ। हकारमकारनासिक्या वा निगारे R.T.11. niṅ substitute नि for the last letter of the word जाया at the end of a bahuvrihi compound; युवजानिः, वृद्धजानिः confer, compare on P.V. 4.134. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. nitya (1) eternal, as applied to word or Sabda in contrast with sound or dhvani which is evanescent (कार्य ). The sound with meaning or without meaning,made by men and animals is impermanent; but the sense or idea awakened in the mind by the evanescent audible words on reaching the mind is of a permanent or eternal nature; स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायामादुपजायते; confer, compare also व्याप्तिमत्त्वा्त्तु शब्दस्य Nir.I.1 ; (2) constant; not liable to be set aside by another; confer, compare उपबन्धस्तु देशाय नित्यम्, न रुन्धे नित्यम्। नित्यशब्दः प्राप्त्यन्तरानिषेधार्थः T.Pr.I.59, IV.14; (3) original as constrasted with one introduced anew such as an augment; confer, compare confer, compare VI.14; (4) permanently functioning, as opposed to tentatively doing so; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. नित्यविरते द्विमात्रम् confer, compare 37; (5) unchangeable, permanent, imperishable; Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. अयं नित्यशब्दोस्त्येव कूटस्थेष्वविचालिषु भावेषु वर्तते M.Bh. on P. VIII. 1.4; (6) always or invariably applying, as opposed to optional; the word in this sense is used in connection with rules or operations that do not optionally apply; confer, compare उपपदसमासो नित्यसमासः, षष्ठीसमासः पुनार्वेभाषा; confer, compare on P.II.2.19; (7) constant,as applied to a rule which applies if another simultaneously applying rule were to have taken effect, as well as when that other rule does not take effect; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). क्वचित्कृताकृतप्रसङ्गमात्रेणापि नित्यता Par. Sek. Pari 46. The operations which are nitya according to this Paribhasa take effect in preference to others which are not 'nitya', although they may even be 'para'; confer, compare परान्नित्यं बलवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 42. confer, compare nityasamāsa an invariably effective compound; the term is explained as अस्वपदविग्रहो नित्यसमासः i. e. a compound whose dissolution cannot be shown by its component words as such; e. g. the dissolution of कुम्भकारः cannot be shown as कुम्भं कारः, but it must be shown as कुम्भं करोति स: । The upapadasamasa, the gatisamsa and the dative tatpurusa with the word अर्थ are examples of नित्यसमास. nipāta a particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elid Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works; edition confer, compare I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Nirukta of Yāska. XII. 8 Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; et cetera, and others अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । confer, compare I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; Nirukta of Yāska. निपातः पादपूरणः confer, compare XII. 8, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VIII. 50, ( Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answer commentary Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; edition निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconcil confer, compare This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicat edition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206. edition nirukta name of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) nirudakādi a class of compound words headed by the word निरुदक which have their last vowel accented acute; e. g निरुदकम्, निरुपलम्, निर्मक्षिकम् ; et cetera, and others confer, compare on P. VI. 2. 184. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. nirdhāraṇa (1) selection of one or some out of many; जातिगुणाक्रियाभिः समुदायादेकदेशस्य पृथक्करणं निर्धारणम् । मनुष्याणां मनुष्येषु वा क्षत्रियः शूरतमः confer, compare on P. II.2.10 as also on II.3.4l; (2) determined or definite sense to the exclusion of another, generally on the strength of the indeclinable एव which is expressed or understood. The word नेिर्धारण is used for अवधारण in this sense; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. यत एवकारस्ततोन्यत्रावधारणम् a maxim used as a Paribhasa by some grammarians; cf; also धातोस्तन्निमित्तस्यैव । धात्ववधारणं यथा स्यात्तन्निमित्तावधारणं मा भूदिति confer, compare on P. VI. 1.81. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. nirvacana interpretation by means of etymology as found in the Nirukta works; the act of fully uttering the meaning hidden in words that are partially or wholly unintelligible in respect of their derivation, by separating a word into its component letters; निष्कृष्य विगृह्य निर्वचनम्, Durgavrtti on confer, compare II. 1.For details see Nirukta II.1. Nirukta of Yāska. niṣkādi a class of words headed by the word निष्क to which the affix इक ( ठक् ) is added, provided these words are not members of a compound; e. g. नैष्किकम् , पादिकम् , माषिकम् ; et cetera, and others confer, compare on P. V.1.20. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. nihita separated with the intervention of a consonant. The word is used in connection with the detached first part of a compound word not followed immediately by a vowel; अनिहतं अव्यवहितम् Uvvata on confer, compare V. 30. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. nuṭ augment न् prefixed (l) to the genitive case ending in अाम् after a crude base ending in a short vowel, or in ई or ऊ of feminine bases termed nadi, or in अा of the feminine affix ( टाप् डाप् or चाप्); e g. वृक्षाणाम्, अग्नीनाम् , कर्तॄणाम् , कुमारीणाम् , मालानाम् plural ; et cetera, and others P. VII.1.54; (2) to the affix अाम् after numerals termed षट् and the numeral चतुर् as also after the words श्री, ग्रामणी and गो in Vedic Literature, e. g. षण्णाम् , पञ्चानाम् , चतुर्णाम्, श्रीणाम्, ग्रामणीनाम्, गोनाम्; confer, compare P. VII.1.55,56, 57; (3) to the part of a root possessed of two consonants, as also of the root अश् of the fifth conjugation after the reduplicative syllable ending in अा, which is substituted for अ; confer, compare अानञ्ज, व्यानशे; exempli gratia, for example P.VII.4. 71,72; (4) to the affix मतुप् after a base ending in अन् as also to the affixes तरप् and तमप् after a base ending in न् in Vedic Literature, confer, compare मूर्धन्वती, अक्षण्वन्तः, सुपथिन्तरः exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others P. VIII. 2.16, 17: (5) to the initial vowel of the second member of a compound having अ of नञ् as the first member; e. g. अनघः, confer, compare P.VI. 3.74; (6) to any vowel after न् which is preceded by a short vowel and which is at the end of a word confer, compare कुर्वन्नास्ते, exempli gratia, for example P. VIII. 3.32. confer, compare num augment न् inserted after the last vowel (1) of a root given in the Dhātupātha as ending with mute इ; निन्दति, क्रन्दति, चिन्तयति, जिन्वति exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others P VII.1.58; (2) of roots मुच् and others before the conjugational sign अ ( श ); e. g. मुञ्चति, लुम्पति; confer, compare P. VII.1.59; (3) of the roots मस्ज्, नश्, रध्, जभ् and लभ् under certain specified conditions, confer, compare मङ्क्त्वा, नंष्टा, रन्धयति, जम्भयति, लम्भयति, आलम्भ्यः exempli gratia, for example et cetera, and others P.VII. 1.60-69; (4) of declinable bases marked with the mute indicatory letter उ, ऋ or ऌ as also of the declinable wording अञ्च् from the root अञ्च् and युज्, confer, compare भवान्, श्रेयान् , प्राङ्, युङ्, exempli gratia, for example Kās. on P. VII.1. 70, 71; (5) of the declinable base in the neuter gender, ending with a vowel or with any consonant excepting a semivowel or a nasal, before a case-ending termed Sarvanāmasthāna; confer, compare यशांसि, वनानि, जतूनि exempli gratia, for example , et cetera, and others Kās. on VII.1.72; (6) of the declinable base in the neuter gender, ending with इ, उ,ऋ or ऌ before a case-ending beginning with a vowel; confer, compare मधुने, शुचिने exempli gratia, for example , et cetera, and others Kās, on P. VII.1.73; (7) of the affix शतृ ( अत् of the confer, compare present tense. ) under certain conditions याती यान्ती; पचन्ती, सीव्यन्ती, participle. I .VII.78-8 : (8) of the word अनडुह् before the confer, compare and nominative case. vocative case. affix सु; singular. अनड्वान् , हे अनड्वन्, exempli gratia, for example P. VII.1. 82; (9) of the words दृक्, स्ववस् and स्वतवस् before the confer, compare and nominative case. vocative case. affix सु in Vedic Literature, e. g. यादृङ्, स्ववान् , स्वतवान् , singular. P.VII.1.83. confer, compare nemaspṛṣṭa partly touched, half touched; semi-contacted; a term used for sibilants and hissing sounds. nyavagraha also नीचावग्रह, the vowel at the अवग्रह or end of the first member of a compound word which has got a grave accent; e. g. the vowel ऊ of नू in तनूनप्त्रे; उदाद्यन्तो न्यवग्रहस्तथाभाव्यः confer, compare I. 120. See ताथाभाव्य. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. nyāyaratnamañjūṣā a work dealing with Vyākarana Paribhāsas or maxims as found in Hemacandra's system of grammar, written bv Hemahamsaganin, a pupil of Ratnasekhara, in 1451. The author has written a commentary also on the work, named . Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. pa,pakāra the consonant प्, the vowel अ and the affix कार being added for facility of understanding and pronunciation; cf T.Pr. I. 17, 21 ; प is also used as a short term for consonants of the fifth class (पवर्ग); confer, compare 1.27; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. I. 64 and Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. 13. Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. patañjali the reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itsel The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; feminine. पतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explain confer, compare He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are cover edition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य. edition pada a word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' ( confer, compare III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and confer, compare affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु taddhita affix. as also before the et cetera, and others affixes मत्, वत् taddhita affix. which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; et cetera, and others स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् confer, compare on P. I. 2. 64 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra. 2; Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा confer, compare on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् confer, compare , (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others , (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words et cetera, and others verbs like एधते, वर्धते, id est, that is Verbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words. et cetera, and others padakāra one who has divided the Samhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada-text. The term is applied to ancient Vedic Scholars शाकल्य, आत्रेय, कात्यायन and others who wrote the Padapātha of the Vedic Samhitās. The term is applied possibly through misunderstanding by some scholars to the Mahābhāsyakāra who has not divided any Vedic Samhitā,but has, in fact, pointed out a few errors of the Padakāras and stated categorically that grammarians need not follow the Padapāțha, but, rather, the writers of the Padapāțha should have followed the rules of grammar. Patañjali, in fact, refers by the term पदकार to Kātyāyana, who wrote the Padapātha and the Prātiśākhya of the Vājasaneyi-Samhitā in the following statement--न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम्। यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् literally on P. III.1. 109; VI. 1. 207; VIII. 2.16; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also अदीधयुरिति पदकारस्य प्रत्याख्यानपक्षे उदाहरणमुपपन्नं भवति ( परिभाषासूचन of व्याडि Pari. 42 ) where Vyādi clearly refers to the Vārtika of Kātyāyana ' दीधीवेव्योश्छन्दोविषयत्वात् ' P. I. 1.6 confer, compare I. The misunderstanding is due to passages in the commentary of स्कन्दस्वामिन् on the Nirukta passage I. 3, उब्वटटीका on ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य XIII. 19 and others where the statements referred to as those of Patañjali are, in fact, quotations from the Prātiśākhya works and it is the writers of the Prātiśākhya works who are referred to as padakāras by Patañ jali in the Mahābhāsya. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). padavidhi an operation prescribed in connection with words ending with case or verbal affixes and not in connection with noun-bases or root-bases or with single letters or syllables. पदविधि is in this way contrasted with अङ्गविधि ( including प्रातिपदिकविधि and धातुविधि ), वर्णविधि and अक्षरविधि, Such Padavidhis are given in Pāņini's grammar in Adhyāya2, Pādas l and 2 as also in VI.1.158, and in VIII. 1.16 to VIII.3.54 and include rules in connection with compounds, accents and euphonic combinations. When, however, an operation is prescribed for two or more padas, it is necessary that the two padas or words must be syntactically connectible; समर्थः पदविधिः P. II.1.1. confer, compare padasaṃskārapakṣa an alternative view with वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष regarding the formation of words by the application of affixes to crude bases. According to the Padasamskāra alternative, every word is formed independently, and after formation the words are syntactically connected and used in a sentence. The sense of the sentence too, is understood after the sense of every word has been understood; सुविचार्य पदस्यार्थं वाक्यं गृह्णन्ति सूरयः Sira. on Pari. 22. According to the other alternative viz. वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष, a whole sentence is brought before the mind and then the constituent individual words are formed confer, compare राम +सु, गम् + अ + ति । Both the views have got some advantages and some defects; exempli gratia, for example Par. Sek. Pari. 56. confer, compare paranipāta placing after; the placing of a word in a compound after another as contrasted with पूर्वनिपात . A subordinate word is generally placed first in a compound, literally उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्; in some exceptional cases however, this general rule is not observed as in the cases of राजदन्त and the like, where the subordinate word is placed after the principal word, and which cases, hence, are taken as cases of परनिपात. The words पूर्व and पर are relative, and hence, the cases of परनिपात with respect to the subordinate word ( उपसर्जन ) such as राजद्न्त, प्राप्तजीविक confer, compare can be called cases of पूर्वनिपात with respect to the principal word ( प्रधान ) et cetera, and others परश्शता: राजदन्तादित्वात्परनिपात: Kaas. on P. II.1.39. confer, compare paramāṇu a time-unit equal to one-half of the unit called अणु, which forms one-half of the unit called मात्रा which is required for the purpose of the utterance of a consonant; परमाणु अर्धाणुमात्रा V. Pr.I.61. परमाणु, in short, is the duration of very infinitesimal time equal to the pause between two individual continuous sounds. The interval between the utterances of two consecutive consonants is given to be equivalent to one Paramanu; confer, compare वर्णान्तरं परमाणु R.T.34. confer, compare paravalliṅgatā possession of the gender of the final member of a compound word, which, in tatpurusa compounds, is the second of the two or the 1ast out of many; परवल्लिङ्गद्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयो: (P. II.4 26) इति परवाल्लिङ्गता यथा स्यात् confer, compare on P.V.4.68. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). parasparavyapekṣā mutual expectancy possessed by two words, which is called सामर्थ्र्य in grammar. Such an expectancy is necessary between the two or more words which form a compound: परस्परव्यपेक्षां सामर्थ्र्यमेके P.II.1.1, V.4; confer, compare also इह राज्ञ: पुरुष इत्युक्ते राजा पुरुषमपेक्षते ममायमिति पुरुषोपि राजानमपेक्षते अहृमस्य इति | M.Bh. om II.1.1. confer, compare parasmaipada a term used in grammar with reference to the personal affixs ति, त: applied to roots. The term परस्मैपद is given to the first nine afixes ति, त:, अन्ति, सि, थ:, थ, मि, व: and म:, while the term आत्मनेपद is used in connection with the next nine त, आताम् et cetera, and others ; et cetera, and others परस्मै परोद्देशार्थफलकं पदम् Vac. Kosa. The term परस्मैपद is explained by some as representing the Active_Voice as contrasted with the Passive Voice which necessarily is characterized by the Aatmanepada affixes. The term परस्मैभाष in the sense of परस्मैपद was used by ancient grammarians and is also found in the Vaarttika अात्मनेभाषपस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI. 3.8 Vart.1 . The term परस्मैभाष as applied to roots, could be explained as परस्मै क्रियां (or क्रियाफलं) भाषन्ते इति परस्मैभाषाः and originally such roots as had their activity meant for another, used to take the परस्मैपद् affixes, while the rest which had the activity meant for self, took the अात्मनेपद affixes. Roots having activity for both, took both the terminations and were termed उभयपदिनः. confer, compare parasmaibhāṣa speaking the activity or क्रिया for another; a term of ancient grammarians for roots taking the first nine personal affixes only viz. ति, तः... मसू. The term परस्मैपदिन् was substituted for परस्मैभाष later on,more commonly. See परस्मैपद literally . The term परस्मैभाष along with अात्मनेभाष is found almost invariably used in the Dhaatupaatha attributed to Paanini; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. भू सत्तायाम् | उदात्त: परस्मैभाषः | एघादय उदात्त अनुदात्तेत अात्मनभाषा: Dhatupatha. confer, compare paribhāṣāsegraha' a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his paribhasa.work named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundr edition paribhāṣenduśekhara the reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis. parilopa elision ofa phonetic member: the same as lopa in the Grammar of Panini. The term परिलोप and the verbal forms of the root परिलुप् are found in the Pratisakhya works; उष्मा परिलुप्यते त्रयाणाम् confer, compare II. 4. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) parivartana reversion in the order of words as found in the recital of the Veda at the time of the recital of जटा, घन and other artificial types of recitations. parisaṃkhyāna enumeration; enunciation;mention ; the word is found generally used by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras at the end of their Varttikas. The words वक्तव्यम्, वाच्यम् , and the like, are similarly us literally edition parisamāpti application of the complete sense; the word is found used in the three alternative views about the application of the full sense of a sentence,collectively, individually or in both the ways, to the individuals concerned ; प्रत्येकं वाक्यपरिसमाप्ति:, समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः, उभयथा वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः ; confer, compare confer, compare I. 1.1 Vart12; ( 2 ) completion ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). वृत्करणं ल्वादीनां प्वादीनां च परिसमाप्त्यर्थमिति confer, compare on VII. 3.80. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. parihāra (1) removal of a difficulty, अन्यथा कृत्वा चोदितमन्यथा कृत्वा परिहारं: confer, compare on P. IV. 1.7. Vart. 3: (2) repetition in the Padapatha, Kramapatha Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). e. g अकरित्यक:. In this sense the word is found in the neuter gender ; et cetera, and others रेफपरिहाराणि confer, compare III. 1.1. Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. parokṣā behind the eyes; remote; । the term is found used by ancient grammarians and also referred to in the Mahaabhaasya as referring to the perfect tense called लिट् in Paanini's grammar: literally ज्ञापकात्परोक्षायां ( लिटि ) न भविष्यति । M.Bh. on P. I. 2.28: confer, compare also न व्यथते: परोक्षायाम् Kaat. III.4.21. confer, compare paryāya (l) serial order or succession as opposed to simultaniety ; the word is used in grammar in connection with a rule which, as the objector for the sake of argument, would like to hold and would apply by succession with respect to the rule in conflict, either before it or after it alternatively; id est, that is पर्यायः प्रसज्येत often found used in the Mahabhaasya as for example on I.4.1 confer, compare : et cetera, and others also तृजादयः पर्यायेण भवन्ति M.Bh. on P. I. 4.2. Vaart. 3; ( 2 ) alternative word,. synonym; confer, compare अभिज्ञावचने लृट् । वचनग्रहणं पर्यायार्थम् । अभिजानासि स्मरसि बुध्यसे चेतयसे इति । Kaas. on P. III.2.112. confer, compare paryudāsa (1) exclusion; negation with a view to exclude; one of the two senses ( प्रसज्यप्रतिषेध and पर्युदास ) of the negative particle नञ्, generally found in cases when the particle नञ् is compounded with a noun, and not used independently with a verbal form or a verbal activity ; e. g. अब्राह्मणः; अनचि च ; अनपुंसकात् । नायं प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधो नपुंसकस्य नेति । किं तर्हि । पर्युदासोयं यदन्यन्नपुंसकादिति । confer, compare on I.1.43: cf also प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधः स्यात् क्रियया सह यत्र नञ् । पयुदास: स विज्ञेयो यत्रोत्तरपदेन नञ् ॥ (2) removal in general, not by the use of a negative particle: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). पाठात्पर्युदासः कर्तव्यः । शुद्धानां पठितानां संज्ञाः कर्तव्या । confer, compare on I. 1.27 Vaart. 3. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). parvan word, pada; member of a sentence; the word is found used in the sense of पद in the old Pratisaakhya Literature: literally अन्तरेण पर्वणी । पर्वशबेदन पदमुच्यते । पदयोर्मध्ये पद अागमो भवति । यथा प्राङ्कसोमः, प्राङ्क्सोम: । Uvvata on confer, compare I. 138. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. paśyantī name of the second out of the four successive stages in the origination or utterance of a word from the mouth. According to the ancient writers on Phonetics, sound or word ( वाक् ) which is constituted of air ( वायु ) originates at the Mulaadhaaracakra where it is called परा. It then springs up and it is called पश्यन्ती in the second stage. Thence it comes up and is called मध्यमा in the third stage; rising up from the third stage when the air strikes against the vocal chords in the glottis and comes in contact with the different parts of the mouth, it becomes articulate and is heard in the form of different sounds. when it is called वैखरी; वैखर्या मध्यमायाश्च पश्यन्त्याश्चैतदद्भुतम् । अनेकतीर्थभेदायास्त्रय्या वाचः परं पदम् Vaakyapadiya I. 144, and also confer, compare पश्यन्ती तु सा चलाचलप्रतिबद्धसमाधाना संनिविष्टज्ञेयाकारा प्रतिलीनाकारा निराकारा च परिच्छिन्नार्थप्रत्ययवभासा संसृष्टार्थप्रत्यवभासा च प्रशान्तसर्वार्थप्रत्यवभासा चेत्यपरिमितभेदा । पश्यन्त्या रूपमनपभ्रंशामसंकीर्ण लोकव्यवह्यरातीतम् । confer, compare on Vaakyapadiya I. 144. commentary also तत्र श्रोत्रविषया वैखरी । मध्यमा हृदयदशेस्था पदप्रत्यक्षानुपपत्त्या व्यवहारकारणम् । पश्यन्ती तु लोकव्यवहारातीता। योगिनां तु तत्रापि प्रकृतिप्रत्ययविभागावगतिरस्ति | परायां तु न इति त्रय्या इत्युक्तम् । confer, compare on चत्वारि वाक्परिमिता पदानि । Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa. Ahnika 1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). paspaśā called also पस्पशाह्निक; name given to the first or introductory chapter ( अाह्निक ) of the Maahabhaasya of Patanjali. The word occurs first in the SiSupaalavadha of Maagha. The word is derived from पस्पश् , the frequentative base of स्पर्श to touch or to see (ancient use). Possibly it may be explained as derived from स्पश् with अप; cf . शब्दबिद्येव नो भाति राजनीतिरपस्पशा Sis.II.112. Mallinatha has understood the word पस्पश m. and explained it as introduction to a Saastra treatise; पस्पशः शास्त्रारम्भसमर्थक उपेद्वातसंदर्भग्रन्थः । Mallinaatha on SiS. II.112. confer, compare pāṇini the illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation o the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native pl feminine. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition. accusative case. pāṇinisūtravṛtti a gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by in his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known. Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti pātresamitādi a class of irregular compound words headed by the compound word पात्रेसमित, which are taken correct as they are. This class of words consists mostly of words forming a tatpurușa compound which cannot be explained by regular rules. The class is called आकृतिगण and hence similar irregular words are included in it: e. g. पात्रेसमिताः, गेहेशूरः कूपमण्डूकः etc KS. on P. II.1.48. confer, compare puṃvadbhāva restoration of the masculine form in the place of the feminine one as noticed in compound words, formed generally by the Karmadhāraya and the Bahuvrīhi compounds, where the first member is declinable in all the three genders; e. g. दीर्घजङ्घः. This restoration to the masculine form is also noticed before the affixes तस्, तर, तम्, रूप्य, पाश, त्व as also before क्यङ् and the word मानिन्. For details, see P. VI, 3.34 to 42 and commentaries thereon. See also page 334, Vol. VII of the Pātańjala Mahābhāșya D. E. Society's edition. taddhita affix. puṃska masculine nature, hence masculine gender. The word is generally found as a part of the word भाषितपुंस्क which means a word which is declined in the masculine and the feminine gender or in the neuter and the masculine gender in the same sense. For details see M. Bh, on P. VI.3.34. puñjarāja a famous grammarian of the 12th century who wrote a learned commentaty on a part of the Vāky apadīya of Bhartŗhari in which he has quoted passages from famous writers and grammarians such as भामह, कुन्तक, वामन, हेमचन्द्र and others. The name is found written as पुण्यराज also. pūrvanipāta placing first (in a compound); priority of a word in a compound, as in the case of an adjectival word, For special instructions in grammar about priority see P. II.2.30 to 38. pūrvapada anterior member, the first out of the two members of a compound, as contrasted with the next member which is उत्तरपद; पूर्वपदोत्तरपदयोरेकोदशः पूर्वपदत्यान्तवद्भवति, confer, compare on P.VI.1.85 Vart. 4. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). pūrvapadaprakṛtisvara retention of the original acute accent of the first member in a compound as is generally noticed in the bahuvrihi compound and in special cases in other compounds; cf बहुव्रीहौ प्रकृत्या पूर्वपदम् and the following rules P. WI. 2.1 to 63. pūrvapadārthaprādhānya importance in sense possessed by the first member of a compound as noticed generally in the case of the avyayibhava com pound, which hence is defined as पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानोव्ययीभावः M.Bh on P.I I. I.6, II.1.20, II. 1.49. pūrvavipratiṣedha conflict of two rules where the preceding rule supersedes the latter rule, as the arrival at the correct form requires it. Generally the dictum is that a subsequent rule should supersede the preceding one; cf विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; but sometimes the previous rule has to supersede the subsequent one in spite of the dictum विप्रतिषेधे परम्. The author of the Mahabhasya has brought these cases of the पूर्वविप्रतिषेध, which are, in fact, numerous, under the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् by taking the word पर in the sense of इष्ट 'what is desired '?; इष्टवाची परशब्दः । विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवतीति l confer, compare on I. 1.3; I.2, 5: I. 4.2: II.1.69, IV.1.85 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). et cetera, and others also पूर्वविप्रतिषेधो नाम अयं र्विप्रतिषेधे परमित्यत्र परशब्दस्य इष्टवाचित्वाल्लब्धः सूत्रार्थः परिभाषारुपेण पाठ्यते Puru. Pari 108; for details see page 217 Vol. VII Mahabhasya D. E. Society's edition. confer, compare paurastyavaiyākaraṇa a grammarian of the eastern school which is believed to have been started by जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि the writer of the gloss called न्यास on the Kasikavrtti. The school practically terminated with पुरुषोत्तमदेव and सीरदेव at the end of the twelfth century A.D. Such a school existed also at the time of Panini and Patanjali, a reference to which is found made in प्राचां ष्फ ताद्धतः P. IV. 1.17 and प्राचामवृद्धात्फिन् बहुलम् IV.1. 160 and प्राचामुपादेरडज्वुचौ च V.3.80 where the word is explained as प्राचामाचार्याणां by the writer of the Kasika. prakaraṇagrantha literary works in which the treatment is given in the form of topics by arranging the original sutras or rules differently so that all such rules as relate to a particular topic are found together: the Prakriykaumudi, the Siddhantakumudi and others are called प्रकरणग्रन्थs. Such works are generally known by the name प्राक्रयाग्रन्थ as opposed to वृतिग्रन्थ. prakṛta (1) in context, in question; the word is frequently used in connection with words in the preceding rules which are drawn on to the following rules by anuvrtti or continuation; प्रकृतं गुणवृद्धिग्रहणमनुवर्तते, M.Bh. on I.1.3 Vart. 2: (2) found or available in a large quantity; confer, compare तत्प्रकृतवचने मयट् । प्राचुर्येण प्रस्तुतं प्रकृतम् । confer, compare on P. V. 4.21. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. prakṛtibhāva phonetical maintenance of a wording without allowing any euphonic modifications as found in the case of a dual form ending in ई,ऊ or ए,as also in other specified cases; ईदूदेद्विवचनं प्रगृह्यम् and the following rules P.I. 1.11 to 19, as also प्लुतप्रगृह्या अचि नित्यम् VI.1.125 confer, compare prakrama (l) the place of articulation, the place of the production of sound, such as throat, chest, palate and the like; प्रक्रम्यन्ते अस्मिन्वर्णा इति प्रक्रमः स्थानमुच्यते confer, compare Pradipa on सिद्धं तु समानप्रक्रमवचनात् P.I.2.30 Vart.2; (2) recital of Veda, described as क्रमपाठ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). उभयथा च प्रक्रमे दोषो भवति M.Bh.on P. VIII. 4.28 confer, compare also "अष्टसु प्रक्रमेषु दोषो भवति"quoted in the Mahabhasya on P.VI. 1.172; (3) regularity in the position of words, regular order of words. confer, compare pratipatti knowledge, understanding; तस्मादनभ्युपायः शब्दानां प्रतिपत्तौ प्रतिपदप्राठः। M.Bh. on Ahn. 1 ; also confer, compare MBh. on P. I. 1. 20. Vart.5 I.1 44,46 confer, compare et cetera, and others pratipattigarīyastva difficulty in understanding; requiring an effort to understand the sense; योगविभागे तु प्रतियोगं भिन्नबुद्ध्युदयाद् व्यक्तं प्रतिपतिगरीयस्त्वम् Puru. Pari. 98. confer, compare pratipattigaurava difficulty in understanding; requiring a longer time in understanding the sense: एवं हि प्रतिपत्तिगौरवंं स्यात् Sira. Pari. 50. See प्रतिपत्तिगरीयस्त्व. confer, compare pratipattilāghava facility of understanding: प्रतिपत्तिलाघवार्थं ज्ञाजनोर्जा इति दीर्घान्तादेशविधानम् Sira. Pari. 91. confer, compare pratiṣedha prohibition, negation, prohibition of a rule or operation; generaliy प्रतिषेध or प्रसज्यप्रतिषेध is laid down by the use of the negative particle ( नञ् ) connected with a verbal activity, and not with a noun in a compound in which case the negation is named पर्युदास; प्रसज्ज्यप्रतिषेधो यः क्रियया सह यत्र नञ् । पयुदासः स विज्ञेयः थत्रोत्तरपदेन नञ् । confer, compare pratihāra excessive contact with the sound-producing organ which is looked upon as a fault; वर्गेषु जिह्वाप्रथनं चतुर्षु ग्रासो मुख्ये प्रतिहारश्चतुर्थे । चतुर्थे वर्गे ( तवर्गे ) प्रतिहारः अतिप्रयत्नो नाम दोषो भवति । Uvvata on confer, compare XIV.7. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) pratyaya affix, suffix, a termination, as contrasted with प्रकृति the base; प्रत्याय्यते अर्थः अनेन इति प्रत्ययः; confer, compare also अर्थे संप्रत्याययति स प्रत्ययः M.Bh. on III. 1.l Vart. 8; The word प्रत्यय is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'following' or 'that which follows', e. g. स्पर्शे चोषः प्रत्यये पूर्वपद्यः confer, compare I. 30 which is explained by Uvvata as उषः इत्ययं ( शब्दः ) पूर्वपदावयवः सन् स्पर्शे प्रत्यये परभूते इति यावत्; रेफिसंज्ञो भवति; Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.30; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) प्रत्येति पश्चादागच्छति इति प्रत्ययः परः confer, compare V. 7; cf also V. Pr, III. 8. Pratyaya or the suffix is generally placed after the base; cf, प्रत्ययः, परश्च P. III. I. 1,2; but sometimes it is placed before the base; e. g. बहुपटुः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. विभाषा सुपो बहुच् पुरस्तात्तु P. V. 3.68. The conjugational signs (शप् , श्यन् confer, compare ), the signs of tenses and moods ( च्लि, सिच् , स्य, ताम् et cetera, and others ) and the compound endings(समासान्त) are all called pratyayas according fo Panini's grammar, as they are all given in the jurisdiction(अधिकार) of the rule प्रत्ययः III.1.1, which extends upto the end of the fifth chapter ( अध्याय ). There are six main kinds of affixes given in grammar सुप्प्रत्यय, तिङ्प्रत्यय, कृत्प्रत्यय , तद्धितप्रत्यय, धातुप्रत्यय ( et cetera, and others in the roots चिकीर्ष, कण्डूय exempli gratia, for example ) and स्त्रीप्रत्यय. The word प्रत्यय is used in the sense of realization, in which case the root इ in the word त्यय means'knowing' according to the maxim सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्थाः; et cetera, and others मन्त्रार्थप्रत्ययाय confer, compare I.15. Nirukta of Yāska. pratyākhyāna rejection of a rule or a word or words in a rule shown as redundant, their purpose being shown as served otherwise; लुपि युक्तवद् व्यक्तिवचने इति पूर्वाचार्याणामेवेदं सूत्रम् । तथा चास्य प्रत्याख्यानं भविष्यति । तदशिष्यं संज्ञाप्रमाणत्वादिति । confer, compare on I.2.51. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. pratyāhāra bringing together; bringing together of several letters ( or words in a few cases, such as roots or nouns ) by mentioning the first and the last only for the sake of brevity; the term प्रत्याहार is generally used in connection with brief terms such as अण्, अक् , अच् , हल् and the like, created by Panini in his grammar by taking any particular letter and associating it with any mute final letter ( अनुबन्ध ) of the fourteen Sivasutras, with a view to include all letters beginning with the letter uttered and ending with the letter which precedes the ( mute ) letter. The practice of using such abbreviations was in existence before Panini, possibly in the grammar attributed to Indra. The term प्रत्याहार is not actually used by Panini; it is found in the Rk. Tantra; literally प्रत्याहारार्थो वर्णोनुबन्धो व्यञ्जनम् R.T.I.3. The term appears to have come into use after Panini. Panini has not given any definition of the term प्रत्याहार. He has simply given the method of forming the Pratyaharas and he has profusely used them; confer, compare आदिरन्त्येन सहेता P. I. 1.71. The word कृञ् in P. III.1.40 and तृन् in P. II. 3.69 are used as Pratyaharas. For a list of the Pratyharas which are used by Panini see Kasika on the Maheswara Sutras. confer, compare pradīpa popular name of the famous commentary on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali written by the reputed grammarian Kaiyata in the eleventh century A. D. The cornmentary is a very scholarly and critical one and really does justice to the well-known compliment given to it, viz. that the Pradipa has kept the Mahabhasya alive which otherwise would have remained unintelligible and consequently become lost. The commentary प्रदीप is based on the commentary महाभाष्यदीपिका,or प्रदीपिका written by Bhartrhari, which is available at present only in a fragmentary form. The Pradipa is to this day looked upon as the single commentary on the Mahabhasya in spite of the presence of a few other commentaries on it which are all thrown into the back-ground by it. prayatna (1) effort; the word is used in connection with the effort made for producing sound; तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.1.1.9 these efforts are described to be of two kinds बाह्य and आभ्यन्तर of which the latter are considered in determining the cognate nature of letters ( सावर्ण्य ); confer, compare अाभ्यन्तरप्रयत्नाः सवर्णसंज्ञायामाश्रीयन्ते; confer, compare on P. I. 1.9; (2) specific measure taken for a particular purpose such as marking a letter with a particular tone or accent or dividing a rule, or laying down a modificatory rule or the like; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. सैवाननुवृत्तिः शब्देनाख्यायते प्रयत्नाधिक्येन पूर्वसूत्रेपि संबन्धार्थम् confer, compare on P. IV. 3.22. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. prayojana object, motive or purpose in undertaking a particular thing; the word is used although rarely, in the sense of a cause also; इमान्यस्य प्रयोजनानि अध्येयं व्याकरणम् confer, compare Ahnika 1. For the advantages of the study of Vyakarana, see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1. See also Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII pp.226,227, D.E. Society's edition. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). pravāda a grammatical explanation; detailed explanation by citing the gender, number, krt affix, affix and the like: taddhita affix. लिङ्गसंख्यातद्धितकृतरूपभेदाः प्रवादाः । पाण्यादिशब्दानां प्रवादेषु प्रथमो (original) नकारो णत्वमाप्नोति स च प्राकृतः । confer, compare XIII. 9. The word is explained as a change in the form of a word, as for instance, by the substitution of स् for विसर्ग where विसर्ग is, in fact, expected; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. कबन्धं पृथु इत्येतेषां पदानां प्रवादा रूपभेदा उदये परत्रावस्थिताः दिव इत्येतस्य उपचारं जनयन्ति । यथा दिवस्कबन्धम् , दिवस्पृथुः Uvvata on confer, compare IV. 22; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also प्रवादाः षडितः परे, confer, compare IX. 18. In the Nirukta, the word is used in the sense of 'distinct mention'; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) एवमन्यासामपि देवतानामादित्यप्रवादाः स्तुतयो भवन्ति ( deities are mentioned under the name of Aditya) Nir II.13; cf also वैश्वानरीयाः प्रवादाः Nir, VII. 23. confer, compare pravigraha separate or distinct uterance of several words of a sentence which are joined together by Sandhi rules in a compound ( समास ) or otherwise, with a very short pause ( अवग्रह ) after each word. e. g. उद् उ एति instead of उद्वेति; प्रविग्रहेण मृदूवग्रहेण चर्चयेयुः confer, compare XV.10, where Uvvata remarks प्रविग्रहेषु प्रश्लिष्टं विश्लिष्टं कुर्यात् । कालाधिक्येन कुर्यात्। तथा च उद् उ एति इति पठेन्न तु उद्वेति. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) pravṛddhādi a class of compound words headed by the word प्रवृद्ध in which the second word, which is a past part, has its last vowel accented acute; passive voice. प्रवृद्धं यानम्, प्रयुक्ताः सक्तवः, खट्वारूढः । आकृतिगणश्च प्रवृद्धादिर्द्रष्टव्यः । तेन पुनरुत्स्यूतं वासो देयमित्यादि सिद्धं भवति confer, compare on. on P.VI.2. 147. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. praśleṣa (l) coalescence of two vowels into one, as given in II.6, and 7, corresponding to the गुण, वृद्वि and दीर्घ substitutes prescribed by the rules आद्गुणः P.IV 1.87; अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः VI.1.101; and वृद्धिरेचि VI. 1.88 which are stated under the jurisdiction of the rule एकः पूर्वपरयोः VI.1.84; (2) finding out the presence of a letter in addition to the letters already present as coalesced, after splitting the combination into its different constituent 1etters. This Practice of finding out an additional letter is resorted to by the commentators only to remove certain difficulties in arriving at some correct forms which otherwise could not be obtained; e. g. see क्ङिति च where क्ङ् is believed to be a combination of ग्, क् and ङ् See प्रश्लिष्ट and प्रश्लिष्टनिर्देश. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) prasajyapratiṣedha prohibition of the possible application of a rule, generally laid down by the use of the negative particle न, together with, or connected with, a verbal activity: e.g न लुमताङ्गस्य P.I.1.63, नामि P.VI. 4.3, न माङ्योगे VI.4.74 etc: et cetera, and others प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधोSयं क्रियया सह यत्र नञ्; confer, compare also प्रसज्यायं क्रियागुणौ ततः पश्चान्निवृतिं करोति M.Bh. on P.II.2.6. In some cases the negative particle in a compound has also to be taken as stating a negation by प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधः; confer, compare M.Bh. on सुडनपुंसकस्य P.1.1.43, सार्वधातुकमपित् I.4.2, चादयोsसत्त्वे I. 4. 57. confer, compare prāgdeśa districts of the east especially districts to the east of Ayodhya and Pataliputra, such as Magadha, Vanga and others; nothing can definitely be said as to which districts were called Eastern by Panini and his followers Katyayana and Patanjali. A Varttika given in the Kasika but not traceable in the Mahabhasya defines Pragdesa as districts situated to the east of शरावती (probably the modern river Ravi or a river near that river ): प्रागुदञ्चौ विभजते हंसः क्षीरोदके यथा । विदुषां शब्दसिद्ध्यर्थे सा नः पातु शरावती ॥ confer, compare on एङ् प्राचां देशे P. I. 1.75. There is a reading सरस्वती in some manuscript copies and सरस्वती is a wellknown river in the Punjab near Kuruksetra, which disappears in the sandy desert to the south: a reading इरावती is also found and इरावती may stand for the river Ravi. शरावती in Burma is simply out of consideration. For details see Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. pp. 202-204 and 141-142 D. E. Society's Edition. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. prācyāvaiyākaraṇa an eastern grammarian; the term प्राच्य (eastern) being a relative term, the east is to be taken with respect to the place in the context. The word प्राचां occurs many times in Panini's Sutras and the term प्राक् may refer to countries east of the river शरावती or सरस्वती in the Punjab. See प्राग्देश . प्राचां is understood by some commentators as referring to time, in which case, the word may refer to ancient grammarians आपिशलि, शाकटायन, इन्द्र and others who lived before Panini; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. प्राचीनवैयाकरणतन्त्रे वाचनिकानि ...Par. Sek. Pari. 1. The word प्राचीन is, of course, mostly used in the sense of ancient, rather than the word प्राच्. For specific peculiarities of the eastern grammarians see pp. 148-149 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's Edition. confer, compare prāṇa air, which is instrumental in producing sound; वायुः प्राणः कण्ठ्यमनुप्र दानम् R.Pr.XIII.1. confer, compare prātipadika available in every word. The term प्रातिपादिक can be explained as प्रतिपदं गृह्णाति तत् प्रातिपदिकम् cf P.IV. 4. 39. The term प्रातिपदिक, although mentioned in the Brahmana works, is not found in the Pratisakhya works probably because those works were concerned with formed words which had been actually in use. The regular division of a word into the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix ( प्रत्यय ) is available, first in the grammar of Panini, who has given two kinds of bases, the noun-base and the verb-base. The noun-base is named Pratipadika by him while the verb-base is named Dhatu. The definition of Pratipadika is given by him as a word which is possessed of sense, but which is neither a root nor a suffix; literally अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् . P.I. 2.45. Although his definition includes, the krdanta words,the taddhitanta words and the compound words, still, Panini has mentioned them separately in the rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I. 2.45 to distinguish them as secondary noun-bases as compared with the primary noun-bases which are mentioned in the rule अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्, Thus,Panini implies four kinds of Pratipadikas मूलभूत, कृदन्त, तद्धितान्त and समास, The Varttikakara appears to have given nine kinds-गुणवचन, सर्वनाम, अव्यय, तद्धितान्त, कृदन्त, समास, जाति, संख्या and संज्ञा. See Varttikas 39 to 44 on P. I. 4. 1. Later on, Bhojaraja in his SringaraPrakasa has quoted the definition अर्थवदधातु given by Panini, and has given six subdivisions.: confer, compare नामाव्ययानुकरणकृत्तद्धितसमासाः प्रातिपदिकानि Sr. Prak. I. page 6. For the sense conveyed by a Pratipadika or nounbase, see प्रातिपदिकार्थ. confer, compare prātiśrutka places of echo or reverberation viz.chest and others, of sound which gets its origin at the navel but becomes reverberated at chest, throat, top of the month, mouth and nose; तस्य ( उत्पत्त्याश्रयस्य शब्दस्य ) प्रातिश्रुत्कानि भवन्ति उरः कण्ठः शिरो मुखं नासिके इति, confer, compare II. 3. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. prādisamāsa a compound with प्र and others prescribed by the rule कुगतिप्रादयः P. II.2.18 and explained in detail by the Varttikas headed by the Varttika प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया P. II. 2. 18 Vart. 4, which comes under the general head तत्पुरुष ; the compound is also called प्रादितत्पुरुष; कथं प्रभावो राज्ञः । प्रकृष्टो भाव इति प्रादिसमासो भविष्यति । confer, compare on P. III. 3.24 cf also प्रान्तः पर्यन्तः । बहुव्रीहिरयं प्रादिसमासो वा Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 2. 180. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. prādeśika belonging to the root; the word प्रदेश has here the peculiar sense of a root which has the meaning of the noun (under discussion). तद्यत्र स्वरसंस्कारौ समर्थौ प्रादेशिकेन गुणेन अन्वितौ स्यातां संविज्ञातानि तानि Nir I. 12. confer, compare priyādi a class of words headed by the word प्रिया which do not allow their previous word in a bahuvrihi compound to take the masculine base by the rule स्त्रियाः पुंवत्.. P. VI. 3.84: e. g. कल्याणीप्रियः For details, see Kas, on P. VI. 3.34. prekṣā (1) appearance, the being seen or understood; दूतो निर्ऋत्या इदमाजगाम । पञ्चम्यर्थप्रेक्षा वा षष्ठ्यर्थप्रेक्षा वा । confer, compare I. 17; (2) thoughtful consideration, Nirukta of Yāska. य एव मनुष्यः प्रेक्षापूर्वकारी भवति सोSध्रुवेण निमित्तेन ध्रुवं निमित्तमुपादत्ते, confer, compare on P. I. 1.26 Vart, 5, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). prauḍhamanoramā popularly called मनोरमा also; the famous commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi of Bhattoji Diksita written by the author himself to explain fully in a scholarly manner the popular grammar written by him; , the word प्रौढमनेारमा is used in contrast with बालमनोरमा another commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi by Vasudevadiksita. On account of the difficult nature of it, it is usual to read the प्रौढमनेारमा upto the end of the Karaka-prakarana only in the Sanskrit PathaSalas before the study of the Sabdendusekhara and the Paribhsendusekhara is undertaken. prauḍhamanoramākhaṇḍana (1) a grammatical work written by a grammarian named Cakrapani of the Sesa family of grammarians. The work is meant to refute the arguments of Bhattoji Diksita in his Praudhamanorama; (2) a grammar work written by the famous poet and rhetorician Jagannātha in refutation of the doctrines and explanations given in the Praudhamanorama by the stalwart Grammarian Bhattoji Diksita. The work is not a scholarly one and it has got a tone of banter. It was written by Jagannatha to show that he could also write works on Grammar and the bearded pedant Bhattoji should not be proud of his profound scholarship in Grammar. The work of Jagannatha was named मनोरमाकुचमर्दन possibly by his followers or even by himsel feminine. pluta protracted, name given to vowels in the protracted grade. The vowels in this grade which are termed protracted vowels are possessed of three matras and in writing they are marked with the figure 3 placed after them. In pronunciation they take a longer time than the long or दीर्घ vowels; ऊकालोज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P. I.2.27. The word is derived from प्लु (प्रु also) I Atmane to go, and explained as प्लवते इति, The word प्लवते is often found for प्लुतो भवति in the Pratisakhya works; cf also मात्रा ह्रस्वरतावदवग्रहान्तरं, द्वे दीर्धस्तिस्रः प्लुत उच्यते स्वरः । अधः स्विदासी३दुपरि स्विदासी३द् अर्थे प्लुतिर्भीरिव विन्दती३त्रिः ll confer, compare I.16. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) pha (l) the letter or sound फ्,the vowel अ being added for facility of pronunciation ;(2) the affix फ for which अायन is always substituted as given by Panini in P.VII.1.2. bahu plural, many, the word is used in the sense of abundance also; बहुषु बहुवचनम् P. I.4.21 and बहोलोपो भू च बहोः VI. 4.158. confer, compare bahuprakruti (l) consisting of a large number of verbal parts in derivation; बह्वयः प्रकृतयो यत्र; (2) a compound in which the constituent words are all in the plural number, सर्वे द्वन्द्वो विभाषैकवद्भवति । बहुप्रकृतिरिति वक्तव्यम् confer, compare on P.II.4.12 Vart.l ; (3) a compound word ( पद ) made up of many constituent words; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). बहूनि पदानि यत्र तद् बहुप्रकृति पदम् Vaj. Prat. V. 7. confer, compare bahumadhyagata a word which has entered between two constituent words of a compound by splitting in a way the compound e. g. the word च in ईयते नरा च शंसं दैव्यम् Rg. Veda IX. 86.42; एतानि परिगृह्णीयात् बहूमध्यगतानि च । R.Pr.X.7. explained by Uvvata as बहूनां पदानां मध्यगतानि च यानि पदानि तानि अतिक्रम्य परिगृह्णीयात् ! confer, compare bahuvrīhi a compound similar in meaning to the word बहुव्रीहि ( possessed of much rice ) which, in sense shows quite a distinct object than those which are shown by the constituent members of the compound; a relative or adjective compound. There are various kinds of the Bahuvrihi compound such as समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुव्रीहि, दिग्बहुव्रीहि, सहबहुव्रीहि, नञ्बहुव्रीहि, and अनेकपदबहुव्रीहि which depend upon the specific peculiarity noticed in the various cases. Panini in his grammar has not given any definition of बहुव्रीहि, but has stated that a compound other than those already given viz. अव्ययीभाव, द्वन्द्व and तत्पुरुष, is बहुव्रीहि and cited under Bahuvrihi all cases mentioned ; cf शेषो बहुव्रीहिः II. 3.23-28; also a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः confer, compare on P. II. 1.6; II. 1.20; II. 1.49. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). bahuvrīhiprakṛtisvara the accent peculiar to, or specifically mentioned in the case of the Bahuvrihi compound viz. the retention of its own accents by the first member, in spite of the general rule that a compound word has the last vowel accented acute उदात्त. id est, that is बहुव्रीहौ प्रकृत्या पूर्वपदम्. P. VI. 2.1. The expression बहुव्रीहिस्वर in this very sense is used in the Mahabhasya confer, compare बहुव्रीहिस्वरं शास्ति समासान्तविधेः सुकृत् confer, compare on P. VI. 2.1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). bālaṃbhaṭṭa ( बाळंभट्ट ) surnamed Payagunda or Payagunde, who has written a commentary on the commentary Mitaksara on the याज्ञवल्क्यस्मृति. Some scholars say that he was also a great grammarian and identical with वैद्यनाथ पायगुंडे who has written the commentary काशिका or गदा on the Paribhasendusekhara, the Cidasthimala on the Laghusabdendusekhara and commentaries on the Vaiyakaranabhusana,Sabdakaustubha and Bhasyapradipoddyota. Other scholars believe that Balambhatta was the son of Vaidyanatha and that he wrote only the commentary on Mitaksara called Balambhatti after him. (2) There was also a comparatively modern grammarian of Tanjore who has written small grammar works बालबोधिनी and बालरञ्जनी. bāhya (प्रयत्न) external effort; the term is used many times in connection with the external effort in the production of articulate sound, as different from the internal effort अाभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न. The external effort is described to be consisting of 11 kinds; बाह्यप्रयत्नस्त्वेकादशधा । विवारः संवारः श्वासो नादो घोषोSघोषोSल्पप्राणो महाप्राण उदात्तोनुदात्तः स्वरितश्चेति S.K.on P. I.1.9. confer, compare buiskūla [ BUISKOOL H. E. ) A European grammarian who has written an essay on the last three Padas of Panini's Astadhyayi (त्रिपादी) under the title 'The Tripadi'. buddhi notion, mental understanding; mental inclination; बुद्धि: संप्रत्यय इत्यनर्थान्तरम् | Or अस्तेर्भूर्भवतीत्यस्तिबुद्ध्यां भवतिबुद्धिं प्रतिपद्यते M. Bh on P. I.1.56 Vart. 14; (2) mental inclusion; confer, compare यां यां विभक्तिं आश्रयितुं बुद्धिरुपजायते सा साश्रयितव्या M.Bh. on P. I. 1. 57: confer, compare अथ बुद्धिः अविशेषात्स्मपुरा हेतू, confer, compare on III.2.118 Vart. 4. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). buddhikarman activity of the mind of the type of understanding as contrasted with the activity of the sense organs; इन्द्रियकर्म समासादनं बुद्धिकर्म व्यवसायः confer, compare on P.III. 3. 133 Vart. 8. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). bothaliṃgka [BOHTLINGK, OTTO] a German Sanskrit scholar and Grammarian of St.Petersberg, who has written a short gloss in German on Panini's Astadhyayi under the title "Panini's Grammatik" with an introduction and various indexes at the end. He has also critically edited Mugdhabodha of Bopadeva. bha (1) the letter or sound भ् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; (2) a technical term in the Grammar of Panini given to a noun base before such case and taddhita affixes as begin with any vowel or with the consonant य्. The utility of this designation of भ to the base is (l) to prevent the substitutes which are enjoined for the final vowel or consonant of a pada (a word ending with a case-affix or a base before case and affixes beginning with any consonant excepting य् ) just as the substitution of Visarga, anusvara, the first or third consonant, and others given in P. VIII. 4.37 and the following. For the various changes and operations for a base termed भ see P. VI. 4.129 to 175. taddhita affix. bhakti (1) name given to two of the five divisions of a Saman which are प्रस्तावभक्ति, उद्गीथ, प्रतिहार, उपद्रव and निधानभाक्ति; (2) the vowel portion surrounding, or placed after, the consonant र् or ल् which (consonant) is believed to be present in the vowel ऋ or ऌ respectively forming its important portion, but never separately noticed in it. The vowels ऋ and ऌ are made up of one matra each. It is contended by the grammarians that the consonants र् and ल् forming respectively the portion of ऋ and ऌ, make up halfa-matra, while the remaining half is made up of the भाक्ति of the vowel surrounding the consonant or situated after the consonant. The word which is generally used for this 'bhakti is 'ajbhakti' instead of which the word स्वरभक्ति is found in the Pratisakhya works; यत्तद्रेफात्परं भक्तेस्तेन व्यवहितत्वान्न प्राप्नेति | ...... यच्चात्र रेफात्परं भुक्तेर्न तत् क्वचिदपि व्यपवृक्तं दृश्यते | confer, compare on P. VIII. 4.1 Vart 2; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गं confer, compare I. 17; also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) रेफात्स्वरोपहिताद् व्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णी स्वरभक्तिरुत्तरा ) confer, compare VI. 13. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) bhartṛhari a very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् confer, compare on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. bhavat ( भवन्त् ) ancient term for the present tense found in the Brhaddevata and other works, The term 'vartamana' for the present tense was also equally common. The word is found in the Mahabhasya, the Unadisutravrtti of Ujjvaladatta and in the Grammar of Jainendra P.II.3.1 Vart 11, Unadi III. 50 Jain Vyak. I.1.471. confer, compare bhāṣāvṛtti a short gloss on the of Pāṇini in the l2th century by Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. adeva, a reputed scholar belonging to the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bengal and Behar in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, The gloss is very useful for beginners and it has given a clear explanation of the different sūtras without going into difficult niceties and discussions. The treatise does not comment upon Vedic portions or rules referring to Vedic Language because, as the legend goes, king Lakṣmaṇa Sena, for whom the gloss was written, was not qualified to understand Vedic Language; Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti. वैदिकभाषानर्हत्वात् Com. on Bhāṣāvṛtti by Sṛṣṭidhara. There is a popular evaluation of the Bhāṣāvṛtti given by the author himself in the stanza "काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत्सिद्धान्तं बोद्धुमस्ति धीः ! तदा विचिन्त्यतां भ्रातर्भाषावृत्तिरियं मम " at the end of his treatise; for details see पुरुषोत्तमदेव. confer, compare bhīmādi a class of words headed by the word भीम in which the Uṇādi affixes म and others, as prescribed by specific Uṇādi sūtras, are found added in the sense of the 'apādāna' case-relation; भीमः in the sense 'बिभेति अस्मात्'. Similarly भीष्मः, भूमि:, रज: exempli gratia, for example et cetera, and others Kāś. on P.III.4.74. confer, compare bhūtapūrvagati denotation of something which formerly was existing; a consideration of that form of a word which was formerly present. The word is used frequently by commentators when they try to apply a rule of grammar to a changed wording under the plea that the wording required by the rule was formerly there; literally भूतपूर्वगत्या (पकारलोपे कृतेपि ) दाप् भविष्यति, confer, compare on P.I.1.20 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 9; Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). also confer, compare on P.I.1.56, VII.1.9 and VII.3.103; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Par. Śeḵ. Pari. 76. confer, compare bhautapūrvya the consideration that a thing was such and such a one formerly, and hence liable to undergo grammatical operations on that ground; कृत एत्त्वे भौतपूर्व्यात्| भिस ऐस्| confer, compare on P.VII. 1. 9. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). mātu the same as मतुप् a affix showing possession; the word is frequently used in Pāṇini's rules for मतुप्. taddhita affix. मतोश्च बह्वजङ्गात् | P. IV 2.72; confer, compare also, P.IV. 4.125, 136; V. 2.59, VI.1.215, VI.3.118,130; VIII. 2.9; for the sense of मतु see मतुप् below. The affix मतु (instead of मतुप् of Pāṇini) is found in the Atharva Prātiśakhya. confer, compare matup affix मत् changed in some cases to वत् (cf मादुपधायाश्च मतोर्वोऽयवादिभ्यः P. VIII. 2.9), applied to any noun or substantive in the sense of 'who possesses that,' or 'which contains it,' or in the sense of possession as popularly express taddhita affix. The affix is called possessive affix also, and is very commonly found in use; e. g. गोमान्, वृक्षवान् , यवमान् , edition et cetera, and others तदस्यास्त्यस्मिन्निति मतुप् P. V. 2.94. The very general sense of 'possession' is limited to certain kinds of possession by the Vārttikakāra in the following stanza; भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेतिशायने | संसर्गेऽस्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: confer, compare Kāś. on P. V. 2.94. There are other confer, compare affixes prescribed in the same sense as मतुप्, such as the affixes लच् (V. 2.96-98), इलच् (99, 100, 105, 117), श and न (100), ण (101), विनि (102, 121, 122), इनि (102, 115, 116, 128, 129-137), अण् (103, 104), उरच् (106), र (107), म (108), व ( 109, 110), ईरन् and ईरच् (111), वलच् (112, 113), ठन् (115, 116), ठञ् (118, 119), यप् (120), युस् (123, 138, 140), ग्मिनि (124), आलच् and आटच् (125), अच् (127), and ब, भ, यु, ति, तु, त and यस् each one applied to specifically stated words. मतुप् is also specially prescribed after the words headed by रस ( taddhita affix. रसादिभ्यश्च P. V. 2.95) in supersession of some of the other affixes mentioned confer, compare which would take place in such cases, if मतुप् were not prescribed by the rule रसादिभ्यश्च. The portion of the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. prescribing the possessive affixes is named मतुबधिकार (P. V. 2.92 to 140). Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. madhyamapadalopa the dropping of the middle word or member ( of a compound generally) as for instance in शाकपार्थिक for शाकप्रियपार्थिव; the word मध्यमपदलोप is also used in the sense of a compound. The compounds which have the middle word dropped are enumerated by the Vārttikakāra under the Vārttika शाकपार्थिवादीनां मध्यमपदलेापश्च Bh. Vṛ. II.1.60 literally ; cf also Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). II.6.30. Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra. man (1) the affix मनिन् generally found in Vedic Literature added to roots ending in अा and preceded by a noun; सुदामा, अश्वत्थामा; exempli gratia, for example आतो मनिन्कनिब्वनिपश्च P.III.2.74,75; (2) Uṇādi affix in ओद्म; confer, compare औद्म इति उन्देरौणादिके मन्प्रत्यये नलोपो गुणश्च निपात्यते Kāś. on P. VI.4.29. confer, compare mayūravyaṃsakādi a class of compounds of the type of मयूरव्यंसक which are somewhat irregular formations and hence mentioned as they are found in use. The compounds are called simple tatpuruṣa compounds; मयूरव्यंसक: हस्तेगृह्य, एहिपचम्, उच्चावचम्, खादतमोदता exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others मयूरव्यंसकादयश्च P.II.1.72. confer, compare mahābhāṣya the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the literally of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे confer, compare scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplement et cetera, and others Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to edition , he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ). confer, compare mahābhāṣyadīpikā a very learned old commentary on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali written by the reputed grammarian Bhartrhari or Hari in the seventh century A. D. The commentary has got only one manuscript preserved in Germany available at present, of which photostat copies or ordinary copies are found here and there. The first page of the manuscript is missing and it is incomplete also, the commentary not going beyond the first seven Aahnikas. For details see page 383 Vol. VII Vyaakarana Mahabhasya D. E. Society's edition. mahāsaṃjñā a long term, as contrasted with the very short terms टि, घु, भ, इत् and others introduced by Panini in his grammar for the sake of brevity. These long terms such as सर्वनाम, अब्यय,परस्मैपद, अात्मनेपद, and many others were widely in use at the time of Panini and hence he could not but pick them up in his grammar in spite of his strenuous attempts at brevity. The commentators, however, find out a motive for his doing this viz. that appropriate words only could be understood by those terms and not others; महासंज्ञाकरणेन तदनुगुणानामेव अत्र संनिवेशात् । S.K. on सर्वादीने सर्वनामानि P. I.1.27. confer, compare māheśasutr the fourteen sutras अइउण्, ऋलृक् which are believed to have been composed by Siva and taught to Paanini, by means of the sounds of the drum beaten at the end of the dance; et cetera, and others नृत्तावसाने नटराजराजेा ननाद ढक्कां नवपञ्चवारम् । उद्धर्तुकामः सनकादिसिद्धानेतद्विमशौ शिवसूत्रजालम् Nandikeswara-kaarikaa 1. For details see Vol. VII Vyaakarana Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's edition. confer, compare mugdhabodha instructions to the ignorant: a treatise on grammar similar to the Astadhyayi of Panini but much shorter, written by Bopadeva or Vopadeva an inhabitant of the greater Maharastra in the Vardha district, in the thirteenth century. After the fall of the Hindu rulers in Bengal, treatises like भाषावृत्ति and others written by eastern grammarians fell into the back-ground and their place was taken up by easier treatises written by Bopadeva and others.Many commentaries were written upon the Mugdhabodha, of which the Vidyanivsa is much known to grammarians literally mṛta the crude base of a declinable word; the pratipadika; the term is found used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; cf Jain. Vyak. I..1.5. y (1) the consonant य् with अ added to it merely for the sake of facility in pronunciation; यकार is also used in the same sense: e. g. लिटि वयो यः: P.VI.1.38 T.Pr.I: 17,21;(2) krt affix (यत्) prescribed as कृत्य or potential passive participle; confer, compare चेयम्, गेयम्, शाप्यम् , शक्यम् , गद्यम् , अजर्यम् पण्यम् exempli gratia, for example : et cetera, and others अचो यत्...अजर्यं संगतम् P.III. 1.97-105; (3) krt. affix क्यप् which is also an affix called krtya; e. gब्रह्मोद्यम् , भाव्यम्, घात्यम् , स्तुत्यम् , कल्प्यम् , खेयम् , भृत्यः:, भिद्यः, पुष्य:, कृत्यम्,also कार्यम् ; confer, compare P. III. 1.106-128:(4) krt affix ण्यत् ( which is also कृत्य ), e. g कार्यम् , हार्यम् , वाक्यम् , लाव्यम्, कुण्डपाय्यम्. confer, compare : cf P. III. 1.124-132: (5) et cetera, and others affix य affixed (a) in the sense of collection to पाश, वात taddhita affix. , as also to खल, गो and रथ, e. g. पाद्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others et cetera, and others P. IV. 2. 49, 50ः (b) in the चातुरर्थिक senses to बल, कुल, तुल confer, compare e. g. वल्यः,.कुल्यम् e et cetera, and others P V.2. 80, (c) as a Saisika feminine. affix to ग्राम्यहः' along with the affix खञ्ज e. g. ग्राम्यः, ग्रामीणः: cf P: IV. 2.94 (d) in the sense of 'good therein' ( तत्र साधुः ) and other stated senses affixed to सभा, सोदर पूर्व, and सोम: e. g. सभ्य:, पूर्व्यः; . taddhita affix. . et cetera, and others P. IV. 4.105, 109, 133, 137, 138: (e) in the sense of 'deserving it' to दण्ड and other words, e. g. दण्ड्य, अर्ध्र्य, मध्य, मेध्य, confer, compare : cf P. V. 1.66: ( f ) in the sense of quality or action to सखि e. g. सख्यम् ; cf P. V. 1.126: (6) et cetera, and others affix यत् applied to (a) राजन् श्वशुर, कुल, मनु in the sense of offspring, (b) शूल्, उखा, वायु, ऋतु and others, under certain conditions; taddhita affix. P. IV. 2.17, 31, 32, 101, (c) to अर्ध, परार्ध, words in the class headed by दि्श, छन्दस and others in specific senses; cf P. IV. 3-46, 54 confer, compare and (d) in specific senses to specific words mentioned here and there in a number of sUtras from IV.4, 75 to V.4.25; (e) to शाखा, मुख, जघन and others in the sense of इव (similar to) et cetera, and others शाख्यः, मुख्य:, exempli gratia, for example : et cetera, and others P. V. 3. 103; (7) case-ending य substituted for ङे of the dative sing; e. g. रामाय confer, compare P. VII. 3.102: (8) verb-affix यक् applied to the nouns कण्डू and others to make them ( denominative ) roots; e. g. कण्डूय,सन्तूय confer, compare et cetera, and others कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् P. III. 1.27 (9) | Vikarana य ( यक् ) applied to any root before the Saarvadhaatuka personal endings to form the base for the passive voice as also the base for the 'Karmakartari' voice e g क्रियते, भूयते, confer, compare सार्वधातुके यक् P. III. 1.67 (10) Unaadi affix य ( यक् ) applied to the root हृन् to form the Vedic word अघ्न्य: cf अघ्न्यादयश्च: ( 11 ) augment य ( यक् ) added to the affix क्त्वा in Vedic Literature: e. g. दत्त्वायः confer, compare क्त्वो यक् P. VII.1.47; (12) verb affix यङ् added to a root to form its Intensive base ( which sometimes is dropped ) and the root is doubl confer, compare e. g. चेक्रीयते,चर्करीति;. edition P. III. 1.22,24; (13) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) supposed to be beginning with य in the affix यइ in the sUtra धातेरेकाचो ... यङ् III. 1.22, and ending with ङ् in the sUtra लिड्याशिष्यङ्क III. 1.86, with a view to include the various verb affixes and conjugational signs. confer, compare yañ (1) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) formed by the letter य of हृयवरट् and the mute letter ञ्ज of इभञ् including serni-vowels and the third and the fourth consonants excepting घ् , ढ् and ध् of the five consonant groups: अतो दीर्घो याञि P. VII. 3. 10l ; (2) confer, compare affix added (a) in the sense of गोत्र (grand-children and their descendants) to words of the गर्ग class and some other words under specific conditions, taddhita affix. गार्ग्यः: वात्स्य:, काप्यः exempli gratia, for example , et cetera, and others गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् and the following P.IV. 1. 105-108: (b) in the sense of collection to केदार, गणिका, केश and अश्व, confer, compare P.IV.2.40 and the Varttika.thereon and IV. 2.48; (c) in the Saiska senses to the word द्वीप, confer, compare P.IV.3.10: (d) to the word कंसीय e. g. कांस्यम् confer, compare P.IV.3.168, and (e) to the words अभिजित्, विदभृत् and others when they have the confer, compare affix अण् added to them : taddhita affix. अाभजित्य: exempli gratia, for example P. V. 3. 118. confer, compare yathāgṛhītaṃ as they are actually found in Vedic recital with some irregularties of euphonic changes,lengthening of the vowel and the like. Specimens of such phrases are given in R.Pr.II.33 to 39. yathānyāsaṃ as it is actually put in the rule or a treatise by the author. The phrase is often used in the Mahaabhaasya when after a long discussion, involving further and further difficulties, the author reverts to the original stand and defends the writing of the sUtra as it stands. सिध्यत्येवमपाणिनीयं तु भवति or सूत्रं भिद्यते । तर्हि यथान्यासमेवास्तु is the usual expression found in the Mahaabhaasya; cf, M.Bh. I.1. Aahnika 1, I.1.1, 9, 20, 62, 65 et cetera, and others yathālakṣaṇaṃ as formed according to rules. The phrase यथालक्षणमप्रयुक्ते is very often found in the Mahaabhaasya as a general guiding remark that noun-forms or wordforms which are not found in use in the language of the people or in literature should be understood as they are derived by observing all the rules that are applicable. yadṛcchāśabd a chance-word: Samjna-sabda or proper noun which is given accidentally without any found used attention to derivation or authority literally अयं , तर्हि यदृच्छाशब्दोsपरिहार्यः। लृफिङ्: लृफिङ्ङ् confer, compare on Siva Stra2. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). yadyoga a connection with the word (pronoun) यत् by its use in the same sentence and context, which prevents the anudatta ( grave ) accent for the verb in the sentence; निपातैर्यद्यदिहृन्तकुविन्नेच्चेच्चण्कच्चिद्यत्रयुक्तम् P. VIII. 1.30; cf also the usual expression यद्योगादानघात: found in commentary wor confer, compare yam (1) one of pair a twin letter available in pronunciation before a nasal letter and similar to it, when the nasal consonant is preceded by any one of the four consonants of the five classes; a transitional sound intervening between a non-nasal and the following nasal as a counterpart of the n6n-nasal: वर्गेष्वाद्यानां चेतुर्णो पञ्चमे पर मध्ये यमो नाम पूर्वसदृशो वर्णः प्रातिशाख्ये प्रसिद्धः S.K. on P.व्व्III. l.1; (2) name given to the seven musical notes, found in the singing of Saaman; confer, compare मन्द्रमध्यमत्राख्येषु त्रिषु वाचः स्थानेषु प्रत्येकं सत स्थरभेदा भवन्ति कुष्टप्रथमद्वितीयतृतीयचतुर्थमन्द्रातित्वार्यः यमाः ' confer, compare XXIII. 13,14. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. yamanvā an obscure term found used in the Phit-sUtras राजाविशेषस्य यमन्वा चेत् ( आद्युदात्ते भेवति ) Phi-sUtra II. 42, where the word यमन्वा is explained as वृद्ध by the commentator for the meaning of वृद्ध, see वृद्धिर्यस्याचामादिस्तद् वृद्धम् P. 1.1.73. yal affix य in the sense of possession found in Vedic Literature added optionally with the affix ख (ईन)to the words वेशोभग and यशोभग; e.g वेशोभग्य; वेशोभगीनः यशोभग्य:, यशोभागिन:; taddhita affix. P.IV.4.131. confer, compare yāc substitute for a case affix found and the in Vedic Literature; e. g. साधुया for साधु: सुपां सुलुक् .. ... याजाल: P. VII. 1. 39. confer, compare yājakādei a class of words headed by the words याजक, पूजक, परिचारक and others with which a word in the genitive case is compounded, in spite of the prohibition of compounds with such words, laid down by the rule कर्तरि च P. II. 2.16; ब्राह्मणयाजकः. ब्राह्मणपूजक: exempli gratia, for example : cf et cetera, and others on P. II.2.9. These words, याजक and others standing as the second members of compounds have their last vowel accented acute; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. P.VI . 2.151. confer, compare yāska a reputed ancient Niruktakara or etymologist, of the 6th century B.C. or even a few centuries before that, whose work, the Nirukta, is looked upon as the oldest authoritative treatise regarding derivation of Vedic words. Yaska was preceded by a number of etymologists whom he has mentioned in his work and whose works he has utilis Yaska's Nirukta threw into the back-ground the older treatises on etymology, all of which disappeared gradually in the course of time. edition yuktārohyādi a class of compound words headed by the word युक्तारोही which have their initial vowel accented acute in spite of the general dictum that a compound word except a Bahuvrihi compound word, has its last vowel accented acute: confer, compare on P. V I. 2.81. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. yugapadadhikaraṇavacanatā denotation of two or more things by one single member by virtue of their being put together in a dvandva compound of two or more words; the grammarians advocate this doctrine stating that in a dvandva compound such as घटपटौ or घटपटम् , the word घट has the capacity of expressing the sense of both घट and पट, which in a sentence घटः पटश्च, it does not possess. Similarly पट also has the capacity of conveying the sense of both पट and घट. Possibly this theory is advocated by grarnmarians, on the analogy of words like पितरौ or मातरौ for मातापितरौ, द्यावा for द्यावापृथिवी and so on; सिद्धं तु युगपदधिकरणवचने द्वन्द्ववचनात् P. II 2.29 Vart. 2. For details see Vyakaranamahabhasya on चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II. 2.29. confer, compare yuc krt affix यु changed into अन, (1) applied in the sense of 'a habituated agent' to intransitive roots in the sense of movement or utterance, to Atmanepadi roots beginning with a consonant, to the roots जु, चेकम् सृ, शुच्, कुघ्, as also to roots in the sense of decoration: चलन:, शब्दन:: cf P.III. 2. 148-15I: (2) applied to causal roots, as also to the roots आस् श्रन्थ् and others in the sense of verbal activity when the word so formed has always the feminine gender; exempli gratia, for example कारणा, हृरणा, आसना, घट्टना,वेदना exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others P.III.3.107 and the Varttikas thereon; (3) applied to roots ending in अा and preceded by the indeclinables ईषद्, दुस् or सु in the sense of easy or difficult for obtainment and, wherever seen to any root in the Vedic language, as also to some other roots as found in actual use in the classical literature; e. g. ईषद्दानो गौर्मवता, दु्ष्पानः, सुपान: confer, compare सूपसदन:, दुर्योधनः, दुर्मर्षण: et cetera, and others , et cetera, and others P.III.8.128-130. confer, compare yoga (1) a rule of grammar; the word योग in this sense is very fre-quently found used in the Mahabhasya; cf the frequent statements अयं येगः शक्योsकर्तुम् on P.I.1. 6, 62, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). or कान्यस्य योगस्य प्रयोजनानि et cetera, and others on P. I. 1.31 Vart. 6, I.1. 57 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). ; (2) grammatical connection; cf शास्त्रकृतो योगश्च et cetera, and others I.2: cf also षष्ठी स्थानेयेागा P.I.1.49. Nirukta of Yāska. ranu [RENOU,LOUIS] a sound Sanskrit scholar of France of the present time who has written some treatises and many articles on Sanskrit grammar out of which his works on the Terminology of Sanskrit Grammar, Kasika and Durghatavrtti reguire a special mention. rapratyāhārakhaṇḍana a small article showing that the short term र for the consonants र् and ल् need not be advocated as done by the learned old grammarians.The treatise was Written by Vaidyanatha Paya-gunde, the prominent pupil of Nagesabhatta. rapratyāhāmaṇḍana an anonymous work, comparatively modern, refuting the arguments advanced in the रप्रत्याहारखण्डन by Vaidyanatha Pyagunde. rasavatī name of a commentary on his own work ' Sanksiptasara Vyakarana' by KramadiSvara,a sound scholar of grammar in the thirteenth century A.D. rājadantādi a class of compound words headed by राजदन्त in which the order of words or the constituent members is fix There are about 50 words in the class; some of them are tatpurusa compounds such as राजदन्त or अग्रेवण in which the subordinate word which ought to have been placed first is placed second There are some karmadharaya.compounds in which one particular word is always placed first and not any one of the two: edition लिप्तवासितम्, सिक्तसंमृष्टम् exempli gratia, for example There are some dvandva compounds such as उलुखलमुसलम् , चित्रास्वाती, भार्यापती et cetera, and others in which a definite order of words is laid down. For details see Kasika on राजदन्तादिषु परम् P. II. 2.31. et cetera, and others rāmacandrabhaṭṭa tāre one of the senior pupils of Nagesabhatta who was a teacher of Vaidyanatha Payagunde. He wrote a small gloss on the Astadhyayi which is named पाणिनिसूत्रवृत्ति He lived in the first half of the eighteenth century and taught several pupils at Varnasi. ru (1) substitute र् for the consonant स् at the end of a word as also for the ष् of सजुत्र् , न् of अहन् and optionally with र् for the final स् of अम्नस्, ऊधस् and अवस् in Veda; अग्निरत्र, वायुरत्र, सजूर्देवोभिः exempli gratia, for example P.VIII.2.66; the र् of this रु (as contrasted with the substitute र् which see confer, compare ) is further changed into उ before a soft consonant and before the vowel अ provided it is preceded by the vowel अ, while र् , prescribed as substitute र (which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. ), remains unchanged; e g. शिवोर्च्यः, शिवो वन्द्य: as contrasted with अहरत्र, अहर्गण:; (2) substitute र् for the final ज् of अवयज् (e. g, अवयाः), for ह् of श्वेतवह् ( a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. श्वेतवाः), and for श् of पुरोडाश् ( exempli gratia, for example पुगेडा:) before the case affix सु ; exempli gratia, for example P.VIII.4.67;(3)substitute र् (or द्) for the final स् or द् of a verb-form ending with the personal ending सिप् of the 2nd confer, compare sing; person. P. VIII.2.74,75;(4)substitute र् for the final न् of words ending with the affix मत् or वस् in Veda; confer, compare मरुत्व: हरिवः ; exempli gratia, for example confer, compare on P.VIII.3.1; (5) substitute र् for the final न् at the end of a word when it is followed by a छव् letter Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. the first or a second consonant excepting ख् and फ्; id est, that is भवांश्चिनोति; exempli gratia, for example P.VIII. 3.7; (6) substitute र् for the final न् of नॄन् before the letter प् as also for the final न् of स्वतवान् and कान् under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VIII.3. 10.12. confer, compare rūpanārāyaṇa a grammarian of Bengal of the fifteenth century who wrote short comments on some sections of the Supadma Vyākaraņa under the names सुपद्मषट्कारक and सुपद्मसमाससंग्रह्. rūpamālā (1) an elementary work on Sanskrit grammar composed by Vimalasarasvatī, in which the Sūtras of Pāņini are arranged in different topics many of which are called माला, such as अजन्तमाला, हलन्तमाला, छान्दसमाला, अव्ययमाला and so on.(2) the name रूपमाला is also found given to a work giving collections of formed words written by Puņyanandana. ṛ word-form of the ajbhakti or svarabhakti ( a term used in the ancient Prātiśākhya works), where ऋ is looked upon as the consonant र् surrounded by, or followed by the nature of a vowel. ऋ as a vowel is possessed of one mātrā of which in svarabhakti, the consonant र् possesses half and the svarabhakti possesses half: cf रेफात् स्वरोपहिताह्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णा स्वरभाक्तिरूत्तरा VI.13. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) rephin a term applied(1)to the Visarjasnīya letter preceded by any vowel excepting अ and अा, ( 2 ) to the Visarjanīya preceded by अ in some specified words such as प्रातः, भाः, अविभः, अाद:, क: under certain conditions, as also, (3) to the Visarjanīya in हातः, सनितः et cetera, and others For details see et cetera, and others I.30-36. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) l (1) a consonant of the dental class which is a semi-vowel ( यण् ) with liquid contact in the mouth, and which is inaspirate ( अल्पप्राण ),voiced ( घोष ) and both nasalised and unnasalised; (2) name in general ( लकार ) given to the personal endings applied to roots in the ten tenses and moods which take different substitutes ति, त:, अन्ति and have various modifications and augments in the different tenses and moods; (3) substituted as a semi-vowel ( यण् ) for the vowel ऌ followed by any other vowel in the euphonic combinations; (4)applied at the beginning of nontaddhita affixes as a mute letter indicating the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix; et cetera, and others लिति; P. VI. 1.193; ( 5 ) substituted for त्, थ्, द्, घ् or न् before ल्， confer, compare P.VIII.4. 60; (6) substituted under certain conditions for the consonant र् (a) of the root कृप्, (b) of prefixes प्र and परा before the root अय्, (c) of the root गॄ in frequentative forms and optionally before affixes beginning with a vowel, and (d ) of the word परि before घ and अङ्क; confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 18 to 22. _ ल (1) consonant ल्; see ल् confer, compare ' (2) a general term usually used by ancient grammarians to signifyलोप (elision or disappearance) of a letter or a syllable or a word; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. सर्वसादेर्द्विगोश्च ल: | सवार्तिक:, द्वितन्त्र: confer, compare on P.IV.2.60; (3) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). affix ल added to the word क्लिन्न when चिल् and पिल् are substituted for the word क्लिन्न; e.g, चिल्लः, पिल्ल: taddhita affix. P. V. 2.33 Vārt 2. confer, compare laghuśabdenduśekhara name of a commentary on Bhațțojī's Siddhāntakaumudī written by Nāgeśa Bhațța, the stalwart Grammarian of the eighteenth century. The work is named लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर which differentiates it from the author's another work बृहच्छब्देन्दुशेखर of which the former is an abridgment. As the study of the Laghuśabdenduśekhara is very common and as the Bŗhatśabdenduśekhara is seldom studied, it is always the Laghuśabdenduśekhara that is understood by the simple and popular name Śekhara. lac affix ल applied optionally with the affix मतुप् to words ending in अा and meaning a detachable or undetachable part of an animal, ; as also to words mentioned in the group headed by the word सिध्म,as also to words वत्स and अस showing affection and strength respectively ; e. g. चूडाल:, सिध्मल:, वत्सल:, taddhita affix. ; et cetera, and others P. V. 2. 96-98. confer, compare laṭ general personal ending applied to roots (1 ) to show the present time for which the personal endings ति त:...महि are substituted for the formation of verbs and अत् ( शतृ ) and आन or मान ( शानच् ) for the formation of the present participle; (2) to show past time when the indeclinable स्म is used in the sentence along with the verbal form or when the indeclinables ननु, न, नु, पुरा, यावत्, कदा, कर्हि are used along with the verbal form under specific conditions; e. g. कटं करोति देवदत्त:, यजति स्म युधिष्ठिर:, अहं नु करोमि, वसन्तीह पुरा छात्रा:, यावद् भुङ्क्ते et cetera, and others ; et cetera, and others P. III. 2.118-123, III. 3.4-9. confer, compare lākṣaṇika (1) secondary; taken or understood in the secondary sense; (2) stated by a rule ( लक्षण ); एवं तर्हि न लाक्षणिकस्य स्वरस्य प्रतिषेधं शिष्मः M.Bh. on P. I. 4.2 confer, compare 9. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). liṅpratyayārtha sense of the optative and the potential moods given or expressed by affixes under the common name लिङ् prescribed by PIII.3.161, 164, 173. luk (1) disappearance (लुच्यते इति लुक्); a term used by Pāņini for the disappearance of an affix or its part under specified conditions as prescribed by a grammar rule with the mention of the word लुक्; प्रत्ययस्य लुक्श्लुलुप: P. I.1.61 ; (2) augment ल् added to the root ला in the sense of melting (an oily thing); exempli gratia, for example घृतं विलालयति. See Kās, on P.VII.3. 39. confer, compare luṅ an affix applied to a root, showing action of immediate past time as contrasted with affixes called लिट् or लङ्. The affix लुङ् is found used, however, in the sense of the past time in general, and irrespective of time in Vedic Literature; छन्दसि लुङ्लङ्लिटः P. III. 4.6. The conjugational affixes ति, त:, confer, compare are substituted for लुङ् as for the lakāras of other tenses and moods and the distinguishing sign or विकरण is added to a root before the affix called लुङ्; et cetera, and others च्लि लुङि and the following P. III. 1.43 confer, compare et cetera, and others lup disappearance ( लुप्यते इति लुप् ); a term used by Pāņini with reference to the disappearance of an affix or its part under specified conditions by the express mention of the word लुप्. Although after the disappearance of an affix no operation for the base before, can take place as conditioned by the affix, i. e. although there is no प्रत्ययलक्षण, still, when the disappearanee is mentioned as लुप्, the base gets the gender and number of that original form of it which existed before the affix, which has disappeared, was applied; कुरव: दश:, चञ्चेव पुरुष: चञ्चा; confer, compare लुपि युक्तवद् व्यक्तिवचने. P. I. 2.51 and Kāśikā thereon. confer, compare lṛṅ general term for the personal affixes of the conditional, which are applied to a root to show the happening of an action only if there was another preceding action, both the actions being expressed by लृङ् or conditional affixes; देवश्चेदवर्षिष्यत् सुभिक्षमभविष्यत्; exempli gratia, for example लिङ्निमित्ते लृङ् क्रियातिपत्तौ P. III.3. 139, 140. लृङ् is also used under certain other conditions when some specific partīcles are used; confer, compare P.III.3.141-146, 151. confer, compare leṭ a general term for the affixes of the Vedic subjunctive, the usual personal-endings ति, तस् being substituted for लेट् as in the case of other tenses and moods. The augments अट् and आट् are sometimes prefixed to the लेट् affix and the sign ( विकरण ) स् ( सिप् ) is sometimes added to the roots. The forms of लेट् are to be arrived at as they are found actually used in Vedic language, even by placing personal-endings of a person or number different from what is actually requir et cetera, and others edition lokavijñāna use or understanding of a word current among the people; अन्तरेणैव वचनं लोकविज्ञानात्सिद्धमेतत् confer, compare on P. I.1.2I Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 5. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). lyap krt affix य substituted for the gerund termination क्त्वा when the root,to which त्वा has been applied, is preceded by a prefix with which it (the root with the affix) is comcompounded; समासेऽनत्र्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1. 37. confer, compare vaktavya that which ought to be stated or prescribed; the word is frequently found used by the Varttikakāra when he suggests any addition to, or modification in Panini's rules. Sometimes,the word is added by the author of the Mahabhasya in the explanation of a Varttika after stating what is lacking in the Varttika. vajrākṛti the form of वज्र or thunderbolt, in which ( form ) the Jihvamuliya ( letter ) is shown in writing; वज्राकृतिजिह्वामूलीयः Kat. I.1.17. See जिह्वामूलीय. confer, compare vanaspatyādi a class of compound words headed by वनस्पति which retain the original accent of the members of the compound, as for example, in the compound word वनस्पति both the words वन and पति have got their initial vowel अ accented acute; cf on P.VI.2.140. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. varadarāja a scholar of grammar and a pupil of Bhattoji Diksita who flourished in the end of the seventeenth century and wrote abridgments of the Siddhanta-kaumudi for beginners in grammar named लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी and मध्यसिद्धान्तकौमुदी as also धातुकारिकावली and गीर्वाणपदमञ्जरी. The work under the name सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी, which is the shortest abridgment, is, in fact, the लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी itsel It is possible that the auother first prepared the सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी and then, he himself or a pupil of his, put additional necessary matter and prepared the Laghusiddhanta-kaumudi. feminine. vararuci (1) a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himsel confer, compare (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss＾ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त. feminine. vargyādi a class of words headed by the word वर्ग्य which have their initial vowel accented acute when they stand as second members of a tatpurusa compound other than the karmadharaya type of it; e. g. वासुदेववर्ग्य:, अर्जुनपक्ष्यः; cf Kas: on P, VI. 2,131. ' varṇa phonemic unit: a letter The term was in use in ancient times and found used generally in the masculine gender, but occasionally in the neuter gender too; .e. g. उपदिष्टा इमे वर्णाः M.Bh. Ahnika 1. also मा कदाचिदवर्णे भूत् M.Bh. on Siva Sutras 3, 4. varṇaukadeśa a part or a portion of a combined letter संयुक्तस्वर or संयुक्तव्यञ्जन. The diphthongs or संयुक्तस्वरs are divisible into two Svaras, for instance ऐ into अा and ए, औ into अा and ओ. Similarly double consonants like क्कू, च्च्, क्म्, क्त् id est, that is are also divisible. Regarding the point raised whether the individual parts can be looked upon as separate letters for undergoing or causing a grammatical operation,the decision of the grammarians is that they cannot be looked upon as separate, when they are completely mixed as the dipthongs; et cetera, and others नाक्यपवृक्तस्यावयवस्य तद्वधिर्यथा द्रव्येषु confer, compare on Siva Sutra 3, 4 Vart. 6. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). varta a term used by ancient grammarians and later on by commentators for compound words वर्तनं वर्तः समास: Nyasa on confer, compare II.4.15. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. vartin from वर्त which means a compound;see वर्त, (l) The term वर्तिन् or वर्तिपद is used in the sense of a member of a compound; वर्तोस्यास्तीति वर्ति समासावयवभूतम् Nyasa on P. II. 4.1 5. (2) The term वर्तिन् is also used for a syllable ( अक्षरम् ); confer, compare वर्ति R.T.47, explained by the commentator as अकारादिषु वर्तते व्य़ञ्जनं वर्ति चाप्यक्षरं भवति | confer, compare also गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वे confer, compare XVIII.32. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) vākyakāra a term used for a writer who composes a work in pithy, brief assertions in the manner of sutras, such as the Varttikas. The term is found used in Bhartrhari's Mahabhasyadipika where by contrast with the term Bhasyakara it possibly refers to the varttikakara Katyayana; एषा भाष्यकारस्य कल्पना न वाक्यकारस्य Bhartrhari Mahabhasyadipika. confer, compare also Nagesa's statement वाक्यकारो वार्तिकरमारभते: confer, compare also चुलुम्पादयो वाक्यकारीया ; Madhaviya Dhatuvrtti. confer, compare vākyapadī name of a work on the denotation of words in verse-form with a comentary of his own written by a grammarian named गङ्गादास. The name वाक्यपदी is confounded with वाक्यपदीय of Bhartrhari through mistake. vākyaparisamāpti completion of the idea to be expressed in a sentence or in a group of sentences by the wording actually given, leaving nothing to be understood as contrasted with वाक्यापरिसमाप्ति used in the Mahabhasya: वाक्यापरिसमाप्तेर्वा P.I.1.10 vart. 4 and the Mahabhasya thereon. There are two ways in which such a completion takes place,singly and collectively; cf प्रत्येकं वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः: illustrated by the usual example देवदत्तयज्ञदत्तविष्णुमित्रा भोज्यन्ताम् where Patanjali remarks प्रत्येकं ( प्रत्यवयवं) भुजिः परिसमाप्यते; cf also समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः where Patajali remarks गर्गा: शतं दण्ड्यन्ताम् | अर्थिनश्च राजानो हिरण्येन भवन्ति न च प्रत्येकं दण्डयन्ति | confer, compare on P.I.1.1Vart.12: cf also M.Bh. on P.I.1.7, I.2.39, II.2.l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). वाक्यप्रकाश a work on the interpretation of sentences written with a commentary upon it by उदयधर्ममुनि of North Gujarat who lived in the seventeenth century A.D. et cetera, and others vākyaśeṣa complement of a sentence: something reguired to be understood to complete the sense of a sentence generally according to the context कल्प्यो हि वाक्यशेषो वाक्यं वक्तर्यघीनं हि । M.Bh. on P. I. 1.57 Vart. 6, confer, compare कामचारश्च वतिनिर्देशे वाक्यशेषं समर्थयितुंम् | तद्यथा । उशीनखन्मद्रेषु गावः । सन्ति न सन्तीति i मातृवदस्याः कलाः ! सन्तिं न सन्तीति ! M.Bh. on P.I.3.62. confer, compare vāc (1) expression from the mouth ; speech; series of sounds caused by expelling the air from the lungs through differently shaped positions of the mouth and the throat: cf स संघातादीन् प्राप्य वाग्भवति Vaj. Pr.I.9; see the word वाणी; (2) the sacred or divine utterance referring to the Veda: त्रय्या वाचः परं पदम् ; (3) term used for उपपद in the Jainendra Vyākarana: confer, compare वाग्विभक्ते कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Jain Pari 104. confer, compare vājapyāyana an ancient grammarian who holds the view that words denote always the jati i.e they always convey the generic sense and that the individual object or the case is understood in connection with the statement or the word,as a natural course,when the purpose is not served by taking the generic sense; अाकृत्यभिधानाद्वा एकं शब्दं विभक्तौ वाजप्यायन अाचार्यो न्याय्यं मन्यते confer, compare on P. I.2.64 Vart. 35. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). vāyu air or प्राण, which is believed to spring up from the root of the navel and become a cause (even a material cause according to some scholars) of sound of four kinds produced at four different places, the last kind being audible to us; प्राणे वाणिनभिव्यज्य वर्णेष्वेवोपलीयते Vakyapadiya I.116; confer, compare also R.Pr.XIII. 13, V.Pr. I.7-9; T.Pr.II.2: Siksa of Panini st. 6. confer, compare vikaraṇa an affix placed between a root and the personal ending, for showing the specific tense or mood or voice to convey which, the personal ending is applied; e. g. the conjugational signs शप् , श्यन् , श्रु, श, श्नम्, उ, श्ना and यक्, आम् , as also स्य, तास् , सिप् , अाम् and च्लि with its substitutes. Although the term विकरण is used by ancient grammarians and freely used by the Mahabhsyakara in connection with the affixes, mentioned in the sutras of Panini, such as शप् , श्यन् and others, the term is not found in the Sutras of Panini. The vikaranas are different from the major kinds of the regular affixes तिङ्, कृत्य and other similar ones. The vikaranas can be called कृत्; so also, as they are mentioned in the topic (अधिकार) of affixes or Pratyayas,they hold the designation ' pratyaya '. For the use of the word विकरण see M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12, III, 1.31 and VI. 1.5. The term विकरण is found . in the Yājñavalkya Siksa in the sense of change, ( उपधारञ्जनं कुर्यान्मनोर्विकरणे सति ) and possibly the ancient grammarians used it in that very sense as they found the root कृ modified as करु or कुरु, or चि as चिनु, or भू as भव before the regular personal endings तिप् , तस् confer, compare et cetera, and others vikṛta mutilated, changed in nature e. g. the word राम into रम् in रामौ which is equivalent to राम् + औ. For technical purposes in grammar a word, although mutilated a little by lopa, agama or varnavikara, is looked upon as the original one for undergoing operations cf एकदेशविकृतमनन्यवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 37. vigṛhīta shown by separating the combined elements, for instance, the two or more words in a compound or, the base or affix from a word which is a combination of the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix (प्रत्ययः); तदेव सूत्रं विगृहीतं व्याख्यानं भवति M.Bh. on I.1. Ahnika 1, Vart. 11, 14; also confer, compare अवारपाराद् विगृहीतादपि P. IV.2. 93 Vart.1. confer, compare vigraha lit, separation of the two parts of a thing; the term is generally applied to the separation of the constituent words of a compound word: it is described to be of two kinds : ( a ) शास्त्रीयविग्रहृ or technical separation; e. g. राजपुरुष्: into राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु and ( 2 ) लौकिकविग्रहं or common or popular separation ; e. g. राजपुरूष: into राज्ञ: पुरुष:. It is also divided into two kinds according to the nature of the constituent words (a) स्वपदाविग्रह separation by means of the constituent words, राजहितम् into राज्ञे हृितम्;(b) अस्वपदविग्रह, e. g. राजार्थम् into राज्ञे इदम् ;or exempli gratia, for example सुमुखीं into शोभनं मुखं अस्याः exempli gratia, for example M.Bh. on P.V.4.7. The compounds whose separation into constituent words cannot be shown by those words (viz. the constituent words) are popularly termed nityasamsa. The term नित्यसमास is explained as नित्यः समासो नित्यसमासः | यस्य विग्रहो नास्ति । M.Bh. on P.II.2.19 Vart. 4. The upapadasamsa is described as नित्यसमास. Sometimes especially in some Dvandva compounds each of the two separated words is capable of giving individually the senses of both the words confer, compare the words द्यावा and क्षामा of the compound द्यावाक्षामा. The word विग्रह is found used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the separate use of a word as contrasted with the use in a compound; cf अच्छेति विग्रहे प्लुतं भवति R.Pr.VII.1. विग्रहृ is defined as वृत्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः in the Siddhantakaumudi. exempli gratia, for example vijñāna specific knowledge or understanding: सिद्धं तु धर्मोपदेशने अनवयवविज्ञानाद्यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु: confer, compare on P. VI.1. 84 Vart.5. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). vijñeya a matter of special understanding; the phrase अवश्यं चैतद्विज्ञेयम् very frequently occurs in the Mahabhasya; cf M.Bh. on P.I.1.1, 3, 5, 22, I.2.47, 48, 64, I.4.23 et cetera, and others viḍac or f बडच् affix विड applied to the word नि in the sense of depression of the nose. See under बिडच्: taddhita affix. P. V.2.32. confer, compare vinyaya the same as विन्यास; placing or employment of the instrument of sound to touch the various places or sthanas where sound is produced; अनुप्रदानात्संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् । जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाञ्च पञ्चमात् ॥ confer, compare XXIII.2. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. vibhāga (1) lit, division, splitting; the splitting of a sentence into its constituent parts viz. the words; , the splitting of a word into its constituent parts viz. the base, the affix, the augments and the like: (2) understanding or taking a thing separately from a group of two or more; अवश्यं खल्वपि विभज्योपपदग्रहणं कर्तव्यं यो हि बहूनां विभागस्तदर्थम् ! सांकाश्यकेभ्यश्च पाटलिपुत्रकेभ्यश्च माथुरा अभिरूपतराः, confer, compare on P.V.3.57: (3) splitting of a Saṁhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada text: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). अथादावुत्तरे विभागे ह्रस्वं व्यञ्जनपरः confer, compare III.l, where विभाग is explained as पदविभाग by the commentator Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. also R.Pr.XVII.15; (4) the capacity of the Kārakas (to show the sense) confer, compare कारकशक्तिः विभागः confer, compare on Kāś.I.2.44. Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. virāma an ancient term used in the Prātiśākhya works for a stop or : pause in general at the end of a word, or at the end of the first member of a compound, which is shown split up in the Padapāṭha, or inside a word, or at the end of a word, or at the end of a vowel when it is followed by another vowel. The duration of this virāma is different in different circumstances; but sometimes under the same circumstances, it is described differently in the different Prātiśākhyas. Generally,there is no pause between two consonants as also between a vowel and a consonant preceding or following it.The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya has given four kinds of विराम (a) ऋग्विराम,pause at the end of a foot or a verse of duration equal to three mātrās or moras, (b) पदविराम pause between two words of duration equal to two matras; e. g. इषे त्वा ऊर्जे त्वा, (c) pause between two words the preceding one of which ends in a vowel and the following begins with a vowel, the vowels being not euphonically combined; this pause has a duration of one matra e,g. स इधान:, त एनम् , (d) pause between two vowels inside a word which is a rare occurrence; this has a duration of half a mātrā;e.gप्रउगम्, तितउः; ऋग्विरामः पदविरामो विवृत्तिविरामः समानपदविवृत्तिविरामस्त्रिमात्रो द्विमात्र एकमात्रोर्धमात्र इत्यानुपूर्व्येण confer, compare XXII. 13. The word विवृत्ति is explained as स्वरयोरसंधिः. The vivṛttivirāma is further divided into वत्सानुसति which has the preceding vowel short and the succeeding long, वत्सानुसारिणी which has the preceding vowel a long one and the succeeding vowel a short one, पाकवती which has both the vowels short, and पिपीलिका which has got both , the vowels long. This fourfold division is given in the Śikṣā where their duration is given as one mātrā, one mātrā, three-fourths of a mātrā and one-fourth of a mātrā respectively. The duration between the two words of a compound word when split up in the पदपाठ is also equal to one mātrā; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. R.Pr.I.16. The word विराम occurs in Pāṇini's rule विरामोs वसानम् P.I. 4.110 where commentators have explained it as absence; confer, compare वर्णानामभावोवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् S.K.on P. I.4.110: confer, compare also विरतिर्विरामः । विरम्यते अनेन इति वा विरामः Kāś. on P.I.4.110. According to Kāśikā even in the Saṁhitā text, there is a duration of half a mātrā between the various phonetic elements, even between two consonants or between a vowel and a consonant, which, however, is quite imperceptible; confer, compare परो यः संनिकर्षो वर्णानां अर्धमात्राकालव्यवधानं स संहितासंज्ञो भवति Kāś. on P. I.4.109 confer, compare also विरामे मात्रा R.T.35; confer, compare also R.Pr.I.16 and 17. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P.I.4.109 and I.4.110. confer, compare vivāra name given to an external effort in the production of a sound when the vocal chords of the glottis or larynx are extended; कण्ठबिलस्य विकासः विवारः confer, compare on Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa. I. 1.9. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also विवरणं कण्ठस्य विस्तरणम् | स एव विवाराख्य: बाह्यः प्रयत्न: | तस्मिन्सति श्वासे नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नः कियते | तद्ध्वनिसंसर्गादघोषो नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नो जायते इति शिक्षायां स्मर्यते Bhāṣya on confer, compare II. 5. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. vivṛta name given to an internal effort (as contrasted with the external effort named विवार ) when the tip, middle, or root of the tongue which is instrumental in producing a sound, is kept apart from the place or sthāna of the Pro duction of the sound; तत्रोत्पत्तेः प्राग्यदा जिह्वाग्रोपाग्रमध्यमूलानि तत्तद्वर्णोत्पत्तिस्थानानां ताल्वादीनां दूरतः वर्तन्ते तदा विवृतता Tattvabodhini on S. K. on P.I.1.9. confer, compare viśeṣaṇasamāsa (1) a tatpuruṣa compo und of the type of Mayūravyartisakādi where both the words which are compounded together are adjectival; (2) a karmadhāraya compound where the second member is an adjective; a determinative compound गमनं च यच्चिरं च गमनचिरमिति विशेषणसमासोयम् Kāś. on P.VI.2.6. confer, compare viśeṣapratipatti a clear understanding, or a determined sense in a place of doubt: व्याख्यानतो विशेषप्रतिपत्तिर्नहि संदेहादलक्षणम् confer, compare Pari. 1; also M.Bh. in Āhnika 1. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. viṣayatā being a subject of discussion of; coming under the domain of, applicability the meaning of विषयसप्तमी which is similar to विवक्षा. visarga aspiration, leaving of the breath generally at the completion of the utterance of a word when there is a pause; the term विसर्जनीय was in use in ancient times. Although not mentioned in his alphabet by Pāṇini, this Phonetic element, visarga, is looked upon as a letter; it is mentioned as one of the letters in the Śikṣā and the Prātiśākhya works and Patañjali has advised its inclusion in the alphabet. As visarga cannot be found in use independently of another letter (which is any vowel after which it occurs) it is called अयोगवाह. visarjanīya same as विसर्ग which see ; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. विसृज्यते पुनर्वर्णैर्न संबध्यते इति विसर्गः; confer, compare on Kat. I. 1. 16. The term विसृष्ट is also used in the same sense. The visarjanīya has the same position (स्थान) in the mouth as the vowel after which it occurs. It is a glottal sound; the Ṛk-Prātiśākhya says that some scholars describe visarjanīya as a chest sound: Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. कण्ठयोकार:प्रथमपञ्चमौ च द्वावूष्माणौ केचिदेतावुरस्यौ | confer, compare I 18: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also उरसि विसर्जनीयो वा confer, compare 3. Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. vispaṣṭādi a class of words headed by the word विस्पष्ट which retain their own accents in a compound when they are the first members of a compound, provided that any word of quality is the second member e. g. विस्पष्टकटुकम् | व्यक्तलवणम् where the words विस्पष्ट and व्यक्त are used in the sense of clear, referring to the different tastes; Kāś. On P. VI. 2.24. confer, compare vihāra expansion of the position ( स्थान ) and the means of utterance ( करण ) of a sound beyond the necessary extent, which produces a fault of pronunciation, called व्यास; विहारसंहारयेाव्यासपीडने । स्थानकरणयोर्विहारे विस्तारे व्यासो नाम दोषो जायते confer, compare on Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works. XIV 2. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) vuñ (ID affix अक causing vṛddhi to the vowel of the first syllable of that word to which it is added, as prescribed, (a) to the words denoting an offspring as also to the words उक्ष, उष्ट्र taddhita affix. in the sense of 'a group'; e. g. अोपगवकम् , औष्ट्रकम् , कैदारकम् et cetera, and others : et cetera, and others P.IV.2.39, 40; (b) to the words राजन्य and others in the sense of 'inhabited country' ; e. g. राजन्यकः देवनायकः confer, compare , et cetera, and others P. IV.2.53, (c) to the words headed by अरीहण such as द्वुघण, खदिर्, मैत्रायण, काशकृत्स्न confer, compare in the quadruple senses; et cetera, and others अारीहणकम् , द्रौबणकम् , exempli gratia, for example P.IV.2.80, (d) to the word धन्व meaning a desert, to words with य् or र for their penultimate, to words ending in प्रस्थ, पुर and वह as also to words headed by धूम, नगर, अरण्य कुरु, युगन्धर confer, compare , under certain conditions in the miscellaneous senses; e. g. सांकाश्यकः,पाटलिपुत्रकः, माकन्दकः, आङ्गकः, वाङ्गकः, धौमकः, नागरकः, अारण्यकः et cetera, and others ; et cetera, and others P.IV.2.121-130,134,135, 136; (e) to the words शरद् , आश्वयुजी, ग्रीष्म, वसन्त, संवत्सर,अाग्रहायणी and others in the specific senses given: confer, compare P. IV. 3.27, 45, 46, 49, 50; (f) to words denoting descendence or spiritual relation, words meaning families and warrior clans, words कुलाल and others, words meaning clans, and students learning a specific Vedic branch in specific senses prescribed : e. g. आचार्यक, मातामहक, ग्लौचुकायनक, कालालक, काठक, कालापक confer, compare ; et cetera, and others P. IV. 3.77, 99, 118, 126; (g) to the words शाकल, उष्ट्र, उमा and ऊर्णा in the specially given senses; confer, compare शाकलः, संघः, औप्ट्रकः, औमम् और्णम्, exempli gratia, for example P.IV.3.188,157,158; (h) to words with य् as the penultimate, and a long vowel preceding the last one, to words in the dvandva compound, and to the words मनोज्ञ, कल्याण and others in the sense of 'nature' or 'profession';e.g रामणीयकम् गौपालपशुपालिका, गार्गिका, काठिका etc; confer, compare P. V.1.132,133,134: (2) kṛt affix अक added to the roots निन्द् हिंस् and others, and to the roots देव् and कृश् with a prefix before,in the sense of a habituated,professional or skilled agent; confer, compare . निन्दकः, परिक्षेपकः, असूयकः, परिदेवकः, आक्रोशकः exempli gratia, for example et cetera, and others P.III.2. 146, 147. confer, compare vun (1) kṛt affix अक added to the roots प्रु, सृ, and लू in the sense of 'a skilled agent' and to any root in the sense of 'an agent who is blessed'; प्रवकः, सरकः, लवकः, जीवकः ( meaning जीवतात् ) नन्दकः, ( meaning नन्दतात् ); exempli gratia, for example P. III. 1. 149, 150; (2) confer, compare affix अक added to(a) the words क्रम and others in the sense of 'a student of'; e.g, क्रमक:, पदकः शिक्षकः मीमांसकः; taddhita affix. P.IV.2.61; (b) the words पूर्वाह्न, अपराह्ण confer, compare as also the words पथिन् and अमावास्या in the sense of 'produced in': et cetera, and others पूर्वाह्नक,पन्थक, अमावास्यकः exempli gratia, for example P. IV.3. 28, 29, 30; (c) the words कलापि, अश्वत्य, यव and बुस in the sense of 'debt paid at the time of', the words वासुदेव and अर्जुन in the sense of 'devoted to',and the dvandva compounds when the words so formed mean either 'enmity' or 'nuptial ties'; confer, compare कलापकम् (ऋणम्),यवकम् (ऋणम्) वासुदेवकः, अर्जुनकः, काकोलूकिका, कुत्सकुशिकिका; exempli gratia, for example P.IV.3.48, 98,125: (d) the words गोषद, इषेत्व confer, compare in the sense of 'containing' or 'possessing', and the word पथिन् in the sense of 'expert' et cetera, and others इषेत्वकः, पथक:; exempli gratia, for example P.V.2.62, 63; and (e) the words पाद and शत preceded by a numeral, in the sense of वीप्सा, as also in the senses of दण्ड (fine) and व्यवसर्ग when those words are preceded by a numeral; confer, compare द्विपदिकां ( ददाति ), द्विशतिकां ( ददाति ), द्विपदिकां दाडितः exempli gratia, for example Kāś. on P. V.4.l and 2. confer, compare vṛtti (1) treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare confer, compare on P. I.4. 109, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). ll ; ( 5 ) nature Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन confer, compare II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; Nirukta of Yāska. परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar. confer, compare vṛttipakṣa the alternative method of speaking by the use of compound words as contrasted with simple words; both the methods are observed in use among the people: cf इह द्वौ पक्षौ वृत्तिपक्षश्चावृत्तिपक्षश्च। स्वभावतश्चैतद् भवति वाक्यं च समासश्च । M.Bh.on P.II.1.l,II.1.51, III.1.7,IV.1. 82. vṛttiparigaṇana a definite enumeration of words used in a specific sense (as contrasted with वार्तिपरिगणन) which means a definite enumeration of the senses in which an operation, such as a compound-formation or so,takes place; अथैतस्मिन्सति अनभिधाने यदि वृतिपरिगणनं क्रियते, वर्तिपरिगणनमपि कर्तव्यम् ; cf confer, compare on P. II. 2.24 Vart. 16. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). vṛddhinimitta cause of Vrddhi (वृद्धेर्निमित्तम्) such as the employment of the indicatory letter ञ् or ण् in an affix or the lettter क् in literally affixes; the term is, however, found used in the sense of having in it a cause of Vrddhi, taddhita affix. an indicatory letter ञ्, ण् or क्.; cf वृद्धिनिमित्तस्य च तद्धितस्यारक्तविकारे P. VI. 3.39. id est, that is वृद्धेर्निमित्तं यस्मिन्स वृद्धिनिमित्त: confer, compare on P. I. I. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). veṭ a term applied to roots which optionally admit the application of the augment इ (इट्) to the Ardhadhatuka affixes placed after them, e. g. roots having got the indicatory vowel ऊ added to them as also the roots स्वृ, सू, धू and the roots headed by रध् as also some specifically mentioned roots under certain conditions; cf P. VIl. 2.44-51. veda language of the Vedic Literature as contrasted with the term लॊकः; नैव लोके न च वेदे अकारो विवृतोस्ति confer, compare on Mahesvara Sutra; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also रक्षार्थं वेदानामध्येयं व्याकरणम् confer, compare Ahnika 1. The term वैदिक referring to words found in Vedic language is also frequently used in the Mahabhasya. Panini, however, has used the term छन्दस्, मन्त्र and निगम, and not वेद, out of which the first term छन्दस् is often used; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). बहुलं छन्दसि P. II. 4.39, 76: III, 2.88; V. 2.122; or छन्दसि च P. V. 1.67, V. 4.142, VI. 3.126. VI. l.34, VII. 1.8, confer, compare et cetera, and others vebar WEBER, ALBRECHT of Berlin, 1825-190l ] a sound scholar of Vedic Literature who has written many articles on Sanskrit Grammar in "Indische Studien." vaikṛta subjected to modifications; which have undergone a change; the term, as contrasted with प्राकृत, refers to letters which are noticed in the Samhitpatha and not in the Padapatha. The change of अस् into ओ, or of the consonant त् into द् before soft letters, as also the insertion of त् between त् and स् literally are given as instances. et cetera, and others वैकृताः ये पदपाठे अदृष्टाः | यथा प्रथमास्तृतीयभूता:, अन्त:पाता: इत्येवमादयः confer, compare vaidika found in Vedic Literature; the term is used in contrast with लौकिक which means ’found ， in commmon use' : यथा लोकिकवैदिकेषु confer, compare Ahnika 1. kaiyata explains वैदिक as श्रुत्युपनिबद्ध. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). vaidyanātha Vaidyanatha Payagunde, a famous grammarian of the eighteenth century, who was one of the chief pupils of Nagesa and who prepared a line of pupils at Varanasi. He has written learned commentaries on standard works on grammar, the principal ones being the Prabha on the Sabdakaustubha, the Bhavaprakasika on the Brhaccabdendusekhara, the Cidasthimala on the LaghuSabdendusekhara, the Kasika or Gada on the Paribhasendusekhara and an independent short treatise named Rapratyaya-khandana vaiyākaraṇa a student of grammar; व्याकरणमधीते वैयाकरण: cf literally on P. IV, 2.59. The word is used in the sense of 'a scholar of Grammar;'or, 'a person who has obtained proficiency in Grammar.' The word is used several times in this sense in the Mahabhasya. cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.3; I.4.2, II. 1.53, II.2.29, II.3.18, II.4.56, III.2.115 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). The word is also used in the sense of 'pertaining to grammar' or 'found in grammar.' et cetera, and others vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa a well-known work on the grammatical interpretation of words written by Kondabhatta as an explanatory work (व्याख्यान) on the small work in verse consisting of only 72 Karikas written by his uncle Bhattoji Diksita. The treatise is also named Brihadvaiyakaranabhusana. A smaller work consisting of the same subjectmatter but omitting discussions, is written by the author for facilitating the understanding of students to which he has given the name Vaiyakarahabhusanasara. This latter work has got three commentary works written on it named Kasika, Kanti and Matonmajja and one more scholarly one Sankari, recently written by Shankar Shastri Marulkar. vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāraṭīkā a commentary written on the well-known work on the sense of words and syntax written by Kondabhatta. There are many commentaries out of which, the well-known ones are (1) Darpana by Harivallabha, (2) Laghubhushanakanti by Gopaladeva, a pupil of Balambhatta Payagunde, and (3) Kasika by Harirama Kesava Kale and Sankari by Sankarasastri Marulakara vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakārikā a very scholarly work by Bhattoji Diksita on the interpretation of words and sentences, based upon the learned discussions on that subject introduced in the Mahabhasya, Vakyapadiya, Pradipa, and discussed fully in his Sabdakaustubha by the author himsel et cetera, and others The work although scholarly and valuable, is compressed in only 72 verses ( karikas ) and has to be understood with the help of the Vaiyakaranabhusana or BhuSansara written by Kondabhatta, the nephew of the author. See वैयाकरणभूषण and वैयाकरणभूषणसार. feminine. vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudī an extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. vyathana alteration of a phonetic element; change of sound; mispronunciation; तदापायव्यथनानि दोषा: R.Pr,XIV, 1. confer, compare vyapadeśivadbhāva treatment of a secon dary thing as the principal one, e g. a person or a thing, without any second or any others, looked upon as the first or the last; व्यपदेशिवदेकस्मिन् कार्ये भवतीति वक्तव्यम् confer, compare on P. I. 1.21. Vart. 2. The remark or expression व्यपदेशिवद्भावेन भविष्यति is found often given in the Mahabhasya; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). confer, compare Ahnika 1 Vart 14; I.1.9, I.1.51 I,1.72: I.2.48 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). For details see Par. Sek. Pari. 30, et cetera, and others vyapekṣā mutual relationship in sense, as obtaining between two different words ( पद ) connected with each other in a sentence, as contrasted with compositeness of sense as seen in two words joined into a compound word ( समास ) ; व्यपेक्षा is given as an alternative definition of the word सामर्थ्य along with एकार्थीभाव as the other one, in the Mahabhasya: e. g. there is व्यपेक्षा between सर्पिः and पिब in the sentence सर्पिष्पिब, but not in तिष्ठतु सर्पिः पिब त्वमुद्कम्: तथेदमपरं द्वैतं भवति एकार्थाभावो वा सामर्थ्यं स्याद् व्यपेक्षा वेति ! confer, compare on P. II,1.1 ; cf, also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P, VIII.3 44. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. vyartha (l) useless, serving no purpose, superfluous; the word is usually used in the sense of useless or futile in connection with a rule or its part, which serves no purpose, its purpose or object being served otherwise; such words or rules have never been condemned as futile by commentators, but an attempt is made invariably by them to deduce something from the futile wording and show its necessity; व्यर्थे सज्ज्ञापयति a remark which is often found in the commentary literature; confer, compare अन्यथा अन्तरङ्गत्वाद्दीर्घे कृत एव प्रत्ययप्राप्त्या तद्यर्थता स्पष्टैव । Par. Sek. Pari. 56; (2) possessed of various senses such as the words अक्षा: माषा: confer, compare : et cetera, and others व्यर्थेषु च मुक्तसंशयम् । M.Bh.on P.I.2.64 Vart. 52. The word व्यर्थ possibly stands for विविधार्थ in such cases. It appears that the word व्यर्थ in the sense of futile was rarely used by ancient grammarians; the word अनर्थक appears to have been used in its pl confer, compare See Mahabhasya in which the word व्यर्थ does not occur in this sense while the word अनर्थक occurs at several places. accusative case. vyāghrādi a class of words headed by व्याघ्र which, as standards of comparison, are compounded with words showing objects of comparison provided the common property is not mentioned: पुरुषव्याघ्र:, नृसिंहः exempli gratia, for example , et cetera, and others confer, compare onP.II. 1.56. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. byāḍi name of an ancient grammarian with a sound scholarship in Vedic phonetics, accentuation,derivation of words and their interpretation. He is believed to have been a relative and contemporary of Panini and to have written a very scholarly vast volume on Sanskrit grammar named *Samgraha which is believed to have consisted of a lac of verses; संग्रहो व्याडिकृतो लक्षसंख्ये ग्रन्थ: NageSa's Uddyota; confer, compare also इह पुरा पाणिनीये अस्मिन्व्याकरणे ब्याड्युपरचितं लक्षग्रन्थपरिमाणं निबन्धनमासीत् confer, compare Tika. The work is not available at present. References to Vyadi or to his work are found in the Pratisakhya works, the Mahabhasya, the Varttikas, the Vakyapadiya and many subsequent treatises. A work on the Vyakarana Paribhasas, believed to have been written by Vyadi, is available by the name परिभाषासूचन which from its style and other peculiarities seems to have been written after the Varttikas, but before the Mahabhasya. Vyadi is well-known to have been the oldest exponent of the doctrine that words denote an individual object and not the genus. For details see pp. 136-8, Vol. 7 Vyakarana Mahabhasya DE. Society's Edition. Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. vyāsa (1) showing separately; separate expression as contrasted with समास; (2) fault of pronunciation of the type of unnecessarily extending the place of origin as also the instrument of the production of sound; स्थानकरणयोर्विस्तारे व्यासो सो नाम दोषो जायते Uvvata on confer, compare XIV. 2. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) vyutpannatva derivation, correct understanding of the sense by derivation. vhiṭne [ WHITNEY, WILLIAM DWIGHT, 1827-1894] a sound scholar of Vedic grammar who has, besides some books on Linguistic studies, written a work on Vedic Grammar and edited the Atharvaveda Pratisakhya. śabda "sound" in general; literally शब्दं कुरु शब्दं मा कार्षीः | ध्वनिं कुर्वनेवमुच्यते | M.Bh. in Ahnika I; confer, compare also शब्दः प्रकृतिः सर्ववर्णानाम् | वर्णपृक्तः: शब्दो वाच उत्पत्तिः confer, compare XXIII.1, XXIII.3.In grammar the word शब्द is applied to such words only as possess sense; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. प्रतीतपदार्थको लोके ध्वनि: शब्द: confer, compare in Ahnika 1: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also येनोच्चरितेन अर्थः प्रतीयते स शब्दः Sringara Prakasa I; confer, compare also अथ शब्दानुशासनम् M.Bh. Ahnika 1. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya, शब्द् is said to be constituted of air as far as its nature is concerned, but it is taken to mean in the Pratisakhya and grammar works in a restricted sense as letters possessed of sense, The vajasaneyiPratisakhya gives four kinds of words तिडू, कृत्, तद्धित and समास while नाम, आख्यात, निपात and उपसर्ग are described to be the four kinds in the Nirukta. As शब्द in grammar, is restricted to a phonetic unit possessed of sense, it can be applied to crude bases, affixes, as also to words that are completely formed with case-endings or personal affixes. In fact, taking it to be applicable to all such kinds, some grammarians have given tweive subdivisions of शब्द, vizप्रक्रुति, प्रत्यय,उपत्कार, उपपद, प्रातिपदिक, विभक्ति, उपसर्जन, समास, पद, वाक्य, प्रकरण and प्रबन्ध; confer, compare Sringara Prakasa I. confer, compare śabdakaustubhaṭīkā or शब्दकौस्तुभप्रभा a commentary on Bhattoji's Sabdakaustubha written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde. śabdaratnaṭīkā known by the name भावप्रकाशिका, a commentary on Hari Diksita's Sabdaratna, written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde. śabdarūpāvali a very brief treatise on declension giving the forms of the seven cases of a few choice-words. The work is studied as the first elementary work and is very common without the name of any specific author.There are different works named शब्दरूपावलि giving declensions of different words which are all anonymous, although from the dates of manuscripts mentioned, they appear to be more than five or six hundred years old. śaratprabhṛti the words of the type of शरद् such as विपाश्, अनस्, मनस् , उपानह् which have the compound-ending अ (टच् ) added to them when they are at the end of the Avyayibhava compound;e.g प्रतिशरदम्, प्रतिविपाशम्.cf et cetera, and others on P.V. 4.107. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. śākapārthivādi a class of irregular samanadhikarana , Samasas, or Karmadharaya compound formations, where according to the sense conveyed by the compound word, a word after the first word or so, has to be taken as omitted; समानाधिकरणाधिकारे शाकपार्थिवादीनामुपसंख्यानमुत्तरपदलेपश्च वक्तव्यः । शाकभेाजी पार्थिवः शाकपार्थिवः । कुतपवासाः सौश्रुतः कुतपसौश्रुतः । यष्टिप्रधानो मौद्गल्य; यष्टिमौद्गल्यः। M.Bh. on P.II.1.69 Vart. 8. confer, compare śāstrakṛt the originator or the founder of a Sastra or system of particular thoughts. The word was used by ancient grammarians for Panini, the founder of the great system of grammar, or of grammar in general; व्यत्ययमिच्छति शास्त्रकृदेषां सोपि च सिध्यति बाहुलकेन M.Bh. on P. III. 1. 85 confer, compare śikṣā general name given to a work on Phonetics. Although there are many such works which are all called शिक्षा, the work, which is often referred to, by the word, is the Siksa named पाणिनीयशिक्षा, about the authorship of which, however, there is a doubt whether it was the work of Panini or of somebody belonging to his school. The Siksa works are helpful, no doubt, for the study of grammar, but no topic belonging to Siksa is given by Panini which apparently means that these works do not come under the subject or province of Grammar. The reason why the Siksa topics are not given by Panini, is worth consideration. These Siksa works are not specifically related to a particular Veda and it cannot be said whether they preceded or succeeded the Pratisakhya works. śe case-ending seen in Vedic Literature substituted for any one of the 2l case-endings as found in Vedic Language; words ending in this शे ( ए ) are not coalesced with a vowel that follows; e.g अस्मे इन्द्रबृहस्पती; P.VII.1.39 and I.1.13. confer, compare śeṣa ṣaṣṭhī the genitive case used in any other senses than those given in the specific rules. The expression शेषे षष्ठी भविष्यति is often found in commentary works. śauṇḍādi a class of words headed by the word शौण्ड which are compounded with a noun in the locative case to form a locative tatpurusa compound; e. g. अक्षशौण्डः, अक्षधूर्तः ; et cetera, and others confer, compare on P.II.1.40. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. śramaṇādi a class of words headed by the word श्रमणा with which words in the masculine or the feminine gender are compounded when they stand in apposition; कुमारी श्रमणा कुमारश्रमणा, युवा अध्यापकः युवाध्यापक: confer, compare on P.II.1.70. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. śruti (1) hearing sound. literally श्रुतौ च रूपग्रहणम् confer, compare on P. I. 2.64; perception, as a proof contrasted with inference; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). ननु च श्रुतिकृतोपि भेदोस्ति confer, compare on P. VII. 1.72 Vart. 1; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also confer, compare on P. VIII. 2.25; cf also तस्मादुच्चश्रुतीनि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 61; (2) authoritative word; the word is sometimes used in connection with the utterances of the Sutrakaras viz. the Sutra. Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. śreṇyādi a class of words headed by the word श्रेणि, which are compounded with words like कृत if they stand in apposition, provided the word so compounded has got the sense of the affix च्वि i. e. having become what was not before: अश्रेणयः श्रेणय: कृताः श्रेणिकृता:, एककृता: Kas, on P. II. 1. 59. confer, compare ṣa (1) consonant ष् , the vowel अ being added for facility of pronunciation; (2) compound-ending अ, substituted for the final of the word मूर्धन् at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound when the word मूर्धन् is preceded by द्वि or त्रि e. g. द्विमूर्धः, त्रिमूर्धः द्वित्रिभ्यां ष मूर्ध्नः P. V. 4.115 (3) a technical term for तत्पुरुषसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana. confer, compare ṣac the compound-ending ( समासान्त ) अ added for the final of the words सक्थि, अक्षि and दारु standing at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound under specific conditions. e. g. विशालाक्ष:,दीर्धसक्थ:, द्व्यङ्गुलं ( दारु ); P. V. 4.113, 114. confer, compare ṣa (1) consonant ष् , the vowel अ being added for facility of pronunciation; (2) compound-ending अ, substituted for the final of the word मूर्धन् at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound when the word मूर्धन् is preceded by द्वि or त्रि e. g. द्विमूर्धः, त्रिमूर्धः द्वित्रिभ्यां ष मूर्ध्नः P. V. 4.115 (3) a technical term for तत्पुरुषसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana. confer, compare ṣac the compound-ending ( समासान्त ) अ added for the final of the words सक्थि, अक्षि and दारु standing at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound under specific conditions. e. g. विशालाक्ष:,दीर्धसक्थ:, द्व्यङ्गुलं ( दारु ); P. V. 4.113, 114. confer, compare ṣaṣṭhī the sixth case; the genitive case. This case is generally an ordinary case or विभक्ति as contrasted with कारकविभक्ति. A noun in the genitive case shows a relation in general, with another noun connected with it in a sentence. Commentators have mentioned many kinds of relations denoted by the genitive case and the phrase एकशतं षष्ठ्यर्थाः (the genitive case hassenses a hundred and one in all),. is frequently used by grammarians षष्ठी शेषे P. II. 3.50; confer, compare also बहवो हि षष्ठ्यर्थाः स्वस्वाम्यनन्तरसमीपसमूहविकारावयवाद्यास्तत्र यावन्त: शब्दे संभवन्ति तेषु सर्वेषु प्राप्तेषु नियमः क्रियते षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा इति । confer, compare on P. I. 1.49. The genitive case is used in the sense of any karaka when that karaka ; is not to be considered as a karaka; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. कारकत्वेन अविवक्षिते शेषे षष्ठी भविष्यति. A noun standing as a subject or object of an activity is put in the genitive case when that activity is expressed by a verbal derivative , and not by a verb itself; confer, compare कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति P. II. 3 .65. For the senses and use of the genitive case, confer, compare P. II. 3.50 to 73. confer, compare ṣaṣṭhītatpuruṣa a tatpurusa compound with the first member (rarely the second member as in the case of अवयवतत्पुरुष ) in the genitive case. The compound is very common as prescribed in the case of a word in the genitive case with any other word connected with it; e. g. राजपुरुषः, गुरुपत्नी ; the other tatpurusa compounds viz. द्वितीयातत्पुरुष, तृतीयातत्पुरुष and others prescribed in connection with specific words or kinds of words. The word षष्ठीसमास is also used in this sense. et cetera, and others ṣaṣṭhīsamāsa a compound word formed by one noun with another in the genitive case; see षष्ठीतत्पुरुष - a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. ṣṭhan tad, affix इक (I) added to the word कुसीद in the sense of giving a sum or something on an objectionable rate of interest or profit; कुसीदं प्रयच्छति कुसीदिकः, कुसीदिकी: confer, compare P. IV. 4.31 ; (2) added to the words पौरोडाश an पुरोडाश in the sense of 'explanatory book thereon' ; confer, compare पुरोडाशिकः पौरोडाशिक:, पुरोडाशिकी, पौरोडाशिकी; exempli gratia, for example P. IV. 3.70; (3) added to the words पर्प and others as also to श्वगण, भस्त्रा and others, विवध, वीवध किशर and others, the words शलालु पात्र and the words आढक, अाचित and पात्र at the end of Dvigu compounds in the specific senses mentioned; e. g. पर्पिकः, श्वगाणिकः, भास्त्रिकः, शलालुकः ब्याढाकिकी confer, compare ; et cetera, and others P. IV. 4.10, 11, 16, 17, 53, 54, V. 1.46, 54, 55. confer, compare ṣyaṅ affix य (taking Samprasarana change i e. ई before the words पुत्र and पति and बन्धु in the Bahuvrihi compound) added, instead of the affix अण् or इञ्, in the sense of offspring, (l) to words having a long ( गुरु ) vowel for their penultimate , only in the formation of feminine bases, taddhita affix. कारीषगन्ध्या कौमुद्गन्ध्या, वाराह्या; कारीषगन्धीपुत्रः, कारीषगन्धीपति:, कारीषगन्धबिन्धुः ( Bah. exempli gratia, for example ): cf P.IV.1.78; (2) to words expressive of family names like पुणिक, मुखर compound as also to the words क्रौडि, लाडि, व्याडि आपिशलि et cetera, and others and optionally to the words दैवयज्ञि and others in the formation of feminine bases; e. g. पौणिक्या, मौखर्या, क्रौड्या, व्याड्या, अापिशल्या et cetera, and others : et cetera, and others P. IV.1.79, 80, 81. confer, compare sa (1) short term for समास used by ancient grammarians ; the term is found used in the Jainendra Vyakarana also ; ति्त्रक्कारकाणां प्राक् सुवुप्तत्तेः कृद्भिः सविधि: Jain.. Pari. 100; confer, compare also राजाsसे ; ( 2 ) Unadi affix स placed after the roots वॄ, तॄ, वद् , हन् and others; confer, compare UnadiSutras 342-349; (3) confer, compare affix स in the quadruple senses (चातुरर्थिक) applied to the words तृण and others. taddhita affix. तृणसः; exempli gratia, for example P. IV.2.80; (4) confer, compare affix स applied to the word मृद् when praise is intended e. g. मृत्सा, मृत्स्नाः; also taddhita affix. P. V. 4.41; (5) substitute for the preposition सम् before the words हित and तत; confer, compare समो हितततयोर्वा लोपः confer, compare on P. VI.1.144 Vart. I. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). saṃkhyāpūrva with a numeral word placed first or at the beginning; a term used for defining the Dvigu compound cf संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P. II. 1.52. saṃgatārtha a word unit where the senses of two words are mixed together completely as in a compound word such as राजपुरुषः ; cf संगतार्थे समर्थम् et cetera, and others on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 4. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). saṃgraha name of a very vast work on grammar attributed to an ancient grammarian Vyadi who is supposed to have been a relative of Panini; सेग्रहेस्तमुपागते Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya confer, compare also संग्रहप्रतिकञ्चुके: confer, compare संग्रहो नाम लक्षश्लोकात्मको त्याडिकृतो ग्रन्थः । Some quotations only are found from the Samgraha in grammar works, but the work is lost long ago. confer, compare saṃghātārtha collective sense given by a combination of letters called पदार्थ. When the collective sense is given by a combination of words it is called पदार्थ, and when the idea is complete it is called वाक्यार्थ. Sometimes the meaning of a compound word is taken individually and not. collectively; such a meaning is called संघातविगृहीतार्थ नामाख्यातग्रहणं संघातविगृहीतार्थं द्रष्टव्यम् confer, compare on IV. 3.72 Vart. 1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). saṃjñā a technical term; a short wording to convey ample sense; a term to know the general nature cf things; convention; वृद्धिशब्द; संज्ञा; अादेच: संज्ञिन: M.Bh. on P.1-1.1. There are two main divisions of संज्ञा-कृत्रिमसंज्ञा or an artificial term such as टि, घु, or भ which is merely conventional, and अकृत्रिमसंज्ञा which refers to the literal sense conveyed by the word such as अव्यय, सर्वनाम and the like. Some grammar works such as the Candra avoid purely conventional terms, These samjhas are necessary for every scientific treatise. In Panini's grammar, there are the first two chapters giving and explaining the technical terms whose number exceeds well-nigh a hundr confer, compare edition saṃpratipatti understanding, comprehension of the sense; गौणमुख्ययोर्मुख्ये संप्रतिपत्तिः, confer, compare on P. VIII. 3.82 Vart, 2. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). saṃbandhiśibda relative term; the term refers to words connected in such a way by their meaning that if one of them is uttered, the other has to be anticipated and understood; e. g. पितृ, भ्रातृ, मातृ, भार्या et cetera, and others तद्यथा । संबन्धिशब्दाः । मातरि वर्तितव्यम् । पितरि शूश्रूषितव्यम् । न चोच्यते स्वस्यां मातरि स्वस्मिन्वा पितरि इति । confer, compare also M.Bh. on I 1.71 ; confer, compare also प्रधानमुपसर्जनं च संबन्धिशब्दावेतौ confer, compare on P. I. 2.43 Vart. 5; I. 2.48 Vart, 4, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).