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Root Search
ubj has 1 results
        Root Word (Pāṇini Dhātupāṭha:)Full Root MarkerSenseClassSutra
ubj has 1 results
Root WordIAST MeaningMonier Williams PageClass
√उब्ज्ubjmaking straight / ārjava151/3Cl.6
Monier-Williams Search
67 results for ubj
ubj cl.6 P. ubj/ati- (ubjāṃ-cakāra-, ubjitā-, ubjiṣyati-, aubjīt- ) to press down, keep under, subdue ; to make straight ; to make honest on : Causal ubjayati-, aubjijat- : Desiderative ubjijiṣati- on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhinyubjto press down, hold down View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhisamubjto spread a covering upon (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparakānyakubjam. Name of a village in the western part of kānyakubja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhukubjamfn. equals -kuṇṭha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvikubjamfn. 2-humped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hiraṇyakubjam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalakubjakam. Trapa bispinosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kakubjayam. conquest of the quarters or of the world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṇṭhakubjam. a kind of fever (see adhara-kaṇṭha-,1. ut-kaṇṭha-,etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṇṭhakubjapratīkāram. the cure of the preceding disease. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyakubjan. (f(ā-). ), Name of an ancient city of great note (in the north-western provinces of India, situated on the kālī nadī-,a branch of the gaṅgā-, in the modern district of Farrukhabad;the popular spelling of the name presents, perhaps, greater variations than that of any place in India[ exempli gratia, 'for example' Kanauj,Kunnoj,Kunnouj,Kinoge,Kinnoge,Kinnauj,Kanoj,Kannauj,Kunowj,CanowjCanoje,Canauj,etc.];in antiquity this city ranks next to ayodhyā- in Oude;it is known in classical geography as Canogyza;but the name applies also to its dependencies and the surrounding district;the current etymology[ kanyā-,"a girl", shortened to kanya-,and kubja-,"round-shouldered or crooked"] refers to a legend in ,relating to the hundred daughters of kuśanābha-, the king of this city, who were all rendered crooked by vāyu- for non-compliance with his licentious desires;the ruins of the ancient city are said to occupy a site larger than that of London) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyākubjaf(ā-)n. equals kanya-kubja- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kānyakubjan. Name of a city (equals kanya-kubja- q.v) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kānyakubjamf(ī-)n. belonging to or dwelling in kānyakubja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyakubjadeśam. the country round kanyakubja-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kānyakubjīf. a princess or a female inhabitant of kānyakubja- commentator or commentary on [In wrongly printed kānyākubja-.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karṇakubjan. Name of an imaginary town View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaubjyan. (fr. kubj/a-), hump-backedness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjamf(ā-)n. hump-backed, crooked etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjam. Name of a person born under certain constellations and being an attendant of the model man haṃsa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjam. a curved sword View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjam. a sort of fish (Bola Cuja) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjam. the plant Achyranthes aspera (equals apāmārg/a-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjāf. a kind of musical instrument View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjam. ([ confer, compare nyubja-and kanya-kubja-; confer, compare also Lithuanian kupra,kupotas; Greek , ; Latin gibbus,gibba,gibber.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjakamfn. hump-backed, crooked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjakam. the plant Rosa moschata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjakam. the aquatic plant Trapa bispinosa
kubjakaṇṭakam. a white species of Mimosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjakirātan. sg. a hump-backed person and a dwarf gaRa gavāśvādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjalīḍham. Name of the founder of a sect (varia lectio kubjāl-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjālīḍhaSee kubja-l-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjāmran. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjāmrakan. idem or 'n. Name of a tīrtha- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjapuṣpan. the flower of Trapa bispinosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjatāf. the state of being humpbacked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjavāmanan. equals -kirāta- gaRa gavāśvādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjif. (probably) a tiger's den, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjikāf. a girl eight years old (personating the goddess durgā- at a festival of this deity). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjikā(f. of kubjaka- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjīkaraṇan. curving (as of a stalk) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjikātantran. Name of a tantra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjimatmfn. idem or 'mfn. crooked, curved.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubjitamfn. crooked, curved. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nikubjamfn. curved, bent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nikubjanan. upsetting (a vessel) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirubjP. -ubjati- (imperfect tense -aubjas-), to cause to flow down, let loose View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyubjP. -ubjati-, to bend or press or throw upside down, upset, overthrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyubjamfn. turned or bent down wards, lying with the face downwards, looking downwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyubjamfn. hump-backed, crooked-backed (as the result of disease see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyubjamfn. convex View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyubjam. Name of the nyag-rodha- tree in kuru-kṣetra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyubjan. the fruit of the Averrhoa Carambola View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyubjam. or n. equals śrāddhādi-pātra-bheda-, darbhamayaśruc-, or kuśa-śruc- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyubjakamf(ikā-)n. equals next commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyubjakhaḍgam. a crooked sword, a sabre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyubjimatmfn. bent, crooked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samubjP. -ubjati-, to cover over, close up, press together View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samubjitamfn. covered over, closed up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udubjP. -ubjati-, to open by bending or breaking ; to set up, erect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udubjamfn. having the face turned upwards, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
urubjamfn. (fr. uru-,2. ap-,and ja- ?) , producing or causing much milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
urubjamfn. ([for uru-ubja-,"widely opened" ]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārikubja() () m. Trapa Bispinosa. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārikubjaka() m. Trapa Bispinosa. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyubjP. -ubjati-, to uncover open, display View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
Apte Search
8 results
ubj उब्ज् 6 P. (उब्जति, उब्जाञ्चकार, औब्जीत्, उब्जित) 1 To press down, subdue, keep under or check. इन्द्रासोमा तपतं रक्ष उब्जतम् Av.8.4.1. -2 To make straight.
kānyakubjaḥ कान्यकुब्जः N. of a city; see कन्याकुब्ज.
kubja कुब्ज a. [कु ईषत् उब्जमार्जवं यत्र शकं˚ Tv.] Humpbacked, crooked. अन्धाः खञ्जाः कुब्जा वामनकाश्च Garbha. Up.3. -ब्जः 1 A curved sword. -2 A hump on the back. -3 A sort of fish; Mb.7.56.8. -ब्जा A young female servant of Kaṁsa, said to be deformed in three parts of her body. [Kṛiṣṇa and Balarāma, while proceeding to Mathurā, saw her on the high road carrying unguent to Kaṁsa. They asked her if she would give them some portion of it, and she gave as much as they wanted. Kṛiṣṇa, being very much pleased with her kindness, made her perfectly straight, and she began to appear a most beautiful woman.] -Comp. -किरातः -वामनः a. hump-backed person and a dwarf. -गामिन् a. going crookedly, going astray; बुद्धयः कुब्ज- गामिन्यो भवन्ति महतामपि Pt.2.5. -लीला the manner, gait or character of a hump-backed person; Ś.2.
kubjakaḥ कुब्जकः N. of a tree; Ms.8.247,5.2.
kubjikā कुब्जिका An unmarried girl of eight years old.
kaubjyam कौब्ज्यम् [कुब्ज-ष्यञ् P.V.1.124] 1 Crookedness. -2 Hump-backedness.
nyubj न्युब्ज् 6 P. To bend or press down, throw down.
nyubja न्युब्ज a. 1 Turned or bent downwards, laying on the face; ऊर्ध्वार्पितन्युब्जकटाहकल्पे (व्योम्नि) N.22.32; न्युब्जीकृतेषुधिस्तत्र शरसन्धानतत्परः Śiva B.28.83. -2 Bent, crooked. -3 Convex. -4 Hump-backed. -ब्जः 1 The Nyagrodha tree. -2 A kind of ladle made of Kuśa grass. -ब्जम् A vessel used in Śrāddhas. -Comp. -खड्गः a crooked sword, sabre.
Macdonell Vedic Search
1 result
ubj ubj force, VI. P., ubjáti.
Macdonell Search
120 results
adhara cpv. lower: -m kri, subject; m. under-lip, s. coll. lips; -dala, n. lip; -rukaka, n. lovely lips.
adhikaraṇa n. substratum; substance, matter; subject, department; section, paragraph; law-court; that in which anything happens; sphere of the locative (gr.); -mandapa, n. law-court; -lekhaka,m. lawyer's clerk.
adhīna a. lying on; subject to, de pendent on (--°ree;); -tva, n. dependence.
anadhikṛta pp. not made a subject of discussion; -tva, n. abst. n.
anuja a. born after, younger; m. younger brother; f. &asharp;, younger sister; -gan man, m. younger brother; -gâta, pp. √ gan: -ka, a. taking after, like (ac.); -gighrikshâ, f. desire to gratify;-gîvika, m. follower; -gî vin, a., m. dependent, inferior; -gîvi-sât-kri, subject; -gîvya, fp. to be lived according to.
apratiśāsana a. subject to no other authority; -sraya, a. having no refuge.
avaśa a. not subject to another's will, independent, free; unwilling: -ga, a. not subject to (g.); -vasin, a. unwilling.
avikriyatva n. unchange ableness; -kriyâ, f. no change: -½âtmaka, a. subject to no change.
avikāra m. no change, no dis figurement; a. subject to no change; -in, a. not changing; not moving a muscle: -i-tâ, f. abst. n.; -ya, fp. unchangeable.
asaṃsarga m. lack of contact or intercourse with (g.); -sârin, a. not subject to mundane existence; -srishta, pp. untouched by, free from (in.); -srishtin, a. not re-united after partition.
āyatta pp. (√ yat) being in, rest ing on, dependent on (g., lc., --°ree;): -tâ, f., -tva, n. dependence on (lc., --°ree;); î-kri, make dependent; keep in subjection.
āśraya m. leaning on, attach ment to; connexion with, devotion to, recourse to; dependence on, relation to; support; re fuge, shelter, protection; seat, abode; recep tacle; foundation; (logical) subject; --°ree;, a. depending on; relating to; -na, a. (î) taking refuge in; relating to (--°ree;); n. recourse to; -nîya, fp. to be had recourse to or followed.
āśrayāśa m. (house-consumer), fire; -½asiddha, pp. logically inadmissible owing to the subject.
ucchān V. 3 pl. pr. subj. of √ 1. vas.
om ij. the sacred syllable om (often= amen; used in invocations, at the commencement of prayers, at the beg. and end of Vedic recitation, and as a respectful salutation; the subject of many mystical speculations).
gantavya fp. n. to be gone (with in. of subject); to be traversed; to be sought, approached, or visited; intelligible.
janacaraṇāmalina a. not yet dirtied by people's feet; (á)-tâ, f. com munity; people, subjects; mankind; -dâha sthâna, n. crematory; -deva, m. king, prince.
jana m. creature; man; person; race, tribe; people, subjects; folks, -kind (often --°ree; with coll. mg.); low person; this person; ayam --, esha --, or asau --,=we, I, my lover here.
jānapada a. living in the country; relating to districts; referring to or meant for the country-people; m. countryman; subject: î, f. provincial expression; -padika, a. con cerning a realm.
jitendriya a. having the passions subdued: -tva, n. subjection of the passions.
jīvitavya fp. n. to be lived (with in. of subject=will live); n. possibility of living; allotted term of life; possible restora tion to life: -vishaya, m. duration of life; -samdeha, m. danger to life.
jñeya fp. to be known, -learned, -understood; -investigated; -considered as (nm.): -m, (with in. of subject) one should know how to (inf.): -gña, m. mind (knowing the knowable); -tâ, f., -tva, n.knowableness, comprehensibility.
divā ad. by day: sts. subject of a sentence or °ree;--,=day.
duvasyāt subj. or ab. (?), RV. I, 165, 14.
nirapa a. waterless; -apatya, a. childless; -apatrapa, a. shameless; -aparâ dha, a. harmless, innocent; -apavâda, a. blameless; subject to no exception; -apâya, a. imperishable; unfailing; unharmed, safe; -apâyin, a. imperishable; -apeksha, a. re gardless of, indifferent to (lc. or --°ree;); caring for nothing, indifferent to worldly objects; independent of (--°ree;): -m, ad. without having any regard, without troubling about a thing, -ka, a. independent, -tâ, f. regardlessness; indifference towards (lc.), -tva, n. indiffer ence; independence; -apekshâ, f. indiffer ence towards (lc.); -apekshita, pp. disre garded; regardless of (--°ree;); indifferent towards (lc.); -apekshya, fp. not to be troubled about.
nirodha m. confinement, imprisonment; enclosure; coercion, repression, subjection; obstruction; destruction; disappointment (dr.); -ródhana, n. imprisonment; coercion; refusal; disappointment (dr.).
nirvid f. despair, faintheartedness; -vidya, a. unlearned, uneducated; -vinoda, a. destitute of diversion; -vindhyâ, f. (com ing from the Vindhyas), N. of a river; -vi bandha, a. offering no obstacle to (g.); harm less; -vimarsa, a. devoid of reflexion; un considered; -vivara, a. having no aperture or interstice: -tâ, f. close contiguity; har mony; -vivâda, a. free from strife, concor dant; subject to no dispute; -viveka, a. de void of discrimination: -tâ, f., -tva, n. lack of judgment.
nirvikalpa a. admitting of no alternative, changeless, free from distinctions, undifferentiated; unhesitating: -m, ad. with out hesitation; -ka, a. undifferentiated; -vi kâra, a. unchanged; -vighna, a.unob structed, unimpeded: -m or in., without obstacles; -vikâra, a. unreflecting: -m, with out long reflexion; -vikikitsa, a. subject to no doubt: -m, ad. without long reflexion; -vikeshta, a. motionless, unresisting.
pakṣatva n. being a component part of (--°ree;); being the subject of a conclusion; prosecution; -dvâra, n. side-door; -dhara, a. taking the side of (g.); attached to (lc.); m. bird; -pâta, m. flight; partisanship, partiality, predilection for (ac.±prati, g., lc., --°ree;); -pâti-tâ, f. partiality or predilection for (lc. or --°ree;); -pâtin, a. siding with, partial to (--°ree;); -puta, m. outspread wing; wing; -bala, n. strength of wing; -rakanâ, f. formation of a party; (á)-vat, a. winged; having a large following; -vikala, a. paralyzed in the wings.
pakṣaka m. wing (--°ree;); side; -kshaya, m. end of a fortnight; -gama, a. moving with wings, flying; -grahana, n. taking the side of (g.); -kara, m. elephant parted from the herd; -kkhid, a. having elipped the wings of the mountains, ep. of Indra; -tâ, f. alliance; being the subject of an inference.
pakṣa m. (n.1) wing, pinion; feathers of an arrow; flank, side; half; half-month, fortnight (15 days); side, party, following, ally, partisans, family, race (sg. & pl.); host, troop, class; quantity (of hair); place; alternative; case; opinion, proposition; prosecution (leg.); subject of an inference (logic); topic, subject under discussion: pakshe, in the other case; with regard to (--°ree;); atra --, in this case; tâbhyâm mukte --,in a case other than these two.
padārtha m. thing corresponding to a word, substance, object; subject, topic; category (ph.); meaning of a word.
parādhikāra m. another's office or post: -karkâ, f. interference with another's concerns, officiousness; -½adhîna, a. dependent on another, subject, subservient; dependent on (--°ree;); engagedor absorbed in, engrossed by (--°ree;); -tâ, f. dependence, sub jection.
parājaya m. deprivation, loss, of (ab., --°ree;); defeat; loss of a lawsuit; subjugation, conquest of (g., --°ree;); -gi-shnu, a. victorious.
pāriṇāmika a. digestible; subject to development: with bhâva, m. natural disposition; -nâyya, n. household utensils; -nâhya, n. id.; -tosh-ika, n. reward, gratuity (token of satisfaction); -panth-ika, m. highwayman, robber; -pâtra, incorrect for -yâtra; -pârsva-ka, a. atten dant: ikâ, f. chambermaid; -pârsvika, a. standing at one's side; m. attendant: pl. retinue; -pâlya, n. governorship; -plava, a. swimming; moving to and fro, unsteady; wavering, irresolute; m. ship: -tâ, f., -tva, n. unsteadiness, caprice; -bhadra, m. coral tree (Erythrina indica); -bhâsh-ika, a. (î) technical; -mândal-ya, n. spherical shape; -mân-ya, n.circumference; -yâtra, m. N. of the western Vindhya range; -vitt-ya, n. bachelorhood while a younger brother is mar ried; -vettr-ya, n. marriage of a younger before an elder brother; -sesh-ya, n. result: ab. therefore; -shada, m. member of an as sembly or council, auditor, spectator: pl. retinue of a god; -shad-ya, m. one who takes part in an assembly, spectator; -hâr-ika, a. privileged; -hâr-ya, m. bracelet; -hâs-ya, n. jest.
puruṣaka n. vertical position, rearing (in horses); -kâra, m. human effort (opp. fate); manly act, heroism; haughtiness, pride: e-na hîna, destitute of human effort to save it (animal); -ghâ, a. f.having killed her husband; -kkhandása, n. metre appro priate to man (the dvipadâ); -gñâna, n. know ledge of men; -tantra, a. dependent on the subject, subjective; (á)-tâ, f. manhood: in. (id.) after the manner of men; -tr&asharp;, ad. among people; -tva, n. manhood; -datta, m. N.; -dravya-sampad, f. abundance of men and material; -pasu, m. man as a sacrificial victim; beast of a man; -mân-in, a. think ing himself a hero: (-i)-tva, n. abst. n.; -me dhá, m. human sacrifice; -½rishabha, m. bull among men, eminent man; -rûpa, n. human form: -ka, a. having a human form; -vyâ ghrá, m. man-tiger; tiger among men, pre eminent man; -sârdûla, m. tiger of men, chief of men; -sîrshaka, n. (?) (man-headed), kind of burglar's implement; -simha, m. lion among men, pre-eminent man; -sûkta, n. the Purusha-hymn (RV. X, 90) describing the primaeval soul.
prakara m. (scattered) heap, quantity, plenty: î, f. kind of song; short interlude (in a drama); -karana, n. production, creation; treatment, discussion, exposition; subject of discussion, topic; section, chapter; special treatise, monograph; kind of drama (in which the plot is invented by the poet): asminn eva prakarane, in regard to this very point, in this connection; na ka prakaranam vetsi, nor do you know what the point in question is: -tas, ad. on a suitable occasion, -tva, n. condition of discussing (--°ree;); -kartavya, fp. to be prepared; to be displayed or cherished; to be appointed to (lc.); -kartri, m. one who causes or occasions; -karsha, m. (preference, advantage), excellence, superiority, pre-eminence; intensity, excess; predominance; --°ree; a. consisting for the most part in: in., ab., °ree;--, highly, strongly, thoroughly; -karshana, m. troubler;n. drawing off; protrusion; extension, long duration; -karsha-vat, a. excellent; --°ree;, distinguished or pre-eminent in; -kalpanâ, f. allotment; -kalp-ita, pp. fitted, arranged, placed; -kalp-ya, to be allotted or settled; -kâ&ndot;kshâ, f. appetite; -kânda, m. n. trunk of a tree (between the root and branches); minor section in a book; --°ree;=pre-eminent, excellent; -kâmá, m. delight, voluptuousness: pl. objects of desire: -m, -tas, or°ree;--, ad. with delight, willingly; according to desire, sufficiently; in very deed; -kâra, m. kind, sort, species; way, manner; --°ree; a. of the nature of, -like: kena prakârena, in what way? how? prakâraih, in one way or another; râmâyanasya bhâratasya vâ pra kârah, a kind of Râmâyana or Mahâbhârata; -kâra-ka, a. (--°ree;) of the nature of, -like; -kâra-tâ, f. speciality; -kâra-vat, a. belonging to a species; -kârya, fp. to be exhibited; -kâlana, a. driving on; m. N. of a Nâga.
prakṛti f. (putting before, what is presupposed), original or natural form or condition (opp. vi-kriti, derivative form); nature, constitution, disposition, temper; fundamental form, pattern, standard, rule (sp. damental form, pattern, standard, rule (sp. in ritual); nature (opp. spirit: ph.): pl. material elements (rare); primary constituents of nature (from which all else is evolved: there are eight: avyakta, mahat, ahamkâra, and the five elements: ph.); constituent elements of the state (in politics: there are seven: king, minister, fortress, territory or subjects, treasure, army, and ally; kings primarily (of these there are four) and secondarily (of these there are eight) concerned in a war (each of these twelve having five prakritis in the form of minister, territory, fortress, treasure, army); constituent elements of a king's own state (exclusive of himself); ministers; subjects, citizens; sg. root, base (gr.): °ree;-or in. by nature, originally, properly; in the original state, unchanged: -ka, a. (--°ree;) id.; kripana, a. naturally feeble in discriminating between (lc.); -ga, a.innate; -purusha, m. nature and spirit (du.); minister; -bhâva, m. original or unmodified state; -mandala, n. whole circle of subjects, entire territory; -mat, a. having or being in the original, natural, or usual condition orform; -sampanna, pp. endowed with a noble nature; -subhaga, a. naturally beautiful; -stha, a. being in the natural state or condition, natural, genuine, normal; healthy; being in good circumstances.
prajāgupti f. protection of sub jects; -ghnî, f. of -han; -kandra, m. moon to his subjects (honorific epithet of a prince); -tantu, m. continuation of a family, progeny.
prajā f. procreation, propagation, birth; offspring, progeny, family, descendants; creature; folk, people, subjects (of a prince): -kâma, a. desirous of offspring; m. desire of offspring.
pratijñā f. agreement, under standing, assent; promise; assertion, declara tion; prosecution, action (leg.); announce ment of a proposition in an argument (logic); -gñâta, pp. promised, agreed; propounded, proposed; n. promise; -gñâna, n. admission, assent; promise; assertion; propounding a subject.
pradhi m. [outer setting: √ dhâ], felly (of a wheel); disc (of the moon); -dhura, n. tip of the pole; -dhrishti, f. subjugation; -dhrishya, fp. assailable (--°ree;).
pramātha m. tugging; violent ab duction (of a woman); subjugation; destruc tion; N. of a Dânava; -mâthin, a. striking off; stirring, agitating, disturbing, afflicting; m. N.; -m&asharp;da, m.intoxication; heedlessness, inattention, negligence, with regard to (--°ree;): -pâtha, m. wrong reading; -mâdin, a. heedless, careless, negligent, off one's guard; -mâpa-ka, a. proving; -mâpana, 1. (cs. √ mâ) n. form, figure; 2. (cs. √ mî) a. (î) murder ing; m. murderer; n. killing; -mâpayitri, a. leading to destruction: -tva, n. abst. n.; -mâyu, -m&asharp;yuka, a. liable to perish; -mârg aka, a. wiping off, removing; -mârgana, n.wiping away; removal.
praśna m. 1. question; interrogation (also of the stars, etc.); judicial inquiry or investigation; inquiry after (--°ree;); subject of controversy, disputed point, problem; lesson (in Vedic recitation); short section or para graph (in books): -m i, submit a question to any one (ac.) for decision; -m â-gam, id. (but lc. of person); 2. wicker-work, wicker-basket.
prasakala a. very full (bosom); -sakta, pp. √ sañg: °ree;-or -m, ad. incessantly; -saktavya, fp. to be attached to (lc.); -sak ti, f. attachment, devotion, or addiction to, indulgence in, occupation with (lc.), occur rence of a case; bearing, applicability; practicableness: -m pra-yâ, be practicable; -sa&ndot;ktavya, fp. to be allowed to occur; -sa&ndot;khyâ, f. sum total; consideration; -sam khyâna, n. enumeration; reflexion, medita tion; fame, reputation; -sa&ndot;ga, m. attach ment, inclination; fondness for, addiction to; indulgence in (lc. or --°ree;); gratification, of (g.); association or intercourse with (--°ree;); illicit pursuit; applicability; contingency; opening, opportunity, occasion; connexion (pl. all that is connected with or results from anything): in. assiduously, with one's whole soul; in the course of (--°ree;); occasionally, in cidentally (also ab., °ree;--, or -tas); amunâ or tat-prasa&ndot;gena, on that occasion; etat prasa&ndot;ge, on this occasion; prasa&ndot;ge ku tra½api, on a certain occasion: -vat, a. occa sional, incidental, -vinivritti, f. non-recur rence of a contingency, prevention of the re currence; -sa&ndot;gin, a. attached or devoted to (--°ree;); connected with anything; contin gent, occurring; secondary, unessential; -sag ya, fp. applicable: -tâ, f. -ness,-pratishe dha, m. negative form of an applicable (posi tive) statement: -tva, n. abst. n.; -satti, f. graciousness; favour, complacency; -sam dhâna, n. combination, union; -sanna, pp. (√ sad) clear; bright; pleased, soothed, de lighted; complacent; gracious, propitious, kindly disposed; plain (meaning); distinct (impression); correct (supposition): -tâ, f. clearness, purity; brightness; perspicuity; complacence, good humour, -tva, n.clearness, brightness, -mukha, a. of a placid counte nance, looking pleased, -salila, a. having clear water; -sabha, °ree;-or -m, ad. forcibly; violently; exceedingly, very much; importu nately: -damana, n. forcible subjugation; -sara, m. advance; diffusion, expansion, ex tension; range; issue (of smoke); free scope, ample space; motion (of the eye); appear ance, manifestation; prevalence, influence; stream, flood; multitude, quantity: -na, n. running away, escaping; coming into force; complaisance, amiability; -sárga (or á), m. gushing forth; dismissal; -sárpana, n. going forward, advancing; betaking oneself to (lc.); -sarpin, a. issuing from (--°ree;); slinking away.
prastāra m. strewing, spreading out; abundance; litter, bed of straw; couch; layer; stair (leading down to water); flat surface; table of all the possible combinations in a metre: -pa&ndot;kti, f.combination-pa&ndot;kti, a metre (12+12+8+8 syllables); -stârin, a. spreading out, extending to; -stâva, m. pre liminary mention, allusion, propounding or introducing a topic; subject of conversation, topic; opportunity, occasion, season, proper time; beginning, commencement; introduc tion; -of a Sâman sung by the Prastotri priest: in. at any one's convenience; lc. on a suitable occasion, opportunely, -tas, ad. in the course of (--°ree;); -stâvanâ, f. blazing abroad, through (in.); beginning, commencement; introduction, (dramatic) prologue (the scene between the benediction and beginning of the first act); -stâva-sadrisa, a. suited to the occasion, seasonable, appropriate; -stâvita, cs. pp. commenced, begun; referred to.
prātītika a. existing in the idea only, subjective.
prātikāmin m. (acting ac cording to one's desire: prati-kâmam), ser vant; messenger; -kûlika, a. (î) resisting, hostile, contrary: -tâ, f. opposition, hostility; -kûlya, n. unfriendliness, opposition; repug nant practice; disagreeableness; disagree ment with (--°ree;); -gña, n. subject under dis cussion; -daivas-ika, a. occurring daily (prati-divasam); -nidhi-ka, m. representa tive; -paksha, a. belonging to the enemy oradversary; -pakshya, n. hostility, enmity, towards (g.); -pada, a. forming the com mencement; m. N.; -pad-ika, a. express, ex plicit; n. crude base of a noun (before it re ceives the case terminations or other suffixes); -paurush-ika, a. relating to manliness or valour; -bha, a. intuitive; n. intuition; pre sence of mind; -bhat-ya, n. rivalry; -bhâv ya, n. surety, for (--°ree;); certainty, trustworthy news of (g.); -bhâs-ika, a. existing only in appearance, apparent only; -rûp-ika, a. coun terfeit, spurious; using false measure or coun terfeit coin; -lom-ya, n. inversion, inverse order; opposition, hostility; -ves-ika, m. neighbour; -vesm-ika, m. neighbour: î, f.female neighbour; -ves-ya, a. neighbouring; m. opposite neighbour; neighbour;--°ree;=neigh bouring: -ka, m. neighbour; -sâkhya, n. a grammatical treatise on the phonetic changes of words in the text of the Vedasaccording to the respective recension (prati-sâkham; there are four such treatises, one for the RV., two for the YV., and one for the AV.); -satvanam, ad. in the direction of the Sat van; -sv-ika, a. own, peculiar, not common to others; -hata, m. kind of svarita ac cent; -hartra, n. office of the Pratihartri; -hârika, m. door-keeper; -hâr-ya, n. jug glery, performance of miracles; miracle.
bhavitavya fp. that must be or happen: often n. imps. with the subject in the in. and the predicate agreeing with it; n. inevitable necessity: -tâ, f. condition of what must be, inevitable necessity, fate; -i-tri, a. (trî) about to be, future, imminent: nm. also used as future.
bhū a. (--°ree;) becoming, arising, proceed ing or produced from; being, existing; f. place of being, space (pl. spaces, worlds: V.); earth; ground; floor; land, landed property; earth (as a substance); place, spot; subject (of dis pute etc.): lc. on earth; on the ground; bhuvo bhartri, m. lord of earth, king.
bhrāmarin a. subject to giddiness, epileptic.
matikarman n. matter of the intellect; -gati, f. way of thinking; -garbha, a. (having intellect within), intelligent, clever; -darsana, n. pl. recognition of other's thoughts or intentions; -patha, m.path of reflexion: -m nî, subject to mature consideration; -pûr va, a. intentional: -m, e, ad. intentionally, wilfully, wittingly; -pûrvakam, ad. id.; -prakarsha, m. superior cleverness, stroke of genius; -bheda, m. change of opinion; differ ence of opinion; -bhrama, m. mental confusion.
mantra m. (n.) pious thought, prayer, hymn; Vedic hymn, sacred text; mystical verse, incantation, spell; consultation, reso lution, counsel, plan; secret design: -kara- na, n. Vedic text; -kârya, n. subject of con sultation; -kâla, m. time of consultation; -kusala, a. skilled in counsel; -krít, m. com poser of hymns; counsellor, adviser; ambas sador; -gandaka, m. kind of amulet; -gupta, m. N.; -gupti, f. keeping of counsel; -griha, n. chamber of deliberation; -gihva, m. fire; -gña, a. knowing the sacred texts; experienced in counsel; -gyeshtha, spv. having precedence according to knowledge of sacred texts.
maraṇa n. dying; death; dying away, cessation; --°ree; a. dying by: -m kri, Â. die; -dharman, a. subject to the law of death, mortal; m. law of death; -niskaya, a. de termined to die; -vyâdhi-soka, m. pl. death, sickness, and sorrow; -½âtmaka, a. (ikâ) pro ducing death; -½anta, -½antika, a. ending in death; -½andha-tamas-a, n. gloom of death.
mahāpakṣa a. having many ad herents, having a large following; -pa&ndot;ka, n. (?) deep mud; -pa&ndot;kti, f. a metre of forty-eight syllables; -pandita, a. extremely learned; m. great scholar; -patha, m. prin cipal street; high road; the great journey, pilgrimage to the other world (-m yâ, die); a certain hell; a. having a great path: -giri, m. N. of a mountain; -padma, n. a certain high number; m. one of the eight treasures connected with the magic art padminî; N. of a Nâga: -pati, m. lord of millions, ep. of Nanda, -saras, n. N. of a lake, -salila, n. id.; -padya-shatka, n. T. of a poem (at tributed to Kâlidâsa) consisting of six classi cal verses; -½aparâdha, m. great crime or injury; -parvata, m. high mountain; -pasu, m. large cattle; -pâta, m. long flight; a. flying far (arrow); -pâtaka, n. great crime or sin (of which there are five: killing a Brâhman, drinking spirituous liquor, theft, adultery with a teacher's wife, and asso ciation with persons guilty of those four crimes); -pâtakin, a. guilty of a capital sin; -pâtra, n. prime minister; -pâda, a. large footed; -pâpa, n.great crime; -pâpman, a. very harmful; -pâra, 1. m. a certain per sonification; 2. a. having distant banks, wide (sea); -pârsva, a. having broad sides (leech); N.; -pâsupata, a. with vrata, n. the great vow of a worshipper of Siva Pasupati; m. zealous worshipper of Siva Pasupati; -pîtha, n. high seat; -pumsa, m. great man; -punya, a. very auspicious (day); very good or beau tiful; very holy; -purá, n. great fortress: î, f. great citadel; -purusha, m. great or eminent man; supreme spirit; -pûta, pp. extremely pure; -prishtha, a. broad-backed; -pai&ndot;gya, n. T. of a Vedic text; -prakarana, n. main treatment of a subject; -pragâpati, m. great lord of creatures, ep. of Vishnu; -pratâpa, m. of great dignity, majestic; -pratîhâra, m. head janitor; -pradâna, n. great gift; -prapañka, m. the great world; -prabha, a. of great lustre, very splendid; -prabhâ, f. great brightness;-prabhâva, a. very mighty; -prabhu, m. great lord, sovereign; chief; ep. of Vishnu; -pramâna, a. very exten sive; -pralaya, m. great dissolution of the universe at the end of a cosmic age: -kâla, m. time of the --; -prasna,m. great or im portant question; -prasâda, m. great pre sent; a. very gracious; -prasthâna, n. great departure, decease; -prâgña, a. very wise or prudent (person); -prâna, m. hard breath ing, aspirate sound; great strength; a. pro nounced with a hard breathing, aspirated; of great endurance or physical strength; -plava, m. great flood, deluge; -phala, n. large fruit; great reward; a. producing a great reward; -bala, a. very strong, power ful, or effective; m. N.; -bâdha, a. very in jurious; -bâhu, a. long-armed, strong-armed; m. ep. of Vishnu; N.; -bila, n. deep hole; -buddhi, a. of great intellect, extremely clever; m. N. of an Asura; N.; -brihatî, f. a metre (8+8+8+8+12 syllables); -brah ma: -n, m. the great Brahman (the god); -brâhmaná, m. great Brâhman (also used sarcastically); n. Great (=Tândya) Brâh mana; -bhata, m. great warrior; N.; -bha ya, n. great danger or straits; -bhâga, a. having great good fortune, very lucky, greatly blessed; greatly distinguished, very illus trious (frequently used as a term of address); -bhâgin, a. very fortunate, greatly blessed; -bhâgya, n.high position, great importance or power; a. extremely fortunate: -tâ, f. great good fortune; -bhânda½agâra, n. chief treasury; -bhârata, a. (± a word meaning &open;battle&close;), the Great Battle of the Bharatas; n.(± âkhyâna), the Great Story of the Bharatas, T. of the well-known great Epic (which contains about 100,000 slokas); -bhâshya, n. the Great Commentary of Patañgali on the Sûtras of Pânini and the Vârttikas of Kâtyâyana (probably composed in the second century b. c.); -bhikshu, m. the great mendicant, ep. of Sâkyamuni; -½abhi- gana, m. high descent, noble birth; -½abhi yoga, m. great plaint or charge; -½abhishava, m. N. of a prince; -½abhisheka, m. great inauguration; T. of the fourteenth Lambaka of the Kathâsaritsâgara; -bhîta, pp. greatly terrified; -½abhîsu, a. brilliant, lustrous; -bhuga, a. long-armed; -bhûta, pp. being great, large (E.); m. great creature; n. gross element (ether, air, fire, water, earth); -bhû mi, f. great realm; whole territory (of a king); -½âbhoga, a. of great extent, wide spreading; -bhoga, 1. a. having great coils (serpent); m. serpent; -bhoga, 2. m. great enjoyment; -bhoga, m. great prince; -½abhra, n. great or thick cloud; -makha, m. great sacrifice (=-yagña); -mani, m. costly jewel; -mati, a. of great wit, clever; m. N.; (&asharp;) manas, a. lofty-minded, proud, haughty; high-minded, magnanimous; -manushya, m. great man, man of rank; -mantra, m. very efficacious spell (esp. against snake-poison); -mantrin, m. chief counsellor, prime minister; -mahá, a. high and mighty (RV.); -mah as, n. great luminary; -mahiman, m. true greatness; a. truly great; -mahima-sâlin, a. possessed of true greatness; -mahâ½upâ dhyâya, m. very great preceptor (a desig nation applied to great scholars, e.g. Malli nâtha); -mâmsa, n. delicious flesh (esp. human flesh); -½amâtya, m. prime minister; -mâtra, a. of great measure, great; greatest, best (of, --°ree;); m. man of high rank, high state official, king's minister; elephant-driver; -mânin, a. extremely proud; -mâya, a. at tended with great deception; practising great deception; m. N.; -mâyâ, f. the great illu sion (which makes the world appear really existent and thus in a sense creates it); -mây ûra, n. a kind of medicine; kind of prayer (--°ree;); -mârga, m. main road: -pati, m. chief inspector of roads; -mâhesvara, m. great worshipper of Mahesvara or Siva; -mukha,n. large mouth (also of rivers); a. (î) large mouthed; -muni, m. great sage; -mûdha, a. very stupid; m. great simpleton; -mûrkha, m. great fool; -mûrdhan, a. large-headed (Siva); -mriga, m. large wild animal; ele phant;-mridha, n. great battle; -megha, m. great or dense cloud; -medha, m. great sacrifice; (&asharp;)-meru, m. the great Mount Meru; -moha, m. great mental confusion or infatuation; -mohana, a. causing great men tal confusion; -moha-mantra, m. very effi cacious spell: -tva, n. abst. n.; -yaksha, m. great Yaksha, prince of the Yakshas; -yag- ñá, m. great or chief sacrifice (one of the five daily sacrifices of the householder, called bhûta-, manushya-, pitri-, deva-, and brah ma-yagña); -yantra, n. great mechanical work: -pravartana, n. execution of great mechanical works; -yama-ka, n. a great Yamaka (a stanza, all the four lines of which contain identically the same words but differ in meaning, e.g. Kirâtârgunîya XV, 52); -yasas, a. very famous, illustrious (person); -yâna, n. the Great Vehicle (a later form of Buddhistic doctrine originated by Nâgâr guna: opp.hîna-yâna); N. of a prince of the fairies (having a great car); -yuga, n. a great Yuga (equal to four ordinary Yugas or 4,320,000 years); -yuddha, n. great battle; -½âyudha, a. bearing great weapons (Siva); -ragana, n.saffron; a. coloured with saffron; -rana, m. great battle; -½aranya, n. great forest; -ratna, n. precious jewel: -maya, a. consisting of costly jewels, -vat, a. adorned with costly jewels; -rathá, m. great chariot; great warrior; N.; -rathyâ, f. main road; -½ârambha, m. great under taking; a. enterprising, active; -rava, m. great roar or yell; a. making a loud noise, shouting loud; m. N.; -rasa, a. extremely savoury; -râgá, m. great king, reigning prince, sovereign: -½adhirâga, m. lord of great kings, emperor; -râgñî, f. reigning princess, queen; ep. of Durgâ; -râgya, n. sovereign rule; -râtra, n. advanced time of night, end of the night; -râtri, f. id.; great night follow ing the dissolution of the world; -râva, m. loud yell; -râshtra, m. pl. the Mahrattas: î, f. Mahratta language, Mahrattî: a-ka, a. (ikâ) belonging to the Mahrattas; m. pl. the Mahrattas; -rug, -ruga, a. very painful; -roga, m. dangerous disease; -roman, a. very hairy (Siva); -raudra, a. extremely terrible; -½argha, a. of great price, precious, valuable; expensive: -tâ, f. preciousness, great value, -rûpa, a. having a splendid form; -½arghya, a. precious, valuable: -tâ, f. preciousness; -½arnava, m. great sea, ocean; -½artha, m. great matter; a. having great wealth, rich; of great significance, important; m. N. of a Dânava; -½arha, a.valuable, costly, splen did; -lakshmî, f. the Great Lakshmî, Nârâ yana's Sakti; also=Durgâ or Sarasvatî; -li&ndot;ga, n. a great Li&ndot;ga; -vamsya, a. of high lineage; -vanig, m. great merchant; -vada, m. great teacher (i.e. of the most essential Vedic knowledge); (&asharp;)-vadha, a. having a mighty weapon (RV.); -vana, n. great forest; -varâha, m. great boar (i.e. Vishnu's incarnation as a boar); N. of a prince; -vallî, f. great creeper; -vâkya, n. long composition, literary work; great pro position; -vâta, m. violent wind, gale; -vâyu, m. id.; -vârttika, n. the Great Vârttika, N. of Kâtyâyana's Vârttikas to the Sûtras of Pânini; -vâstu, n. great space; a. occupy ing a great space; -vikrama, a. of great courage, very valiant; m. N. of a lion; -vighna, m. n. great obstacle; -vigña, a. very sensible; -vidagdha, pp. very clever; -viraha, m. grievous separation; -visha,a. very poisonous; -vistara, a. very prolix (book); -vîki, m. (having great waves), a certain hell; -vîrá, m. great hero; large earthenware fire-pot (mostly used at the Pravargya cere mony); N. of various princes; N. of an Arhat, founder of the Jain sect: -karita, n. life of the great hero (Râma), T. of a play by Bhavabhûti, -karitra, n. life of Mahâ vîra (the Arhat), T. of a work; (&asharp;)-vîrya, a. mighty, very potent; -vrikshá, m. great tree; -vriddha, pp. very aged; -vrishá, m. great bull: pl. N. of a people in the western Himâlayas; -vega, a. greatly agitated (sea); very swift; -vaipulya, n. great extent; -vaira, n. great enmity; -vairâga, n. N. of a Saman;-vyâdhi, m. serious disease; -vyâhriti, f. the great exclamation (i.e. bh&usharp;r bhúvah svãh); -vratá, n. great or fundamental duty; great vow; great religious observance; N. of a Sâ man or Stotra to be chanted on the last day but one of the Gavâmayana (also applied to the day and the ceremony); rules of the worshippers of Siva Pasupati; a. having undertaken great duties or a great vow, practising great aus terity, very devotional; following the rules of the Pâsupatas; m. a Pâsupata; -vratika, a. following the rules of the Pâsupatas; m. a Pâsupata; -vratin, a., m., id.; a. practis ing the five fundamental duties of the Jains; -vratîya, a. relating to the Mahâvrata cere mony (day); -vrîhi, m. large rice; -sakti, a. very mighty (Siva); -sa&ndot;kha, m. great conch; -½asana, a. eating much, voracious (leech); m. great eater, glutton; -½asani dhvaga, m. flag with a great thunderbolt; -sabda, m. loud sound; title beginning with &open;mahâ&close; or the corresponding office; -½âsaya, 1. m. ocean; 2. a. high-minded, noble; -sayyâ, f. splendid couch; -sarîra, a. having a large body; -salka,m. kind of sea-crab; -salkalin, a. having large scales (fish); -sastra, n. mighty weapon; -sâka, n. kind of vegetable; -sâkya, m. great or distinguished Sâkya; -sânti, f. great appeasement (a kind of rite to avert evil);(&asharp;)-sâla, possessor of a great house, great householder; -sâlîna, a. very modest; -sâsana, n. great sway; a. exer cising great sway; -siras, a. large-headed; m. kind of serpent; -sûdra, m. Sûdra in a high position, upper servant; -saila, m. great rock or mountain; -½asman, m. precious stone; -smâsâna, n. large cemetery; ep. of Benares; -srotriya, m. great theologian or spiritual teacher; -½asva, m. N.: -sâlâ, f. great stable; office of head groom; -svetâ, f. N. of a god dess; N.; -samkata, n. great danger or straits; -satî, f. extremely faithful wife, pattern of wifely fidelity; -sattrá, n. great Soma sacrifice; -sattva, m. great creature; a. strong-minded; high-minded, noble; very courageous; containing large animals: -tâ, f. strength of character and containing large animals; -½âsana, n. splendid seat; -samdhi- -vigraha, m. office of chief minister of peace and war; -sabhâ, f. great dining hall; -samudra, m. ocean; -sarga, m. great crea tion (after a great dissolution); -sâdhana bhâga, m. head of the executive; -sâdhu, a. extremely good: v-î, f. pattern of wifely fidelity; -sâmtâpana,m. kind of penance; -sâmdhi-vigrah-ika, m. chief minister of peace and war; -sâmânya, n. generality in the widest sense; -sâra, a. strong; valuable, costly; -sârtha, m. great caravan; -sâhas ika, a. very daring, excessively rash; m. highwayman, robber: -tâ, f. great energy: in. with the utmost decision; -simha, m. great lion; N.; -siddha, (pp.) m. great saint; -siddhânta, m. great manual of as tronomy, T. of a work by Âryabhata the younger; -siddhi, f. great magical power; -subhiksha, n. great abundance of provisions, very good times (pl.); -sûkta, n. great hymn: pl. the great hymns of the tenth book of the Rig-veda (1 to 128); m. composer of the great hymns of RV. X; -sûkshma, a. extremely minute; -sûki, a. w. vyûha, m. kind of array of troops in battle; (&asharp;)-sena, a. having a large army; m. ep. of Skanda; N. of various princes; -senâ, f. great army; -stoma, a. having a great Stoma (day); -½astra, n. great or mighty missile; -sthâna, n. high place or position; -sthûla, a. very gross; -snâna, n. great ablution; -½âspada, a. mighty; -sva na, m. loud sound; a. loud-sounding, shout ing loud; loud (noise); -½âsvâda, a. very savoury; -hanu, a. having great jaws; -harm ya, n. great palace; -½âhava, m. great battle; -hava, m. great sacrifice; -hasta, a. large handed (Siva); -hâsa, m.loud laughter; a. laughing loud; -½ahí, m. great serpent: -sayana, n. sleep (of Vishnu) on the great serpent (Sesha); -½ahna, m. advanced day time, afternoon; -hrada, m. great pond.
prohibitive ad. cj. (=Gk. mh/) not, O that not; that not, in order that not: 1. with impv.; 2. with potential (not common), may not! will not, I hope; 3. with subj. impf. (rare), aor. (very common), which in C.=in dicative without the augment (the ind. with the augment occurs, but very rarely, gnly. in E.); 4. with fut.=in order that not (C., E., not common); 5. with pr. pt. (very rare: e.g. mâ gîvan, he deserves not to live); 6. with pp., e.g. gatah sa mâ, he cannot have gone (very rare); 7. elliptically without a verb, not so! mâ mâ, mâ mâ½evam, mâ tâvat, not so! yathâ mâ, in order that not; bhavatu mâ vâ½astu, be it or not; mâ katham nu bha vatu, how should not be? mâ bhûd âgatah, can he not have arrived?=surely he must have arrived; mâ nâma rakshinah, heaven forbid that it should be the warders! mâ na, with aor. subj.=ind. without a negative (C.; very rare); m&asharp;½u (mó), and not (prohibitive; V.); mâ sma (with impv. or aor. subj.), not (prohibitive), in order that not; sma m&asharp;, mó sma, id. (Br.); mâ -mâ½uta, not -nor.
mākis ad. (used only in prohibitive sentences with the subjunctive) may or let not; may no one (RV.).
mānava a. (&isharp;) peculiar to man, human; relating or belonging to or descended from Manu; m. human being; man: pl. man kind; subjects; races of men (of which five or seven are referred to); N. of a school of the Black Yagur-veda; n. length of a man (as a measure); kind of penance; Manu's code.
yakṣ aor. base of √ yag: -i, 1 sg. Â.; -shi, 2 sg. subj. aor.
ya prn. rel. (n. -d) who, that, which, what: nearly always followed by the ordinary correlative tad (± etad or idam) or less frequently idam (m. ayam), adas (m. asau), îdris, tâdrisa, etâvat (tathâ sts. corresponding to the n. yad); occasionally either the rel. or the corr. is dropped. Ya is sts. inaccurately employed in the sense of if any (one). Uses of the relative calling for special mention are the following: 1. Ya is often added (without the copula) to emphasize a subject (e.g. âtma parityâgena yad âsritânam rakshanam, tan nîtividâm na sammatam, protection of dependents at the sacrifice of one's own life is not approved by moralists).Sts. it is thus used without emphasis by the side of a simple subject (e. g. andhah sthaviras ka yah, a blind man and one who is old); rarely a nm. rel. of this kind=an ac. (e.g. sarvân rasân apo heta pasavo ye ka mânushâh, he should avoid selling all sorts of condiments, cattle, and human beings). The n. sg. yad of this emphatic rel. is frequently employed without regard to gender or number, when it may be translated by as for, as regards (e.g. asidhâ râvratam idam manye yad arinâ saha samvâ sah, as for dwelling with an enemy, that I consider as hard as the sword-blade vow); before a noun this yad=that is to say (Br.). Immediately following oratio recta ending with iti yad=at the thought that (cp. cj. yad). 2. Two relatives often occur in the same sentence, when the second may be translated by any (e.g. yad rokate yasmai, bhavet tat tasya sundaram, what pleases any one, that to him is beautiful). 3. The meaning of the rel. when repeated (sts. separated by hi) is generalised, ya ya being=whoever, whichever, whatever (followed by the doubled or single corr. tad). 4. Ya is often combined with other prns.: (a) w. tvam, sa, esha, ayam, asau; (b) w. aham (tvam, etc.): yo &zip; ham, I who=since I, or (after a question) that I; (c) w. tad, any soever: yad vâ tad vâ, any, any kind of; anything; (d) w. tvad=or any other (Br., rare); (e) w. intr. ka + ka (V., C., common), + kid (C., very common), + kid api (C., not common), + kana (E., rare), + vâ (C., rare), or + api (C., late, not yet in Manu), immediately following or sts. sepa rated (m. yah kás ka, kas kid, kas kid api, kas kana, ko vâ, or ko &zip; pi, n. yad kim ka, kim kid, kim kid api, kim kana, kim vâ or kim api), whoever, whatever, any soever, any one, no matter who.
yathā rel. ad. & cj. as, like (followed by correlative táthâ; sts. tathâ tathâ, tadvat, evam, V. evá; in V. the pcls. kid, ha, ha vai, iva½a&ndot;ga, iva ha are added, in C. sts. iva redundantly; at the end of a pâda yathâ is sometimes unaccented in this sense like iva); as, for instance; elliptically: as it is or was (rare); properly, correctly (=yathâvat); in order that, (so) that (with subj. or opt. in V.; opt., pr., ft., impf., pf., aor. in C.; sts. with ellipse of syât or bhavet); that (with verbs of saying, thinking, knowing, doubting, hear ing, etc. introducing oratio recta ± iti); as soon as (rare); as if (w. pot., rare): yathâ tathâ, as -therefore; as surely as -so truly (also tena satyena, the logical order of the clauses being sts. inverted); yáthâ yathâ táthâ tathâ (V. also eva&halfacute;eva), according or in proportion as -so, the more -the more; yathâ yathâ½eva, that (w. pot.; corr. tad); yathâ tathâ, in whatever way; in some way or other, anyhow (with na, in no way, not in reality); by commentators used to express that a word is employed adverbially (in such manner that it is, sc.bhavati); yathâ katham- kid, in any way, somehow or other; tad yathâ, that is as follows=namely, for instance; tad yathâ½api nâma, just as if (w. pot.).
yamapaṭa m. cloth of Yama (on which the god of death and the tortures of hell are depicted): i-ka, m. man who car ries about a Yama cloth; -pada, n. repeated word; -pâlaka, m. Yama's watchman;-pâ la-purusha, m. id.; -purusha, m. id.; -mandira, n. Yama's abode; -mârga, m. Yama's path; -yâga, m. kind of Yâgyâ; -râga, m. N.; -râgan, m. king Yama; (á) râgan, a. having Yama as a king; m. subject of Yama; -r&asharp;gya, n. Yama's rule; -râshtra, n. Yama's realm.
rakta pp. (√ rañg) coloured; red; nasalized (gr.); charming, lovely, sweet (voice); enraged; impassioned; passionately devoted to (anything, lc., --°ree;; any one, g., --°ree;); attached, fond; enamoured; charmed with (in.); n. blood: -ka, a. red; -kantha, a. sweet-voiced; m. cuckoo; N. of a fairy; -kadamba, m. red Kadamba tree; -kamal inî, f. group of red lotuses; -krishna, a. dark red; -kandana, n. red sandal; -kkha da, a. red-leaved; -kkhardi, f. vomiting blood; -ga, a. derived from the blood; -tara, cpv. greatly attached; -tâ, f. redness; nature of blood; -tva, n. redness; -dant, a. having red (=dirty) teeth; -nayana,; -netra, a. id.; -pata, m. (wearing red rags), Buddhist monk: -vrata-vâhinî, f. Buddhist nun; -patî-kri, dress in red rags, turn into a Buddhist monk; -patta-maya, a. made of red cloth; -padma, n. red lotus; -pâda,m. red-footed bird; -pushpa, n. red flower; a. having red flowers; -phala, a. bearing red fruit; -bindu, m. drop of blood; -bhâva, a. enamoured; -mandala, a. having a red disc (moon); having loyal subjects: -tâ, f. abst.n.; -mukha, a. red-faced; m. N. of a monkey; -varna, m. red colour; colour of blood; a. red-coloured; -vâsas, a. wearing a red garment; -vâsin, a. id.; -syâma, a. dark red; -sâra, a. in whom blood predominates, of sanguine temperament.
rājasa a. (î) belonging or relating to the quality ragas, endowed with passion: -tva, n. subjection to the quality of passion.
rāṣṭri f. female ruler; -ika, m. in habitant of the kingdom, subject; ruler of a country; -iya, m. brother of a king (in the atrical language): -syâla, m. id.
rāṣṭra n. [√ râg] kingdom, realm, dominions; territory, country; nation, peo ple, subjects.
lopin a. injuring, diminishing; subject to elision; -tri, m. injurer; -tra, n. stolen property, booty; -ya, fp. to be omitted or dropped (gr.).
vaśakara a. (î) subduing, winning over; -kâraka, a. leading to subjection; -ga, a. subject, obedient, being in the power of, dependent on (g., --°ree;); -gata, pp. id.; -ga tva, n. dependence on (--°ree;);-tâ, f. id. (g., --°ree;); command of (lc.).
vaśa m. will, wish, desire; power, control, authority, dominion; N. of a protégé of the Asvins; N. of a people (pl.): --°ree;, a. subject to, under the influence of, overcome by; in., ab., -tas, by command of, by force of, on account of, by means of, in accordance with (g., gnly. --°ree;); ac. with vbs. of going, i, gam, yâ (and cps.), fall into the power of, become subject to, give way to (g., --°ree;); with nî or â-nî, reduce to subjection, subdue; vase bhû, vrit, or sthâ, be in the power of (g., --°ree;); vase kri, sthâpaya, or sam-sthâ paya, reduce to subjection, subdue, keep under control.
vaśānuga a. following one's will; subject to the will of, obedient to (g., --°ree;).
vaśanī a. subject to (g., RV.1); -vartin, a. being in the power of, subject, submissive, or obedient to (g., --°ree;); -stha, a. being in the power of any one.
vaśya a. subject to the power or will of, submissive, docile, obedient; n. power; supernatural power over any one, or magical rite for its obtainment: -tâ, f. subjection to (g., --°ree;); submissiveness, obedience.
vastu n. (C.) place (rare); thing, substance, object; really existing thing; right thing, worthy object; object of (--°ree;); matter, circumstance; subject, subject-mat ter, plot, theme, contents; °ree;--, in reality: -ka, a. (--°ree;) having -as contents (anûna-, of weighty contents, extraordinary); -gâta, n. the aggregate of things; -tantra, a. depen dent on things, objective; -tas, ad. in reality; -tâ, f. being the object of (--°ree;); reality: in. in reality; -dharma, m. sg. & pl. true nature of things; -bhâva, m. reality: in. pl. in reality; -bheda, m. actual or essen tial difference; -rakanâ, f. elaboration of a plot; -vritta, n. actual fact; -sakti, f. sg. & pl. force of circumstances: -tas, ad. by the --; -sâsana, n. original edict; -sûnya, a. devoid of reality, unreal.
vaśīkara a. subjecting, subduing (--°ree;); -karana, n. subjection (also by magical expedients) of (g., --°ree;); -kâra, m. id.
vidheya fp. to be procured; en joined, prescribed; to be affirmed; -mani fested or displayed; -prepared; -performed or done (ord. mg.); tractable, compliant; completely at the disposal of, subject to, con trolled or overpowered by (--°ree;); n. what ought to be done, duty: -gña, a. knowing what ought to be done; -tâ, f. prescription; sub mission; -tva, n. submission; -vartin, a. obedient, subject to any one.
vinaśana n. disappearance: ± Sarasvatyâh or Sarasvatî-, place where the Sarasvatî disappears; -nasvara, a. disap pearing; perishable, subject to dissolution: -tâ, f., -tva, n. perishableness; -nashta,pp. (√ nas) disappeared etc.; (ví)-nashti, f. loss.
vināśa m. disappearance, cessation, loss; dissolution, destruction, ruin: -ka, a. causing to disappear, destroying, -dharman, a. subject to destruction, perishable, tran sient; -nâsana, a. (î) causing to disappear, destroying; n. destruction; removal; -nâ- sa½anta, m. death; a. ending with loss; -nâsi tva, n. perishableness; -nâsin, a. disappear ing, perishable, transient; destroying (g., gnly. --°ree;); -nâsya, cs. fp. to be destroyed: -tva, n. destructibility.
virāga m. loss of colour; dislike (to persons), indifference (to things), to (ab., lc., --°ree;); indifference to worldly objects; a. of various colours, variegated; free from pas sion, indifferent; -râgi-tâ, f.aversion, dis like; -râgin, a. disliking, having a disincli nation for (lc.); -r&asharp;g, a. (V.) ruling; splen did; m. chief, ruler, lord; f. queen; f. exaltation (V.); f. (V.), m. (C.) N. of a divine being, the result of speculation, iden tified with Purusha, Pragâpati, Brahman, Agni, and later Vishnu, sometimes appear ing as the daughter (or son) of Purusha, Pragâpati, Brahman, or Vishnu; is made the subject of all kinds of fanciful allegories in the Brâhmanas; in the Vedânta virâg is a designation of intellect conditioned by the aggregate, so called because of its manifold brilliance; f. N. of various V. metres, chiefly with pâdas of ten syllables: t-tva, n. name of Virâg; -râga, a. brilliant; m. N.; -râg ita, pp. resplendent; -râta, m. N. of a king of the Matsyas; -râtra, end of night; -râd dhri, m. insulter; -râdha, m. N. of a Râk shasa: -gupta, m. N., -han, m. slayer of Virâdha, ep. ofVishnu (Râma); -râma, m. cessation; termination, end; end of a word or sentence, stop, pause (gr.); end of a pâda, caesura within a pâda; stroke below a con sonant indicating the absence of the inherent a (orig. only at the end of a sentence); ab stention (gr.): --°ree; a. ending in (gr.): -m yâ, rest; come to an end; -râva, m. cry, clamour, roar, noise; -râvin, a. crying, warbling, yell ing, roaring; resounding with (in.).
vivāka m. one who pronounces judgment; (ví)-vâk, a. shouting against one another, contending (RV.); f. opposing shout, contest (RV.); -vâkana, m. (î, f.) arbitrator; n. decisive statement, authority;-vâda, m. dispute, between (g., --°ree;), with (in. ± saha, --°ree;), regarding (g., lc., prati, --°ree;); controversy, argument; lawsuit: -pada, n. subject of a dispute or suit; -vâda½adhyâsita, pp. sub ject to dispute; -vâda½arthin, m. prose cutor; -vâdin, m. disputant, litigant; -vâra, m. expansion of the throat in articulation (opp. samvâra); -vârin, a. warding off (--°ree;); -vâsa, m. absence from home, banishment; separation from (in.); -vâsana, n. expulsion from home, banishment; -vâsas, a. un clothed, naked; -vâsya, fp. to be banished; -vâhá, m. taking home of the bride, wedding, marriage, with (in.±saha); nuptial form (of which there are eight); vehicle (in a play on words, Ait. Br.): -katushtaya, n. quadruple matrimonial alliance; -vâhanîyâ, fp. f. to be taken home as a bride, to be wedded; -vâha-pataha, m. wedding drum; -vâha vesha, m. wedding garment, -vâha½agni, m. wedding fire; -vâhya, fp. to be married (girl); connected by marriage; m. son-in-law.
viśeṣaṇa a. distinguishing, par ticularizing; n. that which differentiates, viz. attribute, adjective, adverb, apposition, or predicate; distinguishing; particulariza tion; species, kind; surpassing (rare):-tva, n. adjectival nature; -pada, n. honorific title; -viseshya-tâ, f., -viseshya-bhâva, m. relation of predicate and subject.
viśeṣya cs. fp. (√ sish) to be quali- fied or particularized; n. substantive, subject.
viṣaya m. [working, field of action] sphere of activity; scope, compass, range, reach (of the eye, ear, mind, etc.); duration (of life); province, department, domain, business; restricted sphere (gr.); room, ap propriateness for (g., rare); object of a sense (there are five corresponding to the five senses: sound, touch, form, taste, smell); objects or pleasures of sense, worldly concerns, sensual enjoyments (pl.); object (opp. subject); topic, subject-matter; aim, mark; object suitable for (d., g., --°ree;); subject of comparison (in a trope: e.g. in &open;lotus-eye,&close; &open;eye&close; is the visha ya, &open;lotus&close; the vishayinor object); place, spot; region, district, country, kingdom (pl. lands, possessions): --°ree; a. manifesting itself in or as; restricted to the category of, ex clusively belonging to, invariably; relating to, treating of, concerned with, directed to, aiming at: lc. vishaye, in the sphere of, with regard to, concerning (g., --°ree;); atra vishaye, with regard to this; khandasi vishaye, only in the Veda.
viṣayin a. indulging in sensual pleasures; m. sensualist; materialist; lover; subject (opp. king); subject, the ego; object of comparison (e. g. in &open;lotus-eye,&close; &open;lotus&close; is thevishayin, &open;eye&close; the vishaya).
visaṃśaya a. subject to no doubt, certain; -shthula, -sthula, a. unsteady, in firm, tottering; -sarpin, a. spreading (ob liquely, --°ree;); -kula, a. not confused, com posed; n. composure; -gña, a.unconscious.
vītacinta a. free from anxiety about (lc.); -darpa, a. humbled; (á)-prish- tha, a. smooth-backed (courser; V.); -bhaya, a. free from fear, intrepid; -bhî, a. id.; -bhî ti, a. id.; m. N. of an Asura; -râga, a. exempt from passion or worldly desires; free from desire for (lc.): -bhaya-krodha, a. free from passions, fear, and anger; (á)-vâra, a. having a smooth tail (steed; RV.1); -visha, a. free from impurities, clear (water); -vyatireka, a. not separated or isolated; -vrîda, a. shame less; -sa&ndot;kam, ad. fearlessly; -soka, a. free from sorrow: -tâ, f. freedom from sorrow; -samdeha, a. subject to no doubt; -sûtra, n. sacred cord; (á)-havya, a. whose offerings are acceptable (RV.); m. N.
ves nm. of ve, g. of vi, bird; 2. 3 sg. aor. or 2 sg. pr. subj. √ 1. vî.
vaikṛta a. [vikriti] modified, derivative, secondary; subject to modification; artificial, kept up by adoption (family); n. modification, alteration, disfigurement, ab normal condition, changed state (ord. mg.); unnatural phenomenon, portent; mental change, agitation; change of sentiment, hos tility: -vat, a. morbidly affected by (--°ree;).
vaikriya a. subject to modification (vikriyâ).
vaidya a. versed in science (vidyâ), knowing one's subject, learned; m. one versed in medical science, physician (accounted a mixed caste): -ka, m. physician; -nâtha, m. master physician; a form of Siva; N.; -vidyâ, f. science or text-book of medicine.
vaiyadhikaraṇya n. [vyadhi karana] non-agreement in case; relation to different subjects.
vyuccha pr. base, √ 3. vas; -½ukkh- antî, f. pr. pt. id.; -½ukkhân, 3 pl. pr. subj. √ 3. vas; -½ukkhiti, f. interruption; -½uk- kheda, m. id.; -½úkya, fp. n. imps. [√ vak] one should interrupt (V.); -½ũta, pp. √ 4. vâ; -½utkrama, m. transgression; inverted order; -½utkrânta, pp. (√ kram) departed: -gîvita, a. whose life has departed, lifeless; -½ut-thâ tavya, fp. n. one should desist from; -½ut thâna, n. awaking (a certain stage in Yoga); neglect of duties; -½utpatti, f. derivation, etymology; growth in knowledge, education, culture, comprehensive learning: -mat, a. cultured; -½utpâdaka, a. deriving, explaining etymologically; -½utpâdana, n. derivation from (ab.); -½utpâdya, fp. to be derived; - explained; -½udaka, a. waterless; -½udâsa, m. abandonment (rare); rejection, exclusion; end (rare); -½uparama, m.tranquillization, cessation; close (of day); -½upasama, m. cessation; -½ushita, pp. 1. √ vas, dwell; 2. √ vas, shine; n. daybreak (only lc.); -½ũsh- ta, pp. (√ vas) dawned etc.; (ví)-½ushti, f. flush of dawn (V.); reward for (g., lc., --°ree;), requital (good or evil); grace, beauty (rare).
śakya fp. possible, practicable, capable of being (inf. w. ps. mg.: -m, n. is used impersonally or with a subject in a different gender or number); to be subdued, conquerable; literal, explicit (meaning: opp. indicated or suggested): -pratîkâra, a. capable of removal, remediable; -rûpa, a. possible to be (inf. w. ps. mg.); -sa&ndot;ka, a. admitting of doubt; -sâmanta-tâ, f. condition in which neighbouring kings are conquerable.
śāstra n. RV.1, C.: command, pre- cept; C.: instruction, advice, good counsel; rule, theory; compendium, institutes (of any branch of learning), code, scientific or canon ical work, scripture; learning (rare): -kâ ra, -krit, m. author of a treatise; -gañga, m. N. of a parrot; -kakshus, a. having authoritative works as eyes (king); -gña, a. conversant with the Sâstras, learned; m. specialist; -tas, ad. according to prescribed rules; -darsana, n. mention in an authori tative work: ab. according to prescription; -drishta, pp. (seen=) mentioned or pre scribed in the treatises, scientific, according to precept or rule; -mati, a. trained, learned; m.specialist; -vat, ad. according to prescribed rules; -vargita, pp. subject to no law; -vâ da, m. statement of the treatises; -vâdin, m. teacher; -vid, a. conversant with the Sâstras, learned; -½atiga, a. offending against theSâstras; -½adhyâpaka, m. teacher; -½an anushthâna, n. neglect of instructive works.
śreyas cpv. [fr. srî] RV.: more beautiful (rare); V., C.: better, prefer- able, superior, more excellent; C.: more distinguished or illustrious; excellent, dis tinguished (rare); well-disposed to (g.), propitious(rare): sreyân, m., gnly. sreyas, n. (irrespective of the subject) -na, better than (like varam -na); n. (C.) better condi tion or fortune; welfare, good fortune, bliss.
saṃśaya m. [√ sî] doubt, dubious ness, uncertainty, misgiving, hesitation (re garding, prati, lc., --°ree;); doubtful matter; dan ger, risk, to (g., lc., --°ree;): with following pot., it is doubtful whether; na½asti (atra) sam- sayah, na½atra samsayah, na samsayah (very common) and na hi samsayah, at the end of a sentence, there is no doubt, without doubt: -kara, a. (î) productive of risk to (--°ree;); -kkhedin,a. clearing away all doubt, deci sive; -kkhedya, fp. requiring to be cleared of doubt (lawsuits); -½âtma-ka, a. subject to doubt, dubious (expedient); -½âtman, a. in dulging in doubt, irresolute.
saṃstha a. standing, staying, resting, existing, or contained in (lc., gnly. --°ree;); being in or with=belonging to (lc. or --°ree;); based or dependent on (--°ree;); being in possession of (--°ree;); lasting (--°ree;; rare); á, m. (RV.): only lc. in the midst or presence of (g.); -sth&asharp;, f. remaining or abiding with (--°ree;; E., rare); form, appearance (C.); established order, standard, rule (C.); condition, state, nature (C.); completion, conclusion (V.); end, death (P.); complete liturgical course (being the basis of a sacrifice; the Gyotishtoma, the Haviryagña, and Pâkayagña consist of seven such forms); spy in one's own country (rare): --°ree; a. a, having the form of, appearing as; -sthâna, n. position, situation in a place (--°ree;); standing firm (in battle); existence; life; strict adherence to (--°ree;); abode; public place in a town; form, shape, appearance (ord. mg.; often with rûpa); condition, state, nature (rare); aggregate (rare): -vat, a. ex isting; having various forms; -sthâpaka, a. establishing; -sthâpana, n. fixing, setting up, erecting; establishment, of (g., --°ree;); re gulation of (--°ree;): â, f. cheering up, encourage ment; -sthâpayitavya, fp. to be cheered or consoled; -sth&asharp;pya, fp. C.: to be placed in (subjection) to (g.); -impressed on the mind (lc.) of (g.); V.: to be concluded (sacrifice); (sám)-sthiti, f. C.: union with (in., lc.); standing or resting on (lc., --°ree;); position; abid ing, residence in (lc.); duration, continuance; perseverance (rare); attaching importance to (lc.); existence, possibility, of (g., --°ree;); form; established order; condition, nature; V.: conclusion (rare); P.: end, death (rare).
saṃnahana n. tying together; pre paration; cord; equipment; -nâda, m. sound, din, cry, roar; -nâdana, a. causing to sound, filling with noise; -nâma, m. subjection; modification; -nâha, m. tying up, girding; preparation, equipment; undertaking; cord; armour, mail; trappings of a horse; -nikar sha, m. drawing together, approximation, close contact, with (--°ree;); connexion with, re lation to (--°ree;); nearness, proximity: -m, ac. (go etc.) near; ab. from one's presence (de- part etc.); lc. in the neighbourhood of (g., --°ree;); -nikâsa, --°ree; a. having the appearance of; -nikrishta, pp. near etc.; n. nearness, prox imity: -m, ad.near (--°ree;); lc. in the neigh bourhood of (g., --°ree;); -nikaya, m. accumula tion; abundance, plenty, store; -nidhâtri, m. one who is near; receiver (of stolen goods); official on duty; -nidhâna, n. (putting toge ther into), receptacle; nearness, proximity, presence; existence: ab. from (g.); lc. in the neighbourhood or presence of (g., --°ree;); -nidhi, m. juxtaposition; proximity, vicinity, pre sence, existence: lc. in the presence of, near (g., --°ree;); -m, into the presence of, near (g., --°ree;); -m kri, bandh, or vi-dhâ, take up one's position or abode in (lc.); -nipâta, m. con tact, collision, encounter, with (in.); con junction, combination, aggregation, mixture; (morbid combination=) disorder of the three bodily humours; fall, descent (in lakshana-); collapse, death (very rare): -nidrâ, f. trance; -nipâtita, cs. pp. brought together, assembled; -nipâtya, fp. to be shot (arrow) at (lc.); -nibarhana, n. repression, mastery (of the heart); -nibha, a. resembling, like, -ish (--°ree;; sometimes with names of colours).
saṃdeśa m. command, commission, errand, message, to (g., lc.): -ka, m. con mu nication of (--°ree;); -tas, ad. by order of (g.); -pada, n. pl. words of a message; -hara, m. news-bearer, messenger, envoy; -hârin, m. id.; -½artha, m. subject-matter of a message.
sadharma m. similar nature; a. subject to the same law, similar: -kârinî, f. (practising the same duties), wife; -tva, n. homogeneousness.
saṃnata pp. √ nam: -½a&ndot;gî, f. fair woman; (sám)-nati, f. C.: depression, low ness; diminution, lightening (of a burden); favour, complaisance, towards (g.; also V.); subjection; humility, towards (lc.); -naddha, pp. (√ nah) equipped etc.
samānakartṛka a. having the same subject (gr.); -karma-ka, a. having the same object; -karman, a. expressing the same action; -kâraka, a. making all things equal (time); -kâla, a.simultaneous; of equal length or quantity (vowel); -grâma, m. same village: î-ya, a. belonging to the same village; (á)-ganman, a. having the same origin (Br.); of equal age (C.); (á)-tas, ad. uniformly (RV.1); (á)-tâ, f.equality, with (g., --°ree;); -tva, n. equality, with (in.); -dharman, a. having the same qualities, similar, to (in.); -prasiddhi, a. having equal success; (á) bandhu, a. (f. id.) having the same kin, akin; -bala, a. of equal strength; -mâna, a. equally honoured with (in.); -mûrdhan, a. (nî) equal-headed; -rukí, a. agreeing in tastes; -rûpa, a. having the same colour, as (g., --°ree;); having the same appearance as (--°ree;); -vayas: -ka, a. of the same age; -vidya, a. possessing equal knowledge: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -vrata-bhrit, a. leading a similar life; -sîla, a. having a similar character; -sukha-duh kha, a. having joys and sorrows in common; -sthâna, a. being in the same place; occu pying the same position (in the mouth); -½akshara, n. simple vowel (short or long); -½adhikarana, n. grammatical agreement with (a case, --°ree;); a. involving the same case relation as (in., --°ree;); relating to the same subject; -½artha, a. having the same object in view; having the same meaning, as (in., --°ree;): -tva, n. identity of meaning, -prayog ana, a. having a common object and purpose.
savāsas a. clothed, with one's clothes; -vikalpa, a. possessing or admitting of variety or distinctions, differentiated: -ka, a. id.; -vikâra, a. together with its develop ments or derivatives; together with its pro ducts (milk); enamoured; subject to modi fication or decomposition (food); -vikâsa, a. shining; -vikrama, a. vigorous, energetic; -viklavam, ad. dejectedly; -vigraha, a. embodied; -vikikitsitam, ad.doubtfully; -vitarkam, ad. thoughtfully; -vitâna, a. having a canopy.
sāṃyātrika m. [samyâtrâ] sea farer, trader by sea; -yuga, a. (î) suitable for battle (samyuga): w. ku, f. battle-field: î-na, a. warlike; -râvin-a, n. [samrâvin] general shout, uproar; -vatsara, a. (î) yearly, annual [samvatsara]; m. one versed in the calendar, astrologer: i-ka, a. annual, yearly; lasting a year or the whole year; m. astrolo ger; -vitti-ka, a. [samvitti] based on a mere feeling, subjective; -vyavahâr-ika,a. (î) current in ordinary life (samvyavahâra); generally intelligible; -say-ika, a. (î) sub ject to doubt (samsaya), uncertain; hazard ous (undertaking); -sarg-ika, a. (î) produced by contact or intercourse (samsarga); -sâr-ika, a. connected with or dependent on the cycle of mundane existence (samsâra); -sid dhi-ka, a. (î) original, inherent, natural samsiddhi]; -hita, a. (î) peculiar to the Samhitâ: i-ka, a. id.
sākṣin m., n-î, f. eye-witness, observer, witness (in court), of (g., lc., --°ree;); m. subject (in phil.; opp. object).
sādhana a. (â, î) RV.: directing to the goal, guiding; C.: procuring, securing (--°ree;); conjuring up (a spirit, --°ree;); expressive of, designating (--°ree;); n. subduing, vanquish ing; gaining power overby spells, summon ing (spirits, deities); carrying out, effecting, accomplishment, performance, fulfilment (common mg.); preparation (of food); pro curement; acquirement, attainment (of, g., --°ree;); recovery (of a debt); demonstration; expedient, means, instrument, requisite, for (g., --°ree;; ord. mg.); army, forces (sg., pl.); fight; proof; result; nominal notion (opp. action), sp. as subject or instrumental (gr.); affix between root and personal termination (=vikarana, gr.): -kshama, a. capable of proof; -tâ, f. state of being the means for (--°ree;); -tva, n. id. (g., prati, --°ree;); effective ness; state of being the proof; -vat, a. sup plied with proofs; -½adhyaksha, m. comman der-in-chief of the forces.
sāmānādhikaraṇya n. samâna-] grammatical agreement, identity of case-relation, co-ordination; relation to the same subject.
siṃhāvalokana n. lion's backward glance: in. or -nyâyena, on the principle of the lion's backward glance, i. e. treating a subject retrospectively while pro ceeding with it; -½avalokita, n. id.;-½âsa na, n. lion's seat, throne.
siddha pp. (√ sidh) hit (mark); ac complished, achieved, effected, fulfilled, real ized, successful; ready (money); prepared, made ready; cooked (food); gained, acquired; peculiar; unchangeable; cured (person); established, settled, substantiated, proved; well known, in (--°ree;); possessed of magical power (things); subject, ready to serve one (spirits, charms); perfected, adept in (d., --°ree;); become perfect, possessing super natural power, emancipated from the laws of nature; m. seer, sorcerer, magician; saint, Siddha (a class of demi-gods, such as Kapila, Vyâsa etc., possessing supernatural powers, esp. that of flying through the air); = Gina (with the Jains); N.; n. magical or super natural power: -kârya, a. having accomplished one's purpose; -kshetra, n. region inhabited by Siddhas, land of the Blest; N. of certain sacred regions: -parvata, m. mountain in the land of the Blest; -tâp asa, m., î, f. ascetic endowed with super natural knowledge and power; -tva, n. correct ness; establishment, demonstration; perfec tion; -dhâman, n. abode of the Blest;-bhûmi, f. fairyland; -mantra, m. magical spell; -yoga, m. magical agency; -yogin-î, f. sorceress, witch, fairy; -ratna, a. possess ing a magical jewel; -rasa, m. quicksilver; -rasâyana, a. possessed of an elixir of life; -râga, m. N. of a king; -laksha, a. hitting the mark (arrow); -vat, ad. as established or proved: -kri, regard as settled or proved; -varti, f. magical wick; -vâsa, m. abode of the Blest, N. of a locality; -sambandha, a. whose kin is known; -sarit, f. (famous river) Ganges.
strīyantra n. the puppet woman; -ratna, n. pearl of a woman; ep. of Laksh mî; -râgya, n. kingdom of the Amazons (in the extreme north); -lakshana, n. character istics of a woman; -li&ndot;ga, n.female organ; feminine gender (gr.); -vasa, a. subject to women, ruled by one's wife; -vasya, a. id.; -vitta, n. property derived from a wife; -vi vâha, m. marriage with a woman; -vishaya, m. copulation; -sa&ndot;ga, m.intercourse with women; -samgrahana, n. adultery with a woman; -sambandha, m. matrimonial alliance with a woman; -sambhoga, m. sexual intercourse with a woman; -sevâ, f. addiction to women; -svabhâva, m.nature of woman; -hatyâ, f. murder of a woman.
sthānika a. taking the place of (g., --°ree;; gr.); -in, a. occupying a high posi tion; being in the right place, appropriate; being originally in the place; what should be in the place=to be supplied(gr.); m. primi tive or original form (gr.; opp. âdesa, substi tute); -i-vat, ad. like the primitive form: d âdesah, the substitute is subject to the same rules as the primitive; -îya, a. having its place in, being in (--°ree;); occupying the place of, representing (--°ree;).
straiṇa a. (î) female, feminine; subject to or ruled by women (strî); n. women folk, female sex; womanhood, feminine nature.
sthirātman a. firm-minded, stable, constant; steadfast, resolute; -½anu râga, a. deeply attached (-tva, n. faithful attachment); -½anurâg-in, a. id.: (-i)-tva, n. faithful attachment; -½apâya, a.subject to constant decay; -½ârambha, a. steadfast in undertakings.
stheya fp. [√ sthâ] n. imps. one should stand still; -stay or remain, in (lc.); -be have or act (subject with app. in in., gd., or ad.); m. judge, arbitrator.
sva a. own, my, thy, his, her, our, your, their: refers strictly speaking to the nearest subject, but is often loosely connected with other words (e. g. bhrâtaram svapuram pre shayâm âsa, he sent his brother to his, the brother's, city); m. n. (C.) one's self, the ego (e. g. svam ka brahma ka, the ego and Brah man): in oblique cases used (like âtman) as a reflexive prn. (e. g. svam nindantah, blaming themselves); m. (C.)man of one's own people, kinsman, friend: pl. one's people, friends; man of one's own caste, â, f. woman --; n. (V., C.) one's own goods, property.
svakṣatra a. master of oneself, in dependent, free (RV.); -gata, pp. belonging to oneself, own: -m, ad. to oneself, aside (say, think); -guna, m. one's own merits; a. having its own merits, appropriate;(á)-gûrta, pp. pleasing in themselves (RV.); -griha, n. one's own house; -gokara, a. subject to oneself: -m kri, subject to oneself.
svatantra n. (self-authority), inde pendence, freedom; a. free, independent, un controlled: w. pada, n. independent word: -tâ, f. independence, freedom; originality; -tantraya, den. subject to one'swill; (á) tavas, a. V.: self-strong, inherently powerful; valiant; -tas, ad. of oneself, of one's own ac cord; by nature; out of one's own estate: svato &zip; msât, from one's own share, raksher apakâram svatah parato vâ,guard your self and others against transgression; -tâ, f. ownership: -m pasyati, believes that every thing belongs to or is meant for him, râga svatam upapadyate, accrues to the king; -tvá, n. proprietary right to (lc.; C.); inde pendence (V.).
svayam indecl. oneself (himself, etc.); of oneself, of one's own accord: in C. agreeing in sense with a nm. (as subject or predicate), with an in. (as logical subject), or with a g. (sts. also an ac., or a lc.).
svāyatta pp. dependent on oneself, being in one's own control: -tva, n. abst. n.; î-kri, subject (ac.) to oneself.
svaira a. moving slowly or cautiously (rare): -m, ad. according to one's own inclination or will, of one's own accord, with out let or hindrance, without more ado, at random; freely, unreservedly (speak); slow ly, softly, cautiously; fearlessly; lc. pl. svai reshu, in cases when one is unreserved, in indifferent matters: -kathâ, f. unreserved conversation; -ka-m, ad. straight out; -gati, a. going about free, being at liberty; -kârin, a. acting at will, free; -vihârin, a. walking about at pleasure; meeting with no resistance (command); -vritta, pp. acting according to one's will; -vritti, a. living subject to no control, acting without restraint; -stha, a. standing unconcerned; -½âlâpa, m. unreserved conversation.
hariścandra a. having a yellow or golden lustre (Soma, RV.1); m. N. of a king of the race of Ikshvâku; in E. a son of Trisa&ndot;ku, who having been elevated with his subjects to heaven and expelled thence owing to his pride, remained suspended in mid-air with his city (Saubha); (hári)-smasâru, a. having a tawny beard (RV.1); -smasru, a. id. (E.); -simha, m. N. of a king; -soma, m. N.; -svâmin, m. N.; -hadaukasa, m. N.; -haya, a. having tawny steeds, ep. of Indra; -hara, m. sg. Vishnu and Siva in one person; du. or °ree;--, Vishnu and Siva; N. of various men: -kathâ, f. discourse about Vishnu and Siva; -heti, f. Indra's weapon, rainbow; Vishnu's weapon, discus: -mat, a. adorned with a rainbow, -hûti, m. (called after the discus or kakra), the Kakravâka or ruddy goose (Anas casarca).
Bloomfield Vedic
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ubjann arṇāṃsi jarhṛṣāṇo andhasā RV.1.52.2d.
ubjanto yantv ojasā AVś.8.8.13b.
ubjantu taṃ subhvaḥ parvatāsaḥ RV.6.52.1c.
Dictionary of Sanskrit Search
"ubj" has 57 results
akartṛa case-relation excepting that of the subject to the verbal activity. confer, compare अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम् P. III.3.I9.
aṭ(1)token term standing for vowels and semi-vowels excepting l ( ल्) specially mentioned as not interfering with the substitution of ṇ ( ण् ) for n ( न् ) exempli gratia, for example गिरिणा, आर्येण, खर्वेण et cetera, and others Sec P.VIII.4.2; (2) augment a (अट्) with an acute accent, which is prefixed to verbal forms in the imperfect and the aorist tenses and the conditional mood. exempli gratia, for example अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् Sec P.IV.4.71; (3) augment a ( अट् ) prescribed in the case of the roots रुद्, स्वप् et cetera, and others before a Sārvadhātuka affix beginning with any consonant except y ( य्), exempli gratia, for example अरोदत्, अस्वपत्, अजक्षत्, आदत् et cetera, and others; see P.VII.3, 99, 100;(4) augment a ( अट् ) prefixed sometimes in Vedic Literature to affixes of the Vedic subjunctive (लेट्) exempli gratia, for example तारिवत्, मन्दिवत् et cetera, and others see P.III.4.94.
adhika(1)additional or surplus activity which a rule in grammar sometimes shows; अधिकः कारः or अधिकं कार्यम्; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.11, Kāś. on III.2.124, Bh. Vṛ. on III.4.72; ( 2 ) surplus subject matter e. g. अथाख्याः समाम्नायाधिकाः प्राग्रिफितात् (V.Pr. I.33.)
anirdaprathamaan underived word: an ancient term used by writers of the Prātiśākhyas to signify 'original' words which cannot be subjected to निर्वचन.
aniyatanot subject to any limitation confer, compare प्रत्यया नियताः, अर्था अनियताः, अर्था नियताः, प्रत्यया अनियताः M.Bh. on II. 3.50. In the casc of नियमविधि (a restrictive rule or statement ) a limitation is put on one or more of the constituent elements or factors of that rule, the limited element being called नियत, the other one being termed अनियत; also see Kāś. on II.2.30.
abhedasaṃsargaa connection of unity, as noticed between the nominative case affix of the subject and the ending ति of a verb, which produces the sense.
aādhārādheyabhāvaa non-differential relation (अभेदसंसर्ग) between the personal endings तिप् , तस् et cetera, and others and the noun in the nominative case which is the subject of the verbal activity;relation of a thing and its substratum: confer, compare निपातातिरिक्तनामार्थधात्वर्थयोर्भेदान्वयस्य अव्युत्पन्नत्वात्.
uddeśyareferred to; pointed out, subject, as contrasted with the predicate मानान्तरप्राप्तमुद्देश्यम् ; confer, compare उद्दश्यप्रतिनिर्दिश्यमानयोरैक्यमापद्यत् सर्वनाम पर्यायेण तत्तल्लिङभाक् । तद्यथा | शैत्यं हि यत्सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य, शैत्यं हि य यत्तत्प्रकृतिर्जलस्य वा । उद्देश्य in grammar refers to the subjectpart of a sentence as opposed to the predicate-participle. In the sentence वृद्धिरादैच् the case is strikingly an opposite one and the explanation given by Patañjali is very interesting;confer, compare तदेतदेकं मङ्गलार्थं आचार्यस्य मृष्यताम् । माङ्गलिक अाचार्यः महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थं वृद्धिशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्कते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.1.
uddeśyavidheyabhāvarelationship between the subject and the predicate where generally the subject is placed first in a sentence; confer, compare उद्देश्यवचनं पूर्वं विधेयत्वं ततः परम् । confer, compare also तादात्म्यसंसर्गकस्थले विशेष्यत्वमेव उद्देश्यं विशेषणत्वमेव विधेयम् Padavākyaratnākara.
ubhayaprāptia case or a matter in which both the alternatives occur, as for instance, the genitive case for the subject and the object of a verbal derivative noun (कृदन्त); confer, compare उभयप्राप्तौ कर्मणि । उभयोः प्राप्तिः यस्मिन् कृति सोयमुभयप्राप्तिः तत्र कर्मण्येव षष्ठी स्यात् न कर्तरि । आश्चर्यो गवां दोहः अगोपालकेन Kāś. on P. II.3.66.
kartṛagent of an action, subject; name of a kāraka or instrument in general, of an action, which produces the fruit or result of an action without depending on any other instrument; confer, compare स्वतन्त्रः कर्ता P. I.4.54, explained as अगुणीभूतो यः क्रियाप्रसिद्धौ स्वातन्त्र्येण विवक्ष्यते तत्कारकं कर्तृसंज्ञं भवति in the Kāśikā on P.I. 4.54. This agent, or rather, the word standing for the agent, is put in the nominative case in the active voice (confer, compare P.I.4.54), in the instrumental case in the passive voice (cf P. II.3.18), and in the genitive case when it is connected with a noun of action or verbal derivative noun, (confer, compare P.II.3.65).
kartṛyakthe affix य of the passive voice where the object functions as the subject: e. g. यक् in लूयते केदारः स्वयमेव; confer, compare अचः कर्तृयकि P.VI. 1.95 and the Kāśikā thereon.
kartṛsthakriya(a root)whose activity is found functioning in the subject;confer, compare यत्र क्रियाकृतविशेषदर्शनं कर्तरि Kaiyata on P.III.1.87 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3. Such roots, although transitive do not have any Karmakartari construction by the rule कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III. 1.87. as exempli gratia, for example ग्रामं गच्छति देवदत्तः has no कर्मकर्तरि construction; confer, compare कर्मस्थभावकानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां वा कर्ता कर्मवद् भवतीति वक्तव्यम् । कर्तृस्थभावकानां कर्तृस्थक्रियाणां वा कर्ता कर्मवन्मा भूदिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.87. Vārt, 3.
kartṛsthabhāvaka(a root)whose action or happening is noticed functioning in the subject; exempli gratia, for example the root स्मृ. confer, compare कर्तस्थभावकश्चायं (स्मरतिः) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). of I.3.67, कतृस्थभावकश्च शेतिः (शीधातुः) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.3.55.
karmakartṛobject of the transitive verb which functions as the subject when there is a marked facility of action: exempli gratia, for exampleओदन is karmakartariobject, functioning as subject, in पच्यते ओदनः स्वयमेव. The word कर्मकर्तृ is used also for the कर्मकर्तरि प्रयोग where the object, on which the verb-activity is found, is turned into a subject and the verb which is transitive is turned into intransitive as a result.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
karmavadbhāvathe activity of the agent or kartā of an action represented as object or karman of that very action, for the sake of grammatical operations: e. g. भिद्यते काष्ठं स्वयमेव;. करिष्यते कटः स्वयमेव. To show facility of a verbal activity on the object, when the agent or kartā is dispensed with, and the object is looked upon as the agent, and used also as an agent, the verbal terminations ति, त; et cetera, and others are not applied in the sense of an agent, but they are applied in the sense of an object; consequently the sign of the voice is not अ (शप्), but य (यक्) and the verbal terminations are त, आताम् et cetera, and others (तङ्) instead of ति, तस् et cetera, and others In popular language the use of an expression of this type is called Karmakartari-Prayoga. For details see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III.1.87. Only such roots as are कर्मस्थक्रियक or कर्मस्थभावक id est, that is roots whose verbal activity is noticed in the object and not in the subject can have this Karmakartari-Prayoga.
karmāpadiṣṭaoperations prescribed specifically for objects i. e. prescribed in the case of objects which are described to be functioning as the subject to show facility of the verbal action: e. g. the vikaraṇa यक् or the affix च्णि; confer, compare कर्मापदिष्टाविधय: कर्मस्थभावकानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां वा भवन्ति । कर्तृस्थभावकाश्च दीपादयः M.Bh.on I.1.44.
kaiyaṭaprakāśaa commentary on the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa written by Nīlakaṇṭha of the Draviḍa country. Nīlakaṇṭha lived in . the 17th century and wrote works on various subjects.
kramyaa consonant which is subjected to doubling confer, compare क्रम्यो वर्णः पूर्वमक्षरं भजते Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVIII. 18.
khalkṛt afix अ added to any root preceded by the word ईषद्, दुस् or सु, and to the roots भू and कृ preceded by an upapada word forming either the subject or the object of the roots, e. g. ईषत्करः कटो भवता, ईषदाढ्यंभवं भवता; confer, compare P. III. 3.126, 127.
ṇamulkrt affix अम्, causing vrddhi to the final vowel or to the penultimate अ, (!) added to any root in the sense of the infinitive in Vedic Literature when the connected root is शक्: exempli gratia, for example अग्निं वै देवा विभाजं नाशक्नुवन; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 4.14; (2) added to any root to show frequency of a past action, when the root form ending with णमुल् is repeated to convey the sense of frequency : exempli gratia, for example भोजं भोजं व्रजति, पायंपायं व्रजति, confer, compare Kas on P. III. 4.22; (3) added to a root showing past action and preceded by the word अग्रे, प्रथम or पूर्व, optionally along with the krt affix क्त्वा; exempli gratia, for example अग्रेभोजं or अग्रे भुक्त्वा व्रजति; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.24;(4) added in general to a root specified in P.III.4.25 to 64, showing a subordinate action and having the same subject as the root showing the main action, provided the root to which णमुल् is added is preceded by an antecedent or connected word, such as स्वादुम् or अन्यथा or एवम् or any other given in Panini's rules; confer, compare P. III.4.26 to III.4.64; exempli gratia, for example स्वादुंकारं भुङ्क्ते, अन्यथाकारं भुङ्क्ते, एवंकारं भुङ्क्ते, ब्राह्मणवेदं भोजयति, यावज्जीवमधीते, समूलकाषं कषति, समूलघातं हन्ति, तैलपेषं पिनष्टि, अजकनाशं नष्टः et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.26-64. When णमुल् is added to the roots कष्, पिष्, हन् and others mentioned in P. III. 4. 34 to 45, the same root is repeated to show the principal action. The word ending in णमुल् has the acute accent (उदात) on the first vowel (confer, compare P.VI.I. 94) or on the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare P. VI.1.193.
tumkrt affix तुम् of the infinitive (1) added to a root optionally with ण्वुल् when the root refers to an action for the purpose of which another action is mentioned by the principal verb ; exempli gratia, for example भोक्तुं व्रजति or भोजको व्रजति्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.3.11; (2) added to a root connected with ' another root in the sense of desire provided both have the same subject; exempli gratia, for example इच्छति भोक्तुम् ; confer, compare P. III. 3.158; (3) added to a root connected with the words काल, समय or वेला; exempli gratia, for example कालो भोक्तुम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.3.167; (4) added to any root which is connected with the roots शक्, धृष्, ज्ञा, ग्लै, घट्, रभ्, लभ्, क्रम्, सह्, अर्ह् and अस् or its synonym, as also with अलम्, or its synonym; exempli gratia, for example शक्नोति भोक्तुम्, भवति भोक्तुम्, वेला भोक्तुम्, अलं भोक्तुम्, पर्याप्तः कर्तुम् : confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4. 65, 66.
dvikarmakaa term used in connection with roots governing two objects or two words in the accusative case, exempli gratia, for example दुह् in, गां दोग्धि पयः; the term कर्म according to the strict definition of the term कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म or अाप्यं कर्म applies to one of the two, which is called the प्रधानकर्म or the direct object, the other one, which, in fact, is related to the verbal activity by relation of any other karaka or instrument is taken as karmakaraka and hence put in the accusative case. For details see Mahabhasya and Kasika on P.I.4.51. Some roots in their causal formation govern two objects out of which one object is the actual one while the other is the subject of the primitive root. exempli gratia, for example गमयति माणवकं ग्रामम्; बोधयति माणवकं धर्मम्; cf Kas on P.I.4.52. See for details Mahabhasya on P. I. 4.52.
dhamekīrtia Jain scholar called by the name कीर्ति also, who was the author of धातुप्रत्ययपञ्जिक्रा and रूपावतार a well-known treatise on roots; confer, compare बोपदेवमहाग्राहग्रस्तो वामनदिग्गजः । कीर्तेरेव प्रसङ्गेन माधवेन समुद्धृतः । He is believed to have been the first grammarian who arranged the sutras of Panini according to the subject matter.
piśel[ PISCHELL, RICHARD]a famous European Grammarian of the nineteenth century who wrote many articles on grammatical subjects and wrote a work entitled 'Prakrit Grammar.'
prakaraṇatopic; context; a section wherein a particular subject is treated; confer, compare अर्थात् प्रकरणाद्वा लोके कृत्रिमाकृत्रिमयोः कृत्रिमे संप्रत्ययो भवति M.Bh. on I. 1. 23; confer, compare also सामान्यशब्दाश्च नान्तरेण विशेषं प्रकरणं वा विशेषेष्ववतिष्ठन्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 2.45 Vart 9.
prakriyākaumudīa well-known work on Sanskrit Grammar by रामचन्द्रशेष of the 15th century, in which the subject matter of the eight chapters of Panini's grammar is arranged into several different sections forming the different topics of grammar. It is similar to, and possibly. the predecessor of, the Siddhanta Kaumudi which has a similar arrangement. The work was very popular before the Siddhinta Kaumudi was written. it has got many commentaries numbering about a dozen viz. प्रक्रियाप्रसाद, प्रक्रियाप्रकाश, प्रक्रियाप्रदीप, अमृतस्तुति, प्रक्रियाव्याकृति,निर्मलदर्पण,तत्वचन्द्र, प्रक्रियारञ्जन, प्रक्रियाविवरण and others of which the Prasada of Vitthalesa and the Prakasa of Srikrsna are the wellknown ones.
pratinirdiśyamānapredicate, as opposed to the subject; confer, compare उद्देश्यप्रतिनिर्दिश्यमानघौरेक्यमापादयत्सर्वनाम पर्यायेण तत्तैल्लिङ्गभाक् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).Pradipa.
prayojyathat which is employed or incited or urged; the word which is the subject in the primitive construction and becomes an object in the causal construction, and as a result, which is put in the accusative case being प्रयोज्यकर्म. As, however, the प्रयोज्यकर्म originally occupies the place of the subject in the primitive construction, the term प्रयोज्यकर्ता ( प्रयोज्यश्चासौ कर्ता च ) is often used in connection with it, as contrasted with the term प्रयोजककर्ता which is used with respect to the subject in the causal construction; confer, compare इह च भेदिका देवदत्तस्य यज्ञदत्तस्य काष्ठानामिति प्रयोज्ये कर्तरि षष्ठी न प्राप्नोति । M.Bh. on P. III. 1.26 Vart. l ; confer, compare also Kaiy. on P. I. 2.65.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
bhāvakartṛkahaving for its subject a verbal derivative in the sense of the भाव or the root activity. The word भाववचन is explained as भावकर्तृक in the Kāṡikāvŗtti. e. g. the word रोग: in चौरस्य रुजति रोगः Kāṡ. on P. II. 3.54: confer, compare भाववचनानां भावकर्तृकाणां Kāṡ. on P II. 3.54.
bhāvavacana(1)expressive of भाव or the completed verbal activity; exempli gratia, for example the word भाव itself, as also कृती, राग, and others; (2) having for their subject a verbal derivative in the form of the verbal activity. See भावकर्तृक.
mañjūṣāa popular name given to the work परमलघुमञ्जूषा of Nāgeśa on अर्थप्रक्रिया (science or method of interpretation) in Vyākaraṇa, which is generally read by advanced students. Nāgeśa has also written a bigger work on the same subject लघुमञ्जूषा which sometimes is also referred to by the word मञ्जूषा.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahīdharaa grammarian of the sixteenth century who, besides many small treatises on other subjects, wrote a commentary on the SarasvataPrakriya Vyakarana.
mukhyaviśeṣyathe principal word in a sentence which comes last in the technical expression of the import or शाब्दबोध. It is described as primary and not subordinated to any other thing ( अन्याविशेषणीभूत). This मुख्यविशेष्य is, in a way,the crucial point in the various theories of import; exempli gratia, for example according to the grammarians the verbal activity is the principal word while,according to the Mimaamsakas the bhaavanaa is the principal word.and according to the Naiyayikas it is the subject that is the principal word.
yathāsaṃkhyamin respective order, the first for the first, the second for the second, and so on; when the number of subjects and predicates is the same, they should connect in the same order: confer, compareयथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् P. I .3 .10.
rāmatarkavāgīśaa learned grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय and भट्टाचार्य, He was an advocate of the Mugdhabodha School and wrote commentaries on (1) the Mugdhabodha, (2) the Kavikalpadruma, (3) the Amarakosa and (4) the Unadi sutras. He also wrote a short gloss on case-relations, his treatise on the subject being named कारकटिप्पणी,
leṭa general term for the affixes of the Vedic subjunctive, the usual personal-endings ति, तस् et cetera, and others being substituted for लेट् as in the case of other tenses and moods. The augments अट् and आट् are sometimes prefixed to the लेट् affix and the sign ( विकरण ) स् ( सिप् ) is sometimes added to the roots. The forms of लेट् are to be arrived at as they are found actually used in Vedic language, even by placing personal-endings of a person or number different from what is actually requiredition
vājasaneyeiprātiśākhyathe Pratisakhya work belonging to the Vajasaneyi branch of the White Yajurveda, which is the only Pratisakhya existing to-day representing all the branches of the Sukla Yajurveda. Its authorship is attributed to Katyayana, and on account of its striking resemblance with Panini's sutras at various places, its author Katyayana is likely to be the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. It is quite reasonable to expect that the subject matter in this Pratisakhya is based on that in the ancient Prtisakhya works of the same White school of the Yajurveda.The work has a lucid commentary called Bhasya written by Uvvata.
vicāraविचारणा, examination, question or topic or subject for examination:confer, compare कुतः पुनरियं विचारणा l M.Bh. on P. I. 1.50 Vart. 1. विचाल immolation, destruction: confer, compare वर्णाश्रयः प्रत्ययो बर्णविचालस्यानिमित्तम् । दाक्षिः M.Bh .on, P.I.1.39 Vart. 10; confer, compare also Par. Sek. on Pari. 85.
viṣayatābeing a subject of discussion of; coming under the domain of, applicability the meaning of विषयसप्तमी which is similar to विवक्षा.
viṣayaviṣayibhāvarelation between the object and thc subject; confer, compare प्रतिलक्ष्यं लक्षणभेदादस्ति विषयविषयिभावः Kaiyaṭa on P. VI. 4. 101 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2.
vaikṛtaliterally subjected to modifications; which have undergone a change; the term, as contrasted with प्राकृत, refers to letters which are noticed in the Samhitpatha and not in the Padapatha. The change of अस् into ओ, or of the consonant त् into द् before soft letters, as also the insertion of त् between त् and स् et cetera, and others are given as instances. confer, compare वैकृताः ये पदपाठे अदृष्टाः | यथा प्रथमास्तृतीयभूता:, अन्त:पाता: इत्येवमादयः
vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇaa well-known work on the grammatical interpretation of words written by Kondabhatta as an explanatory work (व्याख्यान) on the small work in verse consisting of only 72 Karikas written by his uncle Bhattoji Diksita. The treatise is also named Brihadvaiyakaranabhusana. A smaller work consisting of the same subjectmatter but omitting discussions, is written by the author for facilitating the understanding of students to which he has given the name Vaiyakarahabhusanasara. This latter work has got three commentary works written on it named Kasika, Kanti and Matonmajja and one more scholarly one Sankari, recently written by Shankar Shastri Marulkar.
vaiyākaraṇaśābdabodhaimport of a sentence according to the grammarians, in which verbal activity occupies a predominant place, and the residing place of the subject as also that of the verbal activity is identical in the active voice, while the object and the verbal activity have got the same place of residence in the passive voice. The other auxiliaries of activity such as the instrument, location and the like, are connected with the verbal activity. The import of the sentence चैत्रः पचति, in short, can be expressed as चैत्रकर्तृका वर्तमानकालिकां पाकक्रिया.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakārikāa very scholarly work by Bhattoji Diksita on the interpretation of words and sentences, based upon the learned discussions on that subject introduced in the Mahabhasya, Vakyapadiya, Pradipa, et cetera, and others and discussed fully in his Sabdakaustubha by the author himselfeminine. The work although scholarly and valuable, is compressed in only 72 verses ( karikas ) and has to be understood with the help of the Vaiyakaranabhusana or BhuSansara written by Kondabhatta, the nephew of the author. See वैयाकरणभूषण and वैयाकरणभूषणसार.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudīan extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita.
śāstrascientific treatment of a subject; a system of thoughts giving a scientific treatment of any subject. The word is applied to the rules of Panini and sometimes to an individual rule; confer, compare शास्त्रबाध or अशास्त्रबाध or विप्रतिषेधशास्त्र,frequently used by the commentators; confer, compare न हि संदेहादलक्षणं शास्त्रामित्यर्थः Nagesa's Par. Sek. on Pari. 1; confer, compare पदान्तादिष्वेव विकारशास्त्रम् R.Pr.II.2
śikṣāgeneral name given to a work on Phonetics. Although there are many such works which are all called शिक्षा, the work, which is often referred to, by the word, is the Siksa named पाणिनीयशिक्षा, about the authorship of which, however, there is a doubt whether it was the work of Panini or of somebody belonging to his school. The Siksa works are helpful, no doubt, for the study of grammar, but no topic belonging to Siksa is given by Panini which apparently means that these works do not come under the subject or province of Grammar. The reason why the Siksa topics are not given by Panini, is worth consideration. These Siksa works are not specifically related to a particular Veda and it cannot be said whether they preceded or succeeded the Pratisakhya works.
ṣaṣṭhīthe sixth case; the genitive case. This case is generally an ordinary case or विभक्ति as contrasted with कारकविभक्ति. A noun in the genitive case shows a relation in general, with another noun connected with it in a sentence. Commentators have mentioned many kinds of relations denoted by the genitive case and the phrase एकशतं षष्ठ्यर्थाः (the genitive case hassenses a hundred and one in all),. is frequently used by grammarians confer, compare षष्ठी शेषे P. II. 3.50; confer, compare also बहवो हि षष्ठ्यर्थाः स्वस्वाम्यनन्तरसमीपसमूहविकारावयवाद्यास्तत्र यावन्त: शब्दे संभवन्ति तेषु सर्वेषु प्राप्तेषु नियमः क्रियते षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा इति । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.49. The genitive case is used in the sense of any karaka when that karaka ; is not to be considered as a karaka; confer, compare कारकत्वेन अविवक्षिते शेषे षष्ठी भविष्यति. A noun standing as a subject or object of an activity is put in the genitive case when that activity is expressed by a verbal derivative , and not by a verb itself; confer, compare कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति P. II. 3 .65. For the senses and use of the genitive case, confer, compare P. II. 3.50 to 73.
samanvayapradīpasaṃketaa treatise on the philosophy of Vyakarana written as a commentary by the author दंवशर्मन् on his own Karikas on the subject.
samartha(1)having an identical sense; cf प्रोपाभ्या समर्थाभ्याम् । ...तौ चेत् प्रोपौ समर्थौ तुल्यार्थौ भवतः । क्व चानयोस्तुल्यार्थता । आदिकर्मणि । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 3. 42: (2) mutually connected in meaning in such a way that the meanings are connected together or commixed together; समर्थः शक्वः । विग्रहवाक्यार्थाभिधाने यः शक्तः स समर्थो वेदितव्यः । अथवा समर्थपदाश्रयत्वात्समर्थः । समर्थानां पदानां संबद्धार्थानां संसृष्टार्थानां विधिर्वेदितव्यः । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1. I; confer, compare also एकार्थीभावो व्यपेक्षा वा सामर्थ्यम्;। (3) connected with relationship of senses, as between the activity and the subject,object, instrument et cetera, and others, or as between the master and the servant or the Possessor and the possessed; confer, compare राज्ञः पुरुषः or ग्रामं गच्छति,or सर्पिः पिब, but not सर्पिः पिब in the sentence तिष्ठतु सर्पिः पिब त्वमुदकम् । ; (4) capable of expressing the sense e. g. a word with the sandhis well observed; confer, compare समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा । सामर्थ्ये परिनिष्ठितत्वम् । कृतसन्धिकार्यत्वमिति यावत् । S. K. on IV. I. 82; cf also समर्थः पटुः शक्तः इति पर्यायाः। शक्तत्वं च कार्योत्पादनयोम्यत्वम् et cetera, and others Balamanorama on the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
siddhāntasārasvataan independent work on grammar believed to have been written by Devanandin. सिद्धान्तिन् a term used in connection with the writer himself of a treatise when he gives a reply to the objections raised by himself or quoted from others,the term पूर्वपाक्षिन् being used for the objector. सिद्धि formation of a word: establishment of the correct view after the removal of the objection; e. g. संज्ञासिद्वि, कार्यसिाद्व, स्वरसिद्धि. सिप् (1) the personal ending ( सि ) of the second person singular (मध्यमपुरुषैकवचन ) substituted for the affix ल्; of the ten tenses and moods लट्, लिट्, लृट् and others; confer, compare P.III.4.78: (2 Vikarana affix स् added to a root before the affixes of लेट् or Vedic Subjunctive. सिम् a technical term used in the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya for the first eight vowels of the alphabet, viz. अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ and ऋ: confer, compare सिमादितोष्टौ स्वराणाम् V. Pr.. I.44.
svatantraliterally independent; independent in activity; the subject or agent of an action ( कर्ता ) is defined as स्वतन्त्र independent in his activity, i. e. not depending upon any one for the same; confer, compare स्वतन्त्र: कर्ता P. I. 4. 54.
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
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293 results
ādi-anta-vat subject to beginning and endSB 12.4.28
ādi other subject mattersCC Madhya 2.1
śrotavya-ādīni subject matters for hearingSB 2.1.2
ahiṃsā nonviolence (not subjecting any living entity to the threefold miseries)SB 7.11.8-12
akhilam whole subjectSB 5.16.2
akṣa-viṣayam now a subject matter for seeingSB 3.15.38
asat-ālāpam unnecessary talk on material subject mattersSB 8.16.49
aṃśaiḥ by subjective portionsBs 5.26
eka-aṃśāt eka-aṃśāt as His own separate subjective portionsBs 5.14
eka-aṃśāt eka-aṃśāt as His own separate subjective portionsBs 5.14
amum on this subject matterSB 4.25.9
karmera ańga subject to fruitive activitiesCC Madhya 25.50
anta-vattvāt because of being subject to destructionSB 11.28.42
ādi-anta-vat subject to beginning and endSB 12.4.28
anu-mṛtyu always subject to deathSB 11.9.29
anuvāda subjectsCC Adi 2.6
anuvāda the subjectCC Adi 2.7
anuvāda the subjectCC Adi 2.75
anuvāda the subjectCC Adi 2.75
anuvāda the subjectCC Adi 2.76
anuvāda subjectCC Adi 2.77
anuvāda the subjectCC Adi 2.80
anuvāda the subjectCC Adi 2.82
anuvādam the subjectCC Adi 2.74
ānvīkṣikīm on the subject of transcendenceSB 1.3.11
ānvīkṣikyā by deliberation upon material and spiritual subject mattersSB 7.15.23
harṣa-śoka-anvitaḥ subject to joy and sorrowBG 18.27
anya-āsakta-vimukhān persons attached not to fighting but to some other subject matterSB 10.4.35
draṣṭṛ-apadeśam the name of a subject matterSB 6.16.24
cetasām api who have decided to accept the bliss of transcendental subjects as the aim and object of lifeSB 10.13.2
apīḍayan not subjecting to discomfortSB 11.17.51
bhava-apyaya-vastūnām of all that is subject to generation and destructionSB 11.22.49
artha subjectSB 3.8.13
parama-artha transcendental subject matterSB 5.1.6
pada-artha subject matterCC Madhya 6.272
saṃśaya-artham the subject matter that is not clear to meSB 5.12.3
anya-āsakta-vimukhān persons attached not to fighting but to some other subject matterSB 10.4.35
asat-ālāpam unnecessary talk on material subject mattersSB 8.16.49
atathyam a subject matter that is not a factSB 10.12.25
sańkarṣaṇa-ātmakaḥ the subjective portion of SańkarṣaṇaBs 5.12
pañca-tattva-ātmakam comprehending the five transcendental subject mattersCC Adi 1.14
pañca-tattva-ātmakam comprehending the five transcendental subject mattersCC Adi 7.6
ātmasāt under subjectionSB 7.8.50
avabudhyate become subjected to knowledgeSB 4.28.58
avikṛtāt (the Supreme itself) not being subject to transformationSB 10.87.15
avimuktasya of one who is not freed from such miserable conditions (or one who is subjected to birth, death, old age and disease)SB 7.13.31
avraṇam without a material body subject to pains and pleasuresSB 8.5.27
babandha brought under subjectionSB 11.4.21
bahu-duḥkha-bhājaḥ subjected to various types of material unhappinessSB 7.9.45
bahu-duḥkha-bhājaḥ subjected to various types of material unhappinessSB 7.9.45
bhakta-vaśa of being subjugated by the devoteeCC Madhya 19.229
bhava-apyaya-vastūnām of all that is subject to generation and destructionSB 11.22.49
bhāvāḥ subject mattersCC Adi 17.308
bhuńkte causes to be subjectedSB 2.4.23
bodhyaiḥ with the subject matter of intelligenceSB 7.12.29-30
calam flickering, subject to end at any momentSB 9.13.3
cetasām api who have decided to accept the bliss of transcendental subjects as the aim and object of lifeSB 10.13.2
phalgu-dāḥ giving little benefit to their subjectsSB 12.1.38
dahanti subjugateSB 2.7.7
damam subjectionSB 2.7.20
yama-daṇḍī subject to be punished by YamarājaCC Madhya 6.167
dāntasya subjugatedSB 1.5.29
daśamam the tenth subject matterCC Adi 2.95
daśamam the tenth subject matterCC Madhya 20.151
martya-dharmiṇaḥ subject to the laws of birth and deathSB 12.3.9-13
kṣubhita-dharmiṇyām the material nature, which is subjected to agitationCC Madhya 20.274
dhīra-lalita a person who can keep his girlfriend always in subjugation by different qualitiesCC Madhya 8.187
draṣṭṛ-apadeśam the name of a subject matterSB 6.16.24
prajā-drohāt because of killing the subjectsSB 1.9.1
bahu-duḥkha-bhājaḥ subjected to various types of material unhappinessSB 7.9.45
dvi-phalaḥ in this body we are subject to material happiness and distress, which result from karmaSB 10.2.27
eka-sthayoḥ with one and the same subject matter, establishing BrahmanSB 6.4.32
eka-vastuni in one subject matter (the container of nectar)SB 8.9.6
eka-aṃśāt eka-aṃśāt as His own separate subjective portionsBs 5.14
eka-aṃśāt eka-aṃśāt as His own separate subjective portionsBs 5.14
ekānta-saṃsthitām fixed in one subject matter, devotional serviceSB 7.8.2
saṃyama-ekāntāḥ the ultimate aim of subjugatingSB 7.15.28
gīḥ-gocaraḥ the subject of being describedCC Madhya 14.181
gīḥ-gocaraḥ the subject of being describedCC Madhya 14.181
prajā-goptuḥ who maintain the subjectsSB 7.11.14
kari iṣṭa-goṣṭhī discussing spiritual subject matterCC Madhya 9.177
guhyam confidential subjectBG 11.1
hari-guṇa-mayī whose subject matter is the attributes of KṛṣṇaCC Antya 1.139
hari-guṇa-mayī whose subject matter is the attributes of KṛṣṇaCC Antya 1.139
harṣa-śoka-anvitaḥ subject to joy and sorrowBG 18.27
iha on this subjectSB 3.16.37
īśitavya of those who are subject to being controlledSB 10.85.46
īśitavyāyati (the Supreme Lord) pretends to be subject to higher controlSB 10.84.16
kari iṣṭa-goṣṭhī discussing spiritual subject matterCC Madhya 9.177
iti saṃvicintya very perfectly thinking about the subject matterSB 10.12.28
janaḥ the conditioned soul subjected to birth and deathSB 8.24.47
sva-janam His subjectsSB 10.50.5-6
janam His subjectsSB 10.50.57
jitatvam the subjugationCC Madhya 19.230
kahibāra kathā nahe not a subject matter to describe freelyCC Madhya 2.83
kalpante are subjectSB 12.4.5
kalpita-viṣayaḥ the subject matter is imaginedSB 5.13.26
kānya-kubje in the city of Kānyakubja (Kanauj, a town near Kanpur)SB 6.1.21
kānyakubja brāhmaṇas from KānyakubjaCC Madhya 18.133
kari iṣṭa-goṣṭhī discussing spiritual subject matterCC Madhya 9.177
karma-vaśam subjugated by fruitive activitiesSB 5.5.6
karmera ańga subject to fruitive activitiesCC Madhya 25.50
vāsudeva-kathā topics on the subject of the personality of Godhead, VāsudevaSB 3.13.1
kahibāra kathā nahe not a subject matter to describe freelyCC Madhya 2.83
kṛṣṇa-kathā discourses on the subject matter of KṛṣṇaCC Antya 3.217
nānā-kathā-rańge in the happiness of discussing various subject mattersCC Antya 4.104
kṛṣṇa-kathā the subject matter of KṛṣṇaCC Antya 4.104
kṛṣṇa-kathā discussions on the subject of Lord KṛṣṇaCC Antya 5.6
sat-kathāḥ discussions about transcendental subject mattersSB 4.14.36
ta' kathana of subject matters once describedCC Madhya 25.17
kliśyamānaḥ subjected to sufferingsSB 4.29.23-25
krodha-vaśaḥ always subject to angerSB 5.24.29
kṛṣṇa-viṣayaka in the subject of KṛṣṇaCC Adi 7.84
kṛṣṇa-kathā discourses on the subject matter of KṛṣṇaCC Antya 3.217
kṛṣṇa-kathā the subject matter of KṛṣṇaCC Antya 4.104
kṛṣṇa-kathā discussions on the subject of Lord KṛṣṇaCC Antya 5.6
kṣubhita-dharmiṇyām the material nature, which is subjected to agitationCC Madhya 20.274
kubjā the former prostitute Kubjā, saved by Lord KṛṣṇaSB 11.12.3-6
kubjakaiḥ with kubjakasSB 4.6.16
kubjakaiḥ kubjakasSB 8.2.14-19
kānya-kubje in the city of Kānyakubja (Kanauj, a town near Kanpur)SB 6.1.21
dhīra-lalita a person who can keep his girlfriend always in subjugation by different qualitiesCC Madhya 8.187
manaḥ the subject matter of thought for the mindSB 10.1.4
manyu-vaśa subjected to angerSB 2.7.39
martya-dharmiṇaḥ subject to the laws of birth and deathSB 12.3.9-13
martyaḥ subjected to deathSB 7.15.37
martyaḥ a human being who is subject to deathSB 8.23.29
martyaḥ a person subject to deathSB 8.23.29
martyaḥ the living entity subjected to birth and deathCC Madhya 22.103
martyaḥ the living entity subjected to birth and deathCC Antya 4.194
martyam subject to deathSB 11.20.14
martyasya of the living entity subjected to deathSB 7.13.31
martyeṣu among those subject to deathBG 10.3
māyā-vaśa subjected to the influence of māyāCC Madhya 6.162
hari-guṇa-mayī whose subject matter is the attributes of KṛṣṇaCC Antya 1.139
mo-viṣaye on the subject of MeCC Adi 4.29
anu-mṛtyu always subject to deathSB 11.9.29
sva-mūrtim own subjective formBs 5.47
kahibāra kathā nahe not a subject matter to describe freelyCC Madhya 2.83
nānā-kathā-rańge in the happiness of discussing various subject mattersCC Antya 4.104
naśvareṣu subject to destructionSB 10.85.12
nāthāḥ being the subject of the SupremeSB 4.21.49
tat-nāthāḥ the subjects having these kings as rulersSB 12.1.41
nigrahāya for the subjugationSB 10.16.33
tat-niṣṭham having that as its prime subject matterSB 12.13.11-12
pada-artha subject matterCC Madhya 6.272
padam the subject matterSB 7.5.49
padam the subject of discussionSB 11.22.6
prajā-pālana of protecting the subjectsSB 5.15.7
pañca-tattva-ātmakam comprehending the five transcendental subject mattersCC Adi 1.14
pañca-tattva the same five subjectsCC Adi 7.4
pañca-tattva the five subjectsCC Adi 7.5
pañca-tattva-ātmakam comprehending the five transcendental subject mattersCC Adi 7.6
parama-artha transcendental subject matterSB 5.1.6
veda-paratantra subject to the Vedic rulesCC Madhya 10.137
pariṇāma as subject to transformationMM 37
pariṇāminām of things subject to transformationSB 12.4.36
pariṇāmitvāt because of being subject to transformationSB 11.19.18
paritāpitaḥ subjected to great painSB 11.8.32
patatā subject to demiseSB 10.73.14
dvi-phalaḥ in this body we are subject to material happiness and distress, which result from karmaSB 10.2.27
phalgu-dāḥ giving little benefit to their subjectsSB 12.1.38
prabandha subject matterCC Adi 17.328
prabandha subject mattersCC Adi 17.328
prajā-drohāt because of killing the subjectsSB 1.9.1
prajā-pālana of protecting the subjectsSB 5.15.7
prajā-goptuḥ who maintain the subjectsSB 7.11.14
sva-prajā by Your own subjectSB 10.16.51
prajāḥ of the subjectsSB 1.9.17
prajāḥ subjectsSB 1.14.9
prajāḥ the subjectsSB 1.18.42
prajāḥ his subjectsSB 3.22.28
sa-prajaḥ along with his subjectsSB 3.22.33
prajāḥ your subjectsSB 4.17.21
prajāḥ the subjectsSB 9.18.46
prajāḥ subjectsSB 10.43.37
prajāḥ your subjectsSB 10.45.13
prajāḥ subjectsSB 10.51.18
prajāḥ subjectsSB 10.52.34
prajāḥ subjectsSB 10.70.30
prajāḥ to their subjectsSB 10.74.37
prajāḥ subjectsSB 10.76.13
prajam by his subjectsSB 4.9.66
prajānām of the subjectsSB 6.4.12
prajānām of the subjectsSB 9.20.32
prajānām of the subjectsSB 10.38.42
prajāsu upon His subjectsSB 10.89.64
prārthitaḥ a subject for aspirationSB 9.4.24
praśnāḥ subjects of inquirySB 11.19.40-45
praśnān subject matters of inquirySB 11.19.28-32
pravādaḥ subject matter for discussionSB 5.10.9
pravīṇa and very expert or experienced in all subject mattersCC Madhya 24.182
prema-vaśe by being subjugated by the loveCC Madhya 4.40
preyasī-vaśaḥ one who keeps His girlfriends subjugatedCC Madhya 8.188
nānā-kathā-rańge in the happiness of discussing various subject mattersCC Antya 4.104
rirakṣiṣoḥ of a king anxious to protect his subjectsSB 3.22.5
ruddha who has subjugatedCC Madhya 8.142
sa-prajaḥ along with his subjectsSB 3.22.33
sa-vaktavyām with the subject matter of speakingSB 7.12.26-28
sādhya subject matterCC Adi 16.83
su-samāhitaḥ very attentive (without diversion to any other subject)SB 7.9.7
saṃśaya-artham the subject matter that is not clear to meSB 5.12.3
ekānta-saṃsthitām fixed in one subject matter, devotional serviceSB 7.8.2
iti saṃvicintya very perfectly thinking about the subject matterSB 10.12.28
saṃyama-ekāntāḥ the ultimate aim of subjugatingSB 7.15.28
sańkarṣaṇa-ātmakaḥ the subjective portion of SańkarṣaṇaBs 5.12
śāśvatam without being subjected to the control of timeCC Madhya 21.51
śāśvatam without being subjected to the control of timeCC Madhya 21.88
sat-kathāḥ discussions about transcendental subject mattersSB 4.14.36
śocyāḥ subject for lamentationSB 1.13.44
harṣa-śoka-anvitaḥ subject to joy and sorrowBG 18.27
śrotavya-ādīni subject matters for hearingSB 2.1.2
eka-sthayoḥ with one and the same subject matter, establishing BrahmanSB 6.4.32
stuti-stomam the subject matter of the recitersSB 3.12.37
stuti-stomam the subject matter of the recitersSB 3.12.37
su-samāhitaḥ very attentive (without diversion to any other subject)SB 7.9.7
sva-prajā by Your own subjectSB 10.16.51
sva-janam His subjectsSB 10.50.5-6
sva-mūrtim own subjective formBs 5.47
svāpam the subject of a dreamSB 6.16.55
ta' kathana of subject matters once describedCC Madhya 25.17
tāhā that subject matterCC Madhya 25.16
tat-viṣayām in the subject of all thoseSB 2.9.28
tat-nāthāḥ the subjects having these kings as rulersSB 12.1.41
tat-niṣṭham having that as its prime subject matterSB 12.13.11-12
tat about that subject matterIso 13
tatra in such a subject matterSB 9.19.20
tattva-viṣayam subject matter about the Absolute TruthSB 3.15.24
pañca-tattva-ātmakam comprehending the five transcendental subject mattersCC Adi 1.14
pañca-tattva the same five subjectsCC Adi 7.4
pañca-tattva the five subjectsCC Adi 7.5
pañca-tattva-ātmakam comprehending the five transcendental subject mattersCC Adi 7.6
tattve in the subjects ofCC Adi 7.3
tina vastu three subjectsCC Madhya 2.80
tina-vastu three subject mattersCC Madhya 6.178
yama-yātanām upagatam being subjected to miserable conditions by YamarājaSB 5.26.11
utpādyam subject to birthSB 10.73.21
viṣaya-vacana subject matter to be explainedCC Madhya 25.99
vācya the subject matterSB 12.13.3
veda-vādaḥ subject matter understood through the VedasSB 11.3.43
vaikārikaḥ subject to transformationSB 11.22.29
vaikārikīm subject to transformationsSB 10.73.11
sa-vaktavyām with the subject matter of speakingSB 7.12.26-28
vantaḥ subject toBG 5.22
manyu-vaśa subjected to angerSB 2.7.39
vaśa subjugatedCC Adi 10.107
māyā-vaśa subjected to the influence of māyāCC Madhya 6.162
bhakta-vaśa of being subjugated by the devoteeCC Madhya 19.229
krodha-vaśaḥ always subject to angerSB 5.24.29
preyasī-vaśaḥ one who keeps His girlfriends subjugatedCC Madhya 8.188
karma-vaśam subjugated by fruitive activitiesSB 5.5.6
vaśe in full subjugationBG 2.61
vaśe under the subjugationSB 6.3.1
prema-vaśe by being subjugated by the loveCC Madhya 4.40
tina vastu three subjectsCC Madhya 2.80
tina-vastu three subject mattersCC Madhya 6.178
bhava-apyaya-vastūnām of all that is subject to generation and destructionSB 11.22.49
eka-vastuni in one subject matter (the container of nectar)SB 8.9.6
vāsudeva-kathā topics on the subject of the personality of Godhead, VāsudevaSB 3.13.1
ādi-anta-vat subject to beginning and endSB 12.4.28
anta-vattvāt because of being subject to destructionSB 11.28.42
veda-vādaḥ subject matter understood through the VedasSB 11.3.43
veda-paratantra subject to the Vedic rulesCC Madhya 10.137
vibhāgaśaḥ by divisions of subject matterSB 1.1.11
vidheyam unknown subject mattersCC Adi 16.58
vihate which is subject to destructionSB 10.87.34
vikāraḥ (the material body and mind, which are subject to) constant transformationSB 11.19.7
vilulitān subject to be finishedSB 7.9.24
anya-āsakta-vimukhān persons attached not to fighting but to some other subject matterSB 10.4.35
viśām of the citizens or the subjects of the worldSB 9.19.23
viṣaya the subject matterSB 12.8.49
viṣaya subjectCC Madhya 8.141
viṣaya-vacana subject matter to be explainedCC Madhya 25.99
viṣaya the subject matterBs 5.41
viṣayāḥ on the subject matterBG 2.45
viṣayāḥ subject matterSB 3.15.23
kalpita-viṣayaḥ the subject matter is imaginedSB 5.13.26
viṣayāḥ having as their subject matterSB 11.21.35
kṛṣṇa-viṣayaka in the subject of KṛṣṇaCC Adi 7.84
viṣayām subject matterSB 1.6.4
tat-viṣayām in the subject of all thoseSB 2.9.28
tattva-viṣayam subject matter about the Absolute TruthSB 3.15.24
akṣa-viṣayam now a subject matter for seeingSB 3.15.38
viṣaye in all subjectsSB 1.4.13
mo-viṣaye on the subject of MeCC Adi 4.29
viṣaye in mundane subject mattersCC Madhya 13.140
viṣaye in the subject matterCC Madhya 25.121
yāhā subject whichCC Antya 14.6
yama-yātanām upagatam being subjected to miserable conditions by YamarājaSB 5.26.11
yama-daṇḍī subject to be punished by YamarājaCC Madhya 6.167
yantrita subjugatedSB 10.29.23
yama-yātanām upagatam being subjected to miserable conditions by YamarājaSB 5.26.11
yei the subject matterCC Adi 7.108


topic; subject; prime cause; one of the tantrayukti .


humpbackedness, kyphosis.


hump-backed, crooked.


kyphosis, scoliosis.


chastisement; subjugation.


(during the process of digestion) the tastes are subject to a process governed by the rule that sweet, acid and pungent substances do not change their taste, whereas the salt taste is transformed into sweet one, and the bitter and astringent taste into a pungent one.


subject, heading.

Wordnet Search
"ubj" has 15 results.



kaṃsasya kubjayuktā dāsī yā kṛṣṇaṃ vatsalayati।

kṛṣṇaḥ kubjāṃ sundarīm akarot।


vaśīkṛ, svāyattīkṛ, damaya, pradamaya, uddamaya, ubj, ullāpaya, nikṛ, nirji, vinirji, saṃniyam, samaj   

balapūrvakaṃ svādhīnatānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

āṅglaśāsakāḥ ādau bhāratasya laghūni rājyāni vaśyakurvan।


kubja, gaḍu, gaḍula, nyubja, gaḍura   

unnataṃ hṛdayam unnataḥ pṛṣṭhaḥ vā yasya।

kubjaṃ puruṣaṃ bālakāḥ pīḍayanti।


kubjā, gaḍulā, nyubjā   

sā strī yā unnatapṛṣṭhā vāyunonnatahṛdayā vā asti।

bhikṣukīṃ kubjāṃ bālakāḥ pīḍayanti।


jihma, vakra, tiryañc, añcita, arāla, ānata, ābhogin, kuñcita, kuṭila, kuṭilaka, kubja, krukta, kṣveḍa, pratikuñcita, bandhura, bandhurita, manthara, vaṅkya, vijihma, vellita   

asaralaḥ vakratāpūrṇaḥ ca।

mandiraṃ prati gamyamānā paddhatiḥ jihmā asti।


ucchri, unnam, samucchri, utkṣip, udas, udgrah, udubj, upastambh, prami, vimi, īraya   

aprāpyasya prāpaṇārthaṃ pādamūlam uddhṛtya avasthānānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

śyāmaḥ bhitteḥ pāraṃ draṣṭum ucchrayate।


udubja, nyubja   

yasya ākāraḥ adhomukhasya śarāvasya sadṛśaḥ asti।

samīpadṛṣṭidoṣe udubjasya kācasya upayogaḥ kriyate।



prācīnaḥ prāntaḥ yaḥ vartamānasya kanojasya samīpe āsīt।

asmākaṃ pūrvajāḥ kānyakubjāt atra āgatāḥ।


gaḍupṛṣṭhaḥ, kubja, gaḍulaḥ, kubjakaḥ, vakrapṛṣṭhaḥ   

yasya pṛṣṭhe gaḍuḥ asti।

ekaḥ gaḍupṛṣṭhaḥ daṇḍasya ādhāreṇa calati।



vyāghrasya guhā।

vyāghraṃ grahītuṃ kubjeḥ samīpe vyādhaiḥ jālam ācchāditam।



aṣṭavarṣīyā kanyā yā devyāḥ utsavakāle devīrūpeṇa pūjyante।

kecana janāḥ navarātrotsavakāle kubjikāḥ pūjayanti।



saṃpradāyasya saṃsthāpakaḥ ।

kubjalīḍhaḥ janān saṃbodhayati



saṃpradāyasya saṃsthāpakaḥ ।

kubjalīḍhaḥ janān saṃbodhayati



ekaṃ kālpanikaṃ nagaram ।

karṇakubjasya ullekhaḥ vetāla-pañcaviṃśatikāyām asti



ekaṃ nagaram ।

kānyakubjasya ullekhaḥ mahābhārate vartate

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