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Amarakosha Search
Results for tis
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
āranālaḥ2.9.38NeuterSingularabhiṣutam, avantisomam, dhānyāmlam, kuñjalam, sauvīram, kāñjikam, kulmāṣam
asuraḥ1.1.12MasculineSingularditisutaḥ, indrāriḥ, daityaḥ, suradviṣ, śukraśiṣyaḥ, danujaḥ, pūrvadevaḥ, dānavaḥ, daiteyaḥgiant
durodaraḥ3.3.179NeuterSingularcamūjaghanam, hastasūtram, pratisaraḥ
pādātam2.8.68NeuterSingularpa‍ttisaṃhatiḥ
pragāḍham3.3.50NeuterSingularatisūkṣmam, dhānyaṃśam
rajatam3.3.86MasculineSingularyuktaḥ, atisaṃskṛtaḥ, marṣī
tisāraḥ2.6.60MasculineSingularatisārakaḥ
tindukaḥ2.4.38MasculineSingularkālaskandhaḥ, śitisārakaḥ, sphūrjakaḥ
ucchritaḥ3.3.91MasculineSingularsambaddhārthaḥ, hitam, śaktisthaḥ
vilambhaḥ2.4.28MasculineSingularatisarjanam
tisāraḥ2.6.60MasculineSingularatisārakaḥ
pratisīrā2.6.121FeminineSingularjavanikā, tiraskariṇī
pratisaraḥ3.3.182MasculineSingular
Monier-Williams Search
Results for tis
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
तिसृf. plural of tr/i- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तिसृmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' See priya--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तिस्राf. Andropogon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तिस्रस्कारम्ind. so as to change into 3 (ṛc- verses) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तिसृधन्वn. a bow with 3 arrows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तिसृकाf. Name of a village Va1rtt. 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्यतिसृज्(1. plural -/ati-sṛjāmas-) to let pass
आदित्यज्योतिस्(ādity/a--) mfn. having the light of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अग्निज्योतिस्mfn. flaming, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अमतिस्mfn. poor, indigent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आमातिसारm. dysentery or diarrhoea produced by vitiated mucus in the abdomen (the excretion being mixed with hard and fetid matter) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आमातिसारिन्mfn. afflicted with the above disease. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनतिसृष्टmfn. not allowed, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तर्ज्योतिस्(ant/ar--) mfn. having the soul enlightened, illuminated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तिसुम्न(/anti--) mfn. at hand with kindness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुभूतिस्वरूपाचार्यm. Name of the author of the grammar sārasvatī-prakriyā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्पत्तिसमmf(ā-) (in nyāya- philosophy) arguing against a thing by trying to show that nothing exists from which it could spring. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्वतिसिच्to pour out over or along View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्यतोज्योतिस्mfn. having light or a jyotis- day only on one side, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अप्रतिसाध्यmfn. incurable, , Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अप्रतिसंख्याf. "not observing", in compound with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अप्रतिसंख्याinconsiderateness, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अप्रतिसंख्यानिरोधm. the unobserved annihilation of an object View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अप्रतिसंक्रमmfn. having no intermixture. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अप्रतिस्तब्धmfn. unrestrained (see a-pratiṣṭabdha-above.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अर्गलास्तुतिस्तोत्रn. a hymn introductory to the devīmāhātmya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अर्थापत्तिसमfn. an inference by which the quality of any object is attributed to another object because of their sharing some other quality in common View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अरुणज्योतिस्m. Name of śiva-: View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसाध्वसn. excessive fear. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसक्तिf. excessive attachment. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसक्तिमत्mfn. excessively attached. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसमर्थmfn. very competent. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसंचयm. excessive accumulation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसंधाto overreach, deceive ; to wrong or injure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसंधानn. overreaching, cheating. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसंधेयmfn. easy to be settled or conciliated. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसंधेयmfn. easy to be conciliated, easy to be settled. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसमीपmfn. very near. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसम्पर्कm. excessive (sexual) intercourse. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसंस्कृतmfn. highly finished. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसंतप्तmfn. greatly afflicted. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसांवत्सरmfn. extending over more than a year View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसाम्याf. the sweet juice of the Bengal Madder, Rubia Manjith. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसन्धम्ind. so as to violate an agreement or any fixed order View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसन्धितmfn. overreached, cheated. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसान्तपनn. a kind of severe penance (inflicted especially for eating unclean animal food). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसरm. effort, exertion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसार m. purging, dysentery. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसारtransgression (in - ti-- s-), ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसारकिन् mfn. afflicted with purging or dysentery. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसरस्वतीf. a particular personification, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसर्गm. act of parting with, dismissal, giving away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसर्गm. granting permission, leave View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसर्गm. atisarg/am- 1. d/a-, to bid any one farewell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसर्गremnant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आतिसारिकmf(ī-)n. like diarrhoea, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसारिन् mfn. afflicted with purging or dysentery. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसारिन्mfn. afflicted with purging or dysentery. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसर्जनn. the act of giving away, granting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसर्जनn. liberality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसर्जनn. a gift View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसर्जनn. sending out of the world, killing. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसर्वmfn. too complete View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसर्वmfn. superior to all See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसर्वmfn. superior to all View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसर्वm. the Supreme. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसौहित्यn. excessive satiety exempli gratia, 'for example' being spoiled, stuffed with food, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसौपर्णmfn. superior to (the powers of) suparṇa- or garuḍa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसौरभmfn. very fragrant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसौरभn. extraordinary fragrance. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसायम्ind. very late in the evening. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसेनm. Name of a prince. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसेव्to use or enjoy immoderately, to practise excessively ; see ati-sevā- sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order ati-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसेवाf. excessive addiction (to a habit). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसिद्धिf. great perfection. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसिताङ्गविहंगm. a swan, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिस्निग्धmfn. very smooth, very nice, very affectionate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिस्पर्शm. too marked contact (of the tongue and palate) in pronunciation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिस्फिरmfn. very tremulous. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसृCaus. to cause to pass through: Passive voice -sāryate- ; to be purged View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिस्रंस्to drop or turn away from, to escape View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिस्रावितmfn. caused to flow excessively (as a wound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसृज्to glide over or along ; to send away dismiss, abandon ; to leave as a remnant, to remit, forgive ; to give away, present, to create in a higher degree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसृज्यmfn. to be dismissed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसृज्यmfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसृप्to glide or creep over, get over View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसृष्टि(/ati--) f. an extraordinary or excellent creation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसृष्टिf. a higher creation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिस्रुto flow over or flow excessively. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिस्रुतmfn. that which has been flowing over (Name of soma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिस्थिरmfn. very stable. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिस्थूलmfn. (/ati-.) excessively big or clumsy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिस्थूलmfn. excessively stupid. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिस्त्रिmf(is-,or ī-)n. surpassing a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिस्त्रिmf(is-,or ī-)n. See Gram. 123. b-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिस्तुतिf. excessive praise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसुहितmfn. excessively kind, over-kind. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसुहितmfn. perfectly satiated, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसुजनmfn. very moral, very friendly. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसुलभmfn. very easily obtainable. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसुन्दरmfn. very handsome View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिसुन्दरmf. a metre belonging to the class aṣṭi- (also called citra-or cañcalā-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिस्वप्नm. excessive sleep View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिस्वप्नn. excessive tendency to dreaming. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिस्वार्यmfn. the last of the seven notes
अतिस्वस्थmfn. enjoying excellent health. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आतिस्वायनmfn. (fr. ati-svan-), (gaRa pakṣādi-, q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिस्विन्नmfn. caused to perspire abundantly, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतिस्वृto hold or sustain a note View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आत्मज्योतिस्n. the light of the soul or supreme spirit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आत्मज्योतिस्mfn. receiving light from one's self View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अवन्तिसेनm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अवन्तिसोमm. sour gruel (prepared from the fermentation of, rice-water) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अवन्तिस्वामिन्m. Name of a sanctuary built by avantivarman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बहिष्टाज्ज्योतिस्n. Name of a triṣṭubh- the last pāda- of which contains 8 syllables View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बर्हिर्ज्योतिस्m. fire or the god of fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भगवद्भक्तिसाधनn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भगवद्भक्तिसारसंग्रहm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भगवद्भक्तिस्तोत्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भक्तिसागरm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भक्तिसामान्यनिरूपणn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भक्तिसंदर्भm. (and bhaktisaṃdarbhapadyāvalī bha-padyāvalī- f.) Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भक्तिसंदर्भपद्यावलीf. bhaktisaṃdarbha
भक्तिसंन्यासनिर्णयविवरणn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भक्तिसंवर्धनशतकn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भक्तिसारm. (and bhaktisārasaṃgraha ra-saṃgraha-,m.) Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भक्तिसारसंग्रहm. bhaktisāra
भक्तिसिद्धान्तm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भक्तिसुधोदयm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भक्तिसूत्रn. Name of work () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भवप्रतिसंधिm. entering into existence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भुक्तिसप्तशतीf. Name of a poem. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भूपतिस्तुतिf. Name of a hymn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भूतज्योतिस्m. "light of living beings", Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भूतिसित() mfn. white with ashes (said of śiva-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भूतिसृज्mfn. creating welfare View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बोधिसत्त्वबुद्धानुस्मृतिसमाधिm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ब्रह्मज्योतिस्n. the splendour of brahma- or of the Supreme Being (also written brahma-jy-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ब्रह्मज्योतिस्mfn. having the splendour of brahmā- (Scholiast or Commentator"of the presiding priest") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ब्रह्मज्योतिस्m. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ब्रह्मणस्पतिसूक्तn. brahmaṇaspati
ब्राह्मीशान्तिसंकल्पm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहच्छान्तिस्तव(hac+śā-) m. the larger śānti-stava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहज्ज्योतिस्mfn. (h/aj--) bright-shining View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहज्ज्योतिस्m. Name of a grandson of brahmā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहस्पतिसमmfn. equal to bṛhaspati-, like bṛhaspati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहस्पतिसंहिताf. Name of two works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहस्पतिसवm. Name of a festival lasting one day (said to confer the rank, of a purohita- on those observing it) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहस्पतिसवहौत्रप्रयोगm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहस्पतिसवकॢप्तिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहस्पतिसवप्रयोगm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहस्पतिसिद्धान्तm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहस्पतिस्मृतिf. bṛhaspati-'s law-book. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहस्पतिस्तोमm. Name of an ekāha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहस्पतिस्तोत्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहस्पतिसुरताf. a proper N. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहस्पतिसुत(b/ṛhas-p/ati--) mfn. pressed out (as soma- juice) by bṛhas-pati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहस्पतिसुत्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरशीतिसाहस्रmfn. numbering 84000 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थमन्द्रातिस्वार्यmfn. "to be lengthened in a particular way", said of a kind of recitation of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतिसाहस्रmf(ī-)n. consisting of 24000 (G) i, 4, 147 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतिस्मृतिf. equals -mata- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चिन्तिसुराष्ट्रm. plural the cinti-s and the inhabitants of su-rāṣṭra- gaRa kārta-kaujapādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दक्षिणाज्योतिस्(d/akṣ-) mfn. brilliant by the sacrificial gift View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दक्षिणामूर्तिसंहिताf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दक्षिणामूर्तिस्तव m. 10 verses ascribed to śaṃkara- (explained by viśva-rūpa- or sureśvara- in a commentary with gloss by rāma-tīrtha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दक्षिणामूर्तिस्तोत्रn. 10 verses ascribed to śaṃkara- (explained by viśva-rūpa- or sureśvara- in a commentary with gloss by rāma-tīrtha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दन्तिस्थmfn. seated on an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दशज्योतिस्m. Name of a son of su-bhrāj- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धृतिसिंहm. (varia lectio ta-s-) Name of an author (said to have assisted puruṣottama- in composing the hārāvalī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दिनज्योतिस्n. daylight, sunshine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दितिसुतm. idem or 'm. equals -ja- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दितिसुतगुरुm. the planet Venus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्विजातिसात्ind. for or to Brahmans View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्योतिस्n. light, brightness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्योतिस्n. a star View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकज्योतिस्n. "the only light", Name of śiva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकाक्षरगणपतिस्तोत्रn. a hymn in honour of gaṇeśa- (a portion of the rudrayāmala-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गणपतिस्तवराजm. Name of a hymn in praise of gaṇeśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गणपतिस्तोत्रn. prayers addressed to gaṇeśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गीतिसूत्रn. a sūtra- composed in the gīti- metre (on ) Introd. 43. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हरिभक्तिसमागमm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हरिभक्तिसारm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हरिभक्तिसुधारसm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हरिभक्तिसुधोदयm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हस्तिसेनm. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हस्तिस्नानn. the washing of an elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हस्तिसोमाf. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हस्तिसूत्रn. a sūtra-. treating of elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हिमज्योतिस्mfn. cold-rayed (as the moon) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हिरण्यज्योतिस्n. splendour of golden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हिरण्यज्योतिस्mfn. having golden splendour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जातिसांकर्यn. Name (also title or epithet) of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जातिसम्पन्नmfn. belonging to a noble family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जातिसारn. idem or 'n. Name (also title or epithet) of work ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जातिसस्यn. equals -kośa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जातिस्मरmf(ā-)n. recollecting a former existence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जातिस्मरn. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जातिस्मरह्रदm. Name of a pond View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जातिस्मरणn. equals ra-- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जातिस्मरताf. recollection of a former existence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जातिस्मरत्वn. idem or 'f. recollection of a former existence ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जातिस्वभावm. specific or generic character or nature, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्n. light (of the sun, dawn, fire, lightning, etc.;also plural), brightness (of the sky) etc. (tr/īṇi jy/otīṃṣi-,light appearing in the 3 worlds, viz. on earth, in the intermediate region, and in the sky or heaven [the last being called uttam/a- ;or /uttara-, ;or tṛt/īya- ] ;also personified as"fire"on earth,"ether or air"in the intermediate region, and"sun"in the sky ;"fire, sun and moon") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्n. fire, flash of lightning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्n. moonlight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्n. (plural) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्n. eye-light View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्n. the eye View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्n. dual number sun and moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्n. plural the heavenly bodies, planets and stars etc. (tiṣām ayana- n. course or movements of the heavenly bodies, science of those movements ([ equals tiṣa-]) ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्n. sg. the light of heaven, celestial world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्n. light as the divine principle of life or source of intelligence, intelligence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्n. (pauruṣaj-"human intelligence") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्n. (para jyotis-,"highest light or truth") and View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्n. light as the type of freedom or bliss or victory (confer, compare , and Latin lux) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्n. Name of several ekāha-s etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्n. of certain formularies containing the word jyotis- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्n. a metre of 32 short and 16 long syllables View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्n. equals tiṣa-, science of the movements of the heavenly bodies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्n. a mystical N. for the letter r- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्m. fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्m. the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्m. Trigonella foenum graecum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्m. Name of a marut- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्m. of a son of manu- svārociṣa-, 429 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्m. of a prajā-pati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्m. see d/akṣiṇā--, śukr/a--, sa--, h/iraṇya--, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्सात्कृ equals tiṣ-- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्योतिस्तत्त्वn. equals tiṣa-t- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कार्तिसिंहदेवm. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कतिसंख्यmfn. how many in number? View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
खज्योतिस्m. a shining flying insect, fire-fly etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
खण्डस्फुटप्रतिसंस्करणn. repairing of dilapidations View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
खण्डस्फुटप्रतिसंस्करणn. (pāli- ṇḍa-phulla--.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
किंज्योतिस्(k/iṃ--) mfn. having which light? View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कीर्तिसारm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कीर्तिसेनm. Name of a nephew of the serpent-king vāsuki- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कीर्तिसिंहदेवm. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कीर्तिसोमm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कीर्तिस्तम्भm. a column of fame View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कृतिसाध्यत्वn. the state of being accomplished by exertion. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिस्पृश्m. an inhabitant of the earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिसुरm. equals -deva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिसुतm. (equals -ja-) the planet Mars View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिसुतm. Name of the demon naraka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कुन्तिसुराष्ट्रm. plural the kunti-s and the inhabitants of surāṣṭra- gaRa kārtakaujapādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मध्येज्योतिस्f. a kind of Vedic metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महागणपतिसहस्रनामस्तोत्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महागणपतिस्तवराजm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महागणपतिस्तोत्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महाज्योतिस्m. "having great splendour", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मङ्गलप्रतिसरm. equals -sūtra-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मङ्गलप्रतिसरm. the cord of an amulet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मनोज्योतिस्(m/ano--) mfn. one whose light is the intellect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मन्त्रज्योतिस्n. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मतिसचिवm. a wise counsellor, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मेघज्योतिस्n. "drink-light", lightning, a flash of lightning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मृतिसाधनmfn. causing death View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मुहूर्तकल्पद्रुमीयसंक्रान्तिसंज्ञाकुसुमn. muhūrtakalpadruma
मुक्तिसप्तशतीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मुक्तिसारm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मुक्तिसेनm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मुक्तिसोपानn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मूर्धज्योतिस्n. equals brahma-randhra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मूर्तिसंचरmfn. going about with a body, embodied, incarnate, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मूर्तिसंचारmfn. equals -dhara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मूर्तिसनाथmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') possessing an idol of. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मूर्तिसेवनn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') worship of the idol of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नष्टाप्तिसूत्रn. "line or series of lost property", booty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नातिसमञ्जसmf(ā-or ī-)n. not quite right or proper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नातिसान्द्रmfn. not too tough View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नातिस्वल्पmfn. not too short View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नातिस्वस्थmfn. not very well View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निरतिसयत्वn. niratiśaya
निर्ज्योतिस्mfn. lightless, dark View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निर्वृतिस्थानn. place of eternal bliss (wrong reading nir-vṛtti-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निष्पतिसुताf. having no husband and no sons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नीतिसंधिm. essence of all policy (Bombay edition) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नीतिसंग्रहm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नीतिसंहिताf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नीतिसंकलनn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नीतिसमुच्चयm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नीतिसारmn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नीतिसारसंग्रहm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नीतिसुमावलिf. (!) Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नीतिसुमावलिf. Name (also title or epithet) of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पदज्योतिस्n. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पद्धतिसारm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पक्तिस्थानn. place of digestion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चगतिसमतिक्रान्तm. "having passed through the 5 forms of existence", Name of gautama- buddha- (some reckon 6 formsSee ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चविंशतिसाहस्रिकाf. Name of a prajñāpāramitā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परमार्थसंवृतिसत्यनिर्देशm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पराशरस्मृतिसंग्रहm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पतिसहगमननिषेधनिरासप्रकाशm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पतिसेवाf. devotion to a husband View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पत्तिसैन्यn. () a body or troop of infantry. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पत्तिसंहतिf. () a body or troop of infantry. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पितासुमतिसंवादm. Name of chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रजापतिस्मृतिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रजापतिसृष्ट(j/ā-p-) mfn. created by prajā-pati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रकृतिसम्पन्नmfn. endowed with a noble nature
प्रकृतिसिद्धmfn. effected by nature, natural View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रकृतिसिद्धn. true or real nature View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रकृतिस्थmfn. being in the original or natural state, genuine, unaltered, unimpaired, normal, well, healthy (also -sthita- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रकृतिस्थmfn. inherent, innate, incidental to nature View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रकृतिस्थmfn. bare, stripped of everything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रकृतिस्थदर्शनmfn. one who has recovered the faculty of sight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रकृतिस्थितmfn. See -stha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रकृतिसुभगmfn. naturally pleasant or agreeable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रकृतिविकृतिस्वभावm. the relation of (a word in its) radical form to (itself under the) mutations (of inflection etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रलयस्थितिसर्गm. plural destruction, preservation and creation (of the world). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्राप्तिसमm. a particular jāti- (q.v) in logic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रशमरतिसूस्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसच्A1. -sacate-, to pursue with vengeance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसद्P. -sīdati- () , to start back, abhor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसदनम्ind. every one to his dwelling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसद्मind. at or in every house View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसदृक्ष (pr/ati--) mfn. similar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसदृश्(pr/ati--) mfn. similar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसह्A1. -sahate-, to be a match for, overcome (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसमmfn. equal to, a match for View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसामmfn. (prob.) unkind, unfriendly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसमाधाP. -dadhāti-, to put back again, replace, re-arrange, restore ; to redress, correct (an error) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसमाधानn. collecting one's self again, composure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसमाधानn. cure, remedy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसमादिश्P. -diśati-, to answer, reply ; to order, command View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसमादिष्टmfn. bidden, directed, ordered, commanded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसमाहितmfn. fitted to the bowstring (as an arrow) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसामन्तm. "a hostile neighbour", enemy, adversary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसमन्तम्(pr/ati--) ind. on every side, everywhere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसमापनn. ( āp-) the going against, attacking (with genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसामर्थ्यn. relative suitableness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसमस्P. -asyati- (ind.p. -āsam-), to put back again to its place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसमास्A1. -āste-, to be a match for, cope with, resist (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसमासनn. the being a match for, with standing, resisting (with genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसमासितmfn. equalled, opposed, fought View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसमाश्रितmfn. ( śri-) depending on (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसमय्यind. having arranged (prob. wrong reading for -śamayya-;See prati-śam-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसम्बन्धिind. according to the respective connection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसम्भूP. -bhavati-, to apply or give one's self to (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसम्बुद्धmfn. ( budh-) restored to consciousness. recovered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंचर्P. -carati-, to meet, come together View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंचरm. going or moving backwards (a-pr-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंचरm. re-absorption or resolution (back again into prakṛti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंचरm. that into which anything is re-absorbed or resolved View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंचरm. a place of resort, haunt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंदेशm. a message in return, answer to a message View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंदेष्टव्यmfn. (an answer) to be given in reply to a message View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंधाP. A1. -dadhāti-, -dhatte-, (P.) to put together again, re-arrange ; (A1.) to put on, adjust (an arrow) ; (A.) to return, reply ; (P. A1.) to remember, recollect ; (A1.) to comprehend, understand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंधानn. putting together again, joining together etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंधानn. a juncture, the period of transition between two ages View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंधानn. memory, recollection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंधानn. praise, panegyric View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंधानn. self-command, suppression of feeling for a time View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंधानn. a remedy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसांधानिकm. (fr. saṃdhāna-) a bard, panegyrist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंधातृm. one who recollects or remembers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंधेयmfn. to be opposed (apr-,"irresistible") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंधिm. reunion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंधिm. re-entry into (compound) or into the womb View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंधिm. re-birth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंधिm. the period of transition between two ages View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंधिm. resistance, adverseness (of fate) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंधिज्ञानn. recognition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंधितmfn. (see saṃdhaya-) fastened, strengthened, confirmed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंदिश्P. -diśati-, to give a person (accusative or haste with genitive case) a message or commission in return ; to send back a message to (genitive case) ; to order, command View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंग्रह्P. A1. -grihṇāti-, ṇīte-, to receive, accept ; to meet with, find
प्रतिसंहारm. drawing in, withdrawing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंहारm. giving up, resigning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंहारm. keeping away, abstention from (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंहारm. compression, diminution View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंहारm. comprehension View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंहरणीयn. (sc. karman-) a particular punishment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंहितSee column 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंहितmfn. aimed at, directed against View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंहृP. A1. -harati-, te-, to draw together, contract (with ātmānam-,"one's self" id est to shrink, return to its usual bed, said of the sea) ; to draw or keep back, withdraw (as a weapon, the eye etc.) ; to take away, put off ; to absorb, annihilate, destroy ; to check, stop, repress etc. ; to change : Causal -hārayati-, to retract View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंहृष्P. -harṣati-, to rejoice again, be glad View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंहृष्टmfn. glad, merry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंहृतmfn. kept back, checked, restrained View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंहृतmfn. comprehended, included View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंहृतmfn. compressed, reduced in bulk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसमीक्ष्A1. -īkṣate-, to hold out, persevere (Scholiast or Commentator equals jīv-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसमीक्षणn. looking at again, returning a glance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसमिन्ध्A1. -inddhe-, to kindle again, rekindle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंजातmfn. ( jan-) born, sprung up, arisen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंजिहीर्षुmfn. (fr. Desiderative) wishing to withdraw or to be freed from (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंज्ञाA1. -jānīte-, to be kindly disposed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंकाशm. ( kāś-) a similar appearance, resemblance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंख्या(only ind.p. khyāya-), to count or reckon up, number View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंख्याf. consciousness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंख्यानn. the tranquil consideration of a matter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंख्यानिरोधm. (with ) the conscious annihilation of an object (?) (see a-prati-nirodha-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंक्रम्A1. -kramate-, to go back again, come to an end : Causal -krāmayati-, to cause to go back or return View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंक्रमm. re-absorption, dissolution (m. Calcutta edition also krāma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंक्रमाf. impression View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंक्रुद्धmfn. ( krudh-) angry with, wroth against (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंकुचितmfn. closed, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंलयनn. ( -) retirement into a lonely place, privacy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंलयनn. complete absorption View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंलीनmfn. retired, in privacy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंलीनmfn. complete retirement for the sake of meditation
प्रतिसम्मोदनn. greeting, salutation (alsof(ā-).) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसम्मोदनकथाf. friendly address as a salutation
प्रतिसम्मुद्Caus. -modayati-, to give friendly greeting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंरब्धmfn. (plural) holding one another by the hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंरब्धmfn. excited, furious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंरभ्A1. -rabhate-, to seize, take hold of (Bombay edition -saṃ-carate-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंरुद्धmfn. ( rudh-) contracted into itself shrunk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंसंसर्गm. equals pratisarga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंसंस्कारm. restoration (raṃ-kṛ-,to restore) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंसंस्कारणाf. idem or 'm. restoration (raṃ-kṛ-,to restore) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंसंस्कृतmfn. joined or united with (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंसंसृष्टmfn. mingled with (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंसंसृष्टभक्तmfn. one who is temperate in eating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंस्कारम्ind. at every ceremony. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंस्कृ( skṛ- equals kṛ-;only Potential -kuryāt-), to repair, restore View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंस्मृP. -smarati-, to remember View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंश्रिP. -śrayati-, to seek refuge or protection in reply View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंसृज्P. -sṛjati-, to mingle with (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंश्रु(only ind.p. -śrutya-), to Promise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंस्तम्भ्(only ind.p. -stabhya-), to strengthen, encourage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंस्तरn. ( stṛ-) friendly reception View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंस्थानn. ( sthā-) settling in, entering into (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंवद्A1. -vadate-, to agree with any one (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंवादिन्(?), m. an adversary (probably for prati-- vādin-), . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंवत्सरम्ind. at every year, yearly commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंवेदकmfn. giving detailed information View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंवेदनn. experiment, enjoyment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंवेदिन्mfn. feeling, experiencing, being conscious of anything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंवेष्ट्A1. -veṣṭate-, to shrivel, shrink up, contract View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंविद् Causal -vedayati-, to recognize (?) (A1. parasmE-pada -vedayamāna-,feeling ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंविद्f. analytical science (4 with Buddhists) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंविधानn. (1. dhā-) a counter action, stroke in return View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंविन्निश्चयावताराf. Name of a particular dhāraṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंवित्प्राप्तm. Name of a bodhi-sattva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंयत्A1. -yatate-, to fight against View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंयातmfn. ( -) going against, assailing (with accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंयत्तmfn. completely prepared or armed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंयोद्धृm. an adversary in war View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंयोद्धृm. an adversary in war View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंयुध्(only perfect tense -yuyudhuḥ-), to resist an attack together View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसंयुक्तmfn. ( yuj-) bound or attached to something else (Bombay edition) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसङ्गक्षिकाf. a cloak to keep off the dust (worn by Buddhist mendicants) (prob. wrong reading for -saṃkakṣikā-).
प्रतिसङ्गिन्mfn. ( sañj-) cleaving or clinging to, adhering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसङ्गिन्mfn. (a-pr-) not meeting with any obstacle, irresistible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसरm. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) a cord or ribbon used as an amulet worn round the neck or wrist at nuptials etc. etc. etc. (alsof(ā-).[ ];and n.[ gaRa ardharcādi-]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसरm. a bracelet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसरm. a line returning into itself. circle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसरm. assailing, an attack (a-pr-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसरm. a wreath, garland View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसरm. a follower, servant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसरm. the rear of an army View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसरm. dressing or anointing a wound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसरm. day-break View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसरबन्धm. a particular nuptial ceremony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसरबन्धm. plural Name of particular magical verses or formulas protecting from demons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसरबन्धm. n. a watch, guard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसरबन्धाf. (see above) a female servant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसरबन्धाf. (with ) one of the 5 protectors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसरणmfn. leaning or resting upon (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound'; pratisaraṇatā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसरणn. streaming back (of rivers) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसरणn. leaning or resting on (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसारणn. (fr. Causal) dressing and anointing the edges of a wound (or an instrument for doing so) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसारणn. Name of a particular process to which minerals (especially quicksilver) are subjected View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसरणताf. pratisaraṇa
प्रतिसारणीयmfn. to be dressed or anointed (as a wound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसारणीयmfn. to be applied for dressing a wound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसर्गSee under prati-sṛj-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसर्गm. secondary or continued creation out of primitive matter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसर्गm. dissolution, destruction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसर्गm. the portion of a purāṇa- which treats of the destruction and renovation of the world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसर्गम्ind. in every creation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसारिन्mfn. going round or from one to the other View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसारितmfn. (fr. Causal) repelled, removed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसारितmfn. dressed (as a wound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसर्यmfn. present in an amulet or at an incantation ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसत्कृतmfn. honoured in return, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रातिसत्वनम्ind. in the direction of the satvan- (sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order) (-sutvan/am- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसव्यmfn. in inverted order, inverted, reverse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसायम्ind. towards evening View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसेनाf. an opposing or hostile army View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसेव्A1. -sevate-, to pursue, follow (pleasure) ; to be kind towards (accusative), serve, honour (equals prati-juṣ-) on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रातिसीमm. (fr. -sīman-) a neighbour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसिंहm. a hostile lion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसीराf. a curtain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसीराf. a screen or wall of cloth, an outer tent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्कन्धm. every shoulder (instrumental case"each on his shoulder") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्कन्धm. Name of an attendant of skanda- (varia lectio kapi-sk-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्कन्धम्ind. upon the shoulders View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्कन्धम्m. in every section of a book View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्खलितmfn. ( skhal-) warded off (equals prati-ṣkuta- ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्कीर्णn. the being hurt or injured (see prati-kṝ-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्कॄP. -kirati- (perfect tense -caskare-), to hurt, injure, to tear to pieces View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्मृP. A1. -smarati-, te-, to remember, recollect (accusative) : Causal -smārayati-, to remind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्मृतिf. "recollection", Name of a particular kind of magic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्नातmfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्नातmfn. ( snā-) bathed, washed (see prati-ṣṇāta-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्नेहm. (prob.) wrong reading for pati-s- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसोमाf. a kind of plant (equals mahiṣa-vallī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसोमोदकद्विजम्ind. against the moon or water or a Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्पन्दनn. ( spand-) throbbing, vibration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्पर्ध्A1. -spardhate-, to emulate, compete, rival View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्पर्धाf. emulation, rivalry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्पर्धिन्mfn. emulous, coping with (genitive case), a rival View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्पर्धिन्mfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') resembling, like View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्पश () mfn. ( spaś-) spying, watching, lying in wait. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्पाशन() mfn. ( spaś-) spying, watching, lying in wait. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्फुर्P. -sphurati-, to push away, remove View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसृP. -sarati- (ind.p. -sāram- ), to go against, rush upon, attack, assail (accusative) ; to return, go home ; to go round or from place to place (not only on the main road) : Causal -sārayati-, to cause to go back ; to put back again, restore to its place ; to spread over, tip or touch with (instrumental case) ; to put asunder, sever, separate : Passive voice to void or emit per anum (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसृज्P. -sṛjati-, to hurl or utter in reply (a curse) ; to send away, despatch (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्रोतmf(ā-)n. equals next (mandākinīm pratisrotām anuvraja-,go up the anda1kini1 id est up or against the stream) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्रोतम्ind. () against the stream, up the stream View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्रोतम्ind. (wrong reading śrotas-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्रोतस्ind. ( ) against the stream, up the stream View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्रोतस्ind. (wrong reading śrotas-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसृप्P. -sarpati-, to creep back ; to creep into, enter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसृष्टmfn. (varia lectio śiṣṭa-,only ) despatched, despised, celebrated, given. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसृतmfn. met, encountered, pushed back, removed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्तब्धmfn. leaned against, pressed, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्तब्धmfn. stopped, checked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्तब्धmfn. obstructed, constipated (see prati-ṣṭabdha-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्तम्भ्P. A1. -stabhnāti-, -sṭabhate-, to lean or press (A1."one's self") against View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्थानम्ind. in every place, everywhere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्त्रीmfn. lying on a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसुन्दरीf. equals -yuvati- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसुप्तmfn. ( svap-) fallen asleep, sleeping View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसूर्य(or yaka-) m. a mock sun, parhelion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसूर्य(or yaka-) m.a kind of lizard, a chameleon (which lies or basks in the sun) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसूर्यम्ind. opposite to the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसूर्यमत्स्यm. a particular appearance in the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसूर्यमत्स्यm. (according to to commentator or commentary) a mock sun and a comet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिसूर्यशयानकm. "lying or basking in the sun", a kind of lizard, a chameleon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्वाहाकारम्ind. at every exclamation svāhā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्वम्ind. "each for itself."one by one, singly commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्वन्P. -svanati-, to resound : Causal -svānayati-, to make resound
प्रतिस्वनm. (also plural) echo, reverberation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्वरm. ( svar-) a rever berated sound, echo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिस्वरm. a focus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रातिस्विकmf(ī-)n. (fr. -sva-) own, not common to others View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रातिस्विकmf(ī-)n. granting to every one his own due View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्यग्ज्योतिस्n. the inward light View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रेमभक्तिस्तोत्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रीतिसम्बोध्यङ्गn. (with Buddhists) joyfulness (one of the 7 requisites for attaining supreme knowledge) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रीतिसंदर्भm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रीतिसंगतिf. a covenant of friendship, friendly alliance with (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रीतिसंयोगm. relation of friendship View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रीतिस्निग्धmfn. moist through love or charming through affection (said of the eyes) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरज्योतिस्n. Name of the region or the world of agni- (wrong reading for puro-j-?) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरस्ताज्ज्योतिस्(RPrst.) n. Name of a metre. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरोज्योतिस्mfn. preceded by light or radiance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पूर्वपदप्रकृतिस्वरmfn. having the original accent of the first member of a compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रक्तातिसार m. flow of blood, dysentery, bloody flux View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रतिसहचरm. " rati-'s consort", Name of kāma-deva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रतिसंग्रहव्याख्याf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रतिसंहितmfn. accompanied with love, abounding in affection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रतिसंयोगm. sexual union View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रतिसारm. or n. Name of work
रतिसर्वस्वn. the whole essence of love View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रतिसर्वस्वn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रतिसत्वराf. Trigonella Corniculata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रतिसेनm. Name of a king of the cola-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रतिसेनm. of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रतिसुन्दरm. a kind of coitus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सदाचारस्तुतिस्तोत्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
षड्विंशतिसूत्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सहस्रज्योतिस्m. Name of a son of su-bhrāj- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सज्योतिस्mfn. having the same or a common light View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सज्योतिस्ind. according to the light (id est either by day from the disappearance of the stars till sunset, or by night from sunset till the appearance of the stars) (tiṣi- idem or 'mfn. having the same or a common light ' ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सज्योतिस्ind. as long as the sun is in the sky View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शकलज्योतिस्m. a kind of venomless snake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सकलशान्तिसंग्रहm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शकनृपतिसंवत्सरm. a year of the śaka- era View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शक्तिसंगमामृतn. Name of Tantric work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शक्तिसंगमतन्त्रn. Name of Tantric work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शक्तिसेनm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शक्तिसिद्धन्तm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शक्तिसिंहm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शक्तिस्तोत्रn. Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शक्तिस्वामिन्m. Name of a minister of muktāpīḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समाप्तिसाधनn. means of accomplishment or completion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समतिसृष्टmfn. ( sṛj-) one who has taken leave, allowed to go View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समतिस्रुतmfn. ( sru-) entirely flowed asunder, become thoroughly liquid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समवृत्तिसारm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सम्भूतभूरिगजविजिपदातिसैन्यmfn. possessed of an army (consisting) of numerous elephants and horses and foot-soldiers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संकष्टनाशनगणपतिस्तोत्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सांख्यवृत्तिसारm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सांख्यवृत्तिसारm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सम्प्रतिसंचरm. re-absorption or resolution (brāhmaḥsam-pratisaṃcara-,"re-absorption into brahma-") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शान्तिसद्मन्n. a room for performing any propitiatory rite for averting evil (equals -gṛha-)
शान्तिसलिलn. propitiatory water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शान्तिसारm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शान्तिसारभाष्यn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शान्तिसर्वस्वn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शान्तिसोमm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शान्तिस्तवm. Name of several works (see bṛhac-chānti-st-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शान्तिसूक्तn. Name of a hymn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शान्तिसूरिm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तर्षिस्मृतिसंग्रहm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तशक्तिस्तोत्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्ततिसम्बन्धm. a collection of 70 tales View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्ततिसंख्याकmfn. amounting to 70 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तविंशतिसाधुलक्षणn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शारीरकसम्बन्धोक्तिसंक्षेपm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सर्वदेवताप्रतिस्थ्ठासारसंग्रहm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सर्वज्योतिस्m. Name of an ekāha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सर्वस्मृतिसंग्रहm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सर्वातिसारिन्mfn. suffering from diarrhoea caused by all the humours View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सर्वव्यूहरतिस्वभावनयसंदर्शनm. Name of a king of the gandharva-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शतज्योतिस्m. Name of a son of su-bhrāj- (according to to "the moon") . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सातिसारmfn. suffering from diarrhoea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सातिसारmfn. sinful, guilty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सत्यज्योतिस्(saty/a--) mfn. having real splendour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शेखरज्योतिस्m. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिसारकm. "having a dark essence", Diospyros Embryopteris View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शिवभक्तिसुधानिधिm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शिवभक्तिसुधार्णवm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शिवभक्तिसुधोदयm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शिवपारम्पर्यप्रतिपादिकश्रुतिस्मृत्युदाहरणn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शिवशक्तिसिद्धिf. Name of work by harṣa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्लेष्मातिसारm. dysentery or diarrhoea produced by vitiated phlegm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसाध्यmfn. capable of being proved by law View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसागरm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसागरसंग्रह m. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसागरसारm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसंग्रहm. Name of an ancient law-book (often quoted) and of other compilations View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसंग्रहरत्नव्याख्यानn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसंग्रहसारm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसंहिताf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसम्मतmfn. approved by law View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसंस्कारm. impression (caused) by memory (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसंस्कारकौस्तुभm. Name of work
स्मृतिसंस्काररहस्यn. Name of work
स्मृतिसंस्कारवादm. Name of work
स्मृतिसंस्कारविचारm. Name of work
स्मृतिसमुच्चयm. "law-collection", Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसारm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसारसंग्रहm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसारसमुच्चयm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसारसर्वस्वn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसारावलीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसारव्यवस्थाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसरोजसुन्दरmn. (?) Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसर्वस्वn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसिद्धmfn. established by law View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसिद्धान्तसंग्रहm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसिन्धुm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मृतिसुधाकरm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शोकातिसारm. diarrhoea produced by sorrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सोमार्कप्रतिसंकाशmfn. resembling the sun and moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रीपतिसंहिताf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिसागरm. the ocean (id est the whole substance or essence) of sacred knowledge (viṣṇu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिसंग्रहm. Name of two vedānta- works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिसंक्षिप्तवर्णनn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिसारm. Name of two works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिसारपञ्चरत्नn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिसारसमुच्चयm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिसारसमुद्धरणप्रकरणn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिस्मृतिf. dual number the veda- and human tradition or law View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिस्मृतिविहितmfn. enjoined by the veda- and human tradition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिस्मृतिविरुद्धmfn. opposed to the veda- and human tradition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिस्मृत्याअइतात्पर्यn. Name of a vedānta- work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिस्मृत्युदितmfn. declared or enjoined by the veda- and human law View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिस्फोटाf. Gynandropsis Pentaphylla View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिस्तुतिf. (equals veda-stuti-) Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिसुखmfn. pleasant to the ear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिसुखदmfn. giving pleasure to the ear, pleasant to hear. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिसुखावहmfn. giving pleasure to the ear, pleasant to hear. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिसूक्तिमालाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतिसूत्रतात्पर्यामृतn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिस्थापकmfn. restoring anything to its original state or condition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिस्थापकm. the capability of restoration to an original state or position, elasticity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्तुतिसारm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्तुतिसूक्तिमालाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शुचिनेत्ररतिसम्भवm. Name of a king of the gandharva-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुगतिसोपानn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुज्योतिस्(or -jyot/is-) mfn. shining very brightly, radiant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शुकसुक्तिसुधाकरm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शुक्रज्योतिस्(śukr/a-) mfn. having bright splendour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सूक्तिसाधुत्वमालिकाf. Name of a poem (perhaps identical with kti-mālikā-).
सूक्तिसहस्रn. Name of a collection of a thousand beautiful verses. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शुक्तिसाह्वयाf. Name of a city (equals śukti-matī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सूक्तिसंग्रहm. Name of a kāvya- by kṛṣṇa-dāsa- kāyastha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शुक्तिस्पर्शm. a dark spot or flaw on a pearl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुमतिस्वामिन्m. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सूर्यज्योतिस्mfn. having the sun's light View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुवर्णज्योतिस्mfn. having a golden lustre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्वर्ज्योतिस्mfn. (sv^ar--) shining with heaven's light View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्वर्ज्योतिस्n. Name of two sāman-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्वयंज्योतिस्(svay/aṃ--) mfn. self-shining View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमोज्योतिस्m. "light in darkness", a fire-fly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तृणज्योतिस्n. Name of a shining grass View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उभयतोज्योतिस्mfn. having light on both sides View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उभयतोज्योतिस्mfn. "having a jyotiḥ-ṣṭoma-, sacrifice on both sides", being between two jyotiḥ-ṣṭoma- sacrifices View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उमापतिसेविन्mfn. worshipping śiva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपपत्तिसमm. (in logic) a kind of contradiction in which both the contradicting assertions are supposed to be demonstrable (exempli gratia, 'for example' sound is uneternal, because it is produced;it is eternal, because it is not tangible) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपरिष्टाज्ज्योतिस्n. idem or 'f. Name of a variety of the jyotiṣmatī- (q.v) metre (having twelve instants in the last line, and eight instants in each of the three preceding lines).' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ऊर्ध्वज्योतिस्mfn. one whose light tends upwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वाग्ज्योतिस्(v/āg--) mfn. receiving light or enlightenment by speech View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वैशम्पायननीतिसंग्रहm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वनस्पतिसवm. Name of particular sacrificial rite View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वरदगणपतिस्तोत्रn. Name of stotra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वरातिसर्गm. the granting a boon or request View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वर्तिस्n. circuit, orbit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वर्तिस्n. lodging, abode (equals mārga- ; equals gṛha- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वास्तोष्पतिसूक्तn. Name of a hymn (prob. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वासुदेवज्योतिस्m. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वातातिसारm. dysentery produced by vitiated wind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वेदान्तश्रुतिसारसंग्रहName of work m. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वेदान्तसूत्रवृत्तिसंक्षिप्ताf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विमतिसमुद्घातिन्m. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विंशतिसाहस्रmf(ā-)n. 20, 000 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विंशतिस्मृतिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विंशतिस्तोत्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विनयज्योतिस्m. (?) Name of a muni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विनायकशान्तिसंग्रहm. Name of work or chapter from work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विप्रतिसारn. ( m.fr. sṛ-) repentance
विप्रतिसारn. evil, wickedness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विप्रतिसारn. anger, wrath View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विप्रतिसारवत्mfn. equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विप्रतिसारिन्mfn. full of repentance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विप्रतिसारिन्mfn. afflicted, dejected View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विष्णुभक्तिस्तुतिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विष्वग्ज्योतिस्m. Name of the eldest of the 100 sons of śata-jit-,
विश्वज्योतिस्mfn. (viśv/a--) all-brilliant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विश्वज्योतिस्m. Name of an ekāha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विश्वज्योतिस्m. of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विश्वज्योतिस्f. Name of particular bricks (supposed to represent fire, the wind, and the sun) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विश्वज्योतिस्n. Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विथूतिस्तोत्र(?) n. Name of a stotra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वृत्तिसंग्रहm. Name of a concise commentator or commentary on pāṇini-'s sūtra-s (by rāma-candra-, a pupil of nāgoji-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वृत्तिस्थmfn. being in any state or condition or employment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वृत्तिस्थm. a lizard, chameleon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यतिसंदह्P. -dahati-, to burn up entirely View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यतिसेव् Passive voice -sevyate-, to be well furnished or provided with (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यतिसृonly ind.p. -sṛtya-, prob."in each case","on every occasion" (gurum anu-sṛtya- ) : Caus. -sārayati- (with kathām-), to converse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यतिसृप्P. -sarpati- (), to move to and fro, fly in every direction (as arrows) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यवहाराङ्गस्मृतिसर्वस्वn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यवहारार्थस्मृतिसारसमुच्चयm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यजतिस्थानn. the place or position of the vedi- or sacrificial altar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यतिसमाराधनविधिm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यतिसंस्कारm. Name of chapter of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यतिसंस्कारप्रयोगm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यतिसंस्कारविधिm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यतिसंस्कारविधिनिर्णयm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यतिसांतपनn. Name of a particular kind of penance (a pañca-gavya-lasting for three days), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यतिस्वधर्मभिक्षाविधिm. Name of a work (containing rules for the regulation of life on the part of religious mendicants, attributed to śaṃkarācārya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यत्याचारसंग्रहीययतिसंस्कारप्रयोगm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
येयज्ञेनेतिसूक्तName of the hymn (beginning with ye yajñena-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
योगवृत्तिसंग्रहm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
युक्तिस्नेहप्रपूरणीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यूथपतिसकाशम्ind. into the presence of the chief of the herd View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
Apte Search
Results for tis71 results
atisaktiḥ अतिसक्तिः f. Close contact or proximity; great attachment; अतिसक्तिमेत्य वरुणस्य दिशा Śi.9.7.
atisandhā अतिसन्धा 3 U. 1 To deceive, over-reach, cheat; त्वया चन्द्रमसा च विश्वसनीयाभ्यामतिसन्धीयते कमिजनसार्थः Ś.3; कथं मया ब्रह्मबन्धुरतिसन्धेयः V.2. -2 To prejudice, wrong, injure, encroach upon; मूलद्वारं नान्यैर्द्वारैरतिसन्दधीत रूपर्द्ध्या Bṛi. S.53.82.
atisandhānam अतिसन्धानम् 1 Cheating, deception; परातिसन्धान˚ Ś.5.25; trick, fraud. -2 Capture. -दण्डा˚ = Capture by means of the army. Kau. A.12.
atisandhyā अतिसन्ध्या The time about the twilights, the time just before and after the morning and evening twilight.
atisarpaṇam अतिसर्पणम् Violent motion or movement (of the child in the womb). गर्भसंक्रमणे वाचि मर्मणामतिसर्पणे Mb.14.17.19.
atisarva अतिसर्व a. Transcending or superior to all, above all. वाक्त्वचेनातिसर्वेण चन्द्रलेखेव पक्षतौ । Bk.4.16. -र्वः The Supreme Being; अतिसर्वाय शर्वाय Mugdha.
atisāntapanam अतिसान्तपनम् A kind of very austere penance; (गोमूत्रगोमयक्षीरदधिसर्पिःकुशोदकान्येकाहं द्वितीयमुपवसेत्तत्सान्तपनम्; त्र्यहाभ्यस्तैश्चातिसान्तपनम् Viṣṇu Smṛiti).
atisāṃvatsara अतिसांवत्सर a (री f.) Extending over more than a year; नातिसांवत्सरीं वृद्धिं न चादृष्टां विनिर्हरेत् Ms.8 153.
atisāmyā अतिसाम्या [अत्यन्तं साम्यं मधुना अस्याः] N. of the plant मधुयष्टि, sweet juice of the Bengal Madder, Rubiat Manjith. (Mar. ज्येष्टमध)
atis अतिसृ 1 P. Ved. To extend. -Caus. 1 To extend. -2 To exert oneself to drive out (as a fluid).
atisara अतिसर a. 1 One who goes beyond or exceeds. -2 Leader, foremost. -रः Effort _x001F_6or exertion.
atisṛj अतिसृज् 6 P. 1 To give, present, bestow, grant; अतिसृष्टो राज्यार्धविभागः Mu.2; पुरा नारायणेनेयमतिसृष्टा मरुत्वते V.1.17; राघवाय तनयां...अतिसृष्टवान् R.11.48; अनसूयाति- सृष्टेन 12.27. -2To dismiss, abandon, part with. -3 To permit, allow. -4 To remit, forgive (as fine &c.). -5 To leave as a remnant.
atisargaḥ अतिसर्गः 1 Granting (of a wish); giving; स्रष्टुर्वरातिसर्गात्तु मया तस्य दुरात्मनः R.1.42. -2 Granting permission (to do what one likes कामचारानुज्ञा) P.III 3.163, one of the senses of the Potential अतिसर्गाच्च पटवो दृष्ट्वा Rām.5.62.7. -3 Dismissal, discharge, parting with; giving away; स्त्रीणां दानविक्रयातिसर्गा विद्यन्ते न पुंसः Nir. -4 Favour; तवातिसर्गाद्देवेश प्रजापत्यमिदं पदम् । Mb.8.34.2. -a. [सर्गं सृष्टिमतिक्रान्तः] Everlasting, permanent (नित्य); emancipated (मुक्त).
atisarjanam अतिसर्जनम् 1 Giving, granting; consigning विधुरां ज्वलनातिसर्जनात् Ku.4.32, consigning to the flames; दीयतामिति वचो$तिसर्जने Śi.14.48; तत्तदीयविशिखातिसर्जनात् Ki. 13.57 giving back. -2 Liberality, munificence. -3 Killing. -4 Deception. -5 Separation from, parting with.
atisṛṣṭi अतिसृष्टि Superior creation सैषा ब्रह्मणो$तिसृष्टिः Bṛi. Ār. Up.1.4.6.
atisaurabha अतिसौरभ a. Very fragrant. -भम् Great fragrance. -भः The mango tree
atisauhityam अतिसौहित्यम् Stuffing oneself with food; न ˚त्यमाचरेत् Ms.4.62.
atisparśa अतिस्पर्श a. Not liberal, niggardly, mean-spirited. -र्शः Slight contact or absence of contact of the tongue and palate in pronunciation; epithet of the semivowels and vowels.
atisnehaḥ अतिस्नेहः Over-affection, ˚हः कार्यदर्शी V.2 sees or finds what is to be done; ˚हः पापशङ्की Ś.4 is apt to suspect evil.
apratisaṃkrama अप्रतिसंक्रम a. Having no intermixture.
apratisaṃkhya अप्रतिसंख्य a. Unobserved, unnoticed; ˚आख्य(ख्या)- निरोधः unobserved nullity, annihilation of an object; one of the three topics included by the Buddhas under the category of निरूप, the other two being प्रतिसंख्या- निरोध wilful destruction, as of a jar by a mallet, and आकाश the ethereal element.
jyotis ज्योतिस् n. [द्युत्-इसुन् आदेर्दस्य जः. ज्युत्-इसुन् वा] 1 Light, lustre, brightness, flash; ज्योतिरेकं जगाम Ś.5.3; R.2. 75; Me.5. -2 Light of Brahman, light regarded as the Supreme spirit; Bg.5.24;13.17; अथ यदतः परो दिवो ज्योतिर्दीप्यते Ch. Up.3.13.7; U.4.18. -3 Lightning. -4 A heavenly body. -5 A heavenly body, a luminary (planet, star &c.); ज्योतिर्भिरुद्यद्भिरिव त्रियामा Ku.7.21; Bg.1.21; H.1.21; Ku.2.19; Ś.7.6. -6 Brightness of the sky, day-light (opp. तमस्). -7 The sun and moon (dual). -8 Light as the divine principle of life, intelligence. -9 The science of the course of heavenly bodies; astronomy. See ज्योतिष. -1 The faculty of seeing. -11 The celestial world. -12 A Cow; ŚB. on MS.1.3.49. -m. 1 The sun. -2 Fire; ज्योति- ष्कल्पोरुकेशरः (मारुतिः) Bk.9.6. -8 An epithet of Viṣṇu. -Comp. -इङ्गः, -इङ्गणः the fire-fly. -कणः a spark of fire. -गणः the heavenly bodies collectively; -चक्रम् the zodiac. -ज्ञः an astronomer of astrologer. -मण्डलम् the stellar sphere. -मिलिन् m. -वी(बी)जम् a fire-fly. -रथः (ज्योतीरथः) the polar star. -लोकः the supreme spirit. -विद् m. an astronomer or astrologer. -विद्या, -शास्त्रम् (ज्योतिःशास्त्रम्) astronomy or astrology. -स्तोमः (ज्योतिष्टोमः) a Soma sacrifice considered as the type of a whole class of sacrificial ceremonies. -ज्योतिष्टोमः A kind of soma sacrifice requiring sixteen priests for its performance. -हस्ता N. of Durgā.
dyotis द्योतिस् n. 1 Light, brightness, lustre. -2 A star. -Comp. -इङ्गणः (द्योतिरिङ्गणः) a fire-fly.
pratisaṃyatta प्रतिसंयत्त p. p. Completely prepared, armed.
pratisaṃyāta प्रतिसंयात a. Assailing.
pratisaṃruddha प्रतिसंरुद्ध p. p. Shrunk, contracted. प्रतिसंलयनम् pratisaṃlayanam संलीनम् saṃlīnam प्रतिसंलयनम् संलीनम् Complele retirement.
pratisaṃvid प्रतिसंविद् f. An accurate knowledge of the particulars of anything.
pratisaṃvedaka प्रतिसंवेदक a. Giving detailed information about.
pratisaṃvedanam प्रतिसंवेदनम् Experiment, enjoyment.
pratisaṃvidhānam प्रतिसंविधानम् A counter-action.
pratisaṃstaram प्रतिसंस्तरम् Friendly reception.
pratisaṃsthānam प्रतिसंस्थानम् Setting in, entering into.
pratisaṃhṛ प्रतिसंहृ 1 P. 1 To draw back, withdraw, draw in; तत् साधुकृतसंधानं प्रतिसंहर सायकम् Ś.1.11; R.3.64; प्रतिसंहर तात बुद्धिमेताम् Bu. Ch.5.3. -2 To retract, take back, -3 To compress, reduce in bulk. -4 To change.
pratisaṃhāraḥ प्रतिसंहारः 1 Taking back, withdrawing. -2 Diminution, compression. -3 Comprehension, inclusion. -4 Yielding, giving up; रसानां प्रतिसंहारात् सौभाग्यमिह विन्दति Mb.13.57.17.
pratisaṃhṛta प्रतिसंहृत p. p. 1 Taken back, withdrawn; एष प्रति- संहृतः Ś.1. -2 Comprehended, included. -3 Compressed. -4 Checked, restrained; युगान्तकालप्रतिसंहृतात्मनः Śi.1.23.
pratisaṃkāśaḥ प्रतिसंकाशः Resemblance.
pratisaṃkramaḥ प्रतिसंक्रमः 1 Reabsorption. -2 Reflection (प्रतिच्छाया). -3 Dissolution (प्रलय); तत्त्वानां भगवंस्तेषां कतिधा प्रतिसंक्रमः Bhāg.3.7.37.
pratisaṃkhyā प्रतिसंख्या Consciousness.
pratisaṃkhyānam प्रतिसंख्यानम् 1 The tranquil consideration of a matter; युक्तो योगं प्रति सदा प्रतिसंख्यानमेव च Mb.13.141.83. -2 The Sāṅkhya Philosophy.
pratisaṃgakṣikā प्रतिसंगक्षिका A cloak to keep off dust.
pratisaṃgin प्रतिसंगिन् a. 1 Clinging or adhering to, attached to. -2 Irresistible.
pratisaṃcaraḥ प्रतिसंचरः 1 Moving backwards. -2 Reabsorption. -3 Especially, reabsorption (of the world) back into Prakṛiti. -4 A place or resort, haunt.
pratisaṃdeśaḥ प्रतिसंदेशः A message in return, an answer to a message.
pratisaṃdhā प्रतिसंधा 3 U. 1 To re-adjust. -2 To aim at, direct. -3 To conceive, comprehend. -4 To be, fasten. -5 To put on, wear. -6 To restore, return. -7 To compose oneself. -8 To fit (as an arrow to the bowstring.)
pratisaṃhita प्रतिसंहित p. p. Aimed at, directed against.
pratisaṃdhānam प्रतिसंधानम् 1 Joining together, uniting again; नैको$पि (उपायः) च्छिन्नकण्ठप्रतिसंधानपूर्वस्य प्राणलाभस्य Dk.2.2. -2 The period of transition between two ages. -3 A means, remedy. -4 Self-command, restraint of feelings or passion. -5 Praise. -6 Memory, recollection. -7 Remedy.
pratisaṃdhiḥ प्रतिसंधिः 1 Reunion. -2 Entering into the womb. -3 The period of transition between two ages. -4 Stop, cessation (उपरम); अदृष्टतो$नुपायाच्च प्रतिसन्धेश्च कर्मणः Mb. 12.26.2. -5 Rebirth.
pratisaṃdhita प्रतिसंधित a. Fastened, strengthened, confirmed; मनुरपि परेणैव प्रतिसंधितमनोरथः Bhāg.5.1.22.
pratisamādhānam प्रतिसमाधानम् Cure, remedy; दोषे प्रतिसमाधानमज्ञाते क्रियतां कथम् Bk.6.2.
pratisamāsanam प्रतिसमासनम् 1 Coping with, being a match for. -2 Resisting, opposing, withstanding.
pratisamāsita प्रतिसमासित a. Equalled, opposed; भीष्मद्रोणादयो युद्धे शक्याः प्रतिसमासितुम् Mb.3.47.26.
pratisara प्रतिसर a. Dependent, subject. -रः, -रम् 1 A cord or ribbon worn round the wrist or neck as an amulet. -2 An ornament. -3 A watch, guard. -4 Assailing, an attack. -रः 1 A servant, follower; विजये त्वर्यतां लेखः प्रतिसराय Pratijñā. -2 A bracelet, marriage-string; स्रस्तोरगप्रतिसरेण करेण पाणिः (अगृह्यत) Ki.5.33; (= कौतुकसूत्र); Māl.5.18. -3 A garland, wreath. -4 Day-break. -5 The rear of an army. -6 A form of incantation. -7 Healing or dressing a wound. -रा 1 A female servant. -2 A thread, fillet; प्रतिसरया तुरगाणां भल्लातकशालि- कुण्ठसिद्धार्थं कण्ठेषु निवघ्नीयात्.
pratisargaḥ प्रतिसर्गः 1 Secondary creation (as by the agents of one Supreme Being); संग्रहेण मया ख्यातः प्रतिसर्गस्तबानघ Bhāg.4.8.5; आदिसर्गस्तु यः सूत कथितो विस्तरेण च । प्रति- सर्गश्च ये येषामधिपास्तान् वदस्व नः ॥ Kālikā P. -2 Dissolution. -3 Continued creation out of primitive matter. -4 The portion of a Purāṇa which treats of the destruction and renovation of the world; सर्गश्च प्रतिसर्गश्च वंशो मन्वन्तराणि च । वंशानुचरितं चैव पुराणं पञ्चलक्षणम् ॥
pratisaṃdhānikaḥ प्रतिसंधानिकः A bard, panegyrist.
pratis प्रतिसृ 1 P. To go back, return. -2 To go towards, rush upon, attack, assail; दैत्यः प्रत्यसरद्देवं मत्तो मत्तमिव द्विपम् Hariv. -Caus. 1 To push backwards, replace; कनकवलयं स्रस्तं स्रस्तं मया प्रतिसार्यते Ś.3.12. -2 To repel, drive away or back.
pratisaraṇam प्रतिसरणम् Leaning or resting upon.
pratisāraṇam प्रतिसारणम् 1 Dressing the edges of a wound. -2 An instrument used for anointing a wound.
pratisārita प्रतिसारित a. 1 Repelled, removed. -2 Dressed (as a wound).
pratisīrā प्रतिसीरा A screen, curtain, wall of cloth; भावस्त्रपोर्मि- प्रतिसीरया ते न दीयते N.14.31.
pratisṛṣṭa प्रतिसृष्ट p. p. 1 Sent out, despatched. -2 Celebrated. -3 Repulsed, rejected. -4 Intoxicated (प्रमत्त according to धरणि).
pratistrī प्रतिस्त्री a. Lying on a woman; Ch. Up.
pratisnāta प्रतिस्नात p. p. Bathed.
pratisnehaḥ प्रतिस्नेहः Love in return, requital or reciprocation of love.
pratispandanam प्रतिस्पन्दनम् Throbbing, vibration.
pratispardhā प्रतिस्पर्धा Rivalry, emulation.
pratispardhin प्रतिस्पर्धिन् a. Rival, envious of. -m. A rival, competitor. प्रतिस्वनः pratisvanḥ प्रतिस्वरः pratisvarḥ प्रतिस्वनः प्रतिस्वरः 1 An echo, reverberation; दधिरे- $धिभित्ति पटहप्रतिस्वनैः स्फुटमट्टहासमिव सौधपङ्क्तयः Śi.13.31. -2 A focus.
pratisvam प्रतिस्वम् ind. One by one, singly.
prātisvika प्रातिस्विक a. (-की f.) 1 Peculiar, not common to others, one's own. -2 Granting to every one what is his due.
vartis वर्तिस् n. Ved. 1 Circuit, orbit. -2 A way, path. -3 Abode, residence.
vaipratisama वैप्रतिसम a. Unmatched; not equalled; Mb.2.
sajyotis सज्योतिस् ind. According to the light; सज्योतिः स्यादनध्यायः शेषे रात्रौ यथा दिवा Ms.4.16;5.82.
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tisr tisŕ, nm. f. of trí three, N. tisrás, i. 35, 6; ii. 35, 5.
jyotis jyót-is, n. light, iv. 50, 4; 51, 1; viii. 48, 3; x. 127, 2 [jyut = dyut shine].
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akṛtārtha a. unsatisfied.
atapas a. not practising penances; -ka, a. id.
atṛpta pp. unsatisfied, insatiate; -tâ, f. abst. n.
atuṣṭi f. dissatisfaction, discontent.
atuṣṭa pp. dissatisfied.
atṛpyat pr. pt. not becoming satisfied.
anabhiprīta pp. not satisfied.
anirvṛta pp. dissatisfied, un happy; -vriti, f. lack of pleasure, sorrow.
anugraha m. favour: -krit, a. giving satisfaction; -na, n. showing favour; -½artham, ad. in favour of; î-kri, make a token of favour; -grâhaka, a. favouring, furthering; m. sup porter; -grâhya, fp.deserving favour; fa voured by (g.); -ghatana, n. continuation.
anuttama a. (without a highest), highest, most excellent; mightiest; -uttara, a. not answering; unanswerable; n. unsatis factory answer in court: -tva, n. abst. n.; -uttara&ndot;ga, a. not billowy; -utthâna, n. lack of energy; -utpatti, f. non-production; -utpâda, m. id.; non-appearance; -utsâha, m. absence of energy; -utsâhin, a. weak willed; -utsuka-tâ, f. unassumingness, mo desty; -utsûtra-pada-nyâsa, a.without a step against the rules of policy; without a word against grammatical rules; -utseka, m. lack of presumption, modesty; -utsekin, a. unassuming, modest, humble.
anuṣṭhātavya fp. to be done, to be executed; -shthâtri, m. performer; -shthâna, n. practice, performance; -shthâ pana, n. causing to perform; -shthâyin, a. practising, performing; -shthita,pp. done, performed; -shtheya, fp. to be accomplished.
anuśaya m. repentance; revocation (of a bargain): -vat, a. penitent; -½âkshepa, m. implication of remorse: a rhet. figure; -s&asharp;sana, n. instruction; precept, doctrine; order; -sâsanîya, fp. to be instructed; to be punished; -sâsitri, m. guide, teacher; -sâ sin, a. chastising; -sâsti, f. instruction; -si kshin, a. acquiring, practising; -sishta, pp. √ sâs; -susrûshâ, f. (des. n.) obedience; -sok ana, n. lamentation;-sokin, a. lamenting for (--°ree;); -sobhin, a. splendid.
anusara a. (î) following; conform ing to: -na, n. following, pursuing; -sânu, ad. on the ridge of the hills; -sâra, m. follow ing, pursuing; conformity; (legal) precedent: -tas, in. according to (--°ree;); -sârin, a. following, attendant on; seeking out; aiming at; conform ing to; adhering to; -sevâ, f. service, attend ance; -sevin, a. addicted to, practising (--°ree;).
antarjānu a. holding the hands between the knees; ad. between the knees; -gyotis, a. having its light turned inwards; n. internal light.
aparituṣṭa pp. not pleased; -tosha, a. dissatisfied; m. dissatisfaction; -tyakta, pp. unforsaken; -tyagya, fp. not to be forsaken; -tyâga, m. non-abandonment; -tyâgya, fp. not to be abandoned; -nirvâna, pp. not quite extinguished or ended; -ni shthita, pp. not standing quite firm.
aparihata pp. unimpeded, boundless; -hâra, m. non-avoidance; -hârya, fp. unavoidable; -hîya-mâna, pr. pt. ps. not being omitted, not wanting; -hrita, pp. un avoided, practised; -hvrita, pp.unscathed.
abhyasana n. application; study; î-ya, fp. to be practised.
arax{093c}ñjita pp. dissatisfied.
arthaśāstra n. treatise on prac tical life or policy; -sauka, n. blamelessness in money matters; -srî, f. abundance of wealth; -samsiddhi, f. success of a matter; -sam graha, m. accumulation of riches; -samkaya, m. sg. pl. property, wealth; -samdeha, m. doubtful or critical case.
avanti m. pl. N. of a people; -deva, m. N. of a king; -nagarî, f. the city of Uggayinî; -pura, n., î, f. id.; -mâtri, -kâ, f. pl. the divine mothers of the Avantis; -vatî, f. N.; -vardhana, m. N.; -varman, m. N. of a king and of a poet; -sundarî, f. N.; -sena, m., â, f. N.; -svâmin, m. N. of a temple.
avasakta pp. (√ sañg) fixed; -sak thikâ, f. loin cloth: -m kri, place a cloth round the loins; -sanna, pp. ended, waned; spent; -sara, m. occasion, opportunity; right time; appropriateness, use; turn; -sárpana, n. descent; -sarpinî, f. descending cycle; -sâda, m. sitting down; sinking; exhaustion, lassi tude; defeat: -na, n. discouragement; de jection; -s&asharp;na, n. resting-place; cessation; end; death; end of a sentence or verse; pause: -bhûmi, f. acme; -sita, pp. (√ sâ) ended: -½artha, a. satisfied; -siti, f. conclusion, end; -seka, m. sprinkling; bleeding (by leeches); -sekana, n. sprinkling; water for washing; bleeding.
aśilpin m. no artist or artisan.
aśāntatanu a. whose body is not satisfied.
asaṃtāpa a. feeling no grief; -tushta, pp. dissatisfied, discontented; -to sha, m. discontent; -tyâga, m. non-renun ciation of (g.).
asādhaka a. not accomplishing; unsatisfactory; -ana, n. no means; a. destitute of resources; unfeasible: -tva, n. abst. n.
ahaṃvādin a. talking egotistic ally.
ahīna pp. not deprived of, practising (in.): -karman, a. following no low occupation; not neglecting rites.
āpyāya m. increase, becoming full; -ana, a. causing corpulency; causing well-be ing; n. satisfying; advancement; causing Soma to swell: â, f. satiety; -in, a. bestowing pros perity (--°ree;).
āraṇya a. living or growing in the forest; wild: (a)-ka, a. id.; m. forester; anchorite; n. forest-treatise (part of a Brâhmana to be studied in solitudes).
ārṣṭiṣeṇa m. descendant of Ri shtishena.
upakaraṇa n. doing a service or favour; accessory; implement, instrument; furniture; contribution; means; aid; supple mentary treatise; (á)-vat, a. supplied with means; î-kri, make a tool of; î-bhû,become a tool of; î-ya, fp. to whom a service is to be done or is done: -tâ, f. abst. n.
upaveśana n. sitting down, seat; undergoing (--°ree;); -in, a. undergoing, practising (--°ree;).
upasevaka a. courting (--°ree;); -ana, n. courting; carnal intercourse with (--°ree;); addition to, indulgence in (--°ree;); â, f. carnal intercourse with; devotion to; indulgence in (--°ree;); -in, a.serving; reverencing; worship ping; practising (--°ree;).
ṛtayā in. ad. rightly; -yúg, a. rightly yoked; well allied; -vat, a. having or speak ing truth; -s&asharp;p, a. practising piety; -stúbh, a. rightly praising.
aindrajāla n. witchcraft; -gâl ika, a. (î) referring to or practising witch craft; m. wizard, juggler; -nîla, a. (î) made of sapphire; -sira, m. kind of elephant.
karpūra m. n. camphor; -keli, m. N. of a flamingo; -gaura, n. N. of a lake (whitish like camphor); -tilaka, m. N. of an elephant; -pata, m. N. of a dyer; -mañ- garî, f. N. of a princess; -flamingo; -drama;-maya, a. consisting of or like camphor; -vi lâsa, m. N.; -saras, n. N. of a lake.
karmātman a. whose nature is action; -½anta, m. completion of work; busi ness, public affairs, management; -½antika, m. labourer, artisan: -loka, m. labourers; -½abhyâsa, m. practice of a rite.
kalā f. small part, esp. one-sixteenth; sixteenth part of the moon's disc; interest on capital; small division of time (ranging be tween 8 seconds and about 2 1/2 minutes accord ing to different statements); artistic skill; art (of which there are 64); -keli, a. practising an art as an amusement; -gña, a. understand ing an art or the arts; m. artist; -dhara, a. possessing an art or the arts; m. moon; -nâtha, m. moon;-nidhi, m. id.
kalābhara m. artist; -bhrit, m. id.; -vat, m. moon; -vid, a.=kalâ-gña.
kavitā f., -tvá, n. poetic art or gift; -putra, m. N. of a dramatist; -râga, m. king of poets; N. of a poet; (í)-sasta (or á), pp. spoken or praised by sages.
kāpāla a. (î) connected with or made of skulls; m. pl. school of Kapâlin; -ika, m. Saiva sectary (wearing and eating out of human skulls); a certain mixed caste; -in, m. ep. of Siva; N.; a. practised by a Kâpâlika.
kāmarasika a. indulging in love; libidinous; -rûpa, n. any form desired; a. assuming any form at will; m. pl. N. of a people in western Assam; -rûpin, a. id.; -vat, a. enamoured; -varsha, a.raining as desired; -vâda, m. talking as one lists; -vâs in, a. changing one's abode at pleasure; -vritta, pp. indulging one's desires, pleasure-loving; -sara, m. arrow of Kâma; -sâsana, m. ep. of Siva; -sâstra, n. treatise on love, T. of various works; -sû, a. granting desires; -sûtra, n. a Sûtra treating of love; -haituka, a. caused by desire only.
kāru m. poet, singer; -u, m. artisan (f. û): -ka, m. id.
kāvya m. pl. kind of Manes; n. poem; -kartri, m. poet; -goshthî, f. discussion on poetry; -gîva-gña, m. Venus, Jupiter, and Mercury, or a. understanding the purport of a poem; -tâ, f., -tva, n.condition of a poem; -devî, f. N. of a queen; -prakâsa, m. Light of poetry: T. of a work on poetics by Mammata and Alata (11th or 12th century); -mîmâmsa ka, m. rhetorician; -rasa, m. flavour of poetry; -sâstra, n.poetry and learning (°ree;--); treatise on poetry; Poetics: T. of a work.
kunti m. pl. N. of a people; sg. king of the Kuntis; -bhoga, m. N. of a king of the Kuntis, who adopted Kuntî.
kulāya m. n. web, tissue; nest; lair; dwelling; -ín, a. nest-like.
kulapatana n. fall --, degradation of the family; -pati, m. head of the family; -parvata, m. chief mtn. or mtn.-range; -p&asharp;, m. f. head of the family or community; -pâms anî, f. disgrace to her family; -pâlikâ, f. N.; -putra, m. son of a good family; virtuous youth: -ka, m. id.; -purusha, m. man of good family; virtuous man; -pratishthâ, f. support of the race; -prasûta, pp. born of a noble race; -bhava, a.coming of a noble race; -bhavana, n. chief residence; -bhûta, pp. being the head of the guild; -bhûbhrit, m. chief mtn. or mtn.-range; model of a prince; -mârga, m. ancestral path; -mitra, n. friend of the family.
kṛcchrakarman n. distress, trouble; -kâla, m. time of distress or danger; -gata, pp. distressed, endangered; practising penance; -tâ, f. dangerousness; -patita, pp. fallen into distress; -prâna,a. whose life is in danger; eking out one's existence with difficulty; -sâdhya, fp. difficult of accom plishment.
kṛtaka a. artificial, feigned, false; adopted (son): -m, feignedly, -tva, n. quality of being artificially produced; -kartavya, a. having fulfilled his task; -karman, n. an ac complished deed; a. having fulfilled one's duty; -kârin, a. doing a thing; -kârya, n. an at tained object; a. having accomplished his ob ject; satisfied: -tva, n. abst. n.; -kâla, m. ap pointed time; -kritya, a. having done his duty; having attained his object, satisfied (as to, lc.): -tâ, f. satisfaction; -kriya, a. hav ing performed a sacred rite; pious; -kshana, a. having an appointed time, i. e. waiting im patiently for (lc., ac. w. prati, inf., --°ree;); -ksho bha, a. shaken; -ghna, a. ignoring benefits, ungrateful: -tâ, f., -tva, n. ingratitude; -kûda, a. having received the tonsure; -gan man, a. planted; -gña, a. recognising benefits, grateful: -tâ, f. gratitude.
kṛtin a. active; clever; skilful, ex perienced (in, lc., --°ree;); having attained one's object, satisfied; -i-tva, n. satisfaction.
kṛtālaya a. having taken up one's abode, dwelling (in, lc., --°ree;); feeling at home; -½avasakthika, a. having put on a loin cloth; -½avasatha, a. received into one's house; -½avastha, a.compelled to appear in court; -½âsamsa, a. hoping; -½astra, a. practised in arms or archery; -½âhâraka, a. having finished one's meal.
kṛtārthīkaraṇa a. satisfac tory; -kri, satisfy; -bhû, be satisfied.
kṛtārthaya den. P. satisfy; fulfil.
kṛtāṅka a. branded; -½añgala, a. having the palms joined in supplication to (d.); -½âtithya, a. having practised hospi tality; hospitably entertained; -½âtman, a. whose mind is cultivatedor purified; -½âdara, a. treated with due respect; -½anuvyâdha, a. filled with (in.); -½anta, a. making an end, decisive; m. matter, affair, case; fate; Death, Yama; system, doctrine: -nagarî, f. city of Yama, -samtrâsa,m. N. of a Râkshasa; -½antara, a. having made one's way to (g.); -½anná, n. cooked food; -½aparâdha, a. hav ing committed an offence against (g.); -½abhi sheka, a. hvg. performed a religious ablution; consecrated;-½abhyâsa, a. kept to one's studies (by, --°ree;); -½artha, a. having attained his object; satisfied: -tâ, f., -tva, n. satisfaction.
kaumāra a. (î) relating to a youth or virgin; youthful; relating to Kumâra (god of war); n. childhood, youth; innocence of youth, virginity; -kârin, a. practising chas tity; -vrata, n. vow of chastity:-kârin, a. practising a vow of chastity.
kratu m. power, might, efficacy; coun sel, intelligence, wisdom; inspiration; plan, purpose, wish, will; sacrifice (sts. personified); N. of the three liturgies forming the prâtar anuvâka; N. of a son of Brahman (one of the Pragâpatis and of the seven Rishis); a star in the Great Bear.
khaṇḍaya den. P. break or cut in pieces; injure; bite; interrupt, disturb; destroy, dispel; cause to cease, satisfy; neglect; refute; deceive. ava, break in pieces. ud, tear off. vi, cut in pieces, lacerate.
gaganagati m. dweller in the sky; -kara, m. sky-goer, bird; -kârin, a. coming from the sky (voice); -tala, n. vault of heaven; -nagara, n. mirage; -pratishtha, a. being in the air; -lih, a. reaching to the sky; -vihârin, a. moving in the sky; -sad, m. denizen of the sky; -sindhu, f. celestial Ganges; -sparsana, m. N. of one of the Ma ruts; -spris, a. touching=dwelling in, the sky; reaching to the sky.
gaura a. (&isharp;) whitish, yellowish, reddish; m. kind of buffalo; white mustard (a grain of it=a measure); -mukha, m. N.; -mriga, m. kind of buffalo.
grantha m. knot; composition; verse (of 32 syllables); treatise, book; text, word ing; chapter; -ana, n. connecting, tying.
cara a. movable, moving; n. animal (opp. plant); --°ree;, going, wandering, walking; acting, living; practising; m. spy; â, f. life.
caritārthaya den. P. cause any one (ac.) to attain his object, satisfy.
caritārtha a. having obtained one's object; successful; satisfied: -tâ, f. at tainment of one's object, satisfaction; -tva, n. accomplishment.
caritavya fp. to be practised or performed.
carya fp. to be practised; â, f. roam ing; procedure, conduct; observance; per formance or practice of, occupation with (--°ree;, in.).
cākrika m. carter; potter; oil grinder; bell-man; partisan, accomplice.
cikīrṣa des. of √ kri, do; -shâ, f. desire to do or make, longing for (g.; --°ree;); -shita, n. undertaking; purpose, intention; -shu, a. wishing to do, make, fashion, per form, or practise; desirous of (ac., --°ree;).
cirakāra a. slow, tardy; dilatory; -kâr-i, -kâr-in, a. id.: i-ta, f., i-tva, n. tardi ness, dilatoriness; -kâla, a. belonging to the olden time; m. long time: -m, °ree;--, for a long time; ab. after a long time; on account of the long interval; -krita, pp. long practised; -gîvin, a. long-lived; m. N. of a crow; -dâ tri, m. N. of a prince; -nirvâhya, fp. tak ing a long time to carry out.
janmapādapa m. tree of one's home; -pratishthâ, f. mother; -bandha, m. bonds of (repeated) birth; -bhû, -bhûmi, f. land of birth; -bhûmî-bhû, become the land of --'s birth (--°ree;).
jitaśrama a. (overcoming=) inured to fatigue; practised in (lc.).
juṣṭi f. favour; satisfaction.
joṣa m. satisfaction: -m, ad. at will, as one pleases; gladly; gosham âs, be silent.
tantra n. loom; warp; groundwork, underlying principle, essence; system; stand ard; main point; rule, doctrine; manual; section in a manual; a class of magical and mystical treatises; spell; physic, specific; government; --°ree;, line, rank, troop; a. chiefly concerned with, dependent on (--°ree;).
tapodhana a. whose wealth is pen ance; devout, pious; m. ascetic, devotee; N.; -nidhi, m. treasury of penance; rigorous devotee; -bhrit, a. devout, pious; m. devotee, ascetic; -maya, a. (î) consisting of penance or austerity; devoted to piety; -mûla, a. having austerity for its root; -yagña, a. sacri ficing with penance; -yukta, pp. ascetic, pious; m. ascetic, devotee; -rata, pp. delighting in penance, devout; -rati, a. id.; -vat, a. ascetic, devout; -vana, n. sacred grove (in which ascetics practise penance); -vriddha, pp. abounding in penance, rigorously ascetic, very pious.
tarpaṇīya fp. to be satisfied w. (in.).
tarpaṇa a. (î) satisfying; n. satis faction (act. & ps.); satisfying, pleasing (the gods or Manes by oblations); nourishment, refreshment.
tāpasa a. (î) practising penance; re lating to religious penance; m., -î, f. ascetic, hermit; -ya, n. status of ascetics.
tuṣṭi f. satisfaction, contentment.
turīya SB.), a. fourth; consisting of four; n. fourth state of Vedântist's soul (completeunion with Brahma).
taiṣa a. (î) relating to the lunar man sion Tishya; m. N. of a month; î, f. day of full moon in the month Taisha.
tṛptikara a. satisfying; -kâraka, a. id.; -mat, a. satisfied (with, lc.); -yoga, m. satisfaction.
tṛpti f. (also -tí) satisfaction; satiety.
taittirīya m. pl. N. of a school of the Yagur-veda: -ka, a. belonging to the school of the Taittirîyas; -prâtisâkhya, n. Prâtisâkhya of the Taittirîyas; -yagur-veda, m. the Yagur-veda of the Taittirîyas;-sâkhâ, f. the school of the Taittirîyas; -samhitâ, f. the Samhitâ of the Taittirîyas; -½âranyaka, n. an Âranyaka of the Taittirîyas; -½upani shad, f. the Taittirîya Upanishad.
toṣa m. satisfaction, pleasure (in, g., lc., --°ree;); -ana, a. (î) appeasing, satisfying, de lighting; n. id.; -in, a. (--°ree;) content with, liking; satisfying, gladdening.
tri num. pl. m. n. (f. tisri) three: trishu (gr. or lex.)=of all three genders.
daṇḍakāṣṭha n. wooden staff; -ghna, a. striking with a staff, committing assault; -kakra, n. detachment of an army -tâdana, n. chastisement with a stick; -tva, n. condition of a staff; -dâsa, m.slave for (non-payment of) a fine, one who serves out a fine; -dhara, a. wielding the rod or sceptre over, punishing, chastising (g.); m. prince, king; judge, magistrate; leader of a troop; ep. of Yama: -½adhipati, m. chief of judges, king; -dhâra, a. wielding the rod, exercising judicial authority: -ka, a. id.; -dhârana, n. bearing of a staff; employment of force; chastisement.
daṇḍa m. (n.) staff, stick; mace, club (to which the elephant's trunk and human arms and thighs are often compared); stalk; handle; flagstaff (on a carriage); pole (as a measure of length = 4 cubits); rod = symbol of violence, force of arms, military power, army; mastery of, complete control over (g., --°ree;); sceptre (as symbol of judicial power), punishment (corporal chastisement, admoni tion, fine): gupta --, secret fine=blackmail; vaitasá --, reedlike staff=membrum virile.
daṇḍapāṇi a. holding a staff in one's hand; m. policeman; ep. of Yama; -pâta, m. (descent of the rod), punishment, chastisement; -pâtana, n. castigation; -pâ rushya, n. assault: du. bodily chastisement and admonition; -pâla, m. guardian of jus tice, judge: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -pâláka, m. guardian of justice, judge; -pâsaka, m. policeman, watchman; -pranâma, m. prostration at full length like a staff; -pradâna,n. presentation of the staff (at investiture); -bhaya, n. fear of the rod; -bhâg, a. liable to punishment; -bhrit, a. wielding the rod; m. ep. of Yama; -mukhya, m. leader of an army.
damana a. (î) taming, subduing (--°ree;); m. horse-tamer, charioteer; Vincent, N. of one of Damayantî's brothers; n. subduing; chas tising.
daśamāsya a. ten months old; -mukha, m. (ten-faced), Râvana: -ripu, m. Râvana's foe, ep. of Râma; -yoganî, f. dis tance of ten yoganas; -ratha, m. N. of several kings, esp. of Râma's father, sovereign of Ayodhyâ; -rasmi-sata, m. (thousand-rayed), sun; -râtra, m. n. period of ten days: á, a. lasting ten days; m. festival of ten days; -a½ri- ka, having ten verses; -rûpa, n. sg. the ten kinds of dramas; T. of a treatise on rhetoric by Dhanamgaya (tenth century): -ka, n. id.; -lakshana-ka, a. having ten characteristics, tenfold; -varsha, -varshîya, a. ten years old; -vârshika, a. (î) id.; lasting ten years; occur ring after ten years; -vidha, a. tenfold; -satá, n. 110; 1000: î, f. 1000; -sata-kara-dhârin, a. having a thousand rays (moon); -sata½ak- sha, a. thousand-eyed (Indra); -siras, a. ten-headed; -sîrsha, a. id.; m. Râvana; -sâhas ra, a. consisting of ten thousand; n. ten thousand.
durākṛti a. mis-shapen, deform ed, ugly; -âkranda, a. having bad friends, friendless; -âgama, m. dishonest acquisition; -âkara, a. (î) hard to practise; difficult to treat or cure; -âkâra, m. bad conduct or cus tom; a. ill-behaved, of bad conduct, impious; -âtma-tâ, f. wickedness, baseness; -âtman, a. evil-minded, wicked, base, impious; -âtma vat, a. id.; -âdhara, a. hard to check, irre sistible; hard to obtain; hard to guard; -â dhársha, a. hard to attack; dangerous; -âna ma, a. hard to bend (bow); -&asharp;pa, a. hard to come up with; hard to attain; -ârâdhya, fp. hard to conciliate; hard to worship; -âruha, a. hard to climb; -âropa, a. hard to string; -âroha, a. hard to climb or ascend to: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -âlakshya, fp. hard to perceive; -âlamba, a. hard to gain a footing on; -âlam bha, a. hard to grasp; -âloka, a. hard to per ceive; -âvara, a. hard to close or protect; -âvaha, a. hard to conduct to (--°ree;); -âvâra, a. hard to close; difficult to check; -âvâsin, a. having bad quarters; -&asharp;vî, a. hard to pass (v. l. dur&asharp;yya).
durbhakṣa a. hard to eat; -bhága, a. loathsome, ugly; unpleasant; ill-fated: â, f. ugly woman; -bhaga-tva, n. misfortune; -bhara, a. hard to bear; -support; -satisfy; heavily laden with (--°ree;); -bhâgya, a. unfortunate; -bhâsha, a. using bad language; m. abu sive language; -bhâshita, pp. offensive (lan guage); -bhâshin, a. using abusive language; -bhiksha, n. (m. rare) famine; distress: -tva, n. abst. n., -vyasanin, a. having to cope with famine; -bhida, a. hard to burst; -disperse; -bheda, a. hard to burst, disunite, or sunder; -bhedya, fp. id.
duścara a. hard to traverse; inac cessible; hard to pass (time); difficult to prac tise: -tva, n. difficulty of practising; -kar ita, pp. behaving ill, doing ill deeds; n. (dús-), ill-conduct, misdeed, folly;-kárman, a. having a skin disease; -kâritra, a. ill conducted; -kârin, a. id.; -kikitsâ, f. wrong medical treatment; -kikitsita, pp. hard to cure; -kikitsya, fp. id.: -tva, n. difficulty of curing; -kitta, a. dejected, sad; -ketas, a.ill-disposed; -keshtâ, f. bad conduct, perverse ness; -keshtita, pp. n. id.: pl. ill-doings; -kyavaná, a. hard to overthrow, immovable; -kyâva, a. id.; -khid, a. hard to destroy.
duṣparigraha a. hard to re tain; -parihántu, a. hard to remove; -pari hara, a. hard to avoid; -pâra, a. hard to cross; -perform; -pârshni-graha, a. hav ing a bad enemy in the rear, -grâha, a. id.;-pûra, a. hard to fill; -satisfy; -prakriti, f. low nature; a. base; -prakriyâ, f. trifling dignity; -pragña, a. stupid: -tva, n. stu pidity; -pranîta, pp. led astray; n. indis cretion; -pradharsha, a. hard to assail; -prabhañgana, m.hurricane; -prayukta, pp. badly or wrongly employed; -pravâda, m. slander; -pravritti, f. bad news; -pra vesa, a. hard to enter; -prasaha, a. hard to endure, irresistible; -prasâda, a. hard to ap pease: -na, a. id.; -prasâdhana, a. hard to manage (person); -prasâdhya, fp. id.; -prâ pa, a. hard to attain; -preksha, a., -preksha- nîya, fp. hard to see; unpleasant to look at; -prekshya, fp. id.
dyotis n. light; star (=gyotis).
dharmaśāsana n. manual of law; -sâstra, n. authoritative compendium of law; law-book; -sâstrin, m. adherent of the law-books: pl. a certain school; -sîla, a. just, virtuous; m. N.; -samyukta, pp.legal; -samsrita, pp. just, virtuous; -samka thâ, f. pl. discourses on virtue; -samgñâ, f. sense of duty; -samaya, m. obligation entered into; -sâdhana, n. fulfilment of duty; necessary means for the fulfilment of duty; -sûtra, n. sûtra treatise on customary law; -sena, m. N. of a merchant; -sevana, n. fulfilment of duty; -skandha, m. chapter on law; -stha, m. judge; -sthûnâ-râga, m. main pillar of the law; -svâmin, m. N. of a temple erected by king Dharma; -hantri, m. (-trî, f.) violator of the law; -hâni, f. neglect of duty; -hîna, pp. excluded from the pale of the law.
dhik ij. of dissatisfaction, reproach, or lamentation; fie! woe! with nm., vc., g., gnly. ac., sts. aho --, hâ -(± kashtam), ha hâ dhik; dhig astu, shame on --! fie on --! (ac. or g.); dhik kri, reproach (ac.); ridi cule, belittle.
dhṛtimat a. steadfast, firm, reso lute; contented, satisfied; -maya, a. (î) con sisting of strong will; -mush, a. robbing of steadfastness.
dhṛti f. holding fast; standing still; firmness, steadiness; fortitude; constancy; resoluteness; satisfaction, contentment: -m kri, find satisfaction; stand one's ground; -m bandh, direct one's will towards (lc.).
nātinirvṛti f. not too great satisfaction; -nîka, a. not too low; -pari- kara, a. having a limited retinue; -pari sphuta, a. somewhat concealed; -paryâpta, pp. not too abundant; -pushta, pp.not too well furnished with (in.); -prakupita, pp. not excessively angry; -pramanas, a. not too good-humoured; -prasiddha, pp. not noto rious; -bhârika, a. not too weighty; -bhin na, pp. not very different from (ab.); -mâ tram, ad. not excessively; -mân-in, a. not esteeming oneself toohighly: (-i)-tâ, f. absence of vanity; -ramanîya, fp. not too charming: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -rûpa, a. not very pretty; -visadam, ad. (kiss) not very audibly; -vis târa-samkata, a. neither too wide nor too narrow; -sîta½ushna, a. neither too hot nor too cold; -slishta, pp. not very firm; -sva stha, a. not very well, poorly.
nigada m. reciting aloud; prayer recited aloud; mention; -gama, m. insertion, esp. of gods' names in a ritual formula; passage (in which a word occurs); root from which a word is derived; Vedic text, holy writ; sacred ordinance; doctrine; -gamana, n. being quoted; conclusion (of a syllogism); -garana, n. swallowing; -gûdha-kârin, a. walking in disguise; -gûdha-tara, cpv. well concealed; -gûhana, n. hiding; -grabhîtri, m. seizer, binder (of sacrificial animal); -gra ha, m. seizure; repression, suppression; keep ing back from (ab.); restraint, coercion; chastisement; reprimand; -grahana, n. re pression, suppression; punishment; -grahî tri, m. seizer; -grahîtavya, fp. to be pun ished; -grâhya, fp. id.; oppressed, injured, by (--°ree;).
niyama m. restraint, limitation; re striction to (lc. or prati with ac.); fixed rule, certainty, absolute necessity (in a particular case); contract, promise; vow; self-imposed (religious) observance, minor (occasional) duty: ab. necessarily, certainly; in. id.; with certain limitations; -yamana, n. restraining, subduing; restriction; -yama-vat, a. prac tising religious observances; -yamya, fp. to be restrained, -subdued; -limited; -re stricted; -y&asharp;na, n. going in, entry; -yâma ka, a. (ikâ) restraining, checking; restricting.
nirvācya fp. to be explained, determined; -vâ-na, pp. of √ vâ; -vâ½ana, n. extinction; extinction of the vital flame, dis solution, final emancipation, union with the absolute; absorption in (--°ree;); individual ex tinction (B.); complete satisfaction, bliss: -pûrana, n. funeral sacrifice.
nirvṛti f. in ward tranquillity; satis faction, joy, pleasure; happiness, bliss; ex tinction (of a lamp): -mat, a. tranquil; happy; -vritti, f. accomplishment, perform ance, completion; impropriety, unseemly be haviour.
niṣeddhavya fp. to be restrained or prevented; -sheddhrí, m. restrainer, pre venter; -shedha, m. keeping off, prevention; prohibition; negation: -ka, a. prohibiting; -shedhin, a. repelling = surpassing (--°ree;); -shedhya, fp. to be prevented or prohibited; -sheva, a. practising (--°ree;); m. adoration: â, f. practice, addiction to; enjoyment; adoration; -shevaka, a. (--°ree;) frequenting; practising; enjoying; -shevana, n. visiting; practice; employment of, addiction to (g., --°ree;); -shev- -itavya, fp. to be practised or observed; -employed; -enjoyed; -shevin, a. devot ing oneself to, practising; enjoying, having sexual intercourse with; -shevya, fp. to be visited; -enjoyed; venerable.
nistuṣa a. unhusked; purified, pure; -trish, a. satisfied.
nīti f. guidance; worldly wisdom, practical morality, political and social ethics; discretion, prudent counsel; policy: -kusala, a. skilled in the conduct of human affairs, politic; -gña, a. prudent, politic; -dosha, m. error of conduct; -patala, n. treatise on policy; -mat, a. (-î) acquainted with the rules of worldly wisdom, politic, prudent; -yukta, pp. versed in policy; -vid, m. poli tician; -vidyâ, f. science of policy; -vedin, a.knowing policy; -sataka, n. T. of Bhartri hari's century of verses on worldly wisdom; -sâstra, n. science of political ethics; trea tise on polity; -samdhi, m. quintessence of polity.
nyāya m. [going back, reference, precedent], rule, standard, axiom, principle, method; manner; propriety, correct way; logical proof or conclusion, syllogism; logic, the Nyâya system of philosophy;lawsuit; decision, judgment: in., ab., °ree;--, after the manner of (--°ree;); in. -tas, °ree;--, suitably, properly; -vartin, a. behaving with propriety; -vâdin, a. speaking suitably; -vid, m. connoisseur; -vidyâ, f. logic; -vritta,pp. behaving with propriety; -sâstra, n. treatise on logic; -sikshâ, f. logic.
pakṣatva n. being a component part of (--°ree;); being the subject of a conclusion; prosecution; -dvâra, n. side-door; -dhara, a. taking the side of (g.); attached to (lc.); m. bird; -pâta, m. flight; partisanship, partiality, predilection for (ac.±prati, g., lc., --°ree;); -pâti-tâ, f. partiality or predilection for (lc. or --°ree;); -pâtin, a. siding with, partial to (--°ree;); -puta, m. outspread wing; wing; -bala, n. strength of wing; -rakanâ, f. formation of a party; (á)-vat, a. winged; having a large following; -vikala, a. paralyzed in the wings.
pakṣa m. (n.1) wing, pinion; feathers of an arrow; flank, side; half; half-month, fortnight (15 days); side, party, following, ally, partisans, family, race (sg. & pl.); host, troop, class; quantity (of hair); place; alternative; case; opinion, proposition; prosecution (leg.); subject of an inference (logic); topic, subject under discussion: pakshe, in the other case; with regard to (--°ree;); atra --, in this case; tâbhyâm mukte --,in a case other than these two.
pattra n. wing; feather (also of an arrow); vehicle (car, horse, or camel); (plum age of a tree), leaf, petal; leaf prepared for writing on (-m âropaya=put on paper); letter, document; foil of metal;ornamental leaf painted with (--°ree;): -ka(ikâ)=pattra --°ree; a.; -kkhedya, a. having its feathers plucked out; n. a kind of artistic skill (?); -pati, m. ep. of Garuda; -puta, m. n.: i-kâ, f. leaf rolled up into a funnel-shape;-bha&ndot;ga, m. streaks painted with musk and other frag rant substances on the face or parts of the body; -ratha, m. (riding on wings), bird: -½indra, m. lord of birds, ep. of Garuda: -ketu, m. having Garuda as his badge, Vishnu; -rekhâ, f.=-bha&ndot;ga; -latâ, f. id.; N.; -le khâ, f. id.; N.; -vâha, m. (borne on wings), bird; arrow; -viseshaka, m. (?) leaf-like painted mark; -veshta, m. kind of earring; -sâka, n. vegetable with leaves;-½âlî, f.= -bha&ndot;ga; -½âhâra, m. pl. feeding on leaves.
paritarkaṇa n. consideration; -tarpana, a. satisfying; n. satisfaction.
paritāpa m. heat, warmth; dis tress, anguish, sorrow, affliction; remorse; giving pain; -tâpin, a. burning hot; causing affliction or sorrow, distressing; -tushti, f. satisfaction; -tripti, f. perfect satisfaction; -tosha, m. satisfaction, gratification, glee; pleasure or delight in (g. or lc.); -toshayi tri, a. satisfying, gratifying; -tosha-vat, a. satisfied, gratified; -toshin, a. satisfied with, gratified by (--°ree;); -tyakta, pp.deserted, abandoned; -tyaktri, m. forsaker; -tyâga, m. abandonment, desertion; repudiation; re linquishment, renunciation, loss, privation, sacrifice: -sena, m. N. of a prince; -tyâgin, a. abandoning; resigning, renouncing (--°ree;); liberal; m. renouncer; -tyâgana, n. causing to abandon; depriving of (--°ree;); -tyâgya, fp. to be abandoned, -deserted, -renounced, avoided; -trâna, n. preservation, protection, help, deliverance, rescue from (ab.); shelter, refuge; preventive of (g.); -trâtavya, fp. to be protected from (ab.); -trâtri, m. pro tector, deliverer (with ac. or g.); -trâsa, m. fright, fear.
parītāpa m. heat; -tosha, m. satisfaction; -tta, pp. √ dâ; -pâka, m. de velopment; ripeness; consequences, result.
pavamāna pr. pt. √ pû; m. wind; god of wind; N. of a certain Agni or of a son of Agni; N. of certain stotras sung by the Sâmagas at the Gyotishtoma sacrifice: -vat, a. accompanied by the Pavamâna stotra; -sakha, m. (friend of the wind), fire; -½uktha, n. series of verses in the midday Pavamâna.
pākṣika a. (î) partisan; alternative, optional, applicable in certain cases only.
pākṣapātika a. partial, partisan (speech).
pākaśāsana m. chastiser of the demon Pâka, ep. of Indra; -sâstra, n. art of cookery.
pāṇḍara a. pale yellow, whitish, white.
pāṇḍura a. whitish, white, pale: -tâ, f. white colour; -ya, den. P. colour whitish yellow; i-ta, pp. coloured yellowish white; i-man, m. pale colour; î-kri, colour yellowish white.
pāṇḍu a. (f. id.) yellowish white, whitish, pale; m. N. of a sovereign of ancient Delhi, a son of Vyâsa and brother of Dhri tarâshtra; -kkhâya, a. white-coloured; -tâ, f. yellowish white colour, paleness; -nanda na, m. son of Pându; -pattra, n. yellow (= withered) leaf; -putra, m. son of Pându; -bhûma, m. pale-coloured (chalky) soil.
pātana a. felling; n. causing to fall, throwing down, casting (dice); striking off or down; dandasya --, infliction of the rod, chastisement; garbhasya -, causing a mis carriage; î-ya, fp. to be cast or shot at (lc.).
pāriṇāmika a. digestible; subject to development: with bhâva, m. natural disposition; -nâyya, n. household utensils; -nâhya, n. id.; -tosh-ika, n. reward, gratuity (token of satisfaction); -panth-ika, m. highwayman, robber; -pâtra, incorrect for -yâtra; -pârsva-ka, a. atten dant: ikâ, f. chambermaid; -pârsvika, a. standing at one's side; m. attendant: pl. retinue; -pâlya, n. governorship; -plava, a. swimming; moving to and fro, unsteady; wavering, irresolute; m. ship: -tâ, f., -tva, n. unsteadiness, caprice; -bhadra, m. coral tree (Erythrina indica); -bhâsh-ika, a. (î) technical; -mândal-ya, n. spherical shape; -mân-ya, n.circumference; -yâtra, m. N. of the western Vindhya range; -vitt-ya, n. bachelorhood while a younger brother is mar ried; -vettr-ya, n. marriage of a younger before an elder brother; -sesh-ya, n. result: ab. therefore; -shada, m. member of an as sembly or council, auditor, spectator: pl. retinue of a god; -shad-ya, m. one who takes part in an assembly, spectator; -hâr-ika, a. privileged; -hâr-ya, m. bracelet; -hâs-ya, n. jest.
puramathana m. crusher of Pura, ep. of Siva; -mârga, m. street; -raksha, -rakshin, m. town watchman, policeman; -vâsin, m. citizen; -sâsana, m. chastiser of Pura, ep. of Siva.
puroga a. going before, preceding; chief, best; m. leader: --°ree; a. having -at the head, led by, following or accompanying; at tended, filled, or inspired with; -gata, pp. standing or placed before or in front; -gama, a. going before, preceding; chief, best; m. leader: --°ree; a. having -as leader, following; accompanied by; -gava, m. (fore-bull), leader: &isharp;, f. leader; -g&asharp;, m. leader; -ganma-tâ, f. priority of birth; -ganman, a. born before; -gyotis, a. having a light before, preceded by radiance.
pulaha m. N. of an ancient Rishi, mentioned as one of the spiritual sons of Brahman, as one of the Pragâpatis, and as one of the seven Rishis; N. of a star.
pulastya m. N. of an ancient Rishi, mentioned as one of the spiritual sons of Brahman, as one of the Pragâpatis, and as one of the seven Rishis; N. of a star.
puṣya n. nourishment; flower (= uppermost or best of anything); 2. (-yã) m. the sixth lunar asterism (=the earlier term Tishya); day on which the moon is in the asterism Pushya, Pushya-day; the month Pausha (December-January); N. of various princes: -ratha, m. the asterism Pushya as a car.
pūrṇa pp. (√ 1. pri) filled, full: -kâma, a. whose wishes are fulfilled; -kumbha, m. pitcher full of water (also with apâm); m. n. breach of a particular form; a. having a full pitcher; -kandra, m. full moon: -nibha, a. resembling the full moon, -prabhâ, f. lustre of the full moon; -tâ, f. fulness; plenty; -tva, n. id.; being full of (--°ree;); -pâtrá, m., î, f. full vessel, vessel-full: also as a measure of capacity; n. present (such as clothes) given to the bringer of good news: (a)-pra tibhata, a. vying with a full vessel=over flowing, supreme (glory), -maya, a. (î) con sisting of a full vessel or of the measure called pûrna-pâtra, amounting to so much or only concerned therewith (speech); -bhadra, m. N. of a snake-demon; -mandala, n. full circle; -mânasa, a. whose heart is satisfied; (á)-mâs, m. full moon; -mâsa, m. full moon and full-moon sacrifice: î, f. day ornight of full moon; -mukha, n. full mouth: in. (blow) with full cheeks; m. (full-faced), N. of a snake-demon; -mushti, m. f. handful; -yau vana, a. being in the full bloom of youth; -ratha, m. (having a complete chariot), pre eminent warrior; -lakshmî-ka, a. having abundant splendour or wealth; -vapus, a. full-orbed (moon); -srî, a. having abundant riches.
pūra a. filling; satisfying; m. filling; satisfying; swelling of a river or of the ocean; volume of water, flood, stream (often --°ree; with words denoting water or other fluid); superabundance, high degree of (--°ree;); cake; slow inhalation of breath through the nose (an ascetic practice); -aka, a. filling, -up, completing (g. or --°ree;); fulfilling, satisfying; m. stream, effusion; multiplier; slow inspira tion of breath through the nose (an ascetic practice); citron-tree: -pinda, m. pl. flour balls for completing the sacrifice to the Manes; -ana, a. (î) filling; fulfilling, satis fying; producing; m. filler-up or completer of a number, masculine ordinal number (from dvitîya onwards); n. act of filling or filling up; complete drawing of a bow; fulfilling, satisfying; equipping: -pratyaya, m. suffix forming ordinal nouns (gr.); -anîya, fp. to be filled in or supplied; to be fulfilled or satisfied; -ayitavya, fp. to be filled up or completed; to be satisfied; -ayitri, m. filler, of (g.); fulfiller, satisfier.
paiṅgala m. pat. fr. Pi&ndot;gala; n. treatise composed by Pi&ndot;gala; -ya, n. tawny colour.
peśas n. form, figure; artistic figure, ornament, embroidery; embroidered garment.
peśala a. artistically fashioned, decorated; beautiful, charming, lovely; tender; refined; skilful, dexterous, clever, ingenious; n. beauty, charm: -tva, n. dexterity, skill; -½aksha, a. lovely-eyed: -tâ, f. abst. n.
prakara m. (scattered) heap, quantity, plenty: î, f. kind of song; short interlude (in a drama); -karana, n. production, creation; treatment, discussion, exposition; subject of discussion, topic; section, chapter; special treatise, monograph; kind of drama (in which the plot is invented by the poet): asminn eva prakarane, in regard to this very point, in this connection; na ka prakaranam vetsi, nor do you know what the point in question is: -tas, ad. on a suitable occasion, -tva, n. condition of discussing (--°ree;); -kartavya, fp. to be prepared; to be displayed or cherished; to be appointed to (lc.); -kartri, m. one who causes or occasions; -karsha, m. (preference, advantage), excellence, superiority, pre-eminence; intensity, excess; predominance; --°ree; a. consisting for the most part in: in., ab., °ree;--, highly, strongly, thoroughly; -karshana, m. troubler;n. drawing off; protrusion; extension, long duration; -karsha-vat, a. excellent; --°ree;, distinguished or pre-eminent in; -kalpanâ, f. allotment; -kalp-ita, pp. fitted, arranged, placed; -kalp-ya, to be allotted or settled; -kâ&ndot;kshâ, f. appetite; -kânda, m. n. trunk of a tree (between the root and branches); minor section in a book; --°ree;=pre-eminent, excellent; -kâmá, m. delight, voluptuousness: pl. objects of desire: -m, -tas, or°ree;--, ad. with delight, willingly; according to desire, sufficiently; in very deed; -kâra, m. kind, sort, species; way, manner; --°ree; a. of the nature of, -like: kena prakârena, in what way? how? prakâraih, in one way or another; râmâyanasya bhâratasya vâ pra kârah, a kind of Râmâyana or Mahâbhârata; -kâra-ka, a. (--°ree;) of the nature of, -like; -kâra-tâ, f. speciality; -kâra-vat, a. belonging to a species; -kârya, fp. to be exhibited; -kâlana, a. driving on; m. N. of a Nâga.
prakṛti f. (putting before, what is presupposed), original or natural form or condition (opp. vi-kriti, derivative form); nature, constitution, disposition, temper; fundamental form, pattern, standard, rule (sp. damental form, pattern, standard, rule (sp. in ritual); nature (opp. spirit: ph.): pl. material elements (rare); primary constituents of nature (from which all else is evolved: there are eight: avyakta, mahat, ahamkâra, and the five elements: ph.); constituent elements of the state (in politics: there are seven: king, minister, fortress, territory or subjects, treasure, army, and ally; kings primarily (of these there are four) and secondarily (of these there are eight) concerned in a war (each of these twelve having five prakritis in the form of minister, territory, fortress, treasure, army); constituent elements of a king's own state (exclusive of himself); ministers; subjects, citizens; sg. root, base (gr.): °ree;-or in. by nature, originally, properly; in the original state, unchanged: -ka, a. (--°ree;) id.; kripana, a. naturally feeble in discriminating between (lc.); -ga, a.innate; -purusha, m. nature and spirit (du.); minister; -bhâva, m. original or unmodified state; -mandala, n. whole circle of subjects, entire territory; -mat, a. having or being in the original, natural, or usual condition orform; -sampanna, pp. endowed with a noble nature; -subhaga, a. naturally beautiful; -stha, a. being in the natural state or condition, natural, genuine, normal; healthy; being in good circumstances.
praṇaya m. leader; guidance; mani festation, display; confidence, in (lc.); friendly regard; familiarity; affection, love; fond attachment (of lovers), display of affection; desire, longing, for (lc.): in., ab., °ree;--, and pranaya½upetam, ad. confidently, fearlessly; unreservedly, without ceremony: -kalaha, m. friendly quarrel; -nayana, n. bringing, fetching; means or vessel for fetching; mani festation, display; adduction; wielding (a weapon), infliction of punishment (danda); establishing, founding; performance, execu tion; composition (of, --°ree;); satisfying, satiat ing (--°ree;); -naya-bha&ndot;ga, m. breach of con fidence; -naya-vat,a. acting without re serve or ceremony, unaffected; tenderly at tached to (lc. or --°ree;); addicted to (--°ree;); -nay i-kriyâ, f. friendly service; -nayi-tâ, f. love, affection (for, lc.); desire, longing (for, g. or --°ree;); -nay-in,a. beloved, dear (to, g.); ten derly attached, affectionate, loving; fond of, liking, devoted to, longing for (in. or --°ree;); frequenting, dwelling or being in (--°ree;); aim ing at, having in view (--°ree;); combined orprovided with (--°ree;); m. favourite, dear friend; lover, husband: -î, f. mistress, wife; -nayî kri, attach closely: pp. connected with (in. or --°ree;); -nayî-bhû, again become attached to (lc.).
pratyagakṣa n. inner organ; a. having inner organs; -âtman, m. inward or individual soul; individual; -ânanda, a. con sisting of inward joy; -âsis, f. personal wish; a. containing a personal wish; -udak, ad. (west-northerly, i. e.) north-westerly; -eka rasa, a. having a taste for the inward, i. e. one's own soul, only; -gyotis, n. inward light; -dakshina-tas, ad. (west-southerly, i. e.) south-westerly; -dakshinâ, ad. id.: -pra vana, a. precipitous towards the south-west; -dis, f. west; -dris, f. inward gaze; a. hav ing one's gaze directed inward; -dhâman, a. having inward light.
prapitāmaha m. great grandfather; also designation of Brahman and Krishna: pl. great-grandfathers, ances tors: î, f. paternal great-grandmother; -pi trivya, m. paternal grand-uncle; -pitvá, (V.) n. going away; flight, retreat; retired spot; evening; -pitsu, des. a. desirous of plunging into (lc.); wishing to enter upon a path (ac.); -pîdana, n. pressing, squeezing; means of squeezing tumours; -purâna, a.long kept, old; -pushpita, pp. covered with blossoms, flowering; -pûraka, a. (ikâ) fulfilling, satis fying; -pûrana, a. (î) filling up (oil) and increasing (love for anything); insertion in (lc. or --°ree;); drawing of a bow;embellishment of Indra's banner; -pûrya, ps. base of √ 1. pri, be thoroughly filled or satiated; be filled to the brim.
pratuda m. pecker (a class of birds); goad; -tushti, f. satisfaction: -da, a. giving pleasure to (--°ree;); -trid, a. cleaving; -todá, m. goad; -tolî, f. broad road, main street.
pravaktavya fp. to be propounded, imparted, or taught; -vaktri, m. one who tells, imparts, or says anything (--°ree;); good speaker; teacher, propounder; originator of a story: -tva, n. condition of an instructor; -vakana, n. speaking; propounding; reciting; instruction; expression, designation; pro pounded doctrine, holy treatise, sacred scrip tures, sp. the Brâhmanas: -patu, a. skilful in speech, eloquent; -vakanîya,fp. to be propounded.
prasāda m. clearness (of water, the voice); brightness; perspicuity (of speech or style); radiance (of the countenance); calm ness (of mind), serenity; cheerfulness, good temper; kindness, graciousness, favour; help, aid; gracious gift; food offered to an idol; remnants of a preceptor's food (which may be eaten without scruple): -m kri, be gra cious, show favour; grant the favour of (inf. or --°ree;); -sâda-ka, a. making clear, clarifying; cheering, gladdening; -sâdana, a. (î) making clear, clarifying; n. making clear, clarification; soothing, calming, tranquillizing; rendering cheerful; gratifying; propitiation; -sâdanîya, fp. to be propitiated; -sâda-parâ&ndot;mukha, a. (î) indifferent to any one's favour; with drawing one's favour from (g.); -sâda-bhû mi, f. object of favour, favourite; -sâdayi tavya, fp. to be rendered propitious towards (upari); -sâda-vitta: -ka, a. abounding in favour, standing high in the favour of (g. or --°ree;); m. favourite; -sâda½antara, n. another mark of favour; -sâdita, cs. pp. (√ sad) pleased, propitiated, well-satisfied; -sâdin, a. bright (eye, face); clear (neetar); perspi cuous; cheering, gladdening; -sâdî-kri, grant (ac.) as a favour to (g.), graciously present; -sâdya, 1. cs. gd. having ap peased, pleased, or propitiated; 2. fp. to be propitiated; -sâdhaka, a. (ikâ) adorn ing; m. dresser, valet; f. (ikâ) lady's maid; -s&asharp;dhana, a. accomplishing; n. ac complishment; putting in order, arranging; embellishment, personal adornment, toilet; means of decoration, toilet requisites; orna ment of (--°ree;): î, f. comb; -sâdhita, pp. ac complished; decorated; -sâra, m. spreading or stretching out, extension; rising, whirling up (of dust); opening; -sârana, n. stretch ing out, extending; development; extension, diffusion, augmentation; vocalization of a semivowel (gr.); -sâranin, a. containing a semivowel liable to vocalization (gr.); -sâr ita, cs. pp. (√ sri) extended, expanded, dif fused; stretched forth, exposed for sale; -sârin, a. breaking forth, issuing from (--°ree;); stretching oneself out; extending to (--°ree;); -sârya, 1. cs. gd. having extended or put forth; 2. fp. to be vocalized (semivowel).
prasakala a. very full (bosom); -sakta, pp. √ sañg: °ree;-or -m, ad. incessantly; -saktavya, fp. to be attached to (lc.); -sak ti, f. attachment, devotion, or addiction to, indulgence in, occupation with (lc.), occur rence of a case; bearing, applicability; practicableness: -m pra-yâ, be practicable; -sa&ndot;ktavya, fp. to be allowed to occur; -sa&ndot;khyâ, f. sum total; consideration; -sam khyâna, n. enumeration; reflexion, medita tion; fame, reputation; -sa&ndot;ga, m. attach ment, inclination; fondness for, addiction to; indulgence in (lc. or --°ree;); gratification, of (g.); association or intercourse with (--°ree;); illicit pursuit; applicability; contingency; opening, opportunity, occasion; connexion (pl. all that is connected with or results from anything): in. assiduously, with one's whole soul; in the course of (--°ree;); occasionally, in cidentally (also ab., °ree;--, or -tas); amunâ or tat-prasa&ndot;gena, on that occasion; etat prasa&ndot;ge, on this occasion; prasa&ndot;ge ku tra½api, on a certain occasion: -vat, a. occa sional, incidental, -vinivritti, f. non-recur rence of a contingency, prevention of the re currence; -sa&ndot;gin, a. attached or devoted to (--°ree;); connected with anything; contin gent, occurring; secondary, unessential; -sag ya, fp. applicable: -tâ, f. -ness,-pratishe dha, m. negative form of an applicable (posi tive) statement: -tva, n. abst. n.; -satti, f. graciousness; favour, complacency; -sam dhâna, n. combination, union; -sanna, pp. (√ sad) clear; bright; pleased, soothed, de lighted; complacent; gracious, propitious, kindly disposed; plain (meaning); distinct (impression); correct (supposition): -tâ, f. clearness, purity; brightness; perspicuity; complacence, good humour, -tva, n.clearness, brightness, -mukha, a. of a placid counte nance, looking pleased, -salila, a. having clear water; -sabha, °ree;-or -m, ad. forcibly; violently; exceedingly, very much; importu nately: -damana, n. forcible subjugation; -sara, m. advance; diffusion, expansion, ex tension; range; issue (of smoke); free scope, ample space; motion (of the eye); appear ance, manifestation; prevalence, influence; stream, flood; multitude, quantity: -na, n. running away, escaping; coming into force; complaisance, amiability; -sárga (or á), m. gushing forth; dismissal; -sárpana, n. going forward, advancing; betaking oneself to (lc.); -sarpin, a. issuing from (--°ree;); slinking away.
prākṛta a. (â, î) connected with nature (prakriti), natural, original; unal tered; usual, ordinary, common; low, vul gar; proceeding from or relating to nature (phil.); Prâkritic; m. low orvulgar man, n. vernacular dialect (derived from Sanskrit and spoken by women and inferior charac ters in Sanskrit plays), Prâkrit: -bhâshin, a. speaking Prâkrit, -sâsana, n. treatise on Prâkrit, -kandrikâ, f. Moonlight of Prâkrit, T. of Vararuki's Prâkrit grammar, -pra kâsa, m. Illustration of Prâkrit, id.
prāggṅgam ad. on the east of the Ganges; -gamana-vat, a. going forward; -gâmin, a. preceding or intending to precede; -guna, a. having the previously mentioned quality; -grîva, a.having the neck directed eastward; -ganman, n. previous birth or existence; -gâta, (pp.) n., -gâti, f. previous existence; -gyotish-a, a. lighted from the east; relating to the city of Prâggyotisha; m. prince or country of Prâggyotisha: pl. inhabitants of--; n. N. of a city supposed to have been inhabited by the demon Naraka; -dakshina, a. (east-southern, i.e.) south-east ern: â, f. south-east; â, ad. south-easterly: -pravana, a. sloping towards the south-east; -desa, m. eastern country; -daihika, a. be longing to a former life; -dvâr, f. door facing east; -dvâra, n. id.; space in front of a door; a. having a door facing eastward; -bhâra, m. [having the weight in front, inclined], de clivity; inclination; (subsiding) mass, great quantity; -bhâva, m. previous existence.
prātikāmin m. (acting ac cording to one's desire: prati-kâmam), ser vant; messenger; -kûlika, a. (î) resisting, hostile, contrary: -tâ, f. opposition, hostility; -kûlya, n. unfriendliness, opposition; repug nant practice; disagreeableness; disagree ment with (--°ree;); -gña, n. subject under dis cussion; -daivas-ika, a. occurring daily (prati-divasam); -nidhi-ka, m. representa tive; -paksha, a. belonging to the enemy oradversary; -pakshya, n. hostility, enmity, towards (g.); -pada, a. forming the com mencement; m. N.; -pad-ika, a. express, ex plicit; n. crude base of a noun (before it re ceives the case terminations or other suffixes); -paurush-ika, a. relating to manliness or valour; -bha, a. intuitive; n. intuition; pre sence of mind; -bhat-ya, n. rivalry; -bhâv ya, n. surety, for (--°ree;); certainty, trustworthy news of (g.); -bhâs-ika, a. existing only in appearance, apparent only; -rûp-ika, a. coun terfeit, spurious; using false measure or coun terfeit coin; -lom-ya, n. inversion, inverse order; opposition, hostility; -ves-ika, m. neighbour; -vesm-ika, m. neighbour: î, f.female neighbour; -ves-ya, a. neighbouring; m. opposite neighbour; neighbour;--°ree;=neigh bouring: -ka, m. neighbour; -sâkhya, n. a grammatical treatise on the phonetic changes of words in the text of the Vedasaccording to the respective recension (prati-sâkham; there are four such treatises, one for the RV., two for the YV., and one for the AV.); -satvanam, ad. in the direction of the Sat van; -sv-ika, a. own, peculiar, not common to others; -hata, m. kind of svarita ac cent; -hartra, n. office of the Pratihartri; -hârika, m. door-keeper; -hâr-ya, n. jug glery, performance of miracles; miracle.
prāyaścitta n. [thought of death], atonement, expiation, penance; amends, satis faction; -kitti, f. id.; a. expiating (Agni); -kittin, a. making atonement; -kittîya, 1. den. Â. be bound to perform penance; 2. a. serving as an atonement; bound to perform penance: -tâ, f. liability to perform a pe nance; -ketana, n. expiation, atonement.
prīṇana a. pleasing, soothing; n. delectation, satisfaction; means of satis fying etc.
prīti f. satisfaction, gratification, joy, delight, pleasure (in or at, lc. or --°ree;); kindly feeling, favour; friendship, with (sa mam or --°ree;); affection, love, or fondness for (g., lc., --°ree;); Joy(personified, esp. as the daughter of Daksha and as one of the wives of Kâma): in. joyfully; in a friendly way; affectionately: -kara, a. giving satisfaction to, pleasing (--°ree;); -karman, n. act of love, friendlyaction; -kûta, N. of a village; -datta, pp. given through affection or love; -dâna, n. gift of love; -dâya, m. id.; -dhana, n. money given through friendship; -pûrva kam, ad. kindly, affectionately; -pramukha, a. kindly (speech); -mat, a. glad; satisfied; feeling love or friendship for (g. or lc.); kind (word); -maya, a. produced by joy; -yug, a. beloved, dear; -rasâyana, n. elixir of joy; -vakas, n. kind or friendly words; -vardhana, m. (increaser of joy), N. of the fourth month; -visrambha-bhâgana, n. re pository of affection and confidence; -sam gati, f. friendly alliance with (in.).
baddha pp. (√ bandh) bound, etc.: -ka, m. prisoner (V.); -kadambaka, a. forming groups; -kalâpin, a. having his quiver tied on; -graha, a. insisting on something; -kitta, a. having one's thoughts fixed on (lc.); -trishna, a. longing for (--°ree;); -drishti, a. having one's gaze fixed on (lc.); -dvesha, a. entertaining hatred for any one; -niskaya, a. firmly resolved; -netra, a. having the eyes fixed on anything, gazing steadfastly; -pratigña, a. having made a promise; -pratisrut, a. echoing; -bhâva, m. having the affections fixed on, enamoured of (lc.); -bhîma½andhakâra, a. wrapped in terrible gloom; -mandala, a. having circles formed, ranged in circles; -mushti, a. having the fist elenched; close-fisted; -mûla, a. having taken root, firmly rooted; having gained a firm footing: -tâ, f. firm footing; -mauna, a. observing silence; -rabhasa, a.impetuous, passionate; -râga, a. having one's desire fixed on, enamoured of (lc.); -râgga, a. hav ing gained the sovereignty, having succeeded to the throne; -laksha, a. having the gaze fixed on, gazing steadfastly at (--°ree;); -vasati, a. having one's abode fixed in, dwelling in (lc.); -vâk, a. obstructing speech; -vepathu, a. trembling; -vaira, a. having contracted hostility with (in. or --°ree;); -sikha, a. having one's hair tied in a top-knot;-srotra-manas- kakshus, a. having ears, mind, and eyes fixed on (lc.); -sneha, a. entertaining affection for (lc.); -spriha, a. feeling a longing for (--°ree;); -½añgali, a. holding one's hands joined together (in supplication or as a mark of respect); -½âdara, a. attaching great value to (--°ree;); -½ânanda, a. having joy attaching to it, joyful (day); -½anurâga, a. conceiving an attachment, enamoured; -½anusaya, a. con ceiving an unconquerable hatred; -½andha kâra, a. wrapped in darkness; -½avasthiti, a. constant; -½âsa, a. entertaining hope of (--°ree;); -½âsa&ndot;ka, a. conceiving anxiety; -½ut sava, a. entering upon a festival; -½udyama,a. making efforts or prepared to (inf.).
bahiraṅga a. external; unessen tial: -tâ, f., -tva, n. abst. n.; -argala, --°ree;, a. external bolt; -artha, m. external object; -gata, pp. come forth: -tva, n. appearance; -giri, m. (country beyond the hills), N. of a country: pl. N. of a people; -geham, ad. outside the house; -grâmam, ad. outside the village; -grâma-pratisraya, a. dwelling outside the village; -dris, a. looking at the outside, superficial (person); -dvâra, n. outer door; space outside the door; -dvârin, a. being outside the door; -dh&asharp;, ad. prp. with ab. outside, away from (V.); -nirgamana, n. going out of (ab.); -nihsarana, n. taking out, removal; -bhava, a.external; -bhâga, m. exterior; -mandala-stha, a. being out side the circle; -mukha, a. issuing from the mouth; averting one's face, averse from (--°ree;); having one's mind outward, i.e. directed to wards the external world; -yâna, n. going out; (ír)-loma, a. having the hair turned outwards; -loman, a. id.; -vâsas, n. upper garment; -vikâram, ad. apart from indi vidual existence (Sâmkhya ph.); -vritti, f. occupation with external matters; -vedi, 1. f. space outside the Vedi; 2. ad. (í) outside the Vedi; -vedi-ka, a. being outside the Vedi.
bāhucyuta pp. fallen or dropped from the arm or hand; (u)-tarana, n. cross ing with the arms, i. e. swimming across a river; (ú)-tâ, ad. in the arms (V.); (u)-dan- da, m. long arm; -danta-ka, a. with sâstra, n. N. of a treatise on jurisprudence abridged by Indra; -dant-in, m. ep. of Indra: (-i) putra, m. Indra's son (as the author of a Tantra); -pâsa, m. fetter of the arms, encircling arms; a certain attitude in fighting; -prasâra, m. extension of the arms; -bandhana, n. clasped or encircling arms; -bala, n. strength of arm; m. (Arm-strong), N.; -balín, a. strong-armed; -madhya, a. middle most with the arms: â-ni karmâni=actions with the arms are intermediate; -mûla, n. root of the arm, shoulder; -yuddha, n. hand to hand fight, pugilistic encounter; -yodha, -yodhin, m. pugilist.
bṛhaduktha a. far-praised; m. a certain Agni; N.; (-ád)-diva, a. belong ing to high heaven, heavenly; m. N. of a son of Atharvan and composer of RV. X, 120; the hymn composed by Brihaddiva; -devatâ, f. Index of the many gods (of the RV.), title of an Anukramanî ascribed to Saunaka; -dyuti, a. shining brightly; (-ád)-bhânu, a. of great brilliance; m. a certain Agni; N.; -rathá, m. (having a great chariot), mighty hero (RV.1); (-ád)-rátha, m. N.; -ratham tara, n. du. the Sâmans Brihat and Ratham tara; (-ád)-rayi, a. having abundant wealth (RV.1); -vrata, n. the great vow of chastity; a. practising the great vow of chastity.
brahmaloka m. world or heaven of Brahman (sts. pl.); -laukika, a. inhabit ing the world of Brahman; -vaktri, m. ex pounder of the Vedas; -vat, ad. in accord ance with or like the Veda; -vadya, n.recitation of Vedic texts; -vadha, m. mur der of a Brâhman; -vadhyâ, f. id.: -krita, n. perpetrated murder of a Brâhman; -vark asá, n. pre-eminence in sacred knowledge, sanctity; -varkas-in, a. pre-eminent in di vine knowledge, holy; -varkas-vin, a. id.; -vâdá, m. discourse on sacred matters; -vâd ín, a. discoursing on sacred matters; m. theologian, Vedântin; -vâsa, m. Brahman's abode or heaven; (bráhma)-vâhas, a. to whom prayer is offered; -vit-tva, n. sacred knowledge, theology, philosophy; -víd, a. knowing the Vedas; versed in magic; m. theologian, philosopher; -vidy&asharp;, f. knowledge of Brahman or of sacred things; -vidvas, pt. knowing Brahman; -vivardhana, a. increas ing sacred knowledge, ep. of Vishnu; -vrik sha, m. Brahman as a tree; -vritti, f. sub sistence of a Brâhman; -veda, m. Veda of Spells, Atharva-veda; -vedi, f. N. of a local ity; -vedin, a.knowing the Brahman or the Vedas; -vaivarta: -ka, n. T. of a Purâna; -vrata, n. vow of chastity: -dhara, a. prac tising --; -sâyin, a. resting in Brahman; -sâlâ, f. Brahman's hall; N. of a sacred locality; -siras, -sîrshan, n. kind of mythi cal missile; -samsad, f. Brahman's audience chamber; -samstha, a. devoted to sacred things; -samhitâ, f. collection of prayers; -sattra, n. sacrifice of prayer; -sattrin, a. offering a sacrifice of prayer; -sadana, n. seat of the Brahman priest; abode or heaven of Brahman; -sabhâ, f. hall or audience chamber of Brahman; -sambhava, a. sprung from Brahman; -saras, n. N. of a bathing place; -savá, m. purification of prayer; kind of sacrificial rite; -sât-kri, bring into har mony with Brahman; -sâmá, -sâmán, n. Sâman chanted after a verse recited by the Brahman priest; -sâyugya, n. complete union or identification with the universal soul; -sârshti-tâ, f. equality with Brahman; -sâ varna, m. N. of the tenth Manu; -sâvarni, m. id.; -siddhânta, m. T. of various astrono mical works; -siddhi, m. N. of an ascetic; -suta, m. son of Brahman; -suvarkalâ, f. kind of plant; decoction of this plant (drunk as a penance); -sûtra, n. sacred cord worn by Brâhmans over the shoulder; sacred or theological Sûtra; T. of a Sûtra work on the Vedânta philosophy ascribed to Bâdarâyana or Vyâsa: -pada, n. statement of a theolo gical Sûtra; a. (î) consisting of the state ments of a theological Sûtra; -sûtrin, a. wearing the sacred cord; -srig, m. creator of Brahman, ep. of Siva; -soma, m. N. of a saint; -stamba, m. universe, world; -stena, m. (thief of=) one in unlawful possession of the Veda; -steya, n. (theft of=) unlawful acquisition of the Veda; -sthala, n. N. of a town and of various villages; -sva, n. pro perty of a Brâhman; -haty&asharp;, f. murder of a Brâhman; -hán, m. murderer of a Brâhman; -hridaya, m. n. N. of a star (Capella).
brahmaṇvat a. accom panied by prayer, devout; practising a holy work and having a Brâhman; accompanied by or representing the priesthood; contain ing the word Brahman.
brahma m. priest (only --°ree; with asura-); n. metrical for brahman, the Absolute: -ka, --°ree; a.=brahman, m. the god Brahman; -kara, m. tribute paid to Brâhmans; -karman, n. function of a Brâhman; office of the Brah man priest; -karma-samâdhi, a. intent on Brahman in action; -kalpa, a. resembling Brahman; m. age or cosmic period of Brahman (a primaeval age); -kânda, n. the Brahman section=the dogmatic part of the scriptures; T. of a work or part of a work by Bhartri hari; -kilbishá, n. sin against Brâhmans (RV.1); -kûrka, n. a kind of penance in which the five products of the cow are eaten (=pañka-gavya); -krít, a. offering prayers; (bráhma)-kriti, f. prayer, devotion; -kosá, m. treasury of prayer; -kshatra, n. sg. & du. Brâhmans and nobles: -sava, m. pl. sacri fices offered by Brâhmans and Kshatriyas; -kshetra, n. N. of a sacred locality; -gav&isharp;, f. cow of a Brâhman; -gîtikâ, f. Brahman's song, N. of certain verses; -gupta, m. N. of a son of Brahman; N. of an astronomer born 598 a. d.; N.; -gola, m. universe; -ghât aka, m.Brâhman-killer; -ghâtin, m. id.: -î, f. woman on the second day of her menses; -ghosha, m. murmur of prayer (sts. pl.); sacred word, Veda (coll.): -rava, m. sound of murmured prayer; -ghna, m. Brâhman slayer; -ghnî,f. of -han, q. v.; -kakra, n. Brahman's wheel; kind of mystical circle; -kárya, n. religious study; religious student ship (of a Brâhman youth, passed in celibacy, being the first stage in the religious life of a Brâhman); sp.self-restraint, continence, chastity: -m upa½i, -â-gam, grah, kar, or vas, practise chastity: â, f. chastity, a-tva, n. continence, chastity, -vat, a. practising chastity, -½âsrama, m. order of religious stu dentship; -kârín, a. (n-î) practising sacred knowledge; sp. practising continence or chas tity; m. religious student; -kâri-vâsa, m. living as a religious student; -kâri-vrata, n. vow of chastity; -ganman, n. Veda-birth, regeneration by sacred knowledge; -gîvin, a. subsisting by sacred knowledge; -gña, a. knowing the scriptures or Brahman; -gñâna, n. knowledge of the Veda or of Brahman; -gyá, a. oppressing Brâhmans; -gyotis, n. splendour of Brahman; a.having the splen dour of Brahman or of the Veda.
bhikṣāka m. beggar; -karana, n. begging, mendicancy; -kara, m. N. of a son of Bhoga; -karana, n. mendicancy: -m kar, go about begging; -kárya, n. id.: -m kar, go about begging: â, f. id.; -karya-karana, n. id.; -kâra, a. practising mendi cancy; m. beggar; -½atana, n. wandering about begging, mendicancy: -m kri, beg; -m kâr aya, force any one (ac.) to go begging; -½anna, n. food obtained by begging; -pâtra, n.begging-bowl, alms-dish; -prakâra, m. going forth to beg; -bhânda, n. begging bowl; -bhug, a. living on alms; -½ayana, n. mendicancy; -½arthin, a. begging for charity; m. beggar; -vat, a. receiving charity, beg ging; -vritti, a. subsisting on alms; -½âsi tva, n. eating of begged food, living on alms; -½âsin, a. eating begged food, living on alms; -½âhâra, m. begged food; a. living on alms; m. beggar.
bhūr indec. [vc. of bhû, O earth], one of the three vyâhritis in the formula bh&usharp;r bhúvah svãh, where it is taken to mean earth; when fourteen earths are assumed it is the first of the ascending series of seven.
bhṛśa a. [falling, weighty: √ bhras] mighty, powerful; intense (pain); excessive, rigorous (punishment); abundant (food): -m or °ree;--, exceedingly, violently, greatly, in a high degree, very much; without hesitation: -tâ, f. violence; -danda, a. chastising rigor ously (lc.); -dâruna, a. very terrible; -duh khita, pp. greatly afflicted; -pîdita, pp. exceedingly distressed; -svid, a. perspiring profusely.
bhaikṣacaraṇa n. going about begging: -m kri, practise mendicancy; -karya, n., -karyâ, f. id.; -bhug, a. living on alms.
maṅgala n. [brightness: √ mañg] luck, fortune, happiness, bliss (sts. pl.); prosperity, welfare; auspiciousness; good omen, whateverconduces to an auspicious issue; benediction, blessing; auspicious or lucky object, amulet; solemn ceremony, auspicious festivity (on important occasions); good old custom; good work; a. auspicious, propitious; m. planet Mars; N.: -karana, n. uttering a prayer for theauspicious issue of an undertaking; -ka lasa-maya, a. consisting of festal jars; -kâr aka, a. productive of prosperity, auspicious; -kâla, m. auspicious time; -kshauma, n. du. two festal garments (upper and lower) of linen; -gâthikâ, f. solemn chant; -gîta, n. id.; -ghata, m. N. of an elephant; -kand ikâ, f. a form of Durgâ; -tûrya, n. musical instrument used on festive occasions: -nisva na, m. sound of auspicious musical instruments; -devatâ, f. tutelary deity (only --°ree;); -pattra, n. leaf used as an amulet; -pâthaka, m. pronouncer of benedictions, professional panegyrist; -pâtra, n. auspicious pot or vessel (containing propitious objects); -pura, n. N. of a town; -pushpa-maya, a. made of auspicious flowers (garland); -pra tisara, m. cord of an amulet; -prada, a. auspicious; -maya, a. (î) consisting of no thing but luck etc.; -vat-î, f. N.; -vâdin, a. pronouncing a blessing; -vrishabha, m. bull with auspicious marks; -sabda, m. benediction, greeting; -sûkaka, a. indicative of good luck, auspicious.
manaḥkṣepa m. mental confusion; -pûta, pp. mentally pure; -prasâda, m. mental calm or composure; -priya, a. dear to the heart; -prîti, f. mental satisfaction, delight.
mahāpakṣa a. having many ad herents, having a large following; -pa&ndot;ka, n. (?) deep mud; -pa&ndot;kti, f. a metre of forty-eight syllables; -pandita, a. extremely learned; m. great scholar; -patha, m. prin cipal street; high road; the great journey, pilgrimage to the other world (-m yâ, die); a certain hell; a. having a great path: -giri, m. N. of a mountain; -padma, n. a certain high number; m. one of the eight treasures connected with the magic art padminî; N. of a Nâga: -pati, m. lord of millions, ep. of Nanda, -saras, n. N. of a lake, -salila, n. id.; -padya-shatka, n. T. of a poem (at tributed to Kâlidâsa) consisting of six classi cal verses; -½aparâdha, m. great crime or injury; -parvata, m. high mountain; -pasu, m. large cattle; -pâta, m. long flight; a. flying far (arrow); -pâtaka, n. great crime or sin (of which there are five: killing a Brâhman, drinking spirituous liquor, theft, adultery with a teacher's wife, and asso ciation with persons guilty of those four crimes); -pâtakin, a. guilty of a capital sin; -pâtra, n. prime minister; -pâda, a. large footed; -pâpa, n.great crime; -pâpman, a. very harmful; -pâra, 1. m. a certain per sonification; 2. a. having distant banks, wide (sea); -pârsva, a. having broad sides (leech); N.; -pâsupata, a. with vrata, n. the great vow of a worshipper of Siva Pasupati; m. zealous worshipper of Siva Pasupati; -pîtha, n. high seat; -pumsa, m. great man; -punya, a. very auspicious (day); very good or beau tiful; very holy; -purá, n. great fortress: î, f. great citadel; -purusha, m. great or eminent man; supreme spirit; -pûta, pp. extremely pure; -prishtha, a. broad-backed; -pai&ndot;gya, n. T. of a Vedic text; -prakarana, n. main treatment of a subject; -pragâpati, m. great lord of creatures, ep. of Vishnu; -pratâpa, m. of great dignity, majestic; -pratîhâra, m. head janitor; -pradâna, n. great gift; -prapañka, m. the great world; -prabha, a. of great lustre, very splendid; -prabhâ, f. great brightness;-prabhâva, a. very mighty; -prabhu, m. great lord, sovereign; chief; ep. of Vishnu; -pramâna, a. very exten sive; -pralaya, m. great dissolution of the universe at the end of a cosmic age: -kâla, m. time of the --; -prasna,m. great or im portant question; -prasâda, m. great pre sent; a. very gracious; -prasthâna, n. great departure, decease; -prâgña, a. very wise or prudent (person); -prâna, m. hard breath ing, aspirate sound; great strength; a. pro nounced with a hard breathing, aspirated; of great endurance or physical strength; -plava, m. great flood, deluge; -phala, n. large fruit; great reward; a. producing a great reward; -bala, a. very strong, power ful, or effective; m. N.; -bâdha, a. very in jurious; -bâhu, a. long-armed, strong-armed; m. ep. of Vishnu; N.; -bila, n. deep hole; -buddhi, a. of great intellect, extremely clever; m. N. of an Asura; N.; -brihatî, f. a metre (8+8+8+8+12 syllables); -brah ma: -n, m. the great Brahman (the god); -brâhmaná, m. great Brâhman (also used sarcastically); n. Great (=Tândya) Brâh mana; -bhata, m. great warrior; N.; -bha ya, n. great danger or straits; -bhâga, a. having great good fortune, very lucky, greatly blessed; greatly distinguished, very illus trious (frequently used as a term of address); -bhâgin, a. very fortunate, greatly blessed; -bhâgya, n.high position, great importance or power; a. extremely fortunate: -tâ, f. great good fortune; -bhânda½agâra, n. chief treasury; -bhârata, a. (± a word meaning &open;battle&close;), the Great Battle of the Bharatas; n.(± âkhyâna), the Great Story of the Bharatas, T. of the well-known great Epic (which contains about 100,000 slokas); -bhâshya, n. the Great Commentary of Patañgali on the Sûtras of Pânini and the Vârttikas of Kâtyâyana (probably composed in the second century b. c.); -bhikshu, m. the great mendicant, ep. of Sâkyamuni; -½abhi- gana, m. high descent, noble birth; -½abhi yoga, m. great plaint or charge; -½abhishava, m. N. of a prince; -½abhisheka, m. great inauguration; T. of the fourteenth Lambaka of the Kathâsaritsâgara; -bhîta, pp. greatly terrified; -½abhîsu, a. brilliant, lustrous; -bhuga, a. long-armed; -bhûta, pp. being great, large (E.); m. great creature; n. gross element (ether, air, fire, water, earth); -bhû mi, f. great realm; whole territory (of a king); -½âbhoga, a. of great extent, wide spreading; -bhoga, 1. a. having great coils (serpent); m. serpent; -bhoga, 2. m. great enjoyment; -bhoga, m. great prince; -½abhra, n. great or thick cloud; -makha, m. great sacrifice (=-yagña); -mani, m. costly jewel; -mati, a. of great wit, clever; m. N.; (&asharp;) manas, a. lofty-minded, proud, haughty; high-minded, magnanimous; -manushya, m. great man, man of rank; -mantra, m. very efficacious spell (esp. against snake-poison); -mantrin, m. chief counsellor, prime minister; -mahá, a. high and mighty (RV.); -mah as, n. great luminary; -mahiman, m. true greatness; a. truly great; -mahima-sâlin, a. possessed of true greatness; -mahâ½upâ dhyâya, m. very great preceptor (a desig nation applied to great scholars, e.g. Malli nâtha); -mâmsa, n. delicious flesh (esp. human flesh); -½amâtya, m. prime minister; -mâtra, a. of great measure, great; greatest, best (of, --°ree;); m. man of high rank, high state official, king's minister; elephant-driver; -mânin, a. extremely proud; -mâya, a. at tended with great deception; practising great deception; m. N.; -mâyâ, f. the great illu sion (which makes the world appear really existent and thus in a sense creates it); -mây ûra, n. a kind of medicine; kind of prayer (--°ree;); -mârga, m. main road: -pati, m. chief inspector of roads; -mâhesvara, m. great worshipper of Mahesvara or Siva; -mukha,n. large mouth (also of rivers); a. (î) large mouthed; -muni, m. great sage; -mûdha, a. very stupid; m. great simpleton; -mûrkha, m. great fool; -mûrdhan, a. large-headed (Siva); -mriga, m. large wild animal; ele phant;-mridha, n. great battle; -megha, m. great or dense cloud; -medha, m. great sacrifice; (&asharp;)-meru, m. the great Mount Meru; -moha, m. great mental confusion or infatuation; -mohana, a. causing great men tal confusion; -moha-mantra, m. very effi cacious spell: -tva, n. abst. n.; -yaksha, m. great Yaksha, prince of the Yakshas; -yag- ñá, m. great or chief sacrifice (one of the five daily sacrifices of the householder, called bhûta-, manushya-, pitri-, deva-, and brah ma-yagña); -yantra, n. great mechanical work: -pravartana, n. execution of great mechanical works; -yama-ka, n. a great Yamaka (a stanza, all the four lines of which contain identically the same words but differ in meaning, e.g. Kirâtârgunîya XV, 52); -yasas, a. very famous, illustrious (person); -yâna, n. the Great Vehicle (a later form of Buddhistic doctrine originated by Nâgâr guna: opp.hîna-yâna); N. of a prince of the fairies (having a great car); -yuga, n. a great Yuga (equal to four ordinary Yugas or 4,320,000 years); -yuddha, n. great battle; -½âyudha, a. bearing great weapons (Siva); -ragana, n.saffron; a. coloured with saffron; -rana, m. great battle; -½aranya, n. great forest; -ratna, n. precious jewel: -maya, a. consisting of costly jewels, -vat, a. adorned with costly jewels; -rathá, m. great chariot; great warrior; N.; -rathyâ, f. main road; -½ârambha, m. great under taking; a. enterprising, active; -rava, m. great roar or yell; a. making a loud noise, shouting loud; m. N.; -rasa, a. extremely savoury; -râgá, m. great king, reigning prince, sovereign: -½adhirâga, m. lord of great kings, emperor; -râgñî, f. reigning princess, queen; ep. of Durgâ; -râgya, n. sovereign rule; -râtra, n. advanced time of night, end of the night; -râtri, f. id.; great night follow ing the dissolution of the world; -râva, m. loud yell; -râshtra, m. pl. the Mahrattas: î, f. Mahratta language, Mahrattî: a-ka, a. (ikâ) belonging to the Mahrattas; m. pl. the Mahrattas; -rug, -ruga, a. very painful; -roga, m. dangerous disease; -roman, a. very hairy (Siva); -raudra, a. extremely terrible; -½argha, a. of great price, precious, valuable; expensive: -tâ, f. preciousness, great value, -rûpa, a. having a splendid form; -½arghya, a. precious, valuable: -tâ, f. preciousness; -½arnava, m. great sea, ocean; -½artha, m. great matter; a. having great wealth, rich; of great significance, important; m. N. of a Dânava; -½arha, a.valuable, costly, splen did; -lakshmî, f. the Great Lakshmî, Nârâ yana's Sakti; also=Durgâ or Sarasvatî; -li&ndot;ga, n. a great Li&ndot;ga; -vamsya, a. of high lineage; -vanig, m. great merchant; -vada, m. great teacher (i.e. of the most essential Vedic knowledge); (&asharp;)-vadha, a. having a mighty weapon (RV.); -vana, n. great forest; -varâha, m. great boar (i.e. Vishnu's incarnation as a boar); N. of a prince; -vallî, f. great creeper; -vâkya, n. long composition, literary work; great pro position; -vâta, m. violent wind, gale; -vâyu, m. id.; -vârttika, n. the Great Vârttika, N. of Kâtyâyana's Vârttikas to the Sûtras of Pânini; -vâstu, n. great space; a. occupy ing a great space; -vikrama, a. of great courage, very valiant; m. N. of a lion; -vighna, m. n. great obstacle; -vigña, a. very sensible; -vidagdha, pp. very clever; -viraha, m. grievous separation; -visha,a. very poisonous; -vistara, a. very prolix (book); -vîki, m. (having great waves), a certain hell; -vîrá, m. great hero; large earthenware fire-pot (mostly used at the Pravargya cere mony); N. of various princes; N. of an Arhat, founder of the Jain sect: -karita, n. life of the great hero (Râma), T. of a play by Bhavabhûti, -karitra, n. life of Mahâ vîra (the Arhat), T. of a work; (&asharp;)-vîrya, a. mighty, very potent; -vrikshá, m. great tree; -vriddha, pp. very aged; -vrishá, m. great bull: pl. N. of a people in the western Himâlayas; -vega, a. greatly agitated (sea); very swift; -vaipulya, n. great extent; -vaira, n. great enmity; -vairâga, n. N. of a Saman;-vyâdhi, m. serious disease; -vyâhriti, f. the great exclamation (i.e. bh&usharp;r bhúvah svãh); -vratá, n. great or fundamental duty; great vow; great religious observance; N. of a Sâ man or Stotra to be chanted on the last day but one of the Gavâmayana (also applied to the day and the ceremony); rules of the worshippers of Siva Pasupati; a. having undertaken great duties or a great vow, practising great aus terity, very devotional; following the rules of the Pâsupatas; m. a Pâsupata; -vratika, a. following the rules of the Pâsupatas; m. a Pâsupata; -vratin, a., m., id.; a. practis ing the five fundamental duties of the Jains; -vratîya, a. relating to the Mahâvrata cere mony (day); -vrîhi, m. large rice; -sakti, a. very mighty (Siva); -sa&ndot;kha, m. great conch; -½asana, a. eating much, voracious (leech); m. great eater, glutton; -½asani dhvaga, m. flag with a great thunderbolt; -sabda, m. loud sound; title beginning with &open;mahâ&close; or the corresponding office; -½âsaya, 1. m. ocean; 2. a. high-minded, noble; -sayyâ, f. splendid couch; -sarîra, a. having a large body; -salka,m. kind of sea-crab; -salkalin, a. having large scales (fish); -sastra, n. mighty weapon; -sâka, n. kind of vegetable; -sâkya, m. great or distinguished Sâkya; -sânti, f. great appeasement (a kind of rite to avert evil);(&asharp;)-sâla, possessor of a great house, great householder; -sâlîna, a. very modest; -sâsana, n. great sway; a. exer cising great sway; -siras, a. large-headed; m. kind of serpent; -sûdra, m. Sûdra in a high position, upper servant; -saila, m. great rock or mountain; -½asman, m. precious stone; -smâsâna, n. large cemetery; ep. of Benares; -srotriya, m. great theologian or spiritual teacher; -½asva, m. N.: -sâlâ, f. great stable; office of head groom; -svetâ, f. N. of a god dess; N.; -samkata, n. great danger or straits; -satî, f. extremely faithful wife, pattern of wifely fidelity; -sattrá, n. great Soma sacrifice; -sattva, m. great creature; a. strong-minded; high-minded, noble; very courageous; containing large animals: -tâ, f. strength of character and containing large animals; -½âsana, n. splendid seat; -samdhi- -vigraha, m. office of chief minister of peace and war; -sabhâ, f. great dining hall; -samudra, m. ocean; -sarga, m. great crea tion (after a great dissolution); -sâdhana bhâga, m. head of the executive; -sâdhu, a. extremely good: v-î, f. pattern of wifely fidelity; -sâmtâpana,m. kind of penance; -sâmdhi-vigrah-ika, m. chief minister of peace and war; -sâmânya, n. generality in the widest sense; -sâra, a. strong; valuable, costly; -sârtha, m. great caravan; -sâhas ika, a. very daring, excessively rash; m. highwayman, robber: -tâ, f. great energy: in. with the utmost decision; -simha, m. great lion; N.; -siddha, (pp.) m. great saint; -siddhânta, m. great manual of as tronomy, T. of a work by Âryabhata the younger; -siddhi, f. great magical power; -subhiksha, n. great abundance of provisions, very good times (pl.); -sûkta, n. great hymn: pl. the great hymns of the tenth book of the Rig-veda (1 to 128); m. composer of the great hymns of RV. X; -sûkshma, a. extremely minute; -sûki, a. w. vyûha, m. kind of array of troops in battle; (&asharp;)-sena, a. having a large army; m. ep. of Skanda; N. of various princes; -senâ, f. great army; -stoma, a. having a great Stoma (day); -½astra, n. great or mighty missile; -sthâna, n. high place or position; -sthûla, a. very gross; -snâna, n. great ablution; -½âspada, a. mighty; -sva na, m. loud sound; a. loud-sounding, shout ing loud; loud (noise); -½âsvâda, a. very savoury; -hanu, a. having great jaws; -harm ya, n. great palace; -½âhava, m. great battle; -hava, m. great sacrifice; -hasta, a. large handed (Siva); -hâsa, m.loud laughter; a. laughing loud; -½ahí, m. great serpent: -sayana, n. sleep (of Vishnu) on the great serpent (Sesha); -½ahna, m. advanced day time, afternoon; -hrada, m. great pond.
mahātattva n. the great princi ple, intellect; -tapas, a. greatly distressed; practising great austerities; m. N. of a her mit; -tapasvin, a. greatly afflicted; -tamas, n. great darkness (one of the five stages of Avidyâ); -tala, n. (great-bottom), a cer tain hell; -tikta, a. very bitter; -tithi, f. (the great=) sixth lunar day; -tegas, a. hav ing great lustre, very glorious (of gods and men); m. ep. of Skanda; N.; -taila, n. pre cious oil or N. of a kind of oil; -½âtodya, n. great drum; -½âtman, 1. m. great spirit, uni versal soul; intellect; 2. a. great-souled, high-minded, noble; of great intellect, highly gifted, very wise; exalted, eminent, illus trious (family), mighty; -½âtma-vat, a. highly gifted, very clever; -½atyaya, m. great calamity; -tyâga, m. great liberal ity; a. very liberal: -maya, a. consist ing in great liberality; -tyâgin, a. very liberal (Siva); -damshtra,a. having great tusks; m. N.; -danda, m. great staff or long arm; severe punishment; -daridra, a. extremely poor; -dâna, n. valuable gift; a. attended with great gifts (sacrifice); -dâ ru, n. the Devadâru tree (Pinus Deodora); -dis, f. chief cardinal point (N., S., E., W.); -duhkha, n. great sorrow; -durga, n. great danger; place very difficult of access; -driti, m. great bag; -devá, m. the great god, a term sp. applied to Rudra or to one of the gods connected with him (V.); in C.=Siva; N.: -giri, m. N. of a mountain; -devî, f. the great goddess=Pârvatî; first wife of a king; N.; -½adbhuta, a. very wonderful; n. great marvel; -dyuti, a. of great lustre, brilliant, glorious; -druma, m. large tree; -dvâra, m. n. main gate; -dhana, a. costing much money, costly, expensive; having much money, wealthy; m. N. of a merchant; (á), n. great battle (RV.); great spoil (RV.1); great wealth (C.): -pati, m. (lord of great wealth), very rich man; -dhanur-dhara, -dhanushmat, m. great bowman; -dhanus, a. bearing a great bow (Siva); -dhî, a. of great understanding, very wise; -½ânaka, m. kind oflarge drum; -nakha, a. having great nails or claws; -nagná, m. (stark naked), paramour (V.): î, f. courtesan; -nada, m. great stream; -nadî, f. river; N. of various rivers; -½ânana, a. having a great mouth or face; -½ânanda, m. great joy or bliss; N.; -naraka, m. a certain hell; -narendra, m. great conjurer or magician; -½anasa, n. freight waggon; kitchen: î, f. cook, kitchen-maid; -½anasa½adhyaksha, m. superintendent of the kitchen; -nâgá, m. great serpent; great elephant; -nâtaka, n. great drama; a kind of play; -nâda, m. loud sound, shout, roar, etc.; a. making a loud noise, roaring etc.; m. ep. of Siva; -nâyaka, m. great leader or chief; large central gem in a pearl necklace; -nâsa, a. large-nosed (Siva); -nidra, a. sleep ing soundly or long; -niraya, m. kind of hell; -nis, f. dead of night, second and third watches of the night (9 p.m. to 3 a.m.); -nîla, a.dark blue or black; m. sapphire: -maya, a. consisting of sapphire; -½anubhâva, a. very powerful or glorious; magnanimous, high-minded, noble: -tâ, f., -tva, n. high-minded ness, nobility; -netra, a. large-eyed (Siva); -½andhakâra, m. dense darkness, complete obscuration of the intellect; -nyâya, m. main rule; -½anvaya, a. of high lineage.
mahācakra n. large wheel or discus; -kakravart-in, m. great emperor, universal monarch: (-i)-tâ, f. dignity of a great emperor; -katura-ka, m. (very crafty), N. of a jackal; -kamû, f. great army;-kar yâ, f. the great course of life (i.e. that of a Bodhisattva): -m grah, enter upon the life of a Bodhisattva; -½akala, m. great moun tain; -½âkârya, m. great teacher (Siva); -½agá, m. great he-goat; -gata, a. wearing large braids of hair (Siva); -gatru, a. having a large collar-bone (Siva); -gana, m. sg. (pl.) many people, multitude of men, crowd, popu lace, the people; great or distinguished man or men; a. occupied by many people (house): -virodha, m. hostility of many people or creatures; -gava, a. very swift (horse, arrow); -gihva, a. long-tongued (Siva); -gñânin, a. knowing much (Siva); m. great soothsayer; -gyotis, a. having great lustre (Siva); -gvara, m. great distress; -½atavî, f. great forest; -½âdhya, a. very rich.
māyākapota m. phantom pigeon: -vapus, a. having the body of a --; -kâra, a. acting deceitfully; -kkhadma para, a. intent on deceit and fraud; -devî, f. N. of the mother of Buddha; -dhara, a.versed in jugglery or witchcraft; m. N. of a prince of the Asuras; -½adhika, a. abound ing in magic arts; -patu, a. skilled in witch craft; -pur, -purî, f. N. of a town; -prayoga, m. trickiness; versatility; -batu, m. N. of aprince of the Sabaras; -½abhyudayana, m. N. of a Kâyastha; -maya, a. (î) illusory, unreal; m. N. of a Râkshasa; -yantra, n. en chantment: °ree;--=magical; -vakana, n. hypo critical speech; (&asharp;)-vat, a. practising sorcery (RV.); deceitful, cunning; attended with magical arts: -î, f. kind of personified magi cal art; N. of a fairy's wife; N. of a prin cess; -vâda, m. doctrine of illusion (a term applied to Buddhism and Vedântism); -vid,a. familiar with magical arts; -vín, a. skilled in magic; fraudulent; guileful, deceitful; illusory; m. magician, sorcerer, juggler; -sîla, a. deceitful, fraudulent.
mithunīcārin a. practising cohabitation; -bhâva, m. cohabitation, with (in.).
mūrchā f. congealment, solidifica tion (of quicksilver); faint, swoon; mental stupefaction, delusion; melody: -½âkshepa, m. indication of dissatisfaction with anything by swooning (rh.); -maya, a.swoon-like.
yathākaniṣṭham ad. according to age from the youngest upwards; -kartavya, fp. to be done according to the circumstances; n. proper course of action; -karmá, ad. according to the respective action or actions; -karma-gunam, ad. according to the actions and (three) qualities; -kalpam, ad. according to the ritual; -kândam, ad. according to the sections; -kâma-kâra, m. action according to one'sdesire; -k&asharp;mam (SB. ám), ad. according to wish, at will or pleasure, agreeably; leisurely; -kâma- gyeya, fp. to be oppressed at pleasure; -kâma-prayâpya, fp. to be sent away at pleasure; -kâma-vadhya, fp. to be chastised at pleasure; -kâma-vikârin, a. wandering about at will; -kâma½arkita½arthin, a. satis fying supplicants according to their desire; -kâmin, a. acting according to one's will, unrestrained; -kârya, fp. to be done according to circumstances; -kâla, m. proper time: -m, ad. at the right or usual time, seasonably; -kula-dharmam, ad. according to the family usage; -krita, pp. properly done (--°ree;); agreed upon: (á)-m, ad. as usual (RV.); as it hap pened; as agreed upon; -krama, °ree;--, -m, ena, in due order, successively; -kriyamâna, pr. pt. as being done, usual, customary; -ksham am, ad. according to one's power, as much as possible; -kshipram,ad. as possible; -½âkhyânam, ad. according to the statement, as before stated; -½âgata, pp. by which one came (way): -m, e-na, ad. by the way one came; -½âgama, a. orthodox: -m, ad. in accordance with tradition; -gunam, ad. according to the qualities or virtues; -griham, ad. into one's respective house; -gotra-kula-kalpam, ad. according to the usage of the family or the tribe; -½a&ndot;gám, ad. member by member; -½âkâram,ad. according to usage; -kintita, pp. previously intended; -kkhandas, ad. metre by metre; -gâta, pp. as if born into the world; stupid, foolish; -gosham, ad. to one's heart's content; -gñapta, pp. previously directed orordered; -gñapti, ad. according to command; -gñânam, ad. to the best of one's knowledge; -gñeyam, ad. id.; -gyeshtham, ad. according to age from the eldest downwards, by seniority.
yatrasāyaṃgṛha a. having one's dwelling wherever evening falls; -sâ yam-pratisraya, a. id.; -stha, a. dwelling in which place; -½astamita-sâyin, a. resting wherever sunset overtakes one; -½ikkhaka, a. wherever one likes.
yadṛcchā f. chance: °ree;--, -tas, or in. a-yâ, by chance, accidentally; spontane ously; unexpectedly; -mâtratah, only quite by accident; -lâbha-samtushta, pp. satisfied with earnings obtainedspontaneously; -sab da, m. word of accidental origin, unmeaning word.
yogakaraṇḍaka m. N.; ikâ, f. N. of a mendicant nun; -kshemá, m. sg. & pl. (C. also m. du. & sg. n.) possession or security of property; property; prosperity (ordinarily explained as meaningacquisi tion and preservation of property); property meant for pious uses; -kûrna, n. magic pow der; -ga, a. produced by meditation or Yoga; -tantra, n. Yoga doctrine, treatise on Yoga; -dharmin, a. practising Yoga; -nanda, m. the pseudo-Nanda; -nidrâ, f. sleep induced by the practice of Yoga, somnolent condi tion, dozing; Vishnu's sleep at the end of an age; -m-dhara, m. N.; -pati, m. lord of Yoga (Vishnu); -patha, m. path to Yoga;-bhâraka, m. shoulderyoke for the carrying of burdens; -bhrashta, pp. lapsed from devotion or contemplation; -maya, a. (î) produced from contemplation or Yoga; -mâyâ, f. magic; illusion produced by abstract meditation; -mârga, m. road to Yoga; -yâtrâ, f. recourse to mental ab sorption or Yoga; -yukta, pp. absorbed in meditation, practising Yoga; -ratna, n. magic jewel; -rûdha, pp. having an etymo logical and aconventional meaning (e. g. pa&ndot;ka-ga, growing in the mud and lotus); -rokanâ, f. kind of magical ointment (ren dering invisible or invulnerable); -vat, a. joined, united; practising Yoga; -vartikâ, f. magic wick; -vaha, a. bringing about, furthering (--°ree;); -vâh-in, a. intriguing: (-i) tva, n. intrigue; -vid, a. knowing the right means or method; knowing what is fitting or suitable; versed in Yoga; -vidyâ, f. knowledge of Yoga; -vibhâga, m. splitting of a grammatical rule into two; -sabda, m. the word yoga; etymological word (the mean ing of which results from the derivation); -sâyin, a. somnolent in consequence of medi tation; -sâstra, n.Yoga doctrine (esp. of Patañgali); -samâdhi, m. mental absorp tion resulting from Yoga; -sâra, m. univer sal remedy; -siddha, pp. perfected by Yoga; -siddhi, f. simultaneous accomplishment: -mat, a. versed in magic; -sûtra, n. the Sû tras on the Yoga (attributed to Patañgali).
yoktavya fp. to be employed or practised; -inflicted (punishment); -supplied or provided with (in.); -concentrated (mind); n. imps. one should prepare oneself for (lc.).
yogin a. joined with, accompanied by (--°ree;); being in conjunction with (--°ree;); con nected with, relating to (--°ree;); practising Yoga; m. devotee of Yoga, Yogin: -î, f. female devotee; sorceress, witch; fairy.
rajata a. [√ rag=√ arg] silvery, whitish (V.); made of silver (V.); n. silver: -kûta, N. of a peak in the Malaya range; -damshtra, m. N. of a fairy; -parvata, m. mountain of silver (sp. an artificial one as a gift for Brâhmans); -pâtrá, n. silver vessel; -bhâgana, n. id.; -maya, a. (î) made of sil ver; -½akala, -½adri, m. silver mountain, ep. of Kailâsa.
rati f. [√ ram] rest (V., rare); plea sure, enjoyment, satisfaction, in (lc., --°ree;); sexual enjoyment or union; personified as one of the wives of Kâma, Rati: -m kri, labh, vid, or bandh, find pleasure in (lc.).
rasa m. [√ 2. ras] sap, juice (of plants), fruit-syrup; fluid, liquid; water; essence, pith (of anything); quicksilver; potion, elixir; poisonous draught; taste, flavour (as distinctive quality of fluids: six kinds are distinguished, viz. sweet, salt, bitter, sour, pungent, astringent); object of taste; organ of taste, tongue; relish, inclination, fondness or love for (lc. ± upari, --°ree;); desire; affection; pleasure, delight; charm; (flavour or key note in poetry), sentiment (eight Rasas are generally distinguished: love, heroism, dis gust, wrath, mirth, terror, pity, wonder, a ninth, quietism, and a tenth, tenderness, being sometimes added); prevailing sentiment in human character; sacred syllable om.
rādhya fp. (V.) to be performed; worthy to be won; to be satisfied; to be wor shipped; obtainable.
rāsa m. kind of pastoral festival, dance practised by Krishna with the cowherdesses; sport: -ka, m. kind of dance; kind of song; m. n. kind of drama.
ruciṣya a. pleasing, agreeable; -î, f. metr.=ruki, light, lustre (pl.); -ya, a. pleasing, radiant, beautiful; appetising.
liṅgavat a. having characteristic marks; having various genders; having a phallus (a certain Sivaite sect); -sarîra, n. the subtle body (phil.); -sâstra, n. treatise on grammatical gender; -stha,m. ascetic; -½anusâsana, n. doctrine of grammatical gender.
lauha a. (î) made of copper or metal; red; n. metal, iron: -kâra, m. blacksmith; -sâstra, n. treatise on metals; -½âkârya, m. teacher of metallurgy; -½ayasa, a. made of reddish metal or copper (loha½ayasa).
vadhya fp. to be slain or killed; de serving or liable to be killed; sentenced to death; to be chastised or corporally pun ished; to be destroyed: -tâ, f. penalty of death or corporal punishment; -pataha, m.drum beaten at executions; -bhû, f. place of execution; -bhûmi, f. id.; -mâlâ, f. garland placed on the head of one sentenced to death; -silâ, f. stone used for executing or slaughter ing, block; -sthâna, n. place of execution; -srag, f.=-mâlâ.
vartitavya fp. to be tarried in (country); -practised or observed (conduct); -treated; n. imps. one should stay or remain in (lc.); one should apply oneself to (lc.); live or exist; -proceed or behave (w. ad. or in.), towards any one (g., lc., in. with saha): asmad-vase --, we should be obeyed.
vartamāna pr. pt. (√ vrit) pre sent, existing; n. the present: â, f. (per sonal terminations of) the present tense: (a)-kâla, m. present; (a)-½âkshepa, m. de claration of dissatisfaction with something going on.
vartin a. abiding, staying, resting, being, situated, in (gnly. --°ree;); being in a con dition etc. (--°ree;); practising (--°ree;); engaged in, making (a request, --°ree;); behaving, acting (--°ree; or w. ad.); behaving properly towards (--°ree;); m. meaning of a suffix.
vasati f. staying overnight; dwell ing, abiding, sojourn; nest (V.); residence, abode, house; seat (fig.) of (g., --°ree;); night (rare); -m kri, grah, or bandh, pass the night; take up one's abode, in (lc.);tisro vasatîr ushitvâ, having halted at three stages, having passed three nights: -druma, m. tree under which the night is passed.
vāhin a. driving along (car); --°ree;, drawing; flowing to; causing to flow, shed ding; bearing along (of a river), wafting (of wind); bringing, producing; bearing, carry ing; wearing, possessing, having; perform ing, practising: (ín)-î, f. V., C.: army; C.: division of an army (consisting of 81 ele phants, 81 chariots, 243 horse, 405 foot); river: -pati, m. commander of an army; -½îsa, m. id.
vitasti f. [√ tan] span (as measure of length=12 a&ndot;gulas or about nine inches); -tâna, a. (rare) [√ tan] empty (in a-, not empty); dejected; m. n. expansion, exten sion, extent; quantity, mass; high degree; variety; performance; development; sacri fice; canopy, awning; m. (separation of) the sacred fires: -ka, n. awning, canopy (esp. --°ree;); quantity, -vat, a. provided with a canopy; -tânâ-ya,den. represent a canopy; -tânî-bhû, id.; -tâmasa, a. light, bright; -timira, a. id.; -tîrna, pp. √ trî; -tusha, a. unhusked; -tushta, pp. dissatisfied, dis pleased; -tritîyá, a. intermittent on the third day (fever; AV.1); n.third (Br. S.); -tripta-ka, a. sated (in a-, not yet sated with; g.); -trishna, a. free from thirst; having no desire: -tâ, f. freedom from de sire, satisfaction, contentment; -trishnâ, f. id.; -tolâ, f. N. of a river.
vinaya a. removing (RV.1); m. (C.) removal, withdrawal (of a cloth); guidance, discipline, instruction, training; good beha viour, decorum, discretion, polite manners, good breeding, modest conduct; office (rare); treatise on discipline (B.); instruction; -gyot is, m. N. (conj.), -tâ, f. good behaviour; modesty; -nayana, a. removing, dispelling; n. education, instruction, in (lc.); -nayam dhara, m. N. of a merchant; -naya-pitaka, (basket=) collection of treatises on disci pline (B.); -naya-maya, a. being good breed ing itself; -naya-vat, a. well-behaved (in a-): -î, f. N.; -naya-sûtra, n. Sûtra treat ing of discipline (B.); -naya-svâminî, f. N.; -naya½âditya, m. ep. of Gayâpîda: -pura, n. N. of a town built by Gayâpîda; -naya½âdi-dhara, m. N.; -½avanata, pp. bowing low with modesty; -nayin, a. well bred, well-conducted, modest; -naya½ukti, f. modest speech (pl.).
vinīta pp. √ nî: -tâ, f. good breed ing, decorum, modesty, -tva, n. id., -mati, m. N.; -nîti, f. modesty; -netri, m. educa tor, instructor, teacher (w. ac., g.); trainer, tamer; -netra, 1. m. instructor, teacher; 2. a. eyeless, blind; -neya, fp. to be removed; educated or instructed; -chastised; m. pupil.
vilāsikā f. kind of drama in one act, full of love incidents; -lâsi-tva, n. sportiveness; -lâsin, a. shining, beaming; fluttering (flag); sportive, playful, fond of amusement; delighting in (--°ree;); coquettish; enamoured; m. lover, husband: -î, f. lively or charming woman; woman; mistress, wife; wanton woman, concubine; N.
vilāsa m. manifestation; appear ance, aspect; diversion, sport, fun (common mg.); doings; (female) coquetry, dalliance (ord. mg.); wantonness (rare); liveliness (one of the eight masculine virtues; rare); charm, grace (rare): -kodanda, m. god of love; -griha, n. pleasure house; -kâpa, m. god of love; -dolâ, f. pleasure swing; -dhan van, m. god of love; -pura, n. N. of a town; -bâna, m. god of love; -bhavana, n. plea sure house; -bhitti, f. wall in appearance; -mani-darpana, m. mirror of jewels as a play thing; -maya, a. full of grace; -mekhalâ, f. toy girdle; -vat-î, f. coquettish woman; N.; -vasati, f. pleasure resort; -vâtâyana, n.balcony or terrace for amusement; -vip ina, n. pleasure wood; -vihâra, m. walking for pleasure, promenading; -vesman, n. pleasure house; -sayyâ, f. pleasure couch; -sîla, m. N. of a king; -sadman, n. plea sure house.
vihiṃsaka a. injuring or harm ing (g., --°ree;); -himsa-tâ, f. injury to (lc.); -himsana, n., -himsâ, f. id. (g., --°ree;); -hita, pp. √ dhâ: -kshana, a. intent on (-artham), -tva, n. direction, prescription (vbl. n.), -ni yama, a. having taken a vow, -pratishid dha, pp. enjoined and prohibited, -sena, m. N. of a king; -hiti, f. procedure; accom plishment of (--°ree;).
vṛttakāya a. having a round body; -gandhi: -n, n. kind of artificial prose containing metrical passages; -bandha, m. verse; -bha&ndot;ga, m. violation of good con duct and of metre; -yukta, pp.of good con duct, virtuous; -vat, a. id.; -sampanna, pp. id.; -stha, a. adhering to good conduct, vir tuous; -hîna, pp. destitute of good conduct, ill-conducted; -½âkshepa, m. statement of dissatisfaction with or disbelief in an occur rence (rh.).
vṛtti f. (rolling), gush (of tears); course of action, mode of life, conduct, be haviour (ord. mg.), towards (lc., --°ree;); method, course; respectful or affectionate treatment of (g., --°ree;; E.); general usage, rule (S.); man ner of being, nature, kind; being, occurring, or appearing in (lc., gnly. --°ree; a.); occurrence or existence of (--°ree;); devotion or addiction to, practice of (lc., --°ree;; --°ree; a. devoted to, practis ing); sg. pl. subsistence, maintenance, liveli hood (by means of, in.), profession, occupa tion (ord. mg.); activity, working, function; disposition, mood (of the mind); occurrence or use of a word in a particular sense (lc.); mode of pronunciation or recitation (S.); style of composition (dr.; there are four kinds: kaisikî, sâttvatî, ârabhatî, bhâratî); alliteration (rh.); form or kind of word (gr.); commentary (on a Sûtra): -m kri or kalp aya,subsist by, live on (in.); provide a means of subsistence for (g.).
vedāṅga n. member of the Veda, subsidiary Vedic treatise (six are enumer ated: Sikshâ, Kalpa, Vyâkarana, Nirukta, Khandas, Gyotisha); -½âdi, m. beginning of the Veda; m. n. sacred syllable om; -½adhi gama, m. Vedic study; -½adhyayana, n. id.; -½adhyâya, a. studying or having studied the Veda; -½adhyâyin, a. id.; -½anadhyay ana, n. neglect of Vedic study; -½anuvak aná, n. repetition orrecitation of the Veda; Vedic doctrine.
vedokta pp. mentioned, taught, or contained in the Veda; -½udita, pp. pre scribed by the Veda; -½upakarana, n. sup plementary treatise to the Veda.
vratagrahaṇa n. taking of a religious vow, turning mendicant: -nimittam, ad. in order to fulfil a religious vow; -kary&asharp;, f. performance of a religious work or observance; -kâr-ín, a.practising a religious ob servance, observing a vow: (-i)-tâ, f. observance of a vow.
vrata n. [willed: √ vri: perh. old pp.] 1. V.: will, command, law, ordinance; do minion; service, obedience; realm; regular sphere or function; 2. V., C.: operation, ac tion, doings, conduct, manner, mode of life (with suki=clear conscience); religious rite or service; duty, towards (--°ree;); religious or ascetic observance taken upon oneself, aus terity, vow, rule, holy work (such as fasting and continence); 3. C.: vow (in general), resolve, to (d., lc. of vbl. n., --°ree;): ab. in conse quence of a vow; (á)-m kar, observe a vow, esp. practise chastity.
vratin a. engaged in a religious observance, practising a vow; --°ree;, practising; worshipping; behaving like.
vratadāna n. imposition of a vow; -dhara, a. practising a vow (only --°ree;); -dhâr ana, n. fulfilment of religious observances or of duties, towards (g., --°ree;); (á)-pati, m. lord of religious rites (Agni; V.); -p&asharp;, a. guarding the sacred law (V.); -pârana, n. conclusion of a fast, eating after a fast; -pra dâna, n. imposition of a fast; -bha&ndot;ga, m. breach of a vow; -bhrít, a. bearing the sacred law or rite (Agni); -ruki, a. delighting in vows etc., religious; -lopa, m. breach of a vow; -lopana, n. id.; (á)-vat, a. fulfilling or practising a vow; -sayyâ-griha, n. sleeping apartment for the performance of a vow; -sampâdana, n.fulfilment of a vow or religious duty; -stha, a. practising a vow etc.; -sthita, pp. id.; -snâta, pp. having completed one's vows (but not Vedic study): -ka, a. id.; -snâna, n. completion of one's vows; -hâni, f. neglect of vows; -½âdesa, m. imposition of a vow, esp. of the first vow of the Brahmakârin; -½âdesana, n. initiation into a vow: -visarga, m. pl. initiation into and completion of a vow.
śama m. (mental) tranquillity or calmness, equanimity, quietism; peace, with (sârdham); apathy (rare); tranquillization, calm, pacification, alleviation, cessation, ex tinction: -m kri, show calmness, calm oneself, be tranquil: -gir, f. tranquillizing word; -pradhâna, a. devoted to calmness.
śākta a. belonging or relating to, de rived from, the Saktis of Siva; m. teacher (RV.1); worshipper of the Saktis of Siva (C.).
śāṭyāyana m. (pat. fr. sâtya) N. of a teacher and legislator: -ka, n. doctrine or treatise of Sâtyâyana; i-n, m. pl. followers of Sâtyâyana.
śānta pp. v. √ 2. sam; m. N.: -ketas, a. composed, calm; -gvara, a. having one's grief assuaged; -tâ, f. quietism, freedom from passion; -tva, n. id.; -manas, a. composed.
śikvan a. [√ 1. sak] artistic (V.); -vas, a. [√ 1. sak] mighty (RV.).
śāstra n. RV.1, C.: command, pre- cept; C.: instruction, advice, good counsel; rule, theory; compendium, institutes (of any branch of learning), code, scientific or canon ical work, scripture; learning (rare): -kâ ra, -krit, m. author of a treatise; -gañga, m. N. of a parrot; -kakshus, a. having authoritative works as eyes (king); -gña, a. conversant with the Sâstras, learned; m. specialist; -tas, ad. according to prescribed rules; -darsana, n. mention in an authori tative work: ab. according to prescription; -drishta, pp. (seen=) mentioned or pre scribed in the treatises, scientific, according to precept or rule; -mati, a. trained, learned; m.specialist; -vat, ad. according to prescribed rules; -vargita, pp. subject to no law; -vâ da, m. statement of the treatises; -vâdin, m. teacher; -vid, a. conversant with the Sâstras, learned; -½atiga, a. offending against theSâstras; -½adhyâpaka, m. teacher; -½an anushthâna, n. neglect of instructive works.
śāsanīya fp. to be instructed or taught, by (g.); -i-tavya, fp. to be taught or prescribed; -i-tri, m. punisher, chastiser; ruler, of (--°ree;); instructor, teacher; -in, a. pun ishing, chastising; ruling over (--°ree;); teach ing, instructing; (s&asharp;s)-us, n. command (RV.); -ti, 1. f. punishment; command; 2. m. (3 sg. used as n.) the root 1. sâs; -trí, m. punisher, chastiser; ruler; teacher, instructor; ep. of Buddha.
śāsana a. (î) chastising; instruct ing; m. chastiser; instructor; n., C.: chas tisement, punishment; government, sway, rule, over (--°ree;); royal decree, edict, charter, grant; instruction, teaching (rare); precept, rule, counsel (rare); doctrine, faith, religion (rare); V., C.: direction, command, order, to any one (--°ree;): -m kri, obey the orders of (g.); e vrit or sthâ, obey any one (g., --°ree;); ab. sâsanât, by command of (g.): -dhara, m. bearer of a message, messenger; -vartin, a. obeying the orders of (g.); -vâhaka, m. mes senger; -silâ, f. edict engraved on stone; -hâraka, -hârin, m. messenger.
śilpa n. variegated appearance, decoration, ornament (V.); work of art (C.); artistic skill, art, craft (Br., C.); N. of cer tain Sastras (Br., S.).
śilpopajīvin m. artist, craftsman.
śilpin a. skilled in an art; m. artist, craftsman; fashioner of (--°ree;): -î, f. female artist.
śilpakārī f. female artisan; -kârikâ, f. id.; -griha, n. workshop of an artisan; -vidyâ, f. knowledge of the arts or crafts; -vritti, f. subsistence by a craft; -sâstra, n. work on arts or crafts.
śīlin a. honourable, moral (per son); --°ree; (=sîla) habituated to, practising, etc.
śīlaya den. P. practise, cultivate; give one's whole attention to; wear, put on; inhabit, frequent: pp. sîlita, inhabited, fre quented, visited; prepared. anu, act like any one (ac.). pari, cultivate, practise; study; inhabit; cherish.
śīla n. habit, custom; disposition, character; behaviour; good conduct or habits, noble character, uprightness, morality: very common --°ree; a. habituated, disposed, prone, or addicted to, practising: -khandana, n. viola tion of morality or honour; -gupta, pp. crafty by character, cunning; -tata, a. having good conduct for its bank; -tas, ad. in regard to character, in conduct; -tâ, f. nobility, vir tuousness; -tyâga, m.abandonment of moral ity or integrity; -dhara, a. honourable; m. N.; -nidhi, m. treasure of her virtue.
śubha a. splendid, beautiful, hand some; pleasant, agreeable; useful (animals); serviceable, good (land, seed, etc.); able (artist); correct, true (law, etc.); auspicious, lucky (day, etc.); good, virtuous; pure (ac tion); m. N.; n. charm, grace (rare); wel fare, prosperity, good fortune, happiness (ord. mg.; sts. pl.); benefit, service (rare); good or virtuous action.
śekhara m. [cp. sikhara] crown of the head (very rare); mountain-peak (rare); chaplet worn on the head, crest, diadem; --°ree;, best or most beautiful of: -gyotis, m. N. of a king.
śraddhā a. putting faith in, trusting (d.; V.); f. confidence, trust, faith, belief, in (lc., --°ree;), faithfulness, sincerity (V., C.); de sire, longing, for (lc., prati, inf., or gnly. --°ree;; C.); curiosity (V., C.): -m âkhyâhi nas tâvat, pray satisfy our curiosity and tell us.
śliṣṭaparaṃparitarūpaka n. continuous chain of ambiguities (a kind of metaphor); -rûpaka, n. ambiguity as a metaphor; -½âkshepa, m. expression of dissatisfaction by means of equivocation (rh.); -½ukti, f. ambiguous expression.
saṃśayita pp. √ sî; n. doubt, un certainty; -sayitavya, fp. dubious; -saya½u pamâ, f. comparison expressed in the form of a doubt; -sarana, n. taking refuge with any one; -sânti, f. extinction;-sita, pp. √ sâ: -vâk, a. speaking sharply, -½âtman, a. firmly resolved; -siti, f. sharpening (Br.); -sîta, a. cold; -sîti, f. doubt; -sîlana, n. practice; frequent intercourse with (in.); -suddhi, f. purity; -sushka, a. dried up, dry, withered, sere, emaciated; -soka-ga, a. produced from moist heat; m. vermin pro duced from damp heat; -sodhana, a. (î) purifying; n. purification; -sraya, m. con nexion, association with (g., --°ree;); league for mutual protection; refuge, shelter, protec tion, asylum; residence, habitation; reference, relation; resorting to (lc., --°ree;; rare); recourse, addiction or devotion to: ab. in consequence of (--°ree;); with the help of, by means of (--°ree;): --°ree; a. dwelling, living in, staying with (a teacher), standing in (a boat), being in or on, growing (tree) near; relating or referring to; devoted to, practising; -srayanîya, fp. to be resorted to, -taken refuge with: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -srayitavya, fp. to be sought refuge in (fortress); -srayin, a. having sought the protection or entered the service of any one; dwelling, resting or standing in, being in or on (--°ree;); m.dependent, servant; -srava, m. hearing; ear-shot (lc. within hearing of, g.); promise; -sravana, n. hearing, -about (--°ree;); ear-shot: lc. within hearing, aloud; (sám)- srita, pp. √ sri; m. dependent, servant: -vat, pp. act. clinging to, having wedded (in.); -sri tavya, fp. incorr. for -srayitavya; -slish- ta-karman, a. in whose actions good and evil are not kept apart, indifferent as to the morality of his actions; -slesha, m. con nexion, union, contact, with (in., --°ree;); em brace: -m labh, attain; -sleshana, n. con necting; means of binding together, bond; -sleshin, a. connecting.
saṃstha a. standing, staying, resting, existing, or contained in (lc., gnly. --°ree;); being in or with=belonging to (lc. or --°ree;); based or dependent on (--°ree;); being in possession of (--°ree;); lasting (--°ree;; rare); á, m. (RV.): only lc. in the midst or presence of (g.); -sth&asharp;, f. remaining or abiding with (--°ree;; E., rare); form, appearance (C.); established order, standard, rule (C.); condition, state, nature (C.); completion, conclusion (V.); end, death (P.); complete liturgical course (being the basis of a sacrifice; the Gyotishtoma, the Haviryagña, and Pâkayagña consist of seven such forms); spy in one's own country (rare): --°ree; a. a, having the form of, appearing as; -sthâna, n. position, situation in a place (--°ree;); standing firm (in battle); existence; life; strict adherence to (--°ree;); abode; public place in a town; form, shape, appearance (ord. mg.; often with rûpa); condition, state, nature (rare); aggregate (rare): -vat, a. ex isting; having various forms; -sthâpaka, a. establishing; -sthâpana, n. fixing, setting up, erecting; establishment, of (g., --°ree;); re gulation of (--°ree;): â, f. cheering up, encourage ment; -sthâpayitavya, fp. to be cheered or consoled; -sth&asharp;pya, fp. C.: to be placed in (subjection) to (g.); -impressed on the mind (lc.) of (g.); V.: to be concluded (sacrifice); (sám)-sthiti, f. C.: union with (in., lc.); standing or resting on (lc., --°ree;); position; abid ing, residence in (lc.); duration, continuance; perseverance (rare); attaching importance to (lc.); existence, possibility, of (g., --°ree;); form; established order; condition, nature; V.: conclusion (rare); P.: end, death (rare).
saṃskāra m. [√ kri] preparation, dressing (of food); refining (of metals etc.); polishing (of gems); cleansing, purifying; embellishment, decoration, adornment; rear ing (of animals or plants); toilet, attire (rare); correct formation or use (of a word); train ing, education; correctness (of pronuncia tion or expression); purificatory rite, domes tic consecration (applicable to all members of the first three castes), sacrament; sacrament of the dead, cremation (rare); mental impres sion (left by causes no longer operative and sts. dating from a previous birth; there are three kinds, vega, impulse, sthiti-sthâpaka, elasticity, andbhâvanâ, reproductive ima gination); after-effect; creation of the mind (regarded by it as real though actually non existent, such as material phenomena and all connected therewith; B.): -tâ, f. abst. n. of a cpd. ending insamskâra (=mental impres sion); -tva, n. decoration: kakshushâm samskâra-tvam sam-âp, become a feast to the eye; -nâman, n. sacramental name (= our baptismal name); -maya, a. (--°ree;) con sisting in the consecration of (rite); -vat, a. grammatically correct; -visishta, pp. better prepared (food).
sakalika a. provided with buds; -kala½indu, m. full moon; -kalpa, a. includ ing the Kalpas (sacrificial Sûtras); -kasmîra, a. together with Cashmere; -kashâya, a. dominated by passion; -kâkola,a. together with the hell Kâkola; -kâtara, a. cowardly, dastardly; (sá)-kâma, a. satisfying desires (rare); having one's wish fulfilled, satisfied; consenting, willing (girl); desiring (--°ree;); full of love, enamoured; amorous (speech); -kâra, 1. m. letter s; a. incorr. for sâkâra; 2. a. ac tive, courageous; -kârana-ka, a. (ikâ) due to a specific cause; -kâsa, m. (visibleness), pre sence, vicinity: ac. -m, to (gnly. a prs.; w. vbs. of coming, going, taking, or sending); lc. in the presence of, before, near; ab. or -tas, from (come, go, be produced, deprive of, be freed from, hear, ask, buy; w. g. or --°ree;); -kâ shâya, a. wearing a brownish-red garment; -kutumba, a.together with his family; -kutûhala, a. impelled by curiosity: -m, ad. with curiosity; -kula, a. along with his family; m.=nakula, ichneumon (as a pun): -ga, a. belonging to the same family as (g.); -kulya, a. id.; m.relation; -kusa, a. hold ing Kusa grass in one's hand; -kusu ma½âstarana, a. strewn with flowers.
sacchāstra n. good or genuine doctrine or treatise: -vat, a. possessed of a --; -khloka, a. having a good reputation.
sajya a. [gyâ] furnished with a string (bow); placed on the bowstring (arrow); -gyotis, ad. according to the heavenly bodies =during the twilight (between the disappear ance of the stars and sunrise or sunset and the appearance of the stars; -gyotishi, lc. ad. id.); as long as the sun is above the horizon.
saṃtoṣa m. satisfaction, content ment, with (in., lc.): -m kri, content oneself with (in.): -vat, a. satisfied, contented; -toshin, a. id.; delighting in (--°ree;); -toshtav ya, fp. n. one should be contented.
saṃdaṃśa m. compression (of the lips); connexion; tongs; thumb and fore-finger; nippers (of a crab); section, chapter: -ka, m., i-kâ, f. pair of tongs; -darpa, m. arrogance, boasting of (--°ree;); -darbha, m. weaving (of a garland); piling (of arms); mixture; artistic combination (of words, notes etc.); literary composition; -darsana, n. seeing, beholding, viewing (ord. mg.); vision; gaze, look (rare); inspection, con sideration; appearance, manifestation; meet ing with (in. ± saha); showing, display (of or to, --°ree;): -m gam svapne, appear to (g.) in a dream; -m pra-yam, show oneself to (g.); lc. in view of; -d&asharp;na, n. bond, fetter, halter (V.); m. (?) fettering place (below the knee of an elephant); -dâna-tâ, f. condition of a fetter; -dânita, den. pp. bound, fettered: -ka, n. combination of three Slokas consisting of a single sentence; -digdha,pp. (√ dih) doubtful etc.; n. ambiguous expression: -tva, n. uncertainty, -punar-ukta-tva, n. uncer tainty and tautology, -buddhi, a. doubtful minded; -dîpaka, a. setting aflame, making jealous (--°ree;); -dîpana, a.kindling; exciting, provoking; m. one of the five arrows of Kâma; n. kindling, exciting, stimulating; -dûshana, a. (î) corrupting, ruining; n. de filing, violating; cause of ruin; -drís, f. (V.) sight; appearance; view, direction; -dríse, V. d. inf. of sam + √ dris.
sadharma m. similar nature; a. subject to the same law, similar: -kârinî, f. (practising the same duties), wife; -tva, n. homogeneousness.
sapadi ad. on the spot, instantly, in a moment; -padma, a. provided with lotuses: -ka, a. provided with a lotus and splendid (padmâ = srî); -parâkrama, a. mighty; -parikrama, a. accompanied byone's retinue; -parikkhada, a. together with one's belongings, -goods and chattels; -pa ritosham, ad. with satisfaction; -parivâra, a. together with one's retinue; -parihâsa, a. jocose.
saṃpriya a. mutually dear, being on good terms with (in.; V.); n. satisfaction (E., rare); -prîti, f. joy, delight, in (lc., --°ree;); good will, friendship (with, for, in. ± saha), love for (g., lc.); -preshana, n.sending, de spatch (sts. pl.); dismission; -praishá, m. summons, direction to an officiating priest (V.); -plava, m. flowing together of waters, flood, deluge; swell, surge (of the sea); dense mass, multitude, shower; tumult (of battle, --°ree;); submersion, ruin; -phulla, pp. expanded, blooming; -pheta, m. altercation.
sarvadeva m. pl. all the gods; -devatâ-maya, a. (î) containing all deities; -devatyã, a. sacred to or representing all the gods; -deva-maya, a. (î) containing or representing all gods; -desîya, a. coming from every country; -daivatya, a. representing all gods; -dravya, n. pl. all things; -dhar ma-maya, a. containing --, -vid, a. knowing all laws; -nara, m. every one; -nâma-tva, n. pronominal nature; -nâman, n. (general name), pronoun; -nâma-sthâna, n. case termination added to the strong base; -nâsa, m. complete lack; loss of everything, com plete ruin: -m kri, lose everything; -niyan tri, m. all-subduer: -tva, n. abst. n.; -patta maya,a. made of fabrics of all kinds; -path îna, a. occupying the whole road; -prabhu, m. lord of all; -prâna, m.: in. with all one's might; -prâyaskittá, a. (&isharp;) atoning for every thing (Br.); n. (V.) expiation for everything; a certain libation in the Âhavanîya; -prâ yaskitti, f. complete atonement; -bhaksha, a. eating or devouring everything, omnivor ous; -bhakshin, a. id.; -bhâva, m. whole heart or soul; complete satisfaction:in., °ree;--, with one's whole soul (love etc.): pl. all ob jects; -bhûta, pp. being everywhere; n. pl. °ree;--, all beings: with na, no being: -krit, a. framing all beings, -maya, a. (î) containing or representing all beings, -½âtman, m. soul of all beings; -bhûmi, a. owning the whole earth; -bhogya, fp. advantageous to all; -ma&ndot;gala, a. universally auspicious: â, f. ep. of Durgâ (sts. also of Lakshmî); -manorama, a. delighting every one; -máya, a. (î) con taining everything; -mahat, a. greatest of all: -tara, cpv. greater than all the rest; -mâmsa½ada, a. eating every kind of flesh; -mâya, m. N. of a Râkshasa; -medhá, m. universal offering (a ten days' Soma sacrifice); -medhya-tva, n. universal purity; -yagña, m. every sacrifice: pl. all sacrifices; -yatna, m. every effort: in. with all one's might, to the best of one's ability; -yatna- vat, a. making every possible effort; -yoni, f. source of all; -yoshit, f. pl. all women; -ratna, m. N.: -maya, a. formed of all gems; entirely studded with jewels, -samanvita, pp. possessed of all jewels; -rasa, m. all kinds of juices or fluids (pl. or °ree;--); every taste: pl. all kinds of palatable food; -râtra, m. (?) the whole night: °ree;-or -m, ad. the whole night through; (sárva- AV., or sarvá- SB.)-rûpa, a. (V.) having all colours; having or assum ing all forms; of all kinds; -½ritu-ka, a. habitable in every season (house); -li&ndot;ga, a. having all genders, adjectival; -loká, m. V., C.: the whole world; C.: the whole people; every one: pl. or °ree;--, all beings; every one: -bhayamkara, a. appalling to the whole world, -mahesvara, m. ep. of Siva and of Krishna; -loha, a. entirely red; n. metals of all kinds (°ree;--): -maya, a. (î) entirely of iron; -vâram, ad. all at once, simultaneously; -vikrayin, a. selling all kinds of things; -vigñân-in, a. knowing everything: (-i)-tâ, f. omniscience; -víd, a. omniscient; -vinâsa, m. entire destruction; -vinda, m. a certain mythical being; -vishaya, a. relating to everything, general; (sárva)-vîra, a. all-heroic, consisting of, relating to, accompanied by or leading all men or heroes (V.); -ved asá, a. attended by a gift of all one's goods (sacrifice; V.); bestowing all his property on priests after a sacrifice (C., rare); n. en tire property (V.): -dakshina, a. attended with a gift of all one's property as a sacrificial fee (sacrifice; V., C.); -vedin, a. omniscient; knowing all the Vedas; -vainâsika, a. be lieving in complete annihilation; m. Bud dhist; -vyâpad, f. complete failure; -vyâp in, a. all-pervading; -vrata, n. universal vow; a. all-vowing; -sakti, f. entire strength: in. with all one's might; -sa&ndot;kâ, f. suspicion of every one.
salakṣaṇa a. having the same characteristics, similar; (sá)-lakshman, a. id.; -lagga, a. ashamed, (coquettishly) bash ful; embarrassed; -laggita-sneha-karunam, ad. with embarrassment, love, and compassion.
salīla a. playing, without exerting oneself; sportive, coquettish (ord. mg.): -m, ad. as it were in play (± iva); coquettishly.
sācivya n. [sakiva] companion ship, assistance, help; office of a minister: -½âkshepa, m. expression of dissatisfaction with anything though seeming to favour it (rh.).
sābhikāma a. loving; -gñâna, °ree;-or -m, ad. together with tokens of recog nition; -nivesa, a. attended with a great predilection for sthg.; -prâya, a. having a distinct aim, knowing one'smind; spoken with a purpose (words); -mâna, a. full of self-satisfaction, proud, of (lc.); self-interested (action): -m, ad. proudly; -lâsha, a. full of longing, for (esp. the opposite sex, lc., prati, --°ree;); -sara, a. together with companions.
sāmya n. [sama] equality, identity, likeness (with, to, in. ± saha, g., lc., --°ree;); equality (of rank or position); equilibrium, normal condition; equability, towards (lc., prati); justice: -m kri, act justly towards (lc.); -m nî, quench (fire); appease, satisfy: -tâ, f. equality, with (g., --°ree;); -½avasthâ, f. condition of equilibrium, normal state; -½avasthâna, n. id.
sātireka a. excessive; -½atisaya, a. superior, particularly good, pre-eminent.
sārva a. [sarva] beneficial to all: -kâm-ika, a. (î) satisfying or granting every wish; -kâla, a. occurring at all times; -kâl ika, a. (î) everlasting; -ganya, a. general, universal; -gñya, n. [sarva-gña] omniscience.
siddhāṅganā f. female Siddha; -½añgana, n. magical ointment; -½âdesa, m. prediction of a soothsayer; (whose predic tions are fulfilled), soothsayer; -½anta, m. established conclusion, demonstrated truth, settled doctrine; true logical conclusion (following on the refutation of the objection raised: phil.); astronomical treatise; a class of works among Buddhists and Jains: -kau mudî, f. Moonlight (=elucidation) of settled conclusions: T. of a grammar by Bhattogi, -dharma½âgama, m. canonical law.
sujña a. knowing well; -gñâna, n. good knowledge; a. possessing good know ledge; easy to know; -gyótis, a. (or ís) radiant (V.); -ta&ndot;ka, a. sharp, piercing (sound).
sugama a. easy to traverse; easy of access; easy to find or understand, obvious; m. N. of a Dânava; -gamana, a. easy of access; going well; -galâ, f. (fair-neck), N.; -gávya, n. possession of good cattle (RV.); -gâ&ndot;ga, N. of a palace; -g&asharp;tu, m. welfare; -gâtuy&asharp;, f. desire for prosperity: in. (y&asharp;) through -(RV.1); -gâtra, a. (î) fair-limbed: î, f. beautiful woman; -gîtha, m. N. of a Rishi; -gú, a.having good cattle (V.); -guna, a. virtuous; -gun-in, a. having great merits; (sú)-gupta, pp. well-guarded or looked after; well-concealed, kept very secret (C.): -m, ad. (C.) very carefully; very se cretly: -lekha, m. very secret letter; -gupti, f. great secrecy: -m â-dhâ, observe great se crecy; -guptî-kri, guard carefully; -guru, a. very grave (crime); -gûdha, pp. well-con cealed: -m, ad. very secretly; -grihin, a. well-housed (bird); -grihîta,pp. held firmly; adhered to; well practised or learnt; used auspiciously: -nâman, -nâmadheya, a. bear ing (a well-uttered=) an auspicious name; -gehinî, f. good mistress of the house; -gop&asharp;, m. good protector(RV.); a. well-guarded (RV.); -graha, a. having a good handle; easy to obtain; easy to understand; -grîva, m. (beautiful-necked) N. of a horse of Krish na; N. of a monkey-chief (brother of Vâlin, confederate of Râma); -grîshma, m. beau tiful summer; -ghata, a. easy to accomplish; -ghatita, pp. well put together, -devised: -ghatita, pp. id.; -ghana, a. very dense (forest); -ghora, a. very dreadful; -ghosha, a. making a loud noise; having a pleasant sound; m. N. of Nakula's conch; N. of an Agrahâra.
sudina a. (RV.) clear, bright (day, morning); n. (V., C.) bright sky, fine day, clear weather; good day, happy time: -tâ, f. clear weather, -tva, n. brightness (of days), fig. happy time (RV.); -dív, a.shining brightly (Agni; RV.); -divá, n. beautiful day (AV.); -divasa, n. id. (C.); -dîtí, f. bright flame (RV.); a. brilliant, flaming (RV.); -dîrgha, a. very long (of time and space); -duhkha, a. very laborious or diffi cult, to (inf.): -m, ad. very sorrowfully; -duhkhita, pp. greatly afflicted, very unhappy; -dukûla, a. made of very fine ma terial; -dúgha, a. (V.) milking well (cow); nourishing, bountiful: â, f. good milch-cow (V.); -durgaya, a.very hard to overcome or conquer; m. kind of military array; -dur bala, a. extremely weak; -durbuddhi, a. very foolish; -durmanas, a. very despon dent; -durlabha, a. very hard to obtain; very difficult to (inf.); -duskara, a. very inaccessible; very hard to perform (penance); -duhsrava, a. very unpleasant to hear; -dushprasâdhya, fp. very hard to over come; -dustara, a. very difficult to cross; very hard to perform; -duhsaha, a.very difficult to bear; invincible; -duha, a. willingly milked (cow); -dûra, a. very distant: -m or °ree;--, ad. very far; greatly, altogether, very; ab. from afar; (sú)-dridha, pp. very firm or strong; -retentive (memory); vehe ment, intense; -dris, a. (f. C. id.; V. -î) keen-sighted (V., C.); fair, considerable (RV.); fair-eyed, gnly. f. (fair-eyed) woman (C.); -drishta, a. keen-sighted; -devá, m. good or true god (V.); a. (V.) favoured by the gods; meant for the right gods; m. N.; -devyã, n. host of the good gods (RV.); -dyút, a. shin ing brightly (RV.); -dyumná, a. id. (RV.1); m. (C.) N.; -dviga, a. having beautiful teeth; -dhánvan, a. having an excellent bow; m. a mixed caste (offspring of outcast Vaisya); N.; assembly hall of the gods; -dharman, a. practising justice; m. assembly hall of the gods; -dharmâ, f. id.
suprakāśa a. well-lighted; dis tinctly visible; -praketá, a. bright, con spicuous, notable (RV.); -práketa, a. id. (RV.1); -prakshâlita, pp. well-washed; -pra gupta, pp. very secret; -prakkhanna, pp.well-concealed; -pragá, a. having good or numerous children; -pragás, a. id.; -pragña, a. very wise (person); -pránîti, f. safe guidance (V.); a. guiding safely (V.); following good guidance (RV.); -pratara, a. easy to cross (rivers); -pratarka, m. sound judgment; -pratikara, a. easy to requite; -pratigña, m. N. of a Dânava; -prativarman, m. N.; -pratishtha, a. standing firm; firmly sup porting; m. kind of military array; -pra tishthâpita, cs. pp. well set up (image); (sú)-pratishthita, pp. standing firm; pro perly set up (stone); thoroughly implanted in (lc.); well-established (fame, Pr.); n. N. of a town in Pratishthâna; -prátîka, a. having a beautiful countenance, handsome, lovely; m. N.; N. of a mythical elephant; -pratîta, pp. well-known; -pratúr, a. (nm. t&usharp;s) advancing victoriously (RV.1); -prá tûrti, a. id. (V.); -prapâná, n. good drink ing-place (RV.); -prabha, a. having a good appearance, fine, excellent; m. N. of a Deva putra: -deva, m. N.; -prabhâta, pp. beau tifully illuminated by dawn; n. beautiful dawn; -prayás, a. well-regaled (V.); -pra y&asharp;, a. pleasant to tread on (RV.1); -pra yukta, pp. well-discharged (arrow); well recited; well-planned (fraud); -pravâkaná, a. praiseworthy (RV.); -prasanna, pp. very clear (water); very bright or pleased (face etc.); very gracious; -prasava, m. easy par turition; -prasâda, a. placable; -prasâdh ita, pp. well-adorned; -prasiddha, pp. well known; -prahâra, m. N. of a fisherman.
sumanomattaka m. N.; -mano-latâ, f. flowering creeper; -mano hara, a. very charming or attractive; -mán tu, a. easily known, well-known (RV.); m. N. of a teacher; -mantra, a. following good counsels; m. N. of various men; -mantrita, pp. well-deliberated: n. imps. good counsel has been taken; n. good counsel: -m kri, take good counsel; -mantrin, a. having a good minister; -mánman, a. uttering good wishes, very devout (RV.); -marma-ga, a. deeply penetrating the joints, causing great agony (arrow); -marshana, a. easy to bear; (sú)-mahat, a. very great, huge, vast (of time, space, quantity, number, degree); very important; -mahas, a. glorious (RV., always vc.); -mahâ, °ree;--: a. extremely great; ad. very greatly; -mahâ-kaksha, a. very high-walled; -mahâ-tapas, a. extremely ascetic or pious; -mahâ-tegas, a. very glorious; -mahât man, a. very noble-minded or high-souled; -mahâ-bala, a. extremely powerful or effica cious; -mahâ-manas, a. very high-minded; -mahârha, a. very splendid; -mahausha dha, n. herb of marvellous efficacy; -mâyá, a. having noble counsels (Maruts; RV.); m. N. of a prince of the Asuras; N. of a fairy: â, f. N. of a daughter of Maya: (a)-ka, m. N. of a fairy; -mitrá, m. kind friend; N., esp. of kings: â, f. N. of a Yakshinî; N. of a wife of Dasaratha, mother of Satrughna and Lakshmana; -mukha, n. beautiful mouth; bright face: in. cheerfully; a. (î) fair-faced; bright-faced, glad; inclined or disposed to (--°ree;); m. N. of a king; -mundîka, m. N. of an Asura; -mridîká, -mrilîká, V. a. com passionate, gracious; -mrishta, pp. well polished; very dainty: -pushpa½âdhya, a. abounding in very bright flowers; -méka, V. a. well-established, firm; unvarying; -medhás, a.having a good understanding, intelligent, wise (ac. also -medh&asharp;m, RV.); -meru, m. N. of a mtn. (=Meru); N. of a fairy; -mná, a. [√ mnâ=√ man] well-dis posed, gracious (V.); n. (V.) benevolence, favour, grace; devotion, prayer; satisfac tion, gladness, peace: -yú, V. a. devout, be lieving; favourable; -mnâ-várî, a. f. gracious, bringing gladness (Dawn, RV.1).
suradāru n. a tree (=Deva-dâru); -druma, m. celestial tree; -dvipa, m. celes tial elephant; -dvish, m. foe of the gods, demon; ep. of Râhu; -dhanus, n. bow of the gods, rainbow; -nadî, f. river of the gods, Ganges; -nâyaka, m. leader of the gods, ep. of Indra; -nimnagâ, f. river of the gods, Ganges; -pati, m. lord of the gods, Indra: -tva, n. sovereignty of the gods, -dhanus, n. bow of Indra, rainbow; -patha, m. path of the gods (a part of the sky); -pâmsulâ, f. Apsaras: -gana, m. Apsaras folk; -pâdapa, m. celestial tree; -pura, n. city of the gods, Amarâvatî; -purodhas, m. domestic priest of the gods=Brihaspati; -pushpa, n. celestial flower: -vrishti, f. shower of celestial flowers; -pratishthâ, f. erection of a divine image.
suhata pp. thoroughly beaten; justly killed; -hána, a. easy to slay (V.); -hántu, a. id. (RV.); -háva, a. (V.) easily invoked, listening willingly; invoking well; n. (V.) successful invocation; -hásta, a. (V.)fair handed; deft of hand; (sú)-hita, pp. C.: very suitable; very salutary; perfectly satis fied, fully sated (esp. with food and drink; Br., S.; rare in C.); (sú)-huta, pp. V., E.: well offered (sacrifice); well sacrificed to (C.); n.right sacrifice (V.): -hut, a. offering a right sacrifice (S.); -hrik-khoka-vivardha na, a. increasing the sorrow of one's friends; -hrig-gana, m. sg. friend, friends: pl. friends; -hrit-tama, spv. best of friends; -hrit-tâ, f., -hrit-tva, n. friendship; -hrit-tyâga, m. desertion of a friend: -hrid, m. [good hearted] friend; ally (-hrido ganâh, friends): --°ree; a. fond of, addicted to; closely resembling; -hridaya, a. kind-hearted (V.): -tama, spv.; -hrid-bheda, m. separation of friends; -hrid vadha, m. slaying a friend; -hrid-vâkya, n. speech or advice of a friend; -hrin-nârî, f. female friend; -hrin-mitra, n. sg. friends and allies; -hemanta, m. good winter (S.); -hótri (orsú-), m. good sacrificer (V.); -hotra, m. N.
susakhi m. (nm. â) good friend; -samkruddha, pp. greatly enraged; -sam gatâ, f. N.; -samgama, m. pleasant (place of) meeting; -samgrihîta, pp. well-controlled or governed (kingdom); -sakiva, m.good minister; a. having a good minister; -saggî kri, make perfectly ready; -samkita, pp. well-gathered, carefully accumulated: -m sam-ki, collect carefully; -sattra, n. good hospital; -sattva, a. very resolute; -sadrisa, a.(î) very like (g.); -samtushta, pp. per fectly satisfied; -samtosha, a. easy to satisfy; -samdîpta, pp. flaming brightly; -samdrís, a. fair to see; -samdha, a. true to one's word; -sanna, pp. [√ sad] completely at an end, foiled; -sama, a. perfectly level or smooth; (sú)-samâhita, pp. [√ dhâ] well laden (waggon, Br.); C.: well-adorned; very attentive or intent, thoroughly concentrated; (sú)-samiddha, pp. [√ idh] well-kindled;(sú)-samriddha, pp. [√ ridh] V.: quite per fect; C.: very abundant; very wealthy; -samriddhi, f. great wealth; -sampad, f. affluence, great prosperity; (sú)-sampish- ta, pp. completely shattered (car; RV.1); -sampratapta, pp. thoroughly harassed; -sambaddha, pp. intimately connected; -sambhriti, f. due collection of requisites; -sambhrama, m. great agitation or confu sion, excessive haste; -sambhrânta, pp. completely bewildered; (sú)-sarva, a. quite complete (Br.); -sahâya, a. having a good companion or assistant: -vat, a. id.; -sâdh ana, a. easy to prove; -sâdhita, pp. well trained; -sâdhya, fp. easy to control, amen able; -sâman, n.very conciliatory words; -sârathi, a. having a good charioteer; -sita, a. pure white; -siddha, pp. well-cooked; very efficacious, of great magical power; completely supplied with (in.): -½artha, a. having completely attained one's object; -sî ma, a. having a good parting (woman).
sūrya m. [svar] sun; sun-god; N. (C.): -ka, m. N.; -kara, m. sunbeam; -kân ta, m. (beloved of the sun), sun-stone, sun crystal; -kandra, m. N.; -tapas, m. N. of a sage; -tegas, n. sunshine;(s&usharp;rya)-tvak, a. having a sun-bright skin or covering (RV.); -pâda, m. sunbeam; -putra, m. son of the sun, pat. of the Asvins, planet Saturn, and Yama: î, f. daughter of the sun, the Yamu nâ; -prabha, a. sun-bright; m. N. among others of the king after whom the eighth Lambaka of the Kathâsaritsâgara is called: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -prabhava, a. sprung from the sun (race); -prabhîya, a. belonging to king Sûryaprabha; -prasishya, m. ep. of Ganaka; -bimba, m. or n. disc of the sun; -mandala, n. id.; -matî, f. N. of a princess; -ratha, m. car of the sun; -rasmi, m. sun beam; -ruk, f. sunlight; -vamsa, m. solar race of kings; -vams-ya, a.belonging to the solar race; -varman, m. N. of a Dâmara; -vâra, m. Sunday; -sishya, m. ep. of Yâgña valkya: -½antevâsin, m. ep. of Ganaka; -samkrama, m. entrance of the sun into a new sign of the zodiac; -samkrânti, f. id.; -siddhânta, m. T. of an astronomical trea tise ascribed to the Sun; -suta, m. (son of the sun) planet Saturn; the monkey Sugrîva; -stuti, f., -stotra, n. praise of the sun.
sevita pp. frequented etc.; -i-tavya, fp. to be practised, performed, or obeyed; -tended; -i-tri, m. attendant, servant; -i-tva, n. (--°ree;) resorting to, frequenting; honouring, deference towards (--°ree;);-in, a. (--°ree;) frequenting, haunting, dwelling in, re sorting to; serving; honouring, paying hom age to, deferential towards; having sexual intercourse with; addicted to, practising; enjoying; employing; m. servant of (--°ree;); -ya, fp. to be frequented, worthy to be re sorted to, by (g.); to be followed (path); -approached; -waited upon or served, by (g.); -honoured or paid homage to; -en joyed carnally;--indulged in, cultivated, prac tised, employed, or enjoyed; m. master (opp. servant): -tâ, f. state of being honoured, en joyed, etc., -tva, n. state of being served etc., -sevaka, m. du. master and servant.
sevaka a. (--°ree;) inhabiting; practising, indulging in, addicted to, employing; tend ing (a plant); honouring; m. servant; votary, worshipper of (--°ree;).
sauhitya n. [suhita] satiety, satis faction; friendliness, kindness.
skandha m. V., C.: shoulder; C.: branching part of the stem, trunk of a tree (also S.); division, part; tract, path, region (of the winds; rare); section of a treatise (rare); quantity, aggregate (rare); often incorr. for skanda: -ka, n. kind of Aryâ metre; -desa, m. (region of the) shoulder; region of the trunk; -pîtha, n. shoulder-blade; -vat, a. having a (thick) trunk or many trunks; -siras, n. shoulder-blade.
stha stha, ṣṭha a. --°ree; [√ sthâ] standing, sitting, situated, staying, abiding, existing (in, on, among); being in (an age or condition); engaged in, occupied with, devoted to, practising.
sthita pp. [√ sthâ] standing, -up (opp. walking, sitting, lying); standing firm (in battle); staying, remaining, situated, in a place (lc., ad., --°ree;; common mg.); being in a condition or position (in., ab., lc., --°ree;, n. in app.; more commonly ad., pp., pr. pt., gd.; w. pr. pt. or gd.=continually; ord. mg.); engaged in, intent on, addicted or devoted to, practising, persevering in (lc., --°ree;); abiding in, conforming to, following (command etc., lc.); being in office; steady, kept (agreement, counsel); settled, generally accepted (also Br.); determined, resolved upon; firmly con vinced; firmly resolved to (inf., lc. of vbl. n.); ready to (d.); being there, existing, present, come (time); directed to (lc., --°ree;; effort, gaze); resting or dependent on (lc.); conducing (oppression) to (d.); remaining, left (rare); having desisted or stopped; un accompanied by iti (in the Padapâtha); stand ing alone: -m, n. imps. it was stood by (in.) =he waited; anityam sthitah, not remain ing permanently, staying only a short time; purah --, =imminent; parasparam sthitau, standing face to face (as foes); muktâ½âkâ ra-tayâ --, resting in the form of (=like) a pearl (drop of water); pade sthite,=in the Padapâtha; n. standing still, staying: -vat, pp. act. being, in (lc.).
smaradaśā f. stage of love (there are ten: delight of the eye, pensiveness, long ing, sleeplessness, emaciation, indifference to worldly objects, abandonment of shame, in fatuation, swoon, death; see Mallinâtha on Meghadûta 90); -dahana, m. burner of Kâma, Siva; -dâyin, a. arousing love; -dîpana, a. kindling love; -maya, a. produced by love; -lekha, m. love-letter; -sara-maya, a. (î) abounding in Kâma's arrows (certain flowers); -sâsana, m. chastiser of Kâma, Siva; -sâstra, n. treatise on erotics; -sakha, m. friend of Kâma, ep. of spring; -saha, a. capable of arousing love; -sâyaka-lakshya, n. target of the arrows of Kâma: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -½ari, m. foe of Kâma, Siva; -½ishudhî-kri, turn into the quiver of Kâma.
svapas a. doing good work, indus trious, artistic (V.); m. artificer (RV.).
haya m. [speeder: √ hi] steed, horse; a. urging on (in asva-hayá); -kovida, a. skilled in horses; -grîva, a. having the mane of a horse; m. a form of Vishnu; N. of an Asura and of various men; -gña,a. skilled in horses: -tâ, f. knowledge of horses; -gñâ na, n. id.; -tattva-gña, a. knowing the true nature of horses; -pa, m. groom; N. of a king; -pati, m. N. of a king; -medha, m. horse sacrifice; -lîlâvatî, f. T. of a treatise on horses; -vidyâ, f. art of managing horses; -sâstra, n. id.; -siras, n. horse's head; -sisu, m. foal; -samgrahana, n. curbing of horses.
ij. of pain, astonishment, or satisfac- tion, ah! alas! used before or after a vc., sts. with following ac.=alas for; also com- bined with kashtam, dhik, and hanta: -kash- ta-sabda, m. exclamation hâ kashtam (ah, alas!); -kâra, m. exclamation hâ.
hetvākṣepa m. statement of dis satisfaction in spite of the reason adduced (rh.); -½âbhâsa, m. fallacious reason or proof, fallacy.
Vedic Index of
Names and Subjects
260 resultsResults for tis5 results
tisṛdhanva ‘A bow with three (arrows),’ is mentioned as a gift to the priest at the sacrifice in the Taittirīya Samhitā and in the Brāhmanas.
pratisara Is used in several passages of the Atharvaveda and later to denote an amulet, according to Roth, because it was a band, and so returned on itself (prati-sγ, ‘go back’). The sense is doubtful; perhaps ‘ attacking ’ may really be the root idea. Cf Punahsara.
pratīpa prātisatvana Is the name of a man mentioned in a hymn of the Atharvaveda. Zimmer, with great ingenuity, compares the fact that Parikṣit is mentioned as a Kuru king in the Atharvaveda, and that, according to the Epic genealogies, his grandson was Pratiśravas, with which name Prātisutvana, as very possibly a Prākritized version of Prātiśrutvana may be compared, and his great-grandson was Pratīpa. The identification cannot, however, be regarded as at all certain, and while the Epic may have derived its genealogy from the Atharvaveda, it may have preserved an independent tradition. Bohtlingk renders prātisatvanam as ‘ in the direction opposed to the Satvans’, and this may be right.
prātisutvana See Pratīpa.
bṛhaspatisava Is the name of a sacrifice by which, according to the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, the priest who desired to become a Purohita obtained that office. According to the Aśvalāyana śrauta Sūtra, it was the sacrifice to be performed by a priest after the Vājapeya, while the king performed the Rājasūya. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, the Brhaspati- sava is identified with the Vājapeya; but such identity is clearly not primitive.
Bloomfield Vedic
Concordance
260 resultsResults for tis5 resultsResults for tis135 results
tisra ājānīr uṣasas te agne RV.3.17.3b; TS.3.2.11.2b; MS.4.11.1b: 161.12; KS.2.15b.
tisra iḍā sarasvatī VS.21.19a; KS.38.10a; TB.2.6.18.3a. See tisro devīr iḍā.
tisra imāḥ pṛthivīr uta AVś.19.32.4b; AVP.11.12.4b. Cf. under imā yās tisraḥ.
tisra u te tanvo (TS. tanuvo) devavātāḥ RV.3.20.2c; TS.3.2.11.1c; MS.2.4.4c: 42.11; KS.9.19c.
tisraḥ kṛṣṇā vaśā vāruṇyaḥ TS.5.6.11.1; KSA.9.1.
tisraḥ kṣapas (TA. kṣapās) trir ahātivrajadbhiḥ RV.1.116.4a; TA.1.10.3a.
tisraḥ paṣṭhauhyo viśveṣāṃ devānām TS.5.6.17.1; KSA.9.7.
tisraḥ pṛthivīr adho astu viśvāḥ RV.7.104.11b; AVś.8.4.11b.
tisraḥ pṛthivīr upari pravā divaḥ RV.1.34.8c.
tisraḥ prajā āryā jyotiragrāḥ RV.7.33.7b; JB.2.241b (bis). Cf. tisro vācaḥ.
tisraḥ śilpā vaśā vaiśvadevyaḥ TS.5.6.13.1; KSA.9.3.
tisraḥ śyāmā vaśāḥ pauṣṇiyaḥ (KS. -ṣṇyaḥ) TS.5.6.12.1; KSA.9.2.
tisraḥ śyenīḥ parameṣṭhine TS.5.6.13.1; KSA.9.3.
tisraḥ śvetā vaśāḥ sauryaḥ TS.5.6.11.1; KSA.9.1.
tisraḥ sarasvatīr aduḥ AVś.6.100.1c.
tisraḥ sidhmā vaśā vaiśvakarmaṇyaḥ TS.5.6.14.1; KSA.9.4.
tisraś ca me trayastriṃśac ca me KS.18.12.
tisraś ca me triṃśac ca me (AVP. omits me) AVś.5.15.3a; AVP.8.5.3a.
tisraś ca me pañca ca me VS.18.24.
tisraś camvaḥ supūrṇāḥ RV.8.2.8b.
tisraś ca rājabandhavīḥ (HG. -vaiḥ) HG.2.16.8d; ApMB.2.17.26d. See prajāḥ sarvāś, and sarvāś ca rāja-.
tisras turyauhyaḥ sādhyānām TS.5.6.17.1; KSA.9.7.
tisras te jihvā ṛtajātā pūrvīḥ RV.3.20.2b; TS.3.2.11.1b; MS.2.4.4b: 42.10; KS.9.19b.
tisras trivṛdbhir mithunāḥ prajātyai TB.1.2.1.8d; Apś.5.6.1d.
tisras tredhā sarasvatī VS.20.63a; MS.3.11.3a: 144.7; KS.38.8a; TB.2.6.12.4a.
tisṛbhir astuvata VS.14.28; TS.4.3.10.1; MS.2.8.6: 110.6; KS.17.5; śB.8.4.3.4.
tisṛbhir gharmo vibhāti MS.4.9.13a: 134.7. See triśug, triśrud, and gharmas triśug.
tisṛbhiś ca vahase triṃśatā ca AVś.7.4.1c; VS.27.33c; MS.4.6.2c: 79.6; śB.4.4.1.15c; TA.1.11.8c; Aś.5.18.5c; śś.8.3.10c.
tisṝṇāṃ saptatīnām RV.8.19.37c.
tisro 'jā malhā indrāṇyai TS.5.6.19.1; KSA.9.9.
tisro jihvasya (var. lect. yahvasya) samidhaḥ parijmanaḥ MS.1.3.35a: 42.6. P: tisro jihvasya (var. lect. yahvasya) Mś.2.3.2.33. See tisro yahvasya.
tisro jihvā varuṇasya AVś.10.10.28a.
tisro dadhur (KS. dadur) devatāḥ saṃrarāṇāḥ VS.19.81b; MS.3.11.9b: 153.3; KS.38.3b; TB.2.6.4.1b.
tisro divaḥ pṛthivīs tisra invati RV.4.53.5c.
tisro divaḥ prati mahnā svarciḥ RV.2.3.2b.
tisro divas tisraḥ pṛthivīḥ AVś.4.20.2a; 19.27.3a; AVP.8.6.2a; 10.7.3a. Cf. under imā yās tisraḥ.
tisro divo aty atṛṇat (AVP. atṛṇaḥ) AVś.19.32.4a; AVP.11.12.4a.
tisro devīr agna (MS. agnā) ājyasya vyantu (MS. vyantu svāhā) MS.4.10.3: 149.5; KS.20.15; Aś.2.6.19; śś.3.13.20.
tisro devīr iḍā mahī MS.3.11.11a: 158.12. See tisra iḍā.
tisro devīr barhir idaṃ varīyaḥ RV.10.70.8a.
tisro devīr barhir edaṃ sadantu (AVś. sadantām) RV.3.4.8d; 7.2.8d; AVś.5.27.9a; AVP.9.1.8a; VS.27.19a; TS.4.1.8.2a; KS.18.17a. See next.
tisro devīr barhir edaṃ syonam RV.10.110.8c; AVś.5.12.8c; VS.29.33c; MS.2.12.6a: 150.14; 4.13.3c: 202.10; KS.16.20c; TB.3.6.3.4c; N.8.13c. See prec.
tisro devīr mayobhuvaḥ RV.1.13.9b; 5.5.8b.
tisro devīr mahi naḥ śarma yachata (AVP. me śarma yachan) AVś.5.3.7a; AVP.5.4.12a; KS.40.10a.
tisro devīr haviṣā vardhamānāḥ VS.20.43a; MS.3.11.1a: 140.10; KS.38.6a; TB.2.6.8.3a.
tisro devīr hiraṇyayīḥ (TB. hiraṇmayīḥ) VS.28.31b; TB.2.6.17.6b.
tisro devīḥ supeśasaḥ RV.9.5.8d.
tisro devīḥ svadhayā barhir edam RV.2.3.8c.
tisro deṣṭrāya nirṛtīr upāsate RV.10.114.2a.
tisro dyāvas tredhā sasrur āpaḥ RV.7.101.4b.
tisro dyāvaḥ savitur dvā upasthā RV.1.35.6a.
tisro dyāvo nihitā antar asmin RV.7.87.5a.
tisro dhātre pṛṣodarā aindrāpauṣṇāḥ (KSA. pṛṣodarāḥ pauṣṇāḥ) śyetalalāmās tūparāḥ TS.5.6.14.1; KSA.9.4.
tisro dhenavo rākāyai TS.5.6.18.1; KSA.9.8.
tisro nāsatyā rathyā parāvataḥ RV.1.34.7c.
tisro bhūmīr adhikṣitāḥ RV.8.41.9b.
tisro bhūmīr uparāḥ ṣaḍvidhānāḥ RV.7.87.5b.
tisro bhūmīr dhārayan (MS. -yaṃs) trīṃr (MS. trīnr) uta dyūn RV.2.27.8a; TS.2.1.11.5a; MS.4.14.14a: 239.2; KS.11.12a; Aś.3.8.1. P: tisro bhūmīr dhārayan TB.2.8.1.6.
tisro bhūmīr nṛpate trīṇi rocanā RV.1.102.8b.
tisro mahīr uparās tasthur atyāḥ RV.3.56.2c.
tisro mātṝs trīn pitṝn bibhrad ekaḥ RV.1.164.10a; AVś.9.9.10a.
tisro mātrā gandharvāṇām AVś.3.24.6a; AVP.5.30.8a.
tisro meṣya ādityāḥ TS.5.6.19.1; KSA.9.9.
tisro yad agne śaradas tvām it RV.1.72.3a; TB.2.4.5.6a.
tisro yahvasya samidhaḥ parijmanaḥ RV.3.2.9a; Apś.12.7.10a. P: tisro yahvasya Apś.12.7.13. See tisro jihvasya.
tisro rātrīḥ surāsutā VS.19.14d.
tisro 'ruṇā dityauhyas tā rudrāṇām TS.5.6.15.1; KSA.9.5.
tisro rohiṇīr vaśā maitriyaḥ (KSA. rauhiṇyo vaśā maitryaḥ) TS.5.6.12.1; KSA.9.2.
tisro rohiṇīs (KSA. -ṇyas) tryavyas tā vasūnām TS.5.6.15.1; KSA.9.5.
tisro vaśā atihitāḥ sadhasthe AVP.12.9.3b.
tisro vahanti sādhuyā RV.10.33.5b.
tisro vāca īrayati pra vahniḥ RV.9.97.34a; SV.1.525a; 2.209a; JB.3.46a; PB.12.3.6; N.14.14a.
tisro vāca ud īrate RV.9.33.4a; SV.1.471a; 2.219a; JB.3.51a; PB.12.5.1; Svidh.1.4.4.
tisro vācaḥ pra vada jyotiragrāḥ RV.7.101.1a. Cf. BṛhD.6.25; Rvidh.2.30.1. Cf. tisraḥ prajā.
tisro vāco nihitā antar asmin AVś.7.43.1c.
tisro vāco makhasyuvaḥ RV.9.50.2b; SV.2.556b.
tisro ha prajā atyāyam āyan (JB. īyuḥ) AVś.10.8.3a; JB.2.229a (ter). See prajā ha tisro.
tistire barhir ānuṣak RV.3.41.2b; AVś.20.23.2b.
atisargaṃ dadato mānavāya # MS.2.13.22a: 167.18; KS.40.12a; Apś.17.13.2a.
atisṛtyātisarāḥ # AVP.7.18.5a.
atisṛṣṭā agnayo divyāḥ # AVś.16.1.1.
atisṛṣṭo apāṃ vṛṣabhaḥ # AVś.16.1.1; Kauś.9.9.
atisṛṣṭo gavāṃ bhāgaḥ # MS.1.1.2: 1.8; Apś.1.3.9; Mś.1.1.1.31.
atisṛṣṭo dveṣṭā yo 'smān dveṣṭi yaṃ ca vayaṃ dviṣmaḥ # Kauś.90.6.
atisthūlaṃ cātikṛśaṃ ca # VS.30.22; VSK.34.22. See atikṛśam.
aditis te kakṣāṃ badhnātu vedasyānuvaktavai medhāyai śraddhāyā anūktasyānirākaraṇāya brahmaṇe brahmavarcasāya # HG.1.4.6.
aditis te bilaṃ etc. # see aditiṣ ṭe bilaṃ.
aditis tvā etc. # see aditiṣ ṭvā.
aditis sadohavirdhānābhyām # KS.9.10. See marutaḥ sado-.
antisumne mahivrate # AVś.7.112.1b; 14.2.45b.
ardhāhutis tu sauviṣṭakṛtī # Kauś.73.12a.
aṣṭāśītisahasrāṇi # AB.8.22.5a.
citpatis tvā punātu # TS.1.2.1.2; 6.1.1.9; MS.1.2.1: 10.6; 3.6.3: 62.15; KS.2.1; 23.1; Apś.10.7.10. P: citpatis tvā Mś.2.1.1.40.
jyotis tad yad etc. # see jyotis tena yena etc.
jyotis tamaso vayunāvad asthāt # RV.4.51.1b.
jyotis tena yena gāyatrī # ṣB.1.4.9.
jyotis tena yena chandaḥ # ṣB.1.4.9.
jyotis tena yena jyotiḥ # ṣB.1.4.9.
jyotis tena yena devatā (JB. jyotis tad yad devatā) # JB.1.76; ṣB.1.4.9.
jyotis tena yenark (JB. jyotis tad yad ṛk) # JB.1.76; ṣB.1.4.9.
jyotis tena yena sāma (JB. jyotis tad yad sāma) # JB.1.76; ṣB.1.4.9.
jyotis tvā jyotiṣi # TS.1.1.10.3; TB.3.3.4.6.
dṛtis turīyo madhuno vi rapśate # RV.4.45.1d.
paṅktis triṣṭubhe # Vait.1.18. Cf. gāyatrī triṣṭubhe.
paṅktis tvā chandasām avatu (KS. tvā chandasāvatu; VS.śB. tvāvatu) # VS.10.14; TS.1.8.13.2; MS.2.6.10: 70.1; KS.15.7; śB.5.4.1.7.
prajāpatisṛṣṭānāṃ prajānām # TB.1.2.1.3a; Apś.5.1.7a.
prajāpatisṛṣṭo maṇiḥ # AVś.10.6.19c.
prajāpatis tanvaṃ me juṣasva # MG.1.14.16a. See prajāpate etc.
prajāpatis tapasā brahmaṇe 'pacat # AVś.4.35.1b.
prajāpatis tṛpyatu # śG.4.9.3; 6.6.10. Cf. AG.3.4.1, and prajāpatiṃ tarpayāmi.
prajāpatis te hastam agrabhīt # HG.1.5.9.
prajāpatis tvā (sc. yunaktu) # Lś.2.5.21.
prajāpatis tvā sādayatu # TS.5.5.2.4 (bis); TB.3.10.2.1 (quater); 11.1.1--21; TA.4.17.1; 18.1; 19.1; 6.7.3 (bis); 8.1 (bis); Apś.16.21.6; 17.25.1; 19.11.7.
prajāpatis tvā sādayatu divaḥ pṛṣṭhe jyotiṣmatīm # TS.4.4.6.1; KS.17.10; 39.1; Apś.17.4.4.
prajāpatis tvā (MSṃś. -patiṣ ṭvā) sādayatu pṛthivyāḥ pṛṣṭhe (KS. pṛṣṭhe jyotiṣmatīṃ vyacasvatīṃ prathasvatīm; TS. pṛṣṭhe vyacasvatīṃ prathasvatīm) # TS.4.2.9.1; KS.39.3; MS.2.8.14: 117.15; 4.9.16: 135.3; Apś.16.23.1; Mś.6.1.5.34. P: prajāpatiṣ ṭvā sādayatu Mś.6.1.7.9. See prajāpatiṣ ṭvā sādayatu pṛṣṭhe.
pratisaro 'si # AVś.2.11.2; AVP.1.57.2.
pratispāśanam anti tam # AVś.8.5.11e.
bṛhaspatisutasya ta (MS. tā; omitted in KS., with hiatus between -sutasya and inda) indo (KSṃS. inda) indriyāvataḥ patnīvantaṃ (KS. -vato) grahaṃ gṛhṇāmi (KS. graham ṛdhyāsam; MS. grahaṃ rādhyāsam) # TS.1.4.27.1; MS.1.3.29: 40.3; KS.4.11. Ps: bṛhaspatisutasya tā inda indriyāvataḥ MS.4.7.4: 97.10; bṛhaspatisutasya ta indriyāva (iti !) TS.6.5.8.3; KS.28.8; bṛhaspatiprasutasya te Apś.13.14.7; bṛhaspatisutasya te Mś.2.5.2.10. See next.
bṛhaspatisutasya deva soma ta indor (VSK. inda) indriyāvataḥ patnīvato grahāṃ ṛdhyāsam # VS.8.9; VSK.8.6.1; śB.4.4.2.12. P: bṛhaspatisutasya Kś.10.6.16. See prec.
bṛhaspatis tanutām imaṃ naḥ # TS.1.5.3.2c; 6.3.3c; 7.1.5; TB.3.7.6.16c. See under bṛhaspatir yajñam imaṃ.
bṛhaspatis tam akṛṇot # AVP.7.5.2a.
bṛhaspatis tam ava jaṅghanītu # AVP.2.65.3c.
bṛhaspatis tamasi jyotir ichan # RV.10.67.4c; AVś.20.91.4c.
bṛhaspatis tara āpaś ca gṛdhraḥ # RV.1.190.7d.
bṛhaspatis te hastam agrabhīt # HG.1.5.9.
bṛhaspatis triṣadhastho raveṇa # RV.4.50.1b; AVś.20.88.1b; MS.4.12.3b: 193.3; KS.9.19b.
bṛhaspatis tvā niyunaktu etc. # see bṛhaspatiṣ ṭvā etc.
bṛhaspatis tvā prajāpataye jyotiṣmatīṃ (KS. jyotiṣmate jyotiṣmatīṃ) juhotu (KS. adds svāhā) # TS.3.3.10.1; KS.13.11,12.
bṛhaspatis tvā viśvair etc. # see bṛhaspatiṣ ṭvā etc.
bṛhaspatis tvā sādayatu etc. # see bṛhaspatiṣ ṭvā etc.
bṛhaspatis tvā sumne etc. # see bṛhaspatiṣ ṭvā etc.
bṛhaspatis tvopariṣṭād abhiṣiñcatu pāṅktena chandasā # TB.2.7.15.8. Cf. bṛhaspatiṣ ṭvā viśvair.
bṛhaspatis tvopasīdatu # see bṛhaspatiṣ ṭvo-.
bṛhaspatis savitā devo agniḥ # KS.16.12b. See bṛhaspatir vo yunaktu.
yathāgamaprajñāśrutismṛtivibhavād anukrāntamānād avivādapratiṣṭhād abhayaṃ śaṃ bhave no astu # śG.6.6.16.
Dictionary of Sanskrit Search
"tis" has 354 results
ātisparśaexcess of contact, which to a certain extent spoils the pronunciation and leads to.a fault. अतिस्पर्श is the same as दुःस्पर्श, the letter ळ being called दुःस्पृष्ट on account of excess of contact. This excess of contact ( अतिस्पर्श) in the case of the utterance of the letter र् results into a fault as it practically borders on stammering; confer, compare अतिस्पर्शो बर्बरता च रेफे, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 26.
atisvārya(अतिस्वार also)name of the seventh musical note in the singing of Sāman. confer, compareक्रष्टुप्रथमद्वितीयतृतीयचतुर्थमन्द्रातिस्वार्याः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 13.
anubhūtisvarūpācāryaa writer of the twelfth century who wrote a work on grammar called सरस्वती-प्रक्रिया or सारस्वतप्रक्रिया, He has also written धातुपाठ and आख्यातप्रक्रिया. The grammar is a short one and is studied in some parts of India.
aprakṛtisvaratvanon-retention of the original word accents; confer, compare तत्र यस्य गतेरप्रकृतिस्वरत्वं तस्मादन्तेादात्वं प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI.2.49. See the word प्रकृतिस्वरत्व.
kāśikāvṛttisāraa commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti named अमृतसूति by Vāraṇāvateśa-śāstrin.
gatisamāsaa compound with the preceding gati word prescribed by the rule कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18; confer, compare गतिसमास । निष्कौशाम्बिः, निर्वाराणसि: M.Bh. on II. 4. 26 .
tisvarathe acute accent for the last vowel of a word ending with क्त of the past passive participle. denoting a genus; confer, compare P. VI. 2.170.
durghaṭavṛttisaṃskaraṇaa grammar work on the formation of difficult words attributed to शर्वरक्षित or सर्वरक्षित.
nivṛttisthānaplaces where the substitutes गुण and वृद्धि do not apply ; weak terminations; kit or nit affixes in Panini's grammar; confer, compare अथाप्यस्तेर्निवृत्तिस्थानेष्वादिलेापो भवति । स्तः सन्तीति । Nirukta of Yāska.II. 1. The word संक्रम is also used in this sense by ancient grammarians.
pūrvapadaprakṛtisvararetention of the original acute accent of the first member in a compound as is generally noticed in the bahuvrihi compound and in special cases in other compounds; cf बहुव्रीहौ प्रकृत्या पूर्वपदम् and the following rules P. WI. 2.1 to 63.
prakrutisvarathe accent id est, that is the acute accent ( उदात्त ) possessed by the original word as contrasted with the accent of the afix ( प्रत्ययस्वर ) which (latter) is looked upon as more powerful; confer, compare (बहुव्रीहौ) पूर्वपदं प्रकृतिस्वरं भवति M.Bh, on II.I.24, II. 2.29 Vart. 17, See Panini Sutras VI.2.1 to 63.
pratisaṃskaraṇaediting with improvement, with an attempt to restore the correct version or the original text in the place of the corrupt one sometimes suitable additions and improvements are also made; e. g. चरकप्रतिसंस्करण attributed to Patanjali.
bahuvrīhiprakṛtisvarathe accent peculiar to, or specifically mentioned in the case of the Bahuvrihi compound viz. the retention of its own accents by the first member, in spite of the general rule that a compound word has the last vowel accented acute id est, that is उदात्त. confer, compare बहुव्रीहौ प्रकृत्या पूर्वपदम्. P. VI. 2.1. The expression बहुव्रीहिस्वर in this very sense is used in the Mahabhasya confer, compare बहुव्रीहिस्वरं शास्ति समासान्तविधेः सुकृत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 2.1.
vibhāktisvarapratirūpakasimilar in form to a word ending in a case-affix or to a vowel. Such words are looked upon, and are treated as indeclinables exempli gratia, for example शनै:, चिरेण, अस्ति, उ, ए et cetera, and others; confer, compare the usual expressions तिडन्तप्रतिरूपकमव्ययम् et cetera, and others confer, compare विभक्तिस्वरप्रतिरूपकाश्च निपाता भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VIII.3.1: confer, compare also उपसर्गविभक्तिस्वरप्रतिरूपकाश्च निपाताः । a gaṇasūtra inside the चादिगण mentioned in P.I.4.57.
vṛtisaṃgrahaname of a gloss on Panini's Astadhyayi written by Ramacandra.
vṛttisamavāyaserial arrangement of letters in a specific way ( as for instance in the Mahesvara Sutras) for the sake of grammatical functions; confer, compare वृत्तिसमवायार्थं उपदेशः | वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः। समवायॊ वर्णानामानुपूर्व्येण सांनवेशः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Ahnika I.
vṛttisamuddeśaname given to the last of the fourteen sections of the third chapter of Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya ( viz. the संकीर्णकाण्ड ) in which the taddhita affixes and their interpretations are discussedition
vṛttisūtraa rule forming the basis of a vrtti, i. e. a rule on which glosses are written, as contrasted with वार्तिकसूत्र or वार्तिक a pithy Sutralike statement composed as an addition or a modification of the original Sutra; confer, compare केचित्तावदाहुर्यद् वृत्तिसूत्रे इति | संख्ययाव्ययासन्नादूराधिकसंख्यां: संख्येये ( P. II. 2.25 ) इति | M, Bh. on P. II. 2. 24,
śratisāmānyacommon hearing; common form of technically different wordings, such as अा of टाप्, डाप् and चाप् feminine affixes, or ई of ङिप्, ङिष्, and ङीन् feminine. affixes; confer, compare र इति श्रुतिसामान्यमुपादीयते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.VIII. 2.18: confer, compare also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VIII. 2.42 and VIII. 4.1.
a(1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perfeminine. second.pluraland first and third person.singular.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अ प्रत्ययात् et cetera, and others (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 exempli gratia, for example अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. exempli gratia, for example भवति, तुदति et cetera, and others; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; exempli gratia, for example द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imperfeminine. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् confer, compare P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, et cetera, and others in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; (9) taddhita affix. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ et cetera, and others in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the inst. instrumental case. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
anākṛtinot capable of presenting (on its mere utterance) any tangible form or figure the word is used in connection with a technical term (संज्ञाशब्द) which presents its sense by a definition actually laid down or given in the treatise: confer, compare अनाकृति: संज्ञा । अाकृतिमन्तः संज्ञिनः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.
aniṭkārikā(1)name given to Stanzas giving a complete list of such roots as do not allow the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. For such Kārikās see Sid. Kaum. on VII.1.5 as also Kāśikā on VII. 2.10; ( 2 ) a short treatise enumerating in 11 verses the roots which do not admit the augment इट् before the ārdhadhatuka affixes. The work is anonymous, and not printed so far, possibly composed by a Jain writer. The work possibly belongs to the Kātantra system and has got short glosses called व्याख्यान, अवचूरि, विवरण, टीका, टिप्पणी and the like which are all anonymous.
appayadīkṣitaअप्पदीक्षित A famous versatile writer of the sixteenth century A. D. (1530-1600 ), son of रङ्गराजाध्वरीन्द्र a Dravid Brāhmaṇa. He wrote more than 60 smaller or greater treatises mainly on Vedānta, Mimāṁsā, Dharma and Alaṁkāra śāstras; many of his works are yet in manuscript form. The Kaumudi-prakāśa and Tiṅantaśeṣasaṁgraha are the two prominent grammatical works written by him. Paṇdit Jagannātha spoke very despisingly of him.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
avyayasaṃgrahaname of a treatise ondeclinable words attributed to Sākaṭāyana.
akhyātaprakriyāa work dealing with verbs, written by Anubhūtisvarūpācārya on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa.
aākhyātavyākaraṇaa treatise on verbs discussing verbal forms by VaṅgaSena.
ācāryadeśīyaa partisan of the preceptor Pāṇini or the Sūtrakāra who is looked upon as having approxmately the same authority as the Sūtrakāra; confer, compare अाचार्यदेशीय अाहन वक्तव्य इति l Kaiyaṭa on I.4.105, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
ātiśāyikāntaa word ending with an atisāyika affix; confer, compare अातिदायिकान्तात्स्वार्थे छन्दसि आतिशायिको दृश्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 3.55.
āraḍeKRISHNASHASTRI a reputed Naiyāyika of Banaras of the nineteenth century, who wrote, besides many treatises on Nyāya, a short gloss on the Sutras of Pāṇini, called Pāṇini-sūtra-vṛtti.
indraname of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; confer, compare the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya edition by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.
iṣṭaa word frequently used in the Vārttikas and the Mahābhāṣya and other treatises in the senses of (1) a desired object, (2) a desired purpose, (3) a desired statement, (4) a desired form id est, that is the correct form : confer, compare इष्टान्वाख्यानं खल्वपि भवति: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).I.1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 1. योगविभागादिष्टसिद्धिः Pari.Śek. Pari. 114.
iṣṭatantravyākaraṇaa short treatise on grammar ascribed to Jayadeva.
īśvarakāntaauthor of 'Dhātumāla', a short metrical treatise on roots.
īśvarānandaauthor of (l) a gloss on Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣya-pradīpa, and (2)an independent treatise Śābdabodhataraṅgiṇī. He is believed to have been a pupil of सत्यानन्द and iived in the latter part of the 16th century A.D.
uktipadaउक्तिपदानि a short anonymous treatise on case-relations, compounds et cetera, and others written mostly in Gujarati.
udayakīrtiauthor of a treatise giving rules for the determination of the pada or padas of roots; the treatise is named पदव्यवस्थासूत्रकारिकाटीका He was a Jain grammarian, and one of the pupils of Sādhusundara.
udāttathe acute accent defined by Pāṇini in the words उचैरुदात्त: P.I.2. 29. The word उच्चैः is explained by Patañjali in the words 'आयामो दारुण्यं अणुता स्वस्य इति उचैःकराणि शब्दस्य' where आयाम (गात्रनिग्रह restriction of the organs), दारुण्य (रूक्षता rudeness ) and स्वस्य अणुता ( कण्ठस्य संवृतता closure of the glottis) are given as specific characteristics of the acute accent. The acute is the prominent accent in a word-a simple word as also a compound word-and when a vowel in a word is possessed of the acute accent, the remaining vowels have the अनुदात्त or the grave accent. Accent is a property of vowels and consonants do not possess any independent accent. They possess the accent of the adjoining vowel connected with it. The acute accert corresponds to what is termed 'accent' in English and other languages.
upasargavādaa treatise on upasargas, by Harikṛṣna.
vupasargavicāraa treatise on upasargas by Gadādhara Cakravartin.
upasargavṛttia treatise on upasargas by Bharatamalla in the Sixteenth Century A.D.
ekadeśin( a thing or a substance )composed of parts; cf the term एकदेशिसमास or एकदेशितत्पुरुष, used in connection with compounds of words such as पूर्व, पर and others with words showing the constituted whole ( एकदेशिन्) prescribed by the rule पूर्वपराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनेकाधिकरणे P. II. 2.1 ; (2) a partisan; confer, compare the word सिद्धान्त्येकदेशिन् used often by commentators.
aindraname of an ancient school of grammar and of the treatise also, belonging to that school, believed to have been written under instructions of Indra. The work is not available. Patañjali mentions that Bṛhaspati instructed Indra for one thousand celestial years and still did not finish his instructions in words': (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.1 ). The Taittirīya Saṁhitā mentions the same. Pāṇini has referred to some ancient grammarians of the East by the word प्राचाम् without mentioning their names, and scholars like Burnell think that the grammar assigned to Indra is to be referred to by the word प्राचाम्. The Bṛhatkathāmañjarī remarks that Pāṇini's grammar threw into the background the Aindra Grammar. Some scholars believe that Kalāpa grammar which is available today is based upon Aindra,just as Cāndra is based upon Pāṇini's grammar. References to Aindra Grammar are found in the commentary on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa, in the Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva as also in the commentary upon the Mahābhārata by Devabodha.Quotations, although very few, are given by some writers from the work. All these facts prove that there was an ancient pre-Pāṇinian treatise on Grammar assigned to इन्द्र which was called Aindra-Vyākaraṇa.For details see Dr.Burnell's 'Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians' as also Vol. VII pages 124-126 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya, edited by the D.E.Society, Poona.
aauṇādikaan afix mentioned in the class of affixes called उणादि in treatises of Pāṇini and other grammarians; confer, compare नमुचि । मुचेरौणादिकः केिप्रत्ययः Kāś.on P.VI.3.75; फिडफिड्डौ अौणादिकौ प्रत्ययौ M.Bh. on Māheśvarasūtras. 2. See the word उणादि a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
kaṇṭhaglottis: cavity in the throat holding vocal cords; the place of the production of the sounds अ, अI and ह; confer, compare अहविसर्जनीयाः कण्ठे V, Pr.I. 71; cf, also कण्ठ्योsकारः प्रथमपञ्चमौ च R.Pr.I.18.
kaṇṭhyaproduced at the throat or at the glottis; the vowel अ, visarga and the consonant ह् are called कण्ठ्यं in the Prātiśākhyas, while later grammarians include the guttural consonants क्, ख् ग्, घ् and ङ् among the Kaṇṭhya letters; confer, compare अकुहविसर्जनीयानां कण्ठः Sid. Kau.on तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.I.1.9. See कण्ठ.
karmadhārayaname technically given to a compound-formation of two words in apposition i. e. used in the same case, technically called समानाधिकरण showing the same substratutm; confer, compare तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः I 2.42. The karmadhāraya compound is looked upon as a variety of the tatpuruṣa compound. There is no satisfactory explanation of the reason why such a compound is termed कर्मधारय. Śākaṭāyana defines Karmadhāraya as विशेषणं व्यभिचारि एकार्थं कर्मधारयश्च where the word विशेषण is explained as व्यावर्तक or भेदक (distinguishing attribute) showing that the word कर्म may mean भेदकक्रिया. The word कर्मधारय in that case could mean 'कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयति असौ कर्मधारयः' a compound which gives a specification of the thing in hand.
kalāpa(कलाप-व्याकरण)alternative name given to the treatise on grammar written by Sarvavarman who is believed to have lived in the days of the Sātavāhana kings. The treatise is popularly known by the namc Kātantra Vyākaraṇa. The available treatise,viz. Kalpasūtras, is much similar to the Kātantra Sūtras having a few changes and additions only here and there.It is rather risky to say that Kalāpa was an ancient system of grammar which is referred to in the Pāṇini Sūtra कलापिनोण् P. IV.3.108. For details see कातन्त्र.
kavikalpadrumaa treatise on roots written by Bopadeva, the son of Keśava and the pupil of Dhaneśa who lived in the time of Hemādri, the Yādava King of Devagiri in the thirteenth century. He has written a short grammar work named Mugdhabodha which has been very popular in Bengal being studied in many Tols or Pāṭhaśālās.
kavicandraauthor of a small treatise on grammar called Sārasatvarī. He lived in the seventeenth century A.D. He was a resident of Darbhaṅgā. Jayakṛṣṇa is also given as the name of the author of the Sārasatvarī grammar and it is possible that Jayakṛṣṇa was given the title, or another name, Kavicandra.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantrottaraa treatise on the Kātantra Grammar believed to have been written by Vidyānanda.
kārakaliterally doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारकशब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्थान्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: confer, compare also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and कर्तृ to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
kārakakārikāpossibly another name for the treatise on Kārakas known as कारकचक्र written by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva the reputed grammarian of Bengal who lived in the latter half of the twelfth century A. D. See कारकचक्र.
kārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaalso called षट्कारक-खण्डनमण्डन which is a portion of theauthor's bigger work named त्रिलो-चनचन्द्रिका. The work is a discourse on the six kārakas written by Maṇikaṇṭha, a grammarian of the Kātantra school. He has also written another treatise named Kārakavicāra
kārakatattvaa treatise on the topic of Kārakas written by Cakrapāṇiśeṣa, belonging to the famous Śeṣa family of grammarians, who lived in the seventeenth century A. D.
kārakanirṇayaa work discussing the various Kārakas from the Naiyāyika view-point written by the well-known Naiyāyika, Gadādhara Chakravartin of Bengal, who was a pupil of Jagadīśa and who fourished in the 16th century A. D. He is looked upon as one of the greatest scholars of Nyāyaśāstra. His main literarywork was in the field of Nyāyaśāstra on which he has written several treatises.
kārakavāda(1)a treatise discussing the several Kārakas, written by Kṛṣṇaśāstri Ārade a famous Naiyāyika of Benares who lived in the eighteenth century A. D; (2) a treatise on syntax written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya which is called कारकविवेक also, which see below. a treatise on syntax written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya which is called कारकविवेक also, which see below.
kuppuśāstrina famous grammarian of the eighteenth century who wrote some works on grammar of which the परिभाषाभास्कर is an independent treatise on Paribhāṣās.
kṛdvṛttia short treatise by a grammarian named मोक्षेश्वर who lived in the fifteenth century. The work deals with verbal derivatives.
kodṇḍarāmaa scholar of Sanskrit Vyākaraṇa who composed शब्दसिद्धान्तमञ्जरी a small treatise dealing with the declension of nouns.
kaumāra,komāravyākaraṇa(1)an alternative name of the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa given to it on the strength of the traditional belief that the original inspiration for writing it was received by Sarvavarman from Kumara or Kārtikeya; (2) small treatises bearing the name Kaumāravyākaraṇa written by Munipuṅgava and Bhāvasena. The latter has written Kātantrarūpamāla also.
khataddhita affix. affix, always changed into ईन, (l) applied to the word कुल in the sense of a descendant, exempli gratia, for example कुलीनः, आढ्यकुलीन:; confer, compare P. IV. 1.139; (2) applied to the words अवार, पार, पारावार and अवारपार in the Śaīṣika senses, e. g. अवारीणः, पारीणः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.2.93 and Vārttikas 2, 3 on it; (3) applied to words ending in the word वर्ग ( which does not mean 'sound' or 'letter' ) in the sense of 'present there,' e. g. वासुदेववर्गीणः, युधिष्ठिरवर्गीणः; confer, compare P. IV. 3.64; (4) applied to the words सर्वधुर and एकधुर in the sense of 'bearing,' and to ओजसू , वेशोभग, यशोभग and पूर्व, exempli gratia, for example ओजसीनः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.IV.4.78, 79, 130, 132, 133; (5) applied in the sense of 'favourable to' to the words आत्मन् , विश्वजन, et cetera, and others (P.V.1.9), to विंशतिक, (32) to अाढक, अाचित, पात्र and others (53-55), to समा (85-86), to रात्रि, अहन् , संवत्सर and वर्ष (87-88) and संवत्सर and परिवत्सर (92); e. g. आत्मनीनः, आढकीनः पात्रीणः, समीनः, संवत्सरीणः et cetera, and others; (6) to the words सर्वचर्मन्, यथामुख et cetera, and others e. g. सर्वचर्मीणः confer, compare P.V. 2.5 to 17; (7) to the words अषडक्ष, अशितंगु et cetera, and others confer, compare P.V.4.7,8. e. g. अषडक्षीणः. (8) ख is also a technical term in the sense of elision or लोप in the Jainendra Grammar confer, compare Jain I. 1.61. (9) The word ख is used in the sense of 'glottis' or the hole of the throat ( गलबिल ) in the ancient Prātiṣākhya works.
gaṇapāṭhathe mention individually of the several words forming a class or gaṇa, named after the first word said to have been written by Pāṇini himself as a supplementary work to his great grammar called Aṣṭaka or Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., the Sikṣā,the Dhātupātha and the Lingānuśāsana being the other ones. Other grammarians such as शाकटायन, अापिशलि and others have their own gaṇapāthās. The gaṇapāthā is traditionally ascribed to Pāṇini; the issue is questioned, however, by modern scholars. The text of the gaṇapāṭha is metrically arranged by some scholars. The most scholarly and authoritative treatise on gaṇapāṭha is the Gaṇaratnamahodadhī of Vardhamāna.
gārgyaan ancient reputed grammarian and possibly a writer of a Nirukta work, whose views, especially in.connection with accents are given in the Pratisakhya works, the Nirukta and Panini's Astadhyayi. Although belonging to the Nirukta school, he upheld the view of the Vaiyakaranas that all words cannot be derived, but only some of them: cf Nirukta of Yāska.I. 12.3. cf, also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 167, Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.5, III. 14.22: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 13; XIII. 12: P. VII. 3.99, VIII. 3.20, VIII. 4.69.
guṇa(1)degree of a vowel; vocalic degree, the second out of the three degrees of a vowel viz. primary degree, guna degree and vrddhi degree exempli gratia, for example इ, ए and ऐ or उ, ओ and औ. अ is given as a guna of अ; but regarding अ also,three degrees can be stated अ, अ and आ. In the Pratisakhya and Nirukta ए is called गुण or even गुणागम but no definiti6n is given ; confer, compare गुणागमादेतनभावि चेतन R.Pr.XI.6;शेवम् इति विभीषितगुणः। शेवमित्यपि भवति Nir.X.17: (2) the properties of phonetic elements or letters such as श्वास,नाद et cetera, and others: confer, compareṚgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) Ch.XIII : (3) secondary, subordinate;confer, compare शेषः,अङ्गं, गुणः इति समानार्थाः Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.on Nirukta of Yāska.I.12: (4) properties residing in a substance just as whiteness, et cetera, and others in a garment which are different from the substance ( द्रव्य ). The word गुण is explained by quotations from ancient grammarians in the Maha bhasya as सत्वे निविशतेsपैति पृथग्जातिषु दृश्यते । अाघेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोSसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः ॥ अपर आह । उपैत्यन्यज्जहात्यन्यद् दृष्टो द्रव्यान्तरेष्वपि। वाचकः सर्वलिङ्गानां द्रव्यादन्यो गुणः स्मृतः ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.44;cf also शब्दस्पर्शरूपरसगन्धा गुणास्ततोन्यद् द्रव्यम् ,M.Bh.on V.1.119 (5) properties of letters like उदात्तत्व, अनुदात्तत्व, स्वरितत्व, ह्र्स्वत्व, दीर्घत्व, प्लुतत्व, अानुनासिक्य et cetera, and others; confer, compare भेदकत्वाद् गुणस्य । आनुनासिक्यं नाम गुणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.. Vart, 13: (6) determinant cf भवति बहुव्रीहौ तद्गुणसंविज्ञानमपि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.27; (7) technical term in Panini's grarnmar standing for the vowels अ, ए and ओ, confer, compare अदेङ्गुणः P.I.1.2. For the various shades of the meaning of the word गुण, see Mahabhasya on V.1.119. " गुणशब्दोयं बह्वर्थः । अस्त्येव समेष्ववयवेषु वर्तते ।...... चर्चागुणांश्च ।
gopāla( देव )known more by the nickname of मन्नुदेव or मन्तुदेव who lived in the eighteenth century and wrote several commentary works on well-known grammatical treatises such as the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara, Laghusabdendusekhara, Paribhasendusekhara et cetera, and others He is believed to have written a treatise on Ganasutras also; (2) a grammarian different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. मन्नुदेव who has written an explanatory work on the Pratisakhyas;.(3) a scholar of grammar, different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. who is believed to have written a gloss named Visamarthadipika on the Sarasvata Vyakarana at the end of the sixteenth century.
gopīcandraknown also by the name गेयींचन्द्र who .has written several commentary works on the grammatical treatises of the Samksipatasara or Jaumāra school of Vyakarana founded by Kramdisvara and Jumaranandin in the 12th century, the well-known among them being the संक्षिप्तसाटीका, संक्षितसारपरिभात्रासूत्रटीका and तद्धितपरिशिष्टटीका. He is believed to have lived in the thirteenth century A. D.
golḍsṭyūkaraa well known German scholar who made a sound study of Paini's Sanskrit Vyakarana and wrote a very informative treatise entitled 'Panini, his place in Sanskrit Literature.' He lived in the latter half of the 19th century.
gotrinda( चक्रवर्तिन् )writer of Samasavada, a short treatise on the sense conveyed by compound words.
gautamaan ancient sage referred to in the Pratisakhya works as a Pratisakhyakara; confer, compare T.Pr. V.38.
ghantaddhita affix. affix अ applied to the words शुक्र, तुग्र, पात्र, and to multisyllabic words in specified senses, causing the acute accent on the first vowel of the word so formed; confer, compareIV.2.26, IV.4. 115, V.1.68, V.3.79, 80.
ghanaa variety of the क्रमपाठ or recital of the Vedic hymns to show the serial order of words there; one of the eight vikrtis of the padapātha.
caṅgadāsaa grammarian who has written a work on the topic of the five vrttis. The work is named चङ्गवृति.
caṅgavṛttia short treatise written by वङ्गदास, dealing with the topic of the five compact expressions or Vrttis viz. कृत्, तद्वित, समास, एकशेष, and सनादिधातु.
caṅgudāsaor चाड्गुदास a scholar of grammar who has written an independent work on Sanskrit Vyakaana called वैयाकरणजीवातु. The treatise is also known as चाङ्गुसूत्र or चाङ्गु-व्याकरण.
candrācāryaa grammarian mentioned by Bhartrhari in his Vakyapadiya as one who took a leading part in restoring the traditional explanation of Panini's Vyakarana which, by the spread of rival easy treatises on grammar, had become almost lost: confer, compare यः पतञ्जलिशिष्येभ्यो भ्रष्टो ब्याकरणागमः । काले स दाक्षिणात्येषु ग्रन्थमात्रे व्यवस्थित: ॥ पर्वतादागमं लब्ध्वा भाष्यबीजानुसारिभि: । स नीतो बहुशाखत्वं चन्द्राचार्यादिभिः पुनः ॥ Vakyapadiya II. 488-489. See चन्द्र and चन्द्रगोमिन्.
cavargathe group of consonants of the palatal class,.wiz.च् , छ् , ज् , झ् , and ञ्. The word च is used in the same sense in the Pratisakhya works.See the word च.
cāṅgusūtraa treatise on the grammar Written by चाडगुदास in the Sutra form,which was named वैयाकरणजीवातु by him.
cāndraname of a treatise on grammar written by Candra, who is believed to have been the same as Candragomin. The Grammar is based upon that of Panini, but it does not treat Vedic forms and accents. See the word चन्द्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For details see pp. 375376 Patanjali Mahabhasya. Vol. VII, D.E. Society's Edition.
ciccandrikāname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Vishnu Shastri Bhat, in reply to the treatise named दूषकरदोद्भेदः See विष्णुशास्त्रिन्. For details see pp. 39, 40 of Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
jagannātha(1)the well-known poet and scholar of Vyakarana and Alam kara who wrote many excellent poetical works. He lived in the sixteenth century. He was a pupil of कृष्णशेष and he severely criticised the views of Appaya Diksita and Bhattoji Diksita. He wrote a sort of refutation of Bhattoji's commentary Praudha-Manorama on the Siddhānta Kaumudi, which he named प्रौढमनेारमाखण्डन but which is popularly termed मनोरमाकुचमर्दन. His famous work is the Rasagangadhara on Alankrasastra; (2) writer of a commentary on the Rk-Pratisakhya by name Varnakramalaksana; (3) writer of Sarapradipika, a commentary on the Sarasvata Vyakarana.
jayadevaa grammarian, ( of course different from well-known poet), to whom a small treatise on grammar by name इष्टतन्त्रव्याकरण is attributedition
jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya(1)a famous Bengalee scholar of Vyakarana and Nyaya who has written a small treatise dealing with syntax. The treatise is named कारकवाद.
jayādityaone of the famous joint authors ( जयादित्य and वामन ) of the well-known gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini, popularly called काशिकावृत्ति. As the काशिकावृत्ति is mentioned by It-sing, who has also mentioned Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya, as a grammer treatise Written some 40 years before his visit, the time of काशिकावृत्ति is fixed as the middle of the 7th century A.D. Some scholars believe that जयादित्य was the same as जयापीड a king of Kasmira and बामन was his minister. For details, see pp. 386388 of the Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII published by the D.E. Society, Poona. See काशिका.
jit(l)literally affix marked with the mute letter ज्; e. g. जस्, जसि, जुस्. the word जित् is not however found used in this sense; (2) a word supposed to be marked with the mute indicatory letter ज्.The word is used in this sense by the Varttikakara saying that such a word does not denote itself but its synonyms; confer, compare जित् पर्यायवचनस्यैव राजांद्यर्थम् P.I.1.68 Vart. 7. In the Sutra सभा राजामनुष्यपूर्वा P.II. 4. 23, the word राजन् is supposed to be जित् and hence it denotes इन्, ईश्वर et cetera, and others; but not the word राजन् itself; (3) In the Pratisakhya works जित् means the first two consonants of each class (वर्ग); exempli gratia, for example क्, ख्,च्, छ्. et cetera, and others which are the same as खय् letters in Panini's terminology; confer, compare द्वौ द्वौ प्रथमौ जित्, V. Pr.I.50;III.13.
jihvāmūlasthāna(l)having the root of the tongue as the place of its production;the phonetic element or letter called जिह्वामूलीय; (2) name given to that phonetic element into which a visarga is changed when followed by क् or ख्; cf X क इति जिह्वामूलीयः V.Pr.VIII.19. The जिह्वामूलीय letter is called जिह्व्य also; see Nyasa on I. 1.9. The Rk. Pratisakhya looks upon ऋ, लृ, जिह्वामूलीय, and the guttural letters as जिह्वामूलस्थान.
jaumāra( व्याकरण )a treatise on vya'karana written by Jumaranandin. See जुमरनन्दिन् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. The Jaumara Vyakarana has no Vedic section dealing with Vedic forms or accents,but it has added a section on Prakrita just as the Haima Vyakaraha.
jaumārasaṃskaraṇathe revised version by Jumuranandin of the original grammar treatise in verse called संक्षिप्तसार written by KramadiSvara, The Jaumarasamskarana is the samc as.jaumara Vyakarana, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
ṭa(1)the consonant ट्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance; confer, compare अकारो व्यञ्जनानाम्, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) short term, (प्रत्याहार) standing for टवगे or the lingual class of consonants, found used mostly in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare RT. 13, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 64, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 27: (3) taddhita affix. affix ( अ ) added to the word फल्गुनी in the sense ' तत्र जातः' e. g. फल्गुनी, confer, compare P. IV. 3.34, Vart. 2; (4) krt affix ( अ ) added to the root चर्, सृ and कृ under certain conditions; e. g. कुरुचर:, अग्रेसुर:, यशस्करी ( विद्या ) दिवाकरः, वेिभकरः कर्मकरः et cetera, and others confer, compare P. III. 2.16-23.
ṭhacataddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) with the vowel अ accented acute applied to (1) कुमुद and others as a Caturarthika affix; confer, compare P. IV.2.80; (2) to multisyllabic words and words beginning with उप which are proper nouns for persons; confer, compare P. V.3.78, 80; and (3) to the word एकशाला in the sense of इव; confer, compare P. V.3.109. The base, to which टच् is added, retains generally two syllables or sometimes three, the rest being elided before the affix ठच् e. g. देविकः, वायुकः, पितृकः शेबलिकः et cetera, and others from the words देवदत्त, वायुदत्त, पितृदत्त, शेवलदत्त et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. V,3.83, 84.
ṭhañtaddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) causing Vrddhi and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, applied (1) to महृाराज, प्रोष्ठपद and क्वाचिन् in the specifieditionsenses, confer, compare P. IV.2.35, 4l e. g. माहृाराजिक, प्रौष्ठपदिक et cetera, and others; (2) to words काशि, चेदि, संज्ञा and others, along with ञिठ, e. g. काशिकी, काशिका, also with ञिठ to words denoting villages in the Vahika country exempli gratia, for example शाकलिकी शाकलिका; as also to words ending in उ forming names of countries in all the Saisika senses confer, compare P. IV.2.116-120; (3) to compound words having a word showing direction as their first member, to words denoting time, as also to the words शरद्, निशा and प्रदोष in the Saisika senses; cf P. IV.3.6, 7, 1115; (4) to the words वर्षा (1n Vedic Literature), and to हेमन्त and वसन्त in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P.IV.3.1921; (5) to संवत्सर, अाग्रहायणी, words having अन्तः as the first member, to the word ग्राम preceded by परि or अनु, to multisyllabic words having their last vowel accented acute, to words denoting sacrifices, to words forming names of sages, to words ending in ऋ and to the word महाराज in the specific senses which are mentioned; confer, compare P. IV.3.50, 60, 61, 67, 68, 69, 78, 79, 97; (6) to the words गोपुच्छ, श्वगण, आक्रन्द, लवण, परश्वध, compound words having a multisyllabic words as their first member, and to the words गुड et cetera, and others in the specified senses;confer, compareP.IV.4.6,II, 38, 52, 58, 64, 103;(7) to any word as a general taddhita affix. affix (अधिकारविहित), unless any other affix has been specified in the specified senses ' तेन क्रीतम् ' ' तस्य निमित्तम्' ... ' तदर्हम्' mentioned in the section of sutras V. 1. 18. to 117; (8) to the words अय:शूल, दण्ड, अजिन, compound words having एक or गो as their first member as also to the words निष्कशत and निष्कसहस्र; confer, compare P.V.2.76, 118,119.
(1)fifth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties, नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्यः (2) the mute letter ण् indicating the substitution of vrddhi ( confer, compare P. VII. 2. 115-117) when attached to affixes; (3) the consonant ण् at the beginning of roots which is changed into न्; the roots, having ण् at the beginning changeable to न्, being called णोपदेशः (4) ण् as a substitute for न् following the letters ऋ, ॠ, र्, and ष् directly, or with the intervention of consonants of the guttural and labial classes, but occurring in the same word, Such a substitution of ण् for न् is called णत्व; confer, compare P.VIII.4. I-39. For णत्व in Vedic Literature; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)V.20-28, T.Pr.VII.1-12. V.Pr.III.84-88;(5) the consonant ण् added as an augment to a vowel at the beginning of a word when it follows the consonant ण् at the end of the previous word; confer, compare P. VIII. 3. 32. In the Vedic Pratisakhyas this augment ण् is added to the preceding ण् and looked upon as a part of the previous word.
ṇicaffix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् et cetera, and others e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; confer, compare P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising et cetera, and others ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; confer, compare P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, exempli gratia, for example सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, et cetera, and others: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: confer, compare णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे et cetera, and others; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
ṇyataddhita affix.affix य (l) applied in the sense of 'descendant' as also in a few other senses, mentioned in rules from IV. 1. 92 to IV.3.168, applied to the words दिति, अदिति, अादित्य and word; with पति as the उत्तरपद in a compound, c. g. दैत्यः, आदित्यः, प्राजापत्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P. IV.1 84; (2) applied in the sense of a descendant ( अपत्य ) applied to the words कुरु, गर्ग, रथकार, कवि, मति, दर्भ et cetera, and others, e.gकौरव्यः, गार्ग्यः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kas:, on P. IV. I.15I ; (3) applied in the sense of अपत्य or descendant to words ending in सेना,to the word लक्षण and to words in the sense of artisans, e.gकारिषेण्यः, लाक्षण्यः, तान्तुवाय्यः, कौम्भकार्यः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.152; (4) applied in the Catuararthika senses to the words संकाश, काम्पिल्थ, कश्मीर et cetera, and others, exempli gratia, for example साङ्काश्यम्, काम्पिल्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.80; (5) applied to the word परिषद् and optionally with the affix ठक् to the word सेना in the specified senses; e. g. परिषदं समवैति, परिषदि साधुर्वा पारिषद्य्ः, सेनां समवेति सैन्यः सैनिको वा; confer, compare Kas on P. IV. 44, 45, 101 ; (6) applied as a taddhita affix. affix called ' tadraja , to the word कुरु and words beginning with न e. g. कौरव्यः नैषध्यः; confer, compare Kas on P. IV. 1.172; कुरवः, निषधाः et cetera, and others are the nominative case. plural formanuscript.
tthe first consonant of the dental class of consonants which has got the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When used as a mute letter by Panini, त् signifies the Svarita accent of the vowel of that affix or so, which is marked with it: e. g. कार्यम्, हार्यम्, पयस्यम् confer, compare P. VI.1.185. When appied to a vowel at its end, त् signifies the vowel of that grade only, possessed by such of its varieties which require the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with त् , e. g. अात् stands for अा with any of the three accents as also pure or nasalised; अात् does not include अं or अ 3 confer, compare तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70. The use of the indicatory mute त् for the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. purpose is seen also in the Pratis akhya works; confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 114 Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 234.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
timaṇṇāa southern grammarian who wrote a short treatise on the pratyaharas like अण्, इण् et cetera, and others in the grammar of Panini.
taittirīyaprātiśākhyacalled also कृष्णयजुःप्रातिशाख्य and hence representing possibly all the different branches or Sakhas of the कृष्णयजुर्वेद, which is not attributed definitely to a particular author but is supposed to have been revised from time to time and taught by various acaryas who were the followers of the Taittiriya Sakha.The work is divided into two main parts, each of which is further divided into twelve sections called adhyayas, and discusses the various topics such as letters and their properties, accents, euphonic changes and the like, just as the other Pratisakhya works. It is believed that Vararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya wrote Bhasyas on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, but at present, only two important commentary works on it are available(a) the 'Tribhasyaratna', based upon the three Bhasyas mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. as the title shows, written by Somayarya and (b) the 'Vaidikabharana' written by Gopalayajvan. For details see Introduction to 'Taittiriya Pratisakhya' edition Govt Oriental Library Series, Mysore.
tripādīterm usually used in connection with the last three Padas (ch. VIII. 2, VIII. 3 and VIII. 4) of Panini’s Ashtadhyayi, the rules in which are not valid by convention to rules in the first seven chapters and a quarter, as also a later rule in which (the Tripadi) is not valid to an earlier one; confer, compare पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1; (2) name of a critical treatise on Panini's grammar ("The Tripadi") written by Dr. H. E. Buiskool recently.
tribhāṣyaratnaname of a commentary on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya written by Somayarya. The commentary is said to have been based on the three Bhasya works attributed to the three ancient Vedic scholarsVararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya.
trilokanāthason of Vaidyanatha who wrote a small treatise on karakas called षट्कारकनिरूपण.
thīma(THIEME, PAUL)a sound scholar of the present day, well versed in Sanskrit Grammar and Vedic Literature, who has written a critical treatise named "Panini and the Veda."
dantamūlīyathe letters त्, थ् द् ध् and न्: confer, compare दन्तमूलीयस्तु तकारवर्गः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 19. The Rk. Pratisakhya calls र् (रेफ ) also as दन्तमूलीय.
dntyaproduced at the teeth, dental; formed at the teeth by the tip of the tongue; exempli gratia, for example the letters लृ ल् ,स् and तवर्ग; confer, compare लृलसिता दन्ते V.Pr.I.69. According to Panini's grammar लॄ(long) does not exist. According to Taittirya Prtisakhya र् is partly dental and partly lingual; cf T.Pr.II.41, while व् is partly dental and partly labial; confer, compare T.Pr. II.43; confer, compare दन्त्या जिह्वाग्रकरणाः V. Pr.I. 76; confer, compare लुग्वा दुहदिहलिहगुहामात्मनेपदे दन्त्ये P. VII. 3.73.
dayāpālaa.Jain writer who wrote a treatise named रूपसिद्धि.
dayāratnaa.Jain scholar who has written a grammar treatise on the Sarasvata Grammar called सारस्वतपरिभाषा.
daśakaa name given to the treatise on grammar written by व्याघ्रपाद which consisted of 10 chapters; confer, compare दशकं वैयाघ्रपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P V. 1.58. The word also means students reading the work दशक; confer, compare दशका वैयाघ्रपदीया: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.2.65.
daśagaṇī(1)a section of grammatical treatises dealing with the ten conjugations of roots. e.g the first section of the second part ( उत्तरार्ध ) of the Siddhanta Kaumudi; (2) name of the dhatupatha of Panini which gives ten classes of roots; confer, compare भूवादयो दशगणीपरिपठिता गृह्यन्ते Nyasa on I.3.1.
daśabalakārikāa short treatise on the roots belonging to more than one conjugation; the name of the author is not given.
dānavijayaa Jain grammarian, who wrote a small grammar treatise named शब्दभूषण.
daśagaṇī(1)a section of grammatical treatises dealing with the ten conjugations of roots. e.g the first section of the second part ( उत्तरार्ध ) of the Siddhanta Kaumudi; (2) name of the dhatupatha of Panini which gives ten classes of roots; confer, compare भूवादयो दशगणीपरिपठिता गृह्यन्ते Nyasa on I.3.1.
daśabalakārikāa short treatise on the roots belonging to more than one conjugation; the name of the author is not given.
dānavijayaa Jain grammarian, who wrote a small grammar treatise named शब्दभूषण.
dāruṇyaexplained by the commentators on the Pratisakhya works as दृढत्व (firmness) or कठिनता (hardness,) and given as a characteristic of the acute or उदात्त tone; confer, compare अायामो दारुण्यमणुता खस्येत्युच्चैःकराणि शब्दस्य, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII.9, quoted in the Mahabhasya on P.I. 2.29, where दारुण्य is explained as स्वरस्य दारुणता रूक्षता ।
durvalācāryaa grammarian who wrote a treatise on grammar दुर्वलीयव्याकरण, named after him. Besides this treatise, he has written commentaries on Nagesa's Laghumanjusa and Paribhasendusekhara.
devanandincalled also पूज्यपाद or पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् believed to have lived in the fifth century A. D. and written the treatise on grammar, of course based om Panini Sutras, which is known as जैनेन्द्र-व्याकरण or जैनेन्द्रशब्दानुशासन. The writer of this grammar is possibly mentioned as जैनेन्द्र in the usually guoted verse of Bopadeva :इन्द्रश्चन्द्रः काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्र जयन्त्यष्टादेिशाब्दिकाः. देवनन्दिन् was a great Jain saint and scholar who wrote many works on Jain Agamas of which सर्वार्थसिद्धि, the commentary on the तत्त्वार्थाधिगमसूत्र, is well-known.
drutabodhaname of a treatise on grammar written for beginners by Bharatasena or Bharatamalla of Bengal in the sixteemth century.
drutāone of the three Vrttis or styles of utterance mentioned in the Pratisakhya works and quoted in the Mahabhasya; confer, compareतित्रो वृत्तीरुपदिशन्ति वाचो विलम्बितां मध्यमां च दुतां च । अभ्यासार्थे दुतां वृत्तिं प्रयोगार्थे तु मध्यमाम् । शिष्याणामुपदेशार्थे कुर्याद् वृत्ति विलम्बिताम् । Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 18, 19; confer, compare ये हि द्रुतायां वृत्तौ वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते मध्यमायां, ये मध्यमायां वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते विलाम्बितायाम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.70, Vart. 4. The utterance of a letter takes ,1/3 rd time more in the मध्यमवृत्ति than in the द्रुतवृत्ति, while in the विलम्बितवृत्ति it takes 1/3 rd more than in the मध्यमवृत्ति. In short, the utterance of the same letter takes in the three vrttis, Druta, Vilambita and Madhyama the quantity of time in the proportion of 9:12:16 respectively.
dvia term used for the dual number in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare नो नौ मे मदर्थे त्रिद्व्येकेषु Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.II. 3 where Uvvata has explained the words त्रि, द्वि and एक as बहुवचन, द्विवचन and एक्वचन respectively.
dhanajitname of the author of a short metrical treatise on roots named धातुक्रल्पलतिका.
dhamekīrtia Jain scholar called by the name कीर्ति also, who was the author of धातुप्रत्ययपञ्जिक्रा and रूपावतार a well-known treatise on roots; confer, compare बोपदेवमहाग्राहग्रस्तो वामनदिग्गजः । कीर्तेरेव प्रसङ्गेन माधवेन समुद्धृतः । He is believed to have been the first grammarian who arranged the sutras of Panini according to the subject matter.
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
dhātukalpalatikāa short treatise on the roots of the different conjugations written by a grammarian named Dhananjaya.
dhātupāṭha(1)name given in general to the several collections of roots given generally with their meanings by grammarians belonging to the various different schools of grammar. These collections are given as necessary appendices named खिल to their grammars by the well known grammarians of Sanskrit such as Panini, Sakatayana, and others; (2) a small treatise on roots written by Bhimasena of the 14th century.
dhātupārāyaṇaa grammatical treatise dealing with roots written as a supplementary work by Jumaranandin to his grammar work called Rasavati,which itself was a thoroughly revised and enlarged edition of the रसवती a commentary written by Kramadisvara on his own grammar named संक्षिप्तसार.Jumaranandin is believed to have been a Jain writer who lived in the fifteenth century A.D.
dhāturatnamañjarīa treatise dealing with roots believed to have been written by Ramasimhavarman.
dhātuvṛttia general term applied to a treatise discussing roots, but specifically used in connection with the scholarly commentary written by Madhavacārya, the reputed scholar and politician at the court of the Vijayanagara kings in the fourteenth century, on the Dhatupatha ot Panini. The work is generally referred to as माधवीया-धातुवृति to distinguish it from ordinary commentary works called also धातुवृत्ति written by grammarians like Wijayananda and others.
dhi(1)a technical term used for sonant consonants in the Pratisakhya and old grammar works; confer, compare धि शेषः V. Pr.I.53, explained by Uvvata as वर्गाणां उत्तरास्त्रय: यरलवहकाराश्च धिः V.Pr. I.53; the term धि corresponds to हश् of Panini; (2) personal ending धि substituted for हि of the imperative 2nd singular. exempli gratia, for example जुहुधि, छिन्द्धि, भिन्द्धि, श्रुधि, रारन्धि et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.V.4.101-103.
dhṛta or dhṛtapracayaa kind of original grave vowel turned into a circumflex one which is called प्रचय unless followed by another acute or circumflex vowel. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya has mentioned seven varieties of this 'pracaya' out of which धृतप्रचय or धृत is one. For details see Bhasya on धृतः प्रचयः कौण्डिन्यस्य, T.Pr.XVIII.3.
natacerebralized; changed into ण्. The change of the consonant न् into ण् is called नति in the old Pratisakhya works; confer, compare स्पर्शे वोष्मणि चानते Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 11.
natiliterallyinclination, bending down; the word is used generally in the technical sense of 'cerebralization' but applied to the change of न् into ण् as also that of स् into ष्; confer, compare दन्त्यस्य मूर्धन्यापत्तिर्नतिः, V. Pr.I. 42. The root नम् is used in the sense of 'cerebralizing ' or 'being cerebralized' very frequently in the Pratisakhya works; exempli gratia, for example the word नम्यते is used in the sense of 'is cerebralized'; नमयति in the sense of 'cerebralizes' and नामिंन् in the sense of 'causing cerebralization'; confer, compare ऋकारादयो दश नामिन: स्वराः, पूर्वो नन्ता नतिषु नम्यमुत्तरम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 27.
nandikeśvarakārikāa short treatise of 28 stanzas, attributed to an ancient grammarian नन्दिकेश्वर, which gives a philosophical interpretation of the fourteen sutras attributed to God Siva. The authorship of the treatise is assigned traditionally to the Divine Bull of God Siva. See नन्दिकेश्वर. The treatise is also named नन्दिकेश्वरकारिकासूत्र.
nāda(1)voice; resonance; tone; the sound caused by the vibration of the vocal chords in the open glottis when the air passes through them; confer, compare वर्णाोत्पत्त्यनन्तरभावी अनुरणनरूपः शब्दः नादः Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.9; confer, compare also संवृते कण्ठे यः शब्दः क्रियते स नादसंज्ञो भवति Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 4; (2) sound, articulate sound generally without sense, which is momentary; (3) the highest sound. See परा.
nāmaliṅgānuśāsanaa treatise in which words with their genders are given. The term is usually used in connection with the great dictionary by अमरसिंह which is called नामालिङ्गानुशासन or अमरकोष.
nāmin(vowels)which cause cerebralization; the ten vowels ऋ, ॠ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ए, ओ, ऐ, औ; confer, compare ऋकारादयो दश नामिनः स्वराः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 27, confer, compare also R.T. 94. See the word नति. The word भाविन् is used for नामिन् in the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya; confer, compare अकण्ठ्यो भावी Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 46; confer, compare also नामिपरो रम् Kat. I.5.12.
nārāyaṇavandyaa grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote a treatise on grammar named Saravali, and a treatise on roots named Dhatuparayana.
nighaṇṭua name given to a collection of words which are mainly Vedic. In ancient times such collections were possibly very general and numerous and the works or treatises on derivation such as the Nirukta of Yaska were based upon them; confer, compare निघण्टवः कस्मात् । निगमा इमे भवन्ति । छन्दोभ्यः समाहृत्य समाहृत्य समाम्नातास्ते निगन्तव एव सन्तो निगमनान्निघण्टव उच्यन्ते इत्यौपमन्यवः । अपि वा आहननादेव स्युः | समाहता भवन्ति । यद्वा समाहृता भवन्ति (Nir.I.1) where the word is derived from गम्,or हन् or हृ. The word निघण्टु is taken as synonymous with निगम by Durgacarya.
nighātatoning down; the grave accent; the root निहन् in its various forms is used in the sense of toning down the voice and the word निघात is used in the sense of the grave accent (अनुदात्तस्वर) in the Vyakarana and Pratisakhya works; confer, compare also the words शेषनिघात, सर्वनिघात, et cetera, and others; confer, compare समानवाक्ये निघातयुष्मदस्मदादेशाः P. VIII. I.18 Vart. 5.
nityasamāsaan invariably effective compound; the term is explained as अस्वपदविग्रहो नित्यसमासः i. e. a compound whose dissolution cannot be shown by its component words as such; e. g. the dissolution of कुम्भकारः cannot be shown as कुम्भं कारः, but it must be shown as कुम्भं करोति स: । The upapadasamasa, the gatisamsa and the dative tatpurusa with the word अर्थ are examples of नित्यसमास.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
nipātanaa word given, as it appears, without trying for its derivation,in authoritative works of ancient grammarians especially Panini;confer, compareदाण्डिनायनहास्तिनयनo P. VI.4.174, as also अचतुरविचतुरo V.4.77 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others The phrase निपातनात्सिद्धम् is very frequently used by Patanjali to show that some technical difficulties in the formation of a word are not sometimes to be taken into consideration, the word given by Panini being the correct one; confer, compare M.Bh.on I.1.4, III.1.22 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others; cf also the usual expression बाधकान्येव निपातनानि. The derivation of the word from पत् with नि causal, is suggested in the Rk Pratisakhya where it is stated that Nipatas are laid down or presented as such in manifold senses; cf Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XII.9; cf also घातुसाधनकालानां प्राप्त्यर्थं नियमस्य च । अनुबन्घविकाराणां रूढ्यर्थ च निपातनम् M. Bh Pradipa on P. V.1.114: confer, comparealso Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.27.
nipātāvyayopasargavṛttiashort treatise explaining and illustrating the use of indeclinables, written by a grammarian named तिलक who probably lived in Kasmira.
nimada mode of utterance of words at the performance of a sacrifice. Seven such modes are given in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya; confer, compare उपांशुध्वाननिमदोपव्दिमन्मन्द्रमध्यमताराणि T.Pr.XXIII. 5
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
naikācmultisyllabic, possessed of many syllables, as contrasted with एकाच्.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padmanābhaa grammarian who wrote a treatise on grammar known as the Supadma Vyākaraņa. He is believed to have been an inhabitant of Bengal who lived in the fourteenth century A. D. Some say that he was a resident of Mithilā.
para(l)subsequent,as opposed to पूर्व or prior the word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a rule or an operation prescribed later on in a grammar treatise; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; ( 2 ) occurring after ( something ); confer, compare प्रत्ययः परश्च P. III. 1.1 and 2; confer, compare also तत् परस्वरम् T.Pr. XXI.2.(3)The word पर is sometimes explained in the sense of इष्ट or desired, possibly on the analogy of the meaning श्रेष्ठ possessed by the word. This sense is given to the word पर in the rule विप्रातिषेधे परं कार्यं with a view to apply it to earlier rules in cases of emergency; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवति M.Bh. on I.1.3.Vārt, 6; परशब्दः इष्टवाची M.Bh. on I. 2.5, I. 4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7; II. 1.69 et cetera, and others
parakramaa term used in the Praatisaakhya works for'doubling' of a consonant; | confer, compare सान्तःस्थादौ धारयन्तः परक्रमम् | Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XIV. 23.
paratvaposteriority; mention afterwards; the word is frequently used in works on grammar in connection with a rule which is mentioned in the treatise after another rule; the posterior rule is looked upon as stronger than the prior one, and is given priority in application when the two rules come in conflict although technically they are equally strong: confer, compare परत्वादल्लोप: ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.4 Vaart 7; 'परत्वाच्छीभाव: I. 1.11 et cetera, and others
parigaṇanaliterally enumeration. The word is used in grammar treatises in the sense of a definite or complete enumeration' with a view to exclude those that are not included in the enumeration : cf परिगणनं कर्तव्यम् | यङ्यक्यवलोपे प्रतिषेधः M.Bh. on I.1.4 Vaart. 1.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
paribhāṣāprakāśāan independent treatise explaining the various Paribhasas in the system of Panini's grammar, written by Visnusesa of the famous SeSa family.
paribhāṣāpradīpārcisa scholarly independent treatise on Vyakarana Paribhasas written by Udayamkara Pathaka, called also Nana Pathaka, a Nagara Brahmana, who lived at Benares in the middle of the 18th century A. D. He has also written commentaries on the two Sekharas of Naagesa.
paribhāṣābhāskara(1)a treatise on the Paribhasas in Panini's grammar written by Haribhaskara Agnihotri, son of Appajibhatta Agnihotri, who lived in the seventeenth century : (2) a treatise on Paniniparibhasas, as arranged by Siradeva, written by Sesadrisuddhi,
paribhāṣārthasaṃgrahṛa treatise on the Paribhasas in the system of Panini's grammar written by Vaidyanatha Sastrin.
paribhāṣāvṛttia general name given to an explanatory independent work on Paribhasas of the type of a gloss on a collection of Paribhasas,irrespective of the system of grammar, whether it be that of Panini, or of Katantra, or of Jainendra or of Hemacandra. The treatises of Vyadi (Panini system), Durgasimha and BhavamiSra (Katantra system), Purusottamadeva and Siradeva (Panini system), Abhyankar (Jainendra system) and others are all known by the name Paribhasavritti.
paribhāṣenduśekharathe reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis.
parilopaelision ofa phonetic member: the same as lopa in the Grammar of Panini. The term परिलोप and the verbal forms of the root परिलुप् are found in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare उष्मा परिलुप्यते त्रयाणाम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 4.
parvanword, pada; literally member of a sentence; the word is found used in the sense of पद in the old Pratisaakhya Literature: confer, compare अन्तरेण पर्वणी । पर्वशबेदन पदमुच्यते । पदयोर्मध्ये पद अागमो भवति । यथा प्राङ्कसोमः, प्राङ्क्सोम: । Uvvata on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 138.
paśyantīname of the second out of the four successive stages in the origination or utterance of a word from the mouth. According to the ancient writers on Phonetics, sound or word ( वाक् ) which is constituted of air ( वायु ) originates at the Mulaadhaaracakra where it is called परा. It then springs up and it is called पश्यन्ती in the second stage. Thence it comes up and is called मध्यमा in the third stage; rising up from the third stage when the air strikes against the vocal chords in the glottis and comes in contact with the different parts of the mouth, it becomes articulate and is heard in the form of different sounds. when it is called वैखरी; confer, compare वैखर्या मध्यमायाश्च पश्यन्त्याश्चैतदद्भुतम् । अनेकतीर्थभेदायास्त्रय्या वाचः परं पदम् Vaakyapadiya I. 144, and also confer, compare पश्यन्ती तु सा चलाचलप्रतिबद्धसमाधाना संनिविष्टज्ञेयाकारा प्रतिलीनाकारा निराकारा च परिच्छिन्नार्थप्रत्ययवभासा संसृष्टार्थप्रत्यवभासा च प्रशान्तसर्वार्थप्रत्यवभासा चेत्यपरिमितभेदा । पश्यन्त्या रूपमनपभ्रंशामसंकीर्ण लोकव्यवह्यरातीतम् । commentary on Vaakyapadiya I. 144. confer, compare also तत्र श्रोत्रविषया वैखरी । मध्यमा हृदयदशेस्था पदप्रत्यक्षानुपपत्त्या व्यवहारकारणम् । पश्यन्ती तु लोकव्यवहारातीता। योगिनां तु तत्रापि प्रकृतिप्रत्ययविभागावगतिरस्ति | परायां तु न इति त्रय्या इत्युक्तम् । Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on चत्वारि वाक्परिमिता पदानि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1.
paspaśācalled also पस्पशाह्निक; name given to the first or introductory chapter ( अाह्निक ) of the Maahabhaasya of Patanjali. The word occurs first in the SiSupaalavadha of Maagha. The word is derived from पस्पश् , the frequentative base of स्पर्श to touch or to see (ancient use). Possibly it may be explained as derived from स्पश् with अप; cf . शब्दबिद्येव नो भाति राजनीतिरपस्पशा Sis.II.112. Mallinatha has understood the word पस्पश m. and explained it as introduction to a Saastra treatise; confer, compare पस्पशः शास्त्रारम्भसमर्थक उपेद्वातसंदर्भग्रन्थः । Mallinaatha on SiS. II.112.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtravṛttia gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiin his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known.
puṣkaraṇaa popular term used for the treatise on grammar by an ancient grammarian Apisali. confer, compare अापिशलं पुष्करणम् Kas on P. IV. 3. 15. It was called Puskarana probably because it was very extensive and widely read before Panini. For the reading दुष्करण for पुष्करण, and other details see Mahabhasya Vol. VII. pp. 132-133, D. E. Society's edition.
pūrvasūtraliterally previous rule: a rule cited erlier in a treatise. The word is however, frequently used in the Mahabhasya in the sense of 'a rule laid down by an earlier grammarian': confer, compareवर्ण वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे M. Bh, Ahnika 1, पूर्वसूत्रे गोत्रस्य वृद्धमिति संज्ञा क्रियते M. Bh on I. 2.68; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.IV.1.14 Vart. 3, VI.I. 163 Vart. 1, VII.1.18, VIII. 4.7.
pṛktaliterally mixedition The term is used in the Pratisakhya works in connection with the vowel ऋ or ऌ which is looked upon as a पृक्तस्वर being mixed with the consonant र् or ल्; confer, compare पृक्तस्वरो नाम ऋकारः ऌकारश्च रेफलकारसंपृक्तत्वात् commentary on T.Pr.XIII.16.
pṛthvīdharācāryaa grammarian of the Eastern school who wrote the treatise कातन्त्रविवरण on Katantra Grammar.
pedubhaṭṭaa grammarian.who has written a treatise named औणादिकपदार्णव on the Unadi sutras.
pauṣkarasādian ancient grammarian who belonged to the dynasty of पुष्करसद्, whose views are quoted by the Varttikakara and the writers of the Pratisakhya works: cf चयो द्वितीयाः शारि पौष्करसादेः P. VIII. 4.48 Vart. 3; confer, compare also व्यञ्जनपरः पौष्करसादेर्न पूर्वश्च ञकारम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V: confer, compare also Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIII. 16; XIV. 2, XVII. 6.
pragṛhyaa term used in the Pratisakhya works and by Panini, in the sense of a vowel which is not combined with the following vowel by rules of euphony; e. g सुजाते अश्वसूनृते, अमी अत्र etc; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 28 and 29; P. I. 1.11-19 and VI.1.125.
pragrahaabsence of euphonic change; the. term is frequently used in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.60, IV.1.1-54.
pratyayaaffix, suffix, a termination, as contrasted with प्रकृति the base; confer, compare प्रत्याय्यते अर्थः अनेन इति प्रत्ययः; confer, compare also अर्थे संप्रत्याययति स प्रत्ययः M.Bh. on III. 1.l Vart. 8; The word प्रत्यय is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'following' or 'that which follows', e. g. स्पर्शे चोषः प्रत्यये पूर्वपद्यः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 30 which is explained by Uvvata as उषः इत्ययं ( शब्दः ) पूर्वपदावयवः सन् स्पर्शे प्रत्यये परभूते इति यावत्; रेफिसंज्ञो भवति; Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.30; confer, compare प्रत्येति पश्चादागच्छति इति प्रत्ययः परः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 7; cf also V. Pr, III. 8. Pratyaya or the suffix is generally placed after the base; cf, प्रत्ययः, परश्च P. III. I. 1,2; but sometimes it is placed before the base; e. g. बहुपटुः confer, compare विभाषा सुपो बहुच् पुरस्तात्तु P. V. 3.68. The conjugational signs (शप् , श्यन् et cetera, and others), the signs of tenses and moods ( च्लि, सिच् , स्य, ताम् et cetera, and others) and the compound endings(समासान्त) are all called pratyayas according fo Panini's grammar, as they are all given in the jurisdiction(अधिकार) of the rule प्रत्ययः III.1.1, which extends upto the end of the fifth chapter ( अध्याय ). There are six main kinds of affixes given in grammar सुप्प्रत्यय, तिङ्प्रत्यय, कृत्प्रत्यय , तद्धितप्रत्यय, धातुप्रत्यय (exempli gratia, for example in the roots चिकीर्ष, कण्डूय et cetera, and others) and स्त्रीप्रत्यय. The word प्रत्यय is used in the sense of realization, in which case the root इ in the word त्यय means'knowing' according to the maxim सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्थाः; confer, compare मन्त्रार्थप्रत्ययाय Nirukta of Yāska.I.15.
pratyāmnāyaliterally, repetition in a contrary way; in the Pratisakhya literature, the word refers to the repetition of a Vedic passage; repetition by pupils after hearing from the preceptor ; confer, compare प्रत्याम्नायः पुनर्वचनं Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV. 9.
pratyāhārasūtravicāraa short treatise explaining the pratyharas अण् , अट्, अश् et cetera, and others in the grammar of Panini; one such work is written by a southern grammarian named तिमण्णा.
prathamalit, premier, first; the word is used in connection with the personal affixes तिप् , तस्, झि ( अन्ति ) of verbal formanuscript. See the word पुरुष a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare अस्तिर्भवन्तीपरः प्रथमपुरुषः अप्रयुज्यमानोप्यस्तीति । वृक्षः प्लक्षः। Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.1 and 4. The word प्रथम is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the first consonants of the five vargas or groups of consonants; confer, compare प्रथमैर्द्वितीयास्तृतीयैश्चतुर्थाः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 110 confer, compare प्रथमतृतीयादीनामादेशादित्वादेत्वाभावः, M.Bh. on P. VI. 4.120 Vart 3, also confer, compare Katantra I. 4.1 and Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. I. 3.35. The word is also used (in the feminine gender) in the sense of the case affixes सु ( स् ), औ, जस् ( अस् ) of the nominative case. The word is also used in the sense of the premier accent उदात्त (acute); confer, compare प्रथमभाविनः उदात्तभाविनः Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 8.
prapāṭhakaa term used for a division of a work by an ancient writer, as for instance in the case of the Atharvapratisakhya.
prayuktākhyātamañjarīa small treatise on verbal forms by सारङ्गकवि.
prayogapallavaa small treatise in verses on the conjugation of roots, written by Bhavanatha Misra, son of Ramapati.
prayogamukhamaṇḍanaknown also by the name प्रयोगविवेक, an elementary treatise on syntax, attributed to वररुचि, who must, of course, have been different from the ancient grammarian वररुचि.
prayogaratnamālāname of a recognised treatise on grammar written by पुरुषोत्तमविद्यावागीश of Bengal in the fourteenth century. The treatise explains many words which, although current in language and literature, cannot be easily formed by rules of grammar. The author has tried to form them by applying rules of grammar given in the grammatical systems of Panini and Katantra. The alphabet given in this treatise is according to the system of the Tantra Sastra which shows a scholarship of the author in that branch The grammar was studied much in Bengal and Assam.
prākṛtasarvasyaa treatise on the grammar of Prakrta Languages attributed to Markandeya
prātipadikaliterallyavailable in every word. The term प्रातिपादिक can be explained as प्रतिपदं गृह्णाति तत् प्रातिपदिकम् cf P.IV. 4. 39. The term प्रातिपदिक, although mentioned in the Brahmana works, is not found in the Pratisakhya works probably because those works were concerned with formed words which had been actually in use. The regular division of a word into the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix ( प्रत्यय ) is available, first in the grammar of Panini, who has given two kinds of bases, the noun-base and the verb-base. The noun-base is named Pratipadika by him while the verb-base is named Dhatu. The definition of Pratipadika is given by him as a word which is possessed of sense, but which is neither a root nor a suffix; confer, compare अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् . P.I. 2.45. Although his definition includes, the krdanta words,the taddhitanta words and the compound words, still, Panini has mentioned them separately in the rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I. 2.45 to distinguish them as secondary noun-bases as compared with the primary noun-bases which are mentioned in the rule अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्, Thus,Panini implies four kinds of Pratipadikas मूलभूत, कृदन्त, तद्धितान्त and समास, The Varttikakara appears to have given nine kinds-गुणवचन, सर्वनाम, अव्यय, तद्धितान्त, कृदन्त, समास, जाति, संख्या and संज्ञा. See Varttikas 39 to 44 on P. I. 4. 1. Later on, Bhojaraja in his SringaraPrakasa has quoted the definition अर्थवदधातु given by Panini, and has given six subdivisions.: confer, compare नामाव्ययानुकरणकृत्तद्धितसमासाः प्रातिपदिकानि Sr. Prak. I. page 6. For the sense conveyed by a Pratipadika or nounbase, see प्रातिपदिकार्थ.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
plākṣāyaṇaan ancient Vedic scholar who presumably wrote a work on Vedic grammar (of the type of the Pratisakhya works).For a difference of view he is quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya: confer, compareन प्लाक्षिप्लाक्षायणयेाः T.Pr. IX.6.
plākṣian ancient writer of a Pratisakhya work quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya.See प्लाक्षायण a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The words प्लाक्षि and प्लाक्षायण as also प्लाक्षी ( feminine ) occur in the Mahabhasya also, but not in the Ganapatha of Panini.
plutaprotracted, name given to vowels in the protracted grade. The vowels in this grade which are termed protracted vowels are possessed of three matras and in writing they are marked with the figure 3 placed after them. In pronunciation they take a longer time than the long or दीर्घ vowels; confer, compare ऊकालोज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P. I.2.27. The word is derived from प्लु (प्रु also) I Atmane to go, and explained as प्लवते इति, The word प्लवते is often found for प्लुतो भवति in the Pratisakhya works; cf also मात्रा ह्रस्वरतावदवग्रहान्तरं, द्वे दीर्धस्तिस्रः प्लुत उच्यते स्वरः । अधः स्विदासी३दुपरि स्विदासी३द् अर्थे प्लुतिर्भीरिव विन्दती३त्रिः ll Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.16.
bahvacmultisyllabled, a word which contains three, or more than three vowels; the word occurs many times in the sutras of Panini. confer, compare P. II. 4.66, IV. 2.73, IV. 2.109, IV. 3.67; V. 3.78, VI. 2.83, VI. 3.118.
bopadevaa great Sanskrit scholar and grammarian belonging to Devagiri in the greater Maharastra who was supported by Hemadri of Devagiri. He resided at सार्थग्राम on the river Varada in the first half of the thirteenth century. He wrote a short treatise on Sanskrit Grammar, which has a number of peculiar abbreviations for the usual well-known grammatical termanuscript. His grammar had a wide spread in Bengal and it is today a very common text on Grammar Bengal. On this account some scholars believe that he lived in Bengal. He was the son of Kesava and pupil of Dhanesa. He is also the author, of the well-known work कविकल्पद्रुम on which he has written a commentary named कामधेनु or काव्यकामधेनु.
bhakti(1)name given to two of the five divisions of a Saman which are प्रस्तावभक्ति, उद्गीथ, प्रतिहार, उपद्रव and निधानभाक्ति; (2) the vowel portion surrounding, or placed after, the consonant र् or ल् which (consonant) is believed to be present in the vowel ऋ or ऌ respectively forming its important portion, but never separately noticed in it. The vowels ऋ and ऌ are made up of one matra each. It is contended by the grammarians that the consonants र् and ल् forming respectively the portion of ऋ and ऌ, make up halfa-matra, while the remaining half is made up of the भाक्ति of the vowel surrounding the consonant or situated after the consonant. The word which is generally used for this 'bhakti is 'ajbhakti' instead of which the word स्वरभक्ति is found in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare यत्तद्रेफात्परं भक्तेस्तेन व्यवहितत्वान्न प्राप्नेति | ...... यच्चात्र रेफात्परं भुक्तेर्न तत् क्वचिदपि व्यपवृक्तं दृश्यते | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VIII. 4.1 Vart 2; confer, compare स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गं Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 17; also confer, compare रेफात्स्वरोपहिताद् व्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णी स्वरभक्तिरुत्तरा ) Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 13.
bhāṣāṃmañjarīa small treatise on grammar written by Vyaṅkaṭa Subbā Shastrī.
bhāṣāvṛttia short gloss on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini in the l2th century by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva, a reputed scholar belonging to the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bengal and Behar in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, The gloss is very useful for beginners and it has given a clear explanation of the different sūtras without going into difficult niceties and discussions. The treatise does not comment upon Vedic portions or rules referring to Vedic Language because, as the legend goes, king Lakṣmaṇa Sena, for whom the gloss was written, was not qualified to understand Vedic Language; confer, compare वैदिकभाषानर्हत्वात् Com. on Bhāṣāvṛtti by Sṛṣṭidhara. There is a popular evaluation of the Bhāṣāvṛtti given by the author himself in the stanza "काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत्सिद्धान्तं बोद्धुमस्ति धीः ! तदा विचिन्त्यतां भ्रातर्भाषावृत्तिरियं मम " at the end of his treatise; for details see पुरुषोत्तमदेव.
bhīmasenacalled भीमदास also, who flourished in the fourteenth century and wrote a treatise on grammar called भैमव्याकरण.
bhaimavyākaraṇaa grammar treatise written by भौमसेन in the fourteenth century A. D.
bhojathe well-known king of Dhārā who was very famous for his charities and love of learning. He flourished in the eleventh century A.D. He is said to have got written or himself written several treatises on various śāstras. The work Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa which is based on the Astādhyāyi of Pāṇini, but which has included in it the Vārttikas and Paribhāṣās also, has become in a way a Vyākaraṇa or a general work in grammar and can be styled as Bhoja-Vyākaraṇa.
maṅgalārthafor the sake of auspiciousness at the beginning of a treatise or work; confer, compare भूवादीनां वकारोयं मङ्गलार्थः प्रयुज्यते M.Bh. on P.I.3.1.;confer, compareमङ्गलादीनि हि शास्त्राणि | M.Bh. on P.I.1.1.
madhyakaumudīcalled also मध्यमकौमुदी a work on grammar which is an abridgment, to a certain extent, of Bhaṭṭojī's Siddhāntakaumudī. The treatise was written by Varadarāja, a pupil of Bhaṭṭojī for facilitating the study of the Siddhānta-kaumudi.
madhyamakaumudī(1)name of a treatise on grammar by Rāmaśarman; (2) the same as मध्यकौमुदी.
manoramā(1)the popular name given to the commentary प्रौढमनेारमा on the Siddhāntakaumudī of भट्टोजीदीक्षित by the author himself the commentary is a scholarly one and very extensive; and its first portion only upto the end of Kāraka is generally read in the Sanskrit Pāṭhaśālās;(2) name of a commentary on the Madhyasiddhāntakaumudī by Rāmasarman; (3) name given to a treatise discussing roots given in the Kātantra Grammar written by रमानाथशर्मा in the sixteenth century. The work is called कातन्त्रधातुवृत्ति also.
manoramākucamardananame given in a bantering tone to the treatise प्रौढमनोरमाखण्डन written by जगन्नाथपण्डित:
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahīdharaa grammarian of the sixteenth century who, besides many small treatises on other subjects, wrote a commentary on the SarasvataPrakriya Vyakarana.
mākṣavyaname of an ancient writer of Pratisakhya works mentioned in the Rk Pratisakhya: confer, compare R.Pr.I.2.
mācākīyaan ancient writer of a Pratisakhya work, who is quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya as one, holding the view that य and व् preceded by अ and followed by उ and ओ respectively, are dropped provided they stand at the beginning of a Pada ( word ). माचाकीय, who belonged to the Yajurveda school, is said to have held this view which is generally held by the followers of the Rgveda: confer, compare उकारौकारपरौ लुप्यते माचाकी यस्य(Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.X.29) on which the commentator adds वह्वृचानामयं पक्षः.
māṇḍūkeyaname of an ancient writer of a Pratisakhya work referred to in the Rk Pratisakhya, confer, compare R.Pr.I.2. मातृकावर्ण letters of the alphabet. See अक्षरसमाम्नाय.
mādhavathe well-known epoch-making scholar of the 14th century who has written a number of treatises in various Saastras. His धातुवृम्त्ति is a well-known work in grammar
mukhanāsikāvacanadefinition of अनुनासक, a letter which is pronounced through both-the mouth and the nose-as contrasted with नासिक्य a letter which is uttered only through the nose; exempli gratia, for example ड्, ञ् , ण्, न् , म् and the nasalized vowels and nasalized य् , व् and ल्; confer, compare मुखनासिक्रावचनेीSनुनासिकः Paan. I. 1.8: confer, compare also अनुस्वारोत्तम अनुनासिकाः (Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II.30), where the fifth letters and the anusvaara are called anunaasika. According to Bhattoji, however, anusvaara cannot be anunaasika as it is pronounced through the nose alone, and not through both-the mouth and the nose. As the anusvaara is pronounced something like a nasalized ग् according to the Taittiriyas it is called a consonant in the Taittiriya Praatisaakhya: confer, compare ' अनुस्वारोप्युत्तमवह्यञ्जनमेव अस्मच्छाखायाम् ! अर्धगकाररूपत्वात् / Com. on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 30.
mugdhabodhaliterally instructions to the ignorant: a treatise on grammar similar to the Astadhyayi of Panini but much shorter, written by Bopadeva or Vopadeva an inhabitant of the greater Maharastra in the Vardha district, in the thirteenth century. After the fall of the Hindu rulers in Bengal, treatises like भाषावृत्ति and others written by eastern grammarians fell into the back-ground and their place was taken up by easier treatises written by Bopadeva and others.Many commentaries were written upon the Mugdhabodha, of which the Vidyanivsa is much known to grammarians
muda technical term for the sibilants श् , ष् and स् given in the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya: confer, compare मुच्च Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.52, cf also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.9,III.13,IV.122.
mṛdu(1)soft in utterance ; the term is used in the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya for the क्षैप्र, प्रश्लिष्ट, तैरोव्यञ्जन, and पादवृत्त varieties of the circumflex accent (स्वरित) out of which the पादवृत्त is the softest ( मृदुतम ) and consequently always called मृदु, while the others are called मृदु only with respect to the preceding one in the order given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; viz.अभिनिहत, क्षैप्र et cetera, and othersconfer, compareसर्वतीक्ष्णोभिनिहत:प्राश्लिष्टस्तदनन्तरम् । ततो मृदुतरौ स्वरौ जात्यक्षेप्रावुभौ स्मृतौ | ततो मृदुतर: स्वारस्तैरोव्यञ्जन उच्यते | पादवृत्तो मृदुतमस्त्वेतत्स्वारबलाबलम् Uvvata on V.Pr. I. !25; (2) soft, as opposed to hard; the term is used in connection with the first,third and fifth consonants of the five classes.
maitrāyaṇīya prātiśākhyaa Pratiskhya or :Parsada work giving the peculiarities of Sandhi, accent and the like, in changing the Maitrayaniya Samhitaapatha into the Padapatha.
mokṣeśvaraa grammarian of the fourteenth century who has written a commentary on the Katantra Vrtti of Durgasimha. He has written a commentary on the Akhyatavrtti of the Katantra school as also a short treatise dealing with the krt affixes called Krdvrtti.
yathānyāsaṃas it is actually put in the rule or a treatise by the author. The phrase is often used in the Mahaabhaasya when after a long discussion, involving further and further difficulties, the author reverts to the original stand and defends the writing of the sUtra as it stands. सिध्यत्येवमपाणिनीयं तु भवति or सूत्रं भिद्यते । तर्हि यथान्यासमेवास्तु is the usual expression found in the Mahaabhaasya; cf, M.Bh. I.1. Aahnika 1, I.1.1, 9, 20, 62, 65 et cetera, and others
yaśa:kavia grammarian, the author of a treatise named Bhasanusasana. यश:सागर a Jain grammarian, the author of a work named Samasasobha.
yāskaa reputed ancient Niruktakara or etymologist, of the 6th century B.C. or even a few centuries before that, whose work, the Nirukta, is looked upon as the oldest authoritative treatise regarding derivation of Vedic words. Yaska was preceded by a number of etymologists whom he has mentioned in his work and whose works he has utilisedition Yaska's Nirukta threw into the back-ground the older treatises on etymology, all of which disappeared gradually in the course of time.
r(1)second letter of the यण् class ( semi-vowels ) which has got the properties नादभागित्व, घोषवत्त्व,' संवृतत्व and अल्पप्राणता i. e. it is a sonant, inaspirate consonant. Regarding its स्थान or place of production, there is a difference of opinion : generally the consonant र् is looked upon as a cerebral or lingual letter (मूर्धन्य); cf ऋटुरषाणां मूर्धा, S.K.also Pāṇini. Siksa; but it is called by some as दन्त्य or दन्तमूलीय: cf रेफस्तु दस्त्ये दन्तमूले वा RT. 8, by others as दन्तमूलीय and and by still others as वर्स्त्य gingival. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya it is described as दन्तमूलीय: cf रो दन्तमूल I. 68, while in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya it is said to be produced by the touch of the middle part of the tip of the tongue just a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the root of the teeth;confer, compare रेफे जिह्वाग्रमध्येन प्रत्यग्दन्तमूलेभ्यः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 41; (2) substitute र् (रेफ ) for the final letter of the word अहन्, as also for the final of अम्रस्, ऊधस्, अवस् and भुवस् optionally with रु, which ( रु) is dropped before vowels, and changed to ओ before अ and soft consonants, while it is changed into visarga before hard consonants and surds.exempli gratia, for example अम्नरेव, अम्र एवः ऊधरेव, ऊधएव: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII, 2-70: (3) the consonants र् (technically) called र् in Panini's grammar ) which is substituted for the consonant स् and for the consonant न् of the word अहन् when the consonant स् or न् stands at the end of a word. This substitute रु, unlike the substitute र् is liable to be changed into visarga, or the consonant य्, or the vowel उ by P. VIII.3.15, 17, VI.1.113, 114.
ratnapāṇia grammarian of the eighteenth century who wrote a short treatise on the Karaka relations named षट्कारकविवरण.
ranu[RENOU,LOUIS]a sound Sanskrit scholar of France of the present time who has written some treatises and many articles on Sanskrit grammar out of which his works on the Terminology of Sanskrit Grammar, Kasika and Durghatavrtti reguire a special mention.
rapratyāhārakhaṇḍanaa small article showing that the short term र for the consonants र् and ल् need not be advocated as done by the learned old grammarians.The treatise was Written by Vaidyanatha Paya-gunde, the prominent pupil of Nagesabhatta.
rājārāmaśāstrī( कार्लेकर )a reputed scholar of Sanskrit grammar who resided at Varanasi and established a school of Sanskrit Grammarians there in the nineteenth century. He wrote a treatise on grammar named शब्दव्युत्पत्तिकौमुदी.
rādhākṛṣṇa( गोस्वामी )a grammarian who wrote two elementary graumar treatises (1) अव्ययार्थे and (2) वैयाकरणसर्वस्वसूची.
rāmakiṃkasarasvatīa grammarian who wrote a small grammar treatise named अायुबोधव्याकरण which is different from the well-known अाशुबोध of तारानाथतर्कवाचस्पति.
rāmakṛṣṇaa grammarian who wrote a treatise on Karaka relations known by the name शाब्दबोधप्रक्रिया.
rāmacandra(1)रामन्वन्द्राचार्य (son of कृष्णाचार्य) the well-known author of the Prakriyakaumudi. He belonged to the Sesa family and the latter half of the fifteenth century is assigned as his date. He is believed to have been a resident of Andhra. His work, the Prakriyakaumudi, was a popular grammar treatise for some time before Bhattoji's SiddhantaKaumudi got its hold, and it had a number of commentaries written upon it especially by his descendants and members of his family which became well-known as the Sesa family of grammarians. The Prakriyakaumudi is named कृष्णर्किकरप्राक्रिया also. (2) There was a grammarian named Ramacandra who wrote a small treatise on grammar named विदग्धबोध. (3) There was another grammarian of the same name who was a pupil of Nagesabhatta of the eighteenth century and who wrote a small commentary called वृतिसंग्रह on Panini's Astadhyayi. (4) There was also another Ramacandra who was a scholar of Vedic grammar and who wrote the commentary named ज्योत्स्ना on the Vjasaneyi-Pratisakhya.
rāmatarkavāgīśaa learned grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय and भट्टाचार्य, He was an advocate of the Mugdhabodha School and wrote commentaries on (1) the Mugdhabodha, (2) the Kavikalpadruma, (3) the Amarakosa and (4) the Unadi sutras. He also wrote a short gloss on case-relations, his treatise on the subject being named कारकटिप्पणी,
rukmanthe primary Yama letter; a term used in the Śikșā treatises.
laghuprakriyāname of a grammar treatise based on the Sabdānuśāsana of Hemacandra written by Vinayavijaya where the sūtras of Hemacandra are arranged in different topics as in the Siddhāntakaumudī of Bhoțțojī.
liṅgānuśāsanaliterally science of genders; a short comprehensive old treatise on the gender of words attributed to Pāņini as its author. Other works with the same designation are attributed to वामन, दुर्गोत्तम and others.
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
varṇapāṭhaserial mention or enumeration of letters in the fourteen Siva Sutras. The word is also used in the sense of the alphabet given in the Pratisakhya and grammar works; confer, compare एवं तर्हि वर्णपाठ एव उपदेश: करिष्यते M.Bh. on P. I. 1.69.
varṇarāśithe collection of letters as mentioned in works on grammar and Pratisakhyas; confer, compare इति वर्णराशिः क्रमश्च Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 10.
varṇasamāmnāyaa collection of letters or alphabet given traditionally. Although the Sanskrit alphabet has got everywhere the same cardinal letters id est, that is vowels अ, इ et cetera, and others, consonants क्, ख् etc : semivowels य्, र्, ल्, व, sibilants श् ष् स् ह् and a few additional phonetic units such as अनुस्वार, विसर्ग and others, still their number and order differ in the different traditional enumerations. Panini has not mentioned them actually but the fourteen Siva Sutras, on which he has based his work, mention only 9 vowels and 34 consonants, the long vowels being looked upon as varieties of the short ones. The Siksa of Panini mentions 63 or 64 letters, adding the letter ळ ( दुःस्पृष्ट ); confer, compare त्रिषष्टि: चतुःषष्टिर्वा वर्णाः शम्भुमते मताः Panini Siksa. St.3. The Rk Pratisakhya adds four (Visarga, Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya and Anusvara ) to the forty three given in the Siva Sutras and mentions 47. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya mentions 52 letters viz. 16 vowels, 25class consonants, 4 semivowels,six sibilants (श्, ष् , स्, ह् , क्, प् , ) and anusvara. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions 65 letters 3 varieties of अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ, two varieties of ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, 25 class-consonants, four semivowels, four sibilants, and जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय, अनुस्वार, विसर्जनीय, नासिक्य and four यम letters; confer, compare एते पञ्चषष्टिवर्णा ब्रह्मराशिरात्मवाचः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 25. The Rk Tantra gives 57 letters viz. 14 vowels, 25 class consonants, 4 semivowels, 4 sibilants, Visarga,.Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya, Anunasika, 4_yamas and two Anusvaras. The Rk Tantra gives two different serial orders, the Uddesa (common) and the Upadesa (traditional). The common order or Uddesa gives the 14 vowels beginning with अ, then the 25 class consonants, then the four semivowels, the four sibilants and lastly the eight ayogavahas, viz. the visarjanya and others. The traditional order gives the diphthongs first, then long vowels ( अा, ऋ, लॄ, ई and ऊ ) then short vowels (ऋ, लृ, इ, उ, and lastly अ ), then semivowels, then the five fifth consonants, the five fourths, the five thirds, the five seconds, the five firsts, then the four sibilants and then the eight ayogavaha letters and two Ausvaras instead of one anuswara. Panini appears to have followed the traditional order with a few changes that are necessary for the technigue of his work.
vaśaṃgamaname given in the Pratisakhya works to letter-combinations where a consonant gets a change suitable to the neighbouring consonants as given in the Rk.Pratisakhya in IV.1 to IV.5 including जश्त्व, अनुनासिकादेश, छत्व, परसवर्ण, अनुस्वार and others, as given in P. VIII.2.39, VIII.3.7, VIII. 3.23, VIII.4.40, 46, 58,59, 62, 63; confer, compare न ह्यत्र अवशंगमसंधाविव अपरिणतानि व्यञ्जनानि संयोगं गच्छन्ति Uvvata on R.Pr.IV.5.
vājasaneyeiprātiśākhyathe Pratisakhya work belonging to the Vajasaneyi branch of the White Yajurveda, which is the only Pratisakhya existing to-day representing all the branches of the Sukla Yajurveda. Its authorship is attributed to Katyayana, and on account of its striking resemblance with Panini's sutras at various places, its author Katyayana is likely to be the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. It is quite reasonable to expect that the subject matter in this Pratisakhya is based on that in the ancient Prtisakhya works of the same White school of the Yajurveda.The work has a lucid commentary called Bhasya written by Uvvata.
vātsapraan ancient writer of Pratisakhya works who believed in the very feeble utterance ( लघुप्रयत्नतर ) of the consonants य and व, when preceded by अ and standing at the end of a word. See लघुप्रयत्न.
vānathe suffix वन् mentior:ed as वान् in the Atharvapratisakhya and illustrated in the word ऋतावानं: cf Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. III. 24.
vāmananame of one of the joint authors of the well-known gloss or वृति upon the Sutras of Panini, who lived in the seventh century A. D. It cannot be ascertained which portion of the Kasika was written by Vamana and which by his colleague जयादित्य, There was another famous scholar of Kashmir by name Vamana who flourished in the tenth century and who wrote an independent grammar treatise विश्रान्तविद्याधर, together with उणादसूत्रवृत्ति and लिङ्गानुशासन.
vārttikasūtrathe same as वार्तिकवचन which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Varttikas are termed Varttika sutras on account of their close similarity with the original Sutras, which in contrast are termed Vrttisutras.
vigrahalit, separation of the two parts of a thing; the term is generally applied to the separation of the constituent words of a compound word: it is described to be of two kinds : ( a ) शास्त्रीयविग्रहृ or technical separation; e. g. राजपुरुष्: into राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु and ( 2 ) लौकिकविग्रहं or common or popular separation ; e. g. राजपुरूष: into राज्ञ: पुरुष:. It is also divided into two kinds according to the nature of the constituent words (a) स्वपदाविग्रह separation by means of the constituent words, exempli gratia, for example राजहितम् into राज्ञे हृितम्;(b) अस्वपदविग्रह, e. g. राजार्थम् into राज्ञे इदम् ;or exempli gratia, for example सुमुखीं into शोभनं मुखं अस्याः confer, compare M.Bh. on P.V.4.7. The compounds whose separation into constituent words cannot be shown by those words (viz. the constituent words) are popularly termed nityasamsa. The term नित्यसमास is explained as नित्यः समासो नित्यसमासः | यस्य विग्रहो नास्ति । M.Bh. on P.II.2.19 Vart. 4. The upapadasamsa is described as नित्यसमास. Sometimes especially in some Dvandva compounds each of the two separated words is capable of giving individually the senses of both the words exempli gratia, for example the words द्यावा and क्षामा of the compound द्यावाक्षामा. The word विग्रह is found used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the separate use of a word as contrasted with the use in a compound; cf अच्छेति विग्रहे प्लुतं भवति R.Pr.VII.1. विग्रहृ is defined as वृत्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः in the Siddhantakaumudi.
vidyāvinodagrandson of Rameswarabhatta of Pratisthana who wrote a grammar of the Prakrta dialects.
vidhāraṇamention of a consonant as intact id est, that is without any phonetic coalescence or संधि; the same as अभिनिधान. The term is used in this sense in the Pratisakhya works.
vibhaktyarthanirṇayaa general term given to a chapter on case-affixes as also to treatises discussing the sense and relations of case-affixes. There is a treatise of this name written by Giridhara and another written by Jayakṛṣna Maunī.
vivāraname given to an external effort in the production of a sound when the vocal chords of the glottis or larynx are extended; confer, compare कण्ठबिलस्य विकासः विवारः Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.9. confer, compare also विवरणं कण्ठस्य विस्तरणम् | स एव विवाराख्य: बाह्यः प्रयत्न: | तस्मिन्सति श्वासे नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नः कियते | तद्ध्वनिसंसर्गादघोषो नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नो जायते इति शिक्षायां स्मर्यते Bhāṣya on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 5.
viśeṣaṇasamāsa(1)a tatpuruṣa compo und of the type of Mayūravyartisakādi where both the words which are compounded together are adjectival; (2) a karmadhāraya compound where the second member is an adjective; a determinative compound confer, compare गमनं च यच्चिरं च गमनचिरमिति विशेषणसमासोयम् Kāś. on P.VI.2.6.
viśvarūpaa grammarian of the sixteenth century who has written a small grammar treatise called विश्वरूपनिबन्ध.
viṣṇupaṇḍitaa grammarian belonging to the famous Śeṣa family of grammarians, who has written a small treatise on Paribhāṣā or maxims of interpretation which he has named परिभाषाप्रक्राश.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
vṛttidīpikāa treatise on the different ways in which the meaning is conveyed by words according to the conventions of grammarians,written by a grammarian Krisnabhatta surnamed Mauni.
vṛddha(1)a term used in Paninis grammar for such words or nouns ( प्रातिपदिक ) which have for their first vowel a vrddhi vowel, i. e. either अा or ऐ or अौ: exempli gratia, for example शाला, माला et cetera, and others; confer, compare वृद्धिर्यस्य अचामादिस्तद् वृद्धम् ; (2) a term applied to the eight pronouns headed by त्यत् for purposes of the addition of taddhita affix. affixes prescribed for the Vrddha words, such as छ by वृद्धाच्छ: P. IV.2.114: (3) a term applied to words having ए or ओ as the first vowel in them, provided such words denote districts of Eastern India, e. g. गोनर