Donate
 
    
Select your preferred input and type any Sanskrit or English word. Enclose the word in “” for an EXACT match e.g. “yoga”.
     Grammar Search "tin" has 4 results.
     
tiṅ: masculine nominative singular stem: tiṅ
tiṅ: neuter nominative singular stem: tiṅ
tiṅ: feminine nominative singular stem: tiṅ
tiṅ: neuter accusative singular stem: tiṅ
     Amarakosha Search  
Results for tin
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
amaraḥ1.1.7-9MasculineSingularnirjaraḥ, vibudhaḥ, sumanasaḥ, āditeyaḥ, aditinandanaḥ, asvapnaḥ, gīrvāṇaḥ, daivatam, devaḥ, suraḥ, tridiveśaḥ, diviṣad, ādityaḥ, amartyaḥ, dānavāriḥ, devatā, tridaśaḥ, suparvā, divaukāḥ, lekhaḥ, ṛbhuḥ, amṛtāndhāḥ, vṛndārakaḥimmortal
apratyakṣam3.1.78MasculineSingularatīndriyam
gauḥ2.9.67-72FeminineSingularupasaryā, rohiṇī, bahusūtiḥ, kapilā, navasūtikā, ekahāyanī, droṇakṣīrā, bandhyā, saurabheyī, garbhopaghātinī, arjunī, acaṇḍī, dhavalā, vaṣkayiṇī, dvivarṣā, pīnoghnī, tryabdā, samāṃsamīnā, sandhinī, vaśā, praṣṭhauhī, naicikī, pareṣṭukā, pāṭalā, suvratā, caturabdā, droṇadugdhā, avatokā, usrā, kālyā, aghnyā, sukarā, kṛṣṇā, dhenuḥ, ekābdā, pīvarastanī, trihāyaṇī, māheyī, vehad, śṛṅgiṇī, bālagarbhiṇī, śavalī, cirasūtā, dvihāyanī, sukhasaṃdohyā, caturhāyaṇī, dhenuṣyā, sravadgarbhā, mātā(49)cow
havaḥ3.3.215MasculineSingularsatāṃmatiniścayaḥ, prabhāvaḥ
janīFeminineSingularcakravartinī, saṃsparśā, jatūkā, rajanī, jatukṛt
kacchaḥ3.3.35MasculineSingulardantaḥ(hastinaḥ)
kākenduḥMasculineSingularkulakaḥ, kākapīlukaḥ, kākatindukaḥ
kārtikeyaḥMasculineSingularmahāsenaḥ, kumāraḥ, śikhivāhanaḥ, bāhuleyaḥ, senānīḥ, ṣaḍānanaḥ, śaktidharaḥ, viśākhaḥ, guhaḥ, skandaḥ, śarajanmā, krauñcadāruṇaḥ, ṣāṇmāturaḥ, tārakajit, agnibhūḥ, pārvatīnandanaḥkaarttik
pratimā2.10.36MasculineSingularpratiyātanā, praticchāyā, pratikṛtiḥ, arcā, pratimānam, pratinidhiḥ, pratibimbam
strī2.6.2FeminineSingularsīmantinī, abalā, mahilā, pratīpadarśinī, nārī, yoṣit, vanitā, vadhūḥ, yoṣā, vāmā
tindukaḥ2.4.38MasculineSingularkālaskandhaḥ, śitisārakaḥ, sphūrjakaḥ
tindukī3.5.8FeminineSingular
tiniśaḥ2.4.26MasculineSingularnemiḥ, rathadruḥ, atimuktakaḥ, vañjulaḥ, citrakṛt, syandanaḥ
tintiḍīkam2.9.36NeuterSingularcukram, ‍vṛkṣāmlam
bhaṭṭinī1.7.13FeminineSingularany wife of king
atinuMasculineSingularlanded from boat
titinḍī2.2.43FeminineSingularciñcā, amblikā
śrīhastinīFeminineSingularbhuruṇḍī
kaulaṭineyaḥ2.6.26MasculineSingular‍kaulaṭeyaḥ
atyantīnaḥ2.8.77MasculineSingular
satīnakaḥ2.9.16MasculineSingularkalāyaḥ, hareṇuḥ, khaṇḍikaḥ
     Monier-Williams
          Search  
Results for tin
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
tināśaka equals niśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindinīf. equals du- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindiśam. Name of a plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindum. Diospyros embryopteris (also dinī- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindum. Strychnos nux vomica (also duka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindubilvan. Name of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindukam. Diospyros embryopteris, (n.) its fruit (yielding a kind of resin used as pitch for caulking vessels etc.) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindukam. equals du- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindukan. a kind of weight (equals karṣa-; equals suvarṇa- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindukīf. equals ki-
tindukif. Diospyros embryopteris View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindukinīf. the senna plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindulam. equals duki- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tinikāf. Holcus Sorghum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tiniśam. Dalbergia Ujjeinensis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tiniśam. see timiśa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tintiḍam. (also titt- ) equals dikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tintiḍam. Name of a daitya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tintiḍam. equals kāla-dāsa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tintiḍamf(ī-). sour sauce (especially made of the tamarind fruit) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tintiḍīf. equals ḍikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tintiḍīf. equals ḍimba- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tintiḍīf. of da- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tintiḍīdyūtan. a kind of game (odd and even played with tamarind seeds) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tintiḍikāf. the tamarind tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tintiḍīkam. (titl- Va1rtt. 2 ; tittirīka- ) the tamarind tree (alsof(ā-). ), (n.) its fruit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tintiḍīkan. sour sauce (especially made of the tamarind fruit) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tintiḍīphalan. the sour skin of a Garcinia fruit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tintilīf. equals tiḍikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tintilikāf. equals tiḍikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tintilīkan. the tamarind fruit (tinīka- varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tintilīkāf. equals likā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhighātinmfn. (generally in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') striking, attacking, hurting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhighātinmfn. inflicting injury View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhighātinm. an assailant, enemy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhikrāntinmfn. one who has undertaken (the study of) id est conversant with (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhimātinmfn. insidious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhipātinmfn. hastening near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhipātinmfn. running to the help of (in compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhivartinmfn. coming towards, approaching View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhivartinmfn. going towards (in compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhivratinmfn. bent on (compound), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiyātinm. an assailant, enemy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyāghātinmfn. attacking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyāsaparivartin(for abhyāśa--) mfn. wandering about or near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyatinīto bring or place upon (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyāvartinmfn. coming near, coming repeatedly (vocative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyāvartinmfn. returning (as days) (an-- negative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyāvartinm. Name of a king (son of cāyamāna- and descendant of pṛthu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
acyutacakravartinm. Name (also title or epithet) of the author of a commentator or commentary on the Da1ya-bha1ga, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adantāghātinmfn. not striking against the teeth (as a sound), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhītinmfn. well read, proficient, (gaRa iṣṭādi-, q.v) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhītinmfn. occupied with the study of the veda-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aditinandanam. equals -ja- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityānuvartinmfn. following the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
advaitinm. "non-dualist", an adherent of śaṃkara-, Sa1m2khyas., Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aghātinmfn. not fatal, not injurious, harmless. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āgūrtinmfn. one who pronounces the āgur- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ahivratinmfn. one who lives like a snake (only on air), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akṛtinmfn. unfit for work, not clever. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amitraghātin mfn. killing, enemies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āmnātinm. (fr. ā-mnāta-), one who has mentioned or quoted commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anāgūrtinmfn. one who has not recited the āgur- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anatinedam. not foaming over View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
andhakaghātin m. "the slayer or enemy of the asura- andhaka-", Name of śiva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anīcanuvartinmfn. not keeping low company View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anīcanuvartinm. a faithful lover or husband. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anirākṛtinmfn. one who does not forget what he has learned, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anirvartin(also) unalterable, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anivartinmfn. not turning back, brave, not returning. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anṛtinmfn. telling untruths, lying, a liar. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antaḥpātinmfn. inserted, included in. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antaḥpātinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') occurring in the interior of anything, , Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antaḥpuravartin m. superintendent of the women's apartments, chamberlain. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antarvartin mfn. internal, included, dwelling in. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antarvartinīf. pregnant, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anugaṇitinmfn. one who has counted over, (gaRa iṣṭādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupaṭhitinm. (one who has read through or recited) , proficient, (gaRa iṣṭādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupātinmfn. following as a consequence or result. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupavītinm. one uninvested with the sacred thread. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuprasṛptinmfn. one who has crept after, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānusṛtineyamf. a descendant of anu-sṛti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuvartinmfn. following, compliant, obedient, resembling. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuyuktinm. one who has enjoined, examined, (gaṇaiṣṭādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyatoghātinmfn. striking in one direction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyatoghātinmfn. striking against another, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyāyavartin mfn. acting unjustly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyāyavartinmfn. following evil courses. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apaghātinmfn. idem or 'mf(ikā-)n. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') warding off.' See apa-han-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apakṣapātinmfn. not flying with wings (and"a partisan of A id est viṣṇu-"), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparāvṛttivartinmfn. turned away not to return, dcceased, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpātinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' falling on, happening View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplavavratinm. one whose duty is to perform the samāvartana- ablution (on returning home after completing his studies), an initiated householder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplutavratinm. equals ā-plava-vratin- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpratinivṛtto cease completely. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpratinivṛttaguṇormicakramfn. (scilicet jñāna-,knowledge) through which the whole circle of wave-like qualities (of passion etc.) subside or cease completely View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apratinodam. not repelling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apravartinmfn. immovable, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arātinudmfn. expelling enemies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arcitinmfn. honouring (with locative case), (gaRa iṣṭādi-, q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ardhacakravartin m. "half a cakravartin- ", Name of the nine black vāsudeva-s (of the jaina-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ardhakaghātinmfn. "killing the water-snake"(?), Name of rudra- (adhvaga-gh- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arditinmfn. having spasms of the jaw-bones View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asaṃnipātinmfn. not producing an immediate effect, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asaṃvatsarabhṛtinmfn. one who does not maintain (a fire) a whole year View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āsannavartinmfn. being or abiding in the neighbourhood or vicinity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astināstiind. partly true and partly not, doubtful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astināstitvan. being and not being, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvasūktinm. Name of the author of the hymns View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atinamto bend aside, keep on one side. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atinam(Causal - nāmayati-), to pass time, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atināmanm. Name of a saptarṣi- of the sixth manvantara-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atināṣṭramfn. beyond danger, out of danger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atinaumfn. disembarked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atinedto stream or flow over, foam over View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atinīto lead over or beyond, to help a person over anything etc. ; to allow to pass away: Intensive A1. -nenīy/ate-, to bring forward View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atinīcamfn. excessively low. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atinicṛt(or wrongly written ati-nivṛt-) f. Name of a Vedic metre of three pāda-s (containing respectively seven, six and seven syllables) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atinidramfn. given to excessive sleep View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atinidrāf. excessive sleep View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atinidramind. See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order () . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atinidramind. beyond sleeping time See also ati-nidra- sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order ati-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atinihnutya ind.p. ( hnu-), denying obstinately. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atiniḥśvasto breathe or sigh violently. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atinipuṇamfn. very skilful. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atiniṣṭan( tan-), (perf. Potential 3. plural /ati-n/iṣ-ṭatanyuḥ-) to penetrate (with rays) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atinuCaus. to turn away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atinudto drive by View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atipātinmfn. overtaking, excelling in speed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atipātinmfn. (in med.) running a rapid course, acute, neglecting. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ativartinmfn. passing beyond, crossing, passing by, surpassing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ativartinmfn. guilty of a pardonable offence. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātmaghātinm. idem or 'm. a suicide.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avadhāritinmfn. (gaRa iṣṭād- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avadyotinmfn. equals -dyotaka-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaghātinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' threshing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaghātinmfn. striking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avakartinSee carmāvak-
avantinagarif. the city of the avanti-s, Oujein View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avartinmfn. behaving improperly, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āvartinmfn. whirling or turning upon itself View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āvartinmfn. returning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āvartinm. a horse having curls of hair on various parts of his body (considered as a lucky mark) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āvartinn. Name of particular stotra-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āvartinīf. a whirlpool View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āvartinīf. Name of the plant Odina Pinnata etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avattinmfn. (after a cardinal num.)"dividing into so many parts" See catur-av- and pañcāi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avibhaktinmfn. unseparated (as co-heirs who have not divided their inheritance) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avijitinmfn. not victorious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avinipātinmfn. not erring (in one's duties, dharmeṣu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avinivartinmfn. not turning back, not fugitive (in battle). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āvītin ī-. m. (a Brahman) who has the sacred thread on (in the usual manner over the left shoulder and under the right arm, see prācīnāvītin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avratinmfn. idem or 'mfn. equals avrata-vat- q.v ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āyuktinmfn. a fit official View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirvartinmfn. being on the outside View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhudantinm. Name of indra- (see bahudantī-suta-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
baiḍālavratin() mfn. acting like a cat, hypocritical, a religious impostor (equals bhaṇḍa-tapasvin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bakavratinm. a hypocrite (especially a false devotee) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balacakravartinm. balacakra
bāṇapātavartinmfn. being within the range of an arrow (varia lectio -patha-v-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāṇapathavartinmfn. varia lectio for -pāta-v- below
bhagavadbhaktinirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktinamramfn. bent down in devotion, making a humble obeisance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhānumatinm. (fr. bhānumat-or -matī-) Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāvayatinm. an ascetic by life or conduct View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāvicakravartinm. a future king, hereditary prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhītināṭitakan. mimic representation of fear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhrāntināśanam. "destroying error", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhrāṣṭravratinm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhṛtinSee saṃvatsara-bhṛtin-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhujaṃgaghātinīf. "killing snakes", a species of plant (used as an antidote) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtinandam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtinidhānan. "receptacle of prosperity", Name of the nakṣatra- dhaniṣṭhā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmaghātinm. id View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmaghātinīf. a woman on the second day of the menses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakravartinmfn. rolling everywhere without obstruction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakravartinm. a ruler the wheels of whose chariot roll everywhere without obstruction, emperor, sovereign of the world, ruler of a cakra- (or country described as extending from sea to sea; 12 princes beginning with bharata- are especially considered as cakravartin-s) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakravartinmfn. supreme, holding the highest rank among (genitive case or in compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakravartinm. Chenopodium album View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakravartinm. Name of the author of a commentator or commentary on , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakravartinm. Nardostachys jaṭāmāṃsi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakravartinm. equals alaktaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakravartinīf. the fragrant plant jantukā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
carmāvakartinm. "leather-cutter", = ma-kṛt- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
catinmfn. equals c/atat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturavattinmfn. one who offers oblations consisting of 4 avadāna-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdvīpacakravartinm. the sovereign of the 4 dvīpa-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturgṛhītinmfn. one who has taken up (any fluid) 4 times View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ceṣṭāpṛthaktvanivartinmfn. to be (or being) carried out by separate (repeated) acts, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chadmaghātinmfn. killing deceitfully View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandānuvartinmfn. idem or 'mfn. complying with the wishes (of others), submissive ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandānuvartinmfn. following one's own will View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cintinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' thinking of. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cittānuvartinmfn. equals tta-cārin- ( cittānuvartitva rti-tva- n.abstr.) (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cittinmfn. intelligent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cittinSee 4. cit-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dakṣiṇataupavītinmfn. wearing the sacred thread on the right, iii, 17, 11 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dakṣiṇātinayana(ṇāt-) m. the mantra- with which the dakṣiṇā- cows are driven southwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daṇḍapātinmfn. punishing (with locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantahastinmfn. having tusks and a trunk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantinmfn. tusked (gaṇeśa-) (ti- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantinm. an elephant etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantinm. a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantinīf. equals tikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devadantinm. Name of śiva- (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devavratinmfn. obeying or serving the gods View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmacintinmfn. equals -cintaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmavartinmfn. "abiding in duty", righteous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmitāvacchedakapratyāsattinirūpaṇan. Name of work
digdantinm. equals dik-karin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīrghānuparivartinmfn. having a long after-effect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ditinandanam. equals -ja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dūrapātinmfn. flying far or a long way View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dūrapātinmfn. shooting to a distance, hitting from afar ( dūrapātitā ti-- f.and dūrapātitva ti-tva- n. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dūrāpātin equals ra-vedha-, dhin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dūravartinmfn. being in the distance, far removed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dūreṣupātinmfn. shooting arrows to a distance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durgatināśinīf. "removing distress", Name of durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
duścintinmfn. "thinking evil thoughts", Name of a māra-putra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
duṣkṛtinmfn. idem or 'mfn. acting wickedly, an evil-doer ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvaitinm. equals dvaita-vādin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dviyajñopavītinmfn. wearing two sacrificial threads, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyotinmfn. shining, brilliant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyotinmfn. meaning, expressing (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyudantinm. heavenly elephant (see dik-karin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekadeśavivartinmfn. extending or relating to one part only, partial View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekāntaritin(?) mfn. one who fasts every second day, L View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekāntinmfn. idem or 'mfn. devoted to one aim or object or person or theory.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekāntintitvan. devotion to only one object or thing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekapātinmfn. having a common or the same appearance, appearing together, belonging to each other etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekapātinmfn. having a single or common pratīka- or first word, quoted together as one verse (as mantra-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekapātinflying (only) in one manner, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekapātinbeing alone or solitary, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastinemim. "the felly of whose wheel is sharp-edged (?)", Name of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṇapatināgam. Name (also title or epithet) of a king in āryāvarta-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṇapatinātham. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhahastinm. equals -gaja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhahastinm. Name of an antidote (said to be very efficacious) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhahastinm. of the author of a commentator or commentary on ācārāṅga- (), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhahastinm. Name (also title or epithet) of a tathāgata-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṇitinmfn. one who has calculated gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
garbhaghātinīf. "embryo-killer, producing abortion", the poisonous plant Methonica superba View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
garbhapātinīf. "causing miscarriage", the plant"causing miscarriage", the plant viśalyā-
garbhopaghātinīf. miscarrying (as a cow or female) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gartinmfn. gaRa prekṣādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehevijitinmfn. "victorious at home", a house-hero, boaster View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghaṭaghātinīf. "jar-destroyer", a kind of bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghātinmfn. () in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' killing, murderous, murderer etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghātinmfn. destroying, ruining, destructive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghātinf. equals tanī- (see andhaka--, amitra--, ardhaka--, ātma--,etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghṛtinmfn. containing ghee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghṛtinSee 1. ghṛ-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
giricakravartinm. "the mountain-king", Name of the himavat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tinmfn. one who recites in a singing manner () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
goghātinm. idem or 'm. idem or 'm. a cow-killer ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopālacakravartinm. Name of a scholiast View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gośatinmfn. possessing 100 cows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gośatinmfn. (gavāṃ ś-,4885.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gośṛṅgavratinm. plural Name of a sect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
goṣṭhevijitinmfn. "victorious in a cow-pen" idem or 'mfn. "courageous in a cow-pen", a boasting coward ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
goṣūktinm. (kt-), Name of the author of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
govratinmfn. idem or 'mfn. one who imitates a cow in frugality ' , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāmaghātinmfn. plundering a village View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāmaghātinm. a village slaughterer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhapatinonly genitive case plural tinām- See -pati-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhītinmfn. one who has grasped etc. anything (locative case), gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇaghātinmfn. "destroying merit", detractor, envious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇavartinmfn. being on the path of virtue View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guruvartinmfn. idem or 'mfn. behaving respectfully towards parents or venerable persons ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harirāmacakravartinm. Name of a man. ()
hastavartinmfn. being or remaining in the hand, seized, held, caught hold of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastavartinm. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinmfn. having hands, clever or dexterous with the hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinmfn. (with mṛga-,"the animal with a hands id est with a trunk ", an elephant; see dantah-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinmfn. having (or sitting on) an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. an elephant (four kinds of elephant are enumerated;See bhadra-, mandra-, mṛga-, miśtra-;some give kiliñja-h-,"a straw elephant","effigy of an elephant made of grass") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') the chief or best of its kind gaRa vyāghrādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. a kind of plant (equals aja-modā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. Name of a son of dhṛta-rāṣṭra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. of a son of suhotra-, (a prince of the Lunar race, described as founder of hastinā-pura-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. of a son of bṛhat-kṣatra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. of a son of kuru- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. a kind of drug and perfume (equals haṭṭa-vilāsinī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. a woman of a particular class (one of the 4 classes into which women are divided, described as having thick lips, thick hips, thick fingers, large breasts, dark complexion, and strong sexual passion) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. Name of hastinā-pura- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hāstinamfn. belonging to an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hāstinamfn. having the depth of an elephant (as water) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hāstinan. equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastināgam. a princely elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinakham. "elephant's nail", a sort of turret or raised mound of earth or masonry protecting the access to the gate of a city or fort (described as furnished with an inner staircase and with loopholes for discharging arrows etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastināpuran. (less correctly hastina-p-or hastinī-.) Name of a city founded by king hastin- q.v (it was situated about fifty-seven miles north-east of the modern Delhi on the banks of an old channel of the Ganges, and was the capital of the kings of the Lunar line, as ayodhyā- was of the Solar dynasty;hence it forms a central scene of action in the mahābhārata-;here yudhi-ṣṭhira- was crowned after a triumphal progress through the streets of the city;See : other names for this celebrated town are gajāhvaya-, nāga-hvaya-, nāgāhva-, hāctina-)
hāstinapuran. equals hastinā-pura- ( hāstinapuratva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hāstinapuratvan. hāstinapura
hastināsāf. an elephant's trunk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastināyakam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hāstināyanamfn. (fr. hastin-) gaRa pakṣādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hāstināyanam. a patronymic gaRa naḍādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinīf. a female elephant etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiniṣadanan. a particular posture in sitting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hṛdayopakartinmfn. suffering from a particular heart-disease View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hṛdvaktrāvartinmfn. having a curl or lock of hair on the chest and head (as a horse) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hṛdvartinmfn. dwelling in the heart View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
iṣṭāpūrtinmfn. one who has stored up sacrificial rites, or one who has performed sacrifices for himself and good works for others. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itināmanmfn. having such a name View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itiniścayamfn. one who has thus resolved, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jagadghātinmfn. destroying the world or mankind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jāgatineyaSee jārat-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalahastinm. equals -dvipa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaratinm. Name of a man gaRa śubhrādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jāratineyam. patronymic ft. jaratin- gaRa śubhrādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jāratineyam. metron. fr. jaratin- gaRa kalyāṇy-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tinirṇayam. Name (also title or epithet) of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jīvaghātinmfn. destroying life (a beast of prey) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kākatindum. a kind of ebony (Diospyros tomentosa) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kākatindukam. a kind of ebony (Diospyros tomentosa) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kakudāvartinm. a horse having the above curl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kakuhastinā varia lectio for kakuh/a- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kālaghātinmfn. (said of a poison) killing in the course of time (id est by degrees, slowly) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kālatindukam. a kind of ebony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṇṭhavartinmfn. being in the throat (as the vital air), about to escape View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotinmfn. pigeon-shaped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotinmfn. having pigeons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karṇapratināham. a particular disease of the ear (suppression of its excretion or wax, which is supposed to have dissolved and passed out by the nose and mouth) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārukasiddhāntinm. plural Name of a śaiva- sect commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karūḷatinmfn. one whose teeth are decayed and broken, having gaps in the teeth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāryātipātinmfn. neglecting business commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kavicakravartinm. Name of pūrṇānanda-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiliñjahastinm. an elephant formed by mats View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kirātinīf. Indian spikenard (Nardostachys jaṭāmāṃsī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kīrtināśinmfn. destroying reputation, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛcchravartinmfn. performing a penance, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛmighātinm. (equals -kaṇṭaka-) the plant Embelia Ribes (varia lectio krami-gh-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛtinmfn. one who acts, active
kṛtinmfn. expert, clever, skilful, knowing, learned (with locative case or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛtinmfn. good, virtuous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛtinmfn. pure, pious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛtinmfn. obeying, doing what is enjoined View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛtinmfn. one who has attained an object or accomplished a purpose, satisfied etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛtinm. Name of a son of cyavana- and father of upari-cara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛtinm. Name of a son of saṃnatimat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣatinmfn. wounded, injured View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣatinmfn. (for kṣata-kāsin-) one who has a cough produced by an injury View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣitināgam. (equals -jantu-) a kind of snail or earth-worm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣitinandam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣitinandanam. (equals -ja-) Name of the planet Mars. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣitinātham. "lord of the earth", a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumāraghātinm. the slayer of a boy or child View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuntinandanafor kuntī-n- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laghupātinm. "quickly flying", Name of a crow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lobhābhipātinmfn. hastening through eager desire, rushing greedily View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lohitapittinmfn. subject to hemorrhage, suffering from hemorrhage, (cr2. rakta-p-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokanāthacakravartinm. Name of a Scholiast View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokasīmātivartinmfn. passing beyond ordinary limits, extraordinary, supernatural View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madahastinīf. a species of karañja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhunighātinm. Name of viṣṇu-kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyavartinmfn. being in the middle or between or among, middle, central View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyavartinm. a mediator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyavivartinmfn. equals -vartin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyavivartinmfn. impartial, a mediator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahācakravartinm. a great emperor or universal monarch ( mahācakravartitā ti-- f.the rank of a great emperor) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahādevasarasvatīvedāntinm. Name of learned man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahādevavedāntinm. Name of learned man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāgandhahastinm. Name of a very efficacious remedy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāhastinmfn. having large hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāśaktinyāsam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāśāntinirūpaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvratinmfn. practising the five fundamental duties of jaina-s, observing the rule of the pāśupata-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvratinm. a pāśupata-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvratinm. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvratinm. a devotee, ascetic (equals joṭiṅga-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvratinm. equals uraskaṭa- (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahiṣāsuraghātinīf. "slayer of the asura- mahiṣa-", Name of durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṇḍalavartinm. the governor of a province, ruler of a small kingdom (see cakra-v-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
markaṭatindukam. a kind of ebony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
marmaghātinmfn. equals -cchid- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
matināram. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
matināram. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
matinirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
matiniścayam. a firm opinion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mātṛghātin() m. a matricide. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mātṛvartinm. "behaving well to a mother", Name of a hunter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
matsyaghātinmfn. killing fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
matsyaghātinm. a fisherman (also with puruṣa- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
matsyavratinmfn. one who lives in water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mattadantinm. a furious or ruttish elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mattahastinm. equals -dantin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maunavratinmfn. () equals -vṛtti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māyūravratinm. a member of a particular sect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mīnaghātinm. "fish-killer", a fisherman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mīnaghātinm. a crane View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mīnāghātinm. equals mīna-gh- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mithunavratinmfn. devoted to cohabitation, practising copulation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgaśṛṅgavratinm. plural Name of a Buddhistic sect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūlavratinmfn. living exclusively on roots View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
munivratinmfn. one who eats eight mouthfuls View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūrtatvajātinirākaraṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nabhaḥkrāntinm. "sky-walker"(from the lion-like shape of certain clouds), a lion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāgayajñopavītinmfn. () possessing it. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāgopavītinmfn. equals naga-yajñlāp- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naikṛtin() mfn. dishonest, fallacious, low, vile. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatrapatinandanam. the planet Mercury View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāmabibhratinmfn. bearing only the name View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nārāyaṇacakravartinm. Name of a grammarian View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nartinmfn. dancing (see vaṃśa-n-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nātidūravartinmfn. nātidūra
tinīcamfn. not too low View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tinirbhagnamfn. not too much bent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tinirvṛttif. not too much ease View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navīnavedāntinm. a modern vedānta- philosopher Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nideśavartinmfn. executing the orders of, obedient to (genitive case or compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nigaditinmfn. one who has spoken gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nighātinmfn. striking down, killing, destroying (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nikaṭavartin() () mfn. id. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nikathitinmfn. (fr. ni-kathita-, kath-) gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nikṛntinmfn. tearing asunder (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound'), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nikṛtin() () mfn. dishonest, low, base, wicked. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nimittanimittinmfn. operating and operated upon Scholiast or Commentator on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nimittinmfn. operated on or influenced by a cause, having a cause or reason (see nimitta-n-above) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nipaṭhitinmfn. gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nipātinmfn. falling or flying down View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nipātinmfn. falling or alighting on (compound ; upari- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nipātinmfn. striking down, destroying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirākṛtinmfn. making no show etc. equals -ākāra- (above) (varia lectio kṛti-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirākṛtinmfn. (for 1.See) one who has forgotten what he has learned (anirāk-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirākṛtinmfn. see gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirvartinmfn. accomplishing (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') (varia lectio niv-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣāditinmfn. equals niṣāditam anena- gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tinipuṇa() mfn. equals -kuśala-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tiniṣṇa() mfn. equals -kuśala-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nivartinmfn. turning back, retreating, fleeing (mostly a-niv- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nivartinmfn. abstaining from (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nivartinmfn. allowing or causing to return (a-niv-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nivartinmfn. wrong reading for nir-v- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nivītinmfn. wearing the thread round the neck in worshipping the ṛṣi-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyataviṣayavartinmfn. steadily abiding in one's own sphere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nṛpatinītigarbhitavṛttan. Name of a modern work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyāyavartinmfn. well behaved, acting with propriety View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padadyotinīf. Name of commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padātinmfn. having foot-soldiers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padātinmfn. going or being on foot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padātinm. a foot-soldier View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pakṣapātinmfn. flying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pakṣapātinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' siding with, favouring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paktināśanamfn. spoiling digestion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
palitinmfn. grey-haired View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcagṛhitinmfn. one who has taken up 5 times , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcāvatttinmfn. one who offers oblations consisting of avadāna-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhūjātinirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paranirmitavaśavartinm. "constantly enjoying pleasures provided by others", Name of a class of deities (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parāpātinmfn. flying off, getting loose View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parāvartinmfn. turning back, taking to flight (a-parāv-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parigaditinmfn. equals parigaditaṃ yena saḥ- gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parigaṇitinmfn. one who has well considered everything , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parighātinmfn. destroying, setting at nought, transgressing (a command etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parikalitinmfn. equals kalitaṃ yena saḥ- gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paripārśvavartinmfn. being at the side or near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parirakṣitin gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paritin gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parītinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') filled with, seized by View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parivartinmfn. moving round, revolving, ever-recurring etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parivartinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') changing, passing into View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parivartinmfn. being or remaining or staying in or near or about (locative case or compound) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parivartinmfn. flying, retreating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parivartinmfn. exchanging, requiting, recompensing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parivartinf. (sc. vi-ṣṭuti-) a hymn arranged according to the recurring form abc-, abc- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parivaśavartinm. plural Name of a class of gods in indra-'s world (see paranirmita v v-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārśvaparivartinmfn. being or going by the side of (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārśvavartinmfn. standing by the side, an attendant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārśvavartinm. pl. attendants, retinue View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārśvavivartinmfn. being by the side of, living with (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paścādvartinmfn. remaining behind, following after View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāśupatavratinm. a follower of śiva- paśu-pati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paśupatinagaran. " śiva-'s town", Name of kāśī- or Benares View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paśupatinātham. Name of a particular form of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patighātinīf. the murderess of her husband View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tinmfn. flying etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tinmfn. falling, sinking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tinmfn. rising, appearing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tinmfn. being in (see antaḥ--and eka--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tinmfn. causing to fall, throwing down, emitting (compound)
pattinm. = patti-2, a foot-soldier, footman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pautināsikyan. fetor of the nostrils View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalguhastinīf. Name of a poetess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pīṭhaśaktinirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tinmfn. drinking, one who has drunk (See soma-p-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tinm. a horse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pitṛghātin() m. a parricide. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pitṛvartinm. "staying with ancestors", Name of king brahma-datta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pitṛvyaghātinm. the murderer of his father's brother View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pitryupavītinmfn. invested with it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prācīnaāvītinmfn. equals vītin- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prācīnāpavītinmfn. equals vīt/in- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prācīnāvavītinmfn. equals vīt/in- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prācīnāvītinmfn. ( .) () wearing the sacred cord over the right shoulder. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prācīnāvītinopavītamfn. () wearing the sacred cord over the right shoulder. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradeśavartinmfn. equals -bhāj- ( pradeśavartitvā ti-tvā- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradyotinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') illustrating, explaining View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prajāpatinivāsinīf. Name of a gandharvī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakṛtiniṣṭhuramfn. naturally hard or cruel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāṇighātinmfn. killing living beings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇipātinmfn. falling at a person's feet, submissive, humble View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prapātinm. a rock, cliff, mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prathamaparāpātinmfn. flying off first View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratibimbavartinmfn. being reflected or mirrored View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratidantinm. equals -kuñjara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratighātinmfn. keeping off, repulsing, disturbing, injuring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratighātinmfn. dazzling (netra--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratīghātinmfn. in a-pratighāti-- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratihastinm. the keeper of a brothel (Scholiast or Commentator"a neighbour") . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikūlapravartinmfn. (a ship) taking an adverse course or (tongue) causing unpleasantness (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikūlavartinmfn. being adverse to, disturbing, troubling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinadP. -nadati-, to sound back, answer with a cry or shout etc.: Causal -nādayati-, to cause to resound, make resonant, fill with cries View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinādam. echo, reverberation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinadiind. at every river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratināḍīf. a branch vein View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratināditamfn. (fr. Causal) filled with sounds, resonant, echoing or echoed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratināgam. equals -kuñjara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinagaramind. in every town View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratināha( nah-) See karṇapr- and see pratī-nāha- under 1. pratī-, p.673. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinam(only perfect tense -nānāma-), to bow or incline towards (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratināma(pr/ati--) ind. by name, mentioning the name View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratināmagrahaṇam(pr/ati--) ind. mentioning each individual name View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratināman(pr/ati--) mf(minī-)n. having corresponding names, related by name View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinamaskāramfn. one who returns a salutation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinandP. -nandati-, to greet cheerfully, salute (also in return), bid welcome or farewell, address kindly, favour, befriend etc. ; to receive joyfully or thankfully, to accept willingly (with na-,to decline, refuse, reject) etc.: Causal -nandayati-, to gladden, delight, gratify View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinandam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinandanan. greeting, salutation, friendly acceptance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinandanan. thanksgiving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinanditamfn. saluted or accepted kindly or cheerfully View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinaptṛm. a great grandson, a son's grandson (see praṇapāt-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinardP. A1. -nardati-, te-, to roar or cry against or after (food), greet or hail with cries View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinārīf. a female rival View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinavamfn. new, young, fresh View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinavajavāpuṣpan. a newly opened China rose View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratināyakam. "counter hero", the adversary of the hero (in a play) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratināyakam. an image, likeness, counterfeit, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratināyakaSee . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinayana(in the beginning of a compound), into the eye View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinīP. -nayati-, to lead towards or back etc. ; to put into, mix View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinidhāP. -dadhāti-, to put in the place of another, substitute ; to order, command ; to slight, disregard
pratinidhāpayitavyamfn. to be caused to be substituted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinidhātavyamfn. to be substituted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinidheyamfn. to be substituted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinidhim. substitution View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinidhim. a substitute, representative, proxy, surety etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinidhim. a resemblance of a real form, an image, likeness, statue, picture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinidhim. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') an image of id est similar, like (dhī-kṛ-,to substitute anything [ accusative ] for [ compound ] ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātinidhikam. (fr. -nidhi-) a substitute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinigadP. -gadati-, to speak to, address ; to recite or repeat singly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinigrahA1. -gṛhṇīte-, to take up (liquids), ladle out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinigrāhyamfn. to be ladled out (see nirgr-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinihan(only 2. Persian perfect tense -jagh/antha-), to aim a blow at (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinihatamfn. hit, slain, killed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniḥsargam. giving back, abandonment (wrong reading niḥsaṅga-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniḥsṛjP. -sṛjati-, to drive towards, give up to (dative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniḥsṛjyamfn. to be given up or abandoned View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniḥsṛṣṭamfn. driven away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinikṣipP. -kṣipati-, to put down or deposit again View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratininadam. equals nāda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinindP. -nindati-, to abuse, blame, censure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinipātam. ( pat-) falling down, alighting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinirasP. -asyati-, to throw back View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinirdeśam. a reference back to (with genitive case), renewed mention View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinirdeśakamfn. pointing or referring back (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinirdeśyamfn. referred to or mentioned again View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinirdiś(only Passive voice -diśyate-), to point or refer back on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinirdiṣṭamfn. referred to again View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinirgrāhyamfn. ( grah-) to be taken up with a ladle (see prati-nigr-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinirjitamfn. ( ji-) appropriated, turned to one's own advantage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinirvapP. -vapati-, to distribute in return View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniryāP. -yāti-, to come forth again View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniryatCaus. -yātayati-, to give back, return View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniryātanan. giving back, returning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniryātanan. rewarding, retaliation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniśamind. every night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniścayam. a contrary opinion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniṣkam. or n. (?) a niṣka- (sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order) in each case View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniṣkrayam. ( krī-) retaliation, retribution View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniṣpūP. -punāti-, to cleanse or winnow again, purify View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniṣpūtamfn. cleansed, winnowed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniṣṭhamfn. standing on the opposite side View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinistṝP. -tarati-, to accomplish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinivāraṇan. (1. vṛ-) keeping off, warding off View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinivartanan. returning, coming back (See punaḥ-pr-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinivartitamfn. (fr. Causal) caused to return, led back View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinivāsanan. (4. vas-) a kind of garment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniveśam. obstinacy, obdurateness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniviṣṭamfn. ( viś-) quite prepossessed with (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniviṣṭamfn. obstinate, obdurate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniviṣṭamūrkham. an obstinate fool View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinivṛtA1. -vartate- (P.2. plural future -vartsyatha- ), to turn back or round, return etc. ; to turn away from (ablative), escape, run away, take flight ; to cease, be allayed or abated : Causal -vartayati-, to cause to go back, turn back, avert View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinivṛttamfn. turned back or from (ablative), come back, return View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinivṛttif. coming back, return View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniyamam. a strict rule as to applying an example to particular persons or things only View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniyatamfn. ( yam-) fixed or adopted for each single case, particular or different for each case View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinodam. thrusting back, repulse (see /a-pr-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinṛpatim. equals -kṣoṇibhṛt- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinṛtP. -nṛtyati-, to dance before (in token of contempt), mock in turn by dancing before (accusative) : Intensive -narnṛtīti-, to dance before (in token of love), delight or gladden by dancing before (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinuP. -nauti-, to commend, approve View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinudP. A1. -nudati-, te-, to thrust back, repulse, ward off View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinyāgamP. -gacchati-, to come back, return View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinyas(only ind.p. -nyasya-), to place apart or lay down separately (for different persons) deposit (varia lectio pra-vi-n-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinyāsaa counter deposit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinyāsaSee . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinyāyamind. in inverted order View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinyūṅkham. a corresponding insertion of the vowel o- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinyūṅkhayaNom. yati-, to insert the vowel o- in the corresponding stanza or verse
pratipattiniṣṭhuramfn. difficult to be understood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiyogyanadhikaraṇenāśasyotpattinirāsam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyaṅgavartinmfn. occupying one's self with one's own person View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravartinmfn. issuing, streaming forth, forth, moving onwards, flowing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravartinmfn. active, restless, unsteady (a-prativ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravartinmfn. causing to flow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravartinmfn. causing, effecting, Producing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravartinmfn. using, employing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravartinmfn. introducing, propagating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravartinf. Name of a jaina- nun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravītinmfn. ( vye-) having the sacred thread hanging down the back (see upa-vītin-, ni-vītin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravṛttinimittan. the reason for the use of any term in the particular significations which it bears View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravṛttinivṛttimatmfn. connected with activity and inactivity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāyaścittinmfn. one who does penance or has to make expiation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pṛṣṭhapātinmfn. being behind a person's back, following, watching, observing, controlling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punaḥpratinivartanan. coming back again, return View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punarāvartinmfn. returning (to mundane existence) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punarāvartinmfn. leading back (to mundane existence) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punarāvartinmfn. subject to successive births View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
purovartinmfn. being before a person's eyes, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
purovartinmfn. forward, obtrusive on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrtinmfn. possessing the merit of pious liberality (see pūrta-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrtinmfn. filling, completing, effective View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvavartinmfn. existing before, preceding, prior, previous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tināsāgadam. idem or 'n. a disease of the nose causing offensive breath (wrong reading pūta-n-).' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tināsikamfn. having a fetid nose View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tinasyan. a disease of the nose causing offensive breath (wrong reading pūta-n-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrapratinidhim. a substitute for a son (as an adopted son etc.), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raghupratinidhim. an image or counterpart of raghu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājahastinm. a royal elephant, excellent elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raktapitttinmfn. subject to or suffering from it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmāṣṭaviṃśatināmastotran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmavratinm. plural Name of a particular school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raṇahastinm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
randhropanipātinmfn. rushing in through holes or weak places (said of misfortunes) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rantināra m. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tinmfn. containing gifts or oblations (as a sacrificial ladle) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratināgam. a kind of coitus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ravisaṃkrāntinirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
retaḥpātinmfn. discharging semen, having sexual intercourse with (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
retinmfn. abounding in seed, prolific, impregnating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ripughātinmfn. slaying an enemies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ripughātinīf. Abrus Precatorius View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ripunipātinmfn. causing an enemy to fall, destroying a foe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudravratinm. a kṣatriya- who stands on one foot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rūpanārāyaṇacakravartinm. Name of man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdapātinmfn. aiming or hitting at any object by the mere sounds (without seeing it) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdapātinmfn. falling with a sounds = View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sacchalajātinigrahamayamf(ī-)n. consisting of defeat (in disputation) accompanied by self-refuting objections and unfair arguments View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadyaḥpātinmfn. quickly falling or dropping View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahadīkṣitinmfn. undertaking the dīkṣā- (q.v) together, , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhasaikāntarasānuvartinmfn. one who follows or yields to the one passion of cruelty or rashness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasraghātinmfn. killing a thousand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasraghātinn. a particular engine of war View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahavartinmfn. being together, keeping company View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saikatinmfn. having sandbanks or sandy shores View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śakradantinm. indra-'s elephant (called airāvata-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktinmfn. (prob.) furnished with a flag-staff (see ratha-śakti-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktinm. Name of a man (equals śakti-,m.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktinātham. "lord of śakti-", Name of śiva-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktinyāsam. Name of a Tantric work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samagravartinmfn. entirely resting or fixed upon (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samanuvartinmfn. obedient, willing, devoted to (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samasamayavartinmfn. simultaneous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samavartinmfn. being equal, being of a fair or impartial disposition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samavartinmfn. acting uniformly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samavartinmfn. being equidistant (bāṇa-pāta-s-,"being equidistant with an arrow-shot") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samavartinm. Name of yama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samāvartinmfn. idem or 'mfn. (pr.p.) returning from the home of a preceptor ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samayānuvartinmfn. following established rules, observant of duties View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sambādhavartinmfn. (plural) moving in dense crowds, jostling or crowding together on a road View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃgatinmfn. come together, met, assembled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samīpataravartinmfn. being nearer at hand, neighbouring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samīpavartinmfn. being near, living near etc., View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkalitinmfn. one who has made an addition (with locative case) gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃkhyayogapravartinm. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkrāntinirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃnidhivartinmfn. being near, neighbouring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃnipātinmfn. falling together, meeting ( saṃnipātitva ti-tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃnipātinmfn. furthering or promoting immediately View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃnipātinmfn. (equals saṃ-n-) falling together, meeting ( sāṃnipātitva ti-tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampātinmfn. flying together View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampātinmfn. flying as rivals (="equally swift") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampātinmfn. falling down View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampātinmfn. Name of a fabulous bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampātinmfn. of a rākṣasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampratinandP. -nandati-, to greet or welcome gladly (See next) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampratinanditamfn. greeted joyfully, welcomed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampravartinmfn. putting in order, setting right View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃrakṣitinmfn. one who has guarded etc. (with locative case) gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samudghātinSee vimati-s-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃvatsarabhṛtinmfn. one who has maintained (a sacrificial fire) for a year View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃvītinmfn. girt with the sacred thread View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃyatinSee under saṃ-. yam-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃyatinmfn. controlling, restraining (the senses) (prob. wrong reading for saṃ-yamin-below) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaṅkhāntaradyotinmfn. shining in the forehead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaṇmukhavṛttinighaṇṭum. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntinātham. Name of an arhat- (with jaina-s; equals śānti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntināthacaritran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntināthapurāṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntinirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptasaptinmfn. each consisting of 7 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptavibhaktinirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptinmfn. (for 2.See under sapti-below) containing 7 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptinm. the 7-partite stoma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptinmfn. (only f. saptinī-formed in analogy to vājinī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaraṇāgatagātinm. the slayer of a suppliant for protection () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarpaghātinīf. a kind of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvadharmopravṛttinirdeśam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaśaghātin() m. "hare-killer", a hawk. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sasampātinmfn. together with (the rākṣasa-) sampātin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāsanavartinmfn. obeying the orders of (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatapātinmfn. (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatatinm. Name of a son of raja- or rajas- (, śata-jit-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatāvartinm. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatinmfn. consisting of hundreds, hundredfold ( śatinībhis nībhis- ind."in a hundred manners", ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatinmfn. possessing a hundred (with gavām-,"cows") (see go-śatin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śātinmfn. cut off (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatinībhisind. śatin
śatrughātinm. "id.", Name of a son of śatrughna- (son of daśa-ratha-)
savratinmfn. acting in like manner or having the same customs with (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhāntinm. one who establishes or proves his conclusions logically, one learned in scientific text-books View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhāntinm. equals mīmāṃsaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīghrapātinmfn. flying or moving or acting quickly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sīmantinmfn. parted (as hair) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sīmantinmfn. wearing the hair parted (as a pregnant woman) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sīmantinīf. a woman etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sīmantinīf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śirovartinmfn. being at the head, being on the top or summit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śirovartinmfn. equals śiropasthāyin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śirovartinm. a chief. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīrṣaghātinm. "one who beheads", an executioner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sitayajñopavītinmfn. invested with a white sacred thread View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitinasmfn. white-nosed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śītkṛtinmfn. equals -kārin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivavratinm. a Brahman engaged in a vow of standing on one foot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śmaśānavartinmfn. abiding in burning grounds, a ghost, spectre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śmaśruyajñopavītinmfn. wearing a beard and invested with the sacred thread View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtinibandham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
snātakavratinmfn. fulfilling the vows and duties of a snātaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapītinmfn. drinking soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasiddhāntinm. a follower of the above system View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śoṇitinSee vāta-ś-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīhastinīf. the sunflower, Heliotroplum Indicum (so called as held in the hand of śrī- or lakṣmī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutinmfn. one who has heard gaRa iṣṭādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutinmfn. obeying, observing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutinmfn. having or following the veda-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutinidarśanan. veda--demonstration, testimony of the veda--demonstration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutinigadinmfn. equals śruta-n- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
strībālaghātinm. a murderer of women and children View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
strīliṅgavartinmfn. strīliṅga
sucaritinmfn. well-conducted, moral, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sucintitacintinmfn. thinking quite well or right View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suhastinm. Name of a jaina- teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukṛtinmfn. doing good actions, virtuous, generous ( sukṛtitva ti-tva- n.) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukṛtinmfn. prosperous, fortunate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukṛtinmfn. cultivated, wise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukṛtinm. Name of one of the 7 ṛṣi-s under the 10th manu-
śumbhaghātinīf. " śumbha--killing", Name of durgā-
sutāsutinmfn. having what is and what is not extracted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sutinmfn. having a son or sons (inī- f."a mother") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sutintiḍā f. Tamarindus Indica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sutintiḍīf. Tamarindus Indica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvarṇacakravartinm. "one who sets a golden wheel in motion", a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svadharmavartinmfn. applying one's self to one's duties ( svadharmavartitva ti-tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svairavartinmfn. acting as one likes, following one's own inclinations View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svapratinidhim. a substitute for one's self ( svapratinidhitvena -tvena- ind.instead of him, her, them etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svapratinidhitvenaind. svapratinidhi
svardantinm. a celestial elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svaropaghātinmfn. suffering from it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvavṛttinmfn. living on dog View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svayaṃkṛtinmfn. acting spontaneously View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvetahastinm. a white elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvetahastinm. Name of airāvata- (elephant of indra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taijasāvartinīf. a crucible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilavratinmfn. fasting by eating only sesamum-seeds Va1rtt. 3 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilavratinmfn. see lodara-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timighātinm. "fish-killer", a fisherman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tiryaggatimatinn. an animal, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tiryagghātinmfn. striking obliquely (an elephant) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tiryakpātinmfn. falling obliquely on (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tretinīf. the threefold flame of the 3 fires of the altar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tripuraghātinm. "destroyer of tripura-", śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ucchāstravartin(ud-śā-) mfn. deviating from or transgressing the law-books View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udāvartinmfn. suffering from disease of the bowels View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uddyotinmfn. shining upwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udghātinmfn. having elevations, uneven, rough (varia lectio for ut-khātin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udvartinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' rubbing or kneading with. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uñchavartin mfn. one who lives by gleaning, a gleaner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unmārgavartinmfn. going on a wrong road, going wrong, erring (literally and figuratively) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unnītinmfn. one who has drawn out or filled up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaghātinmfn. one who does damage, hurting, injuring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upakṛtinmfn. one who has done or does a favour, a helper etc. gaRa iṣṭādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upākṛtinmfn. one who prepares or begins gaRa iṣṭādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upanipātinmfn. rushing in View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upanipātinmfn. attacking suddenly. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upapātinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' falling to, hastening towards. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upāsāditinmfn. one who has met or approached View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasadvratinmfn. performing the above observance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaśāntinmfn. appeased, tranquil, calm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaśāntinmfn. tame View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaśāntinm. a tame elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upavāsavratinmfn. one who observes a vow of fasting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaveṣṭitinmfn. one who has wrapped himself round the loins in a cloth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upavītinmfn. wearing the sacred cord in the usual manner (over the left shoulder and under the right arm) (see yajñopavītin-.)
ūrdhvaraktinmfn. one whose blood rises towards the head View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utkhātinmfn. having cavities or holes, uneven View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utkhātinmfn. destructive. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utkrāntinmfn. passing, passing away, gone, departed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utpatinmfn. flying up, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utpātinmfn. flying up, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaiyākaraṇahastinm. an elephant given to a grammarian as a reward View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaṃśanartinm. "family-dancer", a buffoon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaṃśavartinm. a particular class of gods in the third manv-antara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vanavartinmfn. residing in the forest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varṣaśatinmfn. 100 years old View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vartinmfn. abiding, staying, resting, living or situated in (mostly compound) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vartinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') being in any position or condition, engaged in, practising, performing etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vartinmfn. obeying, executing (an order; see nideśa-v-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vartinmfn. conducting one's self, behaving, acting etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vartinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') behaving properly towards (see guru-v-; guru-vat- equals gurāv iva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vartinmfn. turning, moving, going View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vartinm. the meaning of an affix (equals pratyayārtha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaśavartinmfn. being under the control of, acting obediently to the will of, obsequious, subject (with genitive case or compound). etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaśavartinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') having power over, ruling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaśavartinmfn. having power over all, too powerful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaśavartinm. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaśavartinm. of a Brahman or mahā--Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaśavartinm. sg. (scilicet gaṇa-) or plural a particular class of gods in the third manv-antara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātaśoṇitinmfn. suffering from it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedāntinm. a follower of the vedānta- philosophy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedavratinmfn. idem or 'm. (or -vratānāṃ-vidhi-) Name of a pariśiṣṭa- of kātyāyana-.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
veṣṭitinmfn. wearing a turban View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhaktinSee a-vibhaktin-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidheyavartinmfn. submissive to another's will, obedient View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyācakravartinm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyādharacakravartinm. a supreme lord of the vidyā-dhara-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyādharamahācakravartinm. the paramount lord of all fairy-like beings ( vidyādharamahācakravartitā ti-- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyotinmfn. irradiating, illustrating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vighātinmfn. fighting, slaying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vighātinmfn. hurting, injuring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vighātinmfn. opposing, impeding, preventing, interrupting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijitinmfn. victorious, triumphant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimatisamudghātinm. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinipātinSee a-vin-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinivartinSee a-vinivartin-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣaghātinmfn. poison-destroying, antidotal, an antidote View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣaghātinm. Mimosa Sirissa (equals śirīṣa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣatindum. Strychnos Nux Vomica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣatindum. a kind of ebony tree with poisonous fruit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣatindukam. a species of poisonous plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣayavartinmfn. directed to anything (genitive case) as an object View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvāsaghātinmfn. one who destroys confidence, a traitor etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvastaghātinmfn. ruining the trustful () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tinm. Name of a man (plural his family) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivartinmfn. turning round, rolling, revolving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivartinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') turning toward View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivartinmfn. changing, undergoing a change View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivartinmfn. dwelling, abiding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vratinmfn. observing a vow, engaged in a religious observance etc. etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vratinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') engaged in, worshipping, behaving like View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vratinm. an ascetic, devotee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vratinm. a religious student View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vratinm. one who institutes a sacrifice and employs priests (equals yajamāna-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vratinm. Name of a muni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vratinīf. a nun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttānuvartinmfn. conforming to rule, obedient, virtuous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttin(in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') equals vṛtti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttinibandhanan. means of support View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttinirodham. obstruction or prevention of activity or function View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāghātaghātinmfn. idem or 'mfn. striking against, thwarting, opposing, resisting ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyākulitinmfn. = vyākulitam anena- gaRa iṣṭādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāptinirūpaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāptiniścayam. (in logic) the ascertainment of pervading inherence or universal concomitance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatinīP. -nayati-, to let pass (time) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyavasāyavartinmfn. acting resolutely, resolute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyavasthātivartinmfn. transgressing the law, breaking an agreement or contract View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāyatapātinmfn. running far and wide (as horses) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajñopavītinmfn. idem or 'mfn. invested with the sacrifice thread ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yantrahastinm. an automatic elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yatinm. an ascetic, devotee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yatinīf. a widow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yatinṛtyan. a kind of dance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yāvadgṛhītinmfn. as often as one has taken or ladled out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yāvakavratinmfn. living only on the grains of barley found in cow-dung View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuddhānivartinmfn. not turning the back (in battle), heroic, valiant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
Results for tin103 results
     
tindukam तिन्दुकम् की The fruit of the ebony tree. -कम् A kind of measure (कर्ष).
tiniśaḥ तिनिशः A particular tree; दात्यूहैस्तिनिशस्य कोटरवति स्कन्धे निलीय स्थितम् Māl.9.7. तिन्तिडः tintiḍḥ डी ḍī तिन्तिडिका tintiḍikā तिन्तिडीकाः tintiḍīkāḥ तिन्तिडः डी तिन्तिडिका तिन्तिडीकाः 1 The tamarind tree. -2 A sour sauce (made of its fruits); Bṛi.S.55.21. -कम् 1 The fruit of the tamarind. -2 A sour sauce. तिन्तिली tintilī तिन्तिलि tintili (ली lī) का kā तिन्तिली तिन्तिलि (ली) का The tamarind tree. तिन्दुः tinduḥ तिन्दुकः tindukḥ तिन्दुलः tindulḥ तिन्दुः तिन्दुकः तिन्दुलः N. of a tree.
akṛtin अकृतिन् a. [न. त.] Not skilful or clever, clumsy, awkward; unfit for doing anything.
atināman अतिनामन् N. of a ṛiṣi of the Saptarṣi group of the sixth Manvantara.
atināṣṭra अतिनाष्ट्र a. Ved. Out of danger. अतिनिचृ _x001F_3(वृ) त् f. N. of a Vedic metre of 3 Pādas, the number of syllables in each being respectively 7, 6 and 7; (षट्कः सप्तकयोर्मध्ये स्तोतॄणां विवाचीति । यस्याः सातिनिवृन्नाम गायत्री द्विदशाक्षरा).
atinidrā अतिनिद्रा Excessive sleeping. -द्र a. 1 Given to excessive sleep. -2 Without sleep, sleepless. -द्रम् ind. Past sleeping time (निद्रा सम्प्रति न युज्यते).
atinirhārin अतिनिर्हारिन् a. Very attractive (as an attributive of smell); आमोदः सो$तिनिर्हारी Ak.
atinau अतिनौ नु a. [अतिक्रान्तो नावम्] Disembarked, landed.
atipātin अतिपातिन् a. 1 Acute, running a rapid course. -2 Surpassing in speed, swifter than (in comp.); ततार विद्याः पवनातिपातिभिर्दिशो हरिद्भिर्हरिताभिवेश्वरः R.3.3. अतिपाति कार्यमिदम् । पञ्चरात्रम् 2.
ativartin अतिवर्तिन् a. 1 Crossing, surpassing, excelling; भुवनातिवर्तिना ओजसा Ki.12.21; passing, overstepping, transgressing, violating &c. Bhāg.6.17.12. -2 Excessive. -3 Foremost.
adhītin अधीतिन् a. [अधीतमनेन; अधीत-इनि] well-read, proficient in (with loc.) अधीती चतुर्ष्वाम्रायेषु Dk.12; वेदे, व्याकरणे &c.; त्वगुत्तरासङ्गवतीमधीतिनीम् Ku.5.16 muttering holy prayers, engaged in repeating sacred texts.
anāvartin अनावर्तिन् a. Not recurring or returning; ˚र्ती कालो व्रजति स वृथा तन्न गणितम् Bh.3.115.
anivartin अनिवर्तिन् a. 1 Brave, not retreating; also an epithet of Viṣṇu and the Almighty God. -2 Not returning; यौवनमनिवर्ति यातं तु K. P.1. -3 Non-recurring (account); आवर्तको$निवर्ती च व्ययायौ तु पृथग् द्विधा Śukra-Nīti.2.339.
anupaṭhitin अनुपठितिन् a. Who has read through, proficient.
anupātin अनुपातिन् a. Following as a result. -m. A follower; मदनुपातिनामेष पन्थाः Dk.168.
anupavītin अनुपवीतिन् m. One who does not wear the sacred thread (belonging to his caste).
anuyuktin अनुयुक्तिन् q. [अस्त्यर्थे इनि] One who has ordered, examined; cf. गृहीतिन्, अधीतिन्.
anuvartin अनुवर्तिन् a. 1 Following, obeying, conforming to, with acc. or in comp.; कश्च लक्ष्मणमुक्तानां रामकोपानुवर्तिनाम् । शराणामग्रतः स्थातुं शक्तो देवासुरेष्वपि ॥ Rām.5.51.19. राक्षसा- श्चापि गृह्यन्ते नित्यं छन्दानुवर्तिभिः Pt.1.69; नराधिपा नीचजनानु- वर्तिनः 1.383. -2 Guided by, following the advice of; obedient, faithful, compliant; अनुवर्तिनि कलत्रे Pt.1.11, भृत्यानामनुवर्तिनाम् 298. -3 Like, resembling, worthy.
apaghātin अपघातिन् a. Killing, murdering.
abhikrāntin अभिक्रान्तिन् a. [इष्टादिगण] 1 One who has approached or undertaken or begun. -2 Skilled or versed in, conversant with (with loc.).
abhimātin अभिमातिन् a. [मे-क्त, इष्टादिभ्यः इन्] 1 Insidious; बाधन्ते विश्वमभिमातिनम् Rv.1.85.3. -2 One who hurts or injures, an enemy.
abhivartin अभिवर्तिन् a. Going towards, approaching, attacking &c.
abhighātin अभिघातिन् Striking, hurting. m. An enemy; assilant.
abhyāghātin अभ्याघातिन् a. Attacking.
abhyāvartin अभ्यावर्तिन् a. Recurring; आत्मीयास्ते ये पराञ्चः पुरस्ता- दभ्यावर्ती संमुखो यः परो$सौ Śi.18.18.
ayatin अयतिन् a. Of unsubdued desires or passions, incontinent.
arcitin अर्चितिन् a. Honouring, adoring.
arditin अर्दितिन् a. [अर्दितमस्त्यस्य-ईनि] Suffering from the spasms of jaw-bones.
āpātin आपातिन् a. Falling on, attacking, descending, happening.
āmnātin आम्नातिन् a. [आम्नात-इनि] One who has studied the Vedas; आम्नातिनी नीतिषु वुद्धिमद्भिः Bk.
āvītin आवीतिन् m. [आवीत-इनि] A Brāhmaṇa who makes the sacrificial cord hang over the right shoulder.
āvartin आवर्तिन् a. 1 Whirling or turning upon itself, returning; आब्रह्मभुवनाल्लोकाः पुनरावर्तिनो$र्जुन Bg.8.16; कालान्तरा- वर्ति H.1.18. -2 Melting, mixing &c. m. (-र्ती) A horse having curls of hair on various parts of the body (considered as a sign of auspiciousness). -नी 1 A whirlpool. -2 N. of a plant (अजशृङ्गी).
utkrāntin उत्क्रान्तिन् a. passing away, gone, departed.
utkhātin उत्खातिन् (उत्खात-इनि) 1 Uneven, having ups and downs, rugged (opp. सम). उत्खातिनी भूमिरिति मया रश्मि- संयमनाद्रथस्य मन्दीकृतो वेगः Ś.1. -2 Destructive.
udghātin उद्घातिन् a. Uneven, rough.
udghātin उद्घातिन् a. Having ups and downs. उद्घातिनी भूमि- रिति मया संयमिता अश्वाः Ś1.
upanipātin उपनिपातिन् a. Coming (unexpectedly); रन्ध्रोपनि- पातिनो$नर्थाः Ś.6.
upavītin उपवीतिन् a. Wearing the sacred thread. उद्धृते दक्षिणे पाणावुपवीत्युच्यते द्विजः Ms.2.63.
kirātinī किरातिनी f. N. of a plant (जटामांसी).
kṛtin कृतिन् a. [कृतमनेन, कृत-इनि] 1 One who has done his work or gained his end, satisfied, contented, happy, successful; यस्य वीर्येण कृतिनो वयं च भुवनानि च U.1.32; न खल्वनिर्जित्य रघुं कृती भवान् R.3.51;12,64. -2 (Hence) Lucky, fortunate, blessed; Ś.1.23;7.19. -3 Clever, competent, able, expert, skilful, wise, learned; तं क्षुरप्र- शकलीकृतं कृती R.11.29,19.14; Ku.2.1; Ki.2.9; Śi.2.25,3; H.3.89; Ve.4.12. -4 Good, virtuous, pure, pious; तावदेव कृतिनामपि स्फुरत्येष निर्मलविवेकदीपकः Bh. 1.56. -5 Following, obeying, doing what is enjoined.
gaṇitin गणितिन् m. One who has made a calculation. -2 A mathematician.
tin गीतिन् a. (-नी f.) One who recites in a singing manner; गीती शीघ्री शिरःकम्पी तथा लिखितपाठकः Śik.32.
gṛhītin गृहीतिन् a. Who has grasped or comprehended (with loc.); गृहीती षट्स्वङ्गेषु Dk.12.
ghātin घातिन् a. (-नी f.) [इन् णिच् णिनि] 1 Striking, killing ये च स्त्रीबालघातिनः Ms.8.89. -2 Catching or killing (birds &c.) -3 Destructive. -Comp. -पक्षिन्, -विहगः a hawk falcon.
ghṛtin घृतिन् a. Containing ghee.
cittin चित्तिन् a. Ved. Intelligent, wise.
dyotin द्योतिन् a. Splendid, bright.
dvaitin द्वैतिन् m. A philosopher who maintains the dvaita doctrine.
nikṛtin निकृतिन् a. Base, dishonest, wicked.
nipātin निपातिन् a. Falling down, alighting; कुसुमपङ्क्तिनिपाति- भिरङ्कितः R.9.41. -2 Destroyed, decayed. -3 Destroying; ज्योतिरिन्धननिपाति भास्करात् R.11.21.
nimittin निमित्तिन् a. Having a cause, influenced by (some cause or ground).
nirvartin निर्वर्तिन् a. 1 Completing, accomplishing &c. -2 Acting rudely, uncivil, impolitic.
nivītin निवीतिन् a. Wearing the sacred thread round the neck (like a garland); उद्धृते दक्षिणे पाणावुपवीत्युच्यते द्विजः । सव्ये तु प्राचीनावीती निवीती कण्ठसज्जने ॥ Ms.2.63.
nivartin निवर्तिन् a. 1 Turning back, flying from, returning. -2 Desisting or abstaining from. -3 Allowing to return or turn back.
pattin पत्तिन् m. A foot-soldier, foot-man.
padātin पदातिन् a. 1 Having foot-soldiers (as an army). -2 Being or going on foot. -m. A foot-soldier. पदातिकः padātikḥ पदातीयः padātīyḥ पदातिकः पदातीयः 1 A foot-man. -2 A peon.
parivartin परिवर्तिन् a. 1 Moving or turning round, revolving. -2 Ever-recurring, coming round again and again; परिवर्तिनि संसारे मृतः को वा न जायते Pt.1.27. -3 Changing. -4 Being or remaining near, moving round about. -5 Retreating, flying. -6 Exchanging. -7 Recompensing, requiting.
palitin पलितिन् a. Grey-haired.
tin पातिन् a. (-नी f.) [पत्-णिनि] 1 Going to, descending, alighting on. -2 Falling, sinking. -3 Being contained in. -4 Felling or throwing down. -5 Pouring forth, discharging, emitting.
tin पीतिन् m. A horse.
pautināsikyam पौतिनासिक्यम् Fetor of the nostrils; Ms.11.5.
pratinad प्रतिनद् 1 P. 1 To resound, echo. -2 To answer with a shout. -Caus. To fill with noise, make resonant; Śānti.2.17; स्वस्थस्थिताण्डजकुलप्रतिनादितानि (उपवनानि) Ṛs.3.14.
pratinādaḥ प्रतिनादः An echo, a reverberation (also प्रतिनिनदः in this sense).
pratinādita प्रतिनादित a. Resounding, echoing.
pratinand प्रतिनन्द् 1 P. 1 To bless; तौ गुरुर्गुरुपत्नी च प्रीत्या प्रति- ननन्दतुः R.1.57; Ms.7.146; Ku.7.87. -2 To welcome, congratulate, hail with joy, receive gladly; प्रतिनन्द्य स तां पूजाम् Mb.; Ms.2.54. -3 To acccept cheerfully; भर्तुः प्रसादं प्रतिनन्द्य मूर्ध्ना Ku.3.2. -4 To address kindly; show devotion. -Caus. To delight, gratify.
pratinandanam प्रतिनन्दनम् 1 Congratulating, welcoming. -2 Thanks giving.
pratinidhā प्रतिनिधा 3 U. 1 To substitute, put in the place of. -2 To slight, disregard. -3 To order.
pratinidhiḥ प्रतिनिधिः 1 A representative, substitute; सो$भवत् प्रतिनिधिर्न कर्मणा R.11.13;1.81;4.54;5,63;9.4. अल्लीशाहात् प्रतिनिधिं तस्य शैलस्य सर्वथा Śiva B.28.4. -2 A deputy, vicegerent. -3 Substitution. -4 A surety. -5 An image, likeness, picture.
pratinipātaḥ प्रतिनिपातः Falling down, alighting.
pratiniyata प्रतिनियत a. 1 Settled, predestined; विधिर्वन्द्यः सो$पि प्रतिनियतकर्मैकफलदः Bh.2.94. -2 Firm, unshakable; विपक्षाणां हेतीः प्रतिनियतधैर्यानुभवतः Mv.6.34.
pratiniyamaḥ प्रतिनियमः 1 A general rule. -2 A separate allotment; जननमरणकरणानां प्रतिनियमाद्युगपत् प्रवृत्तेश्च Sāṅ. K.18. -3 A strict rule applying only to a particular case.
pratinirjita प्रतिनिर्जित p. p. 1 Vanquished, subdued. -2 Rescinded.
pratinirdeśya प्रतिनिर्देश्य a. That which, though before expressed, is repeated in order to state something more about it; cf. the instance given in K. P.7; उदेति सविता ताम्रस्ताम्र एवास्तमेति च, where ताम्र is repeated to show that the sun that rises red sets also red.
pratiniryātanam प्रतिनिर्यातनम् 1 Retribution, retaliation. -2 Returning, giving back.
pratiniviṣṭa प्रतिनिविष्ट a. Perverse, obstinate, hardened. -Comp. -मूर्खः a perverse fool, confirmed blockhead; न तु प्रति निविष्टमूर्खजनचित्तमाराधयेत् Bh.2.5.
pratiniveśaḥ प्रतिनिवेशः Obstinacy, obdurateness.
pratinivartanam प्रतिनिवर्तनम् Returning, return. -2 Turning away from.
pratiniṣkrayaḥ प्रतिनिष्क्रयः Retaliation, retribution.
pratiniṣpūta प्रतिनिष्पूत p. p. Cleansed, winnowed.
pratinud प्रतिनुद् 6 U. To ward off, repel, repulse.
pratinodaḥ प्रतिनोदः Repelling, repulse.
prapātin प्रपातिन् m. A precipitous mountain, cliff.
pravartin प्रवर्तिन् a. 1 Proceeding, moving onward. -2 Being active. -3 Causing, effecting. -4 Using. -5 Arising from, flowing; Ś.3.14. -6 Spreading &c.
prātinidhikaḥ प्रातिनिधिकः A substitute; Kāty. ŚS.
prāyaścittin प्रायश्चित्तिन् a. One who makes an atonement.
bāhudantin बाहुदन्तिन् m., बाहुदन्तेयः An epithet of Indra.
yatin यतिन् m. An ascetic.
yatinī यतिनी A widow; विधवा ...... विश्वस्ता यतिनी यतिः Śabdaratnāvali.
vartin वर्तिन् a. (-नी f.) [वृत्-णिनि] (Usually at the end of comp.) 1 Abiding, being, resting, staying, situated. -2 Going, moving, turning. -3 Acting, behaving. -4 Performing, practising. -5 Obeying, executing (an order). -m The meaning of an affix.
śatin शतिन् a. 1 A hundred-fold. -2 Numerous. -m. The owner of a hundred; निस्वो वष्टि शतं शती दशशतम् Śā. 2.6; इच्छति शती सहस्रं सहस्री लक्षमीहते Pt.5.82.
saṃkalitin संकलितिन् a. One who has made an addition.
saṃnipātin संनिपातिन् a. A subsidiary that serves the purpose of the प्रधानकर्म by being closely connected with it or directly related (see सामवायिक a.); मन्त्राश्च संनिपातित्वात् MS.12.1.19.
samanuvartin समनुवर्तिन् a. Obedient, devoted.
saṃpātin संपातिन् a. 1 Flying together. -2 Falling down.
tinā सातिना A black variety of skin (चर्मजाति); Kau. A.2.11. सातीनः sātīnḥ सातीनकः sātīnakḥ सातीलकः sātīlakḥ सातीनः सातीनकः सातीलकः Pease.
siddhāntin सिद्धान्तिन् m. 1 One who establishes a conclusion after noticing and answering objections (or पूर्वपक्ष). -2 One learned in scientific text-books. -3 A follower of the Mīmāṁsā philosophy.
sīmantinī सीमन्तिनी A woman; मा स्म सीमन्तिनी काचिज्जनयेत् पुत्र- मीदृशम् H.2.7; Me.12; Bk.5.22.
sutin सुतिन् a. (-नी f.) Having a child or children. -m. A father.
sutinī सुतिनी A mother; तेनाम्बा यदि सुतिनी वद वन्ध्या कीदृशी भवति Subhāṣ.
saikatinī सैकतिनी a. Full of sand; समाचिता सैकतिनी वनस्थली Ṛs.2.9.
hastin हस्तिन् a. (-नी f.) [हस्तः शुण्डादण्डो$स्त्यस्य इनि] 1 Having hands. -2 Having a trunk. -m. An elephant; Ms.7. 96;12.43; (elephants are said to be of four kinds; भद्र, मन्द्र, मृग and मिश्र). -Comp. -अध्यक्षः a superintendent of elephants. -अशना Boswellia Serrata (Mar. साळई, कुरुंद). -आजीवः an elephant-driver. -आयुर्वेदः a work dealing with the treatment of the elephant's diseases. -आरोहः an elephant-driver or rider. -कक्ष्यः 1 a lion. -2 a tiger. -कर्णः the castor-oil plant. -गिरिः the city and district of Kāñchī. -घ्नः 1 an elephantkiller. -2 a man. -चारः a kind of weapon. -चारिन् m. an elephant-driver. -जागरिकः a keeper of elephants. -जिह्वा a particular vein. -दन्तः 1 the tusk of an elephant. -2 a peg projecting from a wall. (-न्तम्) 1 ivory. -2 a radish. -दन्तकम् a radish. -नखम् a sort of turret protecting the approach to the gate of a city or fort. -नासा an elephant's trunk. -पः, -पकः an elephant driver or rider; जज्ञे जनैर्मुकुलिताक्षमनाददाने संरब्धहस्तिपक- निष्ठुरचोदनाभिः Śi.5.49; इति घोषयतीव हिण्डिमः करिणो हस्तिपका- हतः क्कणन् H.2.86. -पर्णी the कर्कटी plant. -प्रधान a. chiefly depending on elephants; Kau. A.2.2. -बन्धकी a female elephant helping in tethering wild ones; Kau. A.2.2. -मदः the ichor issuing from the temples of an elephant in rut. -मयूरकः N. of a plant (Mar. आज- मोदा). -मल्लः 1 N. of Airāvata; सुराधिपाधिष्ठितहस्तिमल्ललीलां दधौ राजतगण्डशैलः Śi.4.13. -2 of Gaṇeśa. -3 of Śaṅkha, the eighth of the chief Nāgas. -4 a heap of ashes. -5 a shower of dust. -6 frost. -यूथः, -थम् a herd of elephants. -वक्त्रः N. of Gaṇeśa; Dk.2.3. -वर्चसम् the splendour or magnificence of an elephant. -वाहः 1 an elephant-driver. -2 a hook for driving elephants. -विषाणी Musa Sapientum (Mar. केळ). -शाला an elephant-stable. -शुण्डा, -ण्डी A kind of shrub (Mar. इंद्रवारुणी, -कवंडळ). -श्यामाकः a kind of millet. -षड्गवम् a collection of six elephants. -स्नानम् = गजस्नानम् q. v.; अवशेन्द्रियचित्तानां हस्तिस्नानमिव क्रिया H.1.17. -हस्तः an elephant's trunk. हस्तिन hastina (ना nā) पुरम् puram हस्तिन (ना) पुरम् N. of a city founded by king Hastin, said to be situated some fifty miles north-east of the modern Delhi; it forms a central scene of action in the Mahābhārata; it's other names are:-- गजाह्वय, नागसाह्वय, नागाह्व, हास्तिन.
hastinī हस्तिनी 1 A female elephant. -2 A kind of drug and perfume. -3 A woman of a particular class, one of the four classes into which writers on erotical science divide women (described as having thick lips, thick hips, thick fingers, large breasts, dark complexion, and libidinous appetite); the Ratimañjarī thus describes her:-- स्थूलाधरा स्थूलनितम्बबिम्बा स्थूलाङ्गुलिः स्थूलकुचा सुशीला । कामोत्सुका गाढरतिप्रिया च नितान्तभोक्त्री (नितम्ब- खर्वा) खलु हस्तिनी स्यात् (करिणी मता सा) 8.
hastinam हस्तिनम् N. of Hastināpura, q. v. -a. Having the depth of an elephant (as water); सरस्तलं हास्तिनम् Dk.2.7.
     Macdonell Vedic Search  
43 results
     
ajamāyu ajá-māyu, a. (Bv.) bleating like a goat, vii. 103, 6. 10 [māyú, m. bleat].
adri á-dri, m. rock, i. 85, 5 [not splitting: dṛ pierce].
adhvaryu adhvar-yú, m. officiating priest, vii. 103, 8.
aniviśamāna á-niviśamāna, pr. pt. A. unresting, vii. 49, 1 [ni + viś go to rest].
anuvrata ánu-vrata, a. devoted, x. 34, 2 [acting according to the will (vratá) of another].
apraketa a-praketá, a. (Bv.) indistinguishable, x. 129, 3 [praketá perception].
amanyamāna á-manya-māna, pr. pt. Ā. not thinking = unexpecting, ii. 12, 10 [man think].
ayās a-yá̄s, a. nimble, i. 154, 6 [not exerting oneself: yās = yas heat oneself].
avasāna ava-sá̄na, n. resting place, x. 14, 9 [unbinding, giving rest: áva + sā = si tie].
āsīna á̄s-īna, irr. pr. pt. Ā., sitting, x. 15, 7 [ās sit].
usrayāman usrá-yāman, a. (Bv.) faring at daybreak, vii. 71, 4 [usrá matutinal, yá̄man, n. course].
kumāradeṣṇa kumārá-deṣṇa, a. (Bv.) presenting gifts like boys, x. 34, 7 [deṣṇá, n. gift from dā give].
gartasad garta-sád, a. (Tp.) sitting on a car-seat, ii. 33, 11.
giriṣṭhā giri-ṣṭhā, a. mountain-haunting, i. 154, 2 [sthā stand].
gharmasad gharma-sád, a. (Tp.) sitting at the heating vessel, x 15, 9. 10 [sad sit].
carṣaṇīdhrt carṣaṇī-dhṛ́-t, a. (Tp.) supporting the folk, iii. 59, 6 [carṣaṇí, a. active, f. folk + dhṛ-t supporting].
janayant janáy-ant, cs. pr. pt. generating, i. 85, 2.
jāgṛvi já̄gṛ-vi, a. watchful, v. 11, 1; stimulating, x. 34, 1 [from red. stem of 2. gṛ wake].
jñā jñā know, IX. jāná̄ti, x. 34, 4 [cp. Gk. ἔγνω-ν, Lat. co-gno-sco, Eng. know]. ví-, ps. jñāyáte be distinguished, iv. 51, 6.
trātṛ trá̄-tṛ, a. protecting, viii. 48, 14 [trā protect].
tripañcāśa tri-pañcāśá, a. consisting of three fifties, x. 34, 8.
tripād tri-pá̄d, a. (Bv.) consisting of three-fourths, x. 90, 4; m. three-fourths, x. 90, 3.
dadhāna dádh-āna, pr. pt. Ā. committing, assuming, i. 35, 4; ii. 12, 10; = going, x. 15, 10 [dhā put].
dvādaśa dvādaśá, a. consisting of twelve, m. twelve-month, vii. 103, 9.
dhārayatkavi dhārayát-kavi, a. (gov.) supporting the sage, i. 160, 1 [dhāráyat, pr. pt. cs. of dhṛ hold].
parāyant parā-yánt, pr. pt. departing, x. 34, 5 [párā away, Gk. πέρᾱ beyond, + i go].
pepiśat pépiś-at, pr. pt. int. thickly painting, x. 127, 7 [piś paint].
barhiṣad barhi-ṣád, a. (Tp.) sitting on the sacrificial grass, x. 15, 3. 4 [for barhiḥ-ṣád: sad sit].
madant mád-ant, pr. pt. rejoicing, iv. 50, 2; delighting in (inst.), iii. 59, 3.
yudhyamāna yúdhya-māna, pr. pt. Ā. fighting; m. fighter, ii. 12, 9 [yudh fight].
rakṣamāṇa rákṣa-māṇa, pr. pt. Ā. protecting, vii. 61, 3 [rakṣ protect].
varṇa vár-ṇa, m. colour, ii. 12, 4 [coating: vṛ cover].
vasudeya vasu-déya, n. granting of wealth, ii. 33, 7.
vāyavyȧ vᾱyav-yȧ, a. relating to the wind, aërial, x. 90, 8 [vāyú].
vyȧkta vy-ȧkta, pp. distinguished by (inst.), x. 14, 9; palpable, x. 127, 7 [ví + añj adorn].
śaśvant śáś-vant, a. ever repeating itself, many, ii. 12, 10; -vat, adv. for ever, i. 35, 5 [for sá + śvant, orig. pt. of śū swell, Gk. ἅ-παντ-].
saṃvidāna saṃ-vid-āná, pr. pt. Ā. uniting, with (inst.), viii. 48, 13; x. 14, 4 [vid find].
sajoṣas sa-jóṣas, a. acting in harmony with (inst.), viii. 48, 15 [jóṣas, n. pleasure].
sarvavīra sárva-vīra, a. consisting entirely of sons, iv. 50, 10; x. 15, 11.
sāśanānaśana sāśanānaśaná, n. (Dv.) eating and noneating things, x. 90, 4 [sa-aśana + anaśana].
siṣvidāna siṣvid-āná, pf. pt. Ā. sweating, vii. 103, 8 [svid perspire: Eng. sweat].
svābhu sv-ābhú, a. invigorating, iv. 50, 10.
havirad havir-ád, a. (Tp.) eating the oblation, x. 15, 10 [havís + ad].
     Macdonell Search  
Results for tin44 results
     
tintiḍa m. (?) Indian tamarind; î, f. id.; i-kâ, f. id.; î-ka, m. id.; n. the fruit.
aṃsavartin a. resting on the shoulder; -vivartin, a. bending towards the shoulder(s); -vyâpin, a. reaching to the --.
atiniṣkaruṇa a. extremely cruel.
atinirghṛṇa a. altogether pitiless; -daya, a. id.; -bandha, m. excessive urgency: -tas, in. very urgently; -vartin, a. behaving in a very unseemly way; -vasu tva, n. extreme poverty.
atinibhṛtam ad. with the utmost secrecy.
atināṣṭra a. escaped from danger.
atipātin a. surpassing in speed; missing, neglecting.
atinairantarya n. strict continuity.
atinṛśaṃsa a. too spiteful or cruel.
atinīcais ad. too obsequiously.
atiniṣṇāta pp. very experienced.
atiniṣṭhura a. too rough, too hard.
adhītin a. well-read in (lc.); study ing the scriptures.
anabhyāvartin a. not return ing.
anāvartin a. not returning.
apunarnivartin a. not re turning.
avattin a. dividing into (--, e. g. four) parts (--°ree;).
avinivartin a. not turning back, not fleeing.
āpātin a. occurring (--°ree;).
āmnātin a. hvg. made mention of (lc.).
ucchāstravartin a. trans gressing the institutes of the law.
upapātin a. befalling (--°ree;).
kṛtin a. active; clever; skilful, ex perienced (in, lc., --°ree;); having attained one's object, satisfied; -i-tva, n. satisfaction.
ghātin a. killing, murdering; de stroying; injurious; m. murderer; -ya, fp. to be killed or destroyed.
carmāvakartin m. leather cutter, shoemaker; -½avakartri, m. id.
cittin a. wise, intelligent.
dantin a. tusked; m. elephant; -ila, m. N.; -ura, a. having prominent teeth; uneven; thickly studded with, full of (--°ree;); ugly: -tâ, f. ugliness.
dyotin a. shining; signifying.
dvaitin m. dualist.
tinirvṛti f. not too great satisfaction; -nîka, a. not too low; -pari- kara, a. having a limited retinue; -pari sphuta, a. somewhat concealed; -paryâpta, pp. not too abundant; -pushta, pp.not too well furnished with (in.); -prakupita, pp. not excessively angry; -pramanas, a. not too good-humoured; -prasiddha, pp. not noto rious; -bhârika, a. not too weighty; -bhin na, pp. not very different from (ab.); -mâ tram, ad. not excessively; -mân-in, a. not esteeming oneself toohighly: (-i)-tâ, f. absence of vanity; -ramanîya, fp. not too charming: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -rûpa, a. not very pretty; -visadam, ad. (kiss) not very audibly; -vis târa-samkata, a. neither too wide nor too narrow; -sîta½ushna, a. neither too hot nor too cold; -slishta, pp. not very firm; -sva stha, a. not very well, poorly.
tin a. flying; alighting on (lc.); falling or sinking, in (--°ree;); --°ree;, arising, ap pearing (cloud); causing to or letting fall, felling, throwing down (--°ree;).
pautināsikya n. affliction of a foul-smelling nose.
pratinagaram ad. in every town; -nadi, ad. at every river; -nándana, n. greeting; grateful acceptance; -namas kâra, a. returning a reverential salutation; -nava, a. new, young, fresh, recent; -nâga, m. hostile elephant; -nâdî, f. branch-vein; -nâda, m. echo; -nâma, ad. by name: -grah anam, n. ad. mentioning each individual name; (práti)-nâman, a. related in name; -nâyaka, m. opposing hero (in a play); -nârî, f. female rival; -nidhâtavya, fp. to be substituted; -nidhâpayitavya, fp. to be caused to be substituted; -nidhi, m. substi tution; substitute; image, likeness; counter part of (--°ree;); -nidhî-kri, substitute anything (ac.) for (--°ree;); -nidheya, fp. to be substi tuted; -nipâta, m. falling down; -niyama, m. rule for each particular case; -nirdesa, m. reference back to, renewed mention of (g.): -ka, a. referring back to; -nirdesya, fp.referred to again; -niryâtana, n. restor ation, restitution; -nivartana, n. return; -nivârana, n. keeping off; -nivritti, f. re turn; -nisam, ad. every night; -niskaya, m. opposing opinion; -nishtha, a. standing on the oppositeside; -nripati, m. rival king; -noda, m. repulse; -nyâyám, ad. in reverse order; -nyâsa, m. counter deposit.
prāṇighātin a. killing living beings; -dyûta, n. game with fighting ani mals (such as ram-fighting etc.).
bhāvicakravartin m. future king, crown prince.
yatin m. ascetic.
vartin a. abiding, staying, resting, being, situated, in (gnly. --°ree;); being in a con dition etc. (--°ree;); practising (--°ree;); engaged in, making (a request, --°ree;); behaving, acting (--°ree; or w. ad.); behaving properly towards (--°ree;); m. meaning of a suffix.
vedāntin m. follower of the Ve dânta system.
vratin a. engaged in a religious observance, practising a vow; --°ree;, practising; worshipping; behaving like.
sutin a. having a son or sons: -î, f. mother of a son.
sīmantin a. parted, having a parting (hair, pregnant woman): -î, f. woman.
hastināpura n. N. of a city the ruins of which are situated on the banks of an old bed of the Ganges, 57 miles N. E. of Delhi.
hastin V. a. having hands, deft handed; w. mriga, m. animal with the hand (=trunk), oldest term for elephant (RV., AV.); m. (V., C.) elephant; N. (C.): (ín)-î, f. female elephant (V., C.); a certain class of women in erotics (C.).
hāstina a. belonging to the ele phant (AV.); having the depth of an ele phant (water; C.): -pura, n. = Hastinâ pura.
     Vedic Index of
     Names and Subjects  
413 results
     
akṣa ‘Axle,’ is a part of a chariot often referred to in the Rigveda and later. It was apparently fastened to the body of the chariot (Kośa) by straps (aksā-nah, lit. ‘ tied to the axle,’ though this word is also rendered ‘horse’). The heating of the axle and the danger of its breaking were known. The part of the axle round which the nave of the wheel revolved was called Ani, ‘ pin.’
akṣa This word occurs frequently, from the Rigveda onwards, both in the singular and plural, meaning ‘ die ’ and ‘ dice.’ Dicing, along with horse-racing, was one of the main amusements of the Vedic Indian ; but, despite the frequent mention of the game in the literature, there is considerable difficulty in obtaining any clear picture of the mode in which it was played. (i) The Material.—The dice appear normally to have been made of Vibhīdaka nuts. Such dice are alluded to in both the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda, hence being called ‘brown’ {babhru), and ‘ born on a windy spot.’ In the ritual game of dice at the Agnyādheya and the Rājasūya ceremonies the material of the dice is not specified, but it is possible that occasionally gold imitations of Vibhīdaka nuts were used. There is no clear trace in the Vedic literature of the later use of cowries as dice. (2^ The Number In the Rigveda the dicer is described as leader of a great horde ’ (senānīr mahato gaiiasya), and in another passage the number is given as tri-pañcāśah, an expression which has been variously interpreted. Ludwig, Weber, and Zimmer render it as fifteen, which is grammatically hardly possible. Roth and Grassmann render it as ‘ con¬sisting of fifty-three.’ Liiders takes it as ‘consisting of one hundred and fifty,’ but he points out that this may be merely a vague expression for a large number. For a small number Zimmer cites a reference in the Rigveda to one who fears ‘ him who holds four’ (caturaś cid dadamānāt), but the sense of that passage is dependent on the view taken of the method of playing the game. (3) The Method of Play.—In several passages of the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas lists are given of expressions con¬nected with dicing. The names are Krta, Tretā, Dvāpara, Áskanda, and Abhibhū in the Taittirīya Samhitā.16 In the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, among the victims at the Purusamedha, the kitava is offered to the Aksarāja, the ādinava-darśa to the Krta, the kalpin to the Tretā, the adhi-kalpin to the Dvāpara, the sabhā-sthānu to the Áskanda. The lists in the parallel version of the Taittirīya Brāhmana are kitava, sabhāvin, ādinava- darśa, bahih-sad, and sabhā-sthānu, and Aksarāja, Krta, Tretā, Dvāpara, and Kali. From the Satapatha Brāhmana it appears that another name of Kali was Abhibhū, and the parallel lists in the Taittirīya and Vājasaneyi Samhitās suggest that Abhibhū and Aksarāja are identical, though both appear in the late Taittirīya Brāhmana list. The names of some of these throws go back even to the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda. Kali occurs in the latter, and Luders shows that in a considerable number of passages in the former Krta means a * throw ’ (not ‘ a stake ’ or * what is won ’ ), and this sense is clearly found in the Atharvaveda. Moreover, that there were more throws (ayāh) than one is proved by a passage in the Rigveda, when the gods are compared to throws as giving or destroying wealth. The nature of the throws is obscure. The St. Petersburg Dictionary conjectures that the names given above were applied either to dice marked 4, 3, 2, or 1, or to the sides of the dice so marked, and the latter interpretation is supported by some late commentators. But there is no evidence for the former interpretation, and, as regards the latter, the shape of the Vibhīdaka nuts, used as dice, forbids any side being properly on the top. Light is thrown on the expressions by the descrip- tion of a ritual game at the Agnyādheya and at the Rājasūya ceremonies. The details are not certain, but it is clear that the game consisted in securing even numbers of dice, usually a number divisible by four, the Krta, the other three throws then being the Tretā, when three remained over after division by four; the Dvāpara, when two was the remainder; and the Kali, when one remained. If five were the dividing number, then the throw which showed no remainder was Kali, the Krta was that when four was left, and so on. The dice had no numerals marked on them, the only question being what was the total number of the dice themselves. There is no reason to doubt that the game as played in the Rigveda was based on the same principle, though the details must remain doubtful. The number of dice used was certainly large, and the reference to throwing fours, and losing by one, points to the use of the Krta as the winning throw. The Atharvaveda, on the other hand, possibly knew of the Kali as the winning throw. In one respect the ordinary game must have differed from the ritual game. In the latter the players merely pick out the number of dice required—no doubt to avoid ominous errors, such as must have happened if a real game had been played. In the secular game the dice were thrown, perhaps on the principle suggested by Luders: the one throwing a certain number on the place of playing, and the other then throwing a number to make up with those already thrown a multiple of four or five. This theory, at any rate, accounts for the later stress laid on the power of computation in a player, as in the Nala. No board appears to have been used, but a depression on which the dice were thrown (adhi-devana, devana,dδ irina36), was made in the ground. No dice box was used, but reference is made to a case for keeping dice in (aksā-vapanaZ7). The throw was called graha or earlier grābhaP The stake is called vij. Serious losses could be made at dicing: in the Rigveda a dicer laments the loss of all his property, including his wife. Luders finds a different form of the game Upanisad.
akṣata In one passage of the Atharvaveda,dealing with the Jayanya, mention is made of a remedy for sores designated both Aksita and Suksata, or, according to the reading of the Kausika Sutra, Aksata and Suksata, while Sayana has Aksita and Suksita. Bloomfield renders ' not caused by cutting ' and ' caused by cutting.' Formerly he suggested 'tumour' or 'boil.' Whitney thinks that two varieties of Jayanya are meant. Ludwig reads with Sayana aksita, which he renders by ' not firmly established ' in the invalid. Zimmer finds in it a disease Ksata.
agnidagdha This epithet (‘ burnt with fire ’) applies to the dead who were burned on the funeral pyre. This is one of the two normal methods of disposing of the dead, the other being burial (an-agnidagdhāh, ‘ not burnt with fire ’).The Atharvaveda adds two further modes of disposal to those— viz., casting out (paroptāh), and the exposure of the dead (uddhitāh). The exact sense of these expressions is doubtful. Zimmer considers that the former is a parallel to the Iranian practice of casting out the dead to be devoured by beasts, and that the latter refers to the old who are exposed when helpless.Whitney refers the latter expression to the exposure of the dead body on a raised platform of some sort. Burial was clearly not rare in the Rigvedic period: a whole hymn describes the ritual attending it. The dead man was buried apparently in full attire, with his bow in his hand, and probably at one time his wife was immolated to accompany him, in accordance with a practice common among savage tribes. But in the Vedic period both customs appear in a modified form: the son takes the bow from the hand of the dead man, and the widow is led away from her dead husband by his brother or other nearest kinsman. A stone is set between the dead and the living to separate them. In the Atharvaveda, but not in the Rigveda, a coffin (vrksa) is alluded to. In both Samhitās occur other allusions to the ‘ house of earth ’ (bhūmi-grha). To remove the apparent discrepancy between burning and burial, by assuming that the references to burial are to the burial of the burned bones, as does Oldenberg, is unnecessary and improbable, as burning and burial subsisted side by side in Greece for many years. Burning was, however, equally usual, and it grew steadily in frequency, for in the Chāndogya Upanisad the adornment
aṅga The name occurs only once in the Atharvaveda in connection with the Gandhāris, Mūjavants, and Magadhas, as distinct peoples. They appear also in the Gopatha Brāhmana in the compound name Añga-magadhāk. As in later times they were settled on the Sone and Ganges, their earlier seat was presumably there also. See also Vañga.
aṅgārāvakṣayaṇa A word of doubtful meaning found in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.It is rendered ‘tongs’ by Max Muller and Bǒhtlingk in their translations. The St. Petersburg Dictionary explains it as ‘ a vessel in which coals are extinguished,’ and Monier-Williams as ‘ an instrument for extinguishing coals.’ The smaller St. Petersburg Dictionary renders the word ‘ coal-shovel or tongs.’ Cf. Ulmukāva- ksayana.
aja This is the ordinary name for goat in the Rigveda and the later literature. The goat is also called Basta, Chāga, Chagala. Goats and sheep (ajāvayah) are very frequently mentioned together. The female goat is spoken of as pro­ducing two or three kids, and goat’s milk is well known. The goat as representative of Pūsan plays an important part in the ritual of burial. The occupation of a goatherd (ajapāla) was a recognized one, being distinguished from that of a cow­herd and of a shepherd.
atithigva This name occurs frequently in the Rigveda, apparently applying, in nearly all cases, to the same king, otherwise called Divodāsa. The identity of the two persons has been denied by Bergaigne, but is certainly proved by a number of passages, when the two names occur together, in connection with the defeat of Sambara. In other passages Atithigva is said to have assisted Indra in slaying Parnaya and Karañja. Sometimes he is only vaguely referred to, while once he is mentioned as an enemy of Turvaśa and Yadu. Again Atithigva is coupled with Ayu and Kutsa as defeated by Tūrvayāna. A different Atithigva appears to be referred to in a Dānastuti (‘ Praise of Gifts ’), where his son, Indrota, is mentioned. Roth distinguishes three Atithigvas—the Atithigva Divodāsa, the enemy of Parnaya and Karañja, and the enemy of Tūrvayāna. But the various passages can be reconciled, especially if it is admitted that Atithigva Divodāsa was already an ancient hero in the earliest hymns, and was becoming almost mythical.
atṛṇāda This term (‘ not eating grass ’) was applied, ac­cording to the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, to a newborn calf.
atka This word occurs frequently in the Rigveda, but its sense is doubtful. Roth, Grassmann, Ludwig, Zimmer,and others render it as ‘ garment ’ in several passages,when the expressions ‘ put on ’ (vyā orprati muñc) or ‘ put off’ (muñc) are used of it, and when it is said to be ‘ woven ’ (vyuta) or * well- fitting ’ (surabhi). On the other hand, Pischel denies that this sense occurs, and otherwise explains the passages. He takes the term to mean ‘ axe ’ in four places. In two passages of the Rigveda this word is regarded as a proper name by Roth, Grassmann, and Ludwig. But Zimmer explains it in these passages as the *armour of a warrior as a whole,’ and Pischel thinks that in both cases an *axe is meant.
atyaṃhas aruṇi According to the Taittirīya Brāhmana, this teacher sent a pupil to question Plaksa Dayyāmpati as to the Sāvitra (a form of Agni). For this impertinence his pupil was severely rebuked.
admasad This expression (lit.‘sitting at the meal ’), found several times in the Rigveda, is usually rendered ‘ guest at the feast,’ but Geldner adduces reasons to show that it means‘ a fiy,’ so called because of its settling on food..
adri Zimmer deduces from the use of this word (‘ rock,’ < stone ’) in a passage of the Rigveda, that sling-stones were used in Vedic fighting. But the passage is mythical, referring to Indra’s aid, and cannot be used with any certainty as evidence for human war. More probably it merely denotes Indra’s bolt. See also Aśani.
adhirāja The word occurs fairly often throughout the early literature, denoting * overlord ’ among kings or princes. In no passage is it clear that a real over-king is meant, as the word rājan may mean king or merely prince, a person of royal blood. On the whole it seems most probable that the word connotes no more than ‘king’ as opposed to ‘prince.
anuvyākhyāna is a species of writing referred to in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. Sañkara interprets it as ‘explana­tion of the Mantras.’ As the term, in the plural, follows Sūtras, this interpretation is reasonable. Sieg, however, equates the word with Anvākhyāna, ‘ supplementary narrative.’
andhra Is the name of a people, and is mentioned with the Pundras, Sabaras, Pulindas, and Mūtibas, as being the outcasts resulting from the refusal of the fifty eldest sons of Viśvāmitra to accept his adoption of Sunahśθpa. It may fairly be deduced from this statement that these people were recognized as non- Aryan, as the Andhras certainly seem to have been.
anyavāpa The cuckoo is so called from its habit of depositing its eggs in the nests of other birds.
anvākhyāna From the literal translation (‘after-story’) the meaning of ‘ supplementary narrative ’ seems to follow. In two of its three occurrences in the śatapatha Brāhmana this sense is hardly felt, the expression being used to indicate a subse­quent portion of the book itself. But in the third passage it is distinguished from the Itihāsa (‘ story ’) proper, and there must mean ‘ supplementary narrative.’ Cf Anuvyākhyāna.
apacit This word occurs several times in the Atharvaveda. It is held by Roth, Zimmer, and others to denote an insect whose sting produced swellings, etc. (glau). But Bloomfield shows that the disease, scrofulous swellings, is what is really meant, as is shown by the rendering (ganda-mālā, ‘ inflammation of the glands of the neck ’) of Keśava and Sāyana, and by the parallelism of the later disease, apacī, the derivation being from apa and ci, ‘.to pick off.’
apāṣṭha This word occurs twice in the Atharvaveda,denoting the barb of an arrow.
apratiratha (‘ He who has no match in fight ’) is the name of an obviously invented Rsi, to whom is ascribed by the Aitareya Brāhmana and śatapatha Brāhmana the composition of a Rigveda hymn celebrating Indra as the invincible warrior.
apvā A disease affecting the stomach, possibly dysentery, as suggested by Zimmer, on the ground that the disease is invoked to confound the enemy. Weber considers that it is diarrhoea induced by fear, as often in the Epic. This view is supported by Bloomfield, and was apparently that of Yāska.
abhipraśnin This term occurs after Praśnin, and followed by Praśnavivāka in the list of victims for the Purusamedha given in the Taittirīya Brāhmana and the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. The commentators, Sāyana and Mahīdhara, see in it merely a reference to an inquisitive man. But there can be little doubt that the term must have had a legal reference of some sort— perhaps indicating the defendant as opposed to plaintiff and judge.
abhīśu Is a common Vedic word denoting the ‘reins’ or * bridle ’ of the chariot horses. The use of the plural is due to the fact that two or four horses, possibly five (dasābhīsu * ten- bridled’),were yoked to the car.
abhyāvartin cāyamāna Appears in a Dānastuti (‘ Praise of Gifts ’) in the Rigveda,and as conqueror of the Vrcīvants under the leader Varaśikha. It is probable, though not abso­lutely certain, that he is identical with the Srñjaya Daivavāta, mentioned in the same hymn as having the Turvaśas and Vrcīvants defeated for him by Indra. In this case he would be prince (samrāj) of the Syñjayas. Daivavāta is mentioned elsewhere as a worshipper of Agni. Abhyāvartin is also referred to as a Pārthava. Ludwig and Hillebrandt maintained that he is thus a Parthian, the latter using the evidence of the two places mentioned in the descrip¬tion of Daivavāta’s victories, Hariyūpīyā and Yavyāvatī, as proofs for the western position of Abhyāvartin’s people in Arachosia, in Iran. But Zimmer is probably right in holding that the name Pārthava merely means ‘ a descendant of Prthu,’ and that its similarity to the Iranian Parthians is only on a par with the numerous other points of identity between the Indian and Iranian cultures
amājur is an epithet denoting maidens ‘who grow old at home ’ without finding husbands, or, as they are elsewhere called, 'who sit with their father ’ (pitr-sad). A well-known example of such was Ghosā
ayas The exact metal denoted by this word when used by itself, as always in the Rigveda, is uncertain. As favouring the sense of ‘ bronze ’ rather than that of ‘ iron ’ may perhaps be cited with Zimmer the fact that Agni is called ayo-damstra,‘with teeth of Ayas,’with reference to the colour of his flames, and that the car-seat of Mitra and Varuna is called ayah-sthūna, ‘with pillars of Ayas ’ at the setting of the sun. Moreover, in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, Ayas is enumerated in a list of six metals: gold (hiranya), Ayas, Syāma, Loha, lead (sīsa), tin (trapu). Here śyāma (‘ swarthy ’) and loha (‘ red ’) must mean ‘iron’ and ‘copper’ respectively; ayas would therefore seem to mean ‘bronze.’ In many passages in the Atharvaveda and other books, the Ayas is divided into two species—the śyāma (* iron ’) and the lohita (‘ copper’ or * bronze ’). In the Satapatha Brāhmana a distinction is drawn between Ayas and lohāyasa, which may either be a distinction between iron and copper as understood by Eggeling, or between copper and bronze as held by Schrader. In one passage of the Atharvaveda, the sense of iron seems certain. Possibly, too, the arrow of the Rigveda, which had a tip of Ayas (yasyā ayo mukham), was pointed with iron. Copper, however, is conceivable, and bronze quite likely. Iron is called śyāma ayas or śyāma alone. See also Kārsnāyasa. Copper is Lohāyasa or Lohitāyasa. The smelting (dhmā ‘ to blow ’) of the metal is frequently referred to. The Satapatha Brāhmana states that if ‘ well smelted ’ (bahu-dhmātam) it is like gold, referring evidently to bronze. A heater of Ayas is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, and bowls of Ayas are also spoken of.
aratni This word, which primarily means ‘elbow,’ occurs frequently from the Rigveda onwards as denoting a measure of length (‘ ell ’ or ‘ cubit ’), the distance from the elbow to the tip of the hand. The exact length nowhere appears from the early texts.
avi Sheep ’ are repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda, and later, often in conjunction with goats (aja). The wolf (vrka) was their great enemy, and they were tended by shepherds. Sheep as well as kine were captured from the enemy. The Soma sieve was made of sheep’s wool, and is repeatedly referred to (avi, mesī, avya, avyaya).Considerable herds must have existed, as Rjrāśva is said to have slain one hundred rams, and in a Dānastuti (‘ Praise of Gifts ’) β a hundred sheep are mentioned as a gift. The (mesa, vrsnis) ram was sometimes castrated (petva). The main use of sheep was their wool; hence the expression ‘woolly’ (ūrnāvatī) is employed to designate a sheep. In the Vājasaneyi Samhitā the ram is described as ‘woolly,’ and as ‘ the skin of beasts, quadruped and biped,’ with reference to the use of its wool as clothing for men and shelter for animals. Pūsan is said to weave raiment from the wool of sheep. Normally the sheep stayed out at pasture; in an obscure passage of the Rigveda reference appears to be made to rams in stall. Gandhāra ewes were famous for their wool. Pischel considers that the Parusnī was named from its richness in sheep, parus denoting the ‘ flocks ’ of wool.
aśani Zimmer cites this word from the Rigveda as denoting a sling stone, and compares a similar use of Adri. In either case, however, the weapons are mythical, being used in descriptions of Indra’s deeds. Schrader also cites aśan in this sense, but no Vedic passage requires this sense.
aśvavāra (‘Hair of a horse’s tail ’). The former form occurs in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, the latter in the Kāthaka and Kapisthala Samhitās and śatapatha Brāhmana denoting a species of reed (Saccharum spontaneum).
ahan ‘Day.’ Like other peoples, the Indians used night as a general expression of time as well as day, but by no means predominantly.Night is also termed the dark (krsna), as opposed to the light (arjuna), day. Aho-rātra is a regular term for ‘ day and night ’ combined.The day itself is variously divided. In the Atharvaveda a division into ‘ the rising sun ’ (udyan sūryah), ‘ the coming together of the cows’ (sam-gava), ‘midday’ (madhyam-dina),*afternoon ’ (aparāhna), and ‘ sunset ’ (astam-yan) is found. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana the same series appears with ‘ early ’ (prātar) and ‘ evening ’ (sāyāhna) substituted for the first and last members, while a shorter list gives prātar, samgava, sāyam. In the Maitrāyanī Samhitā there is the series ‘ dawn ’ (usas), samgava, madhyamdina, and aparāhna. The morning is also, according to Zimmer, called api-śarvara, as the time when the dark is just past. It is named svasara, as the time when the cows are feeding, before the -first milking at the samgava, or when the birds are awakening. It is also called pra-pitva, according to Zimmer. But Geldner points out that that term refers to the late midday, which also is called api-śarvara, as bordering on the coming night, being the time when day is hastening to its close, as in a race. From another point of view, evening is called abhi-pitva, the time when all come to rest. Or again, morning and evening are denoted as the dawning of the sun (uditā sūryasya)i or its setting (ni-mruc). The midday is regularly madhyam ahnām, madhye, or madhyamdina. Samgava16 is the forenoon, between the early morning (prātar) and midday (madhyamdina). The divisions of time less than the day are seldom precisely given. In the śatapatha Brāhmana, however, a day and night make up 30 muhūrtas; 1 muhūrta=ι5 ksipra; 1 ksipra — 15 etarhi; 1 etarhi= 15 idāni; 1 idāni = 15 breathings; 1 breath¬ing =1 spiration; 1 spiration = ι twinkling (nimesa), etc. In the śānkhāyana Áranyaka the series is dhvamsayo, nimesāh, kāsthāh, kalāh, ksanā, muhūrtā, ahorātrāh. A thirtyfold division of day as well as of night is seen in one passage of the Rigveda by Zimmer, who compares the Babylonian sixty¬fold division of the day and night. But the expression used— thirty Yojanas—is too vague and obscure—Bergaigne refers it to the firmament—to build any theory upon with safety.
ahi This word occurs frequently from the Rigveda onwards to denote ‘snake.’ Reference is several times made to its casting its slough. Mention is also made of the serpent’s peculiar movement, which earns for it the designation of ‘ the toothed rope ’ (datvatī rajjufy). The poisonous character of its bite is spoken of, as well as the torpidity of the reptile in winter, when it creeps into the earth. The cast skin is used as an amulet against highwaymen. Mention is made of a mythical horse, Paidva, which the Aśvins gave to Pedu as a protection against snakes, and which is invoked as a destroyer of serpents.The ichneumon (nakula) is regarded as their deadly enemy, and as immune against their poison through the use of a healing plant, while men kill them with sticks or strike off their heads. Many species of snakes are mentioned: see Aghāśva, Ajagara, Asita, Kañkaparvan, Karikrata, Kalmāsagrīva, Kasarnīla, Kumbhīnasa, Tiraścarāji, Taimāta, Darvi, Daśo- nasi, Puskarasāda, Prdāku, Lohitāhi, Sarkota, Svitra, Sarpa.
ākhyāna In the Aitareya Brāhmana we hear of the śaunahśepa Akhyāna, ‘the story of Sunahśepa,’ which is told by the Hotr priest at the Rājasūya (‘ royal inauguration ’). The series of stories used at the Aśvamedha (‘horse sacrifice’) during the year while the sacrificial horse is allowed to wander at its will is called the ‘cyclic’ (pari-plavam). The Aitareya Brāhmana mentions also Akhyāna-vids (‘ men versed in tales’), who tell the Sauparna legend, elsewhere known as a Vyākhyāna. Yāska, in the Nirukta, frequently uses the term* sometimes in a pregnant sense as denoting the doctrine of the Aitihāsikas or traditional interpreters of the Rigveda.
āṅgirasa Angirasa is a title denoting a claim to be of the family of Añgiras, borne by many sages and teachers, like Krsna, Ajīgarti, Cyavana, Ayāsya, Samvarta, Sudhanvan, etc.
āṇi This word, which is found in the Rigveda,but rarely later, appears to be best taken with Roth and Zimmer4 as denoting the part of the axle of the chariot which is inserted into the nave of the wheel. Sāyana renders it as lynch-pin, and this sense is accepted by Leumann, being apparently also found in the Nirukta. In one place in the Rigveda the word appears by synecdoche to denote the whole chariot, but the passage is, according to Geldner, completely obscure.
aṇḍīka Is a term found in the Atharvaveda denoting an edible plant, apparently with fruit or leaves of egg shape (ānda), akin to the lotus.
ātā The framework of the door of a house appears to be denoted by the plural of this word in the Rigveda (though in all passages there it is used only by synecdoche of the doors of the sky), and in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. Zimmer compares the Latin antae, to which the word etymologically corresponds.
āmalaka (Neuter), a common word later, is found in the Chāndogya Upanisad, denoting the Myrobalan fruit. C/. Amalā.
āyogava Marutta Avi-ksita, the Ayogava king, is men­tioned as a sacrificer in the śatapatha Brāhmana, where also a Gāthā (‘ stanza ’) celebrating his sacrifice is cited. Cf. Ayogū.
ārjīka And Arjīkīyā2 (masc.), Arjīkīyā3 (fem.).—The two masculine forms probably denote the people or land, while the feminine word designates the river of the land. Hillebrandt locates the country in or near Kaśmir, as Arrian mentions Arsaces, brother of Abhisares, who presumably took his name from his people, and Abhisāra bordered on Kaśmir. Pischel accepts Arjīka as designating a country, which he, however, thinks cannot be identified. But neither Roth nor Zimmer recognizes the word as a proper name. On the other hand, all authorities agree in regarding Arjīkīyā as the name of ariver. Roth9 does so in one passage10 only, elsewhere seeing references to Soma vessels; but it seems necessary to treat the word alike in all passages containing it. Zimmer does not locate the river, and Pischel denies the possibility of its identification. Hillebrandt thinks it may have been the Upper Indus, or the Vitastā (the Jhelum), or some other stream. Grassmann follows Yāska in identifying it with the the Vipāś (Beás), but this is rendered improbable by the position of the name in the hymn in praise of rivers (nadī- stuti). Brunnhofer identifies it with the Arghesan, a tributary of the Arghanab.
ārtava This expression denotes a portion of the year consisting of more seasons than one. But it does not bear the exact sense of half-year,’ as suggested by Zimmer. This is shown by the fact that it occurs regularly in the plural, not in the dual. In the Atharvaveda it occurs between seasons and years (hāyana), but also in the combinations, ‘seasons, Artavas, months, years’; half-months, months, Artavas, seasons’ ‘ seasons, Artavas, months, half-months, days and nights, day ’;and in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā ‘months, seasons, Artavas, the year,’ or simply with the seasons.
āla Appears to mean ‘ weed ’ in the Atharvaveda, and to form part of three other words, denoting, according to Sāyana, grass-creepers (sasya-vallī)—viz., Alasālā, Silañjālā, and Nīlā- galasāla. Whitney, however, does not think that the words can be given any determinate sense.
āśarīka appears to denote a disease in a hymn of the Atharvaveda celebrating the powers of the Jañgida plant. Zimmer thinks that it merely denotes the pain in the limbs accompanying fever. Whitney suggests taking the word as merely an epithet.
āśīviṣa occurring only in the Aitareya Brāhmana, is understood by Roth as designating a particular kind of snake, and perhaps means ‘ having poison (visa) in its fangs.
āśrama (‘resting-place’) does not occur in any Upanisad which can be regarded as pre-Buddhistic. Its earliest use as denoting the stages of a Hindu’s life is found in the śvetāśvatara Upanisad. In one passage of the Chāndogya Upanisad reference is made only to the Brahmacārin and householder, to whom, as a reward for study, the procreation of children, the practice of Yoga, abstention from injury to living creatures, and sacrifices, freedom from transmigration are promised. In another place three states are contemplated, but not as con­secutive. The Brahmacārin may either become a householder or become an anchorite, or remain in his teacher’s house all his life. Similarly, reference is made to the death of the anchorite in the forest, or the sacrifice in the village. In contrast with all three is the man who stands fast in Brahman (Brahma- samstha). In the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad the knowerof the Atman is contrasted with those who (1) study, or (2) sacrifice and give alms, or (3) are anchorites, and in another place with those who sacrifice and make benefactions, and those who practice asceticism. This position of superiority to, and distinction from, the Aśramas became later a fourth Aśrama, the Grhastha, or householder, who was in the second stage, being required to pass not only into the stage of Vānaprastha, but also that of the Sannyāsin (Bhiksu, Parivrājaka). The first stage, that of the Brahmacārin, was still obligatory, but was no longer allowed to remain a permanent one, as was originally possible.
āśvatara āśvi These two expressions are used as patronymics of Budila, denoting, according to Sāyana, that he was son of Asva, and descendant of Aśvatara.
itihāsa As a kind of literature, is repeatedlymentioned along with Purāna in the later texts of the Vedic period. The earliest reference to both occurs in the late fifteenth book of the Atharvaveda. Itihāsa then appears in the Satapatha Brāhmana, the Jaiminīya, Brhadāranyaka, and Chāndogya Upanisads. In the latter it is expressly declared with Purāna to make up the fifth Veda, while the Sāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra makes the Itihāsa a Veda and the Purāna a Veda. The Itihāsa-veda and the Purāna-veda appear also in the Gopatha Brāhmana, while the śatapatha identifies the Itihāsa as well as the Purāna with the Veda. In one passage Anvākhyāna and Itihāsa are distinguished as different classes of works, but the exact point of distinction is obscure; probably the former was supplementary. The Taittirīya Áranyaka mentions Itihāsas and Purānas in the plural. There is nothing to show in the older literature what dis¬tinction there was, if any, between Itihāsa and Purāna; and the late literature, which has been elaborately examined by Sieg, yields no consistent result. Geldner has conjectured that there existed a single work, the Itihāsa-purāna, a collection. of the old legends of all sorts, heroic, cosmogonic, genealogical; but though a work called Itihāsa, and another called Purāna, were probably known to Patañjali, the inaccuracy of Geldner’s view is proved by the fact that Yāska shows no sign of having known any such work. To him the Itihāsa may be a part of the Mantra literature itself, Aitihāsikas being merely people who interpret the Rigveda by seeing in it legends where others see myths. The fact, however, that the use of the compound form is rare, and that Yāska regularly has Itihāsa, not Itihāsa-purāna, is against the theory of there ever having been one work. The relation of Itihāsa to Akhyāna is also uncertain. Sieg considers that the words Itihāsa and Purāna referred to the great body of mythology, legendary history, and cosmogonic legend available to the Vedic poets, and roughly classed as a fifth Veda, though not definitely and finally fixed. Thus, Anvākhyānas, Anuvyākhyānas, and Vyākhyānas could arise, and separate Ákhyānas could still exist outside the cycle, while an Akhyāna could also be a part of the Itihāsa-purāna. He also suggests that the word Akhyāna has special reference to the form of the narrative. Oldenberg, following Windisch, and followed by Geldner, Sieg, and others, has found in the Akhyāna form a mixture of prose and verse, alternating as the narrative was concerned with the mere accessory parts of the tale, or with the chief points, at which the poetic form was naturally produced to correspond with the stress of the emotion. This theory has been severely criticized by Hertel and von Schroeder. These scholars, in accordance with older suggestions of Max Muller and Levi, see in the so-called Ákhyāna hymns of the Rigveda, in which Oldenberg finds actual specimens of the supposed literary genus, though the prose has been lost, actual remains of ritual dramas. Elsewhere it has been suggested that the hymns in question are merely literary dialogues.
ibha Is a word of somewhat doubtful sense and inter­pretation. It is found only in the Samhitās, and especially in the Rigveda. According to Roth and Ludwig the sense is ‘retainer,’ and Zimmer thinks that it includes not only dependants and servants, but also the royal family and the youthful cadets of the chief families. In the opinion of Pischel and Geldner® it denotes ‘elephant.’ This view is supported by the authority of the commentators Sāyana and Mahīdhara; the Nirukta, too, gives ‘elephant’ as one of the senses of the word. Megasthenes and Nearchos tell us that elephants were a royal prerogative, and the derivative word Ibhya may thus be naturally explained as denoting merely ‘ rich ’ (lit., ‘ possessor of elephants ’).
iṣu Is the usual name for ‘arrow’ from the Rigveda onwards. Other names are Sarya, Sārī, and Bāna. In the hymn of the Rigveda, which gives a catalogue of armour, two kinds of arrows are distinctly referred to : the one is poisoned (ālāktā), and has a head of horn (ruru-śīrsnī); the other is copper-, bronze-, or iron-headed (ayo-mukham). Poisoned (1digdhā) arrows are also referred to in the Atharvaveda. The arrows were feathered. The parts of an arrow are enumerated in the Atharvaveda as the shaft (śalya), the feather-socket (parna-dhi), the point (śrñga), the neck of the point in which the shaft is fixed (kulmala), and the Apaskambha and Apāstha, which are of more doubtful significance. In the Aitareya Brāhmana6 the parts of an arrow are given as the point (anīka), the śalya, tejana, and the feathers (parnani), where śalya and tejana must apparently mean the upper and lower parts of the shaft, since it is reasonable to suppose that the arrow is described as a whole consecutively. So in the Atharvaveda the arrow of Kāma is described as having feathers, a shaft (śalya), and a firm fastening (kulmala). The arrow was shot from the ear, and so is described in the Rigveda as ‘ having the ear for its place of birth.
ugra In one passage of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad seems to have a technical force, denoting ‘ man in authority,’ or according to Max Muller’s rendering, ‘policeman.’ Roth compares a passage in the Rigveda, where, however, the word has simply the general sense of ‘ mighty man.’ Bǒhtlingk, in his rendering of the Upaniṣad, treats the word as merely adjectival.
uddālaka aruṇi Uddālaka, son of Aruna, is one of the most prominent teachers of the Vedic period. He was a Brāh­mana of the Kurupañcālas, according to the śatapatha Brāh­mana. This statement is confirmed by the fact that he was teacher of Proti Kausurubindi of Kauśāmbī, and that his son Svetaketu is found disputing among the Pañcālas. He was a pupil of Aruna, his father, as well as of Patañcala Kāpya, of Madra, while he was the teacher of the famous Yājñavalkya Vājasaneya and of Kausītaki, although the former is represented elsewhere as having silenced him. He overcame in argument Prācīnayogya śauceya, and apparently also Bhadrasena Ajāta- śatrava, though the text here seems to read the name as Arani. He was a Gautama, and is often alluded to as such. As an authority on questions of ritual and philosophy, he is repeatedly referred to by his patronymic name Aruni in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, the Chāndogya Upanisad, and occasionally in the Aitareya, the Kausītaki, and the Sadvimśa Brāhmanas, as well as the Kausītaki Upanisad. In the Maitrāyanī Samhitā he is not mentioned, according to Geldner, but only his father Aruna; his name does not occur, according to Weber, in the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, but in the Kāthaka Samhitā he is, as Aruni, known as a contemporary of Divodāsa Bhaimaseni, and in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana he is mentioned as serving Vāsistha Caikitāneya. In the Taittirīya tradition he seldom appears. There is an allusion in the Taittirīya Samhitā to Kusurubinda Auddālaki, and according to the Taittirīya Brāhmana, Naciketas was a son of Vājaśravasa Gautama, who is made out to be Uddālaka by Sāyana. But the episode of Naciketas, being somewhat unreal, cannot be regarded as of historical value in proving relationship. Aruna is known to the Taittirīya Samhitā. A real son of Uddālaka was the famous śvetaketu, who is expressly reported by Apastamba to have been in his time an Avara or later authority, a statement of importance for the date of Aruni.
uddhi Denotes some part of a chariot, probably the seat, but, according to Roth, the frame resting on the axle.
upajihvikā Are all forms of one word denoting a species of ant. To these ants is attributed in the Atharvaveda the power of penetrating to water which possesses curative properties. They were accordingly used in all sorts of spells against poisoning. The belief in their healing qualities was no doubt due to the well-known properties of the earth of ant-heaps which contains their water.
upadhi occurs once each in the Rigveda and the Athar­vaveda, in conjunction with Pradhi, denoting part of the wheel of a chariot. It is impossible to decide exactly what part is meant. Roth, Zimmer and Bloomfield, agree in thinking that the word denotes the spokes collectively. Whitney, considering this improbable, prefers to see in it the designation of a solid wheel, Pradhi being presumably the rim and Upadhi the rest. Other possibilities are that the Upadhi is a rim beneath the felly, or the felly itself as compared with the tire (ordinarily Pavi).
upaniṣad in the Brāhmanas normally denotes the secret sense ’ of some word or text, sometimes the * secret rule ’ of the mendicant. But in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad it is already used in the plural as the designation of a class of writings, no doubt actually existing and similar to the Upanisads in the nature of their subject-matter and its treatment. Similarly the sections of the Taittirīya Upanisad end with the words ily upanisad. The Aitareya Aranyaka commences its third part with the title The Upanisad of the Samhitā/ and the title occurs also in the Sāñkhāyana Aranyaka. The exact primary sense of the expression is doubtful. The natural derivation, adopted by Max Muller and usual ever since, makes the word mean firstly a session of pupils, hence secret doctrine, and secondly the title of a work on secret doctrine. Oldenberg, however, traces the use of the word to the earlier sense of ‘worship’ {cf. upāsana). Deussen considers the original sense to have been ‘secret word,’ next ‘secret text,’ and then ‘ secret import,’ but this order of meaning is im¬probable. Hopkins8 suggests that Upanisad denotes a sub¬sidiary treatise, but this sense does not account naturally for the common use as ‘ secret meaning,’ which is far more frequent than any other.
upamit occurs twice in the Rigveda, and once in the Atharvaveda, as the designation of some part of a house. The passages in the Rigveda leave little doubt that the word means an upright pillar. As it is, in the Atharvaveda, coupled with Parimit and Pratimit, the conclusion is natural that the latter word denotes the beams supporting the Upamit, presumably by leaning against it at an angle, while Parimit denotes the beams connecting the Upamits horizontally. These interpretations, however, can only be conjectural. See also Grha.
ubhayādant Having incisors in both jaws,’ is an expression employed to distinguish, among domestic animals, the horse,the ass, etc., from the goat, the sheep, and cattle. The distinction occurs in a late hymn of the Rigveda, and is several times alluded to in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas. In one passage of the Taittirīya Samhitā man is classed with the horse as ubhciyā-dant. The opposite is anyato-dant, * having incisors in one jaw only,’ a term regularly applied to cattle, the eight incisors of which are, in fact, limited to the lower jaw. The ass is styled ubhayā-dant in the Atharvaveda. In one passage of the Atharvaveda, however, the epithet is applied to a ram ; but the sense here is that a marvel occurs, just as in the Rigveda a ram destroys a lioness. Bloomfield suggests in the Atharvaveda passage another reading which would mean ‘ horse.’ A parallel division of animals is that of the Taittirīya and Vājasaneyi Samhitās into * whole-hoofed ’ (eka-śapha) and ‘ small ’ (ksudra). Zimmer seeks to show from the Greek άμψώδοντα and the Latin ambidens that the Indo-European was familiar with the division of the five sacrificial animals into the two classes of man and horse on the one hand, and cattle, sheep, and goats on the other. But this supposition is not necessary.
urvarā Is with Ksetra the regular expression, from the Rigveda onwards, denoting a piece of ‘ploughland’ (άρουρα). Fertile (apnasvatī) fields are spoken of as well as waste fields (ārtanā). Intensive cultivation by means of irrigation is clearly referred to both in the Rigveda and in the Atharva­veda, while allusion is also made to the use of manure. The fields (iksetra) were carefully measured according to the Rigveda. This fact points clearly to individual ownership in land for the plough, a conclusion supported by the reference of Apālā, in a hymn of the Rigveda, to her father's field (urvarā), which is put on the same level as his head of hair as a personal possession. Consistent with this are the epithets ‘winning fields ’ (urvarā-sā, urvarā-jit, ksetra-sā), while ‘ lord of fields ’ used of a god is presumably a transfer of a human epithet (urvarā-pati). Moreover, fields are spoken of in the same connexion as children, and the conquest of fields (ksetrāni sam-ji) is often referred to in the Samhitās. Very probably, as suggested by Pischel, the ploughland was bounded by grass land (perhaps denoted by Khila, Khilya) which in all likelihood would be joint property on the analogy of property elsewhere. There is no trace in Vedic literature of communal property in the sense of ownership by a community of any sort, nor is there mention of communal cultivation. Individual property in land seems also presumed later on. In the Chāndogya Upanisad the things given as examples of wealth include fields and houses («ūyatanāni). The Greek evidence also points to individual ownership. The precise nature of the ownership is of course not determined by the expression ‘ individual ownership.’ The legal relationship of the head of a family and its members is nowhere explained, and can only be conjectured (see Pitr). Very often a family may have lived together with undivided shares in the land. The rules about the inheritance of landed property do not occur before the Sūtras. In the Satapatha Brāhmana the giving of land as a fee to priests is mentioned, but with reproof: land was no doubt even then a very special kind of property, not lightly to be given away or parted with. On the relation of the owners of land to the king and others see Grāma; on its cultivation see Krsi.
ulmukāvakṣayaṇa Is an expression that occurs several times in the śatapatha Brāhmana, signifying a ‘means of extinguishing (ava-ksayana) a firebrand,’ or possibly more pre­cisely ‘ tongs.’ Compare Añgārāvaksayana.
ṛṇa ‘debt,’ is repeatedly mentioned from the Rigveda onwards, having apparently been a normal condition among the Vedic Indians. Reference is often made to debts con­tracted at dicing. To pay off a debt was called rnam sam-nī, Allusion is made to debt contracted without intention of payment. The result of non-payment of a debt might be very serious: the dicer might fall into slavery. Debtors, like other male¬factors, such as thieves, were frequently bound by their creditors to posts (dru-pada),β presumably as a means of putting pressure on them or their friends to pay up the debt. The amount of interest payable is impossible to make out. In one passage of the Rigveda and Atharvaveda an eighth (sapha) and a sixteenth (kalā) are mentioned as paid, but it is quite uncertain whether interest or an instalment of the principal is meant. Presumably the interest would be paid in kind. How far a debt was a heritable interest or obligation does not appear. The Kauśika Sūtra regards three hymns of the Atharvaveda9 as applicable to the occasion of the payment of a debt after the creditor’s decease. For the payment of a debt by a relation of the debtor the evidence is still less clear. Zimmer11 thinks that payments of debt were made in the presence of witnesses who could be appealed to in case of dispute. This conclusion is, however, very uncertain, resting solely on a vague verse in the Atharvaveda.
ṛtu ‘Season,’ is a term repeatedly mentioned from the Rigveda onwards. Three seasons of the year are often alluded to, but the names are not usually specified. In one passage of the Rigveda spring (vasanta), summer (grīsma), and autumn (sarad) are given. The Rigveda knows also the rainy season (prā-vrs) and the winter (hitnā, hemanta). A more usual division (not found in the Rigveda is into five seasons,vasanta, grīsma, varsā, sarad, hemanta-śiśira; but occasionally the five are otherwise divided, varsā-śarad being made one season. Sometimes six seasons are reckoned, hemanta and śiśira being divided, so that the six seasons can be made parallel to the twelve months of the year. A still more artificial arrangement makes the seasons seven, possibly by reckoning the intercalary month as a season, as Weber and Zimmer hold, or more probably because of the predilection for the number seven, as Roth suggests. Occasionally the word rtu is applied to the months. The last season, according to the Satapatha Brāhmana, is hemanta. The growth of the division of the seasons from three to five is rightly explained by Zimmer as indicating the advance of the Vedic Indians towards the east. It is not Rigvedic, but dominates the later Samhitās. Traces of an earlier division of the year into winter and summer do not appear clearly in the Rigveda, where the appropriate words himā and samā are merely general appellations of the year, and where śarad is commoner than either as a designation of the year, because it denotes the harvest, a time of overwhelming importance to a young agricultural people. The division of the year in one passage of the Atharvaveda into two periods of six months is merely formal, and in no way an indication of old tradition.
ṛtvij Is the regular term for ‘ sacrificial priest,’ covering all the different kinds of priests employed at the sacrifice. It appears certain that all the priests were Brāhmanas. The number of priests officiating at a sacrifice with different functions was almost certainly seven. The oldest list, occurring in one passage of the Rigveda, enumerates their names as Hotr, Potr, Nestr, Agnīdh, Praśāstr, Adhvaryu, Brahman, besides the institutor of the sacrifice. The number of seven probably explains the phrase ‘ seven Hotrs ’ occurring so frequently in the Rigveda, and is most likely connected with that of the mythical ‘ seven Rsis.’ It may be compared with the eight of Iran. The chief of the seven priests was the Hotr, who was the singer of the hymns, and in the early times their composer also. The Adhvaryu performed the practical work of the sacrifice, and accompanied his performance with muttered formulas of prayer and deprecation of evil. His chief assist­ance was derived from the Agnīdh, the two performing the smaller sacrifices without other help in practical matters. The Praśāstr, Upavaktr, or Maitrāvaruna, as he was variously called, appeared only in the greater sacrifices as giving in­structions to the Hotr, and as entrusted with certain litanies. The Potr, Nestr, and Brahman belonged to the ritual of the Soma sacrifice, the latter being later styled Brāhmanāc- chamsin to distinguish him from the priest who in the later ritual acted as supervisor. Other priests referred to in the Rigveda are the singers of Sāmans or chants, the Udgātr and his assistant the Prastotr, while the Pratihartr, another assistant, though not mentioned, may quite well have been known. Their functions undoubtedly represent a later stage of the ritual, the development of the elaborate series of sacrificial calls on the one hand, and on the other the use of long hymns addressed to the Soma plant. Other priests, such as the Achāvāka, the Grāvastut, the Unnetr, and the Subrahmanyan were known later in the developed ritual of the Brāhmanas, making in all sixteen priests, who were technically and artificially classed in four groups : Hotr, Maitrāvaruna, Achāvāka, and Grāvastut; Udgātr, Prastotr, Pratihartr, and Subrahmanya; Adhvaryu, Pratisthātr, Nestr, and Unnetr; Brahman, Brāhmanācchamsin, Agnīdhra, and Poty. Apart from all these priests was the Purohita, who was the spiritual adviser of the king in all his religious duties. Geldner holds that, as a rule, when the Purohita actually took part in one of the great sacrifices he played the part of the Brahman, in the sense of the priest who superintended the whole conduct of the ritual. He sees evidence for this view in a considerable number of passages of the Rigveda and the later literature, where Purohita and Brahman were combined or identified. Oldenberg, however, more correctly points out that in the earlier period this was not the case: the Purohita was then normally the Hotr, the singer of the most important of the songs; it was only later that the Brahman, who in the capacity of overseer of the rite is not known to the Rigveda, acquired the function of general supervision hitherto exercised by the Purohita, who was ex officio skilled in the use of magic and in guarding the king by spells which could also be applied to guarding the sacrifice from evil demons. With this agrees the fact that Agni, pre-eminently the Purohita of men, is also a Hotr, and that the two divine Hotrs of the Aprī hymns are called the divine Purohitas. On the other hand, the rule is explicitly recognized in the Aitareya Brāhmana that a Ksatriya should have a Brahman as a Purohita; and in the Taittirīya Samhitā the Vasistha family have a special claim to the office of Brahman-Purohita, perhaps an indi¬cation that it was they who first as Purohitas exchanged the function of Hotys for that of Brahmans in the sacrificial ritual. The sacrifices were performed for an individual in the great majority of cases. The Sattra, or prolonged sacrificial session, was, however, performed for the common benefit of the priests taking part in it, though its advantageous results could only be secured if all the members actually engaged were consecrated (ιdīksita). Sacrifices for a people as such were unknown. The sacrifice for the king was, it is true, intended to bring about the prosperity of his people also; but it is characteristic that the prayer16 for welfare includes by name only the priest and the king, referring to the people indirectly in connexion with the prosperity of their cattle and agriculture.
ṛṣi ‘Seer,’ is primarily a composer of hymns to the gods. In the Rigveda reference is often made to previous singers and to contemporary poets. Old poems were inherited and refurbished by members of the composer’s family, but the great aim of the singers was to produce new and approved hymns. It is not till the time of the Brāhmanas that the composition of hymns appears to have fallen into disuse, though poetry was still produced, for example, in the form of Gāthās, which the priests were required to compose them¬selves and sing to the accompaniment of the lute at the sacrifice. The Rsi was the most exalted of Brāhmanas, and his skill, which is often compared with that of a carpenter, was regarded as heaven-sent. The Purohita, whether as Hotr or as Brahman (see Rtvij), was a singer. No doubt the Rsis were normally attached to the houses of the great, the petty kings of Vedic times, or the nobles of the royal household. Nor need it be doubted that occasionally the princes them¬selves essayed poetry: a Rājanyarsi, the prototype of the later Rājarsi or * royal seer,’ who appears in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, though he must be mythical as Oldenberg points out, indicates that kings cultivated poetry just as later they engaged in philosophic disputations. Normally, how¬ever, the poetical function is Brahminical, Viśāmitra and others not being kings, but merely Brāhmanas, in the Rigveda. In the later literature the Rsis are the poets of the hymns preserved in the Samhitās, a Rsi being regularly16 cited when a Vedic Samhitā is quoted. Moreover, the Rsis become the representatives of a sacred past, and are regarded as holy sages, whose deeds are narrated as if they were the deeds of gods or Asuras. They are typified by a particular group of seven, mentioned four times in the Rigveda, several times in the later Samhitās, and enumerated in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as Gotama, Bharadvāja, Viśvāmitra, Jamadagni, Vasistha, Kaśyapa, and Atri. In the Rigveda itself Kutsa, Atri, Rebha, Agastya, the Kuśikas, Vasistha, Vyaśva, and others appear as Rsis; and the Atharvaveda contains a long list, including Añgiras, Agasti, Jamadagni, Atri, Kaśyapa, Vasistha, Bharadvāja, Gavisthira, Viśvāmitra, Kutsa, Kaksīvant, Kanva, Medhātithi, Triśoka, Uśanā Kāvya, Gotama, and Mudgala. Competition among the bards appears to have been known. This is one of the sides of the riddle poetry (Brahmodya) that forms a distinctive feature of the Vedic ritual of the Aśva¬medha, or horse sacrifice. In the Upanisad period such competitions were quite frequent. The most famous was that of Yājñavalkya, which was held at the court of Janaka of Videha, as detailed in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, and which was a source of annoyance to Ajātaśatru of Kāśī. According to an analogous practice, a Brāhmana, like Uddālaka Aruni, would go about disputing with all he came across, and compete with them for a prize of money.
aitihāsika This term was applied to the people who explained the Vedic hymns by treating them as legendary history (Itihāsa), as Sieg shows by the passages of the Nirukta, where their views are opposed to those of the Nairuktas, who relied rather on etymology. Sieg also seems right in finding them in the Naidānas of the Nirukta: it is possible that their textbook was called the Nidāna.
aiṣāvīra The śatapatha Brāhmana once refers to the Aisā-vīras as officiating at a sacrifice, with the implication that they were bad sacrificers. Sāyana regards the word as a proper name (‘ descendants of Esavīra ’), denoting the members of a despised family. But Roth may be right in explaining the word both in the passage mentioned above and elsewhere as meaning ‘ weak ’or ‘ insignificant man.
odana Is a common expression denoting a mess, usually of grain cooked with milk (ksīra-pākam odanam). Special varieties are mentioned, such as the * milk-mess ’ (ksīraudana)
audanya ‘Descendant of Udanya or Odana,’ is the patro­nymic in the śatapatha Brāhmana of Mundibha, who is credited with inventing an expiation for the crime of slaying a Brahmin. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana the name appears in the form of Audanyava.
kaṃsa A word denoting a ‘ pot or vessel of metal,’ occurs in the Atharvaveda and elsewhere.
kakṣīvant Is the name of a Rsi mentioned frequently in the Rigveda, and occasionally elsewhere. He appears to have been a descendant of a female slave named Uśij. He must have been a Pajra by family, as he bears the epithet Pajriya, and his descendants are called Pajras. In a hymn of the Rigveda he celebrates the prince Svanaya Bhāvya, who dwelt on the Sindhu (Indus), as having bestowed magnificent gifts on him ; and the list of Nārāśamsas (‘ Praises of Heroes ’) in the Sāñkhāyana Srauta Sūtra mentions one by Kaksīvant Auśija in honour of Svanaya Bhāvayavya. In his old age he obtained as a wife the maiden Vrcayā. He appears to have lived to be a hundred, the typical length of life in the Vedas. He seems always to be thought of as belonging to the past, and in a hymn of the fourth book of the Rigveda he is mentioned with the semi-mythical Kutsa and Kavi Uśanas. Later, also, he is a teacher of bygone days. In Vedic literature he is not connected with Dīrghatamas beyond being once mentioned along with him in a hymn of the Rigveda. But in the Brhaddevatā he appears as a son of Dīrghatamas by a slave woman, Uśij. Weber14 considers that Kaksīvant was originally a Ksatriya, not a Brāhmana, quoting in favour of this view the fact that he is mentioned beside kings like Para Atnāra, Vītahavya Srāyasa, and Trasadasyu Paurukutsya. But that these are all kings is an unnecessary assumption : these persons are mentioned in the passages in question undoubtedly only as famous men of old, to whom are ascribed mythical sacrificial performances, and who thus gained numerous sons.
kaṅka Is the name of a bird, usually taken to mean ‘ heron,’ but, at any rate in some passages, rather denoting some bird of prey. It first appears in the Yajurveda Samhitās.
kaṭa Denotes a ‘ mat,’ which was ‘made of reeds’ (vaitasa). The maker of mats from reeds (bidala-kārī) is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, and the process of splitting reeds for the purpose is referred to in the Atharvaveda.
kaparda ‘braid,’ Kapardin, * wearing braids.’ These words refer to the Vedic custom of wearing the hair in braids or plaits. Thus a maiden is said to have her hair in four plaits (catus-kapardā), and the goddess Sinīvālī is described as * wear­ing fair braids ’ (;sitrkapardā). Men also wore their hair in this style, for both Rudra and Pūsan are said to have done so, while the Vasisthas were distinguished by wearing their hair in a plait on the right (daksinatas-kaparda). The opposite was to wear one’s hair ‘ plain ’ (pulasti). See also Opaśa.
kapi ‘Monkey,’ occurs only once in the Rigveda with reference to Vrsā-kapi, the ‘ Man-ape,’ in the dialogue of Indra and Indrānī in the presence of Vrsākapi. There the ape is termed the ‘ tawny ’ (harita). In the Atharvaveda the monkey is mentioned several times as hairy, and an enemy of dogs. That the ape was tamed appears from its position in the Vrsākapi hymn, and from the mention, in the Taittirīya Sam­hitā, of a Mayu as belonging to the forest. See also Mayu, Markata, and Purusa Hastin.
kapivana bhauvāyana Is mentioned as a teacher in the Yajurveda Samhitās and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. A rite called Kapivana’s Dvyaha (‘ceremony lasting two days’) is also referred to in the Kātyāyana śrauta Sūtra.
kaśyapa A word denoting tortoise, occurs in the Atharva­veda and often later.
kārṣman A word meaning literally ‘ furrow,’ and found only in the Rigveda, is the designation of the goal in the chariot race. The competitor probably turned round it and came back to the starting-place.
kāśi The name Kāśi denotes (in the plural1) the people of Kāśi (Benares), and Kāśya, the king of Kāśi. The Satapatha Brāhmana tells of Dhrtarāstra, king of Kāśi, who was defeated by Satānīka Sātrājita, with the result that the Kāśis, down to the time of the Brāhmana, gave up the kindling of the sacred fire. Sātrājita was a Bharata. We hear also of Ajātaśatru as a king of Kāśi; and no doubt Bhadrasena Ajātaśatrava, a contemporary of Uddālaka, was also a king of Kāśi. The Kāśis and Videhas were closely connected, as was natural in view of their geographical position. The compound name Kāśi-Videha occurs in the Kausītaki Upanisad; in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad Gārgī describes Ajātaśatru as either a Kāśi or a Videha king. The Sāñkhāyana Srauta Sūtra mentions one Purohita as acting for the kings of Kāśi, Kosala, and Videha; and the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra mentions Kāśi and Videha in close proximity. Weber,8 indeed, throws out the suggestion that the Kāśis and the Videhas together con¬stitute the Uśīnaras, whose name is very rare in Vedic literature. As Kosala and Videha were in close connexion, Kāśi and Kosala are found combined in the compound name Kāśi- Kauśalyas of the Gopatha Brāhmana. Though Kāśi is a late word, it is quite possible that the town is older, as the river Varanāvatī referred to in the Athar¬vaveda may be connected with the later Vārānasī (Benares).It is significant that while the Kāśis, Kosalas, and Videhas were united, any relations which the Kuru-Pañcala peoples may have had with them were hostile. It is a fair conclusion that between these two great groups of peoples there did exist some political conflict as well as probably a difference of culture in some degree. The śatapatha Brāhmana,11 in the story of the advance of Aryan civilization over Kosala and Videha, preserves a clear tradition of this time, and a piece of evidence that in the Kuru-Pañcāla country lay the real centre of the Brāhmana culture (see also Kuru-Pañcāla). That the Kosala-Videhas were originally settlers of older date than the Kuru-Pañcālas is reasonably obvious from their geographical position, but the true Brāhmana culture appears to have been brought to them from the Kuru-Pañcala country. It is very probable that the East was less Aryan than the West, and that it was less completely reduced under Brahmin spiritual supremacy, as the movement of Buddhism was Eastern, and the Buddhist texts reveal a position in which the Ksatriyas rank above Brāhmanas. With this agrees the fact that the later Vedic texts display towards the people of Magadha a marked antipathy, which may be reasonably explained by that people’s lack of orthodoxy, and which may perhaps be traced as far back as the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. It is, of course, possible that the Kosala-Videhas and Kāśis actually were merely offshoots of the tribes later known as the Kuru-Pañcālas, and that they by reason of distance and less complete subjugation of the aborigines lost their Brahminical culture. This hypothesis, however, appears less likely, though it might be supported by a literal inter-pretation of the legend of the Aryan migration in the śatapatha Brāhmana.
kīlāla A word denoting a ‘ sweet drink,’ is found in all the later Samhitās, but not in the Rigveda. As the Surā-kāra, ‘maker of Surā,’ is dedicated in the list of victims in the human sacrifice (Purusamedha) to Kīlāla, it must have been a drink of somewhat the same nature as the Surā itself, possibly, as Zimmer suggests, a kind of rum.
kutsa Is the name of a hero frequently mentioned in the Rigveda, which, however, gives practically no information about him, for he was no doubt already a figure of the mythic past. He is several times called Arjuneya, ‘descendant of Arjuna,’ and is usually associated with Indra in the exploit of defeating the demon Susna and winning the sun. He is said to have defeated Smadibha, Tugra, and the Vetasus, but, on the other hand, he is several times mentioned with Atithigva and Ayu as being vanquished by Indra, his defeat in one passage being attributed to Tūrvayāna. Elsewhere he appears with Atithigva as a friend of Indra’s. In the later literature he is seldom mentioned except in connexion with the myth of his binding Indra, which is found in the Brāhmanas, and which is based on an obscure verse in the Rigveda. The Kutsas, or descendants of Kutsa, are mentioned in one hymn of the Rigveda.
kumba Is mentioned with Opaśa and Kurīra as an ornament of women’s hair in the Atharvaveda. Geldner thinks that, like those two words, it originally meant ‘horn,’ but this is very doubtful. Indian tradition simply regards the term as denoting a female adornment connected with the dressing of the hair.
kuyavāc (‘ evil-speaking ’) appears in one passage of the Rigveda to denote a demon slain by Indra, probably as a personification of the barbarian opponents of the Aryans. The expression mrdhra-vāc (‘ speaking insultingly ’) is similarly used of barbarians in the Rigveda.
kula As an uncompounded word, Kula does not occur before the period of the Brāhmanas. It denotes the*home ’ or ‘ house of the family,’ and by metonymy the family itself, as connected with the home. The Kula-pā (lit. ‘ house protector ’), or chief of the family, is mentioned in the Rigveda as inferior to and attendant on the Vrājapati in war, the latter being perhaps the leader of the village contingent of the clan. In the Atharvaveda a girl is ironically called Kulapā, because she is left without a husband in the world, and has only Yama (the god of death) for a spouse. The use of the term Kula points clearly to a system of individual families, each no doubt consisting of several members under the headship of the father or eldest brother, whose Kula the dwelling is. As distinct from Gotra, Kula seems to mean the family in the narrower sense of the members who still live in one house, the undivided family. Cf Grha, Grāma, Jana, Viś.
kulāla The word denoting a ‘potter,’ occurs in the Sata- rudriya, or litany to Rudra in the Yajurveda.
kuliśa ‘ axe,’ is mentioned in the Rigveda as used for the making of chariots,and also in warfare, while the Atharvaveda refers to its employment in cutting down trees.
kuśa A word later denoting the ‘sacred grass’ (Poa cyno- suroides), is taken by the St. Petersburg Dictionary to mean simply ‘ grass ’ in the passages of the Satapatha Brāhmana in which it occurs.
kūdī Written also Kūtī in the manuscripts, occurs in the Atharvaveda and the Kauśika Sūtra denoting a twig—identi­fied by the scholiast with Badarī, the jujube—which was tied to the bodies of the dead to efface their traces, presumably in order to render the return of the spirit to the old home difficult.
kūpa occurs in the Rigveda and later literature denoting an artificial hollow in the earth, or pit. In some cases they must have been deep, as Trita in the myth is said to have fallen into one from which he could not escape unaided.
kūrca Is found in the Taittirīya Samhitā and later de­noting a bundle of grass used as a seat. In one passage of the śatapatha Brāhmana a golden Kūrca is referred to.
kṛṣi ‘ploughing.’ The cultivation of the soil was no doubt known to the Indians before they separated from the Iranians, as is indicated by the identity of the expressions yavam krs and sasya in the Rigveda with yao karesh and hahya in the Avesta, referring to the ploughing in of the seed and to the grain which resulted. But it is not without significance that the expressions for ploughing occur mainly in the first and tenth books of the Rigveda, and only rarely in the so-called ‘ family ’ books (ii.-vii.). In the Atharvaveda Prthī Vainya is credited with the origination of ploughing, and even in the Rigveda the Aśvins are spoken of as concerned with the sowing of grain by means of the plough. In the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas ploughing is repeatedly referred to. Even in the Rigveda there is clear proof of the importance attached to agriculture. In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana the Vrātyas, Hindus without the pale of Brahminism, are de¬scribed as not cultivating the soil.The plough land was called Urvarā or Ksetra; manure (Sakan, Karīsa) was used, and irrigation was practised (Khani- tra). The plough (Lāñgala, Sira) was drawn by oxen, teams of six, eight, or even twelve being employed. The operations of agriculture are neatly summed up in the śatapatha Brāhmana as ‘ ploughing, sowing, reaping, and threshing ’ (
kṛsara A term denoting a mess of rice and sesamum, often mentioned in the Sūtras, occurs in the Sadvimśa Brāhmana.
kevarta Are two variant forms denoting ‘fisher­man’ in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and Taittirīya Brāhmana lists of victims at the Purusamedha, or human sacrifice.
keśa Hair of the head,’ is repeatedly mentioned in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The hair was a matter of great care to the Vedic Indian, and several hymns of the Atharva­veda are directed to securing its plentiful growth. Cutting or shaving (vap) the hair is often referred to. For a man to wear long hair was considered effeminate. As to modes of dressing the hair see Opaśa and Kaparda; as to the beard see Smaśru.
kaiśinī The Kaiśiηyah prajāh, ‘offspring or people of Keśin,’ are mentioned in an obscure passage of the Satapatha Brāhmana either as still existing at the date of the Brāhmana or as extinct.
kokila A very frequent word in the Epic and later, denoting the cuckoo, is only inferred for the Vedic period from its being the name of a Rājaputra in the Kāthaka Anukramanī.
kosala Is the name of a people not occurring in the earliest Vedic literature. In the story of the spread of Aryan culture told in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Kosala-Videhas, as the offspring of Videgha Māthava, appear as falling later than the Kuru-Pañcālas under the influence of Brahminism. The same passage gives the Sadānīrā as the boundary of the two peoples —Kosala and Videha. Elsewhere the Kausalya, or Kosala king, Para Atnāra Hairanyanābha, is described as having performed the great Aśvamedha, or horse sacrifice. Connexion with Kāśi and Videha appears also from a passage of the Sāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra. Weber points out that Áśvalāyana, who was very probably a descendant of Aśvala, the Hotr priest of Videha, is called a Kosala in the Praśna Upanisad. The later distinction of North and South Kosala is unknown to both Vedic and Buddhist literature. Kosala lay to the north-east of the Ganges, and corresponded roughly to the modern Oudh.
kaukūsta Is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmana as a giver of a Daksinā, or gift to the priests officiating at a sacrifice. The Kānva recension reads the name Kaukthasta.
kaulāla Is a word denoting a hereditary potter (‘ son of a kulāla or potter ’) according to the commentator Mahīdhara on the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. The other Samhitās have Kulāla.
kravaṇa A word occurring only once in the Rigveda, is understood by Ludwig as the name of the Hotr priest or the sacrificer. Roth considered it an adjective without at first assigning a sense, but afterwards as meaning timid.’ Sāyana interprets it as ‘ worshipping.’ Oldenberg considers the meaning uncertain, suggesting as possible the slayer of the victim.
kravya Raw flesh,’ is never mentioned in Vedic literature as eaten by men. Demons alone are spoken of as consuming it, apart from Agni being called kravyād, ‘ eating raw flesh,’ as consumer of the bodies of the dead. The man who in the Rigveda is compelled by starvation to eat dog’s flesh, never­theless cooks it.
kruñc Are variant forms denoting the * curlew’ or ‘snipe.’ To it is attributed in the Yajurveda. the faculty, later assigned to the Hamsa, of extracting milk from water when the two fluids are mixed.
kṣata Is regarded by Zimmer as denoting a special disease (a sort of Phthisis pulmoηalis) in the Atharvaveda, but the word is probably only an adjective.
kṣattṛ Is a word of frequent occurrence in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas, denoting a member of the royal entourage, but the sense is somewhat uncertain. In the Rigveda it is used of a god as the ‘ distributor ’ of good things to his worshippers; the same sense seems to be found the Athar­vaveda and elsewhere. In one passage of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā the interpretation ‘ doorkeeper ’ is given by the com­mentator Mahīdhara, a sense which seems possible in other passages, while Sāyana ascribes to it in one passage of the Satapatha Brāhmana the more dignified meaning of aηtah- purādhyaksa, ‘a chamberlain.’ In other passages, again, the sense of ‘ charioteer ’ is not unlikely. Later the Ksattr was regarded as a man of mixed caste.
kṣatriya As the origin of caste, the relation of the castes, intermarriage, and cognate matters may most conveniently be discussed under Varna, this article will be confined to deter­mining, as far as possible, the real character of the class called Ksatriyas, or collectively Ksatra. The evidence of the Jātakas points to the word Khattiya denoting the members of the old Aryan nobility who had led the tribes to conquest, as well as those families of the aborigines who had managed to maintain their princely status in spite of the conquest. In the epic also the term Ksatriya seems to include these persons, but it has probably a wider signification than Khattiya, and would cover all the royal military vassals and feudal chiefs, expressing, in fact, pretty much the same as the barones of early English history. Neither in the Jātakas nor in the epic is the term co-extensive with all warriors; the army contains many besides the Ksatriyas, who are the leaders or officers, rather than the rank and file.In the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas the Ksatriya stands as a definite member of the social body, distinct from the priest, the subject people, and the slaves, Brāhmana, Vaiśya, and Sūdra. It is significant that Rājanya is a variant to Ksatriya, and an earlier one. Hence it is reasonable to suppose that the Ksatriya and Rājanya are both of similar origin, being princely or connected with royalty. Moreover, the early use of Ksatriya in the Rigveda is exclusively con-nected with royal authority or divine authority. It is impossible to say exactly what persons would be in¬cluded in the term Ksatriya. That it covered the royal house and the various branches of the royal family may be regarded as certain. It, no doubt, also included the nobles and their families: this would explain the occasional opposition of Rājanya and Ksatriya, as in the Aitareya Brāhmana,8 where a Rājanya asks a Ksatriya for a place for sacrifice (deυa-yajana). Thus, when strictly applied, Ksatriya would have a wider denotation than Rājanya. As a rule, however, the two expressions are identical, and both are used as evidence in what follows. That Ksatriya ever included the mere fighting man has not been proved: in the Rigveda9 and later10 others than Ksatriyas regularly fought; but possibly if the nobles had retinues as the kings had, Ksatriya would embrace those retainers who had military functions. The term did not apply to all members of the royal entourage; for example, the Grāmanī was usually a Vaiśya. The connexion of the Ksatriyas with the Brahmins was very close. The prosperity of the two is repeatedly asserted to be indissolubly associated, especially in the relation of king (Rājan) and domestic priest (Purohita). Sometimes there was feud between Ksatriya and Brahmin. His management of the sacrifice then gave the Brahmin power to ruin the Ksatriya by embroiling him with the people or with other Ksatriyas. Towards the common people, on the other hand, the Ksa¬triya stood in a relation of well-nigh unquestioned superiority. There are, however, references to occasional feuds between the people and the nobles, in which no doubt the inferior numbers of the latter were compensated by their superior arms and prowess. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Vaiśya is described as tributary to another (anyasya bali-krt), to be devoured by another (anyasyādya), and to be oppressed at will (yathākāma-jyeya). Probably these epithets apply most strictly to the relation of the king and his people, but the passage shows that the people were greatly at the mercy of the nobles. No doubt the king granted to them the right, which may have been hereditary, to be supported by the common people, whose feudal superiors they thus became. In return for these privileges the Kṣatriyas had probably duties of protection to perform, as well as some judicial functions, to judge from an obscure passage of the Kāthaka Samhitā. The main duty of the Ksatriya in the small states of the Vedic period was readiness for war. The bow is thus his special attribute, just as the goad is that of the agriculturist; for the bow is the main weapon of the Veda. Whether the Ksatriyas paid much attention to mental occupations is uncertain. In the latest stratum of the Brāhmana literature there are references to learned princes like Janaka of Videha, who is said to have become a Brahmin (brahmā), apparently in the sense that he had the full knowledge which a Brahmin possessed. Other learned Ksatriyas of this period were Pravāhana Jaivali, Aśvapati Kaikeya, and Ajātaśatru Garbe, Grierson, and others believe they are justified in holding the view that the Ksatriyas developed a special philosophy of their own as opposed to Brahminism, which appears later as Bhakti, or Faith. On the other hand, there is clear evidence that the opinion of Ksatriyas on such topics were held in little respect, and it must be remembered that to attribute wisdom to a king was a delicate and effective piece of flattery. There are earlier references to royal sages (rājan- yarsi) but it is very doubtful if much stress can be laid on them, and none can be laid on the later tradition of Sāyana. Again, the Nirukta gives a tradition relating how Devāpi, a king’s son, became the Purohita of his younger brother Samtanu; but it is very doubtful if the story can really be traced with Sieg in the Rigveda itself. In any case, the stories refer only to a few selected Ksatriyas of high rank, while there is no evidence that the average Ksatriya was concerned with intellectual pursuits. Nor is there any reference to Ksatriyas engaging in agriculture or in trade or commerce. It may be assumed that the duties of administration and war were adequate to absorb his atten¬tion. On the other hand, we do hear of a Rājanya as a lute player and singer at the Aśvamedha or horse sacrifice. Of the training and education of a Ksatriya we have no record; presumably, as in fact if not in theory later on, he was mainly instructed in the art of war, the science of the bow, and the rudimentary administrative functions which would devolve on him. At this early state of the development of the nobility which appears to be represented in the Rigveda, it was probably not unusual or impossible for a Vaiśya to become a Ksatriya; at least, this assumption best explains the phrase ‘claiming falsely a Ksatriya’s rank ’ (ksatriyam mithuyā dhārayantam). The king and the Ksatriyas must have stood in a particularly close relation. The former being the Ksatriya par excellence, it is to him rather than to the ordinary Ksatriya that we must refer passages like that in the Satapatha Brāhmana, where it is said that the Ksatriya, with the consent of the clansmen, gives a settlement to a man : clearly a parallel to the rule found among many peoples that the chief, but only with the consent of the people, can make a grant of unoccupied land. In the same Brāhmana it is said that a Ksatriya consecrates a Ksatriya, a clear reference, as the commentator explains, to the practice of the old king consecrating the prince (kumāra) who is to succeed him ; and again, the Ksatriya and the Purohita are regarded as alone complete in contrast with other people, the parallel with the Purohita here suggesting that the Ksatriya par excellence is meant. On the other hand, the king is sometimes con¬trasted with the Rājanya. The Sūtra literature contains elaborate rules for the education and occupations of Ksatriyas, but their contents cannot always be traced in the Brāhmana literature, and their value is questionable.
kṣipta ‘a wound ’ (caused by shooting), or ‘ bruise ’ (caused by throwing), is mentioned in the Atharvaveda, together with a remedy for it, the Pippalī.
kṣura Occurs three times in the Rigveda. The word appears to have the general sense of ‘ blade in one passage, possibly also in another, where it is said that the hare swallowed a Ksura, and where the sense ‘ blade ’ is adequate. In the third passage4 there seems to be a reference to the sharpening of a razor on a grindstone (bhurijos, the dual denoting precisely, as Pischel6 points out, the two sides of the apparatus, between which the stone revolved like the modern grindstone). But Muir, following another view of Roth, adopts the sense the edge of scissors/ which, however, hardly suits the other passage, one in the Atharvaveda, where a Ksura is described as moving about on the bhurijos, as the tongue on the lip. The meaning razor ’ is perfectly clear in the Atharvaveda, where shaving by means of it is mentioned; in many other passages either sense is adequate. A ksuro bhrjvān occurs in the Yajur¬veda: it seems to denote, as Bloomfield suggests, a razor with a strop (in the shape of a small grinding apparatus). Ksura-dhār denotes ‘the edge of a razor,’ like ksurasya dhārā. In the Upanisads a razor-case (Ksura-dhāna) is mentioned. See also Smaśru.
kṣetra Field.’ The use of this word in the Rigveda points clearly to the existence of separate fields carefully measured off, though in some passages the meaning is less definite, indicating cultivated land generally. In the Atharvaveda and later the sense of a separate field is clearly marked, though the more general use is also found. The deity Ksetrasya Pati, ‘Lord of the Field,’ should probably be understood as the god presiding over each field, just as Vāstos Pati presides over each dwelling. It is a fair conclusion from the evidence that the system of separate holdings already existed in early Vedic times. See also Urvarā, Khilya.
kṣoṇī This word, when used in the plural, denotes, according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary and Ludwig, in several passages of the Rigveda, the free retainers of the king. Geldner at one time thought it referred to the wives of the king, pointing to polygamy; but later he concluded that it means certain divine wives.
khadira Is mentioned frequently from the Rigveda onwards as a tree with hard wood—the Acacia catechu. The Aśvattha is referred to as engrafting itself upon it in the Atharvaveda, and from it the climbing plant Arundhatī is said to have sprung. The sruva or sacrificial ladle is spoken of as having been made from it, no doubt because of its hardness. It is in the same passage also said to have sprung from the sap (rasa) of the Gāyatrī. There is no clear reference to Catechu having been prepared from its core, as it was later. The core (sāra) was used for making amulets.
khādi Occurs frequently in the Rigveda denoting either anklets or armlets, or sometimes rings on the hands. Max Muller considers that the word means quoits, the later Cakra. The rings were sometimes of gold.
gaja The common name of the elephant in Epic and later Sanskrit, is only found in the late Adbhuta Brāhmana. See Hastin.
gardabha The ass,’ is mentioned in the Rigveda as inferior to the horse. In the Taittirīya Samhitā he again appears as inferior to the horse, but at the same time as the best bearer of burdens (bhāra-bhāritama) among animals. The same authority styles the ass dvi-retas, ‘having double seed,’ in allusion to his breeding with the mare as well as the she-ass. The smallness of the young of the ass, and his capacity for eating, are both referred to. The disagreeable cry of the animal is mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and in allusion to this the term ‘ ass ’ is applied opprobriously to a singer in the Rigveda. A hundred asses are spoken of as a gift to a singer in a Vālakhilya hymn. The mule (aśvatara) is the offspring of an ass and a mare, the latter, like the ass, being called dvi- retas, ‘ receiving double seed,’ for similar reasons. The male ass is often also termed Rāsabha. The female ass, Gardabhī, is mentioned in the Atharvaveda and the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
gāthā In the Rigveda usually means only ‘song,’ ‘verse,’ like Gātu. In one passage, however, it already has a more special sense, as it is classed with Nārāśamsī and Raibhī, a collocation repeatedly found later. The commentators identify the three terms with certain verses of the Atharvaveda, but Oldenberg has shown that this identification is incorrect for the Rigveda. Gāthās are often mentioned elsewhere, and are referred to as metrical in the Aitareya Áranyaka, where the Rc, Kumbyā, and Gāthā are classed as forms of verse. The Aitareya Brāhmana distinguishes between Rc and Gāthā as divine and human respectively. According to the usage of the Brāhmanas and the liturgical literature, as stated by the St. Petersburg Dictionary, the Gāthās are, though religious in content, distinguished from Rc, Yajus, and Sāman as non- Vedic—that is, are not Mantras. This view is consistent with the fact that the phrase Yajña-gāthā, meaning a verse summarizing a sacrificial usage, is not rare. The Satapatha Brāhmana preserves several Gāthās, which generally accord with this description as epitomizing the sacrifices of famous kings, and the Maitrāyanī Samhitā states that a Gāthā is sung at a wedding. Sometimes Gāthā is qualified as Nārāśamsī, where it must be a eulogy of a generous donor.
gṛha Is used in the singular, or oftener in the plural, to denote the ‘ house ’of the Vedic Indian. Dama or Dam has the same sense, while Pastyā and Harmya denote more especially the home with its surroundings, the family settle¬ment. The house held not only the family, which might be of considerable size, but also the cattle and the sheep at night. It was composed of several rooms, as the use of the plural indicates, and it could be securely shut up. The door (Dvār, Dvāra) is often referred to, and from it the house is called Durona. In every house the fire was kept burning. Very little is known of the structure of the house. Presum¬ably stone was not used, and houses were, as in Megasthenes’ time, built of wood. The hymns of the Atharvaveda give some information about the construction of a house, but the details are extremely obscure, for most of the expressions used do not recur in any context in which their sense is clear. According to Zimmer, four pillars (Upamit) were set up on a good site, and against them beams were leant at an angle as props (Pratimit). The upright pillars were connected by cross beams (Parimit) resting upon them. The roof was formed of ribs of bamboo cane (vamśa), a ridge called Visūvant, and a net (Aksu), which may mean a thatch’ed covering over the bamboo ribs. The walls were filled up with grass in bundles (palada), and the whole structure was held together with ties of various sorts (nahana, prānāha, samdamśa, parisvañjalya).13 In connexion with the house, mention is made of four terms which, though primarily sacrificial in meaning, seem to designate parts of the building: Havirdhāna, ‘oblation-holder’; Agniśāla, ‘ fire¬place Patnīnām Sadana, wives’ room ’; and Sadas, ‘ sitting room.’ Slings or hanging vessels (Sikya) are also mentioned. Reedwork (ita) is spoken of, no doubt as part of the finishing of the walls of the house. The sides are called Paksa. The door with its framework was named Atā.
gotra Occurs several times in the Rigveda in the account of the mythic exploits of Indra. Roth interprets the word as cowstall,’ while Geldner thinks ‘ herd ’ is meant. The latter sense seems to explain best the employment which the term shows in the later literature as denoting the £ family or £ clan,’ and which is found in the Chāndogya Upanisad. In the Grhya Sūtras stress is laid on the prohibition of marriage within a Gotra, or with a Sapinda of the mother of the bridegroom—that is to say, roughly, with agnates and cognates. Senart has emphasized this fact as a basis of caste, on the ground that marriage within a curia, phratria, or caste (Varna) was Indo-European, as was marriage outside the circle of agnates and cognates. But there is no evidence at all to prove that this practice was Indo-European, while in India the Satapatha expressly recognizes marriage within the third or fourth degree on either side. According to Sāyana, the Kānvas accepted marriage in the third degree, the Saurāstras only in the fourth, while the scholiast on the Vajrasūcī adds to the Kānvas the Andhras and the Dāksinātyas, and remarks that the Vājasaneyins forbade marriage with the daughter of the mother’s brother. All apparently allowed marriage with the daughter of a paternal uncle, which later was quite excluded. Change of Gotra was quite possible, as in the case of Sunah- śepa and Grtsamada, who, once an Añgirasa, became a Bhārgava.
godhūma Wheat,’ is frequently referred to in the plural in the Yajurveda Samhitās and Brāhmanas, and is expressly distinguished from ‘ rice ’ (Vrīhi) or * barley ’ (Yava). * Groats ’(saktavah) made of this grain are also mentioned. The word occurs in the singular in the Satapatha Brāhmana.
goṣādī (Sitting on a cow ’) is the name of a bird in the list of victims at the Aśvamedha, or horse sacrifice, in the Yajurveda.
gauṣūkti Is the name of a pupil of Isa śyāvāśvi according to the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana in a Vamśa (list of teachers).It is also the name, in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, of a teacher who appears to have been needlessly invented to explain the Gausūkta Sāman (chant), which is really the Sāman of Gosūktin.
grāma The primitive sense of this word, which occurs frequently from the Rigveda onwards, appears to have been village.’ The Vedic Indians must have dwelt in villages which were scattered over the country, some close together, some far apart, and were connected by roads.The village is regularly contrasted with the forest (
gharma Denotes in the Rigveda and later the pot used for heating milk, especially for the offering to the Aśvins. It hence often denotes the hot milk itself, or some other hot drink.
ghṛta The modern Ghee or ‘clarified butter,’ is repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda and later both as in ordinary use and as a customary form of sacrifice. According to a citation in Sāyana’s commentary on the Aitareya Brāhmana, the dis­tinction between Ghrta and Sarpis consisted in the latter being butter fully melted, while the former was butter melted and hardened (ghanī-bhūta), but this distinction cannot be pressed. Because the butter was thrown into the fire, Agni is styled ‘butter-faced’ (ghrta-pratīka), * butter-backed ’ (ghrta-prstha), and ‘ propitiated with butter ’ (ghrta-prasatta) ,β and ‘ fond of butter ’ (ghrta-prī). Water was used to purify the butter: the waters were therefore called butter-cleansing ’ (ghrta-pū). In the Aitareya Brāhmana it is said that Ajya, Ghrta, Ayuta, and Navanīta pertain to gods, men, Pitrs, and embryos respectively.
cakra The ‘wheel’ of a chariot or wagon, is repeatedly mentioned from the Rigveda onwards, often in a metaphorical sense. The wheel was fixed on the axle (Aksa) when the chariot was required for use; this required considerable strength, as is shown by a reference in the Rigveda. The wheel consisted normally of spokes (Ara), and a nave (Nābhi), in the opening (Kha) of which the end of the axle (Ani) was inserted. An indication of the importance attached to the strength of the wheel is the celebration of the car of the god Pūsan as having a wheel that suffers no damage.4 The usual number of wheels was two, but in seven passages of the Rigveda a chariot is called ‘ three-wheeled,’ in a few others seven- wheeled,’ while in one of the Atharvaveda it is styled ‘ eight­wheeled.’ Zimmer argues that these epithets do not refer to real chariots, pointing out that in all the passages where tri-cakra, ‘ three-wheeled,’ occurs there is a mythical reference. On the other hand, Weber thinks that there might have been chariots with three wheels, one being in the centre between the two occupants. This is not very conclusive; at any rate, the seven-wheeled and the eight-wheeled chariots can hardly be regarded as indicating the existence of real vehicles with that number of wheels In the śatapatha Brāhmana the potter’s wheel (kaulāla- cakra) is referred to.
camū Is a term of somewhat doubtful sense occurring repeatedly in the Rigveda, and connected with the preparation of Soma. Zimmer considers that in the dual it denotes the two boards between which, in his opinion, the Soma was crushed (cf. Adhisavana). Roth, however, appears to be right in taking the normal sense to designate a vessel into which the Soma was poured from the press, and Hillebrandt shows clearly that when it occurs in the plural it always has this sense, corresponding to the Graha-pātras of the later ritual, and that sometimes it is so used in the singular or dual also. In some cases, however, he recognizes its use as denoting the mortar in which the Soma was pressed: he may be right here, as this mode of preparation was probably Indo-Iranian. In a derivative sense Camū appears in the śatapatha Brāh¬mana to denote a trough, either of solid stone or consisting of bricks, used by the Eastern people to protect the body of the dead from contact with the earth, like modern stone-lined graves or vaults.
carman Denoting hide ’ in general, is a common expression from the Rigveda onwards. The oxhide was turned to many uses, such as the manufacture of bowstrings, slings, and reins (see Go). It was especially often employed to place above the boards on which the Soma was pressed with the stones. It was possibly also used for making skin bags. Carmanya denotes leather-work generally in the Aitareya Brāhmana. The art of tanning hides (mlā) was known as early as the Rigveda, where also the word for ‘ tanner ’ (carmamηa) occurs. Details of the process are lacking, but the śatapatha Brāhmana refers to stretching out a hide with pegs (śaηkubhih), and the Rigveda mentions the wetting of the hide.
cāturmāsya ‘Four-monthly,’ denotes the festival of the Vedic ritual held at the beginning of the three seasons of four months each, into which the Vedic year was artificially divided. It is clear that the sacrifices commenced with the beginning of each season, and it is certain that the first of them, the Vaiśvadeva, coincided with the Phālgunī full moon, the second, the Varuna-praghāsas, with the AsadhI full moon, and the third, the Sāka-medha, with the Kārttikī full moon. There were, however, two alternative datings: the festivals could also be held in the Caitri, the Srāvanī, and Agrahāyanī (Mārgaśīrsī) full moons, or in the Vaiśākhī, Bhādrapadī, and Pausī full moons. Neither of the later datings is found in a Brāhmana text, but each may well have been known early, since the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana both recognize the full moon in the month Caitra as an alternative to the full moon in the month Phālguna, for the beginning of the year. Jacobi considers that the commencement of the year with the full moon in the asterism Phālgunī, which is supported by other evidence, indicates that the year at one time began with the winter solstice with the moon in Phālgunī, corresponding to the summer solstice when the sun was in Phālgunī. These astronomical conditions, he believes, existed in the time of the Rigveda, and prevailed in the fourth millennium B.C. The alternative dates would then indicate periods when the winter solstice coincided with the Caitrī or the Vaiśākhī full moon. But Oldenberg and Thibaut seem clearly right in holding that the coincidence of Phālgunī with the beginning of spring, which is certain, is fatal to this view, and that there is no difficulty in regarding this date as consistent with the date of the winter solstice in the new moon of Māgha, which is given by the Kausītaki Brāhmana, and which forms the basis of the calculations of the Jyotisa. The full moon in Phālguna would be placed about one month and a half after the winter solstice, or, say, in the first week of February, which date, according to Thibaut, may reasonably be deemed to mark the beginning of a new season in India about 800 B.C. At the same time it must be remembered that the date was necessarily artificial, inasmuch as the year was divided into three seasons, each of four months, and the Indian year does not in fact consist of three equal seasons. The variations of the other datings would then not be unnatural if any school wished to defer its spring festival, the Vaiśvadeva, to the time when spring had really manifested itself. See also Samvatsara.
cāyamāna Is the patronymic in the Rigveda of Abhyāvartin.
citraratha (‘Having a brilliant car ’) is the name of two persons. (a) It designates an Aryan prince, who, with Arna, was defeated by Indra for the Turvaśa-Yadus on the Sarayu (perhaps the modern Sarju in Oudh), according to the Rigveda. The locality would accord with the close connexion of Turvaśa and Krivi or Pañcāla. (b) Citraratha is also the name of a king for whom the Kāpeyas performed a special kind of sacrifice (dvirātra), with the result, according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, that in the Caitrarathi family only one member was a Ksatra-pati, the rest dependents. Apparently this must mean that the Caitrarathis were distinguished from other families of princes by the fact that the chief of the clan received a markedly higher position than in most cases, in which probably the heads of the family were rather an oligarchy than a monarch and his dependents. See Rājan.
cyavatāna mārutāśva (‘Descendant of Marutāśva ’) is apparently the name of a prince in a Dānastuti (‘ Praise of Gifts ’), in the Rigveda. Two distinct persons may, however, be meant.
chandas In the Rigveda usually denotes a song of praise ’ or hymn.’ The original sense of the word, as derived from the verb chand, to please,’ was probably attractive spell,’magic hymn,' which prevailed on the gods. In a very late hymn of the Rigveda, as well as in one of the Atharvaveda, the word is mentioned in the plural (chandāmsi), beside Ec (γcah), Sāman (sāmāni), and Yajus, and seems to retain its original meaning, not improbably with reference to the magical subject-matter of the Atharvaveda. From denoting a (metrical) hymn it comes to mean metre ’ in a very late verse of the Rigveda, in which the Gāyatrī, the Tristubh, and all (sarvā) the metres (chandāmsi) are mentioned. In the later Samhitās three or seven metres are enumerated, and in the śatapatha Brāhmana eight. By the time of the Rigveda Prātiśākhya the metres were subjected to a detailed examination, though much earlier references are found to the number of syllables in the several metres. Later the word definitely denotes a Vedic text generally, as in the śatapatha Brāhmana.
chardis occurs often in the Rigveda,1 and occasionally later,2 denoting a secure dwelling-place. The word appears to be incorrectly written, because the metre shows that the first syllable is always short. Roth3 accordingly suggested that Chadis should be read instead. But Chadis means ‘ roof,’ while Chardis never has that sense. Bartholomae4 is therefore prob­ably right in suggesting some other form, such as Chadis.
jana Besides meaning * man’ as an individual, with a tendency to the collective sense, commonly denotes a * people ’ or tribe ’ in the Rigveda and later. Thus, the five tribes ’(Panca Janāh or Janāsah) are frequently referred to, and in one hymn of the Rigveda the people of Yadu ’ (yādva jana) and the Yadus (yādvāh) are synonymous. Again, the king (rājan) is described as protector (gopā) of the people (janasya),’and there are other references to king and Jana. The people of the Bharatas (bhārata jana) is also mentioned ; there is no ground to assume with Hopkins that Jana in this case means a clan or horde (Grāma), as distinguished from a people. It is difficult to say exactly how a people was divided. Zimmer argues from a passage in the Rigveda that a people was divided into cantons (Viś), cantons into joint families or clans, or village communities (Grāma, Vrjana), and these again into single families. He thinks that the four divisions are reflected in the passage in question by Jana, Viś, Janman, and Putrālj, or sons, and argues that each village community was originally founded on relationship. But it is very doubtful whether this precise division of the people can be pressed. The division of the Jana into several Viś may be regarded as probable, for it is supported by the evidence of another passage of the Rigveda, which mentions the Viś as a unit of the fighting men, and thus shows that, as in Homeric times and in ancient Germany, relationship was deemed a good principle of military arrangement. But the subdivision of the Viś into several Gramas is very doubtful. Zimmer admits that neither Grāma nor Vrjana11 has the special sense of a subdivision of the Viś when used for war, for both words only denote generally an armed host. He finds other designations of the village host in Vrā12 and in Vrāja,13 but it is sufficient to say that the former passage is of extremely doubtful import,14 and that the latter has no reference to war at all. It is therefore impossible to state in what exact relation the Grāma in Vedic times stood to the Viś or to the family (Kula or Gotra). The confusion is increased by the vagueness of the sense of both Grāma and Viś. If the latter be regarded as a local division, then no doubt the Grāma must have been a part of a district; but if a Viś was a unit of relationship, then a Grāma may have contained families of different Viśes, or may have sometimes coincided with a Viś, or have contained only a part of a Viś. But in any case the original state of affairs must have been greatly modified by the rise of the system of caste, and the substitu¬tion of a hierarchical for a political point of view. The elements of the people were represented by the family—either as an individual family inhabiting one home (Kula), and con¬sisting often, no doubt, of a joint family of brothers, or as a patriarchal family of sons who still lived with their father—and by the clan, the later Gotra, which included all those who claimed a common ancestor. The Gotra may be regarded as roughly corresponding to the Latin gens and the Greek yevos, and possibly the Viś may be the equivalent of the curia and φprjτpη, and the Jana of the tribus and φυXov or φv\η.i These three divisions may also be seen in the Viś, Zantu, and Daqyu of the Iranian world, where the use of Viś suggests that in the Indian Viś a relationship based on blood rather than locality is meant—and perhaps even in the vicus, pagus, and ciυitas of the old German polity described in the Germania of Tacitus. The family in some form appears as the third element of the Jana in a passage of the Rigveda, where the house {grha) is contrasted with the Jana and the Viś. Possibly, too, another passage contrasts the adhvam, or family sacrifice, with that of the Jana or Viś, rather than, as Zimmer thinks, the village with the two larger units. But it is significant of the particu¬larism of the Vedic Indians that while the king maintained a fire which might be regarded as the sacred fire of the tribe, there is no sure trace of any intermediate cult between that of the king and that of the individual householder. The real elements in the state are the Gotra and the Jana, just as ultimately the gens and tribtis, the γei>oç and ψv\ov, are alone important. It may be that Viś sometimes represents in the older texts what later was known as the Gotra. See Viś. This appears clearly when the constitution of society in the Brāhmana period is considered. The tribe or people still exists, and is presupposed, but the division into Viś disappears. The real division is now the separate castes (Varna), but the numerous sections into which each of them is divided appear to be based in part on the ancient Gotra.
janamejaya (‘Man-impelling’) is the name of a king, a Pāriksita, famous towards the end of the Brāhmana period. He is mentioned in the Satapatha Brāhmana as owning horses which when wearied were refreshed with sweet drinks, and as a performer of the Aśvamedha, or horse sacrifice. His capital, according to a Gāthā quoted in the śatapatha and the Aitareya Brāhmanas, was Asandīvant. His brothers Ugrasena, Bhīmasena, and Srutasena are mentioned as having by the horse sacrifice purified themselves from sin. The priest who performed the sacrifice for him was Indrota Daivāpi Saunaka. On the other hand the Aitareya Brāhmana, which also mentions his Aśvamedha, names Tura Kāvaseya as his priest. It also contains an obscure tale stating that at one sacrifice of his he did not employ the Kaśyapas, but the Bhūtavīras, being, however, induced by the Asitamygas to have recourse to the Kaśyapas again. He was a Kuru prince; see Pariksit. The Gopatha Brāhmana tells an absurd tale about him, evidently as of an ancient hero.
jani These words appear to denote ‘wife,’ usually applying to her in relation to her husband (Pati). The more general sense of ‘woman ’ is doubtful; for when Usas is called a fair Janī, ‘wife ’ may be meant, and the other passage cited for this sense by Delbriick, which refers to the begetting of children, seems to demand the sense of ‘wives.’ Since the words usually appear in the plural, it is possible they may refer not to ‘wives’ proper, but to Hetairai. This is, how¬ever, rendered unlikely because the Rigveda uses the phrase patyur janitvam, denoting ‘wifehood to a husband,’ as well as the expression janayo na patnlh,β ‘like wives (who are) mistresses,’ besides containing passages in which the word has reference to marriage. The singular occurs in the dialogue of Yama and Yamī.
jāti which in the Pāli texts is the word denoting ‘caste,’ does not occur at all in the early Vedic literature; when it is found, as in the Kātyāyana Srauta Sūtra, it has only the sense of ‘family’ (for which cf. Kula, Gotra, and Viś). For the influence of the family system on the growth of caste, see Varna. To assume that it was the basis of caste, as does Senart, is difficult in face of the late appearance of words for family and of stress on family.
jāmātṛ Is a rare word denoting ‘ son-in-law * in the Rigveda, where also occurs the word Vijāmātr, denoting an ‘unsatis­factory son-in-law,’ as one who does not pay a sufficient price, or one who, having other defects, must purchase a bride. Friendly relations between son-in-law and father-in-law are referred to in the Rigveda.
jāyā Regularly denotes ‘ wife,’ and, as opposed to Patnī, wife as an object of marital affection, the source of the continuance of the race. So it is used of the wife of the gambler, and of the wife of the Brāhmana in the Rigveda ; it is also frequently combined with Pati, ‘husband,’ both there and in the later literature. Patnī, on the other hand, is used to denote the wife as partner in the sacrifice ; when no share in it is assigned to her, she is called Jāyā.6 The distinction is, of course, merely relative; hence one text7 calls Manu’s wife Jāyā, another8 Patnī. Later on Jāyā is superseded by Dāra.
jāspati Occurs once in the Rigveda in the sense of the ‘head of the family.’ The abstract formed from this word, Jās-patya, apparently denoting ‘lordship of children,’ is also found there.
jūrṇī Is one of the names given to serpents in a hymn of the Atharvaveda, perhaps from their habit of casting their slough. See Ahi.
takman Is a disease repeatedly mentioned in the Athar­vaveda, but later not known under this name. It is the subject of five hymns of the Atharvaveda, and is often mentioned else­where. Weber first identified it with fever,’ and Grohmann showed that all the symptoms pointed to that ailment. Refer­ence is made to the alternate hot and shivering fits of the patient, to the yellow colour of the jaundice which accompanies the fever, and to its peculiar periodicity. The words used to describe its varieties are aηye-dyuh, ubhaya-dyuh, trtīyaka, vi-trtīya, and sadam-di, the exact sense of most of which terms is somewhat uncertain. It is agreed that the first epithet designates the fever known as quotidiaηus, which recurs each day at the same hour, though the word is curious (lit.‘ on the other—i.e., next, day’). The ubhaya-dyuk (‘ on both days ’) variety appears to mean a disease recurring for two suc¬cessive days, the third being free; this corresponds to the rhythmus quartanus complicatus. But Sāyana considers that it means a fever recurring on the third day, the * tertian.’ The tvtīyaka, however,must be the ‘tertian’ fever, though Zimmer suggests that it may mean a fever which is fatal at the third paroxysm. Grohmann regards the vi-trtīyaka as equivalent to the tertiana duplicata, a common form in southern countries, in which the fever occurs daily, but with a correspondence in point of time or severity of attack on alternate days. Bloomfield suggests that it is identical with the ubhaya-dyuh, variety. The sadam-di type appears to be the kind later known as samtata-jvara (‘ continuous fever ’), in which there are attacks of several days’ duration, with an interval followed by a fresh period of attack. Fever occurred at different seasons, in the autumn (śārada), in the hot weather (graisma), in the rains (vārsika) but was especially prevalent in the first, as is indicated by the epithet viśva-śārada, occurring every autumn.’ The disease is said to arise when Agni enters the waters. From this Weber deduced that it was considered to be the result of a chill supervening on heat, or the influence of heat on marshy land. Grohmann preferred to see in this connexion of the origin of the disease with Agni’s entering the waters an allusion to the fact that fever arises in the rainy season, the time when Agni, as lightning, descends to earth with the rain. Zimmer, who accepts this view, further refers to the prevalence of fever in the Terai, and interprets vanya, an epithet of fever found in the Atharvaveda, as meaning ‘ sprung from the forest,’ pointing out that fever is mentioned as prevalent among the Mūjavants and Mahāvrsas, two mountain tribes of the western Himalaya. There is no trace of fever having been observed to be caused by the bite of the anopheles mosquito, which breeds in stagnant water : this theory has without reason been held to be known to classical Indian medicine. Among the symptoms of Takman, or among complications accompanying it, are mentioned ‘itch’ (Pāman), ‘headache’ (§īrsa-śoka),so ‘cough’ (Kāsikā), and ‘consumption,’ or perhaps some form of itch (Balāsa). It is perhaps significant that the Takman does not appear until the Atharvaveda. It is quite possible that the Vedic Aryans, when first settled in India, did not know the disease, which would take some generations to become endemic and recognized as dangerous. What remedies they used against it is quite uncertain, for the Atharvaveda mentions only spells and the Kustha, which can hardly have been an effective remedy, though still used in later times. Fever must, even in the Atharvan period, have claimed many victims, or it would not be mentioned so prominently.
taskara Occurs in the Rigveda and frequently later, denoting ‘thief’ or ‘robber.’ It appears to be practically synonymous with Stena, in connexion with which it is often mentioned. The Stena and the Taskara are contrasted in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā with the Malimlu, who is a burglar or house-breaker, while they are highwaymen, or, as the Rigveda puts it, ‘men who haunt the woods and risk their lives’ (taηū-tyajā vaηar-gū). In another passage of the Rigveda, however, the dog is told to bark at the Taskara or the Stena, which clearly points to an attempt at house-breaking. The thief goes about at night, and knows the paths on which he attacks his victim. In one passage of the Rigveda the use of cords is mentioned, but whether to bind the thieves when captured, or to bind the victim, is not clear. The Atharvaveda refers to the Stena and the Taskara as cattle and horse thieves.
tāyu Was another name for thief, perhaps of a less distinguished and more domestic character than the highway­man, for though he is referred to as a cattle-thief, he is also alluded to as a stealer of clothes (vastra-mathi)u and as a debtor. In one passage the Tāyus are said to disappear at the coming of dawn (which is elsewhere called yāvayad-dvesas driving away hostile beings,’ and rta-pā, ‘ guardian of order ’), like the stars of heaven (naksatra). In the Satarudriya litany of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā Rudra is called lord of assailers (ā-vyādhin), thieves (stena), robbers (taskara), pickpockets (stāyu), stealers (musnant), and cutters (1vi-krnta); and designations of sharpers (grtsa) and bands (gana, vrāta), apparently of robbers, are mentioned. It is therefore not surprising that the Rigveda should contain many prayers for safety at home or on the way, or that the Atharvaveda should devote several hymns to night chiefly for protection against the evil doings of thieves and robbers. Pischel suggests that in one passage of the Rigveda Vasistha is represented as a burglar, but he admits that, since Vasistha was attacking the house of his father Varuna, he was only seeking to obtain what he may have regarded as his own. But the interpretation of the hymn is not certain. Sayana’s explanation of one passage of the Rigveda, as referring to professional cattle-trackers, like the Khojis of the Panjab, seems quite probable.The punishment of thieves appears primarily to have been left to the action of the robbed. The practice of binding them in stocks seems clearly referred to. But later, at any rate— and in all probability earlier also, as in other countries—a more severe penalty could be exacted, and death inflicted by the king. There is no hint in Vedic literature of the mode of conviction; a fire ordeal is not known to the Atharvaveda, and the ordeal known to the Chāndogya Upanisad is not said to be used in the case of theft. No doubt the stolen property was recovered by the person robbed if he could obtain it. Nothing is known as to what happened if the property had passed from the actual thief into the possession of another person.
tārakā Is found several times in the Atharvaveda denoting a star. The masculine form Tāraka occurs in the Taittirīya Brāhmana.
titau Is found once in the Rigveda denoting a ‘sieve,’ or perhaps ‘winnowing fan,’ which was used for purifying corn (sakht).
tirindira Is mentioned in a Dānastuti, or ‘ Praise of Gifts,’ in the Rigveda as having, along with Parśu, bestowed gifts on the singer. In the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra this state­ment is represented by a tale that the Kanva Vatsa obtained a gift from Tirindira Pāraśavya, Tirindira and Parśu being in this version thus treated as one and the same man. Ludwig sees in the Rigvedic passage a proof that the Yadus had gained a victory over Tirindira, and gave a part of the booty to the singers; but there is no proof whatever of the correctness of this interpretation, which Zimmer shows to be most unlikely. Yadu princes must be meant by Tirindira and Parśu, though Weber thinks that the singers were Yadus, not the princes. The latter he holds to have been Iranian (cf. TLpiβaζos, and see Parśu), and he thinks that in this there is evidence of continual close relations between India and Iran. This is perfectly possible, but the evidence for it is rather slight.
tirīṭa Is found in the Atharvaveda in the adjectival derivative tirītin used of a demon, and presumably meaning ‘ adorned with a tiara.’
tuc In the Rigveda occasionally occurs denoting ‘children.’ Tuj occurs rather more often in the same sense. Cf. Tanaya and Toka.
turvaśa Occurs frequently in the Rigveda as the name of a man or of a people, usually in connexion with Yadu. The two words usually occur in the singular without any connecting particle, Turvaśa Yadu or Yadu Turvaśa. In a plural form the name Turvaśa occurs once with the Yadus, and once alone in a hymn in which the singular has already been used. In one passage the dual Turvaśā-Yadñ actually occurs, and in another Yadus Turvaś ca, ‘Yadu and Turva.’ In other passages Turvaśa appears alone, while in one Turvaśa and Yādva occur. From these facts Hopkins deduces the erroneousness of the ordinary view, according to which Turvaśa is the name of a tribe, the singular denoting the king, and regards Turvaśa as the name of the Yadu king. But the evidence for this is not conclusive. Without laying any stress on the argument based on the theory that the five peoples’ of the Rigveda are the Anus, Druhyus, Turvaśas, Yadus, and Pūrus, it is perfectly reasonable to hold that the Turvaśas and Yadus were two distinct though closely allied tribes. Such they evidently were to the seers of the hymns which mention in the dual the Turvaśā-Yadū and speak of Yadus Turvaś ca. This explanation also suits best the use of the plural of Turvaśa in two Rigvedic hymns. In the Rigveda the chief exploit of Turvaśa was his partici¬pation in the war against Sudās, by whom he was defeated. Hopkins suggests that he may have been named Turvaśa because of his fleet (tura) escape from the battle. His escape may have been assisted by Indra, for in some passages Indra’s aid to Turvaśa (and) Yadu is referred to; it is also significant that the Anu, and apparently the Druhyu, kings are mentioned as having been drowned in the defeat, but not the Turvaśa and Yadu kings, and that Turvaśa appears in the eighth book of the Rigveda as a worshipper of Indra with the Anu prince, the successor, presumably, of the one who was drowned. Griffith, however, proposes to refer these passages to a defeat by Turvaśa and Yadu of Arna and Citraratha on the Sarayu ; but the evidence for this is quite inadequate. Two passages of the Rigveda seem to refer to an attack by Turvaśa and Yadu on Divodāsa, the father of Sudās. It is reasonable to suppose that this was an attack of the two peoples on Divodāsa, for there is some improbability of the references being to the Turvaśa, who was concerned in the attack on Sudās, the son. Zimmer considers that the Turvaśas were also called Vrcī- vants. This view is based on a hymn in which reference is made to the defeat of the Vrcīvants on the Yavyāvatī and Hariyūpīyā in aid of Daivarāta, and of Turvaśa in aid of Srñjaya, the latter being elsewhere clearly the son of Deva- rāta. But as this evidence for the identification of the Turvaśas with the Vrcīvants is not clear, it seems sufficient to assume that they were allies. Later, in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Turvaśas appear as allies of the Pañcālas, Taurvaśa horses, thirty-three in number, and armed men, to the number of 6,ooo, being mentioned. But otherwise the name disappears: this lends probability to Oldenberg’s conjecture that the Turvaśas became merged in the Pañcāla people. Hopkins considers that in the śatapatha passage the horses were merely named from the family of Turvaśa; but this view is less likely, since it ignores the difficulty involved in the reference to the men. It is impossible to be certain regarding the home of the Turvaśas at the time of their conflict with Sudās. They apparently crossed the Parusnī, but from which side is dis¬puted. The view of Pischel and Geldner, that they advanced from the west towards the east, where the Bharatas were (see Kuru), is the more probable.
tūṣa Is found in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas denoting the fringe ’ or ‘ trimming ’ of a garment.
tṛtsu Occurs in the Rigveda, once in the singular and several times in the plural, as a proper name. The Trtsus were clearly helpers of Sudās in the great battle against the ten kings, Simyu, the Turvaśa, the Druhyu, Kavasa, the Pūru, the Anu, Bheda, Sambara, the two Vaikarnas, and perhaps the Yadu, who led with them as allies the Matsyas, Pakthas, Bhalānas, Alinas, Visānins, Sivas, Ajas, Sigrus, and perhaps Yaksus. The defeat of the ten kings is celebrated in one hymn of the Rigveda, and is evidently alluded to in two others. The great battle took place on the Parusnī, but there was also a fight on the Yamunā with Bheda, the Ajas, Sigrus, and Yaksus. As the Yamunā and the Parusnī represent opposite ends of the territory of the Trtsus (for we cannot with Hopkins safely identify the streams), it is difficult to see exactly how the ten kings could be confederated, but it should be noted that the references to the ten kings occur in the two later hymns, and not in the hymn describing the battle itself; besides, absolute numerical accuracy cannot be insisted upon.It is difficult exactly to determine the character of the Trtsus, especially in their relation to the Bharatas, who under Visvamitra’s guidance are represented as prospering and as advancing to the Vipāś and Sutudrī. Roth ingeniously brought this into connexion with the defeat of his enemies by Sudās, which is celebrated in the seventh book of the Rigveda—a book attributed to the Vasistha family—and thought that there was a reference in one verse to the defeat of the Bharatas by Sudās. But it seems certain that the verse is mistranslated, and that the Bharatas are really represented as victors with Sudās. Ludwig accordingly identifies the Trtsus and the Bharatas. Oldenberg, after accepting this view at first, later expressed the opinion that the Trtsus were the priests of the Bharata people, and therefore identical with the Vasisthas. This view is supported by the fact that in one passage the Trtsus are clearly described as wearing their hair in the peculiar manner affected by the Vasisthas, and would in that passage thus seem to represent the Vasisthas. But Geldner has suggested with great probability that Trtsu, who is once mentioned in the singular, means the Trtsu king—that is, Sudās. This explanation alone justifies the description of the Bharatas as Trtsūnām viśah, ‘ subjects of the Trtsus,’ meaning the Trtsu Gotra or family, for the people could not be said to be subjects of a body of priests. The Vasisthas might be called Trtsus because of their close con¬nexion with the royal house of that people. The reverse process is also quite possible, but is rendered improbable by the fact that the Pratrdah are referred to as receiving Vasistha. This name of the Trtsu dynasty is probably older than its connexion with Vasistha in the time of Sudās, a conclusion supported by the name of Pratardana, who is mentioned later as a descendant of Divodāsa, an ancestor of Sudās. The Trtsu dynasty could therefore hardly have been referred to as Vasisthas. For the further history of the dynasty and its relation with Vasistha and Viśvāmitra, see Sudās. If the Trtsus and their subjects, the Bharatas, were in the Rigvedic period at war with the tribes on either side of the territory between the Parusnī and the Yamunā, it is clear that later on they coalesced with the Pūrus and probably others of those tribes to form the Kuru people. Already in the Rigveda the Trtsus are allied with the Srñjayas, and in the śatapatha Brāhmana one Purohita serves both Kurus and Srñjayas. Hillebrandt considers that the Trtsus cannot be identified with the Bharatas, but that Sudās and the Bharatas represent an invading body, which, however, became allied with the Trtsus and the Vasistha priests. He also thinks that the Rigveda reveals a time when Divodāsa, the grandfather or ancestor of Sudās, was living in Arachosia, on the Sarasvatī, and warring against the Panis, whom he identifies with the Parnians. But this conjecture cannot be regarded as probable. In the Sarasvatī it is not necessary to see any other river than the later Sarasvatī, in the middle country, which flowed within the boundaries of the Trtsus: it is also significant that there are references to contests between Turvaśa Yadu and Atithigva or Divodāsa. Thus there is no reason to doubt that Divodāsa and the Bharatas were in the middle country, and not in Iran.
taila ‘Sesamum oil/ is mentioned in the Atharvaveda, where reference is made to keeping such oil in jars. In the Sāñkhāyana Aranyaka, reference is made to anointing with sesamum oil.
trapu Denotes ‘tin’ in the Atharvaveda and later. Its quality of being easily smelted, which Roth thinks is indicated by the name (as derived from the root trap, ‘be ashamed’), is clearly alluded to in the Atharvaveda passage.
tvac ‘Skin,’ ‘hide,’ (a) denotes specially in the Rigveda1 the hide used in the process of extracting the Soma juice from the plant. The Soma was pounded with stones (adri) upon the skin laid on the pressing boards (adhisavaηe phalake), which, however, are not mentioned in the Rigveda. Or if a pestle and mortar were used, the skin was still placed underneath them to catch the drops of juice, not above, as Pischel thought. (b) Tvac also denotes the rind of the Soma plant that remains after the juice has been extracted. (c) Metaphorically the term krsnā tvac, ‘ the black skins,’ is applied to the aboriginal enemies of the invading Aryans.
daṃṣṭra Denoting a prominent tooth, ‘tusk,’ or ‘fang’ of an animal, occurs often from the Rigveda onwards.
dant ‘Tooth,’ is frequently mentioned from the Rigveda onwards. Cleansing (dhāv) the teeth was an ordinary act, especially in preparation for a sacrifice, and accompanied bathing, shaving of the hair and beard (keśa-śmaśru), and the cutting of the nails. A hymn of the Atharvaveda celebrates the appearance of the first two teeth of a child, though its exact interpretation is doubtful. In the Aitareya Brāhmana there is a reference to a child’s first teeth falling out. The word seems in the Rigveda once to denote an elephant’s tusk. Whether dentistry was practised is doubtful. The occurrence in the Aitareya Aranyaka of Hiranya-dant, ‘gold-toothed,’ as the name of a man, is perhaps significant, especially as it is certain that the stopping of teeth with gold was known at Rome as early as the legislation of the Twelve Tables.
darśa ('Appearance’) denotes the new moon day, usually in opposition to the day of full moon (pūrηa-māsa). Most frequently the word occurs in the compound darśa-pūrηa- māsati, ‘ new and full moon,’ the days of special ritual impor­tance. The order of the first two words here is worthy of note, for it distinctly suggests, though it does not conclusively prove, that the month was reckoned from new moon to new moon, not from full moon to full moon. See Māsa.
daśan ‘Ten,’ forms the basis of the numerical system of the Vedic Indians, as it does of the Aryan people generally. But it is characteristic of India that there should be found at a very early period long series of names for very high numerals, whereas the Aryan knowledge did not go beyond 1,000. In the Vājasaneyi Samhitā the list is 1 ; 10; 100; 1,000 ; ιο,οοο {ayuta) \ ιοο,οοο (ηiyuta); ι,οοο,οοο(prayuta); 10,000,000 {arbuda); 100,000,000 (ηyarbuda)', 1,000,000,000 (samudra); 10,000,000,000 (madhya); ιοο,οοο,οοο,οοο (aηta); 1,000,000,000,000 {parārdha). In the Kāthaka Samhitā the list is the same, but ηiyuta and prayuta exchange places, and after ηyarbuda a new figure (badva) intervenes, thus increasing samudra to ιο,οοο,οοο,οοο, and so on. The Taittirīya Samhitā has in two places exactly the same list as the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. The Maitrāyanī Samhitā has the list ayuta, prayuta, then ayuta again, arbuda, ηyarbuda, samudra, madhya, aηta, parārdha. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmana has the Vājasaneyi list up to ηyarbuda inclusive, then follow ηikharvaka, badva, aksita, and apparently go = ι,οοο,οοο,οοο,οοο. The Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana list replaces nikharvaka by nikharva, badva by padma, and ends with aksitir vyomāntah. The śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra con¬tinues the series after nyarbuda with nikharvāda, samudra, salila, antya, ananta (=10 billions).But beyond ayuta none of these numbers has any vitality. Badva, indeed, occurs in the Aitareya Brāhmana, but it cannot there have any precise numerical sense j and later on the names of these high numerals are very much confused. An arithmetical progression of some interest is found in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, where occurs a list of sacrificial gifts in which each successive figure doubles the amount of the preceding one. It begins with dvādaśa-mānam hiranyam, * gold to the value of 12 ’ (the unit being uncertain, but probably the Krsnala18), followed by ‘to the value of 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1,536, 3072/ then dve astāvimśati-śata-māne, which must mean 2 x 128 X 24 (the last unit being not a single māna, but a number of 24 mānas) = 6,144, then 12,288, 24,576, 49,152, 98,304, 196,608, 393,216. With these large numbers may be compared the minute theoretical subdivision of time found in the śatapatha Brāhmana, where a day is divided into 15 muhūrtas—1 muhūrta =15 ksipras, 1 ksipra =15 etarhis, I etarhi = 15 idānis, 1 idāni =15 prānas. The śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra15 has a decimal division of the day into 15 muhūrtas—• i muhūrta = 10 nimesas, 1 nimesa = 10 dhvamsis. Few fractions are mentioned in Vedic literature. Ardha, pāda, śapha, and kalā denote J, J, TV respectively, but only the first two are common. Trtīya denotes the third part.16 In the Rigveda Indra and Visnu are said to have divided ι,οοο by 3, though how they did so is uncertain. Tri-pād denotes 4 three-fourths.’ There is no clear evidence that the Indians of the Vedic period had any knowledge of numerical figures, though it is perfectly possible.
dasyu A word of somewhat doubtful origin, is in many passages of the Rigveda clearly applied to superhuman enemies. On the other hand, there are several passages in which human foes, probably the aborigines, are thus designated. This may be regarded as certain in those passages where the Dasyu is opposed to the Aryan, who defeats him with the aid of the gods. The great difference between the Dasyus and the Aryans was their religion : the former are styled 4 not sacrificing,’ 4 devoid of rites,’ 4 addicted to strange vows,’ ‘ god- hating,’ and so forth. As compared with the Dāsa, they are less distinctively a people: no clans (viśah) of the Dasyus are mentioned, and while Indra’s dasyu-hatya,. slaughter of the Dasyus,’ is often spoken of, there is no corresponding use of dāsa-hatya. That the Dasyus were real people is, however, shown by the epitdet anās applied to them in one passage of the Rigveda. The sense of this word is not absolutely certain : the Pada text and Sāyana both take it to mean 4 without face ’ (an-ās), but the other rendering, 4 noseless ’ (a-nās), is quite possible, and would accord well with the flat-nosed aborigines of the Dravidian type, whose language still persists among the Brahuis, who are found in the north-west. This interpretation would receive some support from Vrtra’s being called * broken-nosed ’ if this were a correct explanation of the obscure word rujānās. The other epithet of the Dasyus is mrdhra-vāc, which occurs with anās, and which has been rendered ‘of stam¬mering, or unintelligible speech.’ This version is by no means certain, and since the epithet is elsewhere applied to Aryans, its correct meaning is more probably ‘of hostile speech.’ Dasyu corresponds with the Iranian dañliu, daqyu, which denotes a ‘ province.’ Zimmer thinks that the original meaning was ‘enemy,’ whence the Iranians developed the sense of ‘hostile country,’ ‘conquered country,’ ‘province,’ while the Indians, retaining the signification of ‘ enemy,’ extended it to include demon foes. Roth considers that the meaning of human enemy is a transfer from the strife of gods and demons. Lassen16 attempted to connect the contrast daqyu: dasyu with that of daeva : deva, and to see in it a result of the religious differences which, according to Haug’s theory, had separated the Iranians and the Indians. The word may have originally meant 4 ravaged land ’ as a result of invasion ;hence ‘enemies’ country,’ then ‘hostile people,’ who as human foes were more usually called by the cognate name of Dāsa. Individual Dasyus are Cumuri, Sambara, Susna, etc. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the word has, as later, the sense of uncivilized peoples generally.
dātra (‘Cutter’), denoting a ‘sickle,’ is mentioned in the Rigveda. Cows ‘with sickle-shaped marks on their ears’ (dātra-karnyah) are referred to in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā. Otherwise the expression is only found later, occurring in the Sūtra and epic literature. See also Srni.
dāna ('Distribution') seems in several passages of the Rigveda to be a designation of the sacrificial feast to which the god is invited (cf. δak, δatτη). In one passage Sāyana thinks that it denotes the mada-jalāni, ‘ drops of water falling from the temples of a rutting elephant,’ but this is doubtful. In another passage Roth thinks that ‘pasture land’ is meant.
dāya Occurs in the Rigveda only in the sense of ‘reward’ of exertion (śrama), but later it means ‘inheritance’—that is, a father’s property which is to be divided among his sons either during his lifetime or after his death. The passages all negative the idea that the property 0/ the family was legally family property: it is clear that it was the property of the head of the house, usually the father, and that the other members of the family only had moral claims upon it which the father could ignore, though he might be coerced by his sons if they were physically stronger. Thus Manu is said in the Taittirīya Samhitā to have divided his property among his sons. He omitted Nābhānedistha, whom he afterwards taught how to appease the Añgirases, and to procure cows. This is a significant indication that the property he divided was movable property, rather than land (Urvarā). In the Aitareya Brāhmana the division is said to have been made during Manu’s lifetime by his sons, who left only their aged father to Nābhānedistha. According to the Jaiminīya Brāhmana, again, four sons divided the inheritance while their old father, Abhipratārin, was still alive. It is, of course, possible to regard Dāya as denoting the heritable property of the family, but the developed patria potestas of the father, which was early very marked, as shown by the legend of Sunahśepa, is inconsistent with the view that the sons were legally owners with their father, unless and until they actually insisted on a division of the property. Probably— there is no evidence of any decisive character—land was not divided at first, but no doubt its disposal began to follow the analogy of cattle and other movable property as soon as the available supply of arable land became limited. As for the method of division, it is clear from the Taittirīya Samhitā that the elder son was usually preferred; perhaps this was always the case after death. During the father’s life¬time another might be preferred, as appears from a passage of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Women were excluded from partition or inheritance, according to the śatapatha Brāhmana and the Nirukta. They were, no doubt, supported by their brothers; but if they had none they might be reduced to prostitution. Detailed rules of inheritance appear in the Sūtras.
dāru ‘Wood,’ is frequently mentioned in the Rigveda and later, denoting amongst other things the pole of a chariot, logs as fuel, the wooden parts of a car, possibly wooden stocks, and so forth.
divodāsa atithigva Is one of the leading princes of the early Vedic age. He was a son of Vadhryaśva, and father, or more probably grandfather, of Sudās, the famous king of the Trtsu family, among the Bharatas. Probably Pijavana was the son and Sudās the grandson. Divodāsa was naturally a Bharata, and, like Sudās, was an opponent of the Turvaśas and Yadus. His great enemy was śambara, the Dāsa, who was apparently chief of a mountain people, and whom he repeatedly defeated. He was also, it seems, like his father Vadhryaśva, an energetic supporter of the fire ritual, for Agni is once called by his name in the Rigveda. On the other hand, he was defeated, with Ayu and Kutsa, by Indra’s aid. In several passages he seems closely connected with the singer family, the Bharadvājas. From one passage, where Divodāsa is said to have fought against the Panis, the Pārāvatas, and Brsaya, Hillebrandt has inferred that he was engaged in conflicts with the tribes of Arachosia, and interpreting the name as the ‘heavenly Dāsa’ conjectures that he was himself a Dāsa. This conclusion is not probable, for the Sarasvatī on which the battle in question took place, and which can hardly be the Haraqaiti of Arachosia, would naturally designate the later Sarasvatī, while the Pārāvatas are mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, as in the east, about the Yamunā. Bergaigne’s opinion that Divodāsa and Atithigva were different people cannot be supported in view of the complete parallelism in the acts of the two persons. See also Pratardana. The people of Divodāsa are referred to in a hymn of the Rigveda.
durya ‘Belonging to the door or house,’ appears in several passages of the Samhitās as a plural substantive denoting the door-posts,’ or more generally ‘dwelling.’
dūrśa Denoting some kind of garment, is mentioned twice in the Atharvaveda. Weber thinks that it was worn by the aborigines.
dṛti A ‘leather bag to hold fluids/ is frequently mentioned in the Rigveda and later. In one passage it is called dhmāta, ‘ inflated/ the man afflicted with dropsy being compared with such a tag. Milk (Ksīra) and intoxicating liquor (Surā) are mentioned as kept in bags.
dṛti aindrota (‘Descendant of Indrota’) is mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana as a contemporary of Abhipratārin Kāksaseni and as a pupil of Indrota Daivāpa in a Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana. Possibly the same Drti is meant in the compound Drti-Vātavantau, which is found in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana.The former is here said to have continued, after the Mahāvrata was over, the sacrificial session in which both had been engaged, with the result that his descendants prospered more than the Vātavatas.
devaka mānyamāna (‘Descendant of Manyamāna ’) appears in the Rigveda as an opponent of the Trtsus, and as connected with Sambara. Possibly, however, as Grassmann suggests, the words should be understood as denoting Sambara, who deemed himself a god,’ devaka being used contemptuously.
devāpi arṣṭiṣeṇa (‘Descendant of Rstisena ’) is mentioned in a hymn of the Rigveda and in the Nirukta. According to the latter source there were two brothers, Devāpi and Santanu, princes of the Kurus. The elder was Devāpi, but śantanu got himself anointed king, whereupon no rain fell for twelve years. The drought being attributed by the Brahmins to his having superseded his elder brother, Santanu offered the kingdom to Devāpi. The latter, however, refused, but acting as Purohita, or domestic priest, for his brother, obtained rain. The Brhad­devatā tells much the same tale, but adds that the reason for Devapi’s exclusion from the throne was the fact that he suffered from a skin disease. The Epic and later legends further develop the story, presenting two somewhat discrepant accounts. According to the one version, the ground of Devāpi's being passed over was leprosy, while in the other his devoting himself to asceticism in his youth was the cause of his brother’s taking his place. The Epic, moreover, treats him as a son of Pratīpa, and names as his brothers Bāhlīka6 and Arstisena, who is a new figure developed from the patronymic of Devāpi. Possibly Sieg is right in holding that two stories, those of Devāpi, Pratlpa’s son, and of Devāpi, Estisena’s son, have been confused; but in any case it is impossible to extract history from them. The Rigvedic hymn certainly appears to represent Devāpi as sacrificing for Santanu, who seems to be called Aulāna. But there is no trace in it of the brotherhood of the two men, nor is there anything to show that Devāpi was not a Brahmin, but a Ksatriya. Sieg, who interprets the hymn by the Nirukta, thinks that he was a Ksatriya, but on this occasion was enabled by the favour of Brhaspati to officiate as priest, and that the hymn shows clear recognition of the unusual character of his action ; but this view seems very improbable.
devṛ Is a rare word denoting the wife’s ‘brother-in-law’ (that is, the husband’s brother). He is included with the sisters of the husband among those over whom the wife of the husband—his elder brother—rules ; at the same time the wife is to be devoted to him, and friendly to him. After the death of the husband the Devr could perform the duty of begetting a son for him. No word occurs for the wife’s brother corresponding to Devr.
deśa ‘Land,’ is a word that does not come into use till the time of the Upanisads and Sūtras, excepting one occurrence in the latest period of the Brāhmana literature, and one in a much-discussed passage of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, where the Sarasvatī is mentioned as having five tributaries. This passage militates against the view that Sarasvatī was a name of the Indus, because the use of Deśa here seems to indicate that the seer of the verse placed the Sarasvatī in the Madhya- deśa or * Middle Country,’ to which all the geographical data of the Yajurvedas point.
daivavāta Descendant of Devavāta,’ is the patronymic of Srñjaya, probably the Srñjaya king, in the Rigveda. He is mentioned as a devotee of the fire cult, and as victorious over the Turvaśa king and the Vrcīvants. According to Zimmer, his name was Abhyāvartin Cāyamāna Pārthava (‘ descendant of Prthu ’), but Hillebrandt4 recognizes this as doubtful, though he none the less places the Srñjayas to the west of the Indus with Divodāsa. What is more important is to note that the name suggests connexion with the Bharata Devavāta, and as Kurus and Srñjayas were closely connected this is not immaterial.
dyotana Is, according to Sāyana, the name of a prince in the Rigveda. This is probably correct, though the word may also be interpreted as denoting 'glorification*; but it is not clear what relation existed between Dyotana and the other persons mentioned in the same passage, Vetasu, Daśoni, Tūtuji, and Tugra.
drughaṇa Is found in the Mudgala hymn of the Rigveda and in the Atharvaveda. The sense is uncertain. Yāska renders it as a ‘ ghana made of wood,’ probably, as Roth takes it, meaning a ‘club of wood.’ Geldner thinks that it was a wooden bull used by Mudgala as a substitute for a second bull when he wanted to join in a race. But this interpretation of the legend is very improbable. Whitney translates the word as ‘ tree-smiter ’ in the Atharvaveda, quoting Sāyana, who explains it as a ‘ cutting instrument,’ so called because trees are struck with it.
druhyu Is the name of a people mentioned several times in the Rigveda. In one passage it occurs, in the plural, with the Yadus, Turvaśas, Anus, and Pūrus, suggesting that these are the famous five peoples of the Rigveda. Again, the Druhyu king shared in the defeat of his allies by Sudās, and appears to have perished in the waters. In a second passage Druhyu, Anu, Turvaśa, and Yadu are all mentioned in the singular, while in another Pūru and Druhyu occur. From the tribal grouping it is probable that the Druhyus were a north-western people, and the later tradition of the Epic connects Gāndhāra and Druhyu.
dvādaśa Consisting of twelve,’ is used of the year in the .Rigveda. See Naksatra.
dhanus The ‘ bow,’ frequently mentioned in the Rigveda and later, was the chief weapon of the Vedic Indian. The last act of the funeral rite included the removal of the bow from the right hand of the dead man. The weapon was composed of a stout staff bent into a curved shape (vakra), and of a bowstring (Jyā) made of a strip of cowhide which joined the ends. The tips of the bow, when the string was fastened, were called Ártnī. Relaxed when not in actual use, the bow was specially strung up when needed for shooting. The stages of the process are given in detail in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā : the stringing (ā-tan) of the bow, the placing (prati-dhā) of the arrow, the bending (<ū-yam) of the bow, and the shooting (as). The arrow was discharged from the ear, and is hence called karna-yoni, having the ear as its point of origin.’ The making of bows was a regular profession (dhanus-kāra, dhanus-krt). For the arrow see Isu, and for the handguard Hastaghna.
dhamani ‘Reed,’ appears to denote pipe ’ in a passage of the Rigveda and in a citation appearing in the Nirukta. In the Atharvaveda it denotes, perhaps, ‘artery’ or ‘vein/ or more generally ‘ intestinal channel,’ being coupled in some passages with Hirā.
dharma Are the regular words, the latter in the Rigveda, and both later, for ‘ law ’ or ‘ custom.’ But there is very little evidence in the early literature as to the administra­tion of justice or the code of law followed. On the other hand, the Dharma Sūtras contain full particulars.Criminal Law.—The crimes recognized in Vedic literature vary greatly in importance, while there is no distinction adopted in principle between real crimes and what now are regarded as fanciful bodily defects or infringements of merely conventional practices. The crimes enumerated include the slaying of an embryo (
dhānya (neut.), A derivative from the preceding word, denotes ‘grain’ in general. It is found in the Rigveda and later. According to the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, there are ten cultivated (grāmyāηi) kinds of grain : rice and barley (vrīhi- yavāh), sesamum and beans (tila-māsāh), Panicum Miliaceum and Italicum (aηu-priyciηgavah), maize (godhūmāh), lentils (masūrāh), Khalvāh and Dolichos uniflorus (khala-kulab). The horse is called ‘ corn-eating {dhānyādd) in the Aitareya and śatapatha Brāhmanas, and men are mentioned as * purifying corn ’ (dhānyā-krt) in the Rigveda.
dhīvan Occurs in the Atharvaveda, where it may either be taken with Roth, Bloomfield, and Whitney as an epithet of ‘chariot-builders’ (ratha-kārāh), meaning ‘clever,’ or be con­strued with the scholiast as denoting ‘fishermen’ (dhīvara). The Paippalāda recension has taksānah, ‘ carpenters.’
dhūrṣad Means, according to Roth, ‘ standing under the yoke' and so ‘burden-bearing,’ and thus metaphorically ‘ promoting/ in the passages of the Rigveda where it occurs. More probable, however, is the view that it means ‘sitting on the pole,’ that is, ‘ charioteer,’ with reference to the fact that to get near his horses the charioteer might well go forward and sit on the pole or even on the yoke.
dhmātṛ (lit. * blower ’) occurs twice in one passage of the. Rigveda in the two forms, dhmātā, nom. ‘ smelter,’ and dhmātarī, which, according to the Padapātha, stands for dhmātari, a locative probably meaning ‘ in the smelting furnace.’ Geldner, Bartholomae, and Oldenburg regard the latter form as a locative infinitive, ‘in the smelting.’ Ludwig and Neisser think dhmātari is a nom. sing. masc. used in the same sense as dhmātā. Smelting is also clearly referred to,8 and the smelter is described as using the wings of birds (parna śakunānām) to fan the flame.9 That the art was widely applied is shown by the fact that reference is made to arrows with points of Ayas,19 to kettles which were fashioned of the same metal and could be placed upon a fire, and to Soma cups of beaten Ayas.
dhrāji In the Rigveda and later denotes the f sweep ’ of the wind, referring no doubt to the violent gales which often blow in India devastating the forests, and which figure in the descriptions of the Maruts, or storm gods.
dhvaja Occurs twice in the Rigveda in the sense of * banner ’ used in battle. It is characteristic of Vedic fighting that in both passages reference is made to arrows being discharged and falling on the banners.
nakṣatra Is a word of obscure origin and derivation. The Indian interpreters already show a great divergence of opinion as to its primary meaning. The śatapatha Brāhmana re­solves it into na-ksatra (‘ no power ’), explaining it by a legend. The Nirukta refers it to the root naks, ‘obtain/ following the Taittirīya Brāhmana. Aufrecht and Weber derived it from nakta-tra, ‘ guardian of night/ and more recently the derivation from nak-ksatra, ‘ having rule over night/ seems to be gaining acceptance. The generic meaning of the word therefore seems to be ‘star/ The Naksatras as Stars in the Rigveda and Later.—The sense of star ’ appears to be adequate for all or nearly all the passages in which Naksatra occurs in the Rigveda. The same sense occurs in the later Samhitās also : the sun and the Naksatras are mentioned together, or the sun, the moon, and the Naksatras, or the moon and the Naksatras, or the Naksatras alone; but there is no necessity to attribute to the word the sense of lunar mansion ’ in these passages. On the other hand, the names of at least three of the Naksatras in the later sense occur in the Rigveda. Tisya, however, does not seem to be mentioned as a lunar mansion. With Aghās (plur.) and Arjunī (dual) the case is different: it seems probable that they are the later lunar mansions called Maghās (plur.) and Phālgunī (dual). The names appear to have been deliberately changed in the Rigveda, and it must be remembered that the hymn in which they occur, the wedding hymn of Sūryā, has no claim to great age. Ludwig and Zimmer have seen other references to the Naksatras as 27 in the Rigveda, but these seem most improbable. Nor do the adjectives revatī (£ rich ’) and punarvasīi (‘ bringing wealth again’) in another hymn appear to refer to the Naksatras. The Naksatras as Lunar Mansions.—In several passages of the later Samhitās the connexion of the moon and the Naksatras is conceived of as a marriage union. Thus in the Kāthaka and Taittirīya Samhitās it is expressly stated that Soma was wedded to the mansions, but dwelt only with Rohinī; the others being angry, he had ultimately to undertake to live with them all equally. Weber hence deduced that the Naksatras were regarded as of equal extent, but this is to press the texts unduly, except in the sense of approximate equality. The number of the mansions is not stated as 27 in the story told in the two Samhitās: the Taittīriya has, and the Kāthaka no number; but 27 appears as their number in the list which is found in the Taittirīya Samhitā and elsewhere. The number 28 is much less well attested: in one passage of the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is practically marked as a new comer, though in a later book, in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and in the Atharvaveda list,27 it has found acceptance. It is perfectly possible that 28 is the earlier number, and that Abhijit dropped out because it was faint, or too far north, or because 27 was a more mystic (3x3x3) number: it is significant that the Chinese Sieou and the Arabic Manāzil are 28 in number.28 Weber, however, believes that 27 is the older number in India. The meaning of the number is easily explained when it is remembered that a periodic month occupies something between 27 and 28 days, more nearly the former number. Such a month is in fact recognized in the Lātyāyana and Nidāna Sūtras as consisting of 27 days, 12 months making a year of 324 days, a Naksatra year, or with an intercalary month, a year of 351 days. The Nidāna Sūtra makes an attempt to introduce the Naksatra reckoning into the civil or solar (sāvana) year of 360 days, for it holds that the sun spends 13J• days in each Naksatra (13^x27 = 360). But the month of 27 or 28 days plays no part in the chronological calculations of the Veda. The Names of the Naksatras.—In addition to the two mentioned in the Rigveda, the earlier Atharvaveda gives the names of Jyesthaghnī (the later Jyesthā) and Vicrtau, which are mentioned as in close connexion, and of Revatīs (plural) and Kyttikās. With reference to possible times for the ceremony of the Agnyādhāna, or Maying of the sacred fires/ the Kāthaka Samhitā, the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and the Taittirīya Brāhmana mention the Naksatras called Krttikās, Rohinī, Phalgunyas, Hasta; the latter Brāhmana adds Punar- vasū, and in an additional remark excludes Pūrve Phālgunī in favour of Uttare Phālgunī. The śatapatha Brāhmana adds Mrgaśīrsa and Citrā as possibilities. On the other hand, Punarvasū is recommended by all authorities as suitable for the Punarādheya, 'relaying of the sacred fires,’ which takes place if the first fire has failed to effect the aim of its existence, the prosperity of the sacrificer. The Kāthaka Samhitā, however, allows Anurādhās also. In the ceremony of the Agnicayana, or 'piling of the fire- altar,’ the bricks are assumed to be equal in number to the Naksatras. The bricks number 756, and they are equated to 27 Naksatras multiplied by 27 secondary Naksatras, reckoned as 720 (instead of 729), with the addition of 36 days, the length of an intercalary month. Nothing can be usefully derived from this piece of priestly nonsense. But in connexion with this ceremony the Yajurveda Samhitās enumerate the 27, The Taittirīya Brāhmana has a list of the Naksatras which agrees generally with the list of the Samhitās. It runs as follows: Kyttikās, Rohinī, Invakās, Bāhū (dual), Tisya, Aśleṣās, Maghās, Pūrve Phālgunī, Uttare Phālgunī, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Rohinī, Mūlabarhanī, Pūrvā Asādhās', Uttarā Asādhās, Sronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Pūrve Prosthapadās, Uttare Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Apabharanīs. In a later book, however, the list grows to 28, and the full moon is inserted after number 14, and the new moon after number, as an attempt to bring the Naksatra (lunar) month into accordance with the Sāvana (solar) month of 30 days. The names in this second list are as in the Samhitās with the following exceptions. The seven stars of the Krttikās are named as Ambā, Dulā, Nitatnī, Abhrayantī, Meghayantī, Varsayantī, Cupunīkā, names found also in the Taittirīya and Kāthaka Samhitās. Beside Mrgaśīrsa, Invakās are also mentioned. Then come Ardrā, Punarvasū, Tisya, Aśresās, Maghās (beside which Anaghās, Agadās, and Arun- dhatīs are also mentioned), Phalgunyas (but elsewhere in the dual, Phalgunyau), Phalgunyas, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Jyesthā, Mūla, Asādhās, Asā(jhās, Abhijit, śronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Prosthapadās, Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas, but also Apabharanīs. Abhijit, which occurs also in an earlier part of the Brāhmana, is perhaps interpolated. But Weber’s argument that Abhijit is out of place in this list because Brāhmana is here mentioned as the 28th Naksatra, loses some force from the fact (of course unknown to him) that the list in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā contains 28 Naksatras, including Abhijit, and adds Brāhmana at the end as another. In another passage the Taittirīya Brāhmana divides the Naksatras into two sets, the Deva Naksatras and the Yama Naksatras, being 1-14 and 15-27 (with the omission of Abhijit) respectively. This division corresponds with one in the third book of the Brāhmana60 where the days of the light half of the month and those of the dark half are equated with the Naksatras. The Brāhmana treats the former series as south, the latter as north; but this has no relation to facts, and can only be regarded as a ritual absurdity. The late nineteenth book of the Atharvaveda contains a list of the Naksatras, including Abhijit. The names here (masc.), Viśākhe, Anurādhā, Jyesthā, Mūla, Pūrvā Asādhās, Uttarā Asādhās, Abhijit, śravana, śravisthās, śatabhisaj, Dvayā Prosthapadā, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas. The Position of the Naksatras.—There is nothing definite in Vedic literature regarding the position of most of the Naksatras, but the later astronomy precisely locates all of them, and its statements agree on the whole satisfactorily with what is said in the earlier texts, though Weber was inclined to doubt this. The determinations adopted below are due to Whitney in his notes on the Sūrya Siddhānta. 1.Krttikās are unquestionably η Tauri, etc., the Pleiades. The names of the seven stars forming this constellation, and given above from Yajurveda texts, include three --------abhrayantī, forming clouds meghayantī, ‘making cloudy’; varsayantī, ‘causing rain’—which clearly refer to the rainy Pleiades. The word krttikā possibly means ‘web/ from the root krt, spin.’ 2. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy,’ is the name of the conspicuously reddish star, a Tauri or Aldebaran, and denotes the group of the Hyades, <* θ y 8 e Tauri. Its identification seems absolutely assured by the legend of Prajāpati in the Aitareya Brāhmana. He is there represented as pursuing his daughter with incestuous intention, and as having been shot with an arrow (Isu Trikāndā, ‘ the belt of Orion ’) by the huntsman ’ (Mrgavyādha, Sirius ’). Prajāpati is clearly Orion (Mrgaśiras being the name of the little group of stars in Orion’s head). 3.Mrgaśīrsa or Mrgaśiras, also called Invakā or Invagā, seems to be the faint stars λ, φ,1 φ2 Orionis. They are called Andhakā, * blind,’ in the śāntikalpa of the Atharvaveda, probably because of their dimness. 4.Ardrā, ‘ moist,’ is the name of the brilliant star, α Orionis. But the names by which it is styled, in the plural as Árdrās in the śāñkhāyana Grhya Sūtra and the Naksatrakalpa, and in the dual as Bāhú, in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, point to a constellation of two or more stars, and it may be noted that the corresponding Chinese Sieou includes the seven brilliant stars composing the shoulders, the belt, and the knees of Orion. 5. Punarvasu, the two that give wealth again,’ denotes the two stars, a and β Geminorum, on the heads of Castor and Pollux. The name is no doubt connected with the beneficent character of the Aśvins, who correspond to the Dioscuri. 6.Tisya or Pusya includes the somewhat faint group in the body of the Crab, 7, δ, and θ Cancri. The singular is rather curious, as primarily one star would seem to have been meant, and none of the group is at all prominent. 7. Aśresās or Aślesās, which in some texts is certainly to be read Aśresās or Aślesas, denotes δ, e, η, p, σ, and perhaps also ζ, Hydrse. The word means ‘embracer,’ a name which admirably fits the constellation. 8. Maghās, the ‘bounties,’ are the Sickle, or α, γ, ζ, μ, e Leonis. The variants Anaghā, the ‘ sinless one,’ etc.,clearly refer to the auspicious influence of the constellation. 9. 10. Phālgunī, Phalgunyau, Phalgū, Phalg-unīs, Phal- gunyas, is really a double constellation, divided into Pūrve, ‘ former,’ and Uttare, ‘latter.’ The former is δ and θ Leonis, the latter β and Leonis. According to Weber, the word denotes, like Arjunī, the variant of the Rigveda, a ‘ bright- coloured ’ constellation. 11. Hasta, ‘hand,’ is made up of the five conspicuous stars (δ> Ί, e, a, β) in Corvus, a number which the word itself suggests. According to Geldner, the ‘ five bulls ’ of the Rigveda are this constellation. 12. Citrā, ‘bright,’ is the beautiful star, a Virginis. It is mentioned in a legend of Indra in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, and in that of the ‘ two divine dogs ’ (divyau śvānau) in the śatapatha Brāhmana. 13. Svāti or Nistyā is later clearly the brilliant star Arcturus or a Bootis, its place in the north being assured by the notice in the śāntikalpa, where it is said to be ‘ ever traversing the northern way ’ (nityam uttara-mārgagam). The Taittirīya Brāhmana, however, constructs an asterismal Prajāpati, giving him Citrā (α Virginis) for head, Hasta (Corvus) for hand, the Viśākhe (α and β Librae) for thighs, and the Anurādhās (β, δ, and 7r Scorpionis) for standing place, with Nistyā for heart. But Arcturus, being 30° out, spoils this figure, while, on the other hand, the Arabic and Chinese systems have respectively, instead of Arcturus, Virginis and κ Virginis, which would well fit into the Prajāpati figure. But in spite of the force of this argument of Weber’s, Whitney is not certain that Nistyā here must mean a star in Virgo, pointing out that the name Nistyā, ‘outcast,’ suggests the separation of this Naksatra from the others in question. 14.Viśākhe is the couple of stars a and β Librae. This mansion is later called Rādhā according to the Amarakośa, and it is curious that in the Atharvaveda the expression rādho Viśākhe, the Viśākhe are prosperity,’ should occur. But probably Rādhā is merely an invention due to the name of the next Naksatra, Anurādhā, wrongly conceived as meaning that which is after or follows Rādhā.’ 15. Anūrādhās or Anurādhā, propitious,’ is β, δ, and tγ (perhaps also p) Scorpionis. 16. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy ’; Jyesthaghnī, * slaying the eldest ’; or Jyesthā, ‘eldest,’ is the name of the constellation σ, α, and τ Scorpionis, of which the central star, a, is the brilliant reddish Antares (or Cor Scorpionis). 17.Vicrtau, ‘ the two releasers ’; Mūla, ‘ root or Mūla- barhanī, ‘ uprooting,’ denote primarily λ and v at the extremity of the tail of the Scorpion, but including also the nine or eleven stars from e to v. 18.19. Asādhās (‘ unconquered ’), distinguished as Pūrvās, ‘ former,’ and Uttarās, ‘ latter,’ are really two constellations, of which the former is composed of γ, δ, e, and η Sagittarii, or of 8 and e only, and the latter of θ, σ, t, and ξ Sagittarii, or of two, σ and ζ, only. It is probable that originally only four stars forming a square were meant as included in the whole constellation —viz., σ and f, with 8 and e. 20. Abhijit is the brilliant star a Lyrse with its two companions e and ζ. Its location in 6o° north latitude is completely discordant with the position of the corresponding Arabian and Chinese asterisms. This fact is considered by Oldenberg to support the view that it was a later addition to the system; its occurrence, however, as early as the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, which he does not note, somewhat invalidates that view. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is said to be ‘over Asādhās, under śronā,’ which Weber held to refer to its position in space, inferring thence that its Vedic position corresponded to that of the Arab Manāzil and the Chinese Sieou—viz., a, β Capricorni. But Whitney argues effectively that the words ‘ over ’ and ‘ under ’ really refer to the place of Abhijit in the list, ‘ after ’ Asādhās and ‘ before ’ Sronā. 21. Sronā, ‘lame,’ or Sravana, ‘ ear,’ denotes the bright star a Aquilai with β below and 7 above it. Weber very need- lessly thinks that the name Sravana suggested two ears and the head between. It is quite out of correspondence with the Manāzil and the Sieou, and is clearly an Indian invention. 22. śravisthās, ‘ most famous,’ or later Dhanisthās, ‘most wealthy,’ is the diamond-shaped group, α, β, δ, and 7, in the Dolphin, perhaps also ζ in the same constellation. Like the preceding Naksatra, it is out of harmony with the Manāzil and Sieou. 23. Satabhisaj or śatabhisa, ‘having a hundred physicians,’ seems to be λ Aquarii with the others around it vaguely conceived as numbering a hundred. 24. 25. Prostha-padās (fem. plur.), ‘ feet of a stool,’ or later Bhadra-padās,100 ‘auspicious feet,’ a double asterism forming a square, the former (pūrva) consisting of a and β Pegasi, the latter (uttara) of γ Pegasi and a Andromedse. 26. Revatī, ‘ wealthy,’ denotes a large number of stars (later 32), of which ζ Piscium, close upon the ecliptic where it was crossed by the equator of about 570 a.d., is given as the southernmost. 27. Aśva-yujau, ‘the two horse-harnessers,’ denotes the stars β and ζ Arietis. Aśvinyau101 and Aśvinī102 are later names. 28. Apabharanīs, Bharanīs, or Bharanyas, ‘ the bearers,’ is the name of the small triangle in the northern part of the Ram known as Musca or 35, 39, and 41 Arietis. The Naksatras and the Months.—In the Brāhmanas the Naksatra names are regularly used to denote dates. This is done in two ways. The name, if not already a feminine, may be turned into a feminine and compounded with pūrna-māsa, ‘the full moon,’ as in Tisyā-pūrnamāsa, ‘the full moon in the Naksatra Tisya.’103 Much more often, however, it is turned into a derivative adjective, used with paurnamāsī, ‘the full moon (night)/ or with amāvāsyā, ‘the new moon (night)/ as in Phālgunī paurnamāsl, ‘the full-moon night in the Naksatra Phālgunī’;104 or, as is usual in the Sūtras, the Naksatra adjective alone is used to denote the full-moon night. The month itself is called by a name derived105 from that of a Naksatra, but only Phālguna,106 Caitra,107 Vaiśākha,108 Taisya,109 Māgha110 occur in the Brāhmanas, the complete list later being Phālguna, Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyaistha, Asādha, Srāvana, Prausthapada, Aśvayuja, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrsa, Taisya, Māgha. Strictly speaking, these should be lunar months, but the use of a lunar year was clearly very restricted: we have seen that as early as the Taittirīya Brāhmana there was a tendency to equate lunar months with the twelve months of thirty days which made up the solar year (see Māsa). The Naksatras and Chronology.—(i) An endeavour has been made to ascertain from the names of the months the period at which the systematic employment of those names was intro¬duced. Sir William Jones111 refers to this possibility, and Bentley, by the gratuitous assumption that śrāvana always marked the summer solstice, concluded that the names of the months did not date before b.c. Ii8I. Weber112 considered that there was a possibility of fixing a date by this means, but Whitney113 has convincingly shown that it is an impossible feat, and Thibaut114 concurs in this view. Twelve became fixed as the number of the months because of the desire, evident in the Brāhmanas, somehow or other to harmonize lunar with solar time; but the selection of twelve Naksatras out of twenty-seven as connected with the night of full moon can have no chronological significance, because full moon at no period occurred in those twelve only, but has at all periods occurred in every one of the twenty-seven at regularly recurrent intervals. (2) All the lists of the Naksatras begin with Krttikās. It is only fair to suppose that there was some special reason for this fact. Now the later list of the Naksatras begins with Aśvinī, and it was unquestionably rearranged because at the time of its adoption the vernal equinox coincided with the star ζ Piscium on the border of Revatī and Aśvinī, say in the course of the sixth century A.D. Weber has therefore accepted the view that the Krttikās were chosen for a similar reason, and the date at which that Naksatra coincided with the vernal equinox has been estimated at some period in the third millennium B.C. A very grave objection to this view is its assumption that the sun, and not the moon, was then regarded as connected with the Naksatras; and both Thibaut and Oldenberg have pronounced decidedly against the idea of connecting the equinox with the Krttikās. Jacobi has contended that in the Rigveda the commencement of the rains and the summer solstice mark the beginning of the new year and the end of the old, and that further the new year began with the summer solstice in Phālgunī.121 He has also referred to the distinction of the two sets of Deva and Yama Naksatras in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as supporting his view of the connexion of the sun and the Naksatras. But this view is far from satisfactory: the Rigveda passages cannot yield the sense required except by translating the word dvādaśa123 as 4 the twelfth (month) * instead of consisting of twelve parts,’ that is, ‘year/ the accepted interpretation; and the division of the Naksatras is not at all satisfactorily explained by a supposed connexion with the sun. It may further be mentioned that even if the Naksatra of Krttikās be deemed to have been chosen because of its coincidence with the vernal equinox, both Whitney and Thibaut are pre¬pared to regard it as no more than a careless variant of the date given by the Jyotisa, which puts the winter solstice in Māgha. (3) The winter solstice in Māgha is assured by a Brāhmana text, for the Kausītaki Brāhmana12® expressly places it in the new moon of Māgha (māghasyāmāυāsyāyām). It is not very important whether we take this with the commentators as the new moon in the middle of a month commencing with the day after full moon in Taisa, or, which is much more likely, as the new moon beginning the month and preceding full moon in Māgha. The datum gives a certain possibility of fixing an epoch in the following way. If the end of Revatī marked the vernal equinox at one period, then the precession of the equinoxes would enable us to calculate at what point of time the vernal equinox was in a position corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha, when the solstitial colure cut the ecliptic at the beginning of Sravisthās. This would be, on the strict theory, in the third quarter of Bharanī, 6f asterisms removed from Sravisthās, and the difference between that and the beginning of Aśvinī = if asterisms = 23 (27 asterisms being = 360°). Taking, the starting-point at 499 a.d., the assured period of Varāha Mihira, Jones arrived at the date B.C. 1181 for the vernal equinox corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha—that is, on the basis of ι° = 72 years as the precession. Pratt arrived at precisely the same date, taking the same rate of precession and adopting as his basis the ascertained position in the Siddhantas of the junction star of Maghā, a Leonis or Regulus. Davis and Colebrooke arrived at a different date, B.C. 1391, by taking as the basis of their calculation the junction star of Citrā, which happens to be of uncertain position, varying as much as 30 in the different textbooks. But though the twelfth century has received a certain currency as the epoch of the observation in the Jyotisa, it is of very doubtful value. As Whitney points out, it is impossible to say that the earlier asterisms coincided in position with the later asterisms of 13J0 extent each. They were not chosen as equal divisions, but as groups of stars which stood in conjunction with the moon; and the result of subsequently making them strictly equal divisions was to throw the principal stars of the later groups altogether out of their asterisms. Nor can we say that the star ζ Piscium early formed the eastern boundary of Revatī; it may possibly not even have been in that asterism at all, for it is far remote from the Chinese and Arabic asterisms corresponding to Revatī. Added to all this, and to the uncertainty of the starting-point— 582 a.d., 560 a.d., or 491 a.d. being variants —is the fact that the place of the equinox is not a matter accurately determin¬able by mere observation, and that the Hindu astronomers of the Vedic period cannot be deemed to have been very accurate observers, since they made no precise determination of the number of days of the year, which even in the Jyotisa they do not determine more precisely than as 366 days, and even the Sūrya Siddhānta136 does not know the precession of the equinoxes. It is therefore only fair to allow a thousand years for possible errors,137 and the only probable conclusion to be drawn from the datum of the Kausītaki Brāhmana is that it was recording an observation which must have been made some centuries B.C., in itself a result quite in harmony with the probable date of the Brāhmana literature,138 say B.C. 800-600. (4) Another chronological argument has been derived from the fact that there is a considerable amount of evidence for Phālguna having been regarded as the beginning of the year, since the full moon in Phālgunī is often described as the ‘ mouth (mukham) of the year.’139 Jacobi140 considers that this was due to the fact that the year was reckoned from the winter solstice, which would coincide with the month of Phālguna about B.C. 4000. Oldenberg and Thibaut, on the other hand, maintain that the choice of Phālguna as the ‘ mouth ’ of the year was due to its being the first month of spring. This view is favoured by the fact that there is distinct evidence of the correspondence of Phālguna and the beginning of spring : as we have seen above in the Kausītaki Brāhmana, the new moon in Māgha is placed at the winter solstice, which puts the full moon of Phālgunī at a month and a half after the winter solstice, or in the first week of February, a date not in itself improbable for about B.C. 800, and corresponding with the February 7 of the veris initium in the Roman Calendar. This fact accords with the only natural division of the year into three periods of four months, as the rainy season lasts from June 7-10 to October 7-10, and it is certain that the second set of four months dates from the beginning of the rains (see Cāturmāsya). Tilak, on the other hand, holds that the winter solstice coincided with Māghī full moon at the time of the Taittirīya Samhitā (b.c. 2350), and had coincided with Phālgunī and Caitrī in early periods—viz., B.C. 4000-2500, and B.C. 6000¬4000. (5) The passages of the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, which treat the full moon in Phālguna as the beginning of the year, give as an alternative the full moon in Caitra. Probably the latter month was chosen so as to secure that the initial day should fall well within the season of spring, and was not, as Jacobi believes, a relic of a period when the winter solstice corresponded with Caitra. Another alternative is the Ekāstakā, interpreted by the commentators as the eighth day after the full moon in Maghās, a time which might, as being the last quarter of the waning half of the old year, well be considered as representing the end of the year. A fourth alternative is the fourth day before full moon; the full moon meant must be that of Caitra, as Álekhana quoted by Ápastamba held, not of Māgha, as Asmarathya, Laugāksi and the Mīmāmsists believed, and as Tilak believes. (6) Others, again, according to the Grhya ritual, began the year with the month Mārgaśīrsa, as is shown by its other name Agrahāyana (‘ belonging to the commencement of the year ’). Jacobi and Tilak think that this one denoted the autumn equinox in Mrgaśiras, corresponding to the winter solstice in Phālgunī. But, as Thibaut shows clearly, it was selected as the beginning of a year that was taken to commence with autumn, just as some took the spring to commence with Caitra instead of Phālguna. (7) Jacobi has also argued, with the support of Buhler, from the terms given for the beginning of Vedic study in the Grhya Sūtras, on the principle that study commenced with the rains (as in the Buddhist vassā) which mark the summer solstice. He concludes that if Bhādrapada appears as the date of commencing study in some texts, it was fixed thus because at one time Prosthapadās (the early name of Bhadra- padās) coincided with the summer solstice, this having been the case when the winter solstice was in Phālguna. But Whitney155 has pointed out that this argument is utterly illegitimate; we cannot say that there was any necessary connexion between the rains and learning—a month like Srāvana might be preferred because of its connexion with the word Sravana, 4 ear ’—and in view of the precession of the equinoxes, we must assume that Bhādrapada was kept because of its traditional coincidence with the beginning of the rains after it had ceased actually so to coincide. the other astronomical phenomena; the discovery of a series of 27 lunar mansions by them would therefore be rather surprising. On the other hand, the nature of such an operation is not very complicated ; it consists merely in selecting a star or a star group with which the moon is in conjunction. It is thus impossible a priori to deny that the Vedic Indians could have invented for themselves a lunar Zodiac. But the question is complicated by the fact that there exist two similar sets of 28 stars or star groups in Arabia and in China, the Manāzil and the Sieou. The use of the Manāzil in Arabia is consistent and effective ; the calendar is regulated by them, and the position of the asterisms corresponds best with the positions required for a lunar Zodiac. The Indians might therefore have borrowed the system from Arabia, but that is a mere possibility, because the evidence for the existence of the Manāzil is long posterior to that for the existence of the Naksatras, while again the Mazzaroth or Mazzaloth of the Old Testament may really be the lunar mansions. That the Arabian system is borrowed from India, as Burgess held, is, on the other hand, not at all probable. Biot, the eminent Chinese scholar, in a series of papers published by him between. 1839 and 1861, attempted to prove the derivation of the Naksatra from the Chinese Sieou. The latter he did not regard as being in origin lunar mansions at all. He thought that they were equatorial stars used, as in modern astronomy, as a standard to which planets or other stars observed in the neighbourhood can be referred; they were, as regards twenty-four of them, selected about B.C. 2357 on account of their proximity to the equator, and of their having the same right ascension as certain circumpolar stars which had attracted the attention of Chinese observers. Four more were added in B.C. IIOO in order to mark the equinoxes and solstices of the period. He held that the list of stars commenced with Mao (= Krttikās), which was at the vernal equinox in B.C. 2357. Weber, in an elaborate essay of i860, disputed this theory, and endeavoured to show that the Chinese literary evidence for the Sieou was late, dating not even from before the third century B.C. The last point does not appear to be correct, but his objections against the basis of Biot’s theory were rein¬forced by Whitney, who insisted that Biot’s supposition of the Sieou’s not having been ultimately derived from a system of lunar mansions, was untenable. This is admitted by the latest defender of the hypothesis of borrowing from China, Lśopold de Saussure, , but his arguments in favour of a Chinese origin for the Indian lunar mansions have been refuted by Oldenberg, who has also pointed out that the series does not begin with Mao ( = Krttikās). There remains only the possibility that a common source for all the three sets—Naksatra, Manāzil, and Sieou—may be found in Babylonia. Hommel has endeavoured to show that recent research has established in Babylonia the existence of a lunar zodiac of twenty-four members headed by the Pleiades ( = Krttikās); but Thibaut’s researches are not favourable to this claim. On the other hand, Weber, Whitney, Zimmer, and Oldenberg all incline to the view that in Babylonia is to be found the origin of the system, and this must for the present be regarded as the most probable view, for there are other traces of Babylonian influence in Vedic literature, such as the legend of the flood, perhaps the Adityas, and possibly the word Manā.
nada Is found in several passages of the Rigveda, but its sense is still obscure. It is identified by Pischel with Nada, being explained by him in one passage as a reed boat, which is split, and over which the waters go; in another4 as a reed whip, of which the sharp points (karηa) are used to urge horses on; and in others again as figuratively designating the penis. Roth takes the sense to be ‘ bull ’ (either literally or meta-phorically) in all passages. Once at least the ‘ neigher ’ (from the root nadf ‘sound’) seems to be meant with reference to Indra’s horse. In the phrase nadasya karnaih8 the sense is, perhaps, ‘ through the ears of the (side) horse ’ (that is, by their being ready to hear the word of command) of their chariot, the Maruts ‘ hasten On with their swift steeds ’ (turayanta āśubhih).
navanīta ‘ Fresh butter,’ is mentioned frequently in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas. According to the Aitareya Brāhmana this is the kind of butter which is fitted for anointing an embryo (,garbha), while the gods receive Ajya, men fragrant ghee (Ghrta), and the fathers Ayuta. Elsewhere4 it is contrasted with Ghrta and Sarpis.
nāman ‘Name,’ is a common word from the Rigveda onwards. The Grhya Sūtras give elaborate rules for the formation of the names of children, but more important is the distinction between the secret (guhya) and the ordinary name, though the rules as to the secret name are not at all consistent. The secret name is already recognized in the Rigveda, and is referred to in the Brāhmanas, one secret name, that of Arjuna for Indra, being given in the Satapatha Brāhmana. It is to be noted that the rule as to giving the designation of a Naksatra (lunar asterism) as the secret name or otherwise is not illustrated by a single recorded name of a teacher in the Brāhmanas. The śatapatha Brāhmana several times mentions the adoption of a second name with a view to securing success, and also refers to the adoption of another name for purposes of distinction. In actual practice two names are usually found in the Brāhmanas, the second being a patronymic or a metronymic, as in Kaksīvant Auśija (if the story of the slave woman Uśij as his mother is correct), or Brhaduktha Vāmneya, ‘ son of Vāmnī,’ though the relationship may, of course, be not direct parentage, but more remote descent. Three names are less common—for example, Kūśāmba Svāyava Lātavya, ‘ son of Svāyu, of the Lātavya (son of Latu) family,’ or Devataras Syāvasāyana Kāśyapa, where the patronymic and the Gotra name are both found. In other cases the names probably have a local reference—e.g., Kauśāmbeya and Gāñgya. Fre¬quently the patronymic only is given, as Bhārgava, Maudgalya, etc., or two patronymics are used. The simple name is often used for the patronymic—e.g., Trasadasyu. In a few cases the name of the wife is formed from the husband’s name, as Uśīnarānī, Purukutsānī, Mudgalānī.
nārada Is the name of a mythical seer mentioned several times in the Atharvaveda. In the Aitareya Brāhmana he appears in conjunction with Parvata as priest of Hariścandra, as teaching Somaka Sāhadevya, and as anointing Ambāsthya and Yudhāmśrausti. In the Maitrāyanī Samhitā he is mentioned as a teacher, and in the Sāmavidhāna Brāhmana as a pupil of Brhaspati. In the Chāndogya Upanisad he is coupled with Sanatkumāra.
nārāśaṃsī (scil. Rc), ‘ (verse) celebrating men,’ is mentioned as early as the Rigveda, and is distinguished from Gāthā in a number of passages in the later literature. The Kāthaka Samhitā, while distinguishing the two, asserts that both are false (aηγtam). It is hardly probable that the two were abso­lutely distinct, for the Taittirīya Brāhmana has the phrase ‘a Gāthā celebrating men’ (nārāśamsī). What such verses were may be seen from the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra, which enumerates the Nārāśamsāni at the Purusamedha, or ‘human sacrifice.’ They may legitimately be reckoned as a source of the epic.The term Nārāśamsī is restricted in some passages to a particular group of three verses of the Atharvaveda, but Oldenberg must be right in holding that the restricted sense is not to be read into the Rigveda. Not even in the Taittirīya Samhitā is the technical sense certain, and the Brhaddevatā gives the word a general application.
nārī ‘Woman,’ occurs in the Rigveda and later. The word seems in the Rigveda to have a distinct reference to a woman as a wife, because it occurs in several passages with distinct reference to matrimonial relations, and in the later Vedic literature, where it is not common, it sometimes has that sense. Delbruck, however, thinks that it does not indi­cate marital relations, but merely the woman as the sexual complement of the man.
nidāna Is the name of a Sūtra, which is referred to in the Brhaddevatā apparently as containing a quotation from the Bhāllavi Brāhmana. The quotation cannot be verified in the existing text of the Sūtra.
niveśana Dwelling occurs in the Rigveda and the Sūtras. In the latter the word is sometimes contrasted with Grha as the resting-place of animals.
niṣka Is frequently found in the Rigveda and later denoting a gold ornament worn on the neck, as is shown by the two epithets ηiska-kaηtha and ηiska-grīva, ‘ having a gold ornament on the neck.’ A Niska of silver is mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. As early as the Rigveda6 traces are seen of the use of Niskas as a sort of currency, for a singer celebrates the receipt of a hundred Niskas and a hundred steeds: he could hardly require the Niskas merely for purposes of personal adornment. Later the use of Niskas as currency is quite clear. Cf. also Krsnala.
nīcya (‘Living below ’) is a designation of certain nations of the west. The Nīcyas are mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmana as distinguished from the people of Madhyadeśa, and no doubt mean the inhabitants of the Indus and Panjab regions.
nṛtū Occurs once in the Rigveda denoting a female ‘ dancer.’ In another passage Nrti is found coupled with hāsa, ‘laughter,’ in the description of the funeral ritual; but though it is clear that a joyful celebration is meant (like the Irish ‘ wake ’ or the old-fashioned feasting in Scotland after a funeral), it is difficult to be certain that actual dancing is here meant. Dancing is, however, often referred to in the Rigveda and later. Nrtta- gīta, ‘ dance and song,’ are mentioned in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana as found in the sixth world. See also Sailūsa.
nrṣad ‘Sitting among men,’ is the name of the father of Kanva in the Rigveda . Cf. Nārṣada.
nairukta In the Nirukta denotes a man who knows the true etymology of words, and explains their meaning accord­ingly. Yāska’s Nirukta is the classic work of this school, and forms a commentary on an earlier Nirukta, the so-called Naighantuka, a glossary consisting of five collections of Vedic words.
nau Is the regular word in the Rigveda and later for a 4 boat ’ or 4 ship.’ In the great majority of cases the ship was merely a boat for crossing rivers, though no doubt a large boat was needed for crossing many of the broad rivers of the Panjab as well as the Yamunā and Gañgā. Often no doubt the Nau was a mere dug-out canoe (
pañcajanāḥ The ‘five peoples,’ are mentioned under various names in Vedic literature. Who are meant by the five is very uncertain. The Aitareya Brāhmana explains the five to be gods, men, Gandharvas and Apsarases, snakes, and the Fathers. Aupamanyava held that the four castes (Varna) and the Nisādas made up the five, and Sāyana is of the same opinion. Yāska thinks that the five are the Gandharvas, fathers, gods, Asuras, and Raksases. No one of these explanations can be regarded as probable. Roth and Geldner think that all the peoples of the earth are meant: just as there are four quarters (Diś), there are peoples at the four quarters (N. E. S. W.), with the Aryan folk in the middle. Zimmer opposes this view on the ground that the inclusion of all peoples in one expression is not in harmony with the distinction so often made between Aryan and Dāsa ; that neither janāsah, ‘ men,’ nor mānusāh, ‘people,’ could be used of non-Aryans; that the Soma is referred to as being among the five tribes; that the five tribes are mentioned as on the Sarasvatī, and that Indra is pāñca- jany a, ‘ belonging to the five peoples.’ Pie concludes that Aryans alone are meant, and in particular the five tribes of the Anus, Druhyus, Yadus, Turvaśas, and Pūrus, who are all mentioned together in one or perhaps two hymns of the Rigveda, and four of whom occur in another hymn. But he admits that the expression might easily be used more generally later. Hopkins has combated Zimmer’s view, but his own opinion rests mainly on his theory that there was no people named Turvaśa, but only a king of the Yadus called Turvaśa, and that theory is not very probable. In the śatapatha Brāhmana and the Aitareya Brāhmana the five peoples are opposed to the Bharatas, and in the former work seven peoples are alluded to.
pañcāla Is the later name of the people called Krivi in the Rigveda. The Pañcālas are rarely referred to except in con­nexion with the Kurus, and the kings of the Kuru-Pañcālas are mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmana. In the Kāthaka Samhitā the Pañcālas appear as the people of Keśin Dālbhya. In the Upanisads and later the Brahmins of the Pañcālas figure as taking part in philosophical and philological discussions. The Samhitopanisad Brāhmana makes mention of the Prācya-Pāñcālas. The Pañcālas, no doubt, included other tribes besides the Krivis. The name seems to refer to five tribes, and it has been suggested that the Pañcālas represent the five tribes of the Rigveda, but the suggestion is not very probable. There is no trace in Vedic literature of the Epic division of the Pañcālas into northern (uttara) and southern (daksina). The Satapatha Brāhmana mentions their town Paricakrā; other towns to which allusion seems to be made were Kāmpīla and Kauśāmbī. Of their kings and chiefs, as distinguished from kings of the Kuru-Pañcālas, we hear of Kraivya, Durmukha, Pravāhana Jaivali, and Sona.
paḍbīśa The foot-fetter ’ of a horse in five passages, two in the Rigveda, and one each in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, the Chāndogya Upanisad, and the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka. Elsewhere its uses are metaphorical. According to Roth,® the literal sense is ‘foot-fastening’ (pad being = pad, ‘foot,’ and bīśa, written visa in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, being connected with the Latin viηcire, ‘bind’). Pischel[2] objects that the sense of * foot-fastening’ involves the absurdity, in the Upanisad passages, of a fine horse from the Sindhu (Indus) being spoken of as tearing up the peg to which it is fastened. He suggests instead the meaning of ‘ hobble,’ which must be right.8
paṇa With Pratipana, is found in a hymn of the Atharva­veda denoting the process of bargaining and selling. The root pan, from which the word is derived, is employed in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas, while Panana in the Satapatha Brāhmana denotes ‘trafficking.’ Cf Vanij.
paṇi In the Rigveda appears to denote a person who is rich, but who does not give offerings to the gods, or bestow Daksinās on the priests, and who is therefore an object of intense dislike to the composers of the Samhitā. Hence the gods are asked to attack the Panis, who are also referred to as being defeated with slaughter. The Pani is opposed to the pious sacrificer as a niggard, and is spoken of as a wolf, the symbol of enmity. In some passages the Panis definitely appear as mythological figures, demons who withhold the cows or waters of heaven, and to whom Saramā goes on a mission from Indra. Among the Panis Brbu was apparently important. In one passage of the Rigveda they are described as Beka- nā^as, or ‘usurers’ (?). In another they are called Dasyus, and styled mrdhra-vāc, probably ‘ of hostile speech,’ and grathin, a word of uncertain meaning. Hillebrandt thinks that the latter epithet refers to the continuous flow of a speech which is not understood, and that mrdhra-vāc means * speaking an enemy’s speech,’ though not necessarily with reference to non-Aryans. In two passages the Panis appear as Dāsas, and in one a Pani is mentioned in connexion with wer- geld (Vaira), being apparently regarded as equal to a man merely in the price put on his life, but in other respects as inferior. It is difficult to be certain exactly who a Pani was. Roth thinks that the word is derived from pan, ‘barter,’ and that the Pani is properly the man who will give nothing without return, hence the niggard, who neither worships the gods nor rewards their priests. This view is accepted by Zimmer and by Ludwig. The latter scholar thinks the apparent references to fights with Panis are to be explained by their having been aboriginal traders who went in caravans—as in Arabia and Northern Africa—prepared to fight, if need be, to protect their goods against attacks which the Aryans would naturally deem quite justified. He supports this explanation by the references to the Panis as Dasyus and Dāsas. It is, however, hardly necessary to do more than regard the Panis generally as non-worshippers of the gods favoured by the singers; the term is wide enough to cover either the aborigines or hostile Aryan tribes, as well as demons. Hillebrandt, however, thinks that a real tribe is meant, the Parnians of Strabo, and that they were associated with the Dahae (Dāsa). Moreover, he finds them associated in one passage with the Pārāvatas, whom he identifies with the Iϊαρουήται of Ptolemy, and with Brsaya, whom he connects with Bapσaevτηç of Arrian; he also con¬siders that the frequent mention of the Panis as opponents of Divodāsa shows that the latter was on the Arachosian Haraqaiti (Sarasvatī) fighting against the Parnians and Dahae, as well as other Iranian tribes. But the identification of Pani and the Parnians is needless, especially as the root pan, which is found also in the Greek πέρνημι, shows a satisfactory derivation, while the transfer of Divodāsa to the Haraqaiti is improbable. See also Divodāsa and Bekanāta.
pati Under these words denoting primarily, as the evidence collected in the St. Petersburg Dictionary shows, ‘ lord ’ and ‘ lady,’ and so * husband ’ and * wife,’ it is convenient to consider the marital relations of the Vedic community. Child Marriage.—Marriage in the early Vedic texts appears essentially as a union of two persons of full development. This is shown by the numerous references to unmarried girls who grow old in the house of their fathers (amā-jur), and who adorn themselves in desire of marriage, as well as to the paraphernalia of spells and potions used in the Atharvavedic tradition to compel the love of man or woman respectively, while even the Rigveda itself seems to present us with a spell by which a lover seeks to send all the household to sleep when he visits his beloved. Child wives first occur regularly in the Sūtra period, though it is still uncertain to what extent the rule of marriage before puberty there obtained. The marriage ritual also quite clearly presumes that the marriage is a real and not a nominal one: an essential feature is the taking of the bride to her husband’s home, and the ensuing cohabitation. Limitations on Marriage.—It is difficult to say with certainty within what limits marriage was allowed. The dialogue of Yama and Yam! in the Rigveda seems clearly to point to a prohibition of the marriage of brother and sister. It can hardly be said, as Weber thinks, to point to a practice that was once in use and later became antiquated. In the Gobhila Grhya Sūtra and the Dharma Sūtras are found prohibitions against marriage in the Gotra (‘ family ’) or within six degrees on the mother’s or father’s side, but in the śatapatha Brāh-mana marriage is allowed in the third or fourth generation, the former being allowed, according to Harisvamin, by the Kanvas, and the second by the Saurāstras, while the Dāksi- nātyas allowed marriage with the daughter of the mother’s brother or the son of the father’s sister, but presumably not with the daughter of the mother’s sister or the son of the father’s brother. The prohibition of marriage within the Gotra cannot then have existed, though naturally marriages outside the Gotra were frequent. Similarity of caste was also not an essential to marriage, as hypergamy was permitted even by the Dharma Sūtras, so that a Brāhmana could marry wives of any lower caste, a Ksatriya wives of the two lowest castes as well as of his own caste, a Vaiśya a Sūdrā as well as a Vaiśyā, although the Sūdrā marriages were later disapproved in toto. Instances of such intermarriage are common in the Epic, and are viewed as normal in the Brhaddevatā. It was considered proper that the younger brothers and sisters should not anticipate their elders by marrying before them. The later Samhitās and Brāhmanas present a series of names expressive of such anticipation, censuring as sinful those who bear them. These terms are the pari-vividāna, or perhaps agre-dadhus, the man who, though a younger brother, marries before his elder brother, the latter being then called the parivitta; the agre-didhisu, the man who weds a younger daughter while her elder sister is still unmarried; and the Didhisū-pati, who is the husband of the latter. The passages do not explicitly say that the exact order of birth must always be followed, but the mention of the terms shows that the order was often broken. Widow Remarriage. The remarriage of a widow was apparently permitted. This seems originally to have taken the form of the marriage of the widow to the brother or other nearest kinsman of the dead man in order to produce children. At any rate, the ceremony is apparently alluded to in a funeral hymn of the Rigveda ; for the alternative explanation, which sees in the verse a reference to the ritual of the Purusamedha (‘human sacrifice’), although accepted by Hillebrandt and Delbruck, is not at all probable, while the ordinary view is supported by the Sūtra evidence. Moreover, another passage of the Rigveda clearly refers to the marriage of the widow and the husband’s brother {devr), which constitutes what the Indians later knew as Niyoga. This custom was probably not followed except in cases where no son was already born. This custom was hardly remarriage in the strict sense, since the brother might—so far as appears—be already married himself. In the Atharvaveda, a verse refers to a charm which would secure the reunion, in the next world, of a wife and her second husband. Though, as Delbruck thinks, this very possibly refers to a case in which the first husband was still alive, but was impotent or had lost caste (patita), still it is certain that the later Dharma Sūtras began to recognize ordinary remarriage in case of the death of the first husband Pischel finds some evidence in the Rigveda to the effect that a woman could remarry if her husband disappeared and could not be found or heard of. Polygamy. A Vedic Indian could have more than one wife. This is proved clearly by many passages in the Rigveda; Manu, according to the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, had ten wives ; and the Satapatha Brāhmana explains polygamy by a characteristic legend. Moreover, the king regularly has four wives attributed to him, the Mahisī, the Parivrktī, the Vāvātā, and the Pālāgalī. The Mahisī appears to be the chief wife, being the first, one married according to the śata¬patha Brāhmana. The Parivrktī, ‘ the neglected,’ is explained by Weber and Pischel as one that has had no son. The Vāvātā is ‘the favourite,’ while the Pālāgalī is, according to Weber, the daughter of the last of the court officials. The names are curious, and not very intelligible, but the evidence points to the wife first wedded alone being a wife in the fullest sense. This view is supported by the fact emphasized by Delbruck, that in the sacrifice the Patnī is usually mentioned in the singular, apparent exceptions being due to some mythological reason. Zimmer is of opinion that polygamy is dying out in the Rigvedic period, monogamy being developed from pologamy; Weber, however, thinks that polygamy is secondary, a view that is supported by more recent anthropology. Polyandry.—On the other hand, polyandry is not Vedic. There is no passage containing any clear reference to such a custom. The most that can be said is that in the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda verses are occasionally found in which husbands are mentioned in relation to a single wife. It is difficult to be certain of the correct explanation of each separate instance of this mode of expression; but even if Weber’s view, that the plural is here used majestatis causa, is not accepted, Delbruck’s explanation by mythology is probably right. In other passages the plural is simply generic. Marital Relations.—Despite polygamy, however, there is ample evidence that the marriage tie was not, as Weber has suggested, lightly regarded as far as the fidelity of the wife was concerned. There is, however, little trace of the husband’s being expected to be faithful as a matter of morality. Several passages, indeed, forbid, with reference to ritual abstinence, intercourse with the strī of another. This may imply that adultery on the husband’s part was otherwise regarded as venial. But as the word strī includes all the ‘womenfolk,’ daughters and slaves, as well as wife, the conclusion can hardly be drawn that intercourse with another man’s ‘wife’ was normally regarded with indifference. The curious ritual of the Varunapraghāsās, in which the wife of the sacrificer is questioned as to her lovers, is shown by Delbruck to be a part of a rite meant to expiate unchastity on the part of a wife, not as a normal question for a sacrificer to put to his own wife. Again, Yājñavalkya’s doctrine in the Satapatha Brāhmana, which seems to assert that no one cares if a wife is unchaste (parah-pumsā) or not, really means that no one cares if the wife is away from the men who are sacrificing, as the wives of the gods are apart from them during the particular rite in question. Monogamy is also evidently approved, so that some higher idea of morality was in course of formation. On the other hand, no Vedic text gives us the rule well known to other Indo-Germanic peoples that the adulterer taken in the act can be killed with impunity, though the later legal literature has traces of this rule. There is also abundant evidence that the standard of ordinary sexual morality was not high. Hetairai. In the Rigveda there are many references to illegitimate love and to the abandonment of the offspring of such unions,ββ especially in the case of a protege of Indra, often mentioned as the parāvrkta or parāvrj. The ‘son of a maiden ’ (kumārī-putra) is already spoken of in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. Such a person appears with a metronymic in the Upanisad period: this custom may be the origin of metro- nymics such as those which make up a great part of the lists of teachers (Vamśas) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. The Vājasaneyi Samhitā refers to illicit unions of śūdra and Arya, both male and female, besides giving in its list of victims at the Purusamedha, or ‘human sacrifice,’ several whose designations apparently mean ‘ courtesan (atītvarī) and ‘ procuress of abortion ’ (
patti Is used in the Atharvaveda to designate the ‘foot soldier’ in war as opposed to the Rathin, ‘charioteer,’ the latter defeating (ji) the former. One of the epithets of Rudra in the Satarudriya liturgy of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā is ‘lord of footmen’ (pattīηām pati).
parāśara Is mentioned with Satayātu and Vasistha in the Rigvedic hymn celebrating Sudās’ victory over the ten kings. According to the Nirukta he was a son of Vasistha, but the Epic version makes him a son of śakti and grandson of Vasistha. Geldner thinks that he is mentioned in the Rigveda along with Satayātu, perhaps his uncle, and his grandfather Vasistha, as the three sages who approached Indra and won his favour for Sudās. He is erroneously credited with the authorship of certain hymns of the Rigveda by the Anukramanī (Index).
paripanthin ‘Besetting the path,’ denotes ‘ robber ’ in the Rigveda and later. Cf Taskara, Tāyu, Stena.
parimit Occurs once in the Atharvaveda in the description of a house, meaning perhaps the ‘ crossbeams ’ connecting the vertical posts. Cf. Grha.
pariṣad (lit., ‘sitting around ’) denotes in the Upanisads an ‘assemblage’ of advisers in questions of philosophy, and the Gobhila Grhya Sūtra refers to a teacher with his Parisad or ‘council.’ In the later literature the word denotes a body of advisers on religious topics, but also the assessors of a judge, or the council of ministers of a prince. But in none of these senses is the word found in the early literature, though the institutions indicated by it must have existed at least in embryo.
pariṣkanda (lit., ‘leaping around’) occurs in the Vrātya hymn of the Atharvaveda denoting, in the dual, the two footmen running beside a chariot.
parisrut Is the name of a drink which is mentioned first in the Atharvaveda, and which was distinct from both Surā and Soma, but was intoxicating. According to Mahīdhara, the liquor was made from flowers (Puspa). Zimmer thinks that it was the family drink, and this is supported by the fact that in the Atharvaveda it twice occurs as a household beverage.6 Hillebrandt is of opinion that it was very much the same as Surā.
paruṣṇī Is the name of a river which is mentioned in the Nadī-stuti (‘Praise of Rivers’), and in the song of Sudās’ victory over the ten kings, which seems to have been made decisive by the rise of the river drowning the fugitives. In these passages and one of the eighth book of the Rigveda, where it is called a ‘ great stream ’ (mahenadi), the name is certainly that of the river later called Ravi (Irāvatī), as recog­nized by Yāska. Pischel sees a reference to it in two other passages of the Rigveda, where ‘ wool ’ (ūrnā) is connected with the word parusnī, and the allusion to the river is accepted by Max Muller and Oldenberg, though they are not fully agreed as to the exact sense of the passages in question. Pischel suggests that the name is derived from the ‘flocks’ (parus) of wool, not from the bends of the river, as understood by the Nirukta, or from its reeds, as Roth suggests. The mention of the Parusnī and the Yamunā in the hymn celebrating the victory of Sudās has given rise to the conjectures of Hopkins, that the Yamunā in that hymn is merely another name for the Parusnī, and of Geldner, that the Parusnī there is merely a tributary of the Yamunā (Jumna). But neither interpretation is either essential or even probable. The hymn is a condensed one, and may well be taken as celebrating two great victories of Sudās. There is a doubtful reference to the Parusnī in the Atharvaveda.
parṇaka Is the name of a man included in the list of victims at the Purusamedha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmana. According to Mahī- dhara, a Bhilla is meant—i.e., presumably a wild hillman, for he glosses Nisāda in the same way. Sāyana explains the word as meaning ‘ one who catches fish by putting over the water a parna with poison,’ but this is apparently a mere etymological guess. Weber’s rendering of the term as refer­ring to a savage ‘wearing feathers ’ is ingenious, but uncertain.
parśu Occurs in one passage in a Dānastuti (‘praise of gifts ’) in the Rigveda as the name of a man. It is not certain that he is identical with Tirindira, but the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra mentions Tirindira Pāraśavya as the patron of Vatsa Kānva. In another passage occurring in the Vrsākapi hymn, Parśu Mānavī occurs, apparently as a woman, daughter of Manu, but who is meant it is quite impossible to say. Excepting these two, there are no other occurrences in which the word has with any probability the value of a proper name in the Rigveda. Ludwig, however, sees in several other places an allusion to the Parśus. Thus in one passage of the Rigveda he finds a reference to the defeat of Kuruśravana by the Parśus; in another he finds a reference to the Prthus and Parśus i.e., the Parthians and the Persians. He also sees the Parthians in Pārthava, a name found in one hymn. The same view is taken by Weber, who holds that historical connexions with the Persians are referred to. But Zimmer points out that this conclusion is not justified; the Parśus were known to Pānini as a warrior tribe; the Pāraśavas were a tribe in south-west Madhyadeśa; and the Periplus knows a tribe of Parthoi in north India. At most the only conclusion to be drawn is that the Indians and Iranians were early connected, as was of course the case. Actual historical contact cannot be asserted with any degree of probability.
parṣa Occurs in the Rigveda, denoting in the plural ‘ sheaves ’ strewn over the threshing floor.
palita ‘Grey-haired,’ occurs frequently from the Rigveda onwards. It is the distinctive sign of old age. Those who, like certain descendants of Jamadagni, do not grow old, are said not to become grey-haired, while Bharadvāja is described as having in his old age become thin and grey-haired. The Satapatha Brāhmana in one passage observes that grey hairs appear first on the head, and elsewhere alludes to the hair on the arms having become grey.
palpūlana Is found in the Atharvaveda and the Taittirīya Samhitā apparently meaning, properly, ‘lye,’ or water impreg­nated with some biting substance for washing clothes. In the Atharvan passage urine seems to be meant. The verb palpū- laya, ‘to wash with alkaline water,’ occurs in the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmana; and the Sūtras refer to hides {carman) and garments so washed. C/. also Vāsah- palpūlī.
pavi Denotes the ‘ tire ’ of the wheel of a chariot in the Rigveda and later. Reference is made to the necessity for fastening it on firmly, and the epithet su-pavi, ‘ having a good tire,’ is found in the Atharvaveda with su-nābhi, ‘ having a good nave,’ and su-cakra, ‘ having a good wheel.’ The tires were, of course, of metal, and being sharp, could serve on occasion as weapons. The St. Petersburg Dictionary in one passage of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā takes Pavi to mean a metal rim on the stone for pounding Soma, but this seems improbable, because no such metal attachment is elsewhere alluded to. Hille¬brandt seems clearly right in accepting the sense of * sharp edge ’ in this passage, especially as the stones in the Rigveda are, in allusion to their rolling action, styled ‘ rims without horses and without chariots’ (anaśvāsah pavayo Wathāh). The Nirukta ascribes to Pavi the sense of arrow (śalya), but this is very uncertain. The St. Petersburg Dictionary cites for this use two passages of the Rigveda, but in one the secondary sense of sharp-edged weapon with reference to the bolt of Indra is quite likely, and in the other, where the expression vānasya pavi occurs, the sharp-edged pounding-stone of the * reed,’ meaning the stalk of the Soma plant, may be meant. Hillebrandt thinks a reference to the shape of the Soma plant is intended. Pavī-nasa, the name of a demon mentioned in the Atharvaveda, seems to throw no light on this point, for while the St. Petersburg Dictionary takes it to mean * whose nose is like a spearhead,’ it is translated as ‘rim-nosed’ (presumably in allusion to the curved shape of the nose) by Whitney.
pavitra Denotes in the Rigveda, and later, the sieve used for purifying the Soma, the only mode of purifying it certainly known to the Rigveda. It seems clearly to have been made of sheep’s wool, whether woven or plaited is not certain, for the expressions used are too vague to be decisive, though Zimmer thinks hvarāmsi points to plaiting.
paśu Means animal ’ generally, including man. There is frequent mention of the five sacrificial animalsthe horse, the cow, the sheep, the goat, and man. Seven such domestic animals are spoken of in the Atharvaveda and later; probably, as Whitney observes, merely as a sacred mystic number, not, as the commentator explains, the usual five with the ass and the camel added. Animals are also referred to as ubhayadaηt and anyatodant. They are further6 classified as those which take hold with the hand (hastādānāh), man (purusa) telephant (hastiri), and ape (markata), and those which grasp by the mouth (mukhādānāh). Another division is that of biped (dvipād) and quadruped (catuspād). Man is a biped; he is the first (pro- thama) of the beasts ; he alone of animals lives a hundred years (śatāyus), and he is king of the animals. He possesses speech (vāc) in conjunction with the other animals. In the Aitareya Aranyaka an elaborate distinction is drawn between vegetables, animals, and man in point of intellect.Of animals apart from man a threefold division is offered in the Rigveda into those of the air (υāyavya), those of the jungle (<āranya), and those of the village (grāmya), or tame animals. The division into āranya and grāmya animals is quite common. In the Yajurveda Samhitās is found a division into eka-śapha, ‘ whole-hoofed ’; ksudra, ‘small’; and āranya, ‘ wild,’ the two former classes denoting the tame animals. The horse and the ass are eka-śapha ; the ksudra are the sheep, the goat, and the ox: this distinction being parallel to that of ubhayadant and anyatodant. Zimmer sees in a passage of the Atharvaveda a division of wild animals (āranya) into five classes: those of the jungle described as the ‘dread beasts which are in the wood ’ (tnrgā bhīmā vane hitāh) ; winged creatures, represented by the Hamsa, ‘ gander,’ Suparna, ‘eagle,’ Sakuna, ‘bird’; amphibia—Simśumāra, ‘alligator,’ and Ajagara, ‘crocodile’ (?); ‘fish,’ Purīkaya, Jasa, and Matsya; insects and worms (described as rajasāh). But this division is more ingenious than probable, and it is ignored by both Bloomfield and Whitney.
pastyasad (‘ Sitting in the house ’) occurs in one passage of the Rigveda, where the sense seems to be ‘inmate,’ ‘com­panion.’
pāñcajanya ‘Relating to the five peoples.’ See Pañcajanāh.
pāyu Is found in the Rigveda as the name of a poet, a Bhāradvāja. In the Brhaddevatā he is credited with assisting Abhyāvartin Cāyamāna and Prastoka Sārñjaya by conse­crating their weapons with á hymn.
pārikṣita ‘Descendant of Pariksit,’ is the patronymic of Janamejaya in the Aitareya Brāhmana and the śatapatha Brāhmana. The Pāriksitīyas appear in the śatapatha Brāh­mana and the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra as performers of the horse sacrifice. In a Gāthā there cited they are called Pāri- ksitas. Apparently they were the brothers of Janamejaya, named Ugrasena, Bhīmasena, and Srutasena. In the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad the question whither they have gone is made the subject of a philosophical discussion. It is clear that the family had passed away before the time of the Upanisad, and it is also clear that there had been some serious scandal mingled with their greatness which they had, in the opinion of the Brahmins, atoned for by their horse sacrifice with its boundless gifts to the priests. Weber sees in this the germ of the Epic stories which are recorded in the Mahābhārata. The verses relating to Pariksit in the Atharvaveda are called Pāriksityah in the Brāhmanas.
pārthava ‘Descendant of Prthu,’ occurs once in the Rigveda, where the Pārthavas are mentioned as generous donors. The passage is somewhat obscure, as there is a reference to a defeat of the Turvaśas and the Vrcīvants by Srñjaya Daiva- vāta, followed in the next verse by the praise of the bounty to the singer of Abhyāvartin Cāyamāna, who was clearly a Pārthava, and who, in the earlier part of the hymn, has been referred to as victorious over Varaśikha. It is uncertain whether, as Zimmer suggests, the two princes, Abhyāvartin Cāyamāna and Srñjaya Daivavāta, are identical or not. That Pārthava has any direct connexion with the Parthians, as held by Brunnhofer, is most improbable. Cf. Parśu.
pāvamānī Means the verses (rcas) in the ninth Mandala of the Rigveda ‘relating to Soma Pavamāna’ (‘purifying itself’). The name is found in the Atharvaveda1 and later, possibly even in one hymn of the Rigveda itself.
piṇḍa Denoting specifically a ball of flour offered to the Manes, especially on the evening of new moon, occurs in the Nirukta, and repeatedly in the Sūtras.
pitāputrīya (‘Relating to father and son’), used with Sam- pradāna (‘handing over’) means the ceremony by which a father, when about to die, bequeathes his bodily and mental powers to his son. It is described in the Kausītaki Upanisad.
pitṛ Common from the Rigveda onwards, denotes ‘father, not so much as the ‘begetter’ (janitr) but rather as the pro­tector of the child, this being probably also the etymological sense of the word. The father in the Rigveda stands for all that is good and kind. Hence Agni is compared with a father, while Indra is even dearer than a father. The father carries his son in his arms, and places him on his lap, while the child pulls his garment to attract attention. In later years the son depends on his father for help in trouble, and greets him with joy. It is difficult to ascertain precisely how far the son was subject to parental control, and how long such control continued. Reference is made in the Rigveda to a father’s chastising his son for gambling, and Rjrāśva is said to have been blinded by his father. From the latter statement Zimmer infers the existence of a developed patria potestas, but to lay stress on this isolated and semi-mythical incident would be unwise. It is, however, quite likely that the patria potestas was originally strong, for we have other support for the thesis in the Roman patria potestas. If there is no proof that a father legally controlled his son’s wedding, and not much that he controlled his daughter’s, the fact is in itself not improbable. There is again no evidence to show whether a son, when grown up, normally continued to stay with his father, his wife becoming a member of the father’s household, or whether he set up a house of his own : probably the custom varied. Nor do we know whether the son was granted a special plot of land on marriage or otherwise, or whether he only came into such property after his father’s death. But any excessive estimate of the father’s powers over a son who was no longer a minor and naturally under his control, must be qualified by the fact that in his old age the sons might divide their father’s property, or he might divide it amongst them, and that when the father-in-law became aged he fell under the control of his son’s wife. There are also obscure traces that in old age a father might be exposed, though there is no reason to suppose that this was usual in Vedic India. Normally the son was bound to give his father full obedience. The later Sūtras show in detail the acts of courtesy which he owed his father, and they allow him to eat the remnants of his father’s food. On the other hand, the father was expected to be kind. The story of Sunahśepa in the Aitareya Brāh-mana emphasizes the horror with which the father’s heartless treatment of his son was viewed. The Upanisads insist on the spiritual succession from father to son. The kissing of a son was a frequent and usual token of affection, even in mature years. On the failure of natural children, adoption was possible. It was even resorted to when natural children existed, but when it was desired to secure the presence in the family of a person of specially high qualifications, as in Visvamitra’s adoption of Sunahśepa. It is not clear that adoption from one caste into another was possible, for there is no good evidence that Viśvāmitra was, as Weber holds, a Ksatriya who adopted a Brāhmana. Adoption was also not always in high favour: it may be accidental or not that a hymn of the Vasistha book of the Rigveda condemns the usage. It was also possible for the father who had a daughter, but no sons, to appoint her to bear a son for him. At any rate the practice appears to be referred to in an obscure verse of the Rigveda as interpreted by Yāska. Moreover, it is possible that the difficulty of a brotherless maiden finding a husband may have been due in part to the possibility of her father desiring to make her a Putrikā, the later technical name for a daughter whose son is to belong to her father’s family. There can be no doubt that in a family the father took precedence of the mother. Delbruck explains away the apparent cases to the contrary. There is no trace of the family as a land-owning corporation. The dual form Pitarau regularly means ‘father and mother,’ ‘parents.
pitṛyāṇa The ‘ way of the fathers,’ mentioned in the Rigveda and later, is opposed to the Deva-yāna, or ‘way of the gods.’ Tilak considers that the Devayāna corresponds with the Uttarāyana, ‘northern journey’ of the sun, and the Pitryāna with the Daksināyana, its ‘southern journey.’ He concludes from a passage of the śatapatha Brāhmana, where three of the seasons spring, summer, and the rains are ascribed to the gods, but the others to the Pitrs, or Fathers, that the Devayāna began with the vernal equinox, and the Pitryāna with the autumnal equinox. With this he connects the curious distinction of Deva- and Yama-Naksatras in the Taittirīya Brāhmana. These conclusions are, however, very improbable. C/. Naksatra and Sūrya.
pitrya Occurs in the list of sciences given in the Chāndogya Upanisad. Apparently it is to be taken as the science relating to the cult of the Manes, as explained by Sankara in his commentary. As it is in that list followed by Rāśi, the St. Petersburg Dictionary is inclined to take Pitrya Rāśi as one expression, but in what exact sense does not appear.
pipīla ‘Ant/ is mentioned in the Rigveda as eating the flesh of the dead.
pipīlikā In the Atharvaveda and later denotes an ‘ant/ the form of the word referring doubtless not so much to the small species of ant, as it is taken in the later lexicons, but rather to the insect’s tiny size, which would naturally be expressed by a diminutive formation of the name. The form Pipīlaka is found in the Chāndogya Upanisad.
pippala Is found in two passages of the Rigveda meaning ‘ berry,’ used with a mystic signification, and in neither case with any certain reference to the berry of the fig-tree. In the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad the general sense of ‘berry’ is not necessary, and the special sense of ‘berry’ of the Peepal is quite possible: the latter meaning is perhaps intended in the śatapatha Brāhmana. In the Atharvaveda the feminine form of the word, Pippalī, appears denoting berries used as a remedy for wounds, like Arundhatī.
piśaṅga Is the name of one of the two Unnetr priests officiating at the snake festival mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Cf. Caka.
pītudāru Is found in the Kāthaka Samhitā and later denoting the Deodar (deva-dāru) tree, or, according to others, the Khadira or Udumbara tree. Cf. Pūtadru.
pīyūṣa Is found in the Rigveda and later in the sense of the first milk of the cow after calving, ‘biestings.’ Usually the term is applied metaphorically to the sap of the Soma plant.
putra Is, with Sūnu, the usual name for ‘ son ’ from the Rigveda onwards. The original sense of the word was apparently ‘ small,’ or something analogous. The form Putraka is often used with the distinct intention of an affec­tionate address to a younger man, not merely a son proper. Reference is frequently made to the desire for a son. Cf. Pati.
purāṇa Denoting a tale ‘of olden times,’ is often found in the combination Itihāsa-Purāna, which is probably a Dvandva compound meaning * Itihāsa and Purāna.’ It some­times occurs as a separate word, but beside Itihāsa, no doubt with the same sense as in the Dvandva. Sāyana defines a Purāna as a tale which deals with the primitive condition of the universe and the creation of the world, but there is no ground for supposing that this view is correct, or for clearly distinguishing Itihāsa and Purāna. See Itihāsa.
puruṣanti Is a name that occurs twice in the Rigveda, in the first passage denoting a protágá of the Aśvins, in the second a patron who gave presents to one of the Vedic singers. In both cases the name is joined with that of Dhvasanti or Dhvasra. The presumption from the manner in which these three names are mentioned is that they designate men, but the grammatical form of the words might equally well be feminine. Females must be meant, if the evidence of the Paficavimśa Brāhmaṇa is to be taken as decisive, for the form of the first of the two names there occurring, Dhvasre Purusantī, ‘ Dhvasrā and Puruṣanti,’ is exclusively feminine, though here as well as elsewhere Sāyaṇa interprets the names as masculines. See also Taranta and Purumīlha.
purūravas Is the name of a hero in a hymn of the Rigveda containing a curious dialogue between him and a nymph, Urvaśī, an Apsaras. He is also mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmana, where several verses of the Rigvedic dialogue find a setting in a continuous story. In the later literature he is recognized as a king. His name is perhaps intended in one other passage of the Rigveda. It is impossible to say whether he is a mythical figure pure and simple, or really an ancient king. His epithet, Aila, descendant of Idā (a sacrificial goddess), is certainly in favour of the former alternative.
puro'nuvākyā (‘Introductory verse to be recited’) is the technical term for the address to a god inviting him to partake of the offering; it was followed by the Yājyā, which accom­panied the actual oblation. Such addresses are not unknown, but are rare, according to Oldenberg in the Rigveda; subse­quently they are regular, the word itself occurring in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmarias.
puṣkarasāda Sitting on the lotus,’ is the name of an animal in the list of victims at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda Sarphitās. It can hardly be a ‘snake,’ but rather either, as Roth thinks, a ‘bird,’ or perhaps, according to the commentator on the Taittirlya Samhitā, a ‘bee.’
pūru Is the name of a people and their king in the Rigveda. They are mentioned with the Anus, Druhyus, Turvaśas, and Yadus in one passage. They also occur as enemies of the TrtSUS in the hymn of Sudās’ victory. In another hymn Agni of the Bharatas is celebrated as victorious over the Pūrus, probably a reference to the same decisive overthrow. On the other hand, victories of the Pūrus over the aborigines seem to be referred to in several passages. The great kings of the Pūrus were Purukutsa and his son Trasadasyu, whose name bears testimony to his prowess against aboriginal foes, while a later prince was Trksi Trāsa- dasyava. In the Rigveda the Pūrus are expressly mentioned as on the Sarasvatī. Zimmer thinks that the Sindhu (Indus) is meant in this passage. But Ludwig and Hillebrandt with much greater probability think that the eastern Sarasvatī in Kuruksetra is meant. This view accords well with the sudden disappearance of the name of the Pūrus from Vedic tradition, a disappearance accounted for by Oldenberg’s conjecture that the Pūrus became part of the great Kuru people, just as Turvaśa and Krivi disappear from the tradition on their being merged in the Pañcāla nation. Trāsadasyava, the patronymic of Kuruśravana in the Rigveda, shows that the royal families of the Kurus and the Pūrus were allied by intermarriage. Hillebrandt, admitting that the Pūrus in later times lived in the eastern country round the Sarasvatī, thinks that in earlier days they were to be found to the west of the Indus with Divodāsa. This theory must fall with the theory that Divodāsa was in the far west. It might, however, be held to be supported by the fact that Alexander found a Πώρος—that is, a Paurava prince on the Hydaspes, a sort of half-way locality between the Sarasvatī and the West. But it is quite simple to suppose either that the Hydaspes was the earlier home of the Pūrus, where some remained after the others had wandered east, or that the later Paurava represents a successful onslaught upon the west from the east. In several other passages of the Rigveda the Purus as a people seem to be meant. The Nirukta recognizes the general sense of ‘man,’ but in no passage is this really necessary or even probable. So utterly, however, is the tradition lost that the śatapatha Brāhmana explains Pūru in the Rigveda as an Asura Rakṣas; it is only in the Epic that Pūru revives as the name of a son of Yayāti and śarmiṣṭhā.
pūrta Occurs in the Rigveda and later denoting the reward to the priest for his services. Cf. Dakṣinā.
pṛśnigu pl., is taken in one passage of the Rigveda by Geldner as denoting the name of a people. But this is not probable.
pṛṣātaka Is the name of a mixture like Ppçadājya, and consisting, according to the late Gṛhyasaṃgraha, of curds (Dadhi), honey (Madhu), and Ajya. It is mentioned in a late passage of the Atharvaveda and in the Sutras.
pauñjiṣṭha Is the form in the Atharvaveda, the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, and the Taittirīya Brāhmana, of the wrd Puñjiçtha, denoting fisherman.’ It is probably a caste name, ‘son of a Puñjiṣṭha,’ as the designation of a functional caste.
paurṇamāsī Denoting the night of the full moon,’ is celebrated in the Atharvaveda as sacred, while it is repeatedly mentioned later. Gobhila defines it as the greatest separation (vikarsa) of the sun and the moon. Cf, Māsa.
pyukṣṇa Is found in the śatapatha Brāhmaria denoting the ‘covering’ for a bow (Dhanus), presumably made of skin.
praūga Is apparently equivalent to pra-yuga, denoting the fore part of the pole of the cart, the part in front of the yoke. It is mentioned in the Yajurveda Samhitās and the śatapatha Brāhmaria, where it is said to be the part of the pole behind the Kastambhī, or prop on which the pole rests.
praghātha Is the name given in the Aitareya Araṇyaka to the poets of the eighth Maṇdala of the Rigveda, so called because they composed Pragātha strophes (that is, verses con­sisting of a Brhatī or Kakubh followed by a Satobrhatī).
pratipaṇa Is found in the Atharvaveda denoting barter ’ or ‘exchange.’ Cf. Paṇa.
pratyenas Is found with Ugra and Sūta-grāmanī in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, clearly denoting an officer of police. The sense must be that of the humbler ‘servants’ of the king rather than ‘ magistrates,’ as Max Muller, in his translation, takes it. In the Kāthaka Samhitā and the Sāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra the word means, according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, the next heir, who is responsible for the debts of a dead man.
prapatha In the Rigveda and the Aitareya Brāhmana denotes a ‘long journey.’ Wilson has seen in one passage the sense of ‘ resting-place,’ where travellers can obtain food (khādi). Zimmer shows that this is impossible, and the reading (prapathesu) in the passage in question is not improb­ably an error for prapadesu. In the Kāthaka Samhitā7 the word means a broad road.’
prabudh Occurring in one passage of the Rigveda, is used in the locative parallel with nimruci, ‘at the setting (of the sun),’ and clearly means ‘at the rising (of the sun).’
praśas In a Mantra in the Aitareya Brāhmana denotes, according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, an axe,’ or some similar instrument for cutting.
prākāra In the śañkhāyana śrauta Sūtra denotes a walled mound supporting a raised platform (prāsāda) for spectators.
prākāśa Is found several times in the Brahmanas denoting an ornament of metal or a metal mirror. According to Geldner, Prāvepa has the same sense in the Maitrāyam Saiphitā.
prācīnātāna Denoting the ‘ warp ’ of a piece of cloth, is found in the Brāhmaṇas. Cf. Prācīnatāna.
prācīnāvīta Denotes the wearing of the sacred thread of the Aryan over the right shoulder and under the left arm, Prācīnā- vītin being the name for the man so wearing the thread. Tilak, however, thinks that these terms do not imply the wearing of a thread, but of a garment.
prāṇa Properly denoting ‘breath,’ is a term of wide and vague significance in Vedic literature. It is frequently men­tioned from the Rigveda onwards; in the Áranyakas and Upanisads it is one of the commonest symbols of the unity of the universe. In the narrow sense Prāṇa denotes one of the vital airs, of which five are usually enumerated—Prāna, Apāna, Vyāna, Udāna, and Samāna; but often only two, Prāna and Apāna, or Prāna and Vyāna, or Prāṇa and Udāna; or three, Prāṇa, Apāna, and Vyāna, or Prāṇa, Udāna, and Vyāna, or Prāṇa, Udāna, and Samāna; or four, Prāṇa, Apāna, Vyāna, and Samāna, or Prāṇa, Apāna, Udāna, Vyāna. The exact sense of each of these breaths when all are mentioned cannot be determined. Prāṇa is also used in a wider sense to denote the organs of sense, or as Sāyana puts it, the ‘orifices of the head,’ etc. These are given as six in one passage of the śatapatha Brāhmana, presumably the eyes, ears, and nostrils. More frequently there are stated to be seven in the head, the mouth being then included. Sometimes again they are mentioned as nine, or as seven in the head and two below. Ten are counted in the śatapatha Brāhmaria and the Jaiminiya Brāhmana, while even eleven are mentioned in the Kāthaka Upanisad, and twelve in the Kāthaka Samhitā, where the two breasts are added. Exactly what organs are taken to make up the numbers beyond seven is not certain. The tenth is the navel (nābhi) in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā j when eleven are named the Brahma-randhra (suture in the crown) may be included; in the Atharvaveda, as interpreted by the Brhad- āraṇyaka Upaniṣad, the seventh and eighth are the organs of taste and speech respectively. But usually these make one only, and the eighth and ninth are either in the breast or below (the organs of evacuation). The word Prāṇa has sometimes merely the general sense of breath, even when opposed to Apāna. But its proper sense is beyond question ‘ breathing forth,’ ‘ expiration,’ and not as the St. Petersburg Dictionary explains it, ‘ the breath inspired,’ a version due to the desire to interpret Apāna as ‘expiration,’ a meaning suggested by the preposition apa, ‘away.’ This being clearly shown both by the native scholiasts and by other evidence, Bǒhtlingk later accepted the new view.
proṣṭha Denoting perhaps a ‘ bench,’ is found in the Rigveda in the adjective prosthaśaya, * lying on a bench,’ used of women, and uncompounded in the Taittīriya Brāhmaṇa. In the first passage it is distinguished from Talpa and Vahya, but what the exact difference was there is not sufficient evidence to show.
plāśuka Is found in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as an epithet of Vrīhi, ‘rice,’ in the sense of ‘shooting up rapidly.’
phala Denoting ‘ fruit ’ generally, especially the fruit of a tree, occurs in the Rigveda and later.
badara Denoting, like Karkandhu and Kuvala, a kind of jujube, is mentioned in the Yajurveda Samhitās and the Brāhmaṇas.
bandhu Denoting ‘relationship’ in the abstract and ‘rela­tion’ in the concrete, occurs in the Rigveda and later.
barāsī Is found in the Kāthaka Saiphitā and the Pañca- vimśa Brāhmana denoting a garment of some kind.
barhis Is found repeatedly in the Rigveda and later denoting the litter of grass strewn on the sacrificial ground on which the gods are summoned to seat themselves.
balhika Is the name of a people in the Atharvaveda where the fever (Takman) is called upon to go to the Mūjavants, the Mahāvrsas, and the Balhikas. The Mūjavants are quite certainly a northern tribe, and though, as Bloomfield suggests, the passage may contain a pun on Balhika as suggesting ‘outsider’ (from bahts, ‘without’), still no doubt the name was chosen from a northern tribe. But the view of Roth and Weber, which Zimmer once accepted, that an Iranian tribe is referred to (cf. Balkh), is not at all probable. Zimmer shows that there is no need whatever to assume Iranian influence. See also Parśu.
bākura In one passage of the Rigveda is used as an epithet of Dfti, the combined words denoting a wind instrument of some kind. Cf. Bakura.
bīja Denotes ‘seed, the operation of sowing seed (vap) being several times referred to in the Rigveda and later. In a metaphorical sense the term is used in the Upaniṣads of the classes of beings according to origin, of which the Chāndogya Upaniṣad enumerates three, the Aitareya four. The former list includes anda-ja, ‘egg-born,’ jīva-ja, ‘born alive, and udbhij-ja, ‘produced from sprouts,’ ‘germinating, while the latter adds sveda-ja, ‘sweat-born —that is, ‘generated by hot moisture,’ an expression which is glossed to comprise flies, worms, etc. Cf. Kpçi.
bṛsaya Is mentioned twice in the Rigveda, being in the first passage connected with the Paṇis, and in the second with the Pārāvatas and the Paṇis. According to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, the word is the name of a demon, but is in the second passage used as an appellative, perhaps meaning ‘sorcerer.’ Hillebrandt6 thinks that a people is meant locating them in Arachosia or Drangiana with the Pārāvatas and the Paṇis, and comparing Βαρσα,ίντης, satrap of Arachosia and Drangiana in the time of Darius. But this theory is not probable.
bṛsī denoting a ‘cushion’ of grass, is mentioned in the Aitareya Araṇyaka and the Sūtras. The incorrect forms Vṛśī and Vṛṣī also occur occasionally.
bṛhaspati ‘Lord of prayer,’ is the name of a god in the Vedic texts. The view of Thibaut, that the name designates the planet Jupiter, is certainly not supported by good evidence. Oldenberg seems clearly right in rejecting it.
brahmaudana Denotes in the later Samhitās and the Brāh­maṇas the ‘rice boiled (Odana) for the priests’ officiating at the sacrifice.
brāmaṇa Descendant of a Brahman' (i.e., of a priest), is found only a few times in the Rigveda, and mostly in its latest parts. In the Atharvaveda and later it is a very common word denoting ‘priest,’ and it appears in the quadruple division of the castes in the Purusa-sūkta (‘hymn of man’) of the Rigveda. It seems certain that in the Rigveda this Brāhmaṇa, or Brahmin, is already a separate caste, differing from the warrior and agricultural castes. The texts regularly claim for them a superiority to the Kṣatriya caste, and the Brahmin is able by his spells or manipulation of the rite to embroil the people and the warriors or the different sections of the warriors. If it is necessary to. recognize, as is sometimes done, that the Brahmin does pay homage to the king at the Rājasūya, nevertheless the unusual fact is carefully explained away so as to leave the priority of the Brahmin unaffected. But it is expressly recognized that the union of the Ksatriya and the Brāhmaṇa is essential for complete prosperity. It is admitted that the king or the nobles might at times oppress the Brahmins, but it is indicated that ruin is then certain swiftly to follow. The Brahmins are gods on earth, like the gods in heaven, but this claim is hardly found in the Rigveda. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Brahmin is said to be the ‘ recipient of gifts * (ādāyt) and the * drinker of the offering ’ (āpāyT). The other two epithets applied, āvasāyī and yathā- kāma-prayāpya, are more obscure; the former denotes either ‘ dwelling everywhere ’ or ‘ seeking food ’; the latter is usually taken as * moving at pleasure,’ but it must rather allude to the power of the king to assign a place of residence to the Brahmin. In the śatapatha Brāhmana the prerogatives of the Brah¬min are summed up as Arcā, ‘honour’; Dāna, ‘gifts’; Aj'yeyatā,‘ freedom from oppression ’; and Avadhyatā, ‘ freedom from being killed.’ On the other hand, his duties are summed up as Brāhmanya, ‘ purity of descent’; Pratirūpa-caryā, ‘devotion of the duties of his caste’; and Loka-pakti, ‘the perfecting of people ’ (by teaching). ī. Respect paid to Brahmins. The texts are full of references to the civilities to be paid to the Brahmin. He is styled bhagavant, and is provided with good food and entertain¬ment wherever he goes. Indeed, his sanctity exempts him from any close inquiry into his real claim to Brahminhood according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Gifts to Brahmins. The Dānastuti (‘Praise of gifts’) is a recognized feature of the Rigveda, and the greed of the poets for Dakṣiṇās, or sacrificial fees, is notorious. Vedic texts themselves recognize that the literature thence resulting (Nārā- śamsī) was often false to please the donors. It was, however, a rule that Brahmins should not accept what had been refused by others; this indicates a keen sense of the danger of cheapening their wares. So exclusively theirs was the right to receive gifts that the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa has to explain how Taranta and Purumīlha became able to accept gifts by composing a Rigvedic hymn. The exaggerations in the celebration of the gifts bestowed on the priests has the curious result of giving us a series of numerals of some interest (Daśan). In some passages certain gifts those of a horse or sheep are forbidden, but this rule was not, it is clear, generally observed. Immunities of Brahmins. The Brahmin claimed to be exempt from the ordinary exercise of the royal power. When a king gives all his land and what is on it to the priests, the gift does not cover the property of the Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. The king censures all, but not the Brahmin, nor can he safely oppress any Brahmin other than an ignorant priest. An arbitrator (or a witness) must decide (or speak) for a Brahmin against a non-Brahmin in a legal dispute. The Brahmin’s proper food is the Soma, not Surā or Parisrut, and he is forbidden to eat certain forms of flesh. On the other hand, he alone is allowed to eat the remains of the sacrifice, for no one else is sufficiently holy to consume food which the gods have eaten. Moreover, though he cannot be a physician, he helps the physician by being beside him while he exercises his art. His wife and his cow are both sacred. 4.Legal Position of. Brahmins.—The Taittirīya Samhitā lays down a penalty of a hundred (the unit meant is unknown) for an insult to a Brahmin, and of a thousand for a blow ; but if his blood is drawn, the penalty is a spiritual one. The only real murder is the slaying of a Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmana. The crime of slaying a Brahmin ranks above the sin of killing any other man, but below that of killing an embryo (bhrūna) in the Yajurveda ; the crime of slaying an embryo whose sex is uncertain is on a level with that of slaying a Brahmin. The murder of a Brahmin can be expiated only by the horse sacrifice, or by a lesser rite in the late Taittirīya Araṇyaka.The ritual slaying of a Brahmin is allowed in the later ceremonial, and hinted at in the curious legend of śunahśepa ; and a Purohita might be punished with death for treachery to his master. 5.Purity of Birth. The importance of pure descent is seeη in the stress laid on being a descendant of a Rṣi (ārseya). But, on the other hand, there are clear traces of another doctrine, which requires learning, and not physical descent, as the true criterion of Rsihood. In agreement with this is the fact that Satyakāma Jābāla was received as a pupil, though his parentage was unknown, his mother being a slave girl who had been connected with several men, and that in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the ceremony on acceptance as a pupil required merely the name of the pupil. So Kavasa is taunted in the Rigveda Brāhmaṇas as being the son of a female slave (Dāsī), and Vatsa cleared himself of a similar imputation by a fire ordeal. Moreover, a very simple rite was adequate to remove doubts as to origin. In these circumstances it is doubtful whether much value attaches to the Pravara lists in which the ancestors of the priest were invoked at the beginning of the sacrifice by the Hotṛ and the Adhvaryu priests.66 Still, in many parts of the ritual the knowledge of two or more genera¬tions was needed, and in one ceremony ten ancestors who have drunk the Soma are required, but a literal performance of the rite is excused. Moreover, there are clear traces of ritual variations in schools, like those of the Vasisthas and the Viśvāmitras. 6. The Conduct of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required to maintain a fair standard of excellence. He was to be kind to all and gentle, offering sacrifice and receiving gifts. Especial stress was laid on purity of speech ; thus Viśvan- tara’s excuse for excluding the Syaparnas from his retinue was their impure (apūtā) speech. Theirs was the craving for knowledge and the life of begging. False Brahmins are those who do not fulfil their duties (cf, Brahmabandhu). But the penances for breach of duty are, in the Sūtras, of a very light and unimportant character. 7. Brahminical Studies. The aim of the priest is to obtain pre-eminence in sacred knowledge (brahma-varcasam), as is stated in numerous passages of Vedic literature. Such distinction is not indeed confined to the Brahmin: the king has it also, but it is not really in a special manner appropriate to the Kṣatriya. Many ritual acts are specified as leading to Brahmavarcasa, but more stress is laid on the study of the sacred texts : the importance of such study is repeatedly insisted upon. The technical name for study is Svādhyāya : the śatapatha Brāhmana is eloquent upon its advantages, and it is asserted that the joy of the learned śrotriya, or ‘student,’ is equal to the highest joy possible. Nāka Maudgfalya held that study and the teaching of others were the true penance (tapas).7δ The object was the ‘ threefold knowledge’ (trayī vidyā), that of the Rc, Yajus, and Sāman, a student of all three Vedas being called tri-śukriya or tn-sukra, ‘thrice pure.’ Other objects of study are enumerated in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, the Chāndogya Upanisad, etc. (See Itihāsa, Purāna; Gāthā, Nārāśamsī; Brahmodya; Anuśās- ana, Anuvyākhyāna, Anvākhyāna, Kalpa, Brāhmaria; Vidyā, Ksatravidyā, Devajanavidyā, Nakçatravidyā, Bhūta- vidyā, Sarpavidyā; Atharvāñgirasah, Daiva, Nidhi, Pitrya, Rāśi; Sūtra, etc.) Directions as to the exact place and time of study are given in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka and in the Sūtras. If study is carried on in the village, it is to be done silently (manasā); if outside, aloud (vācā). Learning is expected even from persons not normally competent as teachers, such as the Carakas, who are recognized in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as possible sources of information. Here, too, may be mentioned the cases of Brahmins learning from princes, though their absolute value is doubtful, for the priests would naturally represent their patrons as interested in their sacred science: it is thus not necessary to see in these notices any real and independent study on the part of the Kṣatriyas. Yājñavalkya learnt from Janaka, Uddālaka Aruni and two other Brahmins from Pravāhaṇa Jaivali, Drptabālāki Gārgya from Ajātaśatru, and five Brahmins under the lead of Aruṇa from Aśvapati Kaikeya. A few notices show the real educators of thought: wandering scholars went through the country and engaged in disputes and discussions in which a prize was staked by the disputants. Moreover, kings like Janaka offered rewards to the most learned of the Brahmins; Ajātaśatru was jealous of his renown, and imitated his generosity. Again, learned women are several times mentioned in the Brāhmaṇas. A special form of disputation was the Brahmodya, for which there was a regular place at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and at the Daśarātra (‘ ten-day festival,). The reward of learning was the gaining of the title of Kavi or Vipra, ‘ sage.’ 8. The Functions of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required not merely to practise individual culture, but also to give others the advantage of his skill, either as a teacher or as a sacrificial priest, or as a Purohita. As a teacher the Brahmin has, of course, the special duty of instructing his own son in both study and sacrificial ritual. The texts give examples of this, such as Áruṇi and Svetaketu, or mythically Varuṇa and Bhṛgu. This fact also appears from some of the names in the Vamśa Brāhmana" of the Sāmaveda and the Vamśa (list of teachers) of the śāñkhāyana Áraṇyaka. On the other hand, these Vamśas and the Vamśas of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa show that a father often preferred to let his son study under a famous teacher. The relation of pupil and teacher is described under Brahmacarya. A teacher might take several pupils, and he was bound to teach them with all his heart and soul. He was bound to reveal everything to his pupil, at any rate to one who was staying with him for a year (saηivatsara-vāsin), an expression which shows, as was natural, that a pupil might easily change teachers. But, nevertheless, certain cases of learning kept secret and only revealed to special persons are enumerated. The exact times and modes of teaching are elaborately laid down in the Sūtras, but not in the earlier texts. As priest the Brahmin operated in all the greater sacrifices; the simple domestic {grhya) rites could normally be performed without his help, but not the more important rites {śrauta). The number varied : the ritual literature requires sixteen priests to be employed at the greatest sacrifices (see Rtvij), but other rites could be accomplished with four, five, six, seven, or ten priests. Again, the Kauçītakins had a seventeenth priest beside the usual sixteen, the Sadasya, so called because he watched the performance from the Sadas, seat.’ In one rite, the Sattra (‘sacrificial session') of the serpents, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, adds three more to the sixteen, a second Unnetṛ, an Abhigara, and an Apagara. The later ritual places the Brahman at the head of all the priests, but this is probably not the early view (see Brahman). The sacrifice ensured, if properly performed, primarily the advantages of the sacrificer (yajamāna), but the priest shared in the profit, besides securing the Daksiṇās. Disputes between sacrificers and the priests were not rare, as in the case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas, or Janamejaya and the Asitamrgras and the Aiçāvīras are referred to as undesirable priests. Moreover, Viśvāmitra once held the post of Purohita to Sudās, but gave place to Vasiṣtha. The position of Purohita differed considerably from that of the ordinary priest, for the Purohita not merely might officiate at the sacrifice, but was the officiator in all the private sacrifices of his king. Hence he could, and undoubtedly sometimes did, obtain great influence over his master in matters of secular importance; and the power of the priesthood in political as opposed to domestic and religious matters, no doubt rested on the Purohita. There is no recognition in Vedic literature of the rule later prevailing by which, after spending part of his life as a Brahma- cārin, and part as a householder, the Brahmin became an ascetic (later divided into the two stages of Vānaprastha, ‘forest-dweller,’ and Samnyāsin, ‘mystic ’). Yājñavalkya's case shows that study of the Absolute might empty life of all its content for the sage, and drive him to abandon wife and family. In Buddhist times the same phenomenon is seen applying to other than Brahmins. The Buddhist texts are here confirmed in some degree by the Greek authorities. The practice bears a certain resemblance to the habit of kings, in the Epic tradition,of retiring to the forest when active life is over. From the Greek authorities it also appears what is certainly the case in the Buddhist literature that Brahmins practised the most diverse occupations. It is difficult to say how far this was true for the Vedic period. The analogy of the Druids in some respects very close suggests that the Brahmins may have been mainly confined to their professional tasks, including all the learned professions such as astronomy and so forth. This is not contradicted by any Vedic evidence ; for instance, the poet of a hymn of the Rigveda says he is a poet, his father a physician (Bhiṣaj), and his mother a grinder of corn (Upala-prakṣiṇī). This would seem to show that a Brahmin could be a doctor, while his wife would perform the ordinary household duties. So a Purohita could perhaps take the field to assist the king by prayer, as Viśvāmitra, and later on Vasiṣtha do, but this does not show that priests normally fought. Nor do they seem normally to have been agriculturists or merchants. On the other hand, they kept cattle: a Brahmacarin’s duty was to watch his master’s cattle.129 It is therefore needless to suppose that they could not, and did not, on occasion turn to agricultural or mercan¬tile pursuits, as they certainly did later. But it must be remembered that in all probability there was more purity of blood, and less pressure of life, among the Brahmins of the Vedic age than later in Buddhist times, when the Vedic sacrificial apparatus was falling into grave disrepute. It is clear that the Brahmins, whatever their defects, represented the intellectual side of Vedic life, and that the Kṣatriyas, if they played a part in that life, did so only in a secondary degree, and to a minor extent. It is natural to suppose that the Brahmins also composed ballads, the precursors of the epic; for though none such have survived, a few stanzas of this character, celebrating the generosity of patrons, have been preserved by being embedded in priestly compositions. A legend in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa shows clearly that the Brahmins regarded civilization as being spread by them only: Kosala and Videha, no doubt settled by Aryan tribes, are only rendered civilized and habitable by the influence of pious Brahmins. We need not doubt that the non-Brahminical tribes (see Vrātya) had attained intellectual as well as material civilization, but it is reasonable to assume that their civilization was inferior to that of the Brahmins, for the history of Hinduism is the conquest by the Brahmins not by arms, but by mind of the tribes Aryan and non-Aryan originally beyond the pale.
brāhmaṇācchaṃsin (‘Reciting after the Brāhmaṇa — i.e., Brahman ’) is the name of a priest in the Brāhmaṇas. In the technical division of the sacrificial priests (Rtvy) he is classed with the Brahman, but it is clear that he was really a Hotraka or assistant of the Hotṛ. According to Oldenberg, he was known to the Rigveda as Brahman. This is denied by Geldner, who sees in Brahman merely the ‘superintending priest’ or the ‘ priest.’
bhaṅga Hemp,’ is mentioned in the Atharvaveda. In the Rigveda it is an epithet of Soma, presumably in the sense of ‘ intoxicating,’ which then came to designate hemp.
bhiṣaj ‘Physician is a word of common occurrence in the Rigveda and later. There is no trace whatever in the former text of the profession being held in disrepute: the Aśvins, Varuṇa, aṇd Rudra are all called physicians. On the other hand, in the Dharma literature this profession is utterly despised. This dislike is found as early as the Yajurveda Sarphitās, where the Aśvins are condemned because of their having to do with the practice of medicine (bhe§aja), on the ground that it brings them too much among men, an allusion to the caste dislike of promiscuous contact. despised. This dislike is found as early as the Yajurveda Sarphitās, where the Aśvins are condemned because of their having to do with the practice of medicine (bheṣaja), on the ground that it brings them too much among men, an allusion to the caste dislike of promiscuous contact. The Rigveda contains a hymn in which a physician celebrates his plants and their healing powers. Moreover, wonder¬ful cures are referred to as performed by the Aśvins: the healing of the lame and of the blind ; the rejuvenation of the aged Cyavana and of Puramdhi’s husband; the giving of an iron leg {jañghā āyasī) to Viśpalā, a deed only more wonderful if we assume that Viśpalā was a mare, as has been suggested by Pischel. It would in all probability be a mistake to assume that the Vedic Indians had any surgical skill: they no doubt applied simples to wounds, but both their medicine and their surgery must have been most primitive. All that the Atharvaveda shows in regard to medicine is the use of herbs combined with spells, and of water {cf. Jalāça), remedies Indo-European in character, but not of much scientific value. On the other hand, the knowledge of anatomy shown (see śarīra), though betraying grave inaccuracies, is not altogether insignificant; but that was due no doubt mainly to the practice of dissecting animals at the sacrifice.There is some evidence in the Rigveda that the practice of medicine was already a profession; this is supported by the inclusion of a physician in the list of victims at the Puruṣa- medha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda. According to Bloomfield, a hymn of the Atharvaveda contains a physician’s deprecation of the use of home-made remedies instead of reliance on his professional training.
bhurij (Used in the dual only) is a word of somewhat doubtful sense. Roth regarded it as meaning in some passages ‘scissors,’ and in others an apparatus consisting of two arms used by the chariot-maker for fixing the wood at which he worked, being of the nature of a carpenter’s vice. See also Kṣura.
bheṣaja in the plural is found in the Atharvaveda1 and in the Sūtras2 denoting the hymns of the Atharvaveda in so far as they are regarded as having ‘ healing ’ powers.
bhrātṛ Is the common designation of ‘ brother ’ from the Rigveda onwards. The word is also applied to a relation or close friend generally, but here the persons concerned are, it should be noted; in the Rigveda deities, who are brothers of one another or of the worshipper. Thus in the early literature the word has not really lost its precise sense. The derivation from the root bhr, ‘support,’ is probably correct, designating the brother as the support of his sister. This harmonizes with the fact that in Vedic literature the brother plays the part of protector of his sister when bereft of her father, and that maidens deprived of their brothers (ablirātr) meet an evil fate. The gradation of the relations in the home is shown by the order in the Chāndogya Upanisad, where father, mother, brother, and sister are successively mentioned. Strife between brothers is occasionally referred to.
bhrātṛvya Is found in one passage of the Atharvaveda, where, being named with brother and sister, it must be an expression of relationship. The sense appears to be ‘(father’s) brother’s son,’ ‘cousin,’ this meaning alone accounting for the sense of ‘rival,’ ‘enemy,’ found elsewhere in the Atharvaveda, and repeatedly in the other Samhitās and the Brāhmanas. In an undivided family the relations of cousins would easily develop into rivalry and enmity. The original meaning may, however, have been ‘nephew,’ as the simple etymological sense would be brother’s son ’; but this seems not to account for the later meaning so well. The Kāthaka Samhitā pre­scribes the telling of a falsehood to a Bhrātṛvya, who, further, is often given the epithets ‘hating’ (dυisan) and ‘evil’ (apriya, pāpman) in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmaṇas. The Athar­vaveda8 also contains various spells, which aim at destroying or expelling one’s rivals.’
makaka A word occurring once in the Atharvaveda, may be the name of some unknown animal; but it is possibly an adjective having some such sense as ‘bleating.’
magadha Is the name of a people who appear throughout Vedic literature as of little repute. Though the name is not actually found in the Rigveda, it occurs in the Atharvaveda, where fever is wished away to the Gandhāris and Mūjavants, northern peoples, and to the Añgfas and Magadhas, peoples of the east. Again, in the list of victims at the Purusamedha (‘ human sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda,3 the Māgadha, or man of Magadha, is included as dedicated to ati-krusta, ‘ loud noise ’ (?), while in the Vrātya hymn of the Atharvaveda[1] the Māgadha is said to be connected with the Vrātya as his Mitra, his Mantra, his laughter, and his thunder in the four quarters. In the śrauta Sūtras6 the equipment characteristic of the Vrātya is said to be given, when the latter is admitted into the Aryan Brahminical community, to a bad Brahmin living in Magadha ·(brahma-bandhu Māgadha-deśīya), but this point does not occur in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa. On the other hand, respectable Brahmins sometimes lived there, for the Kausītaki Araṇyaka mentions Madhyama, Prātībodhī-putra, as Magadha-vāsin, ‘living in Magadha.’ Oldenberg, however, seems clearly right in regarding this as unusual. The Magadhas are evidently a people in the Baudhāyana and other Sūtras, possibly also in the Aitareya Araṇyaka. It is therefore most improbable that Zimmer can be right in thinking that in the Yajurveda and the Atharvaveda the λlāgadha is not a man of Magadha, but a member of the mixed caste produced by a Vaiśya marrying a Kṣatriya woman. But the theory of mixed castes, in any case open to some doubt, cannot be accepted when used to explain such obviously tribal names as Māgadha. The fact that the Māgadha is often in later times a minstrel is easily accounted for by the assumption that the country was the home of minstrelsy, and that wandering bards from Magadha were apt to visit the more western lands. This class the later texts recognize as a caste, inventing an origin by intermarriage of the old-established castes. The dislike of the Magadhas, which may be Rigvedic, since the Kīkatas were perhaps the prototype of the Magadhas, was in all probability due, as Oldenberg13 thinks, to the fact that the Magadhas were not really Brahminized. This is entirely in accord with the evidence of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa14 that neither Kosala nor Videha were fully Brahminized at an early date, much less Magadha. Weber15 suggests two other grounds that may have influeṇced the position—the persistence of aboriginal blood and the growth of Buddhism. The latter consideration is hardly applicable to the Yajurveda or the Atharvaveda; but the imperfect Brahminization of the land, if substituted for it in accordance with Oldenberg’s suggestion, would have some force. The former motive, despite Olden- berg’s doubt, seems fully justified. Pargiter18 has gone so far as to suggest that in Magadha the Aryans met and mingled with a body of invaders from the east by sea. Though there is no evidence for this view in the Vedic texts, it is reason¬able to suppose that the farther east the Aryans penetrated, the less did they impress themselves upon the aborigines. Modern ethnology confirms this a priori supposition in so far as it shows Aryan types growing less and less marked as the eastern part of India is reached, although such evidence is not decisive in view of the great intermixture of peoples in India.
maṇda Is found in the compound nau-manḍa (du.), denoting the two ‘rudders’ of a ship in the śatapatha
madavatī ‘Intoxicating,’ is the name of a plant in the Atharvaveda.
madya ‘Intoxicating liquor,’ is not mentioned until the Chāndogya Upaniṣad, where it occurs in the compound madya-pā, ‘ drinking intoxicating liquor.’
madhyadeśa The ‘Middle Country,’ is, according to the Mānava Dharma śāstra, the land between the Himālaya in the north, the Vindhya in the south, Vinaáana in the west, and Prayāga (now Allahabad) in the east that is, between the place where the Sarasvatī disappears in the desert, and the point of the confluence of the Yamunā (Jumna) and the Gañgā (Ganges). The same authority defines Brahmarsi-deśa as denoting the land of Kuruksetra, the Matsyas, Pañcālas, and śūrasenakas, and Brahmāvarta as meaning the particularly holy land between the Sarasvatī and the Drṣadvatī. The Baudhāyana Dharma Sūtra4 defines Áryāvarta as the land east of Vinaśana; west of the Kālaka-vana, ‘ Black Forest,’ or rather Kanakhala, near Hardvār; south of the Himālaya; and north of the Pāriyātra or the Pāripātra Mountains; adding that, in the opinion of others, it was confined to the country between the Yamunā and the Gañgā, while the Bhāllavins took it as the country between the boundary-river (or perhaps the Saras-vatī) and the region where the sun rises. The Mānava Dharma śāstra, in accord with the Vasiṣṭha Dharma Sūtra, defines Áryāvarta as the region between the Vindhya and the Himālaya, the two ranges which seem to be the boundaries of the Aryan world in the Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad also. The term Madhyadeśa is not Vedic, but it is represented in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa by the expression madhyamā pratisthā diś, ‘ the middle fixed region,’ the inhabitants of which are stated to be the Kurus, the Pañcālas, the Vaśas, and the Uśīnaras. The latter two peoples practically disappear later on, the Madhyadeśa being the country of the Kuru-Pañcālas, the land where the Brāhmaṇas and the later Samhitās were produced, bounded on the east by the Kosala-Videhas, and on the west by the desert. The western tribes are mentioned with disapproval both in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, while the tradition of the Brahminization of the Kosalas and the Videhas from the Kuru-Pañcāla country is preserved in the former Brāhmaṇa.
manā Is found in one passage of the Rigveda in an enumera­tion of gifts, where it is described as ‘ golden’ (sacā manā hiranyayā). It therefore seems to designate some ornament, or possibly a weight, and has accordingly been compared with the Greek μva (Herodotus has μvia), the Latin mina. All three words have been consi