Donate
 
   
Select your preferred input and type any Sanskrit or English word. Enclose the word in “” for an EXACT match e.g. “yoga”.
     Amarakosha Search  
Results for ten
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
caurakaḥ2.10.24MasculineSingularparāskandī, taskaraḥ, aikāgārikaḥ, ‍‌pratirodhī, dasyuḥ, malimlucaḥ, ‍‍‍pāṭaccaraḥ, moṣakaḥ, stenaḥ
yatiḥ2.7.47MasculineSingularnirjitendriyagrāmaḥ, yatī
     Monier-Williams
          Search  
Results for ten59 results for ten
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
tenam. a note or cadence introductory to a song. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tenaind. (instrumental case of 2. t/a-) in that direction, there (correl. to yena-,"in which direction, where") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tenaind. in that manner, thus (correl. to yena-,"in what manner"),
tenaind. on that account, for that reason, therefore (correl. to yena-[ ], y/ad-[ ], yasmāt-[ ], yatas-[ ]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tenaind. tena hi-, therefore, now then View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādhistenam. the stealer of a deposit, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhyantenaind. close to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
advaitenaind. solely. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ajitendriyamfn. having unsubdued passions. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astenam. not a thief View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astenamāninmfn. not believing one's self to be a thief. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avataptenakulasthitan. an ichneumon's standing on hot ground (metaphorically said of a person's inconstancy) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtendriyajayinm. "one who has subdued both the elements (of the body) and the senses", a kind of ascetic or devotee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmastenam. a thief of that which is sacred, one who obtains a knowledge of the veda- by illicit means View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhārāvartenaind. (ena-) fluently, quickly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekāntenaind. solely, only, exclusively, absolutely, necessarily, by all means, in every respect, invariably etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jitendriyamfn. equals kṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jitendriyam. an ascetic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jitendriyam. Name of a man (author of a nibandha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jitendriyāhvam. Name of a shrub View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jitendriyatvan. subjugation of the senses () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kīrtenyamfn. deserving to be named or praised View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛtenaind. instrumental case idem or 'ind. on account of, for the sake of, for (with genitive case or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' exempli gratia, 'for example' mama kṛte-or mat-kṛte-,on my account, for me) etc.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛtena locative case instrumental case ind. See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order kṛt/a-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muhūrtenaind. muhūrta
nirjitendriyamfn. one who has subdued (the whole assemblage of) his passions or feelings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirjitendriyagrāmamfn. one who has subdued (the whole assemblage of) his passions or feelings (also m."a muni-, a saint") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nivṛttendriyamfn. one whose senses or desires are averted from (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatendriyamfn. having the passions subdued or restrained View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyantenaind. ( etc.) , near, near to. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāyaścitttenduśekharam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāyaścitttenduśekharasārasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rohitendradhanusn. plural imperfect and perfect rainbows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tenaind. right, duly, properly, regularly, lawfully, according to usage or right View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samantenaind. samanta
saṃkṣiptenaind. saṃkṣipta
saṃyatendriyamfn. having the senses or passions controlled
śāśvatendra(with saras-vatī-) m. Name of two authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatendriyamfn. having a hundred senses
śatendriyāf. a proper N. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sten (prob. Nom.fr. stena-below) cl.10 P. () stenayati-, to steal, rob ; (with vācam-) to misuse a word, be dishonest in speech View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stenam. (prob. fr. stā-) a thief, robber etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stenam. a kind of perfume View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stenam. thieving, stealing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stenahṛdaya(sten/a--) m. "having the essence of a thief", an incarnate thief View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stenanigraham. the restraining or punishing of thieves View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stenanigraham. suppression of theft View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udīritendriyamfn. one whose senses are excited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vācāstena(vāc/ā--) mfn. (prob.) one who makes mischief by his words View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vihitendriyamfn. possessed of one's senses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijitendriyamfn. one who has the organs of sense or passions subdued View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikṣiptendriyadhīmfn. bewildered in senses and mind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyākulitendriyamfn. agitated or perplexed in mind, alarmed, bewildered, frightened. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāvṛtttendriyamfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') having the senses averted from View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyutthittendriyamfn. greatly agitated in the senses or feelings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yatacittendriyānalamfn. one who conquers the tire of his thoughts and senses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yatendriyamfn. having the organs of sense restrained, of subdued passions, chaste, pure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yathāgatenaaind. () by the way one came. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yathoktena() ind. according to what has been stated, as mentioned before, in the above-mentioned way
     Apte Search  
Results for ten4 results
     
tena तेन A note introductory to a song.
tena ऋतेन ind. Duly, rightly, truly, honestly, justly.
stena स्तेन 1 U. (Strictly a denom. from स्तेन; स्तेनयति-ते) 1 To steal, rob; यस्त्वेतान्युपक्लृप्तानि द्रव्याणि स्तेनयेन्नरः Ms.8. 333. -2 To be dishonest in speech; वाच्यर्था नियताः सर्वे वाङ्मूला वाग्विनिःसृता । तां तु यः स्तेनयेद्वाचं स सर्वस्तेनकृन्नरः ॥ Ms.4.256.
stenaḥ स्तेनः [स्तेन्-कर्तरि अच्] 1 A thief, robber; न तं स्तेना न चामित्रा हरन्ति न च नश्यति Ms.7.83; यो भुङ्क्ते स्तेन एव सः Bg.3.12. -2 A kind of perfume. -नम् Thieving, stealing. -Comp. -निग्रहः 1 the punishment of thieves. -2 suppression of theft.
     Macdonell Vedic Search  
33 results
     
apramṛśya a-pramṛśyá, gdv. not to be forgotten, ii. 35, 6 [mṛś touch].
abhva á-bhv-a, a. monstrous; n. force, ii. 33, 10; monster, iv. 51, 9 [non-existent, monstrous: -bhū be].
asat ás-at, pr. pt. n. the non-existent, x. 129, 1. 4.
ātata á̄-tata, pp. extended, x. 135, 6 [tan stretch].
ud ud wet, VII. P. unátti, undánti [cp. Lat. und-a ‘wave’]. ví- moisten, drench, i. 85, 5; v. 83, 8.
uruvyacas uru-vyácas, a. (Bv.) far-extending, i. 160, 2 [vyácas, n. extent].
tan tan extend = perform, VIII. tanóti; ipf. átanvata, x. 90, 6 [cp. Gk. τάνυμαι ‘stretch’, Lat. tendo‘stretch’]. abhí- extend over: red. pf. sb., i. 160, 5. [234]. áva- slacken (Ā.), ii. 33, 14. á̄- extend to (acc.), i. 35, 7. ánu á̄- extend over, viii. 48, 13.
tanaya tán-aya, n. descendant, ii. 33, 14 [tan extend].
tanū tan-ú̄, f. body, i. 85, 3; ii. 35, 13; iv. 51, 9; viii. 48, 9; x. 14, 8; 15, 14; 34, 6; self, vii. 86, 2. 5 (pl.) [tan stretch: cp. Lat. ten-u-i-s, Gk. ταν-ύ-, Eng. thin].
tanvāna tanv-āná, pr. pt. Ā. performing, x. 90, 15 [tan extend].
tṝ tṝ cross, VI. tirá. prá- extend, increase (family), vii. 61, 4; prolong (life), 103, 10; iṣ ao., viii. 48, 4. 7. 11. ví- run counter to (acc.), x. 34, 6.
tras tras tremble, I. trasa [Gk. τρέω, Lat. terreo ‘frighten’]. nís- speed away, viii. 48, 11.
daśa dáśá, nm. ten, x. 34, 12 [Gk. δέκα, Lat. decem, Eng. ten].
daśāṅgula daśāṅgulá, length of ten fingers, x. 90, 1 [dáśa + aṅgúli finger].
daśagva Dáśa-gv-a, m. an ancient priest, iv. 51, 4 [having ten cows: gu = go].
prayata prá-yata, pp. extended, i. 154, 3; offered, x. 15, 11. 12 [yam stretch out].
prayati prá-yati, f. impulse, x. 129, 5 [yam extend].
prā prā fill [extended form, pr-ā, of pṝ fill]. á̄- pervade, s ao. áprās, x. 127, 2.
bhūṣ bhūṣ strive, I. P. bhú̄ṣati [extended form of bhū be]. pári- surpass, ii. 12, 1.
manyu man-yú, m. intention, vii. 61, 1; wrath, vii. 86, 6; viii. 48, 8; x. 34, 8. 14 [man think].
yam yam extend, bestow, I. yácha, iv. 51, 10; v. 83, 5; pf. Ā. yemire submit to (dat.), iii. 59, 8; s ao.bestow on (dat.), ii. 35, 152. ádhi- extend to (dat.), i. 85, 12. á̄- guide to (lc.), root ao. inj. yamat, x. 14, 14. ní- bestow, iv. 50, 10. prá- present a share of (gen.), x. 15, 7. ví- extend to, i. 85, 12.
raṃh Raṃh hasten, I. ráṃha; cs. raṃháya cause to speed, i. 85, 5.
ric ric leave, VII. P. riṇákti, vii. 71, 1 [Gk. λείπω, Lat. linquo]. áti- extend beyond: ps. ipf. áricyata, x. 90, 5.
vitata ví-tata, pp. extended, x. 129, 5 [tan stretch].
viṣita ví-ṣita, pp. unfastened, v. 83, 7. 8 [ví + si bind].
vyac vyac extend, III. P. vivyakti. sám- roll up, ipf. ávivyak, vii. 63, 1.
śrauṣṭī śráuṣ-ṭī, f. obedient mare, viii, 48, 2 [śruṣ hear, extension of śru].
sat sat, n. the existent, x. 129, 1 [pr. pt. of as be].
supratīka su-prátīka, a. (Bv.) lovely, vii. 61, 1 [having a fair countenance: prátīka, n.].
sṛpra sṛp-rá, a. extensive, iv. 50, 2 [sṛp creep].
sthā sthā stand, I. tiṣṭha; pf. tasthur, i. 35, 5; rt. ao. s. 3. ásthāt, i. 35, 10; iv. 51, 1; pl. 3. ásthur, iv. 51, 2 [Av. hištaiti, Gk. ἵστημι, Lat. sisto].áti- extend beyond, x. 90, 1.ádhi- ascend, x. 135, 3; stand upon, i. 35, 6.ápa- start off, viii. 48, 11.abhí- overcome, iv. 50, 7.á̄- mount, i. 35, 4; mount to (acc.), i. 85, 7; occupy, ii. 35, 9.úd- arise, v. 11, 3. úpa- approach, rt. ao. asthita, x. 127, 7.pári- surround, pf. tasthur, ii. 35, 3. [255]. prá- step forth, x. 14, 14.
havanaśrut havana-śrút, a. (Tp.) listening to invocations, ii. 33, 15 [hávana (from hū call) + śrú-t hearingfrom śru hear with determinative t].
havyasūd havya-sú̄d, a. (Tp.) sweetening the oblation, iv. 50, 5 [sūd = svād sweeten].
     Macdonell Search  
Results for ten9 results
     
tena in. (of ta) ad. thither; thus; there fore (corr. yatah, yad, yasmât, yena); tena hi, then.
ajitendriya a. whose senses are unsubdued.
adhyantena (in.) ad. close up to (d.).
jitendriya a. having the passions subdued: -tva, n. subjection of the passions.
niyatendriya a. having one's senses restrained.
nyantena in. ad. in the neighbourhood, of (g. or --°ree;).
śatendriya a. having a hundred senses (Br.); -½îsa, m. chief of a hundred (villages).
stenaya den. P. steal, rob: vâkam --, be dishonest in speech.
stena m. [√ stâ] thief, robber.
       Bloomfield Vedic
         Concordance  
Results for ten463 results
     
tena pāpmānam apahatya brahmaṇā ā.2.3.8.5c.
tena pāsi guhyaṃ nāma gonām RV.5.3.3d; RVKh.5.44.1d.
tena pitā vardhate tena putraḥ RV.7.101.3d.
tena puṃso 'bhibhavāsi sarvān SMB.1.1.3c.
tena pūtena devatā mādayantām JG.2.1d.
tena prajāṃ vardhayamāna āyuḥ RV.1.125.1c.
tena badhnāmi tvā maṇe (SMB. tvāsau; Kauś. tvā mayi) AVś.3.5.8d; Kauś.89.10d; SMB.1.3.10b.
tena brahmaṇā tena chandasā tayā devatayāṅgirasvad dhruvāḥ sīdata (KS.39.1,7, dhruvā sīda) KS.39.1,4,7,13. See under tena chandasā.
tena brahmavido vayam RVKh.9.67.3c; TB.1.4.8.6c; Apś.10.7.13c.
tena brahmāṇo vapatedam asya (śG. adya) AVś.6.68.3c; AVP.2.52.3c; TB.2.7.17.2c; AG.1.17.10c; śG.1.28.15e; PG.2.1.10c; HG.2.6.10c; ApMB.2.1.3c; VārG.4.12c. See next, and cf. under tena ta.
tena brāhmaṇo vapatu MG.1.21.6c. See under prec.
tena bhukṣiṣīya PB.1.1.1; Apś.10.1.4; AG.1.23.19; SMB.2.5.12.
tena bhūtena haviṣā AVś.6.78.1a; ApMB.1.8.6a (ApG.2.6.10). P: tena bhūtena Kauś.78.10,14.
tena madhu tan mayi AVP.2.35.2e.
tena māṃ sūryatvacam RVKh.10.128.4c.
tena māgne varcasā saṃ sṛjeha AVP.3.18.4d; 4.3.2d,3d. Cf. under taṃ mā saṃ, and tenemam agna.
tena mā devās tapasāvateha AVś.19.72.1d; Kauś.139.26d.
tena māñjantu varcasā AVP.3.18.2d. See te māñjantu, and cf. next.
tena mānajmi varcasā AVP.4.10.8d. Cf. prec.
tena mā bhāginaṃ kuru AVś.6.129.2c,3c.
tena mā bhuñja tena bhukṣiṣīya tena māviśa SMB.2.5.12.
tena mām adya varcasā (AVP. varcasā a-) AVś.3.22.3d; AVP.3.18.3c.
tena mām abravīd bhagaḥ AVś.6.82.2c.
tena mām abhiṣiñcatam śś.8.11.13f; SMB.1.7.5f. Cf. tenemām upa.
tena mām abhiṣiñcāmi śriyai PG.2.6.11b. See tenāhaṃ mām etc.
tena mām amṛtaṃ kuru TA.1.30.1c.
tena mām aśvinobhā AVP.8.20.2e.
tena mām indra saṃ sṛja (Mś. sṛjasva) TS.1.5.10.3d; TB.3.7.4.7d; Mś.1.4.1.5d.
tena mā vājinaṃ kṛṇu (Aśḷś. kuru) Aś.2.16.19e; Vait.8.16e; Lś.4.12.16e.
tena māviṣṭam aśvinā RV.8.9.5c; AVś.20.139.5c.
tena mā śivam ā viśa Aś.2.16.19d; Vait.8.16d; Lś.4.12.16d.
tena mā saṃ sṛjāmasi ArS.4.10d.
tena mā samarāmahi AVś.11.2.7d.
tena mā samare KA.1.207 (ter); 3.161,165,166B.
tena mā saha śundhata (AVś. śumbhantu) RV.10.17.14d; AVś.18.3.56d.
tena mā surabhiṃ kṛṇu AVś.12.1.23d,24d.
tena mā susror brahmaṇāpi tad vapāmi AVś.12.3.22d.
tena mukhena mām annādaṃ kuru KBU.2.9 (quinq.).
tena me tapa, tena me jvala, tena me dīdihi, yāvad devāḥ, yāvad asāti sūryaḥ, yāvad utāpi brahma TB.3.10.3.1.
tena me dīdihi TB.1.1.8.6; 3.10.3.1.
tena me radhya VS.10.28; TS.1.8.16.2; śB.5.4.4.15--19.
tena me vājinīvati TB.2.5.8.6c; Apś.4.14.4c; Mś.1.4.3.10c; JG.1.4c.
tena me viśvadhāvīrya AVP.1.43.3c.
tena yajñam ava tena yajñapatiṃ tena mām ava VS.2.12; śB.1.7.4.21; 4.6.6.6; śś.4.7.17; Lś.4.12.1.
tena yajñena svaraṃkṛtena RV.1.162.5c; VS.25.28c; TS.4.6.8.2c; MS.3.16.1c: 182.7; KSA.6.4c.
tena yantu yajamānāḥ svasti MS.2.7.12d: 91.10. See tenaitu.
tena yā brahmadattāsi MahānU.4.5e. See mṛttike brahma-.
tena yāhi gṛhān svasti VārG.15.2d.
tena yāhi parastaram AVP.6.8.7d. See tena gacha parastaram.
tena yāhi vaśāṃ anu RV.10.142.7d.
tena yoṣitam ij jahi AVś.6.101.1d.
tena yo 'smat samṛchātai MS.4.14.17c (bis): 247.1,3; TA.2.4.1c. See tenānyo.
tena rāddho 'smi Kauś.56.7. See tenārātsyam.
tena rādhyāsam VS.22.4; MS.3.12.1: 160.3; 4.9.24 (quater): 137.9,10,12,13; śB.13.1.2.4; TB.1.5.5.2,4,5,7; 3.8.3.1; Aś.8.14.6; Apś.4.3.4; 8.4.3; 20.3.3; Mś.1.7.2.24; Kauś.56.6. See tenardhyāsam.
tena rudrasya pari pātāstām AVś.12.2.47d.
tena rūpam anagdhi me KA.1.220Me; 3.220M.
tena rūpam anajmi te KA.1.220Md; 3.220M.
tena roham āyann upa (AVś. rohān ruruhur; AVP. rohān arohann upa) medhyāsaḥ (AVP. medhīyāṃsaḥ) AVś.4.14.1d; AVP.3.38.1d; VS.13.51d; MS.2.7.17d: 103.3; KS.16.17d; śB.7.5.2.36.
tena lokāṃ abhi sarvāṃ jayema AVś.12.3.15d.
tena lokān sūryavato jayema AVś.9.5.18c; TB.3.7.6.14c; Apś.4.8.4c.
tena vayaṃ sahasravalśena TB.3.3.2.1c; Apś.2.5.1c. See tena (and tenā) sahasrakāṇḍena.
tena vayaṃ gamema (TSṃS.KS. patema; VSK. tena gamema) bradhnasya viṣṭapam VS.18.51c; VSK.20.3.1c; TS.4.7.13.1c; MS.2.12.3c: 146.6; KS.18.15c; śB.9.4.4.3. Cf. tena geṣma.
tena vayaṃ bhagavantaḥ syāma RV.7.41.5b; AVP.4.31.5b; VS.34.38b; TB.2.5.5.1b; 8.9.9b; ApMB.1.14.5b. See tenā etc.
tena vardhasva cā ca pyāyasva (MS. vardhasva cāpyāyasva) VS.38.21b; MS.4.9.10b: 131.8; śB.14.3.1.23b; TA.4.11.4b. See tena tvaṃ vardhasva, and cf. eṣā te agne.
tena vardhasva cedhyasva cenddhi JG.1.3b. See tenedhyasva.
tena vaḥ saṃ sṛjāmasi AVP.2.13.4d. See tenā etc.
tena vājaṃ saniṣad asminn ājau RV.10.75.9b.
tena vām āñje 'ham (ApMB. tejase) HG.1.11.5c; ApMB.2.8.11c.
tena vi vṛha rathyeva cakrā RV.10.10.8d; AVś.18.1.9d.
tena viśvasya bhuvanasya rājā RV.5.85.3c; N.10.4c. Cf. under asya etc.
tena viśvās taviṣīr ā pṛṇasva RV.6.41.4d.
tena viṣṇustotram anu smaram RVKh.7.55.6d.
tena vṛtrāṇi jaṅghanam AVP.6.9.9c.
tena vṛtrāṇi jighnate RV.8.29.4b.
tena vai tvopamantraye AB.7.17.6d; śś.15.25d.
tena vo vṛtrahā sūryaḥ AVP.4.16.2c.
tena śakeyam MS.4.9.24 (ter): 137.9,10,12; TB.1.5.5.2,4,5,7; Aś.8.14.6; Apś.4.3.4; 8.4.3; Mś.1.7.2.24.
tena śataṃ sahasram ayutaṃ nyarbudam AVś.8.8.7c. Cf. śataṃ sahasram.
tena śatrūn abhi sarvān nyubja AVś.8.8.6c.
tena śālāṃ prati gṛhṇāmi ta imām (AVś.9.3.15e, gṛhṇāmi tasmai) AVś.9.3.15b,15e.
tena śuddhena devatā mādayantām JG.2.1f.
tena śvayātur uta saṃbhidhehibhiḥ AVP.12.20.3b.
tena saṃvaninau svake HG.1.24.6d. Cf. tan nau saṃvananaṃ.
tena saṃhanu kṛṇmasi AVś.5.28.13d; 19.37.4d; AVP.1.54.5d; 2.59.12d. See tena sann.
tena saṃgrathitāḥ sumanasaḥ PG.2.6.24c.
tena saṃjñapayāmi vaḥ AVś.6.74.2d.
tena satyena jāgṛtam RV.1.21.6a.
tena sann anugṛhṇāsi HG.1.11.2d. See tena saṃhanu.
tena sapatnān adharān kṛṇuṣva AVP.4.27.2c.
tena sapatnān pari vṛṅdhi ye mama AVś.9.2.16c. See tayā etc.
tena sapatnyā varcaḥ AVP.7.12.9c.
tena saṃbhava MS.1.3.38: 44.17. Cf. tayā saṃbhava.
tena sarvaṃ tamo jahi Kauś.99.2d.
tena sarveṇa sarvo mā SMB.2.4.11c.
tena sahasraṃ vahasi KS.40.13c.
tena sahasrakāṇḍena AVś.2.7.3c; Mś.1.2.5.8c. See under tena vayaṃ sahasra-.
tena sahasradhāreṇa RVKh.9.67.4c; SV.2.652c; TB.1.4.8.6c.
tena sākṣīya pṛtanāḥ pṛtanyataḥ AVś.19.32.10d; AVP.11.12.10d.
tena suprajasaṃ kṛṇu (TA. kuru) TA.1.30.1d; Vait.8.16f.
tena suva etc. see tena sva.
tena sūbharvaṃ śatavat sahasram RV.10.102.5c; N.9.23c.
tena sūryam adhārayan TA.4.17.1b.
tena sūryam arocayan RV.8.29.10b; TA.4.17.1c.
tena sṛṣṭāḥ kṣarāmasi AVP.6.3.2d.
tena sedhām id ādunim AVP.15.23.2c.
tena somābhi rakṣa naḥ RV.9.114.4b. Cf. tebhiḥ etc.
tena stotṛbhya ā bhara RV.8.77.8a.
tena sva (TB. suva) stabhitaṃ tena nākaḥ AVś.13.1.7b; TB.2.5.2.3b.
tena hanmi yoniṣadaḥ piśācān HG.1.19.7b.
tena hanmi sapatnaṃ durmarāyum (KS. durhṛṇāyum) TS.1.6.2.2c; KS.31.14c.
tenā carāsi patim ichamānā AVP.5.34.9d.
tenā janasyāso bhartā AVś.18.2.30c.
tenā janīyate jāyām AVś.6.82.3c.
tenā te tanve śaṃ karam AVś.1.3.1c--5c; AVP.1.4.1c--4c (but 2c should be disregarded, see note to 2a, indreṇa varuṇena etc.).
tenā te tanvo rapaḥ AVś.6.91.1c.
tenā te vāraye viṣam AVś.4.7.1d; 6.12.1d,2d.
tenā te haviṣā vidhema AVś.6.80.1d,3d.
tenā naḥ śarma yachata AVś.6.7.3c.
tenā ni kurve tvām aham AVś.7.38.2c.
tenā no adhi vocata RV.8.20.26b; 67.6c; AVś.6.7.2c.
tenā no yajñaṃ pipṛhi viśvavāre AVś.7.20.4c; 79.1c. See sā naḥ prajāṃ kṛṇuhi, and sā no yajñaṃ.
tenā no 'vasā gahi AVś.6.7.1c.
tenā pari śrayāmahe AVP.1.37.4d.
tenā pavasvāndhasā RV.9.61.19b; SV.1.470b; 2.165b; JB.3.28,191.
tenā yātaṃ sarathaṃ tasthivāṃsā RV.1.108.1c.
tenā vayaṃ bhagavantaḥ syāma AVś.3.16.5b. See tena etc.
tenā vaḥ saṃ sṛjāmasi AVś.3.14.1d. See tena etc.
tenā vaha sukṛto adhvarāṃ upa RV.1.48.11c.
tenā vo bhunajāmahai AVś.6.24.3d.
tena ṛṣiṇā etc. see tenarṣiṇā.
tenā śatakrato tvam AVP.13.4.2c.
tenā sahasyenā vayam RV.7.55.7c; AVś.4.5.1c; AVP.4.6.1c.
tenā sahasrakāṇḍena TB.3.7.6.19c; Apś.4.12.8c. See under tena vayaṃ sahasra-.
tenā sahasradhāreṇa AVP.9.25.1c--10c; 9.26.1c--12c. Cf. tena sahasra-.
tenā suśravasaṃ janam RV.1.49.2c.
tena kḷpto 'mṛtenāham asmi TA.3.11.4d.
tena ko 'rhati spardhitum TB.2.8.8.10d.
tena krīḍantīś carata (śG. caratha) priyeṇa (AVś. vaśāṃ anu) AVś.9.4.24b; TS.3.3.9.1b; śG.3.11.14b; PG.3.9.6b; ViDh.86.16b.
tena gacha parastaram RV.10.155.3d. See tena yāhi parastaram.
tena gamema etc. see tena vayaṃ gamema.
tena gṛhṇāmi tvām aham (AVś. gṛhṇāmi te hastam) AVś.14.1.48c; VS.20.32d; ApMB.2.5.22c. See tena tvāhaṃ.
tena geṣma sukṛtasya lokam AVś.4.11.6c; 14.6c; 11.1.37c; AVP.3.25.6c; 3.38.5c. Cf. tena vayaṃ gamema.
tena cākḷpra ṛṣayo manuṣyāḥ RV.10.130.5d.
tena cinvānas tanvo (TS. tanuvo; MS. tanvaṃ) ni ṣīda VS.13.47--51; TS.4.2.10.1--4 (quinq.); MS.2.7.17 (quinq.): 102.11,13,16; 103.1,4; KS.16.17 (ter),17 (bis); śB.7.5.2.32--36.
tena chandasā tena brahmaṇā tayā devatayāṅgirasvad dhruvā sīda MS.2.13.14 (bis): 163.7,14; 2.13.20 (bis): 165.13; 166.11. Fragments (with ūha): dhruvāḥ sīdata Mś.6.1.8.2; dhruve sīdatam Mś.6.1.8.8. See tena brahmaṇā, tenarṣiṇā, and cf. tayā devatayāṅgirasvad.
tena jāyām anv avindad bṛhaspatiḥ RV.10.109.5c; AVś.5.17.5c; AVP.9.15.5c.
tena jāyām upa priyām RV.1.82.5c.
tena jinva yajamānaṃ madena VS.19.33c; MS.3.11.7c: 151.1; KS.38.2c; śB.12.8.1.4; TB.2.6.3.1c.
tena jīva MS.2.3.4 (quater): 31.16--19; KS.11.7.
tena jīvanti pradiśaś catasraḥ RV.1.164.42b; AVś.9.10.19d; 11.5.12d; TB.2.4.6.11b; N.11.41b.
tena jeṣma dhanaṃ-dhanam RV.10.156.1c; SV.2.877c.
tena ta āyuṣe vapāmi AG.1.17.12c,13c; JG.1.11c (ter). See tena te vapāmy, tena te 'haṃ, and cf. tena brahmāṇo, tena brāhmaṇo, and tenāsyāyuṣe.
tena tam abhyatisṛjāmo yo 'smān dveṣṭi yaṃ ca vayaṃ dviṣmaḥ AVś.10.5.15c--20c; 16.1.5.
tena tṛpyatam aṃhahau TB.3.7.5.12d; Apś.2.20.6d. See tasya tṛ-.
tena te 'ti cṛtāmasi AVP.2.59.11d. See tena tvāti etc.
tena te devāḥ pra tirantv āyuḥ AVP.15.6.6d.
tena te mṛjma āsthitam AVś.4.17.8c; AVP.2.26.5c.
tena te 'vadhiṣaṃ (AVP. te vadhiṣaṃ) haviḥ AVś.7.70.4d,5d; AVP.13.2.6d. See sarvaṃ te 'vadhiṣaṃ.
tena te vapāmi brahmaṇā (MG.VārG. -my āyuṣe; ApMB. -my asāv āyuṣā varcasā) VSK.3.9.5c; SMB.1.6.7c; PG.2.1.16c; ApMB.2.1.6c; MG.1.21.6c (bis); VārG.4.16c (bis). See under tena ta.
tena te sarvaṃ kṣetriyam AVś.3.7.3c; AVP.3.2.3c.
tena te 'haṃ vapāmy asau HG.2.6.10c. See under tena ta.
tena tyaktena bhuñjīthāḥ VS.40.1c; īśāU.1c.
tena tvaṃ vardhasva KA.3.192. Probably pratīka of tena vardhasva cā, q.v.
tena tvaṃ vājin balavān balena AVś.6.92.2c. See tena no vājin.
tena tvaṃ sākam adharāṅ parehi AVś.12.2.1d.
tena tvaṃ sumatiṃ devy asme KS.13.16c.
tena tvaṃ kāma mama ye sapatnāḥ AVś.9.2.17c.
tena tvaṃ garbhiṇī bhava AVP.12.3.7d; HG.1.25.1c. Cf. tais tvaṃ garbhiṇī.
tena tvaṃ dviṣato jahi AVś.10.6.6g,7h,8h,9h,10i,11f,12g--17g,20e,21c.
tena tvam agna iha vardhayemam AVś.1.9.3c; AVP.1.19.3c. See tenāgne tvam.
tena tvam asmabhyaṃ mṛḍa AVP.3.10.5c.
tena tvaṃ bhagavān yāhi pathā MS.2.9.10c: 130.4.
tena tvāchāvadāmasi AVP.15.15.4d.
tena tvāti cṛtāmasi AVś.5.28.12d. See tena te 'ti etc.
tena tvā nāśayāmasi AVP.7.11.8d.
tena tvā pari dadhmasi (PG. dadhāmy āyuṣe) AVś.1.22.1d; AVP.1.28.1d,3d; PG.2.2.7c. Cf. dīrghāyutvāya dadhmasi.
tena tvām abhiṣiñcāmi YDh.1.280c. See tābhiṣ ṭvābhi-.
tena tvāyuṣāyuṣmantaṃ karomi TS.2.3.10.3 (bis); PG.1.16.6 (octies); ApMB.2.4.5--9. See tasyāyam, tenāyuṣā-, and teṣām ayam, and cf. tan māyuṣmad, te māyuṣmanta, and sa māyuṣmān.
tena tvā snapayāmasi AVś.10.1.9e.
tena tvā svāpayāmasi RVKh.7.55.2d.
tena tvāhaṃ pratigṛhṇāmi tvām aham HG.1.13.19c. See tena gṛhṇāmi.
tena dasyūn vy asahanta devāḥ TS.4.3.11.3c; KS.39.10c; PG.3.3.5c. See tena devā asahanta, and tena devā vy.
tena dāśvāṃsam upa yātho aśvinā RV.1.182.2d.
tena divyena brahmaṇā TB.1.4.8.3c.
tena dṛḍhā cid adrivaḥ RV.5.39.3c; SV.2.524c; JB.3.203c.
tena devatvam ṛbhavaḥ sam ānaśa RV.3.60.2d.
tena devaprasūtena AVś.6.100.2c.
tena devā amṛtam anv avindan AVś.13.1.7d. See tena devāḥ suvar.
tena devā ayajanta RV.10.90.7c; AVś.19.6.11c; AVP.9.5.9c; VS.31.9c; TA.3.12.4c.
tena devā avatopa mām iha TB.3.7.6.12c; Apś.4.8.3c.
tena devā asahanta śatrūn SMB.2.3.21c. See under tena dasyūn.
tena devā devatām agra (VSṃS.KS. agram) āyan AVś.4.14.1c; AVP.3.38.1c; VS.13.51c; MS.2.7.17c: 103.2; KS.16.17c; śB.7.5.2.36.
tena devā vy aṣahanta śatrūn AVś.3.10.12c; AVP.1.106.4c. See under tena dasyūn.
tena devāso 'mṛtatvam (JB.3.255d, amṛtatvam) āyan JB.2.398d; 3.255d.
tena devāḥ suvar anv avindan TB.2.5.2.4d. See tena devā amṛtam.
tena devebhyo varimāṇi cakruḥ AVP.2.73.5d.
tena dhīrā apiyanti brahmavidaḥ śB.14.7.2.11c; BṛhU.4.4.11c.
tena dhūnoty oṣadhīḥ AVś.9.4.13d.
tena narā vartir asmabhyaṃ yātam RV.1.117.2d.
tena naḥ śaṃ yor uṣaso vyuṣṭau RV.7.69.5c; MS.4.4.10c: 230.4; KS.17.18c; TB.2.8.7.8c.
tena naḥ saha vardhatām KS.35.4d.
tena nāsatyā gatam RV.1.47.9a; 8.22.5d.
tena nūnaṃ vimadāya pracetasā RV.8.9.15c; AVś.20.141.5c.
tena nūnaṃ made madeḥ RV.8.92.16c; SV.1.116c.
tena no 'dya viśve devāḥ RVKh.10.191.3c.
tena no bodhi sadhamādyo vṛdhe RV.8.54 (Vāl.6).5c.
tena no mitrāvaruṇāv (MS. -ṇā) aviṣṭam RV.5.62.9c; MS.4.14.10c: 231.15. See tato etc.
tena no mṛḍa jīvase RV.9.66.30c; AVś.6.57.2d.
tena no mṛḍataṃ yuvam AVP.15.21.5e.
tena no rājā varuṇo bṛhaspatiḥ TS.2.4.14.1c; śś.5.8.4c. See under evāsmān.
tena no rāddhim āvada Lś.4.2.2d.
tena no vājinīvasū RV.8.5.20a,30a.
tena no vājin balavān balena VS.9.9c; śB.5.1.4.10. See tena tvaṃ vājin.
tena parūṃṣi pravidvān aghnyāyāḥ AVP.14.5.7c.
tena paro mūjavato 'tīhi VS.3.61. See tenāvasena.
tena pavitreṇa śuddhena pūtaḥ TB.3.12.3.4c; TA.10.1.11c; BDh.4.2.16c.
tena pāpīr anīnaśam AVP.5.9.1d.
tenābhi yāhi bhañjaty anasvatīva AVś.10.1.15c.
tenābhidhāya dasyūnām AVś.8.8.5c.
tenābhyo maha āvahat TB.1.5.5.6c; Apś.8.21.1c.
tenādhipatir ucyase AVP.5.14.4d.
tenādityā adhi vocatā naḥ RV.2.27.6c.
tenāgne tvam uta vardhayemam (MS. vardhayā mām) TS.3.5.4.2c; MS.1.4.3c: 50.15; KS.5.6c. See tena tvam agna.
tenāgniṃ śamayāmasi AVP.9.7.9e,11d.
tenāhaṃ vidvalā patim AVP.2.41.1c. See ahaṃ tad vidvalā.
tenāhaṃ viśvatas pari Apś.6.23.1e.
tenāhaṃ viśvam āpyāsam ā.5.3.2.3c.
tenāhaṃ śaśvato (AVP. sasvato) janān AVś.19.32.7c; AVP.11.12.7c.
tenāhaṃ sarvaṃ paśyāmi (AVP. paśyāni) AVś.4.20.8c; AVP.8.6.8c.
tenāhaṃ sarvasmai puṃse AVP.4.20.5c.
tenāhaṃ sasvato janān see prec. but two.
tenāhaṃ jyotiṣā jyotir ānaśāna ayākṣi (TA. ākṣi) MS.4.14.17d: 245.5; TA.2.3.1d.
tenāham agne anuśiṣṭa āgām RV.5.2.8d; 10.32.6d.
tenāham adya manasā sutasya KS.17.19c. See under ahaṃ tad asya.
tenāham adya śaṃsena KS.37.13c.
tenāham anyeṣāṃ striyaḥ AVP.3.40.5a.
tenāham amūṃ senām AVś.11.10.13d.
tenāham asya brahmaṇā TB.1.5.5.7c; Apś.8.21.1c; Mś.1.7.4.51c; 7.15c; 8.8e.
tenāham asyā mūrdhānam AVP.4.10.7d; 8.10.1d--3d,4e,5c.
tenāham asyai sīmānaṃ nayāmi SMB.1.5.2c.
tenāham asyai haviṣā juhomi AVP.5.37.7c.
tenāham indrajālena AVś.8.8.8c.
tenāham indradattena AVP.9.10.12c.
tenāham ṛtodyena AVP.11.2.8e.
tenāhaṃ bhūri cākana RV.1.120.10c.
tenāhaṃ māṃ sarvatanuṃ punāmi TA.6.3.2d. Cf. tenāyaṃ māṃ.
tenāhaṃ mām abhiṣiñcāmi varcase (SMB. omits varcase) Apś.6.14.7d; SMB.1.7.3b. See tena mām etc.
tenāhīn jambhayāmasi AVP.13.3.7b.
tenainaṃ vidhāmy abhūtyainaṃ vidhyāmi nirbhūtyainaṃ vidhyāmi parābhūtyainaṃ vidhyāmi grāhyainaṃ vidhyāmi tamasainaṃ vidhyāmi AVś.16.7.1.
tenainaṃ saṃ gamayati AVś.9.5.24b.
tenaināṃ pra dahāmasi AVP.6.23.3d.
tenaiti brahmavit taijasaḥ puṇyakṛc ca śB.14.7.2.12d; BṛhU.4.4.12d.
tenaitu yajamānaḥ svasti (Apś.KS.39.2c, svastyā) TS.5.7.2.2d; KS.22.10d; 38.13f; 39.2c; Apś.16.29.1c. See tena yantu.
tenaiva śāntir astu naḥ AVś.19.9.4d.
tenājyam akṛṇvaṃs traiśṛṅgaṃ tvāṣṭram SMB.1.1.4c.
tenāmitrān pramṛṇan yāhi śatrūn AVP.15.12.6e.
tenāmṛtasya bhakṣam AVś.13.2.15c.
tenāmṛtasya mūlena TA.6.10.2c.
tenāmṛtatvam aśyām (KS.PB. aśīya) KS.9.9 (sexies); PB.1.8.2,10,11,13; TB.2.2.5.4; TA.3.10.1,4; Apś.14.11.2. Cf. under tayāmṛ-.
tenāmṛtatvasyeśāne KBU.2.10c.
tenānnādyena tena satyena JB.1.50d.
tenānnenāpyāyasva TA.10.37.1; MahānU.16.2; BDh.2.7.12.10.
tenāntarikṣaṃ vimitā rajāṃsi AVś.13.1.7c.
tenānyo 'smat samṛchātai TA.2.4.1c. See tena yo 'smat.
tenāpa hata śarum āpatantam AVś.12.2.47c.
tenāpi lihna īyate AVP.13.4.1c.
tenārabhasva tvaṃ śatrūn AVś.10.3.1c.
tenārātsyam (śśṃś.GG. var. lect. -rātsam) MS.4.9.26 (quater): 138.5,7,8,9; śś.4.12.10; Mś.1.4.3.17; GG.3.2.50. See tan me 'rādhi, and tena rāddho.
tenardhyāsam KS.4.14; KA.1.198A,198B,1.199; SMB.1.6.9--13. See tena rādhyāsam.
tenārhati brahmaṇā spardhituṃ kaḥ AVś.19.22.21d; 23.30d; AVP.8.9.1d; TB.2.4.7.10d.
tenarṣiṇā (Aś. tena ṛṣiṇā; MS. tena ṛṣiṇā tena vidhinā tena chandasā) tena brahmaṇā tayā devatayāṅgirasvad dhruvā sīda TS.4.4.6.2; MS.4.9.15: 134.12; 4.9.16: 135.3; TB.3.12.6.1,6; 7.1,5; 8.1,3; Aś.2.3.25; Apś.16.28.1 (bis). See tena chandasā, tena brahmaṇā, and cf. tayā devatayāṅgirasvad.
tenāśakam MS.4.9.26 (quater): 138.5--7,9; Mś.1.4.3.17.
tenāsi viśvabheṣajaḥ AVś.19.39.9d; AVP.7.10.9d.
tenāsmā amuṣmā āyur dehi MS.2.3.4: 30.18; 2.3.5: 32.13.
tenāsmabhyaṃ vanase ratnam ā tvam RV.1.140.11d.
tenāsmad viśvām anirām anāhutim RV.10.37.4c.
tenāsmai kṣatram adhi dhārayaujaḥ AVP.2.73.1c.
tenāsmai yajamānāyoru (MS.KS. yajñapataya uru) rāye (TS. rāyā) kṛdhi VS.6.33; TS.1.4.1.2; MS.1.3.3: 31.3; KS.3.10; śB.3.9.4.12.
tenāsmāṃ api saṃ sṛja AVś.12.1.25f.
tenāsmān indro varuṇo bṛhaspatiḥ AVś.7.81.6c. See under evāsmān.
tenāsmān brahmaṇas pate RV.10.174.1c; RVKh.10.128.12d; AVś.1.29.1c. Cf. tenāsya etc., and tenemaṃ etc.
tenāśvattha tvayā vayam AVś.3.6.4c; AVP.3.3.5c.
tenāsya brahmaṇas pate AVś.6.101.2c. Cf. under tenāsmān etc.
tenāsyai patim ā vaha AVP.2.79.4d.
tenāsyāyuṣe vapa ApMB.2.1.4c,5c. Cf. under tena ta.
tenāti tara duśyasaḥ (AVP.2.89.3d, dhūrvataḥ) AVP.2.89.1b,3d,5d.
tenātiṣṭhad divam antarikṣam KS.39.2c; Apś.16.29.1c.
tenaudanenāti tarāṇi mṛtyum AVś.4.35.1d--6d; Apś.4.11.3d.
tenāvasena paro mūjavato 'tīhi TS.1.8.6.2; MS.1.10.4: 144.14; 1.10.20: 160.15; KS.9.7; 36.14; Lś.5.3.12. See tena paro.
tenāyaṃ kṛṇavad vīryāṇi AVś.19.27.10d; AVP.10.7.10d.
tenāyaṃ māṃ sarvapaśuṃ punātu AVP.9.24.3d,4d. Cf. tenāhaṃ māṃ.
tenāyuṣāyuṣmān edhi MS.2.3.4 (quater): 31.13,14,15 (bis); 2.3.5: 33.9. See under tena tvāyuṣā-.
tenedaṃ viśvaṃ bhuvanaṃ sam eti AVś.18.1.53b. See itīdaṃ.
tenedam ajayat svaḥ AVś.10.6.13d.
tenedam upagāyatām Lś.4.2.4c.
tenedaṃ pūrṇaṃ puruṣeṇa sarvam TA.10.10.3d; MahānU.10.4d; N.2.3d.
tenedhyasva vardhasva ceddha (HG. cendhi) AG.1.10.12b; HG.1.2.11b.
tenemā ajayad diśaḥ AVś.10.6.9e.
tenemaṃ yajñaṃ no vaha (VS.śB.KS.40.13c, once, naya) AVś.9.5.17c; AVP.3.38.10c; VS.15.55c; 18.62c; TS.4.7.13.4c; 5.7.7.3c (ter); MS.2.12.4c: 148.9; KS.18.18c; 40.13c (bis); śB.8.6.3.24. See tena vardhasva cedhyasva.
tenemaṃ varmiṇaṃ kṛtvā AVś.19.30.1c; AVP.12.22.10c.
tenemaṃ setum ati geṣma sarve AVP.5.6.8c.
tenemam (sc. abhiṣiñcāmi etc.) KhG.3.1.12. ūha of tenāhaṃ mām abhi-, q.v.
tenemam agna (KS. agra) iha varcasā samaṅgdhi KS.37.9d (bis); TB.2.7.15.2d (bis). Cf. tena māgne varcasā.
tenemam asmād yakṣmāt AVś.8.7.5c.
tenemaṃ brahmaṇas pate AVś.19.24.1c; AVP.1.11.1c; 15.5.8c. Cf. under tenāsmān etc.
tenemāṃ varcasāvatam AVś.14.1.35d,36d.
tenemāṃ saṃ sṛjāmasi AVś.14.2.53d--58d.
tenemāṃ nārīṃ savitā bhagaś ca AVś.14.1.53c.
tenemām aśvinā nārīm AVś.14.1.55c; AVP.2.79.2c.
tenemām upa siñcatam RV.4.57.5c; AVś.3.17.7c; TA.6.6.2c; N.9.41c. Cf. tena mām abhiṣiñcatam.
tenemāṃ maṇinā kṛṣim AVś.10.6.12c.
teneṣitaṃ tena jātam AVś.19.53.9a; AVP.11.8.9a.
teno sacadhvaṃ svayaśaso hi bhūtam AVś.18.3.19b.
teno seṣam ūrjaṃ piparti AVś.9.1.20d.
tenopahvayāmahe MG.1.14.5c. See gṛhān upa hvayāmahe.
ajījapatendraṃ vājam # VS.9.12; śB.5.1.5.12. Cf. indraṃ vājaṃ vi mucyadhvam, and indrāya vācaṃ etc.
athāmṛtena jaritāram aṅdhi (Apś. aṅgdhi) # TB.2.5.8.12d; Apś.7.6.7d.
aniktena ca vāsasā # Kauś.141.40a.
apaitenārātsīr asau svāhā # AVś.5.6.7a.
abhīvartena haviṣā (AVś.AVP. maṇinā) # RV.10.174.1a; AVś.1.29.1a; AVP.1.11.1a; AB.8.10.4. P: abhīvartena Kauś.16.29. Designated as abhīvartam (sc. sūktam) Apś.14.19.6; 20.1; AG.3.12.12; Kauś.16.29.
abhyavasnātena paribhakṣitena # AVP.9.23.7b.
amṛktena ruśatā vāsasā hariḥ # RV.9.69.5a.
amṛtena kḷptaṃ yajñam etam # TA.3.11.3c.
amṛtena sahāgninā (VārG. sahāyuṣā) # AVś.3.12.9d; 9.3.23d; VārG.5.28d.
amṛtenāvṛtāṃ puram (TA. purīm) # AVś.10.2.29b; TA.1.27.3b.
amṛtenendraṃ vayodhasam # VS.28.27d; TB.2.6.17.3d.
avaitenārātsīr asau svāhā # AVś.5.6.6a.
ahatenāhato bhava # AVP.15.6.10a.
ahitena cid arvatā # RV.8.62.3a.
āgatena prajā imāḥ # AVś.19.53.7d; AVP.11.8.7d.
ādhārābhigatena vā # AVP.9.23.3c.
iṣṭāpūrtena parame vyoman # RV.10.14.8b; AVś.18.3.58b. See sam iṣṭā-.
utendra śaryaṇāvati # RV.8.6.39b.
ṛtasyartena mām uta (TA. ita) # TB.3.7.12.1d; TA.2.3.1d. See ṛtasya tv enam.
ṛtasyartena muñcata # AVś.6.114.1d; TB.2.4.4.8d.
ṛtasyartenādityāḥ # AVś.6.114.2a; TB.2.4.4.8a.
tena ṛtaṃ dharuṇaṃ dhārayanta # RV.5.15.2a.
tena ṛtaṃ niyatam īḍa ā goḥ # RV.4.3.9a.
tena ṛtam apihitaṃ dhruvaṃ vām # RV.5.62.1a. Cf. BṛhD.5.81.
tena gāva ṛtam ā viveśuḥ # RV.4.23.9d.
tena gupta ṛtubhiś ca sarvaiḥ # AVś.17.1.29a.
tena tapaḥ # KS.35.15.
tena taṣṭā manasā hitaiṣā # AVś.11.1.23a.
tena tvaṃ sarasvati # MS.4.14.17b: 244.8; TB.3.7.12.2b; TA.2.3.1b.
tena tvā # Kauś.90.5.
tena tvā gṛhṇāmi # MS.1.2.6: 15.1; Apś.10.26.15.
tena dīrgham iṣaṇanta pṛkṣe # RV.4.23.9c.
tena devaḥ savitā śamāyate # RV.8.86.5a.
tena devā amṛtam anv avindan # AVP.7.6.1b.
tena devān havate divas pari # RV.9.80.1b.
tena devīr amṛtā amṛktāḥ # RV.4.3.12a.
tena dyāvāpṛthivī # MS.4.14.17a: 244.8; TB.3.7.12.2a; TA.2.3.1a.
tena naḥ pāhi # MS.1.2.6: 15.1. See ṛtena mā pāhi.
tena putro aditer ṛtāvā # RV.4.42.4c.
tena bhrājann amṛtaṃ vicaṣṭe # Vait.14.1b.
tena mā pāhi # Apś.10.26.15. See ṛtena naḥ pāhi.
tena mitrāvaruṇā sacethe # RV.1.152.1d; MS.4.14.10d: 231.8; TB.2.8.6.6d.
tena mitrāvaruṇau # RV.1.2.8a; SV.2.198a; JB.3.38a.
tena ya ṛtajāto vivāvṛdhe # RV.9.108.8c; SV.2.745c.
tena yanto adhi sindhum asthuḥ # RV.10.123.4c.
tena yāv ṛtāvṛdhau # RV.1.23.5a; SV.2.144a. P: ṛtena yau śś.3.8.19; 9.27.2.
tena ye camasam airayanta # AVś.6.47.3b; TS.3.1.9.2b; KS.30.6b; Kś.10.3.21b; Mś.2.5.4.17b.
tena rājann anṛtaṃ viviñcan # RV.10.124.5c.
tena viśvaṃ bhuvanaṃ vi rājathaḥ # RV.5.63.7c.
tena vṛtraturā sarvasenā # RV.6.68.2d.
tena śuṣmī havamāno arkaiḥ # TB.2.7.13.2c; śś.18.5.1c.
tena satyam indriyam # VS.19.72--79; MS.3.11.6 (octies): 148.10,13,16; 149.2,6,10,13,16; TB.2.6.2.1 (bis),2 (ter),3 (quater); KS.38.1 (octies).
tena satyam ṛtasāpa āyan # RV.7.56.12c; MS.4.14.18c: 247.7; TB.2.8.5.5c; BDh.1.6.13.3c.
tena satyavākena # Kauś.99.2c.
tena (MG. ṛte 'va) sthūṇām (ApMBḥG. sthūṇāv; MG. sthūṇā) adhi roha vaṃśa (MG. vaṃśaḥ) # AVś.3.12.6a; AG.2.9.2a; HG.1.27.7a; ApMB.2.15.5a (ApG.7.17.5); MG.2.11.14a. P: ṛtena Kauś.43.9.
tena hi ṣmā vṛṣabhaś cid aktaḥ # RV.4.3.10a.
tenāgna āyuṣā varcasā saha # TB.1.2.1.14b; Apś.5.8.8b.
tenādityā mahi vo mahitvam # RV.2.27.8c; TS.2.1.11.5c; MS.4.14.14c: 239.3; KS.11.12c.
tenādityās tiṣṭhanti # RV.10.85.1c; AVś.14.1.1c; ApMB.1.6.1c.
tenādriṃ vy asan bhidantaḥ # RV.4.3.11a.
tenāpaḥ prabharāmi # VārG.5.28c.
tenābhindan parivatsare valam # RV.10.62.2b.
tenāste parīvṛtā # AVś.10.8.31b.
tenāsya nivartaye (Mś. -ya) # TB.1.5.5.1a,3a,5a,7a; Apś.8.4.2a; Mś.1.7.2.23a.
etena gātuṃ harivo vido naḥ # RV.1.173.13b.
etena tvaṃ śīrṣaṇyām edhi # Mś.6.1.2.24. See next.
etena tvam atra śīrṣaṇvān edhi # KS.38.12; Apś.16.6.3. See prec.
etena rudrāvasena etc. # see etat te rudrāvasaṃ.
etenāgne brahmaṇā vāvṛdhasva # RV.1.31.18a; Aś.4.1.23; AG.1.23.24. P: etenāgne brahmaṇā śś.1.15.17.
kīrtenyaṃ maghavā nāma bibhrat # RV.1.103.4b.
kṛtena kaliṃ śikṣāṇi # AVP.4.9.2c. See ghṛtena kaliṃ.
kṛtenāsmāṃ abhi kṣara # AVP.1.72.4b; 4.9.7b. See ghṛtenā-.
ketena śarman sacate suṣāmaṇi # RV.8.60.18a.
garuḍapakṣanipātena # RVKh.1.191.2c.
ghṛtena kaliṃ śikṣāmi # AVś.7.109.1c. See kṛtena kaliṃ.
ghṛtena gātrānu sarvā vi mṛḍḍhi # AVś.11.1.31c. P: ghṛtena gātrā Kauś.62.17.
ghṛtena te tanvaṃ vardhayāmi # KS.38.12c.
ghṛtena tvaṃ tanvaṃ (TS. tanuvo) vardhayasva # RV.10.59.5d; VS.12.44c; TS.3.1.4.4c; 4.2.3.4c; MS.1.7.1c: 108.11; śB.6.6.4.12; Apś.7.6.5c; Mś.1.7.3.40c; N.10.40d. See ghṛtasyāgne.
ghṛtena tvāṃ manur adyā samindhe # AVś.7.82.6b.
ghṛtena tvāvardhayann agna āhuta # RV.5.11.3c; TB.2.4.3.3c.
ghṛtena tvā sam ukṣāmi # AVś.19.27.5a; AVP.10.7.5a.
ghṛtena dyāvāpṛthivī # AVP.5.18.6a. Cf. TS.3.1.11.8a.
ghṛtena dyāvāpṛthivī abhīvṛte # RV.6.70.4a; AB.5.2.9; KB.20.4; 21.4. P: ghṛtena dyāvāpṛthivī Aś.7.7.2; śś.11.6.5.
ghṛtena dyāvāpṛthivī ā pṛṇethām (MSṃś. ā pṛṇa; JB. ā prīṇīthām, read prīṇāthām; Lś. ā prīṇāthāṃ svāhā) # TS.1.3.1.2; 6.2.10.5; MS.1.2.11: 21.2; 1.2.14: 23.12; 3.8.9: 108.6; 3.9.3: 117.10; KS.2.12; 3.3; 25.10; 26.5; JB.1.72; Lś.1.7.7; Apś.7.9.10; 11.10.4; Mś.1.8.2.11; 2.2.3.20. See next.
ghṛtena dyāvāpṛthivī pūryethām # VS.5.28; śB.3.6.1.21. P: ghṛtena dyāvāpṛthivī Kś.8.5.38. See prec.
ghṛtena dyāvāpṛthivī prorṇuvāthām (VSKṭS.Apś. prorṇvāthām; MSṃś. prorṇuvātām) # VS.6.16; VSK.6.3.7; TS.1.3.9.2; 6.3.9.3; MS.1.2.16: 26.16; 3.10.1: 129.9; KS.3.6; śB.3.8.2.16; Apś.7.19.1; Mś.1.8.4.15. P: ghṛtena dyāvāpṛthivī Kś.6.16.12. Cf. vapayā.
ghṛtena dyāvāpṛthivī madhunā sam ukṣata # TS.3.1.11.8a. Cf. AVP.5.18.6ab.
ghṛtena dyāvāpṛthivī vyundan # KS.11.9d. See under ād it pṛthivī.
ghṛtena dyāvāpṛthivī vy undhi # RV.5.83.8c.
ghṛtena no (MS.KS. mā) ghṛtapvaḥ (AVP. -pavaḥ; TS. -puvaḥ) punantu # RV.10.17.10b; AVś.6.51.2b; AVP.6.3.4b; VS.4.2b; TS.1.2.1.1b; MS.1.2.1b: 10.1; 3.6.2: 61.8; KS.2.1b; śB.3.1.2.11.
ghṛtena no madhunā kṣatram ukṣatam # RV.1.157.2b; SV.2.1109b.
ghṛtena pāṇī abhi pruṣṇute makhaḥ # RV.6.71.1c; KB.20.4.
ghṛtena pātram abhi dhārayaitat # AVś.12.3.37b.
ghṛtena mā ghṛtapvaḥ etc. # see ghṛtena no etc.
ghṛtena mā samukṣata # Mś.1.4.2.10. See syonāḥ syonena.
ghṛtena miśraṃ prati vedayāmi # AVś.12.3.44b.
ghṛtena miśrā amṛtasya nābhayaḥ # AVś.12.3.41b.
ghṛtena mucyasvainasaḥ # AVP.5.18.6c.
ghṛtena vardhatāṃ bhūtiḥ # KS.35.4.
ghṛtena vardhayāmasi # RV.6.16.11b; SV.2.11b; VS.3.3b; śB.1.4.1.25; TB.1.2.1.10b; 3.5.2.1b; Apś.5.6.3b.
ghṛtena sītā madhunā samaktā (VSṃS.KS.śB. samajyatām) # AVś.3.17.9a; VS.12.70a; TS.4.2.5.6a; MS.2.7.12a: 92.7; KS.16.12a; śB.7.2.2.10. P: ghṛtena sītā Apś.16.20.7.
ghṛtena svāhā # VS.12.74; TS.5.6.4.1; MS.2.12.3: 146.4; 3.4.4: 49.11; KS.22.5; śB.7.2.3.8.
ghṛtenāktaṃ vasavaḥ sīdatedam # RV.2.3.4c.
ghṛtenākte vṛṣaṇaṃ dadhāthām # TS.1.3.7.1; 6.3.5.3; Apś.7.12.14.
ghṛtenāktau paśūṃs (VSKṭS.KS.Apś. paśuṃ) trāyethām # VS.6.11; VSK.6.2.6; TS.1.3.8.1; 6.3.7.5; MS.1.2.15: 25.3; KS.3.6; śB.3.8.1.5; Apś.7.14.11; Mś.1.8.3.18. P: ghṛtenāktau Kś.6.4.12.
ghṛtenāgniṃ saparyata # RV.10.118.6b.
ghṛtenāgniḥ sam ajyate # RV.10.118.4a.
ghṛtenājyena vardhayan # AVP.15.21.1b.
ghṛtenāñjan saṃ patho devayānān # VS.29.2a; TS.5.1.11.1a; KSA.6.2a. See tanūnapāt saṃ.
ghṛtenāpaḥ sam ukṣata # AVP.5.18.6b. Cf. TS.3.1.11.8a.
ghṛtenārkam abhy arcanti vatsam # AVś.13.1.33c. See tam arkair.
ghṛtenāsmāṃ abhi kṣara # AVś.7.109.4b. See kṛtenā-.
ghṛtenāsmān sam ukṣata # AVś.7.75.2e.
ghṛtenāhuta urviyā vi paprathe # RV.10.69.2c.
ghṛtenāhuto jarate davidyutat # RV.10.69.1d.
janitendrasya janitota viṣṇoḥ # RV.9.96.5d; SV.1.527d; 2.293d; JB.3.80d; N.14.12d.
jāgatena chandasāṅgirasvat (MS. chandasā) # VS.11.10; MS.2.7.1: 74.15; śB.6.3.1.39. See jāgatena tvā chandasādade.
jāgatena chandasā chandasāgneḥ puchenāgneḥ pucham upa dadhāmi # KS.22.5. See under jāgatasya.
jāgatena chandasā divam anu vi krame # TS.1.6.5.2. See divaṃ viṣṇur, divi viṣṇur, and viṣṇur divi.
jāgatena chandasā viśvavedāḥ # Apś.4.7.2b.
jāgatena chandasā saptadaśena stomena vāmadevyena sāmnā vaṣaṭkāreṇa vajreṇāparajān # TS.3.5.3.2. Cf. under ānuṣṭubhena chandasai-.
jāgatena chandasā savitrā devatayāgneḥ puchenāgneḥ pucham upa dadhāmi # TS.5.5.8.2. See under jāgatasya.
jāgatena tvā chandasā karomi # TA.4.2.6. P: jāgatena Apś.15.3.1.
jāgatena tvā chandasā chṛṇadmi # TA.4.3.3.
jāgatena tvā chandasādade 'ṅgirasvat # TS.4.1.1.4. See jāgatena chandasāṅgi-.
jāgatena tvā chandasā pari gṛhṇāmi # VS.1.27; śB.1.2.5.6.
jāgatena tvā chandasā manthāmi # VS.5.2; śB.3.4.1.23.
jāgatena tvā chandasā sādayāmi # VS.13.53; MS.2.7.18: 103.12; śB.7.5.2.61.
tena jātam ati sa pra sarsṛte (TB. ati sṛt pra sṛṃsate) # RV.2.25.1c; MS.4.14.10c: 230.16; TB.2.8.5.2c.
devarātena gāthināḥ # AB.7.18.6b; śś.15.27b.
nivṛttendravīrudhaḥ # PG.3.7.3b.
nīlalohitenāmūn abhyavatanomi # AVś.8.8.24. P: nīlalohitenāmūn Kauś.16.20.
parivittena parivividānena # AVP.9.23.7a.
pāṅktena chandasā bṛhaspatinā devatayāgneḥ pṛṣṭhenāgneḥ pṛṣṭham upa dadhāmi # TS.5.5.8.3. Cf. prec.
pāṅktena tvā chandasā sādayāmi # VS.13.53; MS.2.7.18: 103.13; śB.7.5.2.61.
purohitena vo rāṣṭraṃ prathayantu devāḥ # AVP.10.4.6d.
praketena rudrebhyo rudrān jinva # MS.2.8.8: 112.8. See next two.
praketenādityebhya ādityān jinva # VS.15.6. See prec. and next.
prajayāmṛteneha gachatam # ApMB.1.11.8d.
prātaryuktena suvṛtā rathena # TB.2.4.3.7c.
bastenājāḥ # TS.7.3.14.1; KS.35.15; KSA.3.4.
brahmāvādhūṣṭāmṛtena mṛtyum # Kauś.97.8b.
bhūtena gupto bhavyena cāham # AVś.17.1.29b.
bhrātendrasya sakhā mama # RV.6.55.5c.
mārutena śarmaṇā daivyena # TB.3.7.6.11c; Apś.4.7.2c.
maustakṛtena surabhiḥ # Apś.20.15.13a.
yuktena manasā vayam # VS.11.2a; TS.4.1.1.1a; MS.2.7.1a: 73.10; KS.15.11a; śB.6.3.1.14; śvetU.2.2a.
yuktenābhi tryaruṇo gṛṇāti # RV.5.27.3d.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
     Grammar
     KV Abhyankar
"ten" has 742 results.
     
a(1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perfeminine. second.pluraland first and third person.singular.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अ प्रत्ययात् et cetera, and others (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 exempli gratia, for example अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. exempli gratia, for example भवति, तुदति et cetera, and others; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; exempli gratia, for example द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imperfeminine. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् confer, compare P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, et cetera, and others in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; (9) taddhita affix. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ et cetera, and others in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the inst. instrumental case. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
akhaṇḍaśābdabodhaunitary import; the meaning of a sentence collectively understood.
agamakatvanon-communicativeness, inability to communicate adequately the intended meaning. confer, compare सविशेषणानां वृत्तिस्तर्हि कस्मान्न भवति । अगमकत्वात् M. Bh on II.1.1: confer, compare also अगमक: निर्देशः अनिर्देशः।
agnaukaravāṇinyāyaanalogy conveyed by the expression अग्नौ करवाणि implying permission to the agent to do certain other things in a sacrificial session when, as a matter of fact, he is only permitted to work as an agent at the sacrificial action ( अग्नौकरण ), by virtue of the reply ' कुरु ' to his request made in the sentence अग्नौ करवाणि. confer, compare अग्नौकरवाणिन्यायेन भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on. II.2.24.
aglopaelision of the vowel a, i,u , r or l ( अ, इ, उ, ऋ or लृ ) which prevents Sanvadbhāva confer, compare सन्वल्लघुनि चङ्परेSनग्लोपे P. VII.4.93, as also नाग्लोपिशास्वृदिताम् VII.4.2 where the elision prevents the shortening of the penultimate vowel if it is long.
aṅitnot marked with the mute letter ṅ ( ङ्) signifying the absence of the prohibition of the guṇa or the vṛddhi substitute. cf अङिति गुणप्रतिषेधः ( वक्तव्यः ) M.Bh. III.3.83 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2. In the case of the preposition ā ( अा ) unmarked with ṅ (ड् ), it signifies a sentence or remembrance of something confer, compare वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् exempli gratia, for example आ एवं नु मन्यसे, आ एवं किल तत् confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.l.14.
aṭ(1)token term standing for vowels and semi-vowels excepting l ( ल्) specially mentioned as not interfering with the substitution of ṇ ( ण् ) for n ( न् ) exempli gratia, for example गिरिणा, आर्येण, खर्वेण et cetera, and others Sec P.VIII.4.2; (2) augment a (अट्) with an acute accent, which is prefixed to verbal forms in the imperfect and the aorist tenses and the conditional mood. exempli gratia, for example अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् Sec P.IV.4.71; (3) augment a ( अट् ) prescribed in the case of the roots रुद्, स्वप् et cetera, and others before a Sārvadhātuka affix beginning with any consonant except y ( य्), exempli gratia, for example अरोदत्, अस्वपत्, अजक्षत्, आदत् et cetera, and others; see P.VII.3, 99, 100;(4) augment a ( अट् ) prefixed sometimes in Vedic Literature to affixes of the Vedic subjunctive (लेट्) exempli gratia, for example तारिवत्, मन्दिवत् et cetera, and others see P.III.4.94.
aṇudicchāstrathe rule prescribing cognateness (सावर्ण्य) of letters. The term refers to Pāṇini's sūtra अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P.I.1.69. The terms ग्रहणकशास्त्र and सवर्णशास्त्र are used in the same sense.
at(1)tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar for short अ, cf तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70; अदेङ् गुणः P.I.1.2; (2) personal ending अ for इ ( इट् ) of the Ist person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada in the Potential, P III. 4. 106; (3) caseaffix in the case of युष्मद् and अस्मद् for ablative case. singular. and plural P.VII. 1.31,32: (4) tad-affix अत् (अ) prescribed after किम् in the sense of the locative case case before which किम् is changed to कु, क्व being the taddhita affix. formation; confer, compare P. V.3.12 and VII.2.105:(5) substitute अत्(शतृ) for लट् forming the present and future participles in the Parasmaipada. active voice confer, compare लटः शतृशानचौ. P.III. 2.124 and लृटः सद्वा P. III.3.14.
atantraimplying no specific purpose: not intended to teach anything, अविवक्षित; exempli gratia, for example ह्रस्वग्रहणमतन्त्रम् Kāś and Si. Kau. on तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P.1.2.32: confer, compare also अतन्त्रं तरनिर्देशः ( the use of तरप् does not necessarily convey the sense of the comparative degree in Pāṇini's rules) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.2.33. This statement has been given as a distinct Paribhāṣa by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and Sākaṭāyana. The author of the Mahābhāṣya appears to have quoted it from the writings of Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and the earlier grammarians See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on अल्पाच्तरम् P. II.2.34.
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
atiprayatnaintense effort; characteristic effort as required for uttering a vowel with विक्रमस्वरित.
ativyāptithe same as अतिप्रसङ्ग, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Extensive application with respect to a rule which applies to places where it should not apply. See Par. Śekh on Pari. 28, Pari. 85; also Padamañj. on Kāś. II.I.32.
ātisparśaexcess of contact, which to a certain extent spoils the pronunciation and leads to.a fault. अतिस्पर्श is the same as दुःस्पर्श, the letter ळ being called दुःस्पृष्ट on account of excess of contact. This excess of contact ( अतिस्पर्श) in the case of the utterance of the letter र् results into a fault as it practically borders on stammering; confer, compare अतिस्पर्शो बर्बरता च रेफे, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 26.
atharvaprātiśākhyathe Prātiśākhya work of the Atharva veda believed to have been written by Śaunaka. It consists of four Adhyāyās and is also called शौनकीया चतुरध्यायिका.
adantaending with the short vowel अ; confer, compare P. VIII.4.7: a term applied to nouns of that kind, and roots of the tenth conjugation which are given with the letter अ at their end which is not looked upon as mute (इत्) c.g. कथ,गण. et cetera, and others Mark also the root पिच described by पतञ्जलि as अदन्त confer, compare पिबिरदन्तः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56., Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 4.43.
adoṣaabsence of fault; absence of inconvenience. The expression सोप्यदोषो भवति often occurs in the Mahābhāṣya: confer, compare MBh. on I. 3.62; I. 4.108, et cetera, and others
adyatanītech. term of ancient grammarians signifying in general the present time of the day in question, the occurrence of the immediate past or future events in which is generally expressed by the aorist (लुड्) or the simple future ( लृट् ); the other two corresponding tenses imperfect and first future (viz. लड् and लुट्) being used in connection with past and future events respectively, provided the events do not pertain to that day which is in question; confer, compare 'वा चाद्यतन्याम्' M.Bh. P.III.2.102 Vār.6, वादृतन्याम् P, VI.4.114. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (2) term for the tense showing immediate past time called लुङ् in Pāṇini's grammar e. g. मायोगे अद्यतनी । मा कार्षीत् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.III. 1.22, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III. 3.11.
aghikārasūtraa superintending aphorism, which gives no meaning of itself where it is mentioned, but gives its meaning in the number of aphorisms that follow: e. gthe rules प्रत्यय:, परश्च and अाद्युदात्तश्च P. III.1.1, 2, 3 or सह सुपा. P.II.1.4.
anatidiṣṭanot resulting from any extended application or अतिदेश, confer, compare प्रकृत्याश्रयं अनतिदिष्टं भवति M.Bh. on IV. 1.151.
anavasthānaindefiniteness; confer, compare उच्चनीचस्यानवस्थानात्संज्ञाया अप्रसिद्धिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 2.30 Vārt 1.
anānupūrvyasaṃhitāthat saṁhitā text which has an order of words in it, which is different from what obtains in the Pada-pāṭha, and which appears appropriate according to the sense intended in the passage. There are three places of such combinations of words which are not according to the succcession of words in the Pada-pāṭha, quoted in the R.Pr. शुनश्चिच्छेपं निदितं सहस्रात् Rk. Saṁ. V.2.7, नरा वा शंसं पूषणमगोह्यम् Rk. Saṁ. X. 64.3; नरा च शंसं दैव्यम् Rk. Saṁh. IX. 86. 42. confer, compare एता अनानुपूर्व्यसंहिताः । न ह्येतेषां त्रयाणां पदानुपूर्व्येण संहितास्ति Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.78.
anāntaryaabsence of proximity, absence of cognateness; confer, compare इह तर्हि खट्वर्श्यो मालर्श्य इति दीर्घवचनादकारो न, अनान्तर्यादेकारौकारौ न । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Māheśvarasūtras.s 3-4.
aniṣṭijñaignorant or inattentive to what the Grammarian intends or desires to say. confer, compare तत्र सौर्यभगवतोक्तम्अनिष्टिज्ञो वाडव: पठति । इत्यत एव चतुर्मात्रः प्लुत: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.2.106.
anunyāsaa commentary on न्यास (काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका by जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि). The work is believed to have been written by इन्दुमित्र. It is not available at present except in the form of references to it which are numerous especially in Siradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.
anupapannaimpossible to be explained, not consistent , confer, compare अथाप्यनुपपन्नार्था भवन्ति । ओषधे त्रायस्वैनम् । Nirukta of Yāska.I.15.
anubhūtisvarūpācāryaa writer of the twelfth century who wrote a work on grammar called सरस्वती-प्रक्रिया or सारस्वतप्रक्रिया, He has also written धातुपाठ and आख्यातप्रक्रिया. The grammar is a short one and is studied in some parts of India.
anuvidhioperation in conformity with what is found. The expression छन्दसि दृष्टानुविधिः is often found in the Mahābhāṣya: confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.5, I.1.6, I.1.21, III.1.9, III.1.13, VI.1.6, VI.1.77, VI.1.79, VI. 4.128,VI.4.141, VIII.2.108.
anuvṛttirepetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the subsequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intended interpretation. The word is of common use in books on Pāṇini's grammar. This recurrence is generally continuous like the stream of a river ( गङ्गास्रोतोवत् ); sometimes however, when it is not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवृत्ति. In rare cases it is taken backwards in a sūtra work from a subsequent rule to a previous rule when it is called अपकर्ष.
anekaśeṣahaving no ekaśeṣa topic in it; a term applied to the Daiva Grammar which does not discuss the ekaśeṣa topic to which Pāṇini has devoted ten rules from I. 2.64 to 73.
antaḥstha,antaḥsthāfeminine., also writen as अन्तस्थ, अन्तस्था feminine., semivowel; confer, compare अथान्तस्थाः । यिति रेिन लेिति वितिः; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII.14-15: confer, compare चतस्रोन्तस्थाः explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शोषमणामन्तः मध्ये तिष्ठन्तीति अन्तस्थाः R.Pr.I.9, also पराश्चतन्नान्तस्थाः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 8. The ancient term appears to be अन्तस्थाः feminine. used in the Prātiśākhya works. The word अन्तःस्थानाम् occurs twice in the Mahābhāṣya from which it cannot be said whether the word there is अन्तःस्थ m. or अन्तःस्था feminine. The term अन्तस्थ or अन्तस्था is explained by the commentators on Kātantra as स्वस्य स्वस्य स्थानस्य अन्ते तिष्ठन्तीति ।
appayadīkṣitaअप्पदीक्षित A famous versatile writer of the sixteenth century A. D. (1530-1600 ), son of रङ्गराजाध्वरीन्द्र a Dravid Brāhmaṇa. He wrote more than 60 smaller or greater treatises mainly on Vedānta, Mimāṁsā, Dharma and Alaṁkāra śāstras; many of his works are yet in manuscript form. The Kaumudi-prakāśa and Tiṅantaśeṣasaṁgraha are the two prominent grammatical works written by him. Paṇdit Jagannātha spoke very despisingly of him.
aprakṛtisvaratvanon-retention of the original word accents; confer, compare तत्र यस्य गतेरप्रकृतिस्वरत्वं तस्मादन्तेादात्वं प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI.2.49. See the word प्रकृतिस्वरत्व.
abhayanandina reputed jain Grammarian of the eighth century who wrote an extensive gloss on the जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण. The gloss is known as जैनेन्द्रव्याकरणमहावृत्ति of which वृहज्जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण appears to be another name.
abhiprāya(1)अभिप्रायसंधि a kind of euphonic combination where the nasal letter न् is dropped and the preceding vowel ( अ ) is nasalised e. g, दधन्याँ यः । स्ववाँ यातु : (2) view, purpose, intention; confer, compare तद् व्यक्तमाचार्यस्याभिप्रायो गम्येत, इदं न भवतीति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27; confer, compare also स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P.1.3.72.
abhividhiinclusive extension to a particular limit; inclusive limit confer, compare आङ् मर्यादाभिविध्योः P.II.1.13, अङ् मर्यादाभिविध्योरिति वक्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.89; (2) full or complete extension confer, compare अभिविधौ भाव इनुण् । अभिविधिरभिव्याप्तिः । सांराविणं वर्तते Kāś on P. III. 3.44.
abhisāriṇīname of a metre in which two feet have ten syllables and the other two have twelve syllables; confer, compare वैराजजागतैः पादैर्यो वाचेत्यभिसारिणी Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 43.
abhyaṃkara(BHASKARASHASTRI Abhyankar 1785-1870 A. D. )an eminent scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who prepared a number of Sanskrit scholars in Grammar at Sātārā. He has also written a gloss on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another one on the Laghu-Śabdenduśekhara. (VASUDEVA SHASTRI Abhyakar 863-1942 A. D.) a stalwart Sanskrit Pandit, who, besides writing several learned commentaries on books in several Sanskrit Shastras, has written a commentary named 'Tattvādarśa' on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another named 'Guḍhārthaprakāśa' on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara. (KASHINATH VASUDEVA Abhyankar, 1890-) a student of Sanskrit Grammar who has written महाभाष्यप्रस्तावना-खण्ड, and जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति and compiled the परिभाषासंग्रह and the present Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar.
abhyāvṛttiinclination towards an action; tendency to do an act; confer, compare संख्यायाः क्रियाभ्यावृत्तिगणनं कृत्वसुच् । P. V. 4.17 अभिमुखी प्रवृत्तिरभ्यावृत्तिः (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.4.19) is the explanation in the Mahābhāṣya,while पौनः पुन्यमभ्यावृत्तिः (Kāś. on V.4.17) is the one given in Kāśikā
amaracalled अमरसिंह an ancient grammarian mentioned in the कविकल्पद्रुम by बोपदेव. He is believed to have written some works on grammar such as षट्कारकलक्षण his famous existing work, however, being the Amarakoṣa or Nāmaliṅgānuśāsana.
amṛtabhāratīa grammarian who is believed to have written सुबोधिका, a gloss on the सारस्वतव्याकरण.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
avagraha(1)separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; exempli gratia, for example पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originatedition The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. (Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; confer, compare also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।(Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.36); also confer, compare यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ exempli gratia, for example शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; confer, compare समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.
avaśiṣṭaliṅga(v.1. अविशिष्टलिङ्ग)a term occurring in the liṅgānuśāsana meaning 'possessed of such genders as have not been mentioned already either singly or by combination' id est, that is possessed of all genders.Under अवशिष्टलिङ्ग are mentioned indeclinables, numerals ending in ष् or न् , adjectives, words ending with kṛtya affixes id est, that is potential passive participles, pronouns, words ending with the affix अन in the sense of an instrument or a location and the words कति and युष्मद् (See पाणिनीय-लिङ्गानुशासन Sūtras 182-188).
avivakṣānon-intention: connivance; confer, compare सतोऽप्यविवक्षा भवति । अलोभिका एडका । अनुदरा कन्या । also confer, compare प्रसिद्धेरविवक्षातः कर्मणोऽकर्मिका क्रिया.
avyayārthanirūpaṇaa work on the meanings of indeclinable words written in the sixteenth century A. D. by Viṭṭhala Śeṣa, grandson of Ramacandra Śeṣa the author of the Prakriyā Kaumudi.
avyāptiinsufficient extension, as opposed to अतिव्याप्ति or over application; confer, compareसर्वौपाधिव्यभिचारार्थम् । अव्याप्त्यतिव्याप्त्यसंभवादिदोषपरिहारार्थम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on II.1.32.
asamartha(1)syntactically not connected, e. g. राज्ञः and पुरुषः in the sentence भार्या राज्ञः पुरुषो देवदत्तस्य (2) unable to enter into a compound word, the term is used in connection with a word which cannot be compounded with another word, although related in sense to it, and connected with it by apposition or by a suitable case affix, the reason being that it is connected more closely with another word: confer, compare सापेक्षमसमर्थं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.1.1.; exempli gratia, for example the words कष्टं and श्रितः in the sentence महत् कष्टं श्रितः.
asārūpyadissimilarity in apparent form (although the real wording in existence might be the same) e. g. टाप्, डाप् , चाप्; confer, compare नानुबन्धकृतमसारूप्यम् । Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 8.
asvayaṃdṛṣṭaA term used for the perfect tense; confer, compare कृ चकारमस्वयंदृष्टे (R.T. 19l).
ā(1)the long form of the vowel अ called दीर्घ,consisting of two mātrās, in contrast with (l) the short अ which consists of one mātrā and the protracted आ३ which consists of three mātrās; (2) substitute अा of two mātrās when prescribed by the word दीर्घ or वृद्धि for the short vowel अ; (3) upasarga अा (अाङ्) in the sense of limit exempli gratia, for example अा कडारादेका संज्ञा (P.I.4.1.) आकुमारं यशः पाणिनेः K. on II.1.13. आ उदकान्तात् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.14.) (4) indeclinable आ in the sense of remembrance e. g. आ एवं नु मन्यसे; confer, compare ईषदर्थे क्रियायोगे मर्यादाभिविधौ च यः । एतमातं ङितं विद्याद्वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.14; (5) augment अा ( अाक् ) as seen in चराचर, वदावद et cetera, and others confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6; (6) augment अा(आट्) prefixed to roots in the tenses लुङ्, लङ् and लृङ् (7) substitute अा prescribed for the last letter of pronouns before the taddhita affix. affixes दृक्,दृश, दृक्ष and वत्, as in तादृक्दृ, तादृश et cetera, and others; (8) feminine affix आ (टाप्, डाप् or चाप् ) added to nouns ending in अा; (9) substitute आ ( आ or अात्, or डा or आल् ) for case affixes in Vedic literature उभा यन्तारौ, नाभा पृथिव्याः et cetera, and others
akhyātaprakriyāa work dealing with verbs, written by Anubhūtisvarūpācārya on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa.
āgarvīyaa class of roots forming a subdivision of the Curādigaṇa or the tenth conjugation beginning with पद् and ending with गर्व् which are only ātmanepadin; exempli gratia, for example पदयते, मृगयते, अर्थयते, गर्वयते.
ātideśikaapplied by extension or transfer of epithet as opposed to औपदेशिक. See the word अतिदेश; the term is often used in connection with rules or operations which do not apply or occur by the direct expression of the grammarian; confer, compare यदि आतिदेशिकेन कित्वेन औपदेशिकं कित्वं बाध्येत. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.1.; confer, compare also अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् Par.Śek. Pari. 93.6.
ādhṛṣīyaa sub-division of roots belonging to the चुरादिगण or tenth conjugation beginning with युज् and ending with धृष् which take the Vikaraṇa णिच् optionally id est, that is which are also conjugated like roots of the first conjugation; exempli gratia, for example यीजयति,योजयते, योजति;साहयति-ते, सहति.
ābhācchāstraa rule given in the section called आभीयप्रकरण extending from P.VI.4.22 to VI.4.175, wherein one rule or operation is looked upon as invalid to another ; confer, compare असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22 and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). thereon; confer, compare also यावता अनिदितां हलः इत्यपि आभाच्छास्त्रम् Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.Pari. 38.
ābhīyaprakaraṇaa section of Pāṇini's grammar from VI.4.-2 to VI. 4.129, called अाभीय, as it extends to the rule भस्य VI.4.129, including it but as the governing rule भस्य is valid in every rule upto the end of the Pāda, the आभीयप्रकरण also extends upto the end of the Pāda.See अाभाच्छास्त्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
aāyāmatension of the limbs or organs producing sound, which is noticed in the utterance of a vowel which is accented acute ( उदात्त ) अायामो गात्राणां दैघ्र्यमाकर्षणं वा; commentary on Tait. Prāt. XXII. 9; confer, compare ऊर्ध्वगमनं गात्राणाम् वायुनिमित्तं U1. varia lectio, another reading,on R. Prāt. III.1; confer, compare also ऊर्ध्वगमनं शरीरस्य commentary on Vāj. Prāt I.31; confer, compare also आयामो दारुण्यमणुता रवत्येत्युच्चैःकराणि शाब्दस्य M.Bh. on P. I.2.29.
ārdhadhātukaa term used in contrast to the term सार्वधातुक for such verbal and kṛt affixes, as are not personal endings of verbs nor marked with the mute letter श् confer, compare तिङ्शित् सार्वधातुकम् । आर्धधातुकं शेषः। P.III.4.113 and 114. The personal endings of verbs in the perfect tense and the benedictive mood are termed ārdhadhātuka, confer, compare P. III. 4.115, 116; while both the terms are promiscuously found utilised in the Vedic Literature; confer, compare P. III. 4. 117. The main utility of the ārdhadhātuka term is the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to the ārdhadhātuka affixes. The term आर्धधातुका was in use in works of the old Vaiyākaraṇas; confer, compare अथवा आर्धधातुकासु इति वक्ष्यामि कासु आर्धधातुकासु । उक्तिषु युक्तिषु रूढिषु प्रतीतिषु श्रुतिषु संज्ञासु M.Bh. on II. 4.35. It cannot be said how the term ārdhadhātuka originatedition Probably such affixes or pratyayas, like the kṛt affixes generally, as could be placed after certain roots only were called ārdhadhātuka, as contrasted with the verbal and the present participle affixes which were termed sārvadhātuka on account of their being found in use after every root.
āśubodha(1)name of a work on grammar written by Tārānātha called Tarka-vācaspatī, a reputed Sanskrit scholar of Bengal of the 19th century A.D. who compiled the great Sanskrit Dictionary named वाचस्पत्यकेाश and wrote commentaries on many Sanskrit Shastraic and classical works. The grammar called अाशुबोध is very useful for beginners; (2) name of an elementary grammar in aphorisms written by रामकिंकरसरस्वती, which is based on the Mugdhabodha of Bopadeva.
āśvalāyanaprātiśākhyaan authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the Ṛksaṁhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa.
āsvadīyaa sub-division of the चुरादि (Xth conjugation) roots, beginning with the root ग्रस् and ending with the root स्वद्, which take the Vikaraṇa णिच् id est, that is which are conjugated like roots of the tenth conjugation, only if they are transitive in sense.
id(1)augment इ prefixed,in general in the case of all roots barring a few roots ending in vowels except ऊ and ऋ and roots शक्, पच्, et cetera, and others, to such affixes of non-conjugational tenses and moods as begin with any consonant except ह् and य्; confer, compare आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः P.VII.2.35 to 78 and its exceptions P.VII.2.8 to 34; (2) personal ending of the third person singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
indumitraauthor of अनुन्यास, a commentary on Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa., the well-known commentary on the Kāśikavṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi. Many quotations from the Anunyāsa are found in the Paribhāṣāvṛtti of Sīradeva. The word इन्दु is often used for इन्दुमित्र; confer, compare एतस्मिन् वाक्ये इन्दुमैत्रेययोः शाश्वतिको विरोध: Sīra. Pari. 36.
indraname of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; confer, compare the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya edition by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.
uktipadaउक्तिपदानि a short anonymous treatise on case-relations, compounds et cetera, and others written mostly in Gujarati.
uktiratnākara'a short grammar work, written by साधुसुन्दर, explaining declension, cases and their meanings, compounds, et cetera, and others and giving a list of Prākṛta words with their Sanskrit equivalents.
uccaritapronounced or uttered; the phrase उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः is used in connection with the mute indicatory letters termed इत् in Pāṇini's grammar, as these letters are not actually found in use in the language and are therefore supposed to vanish immediately after their purpose has been servedition The phrase 'उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनोSनुबन्धा:' has been given as a Paribhāṣā by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.(Pari.11), in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 14), in the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa (Pari.54) and also in the Kalāpa Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 71). Patañjali has used the expression उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः in connection with ordinary letters of a word, which have existence for a moment and which also vanish immediately after they have been uttered; confer, compare उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः खल्वपि वर्णा: ...न वर्णो वर्णस्य सहायः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4. 109.
uccāraṇapronunciation, enunciation (in the Śāstra). The phrase उच्चारणसामर्थ्यात् is often found used in the Mahābhāṣya and elsewhere in connection with the words of Pāṇini, everyone of which is believed to , have a purpose or use in the Śāstra, which purpose, if not clearly manifest, is assigned to it on the strength (सामर्थ्य) of its utterance; confer, compare उच्चारणसामर्थ्यादत्र ( हिन्येाः ) उत्वं न भविष्यति M.Bh. on III.4.89 V.2; confer, compare also M.Bh. on IV.4.59, VI.4.163, VII.1.12,50, VII.2.84, In a few cases, a letter is found used by Pāṇini which cannot be assigned any purpose but which has been put there for facility of the use of other letters. Such letters are said to be उच्चारणार्थ; confer, compare जग्धि: । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:। नानुबन्धः । Kāś. on II.4.36.च्लि लुडि. । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:; चकारः स्वरार्थः । Kāś, on III.1. 43. The expressions मुखसुखार्थः and श्रवणार्थः in the Mahābhāṣya mean the same as उच्चारणार्थः.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
uṇādisūtradaśapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable.
uṇādisūtrapañcapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into five chapters which is possessed of a scholarly commentary written by Ujjvaladatta. There is a commentary on it by Bhaṭṭoji Dīkṣita also.
uṇādisūtravṛttia gloss on the Uṇādi Sūtras in the different versions. Out of the several glosses on the Uṇādi Sūtras, the important ones are those written by Ujjvaladatta, Govardhana, Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva, Rāmacandra Dīkṣita and Haridatta. There is also a gloss called Uṇādisūtrodghātana by Miśra. There is a gloss by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. on the Kātantra version of the Uṇādi Sūtras.
utpalaauthor of a commentary on Pāṇini's Liṅgānuśāsana. It is doubtful whether he was the same as उत्पल-भट्ट or ‌भट्टोत्पल, the famous astrologer of the tenth century.
utsūtranot consistent with what is taught in rules of a Śāstra; confer, compare अनुत्सूत्रपदन्यासा सद्वृत्तिः सन्निबन्धना । शब्दविद्येव नो भाति राजनीतिरपस्पशा Śiśupālavadha II.
uddeśyareferred to; pointed out, subject, as contrasted with the predicate मानान्तरप्राप्तमुद्देश्यम् ; confer, compare उद्दश्यप्रतिनिर्दिश्यमानयोरैक्यमापद्यत् सर्वनाम पर्यायेण तत्तल्लिङभाक् । तद्यथा | शैत्यं हि यत्सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य, शैत्यं हि य यत्तत्प्रकृतिर्जलस्य वा । उद्देश्य in grammar refers to the subjectpart of a sentence as opposed to the predicate-participle. In the sentence वृद्धिरादैच् the case is strikingly an opposite one and the explanation given by Patañjali is very interesting;confer, compare तदेतदेकं मङ्गलार्थं आचार्यस्य मृष्यताम् । माङ्गलिक अाचार्यः महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थं वृद्धिशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्कते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.1.
uddeśyavidheyabhāvarelationship between the subject and the predicate where generally the subject is placed first in a sentence; confer, compare उद्देश्यवचनं पूर्वं विधेयत्वं ततः परम् । confer, compare also तादात्म्यसंसर्गकस्थले विशेष्यत्वमेव उद्देश्यं विशेषणत्वमेव विधेयम् Padavākyaratnākara.
uddyotathe word always refers in grammar to the famous commentary by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa written in the first decade of the 18th century A. D. om the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa. The Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.appears to be one of the earlier works of Nāgeśa. It is also called Vivaraṇa. The commentary is a scholarly one and is looked upon as a final word re : the exposition of the Mahābhāṣya. It is believed that Nāgeśa wrote 12 Uddyotas and 12 Śekharas which form some authoritative commentaries on prominent works in the different Śāstras.
upamanyu(1)the famous commentator on the grammatical verses attributed to Nandikeśvarakārikā. which are known by the name नन्दिकेश्वरकारिका and which form a kind of a commentary on the sūtras of Maheśvara; (2) a comparatively modern grammarian possibly belonging to the nineteenth century who is also named Nandikeśvarakārikā.kārikābhāṣya by Upamanyu.and who has written a commentory on the famous Kāśikāvṛtti by Jayāditya and Vāmana. Some believe that Upa-manyu was an ancient sage who wrote a nirukta or etymological work and whose pupil came to be known as औपमन्यव.
upamāa well-known term in Rhetorics meaning the figure of speech ' simile ' or ' comparison '. The word is often found in the Nirukta in the same sense; confer, compare अथात उपमाः | 'यत् अतत् तत्सदृशम्'इति गार्ग्यः । Nir III.13. Generally an inferior thing is compared to another that is superior in quality.
upasaṃkhyānamention, generally of the type of the annexation of some words to words already given, or of some limiting conditions or additions to what has been already statedition The word is often found at the end of the statements made by the Vārttikakāra on the sūtras of Pāṇini.: confer, compare P.I.1.29 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1: I.1.36 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3 et cetera, and others The words वाच्य and वक्तव्य are also similarly useditionThe word is found similarly used in the Mahābhāṣya also very frequently.
upasṛṣṭaattended with a prefix, generally used in connection with roots; exempli gratia, for example क्रुधद्रुहोरुपसृष्टयोः कर्म P.I.4.38 where the Kāśikā has explaincd the word as उपसर्गसंबद्ध.
us(1)substitute for झि ending of the third person.plu., in the perfect tense and in the present tense in the case of the roots विद् and ब्रू, exempli gratia, for example विदुः and आहुः confer, compare P. III.4.82-84 ; (2) substitute जुस् (उस्) for झि in the potential and the benedictive moods, as also after the aorist sign स् and after roots of the third conjugation, roots ending in आ and the root विद्, e. g. पचेयुः भूयासुः अकार्षुः, अबिभयुः अदुः, अविदुः, et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on III.4.108-112.
ūnadeficient, wanting; often in compounds exempli gratia, for example पादोन, ह्यून, एकोन; confer, compare व्यूहैः संपत्समीक्ष्योने Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VIII. 28; एकह्यूनाधिकता सैव निवृदूनाधिका भुरिक् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII.1.
ṛkprātiśākhyaone of the Prātiśākhya works belonging to the Aśvalāyana Śākha of the Ṛg Veda. The work available at present, appears to be not a very old one,possibly written a century or so after Pāṇini's time. It is possible that the work, which is available, is based upon a few ancient Prātiśākhya works which are lost. Its authorship is attributed to Śaunaka.The work is a metrical one and consists of three books or Adhyāyas, each Adhyāya being made up of six Paṭalas or chapters. It is written, just as the other Prātiśākhya works, with a view to give directions for the proper recitation of the Veda. It has got a scholarly commentary written by Uvaṭa and another one by Kumāra who is also called Viṣṇumitra. See अाश्वलायनप्रातिशाख्य.
ṛtshort vowel ऋ. before which the preceding vowel is optionally left as it is, i. e. without coalescence and shortened also if long; confer, compare ऋत्यकः P. VI.1.128.
ṛditpossessed of the mute indicatory letter ऋ, signifying in the Grammar of Pāṇini the prevention of the shortening of the long vowel in the reduplicated syllable of the Causal Aorist form of roots which are marked with it; e. g. अशशासत् अबबाधत्, अययाचत् et cetera, and others confer, compare नाग्लोपिशास्वृदिताम् P.VII.4.2.
ekatiṅpossessed of one verb; given as a definition of a sentence: confer, compare एकतिङ् P.II.1.1 Vārt 10, explained by Patañjali as एकतिङ् वाक्यसंज्ञं भवतीति वक्तव्यम् । ब्रूहि ब्रूहि ।
ekadeśin( a thing or a substance )composed of parts; cf the term एकदेशिसमास or एकदेशितत्पुरुष, used in connection with compounds of words such as पूर्व, पर and others with words showing the constituted whole ( एकदेशिन्) prescribed by the rule पूर्वपराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनेकाधिकरणे P. II. 2.1 ; (2) a partisan; confer, compare the word सिद्धान्त्येकदेशिन् used often by commentators.
ekavākyaan expression giving one idea, either a single or a composite one. A positive statement and its negation, so also, a general rule and its exception are looked upon as making a single sentence on account of their mutual expectancy even though they be sometimes detached from each other confer, compare विदेशस्थमपि सदेकवाक्यं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.4.67; confer, compare also निषेधवाक्यानामपि निषेध्यविशेषाकाङ्क्षत्वाद्विध्येकवाक्यतयैव अन्वयः । तत्रैकवाक्यता पर्युदासन्यायेन । संज्ञाशास्त्रस्य तु कार्यकालपक्षे न पृथग्वाक्यार्थबोधः । Par. Śek on Pari. 3. Such sentences are, in fact, two sentences, but, to avoid the fault of गौरव, caused by वाक्यभेद, grammarians hold them to be composite single sentences.
ekaśeṣanirdeśastatement by subsistence of one word out of many. The phrase is very often used in the Mahābhāṣya where the omission of an individual thing is explained by saying that the expression used is a composite one including the omitted thing along with the thing already expressed; confer, compare एकशेषनिर्देशोयम् । सर्वादीनि च सर्वादीनि च सर्वादीनि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.I.27, on I.1.59, I.2.39, as also on I.3.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5,I.4. 101 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19 et cetera, and others
ekaśrutithat which has got the same accent or tone; utterance in the same tone; monotone. The word is applied to the utterance of the vocative noun or phrase calling a man from a distance, as also to that of the vowels or syllables following a Svarita vowel in the Saṁhitā id est, that is the continuous utterance of Vedic sentences; confer, compare एकश्रुति दूरात्संबुद्वौ and the foll. P.I.2.33-40 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon. In his discussion on I.2.33 Patañjali has given three alternative views about the accent of Ekaśruti syllables : (a) they possess an accent between the उदात्त (acute) and अनुदात्त (grave), (b) they are in the same accent as is possessed by the preceding vowel, (c) Ekaśruti is looked upon as the seventh of the seven accents; confer, compare सैषा ज्ञापकाभ्यामुदात्तानुदात्तयोर्मध्यमेकश्रुतिरन्तरालं ह्रियते। ... सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति | उदात्तः, उदात्ततर:, अनुदात्तः, अनुदात्ततर:, स्वरितः स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः, एकश्रुतिः सप्तमः । M.Bh. on P.I.2.33.
ekārtha(1)possessed of one sense as contrasted with बह्वर्थ, द्व्यर्थ etc: (2) synonym, confer, compare बहवो हि शब्दा एकार्था भवन्ति । तद्यथा इन्द्रः शक्रः पुरुहूतः पुरंदरः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9; (3) Possessed of a composite sense; confer, compare समासे पुनरेकार्थानि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 1.1 Vārt I. The words एकार्थ्य and एकार्थत्व derived from the word एकार्थ are often found used in the sense of 'possession of a composite sense' एकार्थस्य भाव: एकार्थता,ऐकार्थ्ये एकार्थत्वं वा; confer, compare समासस्यैकार्थत्वंत्संज्ञाया अप्रसिद्धिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.42 Vārt 1; confer, compare also the word एकार्थीभावः (4) potent to be connected; समर्थ; confer, compare सुप्सुपा एकार्थम् ( समस्यते ) C. Vy. II.2.1; (5) analogous समानाधिकरण confer, compare एकार्थं चानेकं च । एकः समानः अर्थः अधिकरणं यस्य तदेकार्थं समानाधिकरणम् Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. Vy. III. 1.22: confer, compare also एकार्थे च । Śāk. II.1.4.
aindraname of an ancient school of grammar and of the treatise also, belonging to that school, believed to have been written under instructions of Indra. The work is not available. Patañjali mentions that Bṛhaspati instructed Indra for one thousand celestial years and still did not finish his instructions in words': (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.1 ). The Taittirīya Saṁhitā mentions the same. Pāṇini has referred to some ancient grammarians of the East by the word प्राचाम् without mentioning their names, and scholars like Burnell think that the grammar assigned to Indra is to be referred to by the word प्राचाम्. The Bṛhatkathāmañjarī remarks that Pāṇini's grammar threw into the background the Aindra Grammar. Some scholars believe that Kalāpa grammar which is available today is based upon Aindra,just as Cāndra is based upon Pāṇini's grammar. References to Aindra Grammar are found in the commentary on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa, in the Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva as also in the commentary upon the Mahābhārata by Devabodha.Quotations, although very few, are given by some writers from the work. All these facts prove that there was an ancient pre-Pāṇinian treatise on Grammar assigned to इन्द्र which was called Aindra-Vyākaraṇa.For details see Dr.Burnell's 'Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians' as also Vol. VII pages 124-126 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya, edited by the D.E.Society, Poona.
oraṃbhaṭṭa scholar of grammar of the nineteenth century who wrote a Vṛtti on Pāṇini sūtras called पाणिनिसूत्रवृत्ति. He has written many works on the Pūrvamīmāmsa and other Śāstras.
aaudumvarāyaṇaan ancient sage whose doctrine of 'evanescence of words' (literally existence as long as its cognition is had by the sense organs) is seen quoted in the Nirukta; confer, compare इन्द्रियनित्यं वचनमौदुम्बरायणस्तत्र चतुष्टयं नोपपद्यते Nirukta of Yāska.I.1.
or विसर्गः literally letting out breath from the mouth; sound or utterance caused by breath escaping from the mouth; breathing. The Visarjanīya, just like the anusvāra, is incapable of being independently utteredition Hence, it is written for convenience as अः although its form for writing purposes is only two dots after the vowel preceding it; confer, compare अः इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः इति कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसर्जनीयसंज्ञो भवति । Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Vyāk. I.1.16. See अः a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 2.
kariṣyat kariṣyantīancient technical terms for the future tense;the word करिष्यन्ती is more frequently usedition
karmasthabhāvaka(roots)having their verbal action or happening noticed in the object; e. g. the root आस् and शी in बालमासयति शाययति where the function of the root bears effect in the Object boy and not in the movements of the object as in the sentence बालमवरुणद्धि. See कर्मस्थक्रिय a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. as also M.Bh. on III.1.87 and Kaiyaṭa on the same.
karmādiliterally karman and others; a term often used in the Mahābhāṣya for kārakas or words connected with a verbal activity which have the object or karmakāraka mentioned first; सुपां कर्मादयोप्यर्थाः संख्या चैव तथा तिङाम् M.Bh, on I.4.21.
karṣaṇaextension; protraction, defined as kālaviprakarṣa by commentators; a peculiarity in the recital as noticed in the pronunciation of ट् when followed by च् , or ड् when followed by ज् exempli gratia, for example षट्चै; षड्जात. confer, compare Nār. Śik. I.7.19.
kalāpa(कलाप-व्याकरण)alternative name given to the treatise on grammar written by Sarvavarman who is believed to have lived in the days of the Sātavāhana kings. The treatise is popularly known by the namc Kātantra Vyākaraṇa. The available treatise,viz. Kalpasūtras, is much similar to the Kātantra Sūtras having a few changes and additions only here and there.It is rather risky to say that Kalāpa was an ancient system of grammar which is referred to in the Pāṇini Sūtra कलापिनोण् P. IV.3.108. For details see कातन्त्र.
kavikalpadrumaa treatise on roots written by Bopadeva, the son of Keśava and the pupil of Dhaneśa who lived in the time of Hemādri, the Yādava King of Devagiri in the thirteenth century. He has written a short grammar work named Mugdhabodha which has been very popular in Bengal being studied in many Tols or Pāṭhaśālās.
kavikalpadrumaṭīkāa commentary on the Kavikalpadruma, written by the author ( बोपदेव ) himselfeminine. It is known by the name Kāvyakāmadhenu; (2) a commentary on Kavikalpadruma by Rāmatarkavāgīśa.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantrakaumudī(1)a commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras written by Govardhana in the 12th century. A. D.; (2) a commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Gaṅgeśaśarman.
kātantradhātuvṛttiascribed to Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti., the famous commentator of the Kātantra Sūtras who lived in the ninth or the tenth century.
kātantrapañjikāa name usually given to a compendium of the type of Vivaraṇa or gloss written on the Kātantra Sūtras. The gloss written by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. on the famous commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. ( the same as the the famous Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. or another of the same name ) known as दौर्गसिंही वृत्ति is called Kātantra Pañjika or Kātantravivaraṇa. A scholar of Kātantra grammar by name Kuśala has written a Pañjika on दुर्गसिंहृ's वृत्ति which is named प्रदीप, Another scholar, Trivikrama has written a gloss named Uddyota.
kātantraparibhāṣāpāṭhaname given to a text consisting of Paribhāṣāsūtras, believed to have been written by the Sūtrakāra himself as a supplementary portion to the main grammar. Many such lists of Paribhāṣāsūtras are available, mostly in manuscript form, containing more than a hundred Sūtras divided into two main groups-the Paribhāṣā sūtras and the Balābalasūtras. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
kātantraparibhāṣāvṛtti(1)name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha written by Bhāvamiśra, probably a Maithila Pandit whose date is not known. He has explained 62 Paribhāṣās deriving many of them from the Kātantra Sūtras. The work seems to be based on the Paribhāṣā works by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and others on the system of Pāṇini, suitable changes having been made by the writer with a view to present the work as belonging to the Kātantra school; (2) name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha of the Kātantra school explaining 65 Paribhāṣās. No name of the author is found in the Poona manuscript. The India Office Library copy has given Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. as the author's name; but it is doubted whether Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. was the author of it. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
kātantrapariśiṣṭaascribed to Śrīpatidatta, whose date is not known; from a number of glosses written on this work, it appears that the work was once very popular among students of the Kātantra School.
kātantrapariśiṣṭacandrikāa gloss on the Kātantra-Pariśiṣṭa ascribed to a scholar named Ramadāsa-cakravartin who has written another...work also named Kātantravyākhyāsāra.
kātantrapariśiṣṭaṭīkāa gloss on the Kātantra-Pariśiṣṭa written by a Kātantra scholar Puṇḍarīkākṣa.
kātantrapariśiṣṭasiddhāntaratnāṅkuraa gloss on the Kātantra-pariśiṣṭa by Śivarāmendra, who is believed to have written a gloss on the Sūtras of Pāṇini also.
kātantraprakriyāa name given to the Kātantra Sūtras which were written in the original form as a Prakriyāgrantha or a work discussing the various topics such as alphabet, euphonic rules, declension, derivatives from nouns, syntax, conjugation derivatives from roots et cetera, and others et cetera, and others
kātantrapradīpaa grammar work written by a scholar named Kuśala on the Kātantrasūtravṛtti by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.. See कातन्त्रपञ्जिका.
kātantravistaraa famous work on the Kātantra Grammar written by Vardhamāna a Jain Scholar of the twelfth century who is believed to be the same as the author of the well-known work Gaṇaratnamahodadhi.
kātantravṛttiname of the earliest commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.. The commentary was once very popular as is shown by a number of explanatory commentaries written upon it, one of which is believed to have been written by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. himselfeminine. See Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti..
kātantravṛttiṭippaṇīa gloss on दौर्गसिंहीवृत्ति written by Guṇakīrti in the fourteenth century A.D.
kātantravṛttivyākhyānamed Aṣṭamaṅgalā on Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.'s Kātantravṛtti written by Rāmakiśora Cakravartin who is believed to have written a grammatical work शाब्दबोधप्रकाशिका.
kātantravyākhyāsāraa work of the type of a summary written by Rāmadāsa Cakravartin of the twelfth century.
kātantrottaraa treatise on the Kātantra Grammar believed to have been written by Vidyānanda.
kārakaliterally doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारकशब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्थान्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: confer, compare also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and कर्तृ to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
kārakakārikāpossibly another name for the treatise on Kārakas known as कारकचक्र written by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva the reputed grammarian of Bengal who lived in the latter half of the twelfth century A. D. See कारकचक्र.
kārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaalso called षट्कारक-खण्डनमण्डन which is a portion of theauthor's bigger work named त्रिलो-चनचन्द्रिका. The work is a discourse on the six kārakas written by Maṇikaṇṭha, a grammarian of the Kātantra school. He has also written another treatise named Kārakavicāra
kārakacakra(1)written by Puruṣotta madeva a reputed grammarian of Bengal who wrote many works on grammar of which the Bhasavrtti, the Paribhāṣāvṛtti and Jñāpakasamuccya deserve a special mention. The verse portion of the Kārakacakra of which the prose portion appears like a commentary might be bearing the name Kārakakaumudī.
kārakatattvaa treatise on the topic of Kārakas written by Cakrapāṇiśeṣa, belonging to the famous Śeṣa family of grammarians, who lived in the seventeenth century A. D.
kārakanirṇayaa work discussing the various Kārakas from the Naiyāyika view-point written by the well-known Naiyāyika, Gadādhara Chakravartin of Bengal, who was a pupil of Jagadīśa and who fourished in the 16th century A. D. He is looked upon as one of the greatest scholars of Nyāyaśāstra. His main literarywork was in the field of Nyāyaśāstra on which he has written several treatises.
kārakavāda(1)a treatise discussing the several Kārakas, written by Kṛṣṇaśāstri Ārade a famous Naiyāyika of Benares who lived in the eighteenth century A. D; (2) a treatise on syntax written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya which is called कारकविवेक also, which see below. a treatise on syntax written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya which is called कारकविवेक also, which see below.
kārakavibhaktibalīyastvathe dictum that a Kāraka case is stronger than an Upapada case,e. g. the accusative case as required by the word नमस्कृत्य,which is stronger than the dative case as required by the word नमः. Hence the word मुनित्रयं has to be used in the sentence : मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य and not the word मुनित्रयाय confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari. 94.
kārakavivekaknown as कारकवाद also; a short work on the meaning and relation of words written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya who lived in the beginning of the eighteenth century. The work forms the concluding portion of a larger work called कारकविवेक which was written by शिरोमणिभट्टाचार्य.. The work कारकवाद has a short commentary written by the author himselfeminine.
kārakavyākhyāthe same as कारकवादव्याख्या written by जयरामभट्टाचार्य. See कारकविवेक.
kārmanāmikathe word is found used in Yāska's Nirukta as an adjective to the word संस्कार where it means belonging to nouns derived fromroofs (कर्मनाम)"like पाचक,कर्षक et cetera, and othersThe changes undergone by the roots in the formation of such words i. e. words showing action are termed कार्मनामिकसंस्कार; confer, compare कर्मकृतं नाम कर्मनाम। तस्मिन् भवः कार्मनामिकः Durgavṛtti on Nirukta of Yāska.I.13. कार्य(l) brought.into existence by activity (क्रियया निर्वृत्तं कार्यम् ) as oppo- sed to नित्य eternal; confer, compare एके वर्णाञ् शाश्वतिकान् न कार्यान् R.Pr. XIII.4 confer, compare also ननु च यस्यापि कार्याः ( शब्दाः ) तस्यापि पूजार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 17;(2) which should be done, used in connection with a grammatical operation: confer, compare कार्य एत्वे सयमीकारमाहुः ।| अभैष्म इत्येतस्य स्थाने अभयीष्मेति । R.Pr. XIV.16; confer, compare also विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I.4.2; (3) a grammatical opera- tion as for instance in the phrases द्विकार्ययोगे, त्रिकार्ययोगे et cetera, and others; confer, compare also गौणमुख्ययोर्मुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्ययः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 15;(4) object of a transitive verb: confer, compare शेषः कार्ये Śāk.
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikāalso called Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa., the well-known commentary written by Jinendrabuddhi on the Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. See Kāśikā a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
kitkaraṇamarking with the mute letter क्, or looking upon as marked with mute क् for purposes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; ( see कित् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. ). The word is often used in the Mahābhāṣya; see M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, 5, 46; I.2.5, et cetera, and others
kurvata term found in the Brāhmaṇa works and used by ancient grammarians for the 'present tense'.
kṛta(१)a term used by ancient grammarians in the sense of 'past tense';(2) effected, done. The word is mostly used in this sense in grammar.works;exempli gratia, for example किं तेन कृतं स्यात् ; नानुबन्धकृतमनेकात्त्वम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa.Pari. 6.
kṛtsvarathe same as कृदुत्तरपदप्रकृतिस्वर, the retention of its accent by the second member of a tatpuruṣa compound, if the first member is a word termed Gati or Kāraka, by the rule गतिकारकोपपदात् कृत् P.VI.2. 139; confer, compare अव्ययस्वरस्य कृत्स्वरः M.Bh. on VI.2.52; confer, compareविभक्तीषत्स्वरात्कृत्स्वरः M.Bh. VI.2.52 Vārt, 6.
kṛllukthe elision of a kṛt affix: the word is found used along with the words प्रकृतिप्रत्यापत्तिः, and प्रकृतिवत् कारकं भवति in the Vārttika अाख्यानात्कृतस्तदाचष्टे इतेि कृल्लुक् प्रकृतिप्रत्यापत्तिः प्रकृतिवच्च कारकम् by means of which the phrase कंसं घातयति is formed for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे.
kṛṣṇakiṃkaraprakriyāan alternative name for the well-known grammar-work क्रियाकौमुदी written by Rāmacandra Śeṣa. See प्रक्रियाकौमुदी.
keśavadattawriter of the commentary named दुर्धटोद्धाट on the grammar संक्षिप्तसार written by Goyicandra,
kaiyaṭaname of the renowned commentator on the Mahābhāṣya, who lived in the 11th century. He was a resident of Kashmir and his father's name was Jaiyaṭa. The commentary on the Mahābhāṣya was named महाभाष्यप्रदीप by him, which is believed by later grammarians to have really acted as प्रदीप or light, as without it, the Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali would have remained unlit, that is unintelligible, at several places. Later grammarians attached to प्रदीप almost the same importance as they did to the Mahābhāṣya and the expression तदुक्तं भावकैयटयोः has been often used by commentators. Many commentary works were written on the Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.out of which Nageśa's Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.is the most popular. The word कैयट came to be used for the word महाभाष्यप्रदीप which was the work of Kaiyaṭa. For details see Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII. pp. 389-390.
kaiyaṭaprakāśaa commentary on the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa written by Nīlakaṇṭha of the Draviḍa country. Nīlakaṇṭha lived in . the 17th century and wrote works on various subjects.
kaiyaṭaprakāśikāa commentary on the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa written by Pravartakopādhyāya.
kaiyaṭavivaraṇa(1)a commentary on the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa written by Iśvarānanda, in the 16th century; (2) a commentary on Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.by Rāmacandra-Sarasvatī, who lived in the 16th century.
koṇḍabhaṭṭaa reputed grammarian who wrote an extensive explanatory gloss by name Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa on the Vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakārikā of Bhaṭṭoji Dīkṣita. Another work Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra. which is in a way an abridgment of the Bhūṣaṇa, was also written by him. Koṇḍabhaṭṭa lived in the beginning of the l7th century. He was the son of Raṅgojī and nephew of Bhaṭṭojī Dīkṣita. He was one of the few writers on the Arthavicāra in the Vyākaraṇaśāstra and his Bhūṣaṇasāra ranks next to the Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Besides the Bhūṣaṇa and Bhūṣaṇasāra, Koṇḍabhaṭṭa wrote two independent works viz. Vaiyākaraṇsiddhāntadīpika and Sphoṭavāda.
kaumāra,komāravyākaraṇa(1)an alternative name of the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa given to it on the strength of the traditional belief that the original inspiration for writing it was received by Sarvavarman from Kumara or Kārtikeya; (2) small treatises bearing the name Kaumāravyākaraṇa written by Munipuṅgava and Bhāvasena. The latter has written Kātantrarūpamāla also.
ktakṛt affix त in various senses, called by the name निष्ठा in Pāṇini's grammar along with the affix क्तवतू confer, compare क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा P.I.1.26.The various senses in which क्त is prescribed can be noticed below : (1) the general sense of something done in the past time as past passive voice.participle e. g. कृत:, भुक्तम् et cetera, and others: cf P. III.2.102; (2) the sense of the beginning of an activity when it is used actively: e. g. प्रकृतः कटं देवदत्तः, confer, compare P.III.2.102 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (3) the sense of activity of the present tense applied to roots marked with a mute ञ् as also to roots in the sense of desire, knowledge and worship; exempli gratia, for exampleमिन्नः, क्ष्विण्ण:, धृष्ट: as also राज्ञां मतः, राज्ञामिष्टः, राज्ञां बुद्धः; confer, compare P.III.2.187, 88; (4) the sense of mere verbal activity (भाव) e. g. हसितम् , सहितम् , जल्पितम् , (used always in the neuter gender); confer, compare P.III.3. 114: (5) the sense of benediction when the word ending in क्त is used as a technical term, exempli gratia, for example देवदत्तः in the sense of देवा एनं देयासुः. The kṛt affix क्तिन् is also used similarly exempli gratia, for example सातिः भूतिः मन्ति:; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III.3.174.
kramapāṭharecital of the Vedic Saṁhitā by means of separate groups of two words, repeating each word except the first of the Vedic verseline; see क्रम a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The various rules and exceptions are given in detail in Paṭalas ten and eleven of the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. The Vedic Saṁhitā or Saṁhitāpāṭha is supposed to be the original one and the Padapāṭha prepared later on, with a view to preserving the Vedic text without any change or modification of a letter, or accent; confer, compare न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and VIII. 2.16, where Patañjali clearly says that grammar-rules are not to follow the Padapāṭha, but, the writer of the Padapāṭha is to follow the rules already laid down. The Jaṭāpāṭha, the Ghanapāṭha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapāṭha as they are not mentioned in the Prātiśākhya works.
kriyākalāpaa grammatical work on the conjugation of roots written by Vijayānanda.
kriyātipattiliterally over-extension or excess of action; the word is, however, used in grammar in the sense of non-happening of an expected action especially when . it forms a condition of the conditional mood ( लृङ् ); confer, compare कुताश्चिद्वैगुण्यादनभिनिर्वृत्तिः क्रियायाः क्रियातिपत्तिः Kāś. on P. III. 3.139; confer, compare also नान्तरेण साधनं क्रियायाः प्रवृत्तिरस्तीति साधनातिपत्तिश्चेत्कियातिपत्तिरपि भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.3.139.
kriyāphalaintended fruit of a verbal activity; confer, compare स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P.I.3.72.
kriyārtha(adjective. to क्रिया) literally meant or intended for another action; e g. भोक्तुं व्रजति where गमनक्रिया is intended for भोजनक्रिया; confer, compare तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम् P.III.3.10.
kriyāsamabhihārarepetition or intensity of a verbal activity; confer, compare समभिहारः पौनः पुन्यं भृशार्थो वा, Kāś. on P.I.4.2.
kroṣṭrīyaan ancient school of grammarians who are believed to have written rules or Vārttikas on some rules of Pāṇini to modify them; the क्रोष्ट्रीय school is quoted in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare परिभाषान्तरमिति च मत्वा क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.3.
kvasukṛt affix वस्, taking the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) in the feminine gender, prescribed in the sense of perfect tense, which is mostly found in Vedic Literature and added to some roots only such as सद्, वस्, श्रु et cetera, and others in the spoken language; e. g. जक्षिवान् पपिवान् उपसेदिवान् कौत्स; पाणिनिम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.2.107-109.
kṣitīśacandra(चक्रवर्तिन्)or K. C. CHATTERJI a scholar of Sanskrit grammar who has written a work on technical terms in Sanskrit, who has edited several grammar works and is at present editing the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa and conducting the Sanskrit journal named Mañjūṣa at Calcutta.
kṣīrataraṅgiṇīa kind of commentary on the Dhātupāṭha of Pāṇini written by Kṣīrasvāmin.
khitcharacterized by the mute letter ख्, applied to kṛt affixes which, by reason of their being खित् , cause (a) the addition of the augment मुम् ( म् ) to the preceding words अरुस् , द्विषद् and words ending in a vowel, and (b) the shortening of the long vowel of the preceding word if it is not an indeclinable; confer, compare P. VI. 3.66-68.
gaṅgādhara[GANGADHARA SHASTRI TELANG] (l)a stalwart grammarian and Sanskrit scholar of repute who was a pupil of Bālasarasvatī of Vārāṇaśī and prepared in the last century a host of Sanskrit scholars in Banaras among whom a special mention could be made of Dr. Thebaut, Dr. Venis and Dr. Gaṅgānātha Jhā. He was given by Government of India the titles Mahāmahopādhyāya and C. I.E. His surname was Mānavallī but he was often known as गङाधरशास्त्री तेलङ्ग. For details, see Mahābhāṣya, D.E. Society Ed.Poona p.p.33, 34; (2)an old scholar of Vyākarana who is believed to have written a commentary on Vikṛtavallī of Vyādi; (3) a comparatively modern scholar who is said to have written a commentary named Induprakāśa on the Śabdenduśekhara; (4) author of the Vyākaraṇadīpaprabhā, a short commentary on the Vyākaraṇa work of Cidrūpāśramin. See चिद्रूपाश्रमिन्.
gaṇaa class of words, as found in the sūtras of Pāṇini by the mention of the first word followed by the word इति; exempli gratia, for example स्वरादि, सर्वादि, ऊर्यादि, भ्वादि, अदादि, गर्गादि et cetera, and others The ten gaṇas or classes of roots given by Pāṇini in his dhātupātha are given the name Daśagaṇī by later grammarians.
gaṇapāṭhathe mention individually of the several words forming a class or gaṇa, named after the first word said to have been written by Pāṇini himself as a supplementary work to his great grammar called Aṣṭaka or Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., the Sikṣā,the Dhātupātha and the Lingānuśāsana being the other ones. Other grammarians such as शाकटायन, अापिशलि and others have their own gaṇapāthās. The gaṇapāthā is traditionally ascribed to Pāṇini; the issue is questioned, however, by modern scholars. The text of the gaṇapāṭha is metrically arranged by some scholars. The most scholarly and authoritative treatise on gaṇapāṭha is the Gaṇaratnamahodadhī of Vardhamāna.
gaṇaratnamahodadhia grammar work, consisting of a metrical enumeration of the words in the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini, written by Vardhamāna, a Jain grammarian of the 12th century, who is believed to have been one of the six gems at the court of Lakṣmaṇasena of Bengal. Vardhamāna has written a commentary also, on his Gaṇaratnamahodadhi. Besides Vardhamāna's commentary, there are other commentaries written by गोवर्धन and गङ्गाधर.
gaṇaratnamahodadhiṭīkāalso called गणरत्नमहोदधिवृति, a commentary on the गणरत्नमहोदधि of Vardhamāna written by the author himselfeminine. See गणरत्नमहोदधि.
gaṇasūtravicāraa commentary on the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini written by Mannudeva who flourished in the nineteenth century.
gadāa popular name given to the scholarly commentary written by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara. The commentary is called काशिका also, as it was written in the town of Kāśī (Vārāṇasī).
gadādharacakravartinthe reputed Naiyāyika who wrote numerous works on the Navyanyaya; he has written a few works like व्युत्पत्तिवाद, उपसर्गविचार, कारकनिर्णय, सर्वनामविचार, प्रत्ययविचार on Vyākaraṇa themes although the treatment, as also the style, is logical.
gamakacapable of conveying the sense; intelligible; the word is often used in grammatical works; confer, compare सापेक्षत्वेपि गमकत्वात्समास:; confer, compare also अवश्यं कस्याचिन्नञ्समासस्य असमर्थसमासस्य गमकस्य साधुत्वं वक्तव्यम् । असूर्यपश्यानि मुखानि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 1. 1.
garīyastvagreater effort or prolixity of expression which is looked upon as a fault in connection with grammar-works of the sūtra type where every care is taken to make the expression as brief as possible; confer, compare अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणाः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 122. The word गौरव is often used for गरीयस्त्व.
galatpadathe word occurs in the Prātiśākhya works in connection with the definition of संक्रम, in the kramapātha. The word संक्रम means bringing together two words when they are combined according to rules of Samdhi. (See the word संक्रम). In the Kramapātha, where each word occurs twice by repetition, a word occurring twice in a hymn or a sentence is not to be repeated for Kramapātha, but it is to be passed over. The word which is passed over in the Kramapātha is called गलत्पद; e. g. दिशां च पतये नमो नमो वृक्षेभ्यो हरिकेशेभ्यः पशूनां पतये नमो नमः सस्पिञ्जराय त्विषीमतॆ पथीनां पतये नमः । In the Kramapātha पतये नमः and नमः are passed over and पशूनां is to be connected with सस्पिञ्जराय. The words पतये नमः and नमः are called galatpada; confer, compare गलत्पदमतिक्रम्य अगलता सह संधानं संक्रम; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 197. There is no गलत्पद in पदपाठ.
gīrvāṇapadamañjarīa grammatical work written by वरदराज, pupil of Bhattoji Diksita in the 17th century who wrote many works on grammar such as मध्यकौमुदी, लघुकौमुदी et cetera, and others
guṇa(1)degree of a vowel; vocalic degree, the second out of the three degrees of a vowel viz. primary degree, guna degree and vrddhi degree exempli gratia, for example इ, ए and ऐ or उ, ओ and औ. अ is given as a guna of अ; but regarding अ also,three degrees can be stated अ, अ and आ. In the Pratisakhya and Nirukta ए is called गुण or even गुणागम but no definiti6n is given ; confer, compare गुणागमादेतनभावि चेतन R.Pr.XI.6;शेवम् इति विभीषितगुणः। शेवमित्यपि भवति Nir.X.17: (2) the properties of phonetic elements or letters such as श्वास,नाद et cetera, and others: confer, compareṚgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) Ch.XIII : (3) secondary, subordinate;confer, compare शेषः,अङ्गं, गुणः इति समानार्थाः Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.on Nirukta of Yāska.I.12: (4) properties residing in a substance just as whiteness, et cetera, and others in a garment which are different from the substance ( द्रव्य ). The word गुण is explained by quotations from ancient grammarians in the Maha bhasya as सत्वे निविशतेsपैति पृथग्जातिषु दृश्यते । अाघेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोSसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः ॥ अपर आह । उपैत्यन्यज्जहात्यन्यद् दृष्टो द्रव्यान्तरेष्वपि। वाचकः सर्वलिङ्गानां द्रव्यादन्यो गुणः स्मृतः ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.44;cf also शब्दस्पर्शरूपरसगन्धा गुणास्ततोन्यद् द्रव्यम् ,M.Bh.on V.1.119 (5) properties of letters like उदात्तत्व, अनुदात्तत्व, स्वरितत्व, ह्र्स्वत्व, दीर्घत्व, प्लुतत्व, अानुनासिक्य et cetera, and others; confer, compare भेदकत्वाद् गुणस्य । आनुनासिक्यं नाम गुणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.. Vart, 13: (6) determinant cf भवति बहुव्रीहौ तद्गुणसंविज्ञानमपि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.27; (7) technical term in Panini's grarnmar standing for the vowels अ, ए and ओ, confer, compare अदेङ्गुणः P.I.1.2. For the various shades of the meaning of the word गुण, see Mahabhasya on V.1.119. " गुणशब्दोयं बह्वर्थः । अस्त्येव समेष्ववयवेषु वर्तते ।...... चर्चागुणांश्च ।
gopāla( देव )known more by the nickname of मन्नुदेव or मन्तुदेव who lived in the eighteenth century and wrote several commentary works on well-known grammatical treatises such as the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara, Laghusabdendusekhara, Paribhasendusekhara et cetera, and others He is believed to have written a treatise on Ganasutras also; (2) a grammarian different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. मन्नुदेव who has written an explanatory work on the Pratisakhyas;.(3) a scholar of grammar, different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. who is believed to have written a gloss named Visamarthadipika on the Sarasvata Vyakarana at the end of the sixteenth century.
gopīcandraknown also by the name गेयींचन्द्र who .has written several commentary works on the grammatical treatises of the Samksipatasara or Jaumāra school of Vyakarana founded by Kramdisvara and Jumaranandin in the 12th century, the well-known among them being the संक्षिप्तसाटीका, संक्षितसारपरिभात्रासूत्रटीका and तद्धितपरिशिष्टटीका. He is believed to have lived in the thirteenth century A. D.
gopīnāthaa Bengali scholar of Katansutra Grammar who is believed to have written Katantraparisistapraddyota.
govardhanaa grammarian who has written a work on Katantra Grammar called कातन्त्रकौमुदी and also a commentary on the Ganaratnamahodadhi of Vardhamana. A gloss on the Unadisutras is also assigned to Govardhana who is likely to be the same as a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
gha(l)consonant घ्, अ being added at the end for facility of pronunciation; confer, compareTai. Pr.I.21; (2) technical term for the taddhita affix. affixes तरप् and तमप्, confer, compare P.I.1.22, causing the shortening of ई at the end of bases before it, under certain conditions, confer, compare P. VI. 3.43-45, and liable to be changed into तराम् and तमाम् after किम्, verbs ending in ए, and indeclinables; confer, compare P.V.4.11; (3) taddhita affix. affix घ ( इय) in the sense of 'a descendant' applied to क्षत्र, and in the sense of 'having that as a deity' applied to अपोनप्तृ अपांनप्तृ and also to महेन्द्र and to the words राष्ट्र et cetera, and others, exempli gratia, for example क्षत्रियः, अपोनाप्त्रिय:, अपांनप्त्रियः, महेन्द्रियम्,राष्ट्रियः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV.1.138, IV.2.27, 29, 93; (4) taddhita affix. affix घ, applied to अग्र, समुद्र and अभ्र in the sense of 'present there', to सहस्र in the sense of 'possession', to, नक्षत्र without any change of sense, and to यज्ञ and ऋत्विज् in the sense of 'deserving'; confer, compare P.IV.4.117,118,135, 136,141, V.1.71 ; (5) krt affix अ when the word to which it has been applied becomes a proper noun id est, that isa noun in a specific sense or a technical term; confer, compare III.3. 118, 119,125.
cakoraa grammarian who .wrote a commentary on the 'Sabdalingarthacandrika of Sujanapandita. चक्कनशर्मा a grammarian who is said to have written a work named Dhatusamgraha.
cakrina grammarian who has written a small disquisition on the correctness of the form जाग्रहीता. See जाग्रहीतेतिवाद.
caṅgadāsaa grammarian who has written a work on the topic of the five vrttis. The work is named चङ्गवृति.
caṅgavṛttia short treatise written by वङ्गदास, dealing with the topic of the five compact expressions or Vrttis viz. कृत्, तद्वित, समास, एकशेष, and सनादिधातु.
caṅgudāsaor चाड्गुदास a scholar of grammar who has written an independent work on Sanskrit Vyakaana called वैयाकरणजीवातु. The treatise is also known as चाङ्गुसूत्र or चाङ्गु-व्याकरण.
candraa famous Buddhist Sanskrit grammarian whose grammar existing in the Tibetan script, is now available in the Devanagar script. The work consists of six chapters or Adhyayas in which no technical terms or sanjnas like टि, घु are found. There is no section on Vedic Grammar and accents. The work is based on Panini's grammar and is believed to have been written by Candra or Candragomin in the 5th centnry A. D. Bhartrhari in his Vakyapadiya refers to him; confer, compare स नीतो बहुशाखत्वं चन्द्राचार्यादिभिः पुनः Vakyapadiya II. 489. A summary of the work is found in the Agnipurana, ch. 248-258.
candrakīrtia Jain grammarian of the twelfth century A.D. who has written a commentary named Subodhini on the Sarasvata Vyakaraha.
candragominnamed also चन्द्र, a Buddhist scholar who has written an easy Sanskrit Grammar based on the Astadhyayi of Panini. He is believed to have lived in North India in the fifth century A.D. See चन्द्र.
caritakriyahaving kriya or verbactivity hidden in it. The term is used by Bhartrhari in connection with a solitary noun-word or a substantive having the force of a sentence, and hence which can be termed a sentence on account of the verbal activity dormant in it. exempli gratia, for example पिण्डीम्; confer, compare वाक्यं तदपि मन्यन्ते यत्पदं वरितक्रियम् Vakyapad.II. 326, and चरिता गर्भीकृता आख्यातक्रिया यस्य तद्गर्भीकृतक्रियापदं नामपदं वाक्यं प्रयुञ्जते ! Com. on Vakyapadya II.326.
carkarītavṛttaa form of the frequentative or intensive. exempli gratia, for example अापनीफणत् , चोष्कूयमाणः confer, compare अपनीफणदिति फणतेश्चर्करीतवृत्तम् । Nirukta of Yāska.II. 28; चोष्कूयमाण इति चोष्कूयतेश्चर्करीतवृत्तम् Nir.VI.22. See the word चर्करीत.
carcā(1)splitting up of a word into its component parts, which is generalty shown in the Padaptha by अवग्रहं (S). The word, hence means पदपाठ or recital by showing separately the constitutent words of the Samhita or the running text of the Veda. The word is used almost in the same sense in the Mahabhasya in respect of showing the words of a sutra separately; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऐजिति । किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत्समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति M.Bh. on Mahesvara Sutra 1 Wart. 6l ; (2) a repeated word; confer, compare इतिकरणात् पुरतो यत् पुनः पदवचनं तत् चर्चाशब्देनोच्यते. Uvvata on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.20; (3) a discussion or a debate where consideration is given to each single word; confer, compare प्रर्यायशब्दानां लाघवगौरवचर्चा नाद्रियते Par. Sek. Pari. 115.
cāṅgusūtraa treatise on the grammar Written by चाडगुदास in the Sutra form,which was named वैयाकरणजीवातु by him.
cāndraname of a treatise on grammar written by Candra, who is believed to have been the same as Candragomin. The Grammar is based upon that of Panini, but it does not treat Vedic forms and accents. See the word चन्द्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For details see pp. 375376 Patanjali Mahabhasya. Vol. VII, D.E. Society's Edition.
cāndravyākaraṇapaddhatiname of a conmentary on the चान्द्रव्याकरण written by अानन्ददत्त.
ciccandrikāname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Vishnu Shastri Bhat, in reply to the treatise named दूषकरदोद्भेदः See विष्णुशास्त्रिन्. For details see pp. 39, 40 of Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
cintāmaṇiname of a commentary on the Sutras of the Sakatayana Vyakarana written by यक्षवर्मन्, It is also called लधुवृत्ति.
cintāmaṇiprakāśikāa commentary on the चिन्तामाणि of यक्षवर्मन्, written by अाजतसेन in the twelfth century. See विन्तामणि.
curādia class or group of roots headed by the root चुर्, familiarly known as the tenth conjugation.
cullibhaṭṭia grammarian who is supposed to have written a gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini; confer, compare तत्र च वृतिः पाणिनिप्रणीतानां सूत्राणां विवरणं चुल्लिभट्टिनल्लूरादि( V. 1. निर्लूरादि-) विरचितम् , Nyasa, on the benedictory verse of Kasika: वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा घातुनामपारायणादिषु at the very beginning.
cekīyitathe sign य ( यङ् of Panini ) of the frequentative or intensive. The word is mostly used in the Katantra Grammar works confer, compare धातोर्यशब्दश्चेक्रीयितं क्रियासमभिहारे, Kat. III. 2. 14. The word चेक्रीयित is used in the Mahabhasya in the sense of यङन्त where Kaiyata remarks थडः पूर्वाचार्यसंज्ञा चेकीयितमिति confer, compare प्रदीप on M.Bh. on P. IV.1.78 Vartika. The word चेकीयितान्त means यङन्त in Panini’s terminology meaning a secondary root derived from the primary root in the sense of intensity. The word चर्करीतान्त is used for the frequentative bases in which य, the sign of the frequentative, is omittedition See चर्करीत।
caurādikaa root belonging to the tenth conjugation of roots ( चुरादिगण ) ; confer, compare अामः इति चौरादिकस्य णिचि वृद्धौ सत्यां भवति । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VII. 3. 34.
chāyāa learned commentary on Nagesa's Mahabhasyapradipoddyota written by his pupil बाळंभट्ट (possibly the same as, or the son of, वैद्यनाथ पायगुण्डे) who lived in the eighteenth century.
jayantaauthor of तत्वचन्द्र a commentary on पाणिनिसूत्रवृत्ति written by Vitthala; (2) writer of a commentary named Vadighatamudgara on the Sarasvataprakriya.
jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya(1)a famous Bengalee scholar of Vyakarana and Nyaya who has written a small treatise dealing with syntax. The treatise is named कारकवाद.
jayādityaone of the famous joint authors ( जयादित्य and वामन ) of the well-known gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini, popularly called काशिकावृत्ति. As the काशिकावृत्ति is mentioned by It-sing, who has also mentioned Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya, as a grammer treatise Written some 40 years before his visit, the time of काशिकावृत्ति is fixed as the middle of the 7th century A.D. Some scholars believe that जयादित्य was the same as जयापीड a king of Kasmira and बामन was his minister. For details, see pp. 386388 of the Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII published by the D.E. Society, Poona. See काशिका.
jahatsvārthā( वृत्ति )a composite expression where the constituent members give up their individual sense. In compound words such as राजपुरुष in the sentence राजपुरुषमानय the word राजन् gives up its sense in as much as he, the king,is not brought; पुरुष also gives up its sense as every man is not brought. It is of course to be noted that although the sense is given up by cach word, it is not completely given up: cf जहदप्यसेो स्वार्थ नात्यन्ताय जहाति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 2. For detailed explanation see Mahabhasya on P. II. I. I. Vart. 2.
jāgrahitetivādaa short disguisition on the correctness of the word जाग्रहीता, written by a grammarian named Cakrin; confer, compare भट्टोजिदीक्षितग्राहग्रस्तं माधवदिग्गजम्। अमूमुचत् सत्यवर्यश्चक्री चक्रिप्रसादभाक्, colophon.
jusbhāvathe transformation of झि into जुस् ; the substitution of जुस् for झि. The term is often used in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.57, I.1.63, III.1.43 et cetera, and others See जुस्.
juhotyādigaṇathe class of roots headed by हु after which the vikarana Sap is elided and the root is reduplicated in the four conjugational tenses; third conjugation of roots.
jainendravyākaraṇaname of a grammar work written by Pujyapada Devanandin, also called Siddhanandin, in the fifth century A.D. The grammar is based on the Astadhyay of Panini,the section on Vedic accent and the rules of Panini explaining Vedic forms being,of course, neglectedition The grammar is called Jainendra Vyakarana or Jainendra Sabdanusasana. The work is available in two versions, one consisting of 3000 sutras and the other of 3700 sutras. it has got many commentaries, of which the Mahavrtti written by Abhayanandin is the principal one. For details see Jainendra Vyakarana, introduction published by the Bharatiya Jnanapitha Varadasi.
jainendravyākaraṇamahāvṛttiname of a commentary on the Jainendra Vyakarana, written by Abhayanandin in the ninth century A. D. see जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
jaumāra( व्याकरण )a treatise on vya'karana written by Jumaranandin. See जुमरनन्दिन् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. The Jaumara Vyakarana has no Vedic section dealing with Vedic forms or accents,but it has added a section on Prakrita just as the Haima Vyakaraha.
jaumārapariśiṣṭaa supplement to the Jaumara Vyakarana written by Goyicandra. See गीयीचन्द्र.
jaumārasaṃskaraṇathe revised version by Jumuranandin of the original grammar treatise in verse called संक्षिप्तसार written by KramadiSvara, The Jaumarasamskarana is the samc as.jaumara Vyakarana, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
jauhotyādikaa root belonging to the जुहोत्यादिगण or the third conjugation. ज्ञानदीपिका name of a commentary on Amarasimha’s Amarakosa written by Sripati (Chakravartin) in the 14th century.
jñāpakasamuccayaa work giving a collection of about 400 Jñāpakas or indicatory wordings found in the Sūtras of Pānini and the conclusions drawn from them. It was written by Purușottamadeva, a Buddhist scholar of Pāņini's grammar in the twelfth century A. D., who was probably the same as the famous great Vaiyākaraņa patronized by Lakșmaņasena.See पुरुषेत्तमदेव.
jhaa verbal ending of the 3rd person. Atm. for ल ( id est, that is लकार ); cf P.III.4. 78;for the letter झ् , अन्त् is substituted; confer, compare झोन्तः P. VIII.1.3, but ईरे in the perfect tense; confer, compare P. III. 4.81 and रन् in the potential and benedictive moods; confer, compare P. III. 4.85.
jhi(1)verb-ending of the 3rd person. plural Parasmaipada, substituted for the लकार of the ten lakaras, changed to जुस in the potential and the benedictive moods, and optionally so in the imperfect and after the sign स् of the aorist; confer, compareP,III. 4. 82, 83, 84, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112: (2) a conventional term for अव्यय (indeclinable) used in the Jainendra Vyakaraha.
ñīta root marked with the mute syllable ञि prefixed to it, signifying the addition of the affix क्त in the present tense. See ञि.
ḍaṇtaddhita affix. affix अ, causing vrddhi and टिलोप, applied to त्रिंशत् and चत्वारिंंशत् to show the परिमाण id est, that is measurement or extent of a Brahmana work; exempli gratia, for example त्रैंशानि ब्राह्मणानि, चात्वरिंशानि confer, compare P. V. I.62
ṇalpersonal ending अ substituted for तिप् and मिप् in लिट् or the perfect, and in the case of विद् and ,ब्रू in लट् or the present tense. tense optionally; cf P. III, 4. 82, 83, 84. The affix णल् on account of being marked by the mute letter ण् causes vrddhi to the preceding vowel; the vrddhi is, however, optional in the case of the 1st person. ( मिप् ) confer, compare P. VII.1.91. अौ is substituted for णल् after roots ending in आ; confer, compare P. VII .1.34.
ṇicaffix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् et cetera, and others e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; confer, compare P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising et cetera, and others ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; confer, compare P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, exempli gratia, for example सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, et cetera, and others: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: confer, compare णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे et cetera, and others; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
t(1)personal ending of the third pers singular. Atm: confer, compare P. III. 4.78, which is changed to ते in the perfect tense and omitted after the substitute चिण् for च्लि in the aorist; confer, compare P.VI.4.04: (2) personal ending substituted for the affix थ of the Paras. 2nd person. plural in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional for which, तात्, तन and थन are substituted in Vedic Literature, and also for हि in case a repetition of an action is meant; confer, compare P. III. 4. 85, 10l as also VII. 1. 44, 45 and III. 4. 2-5. cf P. III. 4. 85 and III. 4. 10I ; (3) taddhita affix. affix त applied to the words कम् and शम् e. g. कन्तः, शन्त:, confer, compare P. V. 2. 138: (4) taddhita affix. affix त applied to दशत् when दशत् is changed to श; confer, compare दशानां दशतां शभावः तश्च प्रत्ययः । दश दाशतः परिमाणमस्य संधस्य शतम्, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. l. 59; (5) .general term for the affix क्त of the past passive voice. part, in popular use: (6) a technical term for the past participle affixes (त) क्त and तवत् ( क्तवतु ) called निष्ठा by Panini; confer, compare P. I.1.26; the term त is used for निष्ठI in the Jainendra Vyakararna.
tattvabodhinīname of the well-known commentary on Bhattoji's Siddhnta Kaumudi written by his pupil Jnanendrasarasvati at Benares. Out of the several commentaries on the Siddhantakaumudi, the Tattvabodhini is looked upon as the most authoritative and at the same time very scholarly.
tattvādarśaname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by M. M. Vasudev Shastri Abhyankar in 1889 A. D. The commentary is more critical than explanatory,wherein the author has given the purpose and the gist of the important Paribhasas and has brought out clearly the differences between the school of Bhattoji and the school of Nagesa in several important matters.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
taddhitakośaa work on the taddhita section written by Siromani Bhattacarya, who has also written तिङन्तशिरोमणि.
tantraa word frequently used in the Mahabhasya in the sense of 'intended ' or विवक्षित. The word is used always in the neuter gender like प्रमाणम्; confer, compare तन्त्रं तरनिर्देशः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.33, II. 2.34, नात्र निर्देशस्तन्त्रम् On P. I. 2.39, III.3.38, III. 4.21,IV.1.92 et cetera, and others The word is also explained in the sense of 'impor. tant'.
tantrapradīpaname of the learned commentary_written by मैत्रेयरक्षित, a famous Buddhist grammarian of the 12th century A. D. on the काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका ( न्यास ) of Jinendrabuddhi। The work is available at Present only in a manuscript form, and that too in fragments. Many later scholars have copiously quoted from this work. The name of the work viz. तन्त्रप्रदीप is rarely mentioned; but the name of the author is mentioned as रक्षित, मैत्रेय or even मैत्रेयरक्षित. Ther are two commentaries on the तन्त्रप्रदीप named उद्द्योतनप्रभा and आलोक,
tampersonal ending तम् substituted for थम् in the imperative imperfeminine. potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional; confer, compare P. III. 4.85, 101
tācchabdya(1)use of a word for that word (of which the sense has been conveyed); the expression तादर्थ्या त्ताच्छब्द्यम् is often used by grammarians just like a Paribhasa; confer, compare अस्ति तादर्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यम् । बहुव्रीह्यर्थानि पदानि बहुव्रीहिरिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.29; similarly तृतीयासमास;for तृतीयार्थानि पदानि M.Bh. on P.I.1.30 or समासार्थे शास्त्रं समासः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.43; (2) use of a word for that word of which there is the vicinity; confer, compare अथवा साहचर्यात् ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति। कालसहचरितो वर्णः। वर्णॊपि काल एव; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.27 where the letter उ is taken in the sense of time required for its utterance, the reason being that sound and time go together; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.I.2.70, IV.3.48, V.2.79; (3) use of a word for that which resides there; confer, compare तात्स्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति M.Bh. on V.4.50 Vart. 3. At all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. places, the use of one word for another is by Laksana.
tātparya(1)repetition of action; confer, compare तात्पर्यमाभीक्ष्ण्यं पौनःपुन्यमासेवा Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on III. 2.81 also तात्पर्यमासेवा । द्रव्ये व्याप्तिः, क्रियायामासेवा । (2) foremost consideration; confer, compare चतुर्ग्रहणे सति तात्पर्येण स्यन्दिः संनिधापितो भवति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VII.2.59; (3) purport (of a sentence), significance, intention; confer, compare सर्वशास्त्रोपकारकमिति तत्तात्पर्यम् Par. Sek. Pari. 2, 3.
tāmpersonal ending substituted for तस् of the 3rd person. dual in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional; confer, compare P. III.4.85, 101.
tārānāthacalled तर्कवाचस्पति; a Bengali modern Sanskrit scholar and grammarian of the nineteenth century who has written a commentary called Sarala on the Siddhanta Kaumudi. He has edited many important Sanskrit works consisting of many kosas.
tiṅ(1)a brief term (प्रत्याहार) for the 18 personal endings. Out of these eighteen personal endings, which are common for all tenses and moods, the first nine तिप्, तस् et cetera, and others all called Parasmaipada, while the other nine त, अाताम् et cetera, and others are named Atmanepada and तङ् also; confer, compare तङानावात्मनेपदम्; (2) a verbal form called also अाख्यातक; confer, compare तिङ् खलु अाख्यातका भवान्ति । पचति पठति । V.Pr.I.27.
tiṅantaśiromaṇia work dealing with verbal forms written by शिरोमणिभट्टाचार्य.
tṛtīyāthe third case; affixes of the third case ( instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति ) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an instrument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: confer, compare P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sentence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word id est, that is हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; exempli gratia, for example पृथग्देवदत्तेन et cetera, and others स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the taddhita affix. affix after them has been elided; exempli gratia, for example पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; confer, compare P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; exempli gratia, for exampleतुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; confer, compare P. II.3.72.
taittirīyaprātiśākhyacalled also कृष्णयजुःप्रातिशाख्य and hence representing possibly all the different branches or Sakhas of the कृष्णयजुर्वेद, which is not attributed definitely to a particular author but is supposed to have been revised from time to time and taught by various acaryas who were the followers of the Taittiriya Sakha.The work is divided into two main parts, each of which is further divided into twelve sections called adhyayas, and discusses the various topics such as letters and their properties, accents, euphonic changes and the like, just as the other Pratisakhya works. It is believed that Vararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya wrote Bhasyas on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, but at present, only two important commentary works on it are available(a) the 'Tribhasyaratna', based upon the three Bhasyas mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. as the title shows, written by Somayarya and (b) the 'Vaidikabharana' written by Gopalayajvan. For details see Introduction to 'Taittiriya Pratisakhya' edition Govt Oriental Library Series, Mysore.
tolappadīkṣitaa southern grammarian who has written a gloss called प्रकाश on the Siddhāntakaumudi of Bhattoji Diksita.
tripathagāname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Raghavendracarya Gajendragadkar, a resident of Satara and a pupil of Nilakanthasastri Thatte. He lived in the second half of the eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth century and wrote comentaries on important grammar works.
tripādīterm usually used in connection with the last three Padas (ch. VIII. 2, VIII. 3 and VIII. 4) of Panini’s Ashtadhyayi, the rules in which are not valid by convention to rules in the first seven chapters and a quarter, as also a later rule in which (the Tripadi) is not valid to an earlier one; confer, compare पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1; (2) name of a critical treatise on Panini's grammar ("The Tripadi") written by Dr. H. E. Buiskool recently.
tribhāṣyaratnaname of a commentary on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya written by Somayarya. The commentary is said to have been based on the three Bhasya works attributed to the three ancient Vedic scholarsVararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya.
trilaॊcanaa scholar of grammar who has written a small work named अव्ययशब्दवृत्ति on the uses of indeclinables.
triśikhāname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Laksminrsimha in the 18th century.
tvatkrt affix त्च in the sense of the potential passive voice. participle. in Vedic Literature; e. g. कर्त्वे हविः । कर्तव्यम्: also confer, compare Kas, on P.III. 4.14;cf also कृतानि या च कर्त्वा R. V. IX. 47.2.
th(1)personal-ending of the 2nd person. plural Parasmaipada,substituted for the ल् of the ten lakara affixes; (2) substitute ( थल् ) for the 2nd pers singular. personal ending सिप् in. the perfect tense: (3) unadi affix ( थक् ) added to the roots पा, तॄ, तुद् et cetera, and others e. g. पीथः, तीर्थः, et cetera, and others; cf unadi sutra II. 7; (4) unadi affix ( क्थन् ) | added to the roots हन्, कुष् ,नी et cetera, and others; e. g, हथः, कुष्टं, नीथः et cetera, and others cf unadi sutra II. 2: (5) unadi affix (थन्) added to the roots उष्, कुष्, गा and ऋ, e. g. ओष्ठः, कोष्ठम् et cetera, and others cf unadi sutra_II. 4; (6) a technical term for the term अभ्यस्त or the reduplicated wording of Panini ( confer, compare उभे अभ्यस्तम् ) P. VI. 1. 5, used in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
thalpersonal ending थ substituted for सिप् of the 2nd person.singular. Parasmaipada in the perfect tense as also in the present tense in specific cases; confer, compare P. III. 4.82, 88,84.
thīma(THIEME, PAUL)a sound scholar of the present day, well versed in Sanskrit Grammar and Vedic Literature, who has written a critical treatise named "Panini and the Veda."
dayānandasarasvatia brilliant Vedic scholar of the nineteenth century belonging to North India who established on a sound footing the study of the Vedas and Vyakarana and encouraged the study of Kasikavrtti. He has written many books on vedic studies.
dayāratnaa.Jain scholar who has written a grammar treatise on the Sarasvata Grammar called सारस्वतपरिभाषा.
darpaṇaname of a commentary on Kondabhatta's Vaiyakaranabhusanasara, written by a grammarian named Harivallabha.
darpaṇāname of a commentary on the Sabdakaustubha, written by Mannudeva or Mantudeva of the nineteenth century.
daśakaa name given to the treatise on grammar written by व्याघ्रपाद which consisted of 10 chapters; confer, compare दशकं वैयाघ्रपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P V. 1.58. The word also means students reading the work दशक; confer, compare दशका वैयाघ्रपदीया: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.2.65.
daśagaṇī(1)a section of grammatical treatises dealing with the ten conjugations of roots. e.g the first section of the second part ( उत्तरार्ध ) of the Siddhanta Kaumudi; (2) name of the dhatupatha of Panini which gives ten classes of roots; confer, compare भूवादयो दशगणीपरिपठिता गृह्यन्ते Nyasa on I.3.1.
daśadhuṣkaraṇathe ten classes or conjugations of roots; धुष् was a term for धातु (root) in some ancient grammar works.
daśagaṇī(1)a section of grammatical treatises dealing with the ten conjugations of roots. e.g the first section of the second part ( उत्तरार्ध ) of the Siddhanta Kaumudi; (2) name of the dhatupatha of Panini which gives ten classes of roots; confer, compare भूवादयो दशगणीपरिपठिता गृह्यन्ते Nyasa on I.3.1.
daśadhuṣkaraṇathe ten classes or conjugations of roots; धुष् was a term for धातु (root) in some ancient grammar works.
durghaṭavṛttiname of a grammar work explaining words which are difficult to derive according to rules of Panini. The work is written in the style of a running commentary on select sutras of Panini, devoted mainly to explain difficult formations. The author of it, Saranadeva, was an eastern grammarian who, as is evident from the number of quotations in his work, was a great scholar of the 12th or the 13th century.
durvalācāryaa grammarian who wrote a treatise on grammar दुर्वलीयव्याकरण, named after him. Besides this treatise, he has written commentaries on Nagesa's Laghumanjusa and Paribhasendusekhara.
dūṣakaradodbhedaname of a commentary, on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesa, believed to have been written by Gopalacārya Karhadkar, a grammarian of the 19th century and attributed to Bhimacarya. This commentary, which was written to criticize the commentary written by Visnusastri Bhat, was again criticized in reply by Visnusastri Bhat in his Ciccandrika ( चिच्चन्द्रिका ). See विष्णुशास्त्री भट.
devanandincalled also पूज्यपाद or पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् believed to have lived in the fifth century A. D. and written the treatise on grammar, of course based om Panini Sutras, which is known as जैनेन्द्र-व्याकरण or जैनेन्द्रशब्दानुशासन. The writer of this grammar is possibly mentioned as जैनेन्द्र in the usually guoted verse of Bopadeva :इन्द्रश्चन्द्रः काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्र जयन्त्यष्टादेिशाब्दिकाः. देवनन्दिन् was a great Jain saint and scholar who wrote many works on Jain Agamas of which सर्वार्थसिद्धि, the commentary on the तत्त्वार्थाधिगमसूत्र, is well-known.
devaśarmana grammarian who has written a disquisition on the philosophy of Vyakarana in verse, and added a commentary of his own on it which he has named as समन्वयप्रदीपसंकेत.
devanandina Jain grammarian of the eighth century who is believed to have written a grammar work, called सिद्धान्तसारस्वत-शब्दानुशासन. It is likely that देवनन्दिन् is the same as देवानन्दि-पूज्यपाद and the grammar work is the same as जैनेन्द्रशब्दानुशासन for which see देवनन्दिन् .
devīdīnamodern grammarian of the 19th century who has written a gloss on the Asādhyāyi of Panini.
devendraa Jain grammarian of the 13th century who has written a commentary named लघुन्यास on the शब्दानुशासन of Hemacandra. He has written many works on the Jain Agamas, of which a commentary on the Uttaradhyanasutra can be specially mentionedition He is called देवेन्द्रसूरि also.
devendraname given to a work on grammar, presumably the same as जैनेद्र-शब्दानुशासन written by पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन्. See जेनेन्द्रव्याकरण.
doṣoddharaṇaname of a commentary on Nagesa's Paribhisendusekhara written by मन्नुदेव of the eighteenth century.
doṣoddhāraname of a commentary on Nagesa's Laghusabdendusekhara written by मन्नुदेव of the eighteenth century.
dravyasubstance, as opposed to गुण property and क्रिया action which exist on dravya. The word सत्त्व is used by Yaska, Panini and other grammarians in a very general sense as something in completed formation or existence as opposed to 'bhava' or kriya or verbal activity, and the word द्रव्य is used by old grammarians as Synonymous with सत्त्व; confer, compare चादयोSसत्वे। चादयो निपातसंज्ञा भवन्ति न चेत्सत्वे वर्तन्ते, confer, compare Kas on P. I. 4.57; confer, compare S.K. also on P. I.4.57. (2)The word द्रव्य is also found used in the sense of an individual object, as opposed to the genus or generic notion ( अाकृति ); confer, compare द्रव्याभिधानं व्याडिः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64. Vart. 45.(3)The word द्रव्य is found used in the sense of Sadhana or means in Tait. Prati. confer, compare तत्र शब्दद्रव्याण्युदाहरिष्यामः । शब्दरूपाणि साधनानि वर्णयिष्यामः Tai, Pr. XXII. 8.
drutabodhaname of a treatise on grammar written for beginners by Bharatasena or Bharatamalla of Bengal in the sixteemth century.
dvanddhaname of a compound, formed of two or more words used in the same case, showing their collection together; confer, compare चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II.2.29. Out of the four meanings of the indeclinable च, viz. समुच्चय अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार, the dvandva compound is sanctioned in the last two senses only called इतरेतरद्वन्द्व (as in प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ et cetera, and others) and समाहारद्वन्द्व (as in वाक्त्वचम् et cetera, and others) respectively For details see Mahabhasya on II.2.29. The dvandva compound takes place only when the speaker intends mentioning the several objects together id est, that is when there is, in short, सहविवक्षा orयुगपदधिकरणवचनता; confer, compare अनुस्यूतेव मेदाभ्यां एका प्रख्योपजायते । यस्यां सहविवक्षां तामाहुर्द्वन्द्वैकशेषयोः । Sr. Pr. II. The gender of a word in the द्वन्द्वसमास is that of the last word in the case of the इतरेतरद्वन्द्व, while it is the neuter gender in the case of the समाहारद्वन्द्व.
dvitīyāthe second case; the accusative case, mainly prescribed for a word which is related as a karmakaraka to the activity in the sentence; cf P. II. 3.2 to 5,
dvitvadoubling, reduplication prescribed for (I) a root in the perfect tense excepting the cases where the affix अाम् is added to the root before the personal ending: exempli gratia, for example बभूव, चकार, ऊर्णुनाव et cetera, and others cf P. VI. 1.1,2; (2) a root before the vikarana affixes सन्, यङ्, श्लु and चङ् e. g. बुभूषति, चेक्रीयते, चर्करीति, जुहोति, अचीकरत् et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VI. 1.9l l ; (3) a word ending in अम् . ( णमुल् ) in the sense of repetition, e. g. स्मारं स्मारं वक्ष्ये, भोजं भोजं व्रजति confer, compare आभीक्ष्ण्ये द्वे भवतः P. VIII. 1.12 Vart. 7; (4) any word (a) in the sense of constant or frequent action, (b) in the sense of repetition, (c) showing reproach, or scorn, or quality in the sense of its incomplete possess-, ion, or (d) in the vocative case at the beginning of a sentence in some specified senses; reduplication is also prescribed for the prepositions परि, प्र, सम्, उप, उद्, उपरि, अधि, अघस् in some specified senses confer, compare P. VIII. 1.1 to 15. A letter excepting हृ and र्, is also repeated, if so desired, when (a) it occurs after the letter ह् or र् , which is preceded by a vowel e g. अर्क्कः अर्द्धम् et cetera, and others cf VIII. 4.46; or when (b) it is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant e. g. दद्ध्यत्र, म्द्धवत्र confer, compare P. VIII. 4.47. For details see Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VIII. 4.46-52. The word द्वित्व is sometimes used in the sense of the dual number; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.2.51. The words द्वित्व, द्विर्वचन and द्विरुक्त are generally used as synonymanuscript. Panini generally uses the word द्वे. For द्वित्व in Vedic Literature confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1.4; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 1-8 V, Pr. IV. 101-118.
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
dhātukalpalatikāa short treatise on the roots of the different conjugations written by a grammarian named Dhananjaya.
ghātukārikāvalīa grammatical work in verse written by Varadarja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita who lived in the 17th century, Besides Karikvali, Varadarja wrote लघुकौमुदी and मध्यकौमुदी also.
dhātupāṭha(1)name given in general to the several collections of roots given generally with their meanings by grammarians belonging to the various different schools of grammar. These collections are given as necessary appendices named खिल to their grammars by the well known grammarians of Sanskrit such as Panini, Sakatayana, and others; (2) a small treatise on roots written by Bhimasena of the 14th century.
dhātupārāyaṇaa grammatical treatise dealing with roots written as a supplementary work by Jumaranandin to his grammar work called Rasavati,which itself was a thoroughly revised and enlarged edition of the रसवती a commentary written by Kramadisvara on his own grammar named संक्षिप्तसार.Jumaranandin is believed to have been a Jain writer who lived in the fifteenth century A.D.
ghātuprakāśaa work dealing with roots Written as a supplementary work by Balarama-Pancanana to his own grammar named PrabodhaPrakasa.
dhātupratyayapañjikāa work dealing with verbal forms written by Dharmakirti, a Jain grammarian of the eighth century.
dhātupradīpaa work dealing with verbal forms written by Maitreya Raksita, a Buddhist writer and a famous grammarian belonging to the eastern part of India who lived in the middle of the twelfth century. He is believed to have written many scholarly works in connection with Panini's grammar out of which the Tantrapradipa is the most important one. The work Dhatupradipa is quoted by Saranadeva, who was a contemporary of Maitreya Raksita, in his Durghatavrtti on P. II. 4. 52.
dhāturatnamañjarīa treatise dealing with roots believed to have been written by Ramasimhavarman.
dhāturatnākaraa work dealing with roots believed to have been written by Narayana who was given the title वन्द्य. He lived in the seventeenth century; a work named सारावलि व्याक्ररण is also believed to have been written by him.
dhātuvṛttia general term applied to a treatise discussing roots, but specifically used in connection with the scholarly commentary written by Madhavacārya, the reputed scholar and politician at the court of the Vijayanagara kings in the fourteenth century, on the Dhatupatha ot Panini. The work is generally referred to as माधवीया-धातुवृति to distinguish it from ordinary commentary works called also धातुवृत्ति written by grammarians like Wijayananda and others.
dhātuvyākaraṇaa grammar dealing with Verbs believed to have been written by Vangasena.
dhvePersonal-ending of the second. person. Pl. Atmanepada in the present and perfect tenses. न् fifth consonant of the dental class of consonants which is possessed of the properties घोष, नादानुप्रदान, अल्पप्राणत्व, संवृतकण्ठत्व and अानुनासिक्य. In Panini's grammar the nasal consonant न् (a)is added as an augment prescribed\ \नुट् or नुम् which originally is seen as न्, but afterwards changed into अनुस्वार or परसवर्ण as required, as for example in पयांसि, यशांसि, निन्दति, वन्दति et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII. 1.58-73, VII. 1.7983; VIII. 3.24; (b) is changed into ण् when it directly follows upon ऋ, ॠ, र् or ष् or even intervened by a vowel, a semivowel except ल् , a guttural consonant, a labial consonant or an anusvara; confer, compare P. VIII. 4.1.1-31. (c) is substituted for the final म् of a root, e. g. प्रशान्, प्रतान् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.64, 65.
nandikeśvaraan ancient grammarian who has written a short work in verses on grammar in general, which is named नन्दकेश्वरकारिकासूत्र. There is a scholarly commentary upon it written by उपमन्यु.
nandikeśvarakārikāvivaraṇacalled also नन्दिकेश्वरकारिकाटीका a gloss written by Nandikeśvarakārikā.kārikābhāṣya by Upamanyu.on नन्दिकेश्वरकारिका.See नान्द्वेश्वरकारिका.
narendrasūrian old grammarian believed to have been the original writer of the Sarasvata Vyakarana, on the strength of references to him in the commentary on the Sarasvata Vyakarana written by क्षेमेन्द्र as also references in the commentary on the Prakriykaumudi by Vitthalesa. He is believed to have lived in the tenth century A;D.
navagaṇīa term used in connection with the first nine ganaas or conjugations given by Panini in his Dhatupatha, the tenth conjugation being looked upon as a secondary conjugation.
navāhnikīname given to the first nine Ahnikas or lessons of the Mahabhasya which are written in explanation of only the first pada of the first Adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi and which contain almost all the important theories, statements and problems newly introduced by Patanjali.
naṣṭarūpāname given to an anustup verse which has nine, ten and eleven syllables respectively for the first, second and third feet; exempli gratia, for example विपृच्छामि पाक्यान् देवान् Ṛgveda, Ṛk. Saṁh=Ṛgveda-saṁhita.I.120.4; confer, compare R.Pr. XVI. 29. The verse has got 32 syllables, but it has only three feet instead of four.
nāmin(vowels)which cause cerebralization; the ten vowels ऋ, ॠ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ए, ओ, ऐ, औ; confer, compare ऋकारादयो दश नामिनः स्वराः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 27, confer, compare also R.T. 94. See the word नति. The word भाविन् is used for नामिन् in the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya; confer, compare अकण्ठ्यो भावी Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 46; confer, compare also नामिपरो रम् Kat. I.5.12.
nārāyaṇa(1)name of a grammarian who wrote a commentary on the Mahabhsya-Pradipa; (2) a grammarian who is said to have written a gloss named Sabdabhusana on the Sutras of Panini as also some minor works named शब्दमञ्जरी, शब्दभेदनिरूपण, et cetera, and others
nitya(1)eternal, as applied to word or Sabda in contrast with sound or dhvani which is evanescent (कार्य ). The sound with meaning or without meaning,made by men and animals is impermanent; but the sense or idea awakened in the mind by the evanescent audible words on reaching the mind is of a permanent or eternal nature; confer, compare स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायामादुपजायते; confer, compare also व्याप्तिमत्त्वा्त्तु शब्दस्य Nir.I.1 ; (2) constant; not liable to be set aside by another; confer, compare उपबन्धस्तु देशाय नित्यम्, न रुन्धे नित्यम्। नित्यशब्दः प्राप्त्यन्तरानिषेधार्थः T.Pr.I.59, IV.14; (3) original as constrasted with one introduced anew such as an augment; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.VI.14; (4) permanently functioning, as opposed to tentatively doing so; confer, compare नित्यविरते द्विमात्रम् Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.37; (5) unchangeable, permanent, imperishable; confer, compare अयं नित्यशब्दोस्त्येव कूटस्थेष्वविचालिषु भावेषु वर्तते M.Bh. on P. VIII. 1.4; (6) always or invariably applying, as opposed to optional; the word in this sense is used in connection with rules or operations that do not optionally apply; confer, compare उपपदसमासो नित्यसमासः, षष्ठीसमासः पुनार्वेभाषा; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.2.19; (7) constant,as applied to a rule which applies if another simultaneously applying rule were to have taken effect, as well as when that other rule does not take effect; confer, compare क्वचित्कृताकृतप्रसङ्गमात्रेणापि नित्यता Par. Sek. Pari 46. The operations which are nitya according to this Paribhasa take effect in preference to others which are not 'nitya', although they may even be 'para'; confer, compare परान्नित्यं बलवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 42.
nipātāvyayopasargavṛttiashort treatise explaining and illustrating the use of indeclinables, written by a grammarian named तिलक who probably lived in Kasmira.
nimittāpāyaparibhāṣāa popular name given by grammarians to the maxim निमित्तापाये नैमित्तिकस्याप्यपायः,. a thing, which is brought into existence by a cause, disappears on the disappearance of the cause. The maxim is not, of course, universally applicable. For details see Par. Sek. Pari. 56, Sira. Pari. 99.
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
niruktabhāṣyaa gloss on Yaska's Nirukta written by a modern scholar of grammar named Ugracarya in the eighteenth century A. D.
nirūḍhalakṣaṇāpotentiality of implicaion which gives the meaning of a word which is based upon implication; e. g. रथो गच्छति.
nirdeśamention, actual statement; the word is often used in the Mahabhasya in sentences like स तथा निर्देशः कर्तव्यः, निर्देशं कुरुते et cetera, and others; confer, compare also V.Pr. I. 36;confer, compare also the maxim तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य P. I.1.66 and Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 134; confer, compare also अवश्यं कयाचिद्विभक्त्या केनचिद्वचनेन निर्देशः कर्तव्यः M.Bh. on P. I. 2. 39 Vart. 1. Sometimes the mention or exhibition made by a word shows the particular type of word; confer, compare Durghata Vrtti on P. I. 2. 6 and VII. 4. 73 as also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3. 11 and V. 2. 20.
nirlūraname of a grammarian who is believed to have written a gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini on the strength of a reference to him in the Nyasa of Jinendrabuddhi; confer, compare वृत्तिः पाणिनीयसूत्राणां विवरणं चुल्लिभट्टिनिर्लूरादिप्रणीतम् Nyasa on I.1.1.
nirvartyaone of the many kinds of karman or object governed by a transitive verb or root, which has got the nature of being produced or brought into existence or into a new shape; confer, compare त्रिविधं कर्म निर्वर्त्य विकार्य प्राप्यं चेति । निर्वर्त्य तावत् कुम्भकारः नगरकारः। The word निर्वर्त्य is explained as यदसज्जन्यते यद्वा प्रकाश्यते तन्निर्वर्त्यम् । कर्तव्यः कटः । उच्चार्यः शब्दः Sr. Prakasa; confer, compare also Vakyapadiya III.7.78; confer, compare also इह हि तण्डुलानोदनं पचतीति द्व्यर्थः पचिः । तण्डुलान्पचन्नोदनं निर्वर्तयति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.49. For details see the word कर्मन्; also see M.Bh. on I.4.49.
nīkaugment नी affixed to the reduplicative syllables of the roots फण्, वञ्च् , स्रंस,ध्वंस्, भ्रंस् कस्, पत्, पद् and स्कन्द् in the intensive; e. g. अापनीफणत्, वनीवच्यते et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 4.65 and 84.
nīlakaṇṭhamakhinnephew of Appaya Diksita who has written a commentary on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa.
nukaugment न् (l) affixed to the words अन्तर्वत् and पतिवत् before the feminine affix ङीप् e. g. अन्तर्वत्नी, पतिवत्नी, confer, compare P. IV. 1.32; (2) affixed to the root ली before the causal affix णिच् , e. g. विलीनयति, confer, compare P. VII. 3.39; (3) affixed to the reduplicative syllable of roots ending in a nasal consonant and having the penultimate अ as also of the roots जप्, जभ् , दह् , दश्, भञ्ज्, पश्, चर्, and फल् in the intensive; e. g. जङ्गम्यते, तन्तन्यते, यंयमीति, जङ्गमीति, जञ्जप्यते, दन्दह्यते, दन्दशीति. चञ्चूर्यते, पम्फु लीति confer, compare P. VII 4.85, 86, 87.
nyāyamaxim, a familiar or patent instance quoted to explain similar cases; confer, compare the words अग्नौकरवाणिन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II 2.24, अपवादन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 3.9, अविरविकन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1. 88, 89, IV. 2.60, IV.3.131, V. 1.7, 28, VI 2. 11 ; कुम्भीधान्यन्याय M.Bh. on P.I. 3.7, कूपखानकन्याय M.Bh. I. 1. Āhnika 1, दण्डिन्याय M.Bh. on P. VIII.2.83, नष्टाश्वदग्धरथन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.50 प्रधानाप्रधानन्याय M.Bh.on P.II.1.69,VI. 3. 82, प्रासादवासिन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I . 1.8, मांसकण्टकन्याय M.Bh. on P.I.2.39, लट्वानुकर्षणन्याय M.Bh. on Siva Sūtra 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, शालिपलालन्याय M.Bh on P. 1.2.39,सूत्रशाटकन्याय M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12. The word came to be used in the general sense of Paribhāsās or rules of interpretation many of which were based upon popular maxims as stated in the word लोकन्यायसिद्ध by Nāgesa. Hemacandra has used the word न्याय for Paribhāsa-vacana. The word is also used in the sense of a general rule which has got some exceptions, confer, compare न्यायैर्मिश्रानपवादान् प्रतीयात् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) which lays down the direction that 'one should interpret the rule laying down an exception along with the general rule'.
nyāyaratnamañjūṣāa work dealing with Vyākarana Paribhāsas or maxims as found in Hemacandra's system of grammar, written bv Hemahamsaganin, a pupil of Ratnasekhara, in 1451. The author has written a commentary also on the work, named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa..
nyāyasaṃgrahaa work enumerating the Paribhāsas in Hemacandra's grammar, numbering 140 nyāyas out of which 57 nyāyas are said to have been given by Hemacandra himself at the end of his comment बृहद्वृत्ति on his Śabdānuśāsana. The work is written by हेमहंसगणि who has added a commentary to it called Nyayārthamaňjūșa by him, which is also known by the name न्यायरत्नमञ्जूषा which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
nyāsa(1)literally position, placing;a word used in the sense of actual expression or wording especially in the sūtras; confer, compare the usual expression क्रियते एतन्न्यास एव in the Mahābhāșya, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.11, 1.1.47 et cetera, and others; (2) a name given by the writers or readers to works of the type of learned and scholarly commentaries on vŗitti-type-works on standard sūtras in a Śāstra; e. g. the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. is given to the learned commentaries on the Vŗtti on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśasana as also on the Paribhāşāvŗtti by Hemahamsagani. Similarly the commentary by Devanandin on Jainendra grammar and that by Prabhācandra on the Amoghāvŗtti on Śākatāyana grammar are named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. In the same way, the learned commentary on the Kāśikāvŗtti by Jinendrabuddhi, named Kāśikāvivaranapaňjikā by the author, is very widely known by the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. This commentary Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. was written in the eighth century by the Buddhist grammarian Jinendrabuddhi, who belonged to the eastern school of Pānini's Grammar. This Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. has a learned commentary written on it by Maitreya Rakșita in the twelfth century named Tantrapradipa which is very largely quoted by subsequent grammarians, but which unfortunately is available only in a fragmentary state at present. Haradatta, a well-known southern scholar of grammar has drawn considerably from Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. in his Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta., which also is well-known as a scholarly work.
nyāsoddyotaa learned commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Mallinātha, the standard commentator of prominent Sanskrit classics.
pañcālapadavṛttithe usage or the method of the Pañcālas; the eastern method of euphonic combinations, viz. the retention of the vowel अ after the preceding vowel ओ which is substituted for the Visarga; e. g. यो अस्मै; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 12; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI. 19. This vowel अ which is retained, is pronounced like a short ओ or अर्धओकार by the followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāņāyaniya branches of the Sāmavedins; confer, compare commentary on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI. 19 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1.
paṭactaddhita affix. affix पट in the sense of extent ( विस्तार ) added to the word अवि; e. g. अविपटम् confer, compare विस्तारे पटज्वक्तव्यः, P. V. 2.29 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padacandrikāa grammar work on the nature of words written by कृष्णशेष of the sixteenth century.
padavāda or padavādipakṣaview that words are real and have an existence and individuality of their own. The view is advocated by the followers of both the Mīmāmsā schools and the logicians who believe that words have a real existence. Grammarians admit the view for practical purposes, while they advocate that the अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट alone is the real sense. confer, compare Vākyapadīya II.90 and the foll.
padavyavasthāsūtrakārikāṭīkāa short gloss on the पदव्यवस्थासूत्रकारिका written by Udayakīrti, a Jain grammarian
padasaṃskārapakṣaan alternative view with वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष regarding the formation of words by the application of affixes to crude bases. According to the Padasamskāra alternative, every word is formed independently, and after formation the words are syntactically connected and used in a sentence. The sense of the sentence too, is understood after the sense of every word has been understood; confer, compare सुविचार्य पदस्यार्थं वाक्यं गृह्णन्ति सूरयः Sira. on Pari. 22. According to the other alternative viz. वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष, a whole sentence is brought before the mind and then the constituent individual words are formed exempli gratia, for example राम +सु, गम् + अ + ति । Both the views have got some advantages and some defects; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 56.
padārthameaning of a word, signification of a word; that which corresponds to the meaning of a word; sense of a word. Grammarians look upon both-the generic notion and the individual object as Padārtha or meaning of a word, and support their view by quoting the sūtras of Pāņini जात्याख्यायामेकस्मिन् बहुवचनमन्यतरस्याम् I. 2.58 and सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ I. 2.64; confer, compare किं पुनराकृतिः पदार्थ अाहोस्विद् द्रव्यम् । उभयमित्याह । कथं ज्ञायते । उभयथा ह्याचार्येण सूत्राणि प्रणीतानि । अाकृतिं पदार्थे मत्वा जात्याख्यायामित्युच्यते | द्रव्यं पदार्थे मत्वा सरूपाणामित्येकशेष अारभ्यते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in I. 1. first Āhnika. In rules of grammar the meaning of a word is generally the vocal element or the wording, as the science of grammar deals with words and their formation; confer, compare स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा, P. I. 1. 68. The possession of vocal element as the sense is technically termed शब्दपदार्थकता as opposed to अर्थपदार्थकता; confer, compare सोसौ गोशब्दः स्वस्मात्पदार्थात् प्रच्युतो यासौ अर्थपदार्थकता तस्याः शब्दपदार्थकः संपद्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.44 V. 3. The word पदार्थ means also the categories or the predicaments in connection with the different Śāstrās or lores as for instance, the 25 categories in the Sāmkhyaśāstra or 7 in the Vaiśeșika system or 16 in the NyayaŚāstra. The Vyākaranaśāstra, in this way to state, has only one category the Akhandavākyasphota or the radical meaning given by the sentence in one strok
paribhāṣāprakāśāan independent treatise explaining the various Paribhasas in the system of Panini's grammar, written by Visnusesa of the famous SeSa family.
paribhāṣāpradīpārcisa scholarly independent treatise on Vyakarana Paribhasas written by Udayamkara Pathaka, called also Nana Pathaka, a Nagara Brahmana, who lived at Benares in the middle of the 18th century A. D. He has also written commentaries on the two Sekharas of Naagesa.
paribhāṣābhāskara(1)a treatise on the Paribhasas in Panini's grammar written by Haribhaskara Agnihotri, son of Appajibhatta Agnihotri, who lived in the seventeenth century : (2) a treatise on Paniniparibhasas, as arranged by Siradeva, written by Sesadrisuddhi,
paribhāṣārthasaṃgrahṛa treatise on the Paribhasas in the system of Panini's grammar written by Vaidyanatha Sastrin.
paribhāṣāvṛttiṭippaṇīa very brief commentary on the Paribhasavrtti of Siradeva written by Srimanasarman of Campahatti.
paribhāṣāvṛttiṭīkāa commentary on the Paribhasavrtti of Siradeva written by Ramabhadra Diksita who lived in the seventeenth century A. D.
paribhāṣāsegraha'a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his paribhasa.work named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundredition
paribhāṣāsūcanaan old work on the Paribhasas in the system of Panini's Grammar, believed to have been written by Vyaadi, who lived after Kaatyayana and before Patanjali. The work is written in the old style of the MahabhaSya and consists of a short commentary on 93 Paribhasas.
paribhāṣenduśekharathe reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis.
parisamāptiapplication of the complete sense; the word is found used in the three alternative views about the application of the full sense of a sentence,collectively, individually or in both the ways, to the individuals concerned ; confer, compareप्रत्येकं वाक्यपरिसमाप्ति:, समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः, उभयथा वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः ; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.1 Vart12; ( 2 ) completion ; confer, compare वृत्करणं ल्वादीनां प्वादीनां च परिसमाप्त्यर्थमिति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VII. 3.80.
parokṣaused as an adjective of the word भूत meaning 'past tense'; literally behind the eyes, unnoticed by the eyes. The word is generally used in the sense of remote or long (past) or 'perfect'. For the alternative explanation of the word परोक्ष, confer, compare कथंजातीयकं पुनः परोक्षं नाम । केचित्तावदाहुः वर्षशतवृत्तं परोक्षमिति । अपर आहुः क्रटान्तरितं परोक्षमिति । अपर आहुर्ह्याहवृत्तं त्र्यहंर्वृत्तं चेति । M.Bh. on परोक्षे लिट् P. III.2.115.
parokṣāliterally behind the eyes; remote; । the term is found used by ancient grammarians and also referred to in the Mahaabhaasya as referring to the perfect tense called लिट् in Paanini's grammar: confer, compare ज्ञापकात्परोक्षायां ( लिटि ) न भविष्यति । M.Bh. on P. I. 2.28: confer, compare also न व्यथते: परोक्षायाम् Kaat. III.4.21.
paryāya(l)serial order or succession as opposed to simultaniety ; the word is used in grammar in connection with a rule which, as the objector for the sake of argument, would like to hold and would apply by succession with respect to the rule in conflict, either before it or after it id est, that is alternatively; confer, compare पर्यायः प्रसज्येत often found used in the Mahabhaasya as for example on I.4.1 et cetera, and others: confer, compare also तृजादयः पर्यायेण भवन्ति M.Bh. on P. I. 4.2. Vaart. 3; ( 2 ) alternative word,. synonym; confer, compare अभिज्ञावचने लृट् । वचनग्रहणं पर्यायार्थम् । अभिजानासि स्मरसि बुध्यसे चेतयसे इति । Kaas. on P. III.2.112.
parvanword, pada; literally member of a sentence; the word is found used in the sense of पद in the old Pratisaakhya Literature: confer, compare अन्तरेण पर्वणी । पर्वशबेदन पदमुच्यते । पदयोर्मध्ये पद अागमो भवति । यथा प्राङ्कसोमः, प्राङ्क्सोम: । Uvvata on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 138.
pāṭhakīname popularly given to the commentaries written byउदयंकरपाठक. See पाठक.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
pāṇinisūtravṛttia gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiin his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known.
pāṇinīyaśikṣāa short work on phonetics which is taken as a Vedāņga work and believed to have been written by Pāņini. Some say that the work was written by Pińgala.
pāyaguṇḍa,pāyaguṇḍeA learned pupil of Nāgeśabhațța who lived in Vārǎņasī in the latter half of the 18th century A.D. He was a renowned teacher of Grammar and is believed to have written commentaries on many works of Nāgeśa, the famous among which are the 'Kāśikā' called also 'Gadā' on the Paribhāșenduśekhara,the'Cidasthimālā' on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara and the 'Chāyā' on the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.Bālambhațța Pāyaguņde, who has written a commentary on the Mitākșarā (the famous commentary on the Yajňavalkyasmŗti), is believed by some as the same as Vaidyanātha: while others say that Bālambhațța was the son of Vaidyanātha.
pārokṣyaremoteness; literally being out of sight; in grammar, पारोक्ष्य is a condition for the use of the perfect tense ( लिट् ). See परोक्ष.
pārṣada​vyākhyāname given to the commentary written by विष्णुमित्र on the Ŗk Prātiśākhya.
pārṣadasūtravṛtiname given to the works of the type of commentaries written by उव्व​ट on the old Prātiśākhya books.
puñjarājaa famous grammarian of the 12th century who wrote a learned commentaty on a part of the Vāky apadīya of Bhartŗhari in which he has quoted passages from famous writers and grammarians such as भामह, कुन्तक, वामन, हेमच​न्द्र and others. The name is found written as पुण्यराज also.
puṇyasundaragāṇia jain grammarian who has written a commentary work । on the धातुपाठ of हेमच​न्द्र.
punarvidhānaprescribing the same affix or operation again, which geneally is attended with some purpose: confer, compare ण्वुलः क्रियार्थोपपदस्य पुनर्विधानं तृजादिप्रतिषेधार्थम्, P.III. 3.10 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I ; confer, compare also पुनर्विधानसामर्थ्यात् अध्यर्धपूर्वद्विगोर्लुङ् न​, Kāś. on P. V.1.57.
puruṣottamadevaa famous grammarian believed to have been a Buddhist, who flourished in the reign of Lakșmaņasena in the latter half of the twelfth century in Bengal. Many works on grammar are ascribed to him, the prominent ones among which are the Bhāșāvŗtti and the Paribhāșāvŗtti, the Gaņavŗtti and the Jñapakasamuccaya and a commentary on the Mahābhāșya called Prāņapaņā of which only a fragment is available. Besides these works on grammar, he has written some lexicographical works of which Hārāvalī, Trikāņdaśeșa, Dvirūpakosa, and Ekaaksarakosa are the prominent ones. The Bhasavrtti has got a lucid commentary on it written by Srstidhara.
puṣkaraṇaa popular term used for the treatise on grammar by an ancient grammarian Apisali. confer, compare अापिशलं पुष्करणम् Kas on P. IV. 3. 15. It was called Puskarana probably because it was very extensive and widely read before Panini. For the reading दुष्करण for पुष्करण, and other details see Mahabhasya Vol. VII. pp. 132-133, D. E. Society's edition.
pūrvapadaprakṛtisvararetention of the original acute accent of the first member in a compound as is generally noticed in the bahuvrihi compound and in special cases in other compounds; cf बहुव्रीहौ प्रकृत्या पूर्वपदम् and the following rules P. WI. 2.1 to 63.
pedubhaṭṭaa grammarian.who has written a treatise named औणादिकपदार्णव on the Unadi sutras.
prakṛtibhāvaphonetical maintenance of a wording without allowing any euphonic modifications as found in the case of a dual form ending in ई,ऊ or ए,as also in other specified cases; confer, compareईदूदेद्विवचनं प्रगृह्यम् and the following rules P.I. 1.11 to 19, as also प्लुतप्रगृह्या अचि नित्यम् VI.1.125
prakriyākaumudīa well-known work on Sanskrit Grammar by रामचन्द्रशेष of the 15th century, in which the subject matter of the eight chapters of Panini's grammar is arranged into several different sections forming the different topics of grammar. It is similar to, and possibly. the predecessor of, the Siddhanta Kaumudi which has a similar arrangement. The work was very popular before the Siddhinta Kaumudi was written. it has got many commentaries numbering about a dozen viz. प्रक्रियाप्रसाद, प्रक्रियाप्रकाश, प्रक्रियाप्रदीप, अमृतस्तुति, प्रक्रियाव्याकृति,निर्मलदर्पण,तत्वचन्द्र, प्रक्रियारञ्जन, प्रक्रियाविवरण and others of which the Prasada of Vitthalesa and the Prakasa of Srikrsna are the wellknown ones.
prakriyākaumudīvṛtticalled also प्रक्रियाकौमुदीव्याख्या or even कृष्णपण्डिता ( वृत्ति ) written by a learned grammarian named Krsnapandita belonging to the famous Sesa family of grammarians.
pakriyāpradīpaname of a commentary on the प्रक्रियाकौमुदी, written by चक्रपाणिदत्त.
prakriyāprasādaname of the scholarly commentary on Ramacandra's Prakriyakaumudi, written by Vitthalesa, the grandson of Ramachandra.
pratikaṇṭhamvocally, pronouncedly, expressly without any attention to the derivation or the formation of the word; ( 2 ) irregular formation; c.. सर्वशास्त्रार्थं प्रतिकण्ठमुक्तम् where प्रतिकण्ठ is explained as निपातन by Uvvata; confer, compare प्रतिकण्ठं निपातनम् : उत्सर्गविधिभिः साधयितुमशक्या अपि प्रयोगविशेषा निपात्यन्ते शास्त्रसंपूर्तये. Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.23.
pratijñā pratijñānaalso; hypothesis, express tenet in a Sastra or convention: confer, compare अाडः स्थः प्रतिज्ञान इति वक्तव्यम् । अस्ति सकारमातिष्ठते । आगमौ गुणवृद्धी अतिष्ठते । विकारौ गुणवृद्धीं आतिष्ठते Mfeminine.Bh. on P.I.3. 22; cf also प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.I.3.2,VII.1.1, प्रतिज्ञास्वरिताः पाणिनीयाः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.I.3.11.
pratyayaaffix, suffix, a termination, as contrasted with प्रकृति the base; confer, compare प्रत्याय्यते अर्थः अनेन इति प्रत्ययः; confer, compare also अर्थे संप्रत्याययति स प्रत्ययः M.Bh. on III. 1.l Vart. 8; The word प्रत्यय is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'following' or 'that which follows', e. g. स्पर्शे चोषः प्रत्यये पूर्वपद्यः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 30 which is explained by Uvvata as उषः इत्ययं ( शब्दः ) पूर्वपदावयवः सन् स्पर्शे प्रत्यये परभूते इति यावत्; रेफिसंज्ञो भवति; Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.30; confer, compare प्रत्येति पश्चादागच्छति इति प्रत्ययः परः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 7; cf also V. Pr, III. 8. Pratyaya or the suffix is generally placed after the base; cf, प्रत्ययः, परश्च P. III. I. 1,2; but sometimes it is placed before the base; e. g. बहुपटुः confer, compare विभाषा सुपो बहुच् पुरस्तात्तु P. V. 3.68. The conjugational signs (शप् , श्यन् et cetera, and others), the signs of tenses and moods ( च्लि, सिच् , स्य, ताम् et cetera, and others) and the compound endings(समासान्त) are all called pratyayas according fo Panini's grammar, as they are all given in the jurisdiction(अधिकार) of the rule प्रत्ययः III.1.1, which extends upto the end of the fifth chapter ( अध्याय ). There are six main kinds of affixes given in grammar सुप्प्रत्यय, तिङ्प्रत्यय, कृत्प्रत्यय , तद्धितप्रत्यय, धातुप्रत्यय (exempli gratia, for example in the roots चिकीर्ष, कण्डूय et cetera, and others) and स्त्रीप्रत्यय. The word प्रत्यय is used in the sense of realization, in which case the root इ in the word त्यय means'knowing' according to the maxim सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्थाः; confer, compare मन्त्रार्थप्रत्ययाय Nirukta of Yāska.I.15.
pratyāhāraliterally bringing together; bringing together of several letters ( or words in a few cases, such as roots or nouns ) by mentioning the first and the last only for the sake of brevity; the term प्रत्याहार is generally used in connection with brief terms such as अण्, अक् , अच् , हल् and the like, created by Panini in his grammar by taking any particular letter and associating it with any mute final letter ( अनुबन्ध ) of the fourteen Sivasutras, with a view to include all letters beginning with the letter uttered and ending with the letter which precedes the ( mute ) letter. The practice of using such abbreviations was in existence before Panini, possibly in the grammar attributed to Indra. The term प्रत्याहार is not actually used by Panini; it is found in the Rk. Tantra; confer, compare प्रत्याहारार्थो वर्णोनुबन्धो व्यञ्जनम् R.T.I.3. The term appears to have come into use after Panini. Panini has not given any definition of the term प्रत्याहार. He has simply given the method of forming the Pratyaharas and he has profusely used them; confer, compare आदिरन्त्येन सहेता P. I. 1.71. The word कृञ् in P. III.1.40 and तृन् in P. II. 3.69 are used as Pratyaharas. For a list of the Pratyharas which are used by Panini see Kasika on the Maheswara Sutras.
pratyāhārasūtravicāraa short treatise explaining the pratyharas अण् , अट्, अश् et cetera, and others in the grammar of Panini; one such work is written by a southern grammarian named तिमण्णा.
pradīpapopular name of the famous commentary on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali written by the reputed grammarian Kaiyata in the eleventh century A. D. The cornmentary is a very scholarly and critical one and really does justice to the well-known compliment given to it, viz. that the Pradipa has kept the Mahabhasya alive which otherwise would have remained unintelligible and consequently become lost. The commentary प्रदीप is based on the commentary महाभाष्यदीपिका,or प्रदीपिका written by Bhartrhari, which is available at present only in a fragmentary form. The Pradipa is to this day looked upon as the single commentary on the Mahabhasya in spite of the presence of a few other commentaries on it which are all thrown into the back-ground by it.
pradīpavivaraṇacalled also उद्द्योत written by the well-known grammarian Nagesabhatta of Varanasi who flourished in the first half of the eighteenth century.
prayogapallavaa small treatise in verses on the conjugation of roots, written by Bhavanatha Misra, son of Ramapati.
prayogaratnamālāname of a recognised treatise on grammar written by पुरुषोत्तमविद्यावागीश of Bengal in the fourteenth century. The treatise explains many words which, although current in language and literature, cannot be easily formed by rules of grammar. The author has tried to form them by applying rules of grammar given in the grammatical systems of Panini and Katantra. The alphabet given in this treatise is according to the system of the Tantra Sastra which shows a scholarship of the author in that branch The grammar was studied much in Bengal and Assam.
prayojyathat which is employed or incited or urged; the word which is the subject in the primitive construction and becomes an object in the causal construction, and as a result, which is put in the accusative case being प्रयोज्यकर्म. As, however, the प्रयोज्यकर्म originally occupies the place of the subject in the primitive construction, the term प्रयोज्यकर्ता ( प्रयोज्यश्चासौ कर्ता च ) is often used in connection with it, as contrasted with the term प्रयोजककर्ता which is used with respect to the subject in the causal construction; confer, compare इह च भेदिका देवदत्तस्य यज्ञदत्तस्य काष्ठानामिति प्रयोज्ये कर्तरि षष्ठी न प्राप्नोति । M.Bh. on P. III. 1.26 Vart. l ; confer, compare also Kaiy. on P. I. 2.65.
pravartakopādhyāyaa grammarian who wrote an explanatory gloss named कैयटप्रकाशिका on the महाभाष्यप्रदीप written by Kaiyatabhatta.
pravigrahaseparate or distinct uterance of several words of a sentence which are joined together by Sandhi rules in a compound ( समास ) or otherwise, with a very short pause ( अवग्रह ) after each word. e. g. उद् उ एति instead of उद्वेति; confer, compare प्रविग्रहेण मृदूवग्रहेण चर्चयेयुः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV.10, where Uvvata remarks प्रविग्रहेषु प्रश्लिष्टं विश्लिष्टं कुर्यात् । कालाधिक्येन कुर्यात्। तथा च उद् उ एति इति पठेन्न तु उद्वेति.
prasiddha(1)established in existence: confer, compare क्रमेण नार्थः पदसंहिताविदः पुराsप्रसिद्धा श्रयपूर्वसिद्धिभिः, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI.34 where the Kramapatha is said to be one which was not established before the Samhitapatha; (2) known ; confer, compare अनिटि प्रसिद्धे क्सो भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.45 Vart. 4, लोकत एते शब्दाः प्रसिद्धाः स्त्री पुमान् नपुंसकमिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1.3: (3) brought about, accomplished, realized; तथास्य छः प्रसिद्धो भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1.89 Vart. 2, सर्वत्रैव जश्त्वेन सिद्धं स्यात् , Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.VIII 2.25
prākbefore a particular thing in place, or in recital, or in mention. The word is used generally to show the limit upto which a particular topic extends; confer, compare तसिलादयः प्राक् पाशपः; cf also प्राक् कडारात्समासः P. I. 4.l : confer, compare also अथ आख्याः समाम्नायाधिकाः प्राग्रिफितात् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 33.
prāṇapaṇāa gloss on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali, written by the famous easterm grammarian Purusottamadeva of the 12th century A. D., of which only a fragment of a few pages is available. As the legend goes, the name प्राणपणा was given to the gloss as it was accompanied by an oath on the part of the author that his life was at stake if he did even the slightest injustice to the author of the Mahabhasya.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
prāmāṇikaauthoritative; those that talk with authority; confer, compare प्रामाणिकमतमेतत्, a phrase often used by commentators.
praiṣādithe senses प्रैष 'order to do', अतिसर्ग 'permission to do' and प्राप्तकालता 'fitness of time', as possessed by the potential passive participles; cf विधीयन्ते प्रैषादिषु लोडादयः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.26.
prauḍhamanoramāpopularly called मनोरमा also; the famous commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi of Bhattoji Diksita written by the author himself to explain fully in a scholarly manner the popular grammar written by him; , the word प्रौढमनेारमा is used in contrast with बालमनोरमा another commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi by Vasudevadiksita. On account of the difficult nature of it, it is usual to read the प्रौढमनेारमा upto the end of the Karaka-prakarana only in the Sanskrit PathaSalas before the study of the Sabdendusekhara and the Paribhsendusekhara is undertaken.
prauḍhamanoramākhaṇḍana(1)a grammatical work written by a grammarian named Cakrapani of the Sesa family of grammarians. The work is meant to refute the arguments of Bhattoji Diksita in his Praudhamanorama; (2) a grammar work written by the famous poet and rhetorician Jagannātha in refutation of the doctrines and explanations given in the Praudhamanorama by the stalwart Grammarian Bhattoji Diksita. The work is not a scholarly one and it has got a tone of banter. It was written by Jagannatha to show that he could also write works on Grammar and the bearded pedant Bhattoji should not be proud of his profound scholarship in Grammar. The work of Jagannatha was named मनोरमाकुचमर्दन possibly by his followers or even by himselfeminine.
prauḍhamanoramāṭīkāa commentary on Bhattoji DikSita's Praudhamanorama written by Bhattoji's grandson Hari Diksita. The commentary is called लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न which is an abridgment of the author's work बृहच्छब्दरत्न. The Laghusabdaratna is widely studied along with the Praudhamanorama in the Pathasalas.
plutaprotracted, name given to vowels in the protracted grade. The vowels in this grade which are termed protracted vowels are possessed of three matras and in writing they are marked with the figure 3 placed after them. In pronunciation they take a longer time than the long or दीर्घ vowels; confer, compare ऊकालोज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P. I.2.27. The word is derived from प्लु (प्रु also) I Atmane to go, and explained as प्लवते इति, The word प्लवते is often found for प्लुतो भवति in the Pratisakhya works; cf also मात्रा ह्रस्वरतावदवग्रहान्तरं, द्वे दीर्धस्तिस्रः प्लुत उच्यते स्वरः । अधः स्विदासी३दुपरि स्विदासी३द् अर्थे प्लुतिर्भीरिव विन्दती३त्रिः ll Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.16.
pvādia class of roots headed by the root पू which get their vowel shortened in the four conjugational tenses as also before the present tense.participle. affix; exempli gratia, for example पुनाति पुनानः, लुनाति, लुनन् et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VII.3.80.
phaṇādia class of seven roots headed by the root फण्, which belong to the first conjugation and which have optionally their vowel अ changed into ए and the reduplicative syllable ( अभ्यास) dropped, in the forms of the perfect tense before the affix इथ and weak affixes; e. g. फेणतु:, फेणु:, फेणिथ फफणतुः, पफणुः, पफणिथ et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VI.4.:125.
phaḍegan[ FADDEGON, BAREND ]a scholar of Sanskrit Grammar, who has written a book 'Studies in Panini's Grammar'.
barnel[ BURNELL., Dr.]a European Sanskrit scholar who has written a learned booklet 'Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians' which discusses the problem of the Aindra grammar. See ऐन्द्र.
barsvya(written as बर्त्स्व्य or बर्त्स्य possibly through mistake in the printed Calcutta Edition)connected with the socket of the teeth. As the utterance of र् proceeds from the socket of the teeth, र् is called बर्स्व्य. confer, compare उपसंहृततरे च जिह्वाग्रमृकारर्कारल्कारेषु बर्स्वेषूपसंहरति T.Pr.II.18.बर्स्व is explained here by the commentator as दन्तपङ्क्तेरुपरिष्टादुच्चप्रदेशेषु ऋकारस्य ॠकारस्य ऌकारस्य च बर्स्वाः स्थानम् । The word उपरिष्टात् in the explanation given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. is questionable;the explanation given by Uvvata in his comment on वर्त्स्यमेकं इच्छन्ति रेफम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20.viz. वर्त्सशब्देन दन्तमूलादुपरिष्टादुच्छूनः प्रदेश उच्यते appears better although apparently वर्त्स is written in the text for बर्स्व or वर्त्स्व.
bahuctaddhita affix. suffix बहु which is always prefixed to a noun in the sense of 'almost complete', 'almost full', 'to a considerable extent'; exempli gratia, for example बहुगुडा द्राक्षा; confer, compare विभाषा सुपो बहुच् पुरस्तात्तु P. V. 3.68.
bahuvrīhiprakṛtisvarathe accent peculiar to, or specifically mentioned in the case of the Bahuvrihi compound viz. the retention of its own accents by the first member, in spite of the general rule that a compound word has the last vowel accented acute id est, that is उदात्त. confer, compare बहुव्रीहौ प्रकृत्या पूर्वपदम्. P. VI. 2.1. The expression बहुव्रीहिस्वर in this very sense is used in the Mahabhasya confer, compare बहुव्रीहिस्वरं शास्ति समासान्तविधेः सुकृत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 2.1.
bālaṃbhaṭṭa( बाळंभट्ट )surnamed Payagunda or Payagunde, who has written a commentary on the commentary Mitaksara on the याज्ञवल्क्यस्मृति. Some scholars say that he was also a great grammarian and identical with वैद्यनाथ पायगुंडे who has written the commentary काशिका or गदा on the Paribhasendusekhara, the Cidasthimala on the Laghusabdendusekhara and commentaries on the Vaiyakaranabhusana,Sabdakaustubha and Bhasyapradipoddyota. Other scholars believe that Balambhatta was the son of Vaidyanatha and that he wrote only the commentary on Mitaksara called Balambhatti after him. (2) There was also a comparatively modern grammarian of Tanjore who has written small grammar works बालबोधिनी and बालरञ्जनी.
bālamanoramāname of a commentary on the Siddhanta-kaumudi of Bhattoji Diksita by Vasudeva Diksita, a grammarian of Tanjore. There is also another commentary called Balamanorama written by Anantadeva on the Siddhantakaumudi.
bālarañjanīname of a grammar work written by Balambhatta of Tanjore. See बालंभट्ट (2).
buiskūla[ BUISKOOL H. E. )A European grammarian who has written an essay on the last three Padas of Panini's Astadhyayi (त्रिपादी) under the title 'The Tripadi'.
bṛhacchabdaratnaa learned commentary on the commentary मनोरमा of भट्टोजीदीक्षित; the commentary was written by हरिदीक्षित the grandson of Bhattoji. The work is called बृहच्छब्दरत्न in contrast with the लघुशब्दरत्न of the same author (हरिदीक्षित) which is generally studied at the Pathasalas all over the country. The work बृहच्छब्दरत्न is only in a Manuscript form at present. Some scholars believe that it was written by Nagesabhatta, who ascribed it to his preceptor Hari Diksita, but the belief is not correct as proved by a reference in the Laghusabdaratna, where the author himself remarks that he himself has written the बृहच्छब्दरत्न, and internal evidences show that लबुशब्दरत्न is sometimes a word-forword summary of the बृहच्छब्दरत्न. confer, compareविस्तरस्तु अस्मत्कृते बृहच्छब्दरत्ने मदन्तेवासिवृतलधुशब्देन्दुशेखरे च द्रष्टव्यः Laghusabdaratna. For details see Bhandarkar Ins. Journal Vol. 32 pp.258-60.
bṛhacchabdaratnaṭīkācalled बृहच्छब्दरत्नव्याख्या written by भवदेव.
bṛhadvyākaraṇasiddhāntamañjūṣāa grammar work written by Ramanatha Chobhe.
belavalakara[ SHRIPAD KRISHNA BELVALKAR ]a well-known Sanskrit scholar of the present day who has been the General Editor of the Mahabharata published by the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona. He has written a book on grammar reviewing very briefly the various systems of Sanskrit grammar, which is named "Systems of Sanskrit Grammar".
bothaliṃgka[BOHTLINGK, OTTO]a German Sanskrit scholar and Grammarian of St.Petersberg, who has written a short gloss in German on Panini's Astadhyayi under the title "Panini's Grammatik" with an introduction and various indexes at the end. He has also critically edited Mugdhabodha of Bopadeva.
baॉpa[ BOPP, FRANZ ]a German Sanskrit scholar who has written the famous volumes of "The Comparative Sanskrit Grammar".
bopadevaa great Sanskrit scholar and grammarian belonging to Devagiri in the greater Maharastra who was supported by Hemadri of Devagiri. He resided at सार्थग्राम on the river Varada in the first half of the thirteenth century. He wrote a short treatise on Sanskrit Grammar, which has a number of peculiar abbreviations for the usual well-known grammatical termanuscript. His grammar had a wide spread in Bengal and it is today a very common text on Grammar Bengal. On this account some scholars believe that he lived in Bengal. He was the son of Kesava and pupil of Dhanesa. He is also the author, of the well-known work कविकल्पद्रुम on which he has written a commentary named कामधेनु or काव्यकामधेनु.
bhakti(1)name given to two of the five divisions of a Saman which are प्रस्तावभक्ति, उद्गीथ, प्रतिहार, उपद्रव and निधानभाक्ति; (2) the vowel portion surrounding, or placed after, the consonant र् or ल् which (consonant) is believed to be present in the vowel ऋ or ऌ respectively forming its important portion, but never separately noticed in it. The vowels ऋ and ऌ are made up of one matra each. It is contended by the grammarians that the consonants र् and ल् forming respectively the portion of ऋ and ऌ, make up halfa-matra, while the remaining half is made up of the भाक्ति of the vowel surrounding the consonant or situated after the consonant. The word which is generally used for this 'bhakti is 'ajbhakti' instead of which the word स्वरभक्ति is found in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare यत्तद्रेफात्परं भक्तेस्तेन व्यवहितत्वान्न प्राप्नेति | ...... यच्चात्र रेफात्परं भुक्तेर्न तत् क्वचिदपि व्यपवृक्तं दृश्यते | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VIII. 4.1 Vart 2; confer, compare स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गं Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 17; also confer, compare रेफात्स्वरोपहिताद् व्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णी स्वरभक्तिरुत्तरा ) Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 13.
bhakṣitalit, eaten up: a fault in pronunciation when a letter is so hurriedly pronounced that it appears to have been droppedition
bhaṭṭojīsurnamed Diksita; a stalwart grammarian of the Panini system who flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century and wrote many independent books and commentaries such as the Siddhantakaumudi, the Praudhamanorama, the Vaiyakaranasiddhantakarika, the Sabdakaustubha and others. The most reputed work out of these, however, is the Siddhantakaumudi which is very popular even today and which has almost set aside other works of its kind such as the Prakriyakaumudi and others. Bhattoji was a Telagu Brahmana, as generally believed, and although he belonged to the South, he made Varanasi his home where he prepared a school of learned Grammarians. Although he carried on his work silently in Varanasi, he was envied by the reputed rhetorician of his time Pandita Jagannātha, who criticised his work ( Bhattojis work ) named Manorama very severely. See प्रौढमनोरमा a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got many commentaries of which the Tattvabodhini written by Bhattoji's pupil Jnanendrasarasvati is appreciated much by learned grammarians.
bhartṛharia very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. confer, compare शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'.
bhavat( भवन्त् )ancient term for the present tense found in the Brhaddevata and other works, The term 'vartamana' for the present tense was also equally common. The word is found in the Mahabhasya, the Unadisutravrtti of Ujjvaladatta and in the Grammar of Jainendra confer, compare P.II.3.1 Vart 11, Unadi III. 50 Jain Vyak. I.1.471.
bhavadevaa scholar of grammar who has written a commentary on the Brhacchabdaratna of Hari Diksita.
bhavantīancient term for the present tense or लट् according to Panini confer, compare अस्तिर्भवन्तीपरः प्रथमपुरुषः अप्रयुज्यमानेप्यस्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II.3.1 . Vart. 4: confer, compare also प्रवृत्तस्याविरामे शासितव्या भवन्ती | इहाधीमहे | इह वसाम: | इह पुष्यमित्रं याजयामः | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 2.123. See भवत् (भवन्त्).
bhaviṣyatancient term for the future tense in general; confer, compare भविष्यति गम्यादयः | भविष्यतोद्यनद्यतन उपसंख्यानम् P. III.3.3 Vart.l : confer, compare also the words भविष्यत्काल, भविष्यत्प्रतिषेध, भविष्यदधिकार.
bhaviṣyantīancient term for the future tense in general; confer, compare परिदेवने श्वस्तनी भविष्यन्त्यर्थे P. III.3.15. Vart.1; confer, compare also Kat. III.1.15; Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III. 3.15.
bhāgavata hariśāstrīa modern scholar of grammar who has written a commentary named Vakyarthacandrika on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesa; he lived in the first half of the eighteenth century.
bhāṇḍārakara[ Sir Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar 1837-1925 A. D. ]a well-known scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who has written learned articles on many grammatical topics. He was a distinguished Professor of Sanskrit in the latter half of the nineteenth century. He was one of the pioneers of Sanskrit studies in India.
bhāraddhājīyascholars and grammarians belonging to or following the Bharadwaja School of Grammar whose views are often quoted in the Mahabhasya; भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.20 Vart. 1, I.1.56 Vart.11 : I.2.22 Vart.3; I.3.67 Vart. 4, III.1.38 Vart. 1, III 1.48 Vart. 3; III 1.89 Vart. 1, IV.1.79, VI.4. 47 and VI.4.155.
bhāva(1)becoming; existence. The word is used many times in the sense of धात्वर्थthe sense of a root which is 'incomplete activity' or 'process of evolving'; confer, compare तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातु: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 5; confer, compare also षड् भावविकारा भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 36; पूर्वापरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेन आचष्टे व्रजतिपचतीत्युपक्रमप्रभृति अपवर्गपर्यन्तम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1 ; (2) activity as opposed to instruments ( साधन or कारक ); confer, compare भावगर्हायाम् । धात्वर्थगर्हायाम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.24; confer, compare also भावः क्रिया, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम् P. II. 3.37; (3) completed action which is shown, not by a verb, but by a verbal derivative noun; confer, compare धात्वर्थश्च धातुनैवोच्यते | यस्तस्य सिद्धता नाम धर्मस्तत्र घञादयः प्रत्यया विधीयन्ते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on 'भावे' P. III. 3.18; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.19, III. 1.67, IV. 1.3, V. 4.19; confer, compare also भावस्त्वेक: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.67; (4) the radical factor for the use of a word; प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त; confer, compare भवतोत्मादभिधानप्रत्ययौ इति भावः | शब्दस्य प्रवृत्तिनिमित्तं भावशब्देनोच्यते | अश्वत्वम् , अश्वता | Kāś, on P. 5.1.119; (5) thing, object cf सिद्धशब्दः कूटस्थेषु भावेष्वविचालिषु वर्तते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Āhnika l; (6) transformation, substitution; change into the nature of another; confer, compare तत्र प्रथमास्तृतीयभावम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 4. confer, compare also the words मूर्धन्यभाव, अभिनिधानभाव et cetera, and others {7) possession of the qualities, nature; तदर्थस्य भाव: तादर्थ्यम्: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.13; (8) relationship; confer, compare गुणप्रधानभाव, प्रकृतिविकृतिभाव et cetera, and others
bhāvadevaa grammarian who has written a commentary on the Bŗhacchabdaratna of Hari Dīkșita; possibly the same as भवदेव.See भवदेव.
bhāvavikārakinds of verbal activity which are described to be six in number viz. production, existence, transformation, growth, decay and destruction. These six modes of existence first mentioned by Vāŗșyayani and quoted by Yāska are explained philosophically by Bhartŗhari as a mere appearance of the Śabdabrahman or Sattā when one of its own powers, the time factor ( कालशक्ति ) is superimposed upon it, and as a result of that superimposition, it (id est, that is the Śabdabrahman) appears as a process; confer, compare षड् भावाविकारा भवन्ति इति वार्ष्यायणि: | जायते अस्ति विपरिणमते वर्धते अपक्षीयते विनश्यति इति । Nir.I.2; confer, compare also Vākyapadiya III.30.
bhāveprayeāgaimpersonal form of a sentence when there is no activity mentioned on the part of the agent nor resulting upon the object, but there is a mere mention of verb-activity.
bhāṣāṃmañjarīa small treatise on grammar written by Vyaṅkaṭa Subbā Shastrī.
bhāṣāvṛttia short gloss on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini in the l2th century by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva, a reputed scholar belonging to the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bengal and Behar in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, The gloss is very useful for beginners and it has given a clear explanation of the different sūtras without going into difficult niceties and discussions. The treatise does not comment upon Vedic portions or rules referring to Vedic Language because, as the legend goes, king Lakṣmaṇa Sena, for whom the gloss was written, was not qualified to understand Vedic Language; confer, compare वैदिकभाषानर्हत्वात् Com. on Bhāṣāvṛtti by Sṛṣṭidhara. There is a popular evaluation of the Bhāṣāvṛtti given by the author himself in the stanza "काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत्सिद्धान्तं बोद्धुमस्ति धीः ! तदा विचिन्त्यतां भ्रातर्भाषावृत्तिरियं मम " at the end of his treatise; for details see पुरुषोत्तमदेव.
bhāṣyaa learned commentary on an original work, of recognised merit and scholarship, for which people have got a sense of sanctity in their mind; generally every Sūtra work of a branch of technical learning (or Śāstra) in Sanskrit has got a Bhāṣya written on it by a scholar of recognised merit. Out of the various Bhāṣya works of the kind given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., the Bhāṣya on the Vyākaraṇa sūtras of Pāṇini is called the Mahābhāṣya, on the nature of which possibly the following definition is based "सूत्रार्थो वर्ण्यते यत्र पदैः सूत्रानुकारिभिः| स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः ।" In books on Sanskrit Grammar the word भाष्य is used always for the Mahābhāṣya. The word भाष्य is sometimes used in the Mahābhāṣya of Patanjali (confer, compare उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये III.3.19, IV.4.67) where the word may refer to a work like लघुभाष्य which Patañjali may have written, or may have got available to him as written by somebody else, before he wrote the Mahābhāṣya.
bhuktaliterally swallowed or eaten up; the term is used in connection with letters that are uttered imperfectly on account of the proximity of similar letters.
bhūtaliterally what has become or happened, The word is used in books on grammar in the sense of past tense in general, which has been subdivided into (a) unseen past (परीक्षभूत or लिट् ), (b) past, not of today (अनद्यतनभूत or लङ् ) and (c) past in general (सामान्यभूत or लुङ्),confer, compare भूते P.III.2.84, परोक्षे लिट् P.III.2.116 and अनद्यतने लङ् P.III.2.111.
bhaimavyākaraṇaa grammar treatise written by भौमसेन in the fourteenth century A. D.
bhaimīname of a commentary on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa written by Bhīmabhaṭṭa in the latter half of the eighteenth century.
bhairavamiśraone of the reputed grammarians of the latter half of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century who wrote commentaries on several prominent works on grammar. He was the son of भवदेव and his native place was Prayāga. He has written the commentary called Candrakalā on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara, Parikṣā on the Vaiyākaraṇabhũṣanasāra, Gadā called also Bhairavī or Bhairavīgadā on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and commentaries (popularly named Bhairavī) on the Śabdaratna and Lingānuśāsana. He is reported to have visited Poona, the capital of the Peśawas and received magnificent gifts for exceptional proficiency in Nyāya and Vyākaraṇa. For details see pp. 24 and 25 Vol. VII . Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya D. E. Society's Edition.
bhairavīname given to a commentary in general written by Bhairavamiśra, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The commentary on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara is more popularly known as Bhairavī.
bhojathe well-known king of Dhārā who was very famous for his charities and love of learning. He flourished in the eleventh century A.D. He is said to have got written or himself written several treatises on various śāstras. The work Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa which is based on the Astādhyāyi of Pāṇini, but which has included in it the Vārttikas and Paribhāṣās also, has become in a way a Vyākaraṇa or a general work in grammar and can be styled as Bhoja-Vyākaraṇa.
bholānāthaa grammarian who has written a commentary named Saṁdarbhāmṛta on Bopadeva's Mugdhabodha.
ma(1)the consonant म् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.2.1 ; (2) The substitute म for मस् of the 1st person. plural in the perfect tense confer, compare P परस्मैपदानां ... णल्वमाः III. 4.82 and in the present tense also in the case of the root विद्; (3) taddhita affix. affix म added to the word मध्य in the Śaiṣika senses,and to the words द्यु and द्रु in the sense of possession; confer, compare P.IV.3.8,V.2. 108.
mañjūṣāa popular name given to the work परमलघुमञ्जूषा of Nāgeśa on अर्थप्रक्रिया (science or method of interpretation) in Vyākaraṇa, which is generally read by advanced students. Nāgeśa has also written a bigger work on the same subject लघुमञ्जूषा which sometimes is also referred to by the word मञ्जूषा.
matonmajjāname of a commentary on Koṇḍabhaṭṭa's Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa written by a grammarian named वनमालिन्.
madhyakaumudīcalled also मध्यमकौमुदी a work on grammar which is an abridgment, to a certain extent, of Bhaṭṭojī's Siddhāntakaumudī. The treatise was written by Varadarāja, a pupil of Bhaṭṭojī for facilitating the study of the Siddhānta-kaumudi.
manoramā(1)the popular name given to the commentary प्रौढमनेारमा on the Siddhāntakaumudī of भट्टोजीदीक्षित by the author himself the commentary is a scholarly one and very extensive; and its first portion only upto the end of Kāraka is generally read in the Sanskrit Pāṭhaśālās;(2) name of a commentary on the Madhyasiddhāntakaumudī by Rāmasarman; (3) name given to a treatise discussing roots given in the Kātantra Grammar written by रमानाथशर्मा in the sixteenth century. The work is called कातन्त्रधातुवृत्ति also.
manoramākucamardananame given in a bantering tone to the treatise प्रौढमनोरमाखण्डन written by जगन्नाथपण्डित:
mantudevaknown also as मन्नुदेव, a famous grammarian of the eighteenth century who has written a commentary named दर्पणा on the Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra of Koṇḍabhaṭṭa and a commentary named दोषोद्धरण on Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
mallināthaa reputed commentator on many classical poetic and dramatic works, who flourished in the fourteenth century. He was a scholar of Grammar and is believed to have written a commentary on the Śabdenduśekhara and another named न्यासोद्योत on the न्यास of जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि.
mahādevaa grammarian of the Kātantra school who has written a gloss on the कातन्त्रवृत्ति of दुर्गसिंह.
mahānandaa grammarian of the eighteenth century who has written a gloss on Koṇḍabhaṭṭṭa's Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣanasāra.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahābhāṣyadīpikāa very learned old commentary on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali written by the reputed grammarian Bhartrhari or Hari in the seventh century A. D. The commentary has got only one manuscript preserved in Germany available at present, of which photostat copies or ordinary copies are found here and there. The first page of the manuscript is missing and it is incomplete also, the commentary not going beyond the first seven Aahnikas. For details see page 383 Vol. VII Vyaakarana Mahabhasya D. E. Society's edition.
mahābhāṣyapradīpaa very scholarly commentary on Patanjali's MahabhaSya written by Kaiyatabhatta in the eleventh century, The commentary has so nicely explained every difficult and obscure point in the Mahabhasya, and has so thoroughly explained each sentence that the remark of later grammarians that the torch of the Mahabhasya has been kept burning by the Pradipa appears quite apt and justifiedition Kaiyata's commentary has thrown much additional light on the original arguments and statements in the Mahabhasya. There is a learned commentary on the Pradipa written by Nagesabhatta which is named vivarana by the author but which is well known by the name 'Uddyota' among students and teachers of Vyakarana. For details see pp. 389, 390 Vol VII, Patanjala Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition.
mahābhāṣyapradīpaṭīkaname given to each of the various commentaries on the Pradipa of Kaiyata written by grammarians, out of which the commentaries of चिन्तामणि,रामचन्द्रसरस्वती, नारायण, नित्यानन्दपर्वतीय and one or two more are available in a manuscript form and those too quite incomplete.
mahābhāṣyapradīpavivaraṇa(1)original name of the learned commentary on the 'Pradipa' of Kaiyata written by Nagesabhatta, a stalwart and epoch-making grammarian of the 18th century. The commentary is known popularly by the name 'Uddyota' or Pradipoddyota; (2) name of the commentary on Kaiyata's Pradipa by Nityaananda Parvatiya. The commentary is also known by the name दीपप्रभा.
mahābhāṣyalaghuvṛttiname given to the short gloss on the Mahabhasya written by the famous eastern grammar-scholar Maitreya-Raksita of the twelfth century.
mahābhāṣyavyākhyāname given to each of the explanatory glosses on the Mahabhasya written by grammarians prominent of whom were Purusottamadeva, Narayana Sesa, Visnu, Nilakantha and others whose fragmentary works exist in a manuscript form. महामिश्र name of a grammarian who wrote a commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Nyasa. The commentary is known by the name Vyakaranaprakasa. महाविभाषा a rule laying down an option for several rules in a topic by being present in every rule: confer, compare महाविभाषया वाक्यमपि. विभाषा (P.II.1.11) and समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा (P. IV.1.82) are some of the rules of this kindeclinable
maheśanandina Jain Grammarian who has written a work on the karaka topic of grammar, named षट्कारक.
māṇikyadevaa Jain writer who has written a gloss on the Unadisutras consisting of ten chapters popularly called उणादिसूत्रदशपादी.
mādhavathe well-known epoch-making scholar of the 14th century who has written a number of treatises in various Saastras. His धातुवृम्त्ति is a well-known work in grammar
māheśasutrthe fourteen sutras अइउण्, ऋलृक् et cetera, and others which are believed to have been composed by Siva and taught to Paanini, by means of the sounds of the drum beaten at the end of the dance; confer, compare नृत्तावसाने नटराजराजेा ननाद ढक्कां नवपञ्चवारम् । उद्धर्तुकामः सनकादिसिद्धानेतद्विमशौ शिवसूत्रजालम् Nandikeswara-kaarikaa 1. For details see Vol. VII Vyaakarana Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's edition.
mit(1)characterized by the mute letter म्; augments So characterized such as नुम् , अम् and the like, are inserted after the last vowel of a word to which they are to be added; confer, compare मिदचोन्त्यात् परः P. I. 1.47; (2) a technical term applied to the fifty-five roots which are headed by the root घट् and which belong to the first corjugation, to the roots ज्वळ et cetera, and others, as also to the roots जन्, जू, क्नूस्, रञ्ज् and roots ending in अम्. These roots are not really characterized by the mute letter म्, but they are given the designation मित्. The use of the designation मित् is (a) the shortening of the penultimate vowel which : has been lengthened by Vrddhi , before the causal sign णि and (b) ; the optional lengthening of the ; penultimate vowel before the affix ) चिण् and णमुल्, For a complete list ] of 'mit' roots see Dhaatupaatha.
mitākṣarāname of a commentary on the Saarasvatasaara, written by Harideva.
miśrīa popular name given to the commentary written by मैरवमिश्र on the Paribhaasendusekhara in popular use by grammarians.
mukhyaviśeṣyathe principal word in a sentence which comes last in the technical expression of the import or शाब्दबोध. It is described as primary and not subordinated to any other thing ( अन्याविशेषणीभूत). This मुख्यविशेष्य is, in a way,the crucial point in the various theories of import; exempli gratia, for example according to the grammarians the verbal activity is the principal word while,according to the Mimaamsakas the bhaavanaa is the principal word.and according to the Naiyayikas it is the subject that is the principal word.
mugdhabodhaliterally instructions to the ignorant: a treatise on grammar similar to the Astadhyayi of Panini but much shorter, written by Bopadeva or Vopadeva an inhabitant of the greater Maharastra in the Vardha district, in the thirteenth century. After the fall of the Hindu rulers in Bengal, treatises like भाषावृत्ति and others written by eastern grammarians fell into the back-ground and their place was taken up by easier treatises written by Bopadeva and others.Many commentaries were written upon the Mugdhabodha, of which the Vidyanivsa is much known to grammarians
mugdhabodhaṭīkāa commentary work on Mugdhabodha;the name is given to commentaries written by Ramatarkavagisa(called मुग्धबोधपरिशिष्ट }, by Radhavallabha (called सुबोधिनी), . by Gangadhara (called सेतुसंग्रह ), by Durgadasa, by Dayarama and by Ramananda.
makḍonel[MACDONELL,ARTHUR ANTHONY ]a deep scholar of Vedic Gram. and Literature who has written an exhaustive Vedic Grammar; in treatment, at places he differs from Panini and follows a different method, but the manner of thinking and argument is on original lines.
meghavijayaa Jain grammarian of the seventeenth century who has written a grammar work, similar to the Siddhanta Kaumudi, on the Sabdanusasana of Hemacandra. The grammar work is called हैमकौमुदी, or चन्द्रप्रभा also.
mokṣeśvaraa grammarian of the fourteenth century who has written a commentary on the Katantra Vrtti of Durgasimha. He has written a commentary on the Akhyatavrtti of the Katantra school as also a short treatise dealing with the krt affixes called Krdvrtti.
y(1)the consonant य् with अ added to it merely for the sake of facility in pronunciation; यकार is also used in the same sense: e. g. लिटि वयो यः: P.VI.1.38 confer, compare T.Pr.I: 17,21;(2) krt affix (यत्) prescribed as कृत्य or potential passive participle; exempli gratia, for exampleचेयम्, गेयम्, शाप्यम् , शक्यम् , गद्यम् , अजर्यम् पण्यम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare अचो यत्...अजर्यं संगतम् P.III. 1.97-105; (3) krt. affix क्यप् which is also an affix called krtya; e. gब्रह्मोद्यम् , भाव्यम्, घात्यम् , स्तुत्यम् , कल्प्यम् , खेयम् , भृत्यः:, भिद्यः, पुष्य:, कृत्यम्,also कार्यम् ; confer, compare P. III. 1.106-128:(4) krt affix ण्यत् ( which is also कृत्य ), e. g कार्यम् , हार्यम् , वाक्यम् , लाव्यम्, कुण्डपाय्यम्. et cetera, and others: cf P. III. 1.124-132: (5) taddhita affix. affix य affixed (a) in the sense of collection to पाश, वात et cetera, and others, as also to खल, गो and रथ, e. g. पाद्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV. 2. 49, 50ः (b) in the चातुरर्थिक senses to बल, कुल, तुल et cetera, and others e. g. वल्यः,.कुल्यम् efeminine. P V.2. 80, (c) as a Saisika taddhita affix. affix to ग्राम्यहः' along with the affix खञ्ज e. g. ग्राम्यः, ग्रामीणः: cf P: IV. 2.94 (d) in the sense of 'good therein' ( तत्र साधुः ) and other stated senses affixed to सभा, सोदर पूर्व, and सोम: e. g. सभ्य:, पूर्व्यः; .et cetera, and others. confer, compare P. IV. 4.105, 109, 133, 137, 138: (e) in the sense of 'deserving it' to दण्ड and other words, e. g. दण्ड्य, अर्ध्र्य, मध्य, मेध्य, et cetera, and others: cf P. V. 1.66: ( f ) in the sense of quality or action to सखि e. g. सख्यम् ; cf P. V. 1.126: (6) taddhita affix. affix यत् applied to (a) राजन् श्वशुर, कुल, मनु in the sense of offspring, (b) शूल्, उखा, वायु, ऋतु and others, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. IV. 2.17, 31, 32, 101, (c) to अर्ध, परार्ध, words in the class headed by दि्श, छन्दस and others in specific senses; cf P. IV. 3-46, 54 et cetera, and others and (d) in specific senses to specific words mentioned here and there in a number of sUtras from IV.4, 75 to V.4.25; (e) to शाखा, मुख, जघन and others in the sense of इव (similar to) exempli gratia, for example शाख्यः, मुख्य:, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 3. 103; (7) case-ending य substituted for ङे of the dative sing; e. g. रामाय confer, compare P. VII. 3.102: (8) verb-affix यक् applied to the nouns कण्डू and others to make them ( denominative ) roots; e. g. कण्डूय,सन्तूय et cetera, and others confer, compare कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् P. III. 1.27 (9) | Vikarana य ( यक् ) applied to any root before the Saarvadhaatuka personal endings to form the base for the passive voice as also the base for the 'Karmakartari' voice e g क्रियते, भूयते, confer, compare सार्वधातुके यक् P. III. 1.67 (10) Unaadi affix य ( यक् ) applied to the root हृन् to form the Vedic word अघ्न्य: cf अघ्न्यादयश्च: ( 11 ) augment य ( यक् ) added to the affix क्त्वा in Vedic Literature: e. g. दत्त्वायः confer, compare क्त्वो यक् P. VII.1.47; (12) verb affix यङ् added to a root to form its Intensive base ( which sometimes is dropped ) and the root is doubledition e. g. चेक्रीयते,चर्करीति;. confer, compare P. III. 1.22,24; (13) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) supposed to be beginning with य in the affix यइ in the sUtra धातेरेकाचो ... यङ् III. 1.22, and ending with ङ् in the sUtra लिड्याशिष्यङ्क III. 1.86, with a view to include the various verb affixes and conjugational signs.
yaḍantaa secondary root formed by adding the affix यङ् in the sense of repetition and intensity, to roots having one syllable and beginning with a consonant: confer, compare धातोरेकाचो हृलादे: क्रियासमभिहारे यङ् P. III. 1.22, 23,24. See य (12) a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
yaḍlugantaśiromaṇia grammar work dealing with the frequentative roots written by Pandita Sesakrsna.
yatna(1)effort in the utterance of a letter: the word which is generally used for such an effort is प्रयत्न. This effort is described to be oftwo kinds अाभ्यन्तर internal id est, that is below the root of the tongue and बाह्य a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the root of the tongue id est, that is inside the mouth; confer, compare यत्नं द्विधा | अाभ्यन्तरो बाह्यश्च | S. K. on P. I. 1.9; (2) specific effort, by adding a word to a rule for drawing some inference, with a view to removing some technical difficulty: cf तेन पये धावतीत्यादौ यत्नान्तरमास्थेयम् Kaas. on P. VIII. 2. 25. The phrase कर्तव्योत्र यत्न: often occurs in the Mahaabhaasya.
yathānyāsaṃas it is actually put in the rule or a treatise by the author. The phrase is often used in the Mahaabhaasya when after a long discussion, involving further and further difficulties, the author reverts to the original stand and defends the writing of the sUtra as it stands. सिध्यत्येवमपाणिनीयं तु भवति or सूत्रं भिद्यते । तर्हि यथान्यासमेवास्तु is the usual expression found in the Mahaabhaasya; cf, M.Bh. I.1. Aahnika 1, I.1.1, 9, 20, 62, 65 et cetera, and others
yathālakṣaṇaṃas formed according to rules. The phrase यथालक्षणमप्रयुक्ते is very often found in the Mahaabhaasya as a general guiding remark that noun-forms or wordforms which are not found in use in the language of the people or in literature should be understood as they are derived by observing all the rules that are applicable.
yadṛcchāśabdliterally a chance-word: Samjna-sabda or proper noun which is given accidentally without any found used attention to derivation or authority confer, compare अयं , तर्हि यदृच्छाशब्दोsपरिहार्यः। लृफिङ्: लृफिङ्ङ् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on Siva Stra2.
yadyogaa connection with the word (pronoun) यत् by its use in the same sentence and context, which prevents the anudatta ( grave ) accent for the verb in the sentence; confer, compareनिपातैर्यद्यदिहृन्तकुविन्नेच्चेच्चण्कच्चिद्यत्रयुक्तम् P. VIII. 1.30; cf also the usual expression यद्योगादानघात: found in commentary wor
yāsuṭaugment यास् prefixed to the parasmaipada case-endings of लिङ् (the potential and the benedictive) which is accented acute; exempli gratia, for example कुर्यात्, क्रियात्.
yugapadadhikaraṇavacanatādenotation of two or more things by one single member by virtue of their being put together in a dvandva compound of two or more words; the grammarians advocate this doctrine stating that in a dvandva compound such as घटपटौ or घटपटम् , the word घट has the capacity of expressing the sense of both घट and पट, which in a sentence घटः पटश्च, it does not possess. Similarly पट also has the capacity of conveying the sense of both पट and घट. Possibly this theory is advocated by grarnmarians, on the analogy of words like पितरौ or मातरौ for मातापितरौ, द्यावा for द्यावापृथिवी and so on; confer, compare सिद्धं तु युगपदधिकरणवचने द्वन्द्ववचनात् P. II 2.29 Vart. 2. For details see Vyakaranamahabhasya on चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II. 2.29.
yogavibhāgadivision of a rule which has been traditionally given as one single rule, into two for explaining the formation of certain words, which otherwise are likely to be stamped as ungrammatical formations. The writer of the Varttikas and the author of the Mahabhasya have very frequently taken recourse to this method of योगविभाग; confer, compare P.I.1.3 Vart. 8, I.1.17 Vart.1,I.1.61, Vart. 3; I. 4.59 Vart. 1, II. 4. 2. Vart.2, III.1.67 Vart. 5, III.4.2. Vart. 6, VI.I. I Vart. 5, VI.1.33 Vart.1 et cetera, and others Although this Yogavibhaga is not a happy method of removing difficulties and has to be followed as a last recourse, the Varttikakara has suggested it very often, and sometimes a sutra which is divided by the Varttikakara into two,has been recognised as a couple of sutras in the Sutrapatha which has come down to us at present.
rakṣitanamed मैत्रेयरक्षित or मैत्रेय also; a famous grammarian of the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bihar and Bengal in the ninth, tenth, eleventh and twelfth centuries, claiming मैत्रयरक्षित, पुरुषोत्तमदेव, सीरदेव and others as prominent grammar scholars among others. See the word मैत्रेयरक्षिiत.
ratnārṇavaname of a commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi written by Krsnamitra, a famous grammarian and Naiyayika who lived in the eighteenth century and wrote many commentary works on books in the Vyakarana and Nyāya Sastras.
ranpersonal ending रन् substituted for the personal ending झ of the प्रथमपुरुष (third person) Atmanepada of 'lin' (potential and benedictive); confer, compare झस्य रन् P.III. 4.105.
ranu[RENOU,LOUIS]a sound Sanskrit scholar of France of the present time who has written some treatises and many articles on Sanskrit grammar out of which his works on the Terminology of Sanskrit Grammar, Kasika and Durghatavrtti reguire a special mention.
rapratyāhārakhaṇḍanaa small article showing that the short term र for the consonants र् and ल् need not be advocated as done by the learned old grammarians.The treatise was Written by Vaidyanatha Paya-gunde, the prominent pupil of Nagesabhatta.
rāmacandra(1)रामन्वन्द्राचार्य (son of कृष्णाचार्य) the well-known author of the Prakriyakaumudi. He belonged to the Sesa family and the latter half of the fifteenth century is assigned as his date. He is believed to have been a resident of Andhra. His work, the Prakriyakaumudi, was a popular grammar treatise for some time before Bhattoji's SiddhantaKaumudi got its hold, and it had a number of commentaries written upon it especially by his descendants and members of his family which became well-known as the Sesa family of grammarians. The Prakriyakaumudi is named कृष्णर्किकरप्राक्रिया also. (2) There was a grammarian named Ramacandra who wrote a small treatise on grammar named विदग्धबोध. (3) There was another grammarian of the same name who was a pupil of Nagesabhatta of the eighteenth century and who wrote a small commentary called वृतिसंग्रह on Panini's Astadhyayi. (4) There was also another Ramacandra who was a scholar of Vedic grammar and who wrote the commentary named ज्योत्स्ना on the Vjasaneyi-Pratisakhya.
rāmacandrasarasvatīpupil of वासुदेवेन्द्रसरस्वती of the sixteenth century who has written a gloss named विवरण on the Mahabhasyapradipa of Kaiyata.
rāmabhadra dīkṣitason of यज्ञराम दीक्षित, a grammarian of Tanjore of the seventeenth century who wrote a commentary on the Paribhasavrtti of Siradeva named परिभाषावृत्तिव्याख्या. He has also written the ' life of Patanjali' ( पतञ्जलिचरित ) and many miscellaneous works, such as उणादिमणिदीपिका and others.
rāmarāmaa grammarian who has written a commentary on the Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva.
rāmasiṃhṛvarmāpossibly the same king of Sringaberapura who patronised Nagesabhatta. He is said to have written some Small comments on " the Ramayana and a small grammar work named धातुरत्नमञ्जरी.
rāśiusually used in the sense of a collection or a heap or a lunar constellation; the word is often used after the word वर्ण when it means the traditional collection of letters or the alphabet. The words अक्षरराशि, ब्रह्मराशि and अक्षरसमाम्नाय are also used in the same sense.
rudradevaa grammarian who has written a commentary on the Vaiyākaraņa-Siddhānta-Bhūșaņa of Koņdabhațța.
rūpamālā(1)an elementary work on Sanskrit grammar composed by Vimalasarasvatī, in which the Sūtras of Pāņini are arranged in different topics many of which are called माला, such as अजन्तमाला, हलन्तमाला, छान्दसमाला, अव्ययमाला and so on.(2) the name रूपमाला is also found given to a work giving collections of formed words written by Puņyanandana.
rūpasiddhiliterally the formation of words; the name रूपासिद्वि is given to a small literary work on the formation of words written by Dayānandasarasvatī.
rūpāvatāraa well-known work on word formation written by धर्मकीर्ति a Jain grammarian of the twelfth century. Scholars believe that this work was the first work of the form of topics which was taken as a model by the authors of the Prakriyākaumudī and the Siddhāntakaumudī.
re(रेश्)personal ending in Vedic Literature, substituted for त of the प्रथमपुरुष ( 3rd person. ) plural in the Perfect tense; confer, compare लिटस्तझयो रेश् इरेच् P. III. 4.81.
l(1)a consonant of the dental class which is a semi-vowel ( यण् ) with liquid contact in the mouth, and which is inaspirate ( अल्पप्राण ),voiced ( घोष ) and both nasalised and unnasalised; (2) name in general ( लकार ) given to the personal endings applied to roots in the ten tenses and moods which take different substitutes ति, त:, अन्ति et cetera, and others and have various modifications and augments in the different tenses and moods; (3) substituted as a semi-vowel ( यण् ) for the vowel ऌ followed by any other vowel in the euphonic combinations; (4)applied at the beginning of nontaddhita affixes as a mute letter indicating the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare लिति; P. VI. 1.193; ( 5 ) substituted for त्, थ्, द्, घ् or न् before ल्, confer, compare P.VIII.4. 60; (6) substituted under certain conditions for the consonant र् (a) of the root कृप्, (b) of prefixes प्र and परा before the root अय्, (c) of the root गॄ in frequentative forms and optionally before affixes beginning with a vowel, and (d ) of the word परि before घ and अङ्क; confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 18 to 22. _ ल (1) consonant ल्; see ल् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.' (2) a general term usually used by ancient grammarians to signifyलोप (elision or disappearance) of a letter or a syllable or a word; confer, compare सर्वसादेर्द्विगोश्च ल: | सवार्तिक:, द्वितन्त्र: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.2.60; (3) taddhita affix. affix ल added to the word क्लिन्न when चिल् and पिल् are substituted for the word क्लिन्न; e.g, चिल्लः, पिल्ल: confer, compare P. V. 2.33 Vārt 2.
lakṣaṇasaṃgrahaa work on grammar written by a grammarian named रत्नेश.
lakṣaṇāimplication; potentiality of implication; this potentiality of words viz. लक्षणा is not recognised by grammarians as a potentiality different from the अभिधाशक्ति or the power of denotation. Later grammarians, however, like the Ālamkārikas, have used the word in the sense of potentiality of implication as different from that of denotation; confer, compare अन्त्यशब्द लक्षणा न च Paribhāşenduśekhara.
lakṣmaṇasūria grammarian who has written a booklet on the six dialects, which is named षड्भाषाचन्द्रिका.
lakṣmīnṛsiṃhaa grammarian of the eighteenth century who has written (1) Siddhāntakaumudīvilāsa, a commentary on the Siddhāntakaumudī and (2)Triśikhā, a commentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāşenduśekhara.
laghukaumudīknown as लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी also, an abridged work based upon the Siddhāntakaumudi of Bhațțojī Dīkşita, written by Bhațțojī's pupil Varadarāja. The work is very valuable and helpful to beginners in grammar. It has got the same topics as the Siddhāntakaumudī, but arranged differently. The work, named सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी is the same as लघुसिध्दान्तकौमुदी. Possibly सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी was the original name given by the author.
laghunyāsa(1)short writing, brief putting in, brief expression; confer, compare सोयमेवं लघुना न्यासेन सिद्धे et cetera, and others; (2) the word is given as a name to a grammatical work, written by देवेन्द्रसूरि on the शब्दानुशासन of Hemacandra, possibly in contrast with the बृहन्न्यास written by Hemacandra himself or with Kāśikāvivaranapańjikā popularly called न्यास written by Jinendrabuddhi on the Kāśikāvŗti of Jayāditya and Vāmana. See न्यास.
laghuparibhāṣāvṛttian independent work on Paribhāşās written by Puruşottamadeva in the twelfth century A. D. called लघुपरिभाषावृत्ति in contrast with the बृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति of सीरदेव. The Vŗtti is named ' Lalitā ' also, by the author.
laghuprakriyāname of a grammar treatise based on the Sabdānuśāsana of Hemacandra written by Vinayavijaya where the sūtras of Hemacandra are arranged in different topics as in the Siddhāntakaumudī of Bhoțțojī.
ghumañjūṣāname of an independent work on the meaning of words and their interpretation written by Nāgeśa of which the परमलघुमञ्जूषा is a popular short extract by the author himselfeminine.
laghuśabdaratnaname of a commentary on Bhațțoji's Manoramā by his grandson Hari Dīkşita, which is generally read together with the Manoramā, by students upto the end of the Kāraka Chapter after they have completely read and mastered the Siddhāntakaumudī. The commentary is called लघुशब्दरत्न which dlfferentiates it from the बृहच्छब्दरत्न written by the same author viz. Hari Dīkşita.
laghuśabdenduśekharaname of a commentary on Bhațțojī's Siddhāntakaumudī written by Nāgeśa Bhațța, the stalwart Grammarian of the eighteenth century. The work is named लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर which differentiates it from the author's another work बृहच्छब्देन्दुशेखर of which the former is an abridgment. As the study of the Laghuśabdenduśekhara is very common and as the Bŗhatśabdenduśekhara is seldom studied, it is always the Laghuśabdenduśekhara that is understood by the simple and popular name Śekhara.
laṅname given to the affixes of the imperfect tense; confer, compare अनद्यतने लङ् P. III. 2.111, explained by Bhațțoji as भूतानद्यतने लङ् स्यात् in his SiddhāntaKaumudi.
laṭgeneral personal ending applied to roots (1 ) to show the present time for which the personal endings ति त:...महि are substituted for the formation of verbs and अत् ( शतृ ) and आन or मान ( शानच् ) for the formation of the present participle; (2) to show past time when the indeclinable स्म is used in the sentence along with the verbal form or when the indeclinables ननु, न, नु, पुरा, यावत्, कदा, कर्हि et cetera, and others are used along with the verbal form under specific conditions; e. g. कटं करोति देवदत्त:, यजति स्म युधिष्ठिर:, अहं नु करोमि, वसन्तीह पुरा छात्रा:, यावद् भुङ्क्ते et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. III. 2.118-123, III. 3.4-9.
lalitāvṛttiname given to the Paribhāșāvŗtti written by Purușottamadeva, a famous grammarian of the Eastern branch of Pāņini's system which prevailed in Bengal from the eighth to the end of the twelfth century A.D. See पुरुषोत्तमदेव.
lādeśasubstitutes तिप्, तस् झि (अन्ति) सिप् .....महिङ् for ल्, signifying the ten ल् affixes or lakaras लट्, लिट्, लुट् et cetera, and others, applied to roots in the senses of the different tenses and moods; confer, compare P.III.4.78.
liṅgeneral term for the affixes called लिङ् (optative) which includes the potential ( विधिलिङ् ) and the conditional ( अाशीर्लिङ् ) affixes; .confer, compare विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्र्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ् and अाशिषि लिङ्लोटौ P. III. 3.161 and 173.
liṅga(1)sign or characteristic mark; generally the mute letter prefixed or suffixed to roots,affixes, or augments and their substitutes with a specific purpose; confer, compare किंचिल्लिङ्गमासज्य वक्ष्यामि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on I.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).7, अवयवे कृतं लिङ्ग समुदायस्य विशेषकं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.62 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5; (2) proof, evidence ( प्रमाण ); the word is often used in the Paribhāșendușekhara and other works in connection with a rule or part of a rule quoted as an evidence to deduce some general dictum or Paribhāșā; (3) gender; confer, compare लिङ्ग स्त्रीलिङ्गपुंलिङ्गनपुंसकानि Kāś. on P. II. 3. 46; confer, compare also प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम्. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa.Pari.71.The gender of a word in Sanskrit language does not depend on any specific properties of a thing; it simply depends on the current usage; confer, compare लोकाश्रयत्वाल्लिङ्गस्य which is often quoted in the Mahābhāsya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.36, II.2.29, II.4.12, IV. 1.3, V.3.66, V.4.68, VIII.1.15. For details see Mahābhāșya on P.IV.1. 3 where after a long enlightening discussīon the definition संस्त्यानप्रसवौ लिङ्गम् is given.
liṅgavyatyayatransposition of genders, as noticed often in Vedic language; e. g. मधोर्गृह्लाति or मधोस्तृप्ताः for मधुन:; confer, compare M.Bh. on P. I. 4.9.
liṅpratyayārthasense of the optative and the potential moods given or expressed by affixes under the common name लिङ् prescribed by PIII.3.161, 164, 173.
liṭan affix of the perfect tense; confer, compare परोक्षे लिट् P.III.2.115 for which the specific affixes णल्, अतुस् उस् et cetera, and others are substituted after roots which take Parasmaipada affixes. Before the lit affixes, a monosyllabic root is reduplicated while dissyllabic roots and denominative and other secondary roots, formed by adding an affix to an original root,take the affix अाम् after which all 'liț' personal endings are dropped and the forms of the roots कृ,भू and अस् with the necessary personal-endings, are placed immediately after the word ending in अाम् , but often with the intervention of a word or more in the Vedic language and rarely in the classical language; confer, compare तं पातयां प्रथममास पपात पश्चात् ; confer, compare कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि P.III.I. 35 to 42.
luṅan affix applied to a root, showing action of immediate past time as contrasted with affixes called लिट् or लङ्. The affix लुङ् is found used, however, in the sense of the past time in general, and irrespective of time in Vedic Literature; confer, compare छन्दसि लुङ्लङ्लिटः P. III. 4.6. The conjugational affixes ति, त:, et cetera, and others are substituted for लुङ् as for the lakāras of other tenses and moods and the distinguishing sign or विकरण is added to a root before the affix called लुङ्; confer, compare च्लि लुङि and the following P. III. 1.43 et cetera, and others
leṭa general term for the affixes of the Vedic subjunctive, the usual personal-endings ति, तस् et cetera, and others being substituted for लेट् as in the case of other tenses and moods. The augments अट् and आट् are sometimes prefixed to the लेट् affix and the sign ( विकरण ) स् ( सिप् ) is sometimes added to the roots. The forms of लेट् are to be arrived at as they are found actually used in Vedic language, even by placing personal-endings of a person or number different from what is actually requiredition
v(1)fourth letter of the class of consonants headed by य्, which are looked upon as semi-vowels; व् is a dental, soft, non-aspirate consonant pronounced as ब् in some provinces and written also sometimes like ब्, especially when it stands at the beginning of a word; (2) substitute for उ which is followed by a vowel excepting उ; e. g, मधु+अरि: = मध्वरि:; confer, compare इको यणचि P. VI. I. 77; (3) the consonant व्, which is sometimes uttered with very little effort when it is at the end of a word and followed by a vowel or a semivowel, or a fifth, fourth or third consonant or the consonant ह्. In such cases it is called लघूच्चारण; confer, compare यस्योच्चारणे जिह्वाग्रोपाग्रमध्यमूलानां शैथिल्यं जायते स लघूच्चारण: S. K. on P.VIII.3. 18;(4) solitary remnant of the affixes क्विप्,क्विन्, ण्वि and the like, when the other letters which are mute are dropped and the affix क्वप् or the like becomes a zero affix. This व् also is finally dropped; confer, compare वेरपृक्तस्य P. VI.1.67.
v(1)the semivowel व्: see व्; (2) personal-ending substituted for वस् in the perfect ( लिट् ) first person (उत्तमपुरुष), and in the present tense in the case of the root विद्; confer, compare परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्० and विदो लटो वा. P. III. 4.82,83; (3) krt affix क्विप् , क्विन् or वि of which only व् remains; confer, compare अनिगन्तोञ्चतौ वप्रत्यये P. VI. 2.52; confer, compare also विष्वग्देवयोश्र्च टेरद्यञ्चतौ वप्रत्यये VI.3.92.the affix is mentioned as वप्रत्यय by Panini, but, in fact, it is व् , अ being added for ease in pronunciation; (4) taddhita affix. affix in the sense of possession added along with the other affixes इन् , इक, and वत् to the word केश and to some other words such as मणि, हिरण्य, राजी, अर्णस् et cetera, and others as also to गाण्डी and अजग; confer, compare P. V. 2. 109, 110.
vatinirdeśaspecific statement by putting the word वत् for the sake of extended application ( अतिदेश ) ; exempli gratia, for example ब्राह्मणवदधीते: confer, compare स तर्हि वतिनिदेश: कर्तव्यः । न ह्यन्तरेण वतिमातदेशो गम्यते । M.Bh.on P. I.1.23 Vart. 4.
varaor वरच् krt affix वर applied to the roots स्था, ईश्, भास्, पिस् and कस्,as also to the intensive base of या in the sense of a habituated agent; e. g. स्थावर, ईश्वर, यायावर et cetera, and others confer, compare स्थेशभासपिसकसो वरच् ) यश्च यडः P. III. 2. 175, 176.
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
varavarṇinīname of a commentary on the Paribhsendusekhara written by Guruprasada Sastri, a reputed grammarian of the present cenutry.
varṇikuberanāthaor वर्णिकुवेरानन्द an old writer on grammar who has written a work named शब्दविवरण on the meanings of words. The work forms a part of his bigger work दानभागवत. Both the works are incomplete. The शब्दविवरण is based mostly upon ancient grammar works of Patanjali Vararuci, Varttikakara, Sarvavarman, Bhartrhari and others.
vartamānathe present tense: cf वर्तमाने लट् P.III.2.123; confer, comparealso क्तस्य च वर्तमाने PII 3.67;also वर्तमानसामीप्ये वर्तमानवद्वा P. III. 3.131.
vartamānāa term used by ancient grammarians for the present tense, along with the term वर्तमान also; confer, compare यदा हि बुद्धिकर्म तदा वर्तमाना भाबष्यति, M.Bh. on P. III.3.133 Vart.8.
varsvyaor वर्त्य gingival, produced at the gums; the word वर्स्व is probably the correct word meaning the root of the teeth or gums; the word वर्स was also used in the same sense as वर्स्व from which the word वर्स्य could be derivedition बर्स्व्य and बर्स्य are only the variant pronnnciations of वर्स्व्य and वर्स्य.The word वर्त्स्य, with त् inserted between र् and स् , is given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. as explained by Uvvata from वर्त्स. It is very likely that वर्त्स is wrongly written for वर्स्व or वर्स।
a term often used in the sutras of Panini and others,' to show the optional application of a rule: confer, compare न वेति विभाषा P.I.2.44: confer, compare also वा गम:I.2.13 et cetera, and others See विभाषा.
vākyaa sentence giving an idea in a single unit of expression consisting of the verb with its karakas or instruments and adverbs; confer, compareअाख्यातं साब्ययं सकारकं सकारकविशेषणं वाक्यसंज्ञं भवतीति वक्तव्यम् | साव्ययम् | उच्चैः पठति | सकारकम् | ओदनं पचति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 10. Regarding the different theoretical ways of the interpretation of a sentence see the word शाब्दबोध. For details, see वाक्यपदीय II. 2 where the different definitions of वाक्य are given and the अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट is established as the sense of a sentence.
vākyakāṇḍaname given to the second chapter of Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya in which problems regarding the interpretation of a sentence are fully discussedition
vākyapadīname of a work on the denotation of words in verse-form with a comentary of his own written by a grammarian named गङ्गादास. The name वाक्यपदी is confounded with वाक्यपदीय of Bhartrhari through mistake.
vākyapadīyaa celebrated work on meanings of words and sentences written by the famous grammarian Bhartrhari ( called also Hari ) of the seventh century. The work is looked upon as a final authority regarding the grammatical treatment of words and sentences,for their interpretation and often quoted by later grammarians. It consists of three chapters the Padakanda or Brahmakanda, the Vakyakanda and the Samkirnakanda, and has got an excellent commentary written by Punyaraja and Helaraja.
vākyapadīyaṭīkāname of a commentary on Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya written by Punyaraja on the first and the second Kanda. Some scholars hold the view that the commentary on the first knda was written by Bhartrhari himselfeminine.
vākyaparisamāpticompletion of the idea to be expressed in a sentence or in a group of sentences by the wording actually given, leaving nothing to be understood as contrasted with वाक्यापरिसमाप्ति used in the Mahabhasya: confer, compare वाक्यापरिसमाप्तेर्वा P.I.1.10 vart. 4 and the Mahabhasya thereon. There are two ways in which such a completion takes place,singly and collectively; cf प्रत्येकं वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः: illustrated by the usual example देवदत्तयज्ञदत्तविष्णुमित्रा भोज्यन्ताम् where Patanjali remarks प्रत्येकं ( प्रत्यवयवं) भुजिः परिसमाप्यते; cf also समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः where Patajali remarks गर्गा: शतं दण्ड्यन्ताम् | अर्थिनश्च राजानो हिरण्येन भवन्ति न च प्रत्येकं दण्डयन्ति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P.I.1.1Vart.12: cf also M.Bh. on P.I.1.7, I.2.39, II.2.l et cetera, and others वाक्यप्रकाश a work on the interpretation of sentences written with a commentary upon it by उदयधर्ममुनि of North Gujarat who lived in the seventeenth century A.D.
vākyabhedaa serious fault of expression when a sentence is required to be divided into two sentences for the sake of its proper interpretation: cf केचिद्वा सुप्यापिशलेरित्यनुवर्तयन्ति तद्वाक्य भेदेन सुब्धातौ विकल्पं करोति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. onP.VI. 1.94: cf also तद्धि ( स्थानेग्रहणं ) तृतीयया विपरिणमय्य वाक्यभेदेन स्थानिन: प्रसङ्गे जायमानः et cetera, and others Par. Sek. on Pari. 13.
vākyaśeṣacomplement of a sentence: something reguired to be understood to complete the sense of a sentence generally according to the context confer, compareकल्प्यो हि वाक्यशेषो वाक्यं वक्तर्यघीनं हि । M.Bh. on P. I. 1.57 Vart. 6, confer, compare कामचारश्च वतिनिर्देशे वाक्यशेषं समर्थयितुंम् | तद्यथा । उशीनखन्मद्रेषु गावः । सन्ति न सन्तीति i मातृवदस्याः कलाः ! सन्तिं न सन्तीति ! M.Bh. on P.I.3.62.
vākyasaṃskārapakṣathe grammarian's theory that as the individual words have practically no existence as far as the interpretation or the expression of sense is concerned, the sentence alone being capable of conveying the sense, the formation of individual words in a sentence' is explained by putting them in a sentence and knowing their mutual relationship. The word गाम् cannot be explained singly by showing the base गो and the case ending अम् unless it is seen in the sentence गाम् अानय; confer, compare यथा वाक्यसंस्कारपक्षे कृष्णादिसंबुद्धयन्त उपपदे ऋधेः क्तिनि कृते कृष्ण ऋध् ति इति स्थिते असिद्धत्वात्पूर्वमाद्गुणे कृते अचो रहाभ्यामिति द्वित्वं .. Pari. Bhaskara Pari. 99The view is put in alternation with the other view, viz. the पदसंस्कारपक्ष which has to be accepted in connection with the गौणमुख्यन्याय; cf पदस्यैव गौणार्थकत्वस्य ग्रहेण अस्य ( गौणमुख्यन्यायस्य) पदकार्यविषयत्वमेवोचितम् | अन्यथा वाक्यसंस्कारपक्षे तेषु तदनापत्तिः Par. Sek. on Pari. 15, The grammarians usually follow the वाक्यसंकारपक्ष.
vākyārthathe meaning of a sentence, which comes as a whole composite idea when all the constituent words of it are heard: confer, compare पदानां सामान्ये वर्तमानानां यद्विशेषेSवस्थानं स वाक्यार्थ:, M.Bh. on P.I.2.45 Vart. 4. According to later grammarians the import or meaning of a sentence ( वाक्यार्थ ) flashes out suddenly in the mind of the hearer immediately after the sentence is completely uttered, The import is named प्रतिभा by Bhartrhari, confer, compare Vakyapadiya II.45; confer, compare also वाक्यार्थश्च प्रतिभामात्रविषय: Laghumanjusa. For details and the six kinds of vakyartha, see Vakyapadiya II.154.
vākyaikadeśapart of a sentence which sometimes, on the strength of the context, conveys the whole meaning confer, compare दृश्यन्ते हिं वाक्येषु वाक्येकदेशान् प्रयुञ्जाना: पदेषु च पदैकदेशान् | प्रविश पिण्डीम् | प्रविश तर्पणम् पदेषु पदकैदेशान् देवदत्तो दत्तः | सत्यभामा भामेति M.Bh. on P.I.1.45 Vart. 3.
vājasaneyeiprātiśākhyathe Pratisakhya work belonging to the Vajasaneyi branch of the White Yajurveda, which is the only Pratisakhya existing to-day representing all the branches of the Sukla Yajurveda. Its authorship is attributed to Katyayana, and on account of its striking resemblance with Panini's sutras at various places, its author Katyayana is likely to be the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. It is quite reasonable to expect that the subject matter in this Pratisakhya is based on that in the ancient Prtisakhya works of the same White school of the Yajurveda.The work has a lucid commentary called Bhasya written by Uvvata.
vāmananame of one of the joint authors of the well-known gloss or वृति upon the Sutras of Panini, who lived in the seventh century A. D. It cannot be ascertained which portion of the Kasika was written by Vamana and which by his colleague जयादित्य, There was another famous scholar of Kashmir by name Vamana who flourished in the tenth century and who wrote an independent grammar treatise विश्रान्तविद्याधर, together with उणादसूत्रवृत्ति and लिङ्गानुशासन.
vārarucakārikāan ancient grammarwork in verse believed to have been written by an ancient scholar of grammar, who, if not the same as Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas, was his contemporary and to whom the authorship of the Unadi Sutras is ascribed by some scholars. See वररुचि.
vārttikaa statement which is as much authoritative as the original statement to which it is given as an addition for purposes of correction, completion or explanation. The word is defined by old writers in an often-guoted verseउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तनां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते | तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिण:|This definition fully applies to the varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. The word is explained by Kaiyata as वृत्तौ साधु वार्त्तिकम् which gives strength to the supposition that there were glosses on the Sutras of Panini of which the Varttikas formed a faithful pithy summary of the topics discussedition The word varttika is used in the Mahabhasya at two places only हन्तेः पूर्वविप्रविषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापित: M.Bh. on P.III. 4.37 and अपर आह् यद्वार्त्तिक इति M.Bh. on P. II.2.24 Vart. 18. In अपर अहृ यद्वार्त्तिक इति the word is contrasted with the word वृत्तिसूत्र which means the original Sutra (of Panini ) which has been actuaIly quoted, viz. संख्ययाव्ययासन्नाo II.2. 25. Nagesa gives ' सूत्रे अनुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिक्रत्वम् as the definition of a Varttika which refers only to two out of the three features of the Varttikas stated a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. If the word उक्त has been omitted with a purpose by Nagesa, the definition may well-nigh lead to support the view that the genuine Varttikapatha of Katyayana consisted of a smaller number of Varttikas which along with a large number of Varttikas of other writers are quoted in the Mahabhasya, without specific names of writers, For details see pages 193-223 Vol. VII Patanjala Mahabhasya, D.E, Society's Edition.
vikampitaa fault in the pronunciation of vowels, the utterance being attended with a kind of tremor; confer, compare ग्रस्तं निरस्त...विकम्पितम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). at the end of Ahnika 1.
vikaraṇaan affix placed between a root and the personal ending, for showing the specific tense or mood or voice to convey which, the personal ending is applied; e. g. the conjugational signs शप् , श्यन् , श्रु, श, श्नम्, उ, श्ना and यक्, आम् , as also स्य, तास् , सिप् , अाम् and च्लि with its substitutes. Although the term विकरण is used by ancient grammarians and freely used by the Mahabhsyakara in connection with the affixes, mentioned in the sutras of Panini, such as शप् , श्यन् and others, the term is not found in the Sutras of Panini. The vikaranas are different from the major kinds of the regular affixes तिङ्, कृत्य and other similar ones. The vikaranas can be called कृत्; so also, as they are mentioned in the topic (अधिकार) of affixes or Pratyayas,they hold the designation ' pratyaya '. For the use of the word विकरण see M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12, III, 1.31 and VI. 1.5. The term विकरण is found . in the Yājñavalkya Siksa in the sense of change, ( confer, compare उपधारञ्जनं कुर्यान्मनोर्विकरणे सति ) and possibly the ancient grammarians used it in that very sense as they found the root कृ modified as करु or कुरु, or चि as चिनु, or भू as भव before the regular personal endings तिप् , तस् et cetera, and others
vikṛtivallīṭīkāname of a commentary on विकृतिवल्ली (which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) written by a Vedic scholar गङ्गाधर.
vidhivākyaan injunctive statement or sentence.
vidheyakavākyatāforming one single statement or idea with the prescriptive statement: union with the prescriptive rule so as to form one rule with it. The term is used in connection with प्रतिषेध or prohibitive assertions which have to be explained in combination with the prescriptive sentences or vidhivakyas; confer, compare निषेधवाक्यानामपि निषेध्यविशेषाकाङ्क्षत्वाद्विध्येकवाक्यतयैवान्वयः Par. Sek. on Pari. 2, 3.
vinayavijayaa.]ain grammarian who has written a gloss on हेमलधुप्रक्रिया.
viprarājendraa grammarian who has written पाणिनिसूत्रविवरण, a gloss on the Sūtras of Pāṇini.
vibhaktyarthanirṇayaa general term given to a chapter on case-affixes as also to treatises discussing the sense and relations of case-affixes. There is a treatise of this name written by Giridhara and another written by Jayakṛṣna Maunī.
vibhaktyarthaprakāśaa work on syntax of words written by a grammarian named Kamalākarabhaṭṭa.
vibhajyānvākhyānaa method of forming a word, or of arriving at the complete form of a word by putting all the constituent elements of the word such as the base, the affix, the augment, the modification, the . accent, et cetera, and others one after another and then arriving at the form instead of completing the formation stage by stage; e. g. in arriving at the form स्नौघ्नि the wording स्नौघ्न + अ +ई is to be considered as it stands and not स्नौघ्न + अ = स्नौघ्न and then स्नौघ्न +ई. The विभज्यान्वाख्यानपक्ष in connection with the formation of a word corresponds to the पदसंस्कारपक्ष in connection with the formation of a sentence.
vibhāga(1)lit, division, splitting; the splitting of a sentence into its constituent parts viz. the words; , the splitting of a word into its constituent parts viz. the base, the affix, the augments and the like: (2) understanding or taking a thing separately from a group of two or more; confer, compareअवश्यं खल्वपि विभज्योपपदग्रहणं कर्तव्यं यो हि बहूनां विभागस्तदर्थम् ! सांकाश्यकेभ्यश्च पाटलिपुत्रकेभ्यश्च माथुरा अभिरूपतराः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.V.3.57: (3) splitting of a Saṁhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada text: confer, compare अथादावुत्तरे विभागे ह्रस्वं व्यञ्जनपरः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.III.l, where विभाग is explained as पदविभाग by the commentator confer, compare also R.Pr.XVII.15; (4) the capacity of the Kārakas (to show the sense) confer, compare कारकशक्तिः विभागः Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on Kāś.I.2.44.
vimalamatian old grammarian who is believed to have written a gloss named भागवृत्ति on Pāṇini's Sūtras to which the grammarians Purusottamadeva, Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiand others of the twelfth century refer. Some scholars say that भागवृत्ति was written by भर्तृहरि; but it is not feasible, as there is a reference to Māghakāvya in भागवृति. In books on grammar,. especially of the Eastern School in the 11th and the 12th century, there are several quotations from the Bhāgavṛtti. See भागवृत्ति.
vivakṣāintention or desire, generally of the speaker with regard to the sense to be conveyed by his words; the words वक्तुर्विवक्षा are often used by grammarians in this sense: confer, compare विवक्षातः कारकाणि (Paribhāṣā)confer, compare also कथम् । विवक्षातः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.66-67, I.2.64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 53, IV.1.3: confer, compare also विवक्षाधीना शब्दव्युत्पत्तिः Durgh. Vr. II.2.8; confer, compare also इतिकरणो विवक्षार्थ: Kāś. on P.II. 2.27, IV.2.21, IV.2.55,57, et cetera, and others
vivaraṇacritical comment; a name given by a writer of commentary works to a critical commentary work written by him; e. g. काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका ( न्यास ) by Jinendrabuddhi, भाष्यप्रदीपविवरण ( उद्द्योत ) by Nāgeśa, as also लघुशब्देन्दुशेखरविवरण by Bhāskaraśastrī Abhyankar.
vivāraname given to an external effort in the production of a sound when the vocal chords of the glottis or larynx are extended; confer, compare कण्ठबिलस्य विकासः विवारः Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.9. confer, compare also विवरणं कण्ठस्य विस्तरणम् | स एव विवाराख्य: बाह्यः प्रयत्न: | तस्मिन्सति श्वासे नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नः कियते | तद्ध्वनिसंसर्गादघोषो नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नो जायते इति शिक्षायां स्मर्यते Bhāṣya on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 5.
vivṛtakaṇṭhaproduced by fully extending the chords of the throat. The first and the second classconsonants are described as विवृतकण्ठ; confer, compare तत्र वर्गाणां प्रथमद्वितीया विवृतकण्ठाः श्वासानुप्रदाना अघोषाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.9. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
viśvarūpaa grammarian of the sixteenth century who has written a small grammar treatise called विश्वरूपनिबन्ध.
viśveśvaratīrthaa grammarian who has written a gloss on the Siddhāntakaumudī.
viṣamapadavyākhyāor विषमी (1) a critical commentary on Nāgeśa's Laghuśabdenduśekhara written by Rāghavendrācārya Gajendragadkar of Satara who lived in the first half of the nineteenth century and who has also written a gloss named त्रिपथगा on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara; (2) name of a commentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Cidrūpāśraya: (3) name of a commentary on Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.
viṣṇupaṇḍitaa grammarian belonging to the famous Śeṣa family of grammarians, who has written a small treatise on Paribhāṣā or maxims of interpretation which he has named परिभाषाप्रक्राश.
viṣṇubhadṛ( विष्णुशास्त्री भट )a scholar of grammar of the latter half of the nineteenth century who has written learned commentaries on the works of Nāgeśa Bhaṭṭa, two of which viz. चिच्चन्द्रिका and विष्णुभट्टी are well known to scholars.
viṣṇubhaṭṭīname given to the commentary on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara written by Viṣṇubhaṭṭa. See विष्णुभट्ट् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
viṣṇumiśraa scholar of the Supadma system of grammar who has written a commentary named मकरन्द on the सुपद्मव्याकरण and also a commentary on the सुपद्मसमाससंग्रह.
vihāraexpansion of the position ( स्थान ) and the means of utterance ( करण ) of a sound beyond the necessary extent, which produces a fault of pronunciation, called व्यास; confer, compare विहारसंहारयेाव्यासपीडने । स्थानकरणयोर्विहारे विस्तारे व्यासो नाम दोषो जायते Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV 2.
vuk(1)augment वु added (a) to the word भ्रू after it, when the taddhita affix. affix ढक् ( एय ) in the sense of अपत्य is affixed to it; confer, compare भ्रुवो वुक् च P. IV.1.125; (b) to the root भू before an affix beginning with a vowel in the perfect and the aorist tenses; exempli gratia, for example बभूव, अभूवन् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. VI.4.88: (c) to the root सू in the Perfect third person. singular.; exempli gratia, for example ससूव, P.VII.4.74; (2) taddhita affix. affix अक applied to the word कन्था as seen in use in the Bannu ( वर्णु ) district; e. g. कान्थकम् , confer, compare P.IV.2.103.
vṛtādia class of roots headed by the root वृत् which take optionally the Parasmaipada affixes when the vikaraṇa स्य of the future tense and the conditional mood, or the desiderative vikaraṇa सन् is added to them; exempli gratia, for example वर्त्स्यति,वर्तिष्यते; अवर्त्स्यत्, अवर्तिष्यत्,; विवृत्सति, विवर्तिषते confer, compare Kāś. on P.I.3.92; confer, comparealso P.VII.2.59.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
vṛticandrikāname of a grammar work written by a grammarian Kāśinātha who also is believed to have written वर्णविवेकचन्द्रिका and वैयाकरणसर्वस्व.
vṛttidīpikāa treatise on the different ways in which the meaning is conveyed by words according to the conventions of grammarians,written by a grammarian Krisnabhatta surnamed Mauni.
vṛtisaṃgrahaname of a gloss on Panini's Astadhyayi written by Ramacandra.
vṛttisūtraa rule forming the basis of a vrtti, i. e. a rule on which glosses are written, as contrasted with वार्तिकसूत्र or वार्तिक a pithy Sutralike statement composed as an addition or a modification of the original Sutra; confer, compare केचित्तावदाहुर्यद् वृत्तिसूत्रे इति | संख्ययाव्ययासन्नादूराधिकसंख्यां: संख्येये ( P. II. 2.25 ) इति | M, Bh. on P. II. 2. 24,
vedalanguage of the Vedic Literature as contrasted with the term लॊकः; confer, compare नैव लोके न च वेदे अकारो विवृतोस्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Mahesvara Sutra; confer, compare also रक्षार्थं वेदानामध्येयं व्याकरणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).Ahnika 1. The term वैदिक referring to words found in Vedic language is also frequently used in the Mahabhasya. Panini, however, has used the term छन्दस्, मन्त्र and निगम, and not वेद, out of which the first term छन्दस् is often used; confer, compare बहुलं छन्दसि P. II. 4.39, 76: III, 2.88; V. 2.122; or छन्दसि च P. V. 1.67, V. 4.142, VI. 3.126. VI. l.34, VII. 1.8, et cetera, and others
vebarWEBER, ALBRECHT of Berlin, 1825-190l ]a sound scholar of Vedic Literature who has written many articles on Sanskrit Grammar in "Indische Studien."
vaidikīprakriyāname of that section of Bhattoji's Siddhantakaumudi which deals with Vedic peculiarities noticed by Panini in his sutras. There is a well-known commentary upon this section named सुबोधिनी written by Jayakrisna a famous grammar scholar of the Maunin family.
vaidikaprakriyāṭīkā(1)a commentary on the sutras of Panini dealing with the Vedic words and their peculiarities written by a grammarian named Murari; (2) a commentary on the section of Bhattoji's Siddhantakaumudi named वैदिकीप्रक्रिया written by Jayakrsna Maunin and named Subodhini.
vaidyanāthaVaidyanatha Payagunde, a famous grammarian of the eighteenth century, who was one of the chief pupils of Nagesa and who prepared a line of pupils at Varanasi. He has written learned commentaries on standard works on grammar, the principal ones being the Prabha on the Sabdakaustubha, the Bhavaprakasika on the Brhaccabdendusekhara, the Cidasthimala on the LaghuSabdendusekhara, the Kasika or Gada on the Paribhasendusekhara and an independent short treatise named Rapratyaya-khandana
vaiyākaraṇajīvātua term used for the grammar treatise written by Cangudasa which is also called Cangusutra or Canguvyakarana.
vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇaa well-known work on the grammatical interpretation of words written by Kondabhatta as an explanatory work (व्याख्यान) on the small work in verse consisting of only 72 Karikas written by his uncle Bhattoji Diksita. The treatise is also named Brihadvaiyakaranabhusana. A smaller work consisting of the same subjectmatter but omitting discussions, is written by the author for facilitating the understanding of students to which he has given the name Vaiyakarahabhusanasara. This latter work has got three commentary works written on it named Kasika, Kanti and Matonmajja and one more scholarly one Sankari, recently written by Shankar Shastri Marulkar.
vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāraṭīkāa commentary written on the well-known work on the sense of words and syntax written by Kondabhatta. There are many commentaries out of which, the well-known ones are (1) Darpana by Harivallabha, (2) Laghubhushanakanti by Gopaladeva, a pupil of Balambhatta Payagunde, and (3) Kasika by Harirama Kesava Kale and Sankari by Sankarasastri Marulakara
vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāravṛttia commentary on the Vaiyākaranabhusana, written by Mahānanda in the beginning of the nineteenth century.
vaiyākaraṇaśābdamālāवैयाकरणशब्दरत्नमाला a treatise on the use of words written as a helpful guide to Sanskrit writers, by a grammarian named Somayajin in 1848 A.D.
vaiyākaraṇaśābdabodhaimport of a sentence according to the grammarians, in which verbal activity occupies a predominant place, and the residing place of the subject as also that of the verbal activity is identical in the active voice, while the object and the verbal activity have got the same place of residence in the passive voice. The other auxiliaries of activity such as the instrument, location and the like, are connected with the verbal activity. The import of the sentence चैत्रः पचति, in short, can be expressed as चैत्रकर्तृका वर्तमानकालिकां पाकक्रिया.
vaiyākaraṇasarvasvaa small treatise on grammar written by a scholar of grammar named Kasinatha who has also written a few more small works वर्णविवेकचन्द्रिका, वृत्तिचन्द्रिका,धातुमञ्जरी etc
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakārikāa very scholarly work by Bhattoji Diksita on the interpretation of words and sentences, based upon the learned discussions on that subject introduced in the Mahabhasya, Vakyapadiya, Pradipa, et cetera, and others and discussed fully in his Sabdakaustubha by the author himselfeminine. The work although scholarly and valuable, is compressed in only 72 verses ( karikas ) and has to be understood with the help of the Vaiyakaranabhusana or BhuSansara written by Kondabhatta, the nephew of the author. See वैयाकरणभूषण and वैयाकरणभूषणसार.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudīan extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaumudīṭīkāor सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या a general name given to the large number of commentaries written by members of the line of pupils, and pupils of pupils of Bhattoji. The well-known among the commentaries are प्रौढमनोरमा by the author himself, तत्त्वबोधिनी by ज्ञानेन्द्रसरस्वती, सुबोधिनी by जयकृष्णभट्ट मौनी बालमनोरमा by वासुदेवदीक्षित, and crowning all, the लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेशभट्ट. The प्रौढमनोरमा has got a learned commentary written by हरिदीक्षित called लघुशब्दरत्न or शब्दरत्न, which also has on it commentaries named भावप्रक्राश by बाळंभट्ट and शब्दरत्नदीप by कल्याणमल्ल. The Laghusabdendusekhara has got commentaries reaching about ten in number.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntamañjūṣāa well-known work on the syntax and denotation of words written by Nagesabhatta which is popular by the name Laghumanjusha. The Paramalaghumanjusha is an abridgment of this work by the author himselfeminine.
vaiyāghrapadyaname of a treatise of grammar written in ten chapters by an ancient grammarian व्याघ्रपाद्; confer, compare दशकं वैयाघ्रपद्यम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P. IV 2.65. For details, see Vyakaranamahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's Ed. pp. 133, 134.
vyaṅkaṭasubbāśāsrīa grammarian who has written a grammar treatise named भाषामञ्जरीव्याकरण.
vyaṅgya(1)suggested sense as contrasted with the denoted sense; (2) the supreme or ultimate suggested sense viz. Sphota which is the ultimate sense of every sentence.
vyapadeśivadbhāvatreatment of a secon dary thing as the principal one, e g. a person or a thing, without any second or any others, looked upon as the first or the last; confer, compare व्यपदेशिवदेकस्मिन् कार्ये भवतीति वक्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.21. Vart. 2. The remark or expression व्यपदेशिवद्भावेन भविष्यति is found often given in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1 Vart 14; I.1.9, I.1.51 I,1.72: I.2.48 et cetera, and others For details see Par. Sek. Pari. 30,
vyapekṣāmutual relationship in sense, as obtaining between two different words ( पद ) connected with each other in a sentence, as contrasted with compositeness of sense as seen in two words joined into a compound word ( समास ) ; व्यपेक्षा is given as an alternative definition of the word सामर्थ्य along with एकार्थीभाव as the other one, in the Mahabhasya: e. g. there is व्यपेक्षा between सर्पिः and पिब in the sentence सर्पिष्पिब, but not in तिष्ठतु सर्पिः पिब त्वमुद्कम्: confer, compare तथेदमपरं द्वैतं भवति एकार्थाभावो वा सामर्थ्यं स्याद् व्यपेक्षा वेति ! Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II,1.1 ; cf, also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, VIII.3 44.
vyartha(l)useless, serving no purpose, superfluous; the word is usually used in the sense of useless or futile in connection with a rule or its part, which serves no purpose, its purpose or object being served otherwise; such words or rules have never been condemned as futile by commentators, but an attempt is made invariably by them to deduce something from the futile wording and show its necessity; confer, compare व्यर्थे सज्ज्ञापयति a remark which is often found in the commentary literature; confer, compare अन्यथा अन्तरङ्गत्वाद्दीर्घे कृत एव प्रत्ययप्राप्त्या तद्यर्थता स्पष्टैव । Par. Sek. Pari. 56; (2) possessed of various senses such as the words अक्षा: माषा: et cetera, and others: confer, compare व्यर्थेषु च मुक्तसंशयम् । M.Bh.on P.I.2.64 Vart. 52. The word व्यर्थ possibly stands for विविधार्थ in such cases. It appears that the word व्यर्थ in the sense of futile was rarely used by ancient grammarians; the word अनर्थक appears to have been used in its placcusative case. See Mahabhasya in which the word व्यर्थ does not occur in this sense while the word अनर्थक occurs at several places.
vyākaraṇacandrikāa short treatise on grammar written by Krsnacarya.
vyākaraṇadīpikāname of a short gloss or Vrtti on the Sutras of Panini written by a modern scholar of grammar Orambhatta of Varanasi.
vyākaraṇaprakāśaname of the commentary written by Mahamisra on Jinendrabuddhi's great work 'Kasikavivaranapanjika' or Nyasa.
vyākaraṇamahābhāṣyagūḍhārthadīpinīa brief commentary on the Mahabhasya, written by Sadasiva, son of Nilakantha and pupil of Kamalakara Diksita. The gloss confines itself to the explanations of obscure and difficult passages in the Mahabhasya and criticizes Kaiyata's explanations.
vyākaraṇamahābhāṣyapradīpavivaraṇa( )a gloss on the Mahabhasyapradipa of Kaiyata, written by ईश्वरानन्द, a pupil of सत्यानन्द; (2) a gloss on the Mahabhasyapradipa of Kaiyata by नारायण.
vyākaraṇaratnāvalīa short work on grammar written by विद्यारत्न गौरमॊदन. व्याकरणसंग्रह a small grammar work written by a grammar scholar Gangadhara which is based upon the Mugdhabodha of Bopadeva.
vyākaraṇasudhānighia gloss on the Sutras of Panini written by Visvesvara.
byāḍiname of an ancient grammarian with a sound scholarship in Vedic phonetics, accentuation,derivation of words and their interpretation. He is believed to have been a relative and contemporary of Panini and to have written a very scholarly vast volume on Sanskrit grammar named *Samgraha which is believed to have consisted of a lac of verses; confer, compare संग्रहो व्याडिकृतो लक्षसंख्ये ग्रन्थ: NageSa's Uddyota; confer, compare also इह पुरा पाणिनीये अस्मिन्व्याकरणे ब्याड्युपरचितं लक्षग्रन्थपरिमाणं निबन्धनमासीत् Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Tika. The work is not available at present. References to Vyadi or to his work are found in the Pratisakhya works, the Mahabhasya, the Varttikas, the Vakyapadiya and many subsequent treatises. A work on the Vyakarana Paribhasas, believed to have been written by Vyadi, is available by the name परिभाषासूचन which from its style and other peculiarities seems to have been written after the Varttikas, but before the Mahabhasya. Vyadi is well-known to have been the oldest exponent of the doctrine that words denote an individual object and not the genus. For details see pp. 136-8, Vol. 7 Vyakarana Mahabhasya DE. Society's Edition.
vyāsa(1)showing separately; separate expression as contrasted with समास; (2) fault of pronunciation of the type of unnecessarily extending the place of origin as also the instrument of the production of sound; confer, compare स्थानकरणयोर्विस्तारे व्यासो सो नाम दोषो जायते Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 2.
vhiṭne[ WHITNEY, WILLIAM DWIGHT, 1827-1894]a sound scholar of Vedic grammar who has, besides some books on Linguistic studies, written a work on Vedic Grammar and edited the Atharvaveda Pratisakhya.
śā(1)conjugational sign(विकरण) applied to the roots of the sixth conjugation ( तुदादिगण ) in all conjugational tenses and moods ( i, e. the present, the imperfect,the imperative and the potential ) before the personal-endings; confer, compare तुदादिभ्यः शः, P. III.1.77; this sign श ( अ ) has got the initial consonant श्, as an indicatory one, and hence this अ is a Sarvadhatuka affix, but, it is weak and does not cause गुण for the preceding vowel; ( 2 ) taddhita affix. affix श in the sense of possession applied to the words लोमन् and others; e. g. लोमश:, रोमशःconfer, compare P.V.2. 100; (3) krt affix (अ ) applied to the roots पा, घ्रा, ध्मा, धे and दृश् when preceded by a prefix,to the roots लिम्प्, विन्द् et cetera, and othersnot preceded by a prefix, and optionaily to दा and धा of the third conjugation in the sense of an agent'; exempli gratia, for example उत्पिबः, उत्पश्यः, लिम्प:, विन्दः दद:, दायः: confer, compare P.III.1.137-139.
śaṃkaraśāstrī( मारुलकर )a modern scholar of grammar who lived in Poona and did the work of teaching and writing commentaries. He has written a commentary mamed शांकरी on the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara of Kondabhatta.
śaktaendowed with शक्ति i. e. the potentiality to express the sense; potent to show the particular Sense.
śaktipotentiality of expressing the sense which is possessed by words permanently with them: denotative potentiality or denotation; this potentiality shows the senses,which are permanently possessed by the words, to the hearer and is described to be of one kind by ancient grammarian as contrasted with the two (अभिघा and लक्षणा) mentioned by the modern ones. It is described to be of two kinds-(a) स्मारिका शक्ति or recalling capacity which combines चैत्रत्व with पाक, and अनुभाविका शक्ति which is responsible for the actual meaning of a sentence. For details see Vakyapadiya III.
śakyawhich forms the object pointed out by means of the potentiality to the hearer by the word (id est, that is शब्द) which directly communicates the sense, in which case it is termed वाचक as contrasted with भेदक or द्योतक when the sense,which is of the type of संबन्ध is conveyed rather indirectly. This nice division into वाचकता and भेदकता was introduced clearly by भर्तृहरि: confer, compare Vakyapadtya Kanda 2.
śabarasvāmina grammarian to whom a metrical treatise on genders named लिङ्गानुशासन is ascribedition This शवरस्वामिन् was comparatively a modern grammarian who was given the title बालयोगीश्वर. This लिङ्गानुशासन has a commentary written by हृर्षवर्धन Evidently these grammarians शबरस्वामिन् and हृर्षवर्धन are different from the famous author of the मीमांसाभाष्य and the patron of the poet Bana respectively.
śabdakaustubhaa treatise on grammar, critically explaining and discuss ing the meaning of Panini's Sutras in the order of the author himselfeminine. the work is written by Bhattoji Diksita and is mainly based on the Mahabhasya.
śabdakaustubhaguṇaa short gloss on Bhatoji's Sabdakaustubha written by a grammarian named इन्द्रदत्तोपाध्याय
śabdakaustubhaṭīkāor शब्दकौस्तुभप्रभा a commentary on Bhattoji's Sabdakaustubha written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde.
śabdkaustubhavyākhyāa commentary on Bhattoji's Sabdakaustubha, named विषमपदव्याख्या a name probably given to a commentary written by Nagesa.
śabdadyotyatvathe indicatory power to show the sense; the word is used in connection with the potentiality to convey the sense possessed by the Nipatas.
śābdabodhaprakriyāa grammar treatise on the denotation and relation of words written by a grammarian ramed Ramakrsna.
śabdabhūṣaṇaname of a short gloss on the Sutras of Panini, written by Narayana Pandita.
śabdabhedanirūpaṇaname of a small grammatical work written by Ramacandra Diksita
śabdamañjarīname of a short grammar work written by Narayana Pandita.
śabdaratnaname of a scholarly gloss written by Haridiksita on the Manorama, a commentary by Bhattoji Diksita on his own Siddhantakaumudi. The proper name of the commentary is लघुशब्दरत्न of which शब्दरत्न is an abridged form.The commentary लघुशब्दरत्न is generally studied along with the Manorama by students.There is a bigger work named बृहच्छब्दरत्न written by Hari Diksita, of which the लधुशद्वरत्न is an abridgment.
śabdaratnaṭīkāknown by the name भावप्रकाशिका, a commentary on Hari Diksita's Sabdaratna, written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde.
śabdaratnadīpaa commentary on the Laghusabdaratna written by a grammarian named Kalyanamalla.
śabdavivaraṇaa grammar work on the meaning of words and how it is conveyed, written by a grammarian named वर्णिकुबेरानन्द The work forms a part of his bigger work दानभागवत. See वर्णिकुबेरानन्द,
śabdavyutpattikaumudīa small treatise on the derivation of words written by a grammarian named RajaramaSastrin.
śabdasattvaprakāśaa work on grammar said to have been written by a grammarian named इन्द्रदत्त.
śabdsādhyaprayogaa grammar work on the formation of words written by a grammarian named रमानाथशर्मा.
śabdānuśāsanaliterally science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentence. The word is used in connection with standard works on grammar which are complete and self-sufficient in all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned features. Patanjali has begun his Mahabhasya with the words अथ शब्दानुशासनम् referring possibly to the vast number of Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and hence the term शब्दानुशासन according to him means a treatise on the science of grammar made up of the rules of Panini with the explanatory and critical varttikas written by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras.The word शब्दानुशासन later on, became synonymons with Vyakarana and it was given as a title to their treatises by later grammarians, or was applied to the authoritative treatise which introduced a system of grammar, similar to that of Panini. Hemacandra's famous treatise, named सिद्धहैमचन्द्र by the author,came to be known as हैमशब्दानुशासन. Similarly the works on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्तिशाकटायन and देवनन्दिन् were called शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and जैनेन्द्र' शब्दानुशासन respectively.
śabdāmṛtaa work, explanatory of the Sutras of Panini, written by a grammarian named विप्रराजेन्द्र.
śabdenduśekharaa popular name given to the Laghusabdendusekhara written by Nagesabhatta. See लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर.
śarvavarmāa reputed grammarian who is believed to have been a contemporary of the poet Gunadhya in the court of Satavahana. He wrote the Grammar rules which are named the Katantra Sutras which are mostly based on the Sutras of Panini. In the grammar treatise named 'the Katantra Sutra' written by Sarvavarman the Vedic section and all the intricacies and difficult elements are carefully and scrupulously omitted by him, with a view to making his grammar useful for beginners and students of average intelligence.
śāṃkari(1)name of a glo:s on Kondabhatta's Vaiyakaranabhusanasara by Samkara; (2) name of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesa written by Sankarabhatta; (3) The Vyakarana vidya or instructions in Grammar given by God Siva to Panini on which the Siksa of Panini has been basedition
śākaṭāyanavyākaraṇathe treatise on grammar written by sakatayana। See शाकटायन.
śākaṭāyanaśabdānuśāsananame of the treatise on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्ति-शाकटायन.
śākalaa word frequently used in the Mahabhasya for a grammatical operation or injunction ( विधि ) which forms a specific feature of the grammar of शाकल्य, viz. that the vowels इ, उ,ऋ, and लृ remain without phonetical combination and a shortening of them, if they are long;confer, compareइकोsसवर्णे शाकल्यस्य ह्रस्वश्च P.VI. 1. 127; शाकल्यस्य इदं शाकल्यम् ।; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.VI.1.77 VI.1.125,VI. 1.27;VI.2.52, VII.3.3 and VIII. 2.108; (2) pupils of शाकल्य; confer, compare शाकल्यस्य छात्राः शाकलाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV.I.18;(3) a village in the Vahika district; confer, compare शाकलं नाम वाहीकग्राम: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.104 Vart. 3.
śākalyaname of an ancient grammarian and Vedic scholar who is supposed to have revised the Vedic texts and written their Pada-pātha. He is often quoted by Pāṇini and the writers of the Prātiśākhya works: confer, compare शाकल्यस्य संहितामनुप्रावर्षत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.84; also on P.I.1.18, IV.1.18; confer, compare also उपचारं लक्षणतश्च सिद्धं अाचार्या व्यालिशाकल्यगार्ग्या: R.Pr.XIII.12.
śābdabodhaverbal interpretation; the term is generally used with reference to the verbal interpretation of a sentence as arising from that of the words which are all connected directly or indirectly with the verb-activity. It is defined as पदजन्यपदार्थोपस्थितिजन्यबोध:. According to the grammarians, verbal activity is the chief thing in a sentence and all the other words (excepting the one which expresses verbal activity) are subordinated to the verbal activity and hence are connected with it; confer, compare पदज्ञानं तु करणं द्वारे तत्र पदार्थधीः | शाब्दबोधः फलं तत्र शक्तिधीः सहकारिणी | मुक्तावली III.81.
śābdabodhataraṅgiṇīa treatise on the theory of verbal import written by ईश्वरानन्द.
śābdabodhaprakāśikāa treatise on the theory of शब्दबोघ written by रामकिशोरचक्रवर्तिन्.
śābdabodhavādatheory of verbal import or congnition; the theories to be noted in this respect are those of the Grammarians, the Naiyayikas and the Mimamsakas, according to whom verb-activity, agent, and injunction stand respectively as the principal factors in a sentence.
śikṣāgeneral name given to a work on Phonetics. Although there are many such works which are all called शिक्षा, the work, which is often referred to, by the word, is the Siksa named पाणिनीयशिक्षा, about the authorship of which, however, there is a doubt whether it was the work of Panini or of somebody belonging to his school. The Siksa works are helpful, no doubt, for the study of grammar, but no topic belonging to Siksa is given by Panini which apparently means that these works do not come under the subject or province of Grammar. The reason why the Siksa topics are not given by Panini, is worth consideration. These Siksa works are not specifically related to a particular Veda and it cannot be said whether they preceded or succeeded the Pratisakhya works.
śiṣyahitā(वृत्ति)a work on grammar written by उग्रभूति of which a mention is made by Al Beruni in his work. शी (1) case affix (ई) substituted for the nominative case. plural affix जस् (अस् ) in the declension of the pronouns, when the affix जस् is preceded by the vowel अ; exempli gratia, for example सर्वे, विश्वे; confer, compare kas. on P VII.1.17; (2) case affix (ई ) substituted for औ of the nominative case. and the acc. dual after feminine. bases ending in आ, as also after bases in the neuter gender; exempli gratia, for example खट्वे रमे; कुण्डे, वने; confer, compare Kas on P. VII.1.18, 19.
śuddhāśubodhasūtrārthavyākaraṇaa gloss on the Asubodha-grammar, written by a grammarian named Ramesvara.
śeṣaśarbhanalso known by the name मनीषिशेषशर्मन्, a grammarian who has written सर्वमङ्गला, a commentary on Nagesa's Paribhasendusekhara.
śeṣādria grammarian of the seventeenth century who has written a work, Paribhasabhaskara, on the Paribhasas of the Panini system; the treatise is written in the manner of Siradeva's Paribhasavrtti which has been taken as a basis by him.
śeṣa ṣaṣṭhīthe genitive case used in any other senses than those given in the specific rules. The expression शेषे षष्ठी भविष्यति is often found in commentary works.
śaunakaa great ancient Vedic scholar who is believed to have written the Rk. Pratisakhya, which is said to be common for the two main branches of the Rgveda but which at present represents, in fact, all the different branches of the Rgveda.
śrīkaṇoktaa grammarian who has written a small treatise on corrupt words or ungrammatical words, which is named अपशब्दखण्डन.
śrīdharaa grammarian of the last century who has written a commentary named श्रीधरी after him, on the Paribhasendusekhara.
śrīdharīname of commentary on the Paribhasendueskhara written by Sridhara. See श्रीधर.
śrīnivāsaa grammarian who has written a commentary on the Paribhasabhaskara of Haribhaskara.
śrīmaṇikaṇṭhaa famous grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय, प्रगल्भतर्कसिंह and भट्टाचार्य and who has written a systematic work on caserelations named कारकखण्डनमण्डन; the work is also known by the name षट्कारकखण्डनमण्डन.
śrīmānaśarmāa famous grammarian of Eastern India who has written a short scholarly gloss named Vijaya on Nagesa's Paribhasendusekhara. For details refer to Paribhasasamgraha.
ślokavārtikaVarttika or supplementary rule to Panini's rules laid down by scholars of grammar immediately after Panini, composed in verse form. These Slokavarttikas are quoted in the Mahabhasya at various places and supposed to have been current in the explanations of Panini's Astadhyayi in the days of Patanjali. The word is often used by later commentators.
śvobhūtivṛttia grammatical work of the type of a gloss on the Sutras of Panini written by an ancient grammarian श्वोभूति mentioned in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare स्तोष्याम्यहं पादिकमौदवाहिं ततः श्वेाभूते शातनीं पातनीं च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.57. Possibly the grammarian श्वोभूति is referred to in the word श्वोभूत in the verse.
ṣaṭkāraka(1)the six Karakas or instruments of action, which are differently connected with the verbal activity, viz. कर्तृ, कर्म, करण, संप्रदान, अपादान and अधिकरण; for details see कारक a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare तत्र शक्तिमतो द्रव्यस्य कारकाख्यायामवान्तरव्यापारनिबन्धना षडुपाख्या भवन्ति |कर्ता कर्म करणं संप्रदानमपादानमधिकरणं चेति | Sringara Prakasa IV; (2) a work of the name (षट्कारक) written by a Jain grammarian Mahesanandin.
ṣaṭkāraka(1)the six Karakas or instruments of action, which are differently connected with the verbal activity, viz. कर्तृ, कर्म, करण, संप्रदान, अपादान and अधिकरण; for details see कारक a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare तत्र शक्तिमतो द्रव्यस्य कारकाख्यायामवान्तरव्यापारनिबन्धना षडुपाख्या भवन्ति |कर्ता कर्म करणं संप्रदानमपादानमधिकरणं चेति | Sringara Prakasa IV; (2) a work of the name (षट्कारक) written by a Jain grammarian Mahesanandin.
ṣaṭkārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaknown also as कारकखण्डनमण्डन a grammar-work on the six case-relations written by a scholar of grammar named श्रीमणिकण्ठ.
ṣaṭkārakanirūpaṇaa work dealing with the six kinds of instruments of the verbal activity ( karakas ) written by Trilokanatha.
ṣaṭkārakabālabodhinīa short work in verses on the six case-relations written by a grammarian Prabhudasa who has added his own commentary to it.
ṣaṭkārakavivecanaa small treatise on the six case-relations written by a grammarian Bhavananda who held the title Siddhāntavagisa.
ṣaḍbhāṣācandrikāa work on six dialects written by a Jain grammarian लक्ष्मणसूरि.
ṣaṣṭhīthe sixth case; the genitive case. This case is generally an ordinary case or विभक्ति as contrasted with कारकविभक्ति. A noun in the genitive case shows a relation in general, with another noun connected with it in a sentence. Commentators have mentioned many kinds of relations denoted by the genitive case and the phrase एकशतं षष्ठ्यर्थाः (the genitive case hassenses a hundred and one in all),. is frequently used by grammarians confer, compare षष्ठी शेषे P. II. 3.50; confer, compare also बहवो हि षष्ठ्यर्थाः स्वस्वाम्यनन्तरसमीपसमूहविकारावयवाद्यास्तत्र यावन्त: शब्दे संभवन्ति तेषु सर्वेषु प्राप्तेषु नियमः क्रियते षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा इति । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.49. The genitive case is used in the sense of any karaka when that karaka ; is not to be considered as a karaka; confer, compare कारकत्वेन अविवक्षिते शेषे षष्ठी भविष्यति. A noun standing as a subject or object of an activity is put in the genitive case when that activity is expressed by a verbal derivative , and not by a verb itself; confer, compare कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति P. II. 3 .65. For the senses and use of the genitive case, confer, compare P. II. 3.50 to 73.
sa(1)short term for समास used by ancient grammarians ; the term is found used in the Jainendra Vyakarana also ; confer, compare ति्त्रक्कारकाणां प्राक् सुवुप्तत्तेः कृद्भिः सविधि: Jain.. Pari. 100; confer, compare also राजाsसे ; ( 2 ) Unadi affix स placed after the roots वॄ, तॄ, वद् , हन् and others; confer, compareUnadiSutras 342-349; (3) taddhita affix. affix स in the quadruple senses (चातुरर्थिक) applied to the words तृण and others. exempli gratia, for example तृणसः; confer, compare P. IV.2.80; (4) taddhita affix. affix स applied to the word मृद् when praise is intended e. g. मृत्सा, मृत्स्नाः; also confer, compare P. V. 4.41; (5) substitute for the preposition सम् before the words हित and तत; confer, compare समो हितततयोर्वा लोपः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI.1.144 Vart. I.
saṃkṣiptasāraname of a complete grammar-work written by क्रमदीश्वर for facility of study. This grammar appears to have been written before the time of कैयटं or हेमचन्द्र, as can be seen from the popular stanza परेत्र पाणिनयिज्ञा: केचित् कालापकोविदा; ।| एके विश्रान्तविद्याः स्युरन्ये संक्षिप्तसारका; ll
saṃgṛhītaincluded; the word is often used in the Mahabhasya in connection with instances which are covered by a rule, if interpreted in a specific way: confer, compare अथ निमित्तेsभिसंबध्यमाने यत्तदस्य योगस्य मूर्धाभिषिक्तमुदाहरणं तदपि संगृहीतं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1. 57; confer, compare also एकार्थीभावे सामर्थ्ये समास एकः संगृहीतो भवति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.1.
saṃghāta(1)aggregate, collection ; the word is often used in grammar in connection with letters ( वर्ण ); confer, compare वर्णसंघात; पदम् confer, compare also संघातस्यैकार्थ्यात् सुबभावो वर्णात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva sutra 5 Vart. 13; the word is also used in connection with a collection of words; confer, compare संघातस्य समाससंज्ञा प्राप्नोति । ऋद्धस्य राज्ञ पुरुष: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4.13 Vart. 8; (2) effort made in the utterance of a word; cf संघातो नाम प्रयत्नः स बाह्याभ्यन्तरत्वेन द्विधा । अनन्तभट्टभाप्य on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 9. confer, compare also स संघातादीन् वाक् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.9.
saṃdarbhāmṛtaname of a commentary on the Mugdhabodha Vyakarana of Bopadeva, written by a grammarian, named Bholanatha.
saṃneiyogaoccurrence together of two or more words in one sentence or in one grammatical rule; confer, compare संनियोगशिष्टानामन्यतरापाये उभयोरप्यपाय: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV 1.36 Vart. 4; confer, compare also एष एव न्यायो यदुत संनियोगशिष्टानामन्यतरापाये उभयोरप्यभावः। तद्यथा देवदत्तयज्ञदत्ताभ्यामिदं ! कर्तव्यमिति देवदत्तापाये यज्ञदत्तोपि न करोति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 1.64 and 76.
saṃprasāraṇaliterally extension; the process of changing a semi-vowel into a simple vowel of the same sthana or place of utterance; the substitution of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ for the semi-vowels य्, व् , र् and ल् respectively; cf इग्यणः संप्रसारणम् P. 1.1.45. The term संप्रसारण is rendered as a 'resultant vowel' or as 'an emergent vowel'. The ancient term was प्रसारण and possibly it referred to the extension of य् and व्, into their constituent parts इ +अ, उ+अ et cetera, and others the vowel अ being of a weak grade but becoming strong after the merging of the subseguent vowel into it exempli gratia, for example confer, compare सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P. III. 2.8 Vart.1. For the words taking this samprasarana change, see P. VI. 1 .13 to .19. According to some grammarians the term संप्रसारण is applied to the substituted vowels while according to others the term refers to the operation of the substitution: confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.15. The substitution of the samprasarana vowel is to be given preference in the formation of a word; , confer, compare संप्रसारणं तदाश्रयं च कार्यं बलवत् Pari. Sek. Pari. 1 19. संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्व the relative superior strength of the samprasarana change in comparison with other operations occurring simultaneotisly. The phrase न वा संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्वात् is often used in the Mahabhasya which is based upon the dictum of the superior strength of the samprasarana substitution, which is announced by the writer of the Varttikas; P. VI. 1.17 Vart, 2. , See संप्रसारण.
saṃvādacintāmaṇiname of a small treatise on roots and their meanings written by : a grammarian named इन्द्रदत्तोपाध्याय who has also written a commentary on the Sabdakaustubha called कौस्तुभगुण and सिद्धान्तकौमुदीगूढफक्किकाप्रकाश,
saṃsargeliterally contact, connection; (1) contact of the air passing up through the gullet and striking the several places which produce the sound, which is of three kinds, hard, middling and soft; confer, compare संसर्गो वायुस्थानसंसर्गः अभिवातात्मकः स त्रिविधः । अयःपिण्डवद्दारुपिण्डवदूर्णापिण्डवदिति । तदुवतमापिशलशिक्षायाम् । स्पर्शयमवर्णकरो वायुः अय:पिण्डवत्स्थानमापीडयति | अन्तस्थावर्णकरो दांरुपिण्डवत् | ऊष्मस्थस्वरवर्णकर ऊर्णापिण्डवत् commentary on. T, Pr. XXIII. 1 ; ,(2) syntactical connection between words themselves which exists between pairs of words as between nouns and adjectives as also between verbs and the karakas, which is necessary for understanding the meaning of a sentence. Some Mimamsakas and Logicians hold that samsarga itself is the meaning of a sentence. The syntactical relation between two words is described to be of two kinds अभेद-संसर्ग of the type of आधाराधेयभाव and भेदसंसर्ग of the type of विषयविषयिभाव, समवाय, जन्यजनकभाव and the like.
saṃsṛṣṭawords syntactically connected with each other, and hence, capable of expressing the sense of a sentence; confer, compare संसृष्टो वाक्यार्थ: Vakyapadiya II. 2.
saṃsṛṣṭavādipakṣathe theory, that the meaning of a sentence is a novel thing ( अपूर्व ), held by some Mimamsakas who believe that words connected with activity display their phenomenal capacity ( अनुभाविकाशक्ति ) after the recalling of the senses of words by the recalling capacity (स्मारिकाशाक्ति ).
saṃskāra(1)preparation such as (a)that of a word by placing the affix after the base and accomplishing all the necessary changes, or (b) that of a sentence by placing all words connected mutually by syntax and then explaining their formation; these two views are respectively called the पदसंस्कारपक्ष and the वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष; (2) grammatical formation; confer, compare स्वरसंस्कारयोश्छन्दसि नियम: । संस्कारो लोपागमवर्णविकारप्रकृतिभावलक्षण: Uvvata on V.Pr. I.1; confer, compare also तद्यत्र स्वरसंस्कारौ प्रादेशिकेन गुणेन अन्वितौ स्याताम् et cetera, and others Nir.I.
saṃskṛtamañjarīa short handbook on declension and case-relations written by a grammarian named Sadhusundara, who lived in the beginning of the eighteenth century.
sakaugment स् added to the roots यम् रम्, नम् as also to roots which end in अा before affixes of the aorist tense: exempli gratia, for example अयंसीत्, व्यरंसीत्, अयासीत्, cf P. VII. 2.73.
sakriyāviśeṣaṇaaccompanied by a word qualifying the verbal activity; sometimes a verb with such a word makes a sentence; confer, compare सक्रियाविशेषणं चेति वक्तव्यम् । सुष्टु पचति । M.Bh. on P. II.1.1 Vart, 9
sakriyāviśeṣaṇaaccompanied by a word qualifying the verbal activity; sometimes a verb with such a word makes a sentence; confer, compare सक्रियाविशेषणं चेति वक्तव्यम् । सुष्टु पचति । M.Bh. on P. II.1.1 Vart, 9
sattāexistence, supreme or universal existence the Jati par excellence which is advocated to be the final sense of all words and expressions in the language by Bhartrhari and other grammarians after him who discussed the interpretation of words. The grammarians believe that the ultimate sense of a word is सत्ता which appears manifold and limited in our everyday experience due to different limitations such as desa, kala and others. Seen from the static viewpoint, सत्ता appears as द्रब्य while, from the dynamic view point it appears as a क्रिया. This सत्ता is the soul of everything and it is the same as शव्दतत्त्व or ब्रह्मन् or अस्त्यर्थ; confer, compare Vakyapadiya II. 12. The static existence, further, is . called व्यक्ति or individual with reference to the object, and जाति with reference to the common form possessed by individuals.
satvaan aspect of सत्ता of the type.of the static existence possessed by substantives as contrasted with भाव the dynamic type of existence possessed by verbs; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातम् ! सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि. Nirukta of Yāska.I: cf also सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरण: R.Pr. XII. 8. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50.
sadāśiva-agnihotrīname of a modern grammarian of the seventeenth century who has written a gloss on Pratisakhya works called प्रातिशाख्यदीपिका.
sadāśiva-paṇḍitaa grammarian of the seventeenth century who has written a commentary on the Sutras of Panini and a brief commentary on the Mahabhasya called गूढार्थदीपिनी or गूढार्थदीपिका which is incomplete.
sadāśivabhaṭṭīname of a commentary written by सदाशिवभट्ट घुले on the Laghusabdendusekhara of Nagesa.
saptamī(1)the seventh case; the locative case; a term used for the locative case by ancient grammarians and Panini; confer, compare न सप्तम्यामन्त्रितयोः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III 139; confer, compare ईदूतौ च सप्तम्यर्थे P. I. 1. 19. or सप्तम्यास्त्रल् P. V. 3. 10; cf also द्वितीयादयः शब्दाः पूर्वाचार्यः सुपां त्रिकेषु स्मर्यन्ते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3.2: ( 2 ) the seventh of the moods and tenses; the optative mood; confer, compare Kat. III. 1, 20; Hemacandra III. 3. 7.
samantabhadraa Jain scholar of great repute who is believed to have written, besides many well-known religious books such as आप्तमीमांसा गन्धहस्तिभाष्य et cetera, and others on Jainism, a treatise on grammar called Cintamani Vyakarana.
samanvayapradīpasaṃketaa treatise on the philosophy of Vyakarana written as a commentary by the author दंवशर्मन् on his own Karikas on the subject.
samābhahārarepetition of an action; intensity of an action. पौनःपुन्यं भृशार्थो वा समभिहारः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1. 22.
samartha(1)having an identical sense; cf प्रोपाभ्या समर्थाभ्याम् । ...तौ चेत् प्रोपौ समर्थौ तुल्यार्थौ भवतः । क्व चानयोस्तुल्यार्थता । आदिकर्मणि । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 3. 42: (2) mutually connected in meaning in such a way that the meanings are connected together or commixed together; समर्थः शक्वः । विग्रहवाक्यार्थाभिधाने यः शक्तः स समर्थो वेदितव्यः । अथवा समर्थपदाश्रयत्वात्समर्थः । समर्थानां पदानां संबद्धार्थानां संसृष्टार्थानां विधिर्वेदितव्यः । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1. I; confer, compare also एकार्थीभावो व्यपेक्षा वा सामर्थ्यम्;। (3) connected with relationship of senses, as between the activity and the subject,object, instrument et cetera, and others, or as between the master and the servant or the Possessor and the possessed; confer, compare राज्ञः पुरुषः or ग्रामं गच्छति,or सर्पिः पिब, but not सर्पिः पिब in the sentence तिष्ठतु सर्पिः पिब त्वमुदकम् । ; (4) capable of expressing the sense e. g. a word with the sandhis well observed; confer, compare समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा । सामर्थ्ये परिनिष्ठितत्वम् । कृतसन्धिकार्यत्वमिति यावत् । S. K. on IV. I. 82; cf also समर्थः पटुः शक्तः इति पर्यायाः। शक्तत्वं च कार्योत्पादनयोम्यत्वम् et cetera, and others Balamanorama on the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
samāsavāda(l)a short treatise on compounds by गोविन्दचक्रवर्तिन् ; (2) a small compendium on compounds written by a grammarian named सार्वभौम.
saralāname of a comparatively modern lucid commentary written by Taranatha Tarkavacaspati on the Siddhantakaumudi.
sarvanāmanpronoun: literally standing for any noun. There is no definition as such given, of the word pronoun, but the words, called pronouns, are enumerated in Panini's grammar one after another in the class or group headed by सर्व ( सर्व, विश्व, उभ, उभय, words ending in the affixes डतर and डतम, अन्य et cetera, and others)which appear to be pronouns primarily. Some words such as पूर्व, पर, अवर, दक्षिण, उत्तर, अपर, अधर, स्व, अन्तर etc are treated as pronouns under certain conditions. In any case, attention has to be paid to the literal sense of the term सर्वनामन् which is an ancient term and none of these words when standing as a proper noun, is to be treated as a pronoun: confer, compare सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि P. I.1. 27, confer, compare also संज्ञोपसर्जनीभूतास्तु न सर्वादयः: M.Bh. on P. I. 1. 27 Vart. 2; ( 2 ) The word सर्वनामन् means also a common term, a general term; confer, compare एकश्रुतिः स्वरसर्वनाम, यथा नपुंसकं लिङ्गसर्वनाम Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 4.174 Vart 4.
sarvamaṅgalāa commentary on Nagesa's Paribhasendusekhara written by a grammarian of the nineteenth century named शेषशर्मन् or मनीषिशेषशर्मन्. The work is incomplete.
sarvalakārathe personal affixes in general pertaining to all the ten lakaras लट् , लिट् et cetera, and others, confer, compare सर्वलकाराणामपवादः ! Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.III. 3.144.
sāpekṣawith an expectancy in sense; although in grammar expectancy is at the root of, and forms a sort of a connecting link for, the various kinds of relations which exist between the different words of a sentence which has to give a composite sense, yet, if a word outside a compound is connected with a word inside a compound, especially with a second or further member, the sense becomes ambiguous; and expectancy in such cases is looked upon as a fault; e. g. अप्रविष्टविषयो हि रक्षसाम् Raghu XI. When, however, in spite of the fault of expectancy the sense is clear, the compound is admissible; confer, compare यदि सविशेषणानां वृत्तिर्न वृत्तस्य वा विशेषणं न प्रयुज्यते इत्युच्यते देवदत्तस्य गुरुकुलम् देवदत्तस्य गुरुपुत्रः,अत्र वृत्तिर्न प्राप्नोति। अगुरुकुलपुत्रादीनामिति वक्तव्यम् I Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P II.1.1 ; confer, compare also the expression सापेक्षत्वेपि गमकत्वात्समास: often used by commentators.
sāmarthyaliterally capacity of a word to express its sense the word is, however, used rather technically, as derived from समर्थ, in the sense of compositeness; confer, compare तत्र एकार्थीभाव: व्यपेक्षा वा सामर्थ्यम् ( M Bh.on P.II.1.1. See समंर्थ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., The word is also used in the sense of 'conformity in sense' or 'connectedness' : confer, compare इसुसोः सामर्थ्ये P.VIII. 3.41: confer, compare also उपसर्गः सामर्थ्ये Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 105: cf also Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 98 and 130.
sāmavedprātiśākhyaname of a Pratisakhya work on Samaveda. It is probable that there were some Pratisakhya works written dealing with the different branches or Sakhas of the Samaveda, as could be inferred from indirect references to such works. For instance in the Mahabhasya there is a passage "ननु च भोश्छन्दोगानां सात्यमुग्रिराणायनीयाः अर्धमेकारमर्धमोकारं चाधीयते। ..पार्षदकृतिरेषां तत्रभवताम् " which refers to such works At present, however, one such work common to the several branches of the Samaveda, called Rktantra is available, and it is called Samaveda Pratisakhya. It is believed to have been written by औदव्रजि and revised by शाकटायन.
sāmānyabhaviṣyatfuture tense in general; the general future tense expressed by the verb-endings substituted for लृट्. There is also the term शुद्धभविष्यत् or भविष्यन्ती used in the same sense; confer, compare लृट् शेषे च। शेषे शुद्धे भविष्यति काले धातोर्लृट् प्रत्ययो भवति । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.13
sāmānyaviśeṣabhāvathe relationship between the general and the particular, which forms the basis of the type of apavada which is explained by the analogy of तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय; the word also refers to the method followed by the Sutras of Panini, or any treatise of grammar for the matter of that, where a general rule is prescribed and, for the sake of definiteness some specific rules laying down exceptions, are given afterwards: confer, compare किंचित्सामान्यविशेषवल्लक्षणं प्रवर्त्यं येनाल्पेन यत्नेन महतः शद्बौघान् प्रतिपद्येरन् l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnik 1.
sāmānyātideśaextended application of a thing to others in general; confer, compare सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेश: । तेन अनद्यतनभूतरूपे विशेषे विहितयोर्लङ्लिटोर्न 'भूतवच्च' (3.3.932) इत्यनेनातिदेशः । Pari. Sek. Pari. J01.
sāyaṇa,sāyaṇācāryathe celebrated Vedic scholar and grammarian of Vijayanagar who flourished in the 14th century and wrote, besides the monumental commentary works on the Vedas, a grammatical work on roots and their forms known by the name माधवीया धातुवृत्ति. As the colophon of the work shows, the Dhatuvrtti was written by Sayanacarya, but published under the name of Madhava, the brother of Sayanacarya: confer, compare इति महामन्त्रिणा मायणसुतेन माधवसहोदरेण सायणाचार्येण विरचितायां माधवीयायां धातुवृत्तौ...Madhaviya Dha tuvrtti at the end; cf also तेन मायणपुत्रेण सायणेन मनीषिणा । व्याख्येया माधवी चेयं धातुवृत्तिर्विरच्यते । Mad. Dhatuvrtti at the beginning.
sārasatvarīname of a grammar work written by Kavicandra.
sārasvataname of a grammar work which was once very popular on account of its brevity, believed to have been written in the sutra form by an ancient grammarian named Narendra who is said to have composed 700 sutras under the inspiration of Sarasvati.The exposition of these Sutras by a reputed grammarian named Anubhutisvarupacarya who possibly flourished in the thirteenth century A. D., is known by the name सारस्वतप्रक्रिया which has remained as a text book on grammar to the present day in some parts of India. This प्रक्रिया is popularly known as सारस्वतव्याकरण. The technical terms in this grammar are the current popular ones.
sārasvataṭīkāname in general given to commentary works on the Sarasvata Vyakarana out of which those written by Ramanarayana, Satyaprabodha, Ksemamkara, Jagannatha and Mahidhara are known to scholars.
sārasvataparibhāṣāa grammar work of the Sarasvata school written by Dayaratna in explanation of the technical rules giving conventions and maximanuscript.
sārāsāravivekaname of a commentary on Nagesa's Paribhasendusekhara written by बालशास्त्री रानडे, the stalwart grammarian of the nineteenth century at Varanasi.
sicone of the substitutes ( स् ) for the general sign च्लि of the aorist tense ( लुङ् ); confer, compare च्लि लुङि | च्ले; सिच् P. III.1. 43, 44.
siddhakāṇḍathe chapter or portion of Panini's grammar which is valid to the rules inside that portion, as also to the rules enumerated after it. The word is used in connection with the first seven chapters and a quarter of the eighth chapter of Panini's Astadhyayi, as contrasted with the last three guarters called त्रिपादी, the rules in which are not valid to any rule in the preceding portion, called by the name सपासप्ताध्यायी or सपादी as also to any preceding rule in the Tripadi itSelf confer, compare पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P, VIII.2.1. सिद्धनन्दिन् an ancient Jain sage who is believed to have written an original work on grammar.
siddhāntaestablished tenet or principle or conclusion, in the standard works of the different Shastras.
siddhāntakaumudīa critical and scholarly commentary on the Sutras of Panini, in which the several Sutras are arranged topicwise and fully explained with examples and counter examples. The work is exhaustive, yet not voluminous, difficult yet popular, and critical yet lucid. The work is next in importance to the Mahabhasya in the system of Panini, and its study prepares the way for understanding the Mahabhasya. It is prescribed for study in the courses of Vyakarana at every academy and Pathasala and is expected to be committed to memory by students who want to be thorough scholars of Vyakarana.By virtue of its methodical treatment it has thrown into the back-ground all kindred works and glosses or Vrttis on the Sutras of Panini. It is arranged into two halves, the first half dealing with seven topics ( 1 ) संज्ञापरिभाषा, ( 2 ) पञ्त्वसंधि, ( 3 ) षड्लिङ्ग, ( 4 ) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, ( 5 ) कारक, ( 6 ) समास, ( 7 ) तद्धित, and the latter half dealing with five topics, ( 1 ) दशगणी, ( 2 ) द्वादशप्राक्रिया ( 3 ) कृदन्त ( 4 ) वैदिकी and ( 5 ) स्वर. The author भट्टोजीदीक्षित has himself written a scholarly gloss on it called प्रौढमनेरमा on which, his grandson, Hari Diksita has written a learned commentary named लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got a large number of commentaries on it out of which, the commentaries प्रौढमनेरमा, बालमनोरमा, (by वासुदेवदीक्षित) तत्त्वबोधिनी and लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर are read by almost every true scholar of Vyakarana. Besides these four, there are a dozen or more commentaries some of which can be given below with their names and authors ( I ) सुबेाधिनी by जयकृष्णमौनि, ( 2 ) सुबोधिनी by रामकृष्णभट्ट ( 3 ) वृहृच्छब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेश, ( 4 ) बालमनेारमा by अनन्तपण्डित, ( 5 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरहृस्य by नीलकण्ठ, ( 6 ) रत्नार्णव, by कृष्णमिश्र ( 7 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरत्नाकर by रामकृष्ण, ( 8 ) सरला by तारानाथ,(9) सुमनोरमा by तिरुमल्ल,(10)सिद्वान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by लक्ष्मीनृसिंह, (11 )सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by विश्वेश्वरतीर्थ, (12) रत्नाकर by शिवरामेन्द्रसरस्वती and (13) प्रकाश by तोलापदीक्षित. Although the real name of the work is वैयाकरणसिद्धान्ततकौमुदी, as given by the author, still popularly the work is well known by the name सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. The work has got two abridged forms, the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi both written by Varadaraja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita.
siddhāntakaumudīgūḍhaphakkikāprakāśaa small gloss on Bhattoji's Siddhantakaumudi, explaining its difficult lines and passages, written by a grammarian named इन्द्रदत्तोपाध्याय.
siddhāntakaumudīvādārthaan explanatory work, discussing the difficult sentences and passages of the Siddhantakaumudi, written by a grammarian named Ramakrisna. सिद्धान्तरत्न a gloss on the Sarasvatisutra written by a grammarian natmed Jinacandra. सिद्धान्तरत्नाङ्कुर name of a commentary on the Katantraparisista by Sivaramacakravartin.
siddhāntasārasvataan independent work on grammar believed to have been written by Devanandin. सिद्धान्तिन् a term used in connection with the writer himself of a treatise when he gives a reply to the objections raised by himself or quoted from others,the term पूर्वपाक्षिन् being used for the objector. सिद्धि formation of a word: establishment of the correct view after the removal of the objection; e. g. संज्ञासिद्वि, कार्यसिाद्व, स्वरसिद्धि. सिप् (1) the personal ending ( सि ) of the second person singular (मध्यमपुरुषैकवचन ) substituted for the affix ल्; of the ten tenses and moods लट्, लिट्, लृट् and others; confer, compare P.III.4.78: (2 Vikarana affix स् added to a root before the affixes of लेट् or Vedic Subjunctive. सिम् a technical term used in the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya for the first eight vowels of the alphabet, viz. अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ and ऋ: confer, compare सिमादितोष्टौ स्वराणाम् V. Pr.. I.44.
sīradevaa prominent grammarian of the Eastern part of India who lived in the twelfth century A. D. He was a very sound scholar of Panini's grammar who wrote a few glosses on prominent works in the system. His Paribhasavrtti is a masterly independent treatise among the recognised works on the Paribhasas in which he has quoted very profusely from the works of his predecessors, such as the Kasika, Nyasa, Anunyasa and others. The reputed scholar Maitreya Raksita is more often guoted than others.
supadmavyākaraṇaan independent work on grammar written by a scholar of grammar named पद्मनाभ, who fourished in Mithila in the fifteenth century A. D.
supadmavyākaraṇaṭīkāa commentary written by a scholar of grammar named विष्णुमिश्र on the Supadmavyakarana, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
supadmasamāsasaṃgrahaa treatise written by a grammarian named रूपनारायण, on the सुपद्मव्याकरण, which see below.
subantaname given to a word formed with the addition of a case-affix and hence capable of being used in a sentence by virtue of its being called a पद by the rule सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् The ancient grammarians gave four kinds of words or padas viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात which Panini has brought under two heads सुबन्त including नाम, उपसर्ग and निपात and तिङन्त standing for आख्यातः confer, compare सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् P. I. 4. 14.
subdhātua root formed from a noun or a subanta by the addition of any of the following affixesक्यच् ( by P. III. 1.8, 10 and l9), काम्यच् (by P.III.1.9), क्यङ् (by P. III.1.1 1, 12 and 14-18), क्यष् (by P.III.1.13),णिङ् (by P III.1.20), णिच् (by P.III.1.21 and 25) and यक् (by P.III.1.27)and also by क्विप् or zero affix by P. III. b.l l Varttika 3. All these formations ending with the affixes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are termed roots by the rule सनाद्यन्ता धातव: (P.III. 1. | 32) and are regularly conjugated in all the ten tenses and moods with the general conjugational sign शप् added to them in the conjugational tenses, and स्य, तास् and others in the other tenses and moods, and have verbal derivatives also formed by the addition of suitable krt affixes.
sumanoramāname of a commentary written by a Southern grammarian तिरुमल्ल on Bhattoj's Siddhantakaumudi
sūtraśāṭakanyāyareference to something as present, when, in fact, it is yet to come into existence,on the analogy of the expression अस्य सूत्रस्य शाटकं वय; confer, compare भाविनी संज्ञा विज्ञास्यते सूत्रशाटकवत्। Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 3. 12 Vart. 2.
se(1)one of the several affixes found in Veda in the sense ofतुमुन् ( तुम् of the infinitive); e. g. वृक्षे राय:; confer, compare Pāṇini. III. 4.9; (2) personal-ending substituted for थास् in the present tense., perfect, and other tenses; confer, compare थासः से P. III. 4.80.
setusaṃgrahaname of a commentary on Bopadeva's Mugdhabodha Grammar written by a grammarian named Gangadhara.
spaṣṭārthaan expression used often by commentators with reference to a line or a passage of the text the meaning of which is clear and no explanation is necessary.
sphoṭacandrikāa small treatise on the theory of Sphota written by Jayakrsna Mauni of the famous Maunin family. The author is known as Krsnabhatta also.
sphoṭanirūpaṇaname of a work discussing the nature of Sphota written by Apadeva.
sphoṭavādaa general name given to treatises discussing the nature of Sphota written by the Vaiyakaranas who defend and establish the theory of Sphota and by the Naiyayikas who criticise the theory. Famous among these works are (l) स्फोटवाद by a stalwart Grammarian Kondabhatta, the author of the Vaiyakaramabhusana and (2) स्फोटवाद by NageSa, the reputed grammarian of the eighteenth century.
sphīṭasiddhi(1)name of a short treatise on the nature of Sphota, written by a grammarian named Bharata MiSra; (2) name of a short disquisition on Sphota by MandanamiSra.
sya(1)case-ending स्य substituted for the genitive singular case-affix after bases ending in अ; confer, compare टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः P. VII.1.12: (2) Vikarana affix स्य placed before the personal endings of लृट् and लृङ् (the second future tense and the conditional mood); cf स्यतासी लृलुटो: P. III.1.33.
svaravivṛtti( 1 )the same as स्वरविराम which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; ( 2 ) a short treatise on Vedic accents written by a modern Vedic scholar and grammrian named Indradattopadhyaya.
svāśrayapossessed as its own, as contrasted with artificial or intentionally stated ( आनुदेशिक );confer, compare अस्त्वत्र आनुदेशिकस्य वलादित्वस्य प्रतिषेधः । स्वाश्रयमत्र बलादित्वं भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1. 59 Vart. 6.
hṛradattaname of a reputed grammarian of Southern India who wrote a very learned and scholarly commentary, named पदमञ्जरी, on the Kasikavrtti which is held by grammarians as the standard vrtti or gloss on the Sutras of Panini,and studied especially in the schools of the southern grammarians. Haradatta was a Dravida Brahmana, residing in a village on the Bank of Kaveri. His scholarship in Grammar was very sound and he is believed to have commented on many grammarworks.The only fault of the scholar was a very keen sense of egotism which is found in his work, although it can certainly be said that the egotism was not ill-placed and could be justified: confer, compare एवं प्रकटितोस्माभिर्भाष्ये परिचय: पर:। तस्य निःशेषतो मन्ये प्रतिपत्तापि दुर्लभः॥ also प्रक्रियातर्कगहने प्रविष्टो हृष्टमानसः हरदत्तहरिः स्वैरं विहरन् ! केन वार्यते | Padamajari, on P. I-13, 4. The credit of popularising Panini's system of grammar in Southern India goes to Haradatta to a considerable extent.
hareidīkṣitaa reputed grammarian of the Siddhantakaumudi school of Panini who lived in the end of the seventeenth century. He was the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita and the preceptor of Nagesabhtta. His commentary named लधुशब्दरत्न, but popularly called शब्दरत्न on Bhattoji Diksita's Praudhamanorama, is widely studied by pupils along with the Praudhamanorama in the Vyakaranapathasalas. There is a work existing in a manuscript form but recentlv taken for printing, mamed 'Brhatsabdaratna ' which has been written by Haridiksita, although some scholars beiieve that it was written by Nagesa who ascribed it to his preceptor. For details see लधुशब्दरत्न.
harināthadvivedīa grammarian of the nineteenth century who has written a commentary named अकाण्डताण्डव on Nagesa's Paribhasendusekhara.
haribhāskara( अग्निहोत्री )a grammarian of the Deccan who lived in the seventeenth century at Nasik and wrote commentaries on grammarworks out of which his treatise on Paribhasas ( परिभाषाभास्कर ) written independently but based upon Siradeva's Paribhasavrtti, deserves a special notice and mention.
harirāma( इरिराम केशव काळे )a modern grammarian who has written a commentary named Ksika on Kondabhatta's Vaiyakaranabhusanasara. He lived in the second half of the eighteenth century and the commentary Kasika was written by him in 1797, He is said to have been a pupil of the great grammarian BhairavamiSra.
harivallabhaa grammarian who has written commentaries named दर्पणा on the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara of Kondabhatta, and Laghubhusanakanti on the Sabdakaustubha of Bhattoji Diksita.
hariśātri( भागवत )a grammarian of the nineteenth century who has written Vakyarthacandrika, a commentary on Nagesa's Paribhasendusekhara.
harṣavardvanasvāmina fairly old grammarian who wrote an extensive metrical compendium on genders named लिङ्गानुशासन on which a commentary was written by a grammarian named शबरस्वासिन्. These grammarians were,of course, different from the reputed king इर्षवर्धन and the ; Mimamsaka शाबरस्वामिन्.
hṛdayahāriṇīname of a commentary written by a grammrian named दण्डनाथ on the Sarasvatikanthabharana of Bhojarja.
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
haimakaumudīan exhaustive commentary on the Sabdanusasana of Hemacandra written by a Jain grammarian Meghavijaya in the seventeenth century which is similar to the Siddhāntakaumudi of Bhattoji Diksita,
haimadhātuvyākhyāwritten by a Jain grammarian named पुण्यसुंदर which is similar to the Madhaviya Dhatuvrtti,
haimabṛhatprakriyāa work very similar to the Siddhantakaumudi written by a comparatively modern Jain scholar named Girijashankar Shastri.
haimabṛhadavṛttia gloss written on the Haima Sabdanusasana sutrapatha by Hemacandra himselfeminine. See हेमचन्द्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
haimabṛhannyāsaan extensive critical commentary written by Hemacandra on his own work, Haima Sabdanusasana. See हेमचन्द्र.
hemalaghuprakriyāvṛttia topicwise work based on Hemacandra's Sabdanu-sasana written by Vinayavijaya, a Jain scholar of grammar.
haimalaghuvṛttia short gloss on the Sabdanusasana, written by Hemacandra himselfeminine. See हेमचन्द्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
haimāliṅgānuśāsanaa treatise on genders written by हेमचन्द्र, See हेमचन्द्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
haimaliṅgānuśāsanavivaraṇaa commentary, written in the seventeenth century by Kalyanasagara on the हैमलिङ्गानुशासन.
haimaliṅānuśāsanavyākhyāa commentary named उद्धार also, written by Jayananda on the हैमलिङ्गानुशासन.
haimavyākaraṇaa treatise on grammar written by हेमचन्द्र, called by the name हेमशब्दानुशासन. See हेमचन्द्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
haimaśābdānuśāsanaa treatise on grammar written by Hemacandra. See हेमचन्द्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
haimaśabdānuśāsanalaghunyāsaa short commentary on Hemacandra's Sabdanusasana written by Devendrassuri. हैमशब्दनुशासनवृत्ति a short gloss called अवचूरि also, written by a Jain grammarian नन्दसुन्दर on the हैमशब्दानुशासन.
hyastanīimperfect tense; a term used by ancient grammarians for the affixes of the immediate past tense, but not comprising the present day, corresponding to the term लङ् of Panini. The term is found in the Katantra and Haimacandra grammars; confer, compare Kat. III. 1.23, 27; confer, compare Hema. III. 3.9.
     Vedabase Search  
536 results
     
tena a similar bodySB 10.1.42
tena and by the same weaponSB 8.10.56
tena because of himSB 10.67.26
tena because of thisSB 10.83.9
SB 9.22.11
SB 9.9.39
tena because of this benedictionSB 9.1.22
tena bySB 1.3.14
tena by a material bodySB 3.31.14
tena by BrahmāSB 11.14.4
tena by generating such a fireSB 9.14.47
tena by himBG 18.70
BG 4.24
CC Antya 1.148
tena by HimCC Antya 1.184
tena by himCC Madhya 2.52
tena by HimCC Madhya 25.101
Iso 1
tena by himMM 52
tena by HimSB 1.15.13
tena by himSB 1.15.9
tena by HimSB 1.16.26-30
tena by himSB 10.16.6
SB 10.26.9
tena by HimSB 10.33.9
tena by himSB 10.45.46
SB 10.70.24
SB 10.79.16-17
SB 10.88.24
SB 11.3.48
tena by HimSB 11.4.17
tena by himSB 3.10.3
tena by HimSB 3.14.2
tena by himSB 3.24.21
tena by HimSB 3.24.41
SB 3.8.7
SB 3.9.22
tena by himSB 3.9.27-28
SB 4.11.35
SB 4.17.4
SB 7.14.12
tena by HimSB 8.1.10
tena by himSB 9.6.8
tena by him (Bhauma)SB 10.83.40
tena by him (Gajendra)SB 8.4.13
tena by him (Jarāsandha)SB 10.50.31
tena by Him (the Lord)SB 11.8.39
tena by him, AkrūraSB 10.57.18
tena by him, ArjunaSB 10.58.28
tena by him, PañcajanaSB 10.45.41
tena by HiraṇyākṣaSB 3.19.16
SB 3.19.3
tena by itSB 10.50.5-6
tena by such (riches)SB 8.20.6
tena by such a processSB 7.15.66
tena by such a resultant actionSB 5.19.28
tena by such an utteranceSB 8.19.41
tena by such instructionSB 9.6.10
tena by such lotus feetCC Madhya 8.219
tena by thatBG 11.1
BG 5.15
BG 6.44
CC Antya 8.49
NBS 31-32
SB 10.14.25
SB 10.35.16-17
SB 10.44.47
SB 10.60.56
SB 10.85.48-49
SB 11.10.22
SB 11.17.3-4
SB 2.2.28
SB 3.14.33
SB 4.23.9
SB 4.8.33
SB 6.11.7
SB 8.11.28
SB 8.16.51-52
SB 9.8.29
tena by that (body of the dead Dhenukāsura)SB 10.15.33
tena by that (device)SB 4.5.24
tena by that (fire of austerity)SB 7.3.6
tena by that (fire)SB 9.2.14
tena by that (the horse sacrifice)SB 6.13.19-20
tena by that actSB 10.22.21
tena by that airplaneSB 3.23.39
tena by that bodySB 4.29.60
tena by that formSB 3.15.50
tena by that IndraSB 12.6.19
tena by that lustBG 3.38
tena by that meansSB 6.7.36
tena by that occurrenceSB 11.30.45
tena by that purifiedSB 2.2.31
tena by that strength of the mind, senses and life airSB 11.18.34
tena by that symptomSB 7.11.35
tena by that windSB 3.31.23
tena by the fishSB 8.24.25
tena by the force of the pregnancy of DitiSB 3.15.2
tena by the KingSB 4.14.30
tena by the LordSB 3.26.51
tena by the waspSB 11.9.23
tena by them (the arrows)SB 7.10.67
tena by thisSB 3.27.3
SB 4.13.39
SB 4.26.7
tena by thoseBs 5.61
tena by ViduraSB 3.2.5
tena by ViśvāmitraSB 9.7.5-6
tena for that reasonSB 2.10.11
SB 2.5.7
tena from thatSB 9.14.43
tena HimSB 10.12.2
tena himSB 3.1.40
tena that bodySB 5.6.8
tena that collectionSB 11.8.12
tena themSB 2.2.30
tena then, with the second ropeSB 10.9.16
tena thereforeMM 47
SB 4.29.65
SB 4.31.18
SB 8.22.6-7
tena thus by practicing such austeritiesSB 4.23.8
tena with HimSB 10.53.18-19
SB 10.56.22
SB 10.61.27-28
tena with him, KāliyaSB 10.17.1
tena with itSB 10.43.14
SB 10.60.7
SB 10.67.17
SB 10.67.19-21
SB 10.77.36
tena with Lord BrahmāSB 3.32.10
tena with thatBG 17.23
SB 10.23.36
SB 10.53.38
SB 6.11.20
SB 7.9.42
SB 8.18.12
tena with that (conquest of death)SB 12.8.12
tena with that (elephant)SB 10.36.25
tena with that body of soundsSB 12.6.44
tena with that lunar mansionSB 12.2.27-28
tena with that ropeSB 10.9.15
tena with that wealthSB 1.12.34
tena with the same personalitySB 10.3.43
tena with themCC Adi 4.173
CC Antya 7.40
CC Madhya 18.65
SB 10.31.19
tena eva because of thisSB 8.6.2
tena eva because of thisSB 8.6.2
tena eva by all thoseSB 2.6.28
tena eva by all thoseSB 2.6.28
tena eva by thatSB 4.1.30
tena eva by thatSB 4.1.30
SB 6.8.32-33
tena eva by thatSB 6.8.32-33
tena eva even by that sonSB 9.7.9
tena eva even by that sonSB 9.7.9
tena eva in thatBG 11.46
tena eva in thatBG 11.46
tena eva through that brahma-randhra, or the hole in the top of the headSB 10.12.32
tena eva through that brahma-randhra, or the hole in the top of the headSB 10.12.32
tena eva asinā by that same chopperSB 5.9.18
tena eva asinā by that same chopperSB 5.9.18
tena eva asinā by that same chopperSB 5.9.18
tena idam it is all by HimSB 2.6.13-16
tena idam it is all by HimSB 2.6.13-16
tena saha with himSB 5.2.18
tena saha with himSB 5.2.18
tene impartedCC Madhya 20.359
CC Madhya 25.148
CC Madhya 8.266
SB 1.1.1
abhihatena who had been struckSB 10.44.24-25
abhihitena presentedSB 10.40.7
abhihitena stated in the revealed scripturesCC Madhya 20.173
abhitaptena being aggrievedSB 4.11.9
ācaritena by activitySB 10.33.32
acyutena by the infallible Supreme LordSB 10.22.20
adhikṛtena borneSB 3.28.22
āgata-vittena money that automatically comesSB 7.14.15
su-āgatena by words of welcomeSB 8.18.27
sva-āgatena with words of welcomeSB 10.86.39
ahatena with newSB 5.9.15
aiśvarya-mattena being very proud of material opulenceSB 6.7.11
ajitena by the mercy of the unconquerable KṛṣṇaSB 3.1.20
ajitendriya hañā being mad after sense gratificationCC Antya 9.88
akṛtena without discharge of dutyBG 3.18
amṛtena as sweet as nectarSB 3.21.22
amṛtena by the nectarSB 5.25.7
kṛpā-amṛtena with the nectar of mercyCC Madhya 19.119
kṛpā-amṛtena with the nectar of mercyCC Madhya 24.350
amṛtena the immortal nectarMM 9
cittena aṃśena along with His part of consciousnessSB 3.6.26
andhībhūtena overwhelmedSB 1.9.11
animitta-nimittena without desiring the fruits of activitiesSB 3.27.21
animittena without attachment to the resultSB 3.29.15
anṛtena by deceitSB 1.17.25
anṛtena by the falseSB 11.29.22
antara-gatena being overtakenSB 2.7.27
kṛta-antena by death-blowsSB 3.2.18
vastra-antena by the end of the sārīSB 4.25.24
kāla-anugatena in due course of timeSB 3.8.13
anumatena by the permissionSB 5.1.22
anumatena permitted by the mercy of the glance (time)SB 7.9.21
anumatena by the orderSB 8.8.30
nārada-anumatena by the order of NāradaSB 8.11.46
anumatena in order to fulfill the desiresSB 11.24.5
anunītena pacifiedSB 4.7.1
anuṣṭhitena conducted or managedSB 6.13.8-9
anuvarṇitena being chanted or recitedSB 7.9.12
aparājitena with the demigod AparājitaSB 8.10.30-31
apramattena which is not forgetfulSB 5.9.6
apramattena not agitated at any timeSB 5.9.20
apratighātena by what is irresistibleSB 1.12.16
āptena executedSB 3.32.6
āsthitena being performedSB 3.33.10
ati-vātena and the excessive windSB 10.25.11
ati-vātena and by the extreme windSB 10.25.14
na atiprītena not much pleasedSB 3.23.22
ātma-bhūtena who is the plenary expansion of the LordSB 3.5.26
ātma-bhūtena who is an expansion of His personal selfCC Madhya 20.275
tapta-hema-avadātena with a luster like that of molten goldSB 8.6.3-7
avadhūtena of the liberated wandering mendicantsSB 6.15.10
avadhūtena unwashedSB 10.80.25-26
bhaktena by the devotee (Prahlāda Mahārāja)SB 7.9.51
bhaktena by His devoteeSB 10.48.28
bhaktena by the devoteeSB 11.27.16-17
bhakti-yuktena by discharging devotional serviceSB 3.24.47
bhāryā-śatena with one hundred wivesSB 9.6.26
bhītena being afraidSB 9.11.10
bhṛtena accumulatedSB 2.9.20
ātma-bhūtena who is the plenary expansion of the LordSB 3.5.26
jīva-bhūtena possessed by the living entitySB 3.31.43
eka-bhūtena with great attentionSB 4.8.51
dvāra-bhūtena existing as the doorwaysSB 5.14.1
ātma-bhūtena who is an expansion of His personal selfCC Madhya 20.275
cakra-vātena by the demon in the shape of a whirlwind (Tṛṇāvarta)SB 10.11.25
caritena with the endeavorSB 12.6.62
nibhṛtena cetasā with great pleasureSB 6.18.22
cikitsitena by your chastisementSB 5.10.13
cittena aṃśena along with His part of consciousnessSB 3.6.26
cittena along with reason, consciousnessSB 3.26.70
cittena whose mentalitySB 10.76.29
para-daivatena with the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 10.12.7-11
para-daivatena who is the supreme worshipable DeityCC Madhya 8.75
para-daivatena who is the supreme worshipable DeityCC Antya 7.32
viṣṇu-dattena given to him by Lord ViṣṇuSB 6.17.4-5
dattena offeredCC Antya 10.1
dhṛta-vratena under a strict disciplinary vowSB 1.4.28-29
dhṛtena sustained bySB 3.13.41
dhṛti-yuktena fixing his resolutionSB 11.23.5
śoka-dīptena kindled by lamentationSB 6.18.23
diṣṭa-kṛtena by things arranged by His internal potencySB 10.12.27
diti-sutena by Hiraṇyakaśipu, the son of DitiSB 7.8.52
dvāra-bhūtena existing as the doorwaysSB 5.14.1
eka-bhūtena with great attentionSB 4.8.51
eka-hastena with one handSB 10.43.26-27
ekāntena by onenessSB 4.24.54
etena by thisBG 3.39
etena by this kindBG 10.42
etena by thisSB 3.9.40
etena with thisSB 4.1.56
etena by thisSB 4.4.22
etena by thisSB 5.20.42
etena by this estimationSB 5.21.2
etena by this (chanting)SB 6.2.8
etena with thisSB 6.19.21
etena by HimSB 10.43.26-27
etena with HimSB 10.59.41
etena by thisSB 10.71.4
etena by thisSB 12.4.34
etena with thisSB 12.10.7
etena with thisCC Adi 2.20
etena with thisCC Madhya 20.163
etena with thisCC Madhya 20.376
etena by thisBs 5.25
gamitena who had already gottenSB 8.4.13
garhitena condemnedSB 10.80.25-26
sva-garjitena by His uncommon voiceSB 3.13.24
mat-gatena abiding in Me, always thinking of MeBG 6.47
antara-gatena being overtakenSB 2.7.27
kandhara-gatena adorning His neckSB 3.15.41
gatena by (me) who was inSB 10.64.19-20
tat-gatena which is fixed upon HimSB 12.13.1
rudra-gītena by the song composed by Lord ŚivaSB 4.30.1
rudra-gītena by the song sung by Lord ŚivaSB 4.30.10
tena by the singingSB 10.33.8
guptena hiddenSB 10.50.17
ajitendriya hañā being mad after sense gratificationCC Antya 9.88
vāma-hastena with his left handSB 6.12.24
hastena by the handSB 8.6.38
hastena by one handSB 8.7.12
hastena handSB 10.25.19
hastena handSB 10.30.20
eka-hastena with one handSB 10.43.26-27
hastena handSB 10.46.25
hatena being killedSB 10.44.45
tapta-hema-avadātena with a luster like that of molten goldSB 8.6.3-7
nija-puruṣa-hṛt-likhitena which is situated in the heart of His own devotee like an engraved pictureSB 5.7.7
īkṣitena by the glanceSB 10.90.15
līlā-īkṣitena by the playful glancingCC Madhya 23.65
īpsitena that which one feels to be most suitableSB 11.27.7
īśvara-prahitena inspired by providenceSB 9.6.29
śrautena janmanā by having received the second birth of Vedic initiationSB 11.5.5
tena producedSB 3.33.24-25
su-jātena very tenderSB 10.60.23
jīva-bhūtena possessed by the living entitySB 3.31.43
jīvitena livingBG 1.32-35
jñātena by knowingBG 10.42
jñātena being knownCC Adi 2.20
jñātena being knownCC Madhya 20.163
jñātena being knownCC Madhya 20.376
jugupsitena being heinousSB 1.7.42
kāla-anugatena in due course of timeSB 3.8.13
kāma-liptena decorated with turmeric to incite lusty desiresSB 6.1.61
kandhara-gatena adorning His neckSB 3.15.41
kāńkṣitena desiredSB 7.6.25
kāntena with her loverSB 10.62.10
krītena with that which was soldSB 11.8.32
kṛpā-amṛtena with the nectar of mercyCC Madhya 19.119
kṛpā-amṛtena with the nectar of mercyCC Madhya 24.350
kṛta-antena by death-blowsSB 3.2.18
kṛtena by discharge of dutyBG 3.18
sajjī-kṛtena by equipping the bowSB 1.15.7
kṛtena with His actSB 3.31.18
sva-kṛtena by your own mercySB 4.7.15
sva-kṛtena by your own activitySB 4.22.47
mahat-kṛtena by that action which is considered the most powerful original existence or which is executed by mahājanasSB 10.2.30
diṣṭa-kṛtena by things arranged by His internal potencySB 10.12.27
kupitena angrySB 4.5.5
nija-puruṣa-hṛt-likhitena which is situated in the heart of His own devotee like an engraved pictureSB 5.7.7
līlā-īkṣitena by the playful glancingCC Madhya 23.65
līlāyitena by pastimesBs 5.42
kāma-liptena decorated with turmeric to incite lusty desiresSB 6.1.61
lohitena with the blood, with the power of circulationSB 3.26.67
mahat-kṛtena by that action which is considered the most powerful original existence or which is executed by mahājanasSB 10.2.30
maṇḍitena decorated withSB 3.8.27
maṇḍitena which had decoratedSB 10.21.17
mārutena by the windSB 10.16.5
mat-gatena abiding in Me, always thinking of MeBG 6.47
aiśvarya-mattena being very proud of material opulenceSB 6.7.11
mṛtena by the profession of mṛtaSB 7.11.18-20
muhūrtena in a muhūrta (forty-eight minutes)SB 5.21.12
muhūrtena within a momentSB 8.24.19
muhūrtena in a momentSB 10.76.28
muhūrtena in a single momentSB 11.23.30
mūrcchitena and melodious musicSB 2.7.33
na atiprītena not much pleasedSB 3.23.22
nārada-anumatena by the order of NāradaSB 8.11.46
natena bowed downSB 12.6.1
natena bowed downMM 18
nava-varṣa-sametena even by possessing nine varṣasSB 8.19.22
nibhṛtena cetasā with great pleasureSB 6.18.22
nija-puruṣa-hṛt-likhitena which is situated in the heart of His own devotee like an engraved pictureSB 5.7.7
niketena residenceSB 3.3.20
nimittena caused bySB 3.15.14
animitta-nimittena without desiring the fruits of activitiesSB 3.27.21
nirbhartsitena by chastisementSB 5.14.11
nirgatena issuing outSB 4.1.21
nirhrāditena by the reverberating soundSB 10.36.3-4
niṣevitena executedSB 3.29.15
niśitena by sharpened activitiesSB 4.23.11
nivṛttena but by ceasing such activitiesSB 7.15.47
niyatena in this way, regularlySB 4.8.51
nṛśaṃsitena by executing cruel activitiesSB 10.2.22
tvat-pāda-potena by boarding such a boat as Your lotus feetSB 10.2.30
para-daivatena with the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 10.12.7-11
para-daivatena who is the supreme worshipable DeityCC Madhya 8.75
para-daivatena who is the supreme worshipable DeityCC Antya 7.32
paribhūtena who was insultedSB 11.23.5
parivartitena revolvingSB 5.14.29
tena by the castingSB 10.51.12
payaḥ-śṛtena with boiled milkSB 6.19.22
payaḥ-vratena by the payo-vrata vowSB 8.17.18
plāvitena with tearful eyesSB 6.1.28-29
tvat-pāda-potena by boarding such a boat as Your lotus feetSB 10.2.30
īśvara-prahitena inspired by providenceSB 9.6.29
prākṛtena by material conception onlySB 1.8.47
pramṛtena vā or by the profession of pramṛtaSB 7.11.18-20
praṇipātena by approaching a spiritual masterBG 4.34
pravṛttena by an inclination for enjoying material activitiesSB 7.15.47
prītena being very pleasedSB 4.12.9
prītena because of favorSB 8.13.14
prīti-yuktena affectionateSB 10.57.26
proktena which has been describedSB 11.20.29
pūrtena by traditional good workSB 3.9.41
pūrtena and pious works for the benefit of others, such as digging wellsSB 11.11.47
nija-puruṣa-hṛt-likhitena which is situated in the heart of His own devotee like an engraved pictureSB 5.7.7
puruṣa-sūktena with the Vedic mantra known as puruṣa-sūktaSB 10.1.20
tena purified by thatSB 3.12.3
tat-raktena by the blood of the sons of KārtavīryārjunaSB 9.16.17
viṣṇu-rātena by Mahārāja ParīkṣitSB 2.8.27
viṣṇu-rātena by Mahārāja Parīkṣit, known as ViṣṇurātaSB 8.24.4
viṣṇu-rātena by Viṣṇurāta (Mahārāja Parīkṣit)SB 10.80.5
rudra-gītena by the song composed by Lord ŚivaSB 4.30.1
rudra-gītena by the song sung by Lord ŚivaSB 4.30.10
rūṣitena attachedSB 10.21.17
sa-smitena with a smiling faceSB 1.10.31
sa-sūnṛtena along with mild wordsSB 3.16.23
śabditena vibrated bySB 1.18.16
saha tena with that poisonSB 9.8.4
sajjī-kṛtena by equipping the bowSB 1.15.7
samādhi-yuktena in tranceSB 3.21.7
samāhitena with proper attentionSB 1.17.21
samāhitena by full adjustmentSB 8.5.19-20
samanu-vratena accepting the same line of actionSB 3.1.41
samāvṛttena returnedSB 10.80.28
nava-varṣa-sametena even by possessing nine varṣasSB 8.19.22
samudyatena endeavorSB 7.8.23
śāntena satisfyingSB 4.30.4
śastena auspiciousSB 3.29.15
śatena to perform one hundredSB 4.19.1
śatena numbering one hundredSB 8.10.30-31
śatena by one hundredSB 8.15.34
bhāryā-śatena with one hundred wivesSB 9.6.26
śatena with one hundredSB 10.76.18-19
śikṣitena by being instructedSB 5.10.13
śiñjitena with the soundSB 8.9.16-17
śitena sharpSB 11.12.24
śitena which has been sharpenedSB 11.28.17
smita-śobhitena beautified by his smileSB 3.22.21
sa-smitena with a smiling faceSB 1.10.31
smitena smilingSB 1.19.28
smitena by smilingSB 3.8.27
smitena by smilingSB 3.9.25
smitena with a smileSB 12.9.31-32
smita-śobhitena beautified by his smileSB 3.22.21
śoka-dīptena kindled by lamentationSB 6.18.23
śoṇāyitena acknowledgingSB 3.8.27
śrautena janmanā by having received the second birth of Vedic initiationSB 11.5.5
śrautena mentioned in the VedasSB 11.18.7
srotena its currentSB 10.79.10
payaḥ-śṛtena with boiled milkSB 6.19.22
śrutena by Vedic evidencesSB 2.10.2
śrutena by hearingSB 4.11.31
śrutena by Vedic educationSB 4.31.11
śrutena or heard ofSB 10.62.10
śrutena of having studied the scripturesSB 11.26.12
śrutena by prayerCC Adi 2.91-92
stenaḥ thiefBG 3.12
stenaḥ one who stealsSB 6.2.9-10
stenaḥ a thiefSB 7.14.8
stenāḥ thievesSB 10.14.36
stenaḥ thiefSB 11.23.36
stene in the thiefSB 11.29.13-14
sthitena being situatedSB 7.10.35
su-āgatena by words of welcomeSB 8.18.27
su-jātena very tenderSB 10.60.23
sūcitena by descriptionSB 1.18.20
sūktena by chanting the Vedic mantra known as puruṣa-sūktaSB 8.16.51-52
puruṣa-sūktena with the Vedic mantra known as puruṣa-sūktaSB 10.1.20
sūktena the Vedic hymnSB 11.27.30-31
sa-sūnṛtena along with mild wordsSB 3.16.23
śūra-sutena by Vasudeva, the son of ŚūrasenaSB 10.2.18
diti-sutena by Hiraṇyakaśipu, the son of DitiSB 7.8.52
śūra-sutena by Vasudeva, the son of ŚūrasenaSB 10.2.18
tena because of the driverSB 10.76.29
sva-garjitena by His uncommon voiceSB 3.13.24
sva-kṛtena by your own mercySB 4.7.15
sva-kṛtena by your own activitySB 4.22.47
sva-āgatena with words of welcomeSB 10.86.39
śvasitena with the breathingSB 12.9.27
tantra-uktena which are described by the tantras (the supplementary Vedic literatures that give detailed instructions for spiritual practice)SB 11.3.47
tapaḥ-yuktena by engagement in austeritySB 3.27.22
tapaḥ-yuktena which is simultaneously the best process of austeritySB 9.4.26
tapta-hema-avadātena with a luster like that of molten goldSB 8.6.3-7
tat-raktena by the blood of the sons of KārtavīryārjunaSB 9.16.17
tat-gatena which is fixed upon HimSB 12.13.1
tatena by my fatherSB 10.83.9
saha tena with that poisonSB 9.8.4
tṛṣārditena who were afflicted by thirstSB 8.2.23-24
tvat-pāda-potena by boarding such a boat as Your lotus feetSB 10.2.30
tyaktena allottedSB 8.1.10
tyaktena by things allotted to every personCC Madhya 25.101
tyaktena set-apart quotaIso 1
uditena instructedSB 3.33.10
uditena describedSB 6.13.21
uditena enjoinedSB 10.69.16
uktena spokenSB 3.33.13
uktena instructedSB 3.33.30
uktena instructedSB 4.28.41
yathā-uktena as stated beforeSB 8.16.44-45
uktena having been requested (by Baladeva)SB 10.13.39
uktena spokenSB 10.40.8
uktena through the statementsSB 10.68.13
tantra-uktena which are described by the tantras (the supplementary Vedic literatures that give detailed instructions for spiritual practice)SB 11.3.47
uktena with the wordsCC Antya 16.87
unnatena very highSB 8.15.14
upalakṣitena being seenSB 5.22.2
upārjitena acquiredSB 11.17.51
upaśāntena peacefulSB 10.3.33
upavītena with a sacred threadSB 5.9.9-10
pramṛtena vā or by the profession of pramṛtaSB 7.11.18-20
valgitena by the oscillationSB 3.28.29
vāma-hastena with his left handSB 6.12.24
varṇitena of describingSB 11.19.40-45
nava-varṣa-sametena even by possessing nine varṣasSB 8.19.22
vastra-antena by the end of the sārīSB 4.25.24
cakra-vātena by the demon in the shape of a whirlwind (Tṛṇāvarta)SB 10.11.25
tena by the windSB 10.15.3
ati-vātena and the excessive windSB 10.25.11
ati-vātena and by the extreme windSB 10.25.14
vijṛmbhitena developedSB 3.25.27
vīkṣitena with their glancesSB 10.71.34
vimatena being disrespectedSB 6.6.45
virājitena illuminedSB 5.5.10-13
viṣṇu-rātena by Mahārāja ParīkṣitSB 2.8.27
viṣṇu-dattena given to him by Lord ViṣṇuSB 6.17.4-5
viṣṇu-rātena by Mahārāja Parīkṣit, known as ViṣṇurātaSB 8.24.4
viṣṇu-rātena by Viṣṇurāta (Mahārāja Parīkṣit)SB 10.80.5
visphūrjitena simply by the featureSB 7.9.23
vitene has disseminatedSB 10.86.34
vitene He expandedSB 11.6.2-4
āgata-vittena money that automatically comesSB 7.14.15
vittena with his possessionsSB 10.84.37
vittena with wealthSB 11.3.19
viviktena of solitudeSB 11.26.12
dhṛta-vratena under a strict disciplinary vowSB 1.4.28-29
samanu-vratena accepting the same line of actionSB 3.1.41
payaḥ-vratena by the payo-vrata vowSB 8.17.18
vyatikrāntena passed bySB 3.23.53
yathā-uktena as stated beforeSB 8.16.44-45
yuktena being engaged in meditationBG 8.8
samādhi-yuktena in tranceSB 3.21.7
bhakti-yuktena by discharging devotional serviceSB 3.24.47
yuktena equipped withSB 3.25.18
yuktena equipped withSB 3.25.18
yuktena equippedSB 3.25.43
tapaḥ-yuktena by engagement in austeritySB 3.27.22
tapaḥ-yuktena which is simultaneously the best process of austeritySB 9.4.26
yuktena conjoinedSB 10.54.14
prīti-yuktena affectionateSB 10.57.26
dhṛti-yuktena fixing his resolutionSB 11.23.5
yutena joinedSB 12.12.36
     DCS with thanks   
Results for ten13 results
     
tena noun (masculine) a note or cadence introductory to a song (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53800/72933
tena indeclinable in this way there therefore
Frequency rank 906/72933
astena noun (masculine) not a thief (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 32905/72933
ekāntena indeclinable only
Frequency rank 19081/72933
jitendriya noun (masculine) an ascetic (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a man (author of a Nibandha) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[rel.] name of Śiva
Frequency rank 52963/72933
jitendriyāhva noun (masculine) Name einer Pflanze
Frequency rank 52964/72933
bhūtendriyajayin noun (masculine) a kind of ascetic or devotee (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60966/72933
viniścitena indeclinable certainly
Frequency rank 65739/72933
śatendriyā noun (feminine) a proper name (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 67190/72933
stenā noun (feminine) a female thief
Frequency rank 41186/72933
stena noun (masculine) a kind of perfume (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a thief (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
robber (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stealing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
thieving (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4059/72933
stenay verb (denominative parasmaipada) to steal
Frequency rank 25954/72933
tendra noun (masculine neuter) mercury
Frequency rank 5410/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
     Purchase Kindle edition

abhiṣavana

pressing out; utensil used for pressing oil .

ādhmāna

flatulence; bloated; abdominal distension; in flation; a condition in abdomen .

ākuñcana

extension.

alambuṣa

1. a barrier not to be crossed; 2. palm of the hand with fingers extended; 3. Plant life plant, Biophytum sensitivum; water mimosa, Neptunea oleracea.

amarakośa

a thesaurus in Sanskrit with many medical terms, written by Amarasimha, a Jain or Buddhist monk. It contains three parts. The second part, bhūvargādi khanḍa describes several herbs and medically important substances and their features.

ānāha

distension of abdomen due to obstruction to passage of urine and stools; constipation.

anuvāsanavasti

oil enema of a retention type; tonic enema; unctuous enema, lubricatory enema.

anyounyābhāva

(anyonya.abhāva) mutual non-existence; mutual negatio

apara

a trait; other; inferior; ulterior; remoteness; apara ojas palm-ful substance that protects the body from diseases.

aparāsaṅga

retention of placenta.

āraṇyaka

forest-born; any of Sanskrit religious and philosophical treatises, post-Vedic in ori intended to interpret Vedic concepts.

arati

discontent; languor.

arthaśāstra

a book on polity written by Kautilya, which refers to 330 medicinal plants used in Ayurveda.

asatkāryavāda

doctrine of ‘effect is non-existent in its cause before production’.

aśvaśāstra

a text written by Abhinavcandra in the 15th Century AD about science of horses; it was published recently.

atideśa

one of tantrayuktis, extended application; substitution; substantiating by future event

atimuktaka

1. surpassing pearls in whiteness; 2. Plant hiptage, Hiptage benghalensis.

atyantābhāva

absolute non-existence, a concept in philosophy.

āyurvedasamgraha

a text on human medicine written by Siddhanti Subrahmanyasastry in the 19th Century

ayuta

1. ten thousand; 2. unimpeded.

baddhodara,badhagudodar

intestinal obstruction; partial or complete blockage of the bowel that prevents the contents of the intestine from passing through.

bahirāmaya

tetanus; opisthotonus; state of severe hyperextension and spasticity in which patient'sbody enter into a complete arching position like a bow.

bhadrakāli

a women, whose child dies on the tenth day after delivery.

bhakṣya

eatable; something fit to be eaten.

bilvādilehya

a semi-solid preparation from bael fruit and ten other ingredients; indicated in problems of digestive system.

bodhana

1. teaching or enlightening; 2. burning incense; 3. awakening of mercury.

brahmakāya

divine body; a person with godly traits like adhering to cleanliness and good conduct, belief in existence of god, reverence of elders and preceptors, hospitality and celebration of religious sacrifices and reader of vedas.

bṛhatyogataraṇgiṇi

a treatise of ayurveda written by Trimallabhaṭṭu, 18th Century

candradala

a metal treated with mercury or other metals attains whitenss or yellowness.

cikitsāsāra

a text of āyurveda written by Gudapalli Yerramsastry in the 19th Century

daśa

ten.

daśamūla

Plant ten roots (śāliparṇi, pṛsniparṇi, bṛhati, kanṭakāri, gokṣūra, bilva, agnimantha, śyonāka, pāṭali, gambhāri)

dhāraṇa

attention; concentration; holding in memory; stability of mind.

dhī

intention; purpose; thought; intelligence.

dhruva

1. pole star, 2. stable, 3. Plant śāliparṇi, one of daśamūla or ten roots.

dūṣiviṣa

slow acting poison; less potent toxic substances remain in a dormant state within the body for years.

dhyāna

meditation; mindfulness; attention.

gāṇgeru

Plant white cross berry, Grewia tenax.

garbha

uterine cavity; pregnancy; garbhadoṣa foetal anomaly; garbhakośa uterine cavity; garbhapancaka limbs and head of the fetus; garbhapāta abortion; garbha sanga retentiion of foetus; garbhaśayya fundus of uterus; garbhasrāva threatened abortion; miscarriage, garbhasthāpana conception; impregnation.

gorakṣa

1. tending or breeding cattle; 2. Plant takkoli, Dalbergia lanceolaria.

govidya

a treatise on treatment of cows, written by Kirtivarma in the 12th Century AD; the book is partly available.

gudārti

tenesmus, a feeling of incomplete defecation.

hetvartha

one of tantrayuktis; implication; extension of reasoning.

janapadodhvamśa

(janpada.vidhvamśa) epidemics; dosease(s) that spread rapidly and extensively in habitation(s).

janavarhya

a text on erotics written by Kallarasa in the 16th Century AD, published few decades ago.

jānu

knee joint; jānubheda genu varum, bow-leg; jānuviśleṣa genu vulgum, knees angle in and touch one another when the legs are straightened (knock-knee).

jatru

collar bones and cartilages of breast bone; xiphisternum, a small cartilaginous process (extension) of the lower part of the sternum.

jvaravivaraṇa

a text written by Narasimha pandita in the 19th Century about human medicine.

kanḍara

tendon.