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     Grammar Search "tari" has 11 results.
tarī: feminine nominative singular stem: tara
tarī: feminine nominative dual stem: tari
tarī: feminine nominative singular stem: tari
tāri: neuter nominative singular stem: tārin
tārī: masculine nominative singular stem: tārin
tarī: feminine accusative dual stem: tari
tāri: neuter accusative singular stem: tārin
tari: feminine vocative singular stem: tari
tari: feminine vocative singular stem: tara
tarī: feminine vocative dual stem: tari
tāri: neuter vocative singular stem: tārin
     Amarakosha Search  
7 results
131 results for tari
तरिf. equals -, a boat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरिf. See also - sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order ra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरि rika-, rikin-, etc. See column 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरिकm. equals kin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरिकm. a raft, boat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरिकाf. idem or 'm. a raft, boat ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरिकाf. the skin on the milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरिकिन्m. a ferry-man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरिन्mfn. (for s/a īm- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरिणीf. varia lectio for raṇī- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरिरथm. "boat-wheel", an oar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरिताf. "leader", the fore-finger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरिताf. garlic (or"hemp"?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरिताf. a form of durgā- (see tvar-), Tantr. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरिताधारणयन्त्रn. Name of a mystical diagram View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरितापूजायन्त्रn. another diagram View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरितव्यn. impersonal or used impersonally it is to be crossed or passed over View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरितृmfn. one who crosses (a river) or who carries over View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरित्रm. "a helmsman" (Scholiast or Commentator) or n. "an oar" ( ataritra a-taritra- mfn.without a t-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आभ्यन्तरिकmfn. equals ābhyantara-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनन्तरितmfn. not separated by any interstice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनन्तरितmfn. unbroken. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनन्तरितिf. not excluding or passing over View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरि -ayati- to come between ; (perf. -ayāṃ cakāra-) to conceal, cause to disappear ; -eti- to stand in any one's way, separate ; to exclude from (ablative,rarely genitive case) ; to pass over, omit ; to disappear: Intensive -īyate-, to walk to and fro between (as a mediator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आन्तरिक्षor āntarīkṣa- mf(ī-)n. (fr. antarikṣa-), belonging to the intermediate space between heaven and earth, atmospherical, proceeding from or produced in the atmosphere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आन्तरिक्षn. rain-water. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षn. the intermediate space between heaven and earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षn. (in the veda-) the middle of the three spheres or regions of life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षn. the atmosphere or sky View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षn. the air View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षn. talc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षचरmfn. passing through the atmosphere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षचरm. a bird. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षग mfn. passing through the atmosphere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षगm. a bird. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षक्षित्mfn. dwelling in the atmosphere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षलोकm. the intermediate region or sky as a peculiar world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षनामन्mfn. called atmosphere, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षप्राmfn. (1. pṛ-), travelling through the atmosphere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षप्रुत्mfn. ( pru-), floating over the atmosphere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षसद्mfn. dwelling in the atmosphere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षसद्यn. residence in the atmosphere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षसंशित(ant/arikṣa--) mfn. sharpened in the atmosphere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षासनn. a particular posture in sitting, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षयानीf. Name of a brick View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षायतनmfn. having its abode in the atmosphere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्षोदरmfn. having an interior as comprehensive as the atmosphere. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिक्ष्य(5) mfn. atmospheric View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिन्द्रियn. (in vedānta- philosophy) an internal organ (of which there are four, viz. manas-, buddhi-, ahaṃkāra-,and citta-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिष्(3. plural -icchanti-) to wish, long for View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरितmfn. gone within, interior, hidden, concealed, screened, shielded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरितmfn. departed, retired, withdrawn, disappeared, perished View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरितmfn. separated, excluded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरितmfn. impeded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरितn. (?) remainder (in arithmetic) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरितn. a technical term in architecture. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिति(ant/ar--), excluding, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरितिf. exclusion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतरित्रmfn. taritra
अवतरितव्यn. impersonal or used impersonally to be alighted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भरद्वाजधन्वन्तरिm. Name of a divine being View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चारान्तरितm. idem or 'm. equals rapāla- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दक्षिणोत्तरिन्mfn. overhanging on the right side View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
देशान्तरिन्mfn. belonging to a foreign country, a foreigner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
देशान्तरितmfn. living in a foreign country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धन्वन्तरिm. (for vani-t-),"moving in a curve", Name of a deity to whom oblations were offered in the north-east quarter (where tare- wrong reading for tareḥ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धन्वन्तरिm. of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धन्वन्तरिm. the physician of the gods (produced at the churning of the ocean with a cup of amṛta- in his hands, the supposed author of the āyur-veda-, who in a later existence is also called divo-dāsa-, king of kāśi-, and considered to be the founder of the Hindu school of medicine) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धन्वन्तरिm. Pur (dhānv-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धन्वन्तरिm. Name of the author of a medical dictionary (perhaps the same mentioned among the 9 gems of the court of vikramāditya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धन्वन्तरिदर्पभङ्गm. "the breaking of dhanvan-'s pride", Name of a chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धन्वन्तरिग्रन्थm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धन्वन्तरिग्रस्ताf. Helleborus Niger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धन्वन्तरिगुणागुणयोगसतn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धन्वन्तरिनिघण्टुm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धन्वन्तरिपञ्चकn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धन्वन्तरिसारनिधिm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धन्वन्तरिविलासm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धन्वन्तरियज्ञm. the sacrifice offered to dhanvan- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दूरान्तरितmfn. separated by a wide space View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दुर्गतरिणीf. "conveying over difficulties", Name of the sāvitrī- -verse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकान्तरिन् mfn. one who fasts every second day, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकान्तरितिन्(?) mfn. one who fasts every second day, L View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकोत्तरिकाf. Name of the fourth āgama- or sacred book of the Buddhists View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकोत्तरिकागमm. idem or 'f. Name of the fourth āgama- or sacred book of the Buddhists' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हयकातरिकाf. a kind of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जन्मान्तरितmfn. done in a former life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्येष्ठतरिकाf. equals - View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कलहान्तरिताf. a heroine separated from her lover in consequence of a quarrel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कर्तरिf. scissors, a knife, or any instrument for cutting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कर्तरिकाf. idem or 'f. scissors, a knife, or any instrument for cutting ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लोकान्तरिकmf(ā-)n. dwelling or situated between the worlds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लोकान्तरितmfn. deceased, dead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महत्तरिकाf. a lady of the bedchamber View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मातरि locative case of māt/ṛ-, in compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मातरिभ्वरी(mātar/i-.) f. (fr. bhū-) equals mātari bhavantī- () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मातरिपुरुषetc. See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मातरिपुरुषm. a man (only when opposed) to his mother, a cowardly bully gaRa pātre-samitādi- (see pitari-śūra-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मातरिश्वm. (fr. -śvan-) Name of a ṛṣi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मातरिश्वकmfn. containing the word mātari-śvan- gaRa ghoṣad-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मातरिश्वन्m. (mātar/i--;prob.,"growing in the mother" id est in the fire-stick, fr. śvi-) Name of agni- or of a divine being closely connected with him (the messenger of vivasvat-, who brings down the hidden Fire to the bhṛgu-s, and is identified by on with vāyu-, the Wind)
मातरिश्वन्m. (doubtful for ) air, wind, breeze etc. (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मातरिश्वन्m. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मातरिश्वन्m. of a son of garuḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मातरिश्वन्m. of a ṛṣi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मातरिश्वरीprob. wrong reading -bhvarī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निद्रान्तरितmfn. asleep View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नूतनतरिf. Name of commentator or commentary on the rasa-taraṃgiṇī-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पद्मोत्तरिकाशाकn. a species of pot-herb
परिस्तरितृm. one who strews or lays round View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पितरि locative case of pitṛ- in compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पितरिशूर pitā-putra- etc. See under pitṛ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पितरिशूरm. "a hero against his father", a cowardly boaster gaRa pātre-samitādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रशमितरिपुmfn. one who has all enemies pacified View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रस्तरिणीf. Elephantopus Scaber View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रातरित्वन्mfn. going out early View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रातरित्वन्m. a morning guest (vocative case tvas-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
राथंतरिm. Name of airāvata- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शब्दाब्धितरिf. "boat on the ocean of words", a glossary (of words formed by uṇādi- suffixes, by rāma-govinda-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सहस्रस्तरि(sah/asra--) mfn. having a thousand barren cows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सौमनोत्तरिकmfn. knowing the story of sumanottarā- Va1rtt. 1 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सिद्धान्ततरिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्तरिमन्m. "that which is spread", a bed, couch
उत्तरिकाf. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरिन्mfn. increasing, becoming more and more intense View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरोत्तरिन्mfn. one following the other View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तरोत्तरिन्mfn. constantly increasing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वैश्वंतरिm. (fr. viśvaṃ-tara-) a patronymic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वैश्वतरि wrong reading for vaiśvaṃ-tari-.
वितरितृm. a granter, bestower (with genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
याथासंस्तरिकmfn. (fr. yathā-saṃstara-) letting a covering lie according to its original position View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
17 results
tari तरिः तरीषः &c. See under तॄ.
tari तरिः रीः [तॄ-करणे इ] 1 A boat. धर्मार्थं वाहये तरिम् Mb.1.1.48; जीर्णा तरिः सरिदतीव गभीरनीरा Udb.; Śi. 3.76. -2 A box for clothes. -3 The end or hem of a garment. -री 1 A small wooden baling-vessel. -2 A club. -3 Smoke. -Comp. -रथः an oar, a paddle.
tarikaḥ तरिकः [तराय तरणाय हितः बा˚ ठन्] 1 A ferry-man -2 A float, raft. -का 1 A boat. -2 Cream.
tarikin तरिकिन् m. A ferry-man. तरित्रम् taritram तरित्री taritrī तरिणी tariṇī तरित्रम् तरित्री तरिणी A boat, ship.
tari तरिता 1 The fore-finger. -2 Garlic, or hemp. -3 A form of Durgā. -Comp. -धरण (-पूजा) यन्त्रम् N. of a mystical diagram.
antari अन्तरि 2 P. (अन्तर् + इ) 1 To go between, to stand in one's way, intervene to separate; रात्रेरेनं तदन्तरियात् Ait. Br. -2 To exclude from, to pass over, omit. -3 To disappear, see अन्तरित below. (-अयति) To come or step between, interpose; दर्दुरक उपसृत्य अन्तरयति Mk.2 (it may also mean, 'separates the two').
antarita अन्तरित p. p. 1 Gone between, intervening. -2 Gone within, hidden, concealed, covered, screened, shielded, protected (from view) by something; पादपान्तरित एव विश्वस्तामेनां पश्यामि Ś.1 hid behind a creeper; सारसेन स्वदेहान्तरितो राजा H.3 screened; विटपान्तरितस्तिष्ठ Ś.3; नलिनीपत्रान्तरितं प्रियसहचरमपश्यन्ती Ś.4; शार्दूलचर्मान्तरितोरुपृष्ठम् Ku.7.37 covered; Dk.21,146; K.28,152,2; पर्व- तान्तरितो रविः set. Ak.; त्वगन्तरिततृतीयलोचनम् K.18, R.1. 8; उन्मादमोहान्तरितो$पि Māl.9; तल्पमन्तरितभूमिभिः कुथैः R. 19.2. -3 Gone in, reflected; स्फटिकभित्त्यन्तरितान् मृगशावकान् reflected in the crystal wall. -4 (a) Concealed, made dormant, impeded, hindered, prevented; त्वदभिप्रायापरि- ज्ञानान्तरित एवायमनुनयः Mu.2 prevented from being made; त्वद्वाञ्छान्तरितानि साध्यानि Mu.4.15 prevened from being actually effected &c.; द्विषत्प्रतापान्तरितोरुतेजाः Ki.3.45 obscured; नोपालभ्यः पुमांस्तत्र दैवान्तरितपौरुषः Pt.2.133. (b) Separated, lost to view, made invisible by interposition; मुहूर्तान्तरितमाधवा दुर्मनायमाना Māl.8; भर्तुरेतान्यक्ष- राणि बिम्बान्तरितानि M.3; धनमित्राख्ययान्तरितः Dk.36; चन्द्रा- पीडनामान्तरितस्य चन्द्रमसः K.338; प्रतिनिवर्तमानयात्राजनसंकुलेन अन्तरिते तस्मिन् Māl.2; क्रियतां कथमन्त्यमण्डनं परलोकान्तरितस्य ते मया Ku.4.22 separated (from me) by the next world, i. e. dead, deceased; मेघैरन्तरितः प्रिये तव मुखच्छा- यानुकारी शशी S. D. (c) Drowned, obscured removed, eclipsed; परलोकभयभैहिकदुःखेनान्तरितम् Dk.82. drowned, eclipsed, obscured; वीरलोकसाधुवादेनान्तरितः समरतूर्यरवः Ve. 4 drowned; विस्मयान्तरितशोकवृत्तान्ता K.322; कार्यान्तरितोत्कण्ठम् V.3.4 forgotten, removed; इन्दुप्रकाशान्तरितोडुतुल्याः R.16. 65 obscured by moon-light. -5 Disappeared, vanished, departed, retired, withdrawn; (महामृगः) आश्रमान्तरितः शीघ्रं प्लवमानो महाजवः Mb.3.311.9. अन्तरिते तस्मिञ्- शयरसेनापतौ K.33; नाथदेहस्पर्शेन अन्तरित एव सन्तापः U.6 has disappeared, has been removed. -6 Passed over, omitted; अये मध्यमाम्बावृत्तान्तो$न्तरित एवार्येण U. i; कथान्तरेणान्तरितमिदम् M.5 put off, delayed. -7 Slighted, despised. -8 (In Math.) That which remains, the remainder. -9 A technical term in architecture.
antari अन्तरि री क्षम् [अन्तः स्वर्गपृथिव्योर्मध्ये ईक्ष्यते, ईक्ष् कर्मणि घञ्, अन्तः ऋक्षाणि अस्य वा पृषो˚पक्षे ह्रस्वः ऋकारस्य रिर्त्व वा Tv., according to Nir. अन्तरा द्यावापृथिव्योः क्षान्तं अवस्थितं भवति, or अन्तरा इमे द्यावापृथिव्यौ क्षयति निवसति; or शरीरेष्वन्तः अक्षयं न पृथिव्यादिवत् क्षीयते] 1 The intermediate region between heaven and earth; the air, atmosphere, sky (अन्तरा द्यावापृथिव्योर्मध्ये ईक्ष्यमाणं व्योम Śay.) दिवं च पृथिवीं चान्तरिक्षमथो स्वः Sandhyā Mantra; यो$न्तरेणाकाश आसीत्तदन्त- रिक्षमभवदीक्षं हैतन्नाम ततः पुरान्तरा वा इदमीक्षमभूदिति तस्मादन्तरिक्षं Śat. Br. दिव्यन्तरिक्षे भूमौ च घोरमुत्पातजं भयम् Rām.2.1. 43 -2 The middle of the three spheres or regions of life. -3 Talc. (Mar. अभ्रक) -4 A synonym of a pentroof. Māna.18.174-75. -Comp. -उदर a. whose inside is as wide as the atmosphere. (-रम्) the interior of the atmosphere. -कान्तः a class of ten-storyed buildings. Māna.28.14.15. -क्षित्, -सद् a. dwelling in the atmosphere. -गः, -चरः a bird (moving through the atmosphere). ततो$न्तरिक्षगो वाचं व्याजहार नलं तदा Mb.3. 53.2. -गत a. moving in air; अब्रवीच्च तदा वाक्यं जातक्रोधो विभीषणः । अन्तरिक्षगतः Rām.6.16.18. -जलम् water of the atmosphere, dew. -प्रा a. [अन्तरिक्षं प्राति पूरयति, प्रा-विच्] filling the atmosphere; illuminating the sky, travelling through the atmosphere. -प्रुत् a. [अन्तरिक्षं प्रवते गच्छति, प्रु क्विप्] floating over the atmosphere, sweeping or going through it. -लोकः the intermediate region, regarded as a distinct world; त्रयो लोका एत एव वागेवायं लोकः (earth) मनोन्तरिक्षलोकः, प्राणो$सौ लोकः (heaven) Śat. Br. -शंसित a. sharpened in the atmosphere. -सद्यम् [अन्तरिक्षे सद्यं सदनं, सद् भावे यत्] dwelling or residence in the atmosphere.
antari अन्तरि री क्ष्य a. [भवार्थे यत्] Aerial, atmospheric.
āntari आन्तरि (री) क्ष a. (-क्षी f.) [अन्तरिक्षे भवः अण्] 1 Atmospherical, heavenly, celestial; आन्तरीक्षाः पुनरमी सर्वतः सदृशा इव Mv.7.22. -2 Produced in the atmosphere. -क्षम् The firmament, the intermediate region between the earth and sky. -2 Rain-water.
uttarin उत्तरिन् a. Superior. -2 Increasing, becoming more and more intensive.
dhanvantari धन्वन्तरिः 1 N. of the physician of the gods, said to have been produced at the churning of the ocean with a cup of nectar in his hand; cf. चतुर्दशरत्न. -2 N. of the nine Ratnas at the court of Vikramāditya. -3 N. of a deity to whom oblations were offered to the North-east quarter; Ms.3.85. -4 N. of the sun; Mb.3.3.25.
dhautari धौतरि a. Ved. Shaking, trembling; ससवान् त्स्तौलाभि- र्धौतरीभिः Rv.6.44.7.
prastariṇī प्रस्तरिणी Elephantopus Scaber (गोजिव्हा; Mar. पाथरी).
taripuruṣaḥ मातरिपुरुषः 'One who can act like a man only against his mother', a poltroon, cowardly boaster.
tariśvan मातरिश्वन् [मातरि अन्तरीक्षे श्वयति वर्धते श्वि कनिन् डिञ्च अलुक् स˚ Uṇ 1.156] Wind; पुनरुषसि विविक्तैर्मातरिश्वावचूर्ण्य ज्वलयति मदनाग्निं मालतीनां रजोभिः Śi.11.17; Ki.5.36; मातरिश्वा वायुर्मातर्यन्तरिक्षे श्वसिति मातर्याशु अनिति वा Nir.
stari स्तरि (री) मन् m. A bed, couch.
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antarikṣa antári-kṣa, n. air, atmosphere, i. 35, 7. 11; ii. 12, 2; x. 90, 14; 168, 3 [situated between heaven and earth: kṣa = 1. kṣi dwell].
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tari tar-i, tarī f. boat; -ika, m. ferry man; -ikâ, f. boat; -i-tavya, fp. to be crossed.
antarindriya n. internal organ.
antarita pp. (√ i) retired; excluded, separated; intervening; distant; being in a state (--°ree;); hidden, by (in., -°ree;), obstructed by (--°ree;).
antarikṣaga a. moving in the air; m. bird.
antarikṣa n. sky.
āntarikṣa a. (î) proceeding from the air or sky; airy, aerial.
dhanvantari m. [moving in an arc] N. of a being worshipped as a god; ep. of the sun; N. of the physician of the gods, produced at the churning of the ocean: -yag- ña, m. sacrifice to Dhanvantari.
nidrāntarita pp. fallen asleep; -½andha, a. blinded with sleep; -½alasa, a. drowsy, sleepy, sluggardly; -½âlasya, n. sleepi ness, sloth.
prātaritvan a. (vc. -tvas) go ing out or coming early; m. morning guest.
tariśvan m. [growing in the mother, concealed in the fire-stick: √ sû], N. of a divine being, messenger of Vivasvat, who brought down the previously hidden Agni from heaven to the Bhrigus; mystic N. of Agni; wind (ord. meaning in C., but doubtful for RV.); N. of a Rishi.
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kākṣaseni Is the patronymic (‘ son of Kaksasena *) of Abhipratārin in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana
girikṣit auccāmanyava ‘Descendant of Uccāmanyu,’ is mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana as a con­temporary of Abhipratārin Kāksaseni.
cākra Is the name of a man, variously styled Revottaras Sthapati Pātava Cākra and Revottaras Pātava Cākra Sthapati, who is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmana only. He is there said to have been expelled by the Srñjayas, but to have restored to them their prince Dustarītu despite the opposition of the Kauravya king Balhika Prātipīya. He must have been a sage rather than a warrior, as the first passage of the śatapatha Brāhmana shows him in the capacity of a teacher only. C/. Sthapati.
dāya Occurs in the Rigveda only in the sense of ‘reward’ of exertion (śrama), but later it means ‘inheritance’—that is, a father’s property which is to be divided among his sons either during his lifetime or after his death. The passages all negative the idea that the property 0/ the family was legally family property: it is clear that it was the property of the head of the house, usually the father, and that the other members of the family only had moral claims upon it which the father could ignore, though he might be coerced by his sons if they were physically stronger. Thus Manu is said in the Taittirīya Samhitā to have divided his property among his sons. He omitted Nābhānedistha, whom he afterwards taught how to appease the Añgirases, and to procure cows. This is a significant indication that the property he divided was movable property, rather than land (Urvarā). In the Aitareya Brāhmana the division is said to have been made during Manu’s lifetime by his sons, who left only their aged father to Nābhānedistha. According to the Jaiminīya Brāhmana, again, four sons divided the inheritance while their old father, Abhipratārin, was still alive. It is, of course, possible to regard Dāya as denoting the heritable property of the family, but the developed patria potestas of the father, which was early very marked, as shown by the legend of Sunahśepa, is inconsistent with the view that the sons were legally owners with their father, unless and until they actually insisted on a division of the property. Probably— there is no evidence of any decisive character—land was not divided at first, but no doubt its disposal began to follow the analogy of cattle and other movable property as soon as the available supply of arable land became limited. As for the method of division, it is clear from the Taittirīya Samhitā that the elder son was usually preferred; perhaps this was always the case after death. During the father’s life¬time another might be preferred, as appears from a passage of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Women were excluded from partition or inheritance, according to the śatapatha Brāhmana and the Nirukta. They were, no doubt, supported by their brothers; but if they had none they might be reduced to prostitution. Detailed rules of inheritance appear in the Sūtras.
diś Direction,’ is a word very frequently used in the Rigveda and later to denote a quarter of the sky. As a general rule, four quarters are mentioned—east, south, west, north. But the number of the ‘ directions ’ is sometimes increased up to ten by the addition to these four of various others. The five points include the zenith (ārdhvā) ; the six, the zenith and the nadir (ūrdhvā and avācī) ; the seven, the zenith, the ground on which one stands (dhruva), and the air (aηtariksa) between these two (vyadhvā) ; the eight include the inter­mediate quarters (S.E., S.W., N.E., N.W.) ; the nine add to these the zenith ; the ten, zenith and nadir. The number five is sometimes made up by the ground beneath the observer’s feet (ιdhruvā), and the number six by that point (dhruvā) and the zenith (ūrdhvā) ; the ‘ lofty ’ (brhatl) sometimes taking the place of the ‘ vertical ’ (ūrdhvā).
dṛti aindrota (‘Descendant of Indrota’) is mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana as a contemporary of Abhipratārin Kāksaseni and as a pupil of Indrota Daivāpa in a Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana. Possibly the same Drti is meant in the compound Drti-Vātavantau, which is found in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana.The former is here said to have continued, after the Mahāvrata was over, the sacrificial session in which both had been engaged, with the result that his descendants prospered more than the Vātavatas.
deśa ‘Land,’ is a word that does not come into use till the time of the Upanisads and Sūtras, excepting one occurrence in the latest period of the Brāhmana literature, and one in a much-discussed passage of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, where the Sarasvatī is mentioned as having five tributaries. This passage militates against the view that Sarasvatī was a name of the Indus, because the use of Deśa here seems to indicate that the seer of the verse placed the Sarasvatī in the Madhya- deśa or * Middle Country,’ to which all the geographical data of the Yajurvedas point.
dhmātṛ (lit. * blower ’) occurs twice in one passage of the. Rigveda in the two forms, dhmātā, nom. ‘ smelter,’ and dhmātarī, which, according to the Padapātha, stands for dhmātari, a locative probably meaning ‘ in the smelting furnace.’ Geldner, Bartholomae, and Oldenburg regard the latter form as a locative infinitive, ‘in the smelting.’ Ludwig and Neisser think dhmātari is a nom. sing. masc. used in the same sense as dhmātā. Smelting is also clearly referred to,8 and the smelter is described as using the wings of birds (parna śakunānām) to fan the flame.9 That the art was widely applied is shown by the fact that reference is made to arrows with points of Ayas,19 to kettles which were fashioned of the same metal and could be placed upon a fire, and to Soma cups of beaten Ayas.
nakṣatra Is a word of obscure origin and derivation. The Indian interpreters already show a great divergence of opinion as to its primary meaning. The śatapatha Brāhmana re­solves it into na-ksatra (‘ no power ’), explaining it by a legend. The Nirukta refers it to the root naks, ‘obtain/ following the Taittirīya Brāhmana. Aufrecht and Weber derived it from nakta-tra, ‘ guardian of night/ and more recently the derivation from nak-ksatra, ‘ having rule over night/ seems to be gaining acceptance. The generic meaning of the word therefore seems to be ‘star/ The Naksatras as Stars in the Rigveda and Later.—The sense of star ’ appears to be adequate for all or nearly all the passages in which Naksatra occurs in the Rigveda. The same sense occurs in the later Samhitās also : the sun and the Naksatras are mentioned together, or the sun, the moon, and the Naksatras, or the moon and the Naksatras, or the Naksatras alone; but there is no necessity to attribute to the word the sense of lunar mansion ’ in these passages. On the other hand, the names of at least three of the Naksatras in the later sense occur in the Rigveda. Tisya, however, does not seem to be mentioned as a lunar mansion. With Aghās (plur.) and Arjunī (dual) the case is different: it seems probable that they are the later lunar mansions called Maghās (plur.) and Phālgunī (dual). The names appear to have been deliberately changed in the Rigveda, and it must be remembered that the hymn in which they occur, the wedding hymn of Sūryā, has no claim to great age. Ludwig and Zimmer have seen other references to the Naksatras as 27 in the Rigveda, but these seem most improbable. Nor do the adjectives revatī (£ rich ’) and punarvasīi (‘ bringing wealth again’) in another hymn appear to refer to the Naksatras. The Naksatras as Lunar Mansions.—In several passages of the later Samhitās the connexion of the moon and the Naksatras is conceived of as a marriage union. Thus in the Kāthaka and Taittirīya Samhitās it is expressly stated that Soma was wedded to the mansions, but dwelt only with Rohinī; the others being angry, he had ultimately to undertake to live with them all equally. Weber hence deduced that the Naksatras were regarded as of equal extent, but this is to press the texts unduly, except in the sense of approximate equality. The number of the mansions is not stated as 27 in the story told in the two Samhitās: the Taittīriya has, and the Kāthaka no number; but 27 appears as their number in the list which is found in the Taittirīya Samhitā and elsewhere. The number 28 is much less well attested: in one passage of the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is practically marked as a new comer, though in a later book, in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and in the Atharvaveda list,27 it has found acceptance. It is perfectly possible that 28 is the earlier number, and that Abhijit dropped out because it was faint, or too far north, or because 27 was a more mystic (3x3x3) number: it is significant that the Chinese Sieou and the Arabic Manāzil are 28 in number.28 Weber, however, believes that 27 is the older number in India. The meaning of the number is easily explained when it is remembered that a periodic month occupies something between 27 and 28 days, more nearly the former number. Such a month is in fact recognized in the Lātyāyana and Nidāna Sūtras as consisting of 27 days, 12 months making a year of 324 days, a Naksatra year, or with an intercalary month, a year of 351 days. The Nidāna Sūtra makes an attempt to introduce the Naksatra reckoning into the civil or solar (sāvana) year of 360 days, for it holds that the sun spends 13J• days in each Naksatra (13^x27 = 360). But the month of 27 or 28 days plays no part in the chronological calculations of the Veda. The Names of the Naksatras.—In addition to the two mentioned in the Rigveda, the earlier Atharvaveda gives the names of Jyesthaghnī (the later Jyesthā) and Vicrtau, which are mentioned as in close connexion, and of Revatīs (plural) and Kyttikās. With reference to possible times for the ceremony of the Agnyādhāna, or Maying of the sacred fires/ the Kāthaka Samhitā, the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and the Taittirīya Brāhmana mention the Naksatras called Krttikās, Rohinī, Phalgunyas, Hasta; the latter Brāhmana adds Punar- vasū, and in an additional remark excludes Pūrve Phālgunī in favour of Uttare Phālgunī. The śatapatha Brāhmana adds Mrgaśīrsa and Citrā as possibilities. On the other hand, Punarvasū is recommended by all authorities as suitable for the Punarādheya, 'relaying of the sacred fires,’ which takes place if the first fire has failed to effect the aim of its existence, the prosperity of the sacrificer. The Kāthaka Samhitā, however, allows Anurādhās also. In the ceremony of the Agnicayana, or 'piling of the fire- altar,’ the bricks are assumed to be equal in number to the Naksatras. The bricks number 756, and they are equated to 27 Naksatras multiplied by 27 secondary Naksatras, reckoned as 720 (instead of 729), with the addition of 36 days, the length of an intercalary month. Nothing can be usefully derived from this piece of priestly nonsense. But in connexion with this ceremony the Yajurveda Samhitās enumerate the 27, The Taittirīya Brāhmana has a list of the Naksatras which agrees generally with the list of the Samhitās. It runs as follows: Kyttikās, Rohinī, Invakās, Bāhū (dual), Tisya, Aśleṣās, Maghās, Pūrve Phālgunī, Uttare Phālgunī, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Rohinī, Mūlabarhanī, Pūrvā Asādhās', Uttarā Asādhās, Sronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Pūrve Prosthapadās, Uttare Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Apabharanīs. In a later book, however, the list grows to 28, and the full moon is inserted after number 14, and the new moon after number, as an attempt to bring the Naksatra (lunar) month into accordance with the Sāvana (solar) month of 30 days. The names in this second list are as in the Samhitās with the following exceptions. The seven stars of the Krttikās are named as Ambā, Dulā, Nitatnī, Abhrayantī, Meghayantī, Varsayantī, Cupunīkā, names found also in the Taittirīya and Kāthaka Samhitās. Beside Mrgaśīrsa, Invakās are also mentioned. Then come Ardrā, Punarvasū, Tisya, Aśresās, Maghās (beside which Anaghās, Agadās, and Arun- dhatīs are also mentioned), Phalgunyas (but elsewhere in the dual, Phalgunyau), Phalgunyas, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Jyesthā, Mūla, Asādhās, Asā(jhās, Abhijit, śronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Prosthapadās, Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas, but also Apabharanīs. Abhijit, which occurs also in an earlier part of the Brāhmana, is perhaps interpolated. But Weber’s argument that Abhijit is out of place in this list because Brāhmana is here mentioned as the 28th Naksatra, loses some force from the fact (of course unknown to him) that the list in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā contains 28 Naksatras, including Abhijit, and adds Brāhmana at the end as another. In another passage the Taittirīya Brāhmana divides the Naksatras into two sets, the Deva Naksatras and the Yama Naksatras, being 1-14 and 15-27 (with the omission of Abhijit) respectively. This division corresponds with one in the third book of the Brāhmana60 where the days of the light half of the month and those of the dark half are equated with the Naksatras. The Brāhmana treats the former series as south, the latter as north; but this has no relation to facts, and can only be regarded as a ritual absurdity. The late nineteenth book of the Atharvaveda contains a list of the Naksatras, including Abhijit. The names here (masc.), Viśākhe, Anurādhā, Jyesthā, Mūla, Pūrvā Asādhās, Uttarā Asādhās, Abhijit, śravana, śravisthās, śatabhisaj, Dvayā Prosthapadā, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas. The Position of the Naksatras.—There is nothing definite in Vedic literature regarding the position of most of the Naksatras, but the later astronomy precisely locates all of them, and its statements agree on the whole satisfactorily with what is said in the earlier texts, though Weber was inclined to doubt this. The determinations adopted below are due to Whitney in his notes on the Sūrya Siddhānta. 1.Krttikās are unquestionably η Tauri, etc., the Pleiades. The names of the seven stars forming this constellation, and given above from Yajurveda texts, include three --------abhrayantī, forming clouds meghayantī, ‘making cloudy’; varsayantī, ‘causing rain’—which clearly refer to the rainy Pleiades. The word krttikā possibly means ‘web/ from the root krt, spin.’ 2. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy,’ is the name of the conspicuously reddish star, a Tauri or Aldebaran, and denotes the group of the Hyades, <* θ y 8 e Tauri. Its identification seems absolutely assured by the legend of Prajāpati in the Aitareya Brāhmana. He is there represented as pursuing his daughter with incestuous intention, and as having been shot with an arrow (Isu Trikāndā, ‘ the belt of Orion ’) by the huntsman ’ (Mrgavyādha, Sirius ’). Prajāpati is clearly Orion (Mrgaśiras being the name of the little group of stars in Orion’s head). 3.Mrgaśīrsa or Mrgaśiras, also called Invakā or Invagā, seems to be the faint stars λ, φ,1 φ2 Orionis. They are called Andhakā, * blind,’ in the śāntikalpa of the Atharvaveda, probably because of their dimness. 4.Ardrā, ‘ moist,’ is the name of the brilliant star, α Orionis. But the names by which it is styled, in the plural as Árdrās in the śāñkhāyana Grhya Sūtra and the Naksatrakalpa, and in the dual as Bāhú, in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, point to a constellation of two or more stars, and it may be noted that the corresponding Chinese Sieou includes the seven brilliant stars composing the shoulders, the belt, and the knees of Orion. 5. Punarvasu, the two that give wealth again,’ denotes the two stars, a and β Geminorum, on the heads of Castor and Pollux. The name is no doubt connected with the beneficent character of the Aśvins, who correspond to the Dioscuri. 6.Tisya or Pusya includes the somewhat faint group in the body of the Crab, 7, δ, and θ Cancri. The singular is rather curious, as primarily one star would seem to have been meant, and none of the group is at all prominent. 7. Aśresās or Aślesās, which in some texts is certainly to be read Aśresās or Aślesas, denotes δ, e, η, p, σ, and perhaps also ζ, Hydrse. The word means ‘embracer,’ a name which admirably fits the constellation. 8. Maghās, the ‘bounties,’ are the Sickle, or α, γ, ζ, μ, e Leonis. The variants Anaghā, the ‘ sinless one,’ etc.,clearly refer to the auspicious influence of the constellation. 9. 10. Phālgunī, Phalgunyau, Phalgū, Phalg-unīs, Phal- gunyas, is really a double constellation, divided into Pūrve, ‘ former,’ and Uttare, ‘latter.’ The former is δ and θ Leonis, the latter β and Leonis. According to Weber, the word denotes, like Arjunī, the variant of the Rigveda, a ‘ bright- coloured ’ constellation. 11. Hasta, ‘hand,’ is made up of the five conspicuous stars (δ> Ί, e, a, β) in Corvus, a number which the word itself suggests. According to Geldner, the ‘ five bulls ’ of the Rigveda are this constellation. 12. Citrā, ‘bright,’ is the beautiful star, a Virginis. It is mentioned in a legend of Indra in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, and in that of the ‘ two divine dogs ’ (divyau śvānau) in the śatapatha Brāhmana. 13. Svāti or Nistyā is later clearly the brilliant star Arcturus or a Bootis, its place in the north being assured by the notice in the śāntikalpa, where it is said to be ‘ ever traversing the northern way ’ (nityam uttara-mārgagam). The Taittirīya Brāhmana, however, constructs an asterismal Prajāpati, giving him Citrā (α Virginis) for head, Hasta (Corvus) for hand, the Viśākhe (α and β Librae) for thighs, and the Anurādhās (β, δ, and 7r Scorpionis) for standing place, with Nistyā for heart. But Arcturus, being 30° out, spoils this figure, while, on the other hand, the Arabic and Chinese systems have respectively, instead of Arcturus, Virginis and κ Virginis, which would well fit into the Prajāpati figure. But in spite of the force of this argument of Weber’s, Whitney is not certain that Nistyā here must mean a star in Virgo, pointing out that the name Nistyā, ‘outcast,’ suggests the separation of this Naksatra from the others in question. 14.Viśākhe is the couple of stars a and β Librae. This mansion is later called Rādhā according to the Amarakośa, and it is curious that in the Atharvaveda the expression rādho Viśākhe, the Viśākhe are prosperity,’ should occur. But probably Rādhā is merely an invention due to the name of the next Naksatra, Anurādhā, wrongly conceived as meaning that which is after or follows Rādhā.’ 15. Anūrādhās or Anurādhā, propitious,’ is β, δ, and tγ (perhaps also p) Scorpionis. 16. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy ’; Jyesthaghnī, * slaying the eldest ’; or Jyesthā, ‘eldest,’ is the name of the constellation σ, α, and τ Scorpionis, of which the central star, a, is the brilliant reddish Antares (or Cor Scorpionis). 17.Vicrtau, ‘ the two releasers ’; Mūla, ‘ root or Mūla- barhanī, ‘ uprooting,’ denote primarily λ and v at the extremity of the tail of the Scorpion, but including also the nine or eleven stars from e to v. 18.19. Asādhās (‘ unconquered ’), distinguished as Pūrvās, ‘ former,’ and Uttarās, ‘ latter,’ are really two constellations, of which the former is composed of γ, δ, e, and η Sagittarii, or of 8 and e only, and the latter of θ, σ, t, and ξ Sagittarii, or of two, σ and ζ, only. It is probable that originally only four stars forming a square were meant as included in the whole constellation —viz., σ and f, with 8 and e. 20. Abhijit is the brilliant star a Lyrse with its two companions e and ζ. Its location in 6o° north latitude is completely discordant with the position of the corresponding Arabian and Chinese asterisms. This fact is considered by Oldenberg to support the view that it was a later addition to the system; its occurrence, however, as early as the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, which he does not note, somewhat invalidates that view. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is said to be ‘over Asādhās, under śronā,’ which Weber held to refer to its position in space, inferring thence that its Vedic position corresponded to that of the Arab Manāzil and the Chinese Sieou—viz., a, β Capricorni. But Whitney argues effectively that the words ‘ over ’ and ‘ under ’ really refer to the place of Abhijit in the list, ‘ after ’ Asādhās and ‘ before ’ Sronā. 21. Sronā, ‘lame,’ or Sravana, ‘ ear,’ denotes the bright star a Aquilai with β below and 7 above it. Weber very need- lessly thinks that the name Sravana suggested two ears and the head between. It is quite out of correspondence with the Manāzil and the Sieou, and is clearly an Indian invention. 22. śravisthās, ‘ most famous,’ or later Dhanisthās, ‘most wealthy,’ is the diamond-shaped group, α, β, δ, and 7, in the Dolphin, perhaps also ζ in the same constellation. Like the preceding Naksatra, it is out of harmony with the Manāzil and Sieou. 23. Satabhisaj or śatabhisa, ‘having a hundred physicians,’ seems to be λ Aquarii with the others around it vaguely conceived as numbering a hundred. 24. 25. Prostha-padās (fem. plur.), ‘ feet of a stool,’ or later Bhadra-padās,100 ‘auspicious feet,’ a double asterism forming a square, the former (pūrva) consisting of a and β Pegasi, the latter (uttara) of γ Pegasi and a Andromedse. 26. Revatī, ‘ wealthy,’ denotes a large number of stars (later 32), of which ζ Piscium, close upon the ecliptic where it was crossed by the equator of about 570 a.d., is given as the southernmost. 27. Aśva-yujau, ‘the two horse-harnessers,’ denotes the stars β and ζ Arietis. Aśvinyau101 and Aśvinī102 are later names. 28. Apabharanīs, Bharanīs, or Bharanyas, ‘ the bearers,’ is the name of the small triangle in the northern part of the Ram known as Musca or 35, 39, and 41 Arietis. The Naksatras and the Months.—In the Brāhmanas the Naksatra names are regularly used to denote dates. This is done in two ways. The name, if not already a feminine, may be turned into a feminine and compounded with pūrna-māsa, ‘the full moon,’ as in Tisyā-pūrnamāsa, ‘the full moon in the Naksatra Tisya.’103 Much more often, however, it is turned into a derivative adjective, used with paurnamāsī, ‘the full moon (night)/ or with amāvāsyā, ‘the new moon (night)/ as in Phālgunī paurnamāsl, ‘the full-moon night in the Naksatra Phālgunī’;104 or, as is usual in the Sūtras, the Naksatra adjective alone is used to denote the full-moon night. The month itself is called by a name derived105 from that of a Naksatra, but only Phālguna,106 Caitra,107 Vaiśākha,108 Taisya,109 Māgha110 occur in the Brāhmanas, the complete list later being Phālguna, Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyaistha, Asādha, Srāvana, Prausthapada, Aśvayuja, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrsa, Taisya, Māgha. Strictly speaking, these should be lunar months, but the use of a lunar year was clearly very restricted: we have seen that as early as the Taittirīya Brāhmana there was a tendency to equate lunar months with the twelve months of thirty days which made up the solar year (see Māsa). The Naksatras and Chronology.—(i) An endeavour has been made to ascertain from the names of the months the period at which the systematic employment of those names was intro¬duced. Sir William Jones111 refers to this possibility, and Bentley, by the gratuitous assumption that śrāvana always marked the summer solstice, concluded that the names of the months did not date before b.c. Ii8I. Weber112 considered that there was a possibility of fixing a date by this means, but Whitney113 has convincingly shown that it is an impossible feat, and Thibaut114 concurs in this view. Twelve became fixed as the number of the months because of the desire, evident in the Brāhmanas, somehow or other to harmonize lunar with solar time; but the selection of twelve Naksatras out of twenty-seven as connected with the night of full moon can have no chronological significance, because full moon at no period occurred in those twelve only, but has at all periods occurred in every one of the twenty-seven at regularly recurrent intervals. (2) All the lists of the Naksatras begin with Krttikās. It is only fair to suppose that there was some special reason for this fact. Now the later list of the Naksatras begins with Aśvinī, and it was unquestionably rearranged because at the time of its adoption the vernal equinox coincided with the star ζ Piscium on the border of Revatī and Aśvinī, say in the course of the sixth century A.D. Weber has therefore accepted the view that the Krttikās were chosen for a similar reason, and the date at which that Naksatra coincided with the vernal equinox has been estimated at some period in the third millennium B.C. A very grave objection to this view is its assumption that the sun, and not the moon, was then regarded as connected with the Naksatras; and both Thibaut and Oldenberg have pronounced decidedly against the idea of connecting the equinox with the Krttikās. Jacobi has contended that in the Rigveda the commencement of the rains and the summer solstice mark the beginning of the new year and the end of the old, and that further the new year began with the summer solstice in Phālgunī.121 He has also referred to the distinction of the two sets of Deva and Yama Naksatras in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as supporting his view of the connexion of the sun and the Naksatras. But this view is far from satisfactory: the Rigveda passages cannot yield the sense required except by translating the word dvādaśa123 as 4 the twelfth (month) * instead of consisting of twelve parts,’ that is, ‘year/ the accepted interpretation; and the division of the Naksatras is not at all satisfactorily explained by a supposed connexion with the sun. It may further be mentioned that even if the Naksatra of Krttikās be deemed to have been chosen because of its coincidence with the vernal equinox, both Whitney and Thibaut are pre¬pared to regard it as no more than a careless variant of the date given by the Jyotisa, which puts the winter solstice in Māgha. (3) The winter solstice in Māgha is assured by a Brāhmana text, for the Kausītaki Brāhmana12® expressly places it in the new moon of Māgha (māghasyāmāυāsyāyām). It is not very important whether we take this with the commentators as the new moon in the middle of a month commencing with the day after full moon in Taisa, or, which is much more likely, as the new moon beginning the month and preceding full moon in Māgha. The datum gives a certain possibility of fixing an epoch in the following way. If the end of Revatī marked the vernal equinox at one period, then the precession of the equinoxes would enable us to calculate at what point of time the vernal equinox was in a position corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha, when the solstitial colure cut the ecliptic at the beginning of Sravisthās. This would be, on the strict theory, in the third quarter of Bharanī, 6f asterisms removed from Sravisthās, and the difference between that and the beginning of Aśvinī = if asterisms = 23 (27 asterisms being = 360°). Taking, the starting-point at 499 a.d., the assured period of Varāha Mihira, Jones arrived at the date B.C. 1181 for the vernal equinox corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha—that is, on the basis of ι° = 72 years as the precession. Pratt arrived at precisely the same date, taking the same rate of precession and adopting as his basis the ascertained position in the Siddhantas of the junction star of Maghā, a Leonis or Regulus. Davis and Colebrooke arrived at a different date, B.C. 1391, by taking as the basis of their calculation the junction star of Citrā, which happens to be of uncertain position, varying as much as 30 in the different textbooks. But though the twelfth century has received a certain currency as the epoch of the observation in the Jyotisa, it is of very doubtful value. As Whitney points out, it is impossible to say that the earlier asterisms coincided in position with the later asterisms of 13J0 extent each. They were not chosen as equal divisions, but as groups of stars which stood in conjunction with the moon; and the result of subsequently making them strictly equal divisions was to throw the principal stars of the later groups altogether out of their asterisms. Nor can we say that the star ζ Piscium early formed the eastern boundary of Revatī; it may possibly not even have been in that asterism at all, for it is far remote from the Chinese and Arabic asterisms corresponding to Revatī. Added to all this, and to the uncertainty of the starting-point— 582 a.d., 560 a.d., or 491 a.d. being variants —is the fact that the place of the equinox is not a matter accurately determin¬able by mere observation, and that the Hindu astronomers of the Vedic period cannot be deemed to have been very accurate observers, since they made no precise determination of the number of days of the year, which even in the Jyotisa they do not determine more precisely than as 366 days, and even the Sūrya Siddhānta136 does not know the precession of the equinoxes. It is therefore only fair to allow a thousand years for possible errors,137 and the only probable conclusion to be drawn from the datum of the Kausītaki Brāhmana is that it was recording an observation which must have been made some centuries B.C., in itself a result quite in harmony with the probable date of the Brāhmana literature,138 say B.C. 800-600. (4) Another chronological argument has been derived from the fact that there is a considerable amount of evidence for Phālguna having been regarded as the beginning of the year, since the full moon in Phālgunī is often described as the ‘ mouth (mukham) of the year.’139 Jacobi140 considers that this was due to the fact that the year was reckoned from the winter solstice, which would coincide with the month of Phālguna about B.C. 4000. Oldenberg and Thibaut, on the other hand, maintain that the choice of Phālguna as the ‘ mouth ’ of the year was due to its being the first month of spring. This view is favoured by the fact that there is distinct evidence of the correspondence of Phālguna and the beginning of spring : as we have seen above in the Kausītaki Brāhmana, the new moon in Māgha is placed at the winter solstice, which puts the full moon of Phālgunī at a month and a half after the winter solstice, or in the first week of February, a date not in itself improbable for about B.C. 800, and corresponding with the February 7 of the veris initium in the Roman Calendar. This fact accords with the only natural division of the year into three periods of four months, as the rainy season lasts from June 7-10 to October 7-10, and it is certain that the second set of four months dates from the beginning of the rains (see Cāturmāsya). Tilak, on the other hand, holds that the winter solstice coincided with Māghī full moon at the time of the Taittirīya Samhitā (b.c. 2350), and had coincided with Phālgunī and Caitrī in early periods—viz., B.C. 4000-2500, and B.C. 6000¬4000. (5) The passages of the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, which treat the full moon in Phālguna as the beginning of the year, give as an alternative the full moon in Caitra. Probably the latter month was chosen so as to secure that the initial day should fall well within the season of spring, and was not, as Jacobi believes, a relic of a period when the winter solstice corresponded with Caitra. Another alternative is the Ekāstakā, interpreted by the commentators as the eighth day after the full moon in Maghās, a time which might, as being the last quarter of the waning half of the old year, well be considered as representing the end of the year. A fourth alternative is the fourth day before full moon; the full moon meant must be that of Caitra, as Álekhana quoted by Ápastamba held, not of Māgha, as Asmarathya, Laugāksi and the Mīmāmsists believed, and as Tilak believes. (6) Others, again, according to the Grhya ritual, began the year with the month Mārgaśīrsa, as is shown by its other name Agrahāyana (‘ belonging to the commencement of the year ’). Jacobi and Tilak think that this one denoted the autumn equinox in Mrgaśiras, corresponding to the winter solstice in Phālgunī. But, as Thibaut shows clearly, it was selected as the beginning of a year that was taken to commence with autumn, just as some took the spring to commence with Caitra instead of Phālguna. (7) Jacobi has also argued, with the support of Buhler, from the terms given for the beginning of Vedic study in the Grhya Sūtras, on the principle that study commenced with the rains (as in the Buddhist vassā) which mark the summer solstice. He concludes that if Bhādrapada appears as the date of commencing study in some texts, it was fixed thus because at one time Prosthapadās (the early name of Bhadra- padās) coincided with the summer solstice, this having been the case when the winter solstice was in Phālguna. But Whitney155 has pointed out that this argument is utterly illegitimate; we cannot say that there was any necessary connexion between the rains and learning—a month like Srāvana might be preferred because of its connexion with the word Sravana, 4 ear ’—and in view of the precession of the equinoxes, we must assume that Bhādrapada was kept because of its traditional coincidence with the beginning of the rains after it had ceased actually so to coincide. the other astronomical phenomena; the discovery of a series of 27 lunar mansions by them would therefore be rather surprising. On the other hand, the nature of such an operation is not very complicated ; it consists merely in selecting a star or a star group with which the moon is in conjunction. It is thus impossible a priori to deny that the Vedic Indians could have invented for themselves a lunar Zodiac. But the question is complicated by the fact that there exist two similar sets of 28 stars or star groups in Arabia and in China, the Manāzil and the Sieou. The use of the Manāzil in Arabia is consistent and effective ; the calendar is regulated by them, and the position of the asterisms corresponds best with the positions required for a lunar Zodiac. The Indians might therefore have borrowed the system from Arabia, but that is a mere possibility, because the evidence for the existence of the Manāzil is long posterior to that for the existence of the Naksatras, while again the Mazzaroth or Mazzaloth of the Old Testament may really be the lunar mansions. That the Arabian system is borrowed from India, as Burgess held, is, on the other hand, not at all probable. Biot, the eminent Chinese scholar, in a series of papers published by him between. 1839 and 1861, attempted to prove the derivation of the Naksatra from the Chinese Sieou. The latter he did not regard as being in origin lunar mansions at all. He thought that they were equatorial stars used, as in modern astronomy, as a standard to which planets or other stars observed in the neighbourhood can be referred; they were, as regards twenty-four of them, selected about B.C. 2357 on account of their proximity to the equator, and of their having the same right ascension as certain circumpolar stars which had attracted the attention of Chinese observers. Four more were added in B.C. IIOO in order to mark the equinoxes and solstices of the period. He held that the list of stars commenced with Mao (= Krttikās), which was at the vernal equinox in B.C. 2357. Weber, in an elaborate essay of i860, disputed this theory, and endeavoured to show that the Chinese literary evidence for the Sieou was late, dating not even from before the third century B.C. The last point does not appear to be correct, but his objections against the basis of Biot’s theory were rein¬forced by Whitney, who insisted that Biot’s supposition of the Sieou’s not having been ultimately derived from a system of lunar mansions, was untenable. This is admitted by the latest defender of the hypothesis of borrowing from China, Lśopold de Saussure, , but his arguments in favour of a Chinese origin for the Indian lunar mansions have been refuted by Oldenberg, who has also pointed out that the series does not begin with Mao ( = Krttikās). There remains only the possibility that a common source for all the three sets—Naksatra, Manāzil, and Sieou—may be found in Babylonia. Hommel has endeavoured to show that recent research has established in Babylonia the existence of a lunar zodiac of twenty-four members headed by the Pleiades ( = Krttikās); but Thibaut’s researches are not favourable to this claim. On the other hand, Weber, Whitney, Zimmer, and Oldenberg all incline to the view that in Babylonia is to be found the origin of the system, and this must for the present be regarded as the most probable view, for there are other traces of Babylonian influence in Vedic literature, such as the legend of the flood, perhaps the Adityas, and possibly the word Manā.
nau Is the regular word in the Rigveda and later for a 4 boat ’ or 4 ship.’ In the great majority of cases the ship was merely a boat for crossing rivers, though no doubt a large boat was needed for crossing many of the broad rivers of the Panjab as well as the Yamunā and Gañgā. Often no doubt the Nau was a mere dug-out canoe (
pṛṣadhra Occurs in a Vālakhilya hymn of the Rigveda as the name of a man. He is also mentioned in the śānkhāyana śrauta Sūtra as a patron of Praskaçva, and called Prṣadhra Medhya Mātariśvan (or Mātariśva); but for once there is a discrepancy between the statement of the Sūtra and the text of the Rigveda, for the hymns there attributed to Praskaṇva as in praise of Prṣadhra have nothing in them connected with Prṣadhra, while the Anukramanī (Index) ascribes to Prṣadhra himself the authorship of one of them. On the other hand, Medhya and Mātariśvan appear as separate persons in the Rigveda along with Pṛṣadhra.
pauṃsāyana Is the patronymic of Duṣtarītu in the śata­patha Brāhmaṇa.
praskaṇva Is the name of a Rsi who is credited by the Anukramam (Index) with the authorship of certain hymns of the Rigveda, where he is mentioned several times. The statement in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra that he obtained bounty from Ppsadhra Medhya Mātariśvan is apparently a blunder.
balhika prātipīya Is the name of a Kuru king in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, where he appears as having been opposed to the restoration of Duçtarītu Paumsāyana to his hereditary sovereignty over the Srñjayas, but as having failed to prevent the restoration being carried out by Revottaras Pā^ava Cākra Sthapati. The epithet Prātipīya is curious: if it connects him with Pratīpa (whose son he is in the Epic), the form is remarkable, Zimmer indeed tacitly altering it to Prātīpīya. In the Epic and the Purānas he is in the form of Vāhlīka made a brother of Devāpi and śantanu, and a son of Pratīpa. To base chronological conclusions on this would be utterly misleading, for the facts are that Devāpi was son of çṣ^iṣena and a priest, while śantanu was a Kura prince of unknown parentage, but not probably a son of Pratīpa, who seems to be a late figure in the Vedic age, later than Parikçit, being his great-grandson in the Epic. Very possibly Balhika was a descendant of Pratīpa. Why he bore the name Balhika must remain uncertain, for there is no evidence of any sort regarding it.
brahmadatta caikitāneya (Descendant of Cekitāna’) is the name of a teacher in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad, He is mentioned also in the Jaiminiya Upanisad as patronized by Abhipratārin, the Kuru king.
tariávan Is mentioned in a Vālakhilya hymn of the Rigveda as a sacrificer along with Medhya and Ppçadhra. He seems to be mentioned also in one other passage, possibly in two. In the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra a patron, Pfçadhra Medhya Mātariávan or Mātariśva is created by a misunder­standing of the Rigvedic text.
medhya Is the name of a man, an ancient sacrificer, in a hymn of the Rigveda. In the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra he is erroneously transmuted into Ppçadhra Medhya Mātariávan, the patron of Praskaṇva Kāṇva.
ratha in the Rigveda and later denotes ‘chariot’ as opposed to Anas, ‘cart,’ though the distinction is not absolute. Of differences in the structure of the two we have no information, except that the Kha, or nave hole, in the wheel of the chariot was greater than in that of the cart. The chariot has, as a rule, two wheels (Cakra), to which reference is frequently made. The wheel consisted of a rim (Pavi), a felly (Pradhi), spokes (Ara), and a nave (Nabhya). The rim and the felly together constitute the Nemi. The hole in the nave is called Kha: into it the end of the axle was inserted; but there is some uncertainty whether Ani denotes the extremity of the axle that was inserted in the nave, or the lynch-pin used to keep that extremity in the wheel. Sometimes a solid wheel was used. The axle (Akṣa) was, in some cases, made of Araψu. wood; round its ends the wheels revolved. To the axle was attached the body of the chariot (Kośa). This part is also denoted by the word Vandhura, which more precisely means the ‘ seat ’ of the chariot. The epithet tri-vandhura is used of the chariot of the Aśvins, seemingly to correspond with another of its epithets, tri-cakra: perhaps, as Weber thinks, a chariot with three seats and three wheels was a real form of vehicle; but Zimmer considers that the vehicle was purely mythical. Garta also denotes the seat of the warrior. At right angles to the axle was the pole of the chariot (īçā, Praiiga). Normally there was, it seems, one pole, on either side of which the horses were harnessed, a yoke (Yuga) being laid across their necks; the pole was passed through the hole in the yoke (called Kha or Tardman ), the yoke and the pole then being tied together. The horses were tied by the neck (grīva), where the yoke was placed, and also at the shoulder, presumably by traces fastened to a bar of wood at right angles to the pole, or fastened to the ends of the pole, if that is to be regarded, as it probably should, as of triangular shape, wide at the foot and coming to a point at the tip. The traces seem to be denoted by Raśmi and Raśanā. These words also denote the ‘ reins,’ which were fastened to the bit (perhaps śiprū) in the horse’s mouth. The driver controlled the horses by reins, and urged them on with a whip (Kaśā). The girths of the horse were called Kakṣyā. The normal number of horses seems to have been two, but three or four10 were often used. It is uncertain whether, in these cases, the extra horse was attached in front or at the side; possibly both modes were in use. Even five steeds could be employed. Horses were normally used for chariots, but the ass (gardabha) or mule (aśvatarī) are also mentioned. The ox was employed for drawing carts, and in fact derived its name, Anadvāh, from this use. Sometimes a poor man had to be content with a single steed, which then ran between two shafts. In the chariot the driver stood on the right, while the warrior was on the left, as indicated by his name, Savyeṣtha or Savyaṣhā. He could also sit when he wanted, for the chariot had seats, and an archer would naturally prefer to sit while shooting his arrows. The dimensions of the chariot are given in the śulba Sūtra of Apastamba at Angulis (finger-breadths) for the pole, for the axle, and 86 for the yoke. The material used in its construction was wood, except for the rim of the wheel. Many other parts of the chariot are mentioned, their names being often obscure in meaning: see Añka, Nyanka, Uddhi, Paksas, Pātalya, Bhurij, Rathopastha, Rathavāhana.
revottaras Is the name of Pāava Cākra Sthapati, who was expelled, with Duçtarītu Paumsāyana, by the Spftjayas, and who was in part instrumental in the restoration of his master to power, despite the opposition of Balhika Prātipīya, the Kuru king.
vṛddhadyumna ábhipratāriṇa (‘Descendant of Abhipra- tārin ’) is the name of a prince (rājanya) in the Aitareya Brāh­maṇa, where his priest, śucivrksa Gaupalāyana, is praised. In the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra, on the contrary, he is said to have erred in the sacrifice, when a Brahmin prophesied that the result would be the expulsion of the Kurus from Kurukṣetra, an event which actually came to pass.
vyākhyāna In one passage of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa clearly denotes a narrative ’ merely—viz., that of the dispute of Kadrū and Suparṇī. In other passages the word means simply ‘commentary.’ In the Brhadāranyaka Upaniṣad, used in the plural, it signifies a species of writing, apparently ‘ com­mentaries,’ though its exact relation to Anuvyākhyāna must remain obscure. Sieg thinks that the Vyākhyānas were forms of narrative like Anvākhyāna and Anuvyākhyāna.
śāṇdilīputra ‘Pupil of a female descendant of śaṇdila,’ is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Rāthītarīputra, in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
śucivṛkṣa gaupālāyana (‘Descendant of Gopāla’) is the name of the priest of Vrddhadyumna Abhipratāriṇa in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. He is also mentioned in the Maitrāyaṇī Samhitā.
śaunaka ‘Descendant of śunaka,’ is a common patronymic. It is applied to Indrota and Svaidāyana. A śaunaka appears as a teacher of Rauhiṇāyána in the Brhadāranyaka Upaniṣad. A śaunaka-yajña, or śaunaka sacrifice, occurs in the Kausītaki Brāhmana. In the Chāndogya Upaniṣad Atidhanvan śaunaka appears as a teacher. That Upaniṣad and the Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmana mention a śaunaka Kāpeya who was a contemporary of Abhipratārin Kakçaseni, whose Purohita śaunaka was according to another passage of the latter Upaniṣad. In the Sūtras, the Bṛhaddevatā, etc., a śaunaka appears as a great authority on grammatical, ritual, and other matters.
samudra (Literally ‘gathering of waters’), ‘ocean,’ is a frequent word in the Rigveda and later. It is of importance in so far as it indicates that the Vedic Indians knew the sea. This is, indeed, denied by Vivien de Saint Martin, but not only do Max Muller and Lassen assert it, but even Zimmer, who is inclined to restrict their knowledge of the sea as far as possible, admits it in one passage of the Rigveda, and of course later. He points out that the ebb and flow of the sea are unknown, that the mouths of the Indus are never mentioned, that fish is not a known diet in the Rigveda (cf. Matsya), and that in many places Samudra is metaphorically used, as of the two oceans, the lower and the upper oceans, etc. In other passages he thinks that Samudra denotes the river Indus when it receives all its Panjab tributaries. It is probable that this is to circumscribe too narrowly the Vedic knowledge of the ocean, which was almost inevitable to people who knew the Indus. There are references to the treasures of the ocean, perhaps pearls or the gains of trade, and the story of Bhujyu seems to allude to marine navigation. That there was any sea trade with Babylon in Vedic times cannot be proved : the stress laid on the occurrence in the Hebrew Book of Kings of qof and iukhiīm, ‘monkey’ (kapi) and ‘ peacock,’ is invalidated by the doubtful date of the Book of Kings. There is, besides, little reason to assume an early date for the trade that no doubt developed later, perhaps about 700 B.C. In the later texts Samudra repeatedly means the sea.
sṛñjaya Is the name of a people mentioned as early as the Rigveda. Sṛñjaya (that is, the king of this people) Daivavāta is celebrated as victorious over the Turvaśas and the Vrcī- vants, and his sacrificial fire is referred to. In connexion with Daivavāta is also mentioned Sāhadevya Somaka, no doubt another prince; for in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa we find Somaka Sāhadevya and his father, Sahadeva (originally Suplan) Sārñjaya, as kings who were anointed by Parvata and Nārada. The Rigveda has also a Dānastuti (‘praise of gifts’) of Prastoka, a Sṛñjaya, who is lauded along with Divodāsa. Moreover, Vītahavya seems to have been a Sṛñjaya, though Zimmer prefers to take the derivative word, Vaitahavya, not as a patronymic, but as an epithet. It seems probable that the Sṛñjayas and the Tptsus were closely allied, for Divodāsa and a Sṛñjaya prince are celebrated together, and the Turvaśas were enemies of both. This view is borne out by the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, which recognizes Devabhāga śrautarṣa as Purohita of the Kurus and the Sṛñjayas. On the other hand, some disaster certainly befel the Srujayas, at least the Vaitahavyas, for they are said in the Atharvaveda to have offended the BhrgTUS and to have ended miserably. There is, it is true, no precise confirmation of this notice, but both the Kāthaka Saiphitā and the Taittirīya Samhitā, in independent passages, refer to the Sṛñjayas having sustained some serious loss, though the notice is in each case coupled with a ritual error, much as in the Old Testament the fate of kings depends on their devotion to Jahve or their dis¬obedience. It is justifiable to recognize some disaster in this allusion. The geographical position of the Sṛñjayas is uncertain. Hillebrandt suggests that in early times they must be looked for west of the Indus with Divodāsa; he also mentions, though he does not definitely adopt, the suggestion of Brunnhofer that the Sṛñjayas are to be compared with the Xapáyyai10 of the Greeks, and to be located in Drangiana. Zimmer is inclined to locate them on the upper Indus; but it is difficult to decide definitely in favour of any particular location. They may well have been a good deal farther east than the Indus, since their allies, the Tṛtsus, were in the Madhyadeśa, and were certainly absorbed in the Kurus. Of the history of this clan we have one notice. They expelled Duçtarītu Pauηisāyana, one of their kings, from the hereditary monarchy—of ten generations—and also drove out Revottaras Pā^ava Cākra Sthapati, probably his minister, who, however, succeeded in effecting the restoration of the king, despite the opposition of the Kuru prince, Balhika Prātīpya. Very probably this Kuru prince may have been at the bottom of the movement which led to the expulsion of the king and his minister. But the restoration of the king can hardly be regarded, in accordance with Bloomfield’s view, as a defeat of the Sṛñjayas.
sthapati Is the name of a royal official mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and often later. Revottaras Cākra was the Sthapati of the exiled Duçtarītu Paumsāyana, a king of the Sp\jayas, and succeeded in restoring him to his royal dignity.8 The exact sense of the term is not certain: ‘governor’ is possible, but perhaps ‘chief judge’ is more likely; as in the case of the early English judges, his functions may have been both executive and judicial. He is inferior in position to the king’s brother.
       Bloomfield Vedic
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anantaritāḥ pitaraḥ somyāḥ (omitted in Lś.) somapīthāt # TB.; Lś.3.2.13; Apś.14.32.4.
antarikṣa āsām (AVP. -kṣe samahāsām) # AVś.1.32.2a; AVP.1.23.2a.
antarikṣa uta vā pṛthivyām # AVś.4.8.5b. See yā antarikṣa uta, and yā antarikṣyā.
antarikṣaṃ (TB. antarikṣaṃ me) yacha # VS.14.12; TS.;; MS.2.7.15: 98.8; 2.8.14: 118.1; KS.40.3; śB.; TB. (bis).
antarikṣaṃ yoniḥ # MS.2.13.2: 153.7.
antarikṣaṃ rakṣatu devahetyāḥ # AVś.8.1.12e.
antarikṣaṃ vaśā dhātā garbho rudro jarāyu vāyur vatso gharmaḥ pīyūṣaḥ # KS.39.8; Apś.16.32.4. See next, and antarikṣam asi janmanā vaśā.
antarikṣaṃ vaśā sā vāyuṃ garbhaṃ dadhe # AVP.5.5.2. See under prec.
antarikṣaṃ vipaprathe (TB. vipaprathe 'paḥ) # TB.; Aś.2.10.21b.
antarikṣaṃ viśvarūpa āviveśa # TB.
antarikṣaṃ viṣṇur # see antarikṣe viṣṇur.
antarikṣaṃ vṛtaṃ tad vāyunā vṛtaṃ tena vṛtena vartreṇa yasmād bhayād bibhemi tad vāraye svāhā # AG.3.11.1.
antarikṣaṃ vyaco hitam # AVś.10.2.24d,25d.
antarikṣaṃ śāntaṃ tad vāyunā śāntaṃ tan me śāntaṃ śucaṃ śamayatu # TA.4.42.5.
antarikṣaṃ śāntiḥ # AVś.19.9.14; VS.36.17; VSK.35.58; MS.4.9.27: 138.12; TA.4.42.5; KA.1.218C. Cf. antarikṣaṃ chandaḥ.
antarikṣaṃ śivaṃ tubhyam # VS.35.9c; śB.
antarikṣaṃ samaṃ tasya vāyur upadraṣṭā dattasyāpramādāya # HG.2.11.4. See antarikṣasamantasya.
antarikṣaṃ sam asmān siñcatu # AVP.6.18.5c.
antarikṣaṃ samit # MS.4.9.23,25: 137.1,16; TA.4.41.1,5; KA.1.198B; 1.199.1; 3.198B.
antarikṣaṃ siṣāsatīḥ # AVś.20.49.1b.
antarikṣaṃ skabhāna # KS.2.9. See antarikṣaṃ dṛṃha.
antarikṣaṃ svar ā paprur ūtaye # RV.10.66.9c.
antarikṣaṃ svar mama # AVP.1.40.3b; Kauś.133.3b.
antarikṣaṃ svastaye # Aś.2.10.21b.
antarikṣaṃ harāmi # śB.
antarikṣaṃ gacha svāhā (TA.KA. -kṣaṃ gacha) # VS.6.21; TS.;; MS.1.2.18: 27.11; 3.10.7: 138.12; KS.3.8; śB.; TA.4.9.3; 5.8.3; 6.9.2 (bis); KA.2.131.
antarikṣaṃ garbhaḥ # AVś.9.1.21.
antarikṣacaraṃ ca yat # TB.
antarikṣaṃ ca kevalam # TB.
antarikṣaṃ caturhotā sa viṣṭhāḥ # TA.3.7.2.
antarikṣaṃ ca ma (MS. mā) indraś ca me # VS.18.18; TS.; MS.2.11.5: 142.17; KS.18.10.
antarikṣaṃ ca me vyacaḥ # AVś.12.1.53b.
antarikṣaṃ ca vi bādhase (TS. bādhatām; MS. bādhasva) # VS.14.11d; TS.; MS.2.8.3d: 108.7; KS.17.3d; śB.
antarikṣaṃ chandaḥ # VS.14.19; TS.; MS.2.8.3: 108.14; KS.17.3; śB. Cf. antarikṣaṃ śāntiḥ.
antarikṣaṃ jālam āsīt # AVś.8.8.5a.
antarikṣaṃ jinva # TS.; KS.17.7; 37.17; PB.1.9.4; Vait.20.13.
antarikṣaṃ jyotiḥ # VSK.6.5.2; MS.1.2.14: 24.7; 3.9.4: 120.2. See antarikṣam arciḥ, and svar jyotiḥ.
antarikṣaṃ tarpayāmi # BDh. Cf. antarikṣaṃ tṛpyatu.
antarikṣaṃ tṛtīyaṃ pitṝn (śś. -kṣaṃ pitṝṃs tṛtīyaṃ) yajño 'gāt tato mā draviṇam āṣṭa (śś. aṣṭu) # AB.7.5.3; śś.3.20.4. See antarikṣaṃ manuṣyān, and manuṣyān antarikṣam.
antarikṣaṃ (tṛpyatu) # AG.3.4.1; śG.4.9.3. Cf. antarikṣaṃ tarpayāmi.
antarikṣaṃ te śrotraṃ siṣaktu yātudhāna svāhā # AVP.2.82.4.
antarikṣaṃ tvā dīkṣamāṇam anudīkṣatām # TB.; Apś.10.11.1.
antarikṣaṃ darvir akṣitāparimitānupadastā sā yathāntarikṣaṃ darvir akṣitāparimitānupadastaivā tatāmahasyeyaṃ darvir akṣitāparimitānupadastā # Kauś.88.9. P: antarikṣaṃ darvir akṣitā ViDh.73.18. Cf. yathā vāyur akṣito.
antarikṣaṃ divaṃ bhūmim # AVś.10.9.10a.
antarikṣaṃ divyāt pātv asmān # RV.7.104.23d; 10.53.5d; AVś.8.4.23d.
antarikṣaṃ dīkṣā tayā vāyur dīkṣayā dīkṣitaḥ # TB.; Apś.10.11.1.
antarikṣaṃ dṛṃha # VS.1.18; 5.13; 14.12; TS.; 2.12.3;; MS.1.1.8: 4.10; 1.2.8: 18.8; 2.7.15: 98.8; 2.8.14: 118.1; 3.8.5: 101.9; 4.1.8: 10.2; KS.1.7; 31.6; 40.3 (bis); JB.1.39; śB.;;; TB.; Mś. See antarikṣaṃ skabhāna.
antarikṣaṃ dhenus tasyā vāyur vatsaḥ # AVś.4.39.4.
antarikṣapra uror varīyān # TA.4.7.5c.
antarikṣaprāṃ rajaso vimānīm # RV.10.95.17a.
antarikṣaprāṃ taviṣībhir āvṛtam # RV.1.51.2b.
antarikṣaprā bhuvaneṣv arpitaḥ # RV.9.86.14b.
antarikṣaprā vahamāno aśvaiḥ # RV.7.45.1b; MS.4.14.6b: 223.13; KS.17.19b; TB.
antarikṣaprudbhir apodakābhiḥ # RV.1.116.3d; TA.1.10.2d.
antarikṣam # see antarikṣaṃ tṛpyatu.
antarikṣam atho diśaḥ # AVś.11.6.6b; AVP.15.13.5b.
antarikṣam atho svaḥ (TA. suvaḥ) # RV.10.190.3d; TA.10.1.2d,14d; MahānU.1.9d; 5.7d.
antarikṣam adhi dyaur brahmaṇāviṣṭaṃ rudrā rakṣitāro vāyur adhi viyatto asyām # KS.40.3.
antarikṣam anu vikramasva # VS.12.5; TS.; MS.2.7.8: 85.5; KS.16.8; śB.
antarikṣam anu vi krame 'ham # AVś.10.5.26.
antarikṣam arciḥ # KS.3.3; 26.6; Apś.7.27.4. See under antarikṣaṃ jyotiḥ.
antarikṣam asi # VS.11.58; TS.; 4.6.2; MS.2.7.6: 80.16; 2.13.18: 164.17; KS.16.5; 39.9; śB.; Apś.17.2.9.
antarikṣam asi janmanā vaśā sā vāyuṃ garbham adhatthāḥ sā mayā saṃbhava # MS.2.13.15: 163.16. See under antarikṣaṃ vaśā.
antarikṣam asi janmanopabhṛn nāma priyā devānāṃ priyeṇa nāmnā # MS.1.1.12: 7.18. P: antarikṣam asi janmanā Mś. See upabhṛd (asi ghṛtācī), upabhṛd ehi, and ghṛtācy asy upabhṛn.
antarikṣam asum # MS.4.13.4: 203.11; KS.16.21; AB.2.6.13; TB.; Aś.3.3.1; śś.5.17.3.
antarikṣam asuṃ tava # AVP.9.11.3b.
antarikṣam asy agnau śritaṃ, vāyoḥ pratiṣṭhā, tvayīdam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartṛ viśvasya janayitṛ # TB.
antarikṣam ākramiṣam # TS.; Mś.
antarikṣam āgnīdhre # KS.34.14.
antarikṣam ātmā # TA.3.4.1; śś.10.17.4.
antarikṣam āpṛṇa # KS.39.1.
antarikṣam idaṃ mahat # AVś.3.29.8b; AVP.1.93.3b.
antarikṣam ivānāpyaṃ dyaur ivānādhṛṣṭo bhūyāsam # ā.
antarikṣam utodaram # AVś.10.7.32b.
antarikṣam utoṣmaṇā # AVP.8.19.3b.
antarikṣam uddhiḥ # AVś.8.8.22.
antarikṣam upabruve # TB.; Aś.2.10.21b.
antarikṣam upabhṛd ā kramasva # AVś.18.4.6b.
antarikṣam upasadi # KS.34.14 (bis).
antarikṣaṃ payo dadhat # AVP.2.76.5b.
antarikṣaṃ pary eko babhūva # AVś.10.8.36b; JUB.1.34.7b,9.
antarikṣaṃ pavitreṇa # TA.3.8.2.
antarikṣaṃ pitṝṃs # see antarikṣaṃ tṛtīyaṃ.
antarikṣaṃ pṛṇa # KS.25.10.
antarikṣaṃ purītatā (TS. puritatā; KS. pulitatā; MS. pulītatā) # VS.25.8; VSK.27.11; TS.; MS.3.15.7: 179.12; KSA.13.6.
antarikṣaṃ (VS. ānta-) pṛthivīm adṛṃhīt # VS.28.20e; TB.
antarikṣaṃ ma urv antaraṃ bṛhad agnayaḥ parvatāś ca yayā vātaḥ svastyā svasti māṃ tayā svastyā svasti mānasāni # TA.4.42.2.
antarikṣaṃ madhyaṃ diśaḥ # AVś.9.5.20c.
antarikṣaṃ madhyena (TS. madhyena mā hiṃsīḥ) # TS.;; MS.1.2.14: 23.8.
antarikṣaṃ madhyena pṛthivyāḥ saṃbhava # MS.3.9.3: 116.3.
antarikṣaṃ madhyenāpṛṇa # MS.1.2.14: 23.14; 3.9.3: 117.15.
antarikṣaṃ manuṣyān yajño 'gāt tato mā draviṇam aṣṭu # ṣB.1.5.11. See under antarikṣaṃ tṛtīyaṃ.
antarikṣaṃ mahitvā # TS.
antarikṣaṃ mahy ā paprur ojasā # RV.10.65.2c.
antarikṣaṃ mā pāhi # KS.40.3.
antarikṣaṃ mā hiṃsīḥ # VS.5.43; 14.12; TS.; MS.2.7.15: 98.8; 2.8.14: 118.1; KS.3.2; 26.3; 40.3; śB.,14;
antarikṣaṃ me yacha # see antarikṣaṃ yacha.
antarikṣaṃ moru pātu tasmāt # Apś.4.5.5d.
antarikṣasadaś ca ye # AVś.10.9.12b; 11.6.12b; AVP.15.14.7b.
antarikṣasad asi # TS.;; MS.2.8.13: 117.2; KS.22.5.
antarikṣasamantasya te vāyur upaśrotā # BDh. See antarikṣaṃ samaṃ.
antarikṣasthāno adhvaraḥ # GB.1.5.25b.
antarikṣaspṛṅ mā mā hiṃsīḥ # MS.4.9.7: 128.4; TA.4.8.4; 5.7.8.
antarikṣasya tvā dātrā prāśnāmi # Mś. Cf. Vait.3.16.
antarikṣasya tvā divas tvā diśāṃ tvā nākasya tvā pṛṣṭhe bradhnasya tvā viṣṭape sādayāmi # TA.6.7.3.
antarikṣasya tvā draviṇe sādayāmi # TS.; MS.2.13.18: 165.2; KS.39.9.
antarikṣasya tvā sānāv avagūhāmi (KS. -kṣasya sānūpeṣa) # TS.; KS.3.3; 26.6; Apś.7.11.9. See divaḥ sānūpeṣa.
antarikṣasya dhartrīṃ viṣṭambhanīṃ diśāṃ bhuvanasyādhipatnīm (VS.KS.śB. diśām adhipatnīṃ bhuvanānām) # VS.14.5; MS.2.8.1: 107.5; KS.17.1; śB. See viṣṭambhanī.
antarikṣasya bhāgo 'si # Apś.3.3.11.
antarikṣasya mahato vimāne # AVP.2.61.3d.
antarikṣasya yāny asi # TS.; KS.22.5; Apś.17.1.18.
antarikṣasya sānūpeṣa # see antarikṣasya tvā sānāv.
antarikṣasya havir asi (VS.śB. asi svāhā) # VS.6.19; TS.; MS.1.2.17: 27.5; KS.3.7; śB.
antarikṣasyāntarikṣayāny asi # KS.22.5.
antarikṣasyāntardhir asi # MS.4.9.4: 124.8; TA.4.5.6; 5.4.10; KA.2.90; Apś.15.8.4; Mś.4.2.23.
antarikṣāt taṃ nir bhajāmo yo 'smān dveṣṭi yaṃ vayaṃ dviṣmaḥ # AVś.10.5.26.
antarikṣād asṛkṣata # RV.9.63.27b; SV.2.1050b.
antarikṣād uta vātād divaś ca # AVP.15.22.8b.
antarikṣād uṣas tvam # RV.1.48.12b.
antarikṣād divaṃ saṃtanu # MS.2.13.3: 153.10; KS.39.8; TB.; Apś.16.32.3.
antarikṣād divam āruham # AVś.4.14.3b; AVP.3.38.8b; VS.17.67b; TS.; MS.2.10.6b: 138.6; 3.3.9: 42.1; KS.18.4b; 21.9; śB.
antarikṣād bhagaṃ vṛṇe # AVP.10.6.8d.
antarikṣān mā pāhi # TS.; MS.2.7.15: 98.8.
antarikṣān mā pāhi viśvasmai prāṇāyāpānāya vyānāyodānāya pratiṣṭhāyai caritrāya # MS.2.8.14: 118.2.
antarikṣāya te namaḥ # AVś.11.2.4d.
antarikṣāya tvā # VS.5.26; 6.1; TS.; 3.1.1; 6.1;;;; 6.2;; 3.4.1;; MS.1.2.11: 20.14; 1.2.14: 23.10; 1.3.35: 42.1; 3.8.9: 107.9; 3.9.3: 117.1; KS.1.12; 2.12; 3.3; 17.7; 26.5; 29.5; 31.11; 37.17; 40.4; KSA.1.2; PB.1.9.4; śB.; 7.1.5; TB.; 8.7.3; Aś.2.3.8; Vait.20.13; Apś.2.8.1; 3.6.4; 7.9.9; 11.9.12; 17.2.6,9; 9.7; 20.5.8; Mś.; Kauś.6.5.
antarikṣāya tvā vanaspataye (KS. -patibhyaḥ) # KS.30.5 (bis); Mś. (bis).
antarikṣāya namaḥ # KSA.11.6.
antarikṣāya pāṅktrān # VS.24.26; MS.3.14.7: 173.11.
antarikṣāya mṛtyave # AVś.7.102.1b.
antarikṣāyarṣayas tvā prathamajā deveṣu divo mātrayā variṇā prathantu # TS. See ṛṣayas tvā etc., and cf. divo mātrayā.
antarikṣāya vaṃśanartinam # VS.30.21; TB.
antarikṣāya vanaspataye # Mś.
antarikṣāya vāyave # PG.2.10.5.
antarikṣāya sam anamat # TS.; KSA.5.20. See under antarikṣe vāyave sam-.
antarikṣāya svāhā # AVś.5.9.3,4; AVP.6.13.11,14; VS.22.27,29; 39.1; TS.;; 17.1; 5.11.1; MS.3.12.7: 162.12; 3.12.10: 163.10; 3.12.12: 164.3; KS.15.3; 37.15,16; KSA.1.6,8; 5.2; śB.; 9.3.6; TB.,2; 18.4; Tā.10.67.2 (bis); śś.17.12.2; Apś.20.11.4,5; 12.5; MahānU.19.2 (bis).
antarikṣe atho (AVP.7.13.3b, adho) divaḥ # AVP.7.13.3b; 15.21.7b.
antarikṣe adhy (TS.KS. 'dhy) āsate # TS.; MS.1.4.3b (bis): 50.2,4; KS.5.6b; 32.6; Mś.
antarikṣe 'ṅkṣva # Apś.3.6.2; JG.1.4.
antarikṣeṇa tvopa# see antarikṣeṇopa-.
antarikṣeṇa patataḥ # RV.8.7.35b.
antarikṣeṇa patatām # RV.1.25.7b.
antarikṣeṇa patati # RV.10.136.4a; AVś.6.80.1a; AVP.5.38.4a. P: antarikṣeṇa Kauś.31.18. Cf. yo antarikṣeṇa.
antarikṣeṇa yātave # RV.9.63.8c; 65.16c; SV.2.183c,567c; PB.12.1.7c.
antarikṣeṇa rārajat # RV.9.5.2c.
antarikṣeṇa saha vājinīvan (AVś.4.38.5f. vājinīvān) # AVś.4.38.5f,6a,7a.
antarikṣeṇopayachāmi (TA.KA.Apś. antarikṣeṇa tvopa-) # VS.38.6; MS.4.9.7: 128.3; śB.; TA.4.8.4; 5.7.8; KA.2.127; Kś.26.5.15; Apś.15.10.6; Mś.4.3.18.
antarikṣe tava nābhiḥ (TS. antarikṣe nābhiḥ) # VS.11.12d; TS.; MS.2.7.2d: 75.1; 3.1.3: 3.13; KS.16.1d; śB.
antarikṣe divi ye caranti # AVś.11.10.8b.
antarikṣe divi śritaḥ # AVP.5.13.2b.
antarikṣe 'dhy # see antarikṣe adhy.
antarikṣe nābhiḥ # see antarikṣe tava.
antarikṣe patayantam # AVP.1.107.5a.
antarikṣe patayiṣṇavaḥ # AVP.8.8.2a.
antarikṣe pathibhir īyamānaḥ (GB. hrīyamāṇaḥ, with var. hīyamānaḥ) # RV.10.168.3a; AVP.1.107.4a; GB.1.2.8a.
antarikṣe pratiṣṭhitān # TB.
antarikṣe bṛhati śrayasva svāhā # TB.; Apś.14.31.5. See bṛhati stabhāya.
antarikṣe bhavā adhi # VS.16.55b; TS.; MS.2.9.9b: 128.9; KS.17.16b.
antarikṣe madhyato madhyamasya # AVś.4.14.8e.
antarikṣe manasā tvā juhomi # AVś.9.4.10c.
antarikṣe yatasva # TS.; MS.2.13.1: 153.4.
antarikṣe vayāṃsi dṛṃha mayi paśūn # Lś.1.7.11.
antarikṣe vāyave samanaman sa ārdhnot # AVś.4.39.3a. See antarikṣāya sam, vāyave sam anamat, vāyave sam anaman, and vāyuś cāntarikṣaṃ.
antarikṣe (KS. antarikṣaṃ) viṣṇur vyakraṃsta traiṣṭubhena chandasā # VS.2.25; KS.5.5; śB.,12; śś.4.12.3. See viṣṇur antarikṣe, and traiṣṭubhena chandasāntarikṣam.
antarikṣe vṛṣā hariḥ # RV.9.27.6b; SV.2.640b.
antarikṣe sīda # TS.;; MS.2.8.13: 117.2; KS.22.5; Kauś.6.10.
antarikṣe svaṃ mahimānaṃ mimānaḥ # SV.2.1194c.
antarikṣe hiraṇyayaḥ (AVP.7.13.5b, hiraṇyayān) # AVP.7.13.4b,5b.
antarikṣodaraḥ kośo bhūmibudhno na jīryati, diśo hy asya sraktayo dyaur asyottaraṃ bilam, sa eṣa kośo vasudhānas tasmin viśvam idaṃ śritam # ChU.3.15.1. Metrical.
antaritaṃ rakṣaḥ # VSK.1.8.3; TS.; JB.1.39; TB.; Aś.2.3.7; Kś.2.5.22; Apś.1.25.8; 6.6.8; Mś. Cf. under apahataṃ rakṣaḥ.
antari arātayaḥ # VSK.1.8.3; TS.; JB.1.39; TB.; Aś.2.3.7; Kś.2.5.22; Apś.1.25.8; 6.6.8; Mś.
ātmāntarikṣaṃ samudro (TS. samudras te) yoniḥ # VS.11.20b; TS.;; MS.2.7.2b: 75.15; 3.1.4: 5.4; KS.16.2b; KSA.5.5b; śB.
āntarikṣam aruhad agan dyām # TB.;
āntarikṣam uru priyam # RV.4.52.7b.
āntarikṣaṃ pṛṇa # VS.5.27; TS.; 6.1;; 3.4.3; KS.2.12; JB.1.72; śB.; PB.6.4.2; Apś.7.10.7; 11.9.13.
āntarikṣaṃ pṛthivīm etc. # see antarikṣaṃ etc.
āntarikṣaṃ madhyenāprāḥ # VS.6.2; MS.4.13.8: 210.17; KS.3.3; 19.13; 26.5; śB.; TB.
āntarikṣāt suvṛktibhiḥ # RV.8.8.3b.
āntarikṣād adhapriyā # RV.8.8.4b.
āntarikṣād amād uta # RV.5.53.8b.
āntarikṣād divas pari # TS.
āntarikṣān mā chetsīḥ # Aś.1.3.22.
āntarikṣe virodasī # TA.10.1.14b; MahānU.5.8b.
āntarikṣyaś ca yāḥ prajāḥ # TB.
utāntarikṣaṃ samidhā pṛṇāti # AVś.11.5.4b.
utāntarikṣam uru vātagopam # AVś.2.12.1c; AVP.2.5.1c. Cf. śam antarikṣaṃ saha vātena.
utāntarikṣaṃ mamire vy ojasā # RV.5.55.2c.
utāntarikṣād abhi naḥ samīke # RV.3.30.11c.
utāntarikṣe patantaṃ yātudhānam # AVś.8.3.5c. See yad vāntari-.
utāntarikṣe pari yāhi rājan (AVś. yāhy agne) # RV.10.87.3c; AVś.8.3.3c.
ūrdhvāntarikṣam upa tiṣṭhasva # TS.; KS.13.11c,12.
kavīmātariśvānā puṣṭivantaṃ māsmiñ jane kurutam # KA.3.147. Cf. prec.
tenāntarikṣaṃ vimitā rajāṃsi # AVś.13.1.7c.
dhanvantari tarpayāmi # BDh.
dhanvantaripārṣadāṃś ca tarpayāmi # BDh.
dhanvantaripārṣadīś ca tarpayāmi # BDh.
nāntarikṣaṃ nādrayaḥ somo akṣāḥ # RV.10.89.6b; N.5.3.
nāntarikṣāṇi vajriṇam # RV.8.6.15b; 12.24b.
prāṇāyāntarikṣāya vayobhyo vāyave 'dhipataye svāhā # AVś.6.10.2.
prāntarikṣāt pra samudrasya dhāseḥ # RV.10.89.11b.
prāntarikṣāt sthāvirīs (JB. sthāvarīs) te asṛkṣata # SV.2.236c; JB.3.58. See next.
bhāsāntarikṣam ā pṛṇa # VS.17.22; TS.; MS.2.10.6c: 138.12; KS.18.4; 21.9; śB.
bhrātāntarikṣam abhiśastyā naḥ (TA. abhiśasta enaḥ) # AVś.6.120.2b; TA.2.6.2b.
mamāntarikṣam urulokam (TS. uru gopam) astu # RV.10.128.2c; AVś.5.3.3c; AVP.5.4.3c; TS.; KS.40.10c.
tariśvane śatruhaṇe svāhā # AVP.7.20.9a.
tariśvano gharmo 'si (MSṃś. gharmaḥ) # VS.1.2; TS.; MS.1.1.3: 2.6; 4.1.3: 4.15; KS.1.3; 31.2; śB.; TB.; Apś.1.12.1; Mś. P: mātariśvanaḥ Kś.4.2.20.
tariśvā pavamānaḥ purastāt # AVP.5.16.1b.
tariśvā pavamānas tvāyam # AVP.4.14.3a.
tariśvā bhūtabhavyasya kartā # Kauś.135.9d.
tariśvā yad amimīta mātari # RV.3.29.11c.
tariśvā sam abharat # AVP.9.11.1a.
māntarikṣaṃ mā vanaspatīn # VS.11.45d; TS.;; MS.2.7.4d: 79.4; KS.16.4d; 19.5; śB.
yathāntarikṣaṃ mātariśvābhivaste # Kauś.98.2b.
yathāntarikṣe vāyave samanamann evā mahyaṃ saṃnamaḥ saṃ namantu # AVś.4.39.3. See yathā vāyave, and yathā vāyur antarikṣeṇa.
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"tari" has 59 results.
abhyaṃkara(BHASKARASHASTRI Abhyankar 1785-1870 A. D. )an eminent scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who prepared a number of Sanskrit scholars in Grammar at Sātārā. He has also written a gloss on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another one on the Laghu-Śabdenduśekhara. (VASUDEVA SHASTRI Abhyakar 863-1942 A. D.) a stalwart Sanskrit Pandit, who, besides writing several learned commentaries on books in several Sanskrit Shastras, has written a commentary named 'Tattvādarśa' on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another named 'Guḍhārthaprakāśa' on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara. (KASHINATH VASUDEVA Abhyankar, 1890-) a student of Sanskrit Grammar who has written महाभाष्यप्रस्तावना-खण्ड, and जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति and compiled the परिभाषासंग्रह and the present Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar.
āśubodha(1)name of a work on grammar written by Tārānātha called Tarka-vācaspatī, a reputed Sanskrit scholar of Bengal of the 19th century A.D. who compiled the great Sanskrit Dictionary named वाचस्पत्यकेाश and wrote commentaries on many Sanskrit Shastraic and classical works. The grammar called अाशुबोध is very useful for beginners; (2) name of an elementary grammar in aphorisms written by रामकिंकरसरस्वती, which is based on the Mugdhabodha of Bopadeva.
uddyotathe word always refers in grammar to the famous commentary by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa written in the first decade of the 18th century A. D. om the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa. The Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.appears to be one of the earlier works of Nāgeśa. It is also called Vivaraṇa. The commentary is a scholarly one and is looked upon as a final word re : the exposition of the Mahābhāṣya. It is believed that Nāgeśa wrote 12 Uddyotas and 12 Śekharas which form some authoritative commentaries on prominent works in the different Śāstras.
uvaṭaalso उव्वट or ऊअट a reputed Kaāśmirian scholar and writer who was the son of Vajrata. He wrote many learned commentaries, some of which are known as Bhasyas. Some of his important works are Ṛkprātiśākhyabhāṣya, Vājasaneyī prātiśākhyabhāṣya, Vājasaneyīsamhitābhāṣya, Vedārthadīpika et cetera, and others
aikapadikagiven in the group of ekapadas or solitarily stated words as contrasted with anekapadas or synonymanuscript. See एकपद a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
kartṛsthakriya(a root)whose activity is found functioning in the subject;confer, compare यत्र क्रियाकृतविशेषदर्शनं कर्तरि Kaiyata on P.III.1.87 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3. Such roots, although transitive do not have any Karmakartari construction by the rule कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III. 1.87. as exempli gratia, for example ग्रामं गच्छति देवदत्तः has no कर्मकर्तरि construction; confer, compare कर्मस्थभावकानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां वा कर्ता कर्मवद् भवतीति वक्तव्यम् । कर्तृस्थभावकानां कर्तृस्थक्रियाणां वा कर्ता कर्मवन्मा भूदिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.87. Vārt, 3.
karmakartṛobject of the transitive verb which functions as the subject when there is a marked facility of action: exempli gratia, for exampleओदन is karmakartariobject, functioning as subject, in पच्यते ओदनः स्वयमेव. The word कर्मकर्तृ is used also for the कर्मकर्तरि प्रयोग where the object, on which the verb-activity is found, is turned into a subject and the verb which is transitive is turned into intransitive as a result.
karmavadbhāvathe activity of the agent or kartā of an action represented as object or karman of that very action, for the sake of grammatical operations: e. g. भिद्यते काष्ठं स्वयमेव;. करिष्यते कटः स्वयमेव. To show facility of a verbal activity on the object, when the agent or kartā is dispensed with, and the object is looked upon as the agent, and used also as an agent, the verbal terminations ति, त; et cetera, and others are not applied in the sense of an agent, but they are applied in the sense of an object; consequently the sign of the voice is not अ (शप्), but य (यक्) and the verbal terminations are त, आताम् et cetera, and others (तङ्) instead of ति, तस् et cetera, and others In popular language the use of an expression of this type is called Karmakartari-Prayoga. For details see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III.1.87. Only such roots as are कर्मस्थक्रियक or कर्मस्थभावक id est, that is roots whose verbal activity is noticed in the object and not in the subject can have this Karmakartari-Prayoga.
kātantravṛttiname of the earliest commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.. The commentary was once very popular as is shown by a number of explanatory commentaries written upon it, one of which is believed to have been written by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. himselfeminine. See Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti..
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
gaṇaratnamahodadhia grammar work, consisting of a metrical enumeration of the words in the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini, written by Vardhamāna, a Jain grammarian of the 12th century, who is believed to have been one of the six gems at the court of Lakṣmaṇasena of Bengal. Vardhamāna has written a commentary also, on his Gaṇaratnamahodadhi. Besides Vardhamāna's commentary, there are other commentaries written by गोवर्धन and गङ्गाधर.
jainendravyākaraṇaname of a grammar work written by Pujyapada Devanandin, also called Siddhanandin, in the fifth century A.D. The grammar is based on the Astadhyay of Panini,the section on Vedic accent and the rules of Panini explaining Vedic forms being,of course, neglectedition The grammar is called Jainendra Vyakarana or Jainendra Sabdanusasana. The work is available in two versions, one consisting of 3000 sutras and the other of 3700 sutras. it has got many commentaries, of which the Mahavrtti written by Abhayanandin is the principal one. For details see Jainendra Vyakarana, introduction published by the Bharatiya Jnanapitha Varadasi.
tattvabodhinīname of the well-known commentary on Bhattoji's Siddhnta Kaumudi written by his pupil Jnanendrasarasvati at Benares. Out of the several commentaries on the Siddhantakaumudi, the Tattvabodhini is looked upon as the most authoritative and at the same time very scholarly.
tantrapradīpaname of the learned commentary_written by मैत्रेयरक्षित, a famous Buddhist grammarian of the 12th century A. D. on the काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका ( न्यास ) of Jinendrabuddhi। The work is available at Present only in a manuscript form, and that too in fragments. Many later scholars have copiously quoted from this work. The name of the work viz. तन्त्रप्रदीप is rarely mentioned; but the name of the author is mentioned as रक्षित, मैत्रेय or even मैत्रेयरक्षित. Ther are two commentaries on the तन्त्रप्रदीप named उद्द्योतनप्रभा and आलोक,
tripathagāname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Raghavendracarya Gajendragadkar, a resident of Satara and a pupil of Nilakanthasastri Thatte. He lived in the second half of the eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth century and wrote comentaries on important grammar works.
durvalācāryaa grammarian who wrote a treatise on grammar दुर्वलीयव्याकरण, named after him. Besides this treatise, he has written commentaries on Nagesa's Laghumanjusa and Paribhasendusekhara.
naṣṭaelided or dropped; a term used as a synonym of 'lupta' in some commentaries.
nāgeśathe most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundredition He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D. E. Society, Poona.
nyāsa(1)literally position, placing;a word used in the sense of actual expression or wording especially in the sūtras; confer, compare the usual expression क्रियते एतन्न्यास एव in the Mahābhāșya, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.11, 1.1.47 et cetera, and others; (2) a name given by the writers or readers to works of the type of learned and scholarly commentaries on vŗitti-type-works on standard sūtras in a Śāstra; e. g. the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. is given to the learned commentaries on the Vŗtti on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśasana as also on the Paribhāşāvŗtti by Hemahamsagani. Similarly the commentary by Devanandin on Jainendra grammar and that by Prabhācandra on the Amoghāvŗtti on Śākatāyana grammar are named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. In the same way, the learned commentary on the Kāśikāvŗtti by Jinendrabuddhi, named Kāśikāvivaranapaňjikā by the author, is very widely known by the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. This commentary Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. was written in the eighth century by the Buddhist grammarian Jinendrabuddhi, who belonged to the eastern school of Pānini's Grammar. This Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. has a learned commentary written on it by Maitreya Rakșita in the twelfth century named Tantrapradipa which is very largely quoted by subsequent grammarians, but which unfortunately is available only in a fragmentary state at present. Haradatta, a well-known southern scholar of grammar has drawn considerably from Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. in his Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta., which also is well-known as a scholarly work.
pañjikāa popular name given to critical commentaries by scholars; confer, compare काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका by Jinendrabuddhi which is popularly known by the name न्यास.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
paribhāṣāpradīpārcisa scholarly independent treatise on Vyakarana Paribhasas written by Udayamkara Pathaka, called also Nana Pathaka, a Nagara Brahmana, who lived at Benares in the middle of the 18th century A. D. He has also written commentaries on the two Sekharas of Naagesa.
paribhāṣenduśekharathe reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis.
pāṭhakaor उदयंकरपाठक name of a scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who wrote an independent work on Paribhaasaas and commentaries on the ParibhaaSendusekhara and Laghu5abdendusekhara. See उदयंकर and परिभाषाप्रदीपार्चिस्.
pāṭhakīname popularly given to the commentaries written byउदयंकरपाठक. See पाठक.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāyaguṇḍa,pāyaguṇḍeA learned pupil of Nāgeśabhațța who lived in Vārǎņasī in the latter half of the 18th century A.D. He was a renowned teacher of Grammar and is believed to have written commentaries on many works of Nāgeśa, the famous among which are the 'Kāśikā' called also 'Gadā' on the Paribhāșenduśekhara,the'Cidasthimālā' on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara and the 'Chāyā' on the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.Bālambhațța Pāyaguņde, who has written a commentary on the Mitākșarā (the famous commentary on the Yajňavalkyasmŗti), is believed by some as the same as Vaidyanātha: while others say that Bālambhațța was the son of Vaidyanātha.
pārṣadasūtravṛtiname given to the works of the type of commentaries written by उव्व​ट on the old Prātiśākhya books.
puṃvadbhāvarestoration of the masculine form in the place of the feminine one as noticed in compound words, formed generally by the Karmadhāraya and the Bahuvrīhi compounds, where the first member is declinable in all the three genders; e. g. दीर्घजङ्घः. This restoration to the masculine form is also noticed before the taddhita affix. affixes तस्, तर, तम्, रूप्य, पा​श, त्व as also before क्यङ् and the word मानिन्. For details, see P. VI, 3.34 to 42 and commentaries thereon. See also page 334, Vol. VII of the Pātańjala Mahābhāșya D. E. Society's edition.
prakriyākaumudīa well-known work on Sanskrit Grammar by रामचन्द्रशेष of the 15th century, in which the subject matter of the eight chapters of Panini's grammar is arranged into several different sections forming the different topics of grammar. It is similar to, and possibly. the predecessor of, the Siddhanta Kaumudi which has a similar arrangement. The work was very popular before the Siddhinta Kaumudi was written. it has got many commentaries numbering about a dozen viz. प्रक्रियाप्रसाद, प्रक्रियाप्रकाश, प्रक्रियाप्रदीप, अमृतस्तुति, प्रक्रियाव्याकृति,निर्मलदर्पण,तत्वचन्द्र, प्रक्रियारञ्जन, प्रक्रियाविवरण and others of which the Prasada of Vitthalesa and the Prakasa of Srikrsna are the wellknown ones.
pradīpapopular name of the famous commentary on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali written by the reputed grammarian Kaiyata in the eleventh century A. D. The cornmentary is a very scholarly and critical one and really does justice to the well-known compliment given to it, viz. that the Pradipa has kept the Mahabhasya alive which otherwise would have remained unintelligible and consequently become lost. The commentary प्रदीप is based on the commentary महाभाष्यदीपिका,or प्रदीपिका written by Bhartrhari, which is available at present only in a fragmentary form. The Pradipa is to this day looked upon as the single commentary on the Mahabhasya in spite of the presence of a few other commentaries on it which are all thrown into the back-ground by it.
prācīnamatathe view or doctrine of the former or rather older grammarians. The word is used in many commentary books and the meaning of the word is to be decided according to the context. For example in the works of Ramacandra, the author of the Prakriyakaumudi and his followers, the word refers to the view given by the writers of the Kasikavrtti and the commentaries thereon in the works of Bhattoji and his pupils, it refers to the writer of the Prakriyakaumudi in addition to the writers of the Kasika, while in the works of Nagesa it refers to the writings of Bhattoji and his pupils. For details see Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. V1I pp. 23-24 D. E. Society's Edition.
prācyapadavṛttisuccession of two vowels where the former vowel, which is either ए, or ओ remains without coalescence with the following vowel अ, even though by rules it is liable to be changed; exempli gratia, for exampleसुजाते अश्वसूनृते । अध्वर्यो अद्रिभिः सुतम् । In such cases the vowel अ is pronounced like ए. This view is held by the senior Sakalya (स्थविरशाकल्य); confer, compare प्राच्यपञ्चाल-उपधानिभोदयाः शाकल्यस्य स्थविरस्येतरा स्थितिः, R.Pr. II.44; confer, compare also स पूर्वस्यार्धसदृशमेकेषाम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI.19 and the commentaries thereon; confer, compare also छन्दोगानां सात्यमुग्रिराणायनीया अर्धमेकारमर्धमोकारं चाधीयते । सुजाते ए अश्वसूनृते । अध्वर्यो ओ अद्रिभिः सुतम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 3, 4 as also on P.I.1.48.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
bālaṃbhaṭṭa( बाळंभट्ट )surnamed Payagunda or Payagunde, who has written a commentary on the commentary Mitaksara on the याज्ञवल्क्यस्मृति. Some scholars say that he was also a great grammarian and identical with वैद्यनाथ पायगुंडे who has written the commentary काशिका or गदा on the Paribhasendusekhara, the Cidasthimala on the Laghusabdendusekhara and commentaries on the Vaiyakaranabhusana,Sabdakaustubha and Bhasyapradipoddyota. Other scholars believe that Balambhatta was the son of Vaidyanatha and that he wrote only the commentary on Mitaksara called Balambhatti after him. (2) There was also a comparatively modern grammarian of Tanjore who has written small grammar works बालबोधिनी and बालरञ्जनी.
bhaṭṭojīsurnamed Diksita; a stalwart grammarian of the Panini system who flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century and wrote many independent books and commentaries such as the Siddhantakaumudi, the Praudhamanorama, the Vaiyakaranasiddhantakarika, the Sabdakaustubha and others. The most reputed work out of these, however, is the Siddhantakaumudi which is very popular even today and which has almost set aside other works of its kind such as the Prakriyakaumudi and others. Bhattoji was a Telagu Brahmana, as generally believed, and although he belonged to the South, he made Varanasi his home where he prepared a school of learned Grammarians. Although he carried on his work silently in Varanasi, he was envied by the reputed rhetorician of his time Pandita Jagannātha, who criticised his work ( Bhattojis work ) named Manorama very severely. See प्रौढमनोरमा a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got many commentaries of which the Tattvabodhini written by Bhattoji's pupil Jnanendrasarasvati is appreciated much by learned grammarians.
bhāgavṛttione of the oldest commentaries on the Sutras of Panini, which, although not available at present, has been profusely quoted by Purusottamadeva and other Eastern Grammarians of the twelfth and later centuries. The authorship of the work is attributed to Bhartrhari, but the point is doubtful as Siradeva in his Paribhasavrtti on Pari. 76 has stated that the author of the Bhagavrtti has quoted from Maghakavya; confer, compare अत एवं तत्रैव सूत्रे भागवृत्तिः पुरातनमुनेर्मुनितामिति पुरातनीनेदिरिति च प्रमादपाठावेतौ गतानुगतिकतया कवयः प्रयुञ्जते न तेषां लक्षणे चक्षुरिति | Some scholars attribute its authorship to Vimalamati. Whosoever be the author, the gloss ( भागवृत्ति ) was a work of recognised merit; confer, compare काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत् सिद्धान्तं वेत्तुमस्ति धी: | तदा विचिन्त्यतां भातभीषावृत्तिरियं मम Bhasavrtti at the end. सृष्टिघर in his commentary on the Bhasavrtti also says " सा हि द्वयोर्विवरणकर्त्री."
bhairavamiśraone of the reputed grammarians of the latter half of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century who wrote commentaries on several prominent works on grammar. He was the son of भवदेव and his native place was Prayāga. He has written the commentary called Candrakalā on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara, Parikṣā on the Vaiyākaraṇabhũṣanasāra, Gadā called also Bhairavī or Bhairavīgadā on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and commentaries (popularly named Bhairavī) on the Śabdaratna and Lingānuśāsana. He is reported to have visited Poona, the capital of the Peśawas and received magnificent gifts for exceptional proficiency in Nyāya and Vyākaraṇa. For details see pp. 24 and 25 Vol. VII . Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya D. E. Society's Edition.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahābhāṣyapradīpaṭīkaname given to each of the various commentaries on the Pradipa of Kaiyata written by grammarians, out of which the commentaries of चिन्तामणि,रामचन्द्रसरस्वती, नारायण, नित्यानन्दपर्वतीय and one or two more are available in a manuscript form and those too quite incomplete.
mugdhabodhaliterally instructions to the ignorant: a treatise on grammar similar to the Astadhyayi of Panini but much shorter, written by Bopadeva or Vopadeva an inhabitant of the greater Maharastra in the Vardha district, in the thirteenth century. After the fall of the Hindu rulers in Bengal, treatises like भाषावृत्ति and others written by eastern grammarians fell into the back-ground and their place was taken up by easier treatises written by Bopadeva and others.Many commentaries were written upon the Mugdhabodha, of which the Vidyanivsa is much known to grammarians
mugdhabodhaṭīkāa commentary work on Mugdhabodha;the name is given to commentaries written by Ramatarkavagisa(called मुग्धबोधपरिशिष्ट }, by Radhavallabha (called सुबोधिनी), . by Gangadhara (called सेतुसंग्रह ), by Durgadasa, by Dayarama and by Ramananda.
y(1)the consonant य् with अ added to it merely for the sake of facility in pronunciation; यकार is also used in the same sense: e. g. लिटि वयो यः: P.VI.1.38 confer, compare T.Pr.I: 17,21;(2) krt affix (यत्) prescribed as कृत्य or potential passive participle; exempli gratia, for exampleचेयम्, गेयम्, शाप्यम् , शक्यम् , गद्यम् , अजर्यम् पण्यम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare अचो यत्...अजर्यं संगतम् P.III. 1.97-105; (3) krt. affix क्यप् which is also an affix called krtya; e. gब्रह्मोद्यम् , भाव्यम्, घात्यम् , स्तुत्यम् , कल्प्यम् , खेयम् , भृत्यः:, भिद्यः, पुष्य:, कृत्यम्,also कार्यम् ; confer, compare P. III. 1.106-128:(4) krt affix ण्यत् ( which is also कृत्य ), e. g कार्यम् , हार्यम् , वाक्यम् , लाव्यम्, कुण्डपाय्यम्. et cetera, and others: cf P. III. 1.124-132: (5) taddhita affix. affix य affixed (a) in the sense of collection to पाश, वात et cetera, and others, as also to खल, गो and रथ, e. g. पाद्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV. 2. 49, 50ः (b) in the चातुरर्थिक senses to बल, कुल, तुल et cetera, and others e. g. वल्यः,.कुल्यम् efeminine. P V.2. 80, (c) as a Saisika taddhita affix. affix to ग्राम्यहः' along with the affix खञ्ज e. g. ग्राम्यः, ग्रामीणः: cf P: IV. 2.94 (d) in the sense of 'good therein' ( तत्र साधुः ) and other stated senses affixed to सभा, सोदर पूर्व, and सोम: e. g. सभ्य:, पूर्व्यः; .et cetera, and others. confer, compare P. IV. 4.105, 109, 133, 137, 138: (e) in the sense of 'deserving it' to दण्ड and other words, e. g. दण्ड्य, अर्ध्र्य, मध्य, मेध्य, et cetera, and others: cf P. V. 1.66: ( f ) in the sense of quality or action to सखि e. g. सख्यम् ; cf P. V. 1.126: (6) taddhita affix. affix यत् applied to (a) राजन् श्वशुर, कुल, मनु in the sense of offspring, (b) शूल्, उखा, वायु, ऋतु and others, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. IV. 2.17, 31, 32, 101, (c) to अर्ध, परार्ध, words in the class headed by दि्श, छन्दस and others in specific senses; cf P. IV. 3-46, 54 et cetera, and others and (d) in specific senses to specific words mentioned here and there in a number of sUtras from IV.4, 75 to V.4.25; (e) to शाखा, मुख, जघन and others in the sense of इव (similar to) exempli gratia, for example शाख्यः, मुख्य:, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 3. 103; (7) case-ending य substituted for ङे of the dative sing; e. g. रामाय confer, compare P. VII. 3.102: (8) verb-affix यक् applied to the nouns कण्डू and others to make them ( denominative ) roots; e. g. कण्डूय,सन्तूय et cetera, and others confer, compare कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् P. III. 1.27 (9) | Vikarana य ( यक् ) applied to any root before the Saarvadhaatuka personal endings to form the base for the passive voice as also the base for the 'Karmakartari' voice e g क्रियते, भूयते, confer, compare सार्वधातुके यक् P. III. 1.67 (10) Unaadi affix य ( यक् ) applied to the root हृन् to form the Vedic word अघ्न्य: cf अघ्न्यादयश्च: ( 11 ) augment य ( यक् ) added to the affix क्त्वा in Vedic Literature: e. g. दत्त्वायः confer, compare क्त्वो यक् P. VII.1.47; (12) verb affix यङ् added to a root to form its Intensive base ( which sometimes is dropped ) and the root is doubledition e. g. चेक्रीयते,चर्करीति;. confer, compare P. III. 1.22,24; (13) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) supposed to be beginning with य in the affix यइ in the sUtra धातेरेकाचो ... यङ् III. 1.22, and ending with ङ् in the sUtra लिड्याशिष्यङ्क III. 1.86, with a view to include the various verb affixes and conjugational signs.
rāmacandra(1)रामन्वन्द्राचार्य (son of कृष्णाचार्य) the well-known author of the Prakriyakaumudi. He belonged to the Sesa family and the latter half of the fifteenth century is assigned as his date. He is believed to have been a resident of Andhra. His work, the Prakriyakaumudi, was a popular grammar treatise for some time before Bhattoji's SiddhantaKaumudi got its hold, and it had a number of commentaries written upon it especially by his descendants and members of his family which became well-known as the Sesa family of grammarians. The Prakriyakaumudi is named कृष्णर्किकरप्राक्रिया also. (2) There was a grammarian named Ramacandra who wrote a small treatise on grammar named विदग्धबोध. (3) There was another grammarian of the same name who was a pupil of Nagesabhatta of the eighteenth century and who wrote a small commentary called वृतिसंग्रह on Panini's Astadhyayi. (4) There was also another Ramacandra who was a scholar of Vedic grammar and who wrote the commentary named ज्योत्स्ना on the Vjasaneyi-Pratisakhya.
rāmatarkavāgīśaa learned grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय and भट्टाचार्य, He was an advocate of the Mugdhabodha School and wrote commentaries on (1) the Mugdhabodha, (2) the Kavikalpadruma, (3) the Amarakosa and (4) the Unadi sutras. He also wrote a short gloss on case-relations, his treatise on the subject being named कारकटिप्पणी,
liṅgānuśāsanaṭīkāname of a commentary on Pāņini's लिङ्गानुशासन; some commentaries of this kind are the लिङ्गार्थचन्द्रिका by सुजनपण्डित,लिङ्गार्थचन्द्रिकाप्रकाश by चकोर, लिङ्गानुशासनटीका by दुर्गोत्तम and लिङ्गानुशासनटीका by तारानाथ.
vardhamāna(1)a long vowel;(2)name of a famous ]ain grammarian, disciple of Govindasuri, who lived in the beginning of the twelfth century A.D.and wrote a metrical work on ganas or groups of words in grammar, named गणरत्नमहोदधि, and also a commentary on it. The work consists of 8 chapters and has got some commentaries besides the well-known one by the author himselfeminine. He also wrote two other works on grammar कातन्त्रविस्तर and क्रियागुप्तक as also a few religious books.
viśvanāthadaṇḍibhaṭṭaa well-known grammarian of the nineteenth century who wrote several commentary works of which the commentaries on the two Śekharas of Nāgeśa are well-known to scholars.
viṣṇubhadṛ( विष्णुशास्त्री भट )a scholar of grammar of the latter half of the nineteenth century who has written learned commentaries on the works of Nāgeśa Bhaṭṭa, two of which viz. चिच्चन्द्रिका and विष्णुभट्टी are well known to scholars.
vaidyanāthaVaidyanatha Payagunde, a famous grammarian of the eighteenth century, who was one of the chief pupils of Nagesa and who prepared a line of pupils at Varanasi. He has written learned commentaries on standard works on grammar, the principal ones being the Prabha on the Sabdakaustubha, the Bhavaprakasika on the Brhaccabdendusekhara, the Cidasthimala on the LaghuSabdendusekhara, the Kasika or Gada on the Paribhasendusekhara and an independent short treatise named Rapratyaya-khandana
vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāraṭīkāa commentary written on the well-known work on the sense of words and syntax written by Kondabhatta. There are many commentaries out of which, the well-known ones are (1) Darpana by Harivallabha, (2) Laghubhushanakanti by Gopaladeva, a pupil of Balambhatta Payagunde, and (3) Kasika by Harirama Kesava Kale and Sankari by Sankarasastri Marulakara
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudīan extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaumudīṭīkāor सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या a general name given to the large number of commentaries written by members of the line of pupils, and pupils of pupils of Bhattoji. The well-known among the commentaries are प्रौढमनोरमा by the author himself, तत्त्वबोधिनी by ज्ञानेन्द्रसरस्वती, सुबोधिनी by जयकृष्णभट्ट मौनी बालमनोरमा by वासुदेवदीक्षित, and crowning all, the लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेशभट्ट. The प्रौढमनोरमा has got a learned commentary written by हरिदीक्षित called लघुशब्दरत्न or शब्दरत्न, which also has on it commentaries named भावप्रक्राश by बाळंभट्ट and शब्दरत्नदीप by कल्याणमल्ल. The Laghusabdendusekhara has got commentaries reaching about ten in number.
śaṃkaraśāstrī( मारुलकर )a modern scholar of grammar who lived in Poona and did the work of teaching and writing commentaries. He has written a commentary mamed शांकरी on the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara of Kondabhatta.
siddhāntakaumudīa critical and scholarly commentary on the Sutras of Panini, in which the several Sutras are arranged topicwise and fully explained with examples and counter examples. The work is exhaustive, yet not voluminous, difficult yet popular, and critical yet lucid. The work is next in importance to the Mahabhasya in the system of Panini, and its study prepares the way for understanding the Mahabhasya. It is prescribed for study in the courses of Vyakarana at every academy and Pathasala and is expected to be committed to memory by students who want to be thorough scholars of Vyakarana.By virtue of its methodical treatment it has thrown into the back-ground all kindred works and glosses or Vrttis on the Sutras of Panini. It is arranged into two halves, the first half dealing with seven topics ( 1 ) संज्ञापरिभाषा, ( 2 ) पञ्त्वसंधि, ( 3 ) षड्लिङ्ग, ( 4 ) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, ( 5 ) कारक, ( 6 ) समास, ( 7 ) तद्धित, and the latter half dealing with five topics, ( 1 ) दशगणी, ( 2 ) द्वादशप्राक्रिया ( 3 ) कृदन्त ( 4 ) वैदिकी and ( 5 ) स्वर. The author भट्टोजीदीक्षित has himself written a scholarly gloss on it called प्रौढमनेरमा on which, his grandson, Hari Diksita has written a learned commentary named लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got a large number of commentaries on it out of which, the commentaries प्रौढमनेरमा, बालमनोरमा, (by वासुदेवदीक्षित) तत्त्वबोधिनी and लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर are read by almost every true scholar of Vyakarana. Besides these four, there are a dozen or more commentaries some of which can be given below with their names and authors ( I ) सुबेाधिनी by जयकृष्णमौनि, ( 2 ) सुबोधिनी by रामकृष्णभट्ट ( 3 ) वृहृच्छब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेश, ( 4 ) बालमनेारमा by अनन्तपण्डित, ( 5 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरहृस्य by नीलकण्ठ, ( 6 ) रत्नार्णव, by कृष्णमिश्र ( 7 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरत्नाकर by रामकृष्ण, ( 8 ) सरला by तारानाथ,(9) सुमनोरमा by तिरुमल्ल,(10)सिद्वान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by लक्ष्मीनृसिंह, (11 )सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by विश्वेश्वरतीर्थ, (12) रत्नाकर by शिवरामेन्द्रसरस्वती and (13) प्रकाश by तोलापदीक्षित. Although the real name of the work is वैयाकरणसिद्धान्ततकौमुदी, as given by the author, still popularly the work is well known by the name सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. The work has got two abridged forms, the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi both written by Varadaraja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita.
haribhāskara( अग्निहोत्री )a grammarian of the Deccan who lived in the seventeenth century at Nasik and wrote commentaries on grammarworks out of which his treatise on Paribhasas ( परिभाषाभास्कर ) written independently but based upon Siradeva's Paribhasavrtti, deserves a special notice and mention.
harivallabhaa grammarian who has written commentaries named दर्पणा on the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara of Kondabhatta, and Laghubhusanakanti on the Sabdakaustubha of Bhattoji Diksita.
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
     Vedabase Search  
126 results
taribāre to cross overCC Antya 11.107
tarimu shall become free from these sinful activitiesCC Madhya 24.253
tariṣyāmaḥ we can cross overSB 4.31.7
tariṣyāmaḥ we will cross overSB 11.6.37-38
tariṣyāmaḥ will cross overSB 11.6.48-49
tariṣyāmi shall cross overCC Madhya 3.6
SB 11.23.57
tariṣyanti people will cross overSB 11.1.6-7
tariṣyanti they will cross overSB 11.6.24
tariṣyasi you will overcomeBG 18.58
tariṣyatha will overcomeSB 10.26.19
SB 10.8.16
antarikṣaḥ AntarikṣaSB 5.4.11-12
antarikṣaḥ AntarikṣaSB 9.12.12
tāmraḥ antarikṣaḥ śravaṇaḥ vibhāvasuḥ Tāmra, Antarikṣa, Śravaṇa and VibhāvasuSB 10.59.12
antarikṣam the sky or outer spaceSB 5.21.2
antarikṣam in the sky or outer spaceSB 5.24.5
antarikṣam and outer spaceSB 12.9.15
antarikṣāt from outer spaceSB 10.7.29
antarikṣe in outer spaceSB 3.17.3
antarikṣe in outer spaceSB 11.30.4
antaritaḥ situated betweenSB 3.7.17
antaritaḥ having endedSB 10.53.23
aśvatari muleSB 2.1.35
atitariṣyati will overcomeSB 3.24.40
avatari' descendingCC Adi 3.28
avatari' incarnatingCC Adi 4.39
avatari descendingCC Adi 4.99-100
avatari' incarnatingCC Adi 4.102
avatari' descendingCC Adi 5.115
avatari' taking incarnationCC Adi 6.27
avatari adventing HimselfCC Adi 13.8
avatari' descendingCC Adi 13.69
avatari adventedCC Adi 13.94
avatari' descendingCC Madhya 11.98
avatari' coming downCC Madhya 20.264
avatari' descendingCC Antya 3.82
avatari' descendingCC Antya 3.265
avatari' having descendedCC Antya 7.52
avatariṣyāmi I shall advent MyselfSB 5.3.18
avātariṣyat would have descendedCC Adi 4.118
avatariṣyati will descendSB 12.2.12-16
dharma-avitari the controller of religionSB 4.4.17
bhartari by the husbandSB 3.14.12
bhartari the protectorSB 4.14.39-40
bhartari maintainerSB 4.21.48
bhartari toward the masterSB 5.4.18
bhartari when the husbandSB 6.18.32
bhartari their husbandSB 10.50.1
bhrātari brotherSB 4.9.23
bhrātari when the brother (Hiraṇyākṣa)SB 7.2.1
sa-bhrātari with his brothersSB 9.16.10
bhrātari your brotherSB 10.49.17
dakṣa-duhitari by the daughter of DakṣaSB 11.4.6
tari the granterMM 17
dhanvantari the incarnation of God named DhanvantariSB 2.7.21
dhanvantari the incarnation Dhanvantari, the physicianSB 6.8.18
dhanvantari DhanvantariSB 8.8.34
dhanvantari DhanvantariSB 9.17.4
dharma-avitari the controller of religionSB 4.4.17
dhātari and sustainerMM 23
duhitari unto the daughterSB 2.7.6
duhitari unto the daughterSB 9.6.38
vaideha-rāja-duhitari by this condition of mother Sītā, the daughter of the King of VidehaSB 9.10.11
duhitari in connection with the daughterSB 9.18.37
dakṣa-duhitari by the daughter of DakṣaSB 11.4.6
yaugapada-eka-kartari both activities in one personSB 4.4.20
goptari the KingSB 4.14.1
hate pitari when their father was killedSB 9.15.34
kartari in the false egoSB 3.28.36
yaugapada-eka-kartari both activities in one personSB 4.4.20
sākṣāt-kartari directly the performerSB 5.7.6
kartari being the doerSB 10.46.41
tari when His motherSB 10.9.22
tari unto the motherCC Madhya 10.145
tariśvā airSB 2.1.33
tariśvā the airSB 4.22.60
tariśvā the gods who control the wind and rainIso 4
tariśvanā by the windSB 5.24.17
tariśvanaḥ lifeSB 1.10.23
tari I cannot crossCC Madhya 10.159
pitari upon my fatherSB 1.13.34
pitari to the fatherSB 3.24.13
pitari when the fatherSB 3.25.5
pitari as a fatherSB 4.1.66
pitari after the fatherSB 4.13.6
pitari when his fatherSB 5.2.1
samparete pitari after the departure of their fatherSB 5.2.23
pitari uparate after the death of the fatherSB 5.9.8
sva-pitari his own fatherSB 5.24.25
pitari when the demon father, HiraṇyakaśipuSB 7.7.2
pitari unto the fatherSB 9.4.7
pitari when his fatherSB 9.6.11
hate pitari when their father was killedSB 9.15.34
pitari when their fatherSB 9.17.14
pitari when his fatherSB 9.18.3
pitari after his fatherSB 9.20.23
pitari their fatherSB 10.48.33
vaideha-rāja-duhitari by this condition of mother Sītā, the daughter of the King of VidehaSB 9.10.11
sa-bhrātari with his brothersSB 9.16.10
sākṣāt-kartari directly the performerSB 5.7.6
samparete pitari after the departure of their fatherSB 5.2.23
santariṣyasi you will cross completelyBG 4.36
śāstari the ruler or subduerSB 1.17.9
śāstari the supreme rulerSB 1.18.35
śāstari as the punisherSB 10.36.7
savitari the sunSB 10.39.32
tāmraḥ antarikṣaḥ śravaṇaḥ vibhāvasuḥ Tāmra, Antarikṣa, Śravaṇa and VibhāvasuSB 10.59.12
sva-pitari his own fatherSB 5.24.25
tāhāń uttari you should go thereCC Madhya 16.112
tāmraḥ antarikṣaḥ śravaṇaḥ vibhāvasuḥ Tāmra, Antarikṣa, Śravaṇa and VibhāvasuSB 10.59.12
tari I cannot crossCC Madhya 10.159
pitari uparate after the death of the fatherSB 5.9.8
tāhāń uttari you should go thereCC Madhya 16.112
uttarila reachedCC Madhya 4.154
uttari got downCC Madhya 18.163
uttarila landedCC Madhya 19.83
uttari approachedCC Antya 1.45
uttari approachedCC Antya 4.13
vaideha-rāja-duhitari by this condition of mother Sītā, the daughter of the King of VidehaSB 9.10.11
tāmraḥ antarikṣaḥ śravaṇaḥ vibhāvasuḥ Tāmra, Antarikṣa, Śravaṇa and VibhāvasuSB 10.59.12
vistariṣyate will be explainedSB 5.24.27
vitariṣye I shall giveSB 3.24.40
vitariṣye I will grantSB 10.41.17
vyatitariṣyati surpassesBG 2.52
yaugapada-eka-kartari both activities in one personSB 4.4.20
     DCS with thanks   
19 results
tari noun (feminine) a boat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53332/72933
tarika noun (masculine) a raft (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
boat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35323/72933
anantarikṣa adjective without a sky
Frequency rank 31730/72933
antari verb (class 2 parasmaipada)
Frequency rank 5247/72933
antarikṣa noun (neuter) (in the Veda) the middle of the three spheres or regions of life (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
talc (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the air (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the atmosphere or sky (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the intermediate space between heaven and earth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Frequency rank 1456/72933
antarikṣaka noun (masculine) name of a man
Frequency rank 43439/72933
antarikṣaka noun (neuter) antarikṣa
Frequency rank 32025/72933
antarikṣacara noun (masculine) a bird (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 43440/72933
antarita adjective concealed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
departed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
disappeared (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
excluded (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
gone within (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hidden (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
impeded (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
interior (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
perished (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
retired (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
screened (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
separated (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
shielded (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
withdrawn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17524/72933
āntarikṣa adjective atmospherical (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
belonging to the intermediate space between heaven and earth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
proceeding from or produced in the atmosphere (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12382/72933
ābhyantarika adjective living in a harem
Frequency rank 46509/72933
kartari noun (feminine) any instrument for cutting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
scissors (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27420/72933
dhanvantari noun (masculine) name of a deity to whom oblations were offered in the north-east quarter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the author of a medical dictionary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the sun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the physician of the gods; produced at the churning of the ocean with a cup of Amṛta in his hands (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1808/72933
padmottari noun (feminine) a kind of grain
Frequency rank 36618/72933
prastariṇī noun (feminine) Elephantopus Scaber (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59532/72933
mahattarika noun (masculine) an eunuch
Frequency rank 61635/72933
tariśvan noun (masculine) (doubtful for) air (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
breeze (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Agni or of a divine being closely connected with him (the messenger of Vivasvat) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a ṣi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Garuḍa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wind (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6344/72933
taripu noun (masculine) name of an alchemical preparation
Frequency rank 65083/72933
vitaritṛ noun (masculine) a granter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bestower (with gen.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 65549/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
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nectarization; a process adopted to remove residual doṣas to enhance the therapeutic action of drugs.


the sky above, atmosphere; antarikṣajala the rain water captured before it reaches earth.


student of Dhanvantari and colleague of Suśruta.


student of Dhanvantari, colleague of Śuśruta.


a vegetarian or non-vegetarian soup having salt.


king of Kāśi, teacher-surgeon of Śuśruta; god of āyurveda.


glossary of āyurveda authored by Dhanvantari, a physician in the court of Vikramaditya.


a medical work authored by Tukkoji in Tanjavur (18th Century ).


Plant cardamom, dried fruits of Elettaria cardamomum.


Plant foxtail millet, Setaria italica.


1. Plant bamboo; bow; 2. Sagittarius; 3. kind of honey; 4. Plant white khadira tree (Acacia catechu); Elegant smilax; 5. rainbow.




king of Videha and an expert in śālākyatantra and a desciple of Dhanvantari.


one of the six disciples of Dhanvantari; fragments of the his treatise were recovered.


star Delta Sagittari in the constellation Sagittarius.


disciple of Dhanvatari, who was the king of Kāśi. He authored Śuśruta samhita, an important treatise on surgery.


1. sectarial mark on the forehead, 2. Plant a sort of black khadira tree, Crataeva roxburghii; 3. garcinia, Xanthochymus pictorius; 4. Cinnamomum tamala.


star Sigma Sagittari in the constellation Sagittarius.

     Wordnet Search "tari" has 79 results.


bhāṣāntaram, bhāṣāntarīkaraṇam, avataraṇam, avatāraḥ, vivaraṇam, anuvādaḥ, chāyā   

anyasyāṃ bhāṣāyāṃ nirūpaṇam।

rāmāyaṇasya bhāṣāntaraṃ naikāsu bhāṣāsu dṛśyate।


anuvādita-kṛtiḥ, bhāṣāntarita-kṛtiḥ   

yasya anuvādaḥ kṛtaḥ।

eṣā rāṣṭrapatiḥ mahodayasya āṅglapustakasya anuvādita-kṛtiḥ asti।


anuvādita, bhāṣāntarita   

yasya anuvādaḥ kṛtaḥ।

eṣā mahāśvetādevyāḥ anuvāditā kṛtiḥ asti।


harit, haritaḥ, haritā, haritariṇi, haritam, haritavarṇaḥ, hariḥ, palāśaḥ, palāśī, palāśam, pālāśaḥ, pālāśī, pālāśam, śyāmaḥ, śyāmā, śyāmam, bharitaḥ, bharitā, bharitam, śyāmavarṇaḥ, śyāmavarṇā, śyāmavarṇam, tālakābhaḥ, tālakābhā, tālakābham   

varṇaviśeṣaḥ, śādvalavat varṇaḥ।

citrakāraḥ śukasya pakṣau haritena varṇena varṇayati।


paryyaṅkaḥ, palyaṅkaḥ, śayyā, śayanam, talpaḥ, khaṭvā, saṃstaraḥ, starimā, śayanīyam, mañcaḥ, mañcakaḥ, prastaraḥ, āstaraṇam   


mātā bālakaṃ paryaṅke śāyayati।


antarpradeśīya, antarprāntīya, antarpradeśastarīya, antarrājyīya, antarrājyika   

kasyacana rājyasya pradeśasya vā antaḥ jāyamānam athavā tat sambandhi।

yathāsamayaṃ rājyeṣu antarpradeśīyānāṃ spardhānām āyojanam āvaśyakam।


tārā, tārakā, tārikā, nakṣatram, ṛkṣam, uḍuḥ, dyotiḥ, udyat, jyotis, jyotiṣī, bhāsantaḥ, rātrijam, rātribham   

ākāśe dṛśyamanāḥ khagolīya-piṇḍāḥ ye rātrau sphuranti, tathā ca yeṣāṃ śobhā na kṣarati।

rātrau tārāyāḥ śobhā avarṇanīyā।


kṣepaṇī, kṣepaṇiḥ, kṣipaṇiḥ, kṣipaṇī, kṣapaṇī, naukādaṇḍaḥ, naudaṇḍaḥ, aritram, āritram, taraṇḍaḥ, tarirathaḥ   

naukāyāḥ vāhanārthe upayuktaḥ daṇḍaḥ।

nāvikaḥ kṣepaṇyā naukāṃ vāhayati।


āntarikaśaktiḥ, āntarikaūrjā   

jīve vartamānā antarikā śaktiḥ।

ahaṃ pratyekaṃ kāryam āntarikaśaktyā sampādayāmi।


nauḥ, naukā, tarikā, taraṇiḥ, taraṇī, tariḥ, tarī, taraṇḍī, taraṇḍaḥ, pādālindā, utplavā, hoḍaḥ, vādhūḥ, vahitram, potaḥ, varvaṭaḥ, arṇavapotaḥ, utplavā, kaṇṭhālaḥ, karṣaḥ, karṣam   

nadyādi-santaraṇārtham kāṣṭhādibhiḥ vinirmitaḥ yānaviśeṣaḥ।

vidureṇa preṣitaḥ naraḥ manomārutagāminīṃ sarvavātasahāṃ yantrayuktāṃ nāvaṃ darśayāmāsa।


yavānī, yavānikā, dīpyakaḥ, dīpyaḥ, yavasāhvaḥ, yavāgrajaḥ, dīpanī, ugragandhā, vātāriḥ, bhūkadambakaḥ, yavajaḥ, dīpanīyaḥ, śūlahantrī, ugrā, tīvragandhā, citrā   

oṣadhīviśeṣaḥ, yasya sagandhāni bījāni bhājane tathā ca bheṣaje upayujyante asya guṇāḥ kaṭutvaṃ tiktatvaṃ uṣṇatvaṃ vāta-arśaḥ-śleṣma-śūla-aṣmān-akṛmi-nāśitvam ca।

yavānyaḥ bījāni patrāṇi ca sugandhitāni santi।



yasmin starāḥ santi।

eṣaḥ staritaḥ parvataḥ।


uṣita, paryuṣita, rātryantarita   

pūrvasmin dine pakvam annam।

uṣitam annam śarīrāya apāyakārakam asti।



śarīrasya antarbhāge vartamānam indriyam।

manaḥ antarindriyam asti।


āntarika, antarvartin   

yaḥ antaḥ vartate।

saḥ manuṣyaśarīrasya āntarikīṃ saṃracanām adhīte।


antarīkṣam, gocaraḥ   

pṛthivyāḥ grahanaśratrāṇāmantaḥ sthānam।

vaijñānikāḥ adhunā api antarīkṣasya viṣaye saṃśodhanaṃ kurvanti।


nabhaḥ, gaganam, ākāśaḥ, ambaram, abhram, dyoḥ, dyauḥ, puṣkaram, antarīkṣam, antarikṣam, anantam, yuravartmam, khaṃ, viyat, viṣṇupadam, vihāyaḥ, nākaḥ, anaṅgaḥ, nabhasam, meghaveśma, mabāvilam, marudvartama, meghavartma, triviṣṭapam, abbhaṃ   

pṛthivyāḥ ūrdhvaṃ dṛśyamānaḥ avakāśaḥ।

vidyādharāḥ nabhasi carantiḥ।


bāṣpīyanaukā, bāṣpīyanauḥ, bāṣpīyatarī, āgneyanau, āgneyanaukā   

bāṣpasañcālitā naukā।

vayaṃ bāṣpīyanaukayā gaṅgāpāraṃ gatāḥ।


yavānī, yavānikā, dīpyakaḥ, dīpyaḥ, yavasāhvaḥ, yavāgrajaḥ, dīpanī, ugragandhā, vātāriḥ, bhūkadambakaḥ, yavajaḥ, dīpanīyaḥ, śūlahantrī, ugrā, tīvragandhā, citrā   

oṣadhībījaviśeṣaḥ yavānyaḥ sagandhāni bījāni ye bhājane tathā ca bheṣaje upayujyante asya guṇāḥ kaṭutvaṃ tiktatvaṃ uṣṇatvaṃ vāta-arśaḥ-śleṣma-śūla-aṣmān-akṛmi-nāśitvam ca।

yavānī pācanī rucyā tīkṣṇoṣṇā kaṭukā laghuḥ।


buddhaḥ, sarvajñaḥ, sugataḥ, dharmarājaḥ, tathāgataḥ, samantabhadraḥ, bhagavān, mārajit, lokajit, jinaḥ, ṣaḍabhijñaḥ, daśabalaḥ, advayavādī, vināyakaḥ, munīndraḥ, śrīghanaḥ, śāstā, muniḥ, dharmaḥ, trikālajñaḥ, dhātuḥ, bodhisattvaḥ, mahābodhiḥ, āryaḥ, pañcajñānaḥ, daśārhaḥ, daśabhūmigaḥ, catustriṃśatajātakajñaḥ, daśapāramitādharaḥ, dvādaśākṣaḥ, trikāyaḥ, saṃguptaḥ, dayakurcaḥ, khajit, vijñānamātṛkaḥ, mahāmaitraḥ, dharmacakraḥ, mahāmuniḥ, asamaḥ, khasamaḥ, maitrī, balaḥ, guṇākaraḥ, akaniṣṭhaḥ, triśaraṇaḥ, budhaḥ, vakrī, vāgāśaniḥ, jitāriḥ, arhaṇaḥ, arhan, mahāsukhaḥ, mahābalaḥ, jaṭādharaḥ, lalitaḥ   

bauddhadharmasya pravartakaḥ yaṃ janāḥ īśvaraṃ manyante।

kuśīnagaram iti buddhasya parinirvāṇasthalaṃ iti khyātam।


sāgaraḥ, samudraḥ, abdhiḥ, akūpāraḥ, pārāvāraḥ, saritpatiḥ, udanvān, udadhiḥ, sindhuḥ, sarasvān, sāgaraḥ, arṇavaḥ, ratnākaraḥ, jalanidhiḥ, yādaḥpatiḥ, apāmpatiḥ, mahākacchaḥ, nadīkāntaḥ, tarīyaḥ, dvīpavān, jalendraḥ, manthiraḥ, kṣauṇīprācīram, makarālayaḥ, saritāmpatiḥ, jaladhiḥ, nīranijhiḥ, ambudhiḥ, pāthondhiḥ, pādhodhiḥ, yādasāmpatiḥ, nadīnaḥ, indrajanakaḥ, timikoṣaḥ, vārāṃnidhiḥ, vārinidhiḥ, vārdhiḥ, vāridhiḥ, toyanidhiḥ, kīlāladhiḥ, dharaṇīpūraḥ, kṣīrābdhiḥ, dharaṇiplavaḥ, vāṅkaḥ, kacaṅgalaḥ, peruḥ, mitadruḥ, vāhinīpatiḥ, gaṅagādharaḥ, dāradaḥ, timiḥ, prāṇabhāsvān, urmimālī, mahāśayaḥ, ambhonidhiḥ, ambhodhiḥ, tariṣaḥ, kūlaṅkaṣaḥ, tāriṣaḥ, vārirāśiḥ, śailaśiviram, parākuvaḥ, tarantaḥ, mahīprācīram, sarinnāthaḥ, ambhorāśiḥ, dhunīnāthaḥ, nityaḥ, kandhiḥ, apānnāthaḥ   

bhūmeḥ paritaḥ lavaṇayuktā jalarāśiḥ।

sāgare mauktikāni santi।


indraḥ, devarājaḥ, jayantaḥ, ṛṣabhaḥ, mīḍhvān, marutvān, maghavā, viḍojā, pākaśāsanaḥ, vṛddhaśravāḥ, sunāsīraḥ, puruhūtaḥ, purandaraḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, lekharṣabhaḥ, śakraḥ, śatamanyuḥ, divaspatiḥ, sutrāmā, gotrabhit, vajrī, vāsavaḥ, vṛtrahā, vṛṣā, vāstospatiḥ, surapatiḥ, balārātiḥ, śacīpatiḥ, jambhabhedī, harihayaḥ, svārāṭ, namucisūdanaḥ, saṃkrandanaḥ, duścyavanaḥ, turāṣāṭ, meghavāhanaḥ, ākhaṇḍalaḥ, sahastrākṣaḥ, ṛbhukṣā, mahendraḥ, kośikaḥ, pūtakratuḥ, viśvambharaḥ, hariḥ, purudaṃśā, śatadhṛtiḥ, pṛtanāṣāḍ, ahidviṣaḥ, vajrapāṇiḥ, devarājaḥ, parvatāriḥ, paryaṇyaḥ, devatādhipaḥ, nākanāthaḥ, pūrvadikkapatiḥ, pulomāriḥ, arhaḥ, pracīnavarhiḥ, tapastakṣaḥ, biḍaujāḥ, arkaḥ, ulūkaḥ, kaviḥ, kauśikaḥ, jiṣṇuḥ   

sā devatā yā svargasya adhipatiḥ iti manyate।

vedeṣu indrasya sūktāni santi।


lākṣā, rākṣā, jatu, yāvaḥ, alaktaḥ, drumāmayaḥ, raṅgamātā, khadirikā, raktā, palaṅkaṣā, krimihā, drumavyādhiḥ, alaktakaḥ, palāśī, mudriṇī, dīptiḥ, jantukā, gandhamādinī, nīlā, dravarasā, pittāriḥ   

raktavarṇīyaḥ padārthaḥ yaḥ viśiṣṭe vṛkṣe raktavarṇīyābhiḥ kṛmibhiḥ nirmīyate।

duryodhanena pāṇḍavān hantuṃ lākṣāyāḥ gṛhaṃ nirmitam।


vāyuḥ, vātaḥ, anilaḥ, pavanaḥ, pavamānaḥ, prabhañjanaḥ, śvasanaḥ, sparśanaḥ, mātariśvā, sadāgatiḥ, pṛṣadaśvaḥ, gandhavahaḥ, gandhavāhaḥ, āśugaḥ, samīraḥ, mārutaḥ, marut, jagatprāṇaḥ, samīraṇaḥ, nabhasvān, ajagatprāṇaḥ, khaśvāsaḥ, vābaḥ, dhūlidhvajaḥ, phaṇipriyaḥ, vātiḥ, nabhaḥprāṇaḥ, bhogikāntaḥ, svakampanaḥ, akṣatiḥ, kampalakṣmā, śasīniḥ, āvakaḥ, hariḥ, vāsaḥ, sukhāśaḥ, mṛgavābanaḥ, sāraḥ, cañcalaḥ, vihagaḥ, prakampanaḥ, nabhaḥ, svaraḥ, niśvāsakaḥ, stanūnaḥ, pṛṣatāmpatiḥ, śīghraḥ   

viśvagamanavān viśvavyāpī tathā ca yasmin jīvāḥ śvasanti।

vāyuṃ vinā jīvanasya kalpanāpi aśakyā।



bhūmeḥ saḥ bhāgaḥ yaḥ sāgare gataḥ।

uttamāśā iti antarīpaṃ kepaṭāuna ityasya paścimadiśi vartate।


rakṣita, saṃrakṣita, avatārita, saṃvṛta   

yasya rakṣaṇaṃ kṛtam।

senayā rāṣṭrasya sīmā rakṣitā asti।


karāṃśukam, uttarīyam   

tat vastraṃ yad kabandhaṃ tathā ca kaṭim ācchādayati।

antarīyaṃ tathā ca karāṃśukam iti bhāratasya rāṣṭriyaveṣaḥ।



yasmin īśvarasya aṃśaḥ astīti manyate।

buddhaḥ aṃśāvatārī puruṣaḥ āsīt।


karttarī, karttanī, katrī, chedanī, khaṇḍadhārā, śarārīmukhī   

astraviśeṣaḥ,patrīkṛtasvarṇādeḥ kartanāstram।

kartaryā vastram chinatti vastrakāraḥ।


aśvataraḥ, aśvatarī, veśaraḥ, vesaraḥ, vegasaraḥ, khesaraḥ, prakharaḥ, atibhāragaḥ, mayaḥ, nighṛśvaḥ   

gardabhāt aśvāyāṃ jātaḥ śāvakaḥ paśuḥ।

aśvataraḥ bhāravahanārthe upayuktaḥ।




śvaśuragṛhe gamanakāle tayā raktam uttarīyaṃ dhāritam।


viṭapāntaritas sthā, viṭapāntarito bhū, nilī   

adarśanasya icchayā viṭapāntaritaḥ vā anyatra gūḍham avasthānānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

siṃhaḥ viṭapāntaritaḥ tiṣṭhati।


dvīpaḥ, antarīpam, payogaḍaḥ, payogaḍam   

mahādvīpād laghvī jalaveṣṭitā bhūmiḥ।

priyavrato abhyaṣiñcat tān sapta saptasu pārthivān। dvīpeṣu teṣu dharmeṇa dvīpāṃstāṃśca nibodha me॥


dhanvantariḥ, amṛtaḥ   

āyurvedasya ācāryaḥ devatānāṃ vaidyaḥ।

dhanvantariḥ samudramanthanasya kāle samudrāt bahiḥ āgatavān।


antarīyam, adhovastram   

tad vastraṃ yad nābhau dhṛtaṃ jānunī ācchādayati।

antarīyaṃ tathā ca uttarīyam iti asmākaṃ rāṣṭrīyaveṣaḥ।




sītā paṭarīṃ paridhārayati sma।



ekasmāt rūpād anyasmin rūpe parivartitaḥ।

eṣaḥ ekaḥ rūpāntaritaḥ lekhaḥ asti।


laśunam, raśunam, laśūnam, lasunam, rasunam, rasonaḥ, rasonakaḥ, gṛñjanaḥ, mahauṣadham, mahākandaḥ, ariṣṭaḥ, sonahaḥ, ugragandhaḥ, dīrghapatraḥ, granthamūlam, śrīmastakaḥ, mukhadūṣaṇaḥ, rāhūcchiṣṭam, tari   

kandaviśeṣaḥ- yaḥ upaskare upayujyate।

sītā sāgārthe maricalaśunādīnāṃ khaṇḍanaṃ karoti।


tulikā, tulā, tulī, tūlapaṭī, uttarapracchadaḥ, uttarachadaḥ, āstaraḥ, saṃstaraḥ, stari   

tulādīn niveśayitvā nirmitaḥ pracchadaḥ।

śaityanivāraṇārthe janāḥ tulikām ācchādya svapanti।


amalīkṛ, pariśudh, pavitraya, pavitrīkṛ, pavitratarīkṛ, viśudh, śudh, samāpū, sampū   

naikābhiḥ kriyābhiḥ malaśodhanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

śalyakriyāyāḥ upakaraṇāni śodhayituṃ jalam amalīkriyate।


hiṅguḥ, hiṅgukaḥ, sahasravedhī, sahasravīryā, śūlahṛt, śūlahṛd, śūlanāśinī, śūladviṭ, śālasāraḥ, vāhikaḥ, rāmaṭhaḥ, rāmaṭham, ramaṭhadhvaniḥ, ramaṭham, rakṣoghnaḥ, bhedanam, bhūtāriḥ, bhūtanāśanaḥ, billam, villam, bāhlikam, balhikam, piṇyākaḥ, piṇyākam, pinyāsaḥ, dīptam, ugragandham, ugravīryam, atyugram, agūḍhagandham, jatukam, jantughnam, bālhī, sūpadhūpanam, jatu, jantunāśanam, sūpāṅgam, gṛhiṇī, madhurā, keśaram   

upaskaraviśeṣaḥ- bālhika-pārasya-khorāsāna-mūlatānādi-deśe jāyamānāt kṣupāt niryāsitam ugragandhī dravyam।

hiṅguḥ upaskararūpeṇa vyañjaneṣu tathā ca oṣadhirupeṇa bheṣajeṣu upayujyate।


piṭakaḥ, peṭakaḥ, peḍā, mañjūṣā, peṭaḥ, peṭikā, tariḥ, tarī, mañjuṣā, peḍikā   

vaṃśaśalākayā vinirmitaṃ pidhānayuktaṃ pātram।

piṭake sarpaḥ asti।


yutakam, kārpāsakaḥ, uttarīyam   


sūcikaḥ uttarīyam sīvyati।


vilīna, antarita, kīrṇa, antargata, upagupta, aprakāśa, gupta, vṛta, nigūḍha, catta, apīcya, antarlīna, guhya, upacchanna   

yaḥ adṛśyaḥ asti।

vaijñānikāḥ jale vilīnaṃ tatvaṃ pariśodhayanti।


dhūmaḥ, dhūmikā, dhūpaḥ, dhūpikā, dahanaketanaḥ, marudvāhaḥ, karamālaḥ, khatamālaḥ, vyāmaḥ, agnibāhuḥ, agnivāhaḥ, ambhaḥsūḥ, ṛjīkaḥ, kacamālaḥ, jīmūtavāhī, khatamālaḥ, bhambhaḥ, marudvāhaḥ, mecakaḥ, starī, suparvā, śikhidhvajaḥ   

kasyāpi vastoḥ jvalanād vidhūpyamānaṃ kṛṣṇabāṣpam।

ārdraidhāgneḥ adhiko dhūmaḥ jāyate।



vijñānasya sā śākhā yā antarīkṣasya vivecanāṃ karoti।

antarikṣavijñānasya anusāreṇa śvaḥ sāyaṅkāle atīva varṣā bhaviṣyati।


vistārita, abhivṛddha, vistīrṇa   

yasya vistāraḥ kṛtaḥ jātaḥ vā।

tena mahyaṃ vistāritasya kāryakramasya sūcī dattā।



yasya uttaraṃ na dattam।

asyāḥ hatyāsambandhī sarve praśnāḥ anuttaritāḥ।



jainānāṃ devatāyāḥ ekaḥ bhedaḥ।

jainamahātmā anuttaritasya viṣaye vistāreṇa kathayati।


antarikṣīya, nābhasa   


antarikṣīyā vidyut patitā ataḥ ekaḥ puruṣaḥ mṛtaḥ।


katārīyaḥ, katāradeśīyaḥ, katāra-vāsī, katāra-nivāsī   

katārasya ādimaḥ nivāsī।

saḥ katārīyaḥ ātmānam eva rājñaḥ parivārasya sadasyaṃ kathayati।


katārīya, katāradeśīya   

katāreṇa sambaddhaṃ katārasya vā।

adya ekā katārīyā tailasya khaniḥ dagdhā।


śyenaḥ, patrī, śaśādaḥ, śaśādanaḥ, kapotāriḥ, kravyādaḥ, krūraḥ, vegī, khagāntakaḥ, karagaḥ, lambakarṇaḥ, raṇapriyaḥ, raṇapakṣī, picchavāṇaḥ, sthūlanīlaḥ, bhayaṅkaraḥ, śaśaghātakaḥ, khagāntakaḥ, ghātipakṣī, nīlapicchaḥ, satkāṇḍaḥ, patadbhīruḥ, grāhakaḥ, mārakaḥ   

pakṣiviśeṣaḥ-yaḥ bhāratadeśe sarvatra dṛśyate।

śyenaḥ kākasadṛśaḥ śvetodaraḥ nīlapṛṣṭhavān asti।



ghaṭaḥ iva ekaṃ prācīnaṃ vādyam yasya śikhare carma ānaddham।

saḥ avaghaṭarikāyāḥ vādane nipuṇaḥ।


tvarita, ātyayika, satvara, sadyaska, pratyakṣam, anāntarīyaka, āñjas   

yasya sambandhe śīghratāyāḥ āvaśyakatā asti।

tvaritasya sandeśasya preṣaṇāya atyādhikānām ādhunikānāṃ upakaraṇānāṃ vyavasthā bhaviṣyati।



chattīsagaḍharājyasya nagaraviśeṣaḥ।

dhamatarīnagarasya pārśve gaṅgarelanāmakaḥ setuḥ asti।



chattīsagaḍharājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

dhamatarimaṇḍalaṃ 6 julai1998 tame varṣe nirmitam।


vāyuvidyā, antarīkṣavidyā   

vidyāviśeṣaḥ- vāyaguṇādīnām abhyāsāt vātāvaraṇasya avasthāyāḥ nirdhāraṇaviṣayiṇī vidyā।

saḥ vāyuvidyām adhyetum icchati।


stara, starīya   


rājyasya stare rājyavikāsārthe kā api samitiḥ prasthāpitā asti।


hiṅgu, sahastravedhi, jatukam, vālhikam, vālhīkam, rāmaṭham, jantughnam, vālhī, gṛhiṇī, madhurā, sūpadhūpanam, jatu, keśaram, ugragandham, bhūtāriḥ, jantunāśanam, sūpāṅgam, ugravīryam, agūḍhagandham, bhedanam   


hiṅgunāmnā eva dravyam upalabhyate yasya upayogaḥ vyañjanarūpeṇa auṣadharūpeṇa vā kriyate।




aśvāvatāryām ekatriṃśat mātrāḥ santi।



bhagavatyāḥ aṣṭarūpāṇi।

tārā ugrā mahogrā vrajā kālī sarasvatī kāmeśvarī tathā ca cāmuṇḍā ityetāḥ aṣṭatāriṇyaḥ santi।



yaḥ kevalaṃ pituragre vīravat ācarati।

pitariśūraḥ parajanānām agre bhīruvat ācarati।




antarikṣasya varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu prāpyate।


vitarita, vibhājita   

yasya vitaraṇaṃ kṛtam।

nirdhaneṣu vitaritam annam uttamaṃ nāsti।




imāṃ samasyāṃ dūrīkartuṃ sarvakāreṇa ekā uccastarīyā sabhā āyojitā।



antarīkṣe prakṣepitaṃ yānam।

idam antarīkṣayānaṃ māsaṃ yāvat antarīkṣe bhaviṣyati।



saṃyukta-rājya-amerīkādeśasya saṅghīyasya śāsanasya saṃsthā yā antarikṣasya kāryakramāṇām anuyogādhīnatāṃ vahati।

rāṣṭrīya-vaimānikī-tathā-antarikṣa-prabandhanena antarikṣe vānanirīkṣaṇī prakṣepitā yā jagataḥ naikān rahasyān udghāṭayanti।



bhāratasarvakārasya saṃsthā yā antarikṣeṇa sambaddham anusandhānaṃ karoti tathā tasmin sahāyyaṃ karoti।

bhāratīya-antarikṣa-anusandhāna-kendreṇa naikeṣām upagrahāṇāṃ nirmitiḥ kṛtā।



yad viśvasya stare bhavati।

pradhānamantrimahodayaḥ viśvastarīye adhiveśane bhāgaṃ grahituṃ gacchati।



madhyakanāḍādeśasya ekaṃ kṣetram।

onṭāriyonagaram ekaṃ samṛddham audyogikaṃ kṣetram asti।



kaṭeḥ adhastanīyaṃ bhāgam ācchādayituṃ dhāryamāṇaḥ vastraviśeṣaḥ।

striyaḥ antarīyasya upayogaḥ kaṭeḥ adhastanīyaṃ bhāgaṃ tathā uparitanaṃ bhāgaṃ ācchādayitum api kurvanti।



ekā rājakumārī ।

vijayabhaṭṭārikā praśastiṣu varṇyate



ekaḥ divyaḥ caraḥ ।

śāṅkhāyana-gṛhya-sūtre bharadvājadhanvantariḥ samullikhitaḥ



ekaḥ kṣupaḥ ।

kaṇṭārikāyāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti



ekaṃ vādyam ।

ṭaṭṭaryāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti



ekaṃ yantram ।

taritādhāraṇayantrasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti



ekaḥ granthaḥ ।

tāriṇīkalpasya ullekhaḥ tantrasāre asti



ekā devatā ।

tāriṇyāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

Parse Time: 1.348s Search Word: tari Input Encoding: Devanagari IAST: tari