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     Grammar Search "tamas" has 4 results.
     
tamās: masculine nominative singular stem: tamas
tamas: neuter nominative singular stem: tamas
tamas: neuter accusative singular stem: tamas
tamas: neuter vocative singular stem: tamas
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WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
śarvarīFeminineSingularrajanī, kṣapā, rātriḥ, tamī, tamasvinī, kṣaṇadā, niśīthinī, yāminī, vibhāvarī, triyāmā, niśāthe star spangled night
tamas1.3.26NeuterSingularsaiṃhikeyaḥ, vidhuntudaḥ, rāhuḥ, svarbhānuḥthe acending node
andhatamasamNeuterSingulardarkness
avatamasamNeuterSingularuniversal darkness
saṃtamasam1.8.3NeuterSingularimperfect darkness
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84 results for tamas
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
tamasn. darkness, gloom (also plural) (maḥ-, pr/aṇīta-,"led into darkness", deprived of the eye's light or sight, ) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamasn. the darkness of hell, hell or a particular division of hell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamasn. the obscuration of the sun or moon in eclipses, attributed to rāhu- (also m. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamasn. mental darkness, ignorance, illusion, error (in sāṃkhya- philosophy one of the 5 forms of a-vidyā- etc.;one of the 3 qualities or constituents of everything in creation [the cause of heaviness, ignorance, illusion, lust, anger, pride, sorrow, dulness, and stolidity;sin ;sorrow ;See guṇa-and see ] etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamasn. Name of a son (of śravas- ;of dakṣa- ;of pṛthu-śravas- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamasn. ([ confer, compare timira-; Latin temereetc.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamas s/a-, etc. See column 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamasamfn. dark-coloured View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamasam. darkness a well View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamasan. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' for mas-,"darkness" See andha--, dhā--, ava--, vi--, saṃ-- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamasan. a city View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamasāf. Name of a river (falling into the Ganges below pratiṣṭhāna-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamasākṛtamfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamasāvanan. Name of a grove View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamaska in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' equals mas-, darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamaskamental darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamaskathe quality tamas- (q.v), (a--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamaska see nis--, vi--, sa--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamaskalpamfn. like darkness, gloomy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamaskāṇḍam. (gaRa kaskādi-,not in ) great or spreading darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamastatif. idem or 'm. (gaRa kaskādi-,not in ) great or spreading darkness ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamasvanmf(arī-)n. (t/am-) equals -vat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamasvanmf(arī-)n. see /am-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamasvatmf(atī-)n. (tam-) gloomy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamasvatīf. (-) night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamasvatīf. turmeric View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamasvinīf. equals -vatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
andhatamasan. great, thick, or intense darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antamasthāf. a metre of 46 syllables, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apāntaratamasm. Name of an ancient sage (who is identified with kṛṣṇa- dvaipāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aspṛṣṭarajastamaskamfn. perfectly pure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astamastakamn. (the head id est) the top of the mountain asta-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asuratamasan. the darkness of the (world of the) demons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atamasmfn. without darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avatamasan. () slight darkness, obscurity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dairghatamasamf(ī-)n. relating to dīrgha-tamas- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dairghatamasam. patronymic fr. dīrgha-tamas- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dairghatamasan. Name of several sāman-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīrghatamasm. (gh/a--) Name of a ṛṣi- with the patron. aucathya- and the metron. māmateya- (author of the hymns ;father of kakṣīvat- on ; through bṛhas-pati-'s curse born blind ; father of dhanvan-tari- ; has by su-deṣṇā-, bali-'s wife, five sons, aṅga-, bhaṅga-, kaliṅga-, puṇḍra-, and suhma- ); plural his descendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīrghatamasorkam. Name of sāman- (see -tapas-and dairghatamasa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīrghatamasovratan. Name of sāman- (see -tapas-and dairghatamasa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gautamasamfn. with arka- Name of two sāman-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gautamasa equals ma-sa- (q.v) or fr. go-tamas-? View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gautamasambhavāf. the gautamī- river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gautamasarasn. " gautama-'s pond", Name of a lake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gautamasvāminm. equals got- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotamastomam. Name of an ekāha- sacrifice (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotamasvāminm. mahā-vīra-'s pupil gotama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛtsatamas varia lectio for dīrgha-t- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛṣṇapuruṣottamasiddhāntopaniṣadf. Name of an View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣīṇatamasm. Name of a vihāra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyatamasn. circular or annular darkness, central darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahādairghatamasan. Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahātamasn. "gross (spiritual) darkness", Name of one of the 5 degrees of a-vidyā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maraṇāndhatamasan. the gloom or shadow of death View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nīrajastamasāf. absence of passion and darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nīrajastamaskamfn. () free from passion and darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nistamaskamfn. free from darkness, not gloomy, light View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parvatamastakam. n. mountains-top View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamastakam. "yellow-head", Loxia Philippensis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakaṭitahatāśeṣatamasmfn. having openly destroyed utter darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puruṣottamasahasranāmann. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rajastamaskamfn. (any one or any thing) under the influence of the two qualities rajas- and tamas- (See above) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raktamastakam. "red-headed", Ardea Sibirica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahodairghatamasan. dual number Name of two sāman-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtamasn. great or universal darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtamasan. idem or 'n. great or universal darkness ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtamasan. great delusion of mind etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtamasamfn. darkened, clouded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvottamastotran. Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satamasāf. Name of a river (or"together with the river tamasā-") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satamaskamfn. obscured, eclipsed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stokatamasmfn. a little dark, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttamasāhasan. the highest of the three fixed mulcts or fines (a fine of 1000 or of 80,000 paṇa-s;capital punishment, branding, banishment, confiscation, mutilation, and death). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttamasaṃgraham. intriguing with another man's wife, addressing her privately, casting amorous looks etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttamastrīsaṃgrahaṇa equals -saṃgraha- above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttamasukham. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
virajastamasmfn. free from (the qualities of) passion and ignorance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitamasmfn. free from darkness, light View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitamasSee . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitamaskamfn. idem or 'mfn. free from darkness, light ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitamaskatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitamaskatāf. exempt from the quality of ignorance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhagautamasaṃhitāf. vṛddha-- gautama-'s law-book. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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tamas तमस् n. [तम्-असुन्] 1 Darkness; किं वा$भविष्यदरुण- स्तमसां विभेत्ता तं चेत्सहस्रकिरणो धुरि नाकरिष्यत् Ś.7.4.; V.1.7; Me.39. -2 The gloom or darkness of hell; धर्मेण हि सहायेन तमस्तरति दुस्तरम् Ms.4.242. -3 Mental darkness, ignorance, illusion, error, मुनिसुताप्रणयस्मृतिरोधिना मम च मुक्त- मिदं तमसा मनः Ś.6.8. -4 (In Sāṅ. phil.) Darkness or ignorance, as one of the three qualities or constitutents of every thing in nature (the other two being सत्त्व and रजस्); अन्तर्गतमपास्तं मे रजसो$पि परं तमः Ku.6.6; Ms. 12.24. -5 Grief, sorrow; Bhāg.5.14.33. -6 Sin; Bhāg.1.15.5. -7 Stupefaction, swoon; तथा भिन्नतनु- त्राणः प्राविशद्विपुलं तमः Rām.7.8.14. -8 Anger; Bhāg. 1.59.42. -m., -n. An epithet of Rāhu; तमश्चन्द्रमसीवेद- मुपरज्यावभासते Bhāg.4.29.7. -Comp. -अपह a. removing darkness or ignorance, illumining, enlightening; आगमादिव तमोपहादितः संभवन्ति मतयो भवच्छिदः Ki.5.22. (-हः) 1 the sun. -2 the moon. -3 fire. -4 a Buddha. -अरिः 1 the sun. -2 the moon. -3 fire. -काण्डः, -ण्डम् great or spreading darkness. -गुः an epithet of Rāhu. -गुणः see तमस् above (4). -घ्नः 1 the sun. -2 the moon -3 fire. -4 Viṣṇu. -5 Śiva. -6 Knowledge. -7 a Buddha. -ज्योतिस् m. a fire-fly. -ततिः spreading darkness. -निष्ठ a. taking to hell (नरकप्रद); Ms.12. 95. -नुद् m. 'तमोनुदो$ग्निचन्द्रार्का' इति विश्वः; 1 a shining body. -2 the sun. -3 the moon; नरेन्द्रकन्यास्तमवाप्य सत्पतिं तमोनुदं दक्षसुता इवाबभुः R.3.33. -4 fire. -5 a lamp, light. -नुदः 1 the sun. -2 the moon. -3 the Supreme Being. -प्रभा a sort of hell. -प्रवेशः 1 groping in the dark. -2 mental gloom. -भिद्, -मणिः 1 a fire-fly. -2 a sapphire. -3 a star. -4 the moon; तमोमणिस्तु खद्योते नीलमण्यामुडौ शशौ Nm. -राजः a kind of sugar; L. D. B. -विकारः sickness, disease. -विशाल a. abounding in gloom; तमोविशालश्च मूलतः सर्गः Sāṅ. K.54. -वृत a. 1 obscured, clouded. -2 affected with anger, fear &c. -हन्, -हर a. dispersing darkness. (-m.) 1 the sun. -2 the moon.
tamasa तमस a. Dark-coloured. -सः 1 Darkness. -2 A well. -सा N. of a river. -सम् 1 Darkness. -2 A city.
tamaska तमस्क (At the end of a compound) 1 Darkness; स तेजस्वतो लोकान् भास्वतो$पहततमस्कानभिसिध्यति Ch. Up.7. 11.2. -2 Mental darkness; तत्प्रत्यनीकानसुरान्सुरप्रियो रजस्त- मस्कान्प्रमिणोत्युरुश्रवाः ॥ Bhāg.7.1.11.
tamasvat तमस्वत् a. Dark, gloomy. -ती 1 Night. -2 Turmeric.
tamasvinī तमस्विनी तमा A night.
vitamas वितमस् वितमस्क a. 1 Light. -2 Free from darkness or the quality of ignorance (तमस्). -3 Pure, blemishless; ख्याते तस्मिन् वितमसि कुले जन्म कौलीनमेतत् Ve.2.11.
saṃtamas संतमस् n., संतमसम् 1 All-pervading or universal darkness, great darkness; निमज्जयन् संतमसे पराशयम् N.9. 98; Śi.9.22; अकार्ष्टामायुधच्छायं रजःसंतमसे रणे Bk.5.2; प्रशान्ते च संतमसे Cholachampū p.25. -2 Great darkness or delusion of the mind (महामोह).
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tamas tám-as, n. darkness, iv. 50, 4; 51, 1. 2. 3; vii. 63, 1; 71, 5; 127, 2. 3. 7; 129, 32 [tam faint].
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tamas n. (sg. & pl.) darkness; gloom of hell; N. of a hell; eclipse=Râhu; error, ignorance; delusion; Darkness (one of the three fundamental qualities (gunas) incident to creation; in the Sâ&ndot;khya philosophy one of the five forms of Avidyâ).
tamasa a. dark-coloured; n. darkness (--°ree;); -ka, --°ree; a.=tamas; -vin-î, f. night.
avatamasa n. decreasing darkness.
nistamaska a. free from darkness, light; -tamisra, a. id.; -tara&ndot;ga, a. waveless, calm; -tarana, n. getting out of danger, escape; -taranîya, fp. to be got over; -tartavya, fp. to be crossed; to be over come; -tala, a. not flat, round, spherical; -târa, m. crossing, passing over the sea (also fig.); liquidation, payment.
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atri Neither Atri himself nor the Atris can claim any historical reality, beyond the fact that Mandala V. of the Rigveda is attributed, no doubt correctly, to the family of the Atris. The Atris as a family probably stood in close relations with the Priyamedhas and Kanvas, perhaps also with the Gotamas and Kāksīvatas. The mention of both the Parusnī and the Yamunā in one hymn of the fifth Mandala seems to justify the presumption that the family was spread over a wide extent of territory.
kakṣīvant Is the name of a Rsi mentioned frequently in the Rigveda, and occasionally elsewhere. He appears to have been a descendant of a female slave named Uśij. He must have been a Pajra by family, as he bears the epithet Pajriya, and his descendants are called Pajras. In a hymn of the Rigveda he celebrates the prince Svanaya Bhāvya, who dwelt on the Sindhu (Indus), as having bestowed magnificent gifts on him ; and the list of Nārāśamsas (‘ Praises of Heroes ’) in the Sāñkhāyana Srauta Sūtra mentions one by Kaksīvant Auśija in honour of Svanaya Bhāvayavya. In his old age he obtained as a wife the maiden Vrcayā. He appears to have lived to be a hundred, the typical length of life in the Vedas. He seems always to be thought of as belonging to the past, and in a hymn of the fourth book of the Rigveda he is mentioned with the semi-mythical Kutsa and Kavi Uśanas. Later, also, he is a teacher of bygone days. In Vedic literature he is not connected with Dīrghatamas beyond being once mentioned along with him in a hymn of the Rigveda. But in the Brhaddevatā he appears as a son of Dīrghatamas by a slave woman, Uśij. Weber14 considers that Kaksīvant was originally a Ksatriya, not a Brāhmana, quoting in favour of this view the fact that he is mentioned beside kings like Para Atnāra, Vītahavya Srāyasa, and Trasadasyu Paurukutsya. But that these are all kings is an unnecessary assumption : these persons are mentioned in the passages in question undoubtedly only as famous men of old, to whom are ascribed mythical sacrificial performances, and who thus gained numerous sons.
gotama Is mentioned several times in the Rigveda, but never in such a way as to denote personal authorship of any hymn. It seems clear that he was closely connected with the Añgirases, for the Gotamas frequently refer to Añgiras. That he bore the patronymic Rāhūgana is rendered probable by one hymn of the Rigveda, and is assumed in the Satapatha Brāh¬mana, where he appears as the Purohita, or domestic priest, of Māthava Videgha, and as a bearer of Vedic civilization. He is also mentioned in the same Brāhmana as a contemporary of Janaka of Videha, and Yājñavalkya, and as the author of a Stoma. He occurs, moreover, in two passages of the Atharvaveda. The Gotamas are mentioned in several passages of the Rigveda, Vāmadeva and Nodhas being specified as sons of Gotama. They include the Vāj aśravases. See also Gautama.
gautama ‘Descendant of Gotama,’ is a common patro­nymic, being applied to Aruna, Uddālaka Aruni, Kuśri, Sāti, Hāridrumata. Several Gautamas are mentioned in the Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as pupils of Agni- veśya, of Saitava and Prācīnayogya, of Saitava, of Bhārad- vaja, of Gautama, and of Vatsya. referred to elsewhere.
traitana Appears in the Rigveda as a Dāsa, an enemy of Dīrghatamas, who seems to have engaged him in single combat and defeated him. The St. Petersburg Dictionary suggests that he is rather a supernatural being allied to Trita (c/. the Avestan Thrita and Thraetaona).
daśamī Denotes in the Atharvaveda and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana the period of life between 90 and 100 years which the Rigveda calls the daśama yuga, ‘ the tenth stage of life.’ Longevity seems not to have been rare among the Vedic Indians, for the desire to live a ‘hundred autumns’ (śaradal} śatam) is constantly expressed. Dīrghatamas is said to have lived ioo years, and Mahidāsa Aitareya is credited with 116. Onesikritos reported that they sometimes lived 130 years, a statement with which corresponds the wish expressed in the Jātaka for a life of 120 years. Probably the number was always rather imaginary than real, but the com¬parative brevity of modern life in India9 may be accounted for by the cumulative effect of fever, which is hardly known to the Rigveda. See Takman.
divya ‘Ordeal,’ is a term not found until the later literature, but several references to the practice of ordeals have been seen in Vedic literature. The fire ordeal seen in the Atharvaveda1 by Schlagintweit, Weber, Ludwig, Zimmer, and others, has been disproved by Grill, Bloomfield, and Whitney. But such an ordeal appears in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, and an ordeal with a glowing axe occurs in the Chāndogya Upanisad as applied in an accusation of theft. Geldner suggests that this usage is referred to even in the Rigveda, but this is most improbable. Ludwig and Griffith discover in another passage of the Rigveda references to Dīrghatamas’ having been subjected to the fire and water ordeals, but this view cannot be supported. According to Weber the 'balance’ ordeal is referred to in the śatapatha Brāhmana, but see Tulā.
dīrghatamas (‘ Long darkness ’) Māmateya (* son of Mamatā ’) Aucathya (‘son of Ucatha’) is mentioned as a singer in one hymn of the Rigveda, and is referred to in several passages by his metronymic, Māmateya, alone. He is said, both in the Rigveda and in the Sāñkhāyana Áranyaka, to have attained the tenth decade of life. In the Aitareya Brāhmana he appears as the priest of Bharata. The Brhaddevatā contains a preposterous legend made up of fragments of the Rigveda,® according to which Dīrghatamas was born blind, but recovered his sight; in old age he was thrown into a river by his servants, one of whom, Traitana, attacked him, but killed himself instead. Carried down by the stream, he was cast up in the Añga country, where he married Uśij, a slave girl, and begot Kaksīvant. The two legends here combined are not even con­sistent, for the second ignores Dīrghatamas’ recovery of sight. To attach any historical importance to them, as does Pargiter, would seem to be unwise.
bharata Is the name of a people of great importance in the Rigveda and the later literature. In the Rigveda they appear prominently in the third and seventh Maṇdalas in connexion with Sudās and the Tftsus, while in the sixth Maṇdala they are associated with Divodāsa. In one passage the Bharatas are, like the Tṛtsus, enemies of the Pūrus: there can be little doubt that Ludwig’s view of the identity of the Bharatas and and Tṛtsus is practically correct. More precisely Oldenberg considers that the Tṛtsus are the Vasiṣhas, the family singers of the Bharatas; while Geldner recognizes, with perhaps more probability, in the Tṛtsus the royal family of the Bharatas. That the Tṛtsus and Bharatas were enemies, as Zimmer holds, is most improbable even on geographical grounds, for the Tṛtsus in Zimmer’s view occupied the country to the east of the Paruçṇī (Ravi), and the Bharatas must therefore be regarded as coming against the Tṛtsus from the west, whereas the Rigveda recognizes two Bharata chiefs on the Sarasvatī, Ápayā, and Dpçadvatī that is, in the holy land of India, the Madhyadeśa. Hillebrandt sees in the connexion of the Tṛtsus and the Bharatas a fusion of two tribes; but this is not supported by any evidence beyond the fact that in his opinion some such theory is needed to explain Divodāsa's appearing in connexion with the Bharadvāja family, while Sudās, his son, or perhaps grandson {cf. Pijavana), is connected with the Vasiṣthas and the Viśvāmitras. In the later literature the Bharatas appear as especially famous. The śatapatha Brāhmaṇa mentions Bharata Dauh- ṣanti as a king, sacrificer of the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and śatānīka Sātrājita, as another Bharata who offered that sacrifice. The Aitareya Brāhmaṇa mentions Bharata Dauh- ṣanti as receiving the kingly coronation from Dlrghatamas Māmateya, and śatānīka as being consecrated by Somaśuçman Vājaratnāyana, a priest whose name is of quite late origin. The geographical position of the Bharata people is clearly shown by the fact that the Bharata kings win victories over the Kāśis, and make offerings on the Yamunā (Jumna) and Gañgfā (Ganges). Moreover, in the formula of the king’s proclamation for the people, the variants recorded include Kuravah, Pañcālāh, Kuru-Pañcālāh,, and Bharatāh ; and the Mahābhārata consistently recognizes the royal family of the Kurus as a Bharata family. It is therefore extremely probable that Oldenberg is right in holding that the Bharatas in the times of the Brāhmaṇas were merging in the Kuru-Pañcāla people. The ritual practices of the Bharatas are repeatedly mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, and the Taittirīya Aranyaka. Already in the Rigveda there is mention made of Agni Bhārata (‘of the Bharatas’). In the Apr! hymns occurs a goddess Bhāratī, the personified divine protective power of the Bharatas : her association in the hymns with Sarasvatī reflects the connexion 'of the Bharatas with the Sarasvatī in the Rigveda. Again, in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa Agni is referred to as brāhmana Bhārata, ‘priest of the Bharatas,’ and is invited to dispose of the offering Manusvat Bharatavat, ‘like Manu,’ ‘like Bharata.’ In one or two passages Sudās or Divodāsa and, on the other hand, Purukutsa or Trasadasyu appear in a friendly relation. Possibly this points, as Oldenberg suggests, to the union of Bharatas and Pūrus with the Kurus. A Bharata is referred to in the fifth Mandala of the Rigveda who he was is uncertain.
mamatā Is, according to Sāyaṇa, in one passage of the Rigveda, the wife of Ucathya and the mother of Dīrg*hatamas. But the word may be merely an abstract noun meaning ‘ self­interest,’ a sense which it often has in the later language. Oldenberg finds a mention of Mamata (masc.) in a verse of the Rigveda as the name of a Bharadvāja.
māmateya ‘Descendant of Mamatā,’ is the metronymic of Dīrghatamas in the Rigveda and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa.
yuga In the Rigveda frequently denotes a ‘generation’; but the expression daśame yuge applied to Dirg’hatamas in one passage must mean ‘tenth decade’ of life. There is no reference in the older Vedic texts to the five-year cycle (see Samvatsara). The quotation from the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa given in the St. Petersburg Dictionary, and by Zimmer and others, is merely a citation from a modern text in the commentary on that work. Nor do the older Vedic texts know of any series of Yugas or ages such as are usual later. In the Atharvaveda6 there are mentioned in order a hundred years, an ayuta (10,000?), and then two, three, or four Yugas: the inference from this seems to be that a Yuga means more than an ayuta, but is not very certain. Zimmer adduces a passage from the Rigveda, but the reference there, whatever it may be, is certainly not to the four ages {cf. also Triyug’a). The Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa recognizes long periods of time—e.g., one of 100,000 years. To the four ages, Kali, Dvāpara, Tretā, and Kṛta, there is no certain reference in Vedic literature, though the names occur as the designations of throws at dice (see Akça). In the Aitareya Brāhmana the names occur, but it is not clear that the ages are really meant. Haug thought that the dice were meant: this view is at least as probable as the alternative explanation, which is accepted by Weber, Roth,Wilson, Max Mūller, and Muir. Roth, indeed, believes that the verse is an inter¬polation ; but in any case it must be remembered that the passage is from a late book of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. Four ages—Puṣya, Dvāpara, Khārvā, and Kṛta—are mentioned in the late Sadvimśa Brāhmaṇa, and the Dvāpara in the Gopatha Brāhmana.
rahūgaṇa Is the name of a family mentioned in the plural in one passage of the Rigveda. According to Ludwig, they were connected with the Gotamas, as is shown by the name Gotama Rāhūgaṇa.
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
vāmadeva Is credited by tradition with the authorship of the fourth Maṇdala of the Rigveda, and he is once mentioned in that Maṇdala. He is, moreover, credited with the authorship of the fourth hymn of the Maṇdala by the Yajur­veda Samhitās. He there appears as a son of Gotama, while in one hymn of the fourth Maṇdala of the Rigveda4 Gotama is mentioned as the father of the singer, and in another the Gotamas occur as praising Indra. In the Bṛhaddevatā two absurd legends are narrated of Vāmadeva. One describes Indra as revealing himself in the form of an eagle to the seer as he cooked the entrails of a dog; the other tells of his successful conflict with Indra, whom he sold among the seers. Sieg has endeavoured to trace these tales in the Rigveda but without any success. Moreover, though Vāmadeva is mentioned in the Atharvaveda and often in the Brāhmaṇas, he never figures there as a hero of these legends.
       Bloomfield Vedic
         Concordance  
15 results
     
tamas te yantu yatame dviṣanti AVś.12.3.49b.
tamasa iva jyotir ud etu sūryaḥ AVś.5.13.3d. See jyotiṣeva.
tamasā kṛtaṃ tamaḥ karoti tamasa evedaṃ sarvaṃ yo mā kārayati tasmai svāhā BDh.3.4.2.
tamasā ye ca tūparāḥ AVś.11.9.22c.
tamasas tan mahinājāyataikam TB.2.8.9.4d. See tapasas etc.
tamasāvidhyad āsuraḥ RV.5.40.5b,9b; KB.24.4b.
tamase taskaram VS.30.5; TB.3.4.1.1.
tamasīva nihitaṃ nānu vettāḥ AVP.9.18.4d.
tamaso mā jyotir gamaya śB.14.4.1.30,32; BṛhU.1.3.30,32; śś.6.8.9.
katamasmai tvā # KS.37.13.
katamasmai svāhā # VS.22.20; TS.7.3.15.1; MS.3.12.5: 161.12; KSA.3.5; śB.13.1.8.2; TB.3.8.11.1.
tavastamas tavasāṃ vajrabāho # RV.2.33.3b. See next but one.
makṣūtamasya rātiṣu # RV.8.19.12b.
madintamasya dhārayā # RV.9.62.22c; SV.2.411c.
yaśastamasya mīḍhuṣaḥ # RV.2.8.1c.
     Vedabase Search  
119 results
     
tamasā and by the mode of ignoranceSB 12.1.39-40
tamasā as well as by the mode of ignoranceSB 5.10.8
tamasā because of the darknessSB 10.20.8
tamasā by darknessIso 3
MM 19
SB 10.80.37
SB 11.3.14
SB 3.17.6
tamasā by darkness of ignoranceSB 4.28.25
tamasā by ignoranceSB 11.21.20
SB 7.3.26-27
tamasā by illusionBG 18.32
tamasā by the darknessSB 3.15.9
tamasā by the darkness of ignoranceSB 3.25.9
tamasā by the demon of ignorance personifiedSB 5.18.6
tamasā by the mode of darknessSB 5.11.4
tamasā by the mode of ignoranceSB 11.22.52
SB 11.25.20
SB 11.25.21
SB 11.4.5
tamasā in sleepSB 6.1.49
tamasā overwhelmed by the mode of ignoranceSB 10.4.45
tamasā which is surrounded by ignoranceSB 10.3.20
tamasā with the mode of ignoranceSB 11.25.9
tamasā āvṛtam covered with darknessSB 10.7.22
tamasā āvṛtam covered with darknessSB 10.7.22
tamasā āvṛtāyām being covered by darknessSB 5.9.13
tamasā āvṛtāyām being covered by darknessSB 5.9.13
tamasaḥ darknessSB 10.88.25-26
tamasaḥ from the darknessSB 3.31.21
tamasaḥ from the mode of ignoranceBG 14.17
tamasaḥ ignoranceSB 10.70.4-5
SB 3.25.8
tamasaḥ ignorantSB 3.10.21
tamasaḥ in the mode of ignoranceSB 1.2.24
tamasaḥ material contaminationSB 3.9.2
tamasaḥ material darknessSB 10.28.14
tamasaḥ of darknessCC Adi 5.39
MM 31
SB 3.10.17
SB 3.30.33
tamasaḥ of ignoranceSB 10.80.31
SB 2.6.10
SB 7.1.8
tamasaḥ of the darknessSB 4.31.29
SB 4.8.33
tamasaḥ of the darkness of material existenceSB 4.21.51
tamasaḥ of the mode of ignoranceBG 14.16
SB 11.25.2-5
tamasaḥ out of ignoranceSB 11.23.59
tamasaḥ the darknessBG 13.18
tamasaḥ the world of darknessSB 8.5.24
tamasaḥ to darknessBG 8.9
tamasaḥ to the darkness of the material worldSB 8.5.29
tamasi darknessSB 6.15.16
tamasi in darknessSB 11.4.19
SB 12.8.1
SB 3.29.5
SB 6.15.18-19
SB 6.7.14
tamasi in hellish lifeSB 5.14.28
tamasi in ignoranceBG 14.15
SB 5.14.20
SB 6.2.35
tamasi in the darknessSB 10.89.48-49
SB 12.9.16
SB 5.14.33
SB 5.26.17
tamasi in the darkness of illusionSB 4.7.30
tamasi in the material existence of darknessSB 4.28.27
tamasi into darknessSB 11.30.43
tamasi into hellSB 7.1.17
tamasi into the darkness of hellSB 11.8.7
tamasi into the darkness of ignoranceSB 5.6.11
tamasi the mode of ignoranceBG 14.13
tamasi when the darknessSB 9.14.27
tamasi when the mode of ignorance increasesSB 11.25.19
tamasi within the darknessSB 11.23.49
tamasi andhe into the darkest pitSB 11.26.3
tamasi andhe into the darkest pitSB 11.26.3
tamasi apāre because of an ignorant way of searchingSB 3.8.20
tamasi apāre because of an ignorant way of searchingSB 3.8.20
tamaskam and the mode of ignoranceSB 10.27.4
tamastati the extent of the darknessCC Adi 3.59
andhena tamasā by blinding darknessSB 10.56.19
ātma-tamase the illusory energy of Your LordshipSB 8.17.9
daiva-tamasya of the most respectable demigod (Lord Śiva)SB 4.4.28
dhvasta-tamasaḥ being freed from all kinds of ignoranceSB 4.24.73
dīrghatamasaḥ from DīrghatamaSB 9.17.4
dīrghatamasaḥ by the semen of DīrghatamaSB 9.23.5
priyatamasya of the most belovedSB 1.10.17
puruṣa-uttamasya of the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 1.16.35
puruṣa-uttamasya of the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 11.6.14
puruṣa-uttamasya the Supreme LordSB 12.4.40
puruṣottamasya of Lord Śrī KṛṣṇaCC Antya 1.162
rajaḥ-tamasaḥ whose modes of passion and ignoranceSB 5.20.3-4
rajaḥ-tamasaḥ whose passion and ignoranceSB 5.20.27
rajaḥ-tamaskāḥ by the lower modes of material nature (rajo-guṇa and tamo-guṇa)SB 6.3.14-15
rajaḥ-tamaskān covered by passion and ignoranceSB 7.1.12
sat-tamasya you who are the best among human beingsSB 5.10.24
uttama-śloka-tamasya of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is praised by the nicest versesSB 4.21.49
andhena tamasā by blinding darknessSB 10.56.19
dhvasta-tamasaḥ being freed from all kinds of ignoranceSB 4.24.73
rajaḥ-tamasaḥ whose modes of passion and ignoranceSB 5.20.3-4
rajaḥ-tamasaḥ whose passion and ignoranceSB 5.20.27
ātma-tamase the illusory energy of Your LordshipSB 8.17.9
rajaḥ-tamaskāḥ by the lower modes of material nature (rajo-guṇa and tamo-guṇa)SB 6.3.14-15
rajaḥ-tamaskān covered by passion and ignoranceSB 7.1.12
daiva-tamasya of the most respectable demigod (Lord Śiva)SB 4.4.28
uttama-śloka-tamasya of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is praised by the nicest versesSB 4.21.49
sat-tamasya you who are the best among human beingsSB 5.10.24
uttama-śloka-tamasya of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is praised by the nicest versesSB 4.21.49
puruṣa-uttamasya of the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 1.16.35
yadu-uttamasya of the best of the YadusSB 10.81.33
yadu-uttamasya of the best of the YadusSB 10.90.49
puruṣa-uttamasya of the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 11.6.14
puruṣa-uttamasya the Supreme LordSB 12.4.40
yadu-uttamasya of the best of the YadusSB 10.81.33
yadu-uttamasya of the best of the YadusSB 10.90.49
     DCS with thanks   
23 results
     
tamas noun (neuter) darkness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
error (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
gloom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hell or a particular division of hell (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ignorance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
illusion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mental darkness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son (of Śravas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one of the 3 qualities or constituents of everything in creation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the darkness of hell (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the obscuration of the sun or moon in eclipses (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 496/72933
tamas noun (masculine) name of a son of Pṛthuśravas
Frequency rank 53323/72933
tamasa noun (neuter) "darkness" (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a city (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53326/72933
tamaska noun (neuter) darkness
Frequency rank 35304/72933
tamasvinī noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 28166/72933
tamasā noun (feminine) name of a river; falling into the Ganges below Pratiṣṭhāna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12963/72933
atamas adjective without darkness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31500/72933
atamaska adjective not dark
Frequency rank 31501/72933
atitamas noun (neuter) extreme darkness
Frequency rank 42053/72933
andhatamasa noun (neuter) great, thick, or intense darkness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20608/72933
apāntaratamas noun (masculine) name of an ancient sage (who is identified with Kṛṣṇa Dvaipāyana) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20642/72933
avatamasa noun (neuter) obscurity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
slight darkness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 45127/72933
uttamasāhasa noun (masculine neuter) the highest of the three fixed mulcts or fines (a fine of 1000 or of 80000 paṇas; capital punishment, branding, banishment, confiscation, mutilation, and death) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10591/72933
gautamasambhavā noun (feminine) the Gautamī river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51639/72933
dīrghatamas noun (masculine) name of a Ṛṣi with the patron. Aucathya and the metron. Māmateya; son of Mamatā; quarrels with Bṛhaspati about space in the womb (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10965/72933
bhinnatamas noun (masculine) name of a mendicant
Frequency rank 19775/72933
mahātamas noun (neuter) name of one of the 5 degrees of Avidyā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 61705/72933
vitamaska adjective light (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 39325/72933
vitamaskarman adjective dispersing the darkness
Frequency rank 65548/72933
satamaska adjective eclipsed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
obscured (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 68634/72933
saṃtamasa adjective clouded (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
darkened (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 69840/72933
saṃtamasa noun (neuter) great delusion of mind (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
great or universal darkness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40639/72933
sutamas noun (neuter) [Sāṃkhya] one of the nine tuṣṭis
Frequency rank 70809/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
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tamas

1. gloom, darkness; 2. fainting; 3. ignorance.

tamas

darkness, one of the psychic humors.

     Wordnet Search "tamas" has 24 results.
     

tamas

aṣṭamāsaka, aṣṭamāsaja   

yena aṣṭamāsaṃ yāvat garbhavāsaḥ kṛtaḥ।

adya prasūtikakṣe ekā prasūtā aṣṭamāsakaṃ putraṃ prasavati।

tamas

saptamāsaka, saptamāsaja   

yaḥ saptamāsaṃ yāvat eva garbhe sthitaḥ।

saptamāsakaḥ bālakaḥ yadā jātaḥ tadā eva mṛtaḥ।

tamas

rātriḥ, niśā, rajanī, kṣaṇadā, kṣapā, śarvarī, niś, nid, triyāmā, yāninī, yāmavatī, naktam, niśīthinī, tamasvinī, vibhāvarī, tamī, tamā, tamiḥ, jyotaṣmatī, nirātapā, niśīthyā, niśīthaḥ, śamanī, vāsurā, vāśurā, śyāmā, śatākṣī, śatvarī, śaryā, yāmiḥ, yāmī, yāmikā, yāmīrā, yāmyā, doṣā, ghorā, vāsateyī, tuṅgī, kalāpinī, vāyuroṣā, niṣadvarī, śayyā, śārvarī, cakrabhedinī, vasatiḥ, kālī, tārakiṇī, bhūṣā, tārā, niṭ   

dīpāvacchinna-sūryakiraṇānavacchinnakālaḥ।

yadā dikṣu ca aṣṭāsu meror bhūgolakodbhavā। chāyā bhavet tadā rātriḥ syācca tadvirahād dinam।

tamas

andhaḥkāraḥ, tamaḥ, timiram, timisram, tamasam, dhvāntam, nirālokatā, sāndhaḥkāratvam, niṣprabhatā, andham, śārvaram, rātrivāsaḥ, niśācaram, bhūcchāyā, khaluk   

prakāśasya abhāvaḥ।

sūryāstād anantaram andhaḥkāraḥ bhavati।

tamas

tamomaya, tāmasa, tāmasika, tamasvin, sāndhakāra, satimira, tamovṛta, tamobhūta, nirāloka, aprakāśa, hatajyotis   

andhakāreṇa yuktaḥ।

kṛṣṇasya janma bhādrapadamāsasya tamomayyāṃ rātrau abhavat।

tamas

durgā, umā, kātyāyanī, gaurī, brahmāṇī, kālī, haimavatī, īśvarā, śivā, bhavānī, rudrāṇī, sarvāṇī, sarvamaṅgalā, aparṇā, pārvatī, mṛḍānī, līlāvatī, caṇaḍikā, ambikā, śāradā, caṇḍī, caṇḍā, caṇḍanāyikā, girijā, maṅgalā, nārāyaṇī, mahāmāyā, vaiṣṇavī, maheśvarī, koṭṭavī, ṣaṣṭhī, mādhavī, naganandinī, jayantī, bhārgavī, rambhā, siṃharathā, satī, bhrāmarī, dakṣakanyā, mahiṣamardinī, herambajananī, sāvitrī, kṛṣṇapiṅgalā, vṛṣākapāyī, lambā, himaśailajā, kārttikeyaprasūḥ, ādyā, nityā, vidyā, śubhahkarī, sāttvikī, rājasī, tāmasī, bhīmā, nandanandinī, mahāmāyī, śūladharā, sunandā, śumyabhaghātinī, hrī, parvatarājatanayā, himālayasutā, maheśvaravanitā, satyā, bhagavatī, īśānā, sanātanī, mahākālī, śivānī, haravallabhā, ugracaṇḍā, cāmuṇḍā, vidhātrī, ānandā, mahāmātrā, mahāmudrā, mākarī, bhaumī, kalyāṇī, kṛṣṇā, mānadātrī, madālasā, māninī, cārvaṅgī, vāṇī, īśā, valeśī, bhramarī, bhūṣyā, phālgunī, yatī, brahmamayī, bhāvinī, devī, acintā, trinetrā, triśūlā, carcikā, tīvrā, nandinī, nandā, dharitriṇī, mātṛkā, cidānandasvarūpiṇī, manasvinī, mahādevī, nidrārūpā, bhavānikā, tārā, nīlasarasvatī, kālikā, ugratārā, kāmeśvarī, sundarī, bhairavī, rājarājeśvarī, bhuvaneśī, tvaritā, mahālakṣmī, rājīvalocanī, dhanadā, vāgīśvarī, tripurā, jvālmukhī, vagalāmukhī, siddhavidyā, annapūrṇā, viśālākṣī, subhagā, saguṇā, nirguṇā, dhavalā, gītiḥ, gītavādyapriyā, aṭṭālavāsinī, aṭṭahāsinī, ghorā, premā, vaṭeśvarī, kīrtidā, buddhidā, avīrā, paṇḍitālayavāsinī, maṇḍitā, saṃvatsarā, kṛṣṇarūpā, balipriyā, tumulā, kāminī, kāmarūpā, puṇyadā, viṣṇucakradharā, pañcamā, vṛndāvanasvarūpiṇī, ayodhyārupiṇī, māyāvatī, jīmūtavasanā, jagannāthasvarūpiṇī, kṛttivasanā, triyāmā, jamalārjunī, yāminī, yaśodā, yādavī, jagatī, kṛṣṇajāyā, satyabhāmā, subhadrikā, lakṣmaṇā, digambarī, pṛthukā, tīkṣṇā, ācārā, akrūrā, jāhnavī, gaṇḍakī, dhyeyā, jṛmbhaṇī, mohinī, vikārā, akṣaravāsinī, aṃśakā, patrikā, pavitrikā, tulasī, atulā, jānakī, vandyā, kāmanā, nārasiṃhī, girīśā, sādhvī, kalyāṇī, kamalā, kāntā, śāntā, kulā, vedamātā, karmadā, sandhyā, tripurasundarī, rāseśī, dakṣayajñavināśinī, anantā, dharmeśvarī, cakreśvarī, khañjanā, vidagdhā, kuñjikā, citrā, sulekhā, caturbhujā, rākā, prajñā, ṛdbhidā, tāpinī, tapā, sumantrā, dūtī, aśanī, karālā, kālakī, kuṣmāṇḍī, kaiṭabhā, kaiṭabhī, kṣatriyā, kṣamā, kṣemā, caṇḍālikā, jayantī, bheruṇḍā   

sā devī yayā naike daityāḥ hatāḥ tathā ca yā ādiśaktiḥ asti iti manyate।

navarātrotsave sthāne sthāne durgāyāḥ pratiṣṭhāpanā kriyate।

tamas

tāmasin, tamoguṇin   

yaḥ tamoguṇena yuktaḥ asti।

rāvaṇaḥ tāpasī puruṣaḥ asti।

tamas

nidrā, śayaḥ, śayanam, suptam, suptiḥ, suptakaḥ, svāpaḥ, prasvāpam, svapnaḥ, saṃveśaḥ, mandasānaḥ, mandasānuḥ, nandīmukhī, tāmasam, lañjā, ṣaḥ, saṃlayaḥ   

prāṇināṃ sā avasthā yasyāṃ teṣāṃ medhyāmanaḥsaṃyogaḥ bhavati tathā ca yena teṣāṃ manaḥ śarīraṃ ca viśramataḥ।

alpīyasī nidrā parikleśaṃ janayati।

tamas

niśācara, rātricara, tamaścara, yāminicara, niśāṭa   

yaḥ rātrau bhramati calati vā।

ulūkaḥ niśācaraḥ khagaḥ asti।

tamas

natamastaka, natamūrdhan   

yasya mastakaṃ natam।

saḥ śikṣakaṃ purataḥ natamastakaḥ abhavat।

tamas

agastamāsaḥ   

āṅglakālagaṇanānusāreṇa dvādaśasu māseṣu aṣṭamaḥ māsaḥ।

agastamāsasya pañcadaśadināṅke bhāratadeśaḥ svatantraḥ abhavat।

tamas

jaṭāmāṃsī, tapasvinī, jaṭā, māṃsī, jaṭilā, lomaśā, misī, naladam, vahninī, peṣī, kṛṣṇajaṭā, jaṭī, kirātinī, jaṭilā, bhṛtajaṭā, peśī, kravyādi, piśitā, piśī, peśinī, jaṭā, hiṃsā, māṃsinī, jaṭālā, naladā, meṣī, tāmasī, cakravartinī, mātā, amṛtajaṭā, jananī, jaṭāvatī, mṛgabhakṣyā, miṃsī, misiḥ, miṣikā, miṣiḥ   

auṣadhīyavanaspateḥ sugandhitaṃ mūlam।

jaṭāmāṃsyāḥ upayogaḥ vibhinneṣu auṣadheṣu bhavati।

tamas

tamasā, tamasānadī   

paurāṇikī nadī।

tamasāyāḥ varṇanaṃ rāmāyaṇe asti।

tamas

tāmasaḥ   

caturdaśasu manuṣu caturthaḥ manuḥ।

tāmasasya putrasya nāma dhanvī iti āsīt।

tamas

andhatamasam, andhatāmasam, mahāndhakāram, nibiḍāndhakāram   

nibiḍaḥ andhakāraḥ।

andhatamase vane kimapi na dṛśyate।

tamas

tāmasaḥ   

ekaḥ rākṣasaḥ ।

tāmasasya ullekhaḥ harivaṃśe vartate

tamas

tāmasī   

ekā nadī ।

tāmasyāḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate vartate

tamas

tāmasaḥ   

ekaḥ manuḥ ।

tāmasaḥ caturthaḥ manuḥ asti

tamas

tāmasaḥ   

ekaḥ anucaraḥ ।

tāmasaḥ śivasya anucaraḥ asti

tamas

tāmasaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

śivasya ullekhaḥ pravaragranthe vartate

tamas

kṛṣṇapuruṣottamasiddhāntopaniṣad   

ekā upaniṣad ।

kṛṣṇapuruṣottamasiddhāntopaniṣadaḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

tamas

kṛṣṇapuruṣottamasiddhāntopaniṣad   

ekā upaniṣad ।

kṛṣṇapuruṣottamasiddhāntopaniṣadaḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

tamas

gautamāśramaḥ   

ekaḥ āśramaḥ ।

gautamāśramasya ullekhaḥ gaṇeśa-purāṇe dṛśyate

tamas

tamasāvanam   

ekā vanikā ।

tamasāvanasya ullekhaḥ divyāvadāne asti

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