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WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
adharaḥ3.3.197MasculineSingularuttama, dūram, anātmā
andhakāraḥMasculineSingulartamisram, timiram, tama, dhvāntamperforated, or full of holes
āragvadhaḥ2.4.23MasculineSingularsaṃpākaḥ, caturaṅgulaḥ, ārevataḥ, vyādhighātaḥ, kṛtamālaḥ, rājavṛkṣaḥ, suvarṇakaḥ
auśīraḥ3.3.193MasculineSingularandhatama, ghātukaḥ
brahmā1.1.16-17MasculineSingularprajāpatiḥ, viścasṛṭ, aṇḍajaḥ, kamalodbhavaḥ, satyakaḥ, ātmabhūḥ, pitāmahaḥ, svayaṃbhūḥ, abjayoniḥ, kamalāsanaḥ, vedhāḥ, vidhiḥ, pūrvaḥ, sadānandaḥ, haṃsavāhanaḥ, surajyeṣṭhaḥ, hiraṇyagarbhaḥ, caturāsanaḥ, druhiṇaḥ, sraṣṭā, vidhātā, nābhijanmā, nidhanaḥ, rajomūrtiḥ, parameṣṭhī, lokeśaḥ, dhātā, virañciḥbramha
cirivilvaḥ2.2.47MasculineSingularnaktamālaḥ, karajaḥ, karañjakaḥ
draviṇam3.3.58NeuterSingularsādhakatamam, kṣetram, gātram, indriyam
harṣamāṇaḥ3.1.5MasculineSingularvikurvāṇaḥ, pramanāḥ, hṛṣṭamānasaḥ
indraḥ1.1.45MasculineSingularmarutvān, pākaśāsanaḥ, puruhūtaḥ, lekharṣabhaḥ, divaspatiḥ, vajrī, vṛṣā, balārātiḥ, harihayaḥ, saṅkrandanaḥ, meghavāhanaḥ, ṛbhukṣāḥ, maghavā, vṛddhaśravāḥ, purandaraḥ, śakraḥ, sutrāmā, vāsavaḥ, vāstoṣpatiḥ, śacīpatiḥ, svārāṭ, duścyavanaḥ, ākhaṇḍalaḥ, viḍaujāḥ, sunāsīraḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, śatamanyuḥ, gotrabhid, vṛtrahā, surapatiḥ, jambhabhedī, namucisūdanaḥ, turāṣāṭ, sahasrākṣaḥindra, the king of the gods
padmam1.10.39-40MasculineSingularpaṅkeruham, kamalam, aravindam, rājīvam, sārasam, kuśeśayam, sahasrapattram, nalinam, ambhoruham, bisaprasūnam, tāmarasam, śatapattram, mahotpalam, puṣkaram, sarasīruhama lotus
pradhānam3.1.58NeuterSingularagryaḥ, agraḥ, pravarhaḥ, mukhyaḥ, pravekaḥ, agriyaḥ, prāgryaḥ, parārdhyaḥ, vareṇyaḥ, uttama, pramukhaḥ, agrīyaḥ, prāgraharaḥ, anavarārdhyaḥ, varyaḥ, anuttama
saikatamNeuterSingularsikatāmayama sand bank
śākyamuniḥ1.1.14-15MasculineSingularsarvārthasiddhaḥ, śauddhodaniḥ, gautama, arkabandhuḥ, māyādevīsutaḥ, śākyasiṃhaḥbuddha
śarvarīFeminineSingularrajanī, kṣapā, rātriḥ, tamī, tamasvinī, kṣaṇadā, niśīthinī, yāminī, vibhāvarī, triyāmā, niśāthe star spangled night
śiraḥ2.6.96NeuterSingularśīrṣam, mūrdhan, mastakaḥ, uttamāṅgam
śreṣṭhaḥ3.1.58MasculineSingularpuṣkalaḥ, sattama, atiśobhanaḥ, śreyān
tama3.3.239NeuterSingularsadma, āśrayaḥ
tamālaḥ2.2.68MasculineSingulartālaskandhaḥ, tāpicchaḥ
tamālam3.5.33MasculineSingular
tamas1.3.26NeuterSingularsaiṃhikeyaḥ, vidhuntudaḥ, rāhuḥ, svarbhānuḥthe acending node
tilakam2.6.124NeuterSingularcitrakam, viśeṣakam, tamālapatram
vadhūḥ3.3.109FeminineSingulartama
vaṃśarocanā2.9.110FeminineSingularśvetamaricam
varārohā2.6.4FeminineSingularuttamā, varavarṇinī, mattakāśinī
viṣṇuḥ1.1.18-21MasculineSingularadhokṣajaḥ, vidhuḥ, yajñapuruṣaḥ, viśvarūpaḥ, vaikuṇṭhaḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, svabhūḥ, govindaḥ, acyutaḥ, janārdanaḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ, madhuripuḥ, devakīnandanaḥ, puruṣottama, kaṃsārātiḥ, kaiṭabhajit, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, jalaśāyī, muramardanaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, dāmodaraḥ, mādhavaḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, viśvaksenaḥ, indrāvarajaḥ, padmanābhaḥ, trivikramaḥ, śrīpatiḥ, balidhvaṃsī, viśvambharaḥ, śrīvatsalāñchanaḥ, narakāntakaḥ, mukundaḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, viṣṭaraśravāḥ, keśavaḥ, daityāriḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, śārṅgī, upendraḥ, caturbhujaḥ, vāsudevaḥ, śauriḥ, vanamālī(45)vishnu, the god
andhatamasamNeuterSingulardarkness
avatamasamNeuterSingularuniversal darkness
saṃtamasam1.8.3NeuterSingularimperfect darkness
pitāmahaḥ2.6.33MasculineSingularpitṛpitā
prapitāmahaḥ2.6.33MasculineSingular
mātāmahaḥ2.6.33MasculineSingular
virajastamāḥ2.7.48MasculineSingulardvayātigaḥ
uttamarṇaḥ2.9.5MasculineSingular
ghṛtamājyam2.9.53NeuterSingularājyam, haviḥ, sarpiḥ
śatamānam3.5.34MasculineSingular
     Monier-Williams
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969 results for tama
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
तमm. ( ) equals tamas- ("the ascending node" [?] ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमm. (equals māla-) Xanthochymus pictorius View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमm. equals makā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमn. (equals mas-) darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमn. the point of the foot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमn. Xanthochymus pictorius View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमan affix forming the superl. degree of adjectives and rarely of substantives (k/aṇva--,etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमmfn. most desired View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तम(ām-), added (in older language) to adverbs and (in later language) to verbs, intensifying their meaning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमind. in a high degree, much View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमःin compound for mas-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमःप्रभm. Name of a hell (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमःप्रभाf. idem or 'm. Name of a hell (varia lectio)' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमःप्रवेशm. groping in the dark View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमःप्रवेशm. mental perplexity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमःप्र्च्छादकmfn. covering with darkness (said of an evil demon), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमःसंघातm. dense darkness, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमःस्पृश्mfn. connected with darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमःस्थितn. "situated in darkness", Name of a hell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमकm. ( ) oppression (of the chest), a kind of asthma View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमकm. see pra-- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमकाf. Phyllanthus emblica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमम्ind. so as to faint away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमनn. the becoming breathless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमनn. iv View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमनn. see nāga-tamanī-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमङ्ग m. a platform View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमङ्गकm. a platform View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमप्रभm. equals maḥ-pr- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमप्रभाf. varia lectio for maḥ-pr- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमरn. tin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमराजm. equals tava-r- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्n. darkness, gloom (also plural) (maḥ-, pr/aṇīta-,"led into darkness", deprived of the eye's light or sight, ) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्n. the darkness of hell, hell or a particular division of hell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्n. the obscuration of the sun or moon in eclipses, attributed to rāhu- (also m. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्n. mental darkness, ignorance, illusion, error (in sāṃkhya- philosophy one of the 5 forms of a-vidyā- etc.;one of the 3 qualities or constituents of everything in creation [the cause of heaviness, ignorance, illusion, lust, anger, pride, sorrow, dulness, and stolidity;sin ;sorrow ;See guṇa-and see ] etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्n. Name of a son (of śravas- ;of dakṣa- ;of pṛthu-śravas- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्n. ([ confer, compare timira-; Latin temereetc.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस् s/a-, etc. See column 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमसmfn. dark-coloured View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमसm. darkness a well View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमसn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' for mas-,"darkness" See andha--, dhā--, ava--, vi--, saṃ-- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमसn. a city View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमसाf. Name of a river (falling into the Ganges below pratiṣṭhāna-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमसाकृतmfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमसावनn. Name of a grove View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्क in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' equals mas-, darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्कmental darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्कthe quality tamas- (q.v), (a--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्क see nis--, vi--, sa--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्कल्पmfn. like darkness, gloomy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्काण्डm. (gaRa kaskādi-,not in ) great or spreading darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्ततिf. idem or 'm. (gaRa kaskādi-,not in ) great or spreading darkness ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्वन्mf(arī-)n. (t/am-) equals -vat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्वन्mf(arī-)n. see /am-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्वत्mf(atī-)n. (tam-) gloomy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्वतीf. (-) night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्वतीf. turmeric View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमस्विनीf. equals -vatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तमतmfn. desirous of. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभयतम(/abhaya--) n. greatest safety View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभिप्रियतमम्ind. in the presence of a beloved person, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभीष्टतमmfn. (superl.) dearest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभीष्टतमm. a dearest lover View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्यस्तमयm. See anuddhṛtābh-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अचित्तमनस्(/acitta--) m. Name of two ṛṣi-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अच्युतमनस्(/acyuta--) m. Name of two maharṣi-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अद्भुततमn. an extraordinary wonder. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अद्धातमmfn. quite manifest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अद्वैतमकरन्दm. Name (also title or epithet) of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आगतमत्स्यmfn. ( -gata-matsyā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अहितमनस्mfn. not friendly-minded, inimical. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आक्रान्तमतिmfn. mentally overcome, having the mind engrossed or deeply impressed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अलंतम -tarām- See /alam-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अलंतमmfn. very well able to (Inf.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अल्पतमvery poor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अलुप्तमहिमन्mfn. of undiminished glory. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आमिश्लतमmfn. (superl.) readily mixing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अमितमतिmfn. of unbounded wisdom, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अमृतमन्थनn. "the churning for the amṛta-", Name of the chapters 17-19 of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अमृतमतिf. (equals -gati- q.v) Name of a metre. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अमृतमयmf(ī-)n. immortal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अमृतमयmf(ī-)n. consisting of or full of amṛta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनधिगतमनोरथmfn. one who has not obtained his wish, disappointed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनन्तमतिm. Name of a bodhisattva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्धतमसn. great, thick, or intense darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनेकचित्तमन्त्रm. one whose counsels are many-minded. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अङ्गिरस्तम(/aṅgiras--) mfn. having the luminous quality of the aṅgirasa-s in the highest degree, said of agni- and of uṣas- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनृतमयmfn. full of untruth, false. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तमmfn. ([once antam/a- ]) next, nearest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तमmfn. intimate (as a friend) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तमmfn. the last View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तमand antamā- See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order /anta-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तमस्थाf. a metre of 46 syllables, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरतमmfn. nearest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरतमmfn. immediate, intimate, internal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरतमmfn. like, analogous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरतमm. a congenial letter, one of the same class. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तर्गतमनस्mfn. whose mind is turned inwards, engaged in deep thought, sad, perplexed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तितमmfn. very near commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुद्धृताभ्यस्तमयm. sunset (abhy-astamaya-) taking place whilst the āhavanīya- fire continues unremoved from the gārhapatya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तमmf(ā-)n. unsurpassed, incomparably the best or chief, excellent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तमmf(ā-)n. excessive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तमmf(ā-)n. not the best View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तमmf(ā-)n. (in grammar) not used in the uttama-, or first person. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुत्तमन्य(/a-nutta--) m. "of invincible wrath", indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्यतमmfn. any one of many, either, any. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आपान्तमन्युmfn. giving zeal or courage when drunk (said of the soma- juice) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अपान्तरतमस्m. Name of an ancient sage (who is identified with kṛṣṇa- dvaipāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अपस्तमmfn. (ap/as--) (superl.) , most active View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अपस्तमmfn. most rapid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अपस्तमSee 2. ap/as-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अप्राप्यतम View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अर्धमासतमmfn. done or happening every half month or fortnight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अर्धसप्तमmfn. plural six and a half. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अर्धास्तमयm. half (id est partial) setting of the sun or the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अर्हत्तमmfn. (superl.) most worthy, most venerable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आसक्तमनस्mfn. having the mind deeply engaged in or fixed upon (any object), intent on, devoted to, absorbed in. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आसप्तमmfn. reaching or extending to the seventh View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अशीतमmfn. (superl.)"eating most" (vocative case) (see aśīta-tann-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अशीतितमmfn. the eightieth (in the numeration of the chapters) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अस्पृष्टरजस्तमस्कmfn. perfectly pure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अस्तमनn. (a corruption of astam-/ayana- q.v), setting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अस्तमस्तकmn. (the head id est) the top of the mountain asta-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अस्तमयm. setting (of the sun) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अस्तमयm. disappearance, vanishing, perishing (said of the senses) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अस्तमयाचलm. (= asta-- giri-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अस्तमयनn. setting of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अष्टनवतितमmfn. = View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अष्टपञ्चाशत्तमmfn. equals -pañcāśa- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अष्टसप्ततितमmfn. the seventy-eight. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अष्टषष्टितमmfn. equals -ṣaṣṭa- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अस्थिदन्तमयmfn. made of bones or ivory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
असुरतमसn. the darkness of the (world of the) demons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतमस्mfn. without darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आत्मनासप्तमmfn. being one's self the seventh View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आत्तमनस् mfn. whose mind is transported (with joy) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आत्तमनस्कmfn. whose mind is transported (with joy) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अवसितमण्डनmfn. entirely adorned or dressed, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अवतमसn. () slight darkness, obscurity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अविप्लुतमनोबुद्धिmfn. idem or 'mfn. whose mind is not deviating ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अविप्लुतमतिmfn. whose mind is not deviating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अयस्कान्तमणिm. idem or 'm. (gaRa kaskādi-),"iron-lover", the loadstone (see kāntāyasa-) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बधिरतमmfn. quite deaf View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बहुतमmfn. very many, most, most numerous etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बहुतमmfn. farthest, remotest (exempli gratia, 'for example' ā bahutamāt puruṣāt-,as far as the remotest descendant) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बलवत्तमmfn. (b/al-) most powerful, strongest, mightiest etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बलिष्ठतमmfn. most powerful, mightiest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बलोतमत्तmfn. intoxicated with power View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भगवत्तम mfn. more or most holy or adorable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भक्तमण्ड m. n. the scum of boiled rice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भक्तमण्डकm. n. the scum of boiled rice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भक्तमयस्तोत्रn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भरतमल्लm. Name of a grammarian View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भरतमल्लिक m. Name of an author (equals -sena-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भरतमल्लीकm. Name of an author (equals -sena-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भारतमञ्जरीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भरतसत्तमm. the best of the bharata-varṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भारतसत्तमm. the best of the descendants of bharata- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भावनापुरुषोत्तमनाटकn. Name of a drama. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भिषक्तमmfn. (ṣ/ak--) most healing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भिषक्तमm. dual number "the best physicians", the aśvin-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भृगुसत्तमm. "best of bhṛgu--", Name of paraśu-rāma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भूतमहेश्वरm. equals -bhartṛ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भूतमयmf(ī-)n. containing all beings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भूतमयmf(ī-)n. consisting of the five elements View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भूतमयmf(ī-)n. as anything is in reality, true, genuine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भूत्तम(bhūtt-) n. "best of minerals", gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ब्राह्मणसत्तमm. the best of brāhmaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चन्द्रकान्तमणिमयmfn. made of the gem candra-kānta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चन्द्रकान्तमयmfn. idem or 'mfn. made of the gem candra-kānta- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चरितमयmf(ī-)n. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' containing or relating deeds or adventures of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चारुतमmfn. most beloved (with dative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चारुतमmfn. most beautiful, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसप्ततितमmfn. equals ptata- (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःषष्टितमmfn. the 64th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःशततमmfn. the 104th (chapter of ). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरशीतितमmfn. the 84th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्नवतितमmfn. caturnavati
चतुर्थोदात्ततमmfn. "reciting the 4th as the highest tone (or accent)", said of a particular way of reciting the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतितमmfn. the 24th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पञ्चाशत्तमmfn. the 54th (chapter of edition Bomb.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चिरतमmfn. superl. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चित्रश्रवस्तम(tr/a--) mfn. (superl.) having most wonderful fame, .
चूतमञ्जरीf. Name of a vidyā-dharī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दैर्घतमm. equals next m. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दैर्घतमसmf(ī-)n. relating to dīrgha-tamas- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दैर्घतमसm. patronymic fr. dīrgha-tamas- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दैर्घतमसn. Name of several sāman-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दन्तमध्यn. the space between an elephant's tusks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दन्तमलn. impurity of the teeth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दन्तमयmfn. made of ivory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दन्तिदन्तमयmfn. made of ivory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दशशततमmfn. the 110th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दस्मतम(sm/a--) mfn. most wonderful, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दस्युहन्तमmfn. (superl.) most destructive to the dasyu-s, (agni-); (Light) (Buddha) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दस्युहन्तमmfn. see View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दत्तमहिमन्m. another work ascribed to him. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
देवदत्तमयmf(ī-)n. consisting of deva-datta- Va1rtt. 16 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
देवतमm. deva
देवितमSee deva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धनतमm. (with dāya-) an exceedingly rich donation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धान्योत्तमm. "the best of grain", rice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धर्मज्ञतमmfn. superl. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धर्मामृतमहोदधिm. "the ocean of law-nectar", Name of work. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धृष्टतमmfn. very bold or confident View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धृतमती wrong reading for dhṛti-m-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धूर्तमण्डलn. of a party of rogues or gamblers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ध्वान्तमणिm. a firefly, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीर्घतमmfn. longest. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीर्घतमस्m. (gh/a--) Name of a ṛṣi- with the patron. aucathya- and the metron. māmateya- (author of the hymns ;father of kakṣīvat- on ; through bṛhas-pati-'s curse born blind ; father of dhanvan-tari- ; has by su-deṣṇā-, bali-'s wife, five sons, aṅga-, bhaṅga-, kaliṅga-, puṇḍra-, and suhma- ); plural his descendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीर्घतमसोर्कm. Name of sāman- (see -tapas-and dairghatamasa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीर्घतमसोव्रतn. Name of sāman- (see -tapas-and dairghatamasa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्रुतमध्याf. "quick in the middle", a kind of metre, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्वादशशततमmf(ī-)n. the 112th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्वाषष्टितमmf(ī-)n. the 62nd View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्वाविंशतिशतमmf(ī-)n. the 122nd View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्वाविंशतितमmf(ī-)n. the 22nd View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्विजसत्तमm. equals -mukhya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्विजोत्तमm. equals ja-mukhya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्विनवतितमmfn. the 92nd View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्विपञ्चाशत्तमmf(ī-)n. the 52nd View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्विसप्ततितमmf(ī-)n. the 72nd, chapter of and View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्विषष्टितमmf(ī-)n. the 62nd, chapter of and View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्विशततमmf(ī-)n. the 200th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्व्यशीतितमmfn. the 82nd (chs. of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्यूतमण्डलn. a circle or party of gamblers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्यूतमण्डलn. a gambling. house View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्यूतमण्डलn. a circle drawn round a gambler (to make him pay) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकादशोत्तमm. "chief among (the) eleven (rudra-s)", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकनवतितमmfn. the ninety-first. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकान्तमतिmfn. having the mind fixed on one object View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकपञ्चाशत्तमmfn. the fifty-first. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकसप्ततितमmfn. the 71st. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकषष्टितमmfn. the 61st. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकशततमmf(ī-)n. the 101st View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकाशीतितमmfn. the 81st. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकतमmfn. (n. -at-) one of many, one (used sometimes as indef. article) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकविंशतितमmfn. the twenty-first View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गजदन्तमयmf(ī-)n. made of ivory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गन्धोत्तमm. Name (also title or epithet) of a tathāgata-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गतमनस्(t/a--) mfn. equals -jīva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गतमनस्कmfn. thinking of (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौरगोतमm. equals gotama-gaura- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमmf(ī-)n. relating to gotama- (with pada-stobha- m. plural Name of a sāman-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमm. patronymic fr. gotama- (Name of kuśri-, uddālaka-, aruṇa- ;of śaradvat- ;of śatānanda- ;of śākya-muni-;of nodhas- and vāma-deva- ;of a teacher of ritual ;of a grammarian [with the epithet sthavira-];of a legislator ;the father of ekata-, dvita-, and trita- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमm. (equals got-) Name of the first pupil of the last jina- (one of the three kevalin-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमm. Name of a nāga- (also maka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमm. plural gautama-'s family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमm. a kind of poison View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमn. Name of several sāman-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमn. fat (see bhāradvāja-,"bone") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमn. Name of durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमn. of a rākṣasī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमn. of a river (equals go-dāvarī-,or go-matī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमn. the bile-stone of cattle (go-rocanā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमn. equals rājanī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमकm. Name of a nāga- king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमन्यग्रोधm. " gautama-'s nyagrodha-"Name of a fig-tree near vaiśālī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमपृच्छाf. equals got-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमसmfn. with arka- Name of two sāman-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमस equals ma-sa- (q.v) or fr. go-tamas-? View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमसम्भवाf. the gautamī- river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमसरस्n. " gautama-'s pond", Name of a lake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमस्वामिन्m. equals got- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौतमवनn. " gautama-'s grove", Name of a locality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
घनोत्तमn. equals na-vara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
घृतमधुमयmfn. consisting of ghee and honey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
घृतमण्डm. the scum of melted butter, fattiest part of grease View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
घृतमण्डाf. a Mimosa (the scum of its infusion resembling ghee) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
घृतमण्डलिकाf. equals -maṇḍā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
घृतमण्डोदm. "having water resembling the scum of melted butter", Name of a lake on the mandara- mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
घृतमयmf(ī-)n. made of ghee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोदन्तमणिm. a particular precious stone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोषतमSee -ṣ/an-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोषतमmfn. (superl.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोतमm. (g/o--) (superl.) Name of a ṛṣi- belonging to the family of aṅgiras- with the patronymic rāhū-gaṇa- (author of ) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोतमm. (for gaut-) Name of the chief disciple of mahā-vīra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोतमm. of a lawyer (see gautam/a-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोतमm. of the founder of the nyāya- philosophy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोतमm. "the largest ox"and"Name of the founder of nyāya- philosophy " View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोतमm. Name of a son of karṇika- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोतमm. ? (see -dama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोतमm. plural () the descendants of the ṛṣi- gotama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोतमn. a kind of poison View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोतमetc. See g/o-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोतमगौरm. equals gaura-gotama-, the white gotama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोतमपृच्छाf. "questions of (mahā-vīra-'s pupil) gotama- (put forth in a discussion with pārśva-'s pupil keśin-)", Name of a Jain work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोतमस्तोमm. Name of an ekāha- sacrifice (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोतमस्वामिन्m. mahā-vīra-'s pupil gotama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गृहीतमौनmfn. one who has taken upon himself the vow of silence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गृहीतमौनव्रतmfn. idem or 'mfn. one who has taken upon himself the vow of silence ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गृत्सतमस् varia lectio for dīrgha-t- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गुणवत्तमmfn. (superl.) most excellent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गुप्तमणिm. a hidden place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गुप्तमतिm. "hidden-minded", Name of a merchant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गुप्ततमmfn. carefully guarded (as the senses) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गूर्तमनस्(t/a--) mfn. with grateful mind ("with prepared mind"), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गुरुतमmfn. (superl.) most important View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गुरुतमm. the best teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हस्तमणिm. a jewel worn on the wrist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हतमतिmfn. equals -citta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हायनसुनेत्तमm. or n. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हयोत्तमm. an excellent horse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हयोत्तमयुज्mfn. drawn by excellent horses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हिण्डीप्रियतमm. "beloved by durgā-", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हृद्यतमmfn. most pleasant or dear to the heart View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इन्द्रपातमmfn. most worthy to be drunk by indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इन्द्रतमmfn. most indra--like View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इन्द्रवाततमmfn. much desired by indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इङ्गितमरणn. a particular manner of dying (among Jainsas), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ईप्सिततमmfn. most desired, immediately aimed at (as the object of an action) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इष्टतमmfn. most desired, best beloved, beloved, dearest. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जन्तुजातमयmfn. equals -mat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जातमन्मथmfn. equals -kāma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जिनोत्तमm. equals neśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जितमनस्(--) mfn. one who has subdued his heart () . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जितमन्युmfn. equals -kopa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जितमन्युm. viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जितमन्युm. Name (also title or epithet) of a poet, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जित्तमmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' See svarga-- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जित्तमm. idem or 'm. (fr.) the sign Gemini ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जीवितमरणn. death, in life, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्ञानोत्तमm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जुगुप्सिततमmfn. most disgusting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जुष्टतम(j/uṣ-) mfn. (superl.) most welcome View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्येष्ठतमmfn. (jy/eṣ-) best or first of all View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्येष्ठतमmfn. oldest of all View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कलधौतमयmfn. golden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कलमोत्तमm. fragrant rice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कालतमmfn. quite black, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कालीसमस्तमन्त्रm. Name of a mantra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कण्वतमm. the very kaṇva-, a real kaṇva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कारोत्तमm. the froth of surā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कार्यतमmfn. most proper to be done View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कतमmfn(at-). (superlative of 2. ka-;declined as a pronominal,Gram. 236) , who or which of many? (exempli gratia, 'for example' katamena pathā yātās te-,by which road have they gone?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कतमmfn(at-). it is often a mere strengthened substitute for ka-, the superlative affix imparting emphasis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कतमmfn(at-). hence it may occasionally be used for"who or which of two?" (exempli gratia, 'for example' tayoḥ katamasmai-,to which of these two?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कतमmfn(at-). it may optionally be compounded with the word to which it refers (exempli gratia, 'for example' katamaḥ kaṭhaḥ-,or katama-kaṭhaḥ-,which kaṭha- out of many?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कतमmfn(at-). when followed by ca- and preceded yatama- an indefinite expression is formed equivalent to"any whosoever","any whatsoever", etc. (exempli gratia, 'for example' yatamad eva katamac ca vidyāt-he may know anything whatsoever) . In negative sentences katama- with cana- or katama- with api- = not even one, none at all (exempli gratia, 'for example' na katamaccanāhaḥ-,not even on a single day, on no day at all)
कतमmfn(at-). in addition to the above uses katama- is said to mean"best","excessively good-looking" (see 3. ka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कविरत्नपुरुषोत्तममिश्रm. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कवितम(kav/i--) mfn. wisest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्लान्तमनस्mfn. languid, low-spirited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्रतूत्तमm. equals kratu-rāja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कृष्णामृततमहार्णवm. Name of two works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कृष्णपुरुषोत्तमसिद्धान्तोपनिषद्f. Name of an View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कृतभूतमैत्रmfn. friendly to all. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कृतमैत्रmfn. one who performs friendly acts, friendly. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कृतमन्दारm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कृतमङ्गलmf(ā-)n. blessed, consecrated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कृतमनोरथmfn. one whose wishes are fulfilled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कृतमन्युmfn. indignant. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कृतमतिmfn. one who has taken a resolution, who has resolved upon anything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कृत्यतमn. anything most proper or fit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षीणतमस्m. Name of a vihāra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कुरुसत्तमm. idem or 'm. Name of arjuna- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कुतस्तमmfn. coming from whence, id est not possible, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लडितमहेश्वरm. Name of a temple of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लघुवैयाकरणभूषणसिद्धान्तमञ्जूषाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लवपोत्तमn. "best salt", river or rock salt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लवपोत्तमn. nitre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लोभनीयतमmfn. most attractive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लोहितमयmf(ī-)n. blood-red View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लोहोत्तमm. "best metal", gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लुलितमकरन्दmfn. (flowers) whose sap is disturbed (by bees) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लुलितमण्डनmfn. having ornaments tossed about in confusion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मधुमत्तमmfn. madhumat
मधुन्तमmf(ā-)n. (a superl. of madhu-formed analogously to madin-tama-) very sweet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मधुपातमmfn. drinking sweetness excessively View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मधुषुत्तमmfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मध्यतमस्n. circular or annular darkness, central darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महाभारतमञ्जरीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महाभिस्यन्दितमत्वn. state of hypertrophy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महादैर्घतमसn. Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महातमःप्रभाf. "having thick darkness for light", Name of the lowermost of the 21 hells View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महातमस्n. "gross (spiritual) darkness", Name of one of the 5 degrees of a-vidyā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महत्तमmfn. greatest or very great View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महत्तमपदmfn. holding a great or high position (said of a saint) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महिन्तमmfn. mahin
महोत्तमm. or n. (?) Name of a particular fragrant perfume View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मक्षूतम(kṣ/ū-) mfn. idem or '(kṣ/ū--) mfn. most rapid or prompt ' (mebhir ahabhiḥ-,"in the next days", ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मण्डलोत्तमn. the best or principal kingdom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मन्द्रतम (mandr/a--) mfn. most or more pleasant or charming View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मरकतमणिm. the emerald gem View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मरकतमयmf(ī-)n. made of emerald View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मरणान्धतमसn. the gloom or shadow of death View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मारुतमण्डनn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मारुतमयmf(ī-)n. consisting or having the essence of wind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मरुत्तमmfn. (mar/ut--) very or altogether equal to the marut-s, as swift as the marut-s (said of the aśvin-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मरुत्तमm. wrong reading for marutta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मासतमmf(ī-)n. forming or completing a month View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मातृतम(māt/ṛ--) mfn. very motherly or maternal (said of the waters) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मत्तमयूरm. a peacock intoxicated with joy or passion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मत्तमयूरm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मत्तमयूरm. plural equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मत्तमयूरn. a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मत्तमयूरकm. plural Name of a warrior-tribe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मेध्यतमmfn. most pure, purest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मीढुष्तमmfn. (ḍh/uṣ--). most bountiful or liberal (applied to various gods) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मीढुष्तमm. the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मीढुष्तमm. a thief View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मितमतिmfn. narrow-minded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मृगसत्तमm. the best of antelopes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मृगोत्तमm. best of antelopes, a very beautiful deer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मृगोत्तमn. the nakṣatra- mṛga-śiras- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मृष्टतमmfn. exceedingly delicate or savoury View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मृतमनस्(mṛt/a--) mfn. unconscious, insensible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मृतमत्त m. a jackal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मृतमत्तकm. a jackal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मूढतमmfn. very foolish or simple View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मुदितमदालसm. or n. (?) Name of a drams. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मुहूर्तमणिm. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मुहूर्तमञ्जरीf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मुहूर्तमञ्जूषाf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मुक्तमण्डूककण्ठmf(ā-)n. having loudly croaking frogs View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मुनिमतमणिमालाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नागदन्तमयmf(ī-)n. made of ivory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नागतमनीf. equals -yaṣṭi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलोत्तमm. Arundo Bengalensis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नानावृत्तमयmf(ī-)n. composed in different metres View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नरवाहनदत्तचरितमयmf(ī-)n. containing the adventures of prince naravāhana-datta-
नरवरोत्तमm. the best of excellent men idem or 'm. an excellent hero (like a bull)' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नरोत्तमm. best of men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नरोत्तमm. Name of viṣṇu- or buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नरोत्तमm. of Scholiast or Commentator on the adhyātma-rāmāyaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नरोत्तमदासm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नरोत्तमकीर्तिलेशमात्रदर्शकm. or n. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नर्तितमयूरmfn. possessing dancing peacocks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नतमंहस्the beginning of (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नवनवतितमmf(ī-)n. the 99th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नवनीतमयmf(ī-)n. consisting of fresh butter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नवसप्ततितमmf(ī-)n. the 79th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नवषष्टितमmf(ī-)n. the 69th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नवशततमmf(ī-)n. the 109th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नवाशीतितमmf(ī-)n. the 89th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नवतितमmf(ī-)n. the 90th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नेदिष्ठतमmfn. (n/ed-) the nearest of all View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नेषतमैस्ind. neṣa
निधनोत्तमm. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निकृतमतिmfn. () depraved in mind. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निमिश्लतमmfn. most attached to (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नीरजस्तमmfn. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नीरजस्तमसाf. absence of passion and darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नीरजस्तमस्कmfn. () free from passion and darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निरास्वाद्यतमmfn. most unsavoury View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निर्णततमmfn. bending or bowing very low, being far below another person View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निर्णिक्तमनस्mfn. pure-hearted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निस्तमस्कmfn. free from darkness, not gloomy, light View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नियतमैथुनmfn. abstaining from cohabitation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नृतम(n/ṛ--) mf(ā-)n. most manly or strong View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नृत्तमयmf(ī-)n. consisting in dance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
न्यायसिद्धान्तमञ्जरीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
न्यायसिद्धान्तमञ्जरीभूषाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
न्यायसिद्धान्तमञ्जरीदिपिकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
न्यायसिद्धान्तमञ्जरीप्रकाशm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
न्यायसिद्धान्तमञ्जरीसारm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ओजोदातमmfn. granting great power, very strengthening ([ confer, compare Zend aogazdactema.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पद्मोत्तमm. Name of a samādhi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पद्मोत्तमm. of a particular world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पद्मोत्तमm. of a buddha- living in padmottama- and of a future Buddha View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चमहाभूतमयmf(ī-)n. consisting of 5 elements
पञ्चनवतितमmf(ī-)n. 95th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चनवतितमmf(ī-)n. the 95th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चसप्ततितमmf(ī-)n. the 75th (chapter of and ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चषष्टितमmf(ī-)n. the 65th (chapter of and ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चशततमmf(ī-)n. the 105th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चाशत्तमmf(ī-)n. the 50th (chapter of and ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चाशत्तमवार्षmfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चाशीतितमmf(ī-)n. the 85th (chapter of and ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चविंशतितमmf(ī-)n. the 25th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पापिष्ठतम() ( ) mfn. idem or 'mfn. worst, lowest, most wicked or bad ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परभृतमयmf(ī-)n. consisting entirely of cuckoos View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पराक्षिप्तमनस्mfn. having the mind carried away or enraptured View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परतम mfn. superl. and Comparative degree of para-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पारयिष्णुतमmfn. pārayiṣṇu
पारिजातमयmf(ī-)n. made of flowers of the celestial View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परिवृढतमor mfn. superl. (with brahma- n.the supreme spirit) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पर्वतमस्तकm. n. mountains-top View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पर्यस्तमयम्ind. about sunset View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पर्यवसितमतिmfn. thoroughly acquainted or familiar with (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पशव्यातम(vy/a--) mfn. most fit or suitable for cattle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पतमm. a bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पतमm. a grasshopper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पतमm. the moon (see patasa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पीतमद्यmfn. one who has drunk wine or any other intoxicating liquor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पीतमण्डूकm. a kind of yellow frog View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पीतमणिm. "yellow gem", a topaz View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पीतमस्तकm. "yellow-head", Loxia Philippensis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पितृतम(t/ṛ-tama-) m. (with pitṝṇām-) the most fatherly of fathers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रधानतमmfn. most excellent or distinguished, most important, chiefest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रधनोत्तमn. "best of battles", a great battle or contest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रधानोत्तमmfn. best of the eminent, illustrious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रधानोत्तमmfn. warlike, brave View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रकटितहताशेषतमस्mfn. having openly destroyed utter darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रकृष्टतमmfn. prakṛṣṭa
प्राकृतमणीदीपिकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्राकृतमञ्जरीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्राकृतमनोरमाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्राप्तमनोरथmfn. one who has obtained his wish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतमकm. a particular form of asthma View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रथमोत्तमmfn. (dual number) the first and last, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिहतमतिmfn. idem or 'mfn. hostile-minded, having hostile intentions ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिवीततमmfn. totally covered, muffled, suppressed, low (as a voice) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्यस्तमयm. the setting (of the sun) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्यस्तमयm. cessation, disappearance, end, destruction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रायश्चित्तमञ्जरीf. Name of work
प्रायश्चित्तमनोहरm. Name of work
प्रायश्चित्तमयूखm. Name of work
प्रयुक्ततमmfn. most used View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रेक्षणीयतमmost sightly or beautiful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रेष्ठतमmfn. dearest, most beloved View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रेतमञ्जरीf. Name of chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रीतमनस्() mfn. pleased or gratified in mind. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रियकृत्तमmfn. doing that which pleases most View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रियतमmfn. (priy/a--) most beloved, dearest (once equals -tara- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रियतमm. a lover, husband View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रियतमm. Celosia Cristata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रोषितमरणn. dying abroad or in a foreign country. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पृथुसत्तमm. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पृथुतमmfn. broadest, widest, largest, greatest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरस्कृतमध्यमक्रमmfn. taking or adopting a middle course View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमSee below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमm. the best of men, an excellent or superior man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमm. the best of servants, a good attendant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमm. the highest being, Supreme Spirit, Name of viṣṇu- or kṛṣṇa- etc. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमm. equals -kṣetra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमm. (with jaina-s) an arhat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमm. Name of the fourth black vāsudeva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमm. a jina- (one of the generic terms for a deified teacher of the jaina- sect) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमm. Name of several authors and various men (also -dāsa-, -dīkṣita-, -deva-, -deva-śarman-, -paṇḍita-, -prasāda-, -bhaṭṭa-, -bhaṭṭātmaja-, -bhāraty-ācārya-, -miśra-, -manu-sudhīndra-, -sarasvatī- cāya-, nanda-tīrtha-, nanda-yati-, śrama-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमचरित्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमखण्डmn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमक्षेत्रn. "district of the Supreme Being", Name of a district in Orissa sacred to viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमक्षेत्रमाहात्म्यn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमक्षेत्रतत्त्वn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तममाहात्म्यn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तममन्त्रm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमपत्त्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमप्रकाशक्षेत्रविधिm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमपुराणn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमपुरीमाहात्म्यn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमसहस्रनामन्n. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमशास्त्रीयn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमतीर्थn. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमतीर्थप्रयोगतत्त्वn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुषोत्तमवादm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरुतम(purū--) mfn. very much or many, abundant, frequent, ever-recurring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरूतमmfn. See under puru-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुस्तमयmf(ī-)n. formed of metal or wood, wrought in clay, modelled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पूतमतिm. "pure-minded", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रचितमङ्गलmfn. one who has performed an auspicious ceremony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रघूत्तमm. "best of the raghu-s", Name of rāma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रघूत्तमm. (with yati-and ma-tīrtha-) Name of two authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रैवतमदनिकाf. Name of a drama. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रजस्तमस्कmfn. (any one or any thing) under the influence of the two qualities rajas- and tamas- (See above) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रजतमयmf(ī-)n. made of silver, silver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रजोविरिक्तमनस्mfn. one whose mind is free from passion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रक्ष्यतमmfn. to be most carefully guarded, most worthy of protection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रक्तमण्डलmfn. having a red disk (said of the moon) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रक्तमण्डलmfn. having devoted subjects View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रक्तमण्डलm. a species of red-spotted or red-ringed snake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रक्तमण्डलाf. a particular venomous animal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रक्तमण्डलn. a red lotus-flower View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रक्तमण्डलताf. the appearance of red spots on the body caused by a bad state of the blood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रक्तमञ्जरm. Barringtonia Acutangula View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रक्तमस्तकm. "red-headed", Ardea Sibirica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रक्तमत्स्यm. a species of red fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रक्तमत्तmfn. drunk or satiated with blood (said of a leech) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रक्तमयmf(ī-)n. consisting of blood, full of blood, bloody View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रमणीयतमmfn. most charming View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रसन्तमm. equals r/asa-tama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रसतम(r/asa--) m. the juice of all juices, essence of essences View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रसोत्तमm. quicksilver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रसोत्तमm. Phaseolus Mungo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रसोत्तमm. milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रातमनस्(rāt/a--) mfn. ready-minded, willing to (dative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रथसत्तमm. a most excellent chariots View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रथसत्तमm. the best of warriors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रथीतम(rath/ī--) mfn. driving or fighting best in a chariot, chief of charioteers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रथोत्तमm. an excellent chariot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रत्नधातमmfn. ratnadhā
रत्नसंघातमयmf(ī-)n. made or consisting of a number of jewels View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रत्नोत्तमm. Name of a buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रविकान्तमयmf(ī-)n. consisting of sun-stones View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रयिन्तमmfn. (superl. of an unused form rayin-; see ) possessing much property, very wealthy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रेवन्तमनुसूf. "mother of manu- revanta-", Name of saṃjñā- (wife of sūrya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ऋगुत्तमmfn. ending in a ṛc- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रिक्तमतिmfn. empty-minded, thinking of nothing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रोहितमत्स्यm. Cyprinus Rohitaka View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ऋषिसत्तमm. the best or most excellent of the sages. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रूपतम(rūp/a--) n. the best form or colour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शब्दसिद्धान्तमञ्जरीf. Name of a gram. work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सभ्यतमmfn. very worthy of good society, very courteous or polite or refined View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सभ्यतमm. a very polite or refined person, an ornament of society View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सचनस्तमmfn. (superl.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
षडशीतितमmfn. 86th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
साधकतमmfn. most effective ( sādhakatamatva -tva- n.), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
साधकतमत्वn. sādhakatama
साधुतमmfn. best, most excellent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सदृशतमmfn. most like or similar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
षड्विंशतितमmfn. the 26th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सहन्तमmfn. (superl. of sahat-) strongest, most powerful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सहस्रदातमmfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सहस्रसातमmfn. giving thousand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सहस्रतमmf(-)n. the thousandth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सहोदैर्घतमसn. dual number Name of two sāman-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शैववैष्णवमतमण्डनn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
साक्षात्पुरुषोत्तमवाक्यn. Name of work by vallabhācārya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शाक्तमतरत्नसूत्रदीपिकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शक्यतमmfn. most possible, very practicable (with infinitive mood in a pass. sense) (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समाहितमनस्mfn. having the mind absorbed in (anything) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समाहितमनोबुद्धिmfn. having the mind or thoughts collected or composed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समाहितमतिmfn. one who has an attentive mind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समानोत्तममध्यमाधमmfn. one to whom the best and the middle and worst are all the same View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सामान्यतमmfn. most like or similar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समस्तमन्त्रदेवताप्रकाशिकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सम्भाविततमmfn. most honoured or respected View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सम्भ्रान्तमनस्mfn. bewildered in mind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सम्भृततमmfn. fully concentrated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संगीतमकरन्दm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संकेतमञ्जरीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संनिपातमञ्जरीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सम्पन्नतमmfn. most complete or perfect, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संसक्तमनस्mfn. having the mind attached or fixed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संस्कृतमञ्जरीf. Name of work
संस्कृतमयmf(ī-)n. consisting of Sanskrit,
शंतम(śā--) mfn. most beneficent or wholesome or salutary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संतमकm. oppression or distress (in breathing;a form of asthma) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संतमस्n. great or universal darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संतमसn. idem or 'n. great or universal darkness ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संतमसn. great delusion of mind etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संतमसmfn. darkened, clouded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संवर्तमरुत्तीयmfn. relating to the muni-s saṃvarta- and marutta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संवत्सरतमmf(ī-)n. completing a full year, happening after a year (-tam/īṃ r/ātrim-,"this day year") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संवृतमन्त्रmfn. one who keeps his counsels or plans secret ( saṃvṛtamantratā --, f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संवृतमन्त्रताf. saṃvṛtamantra
संयतमैथुनmfn. one who abstains from sexual intercourse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सनातनतमm. "most eternal or ancient", Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सान्द्रतमmfn. most compact or dense View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शङ्कितमनस्mfn. fainthearted, timid, apprehensive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शान्तमलmfn. having all defilement removed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शान्तमनस्mfn. composed in mind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शान्तमतिm. "composed in mind", Name of a deva-putra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्रथस्तमmfn. (superl.) very extensive or large View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तमmf(-)n. the 7th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तमहाभागm. Name of viṣṇu- (according to to saptabhir gāyatry-ādibhir arpaṇīyāḥ saptaiva mahāntoyajña-bhāgāyasya-; see saptan-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तमकmfn. the 7th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तमकलाf. the 7th digit of the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तमङ्गलमाहात्म्यn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तमन्त्रm. fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तमरीचिmfn. 7-rayed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तमरीचिm. fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तमठाम्नायदशनामाभिधानn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तमठाम्नायिकm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तनवतितमmfn. the 97th, chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तसप्ततितमmfn. the 77th, chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तषष्टितमmfn. the 67th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तशतमन्त्रहोमविधानn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तशतमन्त्रविभागm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्ताशीतितमmfn. the 87th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्ततितमmfn. the 70th, chapter of and View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तविंशतितमmfn. the 27th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सारस्वतमण्डनn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सारतमmfn. the very best ( sāratamatva -tva- n.) on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सारतमत्वn. sāratama
शरोत्तमn. best of arrows, a very good arrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सर्वभूतमयmf(ī-)n. containing or representing all beings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सर्वभूतमयm. the supreme pervading Spirit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सर्वज्ञानोत्तम n. Name of work
सर्वज्ञानोत्तमतन्त्रn. Name of work
सर्वरसोत्तमm. "best of all flavours", the saline flavour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सर्वोत्तमmfn. best of all View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सर्वोत्तमस्तोत्रn. Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सस्नितमmfn. most bountiful (fr.1. san-), or cleanest, purest (fr. snā-), or most firmly joined (fr. snai-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
षष्टितमmfn. (according to to the only form when used alone;of ṣaṣṭa-above) the 60th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शाश्वतमन्दिरmfn. having a fixed dwelling or abode View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शश्वत्तमmfn. most constant or frequent or numerous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शश्वत्तमम्ind. once more, again View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शतमखm. "having a hundred sacrifices", Name of indrā- etc. (see -kratu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शतमखm. an owl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शातमन्यवmf(ī-)n. (fr. śata-manyu-) relating or belonging to indra- (with āśā- f.the eastern quarter ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शतमन्युmfn. (śat/a--) having hundred-fold wrath View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शतमन्युmfn. receiving a hundred sacrifices View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शतमन्युmfn. very spirited, very zealous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शतमन्युm. Name of indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शतमन्युm. an owl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शतमन्युचापm. or n. (?) a rainbow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शतमन्युकण्ठिm. a kind of plant
शतमन्युकण्ठिन्m. a kind of plant
सतमसाf. Name of a river (or"together with the river tamasā-") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सतमस्कmfn. obscured, eclipsed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शतमयin kapaṭa-śata-maya- mfn. consisting of hundred-fold fraud View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शतमयूखm. "hundred-rayed", the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शततमmf(-or ī-)n. the hundredth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
षट्पञ्चाशत्तमmfn. the 56th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
षट्सप्ततितमmfn. 76th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
षट्षष्टितमmfn. the 66th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सत्तमmfn. (s/at--) very good or right, the best, first, chief of (genitive case or compound) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सत्तमmfn. most virtuous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सत्तमmfn. very venerable or respectable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सत्तमताf. the first rank of all View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सत्यतमmfn. most or quite true View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शवशतमयmf(ī-)n. covered with a hundred corpses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सेवकोत्तमm. (andf(ā-).) best of servants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सेवितमन्मथmfn. addicted to love or amorous enjoyments View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सिद्धान्तमकरन्दm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सिद्धान्तमणिमञ्जरीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सिद्धान्तमञ्जरीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सिद्धान्तमञ्जूषाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सिद्धान्तमञ्जूषाखण्डनn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सिद्धान्तमनोरमाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सिद्धान्तसूक्तमञ्जरीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शिखितमm. a particular gaṇa- of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सीमन्तमणिm. equals cūḍā-maṇi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सिन्धूत्तमn. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सितमनस्mfn. pure-hearted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सितमणिm. a crystal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सितमणिमयmf(ī-)n. made of crystal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शीतमञ्जरीf. Nyctanthes Arbor Tristis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सितमरिचn. white pepper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शीतमरीचिm. equals -kiraṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शीतमरीचिm. camphor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शीतमयmf(ī-)n. having a cold nature, cool View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शीतमयूखm. equals -kiraṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शीतमयूखm. camphor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शीतमयूखमालिन्m. the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शीतोत्तमn. "best of cold things", water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शिवतम(śiv/a--) mfn. most prosperous or auspicious, very fortunate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्लाघ्यतम() mfn. most praiseworthy or laudable etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्लोकगौतमm. gautama- (when speaking) in śloka-s or in metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्निग्धतमmfn. very oily or unctuous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्निग्धतमmfn. very affectionate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सोमपातमmfn. drinking much soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रैष्ठ्यतम(?) mfn. equals śreṣṭha-tama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रान्तमनस्() mfn. wearied or distressed in mind. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रेष्ठतमmfn. (śr/eṣṭha--) the very best, most excellent etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रीमत्तमmfn. (superl.) most prosperous or eminent or illustrious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रीपुरुषोत्तमतत्त्वn. Name of a chapter of the smṛti-tattva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतमहत्See śruti-m-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रुतमयmf(ī-)n. consisting of knowledge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितमतिm. "firm-minded", Name of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्तोकतमस्mfn. a little dark, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितमञ्जरीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितमयmf(ī-)n. consisting of good sayings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शुभ्रशस्तम(śubhr/a--;prob. for -śasta-tama-,superl. of śast/a-,pp. of śaṃs-), mfn. highly celebrated for shining id est shining very much () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शुद्धितमmfn. (equals śuddha-tama-) purest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुधामृतमयmf(ī-)n. consisting of nectar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुगौतमm. "the good gautama-", Name of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुहृत्तमmfn. (superl.) very friendly or cordial, kind, affectionate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुखतमSee above under sukha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सूक्ष्मतमmfn. very feeble, scarcely audible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सूक्ष्मतमmfn. very subtle or minute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुरसत्तमm. the best of the gods View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शूरतमmfn. most heroic or valiant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुरतमञ्जरीf. Name of a daughter of the vidyā-dhara- mataṃga-deva- and of the 16th lambaka- of the kathā-sarit-sāgara- (called after her) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुरोत्तमm. (for 2. surot-See) chief of the gods View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुरोत्तमm. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुरोत्तमm. of the Sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुरोत्तम(prob.) n. (for 1. surott-See) the scum of surā- (Scholiast or Commentator"excellent water") . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सूर्यसिद्धान्तमञ्जरीf. Name of Comm. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सूर्यास्तमयm. idem or 'n. idem or 'm. sunset ' ' ( sūryāstamayavat -vat-mfn.,with kāla- m."the time of sunset") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सूर्यास्तमयवत्mfn. sūryāstamaya
सूर्यव्रतमहिमन्m. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शुष्मिन्तम(śuṣm/in--.) mfn. most strong or mighty or fiery or bold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुस्थितमनस्mfn. being in a happy frame of mind, contented View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुसुतम(s/u--) mfn. (used in explaining su-ṣ/ūtama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सूतमहोदधिm. Name of work on medicine (see sūtārṇava-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्वधामृतमय(dhāmṛ-) mfn. consisting of sva-dhā- and nectar (said of a śrāddha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्वादुतमmfn. very sweet or pleasant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्वरसिद्धान्तमञ्जरीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्वेतमध्यm. Cyperus Rotundus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्वेतमहोटिकाf. a kind of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्वेतमण्डलm. a kind of snake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्वेतमन्दार() () m. a kind of tree., View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्वेतमन्दारक() m. a kind of tree., View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्वेतमरिचm. a kind of Moringa Pterygosperma View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्वेतमरिचn. the seed of it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्वेतमरिचn. the seed of the Hyperanthera Moringa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्वेतमरिचn. white pepper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्वेतमयूखm. "white-rayed", the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तारतमmfn. very loud View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरतमतस्ind. more or less, 87, 19 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तरतमतस्ind. see tāratamya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ततमmfn. (superl.) that one (of many) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ततमmfn. such a one View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ततमmfn. just that (equals vyāpta-t- Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ततम -tara- See 2. t/a-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तेजोमृतमयmfn. consisting of splendour or nectar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तिक्तमरिचm. Strychnos potatorum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तीर्थतमn. Superl. a tīrtha- more sacred than (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तीर्थतमn. an object of the highest sanctity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्रयोविंशतितमmfn. the 23rd (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्रिःप्रस्रुतमदmfn. equals tri-prasruta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्रिंशत्तमmf(-)n. the 30th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्रिंशत्तमmf(-)n. (chs. of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्रिनवतितमmfn. equals vata- (chs. of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्रिपञ्चाशत्तमmfn. the 53rd (chapter of ). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्रिसप्ततितमmfn. equals ptata- (chs. of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्रिषष्टितमmfn. equals ṣṭa- (chs. of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्रिशततमmfn. the 300th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तृणबीजोत्तमm. Panicum frumentaceum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तृणोत्तमm. "best of grasses", a kind of Crocus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्र्यशीतितमmfn. the 83rd (chs. of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उदात्तमयmfn. similar to the high tone or accent, udātta--like View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उदयास्तमयm. rising and setting, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उद्धतमनस्mfn. high minded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उद्धतमनस्mfn. haughty, proud View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उद्धतमनस्कmfn. idem or 'mfn. haughty, proud ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उद्धतमनस्कत्वn. pride, arrogance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उद्द्योतमयूखm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उज्जीवितमदालस Name (also title or epithet) of a drama. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपमश्रवस्तमmfn. highly renowned, illustrious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपास्तमनवेलाf. the time about sunset View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपास्तमयम्ind. about the time of sunset
उपोत्तमmfn. last but one etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपोत्तमn. (with or without akṣara-) the last vowel but one etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्सिक्तमनस्mfn. of disordered mind, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमmfn. (superlative fr. 1. ud-;opposed to avama-, adhama-,etc.; see an-uttama-), uppermost, highest, chief View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमmfn. most elevated, principal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमmfn. best, excellent etc. (often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound', exempli gratia, 'for example' dvijottama-,best of the twice-born id est a Brahman ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमmfn. first, greatest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमmfn. the highest (tone) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमmfn. the most removed or last in place or order or time etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमmfn. at last, lastly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमm. the last person (= in European grammars the first person) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमm. Name of a brother of dhruva- (son of uttāna-pāda- and nephew of priya-vrata-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमm. of a son of priya-vrata- and third manu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमm. of the twenty-first vyāsa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमm. plural Name of people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमm. the plant Oxystelma Esculentum (Asclepias Rosea Roxb.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमm. an excellent woman (one who is handsome, healthy, and affectionate) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमबलmfn. of excellent strength, very strong View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमचरित्रm. Name (also title or epithet) of a prince, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमदर्शनmfn. of excellent appearance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमगन्धाढ्यmfn. possessing abundantly the most delicate scent or delicious fragrance. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमगायmfn. (either from 2. gāya-) highly celebrated (or from 1. gāya-) wide-striding (said of viṣṇu-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमजनm. plural excellent men ( etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमलाभm. great profit, a double return. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमम्ind. most, in the highest degree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तममणिm. a kind of gem View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमपदn. a high office. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमफलिनीf. the plant Oxystelma Esculentum (Asclepias Rosea Roxb.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमपुरुषm. the last person in verbal conjugation id est "I, we two, we"(= in European grammars the first person, our third person being regarded in Hindu grammars as the prathama-puruṣa- q.v; see also madhyama-puruṣa-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमपुरुषm. the Supreme Spirit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमपूरुषm. equals -puruṣa- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमपूरुषm. the Supreme Spirit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमपूरुषm. an excellent man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमर्णm. (uttama-ṛṇa-) a creditor etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमर्णm. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमर्णetc. See under uttama-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमर्णिकm. a creditor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमर्णिन्m. a creditor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमसाहसn. the highest of the three fixed mulcts or fines (a fine of 1000 or of 80,000 paṇa-s;capital punishment, branding, banishment, confiscation, mutilation, and death). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमशाखm. Name of a region, (gaRa gahādi- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमशाखीयmfn. belonging to that region. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमसंग्रहm. intriguing with another man's wife, addressing her privately, casting amorous looks etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमश्लोकm. (uttam/a-) the most excellent renown View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमश्लोकmfn. possessing the most excellent fame, highly renowned, illustrious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमश्लोकतीर्थm. Name of a teacher. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमश्रुतmfn. possessing the utmost learning
उत्तमस्त्रीसंग्रहण equals -saṃgraha- above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमसुखm. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमताf. excellence, superiority View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमताf. goodness, good quality. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमतेजस्mfn. having extraordinary splendour, very glorious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमत्वn. excellence, superiority View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमत्वn. goodness, good quality. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमौदार्यmfn. very noble-hearted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमौजस्m. "of excellent valour", Name of one of the warriors of the mahā-bhārata-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमवर्णmfn. having an excellent colour (also being of the best caste) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमवयसn. the last period of life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमवेषm. "having the most excellent dress"Name of śiva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमविद्mfn. having supreme knowledge, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमोत्तमmfn. the best among the best, the very best. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्तमोत्तमकn. a kind of song or conversation in a play, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वह्नितमmfn. (v/ahni--) carrying or leading best View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वह्नितमmfn. bearing an oblation (to the gods) in the best manner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वह्नितमmfn. most luminous, brightest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वैवस्वतमन्वन्तरn. Name of the 7th or present manvantara- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तमञ्जूषाf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तमञ्जूषासारm. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वल्लभतमmfn. most beloved, dearest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वरतमmfn. most preferable or excellent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वर्गोत्तमm. equals vargāntya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वर्गोत्तमm. (in astrology)"chief of a class", Name of the Ram and the Bull and the Twins (being the first in a particular grouping of the zodiacal signs) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वरुणपरियतमmfn. enclosed by varuṇa-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वसन्तमदनn. a plant resembling the Premna Spinosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वसन्तमहोत्सवm. the great spring-festival (in honour of the love-god) (see vasantotsava-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वसन्तमन्दनीf. equals -madanā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वसितृतमmfn. vasitṛ
वसुधातमmfn. vasudhā
वसूत्तमm. "best of the vasu-s", Name of bhīṣma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वसुवित्तमmfn. one who bestows great wealth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वातमजmfn. wind-driving, swift as wind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वातमजm. an antelope View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वातमण्डलीf. "wind-circle", a whirlwind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वातमयmf(ī-)n. consisting of wind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वायुदत्तमयmf(ī-)n. Va1rtt. 23 Sch. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वेदान्तमननn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वेदान्तमङ्गलदीपिकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वेदान्तमन्त्रविश्रामm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वेधस्तम(vedh/as--). mfn. most pious or religious, best, wisest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वेगवत्तमmfn. speediest, quickest, very quick or swift View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विभ्रान्तमनस्mfn. bewildered or confused in mind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विभूतमनस्mfn. (used to explain vi-manas-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विद्वत्तमm. "wisest, very wise", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विगतमन्युmfn. free from resentment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विंशतितमmf(ī-)n. twentieth (with bhāga- m.1/20 ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विमुक्तमौनम्ind. breaking silence
विनिहितमनस्mfn. one who has the mind fixed upon, intent upon, devoted to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विनीतमतिm. Name of two men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विपरीतमल्लतैलn. a kind of preparation made of oil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विपरीतमतिmfn. () equals -citta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विपर्यस्तमनश्चेष्टmfn. having mind and actions perverted or inverted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विप्रतम(v/ipra--) mfn. most wise, wisest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विरजस्तमस्mfn. free from (the qualities of) passion and ignorance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विरक्षस्तमmfn. virakṣas
वीरतम(vīr/a--) m.(in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) a very strong or powerful man, an eminent hero View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वीर्यतमmfn. most potent or powerful or effective View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वीर्यवत्तमmfn. most powerful or efficacious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विषामृतमयmf(ī-)n. consisting of poison and nectar, having the nature of both View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विषयासक्तमनस्mfn. one whose mind is devoted to the world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विशिष्टतमmfn. distinguished, chief. best, better than (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विश्वरूपतमmfn. having the greatest variety of forms or colours View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विश्वसत्तमmfn. the best of all (said of kṛṣṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वीतमलmfn. free from obscurity or darkness, clear, pure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वीतमन्युmfn. free from resentment or anger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वीतमन्युmfn. exempt or free from sorrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वितमस्mfn. free from darkness, light View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वितमस्See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वितमस्कmfn. idem or 'mfn. free from darkness, light ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वितमस्कताf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वितमस्कताf. exempt from the quality of ignorance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वीतमत्सरmfn. free from envy or passion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वीततम(vīt/a--) mfn. most acceptable or pleasant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वित्तमयmf(ī-)n. consisting in wealth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विवादचिन्तमणिm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्रातमयmf(ī-)n. consisting of a multitude of (compound)
व्रतमयूखm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वृद्धगौतमm. the older gautama- or an older recension of gautama-'s law-book View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वृद्धगौतमसंहिताf. vṛddha-- gautama-'s law-book. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वृद्धतमmfn. oldest, most venerable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वृत्रहन्तमmfn. most victorious, bestowing abundant victory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वृत्तमल्लिकाf. Jasminum Sambac View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वृत्तमल्लिकाf. Calotropis Gigantea Alba View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वृत्तमणिकोशm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वृत्तमौक्तिकn. Name of work on metre. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्याक्षिप्तमनस्mfn. having the mind or heart carried away or captivated or distracted. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यक्तमयmf(ī-)n. relating to what is perceptible by the senses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्याकुलितमनस्mfn. agitated or perplexed in mind, alarmed, bewildered, frightened. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यालतमmf(ā-)n. very fierce or cruel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यपेतमदमत्सरmfn. free from infatuation and selfishness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्याप्ततमmfn. most diffused View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यवहारचिन्तमणिm. () Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यज्ञोपवीतमन्त्रm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यजुरुत्तम(y/ajur--) mfn. ending with verses of the yajur-veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यामिनीप्रियतम m. "lover of night", the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यशस्तम (yaś/as--) mfn. most (more) renowned or resplendent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यतमmfn. (superl.; n(mat-)., m. plural me-; see ) who or which (of many) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यतम ya-tara- See under 3. ya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यतमैथुनmfn. abstaining from sexual intercourse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यतमन्युmfn. restraining or controlling anger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यतमथाind. in which of many ways (yatamathā kathamathā-,in the same way as always ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यावदुत्तमम्ind. up to the furthest limit or boundary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
युग्मफलोत्तमm. Asclepias Rosea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
युक्तमदmfn. intoxicated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
युक्तमनस्(yukt/a--) mfn. fixing the mind, ready-minded, attentive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
युक्ततमmfn. most fit or intent upon, devoted to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
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tama तम A Taddhita affix of the superlative degree applied to nouns, adjectives and also to verbs and indeclinables in which latter case it is changed to तमाम्; अश्व˚ Pt.5. 'the best horse'; सुहृत्तम Mu.I; so पचतितमाम्. It is also added to pronouns in the sense of 'one of many' e. g. कतम, यतम, ततम &c.
tamakaḥ तमकः A kind of asthma. -का The plant Phyllanthus Emblica (Mar. भुईआंवळी).
tamam तमम् Darkness. -2 The tip of the foot. -मः 1 An epithet of Rāhu. -2 The Tamāla tree. -3 Darkness.
tamanam तमनम् Becoming suffocated or breathless.
tamaṅgaḥ तमङ्गः A platform, a stage.
tamaṅgakaḥ तमङ्गकः The projecting roof of a house. तमरम्, 1 Tin. -2 Lead. तम्पा tampā तम्बा tambā तम्बिका tambikā तम्पा तम्बा तम्बिका A cow.
tamas तमस् n. [तम्-असुन्] 1 Darkness; किं वा$भविष्यदरुण- स्तमसां विभेत्ता तं चेत्सहस्रकिरणो धुरि नाकरिष्यत् Ś.7.4.; V.1.7; Me.39. -2 The gloom or darkness of hell; धर्मेण हि सहायेन तमस्तरति दुस्तरम् Ms.4.242. -3 Mental darkness, ignorance, illusion, error, मुनिसुताप्रणयस्मृतिरोधिना मम च मुक्त- मिदं तमसा मनः Ś.6.8. -4 (In Sāṅ. phil.) Darkness or ignorance, as one of the three qualities or constitutents of every thing in nature (the other two being सत्त्व and रजस्); अन्तर्गतमपास्तं मे रजसो$पि परं तमः Ku.6.6; Ms. 12.24. -5 Grief, sorrow; Bhāg.5.14.33. -6 Sin; Bhāg.1.15.5. -7 Stupefaction, swoon; तथा भिन्नतनु- त्राणः प्राविशद्विपुलं तमः Rām.7.8.14. -8 Anger; Bhāg. 1.59.42. -m., -n. An epithet of Rāhu; तमश्चन्द्रमसीवेद- मुपरज्यावभासते Bhāg.4.29.7. -Comp. -अपह a. removing darkness or ignorance, illumining, enlightening; आगमादिव तमोपहादितः संभवन्ति मतयो भवच्छिदः Ki.5.22. (-हः) 1 the sun. -2 the moon. -3 fire. -4 a Buddha. -अरिः 1 the sun. -2 the moon. -3 fire. -काण्डः, -ण्डम् great or spreading darkness. -गुः an epithet of Rāhu. -गुणः see तमस् above (4). -घ्नः 1 the sun. -2 the moon -3 fire. -4 Viṣṇu. -5 Śiva. -6 Knowledge. -7 a Buddha. -ज्योतिस् m. a fire-fly. -ततिः spreading darkness. -निष्ठ a. taking to hell (नरकप्रद); Ms.12. 95. -नुद् m. 'तमोनुदो$ग्निचन्द्रार्का' इति विश्वः; 1 a shining body. -2 the sun. -3 the moon; नरेन्द्रकन्यास्तमवाप्य सत्पतिं तमोनुदं दक्षसुता इवाबभुः R.3.33. -4 fire. -5 a lamp, light. -नुदः 1 the sun. -2 the moon. -3 the Supreme Being. -प्रभा a sort of hell. -प्रवेशः 1 groping in the dark. -2 mental gloom. -भिद्, -मणिः 1 a fire-fly. -2 a sapphire. -3 a star. -4 the moon; तमोमणिस्तु खद्योते नीलमण्यामुडौ शशौ Nm. -राजः a kind of sugar; L. D. B. -विकारः sickness, disease. -विशाल a. abounding in gloom; तमोविशालश्च मूलतः सर्गः Sāṅ. K.54. -वृत a. 1 obscured, clouded. -2 affected with anger, fear &c. -हन्, -हर a. dispersing darkness. (-m.) 1 the sun. -2 the moon.
tamasa तमस a. Dark-coloured. -सः 1 Darkness. -2 A well. -सा N. of a river. -सम् 1 Darkness. -2 A city.
tamaska तमस्क (At the end of a compound) 1 Darkness; स तेजस्वतो लोकान् भास्वतो$पहततमस्कानभिसिध्यति Ch. Up.7. 11.2. -2 Mental darkness; तत्प्रत्यनीकानसुरान्सुरप्रियो रजस्त- मस्कान्प्रमिणोत्युरुश्रवाः ॥ Bhāg.7.1.11.
tamasvat तमस्वत् a. Dark, gloomy. -ती 1 Night. -2 Turmeric.
tamasvinī तमस्विनी तमा A night.
tamata तमत a. [तम्-अतच् Uṇ3.11] 1 Desirous, longing for. -2 Wished, desired.
aṅgirastama अङ्गिरस्तम a. [तमप्] Ved. Very rapid, especially like Agni in devouring food (?).
anuttama अनुत्तम a. [न उत्तमो यस्मात्] 1 Than which there is nothing better, having no superior or better, unsurpassed, the very best or highest, incomparably or preeminently the best, सर्वद्रव्येषु विद्यैव द्रव्यमाहुरनुत्तमम् H. Pr.4; कान् गतिमनुत्तमाम् Ms.2.242; Y.1.87; अद्रस्त्वया नुन्नमनुत्तमं तमः Śi.1.27 all-pervading; Bg.7.18; Ms.2.9;5.158; 8.81. -2 Not the best. -3 (in gram.) Not used in the उत्तम or first person. -मः N. of Śiva or Viṣṇu. -Comp. -अम्भस्, -अम्भसिकम् a term in Sāṅkhya Philosophy, said to mean 'indifference to and abstinence from sensual enjoyment, as fatiguing or involving injury to external objects.'
antama अन्तम a. Ved. Nearest, next; शिक्षा अन्तमस्य Rv.1. 27.5; तनूपा अन्तमो भव 6.46.1; intimate, very close or familiar.
antaratama अन्तरतम a Nearest, internal, most immediate, most intimate or related; like, analogous. -मः A letter of the same class; for ex. See under अन्तर a.
anyatama अन्यतम a. [अन्य-डतम] (declined like a noun and not a pronoun) One of many, any one out of a large number (with gen. or in comp.); जपन्वान्यतमं वेदम् Ms. 11.75;6.32,4.13; Y.2.22,3.253; अन्यतरान्यतमशब्दौ अव्युत्पन्ने प्रातिपदिके इति कैयटः).
apastama अपस्तम a. Most active or rapid.
abhyastamayaḥ अभ्यस्तमयः Setting of the sun during or with reference to some act.
amṛtamaya अमृतमय a. (-यी f.) 1 Consisting of nectar, ambro- sial, full of nectar. तेजोमयो$मृतमयः पुरुषः Bṛi. Up.2.5.1. -2 Immortal.
ārutama आरुतम Cry, Crying; निषेदुःशतशस्तत्र दारुणा दारुणारुताः Rām.6.16.31.
indratama इन्द्रतम a. Ved. Most Indra-like, mighty, strong.
uccaistama उच्चैस्तम a. Highest, tallest, loudest.
uttamanam उत्तमनम् Losing heart, impatience.
uttama उत्तम a. [उद्-तमप्] 1 Best, excellent (oft. in comp.); उत्तमे शिखरे देवी Mahānār. Up.15.5. स उत्तमः पुरुषः Ch. Up.8.12.3. उत्तमः पुरुषस्त्वन्यः Bg.15.17. द्विजोत्तमः the best of Brāhmaṇas; so सुर˚, नर˚ &c.; प्रायेणाधममध्यमोत्तमगुणः संसर्गतो जायते Bh.2.67. -2 Foremost, uppermost, highest (opp. हीन, जघन्य). -3 Most elevated, chief, principal. -4 Greatest, first; स गच्छत्युत्तमस्थानम् Ms.2.249. -मः 1 N. of Viṣṇu. -2 The third person (= first person according to English phraseology). (pl.) N. of a people; Mb. -मा 1 An excellent woman. -2 A kind of pustule or pimple. -3 The plant Asclepias Rosea Roxb. (दुग्धिका; Mar. भुई- आंवळी, अळिता). -Comp. -उङ्गम् 'the best limb of the body', the head; कश्चिद् द्विषत्खङ्गहृतोत्तमाङ्गः R.7.51; Ms.1.93,8.3; Ku.7.41; Bg.11.27. the back; तान् क्षिप्रं व्रज सतताग्निहोत्रयाजिन् । मत्तुल्यो भव गरुडोत्तमाङ्गयानः ॥ Mb.7.143.48. -अधम a. high and low; ˚मध्यम good, middling, and bad; high, low, and middling; (the order is often reversed); cf. भक्षयित्वा बहून्मत्स्यानुत्तमाधम- मध्यमान् Pt.1.21. -अम्भस् n. a sort of satisfaction (acquiescence) one of the nine kinds of तुष्टि in Sāṅ. Phil. -अरणी the plant Asparagus Racemosus (इन्दीवरी शतावरी). -अर्धः 1 the best half. -2 the last half or part. -अर्ध्य a. pertaining to the best half. -अहः the last or latest day; a fine or lucky day. -उपपद a. one to whom the best term is applicable, best, excellent. ऋणः, ऋणिकः (उत्तमर्णः) a creditor (opp. अधमर्णः) धारेरुत्तमर्णः P.I.4.35; अधमर्णार्थसिद्धयर्थमुत्तमर्णेन चोदितः Ms.8.47,5; Y.2.42. Śukra.4.831. (pl.) N. of a people; V. P., Mārk. P. -ओजस् a. of excellent valour, N. of one of the warriors of the Mahābhārata; उत्तमौजाश्च वीर्यवान् Bg.1.6. -गन्धाढ्य a. possessing copiously the most delicious fragrance. -गुण a. of the best qualities, best, highest; विघ्नैः पुनः पुनरपि प्रतिहन्यमानाः प्रारब्धमुत्तमगुणा न परित्यजन्ति Mu.2.17. (v. l.) -दशतालम् A sculptural measurement in which the whole height of an image is generally divided into 12 equal parts. The same measurement in 112 equal parts is called उत्तमनवताल. -पदम् a high office. -पु (पू)- रुषः 1 the third person in verbal conjugation; (= first person according to English phraseology; in Sanskrit, verbs are conjugated by putting the English I st person last and 3 rd person first). -2 the Supreme Spirit. -3 an excellent man. -फलिनी f. The plant Oxystelma Esculentum (Mar. दुधी, दुधाणी). -लाभः an excellent profit. -वयसम् The last period of life; Śat. Br.12.9.1.8. -व्रता A wife devoted to the husband; हृदयस्येव शोकाग्निसंतप्तस्योत्तमव्रताम् Bk.9.87. -वेशः N. of Śiva. -शाखः 1 a tree having excellent branches. -2 N. of a region. -श्रुत a. Possessing the utmost learning. Rām. -श्लोक a. of excellent fame, illustrious, glorious, well-known, famous. -कः N. of Vi&stoa;ṇu, क उत्तमश्लोक- गुणानुवादात् पुमान् विरज्येत विना पशुघ्नात् Bhāg.1.1.4. -संग्रहः (˚स्त्री˚) intriguing with another man's wife, i. e. speaking with her privately, looking amorously at her &c. -साहसः, -सम् 1 the highest (of the fixed) pecuniary punishments; a fine of 1 (or according to some 8,) paṇas; Ms.9.24; Y.1.366; पणानां द्वे शते सार्धे प्रथमः साहसः स्मृतः । मध्यमः पञ्च विज्ञेयः सहस्रं त्वेष चोत्तमः ॥ Capital punishment, banishment, confiscation, and mutilation are also regarded as forms of this punishment.
uttama उत्तमता त्वम् 1 Excellence. -2 Goodness, good quality.
uttamara उत्तमर a. Excellent.
upāstamanam उपास्तमनम् Sunset; Mb.1.1.
upāstamayam उपास्तमयम् ind. About sunset.
upottama उपोत्तम a. Last but one. -मम् (अक्षरम्) The last letter but one; cf. उपोत्तमं रिति P.IV.1.217.
ekatama एकतम a. (n. ˚मत् f.. ˚मा) 1 One of many. -2 One (used as an indefinite article).
auttamarṇikam औत्तमर्णिकम् Debt; सवृद्धिकं गृहीतं यदृणं तच्चौत्तमर्णिकम् Śukra.2.317.
kaṇvatama कण्वतम a. Ved. 1 Very wise; -2 A real कण्व; स इदग्निः कण्वतमः कण्वसखाः Rv.1.115.5.
katama कतम pron. a. [किम्-डतम्] (˚मत् n.) P.II.1.63. Who or which of many; अपि ज्ञायते कतमेन दिग्भागेन गतः स जाल्म इति V.1; अथ कतमं पुनर्ऋतुमधिकृत्य गास्यामि Ś.1; कतमे ते गुणास्तत्र यानुदाहरन्त्यार्यमिश्राः Māl.1; G. L.22; Ki.6.4. (sometimes it is used merely as a strengthened substitute for किम्). When followed by च and preceded by यतम it means 'any whosoever', 'whatsoever'. In negative sentences कतम with चन or अपि means 'not even one', 'none at all'. It also means 'best or excessively goodlooking.'
gurutama गुरुतम a. Most important. -मः 1 A best teacher. -2 N. of Viṣṇu.
gotama गोतमः 1 N. of a sage belonging to the family of Aṅgiras, father of Śatānanda and husband of Ahalyā. -2 N. of a sage, the founder of Nyāya philosophy; मुक्तये यः शिलात्वाय शास्त्रमूचे सचेतसाम् । गोतमं तमवेक्ष्यैव N. 17.75.
gautama गौतमः N. of (1) the sage Bhāradvāja; (2) of Śatānanda, Gotama's son; (3) of Kṛipa, Droṇa's brother-in-law; (4) of Buddha; (5) of the propounder of the Nyāya system of philosophy. -Comp. -सम्भवा the river Godāvarī.
tatama ततम a. That one (of many).
patama पतमः पतसः 1 The moon. -2 A bird. -3 A grasshopper.
pratamakaḥ प्रतमकः A kind of asthma.
pratyastamayaḥ प्रत्यस्तमयः Setting (of the sun.). -2 End, cessation.
priyatama प्रियतम a. Most beloved, dearest. -मः A lover, husband; शिप्रावातः प्रियतम इव प्रार्थनाचाटुकारः Me.31,72. -मा A wife, mistress, beloved.
bahutama बहुतम a. Most abundant, greatest.
bhūtamaya भूतमय a. 1 Including all beings. -2 Formed out of the elements or created beings.
madhutama मधुतम a. Very intoxicating, sweetest.
yatama यतम a. (-मत् n.) [यद्-डतमच्] Who or which of many.
tamajaḥ वातमजः A swift antelope.
viṃśatitama विंशतितम a. (-मी f.) Twentieth.
vitamas वितमस् वितमस्क a. 1 Light. -2 Free from darkness or the quality of ignorance (तमस्). -3 Pure, blemishless; ख्याते तस्मिन् वितमसि कुले जन्म कौलीनमेतत् Ve.2.11.
śatatama शततम a. (-मी f.) One-hundredth.
śātamanyava शातमन्यव a. Belonging or relating to Indra; राजसे मुनिरपीह कारयन्नाधिपत्यमिव शातमन्यवम् Ki.13.38.
sattama सत्तम a. Most beautiful, the best, excellent, the most respectable; L. D. B.
saṃtamakaḥ संतमकः Oppression or distress (in breathing &c.).
saṃtamas संतमस् n., संतमसम् 1 All-pervading or universal darkness, great darkness; निमज्जयन् संतमसे पराशयम् N.9. 98; Śi.9.22; अकार्ष्टामायुधच्छायं रजःसंतमसे रणे Bk.5.2; प्रशान्ते च संतमसे Cholachampū p.25. -2 Great darkness or delusion of the mind (महामोह).
saptama सप्तम a. (-मी f.) The seventh. -मी f. 1 The seventh or locative case (in gram.). -2 The seventh day of a lunar fortnight. ˚समासः a तत्पुरुष compound of which the first member is supposed to be in the locative case.
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tamas tám-as, n. darkness, iv. 50, 4; 51, 1. 2. 3; vii. 63, 1; 71, 5; 127, 2. 3. 7; 129, 32 [tam faint].
apastama apás-tama, spv. a. most active, i. 160, 4.
katama ka-tamá, inter. prn. which (of many)? i. 35, 7; iv. 51, 6; with caná any, x. 168, 3 [Lat. quo-tumu-s].
gotama Gó-tama, m. name of a seer, i. 85, 11 [spv. of go cow].
tavastama tavás-tama, spv. mightiest, ii. 33, 3.
panyatama pánya-tama, spv. gdv. most highly to be praised, iii. 59, 5 [pánya, gdv. praiseworthy: panadmire].
purutama puru-táma, a. spv. most frequent, iv. 51, 1 [purú, Gk. πολύ-ς].
bhiṣaktama bhiṣák-tama, m. spv. best healer, ii. 33, 4 [bhiṣáj healing].
madhumattama mádhu-mat-tama, spv. a. most honied, v. 11, 5; x. 14, 15.
vīravattama vīrá-vat-tama, spv. a. most abounding in heroes, i. 1, 3.
śaṃtama śáṃ-tama, spv. a. most beneficent, ii. 33, 2. 13; x. 15, 4 [śám, n. healing].
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tama a. (spv. suffix) most wished for.
tamaka m. kind of asthma.
tamap suffix of the spv. -tama (gr.).
tamas n. (sg. & pl.) darkness; gloom of hell; N. of a hell; eclipse=Râhu; error, ignorance; delusion; Darkness (one of the three fundamental qualities (gunas) incident to creation; in the Sâ&ndot;khya philosophy one of the five forms of Avidyâ).
tamasa a. dark-coloured; n. darkness (--°ree;); -ka, --°ree; a.=tamas; -vin-î, f. night.
anuttama a. (without a highest), highest, most excellent; mightiest; -uttara, a. not answering; unanswerable; n. unsatis factory answer in court: -tva, n. abst. n.; -uttara&ndot;ga, a. not billowy; -utthâna, n. lack of energy; -utpatti, f. non-production; -utpâda, m. id.; non-appearance; -utsâha, m. absence of energy; -utsâhin, a. weak willed; -utsuka-tâ, f. unassumingness, mo desty; -utsûtra-pada-nyâsa, a.without a step against the rules of policy; without a word against grammatical rules; -utseka, m. lack of presumption, modesty; -utsekin, a. unassuming, modest, humble.
antama spv. next; intimate, very dear; last; m. neighbour.
amarottama a. chief of gods; -½upama, a. godlike.
avatamasa n. decreasing darkness.
astamaya m. sunset; disappear ance; -ita, pp. having set, gone to rest, died: lc. (sc. sûrye) after sunset.
asthidantamaya a. made of bone and ivory; -mat, a. furnished with bones; -maya, a. (î) consisting of or full of bones.
āsaptama a. up to the seventh.
uttama spv. highest, supreme; most excellent, best, chief (among, --°ree;); superior to, higher or better than (ab.); last: -m, °ree;--, ad.; m. (last=our) first person (gr.).
uttamavarṇa a. most beautifully coloured; -sâhasa, n. highest fine.
uttamarṇa m. creditor; i-ka, m. id.
uttamagandhāḍhya a. rich in delicious fragrance; -gana, m. pl. superior people; -tegas, a. supremely brilliant or mighty; -purusha, m. supreme spirit; (last =our) first person (gr.).
katama inter. prn. who? what? which? (of many); -tará, inter. prn. who? which? (of two).
gotama m. N. of a Rishi (pl. his descendants); the biggest ox; N. of the founder of the Nyâya system of philosophy.
gautama a. (î) relating to Gotama; m. pat. from Gotama: N. of various men: -½aranya, n. N. of a forest.
taratamatas ad. more or less.
narottama spv. best of men.
nistamaska a. free from darkness, light; -tamisra, a. id.; -tara&ndot;ga, a. waveless, calm; -tarana, n. getting out of danger, escape; -taranîya, fp. to be got over; -tartavya, fp. to be crossed; to be over come; -tala, a. not flat, round, spherical; -târa, m. crossing, passing over the sea (also fig.); liquidation, payment.
purottama n. best of cities; -½utsava, m. festival celebrated in the city; -½udyâna, n. city pleasure-grounds or park, public garden.
puruṣottama m. best of men; excellent servant; highest person, supreme soul, ep. of Vishnu or Krishna; N.; -½upa-hâra, m. human sacrifice.
pustamaya a. wrought in clay, modelled.
bahutama spv. remotest: â bahutamât purushât, down to the remotest descendant; -tara, cpv. more numerous, more, than (ab.); more extensive, greater (fire); too or very much; several: etad eva½asmâkam bahutaram -yad, it is already a great thing for us that --; -m, ad. more; repeatedly; -tara-ka, a. very much or numerous; -tarâm, (ac. f.) ad. highly, greatly, very; -tâ, f. abundance, multitude; -titha, a.(having many tithis or lunar days), long (time); much, manifold: -m, ad. greatly; e&zip;hani, on many a day=for many days; -trina, n. almost grass, a mere straw; -trish- na, a. suffering from great thirst; -trivarsha, a.almost three years old; -tva, n. multiplicity, multitude; majority, opinion of the majority; plural; -dakshiná, a. accompanied by many gifts (sacrifice); -dâna, n. bounteous gift; 2. a. (á) munificent; -dâyin, a. id.; -drisvan,m. great observer, very learned man; -devata, a. addressed to many deities (verse); -devatyã, a. belonging to many gods; -daivata, a. relating to many gods; -dosha, 1. m. great harm or disadvantage; 2. a. having many drawbacks (forest); -dhana, a. possessing much wealth, very rich: -½îsvara, m. very wealthy man; -dh&asharp;, ad. in many ways, parts, or places; variously; many times, repeatedly; very: -kri, multiply; spread abroad;-nâman, a. having many names; -patnîka, a. having many wives: -tâ, f. polygamy; -pada, a. many footed; -parná, a. many-leaved; -pasu, a. rich in cattle; -pâda, a. many-footed; hav ing several pâdas (verse); -putra, a.having many sons or children; -pushpa-phala½upe ta, pp. having many flowers and fruits; -pra kâra, a. manifold: -m, ad. variously; repeatedly; -prakriti, a. consisting of several nominal bases (compound); -praga, a.rich in children; -pragña, a. very wise; -pra- gñâna-sâlin, a. possessed of much knowledge; -pratigña, a. involving several charges or counts (leg.); -prapañka, a. of great diffuseness, prolix; -pralâpin, a. garrulous; -bhâshin, a. id.; -bhâshya, n. loquacity; -bhug, a. eating much; -bhûmika, a. consisting of many stories (building); -bhoktri, m. great eater; -bhogyâ, f. harlot; -bhog aka, a. eating much; -bhog-in, a. id.: (-i) tâ, f.voracity; -bhauma, a. many-storied (building); -mati, f. high opinion, esteem, respect; -matsya, n. place abounding in fish; -madhya-ga, a. belonging to many; -mantavya, fp. to be highly thought of, prized or esteemed; -mâna, m. high opinion or regard, esteem, respect, for (lc. of prs. or thing, rarely g. of prs.); attaching great im portance to (lc.): -purah-saram, ad. with respect; -mânin, a. held in esteem, respected; -mânya, fp. to be highly thought of, estimable; -mâya, a. having many wiles, artful, treacherous; -mitra, a. having many friends; -mukha, a. many-mouthed, talking of many things; -mûla-phala½anvita, pp. furnished with many roots and fruits; -mûlya, 1. n. large sum of money; 2. a. of great price, costly; -yâgín, a. having offered many sacrifices; -ragas, a. very dusty and having much pollen; -ratna, a. abounding in jewels.
mārutamaya a. consisting or having the nature of wind; -sûnu, m. pat. son of wind, Hanumat; -½âtma-ga, m. son of wind, fire; -½ayana, n. (wind-passage), round window; -½asana, a. subsisting on air only.
yatama a. (n. -d) who or which of many (V.); -tará, a. (n. -d) which of two (V.).
rayintama spv. extremely wealthy (RV.1).
vṛṣantama spv. most manly or mighty (Indra; RV.).
śaṃtama spv. most beneficent, boun teous, or gladdening (V., P.).
śātamanyava a. (î) relating or belonging to Indra (Satamanyu): w. âsâ, f. east.
sattama spv. best, first, chief of (g., --°ree;).
saptama a. (&isharp;) seventh: î, f. seventh day of a fortnight; (terminations of the) seventh or locative case: -samâsa, m. com pound in which the first member has a loca tive sense.
hayottama spv. excellent or no ble steed.
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atri Neither Atri himself nor the Atris can claim any historical reality, beyond the fact that Mandala V. of the Rigveda is attributed, no doubt correctly, to the family of the Atris. The Atris as a family probably stood in close relations with the Priyamedhas and Kanvas, perhaps also with the Gotamas and Kāksīvatas. The mention of both the Parusnī and the Yamunā in one hymn of the fifth Mandala seems to justify the presumption that the family was spread over a wide extent of territory.
uddālaka aruṇi Uddālaka, son of Aruna, is one of the most prominent teachers of the Vedic period. He was a Brāh­mana of the Kurupañcālas, according to the śatapatha Brāh­mana. This statement is confirmed by the fact that he was teacher of Proti Kausurubindi of Kauśāmbī, and that his son Svetaketu is found disputing among the Pañcālas. He was a pupil of Aruna, his father, as well as of Patañcala Kāpya, of Madra, while he was the teacher of the famous Yājñavalkya Vājasaneya and of Kausītaki, although the former is represented elsewhere as having silenced him. He overcame in argument Prācīnayogya śauceya, and apparently also Bhadrasena Ajāta- śatrava, though the text here seems to read the name as Arani. He was a Gautama, and is often alluded to as such. As an authority on questions of ritual and philosophy, he is repeatedly referred to by his patronymic name Aruni in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, the Chāndogya Upanisad, and occasionally in the Aitareya, the Kausītaki, and the Sadvimśa Brāhmanas, as well as the Kausītaki Upanisad. In the Maitrāyanī Samhitā he is not mentioned, according to Geldner, but only his father Aruna; his name does not occur, according to Weber, in the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, but in the Kāthaka Samhitā he is, as Aruni, known as a contemporary of Divodāsa Bhaimaseni, and in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana he is mentioned as serving Vāsistha Caikitāneya. In the Taittirīya tradition he seldom appears. There is an allusion in the Taittirīya Samhitā to Kusurubinda Auddālaki, and according to the Taittirīya Brāhmana, Naciketas was a son of Vājaśravasa Gautama, who is made out to be Uddālaka by Sāyana. But the episode of Naciketas, being somewhat unreal, cannot be regarded as of historical value in proving relationship. Aruna is known to the Taittirīya Samhitā. A real son of Uddālaka was the famous śvetaketu, who is expressly reported by Apastamba to have been in his time an Avara or later authority, a statement of importance for the date of Aruni.
ṛṣi ‘Seer,’ is primarily a composer of hymns to the gods. In the Rigveda reference is often made to previous singers and to contemporary poets. Old poems were inherited and refurbished by members of the composer’s family, but the great aim of the singers was to produce new and approved hymns. It is not till the time of the Brāhmanas that the composition of hymns appears to have fallen into disuse, though poetry was still produced, for example, in the form of Gāthās, which the priests were required to compose them¬selves and sing to the accompaniment of the lute at the sacrifice. The Rsi was the most exalted of Brāhmanas, and his skill, which is often compared with that of a carpenter, was regarded as heaven-sent. The Purohita, whether as Hotr or as Brahman (see Rtvij), was a singer. No doubt the Rsis were normally attached to the houses of the great, the petty kings of Vedic times, or the nobles of the royal household. Nor need it be doubted that occasionally the princes them¬selves essayed poetry: a Rājanyarsi, the prototype of the later Rājarsi or * royal seer,’ who appears in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, though he must be mythical as Oldenberg points out, indicates that kings cultivated poetry just as later they engaged in philosophic disputations. Normally, how¬ever, the poetical function is Brahminical, Viśāmitra and others not being kings, but merely Brāhmanas, in the Rigveda. In the later literature the Rsis are the poets of the hymns preserved in the Samhitās, a Rsi being regularly16 cited when a Vedic Samhitā is quoted. Moreover, the Rsis become the representatives of a sacred past, and are regarded as holy sages, whose deeds are narrated as if they were the deeds of gods or Asuras. They are typified by a particular group of seven, mentioned four times in the Rigveda, several times in the later Samhitās, and enumerated in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as Gotama, Bharadvāja, Viśvāmitra, Jamadagni, Vasistha, Kaśyapa, and Atri. In the Rigveda itself Kutsa, Atri, Rebha, Agastya, the Kuśikas, Vasistha, Vyaśva, and others appear as Rsis; and the Atharvaveda contains a long list, including Añgiras, Agasti, Jamadagni, Atri, Kaśyapa, Vasistha, Bharadvāja, Gavisthira, Viśvāmitra, Kutsa, Kaksīvant, Kanva, Medhātithi, Triśoka, Uśanā Kāvya, Gotama, and Mudgala. Competition among the bards appears to have been known. This is one of the sides of the riddle poetry (Brahmodya) that forms a distinctive feature of the Vedic ritual of the Aśva¬medha, or horse sacrifice. In the Upanisad period such competitions were quite frequent. The most famous was that of Yājñavalkya, which was held at the court of Janaka of Videha, as detailed in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, and which was a source of annoyance to Ajātaśatru of Kāśī. According to an analogous practice, a Brāhmana, like Uddālaka Aruni, would go about disputing with all he came across, and compete with them for a prize of money.
kakṣīvant Is the name of a Rsi mentioned frequently in the Rigveda, and occasionally elsewhere. He appears to have been a descendant of a female slave named Uśij. He must have been a Pajra by family, as he bears the epithet Pajriya, and his descendants are called Pajras. In a hymn of the Rigveda he celebrates the prince Svanaya Bhāvya, who dwelt on the Sindhu (Indus), as having bestowed magnificent gifts on him ; and the list of Nārāśamsas (‘ Praises of Heroes ’) in the Sāñkhāyana Srauta Sūtra mentions one by Kaksīvant Auśija in honour of Svanaya Bhāvayavya. In his old age he obtained as a wife the maiden Vrcayā. He appears to have lived to be a hundred, the typical length of life in the Vedas. He seems always to be thought of as belonging to the past, and in a hymn of the fourth book of the Rigveda he is mentioned with the semi-mythical Kutsa and Kavi Uśanas. Later, also, he is a teacher of bygone days. In Vedic literature he is not connected with Dīrghatamas beyond being once mentioned along with him in a hymn of the Rigveda. But in the Brhaddevatā he appears as a son of Dīrghatamas by a slave woman, Uśij. Weber14 considers that Kaksīvant was originally a Ksatriya, not a Brāhmana, quoting in favour of this view the fact that he is mentioned beside kings like Para Atnāra, Vītahavya Srāyasa, and Trasadasyu Paurukutsya. But that these are all kings is an unnecessary assumption : these persons are mentioned in the passages in question undoubtedly only as famous men of old, to whom are ascribed mythical sacrificial performances, and who thus gained numerous sons.
gardabha The ass,’ is mentioned in the Rigveda as inferior to the horse. In the Taittirīya Samhitā he again appears as inferior to the horse, but at the same time as the best bearer of burdens (bhāra-bhāritama) among animals. The same authority styles the ass dvi-retas, ‘having double seed,’ in allusion to his breeding with the mare as well as the she-ass. The smallness of the young of the ass, and his capacity for eating, are both referred to. The disagreeable cry of the animal is mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and in allusion to this the term ‘ ass ’ is applied opprobriously to a singer in the Rigveda. A hundred asses are spoken of as a gift to a singer in a Vālakhilya hymn. The mule (aśvatara) is the offspring of an ass and a mare, the latter, like the ass, being called dvi- retas, ‘ receiving double seed,’ for similar reasons. The male ass is often also termed Rāsabha. The female ass, Gardabhī, is mentioned in the Atharvaveda and the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
gārgya ‘Descendant of Garga,’ is the patronymic of Bālāki in the Brhadāranyaka and the Kausītaki Upanisads. Two Gārgyas are mentioned in the second Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad: one of them is the pupil of Gārgya, who again is the pupil of Gautama. Others occur in the Taittirīya Áranyaka and in the Nirukta, as well as later in the ritual Sūtras. Thus the family was evidently long connected with the development of liturgy and grammar.
gotama Is mentioned several times in the Rigveda, but never in such a way as to denote personal authorship of any hymn. It seems clear that he was closely connected with the Añgirases, for the Gotamas frequently refer to Añgiras. That he bore the patronymic Rāhūgana is rendered probable by one hymn of the Rigveda, and is assumed in the Satapatha Brāh¬mana, where he appears as the Purohita, or domestic priest, of Māthava Videgha, and as a bearer of Vedic civilization. He is also mentioned in the same Brāhmana as a contemporary of Janaka of Videha, and Yājñavalkya, and as the author of a Stoma. He occurs, moreover, in two passages of the Atharvaveda. The Gotamas are mentioned in several passages of the Rigveda, Vāmadeva and Nodhas being specified as sons of Gotama. They include the Vāj aśravases. See also Gautama.
gautama ‘Descendant of Gotama,’ is a common patro­nymic, being applied to Aruna, Uddālaka Aruni, Kuśri, Sāti, Hāridrumata. Several Gautamas are mentioned in the Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as pupils of Agni- veśya, of Saitava and Prācīnayogya, of Saitava, of Bhārad- vaja, of Gautama, and of Vatsya. referred to elsewhere.
gautamīputra (‘Son of a female descendant of Gotama ’) is mentioned in the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Bhāradvājīputra. In the Mādhyamdina a Gautamīputra is a pupil of Atreyī- putra, pupil of a Gautamīputra, pupil of Vātsīputra. See also Gotamīputra.
jāra ‘Lover,’ has no sinister sense in the early texts generally, where the word applies to any lover. But it seems probable that the Jāra at the Purusamedha, or human sacrifice, must be regarded as an illegitimate lover; this sense also appears in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, and Indra is styled the lover of Ahalyā, wife of Gautama.
traitana Appears in the Rigveda as a Dāsa, an enemy of Dīrghatamas, who seems to have engaged him in single combat and defeated him. The St. Petersburg Dictionary suggests that he is rather a supernatural being allied to Trita (c/. the Avestan Thrita and Thraetaona).
daśamī Denotes in the Atharvaveda and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana the period of life between 90 and 100 years which the Rigveda calls the daśama yuga, ‘ the tenth stage of life.’ Longevity seems not to have been rare among the Vedic Indians, for the desire to live a ‘hundred autumns’ (śaradal} śatam) is constantly expressed. Dīrghatamas is said to have lived ioo years, and Mahidāsa Aitareya is credited with 116. Onesikritos reported that they sometimes lived 130 years, a statement with which corresponds the wish expressed in the Jātaka for a life of 120 years. Probably the number was always rather imaginary than real, but the com¬parative brevity of modern life in India9 may be accounted for by the cumulative effect of fever, which is hardly known to the Rigveda. See Takman.
didhiṣūpati Occurs in the Kāthaka and Kapisthala Sam­hitās, as well as in the Apastamba, Gautama, and Vasistha
divya ‘Ordeal,’ is a term not found until the later literature, but several references to the practice of ordeals have been seen in Vedic literature. The fire ordeal seen in the Atharvaveda1 by Schlagintweit, Weber, Ludwig, Zimmer, and others, has been disproved by Grill, Bloomfield, and Whitney. But such an ordeal appears in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, and an ordeal with a glowing axe occurs in the Chāndogya Upanisad as applied in an accusation of theft. Geldner suggests that this usage is referred to even in the Rigveda, but this is most improbable. Ludwig and Griffith discover in another passage of the Rigveda references to Dīrghatamas’ having been subjected to the fire and water ordeals, but this view cannot be supported. According to Weber the 'balance’ ordeal is referred to in the śatapatha Brāhmana, but see Tulā.
dīrghatamas (‘ Long darkness ’) Māmateya (* son of Mamatā ’) Aucathya (‘son of Ucatha’) is mentioned as a singer in one hymn of the Rigveda, and is referred to in several passages by his metronymic, Māmateya, alone. He is said, both in the Rigveda and in the Sāñkhāyana Áranyaka, to have attained the tenth decade of life. In the Aitareya Brāhmana he appears as the priest of Bharata. The Brhaddevatā contains a preposterous legend made up of fragments of the Rigveda,® according to which Dīrghatamas was born blind, but recovered his sight; in old age he was thrown into a river by his servants, one of whom, Traitana, attacked him, but killed himself instead. Carried down by the stream, he was cast up in the Añga country, where he married Uśij, a slave girl, and begot Kaksīvant. The two legends here combined are not even con­sistent, for the second ignores Dīrghatamas’ recovery of sight. To attach any historical importance to them, as does Pargiter, would seem to be unwise.
naciketas Occurs in the well-known legend of the Taitti­rīya Brāhmana (where he is a Gotama, the son of Vāja- śravasa), and in the Katha Upanisad. His historical reality is extremely doubtful: in the Upanisad he is called son of Aruni Auddālaki or Vājaśravasa, an impossible attribution, and one due only to a desire to give Naciketas a connexion with the famous Aruni.
nalada ‘Nard’ (N ardastachys Jatamansi) is a plant mentioned in the Atharvaveda, in the Aitareya and the śāñkhāyana Aranyakas (where it is mentioned as used for a garland), as well as in the Sūtras. In the Atharvaveda the feminine form of the word, Naladī, occurs as the name of an Apsaras, or celestial nymph.
navagva Occurs in several passages of the Rigveda as a man, an Añgiras in the highest degree (A figirastama), appar­ently being the type of the Navagvas, who appear as a mystic race of olden times, coupled with, and conceived probably as related to, the Añgirases. They are often associated with the Daśagvas.
nāka Denotes the * firmament ’ in the Rigveda and later. It is often used with the epithet highest ’ {uttama) or ‘ third ’ (trtīya)* referring to the threefold division of heaven, parallel to the threefold division of earth, atmosphere, and sky (Div). The Nāka is said to be on the third ridge (pγstha), above the luminous space (rocaηa) of the sky. Elsewhere the series earth, atmosphere, sky, and the firmament (nāka), heaven (svar), the celestial light (jyotis), occurs. The word nāka is explained in the Brāhmanas as derived from na, ‘not,’ and aka, ‘pain,’ because those who go there are free from sorrow.
nodhas Is the name of a poet who is mentioned in the Rigveda, and to whom certain of its hymns are ascribed. In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana he is called Kāksīvata, a descendant of Kaksīvant.’ Ludwig regards him as con­temporary with the defeat of Purukutsa. He was a Gotama.
pitāmaha Beside Tatāmaha, denotes from the Atharvaveda onwards the ‘paternal grandfather,’ apparently as a ‘father in a higher sense.’ The great-grandfather is Prapitāmaha and Pratatāmaha. It is significant that there are no corresponding Vedic words for maternal grandparents, and that the words used in the latter language, such as Mātāmaha, are imitations of the terms for paternal relations. In one passage of the Rigveda Delbruck suggests that make pitre means ‘ grandfather,’ a sense which would well suit the napātam, ‘grandson,’ following, but the sense of the whole passage is uncertain. We learn very little from the texts of the position of grandparents. No doubt they were entitled to marks of respect similar to those shown to parents, as the epic expressly testifies. A grandfather might easily be the head of the family, or be living with his eldest son, after he ceased to be able to control the family.The grandmother (Pitāmahī) is not mentioned in the extant Vedic literature.
bṛbu Is mentioned in a hymn of the Rigveda, where he is described as a most generous giver (sahasra-dātama), and as at the head of the Paijis. According to the śānkhāyana śrauta Sūtra, Bharadvāja received gifts from Bṛbu Takṣan and Prastoka Sārfijaya, a fact alluded to in the Mānava Dharma śāstra, where taksan is treated as a descriptive attribute,‘ a carpenter.’ Apparently Bṛbu was a Paṇi, though the words of the Rigveda might be taken to mean that he was one who had overthrown them entirely. If so, Paṇi must here certainly mean a merchant in a good sense, Brbu being then a merchant prince. According to Weber, the name suggests connexion with Babylon, but this conjecture must be regarded as quite improbable. Hillebrandt sensibly expresses no opinion as to Bṛbu, while Brunnhofer’s attempt to recognize a people named Táσtcot, and to connect them with the Vedic word taksan, is valueless, especially considering the fact that Taksan is not found as an epithet of Brbu in the Rigveda.
bharata Is the name of a people of great importance in the Rigveda and the later literature. In the Rigveda they appear prominently in the third and seventh Maṇdalas in connexion with Sudās and the Tftsus, while in the sixth Maṇdala they are associated with Divodāsa. In one passage the Bharatas are, like the Tṛtsus, enemies of the Pūrus: there can be little doubt that Ludwig’s view of the identity of the Bharatas and and Tṛtsus is practically correct. More precisely Oldenberg considers that the Tṛtsus are the Vasiṣhas, the family singers of the Bharatas; while Geldner recognizes, with perhaps more probability, in the Tṛtsus the royal family of the Bharatas. That the Tṛtsus and Bharatas were enemies, as Zimmer holds, is most improbable even on geographical grounds, for the Tṛtsus in Zimmer’s view occupied the country to the east of the Paruçṇī (Ravi), and the Bharatas must therefore be regarded as coming against the Tṛtsus from the west, whereas the Rigveda recognizes two Bharata chiefs on the Sarasvatī, Ápayā, and Dpçadvatī that is, in the holy land of India, the Madhyadeśa. Hillebrandt sees in the connexion of the Tṛtsus and the Bharatas a fusion of two tribes; but this is not supported by any evidence beyond the fact that in his opinion some such theory is needed to explain Divodāsa's appearing in connexion with the Bharadvāja family, while Sudās, his son, or perhaps grandson {cf. Pijavana), is connected with the Vasiṣthas and the Viśvāmitras. In the later literature the Bharatas appear as especially famous. The śatapatha Brāhmaṇa mentions Bharata Dauh- ṣanti as a king, sacrificer of the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and śatānīka Sātrājita, as another Bharata who offered that sacrifice. The Aitareya Brāhmaṇa mentions Bharata Dauh- ṣanti as receiving the kingly coronation from Dlrghatamas Māmateya, and śatānīka as being consecrated by Somaśuçman Vājaratnāyana, a priest whose name is of quite late origin. The geographical position of the Bharata people is clearly shown by the fact that the Bharata kings win victories over the Kāśis, and make offerings on the Yamunā (Jumna) and Gañgfā (Ganges). Moreover, in the formula of the king’s proclamation for the people, the variants recorded include Kuravah, Pañcālāh, Kuru-Pañcālāh,, and Bharatāh ; and the Mahābhārata consistently recognizes the royal family of the Kurus as a Bharata family. It is therefore extremely probable that Oldenberg is right in holding that the Bharatas in the times of the Brāhmaṇas were merging in the Kuru-Pañcāla people. The ritual practices of the Bharatas are repeatedly mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, and the Taittirīya Aranyaka. Already in the Rigveda there is mention made of Agni Bhārata (‘of the Bharatas’). In the Apr! hymns occurs a goddess Bhāratī, the personified divine protective power of the Bharatas : her association in the hymns with Sarasvatī reflects the connexion 'of the Bharatas with the Sarasvatī in the Rigveda. Again, in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa Agni is referred to as brāhmana Bhārata, ‘priest of the Bharatas,’ and is invited to dispose of the offering Manusvat Bharatavat, ‘like Manu,’ ‘like Bharata.’ In one or two passages Sudās or Divodāsa and, on the other hand, Purukutsa or Trasadasyu appear in a friendly relation. Possibly this points, as Oldenberg suggests, to the union of Bharatas and Pūrus with the Kurus. A Bharata is referred to in the fifth Mandala of the Rigveda who he was is uncertain.
mamatā Is, according to Sāyaṇa, in one passage of the Rigveda, the wife of Ucathya and the mother of Dīrg*hatamas. But the word may be merely an abstract noun meaning ‘ self­interest,’ a sense which it often has in the later language. Oldenberg finds a mention of Mamata (masc.) in a verse of the Rigveda as the name of a Bharadvāja.
māṇti Is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Gautama, in the a pupil of Gautama, in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
māmateya ‘Descendant of Mamatā,’ is the metronymic of Dīrghatamas in the Rigveda and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa.
yuga In the Rigveda frequently denotes a ‘generation’; but the expression daśame yuge applied to Dirg’hatamas in one passage must mean ‘tenth decade’ of life. There is no reference in the older Vedic texts to the five-year cycle (see Samvatsara). The quotation from the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa given in the St. Petersburg Dictionary, and by Zimmer and others, is merely a citation from a modern text in the commentary on that work. Nor do the older Vedic texts know of any series of Yugas or ages such as are usual later. In the Atharvaveda6 there are mentioned in order a hundred years, an ayuta (10,000?), and then two, three, or four Yugas: the inference from this seems to be that a Yuga means more than an ayuta, but is not very certain. Zimmer adduces a passage from the Rigveda, but the reference there, whatever it may be, is certainly not to the four ages {cf. also Triyug’a). The Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa recognizes long periods of time—e.g., one of 100,000 years. To the four ages, Kali, Dvāpara, Tretā, and Kṛta, there is no certain reference in Vedic literature, though the names occur as the designations of throws at dice (see Akça). In the Aitareya Brāhmana the names occur, but it is not clear that the ages are really meant. Haug thought that the dice were meant: this view is at least as probable as the alternative explanation, which is accepted by Weber, Roth,Wilson, Max Mūller, and Muir. Roth, indeed, believes that the verse is an inter¬polation ; but in any case it must be remembered that the passage is from a late book of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. Four ages—Puṣya, Dvāpara, Khārvā, and Kṛta—are mentioned in the late Sadvimśa Brāhmaṇa, and the Dvāpara in the Gopatha Brāhmana.
rahūgaṇa Is the name of a family mentioned in the plural in one passage of the Rigveda. According to Ludwig, they were connected with the Gotamas, as is shown by the name Gotama Rāhūgaṇa.
rādha gautama (‘ descendant of Gotama ’) is the name of two teachers in the Vamśa Brāhmaṇa.1
rahūgaṇa ‘Descendant of Rahū-gaṇa/ is the patronymic of Gotama in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa.
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
vāmadeva Is credited by tradition with the authorship of the fourth Maṇdala of the Rigveda, and he is once mentioned in that Maṇdala. He is, moreover, credited with the authorship of the fourth hymn of the Maṇdala by the Yajur­veda Samhitās. He there appears as a son of Gotama, while in one hymn of the fourth Maṇdala of the Rigveda4 Gotama is mentioned as the father of the singer, and in another the Gotamas occur as praising Indra. In the Bṛhaddevatā two absurd legends are narrated of Vāmadeva. One describes Indra as revealing himself in the form of an eagle to the seer as he cooked the entrails of a dog; the other tells of his successful conflict with Indra, whom he sold among the seers. Sieg has endeavoured to trace these tales in the Rigveda but without any success. Moreover, though Vāmadeva is mentioned in the Atharvaveda and often in the Brāhmaṇas, he never figures there as a hero of these legends.
vaira Seem to have in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmaṇas the definite and technical sense of ‘wergeld,’ the money to be paid for killing a man as a compensation to his relatives. This view is borne out by the Sūtras of Apa­stamba and Baudhāyana. Both prescribe the scale of 1,000 cows for a Kṣatriya, 100 for a Vaiśya, 10 for a śūdra, and a bull over and above in each case. Apastamba leaves the destination of the payment vague, but Baudhāyana assigns it to the king. It is reasonable to suppose that the cows were intended for the relations, and the bull was a present to the king for his intervention to induce the injured relatives to abandon the demand for the life of the offender. The Apa­stamba Sūtra allows the same scale of wergeld for women, but the Gautama Sūtra puts them on a level with men of the śūdra caste only, except in one special case. The payment is made for the purpose of vaira-yātana or vaira-niryātana, 'requital of enmity,' 'expiation' he Rigveda preserves, also, the important notice that a man’s wergeld was a hundred (cows), for it contains the epithet śata-dāya, ‘one whose wergeld is a hundred/ No doubt the values varied, but in the case of śunaháepa the amount is a hundred (cows) in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. In the Yajurveda Samhitās śata-dāya again appears. The fixing of the price shows that already public opinion, and perhaps the royal authority, was in Rigvedic times diminishing the sphere of private revenge; on the other hand, the existence of the system shows how weak was the criminal authority of the king (cf. Dharma).
śāṇḍilya ‘Descendant of śaṇdila,’ is the patronymic of several teachers (see Udara and Suyajña). The most important śāṇdilya is the one cited several times as an authority in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, where his Agni, or ‘sacrificial fire,’ is called śaṇdila. From this it appears clearly that he was one of the great teachers of the fire ritual which occupies the fifth and following books of the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. In the Vamśa (list of teachers) at the end of the tenth book he is given as a pupil of Kuśri and a teacher of Vātsya ; another list at the end of the last book in the Kāṇva recension gives him as a pupil of Vātsya, and the latter as a pupil of Kuśri. In the confused and worthless lists of teachers at the end of the second and fourth books of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad he is said to be the pupil of various persons—Kaiśorya Kāpya, Vaiṣtapureya, Kauśika, Gautama, Bayavāpa, and Ánabhimlāta. No doubt different śāndilyas may be meant, but the lists are too confused to claim serious consideration.
śauppaṇāyya Descendant of śūrpaṇāya' is the patronymic of a teacher, a pupil of Gautama, in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Mādhyamdina recension of the Bṛhadāran- yaka Upaniṣad.
śvetaketu áruṇeya (‘Descendant of Aruṇa’) or Auddālaki (‘son of Uddālaka’) is mentioned repeatedly in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa and the Chāndogya Upaniṣad. In the Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad he appears as śvetaketu, son of Áruṇi, and as a Gautama. In the Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa he is quoted as an authority on the vexed question of the duty of the Sadasya, or the seventeenth priest, at the ritual of the Kauṣītakins, to notify errors in the sacrifice; Áruṇi, his father, is also cited. He was a person of some originality, for he insisted on eating honey despite the general prohibition of the use of that delicacy by Brahmacārins or religious students. He was a contemporary of, and was instructed by the Pañcāla king Pravāhaṇa Jaivala. He was also a contemporary of Janaka, of Videha, and figured among the Brahmin disputants at his court. A story is told of him in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra:[6] Jala Jātūkarṇyā was lucky enough to become the Purohita of three peoples or kings, of Kāśi, Kosala, and Videha. Seeing this, śvetaketu felt annoyed and reproached his father with his excessive devotion to sacrifice, which merely enriched and glorified others, not himself. His father replied, forbidding him to speak thus: he had learned the true method of sacrificing, and his ambition in life had been to discuss it with every Brahmin. All the references to śvetaketu belong to the latest period of Vedic literature. It is, therefore, not surprising that the Ápa- stamba Dharma Sūtra should refer to him as an Avara, or person of later days, who still became a Rṣi by special merit. His date, however, must not be fixed too low, because the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa in which he plays so marked a part is certainly earlier than Pāṇini, and was apparently even in that grammarian’s time believed to be an ancient work; hence 500 B.c. is probably rather too late than too early a period for śvetaketu as a rough approximation to a date.
satyakāma (‘Lover of truth’) Jābāla ('descendant of Jabālā') is the name of a teacher, the son of a slave girl by an unknown father. He wás initiated as a Brahmacārin, or religious student, by Gautama Hāridrumata according to the Chāndogya Upaniṣad. He is often cited as an authority in that Upaniṣad and in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, where he learns a certain doctrine from Jānaki Áyasthūṇa. He is also mentioned in the Aitareya and the Satapatha Brāhmaṇas.
saptamānuṣa Is found in one passage of the Rigveda as an epithet of Agni, ‘belonging to the seven tribes.’ Hopkins thinks that this is a reference to the seven ‘family’ books of the Rigveda, but this seems less likely than the view of Roth, that saptamānusa is equivalent to vaiivānara.
sarasvatī Is the name of a river frequently mentioned in the Rigveda and later. In many passages of the later texts it is certain the river meant is the modern Sarasvatī, which loses itself in the sands of Patiala (see Vinaśana). Even Roth admits that this river is intended in some passages of the Rigveda. With the Drṣadvatī it formed the western boundary of Brahmāvarta (see Madhyadeśa). It is the holy stream of early Vedic India. The Sūtras mention sacrifices held on its banks as of great importance and sanctity. In many other passages of the Rigveda, and even later, Roth held that another river, the Sindhu (Indus), was really meant: only thus could it be explained why the Sarasvatī is called the ‘foremost of rivers’ (nadītamā), is said to go to the ocean, and is referred to as a large river, on the banks of which many kings, and, indeed, the five tribes, were located. This view is accepted by Zimmer and others. On the other hand, Lassen and Max Muller maintain the identity of the Vedic Sarasvatī with the later Sarasvatī. The latter is of opinion that in Vedic times the Sarasvatī was as large a stream as the Sutlej, and that it actually reached the sea either after union with the Indus or not, being the 'iron citadel,’ as the last boundary on the west, a frontier of the Panjab against the rest of India. There is no conclusive evidence of there having been any great change in the size or course of the Sarasvatī, though it would be impossible to deny that the river may easily have diminished in size. But there are strong reasons to accept the identification of the later and the earlier Sarasvatī throughout. The insistence on the divine character of the river is seen in the very hymn which refers to it as the support of the five tribes, and corresponds well with its later sacredness. Moreover, that hymn alludes to the Pārāvatas, a people shown by the later evidence of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa to have been in the east, a very long way from their original home, if Sarasvatī means the Indus. Again, the Pūrus, who were settled on the Sarasvatī, could with great difficulty be located in the far west. Moreover, the five tribes might easily be held to be on the Sarasvatī, when they were, as they seem to have been, the western neighbours of the Bharatas in Kurukçetra, and the Sarasvatī could easily be regarded as the boundary of the Panjab in that sense. Again, the ‘seven rivers’ in one passage clearly designate a district: it is most probable that they are not the five rivers with the Indus and the Kubhā (Cabul river), but the five rivers, the Indus and the Sarasvatī. Nor is it difficult to see why the river is said to flow to the sea: either the Vedic poet had never followed the course of the river to its end, or the river did actually penetrate the desert either completely or for a long distance, and only in the Brāhmaṇa period was its disappear ance in the desert found out. It is said, indeed, in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā21 that the five rivers go to the Sarasvatī, but this passage is not only late (as the use of the word Deśa shows), but it does not say that the five rivers meant are those of the Panjab. Moreover, the passage has neither a parallel in the other Samhitās, nor can it possibly be regarded as an early production; if it is late it must refer to the later Sarasvatī. Hillebrandt,22 on the whole, adopts this view of the Saras¬vatī,23 but he also sees in it, besides the designation of a mythical stream, the later Vaitaraṇī,24 as well as the name of the Arghandab in Arachosia.25 This opinion depends essentially on his theory that the sixth Mandala of the Rigveda places the scene of its action in Iranian lands, as opposed to the seventh Maṇdala: it is as untenable as that theory itself. Brunn-hofer at one time accepted the Iranian identification, but later decided for the Oxus, which is quite out of the question. See also Plakṣa Prāsravaṇa.
sumantra bābhrava (‘Descendant of Babhru’) Gautama (‘descendant of Gotama’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Sūça Vāhneya Bhāradvāja, in the Vamśa Brāhmaṇa.
hāridrumata ‘Descendant of Haridrumant,’ is the patro­nymic of a Gautama in the Chāndogya Upaniṣad.
hiraṇya In the Rigveda and later denotes ‘gold.’ It is hardly possible to exaggerate the value attached to gold by the Vedic Indians. The metal was, it is clear, won from the bed of rivers. Hence the Indus is called ‘golden’ and ‘of golden stream.’ Apparently the extraction of gold from the earth was known, and washing for gold is also recorded. Gold is the object of the wishes of the Vedic singer, and golden treasures (hiranyāni) are mentioned as given by patrons along with cows and horses. Gold was used for ornaments for neck and breast (Niska), for ear-rings (Karṇa-śobhana), and even for cups. Gold is always associated with the gods. In the plural Hiraṇya denotes ‘ornaments of gold.’11 A gold currency was evidently beginning to be known in so far as definite weights of gold are mentioned: thus a weight, astā-prīīd, occurs in the Samhitās and the golden śatamāna, ‘ weight of a hundred (Kpçṇalas) ’ is found in the same texts. In several passages, moreover, hiranya or hiranyāni may mean ‘ pieces of gold.’ Gold is described sometimes as harita, ‘yellowish,’ some¬times as rajata,ls 'whitish,' when probably ‘ silver ’ is alluded to. It was obtained from the ore by smelting. Mega- sthenes bears testimony to the richness in gold of India in his time.
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48 results
     
tama āsīt tamasā gūḍham agre RV.10.129.3a; TB.2.8.9.4a; N.7.3.
tama etat puruṣa mā pra patthāḥ AVś.8.1.10c.
tama praṇītam aśivena pitrā RV.1.117.17b.
tamas te yantu yatame dviṣanti AVś.12.3.49b.
tamasa iva jyotir ud etu sūryaḥ AVś.5.13.3d. See jyotiṣeva.
tama kṛtaṃ tamaḥ karoti tamasa evedaṃ sarvaṃ yo mā kārayati tasmai svāhā BDh.3.4.2.
tama ye ca tūparāḥ AVś.11.9.22c.
tamasas tan mahinājāyataikam TB.2.8.9.4d. See tapasas etc.
tamasāvidhyad āsuraḥ RV.5.40.5b,9b; KB.24.4b.
tamase taskaram VS.30.5; TB.3.4.1.1.
tamasīva nihitaṃ nānu vettāḥ AVP.9.18.4d.
tamaso mā jyotir gamaya śB.14.4.1.30,32; BṛhU.1.3.30,32; śś.6.8.9.
acittama upavaktā # MS.1.9.1: 131.11; KS.9.8; śś.10.18.4. See acyutamanā.
acyutama upavaktā # TA.3.5.1. See acittamanā.
anuttamanyum ajaram # RV.8.6.35c.
anuttamanyur yo aheva revān # RV.8.96.19b.
āpāntamanyus tṛpalaprabharmā # RV.10.89.5a; TS.2.2.12.3a; TA.10.1.9a; N.5.12a. Cf. BṛhD.7.144.
inatamam āptyam (AVś.5.2.7b, āptam) āptyānām # RV.10.120.6b; AVś.5.2.7b; 20.107.9b; AVP.6.1.6b; N.11.21b.
inatama satvabhir yo ha śūṣaiḥ # RV.3.49.2c.
utkhātamanyur ajani # AVP.5.10.5c.
uttama āsanam ācaran # AVś.20.127.8b; śś.12.17.1.2b.
uttama tu mahāvratam # Aś.8.13.31b.
uttama nākaṃ roheyam # śś.16.17.1c.
uttama nākam (AVP.VSṃS.KS.śB. uttame nāke) adhi rohayemam (VSṃS.KS.śB. rohayainam; TA. rohemam; AVP. tiṣṭhehi) # AVś.1.9.2d,4d; 6.63.3d; 84.4d; 11.1.4d; AVP.1.75.2b; VS.12.63d; TS.4.2.5.3d; MS.2.7.12d: 90.18; KS.16.12d; śB.7.2.1.10; TA.6.4.2d. Cf. svar ārohanto abhi, svo ruhāṇā adhi, and saro ruhāṇā adhi.
uttama nākaṃ paramaṃ vyoma # AVś.11.1.30d.
uttamarātrī ṇāma mṛtyo te mātā # Kauś.135.9a.
katama ūtī abhy ā vavartati # RV.10.64.1d; KB.20.2.
katamat svit kathāsīt (TS. kim āsīt) # RV.10.81.2b; VS.17.18b; TS.4.6.2.4b; MS.2.10.2b: 133.6; KS.18.2b.
katamasmai tvā # KS.37.13.
katamasmai svāhā # VS.22.20; TS.7.3.15.1; MS.3.12.5: 161.12; KSA.3.5; śB.13.1.8.2; TB.3.8.11.1.
kṣudrasūktamahāsūktāḥ (sc. tṛpyantu) # śG.4.10.3; kṣudrasūktā mahāsūktāḥ (sc. tṛpyantu) AG.3.4.2.
gautama bruvāṇa # JB.2.79; śB.3.3.4.18; ṣB.1.1.23; TA.1.12.3; Lś.1.3.1.
jānanti-bāhavi-gārgya-gautama-śākalya-bābhravya-māṇḍavya-māṇḍūkeyāḥ (sc. tṛpyantu) # AG.3.4.4. Cf. śG.4.10.3.
tavastamas tavasāṃ vajrabāho # RV.2.33.3b. See next but one.
dyumattama dakṣaṃ dhehy asme # RV.6.44.9a.
dyumnintama uta kratuḥ # RV.1.127.9e; 175.5b.
piṣṭatama vayunāni vidvān # MS.4.13.7b: 209.1; KS.18.21b; TB.3.6.12.1b; N.8.20b.
purūtama puruhūta śravasyan # VSK.2.5.8b; Kś.4.2.43b.
purūtama purūṇām # RV.1.5.2a; 6.45.29a; AVś.20.68.12a; SV.2.91a; JB.1.226a.
pūrbhittama maghavann indra govidam # RV.8.53 (Vāl.5).1c.
pūrvatama sa devānām # AVś.20.128.16c.
prapathintama paritaṃsayadhyai # RV.1.173.7b.
brahmavāhastama huve # RV.6.45.19c.
bhiṣaktama tvā bhiṣajāṃ śṛṇomi # RV.2.33.4d; AVP.1.95.1c.
makṣūtamasya rātiṣu # RV.8.19.12b.
madintamasya dhārayā # RV.9.62.22c; SV.2.411c.
yadottamat tantubaddhāya nāvadvāsaḥ pūrvayāvat pururūpapeśaḥ # AVP.15.6.6ab.
yaśastamasya mīḍhuṣaḥ # RV.2.8.1c.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
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     KV Abhyankar
"tama" has 55 results.
     
anuttamaother than उत्तम or the first person; confer, compare विभाषितं सोपसर्गमनुत्तमम् P. VII.1.53 and Kāśika thereon.
antaratamavery close or very cognate being characterized (l) by the same place of utterance, or (2) by possessing the same sense, or (3) by possessing the same qualities, or (4) by possessing the same dimension ; cf स्थानेन्तरतमः P.I. I.50 and Kāś. thereon अान्तर्यं स्थानार्थगुणुप्रमाणतः स्थानतः दण्डाग्रम् , अर्थतः वतण्डी चासौ युवतिश्च वातण्ड्ययुवतिः । गुणतः पाकः, त्यागः, रागः । प्रमाणतः अमुष्मै अमूभ्याम् ॥
uttama(1)the best,the highest,the last: (2) the last letter of the consonantclasses, the nasal; cf, A.Pr.II.4.14; R.Pr.IV.3; confer, compare also अनुत्तम meaning non-nasal; (3) the उत्तमपुरुष or the premier or the first person constituting the affixes मि, वस् and मस् and their substitutes, confer, compare P.I.4.107.
udāttamayaan accent made up of Udātta, i. e. an accent which is a reduced Udātta.It is called also प्रचय. It is mentioned in connection with an acute vowel following इति in the Padapāṭha, according to Kāṇva's view;confer, compare उदात्तमयोन्यत्र नीच एव अन्तोदान्तमध्योदात्तयोः पर्वणोरन्यत्र इति कारणात् परो नीच उदात्तमय एव भवति प्रचित एव भवतीत्यर्थः commentary on V.Pr. I.150
upottamaliterallyone near or before the last; the term is generally used in connection with words having two or more syllables, where it means the vowel before the last (vowel); confer, compare उपोत्तमं रिति P. VI.1.217 and योपधाद्गुरूपोत्तमाद्वुञ् P.V.1.132 where the writer of the Kāśikā explains it as त्रिप्रभृतीनामन्त्यमुत्तमं तस्य समीपमुपोत्तमम् । giving रमणीय and वसनीय as examples where the long ई is upottama; confer, compare also T.Pr. XI.3. and Nir.I.19 where the word refers to the third out of the four feet of the verse.
gautamaan ancient sage referred to in the Pratisakhya works as a Pratisakhyakara; confer, compare T.Pr. V.38.
ḍatamactaddhita affix. affix अतम in the sense of determination or selection of one out of many, applied to the pronouns किं, यत् and तत्; e,g. कतमः confer, compare P.V.3.93,as also to एक according to Eastern Grammarians; exempli gratia, for example एकतमो भवतां देवदत्तः; confer, compare P.V.3.94.
tamataddhita affix. affix तम added optionally with the affix डट् ( अ ) to विंशति, त्रिंशत् et cetera, and others, as also to words ending with them, in the sense of पूरण (completion), and necessarily (नित्यं) to the words शत, सहस्र, षष्टि, सप्तति et cetera, and others e. g. एकविंशतितमः एकविंशः, त्रिंशत्तमः, त्रिंशः, शततमः, षष्टितम:, विंशी, त्रिंशी et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on V. 2.56-58.
tamaptaddhita affix. affix तम added without a change of sense, i. e. in the sense of the base itself to noun bases possessing the sense of excellence, as also to verbal forms showing excellence: e. g. आढ्यतमः, दर्शनीयतमः, श्रेष्ठतमः, पचतितमाम् confer, compare Kas on P. V. 3.55-56. The affix तमप् is termed घ also; confer, compare P. I. 1.22.
durgottamaa grammarian who wrote a work on genders called लिङ्गानुशासन and also a commentary on it.
puruṣottamadevaa famous grammarian believed to have been a Buddhist, who flourished in the reign of Lakșmaņasena in the latter half of the twelfth century in Bengal. Many works on grammar are ascribed to him, the prominent ones among which are the Bhāșāvŗtti and the Paribhāșāvŗtti, the Gaņavŗtti and the Jñapakasamuccaya and a commentary on the Mahābhāșya called Prāņapaņā of which only a fragment is available. Besides these works on grammar, he has written some lexicographical works of which Hārāvalī, Trikāņdaśeșa, Dvirūpakosa, and Ekaaksarakosa are the prominent ones. The Bhasavrtti has got a lucid commentary on it written by Srstidhara.
puruṣottamavidyāvāgīśaa famous grammarian of Bengal, who wrote the grammar work Prayogaratnamala in the fifteenth century. The work betrays a deep study and scholarship of the writer in the Mantrasāstra.
prayuktākhyātamañjarīa small treatise on verbal forms by सारङ्गकवि.
bṛhadvyākaraṇasiddhāntamañjūṣāa grammar work written by Ramanatha Chobhe.
bharatamallaa grammarian of Bengal who lived in the sixteenth century and who wrote उपसर्गवृत्ति, दुतबोध and other works on grammar.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntamañjūṣāa well-known work on the syntax and denotation of words written by Nagesabhatta which is popular by the name Laghumanjusha. The Paramalaghumanjusha is an abridgment of this work by the author himselfeminine.
saṃskṛtamañjarīa short handbook on declension and case-relations written by a grammarian named Sadhusundara, who lived in the beginning of the eighteenth century.
saptamathe seventh of the vowels stated in the alphabet; a word used for the vowel r ( ऋ ) by ancient grammarians: confer, compare ओजा ह्रस्वा: सप्तमान्ताः स्वराणाम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.14.
sādhakatamamost efficient in the accomplishment of an action; the karaka called Karana: confer, compare साधकतमं करणम् । P. I. 4.42. See the word करण.
agati(1)absence of any other recourse or alternative. confer, compare अगत्या हि खलु परिभाषाश्रीयते. Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adevaPari. vṛtti Pari.119;(2) which is not a word termed gati. confer, compare चनचिदिवगोत्रादितद्धिताम्रेडितेष्वगते: P. VII.1.57.
uṇādisūtravṛttia gloss on the Uṇādi Sūtras in the different versions. Out of the several glosses on the Uṇādi Sūtras, the important ones are those written by Ujjvaladatta, Govardhana, Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva, Rāmacandra Dīkṣita and Haridatta. There is also a gloss called Uṇādisūtrodghātana by Miśra. There is a gloss by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. on the Kātantra version of the Uṇādi Sūtras.
upasargavṛttia treatise on upasargas by Bharatamalla in the Sixteenth Century A.D.
ekavṛttisingle vṛtti or gloss on the Vedic as well as classical portions of grammar. Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva has used this term in his Bhāṣāvṛtti to contrast his Vṛtti (भाषावृत्ति) with the Kāśikāvṛtti and the Bhāgavṛtti which deal with both the portions; confer, compareअनार्ष इत्येकवृत्तावुपयुक्तम् Bhāṣāvṛtti on I.1.16, confer, comparealso Bhāṣāvṛtti on III. 4.99, IV.3.22 and VI.3.20.एकवृत्ति is possibly used by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva in the sense of मुख्यवृत्ति or साधारणवृत्ति i. e. the common chief gloss on both the portions.
kārakakārikāpossibly another name for the treatise on Kārakas known as कारकचक्र written by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva the reputed grammarian of Bengal who lived in the latter half of the twelfth century A. D. See कारकचक्र.
gati(1)literally motion; stretching out, lengthening of a syllable. The word is explained in the Prātiśakhya works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel इ or उ after it, exempli gratia, for example हाइ or हायि for हा; similarly आ-इ or अा -यि ; (2) a technical term used by Pāṇini in connection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called गति, confer, compare P.I.4.60-79. The words called gati can be compounded with the following word provided the latter is not a verb, the compound being named tatpuruṣa e.g, प्रकृतम् , ऊरीकृत्य confer, compare P.II.2.18; the word गति is used by Pāṇini in the masculine gender as seen in the Sūtra गतिरनन्तरः P.VI. 2.49 and hence explained as formed by the addition of the affix क्तिच् to गम्, the word being used as a technical term by the rule क्तिच्क्तौ च संज्ञायाम् P.III.3.174; (3) realization, understanding; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.9; सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 76; अगत्या हि परिभाषा अाश्रीयते Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva Pari. Pāṭha 119.
jñāpakaliterallyindirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, confer, compareM.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 et cetera, and others The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systemanuscript. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.
jñāpakasamuccayaa work giving a collection of about 400 Jñāpakas or indicatory wordings found in the Sūtras of Pānini and the conclusions drawn from them. It was written by Purușottamadeva, a Buddhist scholar of Pāņini's grammar in the twelfth century A. D., who was probably the same as the famous great Vaiyākaraņa patronized by Lakșmaņasena.See पुरुषेत्तमदेव.
drutabodhaname of a treatise on grammar written for beginners by Bharatasena or Bharatamalla of Bengal in the sixteemth century.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
paribhāṣāvṛttia general name given to an explanatory independent work on Paribhasas of the type of a gloss on a collection of Paribhasas,irrespective of the system of grammar, whether it be that of Panini, or of Katantra, or of Jainendra or of Hemacandra. The treatises of Vyadi (Panini system), Durgasimha and BhavamiSra (Katantra system), Purusottamadeva and Siradeva (Panini system), Abhyankar (Jainendra system) and others are all known by the name Paribhasavritti.
paribhāṣāsegraha'a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his paribhasa.work named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundredition
pāṇinisūtravṛttia gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiin his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known.
prāṇapaṇāa gloss on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali, written by the famous easterm grammarian Purusottamadeva of the 12th century A. D., of which only a fragment of a few pages is available. As the legend goes, the name प्राणपणा was given to the gloss as it was accompanied by an oath on the part of the author that his life was at stake if he did even the slightest injustice to the author of the Mahabhasya.
bhavat( भवन्त् )ancient term for the present tense found in the Brhaddevata and other works, The term 'vartamana' for the present tense was also equally common. The word is found in the Mahabhasya, the Unadisutravrtti of Ujjvaladatta and in the Grammar of Jainendra confer, compare P.II.3.1 Vart 11, Unadi III. 50 Jain Vyak. I.1.471.
bhāgavṛttione of the oldest commentaries on the Sutras of Panini, which, although not available at present, has been profusely quoted by Purusottamadeva and other Eastern Grammarians of the twelfth and later centuries. The authorship of the work is attributed to Bhartrhari, but the point is doubtful as Siradeva in his Paribhasavrtti on Pari. 76 has stated that the author of the Bhagavrtti has quoted from Maghakavya; confer, compare अत एवं तत्रैव सूत्रे भागवृत्तिः पुरातनमुनेर्मुनितामिति पुरातनीनेदिरिति च प्रमादपाठावेतौ गतानुगतिकतया कवयः प्रयुञ्जते न तेषां लक्षणे चक्षुरिति | Some scholars attribute its authorship to Vimalamati. Whosoever be the author, the gloss ( भागवृत्ति ) was a work of recognised merit; confer, compare काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत् सिद्धान्तं वेत्तुमस्ति धी: | तदा विचिन्त्यतां भातभीषावृत्तिरियं मम Bhasavrtti at the end. सृष्टिघर in his commentary on the Bhasavrtti also says " सा हि द्वयोर्विवरणकर्त्री."
bhāṣāvṛttia short gloss on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini in the l2th century by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva, a reputed scholar belonging to the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bengal and Behar in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, The gloss is very useful for beginners and it has given a clear explanation of the different sūtras without going into difficult niceties and discussions. The treatise does not comment upon Vedic portions or rules referring to Vedic Language because, as the legend goes, king Lakṣmaṇa Sena, for whom the gloss was written, was not qualified to understand Vedic Language; confer, compare वैदिकभाषानर्हत्वात् Com. on Bhāṣāvṛtti by Sṛṣṭidhara. There is a popular evaluation of the Bhāṣāvṛtti given by the author himself in the stanza "काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत्सिद्धान्तं बोद्धुमस्ति धीः ! तदा विचिन्त्यतां भ्रातर्भाषावृत्तिरियं मम " at the end of his treatise; for details see पुरुषोत्तमदेव.
bhāṣāvṛttiṭīkāa learned commentary on Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva's Bhāṣavṛtti by Sṛṣṭidhara a learned grammarian of the sixteenth century.
mahābhāṣyavyākhyāname given to each of the explanatory glosses on the Mahabhasya written by grammarians prominent of whom were Purusottamadeva, Narayana Sesa, Visnu, Nilakantha and others whose fragmentary works exist in a manuscript form. महामिश्र name of a grammarian who wrote a commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Nyasa. The commentary is known by the name Vyakaranaprakasa. महाविभाषा a rule laying down an option for several rules in a topic by being present in every rule: confer, compare महाविभाषया वाक्यमपि. विभाषा (P.II.1.11) and समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा (P. IV.1.82) are some of the rules of this kindeclinable
laghuparibhāṣāvṛttian independent work on Paribhāşās written by Puruşottamadeva in the twelfth century A. D. called लघुपरिभाषावृत्ति in contrast with the बृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति of सीरदेव. The Vŗtti is named ' Lalitā ' also, by the author.
lalitāvṛttiname given to the Paribhāșāvŗtti written by Purușottamadeva, a famous grammarian of the Eastern branch of Pāņini's system which prevailed in Bengal from the eighth to the end of the twelfth century A.D. See पुरुषोत्तमदेव.
vimalamatian old grammarian who is believed to have written a gloss named भागवृत्ति on Pāṇini's Sūtras to which the grammarians Purusottamadeva, Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiand others of the twelfth century refer. Some scholars say that भागवृत्ति was written by भर्तृहरि; but it is not feasible, as there is a reference to Māghakāvya in भागवृति. In books on grammar,. especially of the Eastern School in the 11th and the 12th century, there are several quotations from the Bhāgavṛtti. See भागवृत्ति.
saṃnidhijuxtaposition; coming together phonetically very close: confer, compare पदानामविलम्बितेनोच्चारणम् Tarka Samgraha; अव्यवधानेन अन्वयप्रतियोग्युपस्थितिः Tattvacintamani 4; the same as संनिकर्ष which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
samantabhadraa Jain scholar of great repute who is believed to have written, besides many well-known religious books such as आप्तमीमांसा गन्धहस्तिभाष्य et cetera, and others on Jainism, a treatise on grammar called Cintamani Vyakarana.
sṛṣṭidharaname of the famous commentator on Purusottamadeva's Bhasavrtti,who lived in the fifteenth century A.D.
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
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tama mode of ignoranceSB 1.5.28
tama supremeSB 4.21.38
tama and ignoranceSB 10.24.22
SB 10.46.40
SB 10.85.40
SB 11.3.37
tama and of ignoranceSB 11.12.19
tama and of the mode of ignoranceSB 6.14.1
tama and the mode of ignoranceSB 7.3.26-27
tama by ignoranceSB 4.27.4
tama darkSB 7.15.46
tama darknessBG 10.11
CC Adi 1.101
CC Adi 1.95
tama darknessCC Adi 1.95
CC Adi 1.97
CC Adi 13.4
CC Adi 13.98
Iso 12
tama darknessIso 12
Iso 9
tama darknessIso 9
SB 1.14.16
SB 10.3.47
SB 10.30.42
SB 10.49.19
SB 10.60.35
SB 10.89.47
SB 10.89.51
SB 10.90.18
SB 11.10.27-29
SB 11.17.58
SB 11.21.25
SB 11.24.28
SB 11.26.31
SB 11.29.37
SB 11.6.24
SB 11.6.48-49
SB 12.12.48
SB 12.4.32
SB 3.12.33
SB 3.15.3
SB 3.19.18
SB 3.26.20
SB 3.31.32
SB 4.19.19
SB 4.19.34
SB 4.24.59
SB 4.29.28
SB 4.31.17
tama darknessSB 4.31.17
SB 4.5.7
SB 5.24.12
SB 7.15.57
SB 7.6.6
SB 9.5.7
tama darkness (of hell)SB 10.49.24
tama darkness in self-knowledgeSB 3.12.2
tama darkness of ignoranceSB 10.15.5
tama from the darkness of hellish lifeSB 4.21.46
tama great darknessSB 8.3.5
tama hellSB 7.1.19
tama ignoranceCC Antya 4.63
SB 1.13.54
SB 10.40.11
SB 10.48.21
SB 10.51.56
SB 11.1.6-7
SB 11.13.1
SB 11.14.11
SB 11.21.20
SB 11.22.12
SB 11.24.5
SB 11.25.18
SB 12.3.26
SB 12.8.45
SB 4.22.34
SB 4.24.63
SB 9.4.15-16
tama ignorance in the material worldSB 5.18.8
tama in ignoranceBG 17.1
SB 10.40.25
SB 5.9.17
tama in the darkest region of hellish lifeSB 4.21.47
tama in the mode of ignoranceSB 8.24.2-3
tama into darknessSB 11.5.18
tama material natureCC Adi 5.72
tama mundane ignoranceSB 2.2.17
tama nescienceSB 4.12.8
tama nothing but darknessSB 7.6.16
tama of darknessCC Antya 1.177
SB 10.76.8
SB 4.30.21
tama of illusory existenceSB 6.9.33
tama of the darknessCC Adi 1.88-89
tama of the ignoranceSB 10.52.43
tama of the mode of ignoranceSB 11.19.40-45
tama or ignoranceSB 11.21.32
tama or ignoranceSB 11.21.32
tama tamasSB 3.20.18
tama the dark planetSB 4.29.69
tama the darknessCC Adi 1.54
CC Adi 3.60
CC Antya 1.188
CC Madhya 25.119
SB 10.32.11-12
SB 10.39.29
SB 10.76.17
SB 10.89.50
SB 11.28.34
SB 12.9.21
SB 2.9.34
tama the darkness of ignoranceSB 1.2.23
SB 10.38.11
SB 2.4.5
SB 9.11.6
tama the darkness of material existenceSB 10.38.7
tama the darkness within the material creationSB 7.8.24
tama the greatestSB 4.23.33
tama the ignoranceSB 10.25.16
SB 10.59.41
tama the material condition of sleepingSB 7.9.32
tama the material natureSB 10.14.11
tama the mode of darknessSB 11.25.15
SB 2.10.41
SB 2.5.23
tama the mode of ignoranceBG 14.10
tama the mode of ignoranceBG 14.10
tama the mode of ignoranceBG 14.10
BG 14.5
BG 14.8
BG 14.9
CC Madhya 20.270
SB 1.2.19
SB 1.2.27
SB 10.59.29
SB 11.13.3
SB 11.16.37
SB 11.22.13
SB 11.25.12
SB 11.25.18
SB 11.25.34
SB 11.9.12
SB 12.4.20-21
SB 2.5.18
SB 3.16.22
SB 6.12.15
SB 7.1.10
SB 7.1.7
SB 7.9.26
SB 9.8.12
SB 9.8.22
tama the mode of ignorance, by which one performs pious and impious activitiesSB 8.24.48
tama the mode of ignorance, or the darkness of nightSB 3.11.28
tama the ocean of nescienceCC Madhya 3.6
SB 11.23.57
tama to darknessSB 6.14.26
tama to ignoranceSB 8.24.51
tamaḥ andham deeply dark material existenceSB 1.2.3
tamaḥ andham deeply dark material existenceSB 1.2.3
tamaḥ andham to hellish lifeSB 10.2.22
tamaḥ andham to hellish lifeSB 10.2.22
tamaḥ ca and the mode of ignoranceSB 8.7.31
tamaḥ ca and the mode of ignoranceSB 8.7.31
tamaḥ sattvam both ignorance and goodnessSB 11.25.14
tamaḥ sattvam both ignorance and goodnessSB 11.25.14
tamaḥ-dharma on the platform of the mode of ignoranceCC Antya 4.60
tamaḥ-dharma on the platform of the mode of ignoranceCC Antya 4.60
tamaḥ-dharma performed under the mode of ignoranceCC Antya 4.57
tamaḥ-dharma performed under the mode of ignoranceCC Antya 4.57
tamaḥ-dhiyaḥ persons in the lowest material modesSB 1.10.25
tamaḥ-dhiyaḥ persons in the lowest material modesSB 1.10.25
tamaḥ-dvāraiḥ from the gates of ignoranceBG 16.22
tamaḥ-dvāraiḥ from the gates of ignoranceBG 16.22
tamaḥ-dvāram the door to darknessCC Madhya 22.82
tamaḥ-dvāram the door to darknessCC Madhya 22.82
tamaḥ-dvāram the way to the dungeon of a dark, hellish condition of lifeSB 5.5.2
tamaḥ-dvāram the way to the dungeon of a dark, hellish condition of lifeSB 5.5.2
tamaḥ-dvāreṇa the path of ignoranceSB 4.11.7
tamaḥ-dvāreṇa the path of ignoranceSB 4.11.7
tamaḥ-guṇa the material mode of darknessCC Madhya 20.307
tamaḥ-guṇa the material mode of darknessCC Madhya 20.307
tamaḥ-guṇa-āveśa absorbed by the quality of ignoranceCC Madhya 20.311
tamaḥ-guṇa-āveśa absorbed by the quality of ignoranceCC Madhya 20.311
tamaḥ-guṇa-āveśa absorbed by the quality of ignoranceCC Madhya 20.311
tamaḥ-janiḥ who was born in the mode of ignoranceSB 10.16.38
tamaḥ-janiḥ who was born in the mode of ignoranceSB 10.16.38
tamaḥ-juṣām of the persons suffering in ignoranceSB 4.24.52
tamaḥ-juṣām of the persons suffering in ignoranceSB 4.24.52
tamaḥ-juṣāṇaḥ overwhelmed by illusionSB 3.1.8
tamaḥ-juṣāṇaḥ overwhelmed by illusionSB 3.1.8
tamaḥ-juṣe who associates with the mode of ignoranceSB 12.10.17
tamaḥ-juṣe who associates with the mode of ignoranceSB 12.10.17
tamaḥ-layāḥ those who die in the mode of ignoranceSB 11.25.22
tamaḥ-layāḥ those who die in the mode of ignoranceSB 11.25.22
tamaḥ-madam this false prestige due to the mode of ignoranceSB 10.10.19
tamaḥ-madam this false prestige due to the mode of ignoranceSB 10.10.19
tamaḥ-mātra-ātmaka-ātmanām of those grossly in the mode of ignoranceSB 4.2.14-15
tamaḥ-mātra-ātmaka-ātmanām of those grossly in the mode of ignoranceSB 4.2.14-15
tamaḥ-mātra-ātmaka-ātmanām of those grossly in the mode of ignoranceSB 4.2.14-15
tamaḥ-mātra-ātmaka-ātmanām of those grossly in the mode of ignoranceSB 4.2.14-15
tamaḥ-mayam composed of the mode of ignoranceSB 12.11.14-15
tamaḥ-mayam composed of the mode of ignoranceSB 12.11.14-15
tamaḥ-mayam made of ignoranceSB 3.20.19
tamaḥ-mayam made of ignoranceSB 3.20.19
tamaḥ-nudaḥ the supreme lightSB 3.5.27
tamaḥ-nudaḥ the supreme lightSB 3.5.27
tamaḥ-nudau dissipating darknessCC Adi 1.2
tamaḥ-nudau dissipating darknessCC Adi 1.2
CC Adi 1.84
tamaḥ-nudau dissipating darknessCC Adi 1.84
CC Madhya 1.2
tamaḥ-nudau dissipating darknessCC Madhya 1.2
tamaḥ-plutau so absorbed in the mode of darknessSB 10.10.20-22
tamaḥ-plutau so absorbed in the mode of darknessSB 10.10.20-22
tamaḥ-prāyāḥ almost unconsciousSB 3.10.20
tamaḥ-prāyāḥ almost unconsciousSB 3.10.20
tamaḥ-rajaḥ-dharme by remaining in the modes of ignorance and passionCC Antya 4.57
tamaḥ-rajaḥ-dharme by remaining in the modes of ignorance and passionCC Antya 4.57
tamaḥ-rajaḥ-dharme by remaining in the modes of ignorance and passionCC Antya 4.57
tamaḥ-ruddham enwrapped by such darknessSB 1.15.30
tamaḥ-ruddham enwrapped by such darknessSB 1.15.30
tamaḥ-udbhūte when it was densely darkSB 10.3.6
tamaḥ-udbhūte when it was densely darkSB 10.3.6
tamaḥ-vat just as darknessSB 10.13.45
tamaḥ-vat just as darknessSB 10.13.45
tamaḥ-vṛtaḥ covered by material existenceSB 4.29.23-25
tamaḥ-vṛtaḥ covered by material existenceSB 4.29.23-25
tamaḥsu in the darkest part of material existenceSB 3.15.23
tamam in the superlative degreeSB 4.9.65
tama and by the mode of ignoranceSB 12.1.39-40
tama as well as by the mode of ignoranceSB 5.10.8
tama because of the darknessSB 10.20.8
tama by darknessIso 3
MM 19
SB 10.80.37
SB 11.3.14
SB 3.17.6
tama by darkness of ignoranceSB 4.28.25
tama by ignoranceSB 11.21.20
SB 7.3.26-27
tama by illusionBG 18.32
tama by the darknessSB 3.15.9
tama by the darkness of ignoranceSB 3.25.9
tama by the demon of ignorance personifiedSB 5.18.6
tama by the mode of darknessSB 5.11.4
tama by the mode of ignoranceSB 11.22.52
SB 11.25.20
SB 11.25.21
SB 11.4.5
tama in sleepSB 6.1.49
tama overwhelmed by the mode of ignoranceSB 10.4.45
tama which is surrounded by ignoranceSB 10.3.20
tama with the mode of ignoranceSB 11.25.9
tamasā āvṛtam covered with darknessSB 10.7.22
tamasā āvṛtam covered with darknessSB 10.7.22
tamasā āvṛtāyām being covered by darknessSB 5.9.13
tamasā āvṛtāyām being covered by darknessSB 5.9.13
tamasaḥ darknessSB 10.88.25-26
tamasaḥ from the darknessSB 3.31.21
tamasaḥ from the mode of ignoranceBG 14.17
tamasaḥ ignoranceSB 10.70.4-5
SB 3.25.8
tamasaḥ ignorantSB 3.10.21
tamasaḥ in the mode of ignoranceSB 1.2.24
tamasaḥ material contaminationSB 3.9.2
tamasaḥ material darknessSB 10.28.14
tamasaḥ of darknessCC Adi 5.39
MM 31
SB 3.10.17
SB 3.30.33
tamasaḥ of ignoranceSB 10.80.31
SB 2.6.10
SB 7.1.8
tamasaḥ of the darknessSB 4.31.29
SB 4.8.33
tamasaḥ of the darkness of material existenceSB 4.21.51
tamasaḥ of the mode of ignoranceBG 14.16
SB 11.25.2-5
tamasaḥ out of ignoranceSB 11.23.59
tamasaḥ the darknessBG 13.18
tamasaḥ the world of darknessSB 8.5.24
tamasaḥ to darknessBG 8.9
tamasaḥ to the darkness of the material worldSB 8.5.29
tamasi darknessSB 6.15.16
tamasi in darknessSB 11.4.19
SB 12.8.1
SB 3.29.5
SB 6.15.18-19
SB 6.7.14
tamasi in hellish lifeSB 5.14.28
tamasi in ignoranceBG 14.15
SB 5.14.20
SB 6.2.35
tamasi in the darknessSB 10.89.48-49
SB 12.9.16
SB 5.14.33
SB 5.26.17
tamasi in the darkness of illusionSB 4.7.30
tamasi in the material existence of darknessSB 4.28.27
tamasi into darknessSB 11.30.43
tamasi into hellSB 7.1.17
tamasi into the darkness of hellSB 11.8.7
tamasi into the darkness of ignoranceSB 5.6.11
tamasi the mode of ignoranceBG 14.13
tamasi when the darknessSB 9.14.27
tamasi when the mode of ignorance increasesSB 11.25.19
tamasi within the darknessSB 11.23.49
tamasi andhe into the darkest pitSB 11.26.3
tamasi andhe into the darkest pitSB 11.26.3
tamasi apāre because of an ignorant way of searchingSB 3.8.20
tamasi apāre because of an ignorant way of searchingSB 3.8.20
tamaskam and the mode of ignoranceSB 10.27.4
tamastati the extent of the darknessCC Adi 3.59
puruṣottama ācārya Puruṣottama ĀcāryaCC Madhya 10.103
adbhutatamam most wonderfulSB 7.1.21
adhaḥ tama downward into darkness or hellSB 9.3.21
uttama-adhikārī the topmost devoteeCC Madhya 22.65
āḍhya-tama very richSB 11.23.6
vasiṣṭha-asita-gautama-ādibhiḥ by such brāhmaṇas as Vasiṣṭha, Asita and GautamaSB 9.4.22
mahat-tama-agraṇyaḥ the best of the saintly persons (Yudhiṣṭhira)SB 7.11.1
ajñāna-tama of the darkness of ignoranceCC Adi 1.94
akhila-uttamam most excellent in personal qualitiesSB 12.3.36
alantama able in all respectsSB 6.17.37
amara-uttamam the best amongst the demigodsSB 1.16.31
su-amara-uttama the best among the gods (Kṛṣṇa)SB 1.19.27
amara-uttamaiḥ by the best of liberated personalitiesSB 11.2.2
andha-tama by such darkness of ignoranceSB 10.14.10
andha-tama blind darknessCC Adi 4.171
andham tama into the abyss of ignoranceSB 3.25.7
andhena tama by blinding darknessSB 10.56.19
uttama-ańgaiḥ headsBG 11.26-27
uttama-anna first-class riceCC Madhya 5.102
uttama anna fine riceCC Antya 2.110
anuttama the greatestSB 11.13.3
anuttamam the finestBG 7.24
anuttamam perfect to the fullest extentSB 1.11.30
anuttamam unexcelledSB 11.6.23
anuttamam unsurpassableSB 11.31.14
anuttamam unsurpassedSB 12.12.53
anuttamam the bestCC Madhya 11.151
uttama-śloka-guṇa-anuvādaḥ discussion of the pastimes and glories of the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.12.13
anya-tama most differentSB 7.2.41
anyatama who elseSB 1.18.21
anyatama anyone besides YourselfSB 3.13.43
anyatama unattachedSB 4.20.15
anyatama any one of manySB 5.8.18
anyatama another childSB 10.11.26
anyatama elseSB 10.42.3
anyatama the otherSB 11.24.4
anyatamam otherSB 1.7.28
anyatamam anyone elseSB 10.3.41
anyatamam anotherSB 10.24.35
anyatamau the other two (passion and ignorance)SB 11.13.1
apāntaratama VyāsadevaSB 9.4.57-59
katamaḥ api anyoneSB 7.1.32
uttama-āptibhiḥ by attainment of the highest platform of perfectionCC Madhya 24.181
uttama-śloka-pada-aravindayoḥ to the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is worshiped by transcendental prayersSB 7.4.42
arhat-tama the most respectableSB 4.7.15
arhat-tama O most exalted, worshipable personSB 5.3.4-5
arhat-tama O most worshipable of the worshipableSB 5.3.10
arhat-tama O supreme of all worshipable personsSB 7.9.50
arhat-tama O best of those who are worshipableSB 8.18.32
arhat-tamam the most worshipable person, the kingSB 9.19.23
arhat-tama of those (brāhmaṇas) who are most worshipableSB 10.86.52
arhattama-arpitam given by You, the supreme worshipable LordSB 8.22.4
arhattama VāmanadevaSB 4.6.40
arhattama-arpitam given by You, the supreme worshipable LordSB 8.22.4
uttama-āsanam a high seatSB 12.3.38
asat-tamam the most wretchedSB 1.17.10-11
asat-tamam most wickedSB 3.18.24
asat-tama the most cruelSB 4.8.67
asat-tama the most wretchedSB 4.9.32
asat-tama most abominableSB 4.29.55
asat-tama O most abominable oneSB 6.11.14
asat-tama the worst of the impureSB 10.44.33
asat-tama the most wickedSB 10.57.5
asattama-itaraiḥ having the opposite result to those who are not great soulsSB 4.3.17
asattama O most wicked oneSB 10.36.7
asattama most degradedSB 12.1.20
āścaryatamam the most wonderful activitiesSB 2.8.17
vasiṣṭha-asita-gautama-ādibhiḥ by such brāhmaṇas as Vasiṣṭha, Asita and GautamaSB 9.4.22
sumantuḥ gotamaḥ asitaḥ Sumantu, Gotama and AsitaSB 10.74.7-9
uttamaśloka-jana-āśrayā if one takes shelter of a devotee such as PrahlādaSB 9.4.18-20
astamaya sunsetSB 5.21.7
asura-uttama O best devotee in the family of asuras (atheists)SB 7.9.52
asura-uttama Prahlāda Mahārāja, the best of the family of asurasSB 7.9.55
asura-sattama O best of the asurasSB 8.19.38
bharadvājaḥ atha gautama Bharadvāja and GautamaSB 10.84.2-5
ātma-tamase the illusory energy of Your LordshipSB 8.17.9
bahu-vit-tama O greatly learned oneSB 3.10.2
bahu-vit-tamam the possessor of the broadest knowledgeSB 12.11.1
bhagavān puruṣa-uttama the Supreme Personality of Godhead (Nārāyaṇa)SB 10.88.38-39
pūrṇa-tama bhagavān the most complete manifestation of the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Madhya 20.402
bhagavat-tama by the great transcendentalistsSB 2.10.44
bhagavat-tama the best among the lordsSB 4.23.30
bhagavat-tama the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 11.19.36-39
bhāgavata-uttamam the first-class devotee of the LordSB 1.4.9
bhāgavata-uttama one of the topmost devotees of the LordSB 2.10.48
bhāgavata-uttama-uttama O great saintly person, greatest of all devotees (Śaunaka)SB 10.12.44
bhāgavata-uttama O best of devoteesSB 10.13.1
bhāgavata-uttamaiḥ by the most exalted devoteesSB 10.39.53-55
bhagavata-uttama a person advanced in devotional serviceSB 11.2.45
bhāgavata-uttama a first-class devoteeSB 11.2.48
bhāgavata-uttama is a first-class devoteeSB 11.2.50
bhāgavata-uttama the best of devoteesSB 11.2.52
mahā-bhāgavata-uttama the best of the topmost devoteesCC Madhya 8.44
bhāgavata-uttama a person advanced in devotional serviceCC Madhya 8.275
bhāgavata-uttama a person advanced in devotional serviceCC Madhya 22.72
bhāgavata-uttama the best of the devoteesCC Madhya 24.228
bhāgavata-uttama a person advanced in devotional serviceCC Madhya 25.129
bhāgavata-uttama the best of the devoteesCC Antya 7.21
bhakta-uttama a great devoteeCC Madhya 11.9
bharadvājaḥ atha gautama Bharadvāja and GautamaSB 10.84.2-5
bharata-sat-tama O best of the BhāratasBG 18.04
bhārata-uttama O best of the descendents of BharataSB 5.19.31
bhārgava-uttama the best descendant of BhṛguSB 12.10.39
bhiṣak-tamam the most expert physicianSB 4.30.38
bhiṣak-tama an experienced physicianSB 6.9.50
bhiṣak-tamau the two great physicians, the Aśvinī-kumārasSB 9.3.13
uttama bhoga first-class foodsCC Madhya 4.114
uttama-bhoga first-class foodCC Madhya 13.197
uttama-bhrātā the brother of UttamaSB 8.1.27
rajaḥ-sattva-tamaḥ-bhuvaḥ being generated from the three modes of material natureSB 11.14.5-7
brahma-vit-tama O Nārada, the best knower of transcendental knowledgeSB 2.5.32
brahma-vittama a learned scholar in spiritual scienceSB 9.15.10
brahma-vit-tama most perfectly realized in knowledge of the Absolute TruthSB 12.6.76-77
puruṣottama brahmacārī Puruṣottama BrahmacārīCC Adi 12.62
uttama brāhmaṇa a high-class brāhmaṇaCC Madhya 17.11
sarva-bṛhat-tama the summum bonum among relative truthsCC Madhya 24.71
uttamaḥ ca also UttamaSB 4.9.48
rajaḥ tamaḥ ca by representing the modes of passion and ignoranceSB 7.9.37
uttamaśloka-caritam the pastimes of the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 8.24.2-3
daiva-tamasya of the most respectable demigod (Lord Śiva)SB 4.4.28
dānava-sat-tama the best of the demons, namely JambhāsuraSB 8.11.17
daridra-tama the poorest personSB 10.81.15
darśanīya-tamam most charming to look atSB 3.28.16
darśanīya-tamam the superexcellent featureSB 4.8.49
darśanīya-tamam the most beautiful to beholdSB 10.51.1-6
śrī-puruṣottama-dāsa Śrī Puruṣottama dāsaCC Adi 11.38
puruṣottama dekhi' after visiting Jagannātha PurīCC Madhya 9.170
deva-uttamam an exalted demigodSB 10.64.7
puruṣottama-deva King Puruṣottama-devaCC Madhya 5.122
devarṣeḥ tama the great sage Nārada became so angrySB 10.10.1
uttama-dhanam a great treasureSB 5.3.3
uttamaśloka-dhuryāya the best of very famous personsSB 9.11.7
dhvasta-tamasaḥ being freed from all kinds of ignoranceSB 4.24.73
dīrgha-tamam long-cherishedSB 3.1.37
dīrghatamaḥ-pitā he became the father of DīrghatamaSB 9.17.4
dīrghatamasaḥ from DīrghatamaSB 9.17.4
dīrghatamasaḥ by the semen of DīrghatamaSB 9.23.5
draviḍa-sat-tama the best of those born in Draviḍa-deśa, South IndiaSB 8.4.7
rajaḥ-tamaḥ-sattva-vibhakta-karma-dṛk a conditioned soul who sees only immediately beneficial fruitive activities and their results, which are divided into three groups by the modes of goodness, passion and ignoranceSB 5.13.1
duḥkha-śoka-tamaḥ-nudam to minimize their unlimited unhappiness and lamentation, which are caused by ignoranceSB 9.24.61
dvija-uttama O best of the brāhmaṇasBG 1.7
dvija-sattama O purest of all brāhmaṇasSB 2.8.13
dvija-uttamaiḥ by the learned brāhmaṇasSB 3.2.32
dvija-uttama O best amongst the brāhmaṇasSB 3.7.36
dvija-uttama O best of the brāhmaṇasSB 6.14.4
dvija-uttamaiḥ with ceremonies performed by first-class brāhmaṇas with the above qualificationsSB 10.7.13-15
dvija-uttamaiḥ by the chief brāhmaṇas (headed by Marīci)SB 10.39.53-55
dvija-uttama first-class brāhmaṇasSB 10.53.12
dvija-sat-tama O purest of twice-born brāhmaṇasSB 11.1.9
dvija-uttama a brāhmaṇaSB 11.17.38
dvija-sat-tama now the most pious brāhmaṇaSB 11.23.31
dvipa-uttama in the best of powerful elephantsSB 9.4.27
dyumat-tamam supremely effulgentSB 10.89.52
eho uttama it is very goodCC Madhya 8.76
eho uttama this is very goodCC Madhya 8.79
ekatamam one of themSB 10.69.7-8
ekatamam one of themSB 10.80.16-17
gandharva-sattama the best of GandharvalokaSB 8.4.3-4
gaura-priya-tama very, very dear to Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 14.3
vasiṣṭha-asita-gautama-ādibhiḥ by such brāhmaṇas as Vasiṣṭha, Asita and GautamaSB 9.4.22
gautama GautamaSB 1.9.6-7
gautama KṛpācāryaSB 1.10.9-10
gautama GautamaSB 6.15.12-15
gautama GautamaSB 8.13.5
bharadvājaḥ atha gautama Bharadvāja and GautamaSB 10.84.2-5
ghṛtācī gautama Ghṛtācī and GautamaSB 12.11.39
gautamam KṛpaSB 10.49.1-2
uttama-gāya of Lord Viṣṇu (of excellent renown)SB 4.12.21
ghora-tama most terribleSB 10.17.23
ghora-tama most terribleSB 10.54.40
ghṛtācī gautama Ghṛtācī and GautamaSB 12.11.39
sumantuḥ gotamaḥ asitaḥ Sumantu, Gotama and AsitaSB 10.74.7-9
puruṣottama-grāma the place known as Puruṣottama, Jagannātha PurīCC Madhya 14.232
gṛha-uttamaiḥ with first-class housesSB 5.24.9
guhya-tamam the most confidentialBG 9.1
guhya-tamam the most confidentialBG 15.20
sarva-guhya-tamam the most confidential of allBG 18.64
guhya-tamam very confidentiallySB 1.9.19
sarva-guhya-tamam most confidential of allCC Madhya 22.57-58
guhyatamam most confidentialSB 1.5.30
uttama-śloka-guṇa-anuvādaḥ discussion of the pastimes and glories of the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.12.13
guṇa-vat-tama being the ultimate abode of these modesSB 11.24.22-27
guṇavat-tamam highly deliciousSB 9.4.33-35
guru-tama the supreme spiritual masterSB 10.69.15
uttama hañā although very respectableCC Madhya 13.17
uttama hañā being actually superior in every respectCC Madhya 16.263-264
uttama hañā although being very much exaltedCC Antya 20.22
uttama hañā although being very much exaltedCC Antya 20.25
hita-tama who acts most favorablySB 10.36.28
īpsita-tamam most desirableSB 3.33.20
iṣṭa-tamam most desiredSB 11.11.34-41
asattama-itaraiḥ having the opposite result to those who are not great soulsSB 4.3.17
sattvam rajaḥ tamaḥ iti known as goodness, passion and ignoranceSB 10.85.13
jala-ja-uttamam the conchshell, the best of the aquaticsSB 8.4.26
jagat-tama the darkness of the material worldCC Madhya 24.1
jala-ja-uttamam the conchshell, the best of the aquaticsSB 8.4.26
uttamaśloka-jana-āśrayā if one takes shelter of a devotee such as PrahlādaSB 9.4.18-20
puruṣottama-jānāre at Puruṣottama Jānā, the princeCC Antya 9.99
uttama-śloka-janeṣu among devotees who are simply attached to the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 6.11.27
jīva-uttama the best of the living entitiesCC Madhya 20.302
sattva-rajaḥ-tamaḥ-juṣaḥ infected with sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa or tamo-guṇaSB 8.16.14
uttama-kalpakaiḥ with very opulent paraphernaliaSB 9.11.1
kalyāṇa-kṛt-tama O you who are the best person to act for our welfareSB 8.16.17
kalyāṇa-tamam most auspiciousIso 16
uttama kariyā so nicelyCC Antya 12.132
rajaḥ-tamaḥ-sattva-vibhakta-karma-dṛk a conditioned soul who sees only immediately beneficial fruitive activities and their results, which are divided into three groups by the modes of goodness, passion and ignoranceSB 5.13.1
karma-uttamam the very expert service in military artSB 8.10.43
katama of any (of the devotees)SB 10.14.34
katama who elseSB 2.7.40
katama who other thanSB 3.31.16
katama whoSB 4.4.11
katama whichSB 5.10.16
katama whoSB 6.15.2
katamaḥ api anyoneSB 7.1.32
katama whoCC Madhya 24.21
katamat what is thatSB 4.25.4
kratu-uttamam the best of sacrificesSB 4.3.3
kratu-uttamam the most important sacrifice, named aśvamedhaSB 8.18.21
pāpa-kṛt-tama the greatest sinnerBG 4.36
priya-kṛt-tama more dearBG 18.69
kalyāṇa-kṛt-tama O you who are the best person to act for our welfareSB 8.16.17
kṛtamatiḥ having decidedSB 1.8.8
kṣudra-tamam most insignificantSB 4.29.54
uttama-kulam the highest classSB 3.16.23
kuru-sat-tama O best amongst the KurusBG 4.31
kuru-sat-tama O best of the Kuru dynastySB 8.4.16
uttama-śloka-lālasaḥ who was so fond of serving the Supreme Personality of Godhead, known as UttamaślokaSB 5.14.43
uttamaḥ-śloka-lālasaḥ being captivated by the transcendental qualities, pastimes and association of the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Madhya 23.25
uttama-śloka-lālasaḥ being captivated by the transcendental qualities, pastimes and association of the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Antya 6.137
līlā-puruṣottama the Lord Puruṣottama of pastimesCC Madhya 20.240
uttamaḥ-śloka-līlayā by the pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, UttamaḥślokaCC Madhya 24.47
uttamaḥ-śloka-līlayā by the pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, UttamaḥślokaCC Madhya 25.157
mahā-tama mahā-tamas, or mahā-mohaSB 3.20.18
mahā-tama great darknessCC Adi 3.61
mahā-bhāgavata-uttama the best of the topmost devoteesCC Madhya 8.44
mahat-tama the greatest amongst the living beingsSB 1.18.14
mahat-tama the greatest of all greatsSB 1.18.15
mahat-tama great devoteesSB 1.18.19
mahat-tama of the great soulsSB 1.19.13
mahat-tama of the great devoteesSB 4.20.24
mahat-tama greater than the greatestSB 4.21.7
mahat-tama-agraṇyaḥ the best of the saintly persons (Yudhiṣṭhira)SB 7.11.1
mahat-tama great saintsSB 11.12.7
mahottama very greatCC Adi 12.79
mānava-uttama the best of the human beingsSB 4.10.21
mauli-uttamaiḥ with valuable turbans on their headsCC Adi 5.141
mauli-uttamaiḥ with valuable turbans on their headsCC Madhya 20.306
uttamaḥ-śloka-maulim the best of the personalities who are worshiped by choice poetry or who are transcendental to all material positionsCC Antya 3.62
rajaḥ-sattva-tamaḥ-mayāḥ created by the three modes of material nature (passion, goodness and ignorance)SB 6.1.41
sattva-rajaḥ-tamaḥ-mayam made of the three modes of material natureSB 5.25.8
rajaḥ-sattva-tamaḥ-mayī consisting of three modes of nature (passion, goodness and ignorance)SB 10.10.30-31
uttama-michari lozengesCC Madhya 19.179
mīḍhuḥ-tama the best of the benedictors (Lord Śiva)SB 4.7.6
mūḍha-tama the lowest of the foolsSB 3.7.17
mukhya-tama chiefCC Madhya 24.59
muni-sattama O great sageSB 1.6.4
muni-sat-tama the greatest among the devotee philosophersSB 1.13.40
muni-sattama O best of all munis, king of the munis (Śukadeva Gosvāmī)SB 10.1.2
nara-uttamam the supermost human beingSB 1.2.4
nara-uttama the first-class human beingSB 1.13.27
navadvīpe puruṣottama Puruṣottama of NavadvīpaCC Adi 11.33
nṛpa-sattama O best of kingsSB 4.31.26
duḥkha-śoka-tamaḥ-nudam to minimize their unlimited unhappiness and lamentation, which are caused by ignoranceSB 9.24.61
uttama-śloka-pada-aravindayoḥ to the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is worshiped by transcendental prayersSB 7.4.42
uttama-śloka-pādayoḥ of the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.1.3
puruṣottama paṇḍita Puruṣottama PaṇḍitaCC Adi 12.63
pāpa-kṛt-tama the greatest sinnerBG 4.36
parama puruṣa-uttama the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Madhya 14.220
parama uttama very good, very goodCC Antya 5.94
uttama-śloka-parāyaṇāḥ devoted to the cause of the Personality of GodheadSB 1.4.12
saptama paricchede in the Seventh ChapterCC Adi 17.320
saptama-paricchede in the Seventh ChapterCC Antya 20.114
pātra-vittamaiḥ who are expert in finding the actual person to whom charity must be givenSB 7.14.34
dīrghatamaḥ-pitā he became the father of DīrghatamaSB 9.17.4
su-praja-tama surrounded by many childrenSB 4.23.33
uttama prakāre very nicelyCC Madhya 9.217
rajaḥ-tamaḥ-prakṛtayaḥ those bound in the modes of passion and ignoranceSB 11.12.3-6
uttama-prasāda very palatable foodCC Antya 10.109
yāhāń prema-uttama wherever there is pure loveCC Antya 2.81
preṣṭha-tama absolutely the most dear oneSB 11.8.35
preṣṭhatama belovedSB 9.19.7
priya-kṛt-tama more dearBG 18.69
priya-tamaiḥ which is most dear to everyoneSB 1.13.20
priya-tamam dearmostSB 4.24.44
priya-tamam her dearmost husbandSB 4.28.45
priya-tama the most dearSB 4.29.51
priya-tama most dearSB 5.14.16
priya-tamam the foremostSB 5.18.24
priya-tama naturally attractedSB 7.15.70
priya-tamam his dear friend and brotherSB 10.5.21
priya-tamam the dearmostSB 10.6.34
priya-tama most beloved devoteeSB 10.10.25
priya-tama most dearSB 10.14.52
priya-tama most dearSB 10.14.54
priya-tama of their dearmostSB 10.23.23
priya-tama given by their beloved (Kṛṣṇa)SB 10.47.38
priya-tamam who is most dearSB 10.57.24
priya-tamam his dearmost friendSB 10.71.25
priya-tamam is most dearSB 11.9.1
priya-tama most dearSB 11.14.15
priya-tama most dearSB 11.19.3
priya-tama dearmostCC Adi 6.102
priya-tama dearCC Madhya 10.117
gaura-priya-tama very, very dear to Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 14.3
priya-tama very dearCC Antya 15.3
priyatama very dearCC Antya 9.120
priyatama very dearSB 2.9.41
priyatamasya of the most belovedSB 1.10.17
pūjya-tama the most worshipableCC Madhya 25.72
puṇya-tamam supremely virtuousSB 1.10.26
puṇya-tamam most sacredSB 3.33.31
puṇya-tama the most sacredSB 7.14.27-28
puṇya-tamam supremely purifyingMM 34
pūrṇa-tama most completeCC Madhya 20.398