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Amarakosha Search
Results for sub
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
agnijvālāFeminineSingularsubhikṣā, dhātakī, dhātṛpuṣpikā
subhagāsutaḥ2.6.24MasculineSingular‍saubhāgineyaḥ
Monier-Williams Search
Results for sub
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
सुब्in compound for sup-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबभ्रुmfn. dark brown View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबद्धmf(-)n. bound fast View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबद्धmf(-)n. firmly closed, clenched View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबद्ध su-bandha- etc. See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबहुmf(-)n. very much, very many, very numerous etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबहुind. much, very much, greatly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुmfn. having strong or handsome arms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुm. Name of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुm. of one of skanda-'s attendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुm. of a dānava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुm. of a rākṣasa- (see -śatru-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुm. of a yakṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुm. of a son of dhṛta-rāṣṭra- and king of cedi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुm. of a king of videhā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुm. of a son of mati-nāra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुm. of a son of citraka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुm. of a son of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुm. of a son of śatru-ghna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुm. of a son of pratibāhu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुm. of a son of kuvalayāśva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुm. of a brother of alarka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुm. of a bodhi-sattva- and a bhikṣu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुm. of a monkey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुf. (/us-) Name of an apsaras- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबहुधाind. very much, often, frequently View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुकm. Name of a yakṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुपरिपृच्छाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबहुशस्ind. idem or 'ind. very much, often, frequently ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुशत्रुm. Name of rāma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबहुश्रुतmfn. deeply versed in the veda- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबाहुयुक्तm. Name of a king of the gandharva-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबलm. "very powerful", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबलm. of a mythical bird (son of vainateya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबलm. of a son of manu- bhautya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबलm. of a son of sumati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबलm. of a king of the gāndhāra-s (father of śakuni- and the wife of dhṛta-rāṣṭra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबालmfn. very childish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबालm. a good boy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबालm. a god View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबालn. Name of an upaniṣad- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबलचन्द्रm. (with ācārya-) Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबालधिSee -vāladhi-.
सुबालाग्रामm. Name of a village View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबालकm. Name of the author of a kāma-śāstra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबलपुत्रm. "son of subala-", Name of śakuni- (see saubala-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबलवत्mfn. very strong or powerful, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबालिशmf(ā-)n. very childish or foolish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्धmfn. well bound or secured, having a good binding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्धm. sesamum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्धनविमोचनm. "good deliverer from bonds", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबान्धवm. "good friend", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्धु mfn. closely connected or related, good friend View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्धुm. Name of a ṛṣi- (having the patronymic gaupāyana- or laupāyana- and author of various hymns in ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्धुm. Name of the author of the vāsava-dattā- (who prob. lived in 7th century A.D.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्धुm. of a merchant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्धुm. of various other persons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्धुmfn. closely connected or related, good friend View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्धुm. Name of a ṛṣi- (having the patronymic gaupāyana- or laupāyana- and author of various hymns in ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्धुm. Name of the author of the vāsava-dattā- (who prob. lived in 7th century A.D.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्धुm. of a merchant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्धुm. of various other persons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्तn. technical expression for an inflected noun as ending with a case-termination View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्तप्रकाशm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्तप्रक्रियासर्वस्वn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्तरूपावलीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्तसंग्रहm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्तशिरोमणिm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्तवादm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्तव्याख्यानn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबर्हिस्mfn. having good sacrificial grass View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबर्थm. (prob.) the meaning of a case-termination View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबर्थनिर्णयm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबर्थसंग्रहm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबर्थतत्त्वावलोकm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्धmfn. smothered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभ् cl.9.6. P. subhnāti-, sumbhati-, (prob.) to smother (only imperfect tense asubhnan- ;and pr. p. sumbhan- ) ; cl.1.6. P. sobhati-, subhati- varia lectio for śubh- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभn. (for subha-See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order) an auspicious constellation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभmfn. (for su-bha-See) , often wrong reading for śubha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभबोधार्थमालापद्धतिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रmf(ā-)n. (s/u--) very glorious or splendid or auspicious or fortunate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रm. Azadirachta Indica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रm. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रm. (prob.) of sanat-kumāra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रm. of a son of vasu-deva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रm. of a son of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रm. of a son of idhmajihva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रm. of the last man converted by gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रm. of a scholar, Jain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रm. of a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्राf. Name of various well-known plants (exempli gratia, 'for example' Ichnocarpus Frutescens;Curcuma Zedoaria;Prosopis Spicigera etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्राf. (in music) a particular śruti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्राf. a form of durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्राf. Name of a younger sister of kṛṣṇa- and wife of arjuna- (she was forcibly carried off by arjuna- from dvārakā- wish kṛṣṇa-'s permission, as described in ;her image is borne in procession with those of jagannātha- and bala-rāma-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्राf. of a wife of durgama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्राf. of a daughter of balin- and wife of avīkṣita- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्राf. of a grand daughter of rukmin- and wife of aniruddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्राf. of a daughter of the asura- su-māya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्राf. of a mythical cow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्राf. of a poetess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रn. fortune, welfare View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रn. Name of a catvara- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रn. of a varṣa- in plakṣadvīpa- ruled by su-bhadra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्राधनंजयn. Name of a nāṭaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रहरणn. "the carrying off of subhadrā-", Name of a section in the (see above) and of other poems View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रकm. the car or vehicle of a god for carrying his image in procession View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रकm. the plant Aegle Marmelos View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रका(s/ubhadrikā-) f. a courtezan View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रकाf. a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रकाf. of a younger sister of kṛṣṇa- (See next) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रकn. a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्राणीf. Ficus Heterophylla View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रापरिणयn. Name of a nāṭaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रपूर्वजm. "elder brother of subhadrā-", Name of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रविजयm. Name of a nāṭaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभद्रेशm. "lord of subhadrā-", Name of arjuna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगmf(ā-)n. possessing good fortune, very fortunate or prosperous, lucky, happy, blessed, highly favoured etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगmf(ā-)n. beautiful, lovely, charming, pleasing, pretty (vocative case subhaga-and subhage-,often in friendly address) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगmf(ā-)n. nice (ironical) (equals śobhana-paśu- Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगmf(ā-)n. liked, beloved, dear (as a wife) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगmf(ā-)n. delicate, slender, thin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगmf(ā-)n. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') suitable for (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगm. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगm. borax View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगm. Michelia Champaka View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगm. Jonesia Asoka View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगm. red Amaranth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगm. Name of a son of subala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगाf. good fortune (in this sense the locative case āsu-seems to be used) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगm. a beloved or favourite wife (see compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगm. a five-year-old girl representing durgā- at festivals View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगm. musk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगm. Name of various plants (a species of Musa;Glycine Debilis;Cyperus Rotundus etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगm. (in music) a particular rāgiṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगm. Name of a daughter of prādhā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगm. of one of the mātṛ-s attending on skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगm. of a kind of fairy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगn. good fortune View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगn. bitumen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभागmf(-)n. fortunate, wealthy, rich View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभागाf. Name of a daughter of raudrāśva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभग -bhaṅga- etc. See p.1229, columns 2, 3. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगाखेटभूमिmfn. having fine hunting-grounds ( subhagākheṭabhūmitva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगाखेटभूमित्वn. subhagākheṭabhūmi
सुभगम्ind. beautifully, charmingly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगम्ind. greatly, in a high degree (varia lectio for sutarām-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगमानिन्mfn. thinking one's self fortunate or pleasing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगम्भविष्णुmfn. becoming fortunate or pleasing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगम्भावुकmfn. idem or 'mfn. becoming fortunate or pleasing ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगंकरणmf(ī-)n. making happy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगंकरणmf(ī-)n. charming, enchanting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगंकरणn. fascinating, winning (a woman) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगम्मन्यmfn. (equals -mānin-) ( subhagammanyabhāva -bhāva- m."self-conceit, vanity") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगम्मन्यभावm. subhagammanya
सुभगानन्दm. Name of a prahasana- ( subhagānandanātha -nātha- m.Name of an author ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगानन्दनाथm. subhagānanda
सुभगार्चनचन्द्रिकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगार्चारत्नn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगसंदेशm. Name of a poem by nārāyaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगासुतm. (equals -tanaya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगताf. love, conjugal felicity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगातनयm. the son of a beloved wife or of an honoured mother View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगत्वn. welfare, prosperity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगत्वn. favour, dearness (especially of a wife)
सुभगयNom. P. yati-, to make beautiful, adorn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगोदयm. "rise of prosperity", Name of work (also subhagodayadarpaṇa ya-darpaṇa-,m.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभगोदयदर्पणm. subhagodaya
सुभाग्यmfn. very fortunate, enviable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभैक्षn. good alms, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभैरवmf(ī-)n. very fearful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाजनn. a good receptacle or vessel of any kind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभक्ष्यn. excellent food View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभक्तिf. great devotion to or love for (-tas-,"out of great devotion") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभक्ति -bhakṣya- See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभंसस्mfn. (prob.) having a beautiful mons Veneris View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभङ्गmfn. easily broken, brittle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभङ्गm. the cocoa-nut tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभणितmfn. well spoken View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभञ्जनm. a red species of Hyperanthera Morunga View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाञ्जनm. equals śobhāñjana-, Moringa Pterygosperma View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभानुmfn. shining beautifully or brightly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभानुm. Name of the 17th (or 51st) year of Jupiter's cycle of 60 years View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभानुm. of a son of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभरmf(ā-)n. well compacted, solid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभरmf(ā-)n. dense, abundant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभरmf(ā-)n. easily carried or handled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभरmf(ā-)n. well practised, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभरmf(ā-)n. equals su-poṣa- ( subharatā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभरताf. subhara
सुभास्mfn. shining beautifully View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभासm. Name of a dānava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभासm. of a son of su-dhanvan- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभसद्mfn. having beautiful buttocks, (in Comparative degree s/attarā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषणm. Name of a son of yuyudhan- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषिन्mfn. speaking friendly words View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषिन्mfn. spoken mildly or gently View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितmf(ā-)n. spoken well or eloquently View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितmf(ā-)n. speaking or discoursing well, eloquent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितm. a particular buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितn. good or eloquent speech, witty saying, good counsel etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितचन्द्रिकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितगवेषिन्m. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितहारावलिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितकौस्तुभm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितकाव्यn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितमञ्जरीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितमयmf(ī-)n. consisting of good sayings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितमुक्तावलिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितनीवीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितप्रबन्धm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितरसास्वादजातरोमाञ्चकञ्चुकmfn. having (as it were) armour consisting of bristling (or thrilling) hairs produced by tasting the flavour of delightful words
सुभाषितरत्नाकरm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितरत्नकोशm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितरत्नसंदोहm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितार्णवm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितसंग्रहm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितसमुच्चयm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितश्लोकm. plural Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितसुधाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितसुधानन्दलहरीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितसुरद्रुमm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितावलिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभास्वरmfn. shining brightly, radiant, splendid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभास्वरm. plural Name of a class of deceased ancestors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभटm. a great warrior, champion, soldier etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभटm. Name of various men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभटm. of a poet (author of the drama dūtāṅgada-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभटाf. Name of a princess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभटदत्तm. Name of author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभटवर्मन्m. Name of author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभट्टm. a very learned man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभट्टm. a distinguished warrior (incorrect for -bhaṭa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभवmfn. equals uttama-janman- () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभवm. Name of a king of the ikṣvāku-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभवस् varia lectio for prec. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभावितmfn. well soaked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभावित्वn. the necessity of being good or excellent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभव्यmfn. very pretty or handsome View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभयंकरmfn. causing great fear or danger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभयानकmfn. causing great terror, very alarming, terrible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभेषजmfn. (s/u--) a good remedy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभेषजn. "collection of remedies", Name of a Vedic book (perhaps the ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभिक्षmf(ā-)n. having good food or an abundant supply of provisions etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभिक्षाf. Lythrun Fructicosum or Grislea Tomentosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभिक्षn. (am-) abundance of food (especially that given as alms), abundant supply of provisions, plenty (opp. to dur-bh-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभिक्षकरmfn. causing abundance of food or good times View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभिक्षकारिन्mfn. causing abundance of food or good times View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभिक्षकृत्mfn. causing abundance of food or good times View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभिक्षावहmfn. causing abundance of food or good times View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभीमmfn. very dreadful or terrible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभीमm. Name of a malignant demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभीमाf. Name of a wife of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभीरक m. the palāśa- tree, Butea Frondosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभीरवm. the palāśa- tree, Butea Frondosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभीरुकn. silver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभिषज्(s/u--) mfn. healing well (only superl. ṣak-tama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभीतmfn. greatly afraid of (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभोगाf. Name of a dik-kumārī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभोगीनmf(ā-)n. very fit to be enjoyed, very desirable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभोग्यmf(ā-)n. easy to be enjoyed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभोजmfn. eating well View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभोजनn. good food View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभोजस्mfn. bountiful, generous, plentiful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभ्राज्(Nominal verb -bhrāṭ-) m. "shining brightly", Name of a son of deva-bhrāj- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभ्राजm. "shining brightly", Name of a son of deva-bhrāj- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभ्रातृm. a good brother View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभृशmfn. very vehement, very much, exceeding ( subhṛśam am- ind."excessively") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभृशम्ind. subhṛśa
सुभृतmfn. (s/u--) well borne or maintained, well cherished or protected View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभृतmfn. well paid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभृतmfn. heavily laden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभ्रु f. a beautiful brow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभ्रुmfn. (Nominal verb sg. mf. -bhrūs- accusative mf. -bhruvam- f.also -bhrūm-; instrumental case f. -bhruvā-; dative case -bhruve-or vai-; ablative -bhruvas-or vās-; genitive case plural -bhrūvām-or -bhrūṇām-; vocative case sg. -bhrūs-or generally -bhru-,of. ) lovely-browed etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभ्रूf. a beautiful brow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभ्रूmfn. (Nominal verb sg. mf. -bhrūs- accusative mf. -bhruvam- f.also -bhrūm-; instrumental case f. -bhruvā-; dative case -bhruve-or vai-; ablative -bhruvas-or vās-; genitive case plural -bhrūvām-or -bhrūṇām-; vocative case sg. -bhrūs-or generally -bhru-,of. ) lovely-browed etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभ्रूf. (ūs-) a (lovely browed) maiden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभ्रूf. Name of one of the mātṛ-s attending on skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभ्रुनासाक्षिकेशान्तmfn. (-bhrū-) having handsome brows (and) nose (and) eyes (and) hair View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभ्रूनासाक्षिकेशान्त subhrunāsākṣikeśānta mfn. having handsome brows (and) nose (and) eyes (and) hair View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभ्रुनासाक्षिकेशान्त subhrūnāsākṣikeśānta mfn. having handsome brows (and) nose (and) eyes (and) hair View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूmfn. (n. plural mf. -bhv/as-) of an excellent nature, good, strong, beautiful etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभुजmfn. having handsome arms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभुजाf. Name of an apsaras- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभुक्तmfn. well eaten View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूमm. Name of kārtavīrya- (as the 8th jaina- cakra-vartin- or universal emperor) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूमिf. a good place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूमिm. Name of a son of ugra-sena- (see next) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूमिकn. (orf(ā-).) Name of a place near the sarasvatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूमिपm. Name of a son of ugra-sena- (varia lectio su-bhūṣaṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूषणmf(ā-)n. well adorned or decorated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूषणm. See su-bhūmi-pa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूषणाf. Name of a kiṃnarī- (see next) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूषणभूषिताf. Name of a kiṃnarī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूतmfn. well made or done (as food) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूताf. that part of the frame enshrining the universal Spirit which faces the north View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूतn. welfare, well-being View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूतकृत्mfn. causing welfare or part View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूतिf. (s/u--) well-being, welfare View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूतिm. Name of a lexicographer (also called -candra-;he wrote a commentator or commentary on the amara-koṣa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूतिm. of a Brahman (son of vasu-bhūti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूतिm. of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूतिकm. Aegle Marmelos View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूतिपालm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभूयस्(s/u--) mfn. much more, far more View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभ्वन् varia lectio for subhvan- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबीभत्सmfn. very disgusting or hideous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबीजn. good seed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबीजm. "having good seed", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबीजm. the poppy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबोधm. right intelligence, good information or knowledge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबोधm. Name of an astronomy work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबोधाf. Name of various Comms. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबोधmf(ā-)n. easy to be understood, easily taught, easy ( subodham am- ind.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबोधजातकn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबोधकारm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबोधम्ind. subodha
सुबोधमञ्जरीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबोधनाf. Name of a tantra- work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबोधनीf. Name of various Comms. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबोधपञ्चिकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबोधिकाf. Name of a commentator or commentary on the sārasvata-prakriyā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबोधिनीf. Name of various Comms. (especially on the bhagavad-gītā-, the mitākṣarā-, the brahma-- sūtra-s etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबोधिनीकारm. the author of the subodhinī- (a gram. work) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मबन्धूकmfn. on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मन्m. a good Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मन्m. Name of a deva-putra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मन्n. the good brahman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मन्(-br/ahman-) mfn. attended with good prayers or having a good brahman- (priest) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्राह्मण(s/u--) m. a good Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मणीयmfn. relating to the subrahmaṇya- (See next) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मन्वासुदेवm. Name of the son of vasu-deva- in the form of brahmā- (id est of kṛṣṇa- identified with the Creator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मण्यmfn. very kind or dear to Brahmans (said of viṣṇu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मण्यm. Name of one of the three assistants of the udgātṛ- priest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मण्यm. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मण्यm. of skanda- or kārttikeya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मण्यm. of various authors etc. (also with ācārya-, paṇḍita-, yajvan-,and śāstrin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मण्याf. a particular recitation of certain mantra-s by the udgātṛ- priests (sometimes also the priest himself) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मण्यn. (equals f.) a particular recitation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मण्यn. Name of a district in the south of India View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मण्य su-brāhmaṇa- See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मण्यक्षेत्रमाहात्म्यn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मण्यमाहात्म्यn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मण्यपद्धतिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मण्यपञ्चरत्नn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मण्यप्रयोगm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मण्यपूजाविधिm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मण्यसहस्रनामन्n. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मण्याष्टकn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्रह्मण्यस्तोत्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबुद्धिf. good understanding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबुद्धिmfn. of good understanding, wise, clever, intelligent etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबुद्धिm. Name of a son of māra-putra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबुद्धिm. of two kings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबुद्धिm. of a crow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबुद्धिचन्द्रm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबुद्धिमत्mfn. very intelligent or wise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबुद्धिमिश्रm. Name of author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबुद्धिमिश्रमहेश्वरm. Name of author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबुधmf(ā-)n. vigilant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुब्विभक्त्यर्थविवेकm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
असुभङ्गm. breaking of life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
असुभङ्गm. fear about life, danger of life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
असुभृत्m. a living being, a creature, man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ब्रह्मतत्त्वसुबोधिनीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धर्मसुबोधिनीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गर्भसुभगmf(ā-)n. blessing the foetus. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कर्णसुभगmfn. pleasant to the ear, pleasant to be heard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महासुभिक्षn. great abundance of food, good times (plural) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मन्दसुबोधिनीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मुग्धबोधसुबोधिनीf. Name of work connected with vopadeva-'s grammar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
न्यायार्थलघुसुबोधिनीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पांसुभवn. equals -ja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्राकृतसुभाषितावलीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रकृतिसुभगmfn. naturally pleasant or agreeable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रवातसुभगmfn. (a spot), delightful by (reason of) a fresh breeze View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रायश्चित्तसुबोधिनीf. Name of work
रघुवंशसुबोधिनीf. Name of Comm. of raghu-vaṃśa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रामसुब्रह्मण्यm. (with śāstrin-) Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
षड्भाषासुबन्तादर्शm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
षड्भाषासुबन्तरूपादर्श m. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
साधनसुबोधनीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुद्रसुभगाf. "ocean's-favourite", the Ganges View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ससुब्रह्मण्यmfn. with the subrahmaṇya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शिञ्जद्वलयसुभगmfn. pleasant with tinkling bracelets or zones View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्खलितसुभगम्ind. dashing or leaping along pleasantly (over a rocky bed, said of a stream) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रवणसुभग() mfn. pleasant to the ear. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्तनितसुभगम्ind. with pleasant rumbling sounds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुसुभिक्षn. great abundance of food View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्वरसुबोधिनीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तिङ्सुबन्तचयm. "collection of verbs and nouns (sub-anta-) ", a phrase View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वैदिकसुबोधिनीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वसुबन्धुm. Name of a celebrated Buddhist scholar (wrong reading -bandha-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वसुभn. the constellation dhaniṣṭhā- (presided over by the vasu-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वसुभn. Name of a town View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वासुभm. or n. (?) Name of a place (see vasubha-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वासुभद्रm. Name of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वसुभागm. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वसुभरितmfn. full of treasures. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वसुभट्टm. Aeschynomene or Sesbana Grandiflora View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वसुभृद्यानm. Name of a son of vasiṣṭha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वसुभूतm. Name of a gandharva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वसुभूतिm. Name of various men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
Apte Search
Results for sub1 result
subhadraḥ वासुभद्रः Name of Kṛiṣṇa.
Macdonell Vedic Search
Results for sub3 results
subh u̇ su-bh u̇, a. excellent, ii. 35, 7 [sú well + bhu being].
subhaga su-bhága, a. having a good share, opulent; genial, vii. 63, 1.
subhṛta sú-bhṛta, pp. well cherished, iv. 50, 7.
Macdonell Search
Results for sub6 results
subaddha pp. bound fast (RV.1); firmly clenched (fist; C.); -bándhu (or ú, AV.), a. closely connected or related; m. good friend; N.; -bala, m. N.; -bahu, a. (v-î) very much or many; -bâhú, a. fair armed (V., E.); m. (C.) N. of various men; N. of a Dânava and of a Râkshasa: -satru, m. foe of Subâhu, ep. of Râma; -bîga, n. good seed; -buddhi, f. good understanding; a. intelligent, shrewd, wise; m. Good-wit, N. of a crow: -mat, a. very intelligent or wise; -bodha, a. easy to recognise or understand; -bodhinî, f. (facilitating understanding) T. of commentaries; -brahmanyá, a. very fa vourable to Brâhmans; m. one of the three assistants of the Udgâtri priest: &asharp;, f. invo cation of the gods by this priest to partake of the Soma (sts.=the priest himself); 1. (sú)-brahman, n. good Brahman (Br.); 2. -bráhman, a. attended with good prayers (RV.).
subhaga a. having a blessed lot, highly favoured, fortunate, happy; beloved, dear (esp. wife); charming, amiable; lovely, beautiful (also of inanimate objects; vc., esp. f. common as an address); nice (fellow, ironical); suitable for (--°ree;, rare): -m, ad. charmingly; highly, very (rare): â, f. be loved wife; (á)-m-karana, a. (î) making happy (V.); charming (C.); (a)-tvá, n. wel fare, happiness (V.); popularity, dearness (esp. of a wife; C.); -mânin, a. thinking oneself popular; -m-manya, a. considering oneself happy or beloved: -bhâva, m. self conceit; -½âkheta-bhûmi, a. having fine hunting-grounds: -tva, n. abst. n.
subhakṣya n. excellent food.
subharva a. well-nourished (bull; RV.); -yávasa, a. having good pasturage.
subhaṭa m. mercenary, soldier; N.: â, f. N. of a princess; (sú)-bhadra, a. glori ous, splendid, most auspicious (V., E.); m. N.: â, f. N. of a younger sister of Krishna and wife of Arguna; N. of a daughter of the Asura Sumâya; -bhayam-kara, a. causing great fear or danger; -bhára, V. a. dense; abundant; -bhâshita, pp. well-spoken, elo quent; n. excellent speech, fine or witty say ing, good advice: -maya, a. consisting in fine sayings; -bhâsa, m. N. of a Dânava; -bhiksha, a. having abundant provisions; n. abundance of food; -bhîta, pp. greatly afraid of (g.); -bhuga, a. having beautiful arms; -bh&usharp;, V. a. of an excellent kind; mighty, strong; invigorating; -bhûti, m. N.; -bhûshana, a. well-adorned; (sú)-bhri ta, pp. well nurtured, tended, or guarded (V.); heavily laden (C.); -bhogya, fp. easy to enjoy; -bhógas, a. (V.) bountiful; abundant; -bhr&ubrevcirc;, f. fair brow; a. fair-browed; f. fair browed maiden: (u)-nâsa½akshi-kesânta, a. having beautiful brows, nose, eyes, and hair.
asubodha a. hard to learn.
Vedic Index of
Names and Subjects
Results for sub6 resultsResults for sub4 results
subandhu In the hymns of the Rigveda is taken by Sāyaṇa to be a proper name; but this is not certain, Roth seeing in the passages only an ordinary noun meaning ‘a good friend.’ The later tradition explains that Subandhu and his brothers, called Gaupāyanas, were priests of Asamāti, who cast them off and took two others, Kirāta and Ákuli. By these two in pigeon form Subandhu was caused to swoon, but was revived by his three brothers, who recited certain hymns.
subhadrikā Occurs in the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) section of the Yajurveda as in some way connected with the rite. Weber thinks that a proper name, that of the wife of the king of Kāmpīla, is intended, but Mahīdhara explains the word merely as a lady with many lovers or a courtezan, a view followed by Roth. Since the Taittirīya and Kāthaka Sam­hitās have no Subhadrikā, but a vocative subhage (see Subhagū), the sense remains very doubtful.
subhagā In the vocative subhage, is a frequent form of courteous address to women from the Rigveda onwards.
subrahmaṇya In the Brāhmaṇas denotes a priest who officiates as one of the three assistants of the Udgātṛ (see Rtvij). His office is Subrahmaṇyā.
Bloomfield Vedic
Concordance
Results for sub6 resultsResults for sub4 results360 results
ā subhūtam asuṣavuḥ TB.3.7.9.2; Apś.13.1.11.
ā śubhrā yātam aśvinā svaśvā RV.7.68.1a. P: ā śubhrā śś.10.12.8.
agniḥ subhagāṃ jātavedāḥ AVś.1.41.49c.
agnivarṇāṃ śubhāṃ saumyām RVKh.10.127.8a.
ākṣī śubhas patī dan RV.1.120.6c.
amāvāsyā subhagā suśevā TB.3.7.5.13a; Apś.2.20.5a; Mś.1.3.2.21a.
antaḥ śubhrāvatā (SV. śuṃdhyāvatā) pathā RV.9.15.3b; SV.2.619b.
arvācī subhage bhava RV.4.57.6a; AVś.3.17.8b; TA.6.6.2b. P: arvācī subhage VHDh.8.16.
avardhayan subhagaṃ sapta yahvīḥ RV.3.1.4a.
bheṣajaṃ subheṣajam AVP.1.8.1c. Cf. AVś.2.3.1.
bhiṣajāṃ subhiṣaktamāḥ AVś.6.24.2d. Cf. bhiṣagbhyo.
brahmoṃ subrahmom ṣB.1.2.2. See subrahmaṇyom.
bṛhatpalāśe subhage AVś.6.30.3a.
citrabhānuḥ subhānuḥ Kauś.135.9d.
divaḥ subandhur januṣā pṛthivyāḥ RV.3.1.3b.
dravatpāṇī śubhas patī RV.1.3.1b.
eṣā śubhrā na tanvo vidānā RV.5.80.5a.
gāvaḥ subhagām urviyā prathānām RV.6.64.3b.
gāveva śubhre mātarā rihāṇe RV.3.33.1c; N.9.39c.
indrāṇīva subudhā budhyamānā AVś.14.2.31c.
iṣayantā śubhas patī RV.8.5.5b.
iti subandhur namasā sūktaiḥ RV.10.61.26b.
jaritāraṃ śubhas patī RV.5.75.8b.
kalyāṇī subhageva yā AVP.11.14.7a.
karkī subhāga ṛṣabhasya patnī AVP.6.10.1a.
kayā śubhā savayasaḥ sanīḍāḥ (śś. sanīlāḥ) RV.1.165.1a; MS.4.11.3a: 168.6; KS.9.18a; AB.5.16.13; KB.19.9; 24.5; 25.3,11; 26.9; ā.1.2.2.9; 5.1.1.8; śś.15.2.9. Ps: kayā śubhā savayasaḥ Mś.11.2.9; kayā śubhā Aś.6.6.14; 7.3.3; 7.5,6; 8.6.6; 9.8.9,22; 9.6; 10.3; 10.5.22; śś.10.9.12; 11.12; 11.2.4; 11.9; 13.20; 13.5.15; 14.39.9; 84.5; 15.2.9; 7.1; 16.21.31; 23.18; Rvidh.1.26.4. Designated as kayā-śubhīya (sc. sūkta) TS.7.5.5.2; MS.2.1.8: 10.8; KS.10.11; 34.4; AB.5.16.14,16; PB.9.4.17; 21.14.5,6; TB.2.7.11.1; Aś.7.7.6; 9.8.22; 10.5.22; śś.10.11.12, etc.; Lś.4.10.8; Kś.25.14.18; Apś.14.19.10 (bis). Cf. BṛhD.4.44.
kiṃ subāho svaṅgure RV.10.86.8a; AVś.20.126.8a.
madhunāṅtaṃ śubhas patī AVś.6.69.2b; 9.1.19b.
nandini subhage sumaṅgali bhadraṃkari ViDh.67.8.
naraḥ śubhe na panthām RV.1.127.6h.
oṃ subrahmaṇyā JB.2.78.
omyāvatīṃ subharām ṛtastubham RV.1.112.20c.
parā śubhrā ayāso yavyā RV.1.167.4a.
piśaṅgarūpaḥ subharo vayodhāḥ RV.2.3.9a; TS.3.1.11.2a; MS.4.14.8a: 227.1; Aś.3.8.1; śś.13.4.2; śG.5.8.2. P: piśaṅgarūpaḥ TB.2.8.7.4; śG.1.20.5. Cf. next.
prakṣālyamāṇau subhagau supatnyāḥ Kauś.76.27c.
pratīcī śubhrā draviṇena sākam AVP.10.6.2c.
pūṣā subandhur diva ā pṛthivyāḥ RV.6.58.4a; MS.4.14.16a: 243.15; TB.2.8.5.4a. P: pūṣā subandhuḥ śś.6.10.4.
ṛghāyanta subhvaḥ parvatāsaḥ RV.4.17.2c.
taṃ śubhram agnim avase havāmahe RV.3.26.2a.
tanūṣu śubhrā dadhire virukmataḥ RV.1.85.3b.
tat subhūtaṃ virāḍ annam HG.1.13.15; ApDh.2.2.3.11.
tat subhaikṣam HG.1.7.16.
te sūbharvā vṛṣabhāḥ prem arāviṣuḥ RV.10.94.3d.
tena sūbharvaṃ śatavat sahasram RV.10.102.5c; N.9.23c.
triṣṭubhaujaḥ śubhitam ugravīram AVP.15.1.4b; TS.4.4.12.2b; MS.3.16.4b: 188.4; KS.22.14b; Aś.4.12.2b.
ūrjaṃ subhūtaṃ savitā dadhātu AVP.1.27.4b. Cf. next.
ūrjaṃ subhūtaṃ svasti savitā naḥ kṛṇotu AVś.6.40.2b. Cf. prec.
uṣarbudhaḥ subhage tuṣṭuvāṃsaḥ RV.7.76.6b.
uttānaparṇāṃ subhagām AVP.7.12.7a. Cf. next.
uttānaparṇe subhage RV.10.145.2a; AVś.3.18.2a; ApMB.1.15.2a (ApG.3.9.6). Cf. BṛhPDh.9.322. Cf. prec.
subāhuḥ svaṅguriḥ RV.2.32.7a; AVś.7.46.2a; KS.13.16a. P: yā subāhuḥ śś.1.15.4. See prec.
yāmaṃ śubhrā acidhvam RV.8.7.2b,14b.
yānti śubhrā riṇann apaḥ RV.8.7.28c. See śubhā yāsi.
yat subhṛtaṃ yat svāhā VSK.7.6.4d; 7.5d. See yāḥ suprītāḥ.
yāti śubhrābhyāṃ yajato haribhyām RV.1.35.3b.
yāti śubhrā viśvapiśā rathena RV.7.75.6c.
agniḥ prathamo vasubhir no avyāt # TS.2.1.11.2a; MS.4.12.2a: 180.1; KS.10.12a; Aś.2.11.12a; śś.3.6.2a. Ps: agniḥ prathamo vasubhiḥ Apś.19.20.4; agniḥ prathamaḥ Mś.5.1.10.7.
agnir asi pṛthivyāṃ śritaḥ, antarikṣasya pratiṣṭhā, tvayīdam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartā viśvasya janayitā # TB.3.11.1.7.
agnir māgnināvatu (AVP. māghnyenāvatu) prāṇāyāpānāyāyuṣe varcasa ojase tejase svastaye subhūtaye svāhā # AVś.19.45.6; AVP.15.4.6.
agnir mā pātu vasubhiḥ purastāt # AVś.19.17.1a; AVP.7.16.1a.
agniṣ ṭvā devair vasubhiḥ sajoṣāḥ # VS.29.3c; TS.5.1.11.1c; MS.3.16.2c: 184.3; KSA.6.2c.
agniṣ ṭvā vasubhiḥ purastād rocayatu (TA. adds gāyatreṇa chandasā) # MS.4.9.5: 125.4; TA.4.6.1; 5.5.1.
agne marudbhiḥ śubhayadbhir ṛkvabhiḥ # RV.5.60.8a; AB.3.38.13; KB.16.9; Aś.5.20.8. P: agne marudbhiḥ śubhayadbhiḥ śś.8.6.17. Cf. BṛhD.5.48.
agne martaḥ subhaga sa praśaṃsyaḥ # RV.8.19.9b.
agner jihvāsi suhūr (VSKṭSṭB. subhūr; KS. supūr) devebhyaḥ (TSṭB. devānām) # VS.1.30; VSK.1.10.3; TS.1.1.10.3; KS.1.10; TB.3.3.4.3; śB.1.3.1.19; śś.4.8.1. P: agner jihvāsi Apś.2.6.5.
ato no yajñam āśubhir mahemate # RV.8.49 (Vāl.1).7c.
atyā iva subhvaś cārava sthana # RV.5.59.3c.
adityā ahaṃ devayajyayā pra prajayā ca paśubhiś ca janiṣīya # Apś.4.10.1. Cf. devānāṃ patnīnām.
adhā kṛṇuṣva saṃvidaṃ subhadrām # RV.10.10.14d; AVś.18.1.16d; N.11.34d.
adhi yad asmin vājinīva śubhaḥ # RV.9.94.1a; SV.1.539a; TS.7.1.20.1a; KSA.1.11a.
anaḍvān indraḥ sa paśubhyo vi caṣṭe # AVś.4.11.2a; AVP.3.25.3a.
anarvāṇaṃ ratheśubham # RV.1.37.1b; TS.4.3.13.6b; MS.4.10.5b: 155.4; KS.21.13b.
anu mā saṃtanuhi prajayā paśubhī rāyaspoṣeṇa suprajāstvena suvīryeṇa # śś.2.12.10. See anu mā tanuhy.
antarikṣam asy agnau śritaṃ, vāyoḥ pratiṣṭhā, tvayīdam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartṛ viśvasya janayitṛ # TB.3.11.1.8.
anyam ichasva subhage patiṃ mat # RV.10.10.10d; AVś.18.1.11d; N.4.20d.
anyā vām anyām apy eti śubhre # RV.3.33.2d.
apa te gavāṃ subhage bhajāma # RV.10.108.9d.
apāṃ napātaṃ subhagaṃ sudīditim (SV.1.62c, sudaṃsasam) # RV.3.9.1c; SV.1.62c; 2.764a. See ūrjo napātaṃ etc. (= SV.2.764a).
apāṃ napād yo vasubhiḥ saha priyaḥ # RV.1.143.1c.
abhayaṃ naḥ paśubhyaḥ # VS.36.22d; KA.3.239c; Apś.9.5.1c.
abhi śrīṇanti vasubhir na niktaiḥ # RV.9.93.3d; SV.2.770d.
abhūtaṃ gopā mithunā śubhaspatī # RV.10.40.12c; AVś.14.2.5c; ApMB.1.7.11c.
abhy anīkaiḥ paśubhir bhavāti # AVP.4.27.5b.
abhyāvartasva paśubhiḥ sahainām # AVś.11.1.22a. P: abhyāvartasva Kauś.61.42.
amardhanto vasubhir iṣkṛtāsaḥ # RV.7.76.2b.
amardhanto vasubhir yādamānāḥ # RV.7.76.5d.
amī ye subhage divi # TA.2.6.1a. See udagātāṃ bhagavatī, and amū ye.
amū ye divi subhage # AVś.3.7.4a. See ud agātāṃ, and amī ye subhage.
arāyebhyo jighatsubhyaḥ # AVś.8.2.20c.
aruṣaṃ na subhvas tasthivāṃsam # KS.37.9d.
ardhamāsāḥ stha māḥsu śritāḥ, ahorātrayoḥ pratiṣṭhā, yuṣmāsv idam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartāro viśvasya janayitāraḥ # TB.3.11.1.17.
arvāṅ āyātu vasubhī raśmir indra # TA.3.11.7b.
aved indro maghavā goṣu śubhriṣu # RV.5.34.8b.
aśvebhiḥ pruṣitapsubhiḥ # RV.8.13.11b; 87.5b.
asūṣudanta yajñiyā ṛtena # TS.1.8.10.2c; TB.1.7.4.4c. See aśūśubhanta.
askannam avikṣubdhaṃ me havyaṃ devatā gachat # MS.3.10.2: 132.9. See prec.
asmāṃ achā sumatir vāṃ śubhas patī # RV.8.22.4c.
asya śreṣṭhā subhagasya saṃdṛk # RV.4.1.6a.
asya stomasya subhage ni bodha # AVś.19.49.5c; AVP.14.8.5c.
ahaṃ rudrebhir vasubhiś carāmi # RV.10.125.1a; AVś.4.30.1a. P: ahaṃ rudrebhiḥ śś.6.11.11; Kauś.10.16; 139.15; Rvidh.4.4.4; VHDh.5.128. Cf. BṛhD.8.43. Designated as vākṣūktam VāDh.28.13; LAtDh.3.14.
ahaṃ sūryasya pari yāmy āśubhiḥ # RV.10.49.7a.
ahorātre stho 'rdhamāseṣu śrite, bhūtasya pratiṣṭhe bhavyasya prathiṣṭhe, yuvayor idam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartryau viśvasya janayitryau # TB.3.11.1.18.
ākūtiṃ devīṃ subhagāṃ (TB. manasaḥ) puro dadhe # AVś.19.4.2a; TB.2.5.3.2a. See ākūtīṃ devīṃ.
ā tvā subhava sūryāya # KB.12.4 (bis); śB.4.1.2.21; śś.6.8.1,2. See ā tvā suhava.
ā tvā subhūtam aviśat tadānīm # AVś.12.1.55c.
ā tvā suhava sūryāya # AB.2.21.3 (bis); Aś.5.2.1,2. See ā tvā subhava.
ādityas te vasubhir ādadhātu # HG.1.7.11d. See ādityais te.
ādityebhir vasubhir aṅgirobhiḥ # RV.7.44.4d; AVś.2.12.4b; AVP.2.5.4b.
ādityebhir vasubhiḥ saṃvidānaḥ # AVP.5.37.6b.
ādityair aktaṃ vasubhiḥ sajoṣāḥ # VS.20.39d; MS.3.11.1d: 140.3; KS.38.6d; TB.2.6.8.2d.
ādityai rudrair vasubhir na ā gahi # RV.10.150.1c.
ādityai rudrair vasubhiḥ sacābhuvā # RV.2.31.1b; 8.35.1b. Fragment: vasubhiḥ sacābhuvā N.5.5.
ādityair vā yad vasubhir marutvān # RV.10.98.1c.
ādityais te vasubhir ā dadhātu # ApMB.2.4.4d. See ādityas te etc.
ādityo 'si divi śritaḥ, candramasaḥ pratiṣṭhā, tvayīdam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartā viśvasya janayitā # TB.3.11.1.11.
ā dyotaniṃ vahati śubhrayāmā # RV.3.58.1c.
āpaś carum ava sarpantu śubhrāḥ # AVś.11.1.17b.
āpaḥ stha samudre śritāḥ, pṛthivyāḥ pratiṣṭhā, yuṣmāsv idam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartryo viśvasya janayitryaḥ # TB.3.11.1.5. Cf. āpa stha.
āpura stā mā prajayā paśubhiḥ pūrayata # śś.8.8.11. See āpūryā, and cf. āpṛṇo.
āpṛṇo 'si saṃpṛṇaḥ (Apś. āpṛṇoṣi saṃpṛṇa) prajayā mā paśubhir ā pṛṇa # śś.1.15.16; Apś.24.12.9. Cf. under āpura stā.
ā māskān saha prajayā (Mś. prajayā saha paśubhiḥ) saha rāyas poṣeṇa # TS.3.1.8.3; Mś.2.3.3.10. P: ā māskān Apś.12.7.11.
ā yāhi tūyam āśubhiḥ # RV.8.65.1c.
ā yāhi yajñam āśubhiḥ śam id dhi te # RV.8.13.11c.
ā yāhy agne vasubhiḥ sajoṣāḥ # RV.10.110.3b; AVś.5.12.3b; VS.29.28b; MS.4.13.3b: 201.14; KS.16.20b; TB.3.6.3.2b; N.8.8b.
āyuṣyam agryaṃ pratimuñca śubhram # PG.2.2.10c (crit. notes, and see Speijer, Jātakarma, p. 22).
āśāś ca paśubhiḥ saha # MS.1.6.1b: 85.5; KS.7.12b; TB.1.2.1.13b; Apś.5.7.17b.
iḍayā paśubhiḥ saha # AVP.1.106.6b.
iḍopahūtā vasubhiḥ sajoṣāḥ # VS.29.8c; TB.5.1.11.3c; MS.3.16.2c: 184.13; KSA.6.2c.
idam aham agnijyeṣṭhebhyo vasubhyo yajñaṃ prabravīmi # TB.3.7.4.6; Apś.4.2.2.
idam aham amum āmuṣyāyaṇaṃ viśā paśubhir brahmavarcasena paryūhāmi # TA.4.3.3; 5.3.8; Apś.15.4.9. Cf. next, and idam aham amum āmuṣyāyaṇam amuṣyāḥ putraṃ tejasā.
idam aham amum āmuṣyāyaṇam amuṣyāḥ putram ūrjā paśubhis samardhayāmi (and vyardhayāmi) # KA.1.34,35; 2.34,35. Cf. next but two.
idam aham amum āmuṣyāyaṇaṃ prajayā paśubhiḥ paryūhāmi # MS.4.9.1: 122.5. Cf. prec. but two.
idam ahaṃ māṃ tejasā brahmavarcasenaujasā vīryeṇa prajayā paśubhir annādyena samardhayāmi # KA.1.36; 2.36.
indraṃ yā devī subhagā jajāna (AVP. vavardha) # AVś.6.38.1c--4c; AVP.2.18.1c--4c; KS.36.15c (quater); TB.2.7.7.1c (bis),2c (bis).
indraghoṣas (KS. -ṣās) tvā vasubhiḥ (KS. vasavaḥ) purastāt pātu (KS. pāntu) # VS.5.11; TS.1.2.12.2; 6.2.7.4; KS.2.9; śB.3.5.2.4; Apś.7.5.1. P: indraghoṣaḥ Kś.5.4.11. See next two.
indraghoṣā vo vasubhiḥ purastād upadadhatām # TA.1.20.1. P: indraghoṣā vo vasubhiḥ TA.1.25.3. See prec. and next.
indraghoṣās tvā purastād vasubhiḥ pāntu # MS.1.2.8: 18.2; 3.8.5: 100.8; Mś.1.7.3.29. See prec. two.
indraṃ no agne vasubhiḥ sajoṣāḥ # RV.7.10.4a.
indrasya gṛhāḥ śivā vasumanto (PG. gṛhā vasumanto) varūthinas tān ahaṃ pra padye saha jāyayā saha prajayā saha paśubhiḥ saha rāyas poṣeṇa saha yan me kiṃ cāsti tena (PG. pra padye saha prajayā paśubhiḥ saha) # śG.3.4.10; PG.3.4.18. See prec., next but one, and next but two.
indrāgacha hariva āgacha (JB. also indrāgacha haribhyām āyāhi) medhātither meṣa vṛṣaṇaśvasya mene gaurāvaskandinn ahalyāyai jāra kauśika brāhmaṇa gautama bruvāṇa (JB. also kauśika brāhmaṇa kauśika bruvāṇa) # JB.2.79--80; śB.3.3.4.18; TA.1.12.3; Lś.1.3.1. P: indrāgacha ṣB.1.1.10,11 (followed by the rest, 1.1.12--23). Designated as subrahmaṇyā AB.6.3.1; KB.27.6; śB.4.6.9.25; TB.3.8.1.2; 12.9.6; Aś.8.13.28; 12.4.19; Vait.15.4; 34.4; Apś.20.1.7; 21.12.10; 22.6.6; MDh.9.12.6; see also the formulas beginning subrahmaṇya upa. Cf. agna āgacha.
indrāṇī devī subhagā supatnī # TB.2.4.2.7a.
indro mendriyeṇāvatu (AVP. mendryeṇāvatu) prāṇāyāpānāyāyuṣe varcasa ojase tejase svastaye subhūtaye svāhā # AVś.19.45.7; AVP.15.4.7.
indro vasubhiḥ pari pātu no gayam # RV.10.66.3a.
ime rājāna iṣubhir ghnantu śatrūn # AVP.10.4.2a.
ime 'rātsur ime subhūtam (Mś. sūdam !) akran # TB.1.2.6.7; Apś.21.19.11; Mś.7.2.7.11.
imau pādau subhagau suśevau # Kauś.76.27a.
irya iva paśubhir yuyotu gopāḥ # AVP.15.12.2c. Cf. yūtheva.
iṣaṃ janāya vahathaḥ śubhas patī # RV.10.40.4d.
iṣe tvā subhūtāya # MS.1.1.1: 1.1; Mś.1.1.1.13--15. Cf. prec.
iṣṭo yajño bhṛgubhir draviṇodā yatibhir (MS. once yattibhir) āśīrdā vasubhiḥ (KS. āśīrvāṃ atharvabhiḥ; Apś. vasubhir āśīrvān atharvabhiḥ) # VS.18.56; TS.5.6.8.6; MS.1.4.1: 48.4; 2.12.3: 147.3; KS.5.4; 18.18; 32.4; Apś.4.12.10. Ps: iṣṭo yajño bhṛgubhiḥ MS.1.4.5: 53.13; śB.9.5.1.31; Apś.17.23.9; Mś.1.4.2.21; 6.2.4.13; iṣṭo yajñaḥ KS.40.13; Kś.18.6.19. Treated metrically in some of the texts.
ihendriyaṃ paśubhiḥ saṃvidānam # AVP.10.4.11b.
īyante aśvaiḥ suyamebhir āśubhiḥ # RV.5.55.1c.
uta tye devī subhage mithūdṛśā # RV.2.31.5a.
uta naḥ subhagāṃ ariḥ # RV.1.4.6a; AVś.20.68.6a.
uta no devāv aśvinā śubhas patī # RV.10.93.6a.
uta sma te śubhe naraḥ # RV.5.52.8c.
utādhi vaste subhagā madhuvṛdham # RV.10.75.8d.
ud agātāṃ bhagavatī # AVś.2.8.1a; 6.121.3a; AVP.1.99.2a; 3.2.4a. P: ud agātām Kauś.26.41. See amū ye, and amī ye subhage.
ud ahaṃ prajayā paśubhir (KS.Apś. pra paśubhir) bhūyāsam # MS.1.8.4: 119.12; KS.6.7; Apś.6.6.8; Mś.1.6.1.17.
ud v eti subhago viśvacakṣāḥ # RV.7.63.1a. Cf. BṛhD.6.5.
upa mā (śB.śś. māṃ) rathaṃtaraṃ saha pṛthivyā (śś. adds sahāgninā saha vācā saha paśubhir) hvayatām # śB.1.8.1.19; TB.3.5.8.1; 13.1; śś.1.11.1. See upāsmāṃ iḍā hvayatāṃ saha.
upa śravat (MS. śruvat, but Padap. śravat) subhagā yajñe asmin # RV.7.95.4b; MS.4.14.7b: 225.15.
upahūtaṃ rathaṃtaraṃ saha pṛthivyā (śś. adds sahāgninā saha vācā saha paśubhiḥ) # TS.2.6.7.1; śB.1.8.1.19; TB.3.5.8.1; 13.1; śś.1.11.1.
ubjantu taṃ subhvaḥ parvatāsaḥ # RV.6.52.1c.
ubhe yat te mahinā śubhre andhasī # RV.7.96.2a.
urāv antarikṣe marjayanta śubhrāḥ # RV.7.39.3b; N.12.43b.
uruḥ pṛthuḥ subhūr bhuvaḥ # AVś.13.4.52a.
uruṃ tṛtsubhyo akṛṇod u lokam # RV.7.33.5d.
urau sīdantau subhage upasthe # RV.10.70.6d.
uśatyā mātuḥ subhagāyā upasthe # AVP.7.6.3b.
uśijā vasubhyo vasūn jinva # VS.15.6; MS.2.8.8: 112.8. See uśig asi.
uṣo adyeha subhage vy ucha # RV.1.113.7d.
uṣo na śubhra ā bharā panīyase # RV.1.57.3b; AVś.20.15.3b.
ūrjaṃ devebhyaḥ subhage # AVP.11.5.14a.
ūrjo napātaṃ subhagaṃ sudīditim # RV.8.9.4a. See apāṃ napātaṃ etc.
ṛtaṃ bharat subhṛtaṃ cārv induḥ # RV.9.97.24d.
ṛtavaḥ stha saṃvatsare śritāḥ, māsānāṃ pratiṣṭhā, yuṣmāsv idam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartāro viśvasya janayitāraḥ # TB.3.11.1.15.
ṛdhyāsma putraiḥ paśubhiḥ # Kauś.136.2c. See under bhūyāma putraiḥ.
ṛbhur vājebhir vasubhir vasur dadiḥ # RV.1.110.7b.
etat suśubhraṃ mukharatnakośam # RVKh.6.45.3d.
etā u vaḥ subhagā viśvarūpāḥ (KSA. viśvavārāḥ) # VS.29.5a; TS.5.1.11.2a; MS.3.16.2a: 184.6; KSA.6.2a.
evam aham āyuṣā medhayā varcasā prajayā paśubhir brahmavarcasena samindhe (SMB. brahmavarcasena dhanenānnādyena samedhiṣīya) # SMB.1.6.32; PG.2.4.3. See next, and evaṃ mām āyuṣā.
evam aham āyuṣā varcasā tejasā sanyā medhayā prajñayā prajayā paśubhir brahmavarcasenānnādyena dhanena samedhiṣīya svāhā # JG.1.12. See under prec.
evaṃ mām āyuṣā varcasā sanyā medhayā (HG. māṃ medhayā prajñayā) prajayā paśubhir brahmavarcasenānnādyena samedhaya # ApMB.2.6.2; HG.1.7.2. See under evam aham āyuṣā medhayā.
evā ta indo subhvaṃ supeśasam # RV.9.79.5a.
evā tvaṃ subhage bhava # AVP.8.12.3d.
eṣa devaḥ śubhāyate # RV.9.28.3a; SV.2.632a.
ehi śivā paśubhyaḥ sumanāḥ suvarcāḥ # VārG.14.3b. See śivā paśubhyaḥ.
ojo 'si saho 'si balam asi bhrājo 'si devānāṃ dhāmāmṛtam amartyas tapojās tvayīdam antar viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtaṃ viśvasya bhartā viśvasya janayitā # TB.3.11.1.21. See prec.
oṣadhībhyaḥ paśubhyo me dhanāya (TS. paśave no janāya) # TS.3.1.9.3b; KS.35.7b; Apś.14.27.7b; Mś.2.3.8.4b.
kad vātāya pratavase śubhaṃye # RV.4.3.6b; MS.4.11.4b: 172.13; KS.7.16b.
kuhūm ahaṃ (AVś.Vait. kuhūṃ devīṃ) suvṛtaṃ (AVśṃS.KS. sukṛtaṃ; TS. subhagāṃ) vidmanāpasam # AVś.7.47.1a; TS.3.3.11.5a; MS.4.12.6a: 195.8; KS.13.16a; Aś.1.10.8a; śś.9.28.3a; N.11.33a. Ps: kuhūṃ devīm Vait.1.16; kuhūm aham MS.4.13.10: 213.12; Aś.1.10.7.
kṛtaṃ tīrthaṃ suprapāṇaṃ śubhas patī # RV.10.40.13c; ApMB.1.6.12c. See sugaṃ tīrthaṃ.
krāṇā rudrebhir vasubhiḥ purohitaḥ # RV.1.58.3a.
kṣapa usrā varivasyantu devāḥ (AVP. śubhrāḥ) # RV.6.52.15d; AVP.6.3.5d; KS.13.15d.
kṣeti kṣitīḥ subhago nāma puṣyan # RV.5.37.4d.
gatvā patiṃ subhagā vi rājatu (AVP. rājāt) # AVś.2.36.3d; AVP.2.21.2d.
garbha iva (SV. and KU. in Poley's edition, ivet) subhṛto garbhiṇībhiḥ (RV. sudhito garbhiṇīṣu) # RV.3.29.2b; SV.1.79b; KU.2.4.8b.
gavyā tṛtsubhyo ajagan yudhā nṝn # RV.7.18.7d.
gātuṃ paśubhyaḥ # MS.1.2.15: 25.13; Apś.7.16.7.
guhā santaṃ subhaga viśvadarśatam # RV.5.8.3c; TS.3.3.11.2c; JB.1.64c; śB.12.4.4.2c; Mś.5.1.2.17c.
gobhir aśvebhir vasubhir nyṛṣṭaḥ # RV.10.108.7b.
gobhir aśvebhir vasubhir vasūyan # MS.4.14.9b: 228.7.
gobhir aśvebhir vasubhir hiraṇyaiḥ # RV.7.90.6b.
gobhir aśvair vasubhiḥ # AVP.3.22.6a.
gobhir nakṣatraṃ paśubhiḥ samaktam # TB.3.1.2.2c.
goṣv aśveṣu śubhriṣu (TB. śubhruṣu) # RV.1.29.1d--7d; AVś.20.74.1d--7d; KS.10.12d; TB.2.4.4.8d.
ghṛtaṃ prokṣantī subhagā # AVś.10.9.11a.
cakṣade mitro vasubhiḥ sujātaḥ # RV.10.79.7c.
cakṣuś ca mā paśubandhaś ca yajño 'muto 'rvāñcam ubhau kāmaprau bhūtvā kṣityā sahāviśatām # GB.1.3.22. P: cakṣuś ca mā paśubandhaś ca yajño 'muto 'rvāñcam Vait.12.1.
cakṣuḥ śrotraṃ prāṇaḥ satyasaṃmitaṃ vākprabhūtaṃ manaso vibhūtaṃ hṛdayograṃ brāhmaṇabhartṛkam annaśubhe varṣapavitraṃ gobhagaṃ pṛthivyuparaṃ varuṇavāyvitamaṃ tapastanv indrajyeṣṭhaṃ sahasradhāram ayutākṣaram amṛtaṃ duhānam # ā.5.3.2.1.
candramā asy āditye śritaḥ, nakṣatrāṇāṃ pratiṣṭhā, tvayīdam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartā viśvasya janayitā # TB.3.11.1.12.
cittiṃ dakṣasya subhagatvam asme # RV.2.21.6b; PG.1.18.6b.
citrasenā iṣubalā amṛdhrāḥ # RV.6.75.9c; AVP.15.10.9c; VS.29.46c; TS.4.6.6.3c; MS.3.16.3c: 186.14; KSA.6.1c.
chardir ādityāḥ subharaṃ nṛpāyyam # RV.10.35.12b.
janā āhuḥ subarhiṣam # RV.1.74.5c.
juhomi tvā subhaga saubhagāya # VSK.2.5.8a; Kś.4.2.43a.
ta id vediṃ subhaga ta āhutim # RV.8.19.18a.
taṃ vaḥ śardhaṃ ratheśubham # RV.5.56.9a.
taṃ vaḥ suprītaṃ subhṛtam akarma (KS. abhārṣam) # TS.1.4.45.3; KS.4.13. See taṃ suprītaṃ.
taṃ suprītaṃ subhṛtaṃ bibhṛta # VS.8.26; śB.4.4.5.21. See taṃ vaḥ suprītaṃ.
taṃ tvā subhava devā abhisaṃviśantu # MS.4.6.6: 88.17; Apś.13.16.8.
tan nakṣatraṃ prathatāṃ paśubhyaḥ # TB.3.1.2.4c.
tan ma ūrjaṃ dhās tat subhūtam # HG.1.13.15. See prec.
tapo 'si loke śritam, tejasaḥ pratiṣṭhā, tvayīdam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartṛ viśvasya janayitṛ # TB.3.11.1.2.
tava vrate subhagāsaḥ syāma # RV.2.28.2a.
tasmai te subhoḥ subhavo bhūyāsma # Lś.3.11.4.
arṣanti śubhriyaḥ # AVś.20.48.2a.
tābhir dāśvāṃsam avataṃ śubhas patī # RV.8.59 (Vāl.11).3c.
tābhiḥ ṣv asmāṃ avataṃ śubhas patī # RV.1.47.5c.
vām adya sumatibhiḥ śubhas patī # RV.8.22.6c.
tūyaṃ śyenebhir āśubhiḥ # RV.8.5.7b.
tṛptir asi gāyatraṃ (also jāgataṃ, and traiṣṭubhaṃ) chandas tarpaya mā tejasā brahmavarcasena (also mā prajayā paśubhiḥ, and maujasā [Mś. mendriyeṇa] vīryeṇa) # Apś.4.8.1; Mś.1.2.6.24.
tejo 'si tapasi śritam, samudrasya pratiṣṭhā, tvayīdam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartṛ viśvasya janayitṛ # TB.3.11.1.3.
tebhir vayaṃ subhagāsaḥ (AVś. madhumantaḥ) syāma # AVś.7.68.2d; MS.4.12.6d: 198.11; TB.2.5.4.6d.
tebhyo namo 'dhipatibhyo namo rakṣitṛbhyo nama iṣubhyo nama ebhyo astu (AVP. namo vo 'stu) # AVś.3.27.1--6; AVP.3.24.1--6.
te mā prajāte prajanayiṣyathaḥ (Mś. -yataḥ prajayā paśubhiḥ) # TB.1.2.1.14; Apś.5.8.8; Mś.1.5.2.4.
te harmyeṣṭhāḥ śiśavo na śubhrāḥ # RV.7.56.16c; TS.4.3.13.7c; MS.4.10.5c: 155.7; KS.21.13c.
tridhātu śarma vahataṃ śubhas patī # RV.1.34.6d.
tribhiḥ sāptebhir avataṃ śubhas patī # RV.8.59 (Vāl.11).5d.
trir vasubhyo avapathās trī rudrebhyo avapathās trir ādityebhyo avapathāḥ # KS.30.6. P: trir vasubhyo avapathāḥ KS.30.7.
tvad viśvā subhaga saubhagāni # RV.6.13.1a; Apś.5.23.9a.
tvaṃ naḥ pṛṇīhi paśubhir viśvarūpaiḥ # AVś.17.1.6f--8f,9d,10f--12f,13g,14d,15d,16f,17d,18f,19f,24f.
tvam agne subhṛta uttamaṃ vayaḥ # RV.2.1.12a.
tve id agne subhage yaviṣṭhya # RV.1.36.6a.
datsu te varcaḥ subhage # AVP.8.10.7a.
dadhāte ye subhage supratūrtī # RV.1.185.7c; MS.4.14.7c: 225.2; TB.2.8.4.8c.
daśasyantīr varivasyantu śubhrāḥ # RV.5.42.12d.
dasrā hiraṇyavartanī śubhas patī # RV.8.87.5c.
divi preṅkhaṃ hiraṇyayaṃ śubhe kam # RV.7.87.5d.
divo anyaḥ subhagaḥ putra ūhe # RV.1.181.4d; N.12.3d.
divo vasubhir aratir vi bhāti # RV.10.3.2d; SV.2.897d.
divo vṛṣṭiṃ subhago nāma puṣyan # RV.2.27.15b.
devaḥ sa naḥ subhūtam eha vakṣat # AVś.1.31.3d; AVP.1.22.3d.
devānāṃ sumne subhagaḥ sa edhate # RV.2.25.5c.
devānāṃ cakṣuḥ subhagā vahantī # RV.7.77.3a.
devānāṃ patnīnām ahaṃ devayajyayā prajaniṣīya prajayā paśubhiḥ # Mś.1.4.3.1. See devānāṃ patnīr agnir, and cf. adityā ahaṃ.
devānāṃ puṣṭe cakṛmā subandhum # RV.1.162.7d; VS.25.30d; TS.4.6.8.3d; MS.3.16.1d: 182.5; KSA.6.4d.
devānāṃ pūr asi tāṃ tvā praviśāmi tāṃ tvā pra padye saha gṛhaiḥ saha prajayā saha paśubhiḥ sahartvigbhiḥ saha sadasyaiḥ saha somyaiḥ saha dakṣiṇīyaiḥ saha yajñena saha yajñapatinā # KS.35.10.
devo martair vasubhir idhyamānaḥ # RV.5.3.8d.
dyāvāpṛthivyor ahaṃ devayajyayobhayor lokayor ṛdhyāsam (KS.5.1, devayajyayā prajaniṣeyaṃ prajayā paśubhiḥ; Mś.KS.32.1, devayajyayā prajaniṣīya prajayā paśubhiḥ) # KS.5.1; 32.1; Apś.4.10.1; Mś.1.4.2.6.
dyaur asi vāyau śritādityasya pratiṣṭhā tvayīdam antar viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtaṃ viśvasya bhartrī viśvasya janayitrī # TB.3.11.1.10.
dvārāv (MS. dvārā) ṛtasya subhage vy āvaḥ # RV.7.95.6b; MS.4.14.7b: 226.7; KB.25.2.
dhartāras te (MG.VārG. te subhage) mekhale mā riṣāma # SMB.1.6.28d; MG.1.22.7d; VārG.5.7d. See bhartāras te.
dhiyaṃjinvā madhuvarṇā śubhas patī # RV.8.26.6c.
dhruvaṃ prapadye śubhaṃ prapadye āśāṃ prapadye # VārG.2.1.
dhruvo 'yaṃ yajamāno 'sminn āyatane prajayā paśubhir bhūyāt (VSK. dhruvo 'smin yajamāna āyatane bhūyāt) # VS.5.28; VSK.5.7.4; śB.3.6.1.20.
nakṣatrāṇi stha candramasi śritāni, saṃvatsarasya pratiṣṭhā, yuṣmāsv idam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartṝṇi viśvasya janayitṝṇi # TB.3.11.1.13.
na te bhrātā subhage vaṣṭy etat # RV.10.10.12d; AVś.18.1.13d.
nadasya karṇais turayanta āśubhiḥ # RV.2.34.3b.
namaḥ paśubhyaḥ paśupataye karomi (KS. 'stu) # TS.3.1.4.4b; KS.30.8b. See paśoḥ pāśān.
na mat strī subhasattarā # RV.10.86.6a; AVś.20.126.6a.
namo dyāvāpṛthivībhyāṃ hotṛbhyāṃ pūrvavasūbhyām # śś.1.6.11.
na lobho nāśubhā matiḥ # RVKh.5.87.20b.
na vāyanti subhvo devayuktāḥ # RV.7.67.8c.
nāthaṃ paśubhyaḥ # MS.1.2.15: 25.12; Apś.7.16.7.
ni no rayiṃ subhojasaṃ yuvasva (TS. yuveha) # RV.7.92.3c; VS.27.27c; TS.2.2.12.8c; MS.4.10.6c: 158.5; KS.10.12c; KA.1.198.32c.
nenīyate abhīśubhir vājina iva # VS.34.6b.
pañca paśubhyaḥ # TB.3.7.7.11; Apś.10.22.12; SMB.1.2.10; PG.1.8.1; ApMB.1.3.11 (ApG.2.4.16); HG.1.21.1. See pañca prajābhyaḥ, and pañca bhavāya.
pañca prajābhyaḥ # JG.1.21; VārG.14.23. See under pañca paśubhyaḥ.
pañca bhavāya # MG.1.11.18. See under pañca paśubhyaḥ.
pari divo antān subhage patantī # RV.10.108.5b.
paśūn na citrā subhagā prathānā # RV.1.92.12a.
paśoḥ pāśān paśupater adhi # MS.1.2.15b: 26.2. See namaḥ paśubhyaḥ.
pātāṃ no devāśvinā śubhaspatī # AVś.6.3.3a.
pātu no devī (text, devo) subhagā sarasvatī # AVś.6.3.2c.
pitur na putraḥ subhṛto duroṇa ā # RV.8.19.27a.
puruṣān paśubhiḥ saha # AVś.9.3.14b.
pūr asi taṃ tvā prapadye saha grahaiḥ saha pragrahaiḥ saha prajayā saha paśubhiḥ sahartvigbhyaḥ saha somyaiḥ saha sadasyaiḥ saha dākṣiṇeyaiḥ saha yajñena saha yajñapatinā # Apś.14.26.1.
pūṣṇo 'haṃ devayajyayā prajaniṣīya prajayā paśubhiḥ (KSṃś. -yajyayā puṣṭimān paśumān bhūyāsam) # KS.5.1; 32.1; Apś.4.10.1; Mś.1.4.2.6.
pṛtanāṣāhā paśubhyaḥ paśūn jinva # MS.2.8.8: 112.10. See prec.
pṛthivy asy apsu śritā, agneḥ pratiṣṭhā, tvayīdam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartrī viśvasya janayitrī # TB.3.11.1.6.
paurṇamāsy aṣṭakāmāvāsyā annādā sthānnadughaḥ, yuṣmāsv idam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartryo viśvasya janayitryaḥ # TB.3.11.1.19.
prajayā ca paśubhiś ca # śB.14.9.4.23d; BṛhU.6.4.23d.
prajayā paśubhiḥ # Mś.1.5.2.4. See next.
prajayā paśubhir brahmavarcasena suvarge loke # TB.1.2.1.15; Apś.5.8.8. See prec.
prajayā paśubhiḥ saha # TS.7.1.6.6b; 7.2b; Apś.22.15.11d,13d,15d. See prajayā sūnṛte, and vasumān vasubhiḥ.
prajayā sūnṛte (!) saha # Mś.9.4.1.27c. See prajayā paśubhiḥ saha.
prajābhyaḥ pañcapadī # AG.1.7.19. See paśubhyaḥ etc.
prathayi prajayā paśubhiḥ suvarge loke # TB.3.7.6.10b; Apś.4.7.2b.
pra dhanvāny airata śubhrakhādayaḥ # RV.8.20.4c.
pra preṅkha īṅkhayāvahai śubhe kam # RV.7.88.3d.
pra budhyasva subudhā budhyamānā # AVś.14.2.75a. P: pra budhyasva Kauś.77.13.
pra yāta śībham āśubhiḥ # RV.1.37.14a.
pra ye vasubhya īvad ā namo duḥ # RV.5.49.5a.
pra vāyave sisrate na śubhrāḥ # RV.2.11.3d.
pravṛddhe devī subhage urūcī # AVś.4.26.2b; AVP.4.36.2b.
praśāsta ātmanā prajayā paśubhiḥ prajāpatiṃ prapadye # śś.1.4.5; Apś.24.11.2.
pra sudāsam āvataṃ tṛtsubhiḥ saha # RV.7.83.6d.
prāñcaṃ vasubhyaḥ pra ṇaya pracetaḥ # RV.10.87.9b; AVś.8.3.9b.
prāṇāyāpānāyāyuṣe varcasa ojase tejase svastaye subhūtaye svāhā # AVś.19.45.6; AVP.15.4.6--10.
priyā devānāṃ subhagā mekhaleyam # ApMB.2.2.9d. See śivā devī, sakhā devī, and svasā devī.
bṛhaspatiṃ yaḥ subhṛtaṃ bibharti # RV.4.50.7c; AB.8.26.4.
bṛhaspatir vasubhir eha yātu # AVś.6.73.1b.
bhago mā bhagenāvatu prāṇāyāpānāyāyuṣe varcasa ojase tejase svastaye subhūtaye svāhā # AVś.19.45.9; AVP.15.4.9.
bhadrā rātiḥ subhaga bhadro adhvaraḥ # RV.8.19.19b; SV.1.111b; 2.909b; VS.15.38b; MS.4.12.5b: 191.9; KS.39.15b; JB.3.275b; Apś.14.33.6b; Mś.6.2.2.21b.
bhavā naḥ śubhra sātaye # RV.5.5.4c.
bhuvo brahma prāṇam amṛtaṃ prapadyate 'yam asau śarma varmābhayaṃ svastaye, saha prajayā saha paśubhiḥ # AB.8.11.2.
bhūmir yāmeṣu yad dha yuñjate śubhe # RV.1.87.3b; TS.4.3.13.7b; MS.4.11.2b: 168.4.
bhūyāma putraiḥ paśubhiḥ # ṣB.1.6.20c; Kś.25.5.29c. See ṛdhyāsma etc., and bhūyāsma etc.
bhūyāsma putraiḥ paśubhiḥ # Aś.3.14.12c; Apś.3.20.9c; ApMB.2.15.17c; BDh.1.4.6.7c. See under bhūyāma etc.
bhūr brahma prāṇam amṛtaṃ prapadyate 'yam asau śarma varmābhayaṃ svastaye, saha prajayā saha paśubhiḥ # AB.8.11.1.
bhrātṛvya utpipīte śubhaspatī (MS. bṛhaspate) # TS.3.2.10.2b; MS.4.5.8b: 76.13.
manye vāṃ dyāvāpṛthivī subhojasau # ArS.4.8a. See manve vāṃ etc.
manve vāṃ dyāvāpṛthivī subhojasau (AVś. adds sacetasau, which perhaps belongs to the following pāda) # AVś.4.26.1a; AVP.4.36.1a; Vait.15.13. See manye vāṃ etc.
maruto mā gaṇair avantu prāṇāyāpānāyāyuṣe varcasa ojase tejase svastaye subhūtaye svāhā # AVś.19.45.10; AVP.15.4.10.
marudbhir ugraḥ śubham anya īyate # RV.7.82.5d.
maryo na śubhras tanvaṃ mṛjānaḥ # RV.9.96.20a.
mahiṣaṃ naḥ subhvaṃ (AVP. na subhuvas) tasthivāṃsam # AVP.4.2.4c; MS.2.1.9c: 11.11. See samudraṃ na suhavaṃ.
naḥ śāpta januṣā subhāgāḥ # TS.3.3.9.1c; PG.3.9.6c. See mā no hāsiṣṭa, and mā vaśvātra.
no hāsiṣṭa januṣā subhāgāḥ # AVś.9.4.24c. See under mā naḥ śāpta.
vi rikṣi tanvā mā prajayā mā paśubhiḥ # Kauś.117.2d.
vṛkṣmahy ādityebhyo mā vasubhyaḥ # AVP.2.36.4a.
māsāḥ sthartuṣu śritāḥ, ardhamāsānāṃ pratiṣṭhāḥ, yuṣmāsv idam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartāro viśvasya janayitāraḥ # TB.3.11.1.16.
māsmākaṃ prāṇena prajayā paśubhir āpyāyayiṣṭhāḥ (KBU.2.9, apakṣeṣṭhāḥ) # KBU.2.8,9.
mitrāvaruṇābhyāṃ vasubhyo rudrebhya ādityebhyo viśvebhyo devebhyo brāhmaṇebhyaḥ saumyebhyaḥ somapebhyaḥ # Aś.6.11.16.
ya īṃ vahanta āśubhiḥ # RV.5.61.11a. Cf. BṛhD.5.70. See yadī vahanty.
yakṣadṛśo na śubhayanta maryāḥ # RV.7.56.16b; TS.4.3.13.7b; MS.4.10.5b: 155.6; KS.21.13b.
yajamānaḥ paśubhir dhruvaḥ # KS.35.7d.
yajñaṃ prāvantu naḥ śubhe # VS.18.76d; śB.10.1.3.8d.
yat samudreṣu marutaḥ subarhiṣaḥ # RV.8.20.25b.
yathādityā vasubhiḥ saṃbabhūvuḥ # AVś.6.74.3a; TS.2.1.11.3a.
yathā naḥ subhagāsasi (AVś. sumanā asaḥ) # RV.4.57.6c; AVś.3.17.8c; TA.6.6.2c.
yad agneḥ sendrasya saprajāpatikasya saṛṣikasya saṛṣirājanyasya sapitṛkasya sapitṛrājanyasya samanuṣyasya samanuṣyarājanyasya sākāśasya sātīkāśasya sānūkāśasya sapratīkāśasya sadevamanuṣyasya sagandharvāpsaraskasya sahāraṇyaiś ca paśubhir grāmyaiś ca yan ma ātmana ātmani vrataṃ tan me sarvavratam idam aham agne sarvavrato bhavāmi svāhā # AG.3.9.1. See yad brāhmaṇānāṃ.
yad adya rātri subhage # see yad adyā etc.
yad adyā (AVP. adya) rātri subhage # AVś.19.50.6a; AVP.14.9.6a.
yad anena yajñena jeṣyāmo 'nena sattreṇa (Kś. paśubandhena) tan naḥ saha # śB.4.6.8.15; Kś.12.2.8.
yad ayātaṃ śubhas patī # RV.10.85.15a; AVś.14.1.15a.
yad āśasā vadato me vicukṣubhe # AVś.7.57.1a. P: yad āśasā Kauś.46.6.
yad āśubhiḥ patasi yojanā puru # RV.2.16.3d.
yadi vāruṇy asi varuṇāya tvā parikrīṇāmy ahaṃ tataḥ, vasubhyo 'thavā rudrebhya ādityebhyo 'thavā punaḥ # Rvidh.4.11.4. Metrical. See under prec.
yady asi vasubhyo vasubhyas tvā parikrīṇāmi # GG.2.6.7.
yad vāvame subhagāso divi ṣṭha # RV.5.60.6b; TB.2.7.12.4b.
yasminn indro vasubhir mādayāte # RV.7.47.2c.
yasmin sujātā subhagā mahīyate # RV.5.56.9c.
yāmaṃ yeṣṭhāḥ śubhā śobhiṣṭhāḥ # RV.7.56.6a.
yāḥ suprītāḥ suhutā yat svāhā # VS.7.15d; śB.4.2.1.33. See yat subhṛtaṃ.
yudhe yad ugrāḥ pṛṣatīr ayugdhvam # TB.2.4.4.3d. See śubhe yad etc.
yuvor dānāya subharā asaścata # RV.1.112.2a.
yūtheva paśvaḥ paśupā damūnāḥ # RV.6.19.3c. Cf. irya iva paśubhir.
Dictionary of Sanskrit Search
"sub" has 501 results
vyaṅkaṭasubbāśāsrīa grammarian who has written a grammar treatise named भाषामञ्जरीव्याकरण.
subantaname given to a word formed with the addition of a case-affix and hence capable of being used in a sentence by virtue of its being called a पद by the rule सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् The ancient grammarians gave four kinds of words or padas viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात which Panini has brought under two heads सुबन्त including नाम, उपसर्ग and निपात and तिङन्त standing for आख्यातः confer, compare सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् P. I. 4. 14.
subodhinīname given to (1) a commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi by Kshamaunin or Jayakrshamaunin; (2) a commentary on the Sarasvata Vyakarana by Amritabharati : (3) a commentary on the Sarasvata Vyakarana by Candrakirti.
subdhātua root formed from a noun or a subanta by the addition of any of the following affixesक्यच् ( by P. III. 1.8, 10 and l9), काम्यच् (by P.III.1.9), क्यङ् (by P. III.1.1 1, 12 and 14-18), क्यष् (by P.III.1.13),णिङ् (by P III.1.20), णिच् (by P.III.1.21 and 25) and यक् (by P.III.1.27)and also by क्विप् or zero affix by P. III. b.l l Varttika 3. All these formations ending with the affixes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are termed roots by the rule सनाद्यन्ता धातव: (P.III. 1. | 32) and are regularly conjugated in all the ten tenses and moods with the general conjugational sign शप् added to them in the conjugational tenses, and स्य, तास् and others in the other tenses and moods, and have verbal derivatives also formed by the addition of suitable krt affixes.
a(1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perfeminine. second.pluraland first and third person.singular.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अ प्रत्ययात् et cetera, and others (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 exempli gratia, for example अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. exempli gratia, for example भवति, तुदति et cetera, and others; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; exempli gratia, for example द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imperfeminine. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् confer, compare P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, et cetera, and others in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; (9) taddhita affix. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ et cetera, and others in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the inst. instrumental case. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.
ak(1)condensed expression (प्रत्याहार ) representing the letters अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ in Pāṇini's Grammar confer, compare P. VI.1.12, 101; VII.4.2. (2) sign (विकरण) of the benedictive in Vedic Literature in the case of the root दृश् c. g. पितरं च दृशेयं P.III.l.86 V 2; ( 3 ) remnant of the termnination अकच् P. V. 3. 71 ; ( 4 ) substitute (अादेश) अकङ् for the last vowel of the word मुधातृ ( P.IV.1.97 ) e. g. सोघातकिः.
aka(1)affix अक substituted for the afiix वु given in Pāṇini's Grammar as ण्वुच् as in अाशिका,शायिका (P.III. 3.111); ण्वुल् as in कारकः, भोजको व्रजति, विचर्चिका (P.III.1.133, III.3. 10,108); वुच् as in उपकः (P.V.3.80); वुञ् as in निन्दकः, राजकम्, भालवकः (P. III.2.146, IV.2.39, 53 et cetera, and others); वुन् as in प्रवकः, सरकः; क्रमकः, पदकः. III.1.149, IV.2.6l et cetera, and others
akaṅsubstitute ( अादेश ) for the last letter of the word मुधातृ prescribed along with the taddhita affix. affix इञ् by P. IV.1.97. exempli gratia, for example सौघातकिः
akartṛa case-relation excepting that of the subject to the verbal activity. confer, compare अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम् P. III.3.I9.
akārathe letter a, (अ) inclusive of all its eighteen kinds caused by shortness, length, protraction, accentuation and nasalization in Pānini's grammar, in cases where a(अ) is not actually prescribed as a termination or an augment or a substitute. confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.73. The letter is generally given as the first letter of the alphabet ( वर्णसमाम्नाय ) in all Prātiśākhya and grammar works except in the alphabet termed Varṇopadeśa, as mentioned in the Ṛk Tantra confer, compare ए ओ ऐ औ अा ॠ लॄ ई ऊ ऋ लृ इ उ अाः । रयवलाः । ङञणनमाः । अः ೱ क ೱ पाः । हुं कुं खुं गुं घुं अं अां एवमुपदेशे et cetera, and others Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.I. 4.
akitnot marked by the mute letter k ( क् ) and hence not disallowing guṇa or vṛddhi substitutes for the preceding vowel, confer, compare सृजिदृशोर्झल्यमकिति P.VI.1.58; दीर्घोऽकित: P. VII. 4.83.
aṅkitanot possessing the mute letter k (क्) or g (ग्) orṅ ( ङ् ) and hence not preventing the guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes for the preceding vowel, if they occur. e. g. मृजेर ङ्कित्सु प्रत्ययेषु मृजिप्रसङगे मार्जिः साधुर्भुवति M.Bh. on P. I.I.I Vart.10.
akriyājanot a result of a verbal activity; the expression is used in connection with qualities ( on a substance) as opposed to the activities found in it. confer, compare अाधेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोs सत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV. 1.44.
aṅThe vikaraṇa before luṅ affixes, substituted for the affix cvi ( च्वि ) in the case of the roots mentioned by Pāṇini in sūtras III.1.52-59:(2) the Vikaraṇapratyaya in Vedic Literature before the benedictive affixes prescribed by Pāṇini in Sūtra III.1.86; (3) kṛt affix in the feminine gender showing verbal activity applied to roots marked with the mute letter ष् and the roots भिद्, छिद् and others. P.III.3 104-106.exempli gratia, for example जरा, त्रपा, भिदा, छिदा et cetera, and others
aṅitnot marked with the mute letter ṅ ( ङ्) signifying the absence of the prohibition of the guṇa or the vṛddhi substitute. cf अङिति गुणप्रतिषेधः ( वक्तव्यः ) M.Bh. III.3.83 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2. In the case of the preposition ā ( अा ) unmarked with ṅ (ड् ), it signifies a sentence or remembrance of something confer, compare वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् exempli gratia, for example आ एवं नु मन्यसे, आ एवं किल तत् confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.l.14.
aṅga(1)the crude base of a noun or a verb to which affixes are added; a technical term in Pāṇini's grammar for the crude base after which an affix is prescribed e. g. उपगु in औपगव,or कृ in करिष्यति et cetera, and others confer, compare यस्मात् प्रत्ययविधिस्तदादि प्रत्ययेSङ्गम् P.I.4.13; (2) subordinate participle. constituent part confer, compare पराङ्गवद् in सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे P. II.1.2, also विध्यङ्गभूतानां परिभाषाणां Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Par. 93.10: (3) auxiliary for an operation, e. g. अन्तरङ्ग, बहिरङ्ग et cetera, and others confer, compare अत्राङगशब्देन शब्दरूपं निमित्तमेव गृह्यते Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Par.50; (4) element of a word or of an expression confer, compare अङ्गव्यवाये चाङ्गपरः Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 190, अङ्गे च क्म्ब्यादौ R.T. 127. व्यञ्जनं स्वराङ्गम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.21.1.
(1)taddhita affix. affix a ( अ ) with the mute letter ñ ( ञ्), prescribed (i) after the words उत्स and others in various senses like progeny, dyed in, produced in, come from et cetera, and othersP. IV.1.86, (ii) after the words विद and others in the sense of grandson and other descendents.P. IV.1.104. For other cases see P. IV. I. 141, 161; IV.2.12,14 et cetera, and others IV.3.7 et cetera, and others IV.4.49. The feminine is formed by adding i ( ई ) to words ending with this affix अञ्, which have the vṛddhi vowel substituted for their initial vowel which gets the acute accent also exempli gratia, for example औत्सः, औत्सी,औदपानः, बैदः, बैदी.
aṭ(1)token term standing for vowels and semi-vowels excepting l ( ल्) specially mentioned as not interfering with the substitution of ṇ ( ण् ) for n ( न् ) exempli gratia, for example गिरिणा, आर्येण, खर्वेण et cetera, and others Sec P.VIII.4.2; (2) augment a (अट्) with an acute accent, which is prefixed to verbal forms in the imperfect and the aorist tenses and the conditional mood. exempli gratia, for example अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् Sec P.IV.4.71; (3) augment a ( अट् ) prescribed in the case of the roots रुद्, स्वप् et cetera, and others before a Sārvadhātuka affix beginning with any consonant except y ( य्), exempli gratia, for example अरोदत्, अस्वपत्, अजक्षत्, आदत् et cetera, and others; see P.VII.3, 99, 100;(4) augment a ( अट् ) prefixed sometimes in Vedic Literature to affixes of the Vedic subjunctive (लेट्) exempli gratia, for example तारिवत्, मन्दिवत् et cetera, and others see P.III.4.94.
aṇ(1)token term ( प्रत्याहार ) for all vowels and semivowels which, when prescribed for an operation, include all such of their sub-divisions as are caused by length, protraction accent or nasalization. cf अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.60;(2) token term for the vowels अ, इ and उ in all Pānini's rules except in the rule I.1.69 given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. e.g see ढ्रलोपे पूर्वस्य दीर्घोणः P.VI.3. 111, केऽणः P.VII.4.13. and अणोऽ प्रगृह्यस्य. P.VIII.4.57: (3) tad, affix. a ( अ ) prescribed generally in the various senses such as 'the offspring', 'dyed in,' 'belonging to' et cetera, and others except in cases where other specific affixes are prescribed cf प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् P. IV.1.83; (4) kṛ. affix a ( अ ), applied, in the sense of an agent, to a root with an antecedent word (उपपद) standing as its object. e. g. कुम्भकारः, see P.III.2.1: काण्डलावः, see P.III.3.12.
at(1)tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar for short अ, cf तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70; अदेङ् गुणः P.I.1.2; (2) personal ending अ for इ ( इट् ) of the Ist person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada in the Potential, P III. 4. 106; (3) caseaffix in the case of युष्मद् and अस्मद् for ablative case. singular. and plural P.VII. 1.31,32: (4) tad-affix अत् (अ) prescribed after किम् in the sense of the locative case case before which किम् is changed to कु, क्व being the taddhita affix. formation; confer, compare P. V.3.12 and VII.2.105:(5) substitute अत्(शतृ) for लट् forming the present and future participles in the Parasmaipada. active voice confer, compare लटः शतृशानचौ. P.III. 2.124 and लृटः सद्वा P. III.3.14.
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
atepersonal ending of present tense. 3rd per. plural substituted for झ ( अन्त ), the अ of झ ( अन्त ) being changed into ए and न being omitted: see झोन्त: (P.VII.1.3) अदभ्यस्तात् (P. VII. 1.4) and टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे (P. III. 4.79).
athusconjugational affix of perfeminine. 2nd person. dual Parasmaipada. substituted for the personal ending थस्, confer, compare P. III. 4.82.
adṅsubstitute for case affixes सु and अम् added to words ending with the affixes डतर and डतम and to the words अन्य, अन्यतर and इतर. confer, compare P,VII.1.25.
adravyavācinnot expressive of any substance which forms a place of residence (of qualities and actions); confer, compare तथा व्याकरणे विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरणवाचि ( P. II.4.13 ); इत्यद्रव्यवाचीति गम्यते । M.Bh. on II.1.1.
adhika(1)additional or surplus activity which a rule in grammar sometimes shows; अधिकः कारः or अधिकं कार्यम्; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.11, Kāś. on III.2.124, Bh. Vṛ. on III.4.72; ( 2 ) surplus subject matter e. g. अथाख्याः समाम्नायाधिकाः प्राग्रिफितात् (V.Pr. I.33.)
adhikaraṇa(1)support: a grammatical relation of the nature of a location : place of verbal activity. confer, compare अाधारोsधिकरणम् P.I.4.45; (2) one of the six or seven Kārakas or functionaries of verbal activity shown by the locative case. cf सप्तम्यधिकरणे च P.II.4.36;(3)substance, 'dravya' confer, compare अनधिकरणवाचि अद्रव्यवाचि इति गम्यते M.Bh. on II.1.1.
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
adhyai,adhyainkṛt affixes substituted in the place of तुम् of the infinitive in Vedic Literature (P. III.4.9.), e. g. पिबध्यैः when अध्यैन् is substituted, the initial vowel of the word becomes उदात्त. e. g. कर्मण्युपाचारध्यै ।
ansubstitute for the affix यु ( युच्, ण्युट् ल्युट्, ल्यु, ट्यु, ट्युल् and others of which only यु remains), confer, compare युवोरनाकौ P.VII.1.1 e. g. कारणा, हारणा, करणम्, हरणम्, नन्दनः, सायंतनम् et cetera, and others
anaḍ(1)substitute अन् as Samāsānta at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound in the feminine for the last letter of the word ऊधस् and for that of धनुस् in all genders exempli gratia, for example कुण्डोघ्नी (by applying ई to कुण्डोधन्), शार्ङ्गधन्वा, अधिज्यधन्वा; confer, compare P V.4.131, 132; (2) substitute अन् for the last letter of the words अस्थि, दधि et cetera, and others before the affixes of the instrumental and the following cases beginning with a vowel e. g. अस्थ्ना, दध्ना, अक्ष्णा et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 1.75; (3) substitute अन् for the last letter of the word सखि, of words ending in ऋ,as also of उशनस् and others before the nominative singular. affix सु. e. g. सखा, कर्ता, उशना confer, compare P. VII.1.93, 94.
anavasthitaundetermined, indefinite; See M.Bh. quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on अनवस्थान; cf also आर्धधातुकीयाः सामान्येन भवन्ति अनवस्थितेषु प्रत्ययेषु । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; III.1.4, VII.2.10, VII.4.9. The substitutes caused by an ārdhadhātuka affix are, in fact, effected by virtue of the prospective application of the ārdhadhātuka affix before its actual application.
anādiṣṭanot replaced as a substitute; e. g. यः अनादिष्टादचः पूर्यस्तस्य निधिं प्रति स्थानिवद्भावः M.Bh. on I.1.57 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, III.2.3 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2, and VI.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).10.
anādeśa(1)original, not such as is substituted: exempli gratia, for example युष्मदस्मदोरनादेशे P.VII. 2.86; (2) absence of statement, अनिर्देश exempli gratia, for example कर्तरि कृद्वचनमनादेशे स्वार्थविज्ञानात् P. III.4.67, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1: cf the Pari. अनिर्दिष्टार्थाः प्रत्ययाः स्वार्थे भवन्ति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 113.
anirdaprathamaan underived word: an ancient term used by writers of the Prātiśākhyas to signify 'original' words which cannot be subjected to निर्वचन.
aniyatanot subject to any limitation confer, compare प्रत्यया नियताः, अर्था अनियताः, अर्था नियताः, प्रत्यया अनियताः M.Bh. on II. 3.50. In the casc of नियमविधि (a restrictive rule or statement ) a limitation is put on one or more of the constituent elements or factors of that rule, the limited element being called नियत, the other one being termed अनियत; also see Kāś. on II.2.30.
anudāttataraquite a low tone, completely grave; generally applied to the tone of that grave or anudātta vowel which is immediately followed by an acute ( उदात्त ) vowel. When the three Vedic accents were sub-divided into seven tones viz. उदात्त, उदात्ततर्, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितस्थोदात्त and एकश्रुति corresponding to the seven musical notes, the अनुदात्ततर was the name given to the lowest of them all. अनुदात्ततर was termed सन्नतर also; confer, compare उदात्तस्वरितपरस्य सन्नतरः P.I.2.40; confer, compare also M, Bh. on I.2.33.
anupasarjananot subordinated in wordrelation, principal member; confer, compare अनुपसर्जनात् P. IV.I.14 and M.Bh. thereon; cf also Par. Śek Pari. 26.
anuprayogasubsequent utterance; literally post-position as in the case of the roots कृ, भू and अम् in the periphrastic perfect forms; confer, compare आम्प्रत्ययवत् कृञोऽ नुप्रयोगस्य, P.I.3.63; यथाविध्यनुप्रयोगः पूर्वस्मिन् III.4.4.
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
anuvṛttirepetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the subsequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intended interpretation. The word is of common use in books on Pāṇini's grammar. This recurrence is generally continuous like the stream of a river ( गङ्गास्रोतोवत् ); sometimes however, when it is not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवृत्ति. In rare cases it is taken backwards in a sūtra work from a subsequent rule to a previous rule when it is called अपकर्ष.
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
antavadbhāvasupposed condition of being at the end obtained by the single substitute(एकादेश) for the final of the preceding and the initial of the succeeding word. confer, compare अन्तादिवच्च । योयमेकादेशः स पूर्वस्यान्तवत् परस्थादिवत् स्यात् । Sid. Kau. on अन्तादिवच्च P.VI. 1.84.
antādivadbhāvacondition, attributed to a single substitute for the final of the preceding and initial of the succeeding word, of being looked upon either as the final of the preceding word or as the initial of the succeeding word but never as both (the final as well as the initial) at one and the same time; confer, compare उभयत आश्रये नान्तादिवत् Sīr. Pari 39 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.48.
antāmaffix of the imperative 3rd person. plur. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada, substituted for the original affix झ, e. g. एधन्ताम्.
antiaffix of the present tense. 3rd person. plural Paras, substituted for the original affix झि, e. g. कुर्वन्ति, भवन्ति.
antuaffix of the imperative 3rd person. plural Paras. substituted for the original affix झि. exempli gratia, for example भवन्तु, कुर्वन्तु
anteaffix of the present tense. 3rd person. plural or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada substituted for the original affix झ, e g. एधन्ते वर्तन्ते.
apādānadetachment, separation, ablation technical term for अपादानकारक which is defined as ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् in P.I.4.24 and subsequent rules 25 to 3l and which is put in the ablative case; confer, compare अपादाने पञ्चमी P. II.3.28.
apitnot marked with the mute letter प्, A Sārvadhātuka affix not marked with mute प् is looked upon as marked with ड् and hence it prevents the guṇa or vṛddhi substitution for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate vowel if it be अ. e. g. कुरुतः तनुतः, कुर्वन्ति where no guṇa takes place for the vowel उ confer, compare सार्वधातुकमपित्. P.I.2.4.
apradhāna(1)non-principal, subordinate, secondary, confer, compare अप्रधानमुपसर्जन-मिति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 2.43; (2) nonessential, non-predominent, confer, compare सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने P. II. 2.19 and the instance पुत्रेण सहागतः पिता । Kāś. on II.2.19.
abhedasaṃsargaa connection of unity, as noticed between the nominative case affix of the subject and the ending ति of a verb, which produces the sense.
abhedānvayarelation of non-difference as stated by the vaiyākaraṇas between an adjective and the substantive qualified by it. e, g. नीलमुत्पलम् is explained as नीलाभिन्नमुत्पलम्.
abhyamsubstitute for dative case and ablative case. plural affix भ्यस् after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद् ; cf भसोsभ्यम् P. VII.1.30.
abhyāhataomission of any sound; a fault of utterance. अम् (1)a technical brief term in Panini's grammar including vowels, semivowels, the letter ह् and nasals; (2) a significant term for the accusative case showing change or substitution or modification: confer, compare अं विकारस्य Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.28 explained as अमिति शब्दे विकारस्याख्या भवति । अमिति द्वितीय विभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् । (3) augment अ applied to the penultimate vowel of सृज् & दृश् (P. VI.1.58, 59 and VII.1.99) (4) substitute tor Ist person. singular. affix मिप्, by P.III.4.101 (5) Acc. singular. case affix अम् .
ay(1)substitute for the causal sign णि before अाम्, अन्त, अालु et cetera, and others by P, VI.4.55 (2) substitute for ए before a vowel by P.VI.1.78.
ayaṅthe substitute अय् for the final ई of the root शी by P. VII.4.22.
ayactaddhita affix. affix अय substituted optionally for तय after द्वि and त्रि by P. V.2.43. exempli gratia, for example द्वयम् द्वितयम्; त्रयम् त्रितयम्.
ayāc,ayāṭsubstitutes for inst. sing affix टा in Vedic literature e. g. स्वप्नया, नावया.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
avaṅsubstitute अव् for the final ओ of the word गो; confer, compare अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य, P. VI.1.123,124.
(1)Pratyāhāra or a brief term standing for all vowels, semivowels, and the fifth, fourth and third of the class-consonants; all letters excepting the surds and sibilants; (2) substitute अ for the word इदम् before affixes of cases beginning with the instrumental, and for एतद् before the taddhita affix. affixes त्र and तस्; see P.II.4.32 and 33; (3) substitute अ for the genitive case singular. case-affix ङस् after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद्; see P.VII.1.27.
as(1)case affix of the nominative and accusative plural and the ablative and genitive singular (जस् , शस्, ङसि and ङस् ) (2) taddhita affix अस् ( असि ) added to पूर्व, अधर and अवर, by P.V.3.39: (3) compoundending अस् ( असिच् ) applied to the words प्रजा and मेधा standing at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound (P.V.4.122): (4) Uṇādi affix अस् prescribed by the rule सर्वधातुभ्योऽसुन् and subsequent rules (628-678) to form words such as मनस्,सरस् et cetera, and others(5) ending syllable अस्, with or without sense, of words in connection with which special operations are given in grammar; confer, compare P.VI.4.14; confer, compare also अनिनस्मन्ग्रहणान्यर्थवता चानर्थकेन च तदन्तविधिं प्रयोजयन्ति Par.Śek. Pari. 16.
asattva(1)absence of सत्त्व or entity; (2) other than a substance i. e. property, attribute, et cetera, and others confer, compare प्रादयः असत्त्ववचना निपातसंज्ञा भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 4.59; confer, compare also सोऽसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.44. confer, compare also चादयोऽ सत्त्वे P.I.4.57.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
asuḍsubstitute अस् for the last letter of the word पुंस् before the सर्वनामस्थान affixes i. e. before the first five case affixes,exempli gratia, for example पुमान् पुमांसौ et cetera, and others; confer, compare पुंसोsसुङ् P.VII.1.89
aspaṣṭaless in contact with the vocal organ than the semi-vowels; the term occurs in Hemacandra's Grammar (Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. I.3.25) and is explained by the commentator as 'ईषत्स्पृष्टतरौ प्रत्यासत्तेर्यकारवकारौ. अस्पष्ट stands for the letters य and व which are substituted for the vowels ए ऐ and ओ औ when followed by a vowel; cf, also Śāk I.I.154.
ā(1)the long form of the vowel अ called दीर्घ,consisting of two mātrās, in contrast with (l) the short अ which consists of one mātrā and the protracted आ३ which consists of three mātrās; (2) substitute अा of two mātrās when prescribed by the word दीर्घ or वृद्धि for the short vowel अ; (3) upasarga अा (अाङ्) in the sense of limit exempli gratia, for example अा कडारादेका संज्ञा (P.I.4.1.) आकुमारं यशः पाणिनेः K. on II.1.13. आ उदकान्तात् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.14.) (4) indeclinable आ in the sense of remembrance e. g. आ एवं नु मन्यसे; confer, compare ईषदर्थे क्रियायोगे मर्यादाभिविधौ च यः । एतमातं ङितं विद्याद्वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.14; (5) augment अा ( अाक् ) as seen in चराचर, वदावद et cetera, and others confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6; (6) augment अा(आट्) prefixed to roots in the tenses लुङ्, लङ् and लृङ् (7) substitute अा prescribed for the last letter of pronouns before the taddhita affix. affixes दृक्,दृश, दृक्ष and वत्, as in तादृक्दृ, तादृश et cetera, and others; (8) feminine affix आ (टाप्, डाप् or चाप् ) added to nouns ending in अा; (9) substitute आ ( आ or अात्, or डा or आल् ) for case affixes in Vedic literature उभा यन्तारौ, नाभा पृथिव्याः et cetera, and others
ākamthe substitute आकम् for साम् of the genitive case plural after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद् e. g. युष्माकं, अस्माकम् confer, compare P.VII.1.33.
āgamaaugment, accrement, a word element which is added to the primitive or basic word during the process of the formation of a complete word or pada. The āgama is an adventitious word element and hence differs from ādeśa, the substitute which wholly takes the place of the original or ( आदेशिन् ). Out of the several āgamas mentioned by Pāṇini, those that are marked with mute ट् are prefixed, those, marked with क्, are affixed, while those, marked with म्, are placed immediately after the last vowel of the word. The augments become a part and parcel of the word to which they are added, and the characteristics of which they possess;confer, compareयदागमास्तद्गुणीभूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते, also आगमानां आगमिधर्मिवैशिष्ट्यम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.11. Those grammarians, who hold the view that words are unproduced and eternal, explain the addition of an augment as only the substitution of a word with an augment in the place of a word without an augment; confer, compare आदेशास्तर्हिमे भविष्यन्ति अनागमकानां सागमकाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20; I.1.46. The term āgama is defined as अन्यत्र विद्यमानस्तु यो वर्णः श्रुयतेधिकः । आगम्यमानतुल्यत्वात्स आगम इति स्मृतः Com. on Tait. Prāt.I. 23.
āgarvīyaa class of roots forming a subdivision of the Curādigaṇa or the tenth conjugation beginning with पद् and ending with गर्व् which are only ātmanepadin; exempli gratia, for example पदयते, मृगयते, अर्थयते, गर्वयते.
aāt(1)long अा as different from short or protracted अ prescribed by the wofd वृद्धि or दीर्घ in the case of अ, or by the word अात् when substituted for another vowel, as for example in the rule आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति and the following: confer, compare P.VI.1.45, 57; (2) substitute for the ablative affix ङस् after words ending in अ; confer, compare P. VII.1.12; (3) substitute अात् for a case affix in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example न ताद् ब्राह्मणाद् निन्दामि Kāś. on VII. 1.39.
ātāmĀtmanepada third person dual ending, technically substituted for लकार by P.III.4.78
āttvathe substitution of long अा prescribed by the term अात् as in आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति and the following confer, compare P. VI.1.45 et cetera, and others
aātvathe substitution of अा; exempli gratia, for example तादृक्, भवादृक्, अन्यादृक् confer, compare आ सर्वनाम्नः P.VI.3. 90.
ādivṛddhithe Vṛddhi substitute prescribed for the first vowel of a word to which a tad-affix, marked with the mute letter ञ्,ण्, or क् is added; exempli gratia, for example औपगव, दाक्षि et cetera, and others; confer, compare तद्धितेष्वचामादेः P.VII.2.117, 118.
ādiṣṭa(1)prescribed for substitution; specified for an operation : confer, compare सिद्धे तु आदिष्टस्य युड्वचनात् M.Bh. on VI.1. 155; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 1.I58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.3.28 Vār. 5; confer, compare also आदिष्टाच्चैवाचः पूर्वः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.57; (2) indicated or stated; अादिष्टा इमे वर्णाः.
ādeśa(1)substitute as opposed to sthānin, the original. In Pāṇini's grammar there is a very general maxim, possessed of a number of exceptions, no doubt, that 'the substitute behaves like the original' (स्थानिवदादेशः अनल्विधौ P.I.1.56.); the application of this maxim is called स्थानिवद्भाव; for purposes of this स्थानिवद्भाव the elision (लोप) of a phonetic element is looked upon as a sort of substitute;confer, compare उपधालेपस्य स्थानिवत्त्वात् Kāś. on P.I.1.58. Grammarians many times look upon a complete word or a word-base as a substitute for another one, although only a letter or a syllable in the word is changed into another, as also when a letter or syllable is added to or dropped in a word; confer, compare पचतु, पचन्तु ... इमेप्यादेशाः । कथम् । अादिश्यते यः स आदेशः । इमे चाप्यादिश्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; cf also सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः M.Bh. on P. I.1.20; confer, compare also अनागमकानां सागमका आदेशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20: (2) indication, assignment; confer, compare योयं स्वरादेशः अन्तोदात्तं, वधेराद्युदात्तत्वं, स्वः स्वरितमिति अादेशः R.Pr.I.30-32; confer, compare also अादेशः उपदेशः commentary on Tai.-Prāt. II.20: confer, compare also अनादेशे अविकारः V.Pr.IV.131, where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.remarks यत्र उदात्तादीनां स्वराणां सन्धौ आदेशो न क्रियते तत्र अविकारः प्रत्येतव्यः । confer, compare also एकारो विभक्त्यादेशः छन्दसि A.Pr. II.1.2, where ए is prescribed as a substitute for a caseaffix and त्ये and अस्मे are cited as examples where the acute acent is also prescribed for the substitute ए.
ādeśinthat for which a substitute is prescribed; the original, sthānin: confer, compare आदेशिानामादेशाः confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). On P.I.1.56.
aādhārādheyabhāvaa non-differential relation (अभेदसंसर्ग) between the personal endings तिप् , तस् et cetera, and others and the noun in the nominative case which is the subject of the verbal activity;relation of a thing and its substratum: confer, compare निपातातिरिक्तनामार्थधात्वर्थयोर्भेदान्वयस्य अव्युत्पन्नत्वात्.
ādhṛṣīyaa sub-division of roots belonging to the चुरादिगण or tenth conjugation beginning with युज् and ending with धृष् which take the Vikaraṇa णिच् optionally id est, that is which are also conjugated like roots of the first conjugation; exempli gratia, for example यीजयति,योजयते, योजति;साहयति-ते, सहति.
āna(1)kṛt affix (शानच् or चानश्) substituted for the lakāra लट् and applied to ātmanepadi roots forming the present participle; (2) kṛt (affix). affix कानच् applied to ātmanepadi roots in the sense of past time forming the perfect participle confer, compare लिटः कानज्वा P.III.2.106.
aānaṅsubstitute आन् in the place of the last letter (ऋ) of the first member of dvandva compounds of words meaning deities or of words showing blood-relationship which end with the vowel ऋ; exempli gratia, for example होतापोतारौ, मातापितरो confer, compare P.VI.3.25, 26.
ām(1)augment आ prescribed in connection with the words चतुर् and अनडुह् before the case-affixes called सर्वनामस्थान; confer, compare चतुरनडुहोराम् उदात्तः P.VII.1.98; (2) the affix आम् added before लिट् or a perfect termination by rules कास्प्रत्ययादाम् अमन्त्रे लिटि and the following (P. III 1.35-39), as for instance, in कासांचक्रे, ऊहांचक्रे, दयांचक्रे, जागरांचकार, विभयांचकार et cetera, and others; (3) geni. plural caseaffix आम् as in दृषदाम्, शरदाम्, with न् prefixed in रामाणाम् et cetera, and others, and with स् prefixed in सर्र्वेषाम् et cetera, and others; (4) locative case singular. case-affix अाम् substituted for इ (ङि); confer, compare ङेराम् नद्याम्नीभ्यः P.VI.4.116.
āythe substitute अाय् for ऐ before a vowel; exempli gratia, for example चायकः for चै+अकः confer, compare एचेायवायावः P.VI.1.78.
aārasubstitute अार for ऋ in the words पितृ and मातृ; exempli gratia, for example पितरामातरा; confer, compare P. VI.3.33.
āśraya(1)relation of dependence; confer, compare अाश्रयात्सिद्धत्वं भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; (2) substratum, place of residence; confer, compare गुणवचनानां शब्दानामाश्रयतो लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति । शुद्धं वस्त्रम् । शुक्ला शाटी । शुक्लः कम्बलः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.2.29.
āsvadīyaa sub-division of the चुरादि (Xth conjugation) roots, beginning with the root ग्रस् and ending with the root स्वद्, which take the Vikaraṇa णिच् id est, that is which are conjugated like roots of the tenth conjugation, only if they are transitive in sense.
ika(1)substitute for the affix ठ given as ठक्, ठञ् or ञिठ् by Pāṇini; confer, compare ठस्येकः P.VII.3.50; (2) taddhita affix इकक्, इकन् षिकन् mentioned in . the Vārtikas on P.IV.2.60; (3) kṛt (affix). affix इक applied to खन् exempli gratia, for example आखानिकः confer, compare इको वक्तव्यः P.III.3.125 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
iglakṣaṇavṛddhithe substitution of the vowel called वृद्वि id est, that is the vowel आ, ए or औ prescribed specifically for the vowels called इक् id est, that is इ, उ, ऋ and लृ, exempli gratia, for example तस्मादिग्लक्षणा वृद्विः P.1.1.3. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 11; confer, comparealso इग्लक्षणवृद्धिप्रतिषेधस्तावत् Sīradeva's ParibhāṣāvṛttiPari. 2.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
itvathe substitution of short इ by स्याघ्वोरिच्च P.I.2.17, शास इदङ्हलोः P. VI.4.3, et cetera, and others
itnukṛt affix mentioned by Pāṇini in VI.4.55 as causing the substitution of अय् for णि before it; e. g गदयित्नुः, स्तनयित्नुः M.Bh. on VI.4.55.
in(1)substitute for the inst. case ending in अा (टा) after bases ending in अ ; confer, compare टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः P.VII.1. 12; (2) taddhita affix.aff इन affixed to पूर्व e. g. पथिभिः पूर्विणैः confer, compare P. IV. 4. 133.
inaṅsubstitute इन् for the last vowel of the words कल्याणी, सुभगा, दुर्भगा and others before the affix ढ i. e. एय prescribed after these words in the sense of offspring e. g. काल्यााणिनेयः, सौभागिनेयः, कौलटिनेयः et cetera, and others confer, compareकल्याण्यादीनामिनङ् P. IV.I.126, 127.
iyaṅsubstitute for the last इ before a vowel generally in the case of monosyllabic roots ending in इ and the word स्त्री; exempli gratia, for example चिक्षियुः, नियौ नियः, स्त्रियौ स्त्रियः; confer, compare अचि क्षुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ P.VI. 4.77-80.
ire( इरेच् )substitute for the perfect 3rd person. plural or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada affix झ; exempli gratia, for example चक्रिरे, ऊचिरे et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.4.81.
substitute for इदम् before an affix called 'vibhakti': e. g. इह; cf: P.V.3.3.
iṣṭhathe superlative taddhita affix. affix इष्ठन् in the sense of अतिशायन or अतिशय ( excellence ). The commentators, however, say that the taddhita affixes तम and इष्ठ,like all the taddhita affixes showing case-relations, are applied without any specific sense of themselves, the affixes showing the sense of the base itself ( स्वार्थे ); e. g गुरुतमः, गरिष्ठः; पटुतमः, पठिष्ठः; पचतितमाम्, कर्तृतमः, करिष्ठः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.V.3.55-64 The affixes ईयस् and इष्ठ are applied only to such substantives which denote quality; confer, compare P.V.3.58.
iṣṭhavadbhāvapossession of the same properties for causing grammatical operations as the taddhita affix. affix इष्ठन् possesses, as for instance, the elision of the syllable beginning with the last vowel ( टिलोप ), substitution of the masculine gender. base for the feminine. base (पुंवद्भाव) et cetera, and others, before the denom affix णिच्; exempli gratia, for example एतयति in the sense of एनीं आचष्टे; similarly प्रथयति, पटयति, दवयति, confer, compare M.Bh. on. P.VI.4. 155 Vārt, 1.
is(1)substitute इस् for the vowel of the roots, मी, मा, दा, धा, रभ्, पत् et cetera, and others before the desiderative affix सन्; exempli gratia, for example मित्सति, दित्सति, अारिप्सते et cetera, and others confer, compareP. VII.4.54; (2) uṅādi affix इस् exempli gratia, for example सर्पिस्.
īthe long vowel ई which is technically included in the vowel इ in Pāṇini's alphabet being the long tone of that vowel; (2) substitute ई for the vowel अा of the roots घ्रा and ध्मा before the frequentative sign यङ् as for example in जेघ्रीयते, देध्मीयते, confer, compare P.VII. 4.31; (3) substitute ई for the vowel अ before the affixes च्वि and क्यच् as, for instance, in शुक्लीभवति, पुत्रीयति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.VII.4.32, 33; (4) substitute ई for the vowel अा at the end of reduplicated bases as also for the vowel आ of bases ending in the conjugational sign ना, exempli gratia, for example मिमीध्वे, लुनीतः et cetera, and others; cf P.VI. 4.113; (5) substitute ई for the locative case case affix इ ( ङि ) in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example सरसी for सरसि in दृतिं न शुश्कं सरसी शयानम्,: confer, compare Kāś. on P. VII.1.39: (6) taddhita affix. affix ई in the sense of possession in Vedic Literature as for instance in रथीः,सुमङ्गलीः, confer, compare Kāś on. P.V.2.109: (7) the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् , ङीञ् or ङीन् ); confer, compare P.IV.1.58, 15-39, IV.1.40-65, IV.1.13.
ītlong vowel ई as different from इ or ई३ prescribed as a substitute; confer, compare P.VI.3.27, VI.3.97.
īyasubstitute for the taddhita affix.afix छ; e.g: शालीयः, मालीयः etc; cf P. VII. 1.2 and IV. 2. 114.
īyastad-affix ईयसुन् , showing superiority or excellence of one individual over another in respect of a quality, added to a substantive expresive of quality; when the substantive ends in the affix तृ, that affix तृ is removed: exempli gratia, for example पटीयान्, लघीयान्, गरीयान्, दोहीयसी (धेनुः) confer, compareP.V.3.57-64.
īśsubstitute ई for इदम् before the tad-affixes दृक्, दृश् and वतु; exempli gratia, for example ईदृक् ईदृशः also ईदृक्षः; confer, compare P.VI.3.90.
u(1)labial vowel standing for the long ऊ and protracted ऊ3 in Pāṇini's grammar unless the consonant त् is affixed to it, उत् standing for the short उ only: (2) Vikaraṇa affix उ of the 8th conjugation ( तनादिगण ) and the roots धिन्व् and कृण्व्;confer, compareP.III. 1.79-80; (3) substitute (उ) for the vowel अ of कृ,exempli gratia, for example कुरुतः, कृर्वन्ति before weak Sārvadhātuka affixes, confer, compareP.VI 4.110; (4) kṛt (affix). affix उ added to bases ending in सन् and the roots आशंस्, भिक्ष्, विद्, इष् as also to bases ending in क्यच् in the Vedic Literature,exempli gratia, for example चिकीर्षुः भिक्षुः, बिन्दुः,इच्छुः,सुम्नयु; confer, compare P. III. 2.168-170; (5) Uṅādi affix उ ( उण् ) e.g, कारुः, वायुः, साधुः, et cetera, and others; confer, compare Uṅādi I.1; (6) mute vowel उ added to the first letters of a class of consonants in Pāṇini's grammar to show the whole class of the five letters; exempli gratia, for example कु, चु, टु, तु, पु which stand for the Guttural, the palatal the lingual, the dental and the labial classes respectively; confer, compare also ष्टुना ष्टुः P.VIII.4.41(7) उ added to न् showing the consonant न् as nasalized n; cf, नुः V.Pr. III.133.
uktaprescribed, taught, lit, said (already). उक्तं वा is a familiar expression in the Mahābhāṣya and the Vārttikas referring usually to something already expresseditionSometimes this expression in the Mahābhāṣya, referring to something which is not already expressed, but which could be found subsequently expressed, leads to the conclusion that the Mahābhāṣyakāra had something like a 'Laghubhāṣya' before him at the time of teaching the Mahābhāṣya. See Kielhorn's Kātyāyana and Patañjali, also Mahābhāṣya D.E. S.Ed. Vol. VII, pages 71, 72.
ut(1)Short vowel उ in Pāṇini's terminology cf, P.I.1.70, I,2.21. IV.1.44, V.1.111 ; (2) tad-affix उत् applied to पूर्व and पूर्वतर for which पर् is substituted; exempli gratia, for example परुत्. See P. V.3.22 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).
uttama(1)the best,the highest,the last: (2) the last letter of the consonantclasses, the nasal; cf, A.Pr.II.4.14; R.Pr.IV.3; confer, compare also अनुत्तम meaning non-nasal; (3) the उत्तमपुरुष or the premier or the first person constituting the affixes मि, वस् and मस् and their substitutes, confer, compare P.I.4.107.
uttara(1)following, subsequent, e. g. उत्तरपद, the latter part of a compound word; (2) end of a word, पदान्त; confer, compare उत्तरे पदान्ते वर्तमानः Com. on T.Pr. III.1.
uttarakālamsubsequently, then, afterwards; confer, compare तत् उत्तरकालमिदं दृष्टम् M.Bh. on I.1.1.
uttaratrain subsequent rules; confer, compare उत्तरत्रानुवर्तिष्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.23.
uttarārthaserving a purpose in subsequent rules; of use in a subsequent rule; confer, compare योगविभाग उत्तरार्थः, क्त्वाग्रहणमुत्तरार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.22.
utpatti(1)production: confer, compare वर्णोत्पत्तिः production of a phonetic element Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.23.1 ; (2) production of a grammatical element such as the application of an affix or addition of an augment or substitution of a letter or letters during the process of word-formation: confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari. Śek. Par. 75; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.2.19. Vārt, 4.
uddeśyareferred to; pointed out, subject, as contrasted with the predicate मानान्तरप्राप्तमुद्देश्यम् ; confer, compare उद्दश्यप्रतिनिर्दिश्यमानयोरैक्यमापद्यत् सर्वनाम पर्यायेण तत्तल्लिङभाक् । तद्यथा | शैत्यं हि यत्सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य, शैत्यं हि य यत्तत्प्रकृतिर्जलस्य वा । उद्देश्य in grammar refers to the subjectpart of a sentence as opposed to the predicate-participle. In the sentence वृद्धिरादैच् the case is strikingly an opposite one and the explanation given by Patañjali is very interesting;confer, compare तदेतदेकं मङ्गलार्थं आचार्यस्य मृष्यताम् । माङ्गलिक अाचार्यः महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थं वृद्धिशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्कते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.1.
uddeśyavidheyabhāvarelationship between the subject and the predicate where generally the subject is placed first in a sentence; confer, compare उद्देश्यवचनं पूर्वं विधेयत्वं ततः परम् । confer, compare also तादात्म्यसंसर्गकस्थले विशेष्यत्वमेव उद्देश्यं विशेषणत्वमेव विधेयम् Padavākyaratnākara.
upagrahaa term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मनेपदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेशव्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.
upacāra(1)taking a secondary sense; implication; literally moving for a sense which is near about; the same as लक्षणा. The word आचार is explained as उपचार, employment or current usage, by Patañjali; confer, compare आचारात् । आचार्याणामुपचारात् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; ( 2 ) substitution of the letter सं for विसर्ग : confer, compare प्रत्ययग्रहणोपचारेषु च, P.IV.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7.
upadhmānīyaa letter or a phonetic element substituted for a visarga followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class. Visarga is simply letting the breath out of the mouth. Where the visarga is followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class, its pronunciation is coloured by labial utterance. This coloured utterance cannot be made independently; hence this utterance called 'उपध्मानीय' ( similar to a sound blown from the mouth ) is not put in, as an independent letter, in the वर्णसमाम्नाय attributed to महेश्वर. Patañjali, however, has referred to such dependent utterances by the term अयोगवाहवर्ण. See अयेागवाह; confer, compare xक इति जिह्वामूलीयः । जिह्वामूलेन जन्यत्वात् । xप इत्युपध्मानीयः । उपध्मानेन जन्यत्वात्. अयेगवाह is also called अर्धविसर्ग. See अर्धविसर्ग.
upaliṅgina substituted word element; confer, compare शेवः इति सुखनाम । शिष्यतेः वकारः नामकरणः अन्तस्थान्तरोपलिङ्गी विभाषितगुणः | शिवम् Nirukta of Yāska.X. I7.
upaskāraintroduction of the necessary changes in the wording of the base, such as elision, or addition or substitution of a letter or letters as caused by the addition of suffixes.
upācarita(1)sibilation substitution of a sibilant letter for a visarga: confer, compare प्लुतोपाचरिते च R.Pr. XI.19; (2) name of the saṁdhi in which a visarga is changed into a sibilant letter; confer, compare सर्वत्रैवोपाचरितः स संधिः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)IV.14 which corresponds to Pāṇini VIII.3.18 and 19.
ubhayaprāptia case or a matter in which both the alternatives occur, as for instance, the genitive case for the subject and the object of a verbal derivative noun (कृदन्त); confer, compare उभयप्राप्तौ कर्मणि । उभयोः प्राप्तिः यस्मिन् कृति सोयमुभयप्राप्तिः तत्र कर्मण्येव षष्ठी स्यात् न कर्तरि । आश्चर्यो गवां दोहः अगोपालकेन Kāś. on P. II.3.66.
uv(उवङ्)substitute for the vowel उ belonging to the Vikaraṇa श्रु, to roots and to the noun भ्रू under certain conditions: cf अचि श्नुधातुर्भ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ P.VI.4.77.
us(1)substitute for झि ending of the third person.plu., in the perfect tense and in the present tense in the case of the roots विद् and ब्रू, exempli gratia, for example विदुः and आहुः confer, compare P. III.4.82-84 ; (2) substitute जुस् (उस्) for झि in the potential and the benedictive moods, as also after the aorist sign स् and after roots of the third conjugation, roots ending in आ and the root विद्, e. g. पचेयुः भूयासुः अकार्षुः, अबिभयुः अदुः, अविदुः, et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on III.4.108-112.
ūṭh(1)saṁprasāraṇa vowel ऊ substituted for the व् of वाह् under certain conditions exempli gratia, for example, ऊढः, confer, compare वाह ऊठ् P.VI.4.132; (2) substitute ऊ for व् before certain affixes; e. g. द्यूतः, द्यूत्वा, जूर्तिः, तूर्तिः et cetera, and others confer, compare च्छ्वोः शूडनुनासिके च P.VI.4.19, 20.
ūt(1)long vowel ऊ which cannot be combined by rules of saṁdhi with the following vowel when it comes at the end of the forms of the dual number e. g. साधू अत्र et cetera, and others; confer, compare ईदूदेद्विवचनं प्रगृह्यम् P.I.1.11, as , also ईदूतौ च सप्तम्यर्थे I.1.19; (2) long vowel ऊ substituted for the short उ of the root गोह् before an affix beginning with a vowel e. g. निगूहति; confer, compare ऊदुपधाया गोहः P. VI.4.89.
ūtvasubstitution of the long vowel ऊ; see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.12, VI.1.85.
lṛdit(roots)marked with the mute indicatory letter लृ, which take the substitute अ (अङ्) for च्लि, the Vikaraṇa of the aorist; e. g. अपतत्, अशकत् confer, compare पुषादिद्ताद्य्-लृदितः परस्मैपदेषु P.III.1.55.
ediphthong vowel ए made up of अ and इ, and hence having कण्ठतालुस्थान as its place of origin. It has no short form according to Pāṇini. In cases where a short vowel as a substitute is prescribed for it in grammar, the vowel इ is looked upon as its short form. Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya has observed that followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāṇāyanīya branches of the Sāmaveda have short ए ( ऍ ) in their Sāmaveda recital and has given सुजाते अश्वसूनृते, अध्वर्यो अद्रिभिः सुतम् as illustrations; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1-48; as also the article on.
eka(1)Singular number, ekavacana: confer, compare नो नौ मे मदर्थं त्रिह्येकेषु. V. Pr.II.3: the term is found used in this sense of singular number in the Jainendra, Śākaṭāyana and Haima grammars ( 2 ) single ( vowel ) substitute (एकादेश) for two (vowels); cf एकः पूर्वपरयोः P.VI. 1.84; अथैकमुभे T.Pr. X.1; ( 3 ) many, a certain number : (used in plural in this sense), confer, compare इह चेत्येके मन्यते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 4.21 .
ekadravyaone and the same individual substance: cf the words एकद्रव्यसम-वायित्व Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.23, एकद्रव्याभिघान on P.VIII.1.51, एकद्रव्योपनिवेशिनी given as a definition of संज्ञा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.1.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
ekaśeṣanirdeśastatement by subsistence of one word out of many. The phrase is very often used in the Mahābhāṣya where the omission of an individual thing is explained by saying that the expression used is a composite one including the omitted thing along with the thing already expressed; confer, compare एकशेषनिर्देशोयम् । सर्वादीनि च सर्वादीनि च सर्वादीनि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.I.27, on I.1.59, I.2.39, as also on I.3.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5,I.4. 101 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19 et cetera, and others
ekādeśaa single substitute in the place of two original units; exempli gratia, for example ए in the place of अ and इ,or ओ in the place of अ and उ. The ādeśas or substitutes named पूर्वरूप and पररूप are looked upon as ekadeśas in Pāṇini's grammar although instead of them, the omission of the latter and former vowels respectively, is prescribed in some Prātiśākhya works. गुण and वृद्धि are sometimes single substitutes for single originals, while they are sometimes ekadeśas for two original vowels exempli gratia, for example तवेदम्, ब्रह्मौदनः, उपैति, प्रार्च्छति, गाम्, सीमन्तः et cetera, and others; see P.VI.1.87 to ll l, confer, compare also A.Pr.II 3.6.
ekādeśasvaraan accent prescribed for the single substitute,as, for instance, by rules like उदात्तस्वरितयोर्यणः स्वरितोनुदात्तस्य and the following rules P. VI.2.4, 5 and 6.
etvathe substitution of ए; confer, compare बहुवचने झल्येत् (P. VII.3.103) इति एत्वं प्राप्नोति M.Bh. on P.V.3.10.
edhāctaddhita affix.affix एधा substituted for the taddhita affix. affix धा optionally,when applied to the words द्वि and त्रि. exempli gratia, for exampleद्विधा, द्वेधा, दैधम्, त्रिधा, त्रेधा, त्रैधम्; confer, compare Kāś. on एधाच्च P.V.3.46.
(1)the substitute ए for the perfect affix त, substituted for the whole त by reason of the indicatory letter श् attached to ए; confer, compare लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच् and अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य P. III.4.8l and I.1.55; (2) affix ए applied to the root चक्ष् in Vedic Literature; confer, compare नावचक्षे । नावख्यातव्यमित्यर्थः Kāś. on P.III.4.15.
aicshort term ( प्रत्याहार ) standing for 'the two diphthong vowels ऐ and औ; confer, compare न य्वाभ्यां पदान्ताभ्यां पूर्वौ तु ताभ्यामैच् P.VII.3.4; confer, compare ऐचोश्चोत्तरभूयस्त्वात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.48, The short substitutes of ऐ and औ are इ and उ when prescribed confer, compare P. I.1.48; so also the protracted forms of ऐ and औ are protracted इ and उ; confer, compare P. III.2.106. They are called द्विस्वर vowels in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. Śākaṭāyana says they are द्विमात्र.
aittvasubstitution of ऐ for ए by the rule एत ऐ prescribing the substitution of the vowel ऐ for ए in the case of the imperative first person terminations; cf P. III.4.93.
aissubstitute for the case affix भिस् after words ending in अ; confer, compare अतो भिस एस्. P.VII.I.9 to 11.
au(1)the vowel औ; diphthong vowel made up of आ and ओ; ( 2 ) the substitute औ for the final letter उ of the word मनु before the fem, affix ई; confer, compare मनोः स्त्री मनायी, मनावी,मनुः Kāś. on P. IV. 1. 38; ( 3 ) case ending of the nominative case. and acc. dual called औङ् also.
oṅa term used by ancient grammarians for the affix औ of the nominative case. and the acc. dual number The vowel ई (शी) is substituted for औ in the case of nouns of the feminine and neuter genders; confer, compare औङः शी P. VII. 1.18, 19.
aut(1)the letter औ included in the वृद्धि vowels अा, ऐ and औ, and hence called वृद्धि in Pāṇini's grammar, (2) substitute for the caseending इ ( ङि ) in Pāṇini's grammar; confer, compare P. VII.3.118, 119.
autvathe substitution of the vowel अौ; confer, compare P. VII.3.117-119.
aupasaṃkhyānikasubsequently stated by way of addition or modification as done by the Vārttikakāras; confer, compare औपसंख्यानिकस्य णस्यापवादंः । आरण्यको मनुष्यः Kāś on P.IV.2.129; confer, compare also Kāś. on V.1.29 and VI.3.41.
auśsubstitute औ for the nominative case. and acc. case endings applied to the numeral अष्टन्; confer, compare अष्टाभ्य औश् P.VII. 1.21.
ᳵjihvāmūlīyaa phonetical element or unit called Jihvāmūlīya, produced at the root of the tongue, which is optionally substituted in the place of the Visarga (left 0ut breath) directly preceding the utterance of the letter क् or ख् and hence shown as ᳵ क्. See अ ᳵ क् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 2.
ᳶ upadhmānīyaliterally blowing; a term applied to the visarga when followed by the consonant प् or फ्. The upadhmānīya is looked upon as a letter or phonetic element, which is always connected with the preceding vowel. As the upadhmānīya is an optional substitute for the visarga before the letter प् or फ्, when, in writing, it is to be shown instead of the visarga, it is shown as ᳶ, or as w , or even as x just as the Jihvāmūlīya; confer, compare उपध्मायते शब्दायते इति, उप समीपे ध्मायते शब्द्यते इति वा commentary on Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I:; : confer, compare also कपाभ्यां प्रागर्धविसर्गसदृशो जिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयौः:S.K.on P.VIII.2.1.
m̐ nāsikyaa nasal letter or utterance included among the अयोगवाह letters analogous to anusvāra and yama letters. It is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as हुँ इति नासिक्यः on which Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.makes the remark अयमृक्शाखायां प्रसिद्धः. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya mentions नासिक्य, यम and अनुस्वार as नासिक्य or nasal letters, while Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.defines नासिक्य as a letter produced only by the nose; confer, compare केवलनासिकया उच्चार्यमाणे वर्णॊ नासिक्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya calls the letter ह् as nāsikya when it is followed by the consonant न् or ण् or म् and gives अह्नाम् , अपराह्णे and ब्रह्म as instances. The Pāṇinīya Śikṣā does not mention नासिक्य as a letter. The Mahābhāṣya mentions नासिक्य as one of the six ayogavāha letters; confer, compare के पुनरयोगवाहाः । विसर्जनीयजिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयानुस्वारानुनासिक्ययमाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Śivasūtra 5 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, where some manuscripts read नासिक्य for अानुनासिक्य while in some other manuscripts there is neither the word आनुनासिक्य nor नासिक्य. It is likely that the anunāsika-colouring given to the vowel preceding the consonant सू substituted for the consonants म, न् and others by P. VIII. 3.2. to 12, was looked upon as a separate phonetic unit and called नासिक्य as for instance in सँस्कर्ता, मा हिँसीः, सँशिशाधि et cetera, and others
k(1)the consonant क्; the first con. sonant of the consonant group as also of the guttural group; (2) substitute क् for consonants ष्, and ढ् before the consonant स्;confer, compareV.P.2.41. For the elision ( लोप ) of क् on account of its being termed इत् see P.I.3.3 and 8.
k(1)taddhita affix.affix क applied to the words of the ऋश्य group in the four senses called चातुरर्थिक e. g. ऋश्यकः, अनडुत्कः, वेणुकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.IV.2.80; (2) taddhita affix. affix क applied to nouns in the sense of diminution, censure, pity et cetera, and others e. g. अश्वक्रः, उष्ट्रकः, पुत्रकः, confer, compare P.V. 3.70-87: (3) taddhita affix. affix क in the very sense of the word itself ( स्वार्थे ) exempli gratia, for example अविकः, यावकः, कालकः; confer, compare P.V.4.2833; (4) Uṇādi affix क exempli gratia, for example कर्क, वृक, राका, एक, भेक, काक, पाक, शल्क et cetera, and others by Uṇādi sūtras III. 40-48 before which the angment इट् is prohibited by P. VII.2.9; (5) kṛt affix क ( अ ) where क् is dropped by P. I. 3.8, applied, in the sense of agent, to certain roots mentioned in P.III.1.135, 136, 144, III. 2.3 to 7, III.2.77 and III.3.83 exempli gratia, for example बुध:, प्रस्थः, गृहम्, कम्बलदः, द्विपः, मूलविभुजः, सामगः, सुरापः et cetera, and others; (6) substitute क for the word किम् before a case affix, confer, compare P.VII.2.103; (7) the Samāsānta affix कप् (क) at the end of Bahuvrīhi compounds as prescribed by P.V.4.151-160.
kartṛagent of an action, subject; name of a kāraka or instrument in general, of an action, which produces the fruit or result of an action without depending on any other instrument; confer, compare स्वतन्त्रः कर्ता P. I.4.54, explained as अगुणीभूतो यः क्रियाप्रसिद्धौ स्वातन्त्र्येण विवक्ष्यते तत्कारकं कर्तृसंज्ञं भवति in the Kāśikā on P.I. 4.54. This agent, or rather, the word standing for the agent, is put in the nominative case in the active voice (confer, compare P.I.4.54), in the instrumental case in the passive voice (cf P. II.3.18), and in the genitive case when it is connected with a noun of action or verbal derivative noun, (confer, compare P.II.3.65).
kartṛyakthe affix य of the passive voice where the object functions as the subject: e. g. यक् in लूयते केदारः स्वयमेव; confer, compare अचः कर्तृयकि P.VI. 1.95 and the Kāśikā thereon.
kartṛsthakriya(a root)whose activity is found functioning in the subject;confer, compare यत्र क्रियाकृतविशेषदर्शनं कर्तरि Kaiyata on P.III.1.87 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3. Such roots, although transitive do not have any Karmakartari construction by the rule कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III. 1.87. as exempli gratia, for example ग्रामं गच्छति देवदत्तः has no कर्मकर्तरि construction; confer, compare कर्मस्थभावकानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां वा कर्ता कर्मवद् भवतीति वक्तव्यम् । कर्तृस्थभावकानां कर्तृस्थक्रियाणां वा कर्ता कर्मवन्मा भूदिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.87. Vārt, 3.
kartṛsthabhāvaka(a root)whose action or happening is noticed functioning in the subject; exempli gratia, for example the root स्मृ. confer, compare कर्तस्थभावकश्चायं (स्मरतिः) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). of I.3.67, कतृस्थभावकश्च शेतिः (शीधातुः) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.3.55.
karmakartṛobject of the transitive verb which functions as the subject when there is a marked facility of action: exempli gratia, for exampleओदन is karmakartariobject, functioning as subject, in पच्यते ओदनः स्वयमेव. The word कर्मकर्तृ is used also for the कर्मकर्तरि प्रयोग where the object, on which the verb-activity is found, is turned into a subject and the verb which is transitive is turned into intransitive as a result.
karmadhārayaname technically given to a compound-formation of two words in apposition i. e. used in the same case, technically called समानाधिकरण showing the same substratutm; confer, compare तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः I 2.42. The karmadhāraya compound is looked upon as a variety of the tatpuruṣa compound. There is no satisfactory explanation of the reason why such a compound is termed कर्मधारय. Śākaṭāyana defines Karmadhāraya as विशेषणं व्यभिचारि एकार्थं कर्मधारयश्च where the word विशेषण is explained as व्यावर्तक or भेदक (distinguishing attribute) showing that the word कर्म may mean भेदकक्रिया. The word कर्मधारय in that case could mean 'कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयति असौ कर्मधारयः' a compound which gives a specification of the thing in hand.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
karmavadbhāvathe activity of the agent or kartā of an action represented as object or karman of that very action, for the sake of grammatical operations: e. g. भिद्यते काष्ठं स्वयमेव;. करिष्यते कटः स्वयमेव. To show facility of a verbal activity on the object, when the agent or kartā is dispensed with, and the object is looked upon as the agent, and used also as an agent, the verbal terminations ति, त; et cetera, and others are not applied in the sense of an agent, but they are applied in the sense of an object; consequently the sign of the voice is not अ (शप्), but य (यक्) and the verbal terminations are त, आताम् et cetera, and others (तङ्) instead of ति, तस् et cetera, and others In popular language the use of an expression of this type is called Karmakartari-Prayoga. For details see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III.1.87. Only such roots as are कर्मस्थक्रियक or कर्मस्थभावक id est, that is roots whose verbal activity is noticed in the object and not in the subject can have this Karmakartari-Prayoga.
karmāpadiṣṭaoperations prescribed specifically for objects i. e. prescribed in the case of objects which are described to be functioning as the subject to show facility of the verbal action: e. g. the vikaraṇa यक् or the affix च्णि; confer, compare कर्मापदिष्टाविधय: कर्मस्थभावकानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां वा भवन्ति । कर्तृस्थभावकाश्च दीपादयः M.Bh.on I.1.44.
kalpathe taddhita affix. affix कल्पप् added to any substantive in the sense of slightly inferior, or almost complete; exempli gratia, for example पट्कल्पः, मृदुकल्प; confer, compare P.V.3.67 and Kāśikā thereon.
kalmanthe same as karman or object of an action especially when it is not fully entitled to be called karman, but looked upon as karman only for the sake of being used in the accusative case; subordinate karman, as for instance the cow in गां पयो दोग्धि. The term was used by ancient grammarians; confer, compare विपरीतं तु यत्कर्म तत् कल्म कवयो विदुः M.Bh. on P.I.4.51. See कर्मन्.
kalyāṇyādia class of words headed by the word कल्याणी to which the taddhita affix एय (ढक्) is added, in the sense of 'offspring' and, side by side, the ending इन् (इनड्) is substituted for the last letter of those words; e. g. काल्याणिनेयः, सौभागिनेयः confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV. 1.126.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātyāyanathe well-known author of the Vārttikas on the sūtras of Pāṇini. He is also believed to be the author of the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya and many sūtra works named after him. He is believed to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्याः made by Patañjali in connection with the statement 'यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु' which is looked upon as Kātyāyana's Vārttika. Some scholars say that Vararuci was also another name given to him, in which case the Vārttikakāra Vararuci Kātyāyana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Kātantra grammar are ascribedition For details see The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pages I93-223 published by the D. E.Society, Poona.See also वार्तिकपाठ below.
kānacaffix अान forming perfect partciples which are mostly seen in Vedic Literature. The affix कानच् is technically a substitute for the लिट् affix. Nouns ending in कानच् govern the accusative case of the nouns connected with them: exempli gratia, for example सोमं सुषुवाणः; confer, compare P. III.3.106 and P.II.3.69.
kārakaliterally doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारकशब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्थान्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: confer, compare also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and कर्तृ to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
kāryātideśalooking upon the substitute as the very original for the sake of operations that are caused by the presence of the original;the word is used in contrast with रूपातिदेश where actually the original is restored in the place of the substitute on certain conditions. For details see Mahābhāṣya on द्विर्वचनेचि P. 1.1.59.
kit(1)marked with the mute letter क् which is applied by Pāṇini to affixes, for preventing guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes to the preceding इक् vowel (इ, उ, ऋ or लृ); confer, compareक्ङिति च, Pāṇ. I.1.5; (2) considered or looked upon as marked with mute indicatory क् for preventing guna; confer, compare असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् and the following P.I.2.5 et cetera, and others The affixes of the first type are for instance क्त, क्त्वा, क्तिन् and others. The affixes of the second type are given mainly in the second pada of the first Adhyāya by Pāṇini. Besides the prevention of guṇa and wrddhi, affixes marked with कु or affixes called कित्, cause Saṁprasāraṇa (see P. VI.1.15,16), elision of the penultimate न् (P.VI.4.24), elision of the penultimate vowel (P. VI.4.98,100), lengthening of the vowel (VI.4.15), substitution of ऊ (VI.4.19,21), elision of the final nasal (VI. 4.37), substitution of अI (VI.4.42). The taddhita affixes which are marked with mute क् cause the Vṛddhi substitute for the first vowel in the word to which they are addedition
ku(1)guttural class of consonants, ie the consonants क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ् The vowel उ added to क्, signifies the class of क्. e. g. चजोः कु घिण्यतो, VII.3.52, कुहोश्चुः VII.4.62, चोः कुः VIII.2.30, किन्प्रत्ययस्य कुः; VIII.2.62; confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P.I.1.69; (2) substitute कु for किम् confer, compare P.VII.2. 104.
kuṭādia group of roots headed by the root कुट् of the VIth conjugation after which an affix which is neither ञित् nor णित् becomes ङित्,and as a result prevents the substitution of गुण or वृद्धि for the preceding vowel e. g. कुटिता, कुटितुम् । confer, compare गाङ्कुटादिभ्योञ्णिन्डित् I.2.1.
kutvasubstitution of the consonants of the क् class or guttural consonants
kaiyaṭaprakāśaa commentary on the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa written by Nīlakaṇṭha of the Draviḍa country. Nīlakaṇṭha lived in . the 17th century and wrote works on various subjects.
ktvākṛt (affix). affix त्वा added to roots (1) in the sense of prohibition conveyed by the word अलं or खलु preceding the root, exempli gratia, for example अलं कृत्वा, खलु कृत्वा; confer, compare P. III.4.18; (2) in the sense of exchange in the case of the root मा, e. g. अपमित्य याचते; confer, compare P. III.4.19; (3) to show an activity of the past time along with a verb or noun of action showing comparatively a later time, provided the agent of the former and the latter activities is the same; exempli gratia, for example भुक्त्वा व्रजति, स्नात्वा पीत्वा भुक्त्वा व्रजति; confer, compare P. III.4. 21. This kṛt affix is always added to roots when they are without any prefix; when there is a prefix the indeclinable, ending in त्वा, is always compounded with the prefix and त्वा is changed into य (ल्यप्), exempli gratia, for example प्रकृत्य, प्रहृत्य; confer, compare समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1.37. The substitution of य is at will in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कृष्णं वासो यजमानं परिधापयित्वा ( instead of परिधाप्य ), confer, compare P. VII.1.38, while sometimes, य is added after त्वा as an augment e. g. दत्वाय सविता धियः confer, compare P. VII.l.47, as also sometimes त्वी or त्वीनम् is substituted for त्वा e. g. इष्ट्वीनं देवान्, स्नात्वी मलादिव, confer, compare P. VII.1.48, 49.
ktvāntagerund; a mid-way derivative of a verbal root which does not leave its verbal nature on the one hand although it takes the form of a substantive on the other hand.
kyaṅaffix य taking Ātmanepada terminations after it, added in the sense of similar behaviour to a substantive. The substantive to which this affix य is added, becomes a denominative root; e. g. काकः श्येनायते, कुमुदं पुष्करायते, confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1.11-12, also on P. III, 1.14-18.
īśeḥ(VII.2.77)अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. l to 4; confer, compare also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, confer, compare also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 1. For details and special features, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ch. X and XI: confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
kramyaa consonant which is subjected to doubling confer, compare क्रम्यो वर्णः पूर्वमक्षरं भजते Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVIII. 18.
kvip(1)kṛt affix zero, added to the roots सद्, सू, द्विष् and others with a preceding word as upapada or with a prefix or sometimes even without any word, as also to the root हन् preceded by the words ब्रह्मन्, भ्रूण and वृत्र, and to the root कृ preceded by सु, कर्मन् et cetera, and others, and to the roots सु, and चि under certain conditions exempli gratia, for example उपसत्, सूः, प्रसूः, पर्णध्वत्, ब्रह्महा, वृत्रहा, सोमसुत्, अग्निचित्; confer, compareP.III. 2.61, 76, 77, 87-92: 177-179; (2) the denominative affix zero applied to any substantive in the sense of behaviour अश्वति, गर्दभति et cetera, and others; confer, compare M.Bh. and Kāś, on P.III.1.11.
kvibantaa substantive ending with the kṛt affix क्विप् (zero affix) added to a root to form a noun in the sense of the verbal action (भाव). The words ending with this affix having got the sense of verbal activity in them quite suppressed, get the noun terminations सु, औ, जस् et cetera, and others and not ति, तः et cetera, and others placed after them; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद् भवति. However, at the same time, these words undergo certain operations peculiar to roots simply because the kṛt affix entirely disappears and the word formed, appears like a root; confer, compare क्विबन्ता धातुत्वं न जहति. Kaiyaṭa's Prad. on VII.1.70.
ksa(1)aorist vikaraṇa affix substituted for च्लि; confer, compare P.III.1.45, 46; e. g. अदृक्षत्, आश्लिक्षत्, अधुक्षत् confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.1.45,46; (2) kṛt affix स applied to the root दृश् preceded by a pronoun such as त्यद्, तद् et cetera, and others exempli gratia, for example यादृक्षः, तादृक्ष: et cetera, and others confer, compare दृशेः क्सश्च वक्तव्य: P.III.2.60 Vārttika. (3) affix स applied to the root गाह् or ख्या or कव् to form the noun कक्ष; confer, compare कक्षो गाहतेः क्स इति नामकरण: ख्यातेर्वा कषतेर्वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2.
khañtaddhita affix. affix ईन, applied to महाकुल in the sense of a descendant; e. g. माहाकुलीनः confer, compare P. IV. 1.141, to ग्राम (P. IV. 2.94), to युष्मद् and अस्मद् in the Śaiṣika senses (P.IV.3.1), to प्रतिजन, इदंयुग et cetera, and others (P. IV. 4.99), to माणव and चरक (P. V.1.11), to ऋत्विज् (P.IV.3.71), to मास (P. IV. 3.81), to words meaning corn in the sense of 'a field producing corn' (P.V.2.1), to सर्वचर्मन् (P.V.2.5), and to the words गोष्ठ, अश्व, शाला et cetera, and others in some specified senses (P. V. 3.18-23). A vṛddhi vowel ( अा, ऐ or औ ) is substituted for the first vowel of the word to which this affix खञ् is applied, as ञ् is the mute letter applied in the affix खञ्.
khalkṛt afix अ added to any root preceded by the word ईषद्, दुस् or सु, and to the roots भू and कृ preceded by an upapada word forming either the subject or the object of the roots, e. g. ईषत्करः कटो भवता, ईषदाढ्यंभवं भवता; confer, compare P. III. 3.126, 127.
gthird letter of the guttural class of consonants, possessed of the properties घोष, संवृत, नाद and अल्पप्राण; some grammarians look upon the word क्ङित् (P.I.1.5) as made up of क् , ग् and ङ् and say that the Guna and Vṛddhi substitutes do not take place in the vowels इ, उ, ऋ, and लृ if an affix or so, marked by the mute letter ग् follows.
guṇa(1)degree of a vowel; vocalic degree, the second out of the three degrees of a vowel viz. primary degree, guna degree and vrddhi degree exempli gratia, for example इ, ए and ऐ or उ, ओ and औ. अ is given as a guna of अ; but regarding अ also,three degrees can be stated अ, अ and आ. In the Pratisakhya and Nirukta ए is called गुण or even गुणागम but no definiti6n is given ; confer, compare गुणागमादेतनभावि चेतन R.Pr.XI.6;शेवम् इति विभीषितगुणः। शेवमित्यपि भवति Nir.X.17: (2) the properties of phonetic elements or letters such as श्वास,नाद et cetera, and others: confer, compareṚgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) Ch.XIII : (3) secondary, subordinate;confer, compare शेषः,अङ्गं, गुणः इति समानार्थाः Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.on Nirukta of Yāska.I.12: (4) properties residing in a substance just as whiteness, et cetera, and others in a garment which are different from the substance ( द्रव्य ). The word गुण is explained by quotations from ancient grammarians in the Maha bhasya as सत्वे निविशतेsपैति पृथग्जातिषु दृश्यते । अाघेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोSसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः ॥ अपर आह । उपैत्यन्यज्जहात्यन्यद् दृष्टो द्रव्यान्तरेष्वपि। वाचकः सर्वलिङ्गानां द्रव्यादन्यो गुणः स्मृतः ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.44;cf also शब्दस्पर्शरूपरसगन्धा गुणास्ततोन्यद् द्रव्यम् ,M.Bh.on V.1.119 (5) properties of letters like उदात्तत्व, अनुदात्तत्व, स्वरितत्व, ह्र्स्वत्व, दीर्घत्व, प्लुतत्व, अानुनासिक्य et cetera, and others; confer, compare भेदकत्वाद् गुणस्य । आनुनासिक्यं नाम गुणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.. Vart, 13: (6) determinant cf भवति बहुव्रीहौ तद्गुणसंविज्ञानमपि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.27; (7) technical term in Panini's grarnmar standing for the vowels अ, ए and ओ, confer, compare अदेङ्गुणः P.I.1.2. For the various shades of the meaning of the word गुण, see Mahabhasya on V.1.119. " गुणशब्दोयं बह्वर्थः । अस्त्येव समेष्ववयवेषु वर्तते ।...... चर्चागुणांश्च ।
guṇabhāvina vowel, liable to take the guna substitute e. g. इ, उ, ऋ, लृ and the penultimate अ; confer, compare यत्र क्ङित्यनन्तरो गुणभाव्यस्ति तत्रैव स्यात् । चितम् । स्तुतम् । इह तु न स्याद्भिन्नः भिन्नवानिति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.5.
guṇībhūtasubordinate, literally which has become subordinated, which has become submerged, and therefore has formed an integral part of another; e. g. an augment ( अागम ) with respect to the word to which it has been added;confer, compareयदागमास्तद्गुणी भूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.20 Vart. 5; Par. Sek. Pari. 11.
gauṇa(l)a word subordinate in syntax or sense to another; adjectival; उपसर्जनीभूतः (2) possessing a secondary sense, e. g the word गो in the sense of 'a dull man';confer, compareगौणमुख्ययेार्मुख्ये कार्यसम्प्रत्ययः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.15, I.4. 108, VI. 3. 46. See also Par. Sek Pari. 15; (3) secondary, as opposed to primary; confer, compare गौणे कर्मणि दुह्यादे; प्रधाने नीहृकृष्वहाम् ।.
gh(1)fourth consonant of the guttural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदानत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2)the consonant घ at the beginning of a taddhita affix. affix which is always changed into इय्; confer, compare P. VII. 1. 9; (3) substitute for ह् at the end of roots beginning with द्, as also of the root नह् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.VIII.2.32,33,34; (4) substitute for the consonant व् of मतुव् placed after the pronouns किम् and इदम् which again is changed into इय् by VII.1.9: exempli gratia, for example कियान्, इयान्: confer, compare P.V. 2.40.
ghañkrt affix अ causing the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel applied in various senses as specified in P.III.3. 16-42, III.3. 45-55,III.3.120-125, exempli gratia, for example पाद:, रोग:, आयः, भावः, अवग्राहृः प्रावारः, अवतारः, लेखः रागः etc
ghitaffixes having the mute letter घ्, as for instance, घञ् घ, घच् et cetera, and otherswhich cause the substitution of a guttural in the place of the palatal letter च् or ज् before it: exempli gratia, for example त्याग: राग: confer, compare P.VII.3.52.
ghinuṇkrt affix इन् causing the substitution of Vrddhi for the preceding vowel, as also to the penultimate vowel अ, applied to the eight roots शम्,तम्, दम् et cetera, and others, as also to संपृच्, अनुरुध् et cetera, and others and कस्, लष् लप्, et cetera, and others. e. g. शमी,तमी, दमी, संपर्की, संज्वारी, प्रलापी et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. III.2.141-145.
ghua tech. term applied to the roots दा and धा, as also to those like दे or दो which become दा by the substitution of अा for the final diphthong vowel, barring the root दाप् (to cut) and दैप् (to purify): दाधा ध्वदाप् P.I. 1.20.
ṅasending of the genitive case singular; स्य is substituted for ङस् after bases ending in अ; cf P. IV. l . 2 and VII. 1. 12.
ṅit(l)affixes with the mute letter ङ् attached to them either before or after, with a view to preventing the guna and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding इ, उ, ऋ, or लृ, as for example, the affixes चङ्, अङ् and others (2) affixes conventionally called ङित् after certain bases under certain conditions; confer, compare गाङ्कुटादिम्यो ञ्णिन्ङित् P. I. 2. 1-4; (3) roots marked with the mute letter ङ् signifying the application of the Atmanepada terminations to them: (4) substitutes marked with mute ङ् which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which they are prescribed as substitutes; (5) case affixes marked with mute letter ङ् which cause the substitution of guna to the last vowel इ or उ of words termed घि.
caṅa Vikarana affix of the aorist substituted for च्लि after roots ending in the causal sign णि, as also after the roots श्रि, द्रु and others; this चङ् causes reduplication of the preceding root form; confer, compare P. III 1.48-50, e. g. अचूचुरत्, अशिश्रियत्; confer, compare also P. VII. 4.93.
caya short term (Pratyahara) for the first letters ( क् , च् , ट् त्, and प्र) of the five classes. Sometimes as opined by पौष्करसादि, second letters are substituted for these if a sibilant follows them, e. g,अफ्सराः, वध्सरः । confer, compare चयो द्वितीयाः शरि पौप्करसांदरिति वाच्यम् confer, compare S.K. on ङूणोः कुक्टुक् शरि P. VIII.3.28.
caritakriyahaving kriya or verbactivity hidden in it. The term is used by Bhartrhari in connection with a solitary noun-word or a substantive having the force of a sentence, and hence which can be termed a sentence on account of the verbal activity dormant in it. exempli gratia, for example पिण्डीम्; confer, compare वाक्यं तदपि मन्यन्ते यत्पदं वरितक्रियम् Vakyapad.II. 326, and चरिता गर्भीकृता आख्यातक्रिया यस्य तद्गर्भीकृतक्रियापदं नामपदं वाक्यं प्रयुञ्जते ! Com. on Vakyapadya II.326.
cartvasubstitution of a hard consonant or श्, ष्, स्, for soft consonants and aspirates. See the word चर्.
ciṇsubstitute इ causing vrddhi, in the place of the aorist vikarana affix च्लि, prescribed in the case of all roots in the passive voice and in the case of the roots पद्, दीप्, जन् et cetera, and others in the active voice before the affix त of the third person. singular. in the Atmanepada, which in its turn is elided by P. VI. 4. 104. cf P. III. 1.60-66.
citaffixes or substitutes or bases marked with the mute letter च् signifying the acute accent for the last vowel; e. g. अथुच्, धुरच्, कुण्डिनच् et cetera, and others cf P. VI. 1. 163, 164.
cchthe consonant छ् with च् prefixed, for which श् is substituted by च्छ्घोः शूडनुनासिके च P. VI. 4. 19.
cphañtaddhita affix. affix अायन causing a vrddhi substitute for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, The affix ( च्फञ् ) is added in the sense of 'a descendant except the direct son or daughter’ to words कुञ्ज and others; confer, compare P. IV. I. 98.
cilathe sign of the aorist ( लुड् ) for which generally सिच् and अङ्, क्स, चङ् and चिण् are substituted in specified cases; confer, compare P. III. 1. 43-66.
chthe second consonant of the palatal class of consonants ( चवर्ग ), which is possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, मह्याप्राण and कण्ठविवृतकारित्व. छ् , placed at the beginning of affixes, is mute; while ईय् is substituted for छ् standing at the beginning of taddhita affixes; confer, compare P. I. 3.7 and VII. 1.2. छ् at the end of roots has got ष्, substituted for it: confer, compare P. VIII. 2.36.
chaṇtaddhita affix. affix ईय causing the vrddhi substitute for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition छण् is added (1) to the words पितृत्वसृ and मातृप्वसृ in the sense of अपत्य; confer, compare P IV. 1.132, 134; (2) to the words कृशाश्व,अरिष्ट and others as a चातुरर्थिक affix: confer, compare P. IV. 2.80; (3) to the words तित्तिरि, वरतन्तु, खण्डिक and उख in the sense of 'instructed by', confer, compare P.IV.3.102; and (4) to the word शलातुर in the sense of 'being a national of' or 'having as a domicile.' e. g. शालातुरीयःconfer, compare P. IV. 3.94.
jaśtvasubstitution of a जश् consonant prescribed by Panini for any consonant excepting a semi-vowel or a nasal, if followed by any fourth or third consonant out of the class consonants, or if it is at the end of a pada; confer, compare P.VIII. 2.39, VIII.4. 53.
jātigenus; class;universal;the notion of generality which is present in the several individual objects of the same kindeclinable The biggest or widest notion of the universal or genus is सत्ता which, according to the grammarians, exists in every object or substance, and hence, it is the denotation or denoted sense of every substantive or Pratipadika, although on many an occasion vyakti or an individual object is required for daily affairs and is actually referred to in ordinary talks. In the Mahabhasya a learned discussion is held regarding whether जाति is the denotation or व्यक्ति is the denotation. The word जाति is defined in the Mahabhasya as follows:आकृतिग्रहणा जातिर्लिङ्गानां च न सर्वभाक् । सकृदाख्यातनिर्गाह्या गोत्रं च चरणैः सह ॥ अपर आह । ग्रादुभीवविनाशाभ्यां सत्त्वस्य युगपद्गुणैः । असर्वलिङ्गां बह्वर्थो तां जातिं कवयो विदुः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV. 1.63. For details see Bhartphari's Vakyapadiya.
jusverbal termination उस् substituted for the original झि of the third person. pl, in certain cases mentioned inP.III.4.108,109,110,111, and 112.
jusbhāvathe transformation of झि into जुस् ; the substitution of जुस् for झि. The term is often used in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.57, I.1.63, III.1.43 et cetera, and others See जुस्.
jhaa verbal ending of the 3rd person. Atm. for ल ( id est, that is लकार ); cf P.III.4. 78;for the letter झ् , अन्त् is substituted; confer, compare झोन्तः P. VIII.1.3, but ईरे in the perfect tense; confer, compare P. III. 4.81 and रन् in the potential and benedictive moods; confer, compare P. III. 4.85.
jhi(1)verb-ending of the 3rd person. plural Parasmaipada, substituted for the लकार of the ten lakaras, changed to जुस in the potential and the benedictive moods, and optionally so in the imperfect and after the sign स् of the aorist; confer, compareP,III. 4. 82, 83, 84, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112: (2) a conventional term for अव्यय (indeclinable) used in the Jainendra Vyakaraha.
ñit(1)an afix marked with the mute letter ञ्; causing the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, but, causing vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is added in case the affix is a taddhita affix. affix: confer, compare P.VII.2, 115, 116, 117; (2) a root marked with the consonant ञ् , taking verb-endings of both the Parasmaipada and the Atmanepada kinds; exempli gratia, for example करोति, कुरुते, बिभर्ति, बिभृते, क्रीणाति, क्रीणीते elc.; confer, compare स्वरितञितः कत्राभिप्राये, क्रियाफले P.I.3.72.
ñyataddhita affix य signifying the substitution of vrddhi as also the acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition It is added (1) to words headed by प्रगदिन् in the four senses termed वंतुरर्थ exempli gratia, for exampleप्रागृद्यम्, शारद्यम् et cetera, and others;confer, compareP.IV. 2.80; (2).to the word गम्भीर and अव्ययीभाव compounds in the sense of present there', exempli gratia, for example गाम्भीर्यम् , पारिमुख्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.3.58, 59 (3) to the word विदूर exempli gratia, for example वैदुर्य; confer, compare P. IV.3.84;.(4) to the words headed by शण्डिक in the sense of 'domicile of', exempli gratia, for example शाण्डिक्यः ; confer, compare P. IV.3.92; (5) to the words छन्दोग, औक्थिक, नट et cetera, and others in the sense of duty (धर्म) or scripture (अाम्नाय) e. g. छान्दोग्यम् , औविथक्यम् नाट्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.129; (6) to the word गृहपति in the sense of ’associated with'; exempli gratia, for example गार्हपत्यः (अग्निः);confer, compareP.IV.4.90;(7) to the words ऋषभ and उपानह् ; confer, compare P. V.1.14; .(8) to the words अनन्त, आवसथ et cetera, and others,confer, compare P. V.4.23; (9) to the word अतिथि; confer, compare P.V.4.26; and (10) to the words in the sense of पूग(wandering tribes for earning money), as also to the words meaning व्रात (kinds of tribes) as also to words ending with the affix च्फञ् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.V.3. 112, 113.
ṭāpfeminine affix अा added to masculine nouns ending in अ by the rule अजाद्यतष्टाप् IV. 1.4 excepting those nouns where any other affix prescribed by subsequent rules becomes applicable.
ṭhthe second consonant of the lingual class possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्टत्व and महाप्राणत्व. For the syllable ठ at the beginning of taddhita affixes, the syllable इक is substituted; if however the affix (beginning with ठ ) follows upon a word ending in इस्, उस्, उ, ऋ, लृ and त् then क is added instead of इक; e. g. धानुष्क:, औदश्वित्कः et cetera, and others; confer, compare टस्येकः, इसुसुक्तान्तात् कः, P. VII. 3.50, 51. Some scholars say that इक् and क् are substituted for ठ् by the sutras quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare KS. on VII. 3.50.
ṭha(l)taddhita affix. affix ठ; see ठ् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. for the substitution of इक and क for ठ. ठ stands as a common term for ठक् , ठन् , ठञ्, and ठच् as also for ष्ठल्,ष्ठन् , and प्ठच्;(2) the consonant ठ, the vowel अ being added for facitity of pronunciation, confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.21.
ṭhaka very common taddhita affix. affix इक, or क in case it is added to words ending in इस् , उस् , उ, ऋ, ल् and त् according to P. VII. 3. 51, causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ठक् is added to (1) रेवती and other words in the sense of descendant ( अपत्य ) e. g. रैवतिकः:, दाण्डग्राहिकः, गार्गिकः, भागवित्तिकः यामुन्दायनिकः, confer, compare P. IV. 1.146-149; (2) to the words लाक्षा,रोचना et cetera, and others in the sense of 'dyed in', e. g. लाक्षिकम्, रौचनिकम् ; confer, compare P. IV. 2.2; (3) to the words दधि and उदश्वित् in the sense of संस्कृत 'made better ', e. g. दाधिकम् , औदश्वित्कम् ( क instead of इक substituted for टक् ), confer, compare P. IV.2. 18, 19; (4) to the words अाग्रहायुणी, अश्वत्थ et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 22, 23; (5) to words expressive of inanimate objects, to the words हस्ति and धेनु, as also to the words केश and अश्व in the sense of 'multitude '; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 47, 48; (6) to the words क्रतु, उक्थ and words ending in सूत्र, वसन्त et cetera, and others, in the sense of 'students of' ( तदधीते तद्वेद ), confer, compare P. IV. 2.59, 60, 63; (7) to the words कुमुद and others as also to शर्करा as a चातुरर्थिक affix; confer, compare P. IV. 2.80, 84; (8) to the words कन्था, भवत् and वर्षा in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P. IV. 2.102, 115, IV. 3.18; (9) to the words उपजानु and others in the sense 'generally present '; confer, compare P. IV. 3. 40; (10) to the words consisting of two syllables, and the words ऋक्, ब्राह्मण et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'explanatory literary work'; confer, compare P. IV.3.72: ( 11) to words meaning 'sources of income ' in the sense of 'accruing from’; confer, compare P. IV. 3.75; (12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place in the sense of ' भक्ति ', cf P. IV. 8.96; and (13) to the words हल् and सीर in the sense of 'belonging to', confer, compare P. IV. 3.124. The taddhita affix. affix ठक् is added as a general termination, excepting in such cases where other affixes are prescribed, in specified senses like 'तेन दीव्यति, ' 'तेन खनति,' 'तेन संस्कृतम्' et cetera, and others; cf P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to words हल, सीर, कथा, विकथा, वितण्डा et cetera, and others in specified senses, confer, compare P. IV.4. 81, 102 ठक् is also added as a general taddhita affix. affix or अधिकारविहितप्रत्यय, in various specified senses, as prescribed by P. V.1.19-63,and to the words उदर, अयःशूल,दण्ड, अजिन, अङ्गुली, मण्डल, et cetera, and others and to the word एकशाला, in the prescribed senses; confer, compare P. V. 2.67,76, V. 3.108,109; while, without making any change in sense it is added to अनुगादिन् , विनय, समय, उपाय ( औपयिक being the word formed), अकस्मात्, कथंचित्; (confer, compareआकस्मिक काथंचित्क), समूह,विशेष, अत्यय and others, and to the word वाक् in the sense of 'expressed'; confer, compare P. V. 4.13, 34, 35. The feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ) is added to words ending in the affix टक् to form feminine. bases.
ṭhitmarked with the mute letter ठ्. There is no affix or word marked with mute ठ् (at the end) in Panini's grammar, but to avoid certain technical difficulties, the Mahabhasyakara has proposed mute ठ् instead of 'ट् in the' case of the affix इट् of the first person. singular. perf Atm. and ऊठ् prescribed as Samprasarana substitute by P. VI. 4.132 e: g. प्रष्ठौहः, प्रष्ठौहा; confer, compare M.Bh. on III.4.79 and VI.4.19.
ḍatarāṃdia class of words headed by the word डतर which stands for डतरान्त id est, that is words ending with the affix डतर; similarly the word डतम which follows डतर stands for डतमान्त. This class डतरादि is a subdivision of the bigger class called सर्वादि. and it consists of only five words viz. डतरान्त, डतमान्त, अन्य, अन्यतर and इतरः cf P. VII.1.25 and I.1.27.
ḍāverb-ending आ, causing elision of the penultimate vowel as also of the following consonant, substituted for the 3rd person. sing, affix तिप् of the first future; exempli gratia, for example क्रर्ता ; confer, compare P.II.4.85; (2) case ending आ substituted in Vedic Literature for any case affix as noticed in Vedic usages; exempli gratia, for example नाभा पृथिव्याम्: confer, compare P. VII.1.39
(1)fourth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व and महृाप्राणत्व; (2) the consonant ढ् which is elided when followed by ढ् and the preceding vowel is lengthened; e. g. गाढा, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.13 and VI. 3.111 ; (3) substitute ढ् for ह् at the end of a पद, or, if followed by any consonant excepting a semivowel or a nasal excepting in the cases of roots beginning with द् or the roots द्रुह्, मुह् et cetera, and others as also वह् and अाह् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.31, 32, 33, 34; (4) ढ् at the beginning of a taddhita affix. affix which has got एय् substituted for it; confer, compare गाङ्गेय:, वैनतेयः ; confer, compare P. V. 3.102.
ḍhaktaddhita affix. affix एय causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ढक् is added in the sense of अपत्य (descendant) (I) to words ending in feminine affixes, to words ending in the vowel इ, excepting इ of the taddhita affix. afix इञ्, to words of the class headed by शुभ्र, to words मण्डूक, विकर्ण, कुषीतक, भ्रू , .कुलटा and to words headed by कल्याणी which get इन substituted for its !ast vowel; exempli gratia, for example सौपर्णेयः, दात्तेयः शौभ्रेय, माण्डूकेयः, , वैकर्णेयः, कौषीतकेयः, भ्रौवेयः,.कौलटेयः, काल्याणिनेयः etc: cf Kas on P. IV.I. 1 19-127; (2) to the words पितृष्वसृ and मातृष्वसृ with the vowel ऋ elided and to the word . दुष्कुल, पितृष्वसेय:, मातृष्वसेयः, दौष्कुलेयः, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.133, 134, 142: (3) to the word कलि in the sense of Sama, to the word अग्नि in the sense of 'dedicated to a deity' ( सास्य देवता ) as also to the words नदी, मही, वाराणसी, श्रावस्ती and others in the Saisika senses; e. g. कालेयं साम, आग्नेयः, नादेयम् महियम् et cetera, and others cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.8, 33, 97: (4) to the words तूदी, धुर् , कपि, ज्ञाति, व्रीहि and शालि in the specified senses; confer, compare P. IV. 3.94, IV. 4.77, V. 1.127, V. 2.2.
ḍhañtaddhita affix. affix एय causing Vrddhi substituted for the first vowel of the base and the addition of the feminine. affix ङीप् (इ), applied (1) to words meaning quadrupeds and words in the class of words headed by गृष्टि in the sense of अपत्य; e. g. कामण्डलेयः, गार्ष्टेयः, हालेय:, बालेयः etc; confer, compare P. IV.1.135,136; (2) to the word क्षीर, words of the class headed by सखि, the words कोश, दृति, कुक्षि, कलशि, अस्ति, अहि,ग्रीवा,वर्मती,एणी,पथि,अतिथि,वसति,स्वपति, पुरुष, छदि्स, उपधि, बलि, परिखा, and वस्ति in the various senses mentioned in connection with these words; exempli gratia, for exampleक्षेरेयः, .साखेयम् कौशेयम् दात्र्ऱेयम् , कौक्षेयम् etc, cf Kas'. on P. IV. 2. 20, 80, IV. 3. 42, 56, 57, 94, 159, IV.4.1 04, V.1.10,13,17, V.3.101.
(1)fifth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties, नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्यः (2) the mute letter ण् indicating the substitution of vrddhi ( confer, compare P. VII. 2. 115-117) when attached to affixes; (3) the consonant ण् at the beginning of roots which is changed into न्; the roots, having ण् at the beginning changeable to न्, being called णोपदेशः (4) ण् as a substitute for न् following the letters ऋ, ॠ, र्, and ष् directly, or with the intervention of consonants of the guttural and labial classes, but occurring in the same word, Such a substitution of ण् for न् is called णत्व; confer, compare P.VIII.4. I-39. For णत्व in Vedic Literature; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)V.20-28, T.Pr.VII.1-12. V.Pr.III.84-88;(5) the consonant ण् added as an augment to a vowel at the beginning of a word when it follows the consonant ण् at the end of the previous word; confer, compare P. VIII. 3. 32. In the Vedic Pratisakhyas this augment ण् is added to the preceding ण् and looked upon as a part of the previous word.
ṇatvacerebralization; lingualization ; the substitution of ण् for न् under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VIII.4. 1-39. See ण.
ṇatvapādaa popular name given by grammarians to the fourth pada confer, compare Panini's Astadhyayi, as the pada begins with the rule रषाभ्यां नो णः समानपदे and mainly gives rules about णत्व i. e. the substitution of the consonant ण् for न्.
ṇamulkrt affix अम्, causing vrddhi to the final vowel or to the penultimate अ, (!) added to any root in the sense of the infinitive in Vedic Literature when the connected root is शक्: exempli gratia, for example अग्निं वै देवा विभाजं नाशक्नुवन; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 4.14; (2) added to any root to show frequency of a past action, when the root form ending with णमुल् is repeated to convey the sense of frequency : exempli gratia, for example भोजं भोजं व्रजति, पायंपायं व्रजति, confer, compare Kas on P. III. 4.22; (3) added to a root showing past action and preceded by the word अग्रे, प्रथम or पूर्व, optionally along with the krt affix क्त्वा; exempli gratia, for example अग्रेभोजं or अग्रे भुक्त्वा व्रजति; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.24;(4) added in general to a root specified in P.III.4.25 to 64, showing a subordinate action and having the same subject as the root showing the main action, provided the root to which णमुल् is added is preceded by an antecedent or connected word, such as स्वादुम् or अन्यथा or एवम् or any other given in Panini's rules; confer, compare P. III.4.26 to III.4.64; exempli gratia, for example स्वादुंकारं भुङ्क्ते, अन्यथाकारं भुङ्क्ते, एवंकारं भुङ्क्ते, ब्राह्मणवेदं भोजयति, यावज्जीवमधीते, समूलकाषं कषति, समूलघातं हन्ति, तैलपेषं पिनष्टि, अजकनाशं नष्टः et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.26-64. When णमुल् is added to the roots कष्, पिष्, हन् and others mentioned in P. III. 4. 34 to 45, the same root is repeated to show the principal action. The word ending in णमुल् has the acute accent (उदात) on the first vowel (confer, compare P.VI.I. 94) or on the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare P. VI.1.193.
ṇalpersonal ending अ substituted for तिप् and मिप् in लिट् or the perfect, and in the case of विद् and ,ब्रू in लट् or the present tense. tense optionally; cf P. III, 4. 82, 83, 84. The affix णल् on account of being marked by the mute letter ण् causes vrddhi to the preceding vowel; the vrddhi is, however, optional in the case of the 1st person. ( मिप् ) confer, compare P. VII.1.91. अौ is substituted for णल् after roots ending in आ; confer, compare P. VII .1.34.
ṇicaffix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् et cetera, and others e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; confer, compare P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising et cetera, and others ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; confer, compare P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, exempli gratia, for example सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, et cetera, and others: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: confer, compare णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे et cetera, and others; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
ṇit(1)an affix with the mute con.sonant ण् added to it to signify the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate अ or for the first vowel of the word if the affix applied is a taddhita affix; confer, compare P. VII.2.115117: e. g. अण्, ण, उण्, णि et cetera, and others: (2) an affix not actually marked with the mute letter ण् but looked upon as such for the purpose of vrddhi; e. g. the Sarvanamasthana affixes after the words गो and सखि, confer, compare P. VII.1.90, 92.
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
ṇopadeśaa root mentioned in the Dhatupatha by Panini as beginning with ण् which subsequently is changed to न् ( by P. VI. 1.65) in all the forms derived from the root; e. g. the roots णम, णी and others. In the case of these roots the initial न् is again changed into ण् after a prefix like प्र or परा having the letter र् in it and having a vowel or a consonant of the guttural or labial class intervening between the letter र् and the letter न्; e. g. प्रणमति, प्रणयकः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.14.
ṇvikrt, affix ण्वि i. e. zero, causing vrddhi, applied to the root भज् and to सह् and वह् in Vedic Literature if the root is preceded by any preposition ( उपसर्ग ) or a substantive as the upapada ; e. g. अर्द्धभाक्, प्रभाक्, तुराषाट् , दित्यवाट्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III, 2.62, 63, 64.
t(1)personal ending of the third pers singular. Atm: confer, compare P. III. 4.78, which is changed to ते in the perfect tense and omitted after the substitute चिण् for च्लि in the aorist; confer, compare P.VI.4.04: (2) personal ending substituted for the affix थ of the Paras. 2nd person. plural in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional for which, तात्, तन and थन are substituted in Vedic Literature, and also for हि in case a repetition of an action is meant; confer, compare P. III. 4. 85, 10l as also VII. 1. 44, 45 and III. 4. 2-5. cf P. III. 4. 85 and III. 4. 10I ; (3) taddhita affix. affix त applied to the words कम् and शम् e. g. कन्तः, शन्त:, confer, compare P. V. 2. 138: (4) taddhita affix. affix त applied to दशत् when दशत् is changed to श; confer, compare दशानां दशतां शभावः तश्च प्रत्ययः । दश दाशतः परिमाणमस्य संधस्य शतम्, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. l. 59; (5) .general term for the affix क्त of the past passive voice. part, in popular use: (6) a technical term for the past participle affixes (त) क्त and तवत् ( क्तवतु ) called निष्ठा by Panini; confer, compare P. I.1.26; the term त is used for निष्ठI in the Jainendra Vyakararna.
taṅ(1)a short term used for the nine personal endings of the Atmanepada viz. त,अाताम्...महिङ् which are themselves termed Atmanepada; confer, compare तङानौ अात्मनेपदम् P. 1.4. 100 (2) the personal-ending त of the 2nd person. plural (substituted for थ by III.4 101) looked upon as तङ् sometimes, when it is lengthened in the Vedic Literature: confer, compare तङिति थादेशस्य ङित्त्वपक्षे ग्रहणम् । भरता जातवेदसम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 3. 133.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
tadantavidhia peculiar feature in the interpretation of the rules of Panini, laid down by the author of the Sutras himself by virtue of which an adjectival word, qualifying its principal word, does not denote itself, but something ending with it also; confer, compare येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य P.I.1.72.This feature is principally noticed in the case of general words or adhikaras which are put in a particular rule, but which Occur in a large number of subsequent rules; for instance, the word प्रातिपदिकात्, put in P.IV.1.1, is valid in every rule upto the end of chapter V and the words अतः, उतः, यञः et cetera, and others mean अदन्ताद् , उदन्तात् , यञन्तात् et cetera, and others Similarly the words धातोः (P.III.1.91) and अङ्गस्य (P.VI. 4.1 ) occurring in a number of subsequent rules have the adjectival words to them, which are mentioned in subsequent rules, denoting not only those words,but words ending with them. In a large number of cases this feature of तदन्तविधि is not desirable, as it, goes against arriving at the desired forms, and exceptions deduced from Panini's rules are laid down by the Varttikakara and later grammarians; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 16,23, 31 : also Mahabhasya on P.I.1.72.
tadguṇībhūtaliterally made subordinated to (the principal factor); completely included so as to form a portion The word is used in connection with augments which, when added to.a word are completely included in that word, and, in fact, form a part of the word: cf यदागमास्तद्भुणीभूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते Par. Sek. Pari. 11.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
tadbhāvitaproduced or brought into being by some grammatical operation such as the vowel आ in दाक्षि, कारक्र, अकार्षीत् et cetera, and others by the substitution of वृद्धि, as contrasted with the original अा in ग्राम, विघान शाला, माला et cetera, and others; confer, compare किं पुनरिदं तद्भावितग्रहणं वृद्धिरित्येवं ये आकरैकारौकारा भाव्यन्ते तेषां ग्रहणमाहोस्विदादैज्मात्रस्य M.Bh. on I. 1.1.
tap(1)taddhita affix. affix त added to the words पर्वन् and मरुत् to form the words पर्वतः and मरुत्तः; confer, compare P. V. 2.122 Vart. 10; (2) personal ending in Vedic Literature substitutcd for त of the imperative second. person. plural e. g. श्रुणोत ग्रावाणः confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VII. 1.45.
tampersonal ending तम् substituted for थम् in the imperative imperfeminine. potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional; confer, compare P. III. 4.85, 101
tayataddhita affix. affix तयप् applied to a numeral ( संख्या ) in the sense of अवयविन् or 'possessed of parts'; e. g. पञ्च अवयवा अस्य पञ्चतयम् , दशतयम् , चतुष्टयी; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.42. अय is substituted for तय optionally after the numerals द्वि and त्रि and necessarily after उभ; confer, compare P. V. 2.43-44.
tas(1)personal ending of the third person. dual Parasmaipada substituted technically for ल् (लकार); cf P. III.4.78; (2) taddhita affix. affix तस् ( तसि or तसिल् ). See तसि and तसिल्.
tasi(1)taddhita affix.affix तस् showing direction by means of a thing exempli gratia, for example वृक्षमूलतः, हिमवत्तः; confer, compare Kas on P.IV.3.114,115; (2) taddhita affix.affix तस् applied in the sense of the ablative case. case and substituted for the ablative case. case affix: exempli gratia, for example ग्रामतः अागच्छति, चोरतो विभेति; sometimes the affix is applied instead of the instrumental or the genitive case also. e. g. वृत्ततः न व्यथते for वृत्तेन न व्यथते; देवा अर्जुनतः अभवन्, for अर्जुनस्य पक्षे अभवन् confer, compare Kas, on P.V.4.44-49.
tāt(1)the same as तातङ् substituted for तु and हि of the imperative second. and third singular. Parasmaipada; confer, compare P.VII.1.35; (2) substitute तात् for त of the imperative 2nd plural in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example गात्रं गात्रमस्यानूनं कृणुतात् confer, compare Kas on P.VII.1.44.
tāmpersonal ending substituted for तस् of the 3rd person. dual in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional; confer, compare P. III.4.85, 101.
tikādia class of words headed by the words तिक, केितव, संज्ञा and others to which the taddhita affix अायनि (फिञ्) causing the substitution of vrddhi is added in the sense of 'a descendant'; exempli gratia, for example तैकायनि:, कैतवायनि:; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.1.154.
tipthe personal ending of the 3rd person. singular. substituted for ल (लकार) in the Parasmaipada. For substitutes for तिप् in special cases, see P. VI.1.68, III.4.82, 83, 84.
tu(1)short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the dental consonants त्, थ्, द्, ध् and न् confer, compare P. I. 1.69; (2) personal-ending substituted for ति in the 2nd person. imper. singular. Parasmaipada confer, compare P. III, 4.86; (3) taddhita affix. affix तु in the sense of possession added in Vedic Literature to कम् and शम् e. g. क्रन्तुः, शन्तु: confer, compare P. V. 2.138; (4) unadi affix तु ( तुन्) prescribed by the rule सितनिगमिमसिसच्यविधाञ्कुशिभ्यस्तुन् ( Unadi Sitra I.69 ) before which the augment इ is not added exempli gratia, for example सेतुः सक्तुः et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 2.9
tuṭaugment त् (1) added to the affix अन substituted for the यु of ट्यु and ट्युल्; e. g. चिरंतनः, सायंतनः, confer, compare P. IV.3.23; (2) added to the taddhita affix. affix इक (ठक्) applied to the word श्वस् in the Saisika senses; e.g, शौवस्तिकः confer, compare P. IV. 3.15.
tumkrt affix तुम् of the infinitive (1) added to a root optionally with ण्वुल् when the root refers to an action for the purpose of which another action is mentioned by the principal verb ; exempli gratia, for example भोक्तुं व्रजति or भोजको व्रजति्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.3.11; (2) added to a root connected with ' another root in the sense of desire provided both have the same subject; exempli gratia, for example इच्छति भोक्तुम् ; confer, compare P. III. 3.158; (3) added to a root connected with the words काल, समय or वेला; exempli gratia, for example कालो भोक्तुम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.3.167; (4) added to any root which is connected with the roots शक्, धृष्, ज्ञा, ग्लै, घट्, रभ्, लभ्, क्रम्, सह्, अर्ह् and अस् or its synonym, as also with अलम्, or its synonym; exempli gratia, for example शक्नोति भोक्तुम्, भवति भोक्तुम्, वेला भोक्तुम्, अलं भोक्तुम्, पर्याप्तः कर्तुम् : confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4. 65, 66.
tulyādhikaraṇahaving got the same substratum; denoting ultimately the same object; expressed in the same case the same as samanadhikarana in the grammar of Panini, confer, compare Kat. II.5.5.
tṛ(1)substitute prescribed for the last vowel of the word अर्वन् so as to make it declinable like words marked with the mute letter ऋ; (2) common term for the krt affixes तृन् and तृच् prescribed in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity; the taddhita affix. affixes ईयस्, and इष्ठ are seen placed after words ending in तृ in Vedic Literature before which the affix तृ is elided; exempli gratia, for example करिष्ठः, दोहीयसी; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.59.
tṛjantaa word ending in the affix तृच् and hence getting the guna vowel (i. e. अ ) substituted for the final vowel ऋ before the Sarvanamasthana (i. e. the first five) case affixes; confer, compare तृजन्त आदेशॊ भविष्यति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII. 1.96.
tailactaddhita affix. affix तैल applied in the sense of oil to a word meaning the substance from which oil is extracted: e. g. तिलतैलं सर्षपतैलम् ; confer, compare विकारे सेनहने तैलच्, Kas on P. V. 2. 29.
taudādikaa root belonging to the तुदादि class of roots ( sixth conjugation ) which take the vikarana अ ( श ) causing no guna or vrddhi substitute for the vowel of the root.
tyadādividhia specific operation prescribed for the pronouns headed by त्यद् e. g. the substitution of अ for the final letter; confer, compare त्यदादिविधौ च प्रयोजनम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1. 27 Vart. 6.
th()second consonant of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2) augment थ् ( थुक् ) added to the words षष् , कति, कतिपय and चतुर् before the Purana affix डट्. e. g. षण्णां पूरण: षष्ठ:, कतिथः, चतुर्थः; confer, compare Kas, on P. V. 2.51 ; (3) substitute for the consonant ह् of आह् before any consonant except a nasal, and a semivowel as also for the consonant स् of स्था preceded by the preposition उद्: confer, compare P, VIII. 2.35, VIII. 4.61.
th(1)personal-ending of the 2nd person. plural Parasmaipada,substituted for the ल् of the ten lakara affixes; (2) substitute ( थल् ) for the 2nd pers singular. personal ending सिप् in. the perfect tense: (3) unadi affix ( थक् ) added to the roots पा, तॄ, तुद् et cetera, and others e. g. पीथः, तीर्थः, et cetera, and others; cf unadi sutra II. 7; (4) unadi affix ( क्थन् ) | added to the roots हन्, कुष् ,नी et cetera, and others; e. g, हथः, कुष्टं, नीथः et cetera, and others cf unadi sutra II. 2: (5) unadi affix (थन्) added to the roots उष्, कुष्, गा and ऋ, e. g. ओष्ठः, कोष्ठम् et cetera, and others cf unadi sutra_II. 4; (6) a technical term for the term अभ्यस्त or the reduplicated wording of Panini ( confer, compare उभे अभ्यस्तम् ) P. VI. 1. 5, used in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
thanapersonal-ending थन substituted for त of the 2nd person. plural of the imperative Parasmaipada in Vedic ' Literature, e. g. यदिष्ठन for यदिच्छथ: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VII. 1.45.
thalpersonal ending थ substituted for सिप् of the 2nd person.singular. Parasmaipada in the perfect tense as also in the present tense in specific cases; confer, compare P. III. 4.82, 88,84.
thaspersonal ending of the 2nd person. dual Parasmaipada, which is substituted for ल् of the lakara affixes; confer, compare P. III 4.78.
thāspersonal ending of the 2nd person. singular. Atmanepada, substituted for ल् of the lakara affixes.
dthird consonant of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणता;(2) consonant द् substituted for the final letter of nouns ending with the affix वस् as also for the final letter of स्रंस्, ध्वंस् and अनडुह् provided the final letter is at the end of a pada; exempli gratia, for example विद्वद्भयाम् et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, VIII. 2.72; (3) consonant द् substituted for the final स् of roots excepting the root.अस्, before the personal ending तिप् of the third person. singular.; e. g. अचकाद् भवान् ; confer, compare P. VIII. 3.93.
dikśabdaa word denoting a direction such as पूर्व, उत्तर and the like, used as a substantive, e. g. पूर्वो ग्रामात् , or showing the direction of another thing being its adjective, e. g. इयमस्याः पूर्वा; cf Kas, on P. II.3.29.
dyutādia class of roots headed by the root द्युत् , the aorist sign च्लि after which gets ( अ ) अङ् substituted for it: exempli gratia, for example अद्युतत् , अश्वितत्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.1.55. and I.3.91. द्युस् taddhita affix. affix द्युस् applied to the word उभय in the sense of a day; exempli gratia, for example उभयद्युः confer, compare P. V. 3.22 Vart. 7.
dravyasubstance, as opposed to गुण property and क्रिया action which exist on dravya. The word सत्त्व is used by Yaska, Panini and other grammarians in a very general sense as something in completed formation or existence as opposed to 'bhava' or kriya or verbal activity, and the word द्रव्य is used by old grammarians as Synonymous with सत्त्व; confer, compare चादयोSसत्वे। चादयो निपातसंज्ञा भवन्ति न चेत्सत्वे वर्तन्ते, confer, compare Kas on P. I. 4.57; confer, compare S.K. also on P. I.4.57. (2)The word द्रव्य is also found used in the sense of an individual object, as opposed to the genus or generic notion ( अाकृति ); confer, compare द्रव्याभिधानं व्याडिः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64. Vart. 45.(3)The word द्रव्य is found used in the sense of Sadhana or means in Tait. Prati. confer, compare तत्र शब्दद्रव्याण्युदाहरिष्यामः । शब्दरूपाणि साधनानि वर्णयिष्यामः Tai, Pr. XXII. 8.
dravyavacanaexpressive of substance as their sense as opposed to गुणवचन; confer, compare उभयवचना ह्येते शुक्लादयः द्रव्यं चाहुर्गुणं च। Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. V.1.119.
dvārādia class of words headed by the word द्वार् which get the augment ऐच् (id est, that is ऐ or औ ) placed before the letter य or व in them, instead of the substitution of vrddhi, when a taddhita affix marked with the mute letter ञ्,ण्, or क् is added to them; e. g. दौवारिकः सौवस्तिकः, शौवम्, शौवनम् et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, VII .3,4.
dvikarmakaa term used in connection with roots governing two objects or two words in the accusative case, exempli gratia, for example दुह् in, गां दोग्धि पयः; the term कर्म according to the strict definition of the term कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म or अाप्यं कर्म applies to one of the two, which is called the प्रधानकर्म or the direct object, the other one, which, in fact, is related to the verbal activity by relation of any other karaka or instrument is taken as karmakaraka and hence put in the accusative case. For details see Mahabhasya and Kasika on P.I.4.51. Some roots in their causal formation govern two objects out of which one object is the actual one while the other is the subject of the primitive root. exempli gratia, for example गमयति माणवकं ग्रामम्; बोधयति माणवकं धर्मम्; cf Kas on P.I.4.52. See for details Mahabhasya on P. I. 4.52.
dviguname of a compound with a numeral as the first member. The compound is looked upon as a subdivision of the Tatpurusa comPoundThe dvigu compound, having collection as its general sense, is declined in the neuter gender and singular number; when it ends in अ the feminine. affix ङी is added generally, e. g. पञ्चपात्रम्, त्रिभुवनम्, पञ्चमूली. The Dvigu comPound also takes place when a karmadharaya compound, having a word denoting a direction or a numeral as its first member, (a) has a taddhita affix. affix added to it exempli gratia, for example पञ्चकपाळः (पुरोडाशः), or (b) has got a word placed after it in a compound e. g. पशञ्चगवधनः or (c) has a collective sense exempli gratia, for example पञ्चपूली; confer, compare तद्वितार्थोत्तरपदसमाहारे च ( P. II.1.51 ) also, cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. and S. K. om P.II.1.51,52.
gh(1)fourth letter of the dental class(तवर्ग) possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, कण्ठसंवृतत्व and महाप्रण ; (2) substitute ध् , for the ह् of नह् before a ' jhal ' consonant or at the end of a word e. g. नद्धम्, उपानत्, confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 34; (3) substitute ध् for the letters त् and थ् placed after a fourth letter, e. g लब्धुम्, दोग्धा et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 40.
dhamuñtaddhita affix. affix optionally substituted in the place of the taddhita affix. affix धा after the words द्वि and त्रि; e. g. द्विधा, द्वौधम्, त्रिधा, त्रैधम्; confer, compare P. V. 3.45.
dharmadefined as ऋषिसंप्रदाय, the traditional practices laid down by the sages for posterity; confer, compareकेवलमृषिसंप्रदायो धर्म इति कृत्वा याज्ञिक्राः शास्त्रेण अनुविदधते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika I ; cf also धर्मशास्त्रं in एवं च कृत्वा धर्मशास्त्रं प्रवृत्तम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64, as also धर्मसूत्रकाराः in नैवेश्वर आज्ञापयति नापि धर्मसूत्रकाराः पठन्ति अपवादैरुत्सर्गा बाध्यन्तामिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. l.47; (2) religious merit, confer, compare धर्मोपदेशनमिदं शास्त्रमस्मिन्ननवयवेन शास्त्रार्थः संप्रतीयते , Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. I. 84, cf also ज्ञाने घमै इति चेत्तथाSधर्मः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika l ; ' 3) property possessed by a thing or a letter or a word. e. g. वर्णधर्म; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 2.29; cf also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1, 55, II. 3.33, VIII. 1. 4. confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 8, 13 XIV. 1 et cetera, and others: ( 4 ) the characteristic of being in a substance; in the phrase अयं घटः the dharma viz.घटत्व is predicated of this (इदम्) or, in other words the designation pot ( घटसंज्ञा ) is the predication; the explanation in short, can be given as घटत्ववान् इदंपदार्थः or घटाभिन्नः इदंपदार्थ:
dhamekīrtia Jain scholar called by the name कीर्ति also, who was the author of धातुप्रत्ययपञ्जिक्रा and रूपावतार a well-known treatise on roots; confer, compare बोपदेवमहाग्राहग्रस्तो वामनदिग्गजः । कीर्तेरेव प्रसङ्गेन माधवेन समुद्धृतः । He is believed to have been the first grammarian who arranged the sutras of Panini according to the subject matter.
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
dhātvartheliterally meaning of a root, the verbal activity, named क्रिया or भावः . confer, compare धात्वर्थः क्रिया; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2. 84, III.2.115. The verbal activity is described generally to be made up of a series of continuous subordinate activities carried on by the different karakas or agents and instruments of verbal activity helping the process of the main activity. When the process of the verbal activity is complete, the completed activity is looked upon as a substantive or dravya and a word denoting it, such as पाक,or याग does not get conjugational affixes, but it is regularly declined like a noun.Just as स्वार्थ, द्रब्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या, and कारक are given as प्रातिपदिकार्थ, in the same manner क्रिया, काल, पुरुष, वचन or संख्या, and कारक are given as धात्वर्थ, as they are shown by a verbal form, although strictly speaking verbal activity (क्रियorभाव) alone is the sense of a root, as stated in the Mahbhasya. For details see Vaiyak.Bh.Sara, where it is said that fruit ( फल) and effort ( ब्यापार ) are expressed by a root, confer, compare फलव्यापारयोर्धातुः. The five senses given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are in fact conveyed not by a root, but by a verb or अाख्यात or तिडन्त.
dhi(1)a technical term used for sonant consonants in the Pratisakhya and old grammar works; confer, compare धि शेषः V. Pr.I.53, explained by Uvvata as वर्गाणां उत्तरास्त्रय: यरलवहकाराश्च धिः V.Pr. I.53; the term धि corresponds to हश् of Panini; (2) personal ending धि substituted for हि of the imperative 2nd singular. exempli gratia, for example जुहुधि, छिन्द्धि, भिन्द्धि, श्रुधि, रारन्धि et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.V.4.101-103.
dhyamtaddhita affix. affix ध्यमुञ् substituted for धा optionally after the word एक e. g. ऐकध्यम् , एकधा; confer, compare P. V. 3.44.
dhyaikrt afix ध्यै seen in Vedic Literature, substituted for त्या optionally; e. g. साढयै, साढ्वा; cf P. VI. 3.113.
dhvampersonal-ending of the second. person. plural Atmanepada, substituted for ल् of the 10 lakaras.
dhvātpersonal-ending in Vedic Literature, substituted for ध्वम् of the second. person. plural Atmanepada; exempli gratia, for exampleवारयध्वात् for वारयध्वम् confer, compare P. VII. 1.42.
dhvePersonal-ending of the second. person. Pl. Atmanepada in the present and perfect tenses. न् fifth consonant of the dental class of consonants which is possessed of the properties घोष, नादानुप्रदान, अल्पप्राणत्व, संवृतकण्ठत्व and अानुनासिक्य. In Panini's grammar the nasal consonant न् (a)is added as an augment prescribed\ \नुट् or नुम् which originally is seen as न्, but afterwards changed into अनुस्वार or परसवर्ण as required, as for example in पयांसि, यशांसि, निन्दति, वन्दति et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII. 1.58-73, VII. 1.7983; VIII. 3.24; (b) is changed into ण् when it directly follows upon ऋ, ॠ, र् or ष् or even intervened by a vowel, a semivowel except ल् , a guttural consonant, a labial consonant or an anusvara; confer, compare P. VIII. 4.1.1-31. (c) is substituted for the final म् of a root, e. g. प्रशान्, प्रतान् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.64, 65.
(1)taddhita affix. affix ना as also नाञ् prescribed respectively after वि and नञ् (negative particle न ) in the sense of separation; e. g. विना, नाना ; (2) case ending ना substituted for the inst. instrumental case. singular. affix टा (called also अाङ् in ancient grammars) in the masculine gender after words called घि i. e. words ending in इ or उ excepting such as are called नदी.
nāmannoun, substantive; one of the four categories of words given in the Nirukta and other ancient grammer works; confer, compare चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्याते चोपसर्गनिपाताश्च, Nirukta of Yāska.I.1. The word is defined as सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि by standard grammarians; confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1.; confer, compare also सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII.8; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 49 and commentary thereon. Panini divides words into two categories only, viz. सुबन्त and तिङन्त and includes नामन् ,उपसर्ग and निपात under सुबन्त. The Srngarapraksa defines नामन् as follows-अनपेक्षितशब्दव्युत्पत्तीनि सत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायीनि नामानि। तानि द्विविधानि। आविष्टलिङ्गानि अनाविष्टलिङ्गानि च । The word नामन् at the end of a sasthitatpurusa compound signifies a name or Samjna e. g. सर्वनामन्, दिङ्नामन् , छन्दोनामन्; confer, compare also. Bhasavrtti on संज्ञायां कन्थोशीनरेषु P. II.4. 20 and संज्ञायां भृत्. P. III. 2.46 where the author of the work explains the word संज्ञायां as नाम्नि. The word is used in the sense of 'a collection of words' in the Nirukta, confer, compare अन्तरिक्षनामानि, अपत्यनामानि, ईश्वरनामानि, उदकनामानि, et cetera, and others
ni(1)personal ending substituted for मि (मिप्) of the 1st person. singular. in the imperative; (2) a technical term in the Jainendra Vyakarana for the term निपात of Panini.
niṅsubstitute नि for the last letter of the word जाया at the end of a bahuvrihi compound; confer, compare युवजानिः, वृद्धजानिः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 4.134.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
nimittinan affix or an augment or a substitute taking place on account of certain formal causes or nimittas; confer, compare निर्ज्ञातार्थो निमित्तमनिर्ज्ञातार्थो निमित्ती, इह च प्रत्ययोऽनिर्ज्ञातः प्रकृत्युपपदोपाधयो निर्ज्ञाताः M. BSh. on III. l . l Vart. 2.
niravakāśapossessed of no scope of, or occasion for, application; the word अनवकाश is also used in this sense. The niravakasa rules always set aside the general rules which are always present wherever they i. e. the niravakasa rules are possible to be appliedition Niravakasatva is looked upon as one of the two criteria for बाध or sublation, the other one being सामान्यविशेषभाव as illustrated by the usual maxim, known as तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय. See तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय; confer, compare also अनवकाशा हि विधयो बाधका भवन्ति Par. Sek. on Pari. 64.
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
nirdiśyamānaparibhāṣāa short form for the maxim निर्दिश्यमानस्यादेशा भवन्ति which means 'substitutes take the place of that or its part which has been actually stated or enunciated in the rule (of grammar)' Par. Sek. Pari. 12. For details see Par. Sek. Pari. 12.
nivṛtti(1)cessation of recurrence of a word or words from a rule to a subsequent rule or rules; non-application of a rule consequent upon the cessation of recurrence or anuvrtti cf; न ज्ञायते केनाभिप्रायेण प्रसजति केन निवृत्तिं करोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. 1.1.44 Vart.8. confer, compare also एकयोगनिर्दिष्टानां सह वा प्रवृत्तिः सह वा निवृत्तिः Kat. Par. Vr. Pari. 9; (2) cessation or removal; confer, compare न च संज्ञाया निवृत्तिरुच्यते । स्वभावतः संज्ञा संज्ञिन; प्रत्याय्य निवर्तन्ते । तेन अनुबन्धानामपि निवृत्तिर्भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.1. Vart. 7; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1. 3 et cetera, and others; confer, compare also the usual word उदात्तनिवृत्तिस्वरः.
nivṛttisthānaplaces where the substitutes गुण and वृद्धि do not apply ; weak terminations; kit or nit affixes in Panini's grammar; confer, compare अथाप्यस्तेर्निवृत्तिस्थानेष्वादिलेापो भवति । स्तः सन्तीति । Nirukta of Yāska.II. 1. The word संक्रम is also used in this sense by ancient grammarians.
nuṭaugment न् prefixed (l) to the genitive case plural ending in अाम् after a crude base ending in a short vowel, or in ई or ऊ of feminine bases termed nadi, or in अा of the feminine affix ( टाप् डाप् or चाप्); e g. वृक्षाणाम्, अग्नीनाम् , कर्तॄणाम् , कुमारीणाम् , मालानाम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII.1.54; (2) to the affix अाम् after numerals termed षट् and the numeral चतुर् as also after the words श्री, ग्रामणी and गो in Vedic Literature, e. g. षण्णाम् , पञ्चानाम् , चतुर्णाम्, श्रीणाम्, ग्रामणीनाम्, गोनाम्; confer, compare P. VII.1.55,56, 57; (3) to the part of a root possessed of two consonants, as also of the root अश् of the fifth conjugation after the reduplicative syllable ending in अा, which is substituted for अ; exempli gratia, for example अानञ्ज, व्यानशे; confer, compare P.VII.4. 71,72; (4) to the affix मतुप् after a base ending in अन् as also to the affixes तरप् and तमप् after a base ending in न् in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example मूर्धन्वती, अक्षण्वन्तः, सुपथिन्तरः et cetera, and others;confer, compare P. VIII. 2.16, 17: (5) to the initial vowel of the second member of a compound having अ of नञ् as the first member; e. g. अनघः, confer, compare P.VI. 3.74; (6) to any vowel after न् which is preceded by a short vowel and which is at the end of a word exempli gratia, for example कुर्वन्नास्ते, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.32.
nyaṅkvādia class of words headed by the word न्यङ्कु, which are formed by means of the substitution of a guttural consonant in the place of a consonant of any other class belonging to the root from which these words are formed; exempli gratia, for example न्यङ्कुः मद्गुः, भृगुः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kās, on P.VII.3. 53.
nyacgoing lower, subordinate, the word is used in the sense of upasarjana as a technical term in the Jainendra Vyākarana, confer, compare वोक्तं न्यक् Jain. Vy.I.1.93.
nyāsa(1)literally position, placing;a word used in the sense of actual expression or wording especially in the sūtras; confer, compare the usual expression क्रियते एतन्न्यास एव in the Mahābhāșya, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.11, 1.1.47 et cetera, and others; (2) a name given by the writers or readers to works of the type of learned and scholarly commentaries on vŗitti-type-works on standard sūtras in a Śāstra; e. g. the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. is given to the learned commentaries on the Vŗtti on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśasana as also on the Paribhāşāvŗtti by Hemahamsagani. Similarly the commentary by Devanandin on Jainendra grammar and that by Prabhācandra on the Amoghāvŗtti on Śākatāyana grammar are named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. In the same way, the learned commentary on the Kāśikāvŗtti by Jinendrabuddhi, named Kāśikāvivaranapaňjikā by the author, is very widely known by the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. This commentary Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. was written in the eighth century by the Buddhist grammarian Jinendrabuddhi, who belonged to the eastern school of Pānini's Grammar. This Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. has a learned commentary written on it by Maitreya Rakșita in the twelfth century named Tantrapradipa which is very largely quoted by subsequent grammarians, but which unfortunately is available only in a fragmentary state at present. Haradatta, a well-known southern scholar of grammar has drawn considerably from Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. in his Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta., which also is well-known as a scholarly work.
pacādia class of roots headed by the root पच् to which the kŗt. affix अ ( अच् ) is added in the sense of 'an agent'; e. g. श्वपचः, चोरः, देवः et cetera, and others The class पचादि is described as अाकृतिगण and it is usual with commentators to make a remark पचाद्यच् when a kŗt affix अ is seen after a root without causing the vŗddhi substitute to the preceding vowel or to the penultimate vowel अ. confer, compare अज्विधिः सर्वधातुभ्यः पठ्यन्ते च पचादय: । अण्बाधनार्थमेव स्यात् सिध्यन्ति श्वपचादघ: Kāś. on P. III. 1.134.
pañcālapadavṛttithe usage or the method of the Pañcālas; the eastern method of euphonic combinations, viz. the retention of the vowel अ after the preceding vowel ओ which is substituted for the Visarga; e. g. यो अस्मै; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 12; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI. 19. This vowel अ which is retained, is pronounced like a short ओ or अर्धओकार by the followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāņāyaniya branches of the Sāmavedins; confer, compare commentary on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI. 19 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1.
padādi(1)beginning of a word, the first letter of a word; confer, compare सात्पदाद्योः P. VIII.3.111; confer, compare also स्वरितो वानुदात्ते पदादौ P. VIII.2.6. Patañjali, for the sake of argument has only once explained पदादि as पदादादिः confer, compare M.Bh.on I. 1. 63 Vāŗt. 6; (2) a class of words headed by the word पद् which is substituted for पद in all cases except the nominative case. and the acc. singular and dual; this class, called पदादि, contains the substitutes पद् , दत्, नस् et cetera, and others respectively for पाद दन्त, नासिका et cetera, and others confer, compare Kās on P. VI. 1.63; (3) the words in the class, called पदादि, constiting of the words पद्, दत्, नस्, मस् हृत् and निश् only, which have the case affix after them accented acute; confer, compare P. VI. 1.171.
para(l)subsequent,as opposed to पूर्व or prior the word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a rule or an operation prescribed later on in a grammar treatise; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; ( 2 ) occurring after ( something ); confer, compare प्रत्ययः परश्च P. III. 1.1 and 2; confer, compare also तत् परस्वरम् T.Pr. XXI.2.(3)The word पर is sometimes explained in the sense of इष्ट or desired, possibly on the analogy of the meaning श्रेष्ठ possessed by the word. This sense is given to the word पर in the rule विप्रातिषेधे परं कार्यं with a view to apply it to earlier rules in cases of emergency; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवति M.Bh. on I.1.3.Vārt, 6; परशब्दः इष्टवाची M.Bh. on I. 2.5, I. 4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7; II. 1.69 et cetera, and others
paraṃkāryatvaor परंकार्यत्वपक्ष the view that the subsequent संज्ञा or technical term should be preferred to the prior one, when both happen to apply simultaneously to a word. The word is frequently used in the Mahaabhaasya as referring to the reading आ काडारात् परं कार्यम् which is believed to have been an alternative reading to the reading अा कडारादेका संज्ञा;confer, compare ननु च यस्यापि परंकार्यत्वं तेनापि परग्रहणं कर्तव्यम्; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.1; also भवेदेकसंज्ञाधिकारे सिद्धम् | परंकार्यत्वे तु न सिद्ध्यति: M.Bh. on II. 1.20, II.2.24.
paranipātaliterallyplacing after; the placing of a word in a compound after another as contrasted with पूर्वनिपात . A subordinate word is generally placed first in a compound, confer, compare उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्; in some exceptional cases however, this general rule is not observed as in the cases of राजदन्त and the like, where the subordinate word is placed after the principal word, and which cases, hence, are taken as cases of परनिपात. The words पूर्व and पर are relative, and hence, the cases of परनिपात with respect to the subordinate word ( उपसर्जन ) such as राजद्न्त, प्राप्तजीविक et cetera, and others can be called cases of पूर्वनिपात with respect to the principal word ( प्रधान ) confer, compare परश्शता: राजदन्तादित्वात्परनिपात: Kaas. on P. II.1.39.
pararūpathe form of the subsequent letter (परस्य रूपम्). The word is used in grammar when the resultant of the two coalescing vowels ( एकादेश ) is the latter vowel itself, as for instance ए in प्रेजते ( प्र+एजते ); confer, compare एङि. पररूपम् P.VI.1.94.
parasavarṇacognate of the latter vowel or consonant. The word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a substitute or आदेश which is specified to be cognate ( सवर्ण ) of the succeeding vowel or consonant: confer, compare अनुस्वरस्य यथि परसवर्ण: P.VIII. 4. 58.
parasmaibhāṣaliterally speaking the activity or क्रिया for another; a term of ancient grammarians for roots taking the first nine personal affixes only viz. ति, तः... मसू. The term परस्मैपदिन् was substituted for परस्मैभाष later on,more commonly. See परस्मैपद a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The term परस्मैभाष along with अात्मनेभाष is found almost invariably used in the Dhaatupaatha attributed to Paanini; confer, compare भू सत्तायाम् | उदात्त: परस्मैभाषः | एघादय उदात्त अनुदात्तेत अात्मनभाषा: Dhatupatha.
parikramathe same as परक्रम; doubling (द्वित्व ) of a subsequent consonant as for example the doubling of स् in इर्मन् स्स्याम ; confer, compare सान्त:स्थादौ धारयन्तः परक्रमं (1. varia lectio, another reading, I. परिक्रमं) R.Pr. XIV. 23.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
piṭava taddhita affix. affix applied to the word नि in the sense of the depression of the nose, the word चि being substituted for नि; exempli gratia, for example चिपिटः; confer, compare इनच् पिटच् चिक चि च P. V: 2.33
pitmarked with the mute letter प् which is indicative of a grave accent in the case of affixes marked with it, as for example, the affixes तिप् , सिप् and मिप् ; confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III. 1.4. A Sarvadhātuka affix, marked with the mute consonant प्, in Pāņiņi's Grammar has been described as instrumental in causing many operations such as (a) the substitution of guņa; (cf P. VII. 3 84,9l). (b) the prevention of guņa in the case of a reduplicative syllable as also in the case of the roots भू and सू ( confer, compare P. VII. 3.87, 88 ); (c) the substitution of Vŗddhi, (confer, compare P. VII. 3.89, 90 ), (d) the augments इ and ई in the case of the roots तृह् and ब्रू respectively ( confer, compare P. VII. 3.92, 93, 94 ), and (e) acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix in the case of the roots भी, हृी, भृ and others ( confer, compare P. VI. 1.192 ). A short vowel (of a root) gets त् added to it when followed by a kŗt affix marked with प्: exempli gratia, for example, विजित्य​, प्रकृत्य, et cetera, and others:(confer, compare P. VI. 1.71 ).
piśel[ PISCHELL, RICHARD]a famous European Grammarian of the nineteenth century who wrote many articles on grammatical subjects and wrote a work entitled 'Prakrit Grammar.'
putraṭ(1)the word पुत्र as given in the ancient list of masculine words marked with the mute letter ट् to signify the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ): confer, compare P. IV.1.15: (2) the substitute पुत्रट् ( i. e. पुत्री ) for the word दुहितृ optionally prescribed after the words सूत, उग्र, राज, भोज, कुल and मेरु in the simple sense of 'girl' and not ' daughter ' e. g. राजपुत्री, सूतपुत्री; confer, compare P.VI.3.70 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9.
punaḥprasaṅgavijñānaoccurrence or possibility of the application of a preceding grammatical rule or operation a second time again, after once it has been set aside by a subsequent opposing rule or rules in conflict; confer, compare पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्धम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 39; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 4.2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7; confer, comparealso Puru. Pari. 40.
puṣādia class of roots headed by the root पुष् of the fourth conjugation whose peculiarity is the substitution of the aorist sign अ ( अङ्) for च्लि ; exempli gratia, for example अपुषत्, अशुषत्, अनुषत् et cetera, and others ofeminine. पुषादिद्युताद्यलृदितः परस्मैपदेषु P. III. 1.55.
pūrvatrāsiddhavacanathe dictum of Panini about rules in his second, third and fourth quarters (Padas) of the eighth Adhyaya being invalid to (viz. not seen by) all the previous rules in the first seven chapters and the first quarter of the eighth as laid down by him in the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. The rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् is taken also as a governing rule id est, that is अधिकार laying down that in the last three quarters also of his grammar, a subsequent rule is invalid to the preceding rule. The purpose of this dictum is to prohibit the application of the rules in the last three quarters as also that of a subsequent rule in the last three quarters, before all such preceding rules, as are applicable in the formation of a word, have been given effect to; confer, compare एवमिहापि पर्वेत्रासिद्धवचनं अादेशलक्षणप्रतिषेधार्थमुत्सर्गलक्षणभावार्थं च M.Bh. on P. VIII.2.1 Vart. 8.
pūrvarūpasubstitution of the former letter in the place of the two viz. the former and the latter, as a result of the coalescence of the two cf अमि पूर्वः and the following rules P. VI. 1.107-110.
pūrvavipratiṣedhaconflict of two rules where the preceding rule supersedes the latter rule, as the arrival at the correct form requires it. Generally the dictum is that a subsequent rule should supersede the preceding one; cf विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; but sometimes the previous rule has to supersede the subsequent one in spite of the dictum विप्रतिषेधे परम्. The author of the Mahabhasya has brought these cases of the पूर्वविप्रतिषेध, which are, in fact, numerous, under the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् by taking the word पर in the sense of इष्ट 'what is desired '?; confer, compare इष्टवाची परशब्दः । विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवतीति l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.3; I.2, 5: I. 4.2: II.1.69, IV.1.85et cetera, and others confer, comparealso पूर्वविप्रतिषेधो नाम अयं र्विप्रतिषेधे परमित्यत्र परशब्दस्य इष्टवाचित्वाल्लब्धः सूत्रार्थः परिभाषारुपेण पाठ्यते Puru. Pari 108; for details see page 217 Vol. VII Mahabhasya D. E. Society's edition.
pūrvasavarṇadīrdhasubstitution of the long form of the previous vowel in the place of two vowels as a result of their coalescence, prescribed by Paanini in VI. l.102 .
pūrvāntaend of the previous. The word is used in connection with a vowel which is substituted for two vowels (एकादेश.). Such a substitute is looked upon as the ending vowel of the preceding word or the initial vowel of the succeeding word; it cannot be looked upon as both at one and the same time; confer, compare अन्तादिवच्च P. VI. 1. 85 and उभयत अाश्रयेण नान्तादिवत् Sira. Pari. 60; confer, compare also किं पुनरयं पूर्वान्तः अहोस्वित् परादिः अाहोस्विदभक्तः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1. 47 Vart. 3.
pṛthagyogakaraṇaframing a separate rule for a thing instead of mentioning it along with other things in the same context, which implies some purpose in the mind of the author such as anuvrtti in subsequent rules, option, and so on; confer, compare पृथग्योगकरणमस्य विधेरनित्यत्वज्ञापनार्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.3.7; confer, compare also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on I.3.33, I. 3. 84, I.4.58, III.1.56, IV.1.16, VII. 4.33, VIII.1.52, VIII.1.74.
prakaraṇatopic; context; a section wherein a particular subject is treated; confer, compare अर्थात् प्रकरणाद्वा लोके कृत्रिमाकृत्रिमयोः कृत्रिमे संप्रत्ययो भवति M.Bh. on I. 1. 23; confer, compare also सामान्यशब्दाश्च नान्तरेण विशेषं प्रकरणं वा विशेषेष्ववतिष्ठन्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 2.45 Vart 9.
prakṛtipratyāpattirestoration to the original word from the substituted word; exempli gratia, for example the restoration of the root हन् in कंसवधमाचचष्टे कंसं घातयति; confer, compare आख्याताकृदन्ताण्णिज्वक्तव्यस्तदाचष्टे इत्येतस्मिन्नर्थे । कृल्लुक् प्रकृतिप्रत्यापत्तिः प्रकृतिवच्च कारकं भवतीति वक्तव्यम्, M.Bh. on III. 1 26 Vart. 6.
prakriyākaumudīa well-known work on Sanskrit Grammar by रामचन्द्रशेष of the 15th century, in which the subject matter of the eight chapters of Panini's grammar is arranged into several different sections forming the different topics of grammar. It is similar to, and possibly. the predecessor of, the Siddhanta Kaumudi which has a similar arrangement. The work was very popular before the Siddhinta Kaumudi was written. it has got many commentaries numbering about a dozen viz. प्रक्रियाप्रसाद, प्रक्रियाप्रकाश, प्रक्रियाप्रदीप, अमृतस्तुति, प्रक्रियाव्याकृति,निर्मलदर्पण,तत्वचन्द्र, प्रक्रियारञ्जन, प्रक्रियाविवरण and others of which the Prasada of Vitthalesa and the Prakasa of Srikrsna are the wellknown ones.
praghaṭṭakaname given to the subdivisions of chapters or sections in certain books.
pratinirdiśyamānapredicate, as opposed to the subject; confer, compare उद्देश्यप्रतिनिर्दिश्यमानघौरेक्यमापादयत्सर्वनाम पर्यायेण तत्तैल्लिङ्गभाक् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).Pradipa.
pradhāna(1)the principal thing as opposed to the subordinate one; something which has got an independent purpose of its own and is not meant for another; प्रधानमुपसर्जनमिति च संबन्धिशब्दावेतौ M.Bh. on P. I.2.43 V.5; confer, compare also प्रधानाप्रधानयोः प्रधाने कार्यसंप्रत्ययः Par. Sek. Pari. 97; (2) predominant of main importance; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानोव्ययीभावः et cetera, and others Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 1.6, 20, 49 II.2.6 etc; (3) primary as opposed to secondary; confer, compare गौणे कर्मणि दुह्यादेः प्रधाने नीहृकृष्वहाम् । confer, compare also प्रधानकर्मण्याख्येये लादीनाहुर्द्विकर्मणाम् । अप्रधाने दुहादीनाम् M.Bh.on I.4.51
prabhedasmaller division, sub-division.
prayojyathat which is employed or incited or urged; the word which is the subject in the primitive construction and becomes an object in the causal construction, and as a result, which is put in the accusative case being प्रयोज्यकर्म. As, however, the प्रयोज्यकर्म originally occupies the place of the subject in the primitive construction, the term प्रयोज्यकर्ता ( प्रयोज्यश्चासौ कर्ता च ) is often used in connection with it, as contrasted with the term प्रयोजककर्ता which is used with respect to the subject in the causal construction; confer, compare इह च भेदिका देवदत्तस्य यज्ञदत्तस्य काष्ठानामिति प्रयोज्ये कर्तरि षष्ठी न प्राप्नोति । M.Bh. on P. III. 1.26 Vart. l ; confer, compare also Kaiy. on P. I. 2.65.
pravādaa grammatical explanation; detailed explanation by citing the gender, number, krt affix, taddhita affix.affix and the like: confer, compare लिङ्गसंख्यातद्धितकृतरूपभेदाः प्रवादाः । पाण्यादिशब्दानां प्रवादेषु प्रथमो (original) नकारो णत्वमाप्नोति स च प्राकृतः । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIII. 9. The word is explained as a change in the form of a word, as for instance, by the substitution of स् for विसर्ग where विसर्ग is, in fact, expected; confer, compare कबन्धं पृथु इत्येतेषां पदानां प्रवादा रूपभेदा उदये परत्रावस्थिताः दिव इत्येतस्य उपचारं जनयन्ति । यथा दिवस्कबन्धम् , दिवस्पृथुः Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 22; confer, compare also प्रवादाः षडितः परे, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IX. 18. In the Nirukta, the word is used in the sense of 'distinct mention'; confer, compare एवमन्यासामपि देवतानामादित्यप्रवादाः स्तुतयो भवन्ति ( deities are mentioned under the name of Aditya) Nir II.13; cf also वैश्वानरीयाः प्रवादाः Nir, VII. 23.
praśleṣa(l)coalescence of two vowels into one, as given in Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.6, and 7, corresponding to the गुण, वृद्वि and दीर्घ substitutes prescribed by the rules आद्गुणः P.IV 1.87; अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः VI.1.101; and वृद्धिरेचि VI. 1.88 which are stated under the jurisdiction of the rule एकः पूर्वपरयोः VI.1.84; (2) finding out the presence of a letter in addition to the letters already present as coalesced, after splitting the combination into its different constituent 1etters. This Practice of finding out an additional letter is resorted to by the commentators only to remove certain difficulties in arriving at some correct forms which otherwise could not be obtained; e. g. see क्ङिति च where क्ङ् is believed to be a combination of ग्, क् and ङ् See प्रश्लिष्ट and प्रश्लिष्टनिर्देश.
prasāraṇaa term used by ancient grammarians for संप्रसारण, i.e, the substitution of a corresponding vowel for a semivowel; exempli gratia, for example इ for य्, उ for व्, ऋ for र् and लृ for ल्: confer, compare रकि ज्यः प्रसारणम् P.I.1.4. Vart. 6.
prasāraṇinthat which gets, or is liable to get the Prasarana or Samprasarana substitute; confer, compare कविधौ सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III.2.3 Vart. 1.
prātipadikaliterallyavailable in every word. The term प्रातिपादिक can be explained as प्रतिपदं गृह्णाति तत् प्रातिपदिकम् cf P.IV. 4. 39. The term प्रातिपदिक, although mentioned in the Brahmana works, is not found in the Pratisakhya works probably because those works were concerned with formed words which had been actually in use. The regular division of a word into the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix ( प्रत्यय ) is available, first in the grammar of Panini, who has given two kinds of bases, the noun-base and the verb-base. The noun-base is named Pratipadika by him while the verb-base is named Dhatu. The definition of Pratipadika is given by him as a word which is possessed of sense, but which is neither a root nor a suffix; confer, compare अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् . P.I. 2.45. Although his definition includes, the krdanta words,the taddhitanta words and the compound words, still, Panini has mentioned them separately in the rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I. 2.45 to distinguish them as secondary noun-bases as compared with the primary noun-bases which are mentioned in the rule अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्, Thus,Panini implies four kinds of Pratipadikas मूलभूत, कृदन्त, तद्धितान्त and समास, The Varttikakara appears to have given nine kinds-गुणवचन, सर्वनाम, अव्यय, तद्धितान्त, कृदन्त, समास, जाति, संख्या and संज्ञा. See Varttikas 39 to 44 on P. I. 4. 1. Later on, Bhojaraja in his SringaraPrakasa has quoted the definition अर्थवदधातु given by Panini, and has given six subdivisions.: confer, compare नामाव्ययानुकरणकृत्तद्धितसमासाः प्रातिपदिकानि Sr. Prak. I. page 6. For the sense conveyed by a Pratipadika or nounbase, see प्रातिपदिकार्थ.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
prādhānyapreponderance, principal nature as opposed to the subordinate one ( विशेषण्त्व ); confer, compare यत्र प्राधान्येन अल् आश्रीयते तत्रैव प्रतिषेधः स्यात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1. 56. confer, compare also प्राधान्येन व्यपदेशा भवन्ति ।
pha(l)the letter or sound फ्,the vowel अ being added for facility of pronunciation ;(2) the affix फ for which अायन is always substituted as given by Panini in P.VII.1.2.
phak(1)taddhita affix.affix फ marked with mute क् for effecting the वृद्धि substitute for the initial vowel of the word to which it is appliedition The initial letter फ् of all the affixes beginning with फ् in Panini's grammar is always changed into आयन्. The taddhita affix. affix फक् is affixed (1) in the sense of गोत्रापत्य grandchild and his issues, to the words नड and others as also to the words ending with the affixes यञ् and इञ् and words शरद्वत्, दर्भ, द्रोण et cetera, and others exempli gratia, for example नाडायनः, शालङ्कायनः, दाक्षायणः प्लाक्षायणः, द्रोणायनः, वैदः, अौर्वः et cetera, and others; cf P.IV. 1.99-103; (2) as a caturarthika affix in the four senses mentioned in P. IV. 2.67-70 to the words पक्ष and others e. g. पाक्षायणः, तौषायणः; confer, compare P.IV. 2.80.
phañtaddhita affix. affix फ marked with ञ् causing the Vrddhi substitute for the initial vowel of the word, applied in the sense of grandchildren and their issues to words अश्व and others, as also to the word भर्ग; exempli gratia, for exampleआश्वायन, अाश्मायनः, भार्गायणः confer, compare अश्वादिभ्यः फञ् and भर्गात् त्रैगर्ते; confer, compare P.IV.1.110 and 111.
bādhasublation, setting aside; , सामान्यशास्त्रस्य विशेषशास्त्रेण बाध: Par. Sek. on Pari. 51.
bādhakaliterally that which sublates or sets aside; generally a special rule which sets aside a general rule: confer, compare येन नाप्राप्ते यो विधिरारभ्यते स तस्य बाधको भवति, Pari. Patha of पुरुषोत्तमदेव Pari. 51; confer, compare also नैतज्ज्ञापकसाध्यं अपवादैरुत्सर्गा बाध्यन्त इति । बाधकेनानेन भवितव्यं सामान्यविहितस्य विशेषविहितेन । M.Bh. on P. II. 1.24 Vart. 5. बाधक is used as a synonym of अपवाद, confer, compare अपवादशब्दोत्र बाधकपरः Par. Sek. Pari. 58.
bādhakatvathe same as बाध ; sublation; setting aside; this sublation is described to be of two types(1) complete sublation when the rule set aside, is for ever set aside and cannot, by the maxim called तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय, be applied again; confer, compare दधि ब्राह्मणेभ्यो दीयतां तक्रं कौण्डिन्यायेति सत्यपि संभवे दधिदानस्य तक्रदानं निवर्तकं भवति । confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.47; VI. 1.2. VI. 2.1. et cetera, and others; ( 2 ) temporary sublation when the rule set aside, can be applied, if possible after the special rule has been applied; confer, compare सर्वथा अनवकाशत्वादेव बाधकत्वे स्वस्य (अनवकाशशास्त्रस्य) पूर्वप्रवृत्तिरित्येव बाधः । तत्र बाधके प्रवृत्ते यद्युत्सर्गप्राप्तिर्भवति तदा भवत्येव यथा तत्रैव याडादयः Par.Sek.on Pari.57, The sublation or बाधकत्व is not only in the case of सामान्यविशेषभाव and अनवकाशत्व as given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., but a rule or operation which is पर (cited later), or नित्य, or अन्तरङ्ग sets aside the rule or operation which is पूर्व,or अनित्य,or बहिरङ्ग respectively. This बाध्यबाधकभाव occupies a very important position in respect of the application of grammar rules for arriving at the correct forms (इष्टरूपसिद्धि) and grammarians have laid down a number of Paribhasas in the field of बाध्यबाधकभाव.
bṛhatīa Vedic metre consisting of four padas and 36 syllables. There are three padas of eight syllables and the fourth has twelve syllables. It has got further subdivisions known as पुरस्ताद्बृहती, उपरिष्टाद्बृहती, न्यङ्कुसारिणी or उरोबृहती, ऊर्ध्वबृहती विष्टारबृहती, पिपीलिकमध्यमा and विषमपदा. For details see R.Pr. XVI. 31-37.
bha(1)the letter or sound भ् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; (2) a technical term in the Grammar of Panini given to a noun base before such case and taddhita affixes as begin with any vowel or with the consonant य्. The utility of this designation of भ to the base is (l) to prevent the substitutes which are enjoined for the final vowel or consonant of a pada (a word ending with a case-affix or a base before case and taddhita affix. affixes beginning with any consonant excepting य् ) just as the substitution of Visarga, anusvara, the first or third consonant, and others given in P. VIII. 4.37 and the following. For the various changes and operations for a base termed भ see P. VI. 4.129 to 175.
bhartṛharia very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. confer, compare शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'.
bhaṣbhāvathe substitution of the third consonants respectively for the fourth consonants भ्, घ्, ढ् and ध्; confer, compare P. VI.1.13 Vart. 13.
bhāva(1)becoming; existence. The word is used many times in the sense of धात्वर्थthe sense of a root which is 'incomplete activity' or 'process of evolving'; confer, compare तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातु: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 5; confer, compare also षड् भावविकारा भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 36; पूर्वापरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेन आचष्टे व्रजतिपचतीत्युपक्रमप्रभृति अपवर्गपर्यन्तम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1 ; (2) activity as opposed to instruments ( साधन or कारक ); confer, compare भावगर्हायाम् । धात्वर्थगर्हायाम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.24; confer, compare also भावः क्रिया, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम् P. II. 3.37; (3) completed action which is shown, not by a verb, but by a verbal derivative noun; confer, compare धात्वर्थश्च धातुनैवोच्यते | यस्तस्य सिद्धता नाम धर्मस्तत्र घञादयः प्रत्यया विधीयन्ते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on 'भावे' P. III. 3.18; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.19, III. 1.67, IV. 1.3, V. 4.19; confer, compare also भावस्त्वेक: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.67; (4) the radical factor for the use of a word; प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त; confer, compare भवतोत्मादभिधानप्रत्ययौ इति भावः | शब्दस्य प्रवृत्तिनिमित्तं भावशब्देनोच्यते | अश्वत्वम् , अश्वता | Kāś, on P. 5.1.119; (5) thing, object cf सिद्धशब्दः कूटस्थेषु भावेष्वविचालिषु वर्तते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Āhnika l; (6) transformation, substitution; change into the nature of another; confer, compare तत्र प्रथमास्तृतीयभावम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 4. confer, compare also the words मूर्धन्यभाव, अभिनिधानभाव et cetera, and others {7) possession of the qualities, nature; तदर्थस्य भाव: तादर्थ्यम्: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.13; (8) relationship; confer, compare गुणप्रधानभाव, प्रकृतिविकृतिभाव et cetera, and others
bhāvakartṛkahaving for its subject a verbal derivative in the sense of the भाव or the root activity. The word भाववचन is explained as भावकर्तृक in the Kāṡikāvŗtti. e. g. the word रोग: in चौरस्य रुजति रोगः Kāṡ. on P. II. 3.54: confer, compare भाववचनानां भावकर्तृकाणां Kāṡ. on P II. 3.54.
bhāvavacana(1)expressive of भाव or the completed verbal activity; exempli gratia, for example the word भाव itself, as also कृती, राग, and others; (2) having for their subject a verbal derivative in the form of the verbal activity. See भावकर्तृक.
bhāvyamānalit, which is to be produced; which is prescribed by a rule, like an affix; hence, an affix or an augment or a substitute prescribed by a rule as contrasted with the conditions or the original wording for which something is substituted, or after which an affix is placed, or to which an addition is made, or which is deleted; confer, compare भाव्यमानेन सवर्णानांग्रहृणं न Par. Sek. Pari, 19; also confer, compare M.Bh. on P.I. 1.50, I.1. 69,VI.1.85, VI.4.160.
bhūtaliterally what has become or happened, The word is used in books on grammar in the sense of past tense in general, which has been subdivided into (a) unseen past (परीक्षभूत or लिट् ), (b) past, not of today (अनद्यतनभूत or लङ् ) and (c) past in general (सामान्यभूत or लुङ्),confer, compare भूते P.III.2.84, परोक्षे लिट् P.III.2.116 and अनद्यतने लङ् P.III.2.111.
m(1)fifth letter of the labial class of consonants which is possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, कण्ठसंवृतत्व, अल्पप्राणत्व and अानुनासिक्य ; (2) substitute म् ( मश् ) for अम् of the 1st. person. singular. in Vedic literature; exempli gratia, for example वधीं वृत्रम्| confer, compare अमो मश् P. VII, 1.40;
ma(1)the consonant म् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.2.1 ; (2) The substitute म for मस् of the 1st person. plural in the perfect tense confer, compare P परस्मैपदानां ... णल्वमाः III. 4.82 and in the present tense also in the case of the root विद्; (3) taddhita affix. affix म added to the word मध्य in the Śaiṣika senses,and to the words द्यु and द्रु in the sense of possession; confer, compare P.IV.3.8,V.2. 108.
mañjūṣāa popular name given to the work परमलघुमञ्जूषा of Nāgeśa on अर्थप्रक्रिया (science or method of interpretation) in Vyākaraṇa, which is generally read by advanced students. Nāgeśa has also written a bigger work on the same subject लघुमञ्जूषा which sometimes is also referred to by the word मञ्जूषा.
matuptaddhita affix. affix मत् changed in some cases to वत् (cf मादुपधायाश्च मतोर्वोऽयवादिभ्यः P. VIII. 2.9), applied to any noun or substantive in the sense of 'who possesses that,' or 'which contains it,' or in the sense of possession as popularly expressedition The affix is called possessive affix also, and is very commonly found in use; e. g. गोमान्, वृक्षवान् , यवमान् , et cetera, and others confer, compare तदस्यास्त्यस्मिन्निति मतुप् P. V. 2.94. The very general sense of 'possession' is limited to certain kinds of possession by the Vārttikakāra in the following stanza; भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेतिशायने | संसर्गेऽस्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: confer, compare Kāś. on P. V. 2.94. There are other taddhita affix. affixes prescribed in the same sense as मतुप्, such as the affixes लच् (V. 2.96-98), इलच् (99, 100, 105, 117), श and न (100), ण (101), विनि (102, 121, 122), इनि (102, 115, 116, 128, 129-137), अण् (103, 104), उरच् (106), र (107), म (108), व ( 109, 110), ईरन् and ईरच् (111), वलच् (112, 113), ठन् (115, 116), ठञ् (118, 119), यप् (120), युस् (123, 138, 140), ग्मिनि (124), आलच् and आटच् (125), अच् (127), and ब, भ, यु, ति, तु, त and यस् each one applied to specifically stated words. मतुप् is also specially prescribed after the words headed by रस (confer, compare रसादिभ्यश्च P. V. 2.95) in supersession of some of the other affixes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. which would take place in such cases, if मतुप् were not prescribed by the rule रसादिभ्यश्च. The portion of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. prescribing the possessive affixes is named मतुबधिकार (P. V. 2.92 to 140).
maśpersonal ending म् substituted for अम् in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example वधीं वृत्रम्; confer, compare अमो मश् P. VII. 1.40; See म्.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahīdharaa grammarian of the sixteenth century who, besides many small treatises on other subjects, wrote a commentary on the SarasvataPrakriya Vyakarana.
mukhasukhārthaa mute letter added to an affix or a substitute cr the like, which does not really form a part of the affix et cetera, and others, but which simply facilitates the utterance of it: confer, compare अथ मुखसुखार्थस्तकार: दकारोपि ! Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1, VI.1.87; confer, compare also अादति तकारो मुखसुखार्थः, न त्वयं तपरः Kaas. on P. III.2.171.
mukhyamain, , principal, primary substantive as contrasted with a gualifying substantive;confer, compareगौणमुख्ययोमुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्यय: Par. Sek. Pari. 15.
mukhyaviśeṣyathe principal word in a sentence which comes last in the technical expression of the import or शाब्दबोध. It is described as primary and not subordinated to any other thing ( अन्याविशेषणीभूत). This मुख्यविशेष्य is, in a way,the crucial point in the various theories of import; exempli gratia, for example according to the grammarians the verbal activity is the principal word while,according to the Mimaamsakas the bhaavanaa is the principal word.and according to the Naiyayikas it is the subject that is the principal word.
mutvathe substitution of मु for the syllable beginning with द् in certain cases; confer, compare अदसोसेर्दादु दो मः P. VIII.2.80.
y(1)a consonant of the palatal class, called semivowel or अन्तःस्थ( spelt as अन्तस्थ also ), possessed of the properties संवृतत्व, नाद, घोष and अनुनासिकत्व in addition; (2) a substitute for म् when that म् is followed by ह् which is followed by य्. e. g.किंय्ह्य: confer, compare यवलपरे यवला वा. P. VIII.3. 26 Vart.l ; (3) य् looked upon as possessed of a very little effort in production i. e. which appears as almost dropped but not completely dropped when its elision is prescribed at the end of a word. e. gभोय् अच्युत; confer, compare व्योर्लधुप्रयत्नतर: शाकटायनस्य P. VIII. 3.18.
y(1)the consonant य् with अ added to it merely for the sake of facility in pronunciation; यकार is also used in the same sense: e. g. लिटि वयो यः: P.VI.1.38 confer, compare T.Pr.I: 17,21;(2) krt affix (यत्) prescribed as कृत्य or potential passive participle; exempli gratia, for exampleचेयम्, गेयम्, शाप्यम् , शक्यम् , गद्यम् , अजर्यम् पण्यम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare अचो यत्...अजर्यं संगतम् P.III. 1.97-105; (3) krt. affix क्यप् which is also an affix called krtya; e. gब्रह्मोद्यम् , भाव्यम्, घात्यम् , स्तुत्यम् , कल्प्यम् , खेयम् , भृत्यः:, भिद्यः, पुष्य:, कृत्यम्,also कार्यम् ; confer, compare P. III. 1.106-128:(4) krt affix ण्यत् ( which is also कृत्य ), e. g कार्यम् , हार्यम् , वाक्यम् , लाव्यम्, कुण्डपाय्यम्. et cetera, and others: cf P. III. 1.124-132: (5) taddhita affix. affix य affixed (a) in the sense of collection to पाश, वात et cetera, and others, as also to खल, गो and रथ, e. g. पाद्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV. 2. 49, 50ः (b) in the चातुरर्थिक senses to बल, कुल, तुल et cetera, and others e. g. वल्यः,.कुल्यम् efeminine. P V.2. 80, (c) as a Saisika taddhita affix. affix to ग्राम्यहः' along with the affix खञ्ज e. g. ग्राम्यः, ग्रामीणः: cf P: IV. 2.94 (d) in the sense of 'good therein' ( तत्र साधुः ) and other stated senses affixed to सभा, सोदर पूर्व, and सोम: e. g. सभ्य:, पूर्व्यः; .et cetera, and others. confer, compare P. IV. 4.105, 109, 133, 137, 138: (e) in the sense of 'deserving it' to दण्ड and other words, e. g. दण्ड्य, अर्ध्र्य, मध्य, मेध्य, et cetera, and others: cf P. V. 1.66: ( f ) in the sense of quality or action to सखि e. g. सख्यम् ; cf P. V. 1.126: (6) taddhita affix. affix यत् applied to (a) राजन् श्वशुर, कुल, मनु in the sense of offspring, (b) शूल्, उखा, वायु, ऋतु and others, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. IV. 2.17, 31, 32, 101, (c) to अर्ध, परार्ध, words in the class headed by दि्श, छन्दस and others in specific senses; cf P. IV. 3-46, 54 et cetera, and others and (d) in specific senses to specific words mentioned here and there in a number of sUtras from IV.4, 75 to V.4.25; (e) to शाखा, मुख, जघन and others in the sense of इव (similar to) exempli gratia, for example शाख्यः, मुख्य:, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 3. 103; (7) case-ending य substituted for ङे of the dative sing; e. g. रामाय confer, compare P. VII. 3.102: (8) verb-affix यक् applied to the nouns कण्डू and others to make them ( denominative ) roots; e. g. कण्डूय,सन्तूय et cetera, and others confer, compare कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् P. III. 1.27 (9) | Vikarana य ( यक् ) applied to any root before the Saarvadhaatuka personal endings to form the base for the passive voice as also the base for the 'Karmakartari' voice e g क्रियते, भूयते, confer, compare सार्वधातुके यक् P. III. 1.67 (10) Unaadi affix य ( यक् ) applied to the root हृन् to form the Vedic word अघ्न्य: cf अघ्न्यादयश्च: ( 11 ) augment य ( यक् ) added to the affix क्त्वा in Vedic Literature: e. g. दत्त्वायः confer, compare क्त्वो यक् P. VII.1.47; (12) verb affix यङ् added to a root to form its Intensive base ( which sometimes is dropped ) and the root is doubledition e. g. चेक्रीयते,चर्करीति;. confer, compare P. III. 1.22,24; (13) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) supposed to be beginning with य in the affix यइ in the sUtra धातेरेकाचो ... यङ् III. 1.22, and ending with ङ् in the sUtra लिड्याशिष्यङ्क III. 1.86, with a view to include the various verb affixes and conjugational signs.
yajādiroots headed by the root यज् which take the samhprasaarana substitute for their semivowel before terminations marked with the mute letter क्: c.g. इज्यते, इष्टिः confer, compare वचिस्वपियज्ञादीनां क्रिति P.VI.1.15. These roots are nine in number, यज् , वप् , वंद् , वस् and others which are of the first conjugation given by Paaini in his Dhaatupatha at the end of the roots of the first conjugation.
yathāsaṃkhyamin respective order, the first for the first, the second for the second, and so on; when the number of subjects and predicates is the same, they should connect in the same order: confer, compareयथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् P. I .3 .10.
substitute for a case affix in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example उरुया, धृष्णुया for उरुणा, धृष्णुना, confer, compare सुपां सुलुक्o P.VII. 1.39.
yācsubstitute for a case affix found and the in Vedic Literature; e. g. साधुया for साधु: confer, compare सुपां सुलुक् .. ... याजाल: P. VII. 1. 39.
yuktavadbhāvaliterally behaviour like the original base. The term is used in the sense of possession of, or getting, the same gender and number as was possessed by the base to which the taddhita affix. affix was added and subsequently dropped by a rule of Panini in which the word लुप् is put in the sense of dropping: e. g. कुरयः देश: or अङ्गाः देश: in the sense of कुरूणां or अङ्गानां निवासो जनपदः confer, compare जनपदे लुप् P. IV.3.81 and लुपि युक्तवद् व्यक्तिवचने P.I.2.51;confer, compare also M.Bh. on P. I. 2.51 and 52.
yuktārththe sense possessed by the original word to which the affix, subsequently dropped by means of the word लुप, was addedition
r(1)second letter of the यण् class ( semi-vowels ) which has got the properties नादभागित्व, घोषवत्त्व,' संवृतत्व and अल्पप्राणता i. e. it is a sonant, inaspirate consonant. Regarding its स्थान or place of production, there is a difference of opinion : generally the consonant र् is looked upon as a cerebral or lingual letter (मूर्धन्य); cf ऋटुरषाणां मूर्धा, S.K.also Pāṇini. Siksa; but it is called by some as दन्त्य or दन्तमूलीय: cf रेफस्तु दस्त्ये दन्तमूले वा RT. 8, by others as दन्तमूलीय and and by still others as वर्स्त्य gingival. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya it is described as दन्तमूलीय: cf रो दन्तमूल I. 68, while in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya it is said to be produced by the touch of the middle part of the tip of the tongue just a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the root of the teeth;confer, compare रेफे जिह्वाग्रमध्येन प्रत्यग्दन्तमूलेभ्यः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 41; (2) substitute र् (रेफ ) for the final letter of the word अहन्, as also for the final of अम्रस्, ऊधस्, अवस् and भुवस् optionally with रु, which ( रु) is dropped before vowels, and changed to ओ before अ and soft consonants, while it is changed into visarga before hard consonants and surds.exempli gratia, for example अम्नरेव, अम्र एवः ऊधरेव, ऊधएव: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII, 2-70: (3) the consonants र् (technically) called र् in Panini's grammar ) which is substituted for the consonant स् and for the consonant न् of the word अहन् when the consonant स् or न् stands at the end of a word. This substitute रु, unlike the substitute र् is liable to be changed into visarga, or the consonant य्, or the vowel उ by P. VIII.3.15, 17, VI.1.113, 114.
ranpersonal ending रन् substituted for the personal ending झ of the प्रथमपुरुष (third person) Atmanepada of 'lin' (potential and benedictive); confer, compare झस्य रन् P.III. 4.105.
raparawith the letter र inserted after it; the term is used in connection with the guna and vrddhi substitutes for ऋ. These substitutes are respectively अ and अा, which, by the addition of र्, always become अर् and अार्: cf उरण् रपरः P.I. 1. 51, confer, compare ऋकारस्य गुणवृद्वीं रेफाशिखा अरारावेवेति confer, compare also वृद्धिर्भवति गुणो भवतीति रेफशिरा गुणवृद्धिसंज्ञकोभिनिर्वर्तते; M.Bh. on P.VI. 4.121, VIII.2.42.
ramaugment र inserted after the vowel अ of the root भ्रस्ज्, when the letterर् which is already present in भ्ररुज् (before अ) and the penultimate स् are dropped; the result is that the word भर्ज्, in short, becomes substituted in the place of भ्रस्ज्: confer, compare भ्रस्जो रोपधयो रमन्यतरस्याम्P.VI. 4.47, and भ्रस्जो रोपधयोर्लोप अागमो रम् विधीयते as Bharadvajiya Varttika thereon
raspersonal ending of the third person. ( प्रथमपुरुष ) substituted for the affix झि in the first future ( लुट् ): confer, compare लुट: प्रथमस्य डारौरस: II.4.85.
rājadantādia class of compound words headed by राजदन्त in which the order of words or the constituent members is fixedition There are about 50 words in the class; some of them are tatpurusa compounds such as राजदन्त or अग्रेवण in which the subordinate word which ought to have been placed first is placed second There are some karmadharaya.compounds in which one particular word is always placed first and not any one of the two: exempli gratia, for example लिप्तवासितम्, सिक्तसंमृष्टम् et cetera, and others There are some dvandva compounds such as उलुखलमुसलम् , चित्रास्वाती, भार्यापती et cetera, and others in which a definite order of words is laid down. For details see Kasika on राजदन्तादिषु परम् P. II. 2.31.
rāmatarkavāgīśaa learned grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय and भट्टाचार्य, He was an advocate of the Mugdhabodha School and wrote commentaries on (1) the Mugdhabodha, (2) the Kavikalpadruma, (3) the Amarakosa and (4) the Unadi sutras. He also wrote a short gloss on case-relations, his treatise on the subject being named कारकटिप्पणी,
riṅsubstitute रि for a verbal base ending in ऋ before श (the sign of the 6th conjugation) यक् (sign of the passive voice. voice) and a लिङ् affix beginning with य which is not a Sārvadhātuka affix; e. g. अाद्रियते, क्रियते, क्रियात्; confer, compare रिङ् शयग्लिङ्क्षु P.VII.4.28.
rīṅsubstitute री for the vowel ऋ at the end of a base ( अङ्ग ) before the affix च्चि as also before य which does not belong to a krt or Sarvadhatuka affix; exempli gratia, for example मात्रीभूतः, मात्रीयते; confer, compare रीङ् ऋतः P.VII.4.27.
ru(1)substitute र् for the consonant स् at the end of a word as also for the ष् of सजुत्र् , न् of अहन् and optionally with र् for the final स् of अम्नस्, ऊधस् and अवस् in Veda; exempli gratia, for example अग्निरत्र, वायुरत्र, सजूर्देवोभिः confer, compare P.VIII.2.66; the र् of this रु (as contrasted with the substitute र् which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) is further changed into उ before a soft consonant and before the vowel अ provided it is preceded by the vowel अ, while र् , prescribed as substitute र (which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.), remains unchanged; e g. शिवोर्च्यः, शिवो वन्द्य: as contrasted with अहरत्र, अहर्गण:; (2) substitute र् for the final ज् of अवयज् (e. g, अवयाः), for ह् of श्वेतवह् (exempli gratia, for example श्वेतवाः), and for श् of पुरोडाश् (exempli gratia, for example पुगेडा:) before the case affix सु ; confer, compareP.VIII.4.67;(3)substitute र् (or द्) for the final स् or द् of a verb-form ending with the personal ending सिप् of the 2nd person. sing; confer, compare P. VIII.2.74,75;(4)substitute र् for the final न् of words ending with the affix मत् or वस् in Veda; exempli gratia, for example मरुत्व: हरिवः ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VIII.3.1; (5) substitute र् for the final न् at the end of a word when it is followed by a छव् letter id est, that is the first or a second consonant excepting ख् and फ्; exempli gratia, for example भवांश्चिनोति; confer, compare P.VIII. 3.7; (6) substitute र् for the final न् of नॄन् before the letter प् as also for the final न् of स्वतवान् and कान् under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VIII.3. 10.12.
rūpātideśathe actual replacement of the original in the place of the substitute by virtue of the rule स्थानिवदादेशोनल्विधौ P. I. 1. 56; one of the two kinds of स्थानिवद्भाव wherein the word-form of the original ( स्थानी ) is put in the place of the substitute (आदेश); the other kind of स्थानिवद्भाव being called कार्यातिदेश by means of which grammatical operations caused by the original ( स्थानी ) take place although the substitute (आदेश) has been actually put in the place of the original. About the interpretation of the rule द्विर्वचनेचि P. I.1.59, the grammarians accept the view of रूपातिदेश; confer, compare रूपातिदेशश्चायं नियतकालस्तेन कृते द्विर्वचने पुन: आदेशरूपमेवावतिष्ठते | पपतुः पपुः | अातो लोप इटि च इत्याकारलोपे कृते तस्य स्थानिवद्भावात् एकाचो द्बे० इति द्विर्वचनं भवति Kāś on P.I.1.59; confer, compare also रूपातिदेशश्चायम् | द्विर्वचनेचि इत्यत्रास्य भाष्ये पाठात् | Pari. Bhaskara Pari. 97. For details see Mahābhāșya on P.VII.1.95 96.
re(रेश्)personal ending in Vedic Literature, substituted for त of the प्रथमपुरुष ( 3rd person. ) plural in the Perfect tense; confer, compare लिटस्तझयो रेश् इरेच् P. III. 4.81.
rekhātermed also 'लेखा '; one of the subdivisions of the krama-pāțha.
raupersonal ending substituted for the प्रथमपुरुषद्विवचन ( 3rd pers, dual affix तस्) in the periphrastic or first future;e. g. कर्तारौ; confer, compare लुट; प्रथमस्य डारौरसः P. II. 4.85.
l(1)a consonant of the dental class which is a semi-vowel ( यण् ) with liquid contact in the mouth, and which is inaspirate ( अल्पप्राण ),voiced ( घोष ) and both nasalised and unnasalised; (2) name in general ( लकार ) given to the personal endings applied to roots in the ten tenses and moods which take different substitutes ति, त:, अन्ति et cetera, and others and have various modifications and augments in the different tenses and moods; (3) substituted as a semi-vowel ( यण् ) for the vowel ऌ followed by any other vowel in the euphonic combinations; (4)applied at the beginning of nontaddhita affixes as a mute letter indicating the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare लिति; P. VI. 1.193; ( 5 ) substituted for त्, थ्, द्, घ् or न् before ल्, confer, compare P.VIII.4. 60; (6) substituted under certain conditions for the consonant र् (a) of the root कृप्, (b) of prefixes प्र and परा before the root अय्, (c) of the root गॄ in frequentative forms and optionally before affixes beginning with a vowel, and (d ) of the word परि before घ and अङ्क; confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 18 to 22. _ ल (1) consonant ल्; see ल् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.' (2) a general term usually used by ancient grammarians to signifyलोप (elision or disappearance) of a letter or a syllable or a word; confer, compare सर्वसादेर्द्विगोश्च ल: | सवार्तिक:, द्वितन्त्र: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.2.60; (3) taddhita affix. affix ल added to the word क्लिन्न when चिल् and पिल् are substituted for the word क्लिन्न; e.g, चिल्लः, पिल्ल: confer, compare P. V. 2.33 Vārt 2.
laghuprayatnatararequiring still less effort for utterance than that required for the usual utterance; the term is used in connection with the utterance of the consonant य् which is substituted for Visarga following upon long अा and followed by any vowel. In such cases य् is not pronounced at all according to Śākalya, while it is somewhat audibly pronounced according to Śākațāyana; confer, compare व्योर्लघुप्रयत्नतरः शाकटायनस्य P. VIII. 3.18.
laṭgeneral personal ending applied to roots (1 ) to show the present time for which the personal endings ति त:...महि are substituted for the formation of verbs and अत् ( शतृ ) and आन or मान ( शानच् ) for the formation of the present participle; (2) to show past time when the indeclinable स्म is used in the sentence along with the verbal form or when the indeclinables ननु, न, नु, पुरा, यावत्, कदा, कर्हि et cetera, and others are used along with the verbal form under specific conditions; e. g. कटं करोति देवदत्त:, यजति स्म युधिष्ठिर:, अहं नु करोमि, वसन्तीह पुरा छात्रा:, यावद् भुङ्क्ते et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. III. 2.118-123, III. 3.4-9.
lasārvadhātukaa personal ending substituted for ल् which in certain cases gets the grave accent in, spite of the general rule that affixes ( which include personal endings ) are acute; confer, compare तास्यनुदात्तेन्डिद्दुपदेशाल्लसार्वधातुकमह्न्विङोः P. VI. 1. 186.
lādeśasubstitutes तिप्, तस् झि (अन्ति) सिप् .....महिङ् for ल्, signifying the ten ल् affixes or lakaras लट्, लिट्, लुट् et cetera, and others, applied to roots in the senses of the different tenses and moods; confer, compare P.III.4.78.
lāvasthāthe original condition of ल् or the personal endings before the affixes तिप्, तस् and others are substituted for them in accordance with the time or mood, as also the person and the number in view;confer, compare लावस्थायामेव स्यादयः, सार्वधातुके श्यनादयः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.III. 1. 33.
lia common term used (1) for the aorist vikaraņa affix च्लि for which सिच्, क्स, अङ् et cetera, and others are substituted as prescribed; (2) for लिट् and लिङ् affixes; exempli gratia, for example मन्त्रे घसह्वरणशवृदहाद्वृच्कृगमिजनिभ्यो ले: P.II.4.80.
liṅga(1)sign or characteristic mark; generally the mute letter prefixed or suffixed to roots,affixes, or augments and their substitutes with a specific purpose; confer, compare किंचिल्लिङ्गमासज्य वक्ष्यामि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on I.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).7, अवयवे कृतं लिङ्ग समुदायस्य विशेषकं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.62 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5; (2) proof, evidence ( प्रमाण ); the word is often used in the Paribhāșendușekhara and other works in connection with a rule or part of a rule quoted as an evidence to deduce some general dictum or Paribhāșā; (3) gender; confer, compare लिङ्ग स्त्रीलिङ्गपुंलिङ्गनपुंसकानि Kāś. on P. II. 3. 46; confer, compare also प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम्. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa.Pari.71.The gender of a word in Sanskrit language does not depend on any specific properties of a thing; it simply depends on the current usage; confer, compare लोकाश्रयत्वाल्लिङ्गस्य which is often quoted in the Mahābhāsya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.36, II.2.29, II.4.12, IV. 1.3, V.3.66, V.4.68, VIII.1.15. For details see Mahābhāșya on P.IV.1. 3 where after a long enlightening discussīon the definition संस्त्यानप्रसवौ लिङ्गम् is given.
liṭan affix of the perfect tense; confer, compare परोक्षे लिट् P.III.2.115 for which the specific affixes णल्, अतुस् उस् et cetera, and others are substituted after roots which take Parasmaipada affixes. Before the lit affixes, a monosyllabic root is reduplicated while dissyllabic roots and denominative and other secondary roots, formed by adding an affix to an original root,take the affix अाम् after which all 'liț' personal endings are dropped and the forms of the roots कृ,भू and अस् with the necessary personal-endings, are placed immediately after the word ending in अाम् , but often with the intervention of a word or more in the Vedic language and rarely in the classical language; confer, compare तं पातयां प्रथममास पपात पश्चात् ; confer, compare कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि P.III.I. 35 to 42.
luṅan affix applied to a root, showing action of immediate past time as contrasted with affixes called लिट् or लङ्. The affix लुङ् is found used, however, in the sense of the past time in general, and irrespective of time in Vedic Literature; confer, compare छन्दसि लुङ्लङ्लिटः P. III. 4.6. The conjugational affixes ति, त:, et cetera, and others are substituted for लुङ् as for the lakāras of other tenses and moods and the distinguishing sign or विकरण is added to a root before the affix called लुङ्; confer, compare च्लि लुङि and the following P. III. 1.43 et cetera, and others
luptathat which has been elided or dropped during the process of the formation of words. As elision or लोप is looked upon as a kind of substitutē, in short a zerosubstitutē, the convention of the substitute being looked upon as the original one, viz.the sthānivadbhāva, applies to it.
lṛṭa general term for the general affix ल् of the second future which is applied in the sense of future time in general, without any specific conditions, the affixes ति, त:, अन्ति being substituted for the ल् and the sign (vikaraņa) स्य being added to the root; confer, compare P.III.3.13 and III. 3. 133. The terminations अत् and अान are substituted for the affix लृट् to form future participles; exempli gratia, for example भविष्यत्, एधिष्यमाण, confer, compare लृट; सद्वा P.III.3.14.
leṭa general term for the affixes of the Vedic subjunctive, the usual personal-endings ति, तस् et cetera, and others being substituted for लेट् as in the case of other tenses and moods. The augments अट् and आट् are sometimes prefixed to the लेट् affix and the sign ( विकरण ) स् ( सिप् ) is sometimes added to the roots. The forms of लेट् are to be arrived at as they are found actually used in Vedic language, even by placing personal-endings of a person or number different from what is actually requiredition
lyapkrt affix य substituted for the gerund termination क्त्वा when the root,to which त्वा has been applied, is preceded by a prefix with which it (the root with the affix) is comcompounded; confer, compare समासेऽनत्र्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1. 37.
v(1)fourth letter of the class of consonants headed by य्, which are looked upon as semi-vowels; व् is a dental, soft, non-aspirate consonant pronounced as ब् in some provinces and written also sometimes like ब्, especially when it stands at the beginning of a word; (2) substitute for उ which is followed by a vowel excepting उ; e. g, मधु+अरि: = मध्वरि:; confer, compare इको यणचि P. VI. I. 77; (3) the consonant व्, which is sometimes uttered with very little effort when it is at the end of a word and followed by a vowel or a semivowel, or a fifth, fourth or third consonant or the consonant ह्. In such cases it is called लघूच्चारण; confer, compare यस्योच्चारणे जिह्वाग्रोपाग्रमध्यमूलानां शैथिल्यं जायते स लघूच्चारण: S. K. on P.VIII.3. 18;(4) solitary remnant of the affixes क्विप्,क्विन्, ण्वि and the like, when the other letters which are mute are dropped and the affix क्वप् or the like becomes a zero affix. This व् also is finally dropped; confer, compare वेरपृक्तस्य P. VI.1.67.
v(1)the semivowel व्: see व्; (2) personal-ending substituted for वस् in the perfect ( लिट् ) first person (उत्तमपुरुष), and in the present tense in the case of the root विद्; confer, compare परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्० and विदो लटो वा. P. III. 4.82,83; (3) krt affix क्विप् , क्विन् or वि of which only व् remains; confer, compare अनिगन्तोञ्चतौ वप्रत्यये P. VI. 2.52; confer, compare also विष्वग्देवयोश्र्च टेरद्यञ्चतौ वप्रत्यये VI.3.92.the affix is mentioned as वप्रत्यय by Panini, but, in fact, it is व् , अ being added for ease in pronunciation; (4) taddhita affix. affix in the sense of possession added along with the other affixes इन् , इक, and वत् to the word केश and to some other words such as मणि, हिरण्य, राजी, अर्णस् et cetera, and others as also to गाण्डी and अजग; confer, compare P. V. 2. 109, 110.
vatsubstitute for मत् of मतुप्. See मतुप्.
vas(1)pres participle affix वसु substituted for शतृ applied to the root विद्: exempli gratia, for example विद्वस्, confer, compare विदेः शतृर्वसुः P.VII. l.36; (2) perf part, affix क्वसु substituted for the general affix लिट् mostly in Vedic Literature, but in specific cases in spoken language; e. g.see सेदिवस्, शुश्रुवस् उपेयिवस् confer, compare P III.2. 107-9. See क्वसु.
vahiatmanepada personal-ending of the first person ( उत्तमपुरुष) dual, substituted for the general ल् affix; confer, compare तिप्तसझि... महि़्ङ् P.III.4.78.
vājasaneyeiprātiśākhyathe Pratisakhya work belonging to the Vajasaneyi branch of the White Yajurveda, which is the only Pratisakhya existing to-day representing all the branches of the Sukla Yajurveda. Its authorship is attributed to Katyayana, and on account of its striking resemblance with Panini's sutras at various places, its author Katyayana is likely to be the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. It is quite reasonable to expect that the subject matter in this Pratisakhya is based on that in the ancient Prtisakhya works of the same White school of the Yajurveda.The work has a lucid commentary called Bhasya written by Uvvata.
vikaraṇaan affix placed between a root and the personal ending, for showing the specific tense or mood or voice to convey which, the personal ending is applied; e. g. the conjugational signs शप् , श्यन् , श्रु, श, श्नम्, उ, श्ना and यक्, आम् , as also स्य, तास् , सिप् , अाम् and च्लि with its substitutes. Although the term विकरण is used by ancient grammarians and freely used by the Mahabhsyakara in connection with the affixes, mentioned in the sutras of Panini, such as शप् , श्यन् and others, the term is not found in the Sutras of Panini. The vikaranas are different from the major kinds of the regular affixes तिङ्, कृत्य and other similar ones. The vikaranas can be called कृत्; so also, as they are mentioned in the topic (अधिकार) of affixes or Pratyayas,they hold the designation ' pratyaya '. For the use of the word विकरण see M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12, III, 1.31 and VI. 1.5. The term विकरण is found . in the Yājñavalkya Siksa in the sense of change, ( confer, compare उपधारञ्जनं कुर्यान्मनोर्विकरणे सति ) and possibly the ancient grammarians used it in that very sense as they found the root कृ modified as करु or कुरु, or चि as चिनु, or भू as भव before the regular personal endings तिप् , तस् et cetera, and others
vikāryaliterally changeable; that which gets changed in its nature; a variety or subdivision of कर्म or the object confer, compare त्रिविधं कर्म । निर्वर्त्य विकार्य प्राप्यं चेति | Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 2.1. The विकार्यकर्म is explained as यस्य प्रकृत्युच्छेदो गुणान्तरं वा उत्पद्यते तद्विकार्यम् ! यथा भुक्त ओदन: | लूयमान: केद[र: | Srngaraprakasa II ; cf also, Vakyapadiya III. 7.78.
vicāraविचारणा, examination, question or topic or subject for examination:confer, compare कुतः पुनरियं विचारणा l M.Bh. on P. I. 1.50 Vart. 1. विचाल immolation, destruction: confer, compare वर्णाश्रयः प्रत्ययो बर्णविचालस्यानिमित्तम् । दाक्षिः M.Bh .on, P.I.1.39 Vart. 10; confer, compare also Par. Sek. on Pari. 85.
vipratiṣedhaconfict, opposition; opposition or conflict between two rules of equal strength, which become applicable simultaneously when Pāṇini's dictum विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् applies and the rule mentioned later on, or subsequently, in the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is allowed to apply: confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I.4.2: confer, compare also यत्र द्वौ प्रसङ्गौ अन्यार्थौ एकस्मिन्युगपत् प्राप्नुतः स तुल्यबलविरोधी विप्रतिषेध: Kāś. on P.I. 4.2: confer, compare also विप्रतिषेध उत्तरं बलवदलोपे Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.159. The dictum of the application of the subsequent rule is adopted only if the conflicting rules are of equal strength; hence, rules which are either nitya, antaraṅga or apavāda, among which each subsequent one is more powerful than the preceding one and which are all more powerful than the पर or the subsequent rule, set aside the पर rule. There is another dictum that when by the dictum about the subsequent rule being more powerful, an earlier rule is set aside by a later rule, the earlier rule does not apply again in that instance, barring a few exccptional cases; confer, compare सकृद्गतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद् वाधितं तद् बाधितमेव | पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्वम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 40, 39.
virodhaopposition or conflict between two rules where, the rule which is subsequen tly mentioned is regarded as stronger and given preference to, as far as its application is concerned; confer, compare तुल्यबलयोर्विरोधो विप्रतिषेधः । विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I.4.2: (2) contradiction where one thing prevents another confer, compare सर्वनामस्थाने इति अनुवर्तमानमपि विरोधादिह न संबध्यते Kāś.on P.VII.1.86.
viliṅga(1)a substantive which is declined in all the three genders confer, compare Hemacandra III. 1.142: (2) of a different gender (although in the same case); confer, compare विलिङ्ग हि भवान् लोके निर्देशे करोति M.Bh. on P. I. 1.44 Vārt 5.
viśeṣaṇaattribute: adjective; any word which qualifies another; hence, subordinate; confer, compare विशेषणानां चाजातेः । जातिर्यद्विशेषणम् , आहोस्वित् जातेर्यानि विशेषणानि । M.Bh. on P.I.2.52.
viṣayatābeing a subject of discussion of; coming under the domain of, applicability the meaning of विषयसप्तमी which is similar to विवक्षा.
viṣayaviṣayibhāvarelation between the object and thc subject; confer, compare प्रतिलक्ष्यं लक्षणभेदादस्ति विषयविषयिभावः Kaiyaṭa on P. VI. 4. 101 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2.
viṣayasaptamīlocative case denoting the domain or province of a particular suffix or a substitute or the like, which could be actually applied later on; this विषयसप्तमी is contrast ed with परसप्तमी when the thing mentioned in the locative case is required, to be present in front; confer, compareअसति पौर्वापर्ये विषयसप्तमी विज्ञास्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 4.35; confer, compare also अार्धधातुके इति विषयसप्तमी Kāś, on P.II. 4.35; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.26 and IV. 1.90.
vaikṛtaliterally subjected to modifications; which have undergone a change; the term, as contrasted with प्राकृत, refers to letters which are noticed in the Samhitpatha and not in the Padapatha. The change of अस् into ओ, or of the consonant त् into द् before soft letters, as also the insertion of त् between त् and स् et cetera, and others are given as instances. confer, compare वैकृताः ये पदपाठे अदृष्टाः | यथा प्रथमास्तृतीयभूता:, अन्त:पाता: इत्येवमादयः
vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇaa well-known work on the grammatical interpretation of words written by Kondabhatta as an explanatory work (व्याख्यान) on the small work in verse consisting of only 72 Karikas written by his uncle Bhattoji Diksita. The treatise is also named Brihadvaiyakaranabhusana. A smaller work consisting of the same subjectmatter but omitting discussions, is written by the author for facilitating the understanding of students to which he has given the name Vaiyakarahabhusanasara. This latter work has got three commentary works written on it named Kasika, Kanti and Matonmajja and one more scholarly one Sankari, recently written by Shankar Shastri Marulkar.
vaiyākaraṇaśābdabodhaimport of a sentence according to the grammarians, in which verbal activity occupies a predominant place, and the residing place of the subject as also that of the verbal activity is identical in the active voice, while the object and the verbal activity have got the same place of residence in the passive voice. The other auxiliaries of activity such as the instrument, location and the like, are connected with the verbal activity. The import of the sentence चैत्रः पचति, in short, can be expressed as चैत्रकर्तृका वर्तमानकालिकां पाकक्रिया.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakārikāa very scholarly work by Bhattoji Diksita on the interpretation of words and sentences, based upon the learned discussions on that subject introduced in the Mahabhasya, Vakyapadiya, Pradipa, et cetera, and others and discussed fully in his Sabdakaustubha by the author himselfeminine. The work although scholarly and valuable, is compressed in only 72 verses ( karikas ) and has to be understood with the help of the Vaiyakaranabhusana or BhuSansara written by Kondabhatta, the nephew of the author. See वैयाकरणभूषण and वैयाकरणभूषणसार.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudīan extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita.
veṣāyika(1)pertaining to the word विषय in the sutra विषयो देशे P. IV.2. 52; the term refers to the taddhita affix. affixes prescribed in the sense of ’country' or ’district' (विषय) in P. IV. 2.52-54 as contrasted with नैवासिक affixes prescribed in the sense of 'inhabited district' by P. IV. 2.69-80 (2) one of the three senses of the locative case, viz. the sense 'substratum' of the locative case, which is not physical but which is a topical one, forming an object or aim of an , action as specified by the word 'about'; confer, compare अधिकरणं नाम त्रिप्रकारं व्यापकमौपश्लेषिकं वैषयिकमिति |
byāḍiname of an ancient grammarian with a sound scholarship in Vedic phonetics, accentuation,derivation of words and their interpretation. He is believed to have been a relative and contemporary of Panini and to have written a very scholarly vast volume on Sanskrit grammar named *Samgraha which is believed to have consisted of a lac of verses; confer, compare संग्रहो व्याडिकृतो लक्षसंख्ये ग्रन्थ: NageSa's Uddyota; confer, compare also इह पुरा पाणिनीये अस्मिन्व्याकरणे ब्याड्युपरचितं लक्षग्रन्थपरिमाणं निबन्धनमासीत् Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Tika. The work is not available at present. References to Vyadi or to his work are found in the Pratisakhya works, the Mahabhasya, the Varttikas, the Vakyapadiya and many subsequent treatises. A work on the Vyakarana Paribhasas, believed to have been written by Vyadi, is available by the name परिभाषासूचन which from its style and other peculiarities seems to have been written after the Varttikas, but before the Mahabhasya. Vyadi is well-known to have been the oldest exponent of the doctrine that words denote an individual object and not the genus. For details see pp. 136-8, Vol. 7 Vyakarana Mahabhasya DE. Society's Edition.
vyāyataseparated; one out of the two | conjoined consonants separated by inserting a vowel in between; confer, compare व्यस्यन्त्यन्तर्महतोs व्यायतं तं दीर्घायु: सूर्यो रुशदीर्त ऊर्जम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 19, where Uvvata gives the explanation-दीर्घात्परं अव्यायतं अपृथग्भूतं रफेण सक्तमित्यर्थः एवंभूतं व्यस्यन्ति पृथक्कुर्वन्ति | यथा | दीरिघायु: ! सूरिय: | रुशदीरिते | ऊरजम्. Rk Samhita I. 85. 39, X. 158. 1, IX. 91.3 and IX. 63. 2. व्यावर्तन reversing the order of words and going back from a subsequent word to the previous one, as in the Krama,.Jata and other artificial recitals of Veda.
ś(1)a sibilant letter of the palatal class, possessed of the properties, श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष and कण्ठविवृतत्व; (2) the initial indicatory ( इत् ) letter श् of a non-taddhita affix in Panini's grammar, which is dropped; (3) substitute for च्छ् when followed by an affix beginning with a nasal consonant; e.g प्रश्न:, confer, compare P.VI.4.19;(4) substitute for स् when followed by श् or any palatal letter;exempli gratia, for example वृक्षश्छादयति वृक्षश्शेते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P. VIII. 4.40.
śabādeśathe Vikarana affixes श्यन् , श> श्रम्, उ and श्रा according to those who hold the view that these affixes do not form the exceptions of शप्, but they are substituted for शप् . confer, compare शबादेशाः शयन्नादय: करिष्यन्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.27, II.2.3, III.1.33 and III.1.67.
śabdaliterally "sound" in general; confer, compare शब्दं कुरु शब्दं मा कार्षीः | ध्वनिं कुर्वनेवमुच्यते | M.Bh. in Ahnika I; confer, compare also शब्दः प्रकृतिः सर्ववर्णानाम् | वर्णपृक्तः: शब्दो वाच उत्पत्तिः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII.1, XXIII.3.In grammar the word शब्द is applied to such words only as possess sense; confer, compare प्रतीतपदार्थको लोके ध्वनि: शब्द: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika 1: confer, comparealso येनोच्चरितेन अर्थः प्रतीयते स शब्दः Sringara Prakasa I; confer, compare also अथ शब्दानुशासनम् M.Bh. Ahnika 1. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya, शब्द् is said to be constituted of air as far as its nature is concerned, but it is taken to mean in the Pratisakhya and grammar works in a restricted sense as letters possessed of sense, The vajasaneyiPratisakhya gives four kinds of words तिडू, कृत्, तद्धित and समास while नाम, आख्यात, निपात and उपसर्ग are described to be the four kinds in the Nirukta. As शब्द in grammar, is restricted to a phonetic unit possessed of sense, it can be applied to crude bases, affixes, as also to words that are completely formed with case-endings or personal affixes. In fact, taking it to be applicable to all such kinds, some grammarians have given tweive subdivisions of शब्द, vizप्रक्रुति, प्रत्यय,उपत्कार, उपपद, प्रातिपदिक, विभक्ति, उपसर्जन, समास, पद, वाक्य, प्रकरण and प्रबन्ध; confer, compare Sringara Prakasa I.
śarvyavāyaintervention by any one of the spirants श् , ष् and स्, which prevents the substitution of ण् for न् but allows the substitution of ष् for म्; confer, compare चुटुतुलशर्व्यवाये न M.Bh. on P. VIII.4.2 as also नुम्विसर्जनीयशर्व्यवायेपि P. VIII.3.58 Vart. 1.
śākaṭāyana(1)name of an ancient reputed scholar of Grammar and Pratisakhyas who is quoted by Panini. He is despisingly referred to by Patanjali as a traitor grammarian sympathizing with the Nairuktas or etymologists in holding the view that all substantives are derivable and can be derived from roots; cf तत्र नामान्याख्यातजानीति शाकटायनो नैरुक्तसमयश्च Nir.I.12: cf also नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् M. Bh on P.III.3.1. Sakatayana is believed to have been the author of the Unadisutrapatha as also of the RkTantra Pratisakhya of the Samaveda ; (2) name of a Jain grammarian named पाल्यकीर्ति शाकटायन who lived in the ninth century during the reign of the Rastrakuta king Amoghavarsa and wrote the Sabdanusana which is much similar to the Sutrapatha of Panini and introduced a new System of Grammar. His work named the Sabdanusasana consists of four chapters which are arranged in the form of topics, which are named सिद्धि. The grammar work is called शब्दानुशासन.
śānac(1)krt affix ( अान ) substituted for the Atmanepada लट् affixes, to which म् is prefixed if the base before the affix ends in अ; e. g. एधमान, विद्यमान, etc; cf P. III. 2. 124, 125, 126; (2) Vikarana affix ( अान ) substituted for श्ना before the personal ending हि of the imperative second person singular, if the preceding root ends in a consonant: e. g. पुषाण, मुषाण, confer, compare P. III. 1. 83.
śānānkrt affix (आन) substituted for the Atmampada affixes instead of शानच्, prescribed after the roots पू and यज्; the application of शानन् for शानच् is for the acute accent on the initial vowel of the root;exempli gratia, for example पवमानः with the acute accent on the initial vowel as contrasted with विद्यमान; with the acute accent on the last vowel; confer, compare P. III. 2.128.
śābdabodhaverbal interpretation; the term is generally used with reference to the verbal interpretation of a sentence as arising from that of the words which are all connected directly or indirectly with the verb-activity. It is defined as पदजन्यपदार्थोपस्थितिजन्यबोध:. According to the grammarians, verbal activity is the chief thing in a sentence and all the other words (excepting the one which expresses verbal activity) are subordinated to the verbal activity and hence are connected with it; confer, compare पदज्ञानं तु करणं द्वारे तत्र पदार्थधीः | शाब्दबोधः फलं तत्र शक्तिधीः सहकारिणी | मुक्तावली III.81.
śāyacVikarana affix ( आय) substituted for the Vikarana श्ना in Vedic Literature; e. g, गृभाय जिह्वया मधु; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III I. 84.
śāstrascientific treatment of a subject; a system of thoughts giving a scientific treatment of any subject. The word is applied to the rules of Panini and sometimes to an individual rule; confer, compare शास्त्रबाध or अशास्त्रबाध or विप्रतिषेधशास्त्र,frequently used by the commentators; confer, compare न हि संदेहादलक्षणं शास्त्रामित्यर्थः Nagesa's Par. Sek. on Pari. 1; confer, compare पदान्तादिष्वेव विकारशास्त्रम् R.Pr.II.2
śāstrātideśasupposition of the original in the place of the substitute merely for the sake of the application of a grammatical rule as contrasted with रूपातिदेश, the actual restoration of the original form; confer, compare किं पुनरयं शास्त्रातिदेशः । तृचो यच्छास्त्रं तदतिदिश्यते । आहोस्विद्रूपातिदेशः तृचो यद्रूपं तदतिदिश्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VII.1.95.
śicase-affix इ substituted for the case-affixes जस् and शस् of the nominative case. plural and the acc. plural in the neuter gender; confer, compare जश्शसोः शिः P. VII. 1.20. This affix शि is called सर्वनामस्थान just like the first five caseaffixes in the masculine and feminine. gender. This case affix is seen dropped in Vedic passages; confer, compare शेच्छन्दसि बहुलं ( लोप: ) P. VI. 1.70.
śikṣāgeneral name given to a work on Phonetics. Although there are many such works which are all called शिक्षा, the work, which is often referred to, by the word, is the Siksa named पाणिनीयशिक्षा, about the authorship of which, however, there is a doubt whether it was the work of Panini or of somebody belonging to his school. The Siksa works are helpful, no doubt, for the study of grammar, but no topic belonging to Siksa is given by Panini which apparently means that these works do not come under the subject or province of Grammar. The reason why the Siksa topics are not given by Panini, is worth consideration. These Siksa works are not specifically related to a particular Veda and it cannot be said whether they preceded or succeeded the Pratisakhya works.
śikhāone of the subdivisions of the artificial recitals of the Vedic texts.
śitpossessed of, or characterized by, the indicatory letter श्; the krt affixes which are marked with the indicatory श् are termed Sarvadhatuka affixes (confer, compare P.III.4.113), while, the Adesas or substitutes, marked with the indicatory श्, are substituted for the whole of the Sthanin or the original and not for its final letter according to the rule अलोन्त्यस्य P. I.1.52; e. g. शि is substituted,not for the final स् of जस् and शस् but for the whole जस् and the whole शस्; confer, compare P.I.1.55.
śiṣyahitā(वृत्ति)a work on grammar written by उग्रभूति of which a mention is made by Al Beruni in his work. शी (1) case affix (ई) substituted for the nominative case. plural affix जस् (अस् ) in the declension of the pronouns, when the affix जस् is preceded by the vowel अ; exempli gratia, for example सर्वे, विश्वे; confer, compare kas. on P VII.1.17; (2) case affix (ई ) substituted for औ of the nominative case. and the acc. dual after feminine. bases ending in आ, as also after bases in the neuter gender; exempli gratia, for example खट्वे रमे; कुण्डे, वने; confer, compare Kas on P. VII.1.18, 19.
śuddhāśubodhasūtrārthavyākaraṇaa gloss on the Asubodha-grammar, written by a grammarian named Ramesvara.
śecase-ending seen in Vedic Literature substituted for any one of the 2l case-endings as found in Vedic Language; words ending in this शे ( ए ) are not coalesced with a vowel that follows; e.g अस्मे इन्द्रबृहस्पती; confer, compare P.VII.1.39 and I.1.13.
ścutvathe substitution of the palatal consonants श्,च्,छ्,ज्, झ् and ञ् respectively for the similar consonants स्, त् , थ् , द् , ध् and न् of the dental class; confer, compare स्तोः श्चुना श्चु: P.VIII.4.10.
śravaṇahearing of a phonetic element or a word in the actual speech; audition; confer, compare तस्य चोदात्तस्वरितपरत्वे श्रवणं स्पष्टम् S. K. on P.I.2.32. In many technical grammatical terms, affixes and substitutes, there is sometimes a portion of them which is not a vital part of the word, but it is for the sake of causing certain prescribed grammatical operations. The letters or syllables which form such a portion are called इत् and they are only for the sake of grammatical operations (कार्यार्थ ), as contrasted with the other ones which are actually heard (श्रुत्यर्थ or श्रवणार्थ ).
ślua term used in the sense of elision or lopa in the case of the affix शप् when it is elided after the roots headed by हु, i. e. roots of the third conjugation as also after any root wherever it is so seen in the Vedic Literature: confer, compare बहुलं छन्दसि P. III. 4. 76. This श्लु is looked upon as a substitute zero, or nil for the general vikarana शप् in the case of these roots; confer, compare जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः P. II. 4. 75. The specific feature of this elision of the vikarana शप् by means of the term श्लु, is that it causes reduplication of the roots to which it is added; confer, compare लुकि प्रकृते श्लुविधानं द्विर्वचनार्थम् Kas, on. P. II. 4. 75 and P. III. 1. 10.
(l)a sibilant letter of the cerebral class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, कण्ठविवार and महाप्राण ; (2) mute indicatory letter ष्, attached to nouns as also to affixes with which nouns are formed, such as ष्वुन्, ष्कन्, ष्टरच्, ष्ट्रन् et cetera, and others showing the addition of the feminine affix ई ( ङीष् ); confer, compare षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च P. IV. 1.41 ; (3) changeable to स् when placed at the beginning of roots in the Dhatupatha except in the case of the roots formed from nouns and the roots ष्ठिव् and ष्वष्क्; (4) substitute for the last consonant of the roots ब्रश्च, भ्रस्ज्, सृज्, मृज्, यज्, राज्, भ्राज्, as also of the roots ending in छ् and श् before a consonant excepting a nasal and a semivowel, as also when the consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् et cetera, and others cf P. VIII.2.36 (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 3.39: confer, compare also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष्; e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे , वृक्षष्टकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.41.
ṣa(1)consonant ष् , the vowel अ being added for facility of pronunciation; (2) compound-ending अ, substituted for the final of the word मूर्धन् at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound when the word मूर्धन् is preceded by द्वि or त्रि e. g. द्विमूर्धः, त्रिमूर्धः confer, compare द्वित्रिभ्यां ष मूर्ध्नः P. V. 4.115 (3) a technical term for तत्पुरुषसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ṣaṭkārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaknown also as कारकखण्डनमण्डन a grammar-work on consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् et cetera, and others cf P. VIII.2.36 (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 3.39: confer, compare also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष्; e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे , वृक्षष्टकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.41.
ṣa(1)consonant ष् , the vowel अ being added for facility of pronunciation; (2) compound-ending अ, substituted for the final of the word मूर्धन् at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound when the word मूर्धन् is preceded by द्वि or त्रि e. g. द्विमूर्धः, त्रिमूर्धः confer, compare द्वित्रिभ्यां ष मूर्ध्नः P. V. 4.115 (3) a technical term for तत्पुरुषसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ṣaṣṭhīthe sixth case; the genitive case. This case is generally an ordinary case or विभक्ति as contrasted with कारकविभक्ति. A noun in the genitive case shows a relation in general, with another noun connected with it in a sentence. Commentators have mentioned many kinds of relations denoted by the genitive case and the phrase एकशतं षष्ठ्यर्थाः (the genitive case hassenses a hundred and one in all),. is frequently used by grammarians confer, compare षष्ठी शेषे P. II. 3.50; confer, compare also बहवो हि षष्ठ्यर्थाः स्वस्वाम्यनन्तरसमीपसमूहविकारावयवाद्यास्तत्र यावन्त: शब्दे संभवन्ति तेषु सर्वेषु प्राप्तेषु नियमः क्रियते षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा इति । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.49. The genitive case is used in the sense of any karaka when that karaka ; is not to be considered as a karaka; confer, compare कारकत्वेन अविवक्षिते शेषे षष्ठी भविष्यति. A noun standing as a subject or object of an activity is put in the genitive case when that activity is expressed by a verbal derivative , and not by a verb itself; confer, compare कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति P. II. 3 .65. For the senses and use of the genitive case, confer, compare P. II. 3.50 to 73.
ṣaṣṭhīnirdiṣṭaa word put in the genitive case; a substitute given as connected with a genitive case which replaces the whole word which is put in the genitive case unless the substitute consists of a single letter or is characterized by the mute letter ङ्, confer, compare षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा । अलोन्त्यस्य | अनेकाल्शित्सर्वेस्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. I. 1.49 to 55.
s(l)a sibilant letter of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, कण्ठविवार and महाप्राण ; ( 2 ) substitute for visarjaniya if followed by a hard consonant excepting a sibilant confer, compare P. VIII. 3. 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 46, 47, 48-54,
sa(1)short term for समास used by ancient grammarians ; the term is found used in the Jainendra Vyakarana also ; confer, compare ति्त्रक्कारकाणां प्राक् सुवुप्तत्तेः कृद्भिः सविधि: Jain.. Pari. 100; confer, compare also राजाsसे ; ( 2 ) Unadi affix स placed after the roots वॄ, तॄ, वद् , हन् and others; confer, compareUnadiSutras 342-349; (3) taddhita affix. affix स in the quadruple senses (चातुरर्थिक) applied to the words तृण and others. exempli gratia, for example तृणसः; confer, compare P. IV.2.80; (4) taddhita affix. affix स applied to the word मृद् when praise is intended e. g. मृत्सा, मृत्स्नाः; also confer, compare P. V. 4.41; (5) substitute for the preposition सम् before the words हित and तत; confer, compare समो हितततयोर्वा लोपः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI.1.144 Vart. I.
saṃkrama(1)joining with a subsequent word after omitting a word or two occurring between; cf, गलत्पदमतिक्रम्य अगलता सह संधानं संक्रम:; e. g. शूद्रे अर्ये for शूर्द्रे यदर्ये where यत् is passed over in the krama and other recitals; cf Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 77, 165, 194; (2) a term used in ancient grammars for such affixes and others which do not allow the substitution of guna or vrddhi for the preceding vowel; the term is also used for the letters क्, ग् and ङ् when they are mute, serving only the purpose of preventing guna or vrddhi; confer, compare मृजेरजादौ संक्रमे विभाषा वृद्धिमारभन्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.3. Vart. 10.
saṃprasāraṇaliterally extension; the process of changing a semi-vowel into a simple vowel of the same sthana or place of utterance; the substitution of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ for the semi-vowels य्, व् , र् and ल् respectively; cf इग्यणः संप्रसारणम् P. 1.1.45. The term संप्रसारण is rendered as a 'resultant vowel' or as 'an emergent vowel'. The ancient term was प्रसारण and possibly it referred to the extension of य् and व्, into their constituent parts इ +अ, उ+अ et cetera, and others the vowel अ being of a weak grade but becoming strong after the merging of the subseguent vowel into it exempli gratia, for example confer, compare सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P. III. 2.8 Vart.1. For the words taking this samprasarana change, see P. VI. 1 .13 to .19. According to some grammarians the term संप्रसारण is applied to the substituted vowels while according to others the term refers to the operation of the substitution: confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.15. The substitution of the samprasarana vowel is to be given preference in the formation of a word; , confer, compare संप्रसारणं तदाश्रयं च कार्यं बलवत् Pari. Sek. Pari. 1 19. संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्व the relative superior strength of the samprasarana change in comparison with other operations occurring simultaneotisly. The phrase न वा संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्वात् is often used in the Mahabhasya which is based upon the dictum of the superior strength of the samprasarana substitution, which is announced by the writer of the Varttikas; P. VI. 1.17 Vart, 2. , See संप्रसारण.
saṃhitāposition of words or parts of words in the formation ofa word quite near each other which results into the natural phonetic coalescence of the preceding and the following letters. Originally when the Vedic hymns or the running prose passages of the Yajurveda were split up into their different constituent parts namely the words or padas by the Padakaras, the word संहिता or संहितापाठ came into use as contrasted with the पदपाठ. The writers of of the Pratisakhyas have conseguently defined संहिता as पदप्रकृतिः संहिता, while Panini who further split up the padas into bases ( प्रकृति ) and affixes ( प्रत्यय ) and mentioned several augments and substitutes, the phonetic combinations, which resulted inside the word or pada, had to be explained by reason of the close vicinity of the several phonetic units forming the base, the affix, the augment, the substitute and the like, and he had to define the word संहृिता rather differently which he did in the words परः संनिकर्षः संहिता; cf P.I.4.109: confer, compare also संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः । नित्य समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते Sabdakaustubha on Maheshvara Sutra 5.1.
satiśiṣṭaprescribed subsequently; occurring after the preceding has taken place; confer, compare सति शिष्टोपि विकरणस्वरः सार्वधातुकस्वरं न बाधते; although the words सति and शिष्टः are separate still it is habitual to take them combined in an adjectival sense and make the word सतिशिष्ट an adjective to the word स्वर as in the dictum सतिशिष्टस्वरबलीयस्त्वं च P. VI. 1. 158 Vart. 9.
satiśiṣṭasvarabalīyastvathe comparatively superior strength of a subsequent accent which prevails by the removal of the accent obtaining before in the process of the formation of a word; cf VI. 1. 158 Vart. 9. See सतिशिष्ट a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
satvaan aspect of सत्ता of the type.of the static existence possessed by substantives as contrasted with भाव the dynamic type of existence possessed by verbs; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातम् ! सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि. Nirukta of Yāska.I: cf also सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरण: R.Pr. XII. 8. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50.
sattvaguṇaqualities of a substantive such as स्त्रीत्व, पुंस्त्व, नपुंसकत्व, or एकत्व, द्वित्व and बहुत्व confer, compare स्त्रीपुंनपुंसकानि सत्त्वगुणाः एकत्वद्वित्वबहुवचनानि च। Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.38 Vart. 6, also on P. I. 2.64 Vart, 53.
sanvadbhāvabehaviour like that of the affix सन् in point of its specific features, viz. causing reduplication in the case of the previous root.by the rule सन्यङोः VI.1.9, as also the substitution of इ for अ in the reduplicated syllable ( अभ्यास ), by P. VII. 4.79. This सन्वद्भाव is prescribed in the case of a root ending in इ ( णिच् ) before the aorist sign ( विकरण ) चङ्. confer, compare सन्वल्लघुनि चङ्परेनग्लोपे VII. 4.93.
saptasvaralit, the seven accents; the term refers to the seven accents formed of the subdivisions of the three main Vedic accents उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित viz उदात्त, उदात्ततर, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितोदात्त,and एकश्रुति: cf त एते तन्त्रे तरनिर्देशे सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति ( उदात: । उदात्ततरः । अनुदात्तः ! अनुदात्ततरः । स्वरित: । स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः । एकश्रुतिः सप्तम: ॥ M. Bh on P. I. 2. 33. It is possible that these seven accents which were turned into the seven notes of the chantings of the samans developed into the seven musical notes which have traditionally come down to the present day known as सा रे ग म प ध नी; confer, compare उदात्ते निषादगान्धारौ अनुदात्ते ऋषभधैवतौ । स्वरितप्रभवा ह्येते षड्जमध्यमपञ्चमाः। Pāṇini. Siksa. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions the seven accents differently; confer, compare उदात्तादयः परे सप्त । यथा-अभिनिहितक्षैप्र-प्राशश्लिष्ट-तैरोव्यञ्जन-तैरोविराम-पादवृत्तताथाभाव्याः Uvvata on V.Pr.I.l l4.
samanvayapradīpasaṃketaa treatise on the philosophy of Vyakarana written as a commentary by the author दंवशर्मन् on his own Karikas on the subject.
samartha(1)having an identical sense; cf प्रोपाभ्या समर्थाभ्याम् । ...तौ चेत् प्रोपौ समर्थौ तुल्यार्थौ भवतः । क्व चानयोस्तुल्यार्थता । आदिकर्मणि । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 3. 42: (2) mutually connected in meaning in such a way that the meanings are connected together or commixed together; समर्थः शक्वः । विग्रहवाक्यार्थाभिधाने यः शक्तः स समर्थो वेदितव्यः । अथवा समर्थपदाश्रयत्वात्समर्थः । समर्थानां पदानां संबद्धार्थानां संसृष्टार्थानां विधिर्वेदितव्यः । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1. I; confer, compare also एकार्थीभावो व्यपेक्षा वा सामर्थ्यम्;। (3) connected with relationship of senses, as between the activity and the subject,object, instrument et cetera, and others, or as between the master and the servant or the Possessor and the possessed; confer, compare राज्ञः पुरुषः or ग्रामं गच्छति,or सर्पिः पिब, but not सर्पिः पिब in the sentence तिष्ठतु सर्पिः पिब त्वमुदकम् । ; (4) capable of expressing the sense e. g. a word with the sandhis well observed; confer, compare समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा । सामर्थ्ये परिनिष्ठितत्वम् । कृतसन्धिकार्यत्वमिति यावत् । S. K. on IV. I. 82; cf also समर्थः पटुः शक्तः इति पर्यायाः। शक्तत्वं च कार्योत्पादनयोम्यत्वम् et cetera, and others Balamanorama on the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
samāsaplacing together of two or more words so as to express a composite sense ; compound composition confer, compare पृथगर्थानामेकार्थीभावः समासः। Although the word समास in its derivative sense is applicable to any wording which has a composite sense (वृत्ति), still it is by convention applied to the समासवृत्ति only by virtue of the Adhikarasutra प्राक् कडारात् समास: which enumerates in its province the compound words only. The Mahabhasyakara has mentioned only four principal kinds of these compounds and defined them; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थ प्रधानोव्ययीभावः। उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः। अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः । उभयपदार्थप्रधानो द्वन्द्वः । M.Bh. on P.II.1.6; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.II.1.20, II.1.49,II.2.6, II.4.26, V.1.9. Later grammarians have given many subdivisions of these compounds as for example द्विगु, कर्मधारय and तत्पुरुष (with द्वितीयातत्पुरुष, तृतीयातत्पुरुष et cetera, and othersas also अवयवतत्पुरुष, उपपदतत्पुरुष and so on) समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुवीहि, समाहारद्वन्द्व, इतरेतरद्वन्द्व and so on. समासचक्र a short anonymous treatise on compounds which is very popular and useful for beginners. The work is attributed to वररुचि and called also as समासपटल. The work is studied and committed to memory by beginners of Sanskrit ] studies in the PathaSalas of the old type.
samāsāntaśābdādeśaa substitute for a word or its part at the end of a compound prescribed for certain specified words under specified conditions; e. gज्ञु for जानु , ऊधन् for ऊधस् , धन्वन् for धनुस्, जानि for जाया, गन्धि for गन्ध, पाद् and पद्, for पाद, दत् for दन्त, ककुद् for ककुद: cf P. V. 4.129-150.
sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇacalled also सरस्वतीसूत्र, name of a voluminous grammar work ascribed to king Bhoja in the eleventh century. The grammar is based very closely on Panini's Astadhyayi, consisting of eight chapters or books. Although the affixes, the augments and the substitutes are much the same, the order of the Sutras is considerably changedition By the anxiety of the author to bring together, the necessary portions of the Ganapatha, the Unadiptha and the Paribhasas, which the author' has included in his eight chapters, the book instead of being easy to understand, has lost the element of brevity and become tedious for reading. Hence it is that it is not studied widely. For details see pp. 392, 393 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's edition.
sarvapadādeśaa substitute for the entire word and not for a part of it. This doctrine of सर्वपदादेशं everywhere is advocated by grammarians in consonance with their doctrine of शब्दनित्यत्व; confer, compare सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः | एकदेशविकारे हि नित्यत्वं नोपपद्यते ॥ M.Bh. on P. I. 1. 20, VII.;.27.
sarvaprasaṅgaa presentation of all the substitutes for all the original ones indiscriminately; an application in all cases irrespective of any special consideration: confer, compare स्थानिन एकत्वनिर्देशादनेकादेशनिर्देशाच्च सर्वप्रसङ्ग: M.Bh.on P. I. 1. 50 Vart. l and 12; cf also M.Bh. on P.I.1.60, I.3.2, 3,10 etc
sarvādiliterally a group or a class of words beginning with the word सर्व as the first word in the list; the term is used in general as a synonymous term with Sarvanaman; confer, compare संज्ञोपसर्जनीभूतास्तु न सर्वादयः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.I.1.27. सर्वादेश a substitute for the entire wording instead of the final letter as prescribed by the rule अलेान्त्यस्य P.I.1.52; confer, compare अनेकाल्शीत्सर्वस्य P.I.1.55.
sarvopasarjanaall the constituent members of which (compound) are subordinated to quite a different word and not mutually in the manner of one member to another. The Bahuvrihi compound, as contrasted with other compounds, is described to be such an one, as all its members are subordinate in sense to another word; confer, compare यस्य सर्वे अवयवा उपसर्जनीभूताः स सर्वोपसर्जनो बहुव्रीहिर्गृह्यते ; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VI. 3.82.
savarṇadīrdhathe lengthened form of a vowel which is substituted for two cognate vowels coming near each other; confer, compare अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः. P. VI. l. 10l.
sāttvaof a substantive, belonging to the object: confer, compare सत्त्वस्य इदम् । अपि वा मेदसश्च पशोश्च सात्त्वं द्विवचनं स्यात् । Nirukta of Yāska.VI. 16.
sāmānādhikaraṇyastanding in apposition; the word is used many times in its literal sense ' having the same substratum.' For instance, in घटं करोति देवदत्तः, the personal ending ति and देवदत्त are said to be समानाधिकरण. The Samanadhikarana words are put in the same case although, the gender and number sometimes differ. See the word समानाधिकरण.
sāmānyabhaviṣyatfuture tense in general; the general future tense expressed by the verb-endings substituted for लृट्. There is also the term शुद्धभविष्यत् or भविष्यन्ती used in the same sense; confer, compare लृट् शेषे च। शेषे शुद्धे भविष्यति काले धातोर्लृट् प्रत्ययो भवति । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.13
sārasvatasāraa work giving a short substance of the Sarasvata Vyakarana with a commentary named Mitaksara on the same by Harideva.
sicone of the substitutes ( स् ) for the general sign च्लि of the aorist tense ( लुङ् ); confer, compare च्लि लुङि | च्ले; सिच् P. III.1. 43, 44.
siddhahemacandraa title given to his grammar by Hemacandra himself, which subsequently came to be called हैमशब्दानुशासन or हैमव्याकरण. For details see हेमचन्द्र.
siddhāntasārasvataan independent work on grammar believed to have been written by Devanandin. सिद्धान्तिन् a term used in connection with the writer himself of a treatise when he gives a reply to the objections raised by himself or quoted from others,the term पूर्वपाक्षिन् being used for the objector. सिद्धि formation of a word: establishment of the correct view after the removal of the objection; e. g. संज्ञासिद्वि, कार्यसिाद्व, स्वरसिद्धि. सिप् (1) the personal ending ( सि ) of the second person singular (मध्यमपुरुषैकवचन ) substituted for the affix ल्; of the ten tenses and moods लट्, लिट्, लृट् and others; confer, compare P.III.4.78: (2 Vikarana affix स् added to a root before the affixes of लेट् or Vedic Subjunctive. सिम् a technical term used in the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya for the first eight vowels of the alphabet, viz. अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ and ऋ: confer, compare सिमादितोष्टौ स्वराणाम् V. Pr.. I.44.
sīyuṭaugment सीय्, prefixed to the personal affixes which are substituted for the लिङ् affixes in the Atmanepada; exempli gratia, for example पचेत पचेयाताम् confer, compare P. III. 4.102.
sup(l)locative case affix सु: (2) short term for case-affixes, as formed by the syllable सु (the nominative case. singular. affix) at the beginning and the final consonant प् of सुप्, the locative plural case-affix in the rule स्वौजसमौट्...ङ्योस्सुप् P. IV. 1.2. These case afixes are called 'vibhakti' also. These सुप् affixes are elided after an indeclinable word; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुप: P. II. 4.82; in Veda स्, शे ( ए ), या, डा, ड्या, याच् and अाल् as seen, are substituted for these case affixes, which sometimes are even dropped or assimilated with the previous vowel of the base: e. g. सन्तु पन्थाः, आर्द्रे चर्मन् et cetera, and others cf, P. VII. 1.39. These caseaffixes are as a rule, grave-accented (अनुदात्त) excepting in such cases as are mentioned in P. VI.1. 166 to 184 and 19l.
se(1)one of the several affixes found in Veda in the sense ofतुमुन् ( तुम् of the infinitive); e. g. वृक्षे राय:; confer, compare Pāṇini. III. 4.9; (2) personal-ending substituted for थास् in the present tense., perfect, and other tenses; confer, compare थासः से P. III. 4.80.
stua term used for the sibilant स् and dental class consonants for thc substitution of the sibilant श् and palatal consonants in respective order confer, compare स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः P. VIII. 4.40.
sthānaplace of articulation; place of the production of sound, which is one of the chief factors in the production of sound; confer, compare अनुप्रदानात् संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् | जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात्, T.Pr. XXIII. 2. Generally there are given five places of the production of sound viz. कण्ठ, तालु, मूर्धन् , दन्त and ओष्ठ, respectively for the articulation of guttural, palatal cerebral, dental and labial letters and नासिका as an additional one for the articulation of the nasal consonants ञू, मू,ङू, णू and नू For the Jihvamuliya sound (क ), जिंह्वामूल is given as a specific one. For details and minor differences of views, see Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.III, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) 1.18 to 20,Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 2-10; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 65 to 84 and M. Bh, on P. I. 1. 9. (2) place, substratum, which is generally understood as the sense of the genitive case-affix in rules which prescribe substitutes; confer, compare षष्ठी स्थोनोयागा. P. I. 1. 49.
sthānaṣaṣṭhīone of the several kinds of the genitive case when it means a place or substratum, see the word स्थान.
sthāninthe original word or part of a word such as a syllable or two of it or a letter of it, for which a substitute ( आदेश ) is prescribed; confer, compare स्थानिवदादेशोSनाल्विधौ P. 1.I. 56.
sthānivadbhāvabehaviour of the substitute like the original in respect of holding the qualities of the original and causing grammatical operations by virtue of those qualities. By means of स्थानिवद्भाव,the substitute for a root is,for instance, looked upon as a root; similarly, a noun-base or an affix or so, is looked upon like the original and it can cause such operations or be a recipient of such operations as are due to its being a root or a noun or an affix or the like. This स्यानिवद्भाव cannot be, and is not made also, a universally applicable feature; and there are limitations or restrictions put upon it, the chief of them being अल्विधौ or in the matter of such operations as are caused by the 'property of being a single letter' (अल्विधौ). There are two views regarding this 'behaviour like the original' : (l) supposed behaviour which is only instrumental in causing operations or undergoing them which is called शास्त्रातिदेदा and (2) actual restoration to the form of the original under certain conditions only as prescribed which is called रूपातिदेश. The रूपातिदेश is actually resorted to by some grammarians in the case of the reduplication of roots; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on द्विवेचनेचि P.I.1.59 and M.Bh. on P.I.1.59.See the word रूपातिदेश also. For details see Vol. VII p.p. 241243, Vyākarana Mahabhasya D.E. Society's Edition.
sthāneyogāa variety of the genitive case when it is connected in sense with the Pratipadika by the relationship of स्थान or place, as contrasted with the relationships of the kind of विषयविषयिभाब, अवयवावयविभाव and others. As grammar is a Science of words,in those places where one word is mentioned for another by the use of the genitive case it should be understood that the word mentioned is to be substituted for the other;cf the rule of Panini for that purpose षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा explained by Bhattoji Diksita as अानिर्धारितसंबन्धविशेषा षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा बोध्या; confer, compare S.K. on P.I.1.49. In some grammars the sthanin and adesa are expressed in the same case, Viz. the nominative case.
sthānyādeśābhāvathe relation between the original and the substitute which is described as of two kinds (1) supposed and actual; confer, compareअानुमानिकस्थान्यादेशभावकल्पनेपि श्रौतस्थान्योदशभावस्य न त्याग: Pari.Sek. Pari.
smātcase-ending स्मात् substituted for the ablative singular. case-affix ङसि placed after pronouns; confer, compare ङसिङयोः स्मात्स्मिनौ P. VII. 1. 15, 16.
smaicase ending स्मै, substituted for the dative singular.. case-affix ङे after pronouns; confer, compare सर्मनाम्न स्मै P. VII.1.14.
sya(1)case-ending स्य substituted for the genitive singular case-affix after bases ending in अ; confer, compare टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः P. VII.1.12: (2) Vikarana affix स्य placed before the personal endings of लृट् and लृङ् (the second future tense and the conditional mood); cf स्यतासी लृलुटो: P. III.1.33.
svatantraliterally independent; independent in activity; the subject or agent of an action ( कर्ता ) is defined as स्वतन्त्र independent in his activity, i. e. not depending upon any one for the same; confer, compare स्वतन्त्र: कर्ता P. I. 4. 54.
svara(l)vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
svaritakaraṇamarking or characterizing by.a svarita accent, as is supposed to have been done by Panini when he wrote down his sutras of grammar as also the Dhatupatha, the Ganapatha and other subsidiary appendixes. Although the rules of the Astadhyayi are not recited at present with the proper accents possessed by the various vowels as given by the Sutrakara, still, by convention and traditional explanation, certain words are to be believed as possessed of certain accents. In the Dhatupatha, by oral tradition the accents of the several roots are known by the phrases अथ स्वरितेतः, अथाद्युदाताः, अथान्तेादात्ताः, अथानुदात्तेत: put therein at different places. In the sutras, a major purpose is served by the circumflex accent with which such words, as are to continue to the next or next few or next many rules, have been markedition As the oral tradition, according to which the Sutras are recited at present, has preserevd no accents, it is only the authoritative word, described as 'pratijna' of the ancient grammarians, which now is available for knowing the svarita. The same holds good in the case of nasalization ( अानुनासिक्य ) which is used as a factor for determining the indicatory nature of vowels as stated by the rule उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत्; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः S. K. on P. I.3.2.
svaritapratijñāthe conventional dictum that a particular rule or part of a rule, is marked with the accent स्वरित which enables the grammarians to decide that that rule or that part of a rule is to occur in each of the subsequent Sutras, the limit of continuation being ascertained from convention. It is possible that Panini in his original recital of the Astadhyayi recited the words in the rules with the necessary accents; probably he recited every word, which was not to proceed further, with one acute or with one circumflex vowel, while, the words which were to proceed to the next rule or rules, were marked with an actual circumflex accent ( स्वरित ), or with a neutralization of the acute and the grave accents (स्वरितत्व), that is, probably without accents or by एकश्रुति or by प्रचय; cf स्वरितेनाधिकार: P. I.3.II and the Mahabhasya thereon.
hi(1)personal-ending of the second person. singular. substituted for सि in the imperative mood; confer, compare सेर्ह्यपिच्च P. III. 4.87; (2) a sign-word used in the Vajasaneyi-pratisakhya to mark the termination of the words of the Adhikarasutra V. Pr.III.5, IV.11.
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
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subāhuḥ SubāhuSB 10.61.14
SB 10.90.38
SB 9.11.12
subala Subala, one of the cowherd boyfriends of KṛṣṇaCC Antya 6.9
subala-putrī Gāndhārī, the daughter of King SubalaSB 10.84.1
subala-putrī Gāndhārī, the daughter of King SubalaSB 10.84.1
subala-stokakṛṣṇa-ādyāḥ Subala, Stokakṛṣṇa and othersSB 10.15.20
subala-stokakṛṣṇa-ādyāḥ Subala, Stokakṛṣṇa and othersSB 10.15.20
subala-stokakṛṣṇa-ādyāḥ Subala, Stokakṛṣṇa and othersSB 10.15.20
subalaḥ SubalaSB 9.22.43
subalasya of King SubalaSB 1.13.30
subalita very strongly builtCC Madhya 8.18
subhadrā a sister, SubhadrāSB 9.24.52
subhadra all-auspiciousSB 2.4.15
SB 2.4.16
subhadra auspiciousSB 2.4.17
subhadrā His sisterCC Madhya 14.124
subhadrā His sister, SubhadrāCC Antya 14.33
subhadrā of the goddess of fortune SubhadrāCC Madhya 13.191
subhadrā of the goddess SubhadrāCC Madhya 13.100
subhadrā SubhadrāCC Madhya 1.85
CC Madhya 2.53
SB 1.13.3-4
subhadrā the sister of KṛṣṇaSB 1.10.9-10
subhadrā the sister of Lord JagannāthaCC Madhya 13.22
subhadrā-balarāma Subhadrā and BalarāmaCC Madhya 14.62
subhadrā-balarāma Subhadrā and BalarāmaCC Madhya 14.62
subhadra-sańgrāmajitau Subhadra and SańgrāmajitSB 11.30.16
subhadra-sańgrāmajitau Subhadra and SańgrāmajitSB 11.30.16
subhadraḥ SubhadraSB 9.24.46
subhadram SubhadraSB 5.20.3-4
subhadrāyām in the womb of SubhadrāSB 9.22.33
subhaga auspiciousSB 5.18.16
SB 5.25.7
subhaga beautifulSB 5.8.23
subhaga beautySB 5.5.31
subhagā fortunateCC Adi 16.41
subhaga indicating good fortuneSB 5.25.5
subhaga very beautifulSB 5.24.10
subhagam declaring all opulencesSB 9.24.65
subhagayantam spreading good fortuneSB 3.15.39
subhāṣaṇaḥ a son named SubhāṣaṇaSB 9.13.25
subhru nice browsSB 1.19.26
subhru O you with the beautiful eyebrowsSB 4.3.20
subodha understandingCC Adi 16.79
subuddhi miśra Subuddhi MiśraCC Adi 10.111
subuddhi miśra Subuddhi MiśraCC Adi 10.111
subuddhi-rāya a devotee of Lord Caitanya named Subuddhi RāyaCC Madhya 25.186
subuddhi-rāya a devotee of Lord Caitanya named Subuddhi RāyaCC Madhya 25.186
subuddhi-rāya Subuddhi RāyaCC Madhya 25.187
subuddhi-rāya Subuddhi RāyaCC Madhya 25.187
CC Madhya 25.194
subuddhi-rāya Subuddhi RāyaCC Madhya 25.194
CC Madhya 25.211
subuddhi-rāya Subuddhi RāyaCC Madhya 25.211
CC Madhya 25.213
subuddhi-rāya Subuddhi RāyaCC Madhya 25.213
subuddhi-rāyere Subuddhi RāyaCC Madhya 25.190
subuddhi-rāyere Subuddhi RāyaCC Madhya 25.190
subuddhi-rāyere unto Subuddhi RāyaCC Madhya 25.189
subuddhi-rāyere unto Subuddhi RāyaCC Madhya 25.189
abhīpsubhiḥ by those desiringSB 4.23.35
śrīdāman subala arjuna O Śrīdāmā, Subala and ArjunaSB 10.22.31-32
asubhiḥ lifeSB 1.4.11
asubhiḥ subsistingSB 1.13.24
asubhiḥ by the lifeSB 2.7.25
asubhiḥ with sensesSB 3.24.11
asubhiḥ the life airsSB 5.26.22
asubhiḥ by the life breathSB 6.3.16
asubhiḥ with his own lifeSB 7.6.10
asubhiḥ ca of life alsoSB 8.15.3
asubhiḥ by their livesSB 8.20.7
gata-asubhiḥ which were lifelessSB 10.15.38
asubhiḥ and the vital airsSB 11.25.6
bhānuḥ subhānuḥ svarbhānuḥ Bhānu, Subhānu and SvarbhānuSB 10.61.10-12
asubhiḥ ca of life alsoSB 8.15.3
gata-asubhiḥ which were lifelessSB 10.15.38
nija-jīvita-īpsubhiḥ just to live undisturbed by AghāsuraSB 10.12.13
īpsubhiḥ who desireSB 10.29.25
isubhiḥ and arrowsSB 10.66.17
jayaḥ subhadraḥ Jaya and SubhadraSB 10.61.17
jijñāsubhiḥ one who is inquisitiveSB 4.21.21
jijñāsubhiḥ who are inquisitiveSB 11.6.11
jijñāsubhiḥ by those desiring to knowSB 11.13.21
nija-jīvita-īpsubhiḥ just to live undisturbed by AghāsuraSB 10.12.13
nija-jīvita-īpsubhiḥ just to live undisturbed by AghāsuraSB 10.12.13
pāda-pāṃsubhiḥ by the dust of the feetSB 4.4.13
pāda-pāṃsubhiḥ by the dust of the feetSB 4.4.13
śrīdāman subala arjuna O Śrīdāmā, Subala and ArjunaSB 10.22.31-32
śrīdāman subala arjuna O Śrīdāmā, Subala and ArjunaSB 10.22.31-32
jayaḥ subhadraḥ Jaya and SubhadraSB 10.61.17
bhānuḥ subhānuḥ svarbhānuḥ Bhānu, Subhānu and SvarbhānuSB 10.61.10-12
bhānuḥ subhānuḥ svarbhānuḥ Bhānu, Subhānu and SvarbhānuSB 10.61.10-12
vasubhiḥ by the eight VasusSB 6.7.2-8
vasubhiḥ by the VasusSB 6.10.17-18
vasubhṛdyānaḥ VasubhṛdyānaSB 4.1.41
vyasubhiḥ by things that have no lifeSB 7.3.37-38
Results for sub76 results
subala noun (masculine) name of a king of the Gāndhāras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mythical bird (son of Vainateya) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Manu Bhautya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Sumati (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9088/72933
subandha noun (masculine) sesamum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71001/72933
subandhanavimocana noun (masculine) name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71002/72933
subandhūka noun (masculine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 71003/72933
subanta noun (neuter) technical expression for an inflected noun as ending with a case-termination (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71000/72933
subha adjective
Frequency rank 40990/72933
subhadra noun (masculine) Azadirachta Indica (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of socle (pīṭha) name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a scholar (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Idhmajihva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Vasudeva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Sanatkumāra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the last man converted by Gautama Buddha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40992/72933
subhadra adjective very glorious or splendid or auspicious or fortunate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20329/72933
subhadraka noun (masculine) the car or vehicle of a god for carrying his image in procession (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the plant Aegle Marmelos (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40993/72933
subhadrikā noun (feminine) a courtesan (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a younger sister of Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71015/72933
subhadrā noun (feminine) (in music) a particular Śruti (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a form of Durgā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Curcuma Zedoaria (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ichnocarpus Frutescens (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a daughter of Balin and wife of Avekṣita (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a daughter of the Asura Sumāya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a grand daughter of Rukmin and wife of Aniruddha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mythical cow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a poetess (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a wife of Durgama (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a younger sister of Kṛṣṇa and wife of Arjuna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Prosopis Spicigera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3239/72933
subhaga adjective beautiful (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
beloved (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
blessed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
charming (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dear (as a wife) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
delicate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
happy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
highly favoured (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
liked (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lovely (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lucky (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
nice (ironical) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pleasing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
possessing good fortune (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pretty (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
slender (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
suitable for (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
thin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
very fortunate or prosperous (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2495/72933
subhaga noun (neuter) bitumen (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
good fortune (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 25897/72933
subhaga noun (masculine) borax (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Jonesia Asoka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Michelia champaka Linn. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Subala (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the red globe-amaranth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ṭaṅkaṇa
Frequency rank 16275/72933
subhagay verb (denominative parasmaipada)
Frequency rank 71011/72933
subhagaṃbhāvuka adjective
Frequency rank 71013/72933
subhagaṃkaraṇa adjective causing luck
Frequency rank 71012/72933
subhagaṃkaraṇa noun (neuter) means for obtaining luck
Frequency rank 20328/72933
subhagaṃmanya adjective
Frequency rank 40991/72933
subhagā noun (feminine) (in music) a particular Rāgiṇī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a beloved or favourite wife (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a five-year-old girl representing Durgā at festivals (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a species of Musa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Cyperus Rotundus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Glycine Debilis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
good fortune (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
musk (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a daughter of Prādhā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a kind of fairy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the Mātṛs attending on Skanda (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11130/72933
subharjita adjective well roasted
Frequency rank 71016/72933
subhasman noun (neuter) gute / mächtig viel Asche
Frequency rank 40994/72933
subhañjana noun (masculine) a red species of Hyperanthera Morunga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71014/72933
subhikṣa noun (neuter) abundance of food (esp. that given as alms) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
abundant supply of provisions (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
plenty (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18637/72933
subhikṣa adjective having good food or an abundant supply of provisions (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13860/72933
subhikṣā noun (feminine) Grislea Tomentosa Lythrun Fructicosum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20330/72933
subhogyatara adjective more enjoyable
Frequency rank 71023/72933
subhoja noun (masculine) name of a son of Hrīmatī
Frequency rank 71024/72933
subhojaka noun (masculine) a kind of grain
Frequency rank 71025/72933
subhojana noun (masculine) name of a serpent which was burnt in Janamejayas sarpasattra
Frequency rank 71026/72933
subhru adjective having a beautiful brow
Frequency rank 20331/72933
subhru noun (masculine) name of a son of Rohiṇī
Frequency rank 71029/72933
subhrāj noun (masculine) name of a son of Devabhrāj (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40998/72933
subhrājant adjective stark leuchtend
Frequency rank 71031/72933
subhrū noun (feminine) a beautiful brow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a woman with a beautiful brow
Frequency rank 7496/72933
subhrū noun (masculine) name of a man
Frequency rank 71030/72933
subhujā noun (feminine) name of an Apsaras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71021/72933
subhāga adjective fortunate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
rich (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wealthy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71017/72933
subhājana noun (neuter) a good receptacle or vessel of any kind (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40995/72933
subhāmā noun (feminine) name of a wife of Kṛṣṇa
Frequency rank 71019/72933
subhāna noun (masculine) name of a man
Frequency rank 71018/72933
subhāṣaṇa noun (masculine) name of a son of Yuyudhan (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71020/72933
subhāṣita adjective eloquent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
speaking well (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
well spoken (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 25898/72933
subhāṣita noun (neuter) good counsel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
good or eloquent speech (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
witty saying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16276/72933
subhīta adjective greatly afraid of (gen.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31062/72933
subhūmi noun (masculine) name of a son of Ugrasena (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40997/72933
subhūti noun (masculine) a kind of bird name of a Brāhman (son of Vasubhūti) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a lexicographer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a teacher (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40996/72933
subhūtika noun (masculine) Aegle Marmelos (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71028/72933
subhūtā noun (feminine) that part of the frame enshrining the universal spirit which faces the north (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71027/72933
subhūṣa adjective
Frequency rank 71032/72933
subhṛta adjective heavily laden (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
well borne or maintained (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
well cherished or protected (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
well paid (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 25899/72933
subhṛṣṭa adjective well roasted
Frequency rank 71022/72933
subilvaka noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 71007/72933
subodha noun (masculine) name of an astronomical work (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71010/72933
subrahmaṇya noun (masculine) name of one of the three assistants of the Udgātṛ priest (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Skanda or Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various authors (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20327/72933
subrahmaṇyā noun (feminine) a particular recitation of certain Mantras by the Udgātṛ priests (sometimes also the priest himself) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31061/72933
subuddhi adjective clever (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
intelligent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
of good understanding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71009/72933
subuddhi noun (masculine) name of a crow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a rasasiddha name of a son of Māraputra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of two kings (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31060/72933
subādhaka adjective
Frequency rank 71004/72933
subāhu noun (masculine) name of a Bodhisattva and a Bhikṣu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a brother of Alarka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Dānava (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of Videhā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a serpent-demon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Citraka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and king of Cedi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Matināra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Pratibāhu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Śatrughna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Yakṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of Skanda's attendants (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6471/72933
subāhu noun (feminine) name of an Apsaras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40989/72933
subāhuka noun (masculine) name of a Yakṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71006/72933