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"study" has 3 results.
        Root WordIAST MeaningMonier Williams PageClass
√इistudying / adhyayana22/3Cl.2
√चर्च्carcstudying / adhyayana22/3Cl.10
√शील्śīlstudying or practising repeatedly / upadhāraṇa200/1Cl.10
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151 results for study
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
abhigam -gacchati-, to go near to, approach (with accusative) ; to follow ; to meet with, find ; to cohabit (said of men and women) ; to undertake ; to get, gain, obtain etc. ; (with m/anasā-,or medh/ayā-or h/ṛdayena-) to understand : Causal -gamayati-, to study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiniveśam. application, intentness, study, affection, devotion (with locative case or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyas(ind.p. -asya-) to throw towards or upon ; (parasmE-pada genitive case sg. -asyatas-) to throw (as arrows) ; to add, : P. (rarely A1.) -asyati- (but also Potential -aset- ; parasmE-pada -asat- : A1. -asate- ) to concentrate one's attention upon (accusative), practise, exercise, study etc. ; to repeat, double ; to multiply etc.: Causal to cause to practise or study, teach commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyāsam. repeated reading, study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhī( i-), adhy-/eti-, or /adhy-eti- (exceptionally adhīyati- ), to turn the mind towards, observe, understand and ; chiefly Vedic or Veda (with genitive case [ see ]or accusative) to mind, remember, care for, long for etc. ; to know, know by heart etc. ; to go over, study ; to learn from (a teacher's mouth ablative) ; to declare, teach : A1. adhīt/e- or (more rarely) adhīyate- (; Potential 3. plural adhīyīran- ) to study, learn by heart, read, recite: Causal adhy-āpayati- (Aorist -āpipat- ) to cause to read or study, teach, instruct: Causal Desiderative adhy-āpipa-yiṣati-, to be desirous of teaching : Desiderative adhīṣiṣati-, to be desirous of studying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhigāP. to obtain ; P. (Aorist subjunctive 2. plural -gāta-,or -gātana-) to remember, notice and ; P. or generally A1. (-jage-, -agīṣṭa-, -agīṣyata- ) to go over, learn, read, study ; to attempt, resolve: Causal P. -gāpayati-, to cause to go over or teach: Desiderative Causal -jigāpayiṣati-, to be desirous of teaching View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhigamto go up to, approach, overtake, to approach for sexual intercourse, to fall in with, to meet, find, discover, obtain ; to accomplish ; to study, read: Desiderative P. adhi-jigamiṣati-, to seek ; A1. adhi-jigāṃsate-, to be desirous of studying or reading. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhigamam. acquirement, mastery, study, knowledge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhigamanan. acquirement, reading, study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhītif. perusal, study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anūktan. study. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuvacto recite the formulas inviting to the sacrificial ceremony ; to repeat, reiterate, recite ; to communicate ; to study: Caus. -vacayati-, to cause to recite the inviting formulas, to cause to invite for some sacrificial act View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āvartanan. study, practising View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
carc cl.1. cati-, to abuse, censure, menace ; to injure, : cl.10. cayati-, to repeat a word (in reciting the veda-, especially while adding iti-) to talk over, discuss ; (also A1. ) to study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
granthakuṭīf. a study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kriyāf. study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nipaṭham. ( paṭh-) recitation, study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariśīlanan. touch, contact (literally and figuratively), intercourse with, application or attachment to, pursuit of (compound), constant occupation, study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryavāp( -ava-āp-) P. -avāpnoti-, to study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṭh cl.1 P. () paṭhati- (te- etc.; perfect tense papāṭha- ; Aorist apāṭhīt- grammar; future paṭhiṣyati-, paṭhitā- ; ind.p. paṭhitvā- ), to read or repeat aloud, to recite, rehearse etc. ; to repeat or pronounce the name of a god, to invoke (accusative,also with nāmabhis-) ; to read or repeat or recite to one's self, to peruse, study ; to teach, cite, quote, mention, express, declare ; to learn from (ablative) : Passive voice paṭhyate-, to be read or recited or taught or mentioned etc. : Causal pāṭhayati- (Aorist apīpaṭhat- ; future pāṭhayiṣyati- ; Passive voice pāṭhyate- ), to cause or teach to speak or read, to teach, instruct in (with double accusative on ) ; to read, recite : Intensive pāpaṭhīti-, pāpaṭhyate-, to recite often or repeatedly ; to read or study diligently View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṭham. reading, perusal, study (especially of sacred texts) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samabhyāsam. practice, exercise, study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samadhigamP. -gacchati-, to go towards together, come quite near, approach ; to acquire. obtain etc. ; to go completely over, surpass ; to go over, study, read View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sev cl.1 A1. () sevate- (rarely ti-; perfect tense siṣeve-, va- etc.; future sevitā- grammar; seviṣyate- , ti- ; Aorist asiṣevat-, aseviṣṭa- grammar; infinitive mood sevitum- etc.; ind.p. sevitvā-, -sevya- ), to dwell or stay near or in (locative case) ; to remain or stay at, live in, frequent, haunt, inhabit, resort to (accusative) etc. ; to serve, wait or attend upon, honour, obey, worship ; to cherish, foster (a child) ; to present with (instrumental case) ; to enjoy sexually, have sexual intercourse with (accusative) etc. ; to refresh by soft breezes, fan (said of the wind) ; to devote or apply one's self to, cultivate, study, practise, use, employ, perform, do etc. ; to exist or be found in anything (accusative) : Passive voice sevyate-, to be followed or served etc. : Causal sevayati- (Aorist asiṣevat-), to attend upon, serve, honour ; to tend, cherish (plants) : Desiderative of Causal See sisevayiṣu-: Desiderative siseviṣate-, ti- grammar : Intensive seṣevyate- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śikṣ (properly Desiderative of śak-; see ) cl.1 P. A1. ś/ikṣati-, te- (in later language oftener A1..; see ; pr. p. ś/ikṣat-, ś/ikṣamāṇa- ; śikṣāṇa- ; imperative śiśikṣa- ; Aorist aśikṣithṭa- ),"to wish to be able", (P.) try to effect, attempt, undertake ; (A1.;rarely P.) to learn, acquire knowledge, study, practise, learn from (ablative or sakāśāt-with genitive case) etc. ; to practise one's self in (locative case) (see Va1rtt. 3 Sch. ) ; "to wish to be able to effect for others" (P.) wish to help, aid, befriend (dative case) ; (P.) to wish to give, bestow ; (P.) to wish to present with (instrumental case) ; (A1.) to offer one's service to, enter the service of (accusative) : Passive voice śikṣyate- (Aorist aśikṣi-), to be learnt or practised : Causal śikṣayati- (rarely te-; Aorist aśiśikṣat-), to cause to learn, impart knowledge, inform, instruct, teach (with accusative of Persian or thing;also with two accusative,or with accusative of Persian and locative case of thing, or with accusative of Persian and infinitive mood,or with accusative of thing and genitive case of Persian) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śravaṇan. acquiring knowledge by hearing, learning, study (see a-śravaṇāt-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śru cl.5 P. () śṛṇ/oti- (Vedic or Veda and Epic also A1. śṛṇute-,and in sg. śṛṇv/e-,2. sg. viṣ/e-,3. plural vir/e-[ confer, compare below]; imperative śṛṇu-, ṇudh/ī-and ṇuh/ī- plural śṛṇut/ā-, ṇota-and ṇotana- ; perfect tense śuśr/āva-[once in with pass. sense], śuśruve-[2. sg. śuśrotha-,1. plural śuśruma-,in also mas-; śuśravat-, śuśrūy/ās- , parasmE-pada śuśruv/as- q.v ]; Aorist Ved. /aśravam-, /aśrot-,2. sg. śr/oṣi-; subjunctive śr/avat-, vathaḥ-;[?] śruvam- ; imperative śrudh/ī-, śr/otu- ; aśrauṣīt- etc.; subjunctive śroṣan- imperative śroṣantu- [ confer, compare śr/oṣamāṇa-]; preceding śrūy/āsam- etc.; future śrotā- ; śroṣyati-, te- etc.; infinitive mood śrotum- etc.; ind.p. śrutv/ā- etc.; -śr/utya- etc.; śrāvam- etc.) , to hear, listen or attend to anything (accusative), give ear to any one (accusative or genitive case), hear or learn anything about (accusative) or from (ablative genitive case instrumental case, mukhāt-or śakāśāt-), or that anything is (two accusative) etc. ; to hear (from a teacher), study, learn etc. ; to be attentive, be obedient, obey etc.: Passive voice śrūy/ate- (Epic also ti-;and in śṛṇve-etc.[ confer, compare above] with pass. meaning; Aorist aśrāvi-, śrāvi-), to be heard or perceived or learnt about (accusative) or from (genitive case ablative or mukhāt-;in later language often 3. sg. śrūyate- impersonal or used impersonally"it is heard","one hears or learns or reads in a book", ="it is said","it is written in (with locative case)"; imperative śrūyatām-,"let it be heard"="listen!") etc. ; to be celebrated or renowned, be known as, pass for, be called (Nominal verb) ; to be heard or learnt (from a teacher) ; to be taught or stated (in a book) ; to be heard id est pronounced or employed (as a sound or word) : Causal śrāv/ayati- (Epic also te-,in also śrav/ayati-; Aorist aśuśravi-, vuḥ- ; aśuśruvat- ; aśiśravat- grammar; Passive voice śrāvyate-See below) , to cause to be heard or learnt, announce, proclaim, declare etc. ; to cause to hear, inform, instruct, communicate, relate, tell (with accusative of thing, and accusative genitive case,or dative case of Persian,or with instrumental case in sense of "through") etc.: Passive voice of Causal śrāvyate-, to be informed of (accusative) etc.: Desiderative ś/uśrūṣate- (; Epic or mc. also ti-; Passive voice śuśrūṣyate-), to wish or like to hear (accusative), desire to attend or listen to (dative case) etc. ; to attend upon, serve, obey (accusative,rarely genitive case) etc.: Causal of Desiderative śuśrūṣayati-, to wait upon, be at the service of (accusative) on : Desiderative of Causal śiśrāvayiṣati- or śuśrāvayiṣati- grammar : Intensive śośrūyate-, śośravīti-, śośroti- grammar ([ confer, compare Greek , equals śrudh/i-, equals śrut/a-etc.; Latin cluo,in-clutus; Slavonic or Slavonian sluti; German laut; English loud.])
svādhyāyaNom. P. yāyati-, to study, recite, read to (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasevA1. -sevate-, to frequent, visit, abide or stay at (a place) ; to stay with a person, attend on, serve, do homage, honour, worship etc. ; to have sexual intercourse with (accusative) ; to practise, pursue, cultivate, study, make use of, be addicted to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyābhyāsa(bh-) m. practice or pursuit of learning, application to books, study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyādhigama(dh-) m. acquisition of knowledge, study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīkṣ( vi-īkṣ-) A1. kṣate- (Epic also P.), to look at, see, behold etc. ; to look upon, regard (pitṛ-vat-,as a father) ; (with hṛdi-) to see in the heart, ponder ; to consider, observe, discern, ascertain, understand etc. ; to think fit or proper ; to look over, peruse, study : Passive voice kṣyate-, to be looked at etc. ; to look like, appear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilok(only infinitive mood -lokitum-and ind.p. -lokya-), to look at or upon, regard, examine, test, study etc.: Causal -lokayati-, to look at, consider, observe, regard, examine, try, inspect etc. ; to be able to see, possess the faculty of seeing (varia lectio) ; to have regard to (accusative) ; to look over or beyond (accusative) : Passive voice -lokyate- (Aorist vy-aloki-), to be seen, be visible
abhikrāntinmfn. one who has undertaken (the study of) id est conversant with (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhrānadhyāyam. pause in the study on account of rainy weather View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyadhyayanan. studying (the veda- etc.) at any place (compound), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhītinmfn. occupied with the study of the veda-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhīyānamfn. reading, studying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhyayanan. reading, studying, especially the veda-s (one of the six duties of a Brahman), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhyayanapuṇyan. religious merit acquired by studying. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhyayanatapasīn. dual number study and penance. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādhyāyikam. (fr. adhy-āya-), occupied or employed in reading or studying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhyeṣyamāṇamf(ā-)n. (future p.) intending to study, about to read View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āgamam. reading, studying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āgniṣṭomikamf(ī- commentator or commentary)n. studying or knowing the ceremonies of the agniṣṭoma- commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āmnānan. study of the sacred texts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anadhyāyam. a time when there is intermission of study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anadhyayanan. not reading or studying, intermission of study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anavagāhinmfn. ( gāh-), not dipping into, not studying. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṅkapāśādhyāyam. the study of that concatenation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānuguṇikamfn. (fr. anu-guṇa-), knowing or studying the anu-guṇa- (id est according to a manual of the art of keeping within the bounds of one's faculties ?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anūktif. study of the veda-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānupadikamfn. knowing or studying the anupada- (q.v) song View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupravacanan. study of the veda- with a teacher. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuśīlanan. constant practice or study (of a science, etc.), repeated and devoted service. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānusukamfn. studying or knowing the work anusū- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apāṭham. "cessation of recital or of study", a holiday, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
araṇyādhītif. reading or study in a forest on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
araṇyādhyayanan. reading or study in a forest on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asaṃpāṭhyamfn. not to be studied with, one with whom it is forbidden to read or study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupākaraṇamfn. (fr. upākaraṇa-), relating to the preparatory ceremony before beginning the study of the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
autpādamfn. (fr. ut-pāda- gaRa ṛgayanādi- ), knowing or studying a book on birth or production View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bālābhyāsam. early application, study during childhood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brāhman. sacred study, study of the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmābhyāsam. study and repetition of the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmacārinmf(iṇī-)n. practising sacred study as an unmarried student, observing chastity etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmacaryan. study of the veda-, the state of an unmarried religious student, a state of continence and chastity (alsof(ā-). ) etc. (accusative with grah-, car-, vas-, ā-gam-, upa-i-,to practise chastity; see -cārin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmādhigamam. devotion to sacred study or the veda- (also brahmādhigamana mana- n.W) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmapārāyaṇan. a complete study of the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndasamf(ī-)n. (gaRa manojñādi- ) studying the holy text of the Vedic hymns, familiar with it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvirnagnamfn. doubly naked or defective (id est whose ancestors on both sides have during 3 generations omitted all veda--study and kindling of the sacred fire) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekavedamfn. knowing (or studying) only one veda-, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
galagraham. begun but immediately interrupted study, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grahaṇāntamfn. being at the close of study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāmādhyayanan. study in a village View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇanan. reiterated study, repetition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇanikāf. (equals -) reiterated study, repetition (or"reiteration, tautology"?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇanīyam. (equals nikā-) reiterated study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itiind. (fr. pronominal base 3. i-), in this manner, thus (in its original signification /iti-refers to something that has been said or thought, or lays stress on what precedes;in the brāhmaṇa-s it is often equivalent to "as you know", reminding the hearer or reader of certain customs, conditions, etc. supposed to be known to him). In quotations of every kind /iti- means that the preceding words are the very words which some person has or might have spoken, and placed thus at the end of a speech it serves the purpose of inverted commas (/ity uktvā-,having so said; /iti kṛtvā-,having so considered, having so decided) . It may often have reference merely to what is passing in the mind exempli gratia, 'for example' vamantavyo manuṣya /iti bhūmipaḥ&iencoding=iast&lang=sans'>bālo 'pi nāvamantavyo manuṣya /iti bhūmipaḥ-, a king, though a child, is not to be despised, saying to one's self,"he is a mortal", () In dramatic language /iti tathā karoti- means"after these words he acts thus."Sometimes /iti- is used to include under one head a number of separate objects aggregated together (exempli gratia, 'for example' ijyādhyayanadānāni tapaḥ satyaṃ kṣamā damaḥ- alobha /iti mārgo 'yam-,"sacrificing, studying, liberality, penance, truth, patience, self-restraint, absence of desire", this course of conduct, etc.) /iti- is sometimes followed by evam-, iva-, or a demonstrative pronoun pleonastically (exempli gratia, 'for example' tām brūyād bhavatīty evam-,her he may call "lady", thus) . /iti- may form an adverbial compound with the name of an author (exempli gratia, 'for example' /iti-pāṇini-,thus according to pāṇini-). It may also express the act of calling attention (lo! behold!) It may have some other significations exempli gratia, 'for example' something additional (as in /ityādi-,et caetera), order, arrangement specific or distinctive, and identity. It is used by native commentators after quoting a rule to express"according to such a rule" (exempli gratia, 'for example' anudāttaṅita /ity ātmanepadam bhavati-,according to the rule of pāṇini- , the ātmane-pada- takes place) . kim /iti- equals kim-, wherefore, why? (In the śatapatha-brāhmaṇa- ti-occurs for /iti-; see Prakrittiand tti-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāṇḍavisargam. the completion of (the study of) a kāṇḍa-, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāṇḍopakaraṇan. the beginning of (the study of) a kāṇḍa-, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāśakṛtsnamf(ā-)n. studying kāśakṛtsni-'s doctrines View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kramādhyāyinmfn. studying the krama- arrangement of a Vedic text View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kramakam. a student who goes through a regular course of study, who proceeds methodically View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣapaṇan. abstinence, chastisement of the body ["pause, interruption (of study), defilement, impurity"commentator or commentary; see 2. kṣapaṇa-] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naiśamf(ī-)n. walking or studying at night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naiśikamf(ī-)n. walking or studying at night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niḥsvādhyāyavaṣaṭkāramfn. neither studying the veda-s nor offering burnt sacrifices View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirantarābhyāsam. constant repetition or study, diligent exercise or practice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niśchandasmfn. not studying Vedic texts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityasvādhyāyinmfn. always engaged in the study of the veda- ( nityasvādhyāyitā yi-- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pādikamf(ī-)n. versed in or studying the pada-patha- gaRa ukthādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāran. (rarely m.) the further bank or shore or boundary, any bank or shore, the opposite side, the end or limit of anything, the utmost reach or fullest extent etc. (dūr/e pār/e-,at the farthest ends ; pāraṃ-gam-etc. with genitive case or locative case,to reach the end, go through, fulfil, carry out [as a promise], study or learn thoroughly [as a science] etc.; pāraṃ--,to bring to a close, ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāragatif. going through, reading, studying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārāyaṇan. going over, reading through, perusing, studying, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryadhyayanamfn. averse from study Va1rtt. 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṭhanan. reciting, reading, studying, mentioning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṭhanādhinātham. a master in reading or studying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṭhaniścitif. repeated study of a text, repetition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalottamāf. the benefit arising from sacred study (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prādhī( pra-adhi-i-) P. A1. prādhyeti-, dhīte-, to continue to study, advance in studies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prādhītamfn. advanced in study, well-read, learned (said of Brahmans) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prādhyayanan. commencement of recitation or study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prādhyeṣaṇan. (fr. pra-adhi--1. iṣ-) incitement, exhortation (to study), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyadhī( adhi-i-) A1. -adhīyate-, to read through or study severally View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyupākaraṇan. (1. kṛ-) recommencement of Vedic study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punaḥprādhyeṣaṇan. repeated invitation to study, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punarupākaraṇan. repeated beginning of study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
purāṇaśravaṇan. hearing or studying the padma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛgayanan. (not -ayaṇa- on ) going through the veda-, study of the complete veda-, a book treating on the study of the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛṇan. anything due, obligation, duty, debt (a Brahman owes three debts or obligations, viz. 1 . brahmacarya- or"study of the veda-s" , to the ṛṣi-s;2. sacrifice and worship, to the gods;3. procreation of a son, to the Manes ;in later times also, 4. benevolence to mankind and 5. hospitality to guests are added etc.) etc. etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛṣiyajñam. sacrifice to the ṛṣi-s id est study of the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahādhyayanan. studying together, companionship in study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaikṣam. a young Brahman pupil studying with his preceptor, one who has recently begun to repeat the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākhācaṅkramaṇan. skipping from branch to branch, desultory study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samadhī( -adhi-i-) A1. -adhīte-, to go over, repeat or read through or study thoroughly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samadhyayanan. going over or studying together, (or) that which is gone over or repeated together View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃnyāsinm. one who abandons or resigns worldly affairs, an ascetic, devotee (who has renounced all earthly concerns and devotes himself, to meditation and the study of the āraṇyaka-s or upaniṣada-s, a Brahman in the fourth āśrama- [ quod vide ] or stage of his life, a religious mendicant; see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtatābhyāsam. habitual practice, regular study or repetition (of the veda-s etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptikamfn. one who has finished or completed (especially a course of Vedic study) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaṣṭipathikamf(ī-)n. studying the ṣaṣṭi-patha- vArttika on (see ṣāṣṭipatha-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstrācaraṇan. the study of the śāstra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstrajñānan. knowledge of the śāstra-, knowledge derived from the study of the śāstra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstravimukhamfn. disinclined to learning, averse from study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satataśāstrinmfn. studying incessantly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaṭkarmann. the six duties of Brahmans (viz. adhyayana-,"studying or repeating the veda-", adhyāpana-,"teaching the veda-", yajana-"offering sacrifices", yājana-,"conducting them for others", dāna-,"giving", and pratigraha-,"accepting gifts"), etc. (the six daily duties according to to the later law-books, are, snāna-,"religious bathing", saṃdhyājapa-,"repetition of prayers at the three saṃdhyā-s", brahma-yajña-,"worship of the Supreme Being by repeating the first words of sacred books", tarpaṇa-,"daily oblations of water to the gods, sages, and pitṛ-s", homa-,"oblations of fuel, rice etc. to fire", deva-pūjā-,"worship of the secondary gods either in the domestic sanctuary or in temples") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhasādhitamfn. one who his learned (the art of medicine) by practice (not by study) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śikṣāf. learning study knowledge, art, skill in (locative case or compound; śikṣayā-or kṣābhis-,"skilfully, artistically, correctly") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīlanan. repeated practice, constant study (of the śāstra-s etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrautan. relationship resulting from (common study of) the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śravaṇavidhim. a method or rule of hearing or studying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śravaṇavidhivicāram. Name of a treatise on the study of the upaniṣad-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutitatparamfn. intent on hearing or studying the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svādhyāyamfn. studying the veda- (-tama-,perhaps wrong reading for svādhyāyi-t-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tṝ cl.1 P. (rarely A1.) t/arati- (subjunctive t/arat- imperfect tense /atarat-, parasmE-pada t/arat- infinitive mood tar/adhyai-, rīṣ/ani- ) cl.5. tarute- (; Potential 1. plural turyāma-, ) cl.3. titarti- (; parasmE-pada Nominal verb plural t/itratas- ; Potential tutury/āt-, ) , with prepositions Vedic or Veda chiefly cl.6 P. A1. (tir/ate- subjunctive tirāti- imperfect tense /atirat-, parasmE-pada tir/at- infinitive mood t/iram-, t/ire- ; Aorist /atārīt-, ;1. plural riṣma- , rima- ; t/aruṣante- , ta-i, ṣema- [ confer, compare ]; A1.and Passive voice -tāri- ; P. atārṣīt- ; ṣam- ; perfect tense tatāra- etc.;3. plural titirur-, ; teritha-, ratur- ; parasmE-pada titirv/as- genitive case tatar/uṣas- ; future tariṣyati-, rīṣ-, taritā-, rītā-[ confer, compare pra-t/ar-] ; t/arutā- ; preceding tīryāt-, tariṣīṣṭa- ; infinitive mood tartum- ; rīt- rit- ; ind.p. tīrtv/ā- ; -t/ūrya-See vi--) to pass across or over, cross over (a river), sail across etc. ; to float, swim ; to get through, attain an end or aim, live through (a definite period), study to the end etc. ; to fulfil, accomplish, perform ; to surpass, overcome, subdue, escape etc. ; to acquire, gain, ; A1. to contend, compete ; to carry through or over, save, : Causal tārayati- (parasmE-pada r/ayat-) to carry or lead over or across etc. ; to cause to arrive at ; to rescue, save, liberate from (ablative) etc.: Desiderative titīrṣati- (also titariṣati-, rīṣ- ; parasmE-pada A1. titīrṣamāṇa- ) to wish to cross or reach by crossing : Intensive tartarīti- (2. dual number rīthas-; parasmE-pada genitive case t/arilratas-[ ];See also vi--; tātarti-, Scholiast or Commentator) to reach the end by passing or running or living through ; ([ confer, compare t/ara-, tir/as-, tīrṇ/a-; Latin termo,trans; Gothic thairh.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trivṛttif. livelihood through 3 things (sacrifice, study, and alms) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ubhayasnātakamfn. one who has performed the prescribed ablutions after finishing both (his time of studying and his vow) commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttarapadakīyamfn. relating to or studying the last word or term commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttarapadika mfn. relating to or studying the last word or term commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vairamaṇan. (fr. vi-ramaṇa-) conclusion of Vedic study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantādhyayanan. studying in spring on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsavadatttikamfn. acquainted with the story of vāsava-dattā- or studying it on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyākarmann. the study of sacred science View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyānupālanan. acquiring learning, studying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyānusevin(n-) mfn. cultivating learning, engaged in study. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyārambham. (r-) beginning of study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyāsnāta( ) () mfn. one who has finished his studentship and completed his study of the veda-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyāsnātaka() mfn. one who has finished his studentship and completed his study of the veda-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilokanan. paying attention to, studying (also plural,with genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplavam. profanation of the veda- by unseasonable study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajanādhyayanan. dual number sacrificing and studying the veda- (the duties incumbent on all twice-born) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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acchandas अच्छन्दस् a. [न. ब.] 1 Not studying the Vedas (as a boy before the मुञ़्ज ceremony), or not entitled to that study (as a Śūdra). -2 Not metrical, not of the nature of metres, i. e. prose. -3 Without fancy or whim.
atharvāṇam अथर्वाणम् Ritual of the Atharvaveda. -णः, -˚विद् One studying or versed in this Veda or the ritual.
adhigam अधिगम् 1 P. 1 (a) To acquire, obtain, get, attain, secure; आज्ञाकरत्वमधिगम्य V.3.19; अधिगच्छति महिमानं चन्द्रो$पि निशापरिगृहीतः M.1.13; भर्तारमधिगच्छेत् Ms.9.91 marry; श्रेयांसि सर्वाण्यधिजग्मुषस्ते R.5.34. (b) To find, meet with, fall in with, see, discover. (c) To accomplish; अर्थं सप्रतिबन्धं प्रभुरधिगन्तुं सहायवानेव M.1.9; न मे बुद्धिर्निश्चय- मधिगच्छति Mu. 5 is not able to decide; for (a) see also Ms.2.218, Bg.2.64, R.2.66. -2 To approach, reach, go towards or near; गुणालयो$प्यसन्मन्त्री नृपतिर्नाधिगम्यते Pt. 1.384; तस्यान्तं नाधिगच्छति does not reach or go to the end. -3 To study, learn; know; तेभ्यो$धिगन्तुं निगमान्त- विद्याम् U.2.3; श्रुतमप्यधिगम्य Ki.2.41; 6.38; Ms.7.39; धर्मेणाधिगतो यैस्तु 12.19; वेदार्थानधिगच्छेत् Y.1.99, Bk.7. 37. -4 To cohabit with.
adhī अधी [अधिं-इ] 2 A. 1 To study, learn (by heart), read; (with abl. of person) learn from; आख्यातोपयोगे P.I.4.29. उपाध्यायादधीते Sk.; सो$ध्यैष्ट वेदान् Bk.1.2. -2 (P.) (a) To remember, think of, long or care for, mind, (with regret) with gen.; रामस्य दयमानो$सावध्येति तव लक्ष्मणः Bk.8.119;18.38; ममैवाध्येति नृपतिस्तृप्यन्निव जलाञ्जलेः Ki.11.74 thinks of me only. (b) To know or learn by heart, study, learn; गच्छाधीहि गुरोर्मुखात् Mb. (c) To teach, declare. (d) To notice, observe, understand. (e) To meet with, obtain; तेन दीर्घममरत्वमध्यगुः । Śi.14.31. -Caus. [अध्यापयति] to teach, instruct (in); with acc. of the agent of the verb in the primitive sense; (तौ) साङ्गं च वेदमध्याप्य R.15.33; विद्यामथैनं विजयां जयां च... अध्यापिपद् गाधिसुतो यथावत् Bk.2.21,7.34; अध्यापितस्योशनसापि नीतिम् Ku.3.6.
adhyayaḥ अध्ययः [इ-भावे अच्] 1 Learning, study; remembrance. -2 = अध्याय, q. v.
adhyayanam अध्ययनम् 1 [इ-ल्युट्] Learning, study, reading (especially the Vedas); one of the six duties of a Brāhmaṇa. The study of the Vedas is allowed to the first 3 classes, but not to a Śūdra Ms.1.88.91. अध्ययनं च अक्षरमात्रपाठ इति वैदिकाः, सार्थाक्षरग्रहणमिति मीमांसकाः; the latter view is obviously correct; cf. यथा पशुर्भारवाही न तस्य भजते फलम् । द्विजस्तथार्थानभिज्ञो न वेदफलमश्रुते ॥ or better still Yāska's Nirukta : स्थाणुरयं भारहारः किलाभूदधीत्य वेदं न विजानाति यो$र्थम् । यो$र्थज्ञ इत् (अर्थविद्) सकलं भद्रमश्रुते नाकमेति ज्ञानविधूतपाप्मा ॥ See also under अनग्नि. -2 Muttering प्रणव mantra; वीतरागा महाप्रज्ञा ध्यानाध्ययनसम्पदा Mb. 12.3.49. (अध्ययनं प्रणवजपः इति टीका) -3 Teaching; कृत्वा चाध्ययनं तेषां शिष्याणां शतमुत्तमम् Mb.12.318.17 see अध्यापनम्.
adhyāya अध्याय a. [इ-घञ् P.III.3.21] (At the end of comp.) A reader, student, one who studies; वेदाध्यायः a student of the Vedas; so मन्त्र˚ -यः 1 Reading, learning, study, especially of the Vedas; प्रशान्ताध्यायसत्कथा (नगरी) Rām. -2 Proper time for reading or for a lesson; ˚ज्ञाः प्रचक्षते Ms.4.12, see अनध्याय also. -3 A lesson, lecture; अधीयते$स्मिन् अध्यायः P.III.3.122; so स्वाध्यायो$ध्येतव्यः. -4 A chapter, a large division of a work, such as of the Rāmāyaṇa, Mahābhārata, Manu-smṛiti, Pāṇini's Sūtras &c. The following are some of the names used by Sanskrit writers to denote chapters or divisions of works :--सर्गो वर्गः परिच्छेदोद्घाताध्यायाङ्क- संग्रहाः । उच्छ्वासः परिवर्तश्च पटलः काण्डमाननम् । स्थानं प्रकरणं चैव पर्वोल्लासाह्निकानि च । स्कन्धांशौ तु पुराणादौ प्रायशः परिकीर्तितौ ॥
anadhyāyaḥ अनध्यायः अनध्ययनम् [न. त.] Not studying, intermission of study; the time when there is or ought to be such intermission, a holiday (˚दिवसः); अद्य शिष्टानध्यायः U.4 a holiday (given) in honour of distinguished guests. See Ms.2.15-6;4.13-4;15-8;117-8, 126 &c.
anuvac अनुवच् 2 P. 1 To say or speak after or for one; येषां द्विजानां सावित्री नानूच्येत यथाविधि Ms.11.191. -2 To repeat, recite, reiterate; शतमनूच्यमायुष्कामस्य Ait. Br.; learn, study; परोवरं यज्ञो$नूच्यते Śat. Br.; वेदमनूच्या- चार्योन्तेवासिनमनुशास्ति Tait. Up.1.1. अरण्ये$नूच्यमान- त्वादारण्यकम् Sāy., see अनूचान below. -3 To concede the point, assent to, yield. -4 To name, call. -Caus. To cause to recite; to read to oneself (before reading aloud); oft. used in dramas; उभे नाम मुद्राक्षराण्यनुवाच्य परस्परमवलोकयतः Ś.1; अनुवाचय तावत् यद्यविरुद्धं श्रोष्यामि V.2; Mu.1; अनुवाचितलेखममात्यमवलोक्य M.1.
anūcāna अनूचान a. or -नः [अनुवच्-कानच् निपातः P.III.2.19; वेदस्य अनुवचनं कृतवान् अनूचानः Sk.] 1 One devoted to study, learned; especially one wellversed in the Vedas with their Aṅgas so as to be able to repeat, read and teach them; यो$नूचानः स नो महान् Mb.9.51.5; Ms.2.154;5. 82; Y.3.24; इदमूचुरनूचानाः Ku.6.15. दृप्तबालाकिर्हानूचानो गार्ग्य आस Bṛi. Up.2.1.1. -2 Modest, unassuming; humble, well-behaved.
anuśīlanam अनुशीलनम् Intent of assiduous application, constant pursuit or exercise, constant or repeated practice or study; विज्ञातसाराण्यनुशीलनेन Ki.16.28.
anṛc अनृच् च a. [न. ब.] 1 Without a hymn, not containing a verse from the Ṛigveda; अनृक् साम P.V.4. 74 Sk. -2 [नास्ति ऋक् अभ्यस्ततया यस्य अच् समासः] Not conversant with, not studying the Ṛigveda, one not invested with the sacred thread and hence not yet entitled to study the Vedas (as a boy); द्विवेदाश्चैकवेदाश्चा- प्यनृचश्च तथापरे Mb.3.149.28. यथा चाज्ञे$फलं दानं तथा विप्रो$ नृचो$फलः Ms.2.158; अनृचो माणवकः Mugdha. (In this case the form should properly be अनृच; अनृचबह्वृचावध्ये- तर्येव Sk.; but sometimes अनृच् also in the same sense; cf. तथा$नृचे हविर्दत्वा न दाता लभते फलम् Ms.3.142; सहस्रं हि सहस्राणामनृचां यत्र भुञ्जते 131); अनृक्क also in the same sense.
apāṇinīya अपाणिनीय a. 1 Not taught by Pāṇini in his works (as a rule &c.). -2 (पाणिनीयं अष्टाध्यायीरूपं ग्रन्थं यो नाधीते) One who does not (properly) study Pāṇini's grammar; i. e. a superficial scholar, smatterer of Sanskrit.
abhinava अभिनव a. [आधिक्येन नवः, भृशार्थे अभिरत्र] 1 (a) Quite new or fresh (in all senses); पदपङ्क्तिर्दृश्यते$भिनवा Ś3.7;5.1; ˚कण्ठशोणित 6.27; Me.1; R.9.29; ˚वा वधूः K.2 newly married. (b) Quite young or fresh, blooming, youthful (as body, age &c.); वपुर- भिनवमस्याः पुष्यति स्वां न शोभाम् Ś.1.19; U.5.12; the younger; ˚शाकटायनः; ˚भोजः &c. (c) Fresh, recent. -2 Very young, not having experience. -वः [अभिनु अप्] Praise to win over, flattery. -Comp. -उद्भिद् -दः a new shoot or bud. -कालिदासः The modern Kālidāsa, i. e. Mādhavāchārya. -गुप्तः N. of a well-known author. -चन्द्रार्घविधिः 1 a ceremony performed at the time of the new moon. -2 N. of the 114th chapter in the Bhaviṣya Purāṇa. -तामरसम् 1 a fresh-blown lotus. -2 a kind of metre. -यौवन, -वयस्क a. youthful, very young. -वैयाकरणः one who has newly begun his study of grammar.
abhyas अभ्यस् 4 P. 1 To practise, exercise; धन्यो वन्यमतङ्गजः परिचयप्रागल्भ्यमभ्यस्यति Māl.9.32; अभ्यस्यतीव व्रतमासिधारम् R.13.67; Ms.11.16. -2 To repeat, perform repeatedly; मृगकुलं रोमन्थमभ्यस्यतु Ś.2.6; अभ्यस्यन्ति तटाघातम् Ku.2.5; K.183. -3 To learn, study, acquire or learn by practice, recite, read; वेदमेव सदाभ्यस्येत् Ms.2. 166; 4.147,149; Y.3.24; K.79. -4 To throw down upon, heap one upon another, accumulate, lay on (Ved.). -5 To throw or fling at, shoot or aim at (as arrows).
abhyasanam अभ्यसनम् 1 Repetition, repeated practice or exercise; ब्रह्मध्यानाभ्यसनविधिना Bh.3.41; स्वाध्यायाभ्यसनम् Bg. 17.15. -2 Constant study, close application (to anything); (तां) विद्यामभ्यसनेनेव प्रसादयितुमर्हसि R.1.88; अनभ्यसनशीलस्य विद्येव तनुतां गता Rām. अभ्यसनीय abhyasanīya अभ्यस्य abhyasya अभ्यसनीय अभ्यस्य a. pot. p. To be repeated, studied; fit to be studied.
abhyāsaḥ अभ्यासः 1 Repetition in general; व्याख्याता व्याख्याता इति पदाभ्यासो$ध्यायपरिसमाप्तिं द्योतयति S. B.; T.4.28 नाभ्यासक्रममीक्षते Pt.1.151; Ms.12.74; Y.3.322. cf. also अन्यायश्च कृते$भ्यासः । MS.1.3.26 -2 Repeated practice or exercise, contiuned practice or use; अविरतश्रमाभ्यासात् K.3, Pt.1.133; अभ्यासेन तु कौन्तेय वैराग्येण च गृह्यते Bg.6.35,44 by constant practice (to remain pure and unmodified); 12.12; योग˚ Y.3.51 practice of concentration; hence sometimes used for 'concentration of mind upon one subject'; ˚निगृहीतेन मनसा R.1.23; so शर˚, अस्त्र˚ &c. -3 Habit, custom, practice; मिथ्योपपदात् कृञो$भ्यासे P.I. 3.71; तद् यथाभ्यासं अभिधीयताम् U.1 therefore address me as is your wont; अमङ्गलाभ्यासरतिम् Ku.5.65; Y.3.68. -4 Discipline in arms, exercise, military discipline. -5 Reciting, study, repeated reading or learning by heart; काव्यज्ञशिक्षयाभ्यासः K. P.1; K.146,2; Ms.5. 4; वेद˚ is of 5 kinds:- वेदस्वीकरणं पूर्वं विचारो$भ्यसनं जपः । तद्दानं चैव शिष्येभ्यो वेदाभ्यासो हि पञ्चधा ॥ Dakṣa. -6 vicinity, proximity, neighbourhood (for अभ्याश); चूतयष्टिरि- वाभ्यासे (शे) मधौ परभृतोन्मुखी Ku.6.2; (अभ्यासे-शे मधौ must mean here speaking to 'Madhu who was near her' scil. by having manifested himself before her, which fully preserves the simile of Pārvatī, herself silent, speaking to her lover who was near her through her friend); अर्पितेयं तवाभ्यासे सीता पुण्यव्रता वधूः U.7.17 given in your charge; Śi.3.4; अभ्यासा-शा-दागतः P.II. 1.38 Sk. (ragarded as an Aluk Compound). -7 (In gram.) Reduplication. -8 The first syllable of a reduplicated base, reduplicative syllable; पूर्वो$भ्यासः P.VI. 1.4; अत्र ये द्वे विहिते तयोः पूर्वो$भ्याससंज्ञः स्यात् Sk. -9 (In Math.) Multiplication. -1 (In poetry) Repetition of the last verses or lines (as of a chorus); chorus, burden of a song. -Comp. -गत a. approached, gone near. -परिवर्तिन् a. wandering about or near. -योगः abstraction of mind resulting from continuous deep meditation; अभ्यासयोगेन ततो मामिच्छाप्तुं धनञ्जय Bg. 12.9. -लोपः dropping of the reduplicative syllable. -व्यवायः interval caused by the reduplicative syllable; ˚ये$पि though separated by this syllable.
ātharvaṇa आथर्वण a. (-णी f.) [अथर्वणा मुनिना दृष्टः वेदः अण् आथर्वणः तमधीते वेत्ति वा अण् P.IV.3.133] Originating from, relating or belonging to, the Atharvaveda or the Athrvans; अग्नौ साक्षिण्याथर्वणेन विधिना Dk; आथर्वण- स्तीव्र इवाभिचारः Mv.1.62. -णः 1 A Brāhmaṇa knowing or studying the Atharvaveda. -2 A descendant of Atharvan; इदं वै तन्मधु दध्यङ्ङार्थवणो$श्विभ्यामुवाच Bṛi. Up.2.5.16. -3 A priest whose ritual is comprised in the Atharvaveda. -4 The Atharvaveda itself (अथर्वणां समूहः). -5 A housepriest. -णम् 1 A private room in which the sacrificer is informed of the happy event of the sacrifice by the officiating Brāhmaṇa. -2 The black art, magic (जारणमारण). -शिरस् n. N. of an Upaniṣad belonging to the Atharvaveda.
ādhyāyika आध्यायिक a. (-की f.) [अध्याय ठञ्] Occupied or employed in reading or studying (the Vedas) (अधीतवेद); युवा स्यात्साधुयुवाध्यायिकः T. Up.2.8.
ānupadika आनुपदिक a. (-की f.) [अनुपदं धावति ठक् P.IV.4.37; IV.2.59. वेद अधीते वा] Following, pursuing, tracking, studying. आनुपूर्वम् ānupūrvam र्व्यम् rvyam र्वी rvī आनुपूर्वम् र्व्यम् र्वी [अनुपूर्वस्य भावः ष्यञ् ततो वा ङीषि यलोपः] 1 Order, succession, series; देव्या चाख्यातं सर्वमेवानु- पूर्व्याद्वाचा संपूर्णं वायुपुत्रः शशंस Rām.5.65.28 वसीरन्नानुपूर्व्येण शाणक्षौमाविकानि च Ms.2.41. -2 (In law) The regular order of the castes; षडानुपूर्व्या विप्रस्य क्षत्रस्य चतुरो$वरान् Ms.3.23. -3 (In logic) Conclusion regularly or syllogistically drawn. -वत् Having a (definite) order; आनुपूर्व्यवतामेकदेशग्रहणेषु आगमवदन्त्यलोपः स्यात् । Ms.1.5.1. आनुपूर्वे ānupūrvē र्व्ये rvyē ण ṇ अनुपूर्व्या anupūrvyā आनुपूर्वे र्व्ये ण अनुपूर्व्या ind. One after another, in due order; आनुपूर्व्येणोत्थितराजलोकः K.95.
āmnā आम्ना 1 P. (a) To hand down traditionally or in sacred texts; भवत्प्रणीतमाचारमामनन्ति हि साधवः Ku.6. 31; एवं किल सूत्रकारा आमनन्ति Māl.7. (b) Hence, to regard, consider, mention, lay down; सर्वे वेदा यत्पदमा- मनन्ति Kaṭh.1.2.15. त्वामामनन्ति प्रकृतिं पुरुषार्थ प्रवर्तिनीम् Ku.2.13,5.81; M.1.4; Bk.18.5; Kām.8.24; U.5; Mv.4.3. -2 To keep in mind, commit to memory, learn, study, repeat; आमनन्मन्त्रमुत्तमम् Bk.17.3; यद् ब्रह्म सम्यगाम्नातम् Ku.6.16 learnt. -3 To celebrate, hail.
āmnānam आम्नानम् [आ-म्ना-भावे ल्युट्] 1 Recitation or study of the sacred texts of Vedas. -2 Mention; repetition in general.
āloc आलोच् 1 Ā., 1 U. 1 To see, perceive. -2 To consider, reflect, think, ponder over, study; K.7; आलोचयन्तो विस्तारमम्भसां दक्षिणोदधेः Bk.7.4; इति-एवं- आलोच्य so thinking.
āvṛttiḥ आवृत्तिः f. 1 Turning towards; return, coming back; तपोवनावृत्तिपथम् R.2.18; यत्र काले त्वनावृत्तिमावृत्तिं चैव योगिनः Bg.8.23. -2 Reversion, retreat, flight. -3 Revolving, whirling, going round; रटति कृतावृत्तिखट्वाङ्घण्टा Māl.5.4. -4 Recurrence to the same point or place (of the sun); उदगावृत्तिपथेन नारदः R.8.33. -5 Repetition of birth and death, worldly existence; अनावृत्तिभयम् Ku.6.77. -6 Repetition in general, an edition (modern use); सप्तमीयमङ्कनावृत्तिः seventh edition. -7 Repeated reading, study; आवृत्तिः सर्वशास्त्राणां बोधादपि गरीयसि Udb. cf. also तस्मादावृत्तिः स्तरणमन्त्रस्य । ŚB. on MS. 12.1.42. -8 Use, employment, application. -9 Turn of a way, course or direction. -1 Occurrence. -Comp. -दीपकम् a rhetorical figure; त्रिविधं दीपकावृत्तौ भवेदावृत्तिदीपकम् । (पदस्यार्थस्योभयोर्वा आवृत्तिः). क्रमेणोदाहरणम्:-- वर्षत्यम्बुदमालेयं वर्षत्येषा च शर्वरी ॥ उन्मीलन्ति कदम्बानि स्फुटन्ति कुटजोद्गमाः । माद्यन्ति चातकास्तृप्ता माद्यन्ति च शिखाबलाः ॥ Kuval.
āhnika आह्निक a. (-की f.) [अह्नि भवः, अह्ना निर्वृत्तः साध्यः ठञ्] 1 Daily, diurnal, performed every day or on a day; संग्रामाद्वयपयातव्यमेतत्कर्म ममाह्निकम् Mb.6.19.27. आह्निकः स्वाध्यायः daily course of study; ˚आचारः daily observances. -2 Employed or occurring every day (as a teacher, servant, or fever). -कम् 1 Any religious rite or duty which is to be performed every day at a fixed hour; अत्राह्निकं सुरश्रेष्ठो जपते Mb. -2 Anything to be performed daily, such as taking meals, bathing &c.; प्रभाते काल्यमुत्थाय कृत्वाह्निकमरिंदमः Rām.7.82.5. कृताह्निकः संवृत्तः V.4; समुद्रे कृताह्निकः Mv.5. -3 Daily food. -4 Daily work or occupation, what may be read on one day. -5 A division of a work (such as that of the Mahābhāṣya). -चन्द्रिका, -दीपिका, -प्रदीप, -मञ्जरी &c. N. of works.
uttara उत्तर a. [उद्-तरप्] 1 Being or produced in the north, northern (declined like a pronoun). -2 Upper, higher P.I.1.34 (opp. अधर); उत्तरे-अधरे दन्ताः Śat. Br.; अवनतोत्तरकायम् R.9.6; P.II.2.1. -3 (a) Later-latter, following, subsequent (opp. पूर्व); पूर्वमेघः, उत्तरमेघः, ˚मीमांसा; उत्तरार्धः &c. ˚रामचरितम् later adventures of Rāma U.1.2; पूर्वः उत्तरः former-latter H.1.9; एतानि मान्यस्थानानि गरीयो यद्यदुत्तरम् Ms.2.136. (b) Future; concluding; ˚कालः subsequent time; ˚फलम्; ˚वचनम् a reply. -4 Left (opp. दक्षिण). -5 Superior, chief, excellent; dominant, power- ful. आनयेङ्गुदिपिण्याकं चीरमाहर चोत्तरम् Rām.2.13.2; वाद्यमानेषु तूर्येषु मल्लतारोत्तरेषु च Bhāg.1.42.36. -6 Exceeding, transgressing, beyond; तर्कोत्तराम् Mv.2.6. -7 More, more than (generally as the last member of a comp. with numerals); षडुत्तरा विंशतिः 26; अष्टोत्तरं शतं 18; दशनागबलाः केचित् केचिद्दशगुणोत्तराः Rām.5.43.22. -8 Accompanied or attended with, full of, consisting chiefly of, followed by (at the end of comp.); राज्ञां तु चरितार्थता दुःखोत्तरैव Ś.5; चषकोत्तरा R.7.49; अस्रोत्तर- मीक्षिताम् Ku.5.61; उत्सवोत्तरो मङ्गलविधिः Dk.39,166; K.311; H.1.15; प्रवाल ˚पुष्पशय्ये R.6.5 over spread with; धर्मोत्तरम् 13.7 rich in; 18.7; कम्प ˚ 13.28;17.12; 19.23. -9 To be crossed over. -रः 1 Future time, futurity. -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -3 N. of Śiva. -रा 1 The north; अस्त्युत्तरस्यां दिशि देवतात्मा Ku.1.1. -2 A lunar mansion. -3 N. of the daughter of Virāṭa and wife of Abhimanyu. -4 N. of a plant (Mar. पिंपरी). -रम् 1 An answer, reply; प्रचक्रमे च प्रतिवक्तुमुत्तरम् R.3.47; उत्तरादुत्तरं वाक्यं वदतां संप्रजायते Pt.1.6; a reply is suggested to a reply वचस्तस्य सपदि क्रिया केवलमुत्तरम् Śi. -2 (In law) Defence, a rejoinder. -3 The last part or following member of a compound. -4 (In Mīm.) The fourth member of an अधिकरण q. v. the answer. -5 The upper surface or cover. -6 Conclusion. -7 Remainder, rest, what followed or took place next; शान्तमथवा किमिहोत्तरेण U.3.26. -8 Superiority, excellence. -9 Result, the chief or prevalent result or characteristic. -1 Excess, over and above; see above (उत्तर a. 8). -11 Remainder, difference (in arith.). -12 A rectangular moulding (Mānasāra 13.67.) -13 The next step, further action; उत्तरं चिन्तयामास वानरो मरुतात्मजः Rām.5.13.59. -14 A cover (आच्छादन); सूस्करं सोत्तरबन्धुरेषम् Mb.6.6.9. -रम् ind. 1 Above. -2 Afterwards, after; तत उत्तरम्, इत उत्तरम् &c. शापं तं ते$भिविज्ञाय कृतवन्तः किमुत्तरम् Mb.1.36.1. -Comp. -अगारम् An upper room, garet. -अधर a. higher and lower (fig. also). (-रौ du.) the upper and under lip, the two lips; पुनर्विवक्षुःस्फुरितोत्तराधरः Ku.5.83 (स्फुरण- भूयिष्ठो$धरो यस्य Malli.). -अधिकारः, -रिता, -त्वम् right to property, heirship, inheritance. -अधिकारिन् m. an heir or claimant (subsequent to the death of the original owner). -अपरा north-west. -अभिमुख a. Turned towards the north. -अयनम् (˚यणं. न being changed to ण) 1 the progress of the sun to the north (of the equator); अग्निर्ज्योतिरहः शुक्लः षण्मासा उत्तरायणम् Bg.8.24. cf. भानोर्मकरसंक्रान्तेः षण्मासा उत्तरायणम् । कर्कादेस्तु तथैव स्यात् षण्मासा दक्षिणायनम् ॥ -2 the period or time of the summer solstice. -अरणिः, -णी f. the upper अरणि (which by cutting becomes the प्रमन्थ or churner); दारुपात्राणि सर्वाणि अरणिं चोत्तरारणिम् (दत्त्वा) Rām.6.111.116. -अर्थ a. for the sake of what follows. -अर्धम् 1 the upper part of the body. -2 the northern part. -3 the latter half (opp. पूर्वार्ध). -4 the further end. -अर्ध्य a. being on the northern side. -अहः the following day. -आभासः a false reply, an indirect, evasive, or prevaricating reply. ˚ता, -त्वम् the semblance of a reply without reality. -आशा the northern direction. ˚अधिपतिः, -पतिः the regent of the northern direction, an epithet of Kubera. -आषाढा 1 the 21st lunar mansion consisting of three stars. -2 N. of bread-fruit or Jak tree (Mar. फणस). -आसङ्गः 1 an upper garment; कृतोत्तरासङ्गम् K.43; Śi.2.19; Ku.5.16. -2 contact with the north. -इतर a. other than उत्तर i. e. southern. (-रा) the southern direction. -उत्तर a. [उत्तरस्मादुत्तरः] 1 more and more, higher and higher, further and further. -2 successive, ever increasing; ˚स्नेहेन दृष्टः Pt. 1; Y.2.136. (-रम्) 1 a reply to an answer, reply on reply; अलमुत्तरोत्तरेण Mu.3. -2 conversation, a rejoinder. -3 excess, exceeding quantity or degree. -4 succession, gradation, sequence. -5 descending. (-रम्) ind. higher and higher, in constant continuation, more and more. उत्तरोत्तरमुत्कर्षः K. P.1; उत्तरोत्तरं वर्धते H.1. -उत्तरिन् a. 1 ever-increasing. -2 one following the other. -ओष्ठः the upper lip (उत्तरो-रौ-ष्ठः). Vārt. on P.VI.1.94. ओत्वोष्ठयोस्समासे वा -काण्डम् the seventh book of the Rāmāyaṇa. -कायः the upper part of the body; तं वाहनादवनतोत्तरकायमीषत् R.9.6. -कालः 1 future time. -2 time calculated from one full moon to another. -कुरु (m. pl.) one of the nine divisions of the world, the country of the northern Kurus (said to be a country of eternal beatitude). -कोसलाः (m. pl.) the northern Kosalas; पितुरनन्तरमुत्तरकोसलान् R.9.1. -कोशला the city of Ayodhyā; यदुपतेः क्व गता मथुरा पुरी रघुपतेः क्व गतोत्तरकोशला ॥ Udb. -क्रिया funeral rites, obsequies. -खण्डम् the last section of book. -खण्डनम् refutation. -गीता N. of a section of the sixth book of the Mahābhārata. -ग्रन्थः supplement to a work. -च्छदः a bed-covering, covering (in general); शय्योत्तरच्छदविमर्द- कृशाङ्गरागम् R.5.65,17.21; नागचर्मोत्तरच्छदः Mb. -ज a. born subsequently or afterwards; चतुर्दश प्रथमजः पुनात्युत्तरजश्च षट् Y.1.59. -ज्या the versed sine of an arc (Wilson); the second half of the chord halved by the versed sine (B. and R.). -ज्योतिषाः (m. pl.) the northern Jyotiṣas. -ततिः f. Ectype (lit. subequent proceedings) उत्तरस्यां ततौ तत्प्रकृतित्वात् MS.1.4.25. शबर explains उत्तरस्यां ततौ as विकृतौ), -तन्त्रम् N. of a supplementary section in the medical work of Suśruta. -तापनीयम् N. of the second part of the नृसिंहतापनीयो- पनिषद्. -दायक a. replying, disobedient, pert, impertinent; दुष्टा भार्या शठं मित्रं भृत्याश्चोत्तरदायकाः H.2.11. -दिश् f. the north. ˚ईशः, -पालः 1 Kubera, the regent of the north. -2 the planet बुध. ˚बलिन् 1 the planet Venus. -2 the moon. -देशः the country towards the north. -धेय a. to be done subsequently. -नारायणः the second part of the नारायणसूक्त or पुरुषसूक्त (Rv.1.9.). -पक्षः 1 the northern wing or side. -2 the dark half of a lunar month. -3 the second part of an argument, i. e. a reply, the reason pro. (opp. पूर्वपक्ष); प्रापयन् पवनव्याधेर्गिरमुत्तरपक्षताम् Śi.2.15. -4 a demonstrated truth or conclusion. -5 the minor proposition in a syllogism. -6 (in Mīm.) the fifth member of an Adhikaraṇa, q. v. -पटः 1 an upper garment. -2 a bed-covering (उत्तरच्छदः). -पथः the northern way, way leading to the north; the northern country; P.V.1 77. उत्तरपथेनाहृतं च. -पथिक a. travelling in the northern country. -पदम् 1 the last member of a compound. -2 a word that can be compounded with another. -पदिक, -पदकीय a. relating to, studying, or knowing the last word or term. -पर्वतकम् A variety of hides. Kāu. A.2.11. -पश्चार्धः the northwestern half. -पश्चिम a. northwestern. (-मः) the north-western country. (-मा) [उत्तरस्याः पश्चिमायाश्च दिशोन्तरालम्] the north-west; आलोकयन्नुत्तरपश्चिमेन Mb.12.335.8. -पादः the second division of a legal plaint, that part which relates to the reply or defence; पूर्वपक्षः स्मृतः पादो द्वितीयश्चोत्तरः स्मृतः । क्रियापादस्तृतीयः स्याच्चतुर्थो निर्णयः स्मृतः ॥ -पुरस्तात् ind. north-eastward (with gen.). -पुराणम् N. of a Jaina work. -पुरुषः = उत्तमपुरुषः q. v. -पूर्व a. north-eastern. (-र्वा) the north-east. -प्रच्छदः a cover lid, quilt. -प्रत्युत्तरम् 1 a dispute, debate, a rejoinder, retort. -2 the pleadings in a law-suit. -फ (फा) ल्गुनी the twelfth lunar mansion consisting of two stars (having the figure of a bed). -भागः The second part. -भाद्रपद्, -दा 1 the 26 th lunar mansion consisting of two stars (figured by a couch). -2 N. of a plant (Mar. कडुनिंब). -मन्द्रा a loud but slow manner of singing. ˚मन्द्राद्या a. particular मूर्च्छना in music. -मात्रम् a mere reply. -मीमांसा the later Mīmāmsā, the Vedānta Philosophy, an inquiry into the nature of Brahman or Jñāna Kāṇḍa (distinguished from मीमांसा proper which is usually called पूर्वमीमांसा). -युगम् A particular measure (= 13 Aṅgulas). -रहित a. without a reply. -रामचरितम् -त्रम् N. of a celebrated drama by Bhavabhūti, which describes the later life of Rāma. -रूपम् The second of two combined vowels or consonants. -लक्षणम् the indication of an actual reply. -लोमन् a. having the hair turned upwards. -वयसम्, -स् n. old age, the declining period of life. -वरितः a kind of small syringe. -वल्ली f. N. of the second section of the काठकोपनिषद् when divided into two अध्यायs. -वस्त्रम्, -वासस् n. an upper garment, mantle, cloak; जग्राह तामुत्तरवस्त्रदेशे Mb.3.268. 24. -वादिन् m. 1 a defendant, respondent; (Opp. पूर्ववादिन्.) साक्षिषूभयतः सत्मु साक्षिणः पूर्ववादिनः । पूर्वपक्षे$धरीभूते भवन्त्युत्तरवादिनः ॥ Y.2.17. -2 one whose claims are of later date than another's. -विद् -वेदन or वेदिन् An elephant sensitive to slight stimuli (Mātaṅga L.1.29; 9.39). -वीथिः f. The northern orbit; Bṛi. S. -वेदिः 1 the northern altar made for the sacred fire. -2 N. of a Tīrtha near the कुरुक्षेत्र. -सक्थम् the left thigh. -संझित a. denoted or named in reply (as a witness). (-तः) hearsay-witness. -साक्षिन् m. 1 a witness for the defence. -2 a witness deposing to facts from the reports of others. -साधक a. 1 finishing what remains or follows, assisting at a ceremony. -2 who or what proves a reply. (-कः) an assistant, helper -हनुः Ved. the upper jaw-bone.
utsargaḥ उत्सर्गः 1 Laying or leaving a side, abandoning, suspension; श्रीलक्षणोत्सर्गविनीतवेवाः Ku.7.45. -2 Pouring out, dropping down, emission; तोयोत्सर्गद्रुततरगतिः Me.19, 39; so शुक्र˚. -3 A gift, donation, giving away; (धनस्य) उत्सर्गेण शुध्यन्ति Ms.11.193. 4 Spending; अर्थ˚ Mu.3. -5 Loosening, letting loose; as in वृषोत्सर्गः -6 An oblation, libation. -7 Excretion, voiding by stool &c.; पुरीष˚, मलमूत्र˚. -8 Completion (as of study or a vow); cf. उत्सृष्टा वै वेदाः (opp. उपाकृता वै वेदाः). -9 A general rule or precept (opp. अपवाद a particular rule or exception); अपवादैरिवो- त्सर्गाः कृतव्यावृत्तयः परैः Ku.2.27, अपवाद इवोत्सर्गं व्यावर्तयितु- मीश्वरः R.15.7. -1 Offering what is promised (to gods, Brāhmaṇas &c.) with due ceremonies. -11 The anus; मित्रमुत्सर्गे Ms.12.121. -12 A heap, mass; अन्नस्य सुबहून् राजन्नुत्सर्गान्पर्वतोपमान् Mb.14.85.38. -13 Dedication, securing the services (of priests). उत्सर्गे तु प्रधानत्वात् etc. MS.3.7.19. (where शबर paraphrases उत्सर्ग by परिक्रय). -Comp. -समितिः carefulness in the act of excretion so that no living creature be hurt (Jaina).
utsarjanam उत्सर्जनम् 1 Leaving, abandoning, letting loose, quitting &c. -2 A gift, donation. -3 Suspension of a Vedic study. -4 A ceremony connected with this suspension (to be performed half yearly); पुष्ये तु च्छन्दसां कुर्याद् बहिसुत्सर्जनं द्विजः Ms.4.96; वेदोत्सर्जनाख्यं कर्म करिष्ये Śrāvaṇī Mantra.
upa उप ind. 1 As a prefix to verbs and nouns it expresses towards, near to, by the side of, with, under, down (opp. अप). According to G. M. the following are its senses :--उप सामीप्यसामर्थ्यव्याप्त्याचार्यकृतिमृतिदोषदानक्रियावीप्सा- रम्भाध्ययनबुजनेषु :--(1) nearness, contiguity उपविशति, उपगच्छति goes near; (2) power, ability उपकरोति; (3) pervasion उपकीर्ण; (4) advice, instructing as by a teachar उपदिशति, उपदेश; (5) death, extinction, उपरत; (6) defect, fault उपघात; (7) giving उपनयति, उपहरति; (8) action, effort उप त्वानेष्ये; (9) beginning, commencement उपक्रमते, उपक्रम; (1) study उपाध्यायः; (11) reverence, worship उपस्थानम्, उपचरति पितरं पुत्रः. It is also said to have the senses of disease, ornament, command, reproof, killing, wish, resemblance &c. -2 As unconnected with verbs and prefixed to nouns, it expresses direction towards, nearness, resemblance, relationship, contiguity in space, number, time, degree &c., but generally involving the idea of subordination or inferiority; उपकनिष्ठिका the finger next to the little finger; उपपुराणम् a secondary Purāṇa; उपगुरुः an assistant master; उपाध्यक्षः a vice-president. It usually, however, forms Avyayī. comp. in these senses; उपगङ्गम् = गङ्गायाः समीपे; उपकूलम्, ˚वनम् &c.; these are again compounded with other words; उपकूपजलाशयः; उपकण्ठ- निवासिनी. Prefixed to proper nouns it means a 'younger brother'; उपेन्द्रः. -3 With numerals it forms संख्याबहुव्रीहि and means 'nearly', 'almost'; उपत्रिंशाः nearly thirty; उपविंशाः about twenty &c. -4 As a separable preposition (a) with acc. when it means inferiority उपोधिकेच (P.I. 4.87) उपहरिं सुराः Sk. the gods are under i. e. are inferior to Hari; शक्रादय उपाच्युतम् Vop. (b) With loc. it expresses (1) over, above, superior to; उपनिष्के कार्षापणम्, उपपरार्धे हरेर्गुणाः; (2) addition; (3) near to, towards, in the direction of, under; (4) at, on, upon; (5) upto, in, above; e. g. उप सानुषु on or above the peaks; वयो न वसतीरुप; or sometimes (c) with the instr.; with, at the same time with, according to. -5 As a separable adverb it is rarely used in the senses of further, moreover. उपसन्ने$धिके हीने सादृश्यप्रतियत्नयोः ॥ तद्योगव्याप्तिपूजासु शक्तावारम्भदानयोः ॥ दक्षिणाचार्यकरणदोषाख्यानात्ययेषु च । [cf. Gr. hupo; L. sub; Goth. up; Germ. ob.].
upagrahaṇam उपग्रहणम् 1 Seizing (from below); taking hold of; as in पादोपग्रहणम्. -2 Seizure, capture, taking one prisoner. -3 Supporting, furthering, promoting. -4 Holy study, study of the Vedas (after being initiated into them); वेदोपग्रहणार्थाय तावग्राहयत प्रभुः Rām.
upanayaḥ उपनयः 1 Bringing near, fetching. -2 Gaining, attaining, procuring. नान्यं तवाङ्घ्रयुपनयादपवर्गमूर्तेः क्षेमं जनस्य परितो भिय ईश विद्मः Bhāg.12.8.43. -3 Employing -4 Investiture with the sacred thread, initiation into sacred study, handing a youth of the first three castes to a teacher; गृह्योक्तकर्मणा येन समीपं नीयते गुरोः । बालो वेदाय तद्योगात् बालस्योपनयं विदुः ॥ (By this ceremony spiritual birth is conferred upon the youth, and he becomes a द्विजन्मन्; the ages at which the ceremony may be performed by the three castes are respectively 8-16, 11-22 and 12-24; (see Ms.2.36-38; of what materials &c. the cords should be, is mentioned in 2.41-46). -5 The fourth member of the five-membered Indian syllogism (in logic), the application to the special case in question; व्याप्तिविशिष्टस्य हेतोः पक्षधर्मताप्रतिपादकं वचनमुपनयः Tarka K. -6 Introduction, initiation (into any science); see next.
ubhaya उभय pron. a. (-यी f.) (Though dual in sense, it is used in the singular and plural only; according to some grammarians in the dual also) Both (of persons or things); यस्तद्वेदोभयं सह Īśa. Up.11 उभयमप्यपरितोषं समर्थये Ś.7; उभयमानशिरे वसुधाधिपाः R.9.9; उभयीं सिद्धिमुभाववापतुः 8. 23.17.38; Amaru.6; Ku.7.78; Ms.2.55,4.224,9.34, -Comp. -अन्वयिन् a. Tending towards both, keeping connection with both. -अलंकारः (in Rhet.) A figure of speech, which sets off both the sense and sound. -अर्थम् ind. for a double object (for earthly prosperity and heavenly happiness also). -आत्मक a. belonging to both. -चर a. living in water and on land or in the air, amphibious. Mātaṅga L.1.28. (-रः) a class of birds who live both on land and in the air. -च्छन्ना (in Rhet.) A kind of enigma. -द्युः ind. 1 on both days. -2 the day past and to come. -पदिन् a. Having both Parasmai and Atmane pada. -भागहर a. 1 applicable to two objects. -2 taking two shares. (-रम्) a medicine that acts in two ways (both as an emetic and a purgative). -मुख a. two faced; a pregnant female. -विद्या two-fold sciences; i. e. religious knowledge and knowledge about worldly affairs. -विध a. of both kinds. -विपुला f. N. f a metre. -विभ्रष्ट a. losing both कच्चिन्नोभयविभ्रष्टः Bg.6.38. -वेतन a. receiving wages from both (parties), serving two masters, treacherous, perfidious; उभयवेतनो भूत्वा Pt.1; Śi.2.113. Kau.A.1.16. -व्यञ्जन a. having the marks of both sexes, hermaphrodite. -संभवः a. dilemma. -स्नातक a. one who has performed the prescribed ablutions after finishing both his time of studying and his vow. See Kullūka on Ms.4.31.
kramaka क्रमक a. 1 Orderly, methodical. -2 Going, proceeding, -कः A student who goes through a regular course of study. -2 One who knows the Karma arrangement of a text.
galaḥ गलः [गल्-भक्षणे बा˚ करणे अच्] 1 The throat, neck; शितिना गलेन विलसन्मरीचिना Ki.12.23; न गरलं गले कस्तूरीयम्; cf. अजागलस्तन; Bh.1.64; Amaru.88. -2 The resin of the Śāla tree. -3 A kind of musical instrument. -4 A rope. -5 A kind of fish. -6 A large kind of grass (बृहत्काश). -Comp. -अङ्कुरः a particular disease of the throat (inflammation). -उद्भवः the tuft of hair on the neck of a horse. -ओघः tumor in the throat. -कम्बलः a bull's dewlap. -गण्डः 1 enlargement of the glands of the neck. -2 goitre. -ग्रहः, -ग्रहणम् 1 seizing by the throat, throttling, smothering. -2 a kind of disease; Mb.12.33.5. -3 N. of certain days in the dark fortnight of a month :-- i. e. the 4th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 13th and the three following days. -4 a day on which a course of study is commenced, but immediately preceding a day on which it is prohibited. -5 study, begun but immediately interrupted. -चर्मन् n. the gullet, throat. -द्वारम् the mouth. -मेखला a necklace. -वार्त a. 1 safe in the work of the throat, able to eat much and digest it, healthy, sound; दृश्यन्ते चैव तीर्थेषु गलवार्तास्तपस्विनः Pt.3. v. l. -2 a parasite. -विद्रधिः tumor and abscess in the throat. -व्रतः a peacock. -शुण्डिका the uvula. -शुण्डी swelling of the glands of the neck. -स्तनी (also गलेस्तनी) a she-goat. -हस्तः 1 seizing by the throat, throttling, collaring; अनिच्छन्गलहस्तेन ताभिर्निर्वासितस्ततः Ks.4.68. -2 an arrow with a crescent-shaped head; cf. अर्धचन्द्र. -हस्तित a. seized by the throat, throttled, strangled; अर्धेन्दुलीलैर्गल- हस्तितेव N.6.25.
guṇanam गुणनम् [गुण्-ल्युट्] 1 Multiplication. -2 Enumeration. -3 Describing merits or qualities, pointing out or enumerating merits; इह रसभणने कृतहरिगुणने मधुरिपुपदसेवके Gīt.7. -4 Reiterated study, repetition. -नी Examining books, studying; collating and correcting copies to determine the value of variants.
grahaṇam ग्रहणम् [ग्रह् भावे ल्युट्] 1 Seizing, catching, seizure; श्वा मृगग्रहणे$शुचिः Ms.5.13. -2 Receiving, accepting, taking; आचारधूमग्रहणात् R.7.27. -3 Mentioning, uttering; नामग्रहणम्. -4 Wearing putting on; सोत्तरच्छदमध्यास्त नेपथ्यग्रहणाय सः R.17.21. -5 An eclipse; ग्रहणं चन्द्रसूर्ययोः Y.1.218. -6 Understanding, comprehension, knowledge; यस्य नु ग्रहणं किंचित्कर्मणो$न्यन्न दृश्यते Rām.2.22.21; न परेषां ग्रहणस्य गोचराम् N.2.95 -7 Learning, acquiring, grasping mentally, mastering; विपेर्यथावद्ग्रहणेन वाङ्- मयं नदीमुखेनेव समुद्रमाविशत् R.3.28. -8 Taking up of sound, echo; अद्रिग्रहणगुरुभिर्गर्जितैर्नर्तयेथाः Me.46. -9 The hand. -1 An organ of sense. -11 A prisoner, captive. -12 Taking by the hand, marrying; तद्दारग्रहणे यत्नं सन्तत्यां च मनः कुरु Mb.1.13.26. -13 Taking captive, imprisonment; न दोषो ग्रहणे तस्याः Ks.91.37. -14 Gaining, obtaining, purchasing. -15 Choosing. -16 Taking or drawing up. -17 Attraction. -18 Containing, enclosing. -19 Undertaking, undergoing. -2 Service; अजस्य जन्मोत्पथनाशनाय कर्माण्यकर्तुर्ग्रहणाय पुंसाम् Bhāg.3.1.44. -21 Mentioning with praise, respecting; प्रमाणं सर्वभूतेषु गत्वा च ग्रहणं महत् Mb.12.15.1. -22 Acceptation, meaning. -23 Assent, agreement. -24 Inviting, calling, addressing; name; अलसग्रहणं प्राप्तो दुर्मेधावी तथोच्यते Mb.12.266.6. -Comp. -अन्तः close of study.
caraṇaḥ चरणः णम् [चर्-करणे ल्युट्] 1 A foot; शिरसि चरण एष न्यस्यते वारयैनम् Ve.3.38; जात्या काममवध्यो$सि चरणं त्विदमुद्धृतम् 39. -2 A support, pillar, prop. -3 The root of a tree. -4 The single line of a stanza. -5 A quarter. -6 A school or branch of any of the Vedas; e. g. चरणगुरवः Mv.1; Māl.1; Pt.4.3. -7 A race. -8 (In prosody) A dactyl. -णः A foot-soldier. -2 A ray of light. -णम् 1 Moving, roaming, wandering. -2 Performance, practising; Ms.6.75. -3 Conduct of life, behaviour (moral). -4 Accomplishment. -5 Eating, consuming. -6 Course. -7 Acting, dealing, managing, conduct. -8 Fixed observance of any class, age (as priesthood &c.); -9 studying under strict rules of ब्रह्मचर्य; विशुद्धवीर्याश्चरणोपपन्नाः Mb.5.3.7. -Comp. -अचलः The setting mountain; यातो$स्तमेष चरमाचलचूड- चुम्बी Murāri. -अमृतम्, -उदकम् water in which the feet of a (revered) Brāhmaṇa or spiritual guide have been washed. -अरविन्दम्, -कमलम्, -पद्मम् a lotuslike foot. -आयुधः a cock; आकर्ण्य संप्रति रुतं चरणायुधानाम् S. D. -आस्कन्दनम् trampling, treading under foot. -उपधानम् A foot-rest; कृष्णा च तेषां चरणोपधाने Mb. 1.193.1. -गत a. fallen at the feet, prostrate. -ग्रन्थिः m., -पर्वन् n. the ankle. -न्यासः a footstep. -पः a tree. -पतनम् falling down or prostration (at the feet of another); Amaru.17. -पतित a. prostrate at the feet; Me.15. -पातः 1 tread, trampling. -2 footfall. -3 prostration. -योधिन् m. (= -आयुधः) विहिता वृक्षमूले तु वृत्तिश्चरणयोधिनाम् Rām.4.58.31. -व्यूहः A book dealing with the śākhās of the vedas. -शुश्रूषा, -सेवा 1 prostration. -2 service, devotion.
carc चर्च् I. 1. U. (चर्चयति-ते चर्चित). To read, read carefully, peruse, study. -II. 6. P. (चर्चति, चर्चित) 1 To abuse, condemn, censure, menace. -2 To discuss, consider, investigate. -3 To injure, hurt. -4 To anoint, smear.
carcā चर्चा चर्चिका 1 Repetition, recitation, study, repeated reading, perusal. -2 Discussion, inquiry, investigation; आवर्जितैः स निखिलैरधिकोत्कोचचर्चया Rāj. T.5.34; आबद्धपङ्क्तयश्चर्चामुच्चलाश्रयिणीं व्यधुः ibid. 7.1463. -3 Reflection. -4 Smearing the body with unguents; अङ्गचर्चामरचयम् K.157; श्रीखण्डचर्चा विष ... Gīt.9. -5 An epithet of the goddess Durgā, -Comp. -पदम् (pl.) the words repeated in reciting the veda while इति is added. -पारः Repetition of a word.
jamadagniḥ जमदग्निः A Brāhmaṇa and descendant of Bhṛigu and father of Paraśurāma. [Jamadagni was the son of Ṛichika and Satyavatī. He was a pious sage, deeply engaged in study, and is said to have obtained entire possession of the Vedas. His wife was Reṇukā who bore him five sons. One day when she had gone out to bathe, she beheld a loving pair of Gandharvas (according to some Chitraratha and his queen) sporting and playing in the water. The lovely sight made her feel envious of their pleasure, and she returned defiled by unworthy thoughts, 'wetted but not purified by the stream' Her husband, who was anger incarnate, seeing her shorn of the lustre of her sanctity, furiously scolded her, and ordered his sons, as they came in, to cut off her head. But the first four sons shrank from that cruel deed. It was only Paraśurāma, the youngest, that with characteristic obedience to his father's command, struck off her head with his axe. The deed pacified the father's anger, and he desired Paraśurāma to ask a boon. The kind-hearted son begged that his mother might be restored to life which the father readily granted.]
jñānam ज्ञानम् [ज्ञा-भावे ल्युट्] 1 Knowing, understanding, becoming acquainted with, proficiency; सांख्यस्य योगस्य च ज्ञानम् Māl.1.7. -2 Knowledge, learning; तथेन्द्रियाकुलीभावे ज्ञेयं ज्ञानेन शुध्यति Mb.12.24.2; बुद्धिर्ज्ञानेन शुध्यति Ms.5.19; ज्ञाने मौनं क्षमा शत्रौ R.1.22. -3 Consciousness, cognizance, knowledge; ज्ञानतो$ज्ञानतो वापि Ms.8.288 knowingly or unknowingly, consciously or unconsciously. -4 Sacred knowledge; especially, knowledge derived from meditation on the higher truths of religion and philosophy which teaches man how to understand his own nature and how he may be reunited to the Supreme Spirit (opp. कर्मन्); cf. ज्ञानयोग and कर्मयोग in Bg.3.3. -5 The organ of intelligence, sense, intellect; कच्चिज्ज्ञानानि सर्वाणि प्रसन्नानि तवाच्युत Mb.12.54.18. -6 Conscience. -7 The Supreme spirit. -8 An epithet of Viṣṇu. -9 The Vedas taken collectively. -1 Means of knowing; औत्पक्तिकस्तु शब्दस्यार्थेन सम्बन्धस्तस्य ज्ञानम्˚ । MS.1.1.5. -11 An opinion, a view; बलदेवस्य वाक्यं तु मम ज्ञाने न युज्यते Mb.5.4.3. -Comp. -अग्निः knowledge-fire; ज्ञानाग्निः सर्वकर्माणि भस्मसात्कुरुते$र्जन Bg.4.37. -अनुत्पादः ignorance, folly. -अपोहः forgetfulness. -अभ्यासः 1 study. -2 thinking, reflection. -आत्मन् a. all wise. -इन्द्रियम् an organ of perception; (these are five त्वच्, रसना, चक्षुस्, कर्ण and घ्राण- the skin, tongue, eye, ear and nose; see बुद्धीन्द्रिय under इन्द्रिय). -काण्डम् that inner or esoteric portion of Veda which refers to true spiritual knowledge, or knowledge of the Supreme spirit, as distinguished from the knowledge of ceremonial rites (opp. कर्मकाण्ड). -कृत a. done knowingly or intentionally. -गम्य a. attainable by the understanding. -घन m. pure or mere knowledge; निर्विशेषाय साम्याय नमो ज्ञानघनाय च Bhāg.8.3.12; तं त्वामहं ज्ञानघनं...कथं...परिभावयामि ibid 9.8.24. -चक्षुस् n. the eye of intelligence, the mind's eye, intellectual vision (opp. चर्मचक्षुस्); सर्वं तु समवेक्ष्येदं निखिलं ज्ञानचक्षुषा Ms.2.8;4.24. (-m.) a wise and learned man. -तत्त्वम् true knowledge, knowledge of God. -तपस् n. penance consisting in the acquisition of true knowledge. -दः a preceptor. -दा an epithet of Sarasvatī. -दुर्बल a. wanting in knowledge. -निश्चयः certainty, ascertainment. -निष्ठ a. intent on acquiring true (spiritual) knowledge; ज्ञानिनिष्ठा द्विजाः केचित् Ms.3.134. -पतिः 1 the Supreme spirit. -2 a teacher, preceptor. -पूर्व a. preceded by knowledge, well-considered; निष्कामं ज्ञानपूर्वं तु निवृत्तमुपदिश्यते Ms.12.89. -बोधिनी f. N. of a Vedāntic treatise. -मुद्र a. 'having the impress of wisdom', wise. -मूल a. founded on spiritual knowledge. -यज्ञः a man possessed of true or spiritual knowledge, philosopher. -योगः contemplation as the principal means of, attaining the Supreme spirit or acquiring true or spiritual knowledge; ज्ञानयोगेन सांख्यानां कर्मयोगेण योगिनाम् Bg.3.3. -लक्षणम्, -णा 1 indication, sign, a means of knowing or inferring. -2 (in logic) sign or proof of knowledge; subsequent derived from antecedent knowledge. -विज्ञानम् 1 sacred and miscellaneous knowledge; तत्प्राज्ञेन विनीतेन ज्ञानविज्ञानवेदिनाMs.18.41. -2 the Vedas with the supplementary branches of knowledge, such as medicine, arms &c. -वृद्ध advanced in knowledge; ज्ञानवृद्धो वयोबालो मृदुर्वीर्यगुणान्वितः Rām.2.45.8. -शास्त्रम् the science of fortune-telling. -साधनम् 1 a means of acquiring true or spiritual knowledge. -2 an organ of perception.
tattvam तत्त्वम् (Sometimes written as तत्वम्) 1 True state or condition, fact; वयं तत्त्वान्वेषान्मधुकर हतास्त्वं खलु कृती Ś.1. 23. -2 Truth, reality; न तु मामभिजानन्ति तत्त्वेनातश्च्यवन्ति ते Bg.9.24. -3 True or essential nature; संन्यासस्य महाबाहो तत्त्वमिच्छामि वेदितुम् Bg.18.1;3.28; Ms.1.3;3.96; 5.42. -4 The real nature of the human soul or the material world as being identical with the Supreme Spirit pervading the universe. -5 A true or first principle. -6 An element, a primary substance; तत्त्वान्य- बुद्धाः प्रतनूनि येन, ध्यानं नृपस्तच्छिवमित्यवादीत् Bk.1.18. -7 The mind. -8 Sum and substance. -9 Slow time in music. -1 An element or elementary property. -11 The Supreme Being. -12 A kind of dance. -13 The three qualities or constituents of every thing in nature (सत्त्व, रजस् and तमस्). -14 The body; तत्त्वाभेदेन यच्छास्त्रं तत्कार्यं नान्यथाविधम् Mb.12.267.9. -Comp. -अभियोगः a positive charge or declaration. -अभ्यासः The study of the reality; एवं तत्त्वाभ्यासात् Sān. K.64. -अर्थः truth, reality, the exact truth, real nature. -ज्ञ, -विद् a. 1 a philosopher. -2 knowing the true nature of Brahman. -3 knowing the true nature of anything; Ms.12.12. -4 acquainted with the true principles of science. (-ज्ञः) a Brāmaṇa. -ज्ञानम् 1 knowledge of the truth. -2 a thorough knowledge of the principles of a science. -3 philosophy. -दर्शिन्, दृश् perceiving truth. -निकषग्रावन् m. the touch-stone of truth. -न्यासः N. of a ceremony performed in honour of Viṣṇu consisting in the application of mystical letters or other marks to different parts of the body while certain prayers are repeated. -भावः true being or nature; Kaṭh.6. -शुद्धिः ascertainment of truth; Ks.75.194. -संख्यानम् Sāṅkhya philosophy; तत्त्वसंख्यानविज्ञप्त्यै जातं विद्वानजः स्वराट् Bhāg.3.24.1. तत्त्वतः tattvatḥ तत्त्वेन tattvēna तत्त्वतः तत्त्वेन ind. Truly, really, accurately; तत्त्वत एनामुपलप्स्ये Ś.1; Ms.7.1.
tri त्रि num. a. [Uṇ.5.66] (declined in pl. only, nom. त्रयः m., तिस्त्रः f., त्रीणि n.) Three; त एव हि त्रयो लोकास्त एव त्रय आश्रमाः &c. Ms.2.229; प्रियतमाभिरसौ तिसृभिर्बभौ R.9.18; त्रीणि वर्षाण्युदीक्षेत कुमार्यृतुमती सती Ms.9.9 [cf. L. tres; Gr. treis; A. S., Zend thri; Eng. three]. -Comp. -अंशः 1 a three-fold share; त्र्यंशं दायाद्धरेद्विप्रः Ms.9.151. -2 a third part. -3 three-fourths. -अक्ष a. triocular. -अक्षः, -अक्षकः an epithet of Śiva; शुष्कस्नायु- स्वराह्लादात्त्र्यक्षं जग्राह रावणः Pt.5.57. -अक्षरः 1 the mystic syllable ओम् consisting of three letters; see under अ. आद्यं यत्त्र्यक्षरं ब्रह्म Ms.11.265. -2 a matchmaker or घटक (that word consisting of three syllables). -3 a genealogist. (-री) knowledge, learning; see विद्या. -अङ्कटम्, -अङ्गटम् 1 three strings suspended to either end of a pole for carrying burdens. -2 a sort of collyrium. (-टः) N. of Śiva. -अङ्गम् (pl.) a tripartite army (chariots, cavalry and infantry). -अङ्गुलम् three fingers' breadth. -अञ्जनम् the three kinds of collyrium; i. e. कालाञ्जन, रसाञ्जन and पुष्पाञ्जन. -अञ्जलम्, -लिः three handfuls taken collectively. -अधिपतिः (the lord of the 3 guṇas or worlds), an epithet of Viṣṇu; Bhāg.3.16.24. -अधिष्ठानः the soul. (नम्) spirit, life (चैतन्य). -a. having three stations; Ms.12.4. -अध्वगा, -मार्गगा, -वर्त्मगा epithets of the river Ganges (flowing through the three worlds). -अनीक a. having the three properties of heat, rain and cold; त्यनीकः पत्यते माहिनावान् Rv.3.56.3. (-का) an army consisting of horses, elephants and chariots. -अब्द a. three years old. -ब्दम् three years taken collectively. -अम्बकः (also त्रियम्बक in the same sense though rarely used in classical literature) 'having three eyes', N. of Śiva.; त्रियम्बकं संयमिनं ददर्श Ku.3.44; जडीकृतस्त्र्यम्बकवीक्षणेन R.2. 42;3.49. ˚सखः an epithet of Kubera; कुबेरस्त्र्यम्बकसखः Ak. -अम्बका an epithet of Pārvatī -अशीत a. eighty-third. -अशीतिः f. eighty-three. -अष्टन् a. twenty-four. -अश्र, -अस्र a. triangular. (-स्रम्) a triangle. -अहः 1 a period of three days. -2 a festival lasting three days. -आर्षेयाः deaf, dumb and blind persons. -आहिक a. 1 performed or produced in three days. -2 recurring after the third day, tertian (as fever). -3 having provision for three days कुशूलकुम्भीधान्यो वा त्र्याहिको$श्वस्तनो$पि वा Y.1.128. -ऋचम् (तृचम् also) three Riks taken collectively; Ms.8.16. -ऐहिक a. having provision for three days. -ककुद् m. 1 N. of the mountain Trikūṭa. -2 N. of Viṣnu or Kṛiṣṇa. -3 the highest, chief. -4 a sacrifice lasting for ten nights. -ककुभ् m. Ved. 1 Indra. -2 Indra's thunderbolt. -कटु dry ginger, black pepper and long pepper taken together as a drug; शिरामोक्षं विधायास्य दद्यात् त्रिकटुकं गुडम् Śālihotra 62. -कण्टः, -कण्टकः a kind of fish. -करणी the side of a square 3 times as great as another. -कर्मन् n. the chief three duties of a Brāhmaṇa i. e. sacrifice, study of the Vedas, and making gifts or charity. (-m.) one who engages in these three duties (as a Brāhmaṇa). -काण्डम् N. of Amarsiṁha's dictionary. -कायः N. of Buddha. -कालम् 1 the three times; the past, the present, and the future; or morning, noon and evening. -2 the three tenses (the past, present, and future) of a verb. (-लम् ind. three times, thrice; ˚ज्ञ, ˚दर्शिन् a. omniscient (m.) 1 a divine sage, seer. -2 a deity. -3 N. of Buddha. ˚विद् m. 1 a Buddha. -2 an Arhat (with the Jainas). -कूटः N. of a mountain in Ceylon on the top of which was situated Laṅkā, the capital of Rāvaṇa.; Śi.2.5. -कूटम् sea-salt. कूर्चकम् a knife with three edges. -कोण a. triangular, forming a triangle. (-णः) 1 a triangle. -2 the vulva. -खम् 1 tin. -2 a cucumber. -खट्वम्, -खट्वी three bedsteads taken collectively. -क्षाराणि n. (pl.) salt-petre, natron and borax. -गणः an aggregate of the three objects of worldly existence; i. e. धर्म, अर्थ and काम; न बाधते$स्य त्रिगणः परस्परम् Ki.1.11; see त्रिवर्ग below. -गत a. 1 tripled. -2 done in three days. -गर्ताः (pl.) 1 N. of a country, also called जलन्धर, in the northwest of India. -2 the people or rulers of that country. -3 a particular mode of calculation. -गर्ता 1 a lascivious woman, wanton. -2 a woman in general. -3 a pearl. -4 a kind of cricket. -गुण a. 1 consisting of three threads; व्रताय मौञ्जीं त्रिगुणां बभार याम् Ku.5.1. -2 three-times repeated, thrice, treble, threefold, triple; सप्त व्यतीयुस्त्रिगुणानि तस्य (दिनानि) R.2. 25. -3 containing the three Guṇas सत्त्व, रजस् and तमस्. (-णम्) the Pradhāna (in Sāṅ. phil.); (-ind.) three times; in three ways. -णाः m. (pl.) the three qualities or constituents of nature; त्रयीमयाय त्रिगुणात्मने नमः K.1. (-णा) 1 Māyā or illusion (in Vedānta phil.). -2 an epithet of Durgā. -गुणाकृतम् ploughed thrice. -चक्षुस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -चतुर a. (pl.) three or four; गत्वा जवात्त्रिचतुराणि पदानि सीता B.R.6.34. -चत्वा- रिंश a. forty-third. -चत्वारिंशत् f, forty-three. -जगत् n. -जगती the three worlds, (1) the heaven, the atmosphere and the earth; or (2) the heaven, the earth, and the lower world; त्वत्कीर्तिः ...... त्रिजगति विहरत्येवमुर्वीश गुर्वी Sūkti.5.59. -जटः an epithet of Śiva. -जटा N. of a female demon, one of the Rākṣasa attendants kept by Rāvaṇa to watch over Sītā, when she was retained as a captive in the Aśoka-vanikā. She acted very kindly towards Sītā and induced her companions to do the same; सीतां मायेति शंसन्ति त्रिजटा समजीवयत् R.12.74. -जातम्, जातकम् The three spices (mace, cardamoms, cinnamon). -जीवा, -ज्या the sine of three signs or 9˚, a radius. -णता a bow; कामुकानिव नालीकांस्त्रिणताः सहसामुचन् Śi.19.61. -णव, -णवन् a. (pl.) three times nine; i. e. 27. -णाकः the heaven; तावत्त्रिणाकं नहुषः शशास Bhāg.6.13.16. -णाचिकेतः 1 a part of the Adhvaryu-sacrifice or Yajurveda, or one who performs a vow connected therewith (according to Kull. on Ms.3.185); Mb.13.9.26. -2 one who has thrice kindled the Nāchiketa fire or studied the Nāchiketa section of Kāṭhaka; त्रिणाचिकेत- स्त्रिभिरेत्य सन्धिम् Kaṭh.1.17. -णीता a wife ('thrice married'; it being supposed that a girl belongs to Soma, Gandharva and Agni before she obtains a human husband). -णेमि a. with three fellies; विचिन्वतो$भूत् सुमहांस्त्रिणेमिः Bhāg.3.8.2. -तक्षम्, तक्षी three carpenters taken collectively. -दण्डम् 1 the three staves of a Saṁnyāsin (who has resigned the world) tied togethar so as to form one. -2 the triple subjection of thought, word, and deed. (-ण्डः) the state of a religious ascetic; ज्ञानवैराग्यरहितस्त्रिदण्डमुपजीवति Bhāg.11.18.4. -दण्डिन् m. 1 a religious mendicant or Saṁnyāsin who has renounced all worldly attachments, and who carries three long staves tied together so as to form one in his right hand; तल्लिप्सुः स यतिर्भूत्वा त्रिदण्डी द्वारका- मगात् Bhāg.1.86.3. -2 one who has obtained command over his mind, speech, and body (or thought, word, and deed); cf. वाग्दण्डो$थ मनोदण्डः कायदण्डस्तथैव च । यस्यैते निहिता बुद्धौ त्रिदण्डीति स उच्यते ॥ Ms.12.1. -दशाः (pl.) 1 thirty. -2 the thirty-three gods:-- 12 Ādityas, 8 Vasus, 11 Rudras and 2 Aśvins. (-शः) a god, an immortal; तस्मिन्मघोनस्त्रिदशान्विहाय सहस्रमक्ष्णां युगपत्पपात Ku.3.1. ˚अङ्कुशः (-शम्) the heaven. ˚आयुधम् Indra's thunderbolt; R.9.54. ˚आयुधम् rainbow; अथ नभस्य इव त्रिदशायुधम् R.9.54. ˚अधिपः, ˚ईश्वरः, ˚पतिः epithets of Indra. ˚अधिपतिः N. of Śiva. ˚अध्यक्षः, ˚अयनः an epithet of Viṣṇu. ˚अरिः a demon. ˚आचार्यः an epithet of Bṛihaspati. ˚आधार Nectar. ˚आलयः, ˚आवासः 1 heaven. -2 the mountain Meru. -3 a god. ˚आहारः 'the food of the gods', nectar. ˚इन्द्रः 1 Indra. -2 Śiva. -3 Brahman. ˚गुरुः an epithet of Bṛihaspati, ˚गोपः a kind of insect; (cf. इन्द्रगोप) श्रद्दधे त्रिदशगोपमात्रके दाहशक्तिमिव कृष्णवर्त्मनि R.11.42. ˚दीर्घिका an epithet of the Ganges. ˚पतिः Indra; एषो$प्यैरावतस्थस्त्रिदशपतिः Ratn.4.11. ˚पुङ्गवः Viṣṇu; Rām.1. ˚मञ्जरी the holy basil. ˚वधू, ˚वनिता, an Apsaras or heavenly damsel; कैलासस्य त्रिदशवनितादर्पणस्यातिथिः स्याः Me.6. ˚वर्त्मन् the sky. ˚श्रेष्ठः 1 Agni. -2 Brahman. ˚दशीभूत Become divine; त्रिदशीभूतपौराणां स्वर्गान्तरमकल्पयत् R.15.12. -दिनम् three days collectively. ˚स्पृश् m. concurrence of three lunations with one solar day. -दिवम् 1 the heaven; त्रिमार्गयेव त्रिदिवस्य मार्गः Ku.1.28; Ś.7.3. -2 sky, atmosphere. -3 paradise. -4 happiness. (-वा) cardamoms. ˚अधीशः, ˚ईशः 1 an epithet of Indra. -2 a god. ˚आलयः the heaven; अश्वमेधजिताँल्लोका- नाप्नोति त्रिदिवालये Mb.13.141.53. ˚उद्भवा 1 the Ganges. -2 small cardamoms. ˚ओकस् m. a god; वपुषि त्रिदिवौकसां परं सह पुष्पैरपतत्र्छिलीमुखाः Vikr.15.72. ˚गत dead; त्रिदिवगतः किमु वक्ष्यते पिता मे Vikr.6.62. -दृश् m. an epithet of Śiva. -दोषम् vitiation or derangement of the three humours of the body, i. e. वात, पित्त and कफ. -धा ind. in 3 parts, ways or places; triply, ˚त्वम् tripartition; Ch. Up. -धातुः an epithet of Gaṇeśa; -तुम् 1 the triple world. -2 the aggregate of the 3 minerals or humours. -धामन् m. 1 N. of Viṣṇu. -2 of Vyāsa; -3 of Śiva. -4 of Agni. -5 death. -n. the heaven; हंसो हंसेन यानेन त्रिधाम परमं ययौ Bhāg.3.24.2. -धारा the Ganges. -नयन, -नेत्रः, -लोचनः epithets of Śiva; R.3. 66; Ku.3.66;5.72. -नवत a. ninety-third. -नवतिः f. ninety three. -नयना Pārvat&imacr. -नाभः Viṣṇu; Bhāg.8. 17.26. -नेत्रचूडामणिः the moon. -नेत्रफलः the cocoa-nut tree. -पञ्च a. three-fold five, i. e. fifteen. -पञ्चाश a. fiftythird. -पञ्चाशत् f. fifty-three. -पुटः glass (काच). -पताकः 1 the hand with three fingers stretched out or erect. -2 the forehead marked naturally with three horizontal lines. -पत्रकः the Palāśa tree. -पथम् 1 the three paths taken collectively, i. e. the sky, atmosphere, and the earth, or the sky, earth and the lower world. -2 a place where three roads meet. (-था) an epithet of Mathura. ˚गा, ˚गामिनी an epithet of the Ganges; गङ्गा त्रिपथगामिनी; धृतसत्पथस्त्रिपथगामभितः स तमारुरोह पुरुहूतसुतः Ki.6.1; Amaru.99. -पद्, -पाद्, -पात् m. Ved. 1 Viṣṇu. -2 fever (personified). -पद a. three-footed. (-दम्) a tripod; त्रिपदैः करकैः स्थालैः ...... Śiva. B.22. 62. -पदिका 1 a tripod. -2 a stand with three feet. -पदी 1 the girth of an elephant; नास्रसत्करिणां ग्रैवं त्रिपदी- च्छेदिनामपि R.4.48. -2 the Gāyatrī metre. -3 a tripod. -4 the plant गोधापदी. -परिक्रान्त a. one who walks thrice round a sacred fire. -पर्णः Kiṁśuka tree. -पाटः 1 intersection of a prolonged side and perpendicular (in a quadrangular figure). -2 the figure formed by such intersection. -पाटिका a beak. पाठिन् a. 1 familiar with Saṁhitā, Pada, and Krama. -2 one who learns a thing after three repetitions. -पादः 1 the Supreme Being. -2 fever. -पाद् a. 1 having three feet. -2 consisting of three parts, having three fourths; राघवः शिथिलं तस्थौ भुवि धर्मस्त्रिपादिव R.15.96. -3 trinomial. (-m.) 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu in his dwarf incarnation. -2 the Supreme Being. -पिटकम् the 3 collections of Buddhistic sacred writings (सुत्त, विनय and अभिधम्म). -पुट a. triangular. (-टः) 1 an arrow. -2 the palm of the hand. -3 a cubit. -4 a bank or shore. -पुटकः a triangle. -पुटा an epithet of Durgā. -पुटिन् m. the castor-oil plant. -पुण्ड्रम्, -पुण्ड्रक a mark on the forehead consisting of three lines made with cowdung ashes. -पुरम् 1 a collection of three cities. -2 the three cities of gold, silver, and iron in the sky, air and earth built for demons by Maya; (these cities were burnt down, along the demons inhabiting them, by Śiva at the request of the gods); Ku.7.48; Amaru.2; संरक्ताभिस्त्रिपुरविजयो गीयते किन्नरीभिः Me.56; Bh.3.123; (-रः) N. of a demon or demons presiding over these cities. ˚अधिपतिः N. of Maya, ˚अन्तकः, ˚अरिः, ˚घ्नः, ˚दहनः, ˚द्विष् m., हरः &c. epithets of Śiva; अये गौरीनाथ त्रिपुरहर शम्भो त्रिनयन Bh.3.123; R.17.14. ˚दाहः burning of the three cities; मुहुरनुस्मरयन्तमनुक्षपं त्रिपुरदाहमुमापतिसेविनः Ki.5.14. ˚सुन्दरी Durgā. (-री) 1 N. of a place near Jabalpura, formerly capital of the kings of Chedi. -2 N. of a country. -पुरुष a 1 having the length of three men. -2 having three assistants. (-षम्) the three ancestorsfather, grand-father and great-grand-father. -पृष्ठम् the highest heaven; Bhāg.1.19.23. (ष्ठः) Viṣṇu. -पौरुष a. 1 belonging to, or extending over, three generations of men. 2 offered to three (as oblations). -3 inherited from three (as an estate). -प्रस्रुतः an elephant in rut. -फला (1) the three myrobalans taken collectively, namely, Terminalia Chebula, T. Bellerica, and Phyllanthus (Mar. हिरडा, बेहडा and आंवळकाठी). Also (2) the three sweet fruits (grape, pomegranate, and date); (3) the three fragrant fruits (nutmeg, arecanut, and cloves). -बन्धनः the individual soul. -बलिः, बली, -वलिः, -वली f. 1 the three folds or wrinkles of skin above the navel of a woman (regarded as a mark of beauty); क्षामोदरोपरिलसत्त्रिवलीलतानाम् Bh.1.93,81; cf. Ku.1.39. -2 the anus. -बलीकम् the anus. -बाहुः a kind of fighting with swords. -ब्रह्मन् a. with ब्रह्मा, विष्णु and महेश. -भम् three signs of the zodiac, or ninety degrees. -भङ्गम् a pose in which the image is bent at three parts of the body. -भद्रम् copulation, sexual union, cohabitation. -भागः 1 the third part; त्रिभागं ब्रह्महत्यायाः कन्या प्राप्नोति दुष्यती Mb.12.165.42. -2 the third part of a sign of the zodiac. -भुक्ल a. one possessed of learning, good conduct and good family-descent (Dānasāgara, Bibliotheca Indica,274, Fasc.1, p.29). -भुजम् a triangle. -भुवनम् the three worlds; पुण्यं यायास्त्रिभुवन- गुरोर्धाम चण्डीश्वरस्य Me.35; Bh.1.99. ˚गुरु Śiva. ˚कीर्तिरसः a patent medicine in Āyurveda. ˚पतिः Viṣṇu. -भूमः a palace with three floors. -मद the three narcotic plants; the three-fold haughtiness; Bhāg.3.1.43. -मधु n. -मधुरम् 1 sugar, honey, and ghee. -2 three verses of the Ṛigveda (1.9.6-8; मधु वाता ऋतायते˚). -3 a ceremony based on the same; L. D. B. -4 threefold utterance of a vedic stanza ˚मधु वाता -m. a reciter and performer of the above ceremony; L. D. B. -मार्गा the Ganges; त्रिमार्गयेव त्रिदिवस्य मार्गः Ku.1.28. -मुकुटः the Trikūṭa mountain. -मुखः an epithet of Buddha. -मुनि ind. having the three sages पाणिनि, कात्यायन and पतञ्जलि; त्रिमुनि व्याकरणम्. -मूर्तिः 1 the united form of Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Maheśa, the Hindu triad; नमस्त्रिमूर्तये तुभ्यं प्रांक्सृष्टेः केवलात्मने । गुणत्रयविभायाय पश्चाद्भेदमुपेयुषे ॥ Ku.2.4. -2 Buddha, or Jina. -मूर्धन् m. 1 a demon; त्रयश्च दूषण- खरस्त्रिमूर्धानो रणे हताः U.2.15. -2 a world called महर्लोक; G&imac;rvāṇa; cf. अमृतं क्षेममभयं त्रिमूर्ध्नो$धायि मूर्धसु Bhāg.2.6.19. -यव a. weighing 3 barley corns; Ms.8.134. -यष्टिः a necklace of three strings. -यामकम् sin. -यामा 1 night (consisting of 3 watches of praharas, the first and last half prahara being excluded); संक्षिप्येत क्षण इव कथं दीर्घयामा त्रियामा Me.11, Ku.7.21,26; R.9.7; V.3. 22. -2 turmeric. -3 the Indigo plant. -4 the river Yamuṇā. -युगः an epithet of Viṣṇu; धर्मं महापुरुष पासि युगानुवृत्तं छन्नः कलौ यदभवस्त्रियुगो$थ सत्त्वम् Bhāg.7.9.38; the god in the form of यज्ञपुरुष; Bhāg.5.18.35. -योनिः a law-suit (in which a person engages from anger, covetousness, or infatuation). -रसकम् spirituous liquor; see त्रिसरकम्. -रात्र a. lasting for three nights. (-त्रः) a festival lasting for three nights. (-त्रम्) a period of three nights. -रेखः a conch-shell. -लिङ्ग a. having three genders, i. e. an adjective. -2 possessing the three Guṇas. (-गाः) the country called Telaṅga. (-गी) the three genders taken collectively. -लोकम् the three worlds. (-कः) an inhabitant of the three worlds; यद्धर्मसूनोर्बत राजसूये निरीक्ष्य दृक्स्वस्त्ययनं त्रिलोकः Bhāg.3. 2.13. ˚आत्मन् m. the Supreme Being. ˚ईशः the sun. ˚नाथः 'lord of the three worlds', an epithet of 1 Indra; त्रिलोकनाथेन सदा मखद्विषस्त्वया नियम्या ननु दिव्यचक्षुषा R.3.45. -2 of Śiva; Ku.5.77. ˚रक्षिन् a. protecting the 3 worlds; त्रिलोकरक्षी महिमा हि वज्रिणः V.1.6. -लोकी the three worlds taken collectively, the universe; सत्यामेव त्रिलोकीसरिति हरशिरश्चुम्बिनीविच्छटायाम् Bh.3.95; Śānti.4.22. -लोचनः Śiva. (-ना) 1 an unchaste woman. -2 an epithet of Durgā. -लोहकम् the three metals:-- gold, silver, and copper. -वर्गः 1 the three objects of wordly existence, i. e. धर्म, अर्थ, and काम; अनेन धर्मः सविशेषमद्य मे त्रिवर्गसारः प्रतिभाति भाविनि Ku.5.38; अन्योन्यानुबन्धम् (त्रिवर्गम्) Kau. A.1.7; प्राप त्रिवर्गं बुबुधे$त्रिवर्गम् (मोक्षम्) Bu. Ch.2.41. -2 the three states of loss, stability, and increase; क्षयः स्थानं च वृद्धिश्च त्रिवर्गो नीतिवेदिनाम् Ak. -3 the three qualities of nature, i. e. सत्त्व, रजस्, and तमस्. -4 the three higher castes. -5 the three myrobalans. -6 propriety, decorum. -वर्णकम् the first three of the four castes of Hindus taken collectively. -वर्ष a. three years old; Ms.5.7. -वलिः, -ली f. (in comp.) three folds over a woman's navel (regarded as a mark of beauty) -वली the anus. -वारम् ind. three times, thrice. -विक्रमः Viṣṇu in his fifth or dwarf incarnation. ˚रसः a patent medicine in Āyurveda. -विद्यः a Brāhmaṇa versed in the three Vedas. -विध a. of three kinds, three-fold. -विष्टपम्, -पिष्टपम् 1 the world of Indra, heaven; त्रिविष्टपस्येव पतिं जयन्तः R.6.78. -2 the three worlds. ˚सद् m. a god. -वृत् a. 1 threefold; मौञ्जी त्रिवृत्समा श्लक्ष्णा कार्या विप्रस्य मेखला Ms.2.42. -2 consisting of three parts (as three गुणs, विद्याs); Bhāg.3.24.33;1.23.39; (consisting of three letters- ओङ्कार); हिरण्यगर्भो वेदानां मन्त्राणां प्रणवस्त्रिवृत् Bhāg.11.16.12. (-m.) 1 a sacrifice. -2 a girdle of three strings; Mb.12.47.44. -3 an amulet of three strings. (-f.) a plant possessing valuable purgative properties. ˚करण combining three things, i. e. earth, water, and fire. -वृत्तिः livelihood through 3 things (sacrifice, study and alms). -वेणिः, -णी f. the place near Prayāga where the Ganges joins the Yamunā and receives under ground the Sarasvatī; the place called दक्षिणप्रयाग where the three sacred rivers separate. -वेणुः 1 The staff (त्रिदण्ड) of a Saṁnyāsin; केचित् त्रिवेणुं जगृहुरेके पात्रं कमण्डलुम् Bhāg.11.23.34. -2 The pole of a chariot; अथ त्रिवेणुसंपन्नं ...... बभञ्ज च महारथम् Rām.3. 51.16; Mb.7.156.83; a three bannered (chariot); Bhāg.4.26.1. -वेदः a Brāhmaṇa versed in the three Vedas. -शक्तिः a deity (त्रिकला), Māyā; Bhāg.2.6.31. -शङ्कुः 1 N. of a celebrated king of the Solar race, king of Ayodhyā and father of Hariśchandra. [He was a wise, pious, and just king, but his chief fault was that he loved his person to an inordinate degree. Desiring to celebrate a sacrifice by virtue of which he could go up to heaven in his mortal body, he requested his family-priest Vasiṣṭha to officiate for him; but being refused he next requested his hundred sons who also rejected his absurd proposal. He, therefore, called them cowardly and impotent, and was, in return for these insults, cursed and degraded by them to be a Chāṇḍāla. While he was in this wretched condition, Viśvāmitra, whose family Triśaṅku had in times of famine laid under deep obligations, undertook to celebrate the sacrifice, and invited all the gods to be present. They, however, declined; whereupon the enraged Viśvāmitra. by his own power lifted up Triśaṅku to the skies with his cherished mortal body. He began to soar higher and higher till his head struck against the vault of the heaven, when he was hurled down head-foremost by Indra and the other gods. The mighty Viśvāmitra, however, arrested him in his downward course, saying 'Stay Triśaṅku', and the unfortunate monarch remained suspended with his head towards the earth as a constellation in the southern hemisphere. Hence the wellknown proverb:-- त्रिशङ्कुरिवान्तरा तिष्ठ Ś.2.] -2 the Chātaka bird. -3 a cat. -4 a grass-hopper. -5 a firefly. ˚जः an epithet of Hariśchandra. ˚याजिन् m. an epithet of Viśvāmitra. -शत a. three hundred. (-तम्) 1 one hundred and three. -2 three hundred. -शरणः a Buddha. -शर्करा three kinds of sugar (गुडोत्पन्ना, हिमोत्था, and मधुरा). -शाख a. three-wrinkled; भ्रुकुट्या भीषणमुखः प्रकृत्यैव त्रिशाखया Ks.12.72. -शालम् a house with three halls or chambers. -शिखम् 1 a trident; तदापतद्वै त्रिशिखं गरुत्मते Bhāg.1.59.9. -2 a crown or crest (with three points). -शिरस् m. 1 N. of a demon killed by Rāma. -2 an epithet of Kubera. -3 fever. त्रिशिरस्ते प्रसन्नो$स्मि व्येतु ते मज्ज्वराद्भयम् Bhāg.1.63.29. -शीर्षः Śiva. -शीर्षकम्, -शूलम् a trident. ˚अङ्कः, ˚धारिन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -शुक्लम् the holy combination of 'three days' viz. Uttarāyaṇa (day of the gods), the bright half of the moon (day of the manes) and daytime; त्रिशुक्ले मरणं यस्य, L. D. B. -शूलिन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -शृङ्गः 1 the Trikūṭa mountain. -2 a triangle. -शोकः the soul. -षष्टिः f. sixty-three. -ष्टुभ् f. a metre of 4 x 11 syllables. -संध्यम्, -संध्यी the three periods of the day, i. e. dawn, noon, and sunset; also -त्रिसवनम् (-षवणम्); Ms.11.216. -संध्यम् ind. at the time of the three Sandhyas; सान्निध्यं पुष्करे येषां त्रिसन्ध्यं कुरुनन्दन Mb. -सप्तत a. seventy-third. -सप्ततिः f. seventy-three. -सप्तन्, -सप्त a. (pl.) three times 7, i. e. 21. -सम a. (in geom.) having three equal sides, equilateral. -सरः milk, sesamum and rice boiled together. -सरकम् drinking wine thrice ('सरकं शीधुपात्रे स्यात् शीधुपाने च शीधुनि' इति विश्वः); प्रातिभं त्रिसरकेण गतानाम् Śi.1.12. -सर्गः the creation of the 3 Guṇas; Bhāg.1.1.1. -साधन a. having a threefold causality; R.3.13. -सामन् a. singing 3 Sāmans (an उद्गातृ); उद्गाता तत्र संग्रामे त्रिसामा दुन्दुभिर्नृप Mb.12.98.27. -साम्यम् an equilibrium of the three (qualities); Bhāg.2.7.4. -सुपर्णः, -र्णम् 1 N. of the three Ṛigvedic verses (Rv.1.114.3-5). -2 N. of T. Ār.1.48-5; -a. familiar with or reciting these verses; Ms.3.185. -स्थली the three sacred places : काशी, प्रयाग, and गया. -स्थानम् the head, neck and chest together; तन्त्रीलयसमायुक्तं त्रिस्थानकरणान्वितम् Rām.7.71.15. -a. 1 having 3 dwelling places. -2 extending through the 3 worlds. -स्रोतस् f. an epithet of the Ganges; त्रिस्रोतसं वहति यो गगनप्रतिष्ठाम् Ś.7.6; R.1.63; Ku.7.15. -सीत्य, -हल्य a. ploughed thrice (as a field). -हायण a. three years old.
traividyam त्रैविद्यम् 1 The three Vedas. -2 The study of the three Vedas. -3 An assemly of Brāhmaṇas familiar with the three Vedas. -4 The three sciences. -द्यः A Brāhmaṇa versed in the three Vedas; त्रैविद्या मां सोमपाः पूतपापा यज्ञैरिष्ट्वा स्वर्गतिं प्रार्थयन्ते Bg.9.2. -a. Familiar or propounded by the three Vedas; धर्मं भागवतं शुद्धं त्रैविद्यं च गुणाश्रयम् Bhāg.6.2.24.
dharmaḥ धर्मः [ध्रियते लोको$नेन, धरति लोकं वा धृ-मन्; cf. Uṇ 1. 137] 1 Religion; the customary observances of a caste, sect, &c. -2 Law, usage, practice, custom, ordinance, statue. -3 Religious or moral merit, virtue, righteousness, good works (regarded as one of the four ends of human existence); अनेन धर्मः सविशेषमद्य मे त्रिवर्ग- सारः प्रतिभाति भाविनि Ku.5.38, and see त्रिवर्ग also; एक एव सुहृद्धर्मो निधने$प्यनुयाति यः H.1.63. -4 Duty, prescribed course of conduct; षष्ठांशवृत्तेरपि धर्म एषः Ś.5.4; Ms.1.114. -5 Right, justice, equity, impartiality. -6 Piety, propriety, decorum. -7 Morality, ethics -8 Nature. disposition, character; उत्पत्स्यते$स्ति मम को$पि समानधर्मा Māl.1.6; प्राणि˚, जीव˚. -9 An essential quality, peculiarity, characteristic property, (peculiar) attribute; वदन्ति वर्ण्यावर्ण्यानां धर्मैक्यं दीपकं बुधाः Chandr.5.45; Pt.1.34. -1 Manner, resemblance, likeness. -11 A sacrifice. -12 Good company, associating with the virtuous -13> Devotion, religious abstraction. -14 Manner, mode. -15 An Upaniṣad q. v. -16 N. of Yudhiṣṭhira, the eldest Pāṇḍava. -17 N. of Yama, the god of death. -18 A bow. -19 A drinker of Soma juice. -2 (In astrol.) N. of the ninth lunar mansion. -21 An Arhat of the Jainas. -22 The soul. -23 Mastery, great skill; दिव्यास्त्रगुणसंपन्नः परं धर्मं गतो युधि Rām.3.31.15. -र्मम् A virtuous deed. -Comp. -अक्षरम् (pl.) holy mantras; a formula of faith; धर्माक्षराण्युदाहरामि Mk.8.45-46. -अङ्गः (-ङ्गा f.) the Indian crane. -अधर्मौ m. (du.) right and wrong, religion and irreligion; धर्माधर्मौ सपदि गलितौ पुण्यपापे विशीर्णे. ˚विद् m. a Mīmāṁsaka who knows the right and wrong course of action. -अधिकरणम् 1 administration of the laws. 1 a court of justice. (-णः) a judge. -अधिकरणिकः, -अधिकारिन् m. a judge, magistrate, any judicial functionary. -अधिकरणिन् m. a judge, magistrate. -अधिकारः 1 superintendence of religious affairs; Ś1. -2 administration of justice. -3 the office of a judge. -अधि- ष्ठानम् a court of justice. -अध्यक्षः 1 a judge. -2 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -अनुष्ठानम् acting according to religion, virtuous or moral conduct. -अनुसारः conformity to virtue or justice. -अपेत a. deviating from virtue, wicked, immoral, irreligious. (-तम्) vice, immorality, injustice. -अयनम् course of law, law-suit. -अरण्यम् a sacred or penance grove, a wood inhabited by ascetics; धर्मारण्यं प्रविशति गजः Śi.1.32. -अर्थौः religious merit and wealth; धर्मार्थौ यत्र न स्याताम् Ms.2.112. -अर्थम् ind. 1 for religious purposes. -2 justly, according to justice or right. -अलीक a. having a false character. -अस्तिकायः (with Jainas) the category or predicament of virtue; cf. अस्तिकाय. -अहन् Yesterday. -आगमः a religious statute, lawbook. -आचार्यः 1 a religious teacher. -2 a teacher of law or customs. -आत्मजः an epithet of Yudhiṣṭhira q. v. -आत्मता religiousmindedness; justice, virtue. -आत्मन् a. just righteous, pious, virtuous. (-m.) a saint, a pious man. -आश्रय, -आश्रित a. righteous, virtuous; धर्माश्रयं पापिनः (निन्दन्ति) Pt.1.415. -आसनम् the throne of justice, judgmentseat, tribunal; न संभावितमद्य धर्मासनमध्यासितुम् Ś.6; धर्मासनाद्विशति वासगृहं नरेन्द्रः U.1.7. -इन्द्रः, -ईशः an epithet of Yama; पितॄणामिव धर्मेन्द्रः Mb.7.6.6. -ईप्सु a. wishing to gain religious merit; Ms.1.127. -उत्तर a. 'rich in virtue,' chiefly characterized by justice, eminently just and impartial; धर्मोत्तरं मध्यममाश्रयन्ते R.13.7. -उपचायिन् a. religious; यच्च वः प्रेक्षमाणानां सर्व- धर्मोपचायिनाम् Mb.5.137.16. -उपदेशः 1 instruction in law or duty, religious or moral instruction. आर्षं धर्मोपदेशं च वेदशास्त्राविरोधिना । यस्तर्केणानुसंधत्ते स धर्मं वेद नेतरः ॥ Ms.12.16. -2 the collective body of laws. -उपदेशकः 1 a teacher of the law. -2 a spiritual teacher, a Guru. -कथकः an expounder of law. -कर्मन् n., -कार्यम्, -क्रिया 1 any act of duty or religion, any moral or religious observance, a religious act or rite. -2 virtuous conduct. -कथादरिद्रः the Kali age. -काम a. 1 devoted to virtue. -2 observing duty or right. -कायः 1 an epithet of Buddha. -2 a Jaina saint. -कारणम् Cause of virtue. -कीलः 1 a grant, royal edict or decree. -2 husband. -कृत् a. observing duty, acting justly. (-m.) 1 N. of Viṣṇu. -2 a pious man. धर्मा- धर्मविहीनो$पि धर्ममर्यादास्थापनार्थं धर्ममेव करोतीति धर्मकृत् Bhāg. -केतुः an epithet of Buddha. -कोशः, -षः the collective body of laws or duties; धर्मकोषस्य गुप्तये Ms.1.99. -क्रिया, -कृत्यम् any act of religion, any moral or religious rite. -क्षेत्रम् 1 Bhāratavarṣa (the land of religion). -2 N. of a plain near Delhi, the scene of the great battle between the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas; धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः Bg.1.1. (-त्रः) a virtuous or pious man. -गुप्त a. observing and protecting religion. (-प्तः) N. of Viṣṇu. -ग्रन्थः a sacred work or scripture. -घटः a jar of fragrant water offered daily (to a Brāhmaṇa) in the month of Vaiśākha; एष धर्मघटो दत्तो ब्रह्माविष्णुशिवात्मकः । अस्य प्रदानात् सफला मम सन्तु मनोरथाः ॥ -घ्न a. immoral, unlawful. -चक्रः 1 The wheel or range of the law; Bhddh. Jain. -2 a Buddha. ˚मृत् m. a Buddha or Jaina. -चरणम्, -चर्या observance of the law, performance of religious duties; शिवेन भर्त्रा सह धर्मचर्या कार्या त्वया मुक्तविचारयेति Ku.7.83; वयसि प्रथमे, मतौ चलायां बहुदोषां हि वदन्ति धर्मचर्याम् Bu. Ch.5.3. चारिन् a. practising virtue, observing the law, virtuous, righteous; स चेत्स्वयं कर्मसु धर्मचारिणां त्वमन्त- रायो भवसि R.3.45. (-m.) an ascetic. चारिणी 1 a wife. -2 a chaste or virtuous wife. cf. सह˚; इयं चोर्वशी यावदायुस्तव सहधर्मचारिणी भवत्विति V.5.19/2. -चिन्तक a. 1 studying or familiar with duty. -2 reflecting on the law. -चिन्तनम्, चिन्ता study of virtue, consideration of moral duties, moral reflection. -च्छलः fraudulent transgression of law or duty. -जः 1 'duly or lawfully born', a legitimate son; cf. Ms.9.17. -2 N. of युधिष्ठिर; Mb.15.1.44. -जन्मन् m. N. of युधिष्ठिर. -जिज्ञासा inquiry into religion or the proper course of conduct; अथातो धर्मजिज्ञासा Jaimini's Sūtra. -जीवन a. one who acts according to the rules of his caste or fulfils prescribed duties. (-नः) a Brāhmaṇa who maintains himself by assisting other men in the performance of their religious rites; यश्चापि धर्मसमयात्प्रच्युतो धर्मजीवनः Ms.9.273. -ज्ञ a. 1 knowing what is right, conversant with civil or religious law; Ms.7.141;8.179;1.127. -2 just, righteous, pious. -त्यागः abandoning one's religion, apostacy. -दक्षिणा a fee for instruction in the law. -दानम् a charitable gift (made without any self-interest.) पात्रेभ्यो दीयते नित्यमनपेक्ष्य प्रयोजनम् । केवलं धर्मबुद्ध्या यद् धर्मदानं प्रचक्षते ॥ Ms.3.262. -दुघा a cow milked for religious purposes only. -द्रवी N. of the Ganges. -दारा m. (pl.) a lawful wife; स्त्रीणां भर्ता धर्मदाराश्च पुंसाम् Māl. 6.18. -द्रुह् a. voilating the law or right; निसर्गेण स धर्मस्य गोप्ता धर्मद्रुहो वयम् Mv.2.7. -द्रोहिन् m. a demon. -धातुः an epithet of Buddha. -ध्वजः -ध्वजिन् m. a religious hypocrite, an impostor; Bhāg.3.32.39. -नन्दनः an epithet of युधिष्ठिर. -नाथः a legal protector, rightful master. -नाभः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -निबन्धिन् a. pious, holy. -निवेशः religious devotion. -निष्ठ a. devoted to religion or virtue; श्रीमन्तः पान्तु पृथ्वीं प्रशमित- रिपवो धर्मनिष्ठाश्च भूपाः Mk.1.61. -निष्पत्तिः f. 1 discharge or fulfilment of duty. -2 moral or religious observance; -पत्नी a lawful wife; R.2.2,2,72;8.7; Y.2.128. -पथः the way of virtue, a virtuous course of conduct. -पर a. religious-minded, pious, righteous. -परिणामः rise of righteous conduct in the heart (Jainism); cf. also एतेन भूतेन्द्रियेषु धर्मलक्षणावस्थापरिणामा व्याख्याताः Yoga-darśana. -पाठकः a teacher of civil or religious law; Ms.12.111. -पालः 'protector of the law', said metaphorically of (दण्ड) 'punishment or chastisement', or 'sword'. -पाडा transgressing the law, an offence against law. -पुत्रः 1 a lawful son, a son begotten from a sense of duty and not from mere lust or sensual pleasure. -2 an epithet of युधिष्ठिर. -3 any one regarded as a son for religious purposes, a spiritual son. -प्रचारः (fig.) sword. -प्रतिरूपकः a counterfeit of virtue; Ms.11.9. -प्रधान a. eminent in piety; धर्मप्रधानं पुरुषं तपसा हतकिल्बिषम् Ms.4.243. -प्रवक्तृ m. 1 an expounder of the law, a legal adviser. -2 a religious teacher, preacher. -प्रवचनम् 1 the science of duty; U.5.23. -2 expounding the law. (-नः) an epithet of Buddha. -प्रेक्ष्य a. religious or virtuous (धर्मदृष्टि); Rām.2.85.16. -बाणिजिकः, -वाणिजिकः 1 one who tries to make profit out of his virtue like a merchant. -2 one who performs religious rites with a view to reward, like a merchant dealing in transactions for profit. -बाह्यः a. contrary to religion or what is right. -भगिनी 1 a lawful sister. -2 a daughter of the spiritual preceptor. -3 a spiritual sister, any one regarded as a sister or discharging the same religious duties एतस्मिन्विहारे मम धर्मभगिनी तिष्ठति Mk.8.46/47. -भागिनी a virtuous wife. -भाणकः a lecturer or public reader who reads and explains to audiences sacred books like the Bhārata, Bhāgavata, &c. -भिक्षुकः a mendicant from virtuous motives; Ms. 11.2. -भृत् m. 1 'a preserver or defender of justice,' a king. -2 a virtuous person. -भ्रातृ m. 1 a fellow religious student, a spiritual brother. -2 any one regarded as a brother from discharging the same religious duties. वानप्रस्थयतिब्रह्मचारिणां रिक्थभागिनः । क्रमेणाचार्यसच्छिष्य- धर्मभ्रात्रेकतीर्थिनः ॥ Y.2.137. -महामात्रः a minister of religion, a minister in charge of religious affairs. -मूलम् the foundation of civil or religious law, the Vedas. -मेघः a particular Samādhi. -युगम् the Kṛita age; अथ धर्मयुगे तस्मिन्योगधर्ममनुष्ठिता । महीमनुचचारैका सुलभा नाम भिक्षुकी Mb.12.32.7. -यूपः, -योनिः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -रति a. 'delighting in virtue or justice', righteous, pious, just; तस्य धर्मरतेरासीद् वृद्धत्वं जरसा विना R.1.23. -रत्नम् N. of a Jaina स्मृतिग्रन्थ prepared by Jīmūtavāhana. -राज् -m. an epithet of Yama. -राज a. धर्मशील q. v.; धर्मराजेन जनकेन महात्मना (विदेहान् रक्षितान्) Mb.12.325 19. -राजः an epithet of 1 Yama. -2 Jina. -3 युधिष्ठिर. -4 a king. -राजन् m. N. of युधिष्ठिर. -राजिका a monument, a stūpa (Sārnāth Inscrip. of Mahīpāla; Ind. Ant. Vol.14, p.14.) -रोधिन् a. 1 opposed to law, illegal, unlawful. -2 immoral. -लक्षणम् 1 the essential mark of law. -2 the Vedas. (-णा) the Mīmāṁsā philosophy. -लोपः 1 irreligion, immorality. -2 violation of duty; धर्मलोपभयाद्राज्ञीमृतुस्नातामिमां स्मरन् R. 1.76. -वत्सल a. loving piety or duty. -वर्तिन् a. just, virtuous. -वर्धनः an epithet of Śiva. -वादः discussion about law or duty, religious controversy; अनुकल्पः परो धर्मो धर्मवादैस्तु केवलम् Mb.12.165.15. -वासरः 1 the day of full moon. -2 yesterday. -वाहनः 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 a buffalo (being the vehicle of Yama). -विद् a. familiar with the law (civil or religious). ˚उत्तमः N. of Viṣṇu. -विद्या knowledge of the law or right. -विधिः a legal precept or injunction; एष धर्मविधिः कृत्स्नश्चातुर्वर्ण्यस्य कीर्तितः Ms.1.131. -विप्लवः violation of duty, immorality. -विवेचनम् 1 judicial investigation; यस्य शूद्रस्तु कुरुते राज्ञो धर्मविवेचनम् । तस्य सीदति तद्राष्ट्रं पङ्के गौरिव पश्यतः ॥ Ms.8.21. -2 dissertation on duty. -वीरः (in Rhet.) the sentiment of heroism arising out of virtue or piety, the sentiment of chivalrous piety; the following instance is given in R. G.:-- सपदि विलयमेतु राज्यलक्ष्मीरुपरि पतन्त्वथवा कृपाणधाराः । अपहरतुतरां शिरः कृतान्तो मम तु मतिर्न मनागपैतु धर्मात् ॥ स च दानधर्मयुद्धैर्दयया च समन्वितश्चतुर्धा स्यात् S. D. -वृद्ध a. advanced in virtue or piety; न धर्मवृद्धेषु वयः समीक्ष्यते Ku.5.16. -वैतंसिकः one who gives away money unlawfully acquired in the hope of appearing generous. -व्यवस्था m. judicial decision, decisive sentence. -शाला 1 a court of justice, tribunal. -2 any charitabla institution. -शासनम्, शास्त्रम् a code of laws, jurisprudence; न धर्मशास्त्रं पठतीति कारणम् H.1.17; Y.1.5. [मनुर्यमो वसिष्ठो$त्रिः दक्षो विष्णुस्तथाङ्गिराः । उशना वाक्पतिर्व्यास आपस्तम्बो$ थ गौतमः ॥ कात्यायनो नारदश्च याज्ञवल्क्यः पराशरः । संवर्तश्चैव शङ्खश्च हारीतो लिखितस्तथा ॥ एतैर्यानि प्रणीतानि धर्मशास्त्राणि वै पुरा । तान्येवातिप्रमाणानि न हन्तव्यानि हेतुभिः ॥] -शील a. just, pious, virtuous. -शुद्धिः a correct knowledge of the law; प्रत्यक्षं चानुमानं च शास्त्रं च विविधागमम् । त्रयं सुविदितं कार्यं धर्मशुद्धिमभीप्सता ॥ Ms.12.15. -संहिता a code of laws (especially compiled by sages like Manu, Yājñavalkya, &c.). -संगः 1 attachmet to justice or virtue. -2 hypocrisy. -संगीतिः 1 discussion about law. -2 (with Buddhists) a council. -सभा a court of justice. -समयः a legal obligation; यश्चापि धर्मसमयात्प्रच्युतो धर्मजीवनः Ms.9.273. -सहायः a partner or companion in the discharge of religious duties. -सूः m. the fork-tailed shrike. -सूत्रम् a book on पूर्वमीमांसा written by Jaimini. -सेतुः an epithet of Śiva. -सेवनम् fulfilment of duties. -स्थः a judge; धर्मस्थः कारणैरेतैर्हीनं तमिति निर्दिशेत् Ms.8.57. -स्थीय a. Concerning law; धर्मस्थीयं तृतीयं प्रकरणम् Kau. A.3. -स्वामिन् m. an epithet of Buddha.
nipaḥ निपः पम् A water-jar. -पः The Kadamba tree. निप(पा)ठः, निपठनम्, निपठितिः f. Reading, reciting, studying.
nir निर् ind. A substitute for निस् before vowels and soft consonants conveying the senses of 'out of', 'away from'. 'without', 'free from', and be frequently expressed by 'less', 'un', used with the noun; see the compounds given below; see निस् and cf. अ also. -Comp. -अंश a. 1 whole, entire. -2 not entitled to any share of the ancestral property. -अक्षः the place of no latitute; i. e. the terrestrial equator (in astronomy). ˚देशः 1 a first meridian, as Laṅkā. -2 a place where the sun is always vertical and the days and nights are equal. -3 the equatorial region. -अक्षर a. Not knowing the letters, illiterate. -अग्नि a. having lost or neglected the consecrated fire; स संन्यासी च योगी च न निरग्निर्न चाक्रियः Bg.6.1. -अग्र (क) a. divisible without remainder. -अङ्कुश a. 'not curbed by a hook', unchecked, uncontrolled; unruly, independent, completely free, unfettered; निरङ्कुश इव द्विपः Bhāg.; कामो निकामनिरङ्कुशः Gīt.7; निरङ्कुशाः कवयः Sk.; Bh.3.15; Mv.3.39; विनयरुचयः सदैव निरङ्कुशाः Mu.3.6. ˚ता self-will, independence. -अघ a. sinless, blameless. -अङ्ग a. 1 having no parts. -2 deprived of expedients or resources. -अजिन a. skinless. -अञ्जन a. 1 without collyrium; निरञ्जने साचिविलोलिकं दृशौ Ki.8.52. -2 unstained, untinged. -3 free from falsehood; तदा विद्वान् पुण्यपापे विधूय निरञ्जनं परमं साम्यमुपैति Munda 3.1.3. -4 simple, artless. (-नः) 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 N. of the Supreme Being. (-ना) 1 the day of full moon. -2 an epithet of Durgā. -अतिशय a. unsurpassed, matchless, unrivalled; निरतिशयं गरिमाणं तेन जनन्याः स्मरन्ति विद्वांसः Pt.1.3. (-यः) the Supreme Being. -अत्यय a. 1 free from danger, secure, safe; तद्भवान् वृत्तसंपन्नः स्थितः पथि निरत्यये Rām.4.29.12; R.17.53. -2 free from fault, unblamable, faultless, disinterested; Ki.1.12, शक्तिरर्थपतिषु स्वयंग्रहं प्रेम कारयति वा निरत्ययम् 13.61. -3 completely successful. -अधिष्ठान a. 1 supportless. -2 independent. -अध्व a. one who has lost one's way. -अनुक्रोश a. pitiless, merciless, hard-hearted. (-शः) mercilessness, hard-heartedness. -अनुग a. having no followers. -अनुग्रह a. Ungracious, unkind; Bhāg.5. 12.7. -अनुनासिक a. not nasal. -अनुमान a. not bound to conclusions or consequences. -अनुयोज्य a. unblamable, faultless. -अनुरोध a. 1 unfavourable, unfriendly. -2 unkind, unamiable; Māl.1. -अन्तर a. -1 constant, perpetual, uninterrupted, incessant; निरन्त- राधिपटलैः Bv.1.16; निरन्तरास्वन्तरवातवृष्टिषु Ku.5.25. -2 having no intervening or intermediate space, having no interval, close, closely contiguous, in close contact; मूढे निरन्तरपयोधरया मयैव Mk.5.15; हृदयं निरन्तरबृहत्कठिनस्तन- मण्डलावरणमप्यभिदन् Śi.9.66. -3 compact, dense; परितो रुद्धनिरन्तराम्बराः Śi.16.76. -4 coarse, gross. -5 faithful, true (as a friend). -6 not hidden from view. -7 not different, similar, identical. -8 sincere, sympathetic; सुहृदि निरन्तरचित्ते (निवेद्य दुःखं सुखीभवति) Pt.1.341. -9 abounding in, full of; निपात्यमानैर्ददृशे निरन्तरम् Rām.7.7. 54; गुणैश्च निरन्तराणि Mv.4.12. (-रम्) ind. 1 without interruption, constantly, continually, incessantly. -2 without intervening space or interval. -3 closely, tightly, firmly; (परिष्वजस्व) कान्तैरिदं मम निरन्तरमङ्गमङ्गैः Ve.3.27; परिष्वजेते शयने निरन्तरम् Ṛs.2.11. -4 immediately. ˚अभ्यासः constant study, diligent exercise or practice. -अन्तराल a. 1 without an intervening space, close. -2 narrow. -अन्धस् a. foodless, hungry. -अन्वय a. 1 having no progeny, childless. -2 unconnected, unrelated; Ms.8.198. -3 not agreeing with the context (as a word in a sentence). -4 without logical connection or regular sequence, unmethodical. -5 without being seen, out of sight; निरन्वयं भवेत् स्तेयम् Ms.8. 332. -6 without retinue, unaccompanied, see अन्वय. -7 sudden, unexpected; U.7. -8 exterminatory, without leaving any species or trace; प्रागाधारनिरन्वयप्रमथनादुच्छेदमे- वाकरोः... Mv.3.13; (com. नाशो द्विविधः--स्वान्वयविनाशः, निरन्वयविनाशश्चेति......निर्वापणादिना सजातीयज्वालोदयानर्हविनाशस्तु निरन्वयविनाशः ।). -अपत्रप a. 1 shameless, impudent. -2 bold. -अपराध a. guiltless, innocent, faultless, blameless. (-धः) innocence. -अपवर्त a. 1 not turning back. -2 (in arith.) leaving no common divisor, reduced to the lowest terms. -अपवाद a. 1 blameless. -2 not admitting of any exception. -अपाय a. 1 free from harm or evil. -2 free from decay, imperishable. -3 infallible; उपायो निरपायो$यमस्माभिरभिचिन्तितः Rām.1.1.2. -अपेक्ष a. 1 not depending on, irrespective or independent of, having no need of (with loc.); न्यायनिर्णीतसारत्वा- न्निरपेक्षमिवागमे Ki.11.39. -2 disregarding, taking no notice of. -3 free from desire, secure; निरपेक्षो न कर्तव्यो भृत्यैः स्वामी कदाचन H.2.82. -4 careless, negligent, indifferent -5 indifferent to worldly attachments or pursuits; समुपोढेषु कामेषु निरपेक्षः परिव्रजेत् Ms.6.41. -6 disinterested, not expecting any reward from another; दिशि दिशि निरपेक्ष- स्तावकीनं विवृण्वन् Bv.1.5. -7 without purpose. (-क्षा) indifference, disregard. -अपेक्षित a. 1 disregarded. -2 regardless. -अपेक्षिन् a. disregarding, indifferent. -अभिभव a. 1 not subject to humiliation or disgrace. -2 not to be surpassed, unrivalled. -अभिमान a. 1 free from self-conceit, devoid of pride or egotism. -2 void of self-respect. -3 unconscious. -अभिलाष a. not caring for, indifferent to; स्वसुखनिरभिलाषः खिद्यसे लोकहेतोः Ś.5.7. -अभिसंधानम् absence of design. -अभ्र a. cloudless. -अमर्ष a. 1 void of anger, patient. -2 apathetic. -अम्बर a. naked. -अम्बु a. 1 abstaining from water. -2 waterless, destitute of water. -अर्गल a. without a bolt, unbarred, unobstructed, unrestrained, unimpeded, completely free; M.5; मरणसमये त्यक्त्वा शङ्कां प्रलापनिरर्गलम् Māl.5.26. (-लम्) ind. freely. -अर्थ a. 1 void of wealth, poor, indigent; स्त्रियः कृतार्थाः पुरुषं निरर्थं निष्पीडितालक्तकवत्त्यजन्ति Pt.1.194. -2 meaningless, unmeaning (as a word or sentence). -3 non-sensical. -4 vain, useless, purposeless. (-र्थः) 1 loss, detriment. -2 nonsense. -अर्थक a. 1 useless, vain, unprofitable. -2 unmeaning, nonsensical, conveying no reasonable meaning; इत्थं जन्म निरर्थकं क्षितितले$रण्ये यथा मालती S. D. -3 (a consonant) not followed by a vowel. (-कम्) an expletive; निरर्थकं तु हीत्यादि पूरणैकप्रयोजनम् Chandr.2.6. -अलंकृतिः (in Rhet.) want of ornament, simplicity. -अवकाश a. 1 without free space. -2 without leisure. -अवग्रह a. 1 'free from restraint', unrestrained, unchecked, uncontrolled, irresistible. -2 free, independent. -3 self-willed, head-strong. (-हम्) ind. 1 uninterruptedly. -2 intensely, strongly. -अवद्य a. 1 blameless, faultless, unblameable, unobjectionable; हृद्य- निरवद्यरूपो भूपो बभूव Dk.1. -2 an epithet of the Supreme Being (having no passions). -अवधि a. having no end, unlimited; कथं तूष्णीं सह्यो निरवधिरयं त्वप्रतिविधः U. 3.44;6.3; Māl.1.6. -2 continuous; महानाधिव्याधि- र्निरवधिरिदानीं प्रसरतु Māl.4.3. -अवयव a. 1 without parts. -2 indivisible. -3 without limbs. -अवलम्ब a. 1 unsupported, without support; Ś.6. -2 not affording support. -3 not depending or relying on. -अवशेष a. whole, complete, entire, (निरवशेषेण ind. completely, entirely, fully, totally). -अवसाद a. cheerful; Gīt. -अव्यय a. eternal, immutable. -अशन a. abstaining from food. (-नम्) fasting. -अश्रि a. even; Kau. A.2.11. -अष्ट a. Ved. driven away, scattered. (-ष्टः) a horse twentyfour years old. -अस्त्र a. weaponless, unarmed. -अस्थि a. boneless. -अहंकार, -अहंकृति a. free from egotism or pride, humble, lowly; Bg.12.13. -अहंकृत a. 1 having no egotism or self-consciousness. -2 without individuality. -3 unselfish. -अहम् a. free from egotism or self-conceit; ह्यनामरूपं निरहं प्रपद्ये Bhāg. 5.19.4. -आकाङ्क्ष a. 1 wishing nothing, free from desire. -2 wanting nothing to fill up or complete (as the sense of a word or sentence). -आकार a. 1 devoid of form, formless, without form. -2 ugly, deformed. -3 disguised. -4 unassuming, modest. (-रः) 1 the universal spirit, Almighty. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -3 of Viṣṇu. ˚ज्ञानवादः the doctrine that the perception of the outer world does not arise from images impressed on the mind; Sarva. S. -आकृति a. 1 formless, shapeless. -2 deformed. (-तिः) 1 a religious student who has not duly gone through a course of study, or who has not properly read the Vedas. -2 especially, a Brāhmaṇa who has neglected the duties of his caste by not going through a regular course of study; a fool; ग्रामधान्यं यथा शून्यं यथा कूपश्च निर्जलः । यथा हुतमनग्नौ च तथैव स्यान्निराकृतौ ॥ Mb.12.36.48. -3 one who neglects the five great religious duties or yajñas; Ms.3.154. -आकाश a. leaving no free space, completely filled or occupied, -आकुल a. 1 unconfused, unperplexed, unbewildered; Ki.11.38. -2 steady, calm; सुपात्रनिक्षेपनिरा- कुलात्मना (प्रजासृजा) Śi.1.28. -3 clear. -4 perspicuous; अलिकुलसङ्कुलकुसुमसमूहनिराकुलबकुलकलापे Gīt.1. (-लम्) 1 calmness serenity. -2 perspicuity, clearness. -आक्रन्द a. not crying or complaining. (-दः) a place where no sound can be heard. -आक्रोश a. unaccused, unreviled. -आगम a. not founded on revelation or scripture, not derived from the Vedas. -आगस् a. faultless, innocent, sinless; कथमेकपदे निरागसं जनमाभाष्यमिमं न मन्यसे R.8.48. -आचार a. without approved customs or usages, lawless, barbarian. -आडम्बर a. 1 without drums. -2 without show, unostentatious. -आतङ्क a. 1 free from fear; R.1.63; निरातङ्को रङ्को विहरति चिरं कोटिकनकैः Śaṅkara (देव्यपराधक्षमापनस्तोत्रम् 6). -2 without ailment, comfortable, healthy. -3 not causing pain. -4 unchecked, unhampered; निरातङ्कः पङ्केष्विव पिशितपिण्डेषु विलसन् Māl. 5.34. (-कः) an epithet of Śiva. -आतप a. sheltered from heat, shady, not penetrated by the sun's rays. (-पा) the night. -आदर a. disrespectful. -आदान a. 1 taking or receiving nothing; Mb.3. -2 an epithet of Buddha. -आधार a. 1 without a receptacle. -2 without support, supportless (fig. also); निराधारो हा रोदिमि कथय केषामिह पुरः G. L.4.39. -आधि a. secure, free from anxiety. -आनन्द a. cheerless, sad, sorrowful. -आन्त्र a. 1 disembowelled. -2 having the entrails hanging out. -आपद् a. free from misfortune or calamity. (-f.) prosperity. -आबाध a. 1 unvexed, unmolested, undisturbed, free from disturbance. -2 unobstructed. -3 not molesting or disturbing. -4 (in law) frivolously vexatious (as a suit or cause of complaint); e. g. अस्मद्- गृहप्रदीपप्रकाशेनायं स्वगृहे व्यवहरति Mitā. -आमय a. 1 free from disease or illness, sound, healthy, hale. -2 untainted, pure. -3 guileless. -4 free from defects or blemishes. -5 full, complete. -6 infallible. -7 not liable to failure or miscarriage. (-यः, यम्) freedom from disease or illness, health, well-being, welfare, happiness; कुरूणां पाण्डवानां च प्रतिपत्स्व निरामयम् Mb.5.78.8. (-यः) 1 a wild goat. -2 a hog or boar. -आमिष a. 1 fleshless; निरुपमरसप्रीत्या खादन्नरास्थि निरामिषम् Bh. -2 having no sensual desires or covetousness; Ms.6.49. -3 receiving no wages or remuneration. -आय a. yielding no income or revenue, profitless. -यः an idler living from hand to mouth. -आयत a. 1 full-stretched or extended; निरायतपूर्वकायाः Ś.1.8. -2 contracted, compact. -आय- -तत्वम् shortness, compactness; निरायतत्वादुदरेण ताम्यता Ki.8.17. -आयति a. one whose end is at hand; नियता लघुता निरायतेः Ki.2.14. -आयास a. not fatiguing, easy. -आयुध a. unarmed, weaponless. -आरम्भ a. abstaining from all work (in good sense); Mb.3.82.11. -आलम्ब a. 1 having no prop or support (fig. also); ऊर्ध्वबाहुं निरालम्बं तं राजा प्रत्यभाषत Rām.7.89.1; निरालम्बो लोकः कुलमयशसा नः परिवृतम् Mv.4.53. -2 not depending on another, independent. -3 self-supported, friendless, alone; निरालम्बो लम्बोदरजननि कं यामि शरणम् Jag. (-म्बा) spikenard. (-म्बम्) Brahman. -आलोक a. 1 not looking about or seeing. -2 deprived of sight. -3 deprived of light, dark; निरालोकं लोकम् Māl.5.3; Bhāg.8.24.35. -5 invisible. (-कः) an epithet of Śiva. -आवर्ण a. manifest, evident. -आश a. 1 devoid of hope, despairing or despondent of; मनो बभूवेन्दुमतीनिराशम् R.6.2. -2 depriving (one) of all hope. -आशक, -आशिन् a. hopeless; अद्य दुर्योधनो राज्याज्जीविताच्च निराशकः (भविष्यति) Mb.8.74.13. -आशङ्क a. fearless. -आशा hopelessness, despair. -आशिस् a. 1 without a boon or blessing, without virtues; आश्रमा विहिताः सर्वे वर्जयित्वा निराशिषम् Mb.12.63.13. -2 without any desire, wish or hope, indifferent; निराशीर्यतचित्तात्मा Bg.4.21; जगच्छ- रण्यस्य निराशिषः सतः Ku.5.76. -आश्रय a. 1 without a prop or support, supportless, unsupported; न तिष्ठति निराश्रयं लिङ्गम् Sāṅ. K.41. -2 friendless, destitute, alone, without shelter or refuge; निराश्रयाधुना वत्सलता. -3 not deep (as a wound). -आस्वाद a. tasteless, insipid, unsavoury. -आहार a. 'foodless', fasting, abstaining from food. (-रः) fasting; कालो$ग्निः कर्म मृद् वायुर्मनो ज्ञानं तपो जलम् । पश्चात्तापो निराहारः सर्वे$मी शुद्धिहेतवः ॥ Y.3.31. -इङ्ग a. immovable, stationary; यथा दीपो निवातस्थो निरिङ्गो ज्वलते पुनः Mb.12.46.6. -इच्छ a. without wish or desire, indifferent. -इन्द्रिय a. 1 having lost a limb or the use of it. -2 mutilated, maimed. -3 weak, infirm, frail; Kaṭh.1.1.3. -4 barren. -5 without प्रमाण or means of certain knowledge; निरिन्द्रिया ह्यमन्त्राश्च स्त्रियो$नृत- मिति स्थितिः Ms.9.18. -6 destitute of manly vigour, impotent (Ved.). -इन्धन a. destitute of fuel. -ईति a. free from the calamities of the season; निरातङ्का निरीतयः R.1.63; see ईति. -ईश्वर a. godless, atheistic. -˚वाद atheistic doctrine. -ईषम् the body of a plough. -ईह a. 1 desireless, indifferent; निरीहाणामीशस्तृणमिव तिरस्कारविषयः Mu.3.16. -2 inactive; निरीहस्य हतद्विषः R.1.24. (-हा), -निरीहता, -त्वम् 1 inactivity. -2 indifference. -उच्छ्वास a. 1 breathless, without breathing; निरुच्छ्वासं हरिं चक्रुः Rām.7.7.6. -2 narrow, contracted; उपेयुषो वर्त्म निरन्तराभिरसौ निरुच्छ्वासमनीकिनीभिः Śi.3.32. -3 dead; निरुच्छ्वासाः पुनः केचित् पतिता जगतीतले Rām.6.58.13. (-सः) absence of breath; लोका निरुच्छ्वासनिपीडिता भृशम् Bhāg.4. 8.8. -उत्तर a. 1 answerless, without a reply. -2 unable to answer, silenced. -3 having no superior. -उत्थ a. irrecoverable. -उद्धति a. not jolting (a chariot); अभूतल- स्पर्शतया निरुद्धतिः Ś.7.1. (v. l.) -उत्सव a. without festivities; विरतं गेयमृतुर्निरुत्सवः R.8.66. -उत्साह a. 1 inactive, indolent. -2 devoid of energy. (-हः) 1 absence of energy. -2 indolence. -उत्सुक a. 1 indifferent. -2 calm, tranquil. -उदक a. waterless. -उदर a. 1 having no belly or trunk. -2 thin (अतुन्दिल); श्रीमान्निरुदरो महान् Rām.3.16.31. -उद्यम, -उद्योग a. effortless, inactive, lazy, idle. उद्विग्न, -उद्वेग a. free from excitement or perturbation, sedate, calm. -उपक्रम a. 1 without a commencement. -2 incurable. -उपद्रव a. 1 free from calamity or affliction, not visited by danger or adversity, lucky, happy, undisturbed, unmolested, free from hostile attacks. -2 free from national distress or tyranny. -3 causing no affliction. -4 auspicious (as a star). -5 secure, peaceful. -उपधि a. guileless, honest; U.2.2. ˚जीवन a. leading an honest life. (v. l.). -उपपत्ति a. unsuitable. -उपपद a. 1 without any title or designation; अरे आर्यचारुदत्तं निरुपपदेन नाम्नालपसि Mk.1.18/19. -2 unconnected with a subordinate word. -उपप्लव a. 1 free from disturbance, obstacle or calamity, unharmed; निरुपप्लवानि नः कर्माणि संवृत्तानि Ś3. -2 not causing any affliction or misery. -3 an epithet of Śiva. -उपभोग a. without enjoyment; संसरति निरुपभोगं भावैरधिवासितं लिङ्गम् Sāṅ. K.4. -उपम a. peerless, matchless, incomparable. -उपसर्ग free from portents. -उपस्कृत a. not corrupted, pure; of self-denying temperament; शमेन तपसा चैव भक्त्या च निरुपस्कृतः । शुद्धात्मा ब्राह्मणो रात्रौ निदर्शनमपश्यत ॥ Mb.12.271.14. -उपहत a. 1 not injured, unhurt. -2 auspicious, lucky. -उपाख्य a. 1 unreal, false, non-existent (as वन्ध्यापुत्र). -2 immaterial. -3 invisible. (-ख्यम्) the supreme Brahman. -उपाधि (क) a. without qualities, absolute. -उपाय a. 1 without expedients, helpless. -2 unsuccessful. -उपेक्ष a. 1 free from trick or fraud. -2 not neglectful. -उष्मन् a. devoid of heat, cold. -गन्ध a. void of smell, scentless, unfragrant, inodorous; निर्गन्धा इव किंशुकाः. ˚पुष्पी f. the Śālmali tree. -गर्व a. free from pride. -गवाक्ष a. windowless. -गुण a. 1 stringless (as a bow). -2 devoid of all properties. -3 devoid of good qualities, bad, worthless; निर्गुणः शोभते नैव विपुलाड- म्बरो$पि ना Bv.1.115. -4 without attributes; साकारं च निराकारं सगुणं निर्गुणं विभुम् Brahmavai. P. -5 having no epithet. (-णः) the Supreme Spirit. ˚आत्मक a. having no qualities. -गृहः a. houseless, homeless; सुगृही निर्गृही- कृता Pt.39. -गौरव a. 1 without dignity, undignified. -2 devoid of respect. -ग्रन्थ a. 1 freed from all ties or hindrances; आत्मारामाश्च मुनयो निर्ग्रन्था अप्युरुक्रमे । कुर्वन्त्यहैतुकीं भक्तिम् Bhāg.1.7.1. -2 poor, possessionless, beggarly. -3 alone, unassisted. (-न्थः) 1 an idiot, a fool. -2 a gambler. -3 a saint or devotee who has renounced all worldly attachments and wanders about naked and lives as a hermit. -4 A Buddha Muni. -ग्रन्थक a. 1 clever, expert. -2 unaccompanied, alone. -3 deserted, abandoned. -4 fruitless. (-कः 1 a religious mendicant. -2 a naked devotee. -3 a gambler. -ग्रन्थिक a. clever. (-कः) a naked mendicant, a Jaina mendicant of the Digambara class. -घटम् 1 a free market. -2 a crowded market. -घण्टः See निघण्टः. -घृण a. 1 cruel, merciless, pitiless. -2 shameless, immodest. -घृणा cruelty. -घोष a. noiseless, still, calm. -जन a. 1 tenantless, uninhabited, unfrequented, lonely, desolate. -2 without any retinue or attendants; भूयश्चैवाभिरक्षन्तु निर्धनान्निर्जना इव Mb.12.151.7. (-नम्) a desert, solitude, lonely place. -जन्तु a. free from living germs; H. Yoga. -जर a. 1 young, fresh. -2 imperishable, immortal. (-रः) a deity, god; (nom. pl. निर्जराः -निर्जरसः) (-रम्) ambrosia, nectar. -जरायु a. Ved. skinless. -जल a. 1 waterless, desert, destitute of water. -2 not mixed with water. (-लः) a waste, desert. ˚एकादशी N. of the eleventh day in the bright half of Jyeṣṭha. -जाड्य free from coldness. -जिह्वः a frog. -जीव a. 1 lifeless. -2 dead; चिता दहति निर्जीवं चिन्ता दहति जीवितम्. -ज्ञाति a. having no kinsmen, alone. -ज्वर a. feverless, healthy. -दण्डः a Śūdra. -दय a. 1 merciless, cruel, pitiless, unmerciful, unkind. -2 passionate. -3 very close, firm or fast, strong, excessive, violent; मुग्धे विधेहि मयि निर्दयदन्तदंशम् Gīt.1; निर्दयरति- श्रमालसाः R.19.32; निर्दयाश्लेषहेतोः Me.18. -4 unpitied by any; निर्दया निर्नमस्कारास्तन्मनोरनुशासनम् Ms.9.239. -दयम् ind. 1 unmercifully, cruelly. -2 violently, excessively; न प्रहर्तुमलमस्मि निर्दयम् R.11.84. -दश a. more than ten days old; यदा पशुर्निर्दशः स्यादथ मेध्यो भवे- दिति Bhāg.9.7.11. -दशन a. toothless. -दाक्षिण्य a. uncourteous. -दुःख a. 1 free from pain, painless. -2 not causing pain. -दैन्य a. happy, comfortable. -दोष a. 1 faultless, defectless; न निर्दोषं न निर्गुणम् -2 guiltless, innocent. -द्रव्य a. 1 immaterial. -2 without property, poor. -द्रोह a. not hostile, friendly, well-disposed, not malicious. -द्वन्द्व a. 1 indifferent in regard to opposite pairs of feelings (pleasure or pain), neither glad nor sorry; निर्द्वन्द्वो निर्ममो भूत्वा चरिष्यामि मृगैः सह Mb.1.85.16; निर्द्वन्द्वो नित्यसत्त्वस्थो निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् Bg.2.45. -2 not dependent upon another, independent. -3 free from jealousy or envy. -4 not double. -5 not contested, undisputed. -6 not acknowledging two principles. -धन a. without property, poor, indigent; शशिनस्तुल्यवंशो$पि निर्धनः परिभूयते Chāṇ.82. (-नः) an old ox. ˚ता, ˚त्वम् poverty, indigence. -धर्म a. unrighteous, impious, unholy. -धूम a. smokeless. -धौत a. cleansed, rendered clean; निर्धौत- दानामलगण्डभित्तिर्वन्यः सरित्तो गज उन्ममज्ज R.5.43. -नमस्कार a. 1 not courteous or civil, not respecting any one. -2 disrespected, despised. -नर a. abandoned by men, deserted. -नाणक a. coinless, penniless; Mk.2. -नाथ a. without a guardian or master. ˚ता 1 want of protection. -2 widowhood. -3 orphanage. -नाभि a. going or reaching beyond the navel; निर्नाभि कौशेयमुपात्तबाणम् Ku.7.7. -नायक a. having no leader or ruler, anarchic. -नाशन, -नाशिन् a. expelling, banishing. -निद्र a. sleepless, wakeful. -निमित्त a. 1 causeless. -2 disinterested. -निमेष a. not twinkling. -बन्धु a. without kindred or relation, friendless. -बल n. powerless, weak, feeble. -बाध a. 1 unobstructed. -2 unfrequented, lonely, solitary. -3 unmolested. (-धः) 1 a part of the marrow. -2 a knob. -बीज a. seedless, impotent. (-जा) a sort of grape (Mar. बेदाणा). -बुद्धि a. stupid, ignorant, foolish. -बुष, -बुस a. unhusked, freed from chaff. -भक्त a. taken without eating (as a medicine). -भय a. 1 fearless, undaunted. -2 free from danger, safe, secure; निर्भयं तु भवेद्यस्य राष्ट्रं बाहुबलाश्रितम् Ms.9.255. -भर a. 1 excessive, vehement, violent, much, strong; त्रपाभरनिर्भर- स्मरशर &c. Gīt.12; तन्व्यास्तिष्ठतु निर्भरप्रणयिता मानो$पि रम्यो- दयः Amaru.47. -2 ardent. -3 fast, close (as embrace); कुचकुम्भनिर्भरपरीरम्भामृतं वाञ्छति Gīt.; परिरभ्य निर्भरम् Gīt.1. -4 sound, deep (as sleep). -5 full of, filled with (at the end of comp.); आनन्द˚, गर्व˚ &c. (-रः) a servant receiving no wages. (-रम्) excess. (-रम् ind.) 1 excessively, exceedingly, intensely. -2 soundly. -भाग्य a. unfortunate, unlucky. -भाज्य a. to be separated; स निर्भाज्यः स्वकादंशात् किंचिद्दत्वोपजीवनम् Ms.9.27. -भृतिः a. without wages, hireless. -भोगः a. not fond of pleasures. -मक्षिक a. 'free from flies', undisturbed, private, lonely. (-कम्) ind. without flies, i. e. lonely, private; कृतं भवतेदानीं निर्मक्षिकम् Ś.2,6. -मज्ज a. fatless, meagre. -मत्सर a. free from envy, unenvious; निर्मत्सरे मत्समे वत्स... वसुन्धराभारमारोप्य Rāmāyaṇachampū. -मत्स्य a. fishless. -मद a. 1 not intoxicated, sober, quiet. -2 not proud, humble. -3 sad, sorry. -4 not in rut (as an elephant). -मनुज, -मनुष्य a. tenantless, uninhabited, deserted by men. -मन्तु a. faultless, innocent. -मन्त्र a. 1 a ceremony, unaccompanied by holy texts. -2 not familiar with holy texts; Mb.12.36.43. -मन्यु, -मन्युक a. free from anger; Mb.5.133.4. -मम a. 1 free from all connections with the outer world, who has renounced all worldly ties; संसारमिव निर्ममः (ततार) R.12.6; Bg.2.71; निराशीर्निर्ममो भूत्वा युध्यस्व विगतज्वरः 3.3. -2 unselfish, disinterested. -3 indifferent to (with loc.); निर्ममे निर्ममो$र्थेषु मथुरां मधुराकृतिः R.15.28; प्राप्तेष्वर्थेषु निर्ममाः Mb. -4 an epithet of Śiva. -मर्याद a. 1 boundless, immeasurable. -2 transgressing the limits of right or propriety, unrestrained, unruly, sinful, criminal; मनुजपशुभिर्निर्मर्यादैर्भवद्भिरुदायुधैः Ve.3.22. -3 confused. -4 insolent, immodest. (-दम्) ind. confusedly, topsyturvy. (-दम्) confusion, disorder. -मल a. 1 free from dirt or impurities, clear, pure, stainless, unsullied (fig. also); नीरान्निर्मलतो जनिः Bv.1.63. -2 resplendent, bright; Bh.1.56. -3 sinless, virtuous; निर्मलाः स्वर्गमायान्ति सन्तः सुकृतिनो यथा Ms.8.318. (-लम्) 1 talc. -2 the remainings of an offering made to a deity. ˚उपलः a crystal. -मशक a. free from gnats. -मांस a. fleshless; स्वल्प- स्नायुवसावशेषमलिनं निर्मांसमप्यस्थिकम् Bh.2.3. -मान a. 1 without self-confidence. -2 free from pride. -मानुष a. uninhabited, desolate. -मार्ग a. roadless, pathless. -मिथ्य a. not false, true; H. Yoga. -मुटः 1 a tree bearing large blossoms. -2 the sun. -3 a rogue. (-टम्) a large free market or fair. -मूल a. 1 rootless (as a tree). -2 baseless, unfounded (statement, charge &c.). -3 eradicated. -मेघ a. cloudless. -मेध a. without understanding, stupid, foolish, dull. -मोह a. free from illusion. (-हः) an epithet of Śiva. -यत्न a. inactive, lazy, dull. -यन्त्रण a. 1 unrestrained, unobstructed, uncontrolled, unrestricted. -2 unruly, self-willed, independent. (-णम्) 1 squeezing out. -2 absence of restraint, independence. -यशस्क a. without fame, discreditable, inglorious. -युक्त a. 1 constructed, built. -2 directed. -3 (in music) limited to metre and measure. -युक्ति f. 1 disunion. -2 absence of connection or government. -3 unfitness, impropriety. -युक्तिक a. 1 disjoined, unconnected. -2 illogical, unmeaning. -3 unfit, improper. -यूथ a. separated from the herd, strayed from the flock (as an elephant). -यूष = निर्यास. -योगक्षेम a. free from care (about acquisition); Bg.2. 45. -रक्त a. (-नीरक्त) colourless, faded. -रज, -रजस्क a. (-नीरज, नीरजस्क) 1 free from dust. -2 devoid of passion or darkness. (-जः) an epithet of Śiva. -रजस् (नरिजस्) a. see नीरज. (-f.) a woman not menstruating. ˚तमसा absence of passion or darkness. -रत (नीरत) a. not attached to, indifferent. -रन्ध्र a. (नीरन्ध्र) 1 without holes or interstices, very close or contiguous, thickly situated; नीरन्ध्रनीरनिचुलानि सरित्तटानि U.2.23. -2 thick, dense. -3 coarse, gross. -रव a. (-नीरव) not making any noise, noiseless; गतिविभ्रमसाद- नीरवा (रसना) R.8.58. -रस a. (नीरस) 1 tasteless, unsavoury, flavourless. -2 (fig.) insipid, without any poetic charm; नीरसानां पद्मानाम् S. D.1. -3 sapless, without juice, withered or dried up; Ś. Til.9. -4 vain, useless, fruitless; अलब्धफलनीरसान् मम विधाय तस्मिन् जने V.2.11. -5 disagreeable. -6 cruel, merciless. (-सः) the pomegranate. -रसन a. (नीरसन) having no girdle (रसना); Ki.5.11. -रुच् a. (नीरुच्) without lustre, faded, dim; परिमलरुचिराभिर्न्यक्कृतास्तु प्रभाते युवतिभिरुप- भोगान्नीरुचः पुष्पमालाः Śi.11.27. -रुज्, -रुज a. (नीरुज्, नीरुज) free from sickness, healthy, sound; नीरुजस्य किमौषधैः H.1. -रूप a. (नीरूप) formless, shapeless. (-पः) 1 air, wind. -2 a god. (-पम्) ether. -रोग a. (नीरोग) free from sickness or disease, healthy, sound; यथा नेच्छति नीरोगः कदाचित् सुचिकित्सकम् Pt.1.118. -लक्षण a. 1 having no auspicious marks, ill-featured. -2 undistinguished. -3 unimportant, insignificant. -4 unspotted. -5 having a white back. -लक्ष्य a. invisible. -लज्ज a. shameless, impudent. -लाञ्छनम् the marking of domestic animals (by perforating the nose &c.). -लिङ्ग a. having no distinguishing or characteristic marks. -लिप्त a. 1 unanointed. -2 undefiled, unsullied. -3 indifferent to. (-प्तः) 1 N. of Kṛiṣṇa. -2 a sage. -लून a. cut through or off. -लेप a. 1 unsmeared, unanointed; निर्लेपं काञ्चनं भाण्डमद्भिरेव विशुध्यति Ms.5.112. -2 stainless, sinless. (-पः) a sage. -लोभ a. free from desire or avarice, unavaricious. -लोमन् a. devoid of hair, hairless. -वंश a. without posterity, childless. -वचन a. 1 not speaking, silent. -2 unobjectionable, blameless; (for other senses see the word separately). -नम् ind. silently; माल्येन तां निर्वचनं जघान Ku.7.19. -वण, -वन a. 1 being out of a wood. -2 free from woods. -3 bare, open. -वत्सल a. not loving or fondling (esp. children); निर्वत्सले सुतशतस्य विपत्तिमेतां त्वं नानुचिन्तयसि Ve.5.3. -वर = निर्दरम् q. v. -वसु a. destitute of wealth, poor. -वाच्य a. 1 not fit to be said. -2 blameless, unobjectionable; सखीषु निर्वाच्य- मधार्ष्ट्यदूषितं प्रियाङ्गसंश्लेषमवाप मानिनी Ki.8.48. -वात a. free or sheltered from wind, calm, still; हिमनिष्यन्दिनी प्रातर्निर्वातेव वनस्थली R.15.66. (-तः) a place sheltered from or not exposed to wind; निर्वाते व्यजनम् H.2.124. -वानर a. free from monkeys. -वायस a. free from crows. -वार्य a. 1 irresistible. -2 acting fearlessly or boldly. -विकल्प, -विकल्पक a. 1 not admitting an alternative. -2 being without determination or resolution. -3 not capable of mutual relation. -4 conditioned. -5 undeliberative. -6 recognizing no such distinction as that of subject and object, or of the knower and the known; as applied to समाधि or contemplation, it is 'an exclusive concentration upon the one entity without distinct and separate consciousness of the knower, the known, and the knowing, and without even self-consciousness'; निर्विकल्पकः ज्ञातृज्ञानादिविकल्पभेद- लयापेक्षः; नो चेत् चेतः प्रविश सहसा निर्विकल्पे समाधौ Bh.3.61; आत्मारामा विहितरतयो निर्विकल्पे समाधौ Ve.1.23. -7 (in phil.) not arising from the relation of the qualifier and the qualified, (विशेषणविशेष्यसंबन्धानवगाहि प्रत्यक्षं ज्ञानम्) said of knowledge not derived from the senses, as घटत्व. (-ल्पम्) ind. without hesitation or wavering. -विकार a. 1 unchanged, unchangeable, immutable. -2 not disposed; तौ स्थास्यतस्ते नृपती निदेशे परस्परावग्रहनिर्विकारौ M.5.14. -3 disinterested; तरुविटपलतानां बान्धवो निर्विकारः Ṛs.2.28. (-रः) the Supreme deity. -विकास a. unblown. -विघ्न a. uninterrupted, unobstructed, free from impediments; निर्विघ्नं कुरु मे देव सर्वकार्येषु सर्वदा. (-घ्नम्) absence of impediment. -विचार a. not reflecting, thoughtless, inconsiderate; रे रे स्वैरिणि निर्विचारकविते मास्मत्प्रकाशीभव Chandr. 1.2. (-रम्) ind. thoughtlessly, unhesitatingly. -वि- चिकित्स a. free from doubt or reflection. -विचेष्ट a. motionless, insensible; यो हि दिष्टमुपासीनो निर्विचेष्टः सुखं शयेत् Mb.3.32.14. -वितर्क a. unreflecting. -विनोद a. without amusement, void of pastime, diversion or solace; शङ्के रात्रौ गुरुतरशुचं निर्विनोदां सखीं ते Me.9. -विन्ध्या N. of a river in the Vindhya hills; निर्विन्ध्यायाः पथि भव रसाभ्यन्तरः सन्निपत्य Me.28. -विमर्श a. 1 void of reflection, thoughtless. -2 not having विमर्श Sandhi. -विवर a. 1 having no opening or cavity. 2 without interstices or interval, close, compact; घटते हि संहततया जनितामिदमेव निर्विवरतां दधतोः Śi.9.44. -विवाद a. 1 not contending or disagreeing. -2 undisputed, not contradicted or disputed, universally acknowledged. -विवेक a. indiscreet, void of judgment, wanting in discrimination, foolish. -विशङ्क a. fearless, undaunted, confident; Ms.7.176; यस्मिन्कृत्यं समावेश्य निर्विशङ्केन चेतसा । आस्यते सेवकः स स्यात् कलत्रमिव चापरम् ॥ Pt.1.85. -विशेष a. showing or making no difference, indiscriminating, without distinction; निर्विशेषा वयं त्वयि Mb.; निर्विशेषो विशेषः Bh.3.5. 'a difference without distinction'. -2 having no difference, same, like, not differing from (oft. in comp.); निर्विशेषाकृति 'having the same form'; प्रवातनीलो- त्पलनिर्विशेषम् Ku.1.46; स निर्विशेषप्रतिपत्तिरासीत् R.14.22. -3 indiscriminate, promiscuous. (-षः) absence of difference. (निर्विशेषम् and निर्विशेषेण are used adverbially in the sense of 'without difference', 'equally', indiscriminately'; क्रुद्धेन विप्रमुक्तो$यं निर्विशेषं प्रियाप्रिये Rām.7.22.41. स्वगृहनिर्विशेषमत्र स्थीयताम् H.1; R.5.6.). -विशेषण a. without attributes. -विष a. poisonless (as a snake); निर्विषा डुण्डुभाः स्मृताः. -विषङ्ग a. not attached, indifferent. -विषय a. 1 expelled or driven away from one's home, residence or proper place; मनोनिर्विषयार्थकामया Ku.5.38; R.9.32; also -निर्विषयीकृत; वने प्राक्कलनं तीर्थं ये ते निर्विषयी- कृताः Rām.2.14.4. -2 having no scope or sphere of action; किंच एवं काव्यं प्रविरलविषयं निर्विषयं वा स्यात् S. D.1. -3 not attached to sensual objects (as mind). -विषाण a. destitute of horns. -विहार a. having no pleasure. -वीज, -बीज a. 1 seedless. -2 impotent. -3 causeless. -वीर a. 1 deprived of heroes; निर्वीरमुर्वीतलम् P. R.1.31. -2 cowardly. -वीरा a woman whose husband and children are dead. -वीर्य a. powerless, feeble, unmanly, impotent; निर्वीर्यं गुरुशापभाषितवशात् किं मे तवेवायुधम् Ve.3.34. -वीरुध, -वृक्ष a. treeless. -वृत्ति f. accomplishment, achievement; अत आसां निर्वृत्त्या अपवर्गः स्यात् । आतण्डुलनिर्वृत्तेः आ च पिष्टनिर्वृत्तेरभ्यास इति ॥ ŚB. on MS.11.1.27. -a. having no occupation, destitute. See निर्वृति. -वृष a. deprived of bulls. -वेग a. not moving, quiet, calm. -वेतन a honorary, unsalaried. -वेद a. not acknowledging the Vedas, an atheist, infidel. -वेष्टनम् a. a weaver's shuttle. -वैर a. free from enmity, amicable, peaceable. (-रम्) absence of enmity. -वैलक्ष्य a. shameless. -व्यञ्जन a. 1 straight-forward. -2 without condiment. (-नम् ind.) plainly, in a straight-forward or honest manner. -व्यथ, -न a. 1 free from pain. -2 quiet, calm. -व्यथनम् a hole; छिद्रं निर्व्यथनम् Ak. -व्यपेक्ष a. indifferent to, regardless of; मृग्यश्च दर्भाङ्कुरनिर्व्यपेक्षास्तवागतिज्ञं समबोधयन् माम् R.13.25;14.39. -व्यलीक a. 1 not hurting or offending. -2 without pain. -3 pleased, doing anything willingly. -4 sincere, genuine, undissembling. -व्यवधान a. (ground) uncovered, bare. -व्यवश्थ a. moving hither and thither. -व्यसन a. free from bad inclination. -व्याकुल a. calm. -व्याघ्र a. not haunted or infested by tigers. -व्याज a. 1 candid, upright, honest, plain. -2 without fraud, true, genuine. -3 got by heroism or daring deeds (not by fraud or cowardly conduct); अशस्त्रपूतनिर्व्याजम् (महामांसम्) Māl.5.12. (v. l.) -4 not hypocritical; धर्मस्य निर्व्याजता (विभूषणम्) Bh.2.82. (-जम् ind.) plainly, honestly, candidly; निर्व्याजमालिङ्गितः Amaru.85. -व्याजीकृत a. made plain, freed from deceit. -व्यापार a. 1 without employment or business, free from occupation; तं दधन्मैथिलीकण्ठनिर्व्यापारेण बाहुना R.15.56. -2 motionless; U.6. -व्यावृत्ति a. not involving any return (to worldly existence). -व्रण a. 1 unhurt, without wounds. -2 without rents. -व्रत a. not observing vows. -व्रीड a. shameless, impudent. -हिमम् cessation of winter. -हेति a. weaponless. -हेतु a. causeless, having no cause or reason. -ह्रीक a. 1 shameless, impudent. -2 bold, daring.
nis निस् ind. 1 As a prefix to verbs it implies separation (away from, outside of), certainty, completeness or fulness, enjoyment, crossing over, transgressing &c.; (for examples see under (निर्). -2 As a prefix to nouns, not directly derived from verbs, it forms nouns or adjectives, and has the sense of (a) 'out of', 'away from'; as in निर्वन, निष्कौशाम्बि; or (b) more usually, 'not', 'without', 'devoid of' (having a privative force); निःशेष 'without a remainder'; निष्फल, निर्जल, &c. N. B. In compound the स् of निस् is changed to र् before vowels and soft consonants (see निर्), to a visarga before sibilants, to श् before च् and छ्, and to ष् before क् and प्; cf. दुस्. -Comp. -कण्टक (निष्कण्टक) a. 1 thornless. -2 free from thorns or enemies, free from danger or nuisance. (-कः) N. of Śiva. -कन्द (निष्कन्द) a. without edible roots. -कपट (निष्कपट) a. guileless, sincere. -कम्प (निष्कम्प) a. motionless, steady, immovable; निष्कम्पचामरशिखाः Ś.1.8; Ku.3.48. -करुण (निष्करुण) a. merciless, pitiless, cruel. -करूष (निष्क रूष) a. free from dirt. -कर्मन् (निष्कर्मन्) a. inactive. -कल (निष्कल) a. 1 without parts, undivided, whole. -2 waned, decayed, diminished. -3 impotent, barren. -4 maimed. -5 inarticulate (a musical term); N.21.16. -6 Without attributes, or qualities; निष्कलं निष्क्रियं शान्तं निरवद्यं निरञ्जनम् Śvet. Up; Bhāg.1.9.44; तद् ब्रह्म निष्कलमहं (स्मरामि). -(लः) 1 a receptacle. -2 the pudendum muliebre. -3 N. of Brahmā. (-ला, -ली) an elderly woman, one who is past child-bearing, or one in whom menstruation has ceased. -कलङ्क, (निष्कलङ्क) -कल्मष a. stainless, spotless. -कषाय (निष्कषाय) a. free from dirt or impure passions. -कान्त (निष्कान्त) a. not lovely, ugly. -काम (निष्काम) a. 1 free from wish or desire, desireless, disinterested, unselfish. -2 free from all worldly desires; विशिष्टफलदाः पुंसां निष्कामाणां विमुक्तिदाः Viṣṇu. P. (-मम् ind.) 1 without wish or desire. -2 unwillingly. -कारण (निष्कारण) a. 1 causeless, unnecessary. -2 disinterested, free from any motive; निष्कारणो बन्धुः. -3 groundless, not proceeding from any cause. (-णम् ind.) without any cause or reason, causelessly, needlessly. -कालकः (निष्कालकः) a penitent shaven and smeared with clarified butter. -कालिक (निष्कालिक) a. 1 one whose term of life is over or elapsed, whose days are numbered. -2 one who has no conqueror, invincible (अजय्य). -किञ्चन (निष्किञ्चन) a. penniless, poor, indigent; प्रज्ञानं शौचमेवात्र शरीरस्य विशेषतः । तथा निष्कि- ञ्चनत्वं च मनसश्च प्रसन्नता ॥ Mb. -किल्विष (निष्किल्विष) a. sinless, faultless. -कुल (निष्कुल) a. having no kindred, left alone in the world. (निष्कुलं कृ 'to cut off completely, exterminate'; निष्कुला कृ 1 to exterminate one's family -2 to shell, strip off the husk; निष्कुलाकरोति दाडिमम् Sk.; N.22.15.) -कुलीन (निष्कुलीन) a. of low family. -कूज (निष्कूज) a. still, silent; U.2.16. -कूट (निष्कूट) a. pitiless, merciless, cruel. -कैवल्य (निष्कैवल्य) a. 1 mere, pure, absolute. -2 deprived of final beatitude (मोक्षहीन). -कोश (निष्कोश) a. unsheathed. -कौशाम्बि (निष्कौशाम्बि) a. who has gone out of Kauśāmbī. -क्रिय (निष्क्रिय) a. 1 inactive. -2 not performing ceremonial rites; Ms.1.58. -3 knowing higher knowledge as a sage, Saṁnyāsin; न्यासे कुटीचकः पूर्वं बह्वोदो हंस- निष्क्रियौ Bhāg.3.12.43. -यम् the Supreme Spirit (ब्रह्म). -क्षत्र (निःक्षत्र), -क्षत्रिय (निःक्षत्रिय) a. destitute of the military tribe. -क्षेपः (निःक्षेपः) = निक्षेप q. v. -चक्रम् (निश्चक्रम्) ind. completely; निश्चक्रं हतराक्षसः पुनरगाद्ब्रह्मत्व- माद्यं स्थिराम् A. Rām.1.1.1. -चक्रिक (निश्चक्रिक) a. without tricks, honest. -चक्षुस् (निश्चक्षुस्) a. blind, eyeless. -चत्वारिंशः (निश्चत्वारिंश) a. past forty. -चिन्त (निश्चिन्त) a. 1 free from anxiety, unconcerned, secure. -2 thoughtless, unthinking. -चेतन (निश्चेतन) a. unconscious. -चेतस् (निश्चेतस्) a. not in one's right senses, mad. -चेष्ट (निश्चेष्ट) a. motionless, powerless. -चेष्टाकरण (निश्चेष्टाकरण) a. depriving (one) of motion, causing motionlessness (said of one the arrows of Cuhid). -छन्दस् (निश्छन्दस्) a. not studying the Vedas (छन्दस्) Ms.3,7. -छिद्र (निश्छिद्र) a. 1 without holes. -2 without defects or weak points. -3 uninterrupted, unhurt. -तन्तु a. 1 having no offspring, childless. -2 a Brahmachārin; मुण्डा निस्तन्तवश्चापि वस- त्यर्थार्थिनः पृथक् Mb.12.167.16. -तन्द्र, -तन्द्रि a. not lazy, fresh, healthy. -तमस्क -तिमिर a. 1 free from darkness, bright; तस्य द्वितीयहरिविक्रमनिस्तमस्कं वायोरिमं परि- वहस्य वदन्ति मार्गम् Ś.7.6. -2 freed from sin or moral impurities. -तर्क्य a. unimaginable, inconceivable. -तल a. 1 round, globular; मुक्ताकलापस्य च निस्तलस्य Ku.1.42. Kau. A.2.9. -2 moving, trembling, shaking. -3 bottomless. -4 down, below. (-ला) a pill, round ball. -तुल a. matchless, incomparable. -तुष a. 1 freed from chaff. -2 purified, cleansed. -3 simplified. ˚क्षीरः wheat. ˚रत्नम् a crystal. -4 faultless, pure; शशंस गुणैररीणैरुदयास्तनिस्तुषम् N.15.8. -तुषत्वम् faultlessness; कवेः पुष्यति निस्तुषत्वम् Maṅkhaka.2.7. -तुषित a. 1 husked. -2 made thin. -3 abandoned. -तेजस् a. destitute of fire, heat or energy, powerless, impotent; न भेतव्यं भृशं चैते मात्रा निस्ते- जसः कृताः Mārk. P. -2 spiritless, dull. -3 obscure. -त्रप a. impudent, shameless. -त्रिंश a. 1 more than thirty; निस्त्रिंशानि वर्षाणि चैत्रस्य P.V.4.73; Sk. -2 pitiless, merciless, cruel; हे निस्त्रिंश विमुक्तकण्ठकरुणं तावत् सखी रोदितु Amaru.6. (-शः) a sword; निजध्नुः शरनिस्त्रिंशकुन्ततोमरशक्तिभिः Śiva B.3.19; शूरौर्निस्त्रिंशपाणिभिः Parnāl 1.5. ˚भृत् m. a sword-bearer. -त्रैगुण्य a. destitute of the three qualities (सत्त्व, रजस् and तमस्); निस्त्रैगुण्यो भवार्जुन Bg.2.45. -पक्व (निष्पक्व) well cooked, boiled. -पङ्क (निष्पङ्क) a. free from mud, clear, pure. -पताक (निष्पताक) a. having no flag or banner. -पतिसुता (निष्पतिसुता) a woman having no husband and no sons. -पत्र (निष्पत्र) a. 1 leafless. -2 unfeathered, featherless. [निष्पत्राकृ 'to pierce with an arrow so that the feathers come through on the other side'; to cause excessive bodily pain (fig.); निष्पत्राकरोति मृगं व्याधः (सपुङ्खस्य शरस्य अपर- पार्श्वे निर्गमनान्निष्पत्रं करोति Sk.); एकश्च मृगः सपत्राकृतो$न्यश्च निष्पत्राकृतो$पतत् Dk.165; so यान्ती गुरुजनैः साकं स्मयमानानना- म्बुजा । तिर्यग्ग्रीवं यदद्राक्षीत्तन्निष्पत्राकरोज्जगत् Bv.2.132.] -पथ्य (निष्पथ्य) a. unwell, ill -पद (निष्पद) a. having no foot. (-दम्) a vehicle moving without feet (as a ship). -पराक्रम (निष्पराक्रम) a. weak, powerless. -परामर्श (निष्परामर्श) a. without advice, helpless; M.4.2/3 -परिकर (निष्परिकर) a. without preparations. -परिग्रह (निष्परिग्रह) a. having no property or possessions; Mu.2. (-हः) an ascetic without family, dependents, or other belongings. -परिच्छद (निष्परिच्छद) a. having no retinue or train. -परिदाह (निष्परिदाह) a. incombustible. -परिहार्य (निष्परिहार्य) a. To be applied by all means. -परीक्ष (निष्परीक्ष) a. not examining or testing accurately. -परीहार (निष्परीहार) a. 1 not avoiding. -2 not observing caution. -परुष (निष्परुष) a. (in music) soft. -पर्यन्त (निष्पर्यन्त), -पार (निष्पार) a. boundless, unbounded. -पर्याय (निष्पर्याय) a. out of order. -पाप (निष्पाप) sinless, guiltless, pure. -पुत्र (निष्पुत्र) a. sonless, childless. -पुराण (निष्पुराण) a. not existing before, unheard of, new. -पुरुष (निष्पुरुष) 1 unpeopled, tenantless, desolate. -2 without male issue; Ms.3.7. -2 not male, feminine, neuter. -षः 1 a eunuch. -2 a coward. -पुलाक (निष्पुलाक) a. freed from chaff. -पौरुष (निष्पौरुष) a. unmanly. -प्रकम्प (निष्प्रकम्प) a. steady, immovable, motionless. -प्रकारक (निष्प्रकारक) 1 a. without ditinction of species, without specification, absolute. -2 without the relation of the qualifier and the qualified, see निर्विकल्प (7); निष्प्रकारकं ज्ञानं निर्विकल्पकम् T. S. -प्रकाश (निष्प्रकाश) a. not transparent, not clear, dark. -प्रचार (निष्प्रचार) a. 1 not moving away, remaining in one place. -2 concentrated, intently fixed; निष्प्रचारेण मनसा परं तदधिगच्छति Mb.12.215.17. -प्रज्ञ (निष्प्रज्ञ) a. ignorant, stupid. -प्रणय (निष्प्रणय) a. cold. -प्रताप (निष्प्रताप) a. destitute of glory, mean, base; शङ्क- नीया हि सर्वत्र निष्प्रतापा दरिद्रता Pt.2.94. -प्रति(ती)कार (निष्प्रति(ती)कार), -प्रतिक्रिय (निष्प्रतिक्रिय) a. 1 incurable, irremediable; सर्वथा निष्प्रतीकारेयमापदुपस्थिता K. 151. -2 unobstructed, uninterrupted. (-रम्) ind. uninterruptedly. -प्रतिग्रह (निष्प्रतिग्रह) a. not accepting gifts. -प्रतिघ (निष्प्रतिघ) a. unhindered, unobstructed, unimpeded; स हि निष्प्रतिघेन चक्षुषा त्रितयं ज्ञानमयेन पश्यति R.8.78. -प्रतिद्वन्द्व (निष्प्रतिद्वन्द्व) a. without enemies, unopposed. -2 matchless, unrivalled, unequal- led. -प्रतिभ (निष्प्रतिभ) a. 1 devoid of splendour. -2 having no intelligence, not ready-witted, dull, stupid. -3 apathetic. -प्रतिभान (निष्प्रतिभान) a. cowardly, timid. -प्रतीप (निष्प्रतीप) a. 1 looking straightforward, not turned backwards. -2 unconcerned (as a look). -प्रत्याश (निष्प्रत्याश) a. hopeless, despondent. -प्रत्यूह (निष्प्रत्यूह) a. unobstructed, unimpeded; निष्प्रत्यूहाः प्रियसखि यदा दुःसहाः संबभूवुः Māl.9.45; निष्प्र- त्यूहमुपास्महे भगवतः कौमोदकीलक्ष्मणः Murārināṭakam. -प्रपञ्च (निष्प्रपञ्च) a. 1 without extension. -2 without deceit, honest. -प्रभ (निःप्रभ or -निष्प्रभ) a. 1 lustreless, pale-looking; निष्प्रभश्च रिपुरास भूभृताम् R.11.81. -2 powerless. 3 gloomy, obscure, dim, dark. -प्रमाणक (निष्प्रमाणक) a. without authority. -प्रयत्न (निष्प्र- यत्न) a. inactive, dull. -प्रयोजन (निष्प्रयोजन) a. 1 without motive, not influenced by any motive. -2 causeless, groundless, -3 useless. -4 needless, unnecessary. (-नम्) ind. causelessly, without reason, without any object; Mu.3. -प्रवणि, प्रवाण, प्रवाणि (निष्प्रवणि, -ष्प्रवाण, -ष्प्रवाणि) a. fresh from loom, quite new (cloth, &c.) -प्राण (निष्पाण) a. 1 lifeless, dead. -2 Weak (निर्बल); निष्प्राणो नामिहन्तव्यः Mb.12.95.12. -फल (निष्फल) a. 1 bearing no fruit, fruitless (fig. also), unsuccessful, futile; निष्फलारम्भयत्नाः Me.56. -2 useless, profitless, vain; Ku.4.13. -3 barren (as a tree). -4 meaningless (as a word). -5 seedless, impotent. (-ला, -ली) a woman past child-bearing. -फेन (निष्फेन) a. foamless. n. opium. -शङ्क (निःशङ्क) a. free from fear or risk, secure, fearless. (-निःशङ्कः) (in music) a kind of dance. -f. (निःशङ्का) absence of fear. -ind. fearlessly, securely, easily. -शब्द (निःशब्द) a. not expressed in words, inaudible; निःशब्दं रोदितुमारेभे K.135. (-ब्दः, ब्दम्) silence, a calm. -शमः (निःशमः) uneasiness, anxiety. -शरण a. (-निःशरण) helpless, forlorn. -शर्कर (-निःशर्कर) a. free from pebbles (as a bathing place). -शलाक (निःशलाक) a. lonely, solitary, retired. (-कम्) a retired place, solitude; अरण्ये निःशलाके वा मन्त्रयेदविभावितः Ms.7.147. -शल्य a. 1 free from arrows. -2 free from thorns or darts. -शूक (निःशूक) a. merciless, cruel. (-कः) beardless rice. -शेष (निःशेष) a. without remainder (either finished or passed away). -शोध्य (निःशोध्य) a. washed, pure, clean. -श्रीकः a. 1 deprived of lustre, beauty. -2 unhappy. -श्रेयस a. the best, most excellent. (-सः) an epithet of Śiva. (-सम्) final beatitude, absolution; यः करोति वधोदर्का निःश्रेयसकरीः क्रियाः Ki.11.19; see निःश्रेयस also. -2 devotion, faith, belief. -3 apprehension, conception. -4 happiness (in general), welfare; इदं निःश्रेयसं परम् Ms. 1.16. -संशय (निःसंशय) a. 1 undoubted, certain. -2 not doubtful, not suspecting or doubting; कुरु निः- संशयं वत्से स्ववृत्ते लोकमित्यशात् R.15.79. (-यम्) ind. doubtlessly, undoubtedly, surely, certainly. -संस्कार (निःसंस्कार) a. uneducated, ill-mannered. -संख्य (निःसंख्य) a. innumerable. -संग (निःसंग) a. 1 not attached or devoted to, regardless of, indifferent to; यन्निःसंगस्त्वं फलस्यानतेभ्यः Ki.18.24. -2 one who has renounced all worldly attachments; भर्तुर्ये प्रलये$पि पूर्वसुकृता- सङ्गेन निःसङ्गया भक्त्या कार्यधुरं वहन्ति कृतिनस्ते दुर्लभास्त्वादृशाः Mu.1.14. -3 unconnected, separated, detatched. -4 unobstructed; निःसङ्गं प्रतिभिरुपाददे विवृत्तिः Ki.7.12. (-गम्) ind. unselfishly. -संचारः (निःसंचारः) not taking a walk; Māl. -संज्ञ (निःसंज्ञ) a. unconscious. -सत्त्व (निःसत्त्व) a. 1 unenergetic, weak, impotent. -2 mean, insignificant, low. -3 non-existent, unsubstantial. -4 deprived of living beings. (-त्त्वम्) 1 absence of power or energy. -2 non-existence. -3 insignificance. -संतति (निःसंतति), -संतान (निःसंतान) a. childless. -संदिग्ध (निःसंदिग्ध), -संदेह (निःसंदेह) a. see निःसंशय. -संधि (निस्संधि), निःसंधि) a. having no joints perceptible, compact, firm, close, -सपत्न (निःसपत्न) a. 1 having no rival or enemy; घनरुचिरकलापो निःसपत्नो$द्य जातः V.4.1. -2 not claimed by another, belonging exclusively to one possessor. -3 having no foes. -समम् (निःसमम्) ind. 1 unseasonably, at a wrong time. -2 wickedly. -संपात (निःसंपात) a. affording no passage, blocked up. (-तः) the darkness of midnight, thick darkness. -संबाध (निःसंबाध) a. not contracted, spacious, large. -संभ्रम (निःसंभ्रम) a. not perplexed, unembarrassed. -सरणि (निःसरणि) a. pathless. -सह (निःसह) a. 1 Exhausted, powerless; कुसुमावचयपरिश्रमनिःसहं मे शरीरम् Nāg.2. -2 intolerable, irresistible. -सार (निःसार) a. 1 sapless, pithless. -2 worthless, vain, unsubstantial. ˚ता 1 sapless, pithlessness; निःसारत्वाल्लघीयसः (तृणस्य च समा गतिः) Pt.1.16. -2 worthlessness. -3 vanity, unsubstantial or transitory nature. -सीम (निःसीम), -सीमन् (निःसीमन्) a. immeasurable, boundless; अहह महतां निःसीमानश्चरित्रविभूतयः Bh.2.35; निःसीमशर्मप्रदम् 3.97. -स्तम्भ (निःस्तम्भ) a. having no pillars. -2 having no support. -3 not proud; निःस्तम्भो भ्रष्टसंकल्पः स्वान् मेघान् स न्यवारयत् Bhāg.1.25.24. -सूत्र a. helpless; निःसूत्रमास्ते घनपङ्कमृत्सु N.7.69. -स्नेह (निःस्नेह) a. 1 not unctuous or greasy, without unction or oil, dry. -2 not showing affection, unfeeling, unkind, indifferent. -3 not loved, not cared for; केशा अपि विरज्यन्तो निःस्नेहाः किं न सेवकाः Pt.1. 82. -4 not longing for, indifferent to. (-हा) lin-seed. -स्पन्द (निःस्पन्द or निस्स्पन्द) a. motionless, steady; ज्याबन्धनिस्स्पन्दभुजेन यस्य R.6.4. -स्पर्श (निःस्पर्श) a. hard, rough. -स्पृह (निःस्पृह) a. free from desire; निःस्पृहस्य तृणं जगत्. -2 regardless of, indifferent to; ननु वक्तृविशेषनिःस्पृहाः Ki.2.5; R.8.1; भोगेभ्यः स्पृहयालवो न हि वयं का निःस्पृहाणामसि Bh. -3 content, unenvious. -4 free from any worldly ties. -स्व (निःस्व) a. poor, indigent; निस्वो वष्टि शतम् Śānti.2.6; त्यक्त्वा जनयितारं स्वं निःस्वं गच्छति दूरतः Pt.1.9. -स्वन (निःस्वन) a. soundless. -स्वभावः (निःस्वभावः) poverty. -a. void of peculiarities. -स्वादु (निःस्वादु) a. tasteless, insipid.
paṭh पठ् 1 P. (पठति, पठित) 1 To read or repeat aloud, recite, rehearse; यः पठेच्छृणुयादपि. -2 To read or recite to oneself; study, peruse; इत्येतन्मानवं शास्त्रं भृगुप्रोक्तं पठन् द्विजः Ms.15.126;4.98; नाक्षराणि पठता किमपाठि N.5.121. -3 To invoke (as a deity). -4 To cite, quote, mention (as in a book); एतदिच्छाम्यहं श्रोतुं पुराणे यदि पठ्यते Mb. -5 To declare, describe, express; भार्या च परमो ह्यर्थः पुरुषस्येह पठ्यते; Mb. -6 To teach. -7 To learn from (with abl.). -Caus. (पाठयति-ते) 1 To cause to read aloud. -2 To teach, instruct; राजन् राजसुता न पाठयति माम् K. P.1. -Desid. (पिपठिषति) To wish to recite &c. -With परि to mention, declare. (-Caus.) to teach; तौ सर्वविद्याः परिपाठितौ U.2. सम्- to read, learn; वेदाङ्गानि च सर्वाणि कृष्णपक्षेषु संपठेत् Ms.4.98.
paṭhiḥ पठिः f. Reading, studying, perusal.
padam पदम् [पद्-अच्] 1 A foot (said to be m. also in this sense); पदेन on foot; शिखरिषु पदं न्यस्य Me.13; अपथे पदमर्पयन्ति हि R.9.74 'set foot on (follow) a wrong road'; 3.5;12.52; पदं हि सर्वत्र गुणैर्निधीयते 3.62 'good qualities set foot everywhere' i. e. command notice or make themselves felt; जनपदे न गदः पदमादधौ 9.4. 'no disease stepped into the country'; यदवधि न पदं दधाति चित्ते Bv.2.14; पदं कृ (a) to set foot in, on or over (lit.); शान्ते करिष्यसि पदं पुनराश्रमे$स्मिन् Ś.4.2. (b) to enter upon or into, take possession of, occupy (fig.); कृतं वपुषि नवयौवनेन पदम् K.137; कृतं हि मे कुतूहलेन प्रश्नाशया हृदि पदम् 133; so Ku.5.21; Pt.1.24; कृत्वा पदं नो गले Mu.3.26 'in defiance of us'; (lit. planting his foot on our neck); मूर्ध्नि पदं कृ 'to mount on the head of', 'to humble'; पदं मूर्ध्नि समाधत्ते केसरी मत्तदन्तिनः Pt.1.327; आकृतिविशेषेष्वादरः पदं करोति M.1 'good forms attract attention (command respect); जने सखी पदं कारिता Ś.4; 'made to have dealings with (to confide in)'; धर्मेण शर्वे पार्वतीं प्रति पदं कारिते Ku.6.14. -2 A step, pace, stride; तन्वी स्थिता कतिचिदेव पदानि गत्वा Ś.2.13; पदे पदे 'at every step'; अक्षमालामदत्त्वा पदात् पदमपि न गन्तव्यम् or चलितव्यम् 'do not move even a step' &c.; पितुः पदं मध्यममुत्पतन्ती V.1.19 'the middle pace or stride of Viṣṇu.'; i. e. the sky (for mythologically speaking, the earth, sky, and lower world are considered as the three paces of Viṣṇu in his fifth or dwarf incarnation वामनावतार); so अथात्मनः शब्दगुणं गुणज्ञः पदं विमानेन विगाहमानः R.13.1. -3 A foot-step, footprint, foot-mark; पदपङ्क्तिः Ś.3.7; or पदावली foot-prints; पदमनुविधेयं च महताम् Bh.2.28 'the foot-steps of the great must be followed'; पदैगृर्ह्यते चौरः Y.2.286. -4 A trace, mark, impression, vestige; रतिवलयपदाङ्के चापमासज्य कण्ठे Ku.2.64; Me.37,98; M.3. -5 A place, position, station; अधो$धः पदम् Bh.2.1; आत्मा परिश्रमस्य पदमुपनीतः Ś.1, 'brought to the point of or exposed to trouble'; तदलब्धपदं हृदि शोकघने R.8.91, 'found no place in (left no impression on) the heart'; अपदे शङ्कितो$स्मि M.1, 'my doubts were out of place', i. e. groundless; कृशकुटुम्बेषु लोभः पदमधत्त Dk.162; Ku.6.72;3.4; R.2.5;9.82; कृतपदं स्तनयुगलम् U.6.35, 'brought into relief or bursting forth'. -6 Dignity, rank, office, station or position; भगवत्या प्रश्निकपदमध्यासितव्यम् M.1; यान्त्येवं गृहिणीपदं युवतयः Ś.4.18, 'attain to the rank or position, &c.; स्थिता गृहिणीपदे 4.19; so सचिव˚, राज˚ &c. -7 Cause, subject, occasion, thing, matter, business, affair; व्यवहारपदं हि तत् Y.2.5; 'occasion or matter of dispute, title of law, judicial proceeding'; Ms.8.7; सतां हि सन्देहपदेषु वस्तुषु Ś.1.22; वाञ्छितफलप्राप्तेः पदम् Ratn.1.6. -8 Abode, object, receptacle; पदं दृशः स्याः कथमीश मादृशाम् Śi.1.37; 15.22; अगरीयान्न पदं नृपश्रियः Ki.2.14; अविवेकः परमापदां पदम् 2.3; के वा न स्युः परिभवपदं निष्फलारम्भयत्नाः Me.56; संपदः पदमापदाम् H.4.65. -9 A quarter or line of a stanza, verse; विरचितपदम् (गेयम्) Me.88,15; M.5.2; Ś.3.14. -1 A complete or inflected word; सुप्तिडन्तं पदम् P.I. 4.14. वर्णाः पदं प्रयोगार्हानन्वितैकार्थबोधकाः S. D.9; R.8.77; Ku.4.9. -11 A name for the base of nouns before all consonantal case-terminations except nom. singular. -12 Detachment of the Vedic words from one another, separation of a Vedic text into its several constituent words; वेदैः साङ्गपदक्रमोपनिषदैर्गायन्ति यं सामगाः Bhāg.12.13.1. -13 A pretext; अनिभृतपदपातमापपात प्रियमिति कोपपदेन कापि सख्या Śi.7.14. -14 A sqare root. -15 A part, portion or division (as of a sentence); as त्रिपदा गायत्री. -16 A measure of length. -17 Protection, preservation; ते विंशतिपदे यत्ताः संप्रहारं प्रचक्रिरे Mb.7.36.13. -18 A square or house on a chessboard; अष्टापदपदालेख्यैः Rām. -19 A quadrant. -2 The last of a series. -21 A plot of ground. -22 (In Arith.) Any one in a set of numbers the sum of which is required. -23 A coin; माता पुत्रः पिता भ्राता भार्या मित्रजनस्तथा । अष्टापदपदस्थाने दक्षमुद्रेव लक्ष्यते ॥ Mb.12.298.4. (com. अष्टापदपदं सुवर्णकार्षापणः). -24 A way, road; षट्पदं नवसंख्यानं निवेशं चक्रिरे द्विजाः Mb.14.64.1. -25 Retribution (फल); ईहोपरमयोर्नॄणां पदान्यध्यात्मचक्षुषा Bhāg.7.13.2. -दः A ray of light. -Comp. -अङ्कः, चिह्नम् a foot-print. -अङ्गुष्ठः the great toe, thumb (of the foot). -अध्ययनम् study of the Vedas according to the पदपाठ q. v. -अनुग a. 1 following closely, being at the heels of (gen.). -2 suitable, agreeable to. (-गः) a follower, companion; एतान्निहत्य समरे ये चृ तस्य पदानुगाः । तांश्च सर्वान् विनिर्जित्य सहितान् सनराधिपान् ॥ Mb.3.12.6. -अनुरागः 1 a servant. -2 an army. -अनुशासनम् the science of words, grammar. -अनुषङ्गः anything added to a pada. -अन्तः 1 the end of a line of a stanza. -2 the end of a word. -अन्तरम् another step, the interval of one step; पदान्तरे स्थित्वा Ś.1; अ˚ closely, without a pause. -अन्त्य a. final. -अब्जम्, -अम्भोजम्, -अरविन्दम्, -कमलम्, -पङ्कजम्, -पद्मम् a lotus-like foot. -अभिलाषिन् a. wishing for an office. -अर्थः 1 the meaning of a word. -2 a thing or object. -3 a head or topic (of which the Naiyāyikas enumerate 16 subheads). -4 anything which can be named (अभिधेय), a category or predicament; the number of such categories, according to the Vaiśeṣikas, is seven; according to the Sāṅkhyas, twentyfive (or twenty-seven according to the followers of Patañjali), and two according to the Vedāntins. -5 the sense of another word which is not expressed but has to be supplied. ˚अनुसमयः preforming one detail with reference to all things or persons concerned; then doing the second, then the third and so on (see अनुसमय). Hence पदार्थानुसमयन्याय means: A rule of interpretation according to which, when several details are to be performed with reference to several things or persons, they should be done each to each at a time. -आघातः 'a stroke with the foot', a kick. -आजिः a foot-soldier. -आदिः 1 the beginning of the line of a stanza. -2 the beginning or first letter of a word. ˚विद् m. a bad student (knowing only the beginnings of stanzas). -आयता a shoe. -आवली a series of words, a continued arrangement of words or lines; (काव्यस्य) शरीरं तावदिष्टार्थव्यवच्छिन्नापदावली Kāv. 1.1; मधुरकोमलकान्तपदावलीं शृणु तदा जयदेवसरस्वतीम् Gīt.1. -आसनम् a foot-stool. -आहत a. kicked. -कमलम् lotus-like foot. -कारः, -कृत् m. the author of the Padapāṭha. -क्रमः 1 walking, a pace; न चित्रमुच्चैः श्रवसः पदक्रमम् (प्रशशंस) Śi.1.52. -2 a particular method of reciting the Veda; cf. क्रम. -गः a foot-soldier. -गतिः f. gait, manner of going. -गोत्रम् a family supposed to preside over a particular class of words. -छेदः, -विच्छेदः, -विग्रहः separation of words, resolution of a sentence into its constituent parts. -च्युत a. dismissed from office, deposed. -जातम् class or group of words. -दार्ढ्यम् fixedness or security of text. -न्यासः 1 stepping, tread, step. -2 a foot-mark. -3 position of the feet in a particular attitude. -4 the plant गोक्षुर. -5 writing down verses or quarters of verses; अप्रगल्भाः पदन्यासे जननीरागहेतवः । सन्त्येके बहुलालापाः कवयो बालका इव ॥ Trivikramabhaṭṭa. -पङ्क्तिः f. 1 a line of foot-steps; द्वारे$स्य पाण्डुसिकते पदपङ्क्तिर्दृश्यते$भिनवा Ś.3.7; V.4.6. -2 a line or arrangement of words, a series of words; कृतपदपङ्क्तिरथर्वणेव वेदः Ki.1.1. -3 an iṣtakā or sacred brick. -4 a kind of metre. -पाठः an arrangement of the Vedic text in which each word is written and pronounced in its original form and independently of phonetic changes (opp. संहितापाठ). -पातः, विक्षेपः a step, pace (of a horse also). -बन्धः a foot-step, step. -भञ्जनम् analysis of words, etymology. -भञ्जिका 1 a commentary which separates the words and analyses the compounds of a passage. -2 a register, journal. -3 a calendar. -भ्रंशः dismissal from office. -माला a magical formula. -योपनम् a fetter for the feet (Ved.). -रचना 1 arrangement of words. -2 literary composition. -वायः Ved. a leader. -विष्टम्भः a step, footstep. -वृत्तिः f. the hiatus between two words. -वेदिन् a linguist, philologist. -व्याख्यानम् interpretation of words. -शास्त्रम् the science of separately written words. -संघातः (टः) 1 connecting the words which are separated in the संहिता. -2 a writer, an annotator. -संधिः m. the euphonic combination of words. -स्थ a. 1 going on foot. -2 being in a position of authority or high rank. -स्थानम् a foot-print.
parāji पराजि 1 Ā. 1 To defeat, conquer, overcome, subdue; यं पराजयसे मृषा Y.2.75; Bk.8.9; Śi.19.82. -2 To lose, be deprived of. -3 To be conquered or overcome by, find (something) unbearable; अध्ययनात् परा- जयते Sk. 'finds it unbearable or difficult to study'; तां पराजयमानां स प्रीते रक्ष्यां दशाननात् Bk.8.71. -4 To submit or yield to.
paricayaḥ परिचयः 1 Heaping up, accumulation. -2 Acquaintance; familiarity, intimacy; पुरुषपरिचयेन Mk.1.56; अतिपरिचयादवज्ञा 'familiarity breeds contempt'; परिचयं चललक्ष्यनिपातने R.9.49; सकलकलापरिचयः K.76. -3 Trial, study, practice, frequent repetition; हेतुः परिचयेस्थैर्ये वक्तुर्गुणनिकैव सा Śi.2.75;11.5; वर्णपरिचयं करोति Ś.5. -4 Recognition; Me.9. -5 Stay; चिरं मातुलपरिचयादविज्ञात- वृत्तान्तो$स्मि Pratimā 3. -Comp. -करुणा increasing love or tenderness; तदिह सुवदनायां तात मत्तः परस्तात् परिचयकरुणायां सर्वथा मा विरंसीः Māl.6.16.
pariśṛtaḥ परिशृतः Ardent spirits. परिश्रम pariśrama परिश्रामः pariśrāmḥ परिश्रम परिश्रामः 1 Fatigue, exhaustion, trouble, pain; आत्मा परिश्रमस्य पदमुपनीतः Ś.1; R.1.58;11.12. -2 Exertion, labour; ब्रह्मञ्छ्रेयः परिश्रामः पुंसो मद्दर्शनावधिः Bhāg.2.9.2. -3 (Hence) Close application to or study of, being constantly occupied with; आर्ये कृतपरि- श्रमो$स्मि चतुःषष्ठ्यङ्गे ज्योतिःशास्त्रे Mu.1. -4 The result; अस्यैष नीतेः परिश्रमः Pratijñā.2.
pāṭhaḥ पाठः [पठ्-भावे घञ्] 1 Reciting, recitation, repeating. -2 Reading, perusal, study. -3 Studying or reciting. the Vedas (ब्रह्मयज्ञ), one of the five daily Yajñas or sacrifices to be performed by Brāhmaṇas. -4 A particular method of reciting the text of the Veda (of which there are five:-संहिता, पद, क्रम, जटा and घन). -5 The text of a book, a reading, variant; अत्र गन्धवद् गन्धमादनम् इति आगन्तुकः पाठः । प्राचीनपाठस्तु सुगन्धिर्गन्धमादनः इति पुल्लिङ्गान्तः Malli. on Ku.6.46. -Comp. -अन्तरम् another reading, a variant (v. l.) -क्रमः the order determined or expressed by the recitation or the statement; यः पाठक्रमः स एव नियम्येत ŚB. on Ms.5.1.4. -छेदः a pause, caesura. -दोषः a false reading. -निश्चयः determining the text of a passage. -भूः f. a place where the Vedas are learnt. -मञ्जरी, -शालिनी the Sārikā bird. -शाला a school, college, seminary. -शालिन् m. a pupil.
pāraḥ पारः रम् [परं तीरं परमेव अण्, पॄ-घञ् वा] 1 The further or opposite bank of a river or ocean; पारं दुःखोदधेर्गन्तुं तर यावन्न भिद्यते Śānti.3.1; विरहजलधेः पारमासादयिष्ये Pad. D.13; H.1.177. -2 The further or opposite side of anything; स हि देवः परं ज्योतिस्तमःपारे व्यवस्थितम् Ku.2.58. -3 The end or extremity of anything; furtherest or concluding limit; तेजस्वी रिपुहतबन्धुदुःखपारम् (व्रजति) Ve. 3.25. -4 The fullest extent, the totality of anything; स पूर्वजन्मान्तरदृष्टपाराः स्मरन्निव R.18.5. (पारं गम्, -इ, -या 1 to cross over, surmount, get over; व्यसनेष्वेव सर्वेषु यस्य बुद्धिर्न हीयते । स तेषां पारमभ्येति Pt.2.6. -2 to accomplish, fulfil; as in प्रतिज्ञायाः पारं गतः -3 To master fully, become proficient in; सकलशास्त्रपारं गतः Pt.1; पारं नी 'to bring to a close.'). -रः 1 Quick-silver. -2 Guardian; तस्माद् भयाद् येन स नो$स्तु पारः Bhāg.6.9.24. -3 The end; महिम्नः पारं ते Mahimna.1. (पारे meaning 'on the other side of', 'beyond' sometimes enters into comp.; e. g. पारेगङ्गम्, पारेसमुद्रम् beyond the Ganges or the ocean; मम लङ्कापुरी नाम्ना रम्या पारे महोदधेः Mb.3.274.35.) -Comp. -अपारम्, -अवारम् both banks, the nearer and further bank. (-रः) the sea, ocean; शोकपारावारमुत्तर्तुमशक्नुवती Dk.4; Bv.4.11. -अयणम् 1 going across. -2 reading through, perusal, thorough study. -3 the whole, completeness, or totality of anything; as in ब्रह्मपारायणम्, मन्त्रपारायणम् &c. याज्ञवल्क्यो मुनिर्यस्मै ब्रह्मपारायणं जगौ Mv.1. 14. -अयणी 1 N. of the goddess Sarasvatī. -2 considering, meditation. -3 an act, action. -4 light. -काम a. desirous of going to the other end. -ग a. 1 crossing over, ferrying across. -2 one who has gone to the end of, one who has completely mastered anything, completely familiar of conversant with (with gen. or in comp.); वेदपारगः Ms.2.148; Y.1.111. -3 profoundly learned. (-गम्) keeping, fulfilling (of a promise). -गत, -गामिन् a. one who has gone to the other side or shore. (-तः) an Arhat or deified saint with Jainas. -चर a. emancipated forever. -दर्शक a. 1 showing the opposite bank. -2 transparent. -दृश्वन् a. 1 far-seeing, wise, prudent. -2 one who has seen the other side of anything, one who has completely mastered or has become familiar with anything; (cf. P.III.2.94); श्रुतिपारदृश्वा R.5.24. -नेतृ a. making a person conversant with. -समुद्रकः A variety of gems; Kau. A.2.11.29.
pārāśarin पाराशरिन् m. 1 A religious mendicant. -2 Particularly, such religious mendicants or ascetics as study the Śārīra Sūtras of Vyāsa (pl).
pratyupākaraṇam प्रत्युपाकरणम् Recommencement of Vedic study.
prāthamakalpikaḥ प्राथमकल्पिकः 1 A student who has just entered on the study of the Vedas (शैक्ष). -2 A Yogin just commencing his course.
prādhyayanam प्राध्ययनम् Reading, studying.
bāla बाल a. 1 Young, infantine, not full-grown or developed (of persons or things); बालेन स्थविरेण वा Ms. 8.7; बालाशोकमुपोढरागसुभगं भेदोन्मुखं तिष्ठति V.2.7; so बालमन्दारवृक्षः Me.77; R.2.45;13.24. -2 Newly risen, young (as the sun or its rays); बालार्कप्रतिमे- वाप्सु वीचिभिन्ना पतिष्यतः R.12.1. -3 New, waxing (as the moon); पुपोष वृद्धिं हरिदश्वदीधितेरनुप्रवेशादिव बाल- चन्द्रमाः R.3.22; Ku.3.29. -4 Puerile. -5 Ignorant, unwise; अनर्थकुशला ह्येते बालाः पण्डितमानिनः Rām.2.1.38. -6 Pure (as an animal fit for sacrifice). -लः 1 A child, an infant; बालादपि सुभाषितम् (ग्राह्यम्); Ms.2.239. -2 A boy, youth, young person. -3 A minor (under 16 years of age); बाल आषोडशाद्वर्षात् Nārada. -4 A colt, foal. -5 A fool, simpleton; नीरसायां रसं बालो बालिकायां विकल्पयेत् Pt.4.91. -6 (a) A tail. (b) An elephant's or a horse's tail. -7 Hair; तं केशपाशं प्रसमीक्ष्य कुर्युर्बालप्रियत्वं शिथिलं चमर्यः Ku.1.48. -8 An elephant five years old; 'पञ्चवर्षो गजो बालः पोतस्तु दशवार्षिकः' Vaijayantī. According to Mātaṅga L. (5.2.) however it means an elephant in the first year. -9 A kind of perfume. -1 The cocoa-nut. -Comp. -अग्रम् 1 the point of a hair. -2 A dove-cot; प्रासादबालाग्रकपोतपालिकायामुपविष्टः शृणोमि Mk.1.51/ 52. -अध्यापकः a tutor of youths or children. -अपत्यम् youthful progeny. -अभ्यासः study during childhood, early application (to study). -अरुण a. red like early dawn. (-णः) early dawn; morning sun. -अर्कः the newly-risen sun; R.12.1. -अवबोधः, -नम् instruction of the young; Pt.1. -अवस्थ a. juvenile, young; भुवमधिपतिर्बालाबस्थो$प्यलं परिरक्षितुम् V.5.18. -अवस्था childhood. -आतपः morning sunshine. -आमयः a child's disease. -इन्दुः the new or waxing moon; बालेन्दुवक्राप्य- विकाशभावाद् बभुः पलाशान्यतिलोहितानि Ku.3.29. -इष्टः the jujube tree. -उपचारः, -चरणम् (medical) treatment of children. -उपवीतम् 1 a piece of cloth used to cover the privities. -2 The sacrificial cord. -कदली a young plantain tree. -काण्डम् the first book of the Rāmāyaṇa. -कुन्दः, -दम् a kind of young jasmine. (-दम्) a young jasmine blossom; अलके बालकुन्दानुविद्धम् Me.67. -कृमिः a louse. -कृष्णः Kṛiṣṇa as a boy. -केलिः, -ली f. child's play or amusement. -क्रीडनम् a child's play or toy. -क्रीडनकम् a child's toy. -कः 1 a ball. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -क्रीडा a child's play, childish or juvenile sport. -खिल्यः a class of divine personages of the size of a thumb and produced from the creator's body and said to precede the sun's chariot (their number is said to be sixty thousand); cf. R.15.1; क्रतोश्च सन्ततिर्भार्या बालखिल्यानसूयत । षष्टिर्यानि सहस्राणि ऋषिणामूर्ध्व- रेतसाम् ॥ Mārk. P. -गर्भिणी a cow with calf for the first time. -गोपालः 'the youthful cowherd', an epithet of Kṛiṣṇa, as the boycowherd. -ग्रहः any demon (or planetary influence) teasing or injuring children; बालग्रहस्तत्र विचिन्वती शिशून् Bhāg.1.6.7. -घ्नः a childslayer, infanticide; Ms.11.19. -चन्द्रः -चन्द्रमस् m. 1 the young or waxing moon; इह जगति महोत्सवस्य हेतुर्नयनवतामुदियाय बालचन्द्रः Māl.2.1. -2 a cavity of a particular shape; Mk.3.13. -चरितम् 1 juvenile sports. -2 early life or actions; U.6. -चर्यः N. of Kārtikeya. (-र्या) the bahaviour of a child. -चुम्बालः a fish; Nigh. Ratn. -चतः a young mango-tree; धत्तेचक्षुर्मुकुलिनि रणत्कोकिले बालचूते Māl.3.12. -ज a. produced from hair. -जातीय a. childish, foolish, simple. -तनयः the Kha- dira tree. -तन्त्रम् midwifery. -तृणम् young grass. -दलकः the Khadira. -धनम् the property of a minor; Ms.8.149. -धिः (also बालधिः) a hairy tail; तुरंगमैरा- यतकीर्णवालधिः Śi.12.73; Ki.12.47. -नेत्र a. guided or steered by a fool. -पत्रः, -पत्रकः the Khadira tree. -पाश्या 1 an ornament worn in the hair when parted. -2 a string of pearls binding or intertwining the braid of hair. -पुष्टिका, -पुष्टी, -पुष्पी a kind of jasmine. -बोधः 1 instructing the young. -2 any work adapted to the capacities of the young or inexperienced. -भद्रकः a kind of poison. -भारः a large bushy tail; बाधेतोल्का- क्षपितचमरीबालभारो दवाग्निः Me.55. -भावः 1 child-hood, infancy. -2 a hairy growth; एतद्भ्रुवौ जन्म तदाप युग्मं लीलाचलत्वोचितबालभावम् N.7.26. -3 inattention; Ms. 8.118. (Kull.) -4 children (collectively). -5 recent rise (of a planet). -भृत्यः a servant from childhood. -भैषज्यम् a kind of collyrium. -भोज्यः pease. -मनो- रमा N. of several grammars. -मरणम् (with Jainas) a fool's manner of dying (12 in number). -मित्रः a friend from boyhood. -मृगः a fawn. -मूलम् a young radish. -मूषिका a small mouse. -मृणालः a tender filament or fibre (of lotus); व्यालं बालमृणालतन्तुभिरसौ रोद्धुं समुज्म्भते Bh.2.6. -यज्ञोपवीतकम् the sacred thread worn across the breast. -राजम् lapis lazuli. -रोगः a child's disease; अथ बालरोगाणां निदानानि लक्षणानि चाह । धात्र्यास्तु गुरुभिर्भोज्यैर्विषमैर्दोषलैस्तथा ...... Bhāva. P. -लता a young creeper; अवाकिरन् बाललताः प्रसूनैः R.2.1. -लीला child's play, juvenile pastime. -वत्सः 1 a young calf. -2 a pigeon. -वायजम् lapis lazuli. -वासस् n. a woollen garment. -वाह्यः a young or wild goat. -विधवा a child-widow. -वैधव्यम् child-widowhood. -व्यजनम् a chowrie or fly-flapper (usually made of the tail of the yāk or Bos Grunniens and used as one of the royal insignia); यस्यार्थयुक्तं गिरिराजशब्दं कुर्वन्ति बाल- व्यजनैश्चमर्यः Ku.1.13; R.9.66;14.11;16.33,57. -व्रतः an epithet of a Buddha saint Mañjughoṣa. -सखि m. a friend from childhood. -संध्या early twilight. -सात्म्यम् milk. -सुहृद् m. a friend of one's youth. -सूर्यः, -सूर्यकः lapis lazuli. -स्थानम् 1 childhood. -2 youth. -3 inexperience. -हत्या infanticide. -हस्तः a hairy tail.
brahman ब्रह्मन् n. [बृंह्-मनिन् नकारस्याकारे ऋतो रत्वम्; cf. Uṇ.4.145.] 1 The Supreme Being, regarded as impersonal and divested of all quality and action; (according to the Vedāntins, Brahman is both the efficient and the material cause of the visible universe, the all-pervading soul and spirit of the universe, the essence from which all created things are produced and into which they are absorbed; अस्ति तावन्नित्यशुद्धबुद्धमुक्तस्वभावं सर्वज्ञं सर्वशक्तिसमन्वितं ब्रह्म Ś. B.); ... यत्प्रयन्त्यभिसंविशन्ति । तद् विजिज्ञा- सस्व । तद् ब्रह्मेति Tai. Up.3.1; समीभूता दृष्टिस्त्रिभुवनमपि ब्रह्म मनुते Bh.3.84; Ku.3.15; दर्शनं तस्य लाभः स्यात् त्वं हि ब्रह्ममयो निधिः Mb. -2 A hymn of praise. -3 A sacred text; मैवं स्याद् ब्रह्मविक्रिया Bhāg.9.1.17. -4 The Vedas; ब्रह्मणः प्रणवं कुर्यात् Ms.2.74; यद् ब्रह्म सम्यगाम्नातम् Ku.6.16; U.1.15; समस्तवदनोद्गीतब्रह्मणे ब्रह्मणे नमः Bm.1.1; Bg.3.15. -5 The sacred and mystic syllable om; एकाक्षरं परं ब्रह्म Ms.2.83. -6 The priestly of Brahmanical class (collectively); तदेतद् ब्रह्म क्षत्रं विट् शूद्रः Bṛi. Up.1.4.15; ब्रह्मैव संनियन्तृ स्यात् क्षत्रं हि ब्रह्मसंभवम् Ms.9.32. -7 The power or energy of a Brāhmaṇa; पवनाग्निसमागमो ह्ययं सहितं ब्रह्म यदस्त्रतेजसा R.8.4. -8 Religious penance or austerities. -9 Celibacy, chastity; शाश्वते ब्रह्मणि वर्तते Ś.1. -1 Final emancipation or beatitude. -11 Theology, sacred learning, religious knowledge. -12 The Brāhmaṇa portion of the Veda. -13 Wealth. -14 Food. -15 A Brāhmaṇa. -16 Truth. -17 The Brāhmaṇahood (ब्राह्मणत्व); येन विप्लावितं ब्रह्म वृषल्यां जायतात्मना Bhāg.6.2.26. -18 The soul (आत्मा); एतदेषां ब्रह्म Bṛi. Up.1.6.1-3. -19 See ब्रह्मास्त्र. अब्राह्मणे न हि ब्रह्म ध्रुवं तिष्ठेत् कदाचन Mb.12.3.31. -2 The गायत्री mantra; उभे सन्ध्ये च यतवाग्जपन् ब्रह्म समाहितः Bhāg.7. 12.2. -m. 1 The Supreme Being, the Creator, the first deity of the sacred Hindu Trinity, to whom is entrusted the work of creating the world. [The accounts of the creation of the world differ in many respects; but, according to Manu Smṛiti, the universe was enveloped in darkness, and the self-existent Lord manifested himself dispelling the gloom. He first created the waters and deposited in them a seed. This seed became a golden egg, in which he himself was born as Brahmā-the progenitor of all the worlds. Then the Lord divided the egg into two parts, with which he constructed heaven and earth. He then created the ten Prajāpatis or mind-born sons who completed the work of creation. According to another account (Rāmāyaṇa) Brahmā sprang from ether; from him was descended marīchi, and his son was Kaśyapa. From Kaśyapa sprang Vivasvata, and Manu sprang from him. Thus Manu was the procreator of all human beings. According to a third account, the Supreme deity, after dividing the golden egg, separated himself into two parts, male and female, from which sprang Virāj and from him Manu; cf. Ku.2.7. and Ms.1.32 et seq. Mythologically Brahman is represented as being born in a lotus which sprang from the navel of Viṣṇu, and as creating the world by an illicit connection with his own daughter Sarasvatī. Brahman had originally five heads, but one of them was cut down by Śiva with the ring-finger or burnt down by the fire from his third eye. His vehicle is a swan. He has numerous epithets, most of which have reference to his birth, in a lotus.] -2 A Brāhmaṇa; Ś.4.4. -3 A devout man. -4 One of the four Ritvijas or priests employed at a Soma sacrifice. -5 One conversant with sacred knowledge. -6 The sun. -7 Intellect. -8 An epithet of the seven Prajāpatis :-मरीचि, अत्रि, अङ्गिरस्, पुलस्त्य, पुलह, क्रतु and वसिष्ठ. -9 An epithet of Bṛihaspati; ब्रह्मन्नध्ययनस्य नैष समयस्तूष्णीं बहिः स्थीयताम् Hanumannāṭaka. -1 The planet Jupiter; ब्रह्मराशिं समावृत्य लोहिताङ्गो व्यवस्थितः Mb. 3.6.18. -11 The world of Brahmā (ब्रह्मलोक); दमस्त्यागो- $प्रमादश्च ते त्रयो ब्रह्मणो हयाः Mb.11.7.23. -1 Of Śiva. -Comp. -अक्षरम् the sacred syllable om. -अङ्गभूः 1 a horse. -2 one who has touched the several parts of his body by the repetition of Mantras; स च त्वदेकेषुनिपात- साध्यो ब्रह्माङ्गभूर्ब्रह्मणि योजितात्मा Ku.3.15 (see Malli. thereon). -अञ्जलिः 1 respectful salutation with folded hands while repeating the Veda. -2 obeisance to a preceptor (at the beginning and conclusion of the repetition of the Veda); अपश्यद्यावतो वेदविदां ब्रह्माञ्जलीनसौ N.17.183; ब्रह्मारम्भे$वसाने च पादौ ग्राह्यौ गुरोः सदा । संहत्य हस्तावध्येयं स हि ब्रह्माञ्जलिः स्मृतः ॥ Ms.2.71. -अण्डम् 'the egg of Brahman', the primordial egg from which the universe sprang, the world, universe; ब्रह्माण्डच्छत्रदण्डः Dk.1. ˚कपालः the hemisphere of the world. ˚भाण्डोदरम् the hollow of the universe; ब्रह्मा येन कुलालवन्नियमितो ब्रह्माण्ड- भाण्डोदरे Bh.2.95. ˚पुराणम् N. of one of the eighteen Purāṇas. -अदि(द्रि)जाता an epithet of the river Godāvarī. -अधिगमः, अधिगमनम् study of the Vedas. -अम्भस् n. the urine of a cow. -अभ्यासः the study of the Vedas. -अयणः, -नः an epithet of Nārāyaṇa. -अरण्यम् 1 a place of religious study. -2 N. of a forest. -अर्पणम् 1 the offering of sacred knowledge. -2 devoting oneself to the Supreme Spirit. -3 N. of a spell. -4 a mode of performing the Śrāddha in which no Piṇḍas or rice-balls are offered. -अस्त्रम् a missile presided over by Brahman. -आत्मभूः a horse. -आनन्दः bliss or rapture of absorption into Brahma; ब्रह्मानन्दसाक्षात्क्रियां Mv.7.31. -आरम्भः beginning to repeat the Vedas; Ms.2.71. -आवर्तः N. of the tract between the rivers Sarasvatī and Dṛiṣavatī (northwest of Hastināpura); सरस्वतीदृषद्वत्योर्देवनद्योर्यदन्तरम् । तं देवनिर्मितं देशं ब्रह्मावर्तं प्रचक्षते Ms.2.17,19; Me.5. -आश्रमः = ब्रह्मचर्याश्रमः; वेदाध्ययननित्यत्वं क्षमा$थाचार्यपूजनम् । अथोपाध्यायशुश्रूषा ब्रह्माश्रमपदं भवेत् ॥ Mb.12.66.14. -आसनम् a particular position for profound meditation. -आहुतिः f. 1 the offering of prayers; see ब्रह्मयज्ञ. -2 the study of the Vedas. -उज्झता forgetting or neglecting the Vedas; Ms.11.57 (अधीतवेदस्यानभ्यासेन विस्मरणम् Kull.). -उत्तर a. 1 treating principally of Brahman. -2 consisting chiefly of Brāhmaṇas. -उद्यम् explaining the Veda, treatment or discussion of theological problems; ब्राह्मणा भगवन्तो हन्ताहमिमं द्वौ प्रश्नौ प्रक्ष्यामि तौ चेन्मे वक्ष्यति न वै जातु युष्माकमिमं कश्चिद् ब्रह्मोद्यं जेतेति Bṛi. Up. -उपदेशः instruction in the Vedas or sacred knowledge. ˚नेतृ m. the Palāśa tree. -ऋषिः (ब्रह्मर्षिः or ब्रह्माऋषिः) a Brahmanical sage. ˚देशः N. of a district; (कुरुक्षेत्रं च मत्स्याश्च पञ्चालाः शूरसेनकाः । एष ब्रह्मर्षिदेशो वै ब्रह्मावर्तादनन्तरः Ms.2.19). -ओदनः, -नम् food given to the priests at a sacrifice. -कन्यका an epithet of Sarasvatī. -करः a tax paid to the priestly class. -कर्मन् n. 1 the religious duties of a Brāhmaṇa, the office of Brahman, one of the four principal priests at a sacrifice. -कला an epithet of Dākṣāyaṇī (who dwells in the heart of man). -कल्पः an age of Brahman. -काण्डम् the portion of the Veda relating to spiritual knowledge. -काष्ठः the mulberry tree. -किल्बिषम् an offence against Brāhmaṇas. -कूटः a thoroughly learned Brāhmaṇa. -कूर्चम् a kind of penance; अहोरात्रोषितो भूत्वा पौर्णमास्यां विशेषतः । पञ्चगव्यं पिबेत् प्रातर्ब्रह्मकूर्चमिति स्मृतम् ॥. -कृत् one who prays. (-m.) an epithet of Viṣṇu. -कोशः the treasure of the Vedas, the entire collection of the Vedas; क्षात्रो धर्मः श्रित इव तनुं ब्रह्मकोशस्य गुप्त्यै U.6.9. -गायत्री N. of a magical mantra composed after the model of गायत्री mantra. -गिरिः N. of a mountain. -गीता f. The preaching of Brahmā as included in the Anuśāsana parva of the Mahābhārata. -गुप्तः N. of an astronomer born in 598. A. D. -गोलः the universe. -गौरवम् respect for the missile presided over by Brahman; विष्कम्भितुं समर्थो$पि ना$चलद् ब्रह्मगौरवात् Bk.9.76 (मा भून्मोघो ब्राह्मः पाश इति). -ग्रन्थिः 1 N. of a particular joint of the body. -2 N. of the knot which ties together the 3 threads of the यज्ञोपवीत. -ग्रहः, -पिशाचः, -पुरुषः, -रक्षस् n., -राक्षसः a kind of ghost, the ghost of a Brāhmaṇa, who during his life time indulges in a disdainful spirit and carries away the wives of others and the property of Brāhmaṇas; (परस्य योषितं हृत्वा ब्रह्मस्वमपहृत्य च । अरण्ये निर्जले देशे भवति ब्रह्मराक्षसः ॥ Y.3.212; cf. Ms.12.6 also). -ग्राहिन् a. worthy to receive that which is holy. -घातकः, -घातिन् m. the murderer of a Brāhmaṇa. -घातिनी a woman on the second day of her courses. -घोषः 1 recital of the Veda. -2 the sacred word, the Vedas collectively; U.6.9 (v. l.). -घ्नः the murderer of a Brāhmaṇa. -चक्रम् 1 The circle of the universe; Śvet. Up. -2 N. of a magical circle. -चर्यम् 1 religious studentship, the life of celibacy passed by a Brāhmaṇa boy in studying the Vedas, the first stage or order of his life; अविप्लुतब्रह्मचर्यो गृहस्थाश्रममाचरेत् Ms.3.2;2. 249; Mv.1.24; यदिच्छन्तो ब्रह्मचर्यं चरन्ति तत्ते पदं संग्रहेण ब्रवीम्योमित्येतत् Kaṭh. -2 religious study, self-restraint. -3 celibacy, chastity, abstinence, continence; also ब्रह्म- चर्याश्रम. (-र्यः) a religious student; see ब्रह्मचारिन्. (-र्या) chastity, celibacy. ˚व्रतम् a vow of chastity. ˚स्खलनम् falling off from chastity, incontinence. -चारिकम् the life of a religious student. -चारिन् a. 1 studying the Vedas. -2 practising continence of chastity. (-m.) a religious student, a Brāhmaṇa in the first order of his life, who continues to live with his spiritual guide from the investiture with sacred thread and performs the duties pertaining to his order till he settles in life; ब्रह्मचारी वेदमधीत्य वेदौ वेदान् वा चरेद् ब्रह्मचर्यम् Kaṭhaśrutyopaniṣad 17; Ms.2.41,175;6.87. -2 one who vows to lead the life of a celibate. -3 an epithet of Śiva. -4 of Skanda. -चारिणी 1 an epithet of Durgā. -2 a woman who observes the vow of chastity. -जः an epithet of Kārtikeya. -जन्मन् n. 1 spirtual birth. -2 investiture with the sacred thread; ब्रह्मजन्म हि विप्रस्य प्रेत्य चेह च शाश्वतम् Ms.2.146,17. -जारः the paramour of a Brāhmaṇa's wife; Rāmtā. Up. -जिज्ञासा desire to know Brahman; अयातो ब्रह्मजिज्ञासा Brahmasūtra. -जीविन् a. living by sacred knowledge. (-m.) a mercenary Brāhmaṇa (who converts his sacred knowledge into trade), a Brāhmaṇa who lives by sacred knowledge. -ज्ञानम् knowledge about Brahman; वेदान्तसाङ्ख्यसिद्धान्त- ब्रह्मज्ञानं वदाम्यहम् Garuḍa. P. -ज्ञ, -ज्ञानिन् a. one who knows Brahma. (-ज्ञः) 1 an epithet of Kārtikeya. -2 of Viṣṇu. -ज्ञानम् true or divine knowledge, knowledge of the identity of the universe with Brahma; ब्रह्मज्ञान- प्रभासंध्याकालो गच्छति धीमताम् Paśupata. Up.7. -ज्येष्ठः the elder brother of Brahman; ब्रह्मज्येष्ठमुपासते T. Up.2.5. (-a.) having Brahmā as first or chief. -ज्योतिस् n. 1 the light of Brahma or the Supreme Being. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -तत्त्वम् the true knowledge of the Supreme Spirit. -तन्त्रम् all that is taught in the Veda. -तालः (in music) a kind of measure. -तेजस् n. 1 the glory of Brahman. -2 Brahmanic lustre, the lustre or glory supposed to surround a Brāhmaṇa. -दः a spiritual preceptor; Ms.4.232. -दण्डः 1 the curse of a Brāhmaṇa; एकेन ब्रह्मदण्डेन बहवो नाशिता मम Rām. -2 a tribute paid to a Brāhmaṇa. -3 an epithet of Śiva. -4 N. of a mythical weapon (ब्रह्मास्त्र); स्वरस्य रामो जग्राह ब्रह्मदण्डमिवापरम् Rām.3.3.24. -5 magic, spells, incantation (अभिचार); ब्रह्मदण्डमदृष्टेषु दृष्टेषु चतुरङ्गिणीम् Mb.12. 13.27. -दर्मा Ptychotis Ajowan (Mar. ओवा). -दानम् 1 the imparting of sacred knowledge. -2 sacred knowledge, received as an inheritance or hereditary gift; सर्वेषामेव दानानां ब्रह्मदानं विशिष्यते Ms.4.233. -दायः 1 instruction in the Vedas, the imparting of sacred knowledge. -2 sacred knowledge received as an inheritance; तं प्रतीतं स्वधर्मेण ब्रह्मदायहरं पितुः Ms.3.3. -3 the earthly possession of a Brāhmaṇa. -दायादः 1 one who receives the Vedas as his hereditary gift, a Brāhmaṇa. -2 the son of a Brāhmaṇa. -दारुः the mulberry tree. -दिनम् a day of Brahman. -दूषक a. falsifying the vedic texts; Hch. -देय a. married according to the Brāhma form of marriage; ब्रह्मदेयात्मसंतानो ज्येष्ठसामग एव च Ms.3.185. (-यः) the Brāhma form of marriage. (-यम्) 1 land granted to Brahmaṇas; श्रोत्रियेभ्यो ब्रह्मदेयान्यदण्डकराण्यभिरूपदायकानि प्रयच्छेत् Kau. A.2.1.19. -2 instruction in the sacred knowledge. -दैत्यः a Brāhmaṇa changed into a demon; cf. ब्रह्मग्रह. -द्वारम् entrance into Brahmā; ब्रह्मद्वारमिदमित्येवैतदाह यस्त- पसाहतपाप्मा Maitra. Up.4.4. -द्विष्, -द्वेषिन् a. 1 hating Brāhmaṇas; Ms.3.154 (Kull.). -2 hostile to religious acts or devotion, impious, godless. -द्वेषः hatred of Brāhmaṇas. -धर a. possessing sacred knowledge. -नदी an epithet of the river Sarasvatī. -नाभः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -निर्वाणम् absorption into the Supreme Spirit; स्थित्वास्यामन्तकाले$पि ब्रह्मनिर्वाणमृच्छति Bg.2.72. -2 = ब्रह्मानन्द q. v.; तं ब्रह्मनिर्वाणसमाधिमाश्रितम् Bhāg.4.6.39. -निष्ठ a. absorbed in or intent on the contemplation of the Supreme Spirit; ब्रह्मनिष्ठस्तथा योगी पृथग्भावं न विन्दति Aman. Up.1.31. (-ष्ठः) the mulberry tree. -नीडम् the resting-place of Brahman. -पदम् 1 the rank or position of a Brāhmaṇa. -2 the place of the Supreme Spirit. -पवित्रः the Kuśa grass. -परिषद् f. an assembly of Brāhmṇas. -पादपः, -पत्रः the Palāśa tree. -पारः the final object of all sacred knowledge. -पारायणम् a complete study of the Vedas, the entire Veda; याज्ञवल्क्यो मुनिर्यस्मै ब्रह्मपारायणं जगौ U.4.9; Mv.1.14. -पाशः N. of a missile presided over by Brahman; अबध्नादपरिस्कन्दं ब्रह्मपाशेन विस्फुरन् Bk.9.75. -पितृ m. an epithet of Viṣṇu. -पुत्रः 1 a son of Brahman. -2 N. of a (male) river which rises in the eastern extremity of the Himālaya and falls with the Ganges into the Bay of Bengal. (-त्रा) 1 a kind of vegetable poison. -2 See ब्रह्मपुत्रः (2). (-त्री) an epithet of the river Sarasvatī. -पुरम् the heart; दिव्ये ब्रह्मपुरे ह्येष व्योम्न्यात्मा प्रतिष्ठितः Muṇḍ.2.2.7. -2 the body; Ch. Up. -पुरम्, -पुरी 1 the city of Brahman (in heaven). -2 N. of Benares. -पुराणम् N. of one of the eighteen Purāṇas. -पुरुषः a minister of Brahman (the five vital airs). -प्रलयः the universal destruction at the end of one hundred years of Brahman in which even the Supreme Being is supposed to be swallowed up. -प्राप्तिः f. absorption into the Supreme spirit. -बलम् the Brahmanical power. -बन्धुः 1 a contemptuous term for a Brāhmaṇa, an unworthy Brāhmaṇa (cf. Mar. भटुर्गा); वस ब्रह्मचर्यं न वै सोम्यास्मत्कुलीनो$ननूज्य ब्रह्मबन्धुरिव भवतीति Ch. Up.6.1.1; ब्रह्मबन्धुरिति स्माहम् Bhāg.1.81.16; M.4; V.2. -2 one who is a Brāhmaṇa only by caste, a nominal Brāhmaṇa. -बिन्दुः a drop of saliva sputtered while reciting the Veda. -बीजम् 1 the mystic syllable om; मनो यच्छेज्जितश्वासो ब्रह्मबीजमविस्मरन् Bhāg.2.1.17. -2 the mulberry tree. -ब्रुवः, -ब्रुवाणः one who pretends to be a Brāhmaṇa. -भवनम् the abode of Brahman. -भागः 1 the mulberry tree. -2 the share of the chief priest; अथास्मै ब्रह्मभागं पर्याहरन्ति Śat. Br. -भावः absorption into the Supreme Spirit -भावनम् imparting religious knowledge; छेत्ता ते हृदयग्रन्थिमौदर्यो ब्रह्मभावनः Bhāg.3.24.4. -भिद् a. dividing the one Brahma into many. -भुवनम् the world of Brahman; आ ब्रह्म- भुवनाल्लोकाः पुनरावर्तिनो$र्जुन Bg.8.16. -भूत a. become one with Brahma, absorbed into the Supreme Spirit; आयुष्मन्तः सर्व एव ब्रह्मभूता हि मे मताः Mb.1.1.14. -भूतिः f. twilight. -भूमिजा a kind of pepper. -भूयम् 1 identity with Brahma, absorption or dissolution into Brahma, final emancipation; स ब्रह्मभूयं गतिमागजाम R.18.28; ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते Bg.14.26; Ms.1.98. -2 Brahmanahood, the state or rank of a Brāhmaṇa. धृष्टाद्धार्ष्टमभूत् क्षत्र ब्रह्मभूयं गतं क्षितौ Bhāg.9.2.17. -भूयस n. absorption into Brahma. -मङ्गलदेवता an epithet of Lakshmī. -महः a festival in honour of Brāhmaṇas. -मित्र a. having Brāhmaṇas for friends. -मीमांसा the Vedānta philosophy which inquires into the nature of Brahma or Supreme Spirit. -मुहूर्तः a particular hour of the day. -मूर्ति a. having the form of Brahman. -मूर्धभृत् m. an epithet of Śiva. -मेखलः the Munja plant. -यज्ञः one of the five daily Yajñas or sacrifices (to be performed by a householder), teaching and reciting the Vedas; अध्यापनं ब्रह्मयज्ञः Ms.3.7 (अध्यापनशब्देन अध्य- यनमपि गृह्यते Kull.) -योगः cultivation or acquisition of spiritual knowledge. -योनि a. 1 sprung from Brahman; गुरुणा ब्रह्मयोनिना R.1.64. (-निः) f. 1 original source in Brahman. -2 the author of the Vedas or of Brahman; किं पुनर्ब्रह्मयोनेर्यस्तव चेतसि वर्तते Ku.6.18. ˚स्थ a. intent on the means of attaining sacred knowledge; ब्राह्मणा ब्रह्मयोनिस्था ये स्वकर्मण्यवस्थिताः Ms.1.74. -रत्नम् a valuable present made to a Brāhmaṇa. -रन्ध्रम् an aperture in the crown of the head through which the soul is said to escape on its leaving the body; आरोप्य ब्रह्मरन्ध्रेण ब्रह्म नीत्वोत्सृजेत्तनुम् Bhāg.11.15.24. -राक्षसः See ब्रह्मग्रह; छिद्रं हि मृगयन्ते स्म विद्वांसो ब्रह्मराक्षसाः Rām. 1.8.17. -रवः muttering of prayers. -रसः Brahma's savour. ˚आसवः Brahma's nectar. -रातः an epithet of Śuka; Bhāg.1.9.8. -रात्रः early dawn. -रात्रिः an epithet of Yājñavalkya, (wrong for ब्रह्मरातिः) -राशिः 1 the whole mass or circle of sacred knowledge. -2 an epithet of Paraśurāma. -3 a particular constellation. -रीतिः f. a kind of brass. -रे(ले)खा -लिखितम्, -लेखः lines written by the creator on the forehead of a man which indicate his destiny, the predestined lot of any man. -लोकः the world of Brahman. -लौकिक a. inhabiting the ब्रह्मलोक. -वक्तृ m. an expounder of the Vedas. -वद्यम् knowledge of Brahma. -वधः, -वध्या, -हत्या the murder of a Brāhmaṇa. -वर्चस् n., -वर्चसम् 1 divine glory or splendour, spiritual pre-eminence or holiness resulting from sacred knowledge; स य एवमेतद्रथन्तरमग्नौ प्रोतं वेद ब्रह्मवर्चस्यन्नादो भवति Ch. Up.2.12.2; (तस्य) हेतुस्त्वद्ब्रह्मवर्चसम् R.1.63; Ms.2.37;4.94. -2 the inherent sanctity or power of a Brāhmaṇa; Ś.6. -वर्चसिन्, -वर्चस्विन् a. holy or sanctified by spiritual pre-eminence, holy; अपृथग्धीरुपा- सीत ब्रह्मवर्चस्व्यकल्मषः Bhāg.11.17.32. (-m.) an eminent or holy Brāhmaṇa; ब्रह्मवर्चस्विनः पुत्रा जायन्ते शिष्टसंमताः Ms. 3.39. -वर्तः see ब्रह्मावर्त. -वर्धनम् copper. -वाच् f. the sacred text. -वादः a discourse on the sacred texts; ब्रह्मवादः सुसंवृत्तः श्रुतयो यत्र शेरते Bhāg.1.87.1. -वादिन् m. 1 one who teaches or expounds the Vedas; U.1; Māl.1. -2 a follower of the Vedānta philosophy; तस्याभिषेक आरब्धो ब्राह्मणैर्ब्रह्मवादिभिः Bhāg.4.15.11. (-नी) an epithet of Gāyatrī; आयाहि वरदे देवि त्र्यक्षरे ब्रह्मवादिनि Gāyatryāvāhanamantra. -वासः the abode of Brāhmaṇas. -विद्, -विद a. 1 knowing the Supreme Spirit; ब्रह्मविद् ब्रह्मैव भवति. (-m.) a sage, theologian, philosopher. -विद्या, -वित्त्वम् knowledge of the Supreme Spirit. ब्रह्मविद्यापरिज्ञानं ब्रह्मप्राप्तिकरं स्थितम् Śuka. Up.3.1. -विन्दुः see ब्रह्मबिन्दु. -विवर्धनः an epithet of Indra. -विहारः a pious conduct, perfect state; Buddh. -वीणा a particular Vīṇā. -वृक्षः 1 the Palāśa tree. -2 the Udumbara tree. -वृत्तिः f. livelihood of a Brāhmaṇa; ब्रह्मवृत्त्या हि पूर्णत्वं तया पूर्णत्वमभ्यसेत् Tejobindu Up.1.42. -वृन्दम् an assemblage of Brāhmaṇas. -वेदः 1 knowledge of the Vedas. -2 monotheism, knowledge of Brahma. -3 the Veda of the Brāhmaṇas (opp. क्षत्रवेद). -4 N. of the Atharvaveda; ब्रह्मवेदस्याथर्वर्णं शुक्रमत एव मन्त्राः प्रादु- र्बभूवुः Praṇava Up.4. -वेदिन् a. knowing the Vedas; cf. ब्रह्मविद्. -वैवर्तम् N. of one of the eighteen Purāṇas -व्रतम् a vow of chastity. -शल्यः Acacia Arabica (Mar. बाभळ). -शाला 1 the hall of Brahman. -2 a place for reciting the Vedas. -शासनम् 1 a decree addressed to Brāhmaṇas. -2 a command of Brahman. -3 the command of a Brāhmaṇa. -4 instruction about sacred duty. -शिरस्, -शीर्षन् n. N. of a particular missile; अस्त्रं ब्रह्मशिरस्तस्मै ततस्तोषाद्ददौ गुरुः Bm.1.649. -श्री N. of a Sāman. -संसद् f. an assembly of Brāhmaṇas. -संस्थ a. wholly devoted to the sacred knowledge (ब्रह्म); ब्रह्मसंस्थो$मृतत्वमेति Ch. Up.2.23.1. -सती an epithet of the river Sarasvatī. -सत्रम् 1 repeating and teaching the Vedas (= ब्रह्मयज्ञ q. v.); ब्रह्मसत्रेण जीवति Ms.4.9; ब्रह्मसत्रे व्यवस्थितः Mb.12.243.4. -2 meditation of Brahma (ब्रह्मविचार); स्वायंभुव ब्रह्मसत्रं जनलोके$भवत् पुरा Bhāg.1.87.9. -3 absorption into the Supreme Spirit. -सत्रिन् a. offering the sacrifice of prayer. -सदस् n. the residence of Brahman. -सभा the hall or court of Brahman. -संभव a. sprung or coming from Brahman. (-वः) N. of Nārada. -सर्पः a kind of snake. -सवः distillation of Soma. -सायुज्यम् complete identification with the Supreme Spirit; cf. ब्रह्मभूय. -सार्ष्टिता identification or union or equality with Brahma; Ms.4.232. -सावर्णिः N. of the tenth Manu; दशमो ब्रह्मसावर्णिरुपश्लोकसुतो महान् Bhāg.8.13.21. -सुतः 1 N. of Nārada, Marīchi &c. -2 a kind of Ketu. -सुवर्चला f. 1 N. of a medicinal plant (ब्राह्मी ?). -2 an infusion (क्वथितमुदक); पिबेद् ब्रह्मसुवर्चलाम् Ms.11.159. -सूः 1 N. of Aniruddha. -2 N. of the god of love. -सूत्रम् 1 the sacred thread worn by the Brāhmaṇas or the twice-born (द्विज) over the shoulder; Bhāg. 1.39.51. -2 the aphorisms of the Vedānta philosophy by Bādarāyaṇa; ब्रह्मसूत्रपदैश्चैव हेतुमद्भिर्विनिश्चितैः Bg.13.4. -सूत्रिन् a. invested with the sacred thread. -सृज् m. an epithet of Śiva. -स्तम्बः the world, universe; ब्रह्मस्तम्बनिकुञ्जपुञ्जितघनज्याघोषघोरं धनुः Mv.3.48. -स्तेयम् acquiring holy knowledge by unlawful means; स ब्रह्मस्तेयसंयुक्तो नरकं प्रतिपद्यते Ms.2.116. -स्थली a place for learning the Veda (पाठशाला); ...... ब्रह्मस्थलीषु च । सरी- सृपाणि दृश्यन्ते ... Rām.6.1.16. -स्थानः the mulberry tree. -स्वम् the property or possessions of a Brāhmaṇa; परस्य योषितं हृत्वा ब्रह्मस्वमपहृत्य च । अरण्ये निर्जले देशे भवति ब्रह्मराक्षसः ॥ Y.3.212. ˚हारिन् a. stealing a Brāhmaṇa's property. -स्वरूप a. of the nature of the Supreme Spirit. -हत्या, -वधः Brahmanicide, killing a Brāhmaṇa; ब्रह्महत्यां वा एते घ्नन्ति Trisuparṇa. हन् a. murderer of a Brāhmaṇa; ब्रह्महा द्वादश समाः कुटीं कृत्वा वने वसेत् Ms.11.72. -हुतम् one of the five daily Yajñas or sacrifices, which consists in offering the rites of hospitality to guests; cf. Ms.3.74. -हृदयः, -यम् N. of a star (Capella).
brāhma ब्राह्म a. (-ह्मी f.) [ब्रह्मण इदं तेन प्रोक्तं वा अण् टिलोपः] 1 Relating to Brahman or the creator, or to the Supreme Spirit; R.13.6; Ms.2.4; एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः पार्थ नैनां प्राप्य विमुह्यति Bg.2.72. -2 Brahmanical, belonging to Brāhmaṇas; ब्राह्मं रथवरं युक्तमास्थाय सुधृतव्रतः Rām. 2.5.4; न विशेषो$स्ति वर्णानां सर्वं ब्राह्ममिदं जगत् Mb.12.188. 1. -3 Relating to sacred knowledge or study; ब्राह्मं वेदमधीयाना वेदाङ्गानि च सर्वशः Mb.1.156.5. -4 Prescribed by the Vedas, Vedic; scriptural; ब्राह्मस्य जन्मनः कर्ता Ms.2.15. -5 Holy, sacred, divine. -6 Presided over by Brahman as a मुहूर्त (see ब्राह्ममुहूर्त), or a missile. -7 Fit for a divine state or godhead. -8 Belonging to the ब्रह्मलोक; ददर्शाप्सरसं ब्राह्मीं पञ्चचूडामनिन्दिताम् Mb.13.38.3. -ह्यः 1 one of the eight forms of marriage in Hindu law, in which the bride decorated with ornaments is given away to the bridegroom, without requiring any gift or present from him (this is the best of the 8 forms); ब्राह्मो विवाह आहूय दीयते शक्त्यलंकृता Y.1.58; Ms.3.21,27. -2 N. of Nārada. -3 Quicksilver. -4 The duty or prescribed course of conduct of a king; आवृत्तानां गुरुकुलात् विप्राणां पूज्यको भवेत् । नृपाणामक्षयो ह्येष ब्राह्मो धर्मो विधीयते ॥ -ह्मम् 1 The part of the hand under the root of the thumb; अङ्गुष्ठमूलस्य तले ब्राह्मं तीर्थं प्रचक्षते Ms.2.59. -2 Holy or sacred study. -3 N. of a Purāṇa. -4 N. of the constellation Rohiṇī. -Comp. -अहोरात्रः a day and night of Brahman (a period of 2 Kalpas of mortals). -देया a girl to be married according to the Brāhma form. -निधिः m. money bestowed on the sacerdotal class. -मुहूर्तः a particular period of the day, the early part of the day (रात्रेश्च पश्चिमे यामे मुहूर्तो ब्राह्म उच्यते); cf. ब्राह्मे मुहूर्ते किल तस्य देवी कुमारकल्पं सुषुवे कुमारम् R.5.36; ब्राह्मे मुहूर्ते बुध्येत Ms.4.92.
vidyā विद्या [विद्-क्यप्] 1 Knowledge, learning, lore, sci- ence; (तां) विद्यामभ्यसनेनेव प्रसादयितुमर्हसि R.1.88; विद्या नाम नरस्य रूपमधिकं प्रच्छन्नगुप्तं धनम् &c. Bh.2.2. (According to some Vidyās are four :-- आन्वीक्षिकी त्रयी वार्ता दण्डनीतिश्च शीश्वती Kāmandaka); चतसृष्वपि ते विवेकिनी नृप विद्यासु निरूढिमागता Ki.2.6; to these four Manu adds a fifth आत्मविद्या; त्रैविद्येभ्यस्त्रयीं विद्यां दण्डनीतिं च शाश्वतीम् । आन्वीक्षिकीं चात्मविद्यां वार्तारम्भांश्च लोकतः ॥ Ms.7.43. But the usual number of Vidyās is stated to be fourteen, i. e. the four Vedas, the six Aṅgas, Dharma, Mimāṁsā, Tarka or Nyāya and the Purāṇas; see चतुर्दशविद्या under चतुर्; and N.1.4. In N.1.5 the number is spoken of as being eighteen by including Medicine, Military Art, Music and Polity; अगाहताष्टादशतां जिगीषया.) -2 Right knowledge, spiritual knowledge; विद्याकल्पेन मरुता मेघानां भूयसामपि (क्वापि प्रविलयः कृतः) U.6.6; cf. अविद्या. -3 A spell, an incantation; गन्धधूपादिभिश्चार्चेद् द्वादशाक्षर- विद्यया Bhāg.8.16.39. -4 A mystical name of the letter इ. -5 A small bell. -6 The goddess Durgā. -7 Magical skill. -Comp. -अनुपालिन्, -अनुसेविन् a. acquiring knowledge; भागो यवीयसां तत्र यदि विद्यानुपालिनः Ms.9.24. -अभ्यासः, -अर्जनम्, -आगमः acquisition of knowledege, pursuit of learning, study. -अर्थः seeking for knowledge. -अर्थिन् m. a student, scholar, pupil. -आधारः a receptacle of learning; असौ विद्याधारः शिशुरपि विनिर्गत्य भवनात् Māl.2.11. -आरम्भः introduction of a boy to learning. -आलयः a school, college, any place of learning. -ईशः, -ईश्वरः N. of Śiva. -उपार्ज- नम् = विद्यार्जनम् q. v. -करः a learned man. -कोशगृहम्, -कोशसमाश्रयः library. -गुरुः an instructor in (sacred) science. -चण, -चञ्चु a. famous for one's learning. -जम्भक, -वार्त्तिक a. exercising magic of various kinds. -दलः the Bhūrja tree. -दातृ m. a teacher, an instructor. -दानम् teaching, imparting instruction. -दायदः the inheritor of a science. -देवी the goddess of learning. -धनम् 1 wealth in the form of learning; -2 wealth acquired by learning; विद्याधनं तु यद्यस्य तत्तस्यवै धनं भवेत् Ms.9.26. -धरः, (-री f.) a class of demigods or semi-divine beings; विद्याधराध्युषितचारुशिलातलानि स्थानानि Bh.3.7. ˚यन्त्रम् an apparatus for sublimating quicksilver. -प्राप्तिः = विद्यार्जन q. v. -बलम् the power or magic. -भाज् a. learned. -मण्डलकम् a library. -लाभः 1 acquisition of learning. -2 wealth or any other acquisition made by learning. -वंशः a chronological list of teachers in any branch of science. -विशिष्ट a. distinguished by learning. -विहीन a. illiterate, ignorant; विद्या- विहीनः पशुः Bh.2.2; आसन्नमेव नृपतिर्भजते मनुष्यं विद्या- विहीनमकुलीनमसंस्कृतं वा Pt.1.35. -वृद्ध a. old in knowledge, advanced in learning; अस्य नित्यश्च विद्यावृद्धसंयोगः विनय- वृद्ध्यर्थम् Kau. A.1.5. -व्यसनम्, -व्यवसायः pursuit of knowledge. -व्रतस्नातकः, -स्नातकः a Brāhmaṇa who has finished his course of religious studentship (ब्रह्मचारिव्रत); वेदविद्याव्रतस्नाताञ्श्रोत्रियान् गृहमेधिनः (पूजयेद्धव्य- कव्येन) Ms.4.31.
viplava विप्लव a. Perflexed, confused; मुमूर्षूणां हि मन्दात्मन्ननु स्युर्विप्लवा गिरः Bhāg.7.8.12. -वः 1 Floating or drifting about, floating in different directions. -2 Opposition, contrariety. -3 Confusion, perplexity. -4 Tumult, scuffle, affray; M.1. -5 Devastation, predatory warfare, danger from an enemy. -6 Extortion. -7 Loss, destruction; सत्त्वविप्लवात् R.8.41; तद्वाग्विसर्गो जनताघविप्लवः Bhāg.1.5. 11. -8 Adverseness, evil turn; अथवा मम भाग्यविल्पवात् R. 8.47. -9 The rust on a mirror (dust accumulating on its surface); अपवर्जितविप्लवे शुचौ ... मतिरादर्श इवाभिदृश्यते Ki.2.26 (where विप्लव also means प्रमाणबाधः 'absence of reasoning'). -1 Transgression, violation; गुरूपदिष्टेन रिपौ सुते$पि वा निहन्ति दण्डेन स धर्मविप्लवम् Ki.1.13. -11 An evil, a calamity. -12 Sin, wickedness, sinfulness. -13 Terrifying an enemy by shouts and gestures. -14 Divulging, making public. -15 Profanation of the Veda by unseasonable study. -16 Shipwreck.
vīkṣ वीक्ष् 1 Ā. 1 To see, behold; तं वीक्ष्य वेपथुमती Ku.5.85; सुभगं तथैव खलु सापि वीक्षते V.4.3. -2 To regard or consider as. -3 To think fit. -4 To study, peruse.
vṛt वृत् I. 4 Ā. (वृत्यते) 1 To choose, like; cf. वावृत्. -2 To distribute, divide. -II. 1 U. (वर्तयति-ते) To shine. III. 1 Ā. (वर्तते but Paras. also in the Aorist, Second Future and Conditional; also in the Desiderative; ववृते, अवृतत्-अवर्तिष्ट, वर्तिष्यते-वर्त्स्यति, वर्तितुम्, वृत्त) 1 To be, exist, abide, remain, subsist, stay; इदं मे मनसि वर्तते Ś.1; अत्र विषये$स्माकं महत् कुतूहलं वर्तते Pt.1; मरालकुलनायकः कथय रे कथं वर्तताम् Bv.1.3; often used merely as a copula; अतीत्य हरितो हरींश्च वर्तन्ते वाजिनः Ś.1. -2 To be in any particular condition or circumstances; पश्चिमे वयसि वर्तमानस्य K.; so दुःखे, हर्षे, विषादे &c. वर्तते. -3 To happen, take place, occur, come to pass; सीतादेव्याः किं वृत्तमित्यस्ति काचित् प्रवृत्तिः U.2; सायं संप्रति वर्तते पथिक रे स्थानान्तरं गम्यताम् Śubhas. 'now it is evening' &c.; Ś. Til.6; अभितो ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं वर्तते विदिता- त्मनाम् Bg.5.26. -4 To move on, proceed in regular course; सर्वथा वर्तते यज्ञः Ms.2.15; निर्व्याजमज्या ववृते Bk. 2.37; R.12.56. -5 To be maintained or supported by, live on, subsist by (fig. also); कस्त्वं किं वर्तसे ब्रह्मन् ज्ञातु- मिच्छामहे वयम् Rām.1.1.12; फलमूलवारिभिर्वर्तमाना K.172; Ms.3.77. -6 To turn, roll on, revolve; यावदियं लोकयात्रा वर्तते Ve.3. -7 To occupy or engage oneself, be occupied or engaged in, set about (with loc.); भगवान् काश्यपः शाश्वते ब्रह्मणि वर्तते Ś.1; इतरो दहने स्वकर्मणां ववृते ज्ञानमयेन वह्निना R.8.2; Ms.8.346; नानवाप्तमवाप्तव्यं वर्त एव च कर्मणि Bg. 3.22. -8 To act, behave, conduct or demean oneself towards, do, perform, practise (usually with loc. or by itself); आर्यो$स्मिन् विनयेन वर्तताम् U.6; कविर्निसर्गसौहृदेन भरतेषु वर्तमानः Māl.1; औदासीन्येन वर्तितुम् R.1.25; मित्रवन् मय्यवर्तिष्ट Dk.; Ms.7.14;8.173;11.3. -9 To act a part, enter upon a course of conduct; साध्वीं वृत्तिं वर्तते 'he acts an honest part'. -1 To act up to, abide by, follow; तदशक्यारम्भादुपरम्य मातुर्मते वर्तस्व Dk. -11 To have the sense of, signify, be used in the sense of; पुष्यसमीपस्थे चन्द्रमसि पुष्यशब्दो वर्तते Mbh. on P.IV.2.3 (often used in lexicons in this sense). -12 To tend or conduce to (with dat.); पुत्रेण किं फलं यो वै पितृदुःखाय वर्तते. -18 To rest or depend upon. -Caus. (वर्तयति-ते) 1 To cause to be or exist. -2 To cause to move or turn round, cause to revolve; ज्योतींषि वर्तयति च प्रविभक्तरश्मिः Ś.7.6. -3 To brandish, flourish, whirl round; हस्तवर्तमवीवृतत् Bk.15. 37. -4 To do, practise, exhibit; नान्तर्वर्तयति ध्वनत्सु जलदे- ष्वामन्द्रमुद्गर्जितम् Māl.9.33. -5 To perform, discharge, attend or look to; सो$धिकारमभिकः कुलोचितं कश्चन स्वयमवर्तयत् समाः R.19.4; Mv.3.23. -6 To spend, pass (as time). -7 To live on, subsist; रामो$पि सह वैदेह्या वने वन्येन वर्तयन् R.12.8; sometimes Ātm. also; मदसिक्तमुखैर्मृगाधिपः करभि- र्वर्तयते स्वयं हतैः Ki.2.18. -8 To relate, describe; तत्र ते वर्तयिष्यामि यथा नैतत् प्रधानतः Mb.12.19.1;1.116.18. -9 To perceive, comprehend. -1 To study. -11 To shine. -12 To speak. -13 To shed (as tears); ताबुभौ च समालङ्ग्य रामो$प्यश्रूण्यवर्तयत् Rām.2.99.4. -Desid. (विवृत्सति, विवर्तिषते).
vedaḥ वेदः [विद्-अच् घञ् वा] 1 Knowledge. -2 Sacred knowledge, holy learning, the scripture of the Hindus. (Originally there were only three Vedas :- ऋग्वेद, यजुर्वेद and सामवेद, which are collectively called त्रयी 'the sacred triad'; but a fourth, the अथर्ववेद, was subsequently added to them. Each of the Vedas had two distinct parts, the Mantra or Samhitā and Brāhmaṇa. According to the strict orthodox faith of the Hindus the Vedas are a-pauruṣeya, 'not human compositions', being supposed to have been directly revealed by the Supreme Being, Brahman, and are called Śruti' i. e. 'what is heard or revealed', as distinguished from 'Smṛiti', i. e. 'what is remembered or is the work of human origin'; see श्रुति, स्मृति also; and the several sages, to whom the hymns of the Vedas are ascribed, are, therefore, called द्रष्टारः 'seers', and not कर्तारः or सृष्टारः 'composers'.) -3 A bundle of Kuśa grass; पद्माक्षमालामुत जन्तुमार्जनं वेदं च साक्षात्तप एव रूपिणौ Bhāg. 12.8.34; Ms.4.36. -4 N. of Viṣṇu. -5 A part of a sacrifice (यज्ञांग). -6 Exposition, comment, gloss. -7 A metre. -8 Acquisition, gain, wealth (Ved). -9 N. of the number 'four'. -1 The ritual (वेदयतीति वेदो विधिः); Karma-kāṇda; वेदवादस्य विज्ञानं सत्याभासमिवानृतम् Mb.12.1. 2 (see Nīlakaṇtha's commentary). -11 Smṛiti literature; आम्नायेभ्यः पुनर्वेदाः प्रसृताः सर्वतोमुखाः Mb.12.26.9. -Comp. -अग्रणीः N. of Sarasvatī. -अङ्गम् 'a member of the Veda', N. of certain classes of works regarded as auxiliary to the Vedas and designed to aid in the correct pronunciation and interpretation of the text and the right employment of the Mantras in ceremonials; (the Ved- āṅgas are six in number :-- शिक्षा कल्पो व्याकरणं निरुक्तं छन्दसां चयः । ज्योतिषामयनं चैव वेदाङ्गानि ष़डेव तु ॥; i. e. 1 शिक्षा 'the science of proper articulation and pronunciation'; 2 छन्दस् 'the science of prosody'; 3 व्याकरण 'grammar'; 4 निरुक्त 'etymological explanation of difficult Vedic words'; 5 ज्योतिष 'astronomy'; and 6 कल्प 'ritual or ceremonical'). A peculiar use of the word 'वेदाङ्ग' in masculine gender may here be noted; वेदांश्चैव तु वेदाङ्गान् वेदान्तानि तथा स्मृतीः । अधीत्य ब्राह्मणः पूर्वं शक्तितो$न्यांश्च संपठेत् ॥ Bṛihadyogiyājña- valkya-Smṛti 12.34. -अधिगमः, -अध्ययनम् holy study, study of the Vedas; काम्यो हि वेदाधिगमः कर्मयोगश्च वैदिकः Ms.2.2. -अधिपः 1 one who presides over the Veda; ऋग्वेदाधिपतर्जीवो यजुर्वेदाधिपो भृगुः । सामवेदाधिपो भौमः शशिजो$- थर्ववेदपः ॥ -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -अध्यापकः a teacher of the Vedas, a holy preceptor. -अनध्ययनम् Remissness in the Vedic study; Ms.3.63. -अन्तः 1 'the end of the Veda', an Upaniṣad (which comes at the end of the Veda). Also -अन्तम् (See quotation from बृहद्योगियाज्ञ- वल्क्यस्मृति under -अङ्ग above). -2 the last of the six principal Darśanas or systems of Hindu philosophy; (so called because it teaches the ultimate aim and scope of the Veda, or because it is based on the Upaniṣads which come at the end of the Veda); (this system of philosophy is sometimes called उत्तरमीमांसा being regarded as a sequel to Jaimini's पूर्वमीमांसा, but it is practically quite a distinct system; see मीमांसा. It represents the popular pantheistic creed of the Hindus, regarding, as it does, the whole world as synthetically derived from one eternal principle, the Brahman or Supreme Spirit; see ब्रह्मन् also). ˚गः, ˚ज्ञः a follower of the Vedanta philosophy. -अन्तिन् m. a follower of the Vedanta philosophy. -अभ्यासः 1 the study of the Vedas; वेदाभ्यासो हि विप्रस्य तपः परमिहोच्यते Ms.2.166. -2 the repetition of the sacred syllable Om. -अर्थः the meaning of the Vedas. -अवतारः revelation of the Vedas. -अश्र a. quadrangular. -आदि n., -आदिवर्णः, -आदिवीजम् the sacred syllable. Om. -उक्त a. scriptural, taught in the Vedas. -उदयः N. of the sun (the Sāma Veda being said to have proceeded from him). -उदित a. scriptural, ordained by the Vedas; वेदोदितं स्वकं कर्म नित्यं कुर्यादतन्द्रितः Ms. 4.14. -कार the composer of the Veda. -कौलेयकः an epithet of Śiva. -गर्भः 1 an epithet of Brahman; कमण्डलुं वेदगर्भः कुशान् सप्तर्षयो ददुः Bhāg.8.18.16. -2 a Brāhmaṇa versed in the Vedas. -3 N. of Viṣṇu. -ज्ञः a Brāhmaṇa versed in the Vedas; तथा दहति वेदज्ञः कर्मजं दोषमात्मनः Ms.12.11. -त्रयम्, -त्रयी the three Vedas collectively. -दर्शिन् a. one who discerns the sense of the Veda; तपोमध्यं बुधैः प्रोक्तं तपो$न्तं वेददर्शिभिः Ms.11.234. -दृष्ट a. sanctioned by the Vedas. -निन्दकः 1 an atheist, a heretic, an unbeliever (one who rejects the divine origin and character of the Vedas). -2 a Jaina or Buddhist. -निन्दा unbelief, heresy; Ms.11.56. -पारगः a Brāhmaṇa skilled in the Vedas. -पुण्यम् a merit acquired by the study of the Veda. वेदपुण्येन युज्यते Ms.2.78. -बाह्य a. contrary to the Veda. (-ह्यः) a sceptic. -मातृ f. 1 N. of a very sacred Vedic verse called Gāyatree q. v. -2 N. of सरस्वती, सावित्री and गायत्री; सूतश्च मातरिश्वा वै कवचं वंदमातरः Mb.5.179.4. -भूतिः (embodiment of the Veda) an honourable title before the names of learned Brāhmaṇas. -वचनम्, -वाक्यम् a Vedic text. -वदनम् grammar. -वादः see वेदः (1); तदुक्तं वेदवादेषु गहनं वेददर्शिभिः Mb.12.238.11 (com.); Vedic discussion; यामिमां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्त्यविपश्चितः । वेदवादरताः Bg. 2.42. -वासः a Brāhmaṇa. -वाह्य a. contrary to, or not founded on, the Veda. -विद् m. 1 a Brāhmaṇa versed in the Vedas. -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -वद्वस् a. conversant with the Vedas; ब्राह्मणान् वेदविदुषो यज्ञार्थं चैव दक्षिणाम् Ms. 11.4. -विहित a. enjoined by the Vedas. -व्यासः an epithet of Vyāsa who is regarded as the 'arranger' of the Vedas in their present form; see व्यास. -शास्त्रम् the doctrine of the Vedas; Ms.4.26. -श्रुतिः Vedic revelation. -संन्यासः givig up the ritual of the Vedas. -संमत, -संमित a. sanctioned by the Vedas.
vyāsaṅgaḥ व्यासङ्गः 1 Close adherence, intent attachment or application. -2 Intentness, devotion; परार्थव्यासङ्गादुपजहदथ स्वार्थपरताम् Bv.1.79. -3 Diligent study. -4 Attention; दानज्यानिविषादमूकमधुपव्यासङ्गदीनाननः Māl.9.33. -5 Detachment, separation. -6 Perplexity, confusion. -7 Addition.
śākhā शाखा 1 A branch (as of a tree); आवर्ज्य शाखाः R. 16.19. -2 An arm. -3 A party, section, faction. -4 A part of subdivision of a work. -5 A school, branch, sect. -6 A part or division of an animal. -7 A school or traditional recension of the Veda, the traditional text followed by a school; as in शाखलशाखा, आश्वलायनशाखा, बाष्कलशाखा &c. -8 A branch of any science. -Comp. -अध्येतृ a follower of any particular text of the Veda. -अन्तग a. one who has finished one शाखा; Ms.3.145. -चङ्क्रमणम् 'leaping from branch to branch', irregular study. -चन्द्रन्यायः see under न्याय. -नगरम्, -पुरम् a suburb; प्रवेशयेच्च तान् सर्वान् शाखानगरकेष्वपि. -पित्तम् inflammation of the extremities of the body, e. g. hands, shoulders &c. -बाहुः a branch-like arm. -भृत् m. a tree. -भेदः difference of (Vedic) school. -मृगः 1 a monkey, an ape; एतां दृष्ट्वा स्त्रियो मे$न्या यथा शाखामृगस्त्रियः Mb.3.267. 3. -2 a squirrel. -रण्डः 'a traitor to his Śākhā', a Brāhmaṇa who has changed his own school of the Vedas. -रथ्या a branch-road. -वातः pain in the limbs. -विलीन a. sitting on branches (as a bird). -शिफा a root growing from a branch (as of the fig-tree).
śāstram शास्त्रम् [शिष्यते$नेन शास्-ष्ट्रन्] 1 An order, a command, rule, precept; अतिक्रामति यः शास्त्रं पितुर्धर्मार्थदर्शिनः Mb.5.148. 21. -2 A sacred precept or rule, scriptural injunction; तस्माच्छास्त्रं प्रमाणं ते कार्याकार्यव्यवस्थितौ Bg.16.24. -3 A religious or sacred treatise, sacred book, scripture; see comps. below. -4 Any department of knowledege, science; इति गुह्यतमं शास्त्रम् Bg.15.2; शास्त्रेष्वकुण्ठिता बुद्धिः R.1.19; often at the end of comp. after the word denoting the subject, or applied collectively to the whole body of teaching on that subject; वेदान्तशास्त्र, न्यायशास्त्र, तर्कशास्त्र, अलंकार- शास्त्र &c. -5 What is learnt, knowledge; Śi.5.47. -6 A work, treatise; तन्त्रैः पञ्चभिरेतच्चकार सुमनोहरं शास्त्रकम् Pt.1. -7 Theory (opp. प्रयोग or practice); इमं मां च शास्त्रे प्रयोगे च विमृशतु M.1. -8 The material and spiritual science together; तत्त्वाभेदेन यच्छास्त्रं तत्कार्यं नान्यथाविधम् Mb. 12.267.9. -Comp. -अतिक्रमः -अननुष्ठानम् violation of sacred precepts, disregard of religious authority. -अनुष्ठानम्, -अनुसारः conformity to or observance of sacred precepts. -अन्वित a. conformable to doctrine or rule. -अभिज्ञ a. versed in the Śāstras. -अर्थः 1 the meaning of the sacred precept. -2 a scriptural precept or statement. -आचरणम् 1 observance of sacred precepts. -2 the study of Śāstras. (-णः) 1 one versed in scriptures. -2 a student of Vedas. -आवर्तलिपिः a particular mode of writing. -उक्त a. prescribed by sacred laws, enjoined by the Śāstras, lawful, legal. -कारः, -कृत् m. 1 the author of a Śāstra or sacred book. -2 an author in general. -3 a sage, saint. -कोविद a. versed in the Śāstras. -गण्डः a superficial reader of books, superficial scholar. -चक्षुस् n. grammar (as being the 'eye', as it were, with which to understand any Śāstra). -चारणः one who deserves sacred precepts. -ज्ञ, -दर्शिन्, -विद् a. 1 well-versed in the Śāstras. -2 a mere theorist. -ज्ञानम् knowledge of sacred books, conversancy with scriptures. -तत्त्वम् truth as taught in the Śāstras, scriptural truth. ˚ज्ञः an astronomer. -दृष्ट a. stated or enjoined in sacred books; तदहं प्रष्टुमिच्छामि शास्त्रदृष्टेन कर्मणा Rām. -दृष्टिः f. scriptural point of view. -m. an astrologer. -प्रसंगः 1 the subject of the Śāstras. -2 any discussion on scriptural points. -योनिः the source of the Śāstras. -वक्तृ an expounder of sacred books or knowledge. -वर्जित a. free from all rule or law. -वादः a precept or statement of the Śāstras. -विधानम्, -विधिः a sacred precept, scriptural injunction. -विप्रतिषेधः, -विरोधः 1 mutual contradiction of sacred precepts, inconsistency of precepts. -2 any act contrary to sacred precepts. -विमुख a. averse from study; Pt.1. -विरुद्ध a. contrary to the Śāstras, illegal, unlawful. -व्युत्पत्तिः f. intimate knowledge of the sacred writings, proficiency in the Śāstras. -शिल्पिन् m. the country of Kāśmīra. -सिद्ध a. established by sacred authority.
śikṣ शिक्ष् 1 Ā. (शिक्षते, शिक्षित) 1 To learn, study, acquire knowledge of; स्वं स्वं चरित्रं शिक्षेरन् पृथिव्यां सर्वमानवाः Ms. 2.2; अशिक्षतास्त्रं पितुरेव मन्त्रवत् R.3.31; मरुत् किमद्यापि न तासु शिक्षते N.1.73;1.77;4.48. -2 1 U. To teach (Ved.); अक्रोधं शिक्षयन्त्यन्यैः क्रोधना ये तपोधनाः N.17.8.
śikṣā शिक्षा [शिक्ष्-भावे अ] 1 Learning, study, acquisition of knowledge; पश्य मे हयसंयाने शिक्षां केशवनन्दन Mb.3.19.5; Ki.15.36; शिक्षाविशेषलघुहस्ततया निमेषात् R.9.63. -2 Desire of being able to do anything, wish to prevail; पाण्डवः परि- चक्राम शिक्षया रणशिक्षया Ki.15.37. -3 Teaching, instruction, training; काव्यज्ञशिक्षया$भ्यासः K. P.1; अभूच्च नम्रः प्रणिपात- शिक्षया R.3.25; M.4.9. -4 One of the six Vedāṅgas, the science which teaches the proper pronunciation of words and laws of euphony; वर्णस्वराद्युच्चारणप्रकारो यत्रोप- दिश्यते सा शिक्षा Ṛigvedabhāṣya. -5 Modesty, humility. -6 Science; रणशिक्षा 'military science'; Ki.15.37. -7 Giving, bestowing (Ved.). -8 Punishment. -Comp. -अक्षरम् a sound pronounced according to the rules of शिक्षा. -आचार a. conducting one's self according to precept. -करः 1 a teacher, an instructor. -2 N. of Vyāsa -गुरुः a religious preceptor. -नरः an epithet of Indra. -रसः desire of acquiring skill (in). -शक्तिः f. skill.
śīl शील् I. 1 P. (शीलति) 1 To meditate, contemplate. -2 To serve, honour, worship. -3 To do, practise. -II. 1 U. (शीलयति-ते) 1 To honour, worship; स शीलयन् देव- यानीं कन्यां संप्राप्तयौवनाम् Mb.1.76.25. -2 To practise repeatedly, exercise, study, think of, ponder over; श्रुति- शतमपि भूयः शीलितं भारतं वा Bv.2.35; शीलयन्ति मुनयः सुशील- ताम् Ki.13.43. -3 To put on, wear; चल सखि कुञ्जं सतिमिरपुञ्जं शीलय नीलनिचोलम् Gīt.5. -4 To go to, visit, frequent; यदनुगमनाय निशि गहनमपि शीलितम् Gīt.7; स्मेरानना सपदि शीलय सौधमौलिम् Bv.2.4. With अनु To practise in imitation; एवं लीलानरवपुर्नृलोकमनुशीलयन् Bhāg.1.23.36; 11.3.32. -अनु, -परि to practise repeatedly, cultivate, think of; शश्वच्छ्रुतो$सि मनसा परिशीलितो$पि Rāj. P.
śīlanam शीलनम् (शील्-ल्युट्) 1 Repeated practice, exercise, study, cultivation; वेदान्तशीलनमपि प्रमिति करोति Bhagavat- Śaraṇa S.2. -2 Constant application. -3 Honouring, serving. -4 Wearing.
śaikṣaḥ शैक्षः [शिक्षां वेत्त्यधीते वा अण्] 1 A student who studies Śikṣā or the science of pronunciation, one who has just entered upon the study of the Vedas. -2 (Hence) A novice, tyro. -a. Well familiar with the studies or sciences; expert; Mb.6.97.28 (com. शैक्षं शस्त्रादिशिक्षा- संपन्नम्).
śramaḥ श्रमः [श्रम्-घञ् न वृद्धिः] 1 Toil, labour, exertion, effort; अलं महीपाल तव श्रमेण R.2.34; जानाति हि पुनः सम्यक् कविरेव कवेः श्रमम् Subhāṣ.; R.16.75; Ms.9.28. -2 Weariness, fatigue, exhaustion; विनयन्ते स्म तद्योधा मधुभिर्विजय- श्रमम् R.4.65,67; Me.17,52; Ki.5.28. -3 Affliction, distress; देशकालविचारीदं श्रमव्यायामनिःस्वनम् Mb.14.45.2. -4 Penance, austerity, mortification of the body; दिवं यदि प्रार्थयसे वृथा श्रमः Ku.5.45. -5 (a) Exercise; अयोदण्डेन च श्रममकरोत् K.76. (b) Especially military exercise, drill. -6 Hard study. -7 = आश्रम q. v.; तदा स पर्याववृते श्रमाय Mb.3.114.5. -Comp. -अम्बु n., -जलम्, -सलिलम् perspiration, sweat; संपेदे श्रमसलिलोद्गमो विभूषाम् Ki.7.5. -आर्त a. oppressed by fatigue; Ms.8.67. -कर्षित a. worn out by fatigue. -घ्नी Cucurbita Lagenaria (Mar. दुध्या भोपळा). -भञ्जनी the Nāgavela plant. -विनोदः the act of dispelling fatigue. -साध्य a. to be accomplished by dint of labour. -स्थानम् a drill-ground, gymnasium &c.
śru श्रु I. 1 P. (श्रवति) To go, move; cf. शु. -II. 5 P. (शृणोति, शुश्राव, अश्रौषीत्, श्रोष्यति, श्रोतुम्, श्रुत) 1 To hear, listen to, give ear to; शृणु मे सावशेषं वचः V.2; रुतानि चाश्रोषत षट्पदानाम् Bk.2.1; संदेशं मे तदनु जलद श्रोष्यसि श्रोत्रपेयम् Me.13.12. -2 To learn, study; द्वादशवर्षभिर्व्याकरणं श्रूयते Pt.1. -3 To be attentive, to obey. (इति श्रूयते 'it is so heard', i. e. is enjoined in the scriptures, such is the sacred precept.) -Caus. (श्रावयति-ते) To cause to hear, communicate, tell, relate, inform; श्रावितो$मात्यसंदेशं स्तन- कलशः Mu.4. -Desid. (शुश्रूषते) 1 To wish to hear. -2 To be attentive or obedient, obey; वाक्यं नैव करोति बान्धवजनो पत्नी न शुश्रूषते Pt.4.78 (where the word may have the next sense also). -3 To serve, wait or attend upon; शुश्रूषस्व गुरून् Ś.4.17; Ku.1.59; Ms.2.244.
śruta श्रुत p. p. [श्रु-क्त] 1 Heard, listened to. -2 Reported, heard of. -3 Learnt, ascertained, understood. -4 Wellknown, famous, celebrated, renowned; श्रुतानुभावं शरणं व्रज भावेन भाविनि Bhāg.3.32.11; श्रुतस्य किं तत् सदृशं कुलस्य R.14.61;3.4. -5 Named, called. -6 Promised; तदवश्यं त्वया कार्यं यदनेन श्रुतं मम Rām.2.18.21. -7 Vedic, like Vedas (वेदरूप); गिरः श्रुतायाः पुष्पिण्या मधुगन्धेन भूरिणा Bhāg.4.2.25. -तम् 1 The object of hearing. -2 That which was heard by revelation i. e. the Veda, holy learning, sacred knowledge; श्रुतप्रकाशम् R.5.2. -3 Learning in general (विद्या); श्रोत्रं श्रुतेनैव न कुण्डलेन (विभाति) Bh.2.71; R.3.21;5.22; अग्निहोत्रफला वेदाः शीलवत्तफलं श्रुतम् Pt.2.15;4.68. -4 The act of hearing; योगे बुद्धिं, श्रुते सत्त्वं, मनो ब्रह्मणि धारयन् Mb.12.177.31. -Comp. -अध्ययनम् study of the Vedas. -अन्वित a. conversant with the Vedas. -अर्थः a fact verbally or orally communicated. ˚आपत्तिः see अर्थापत्तिः. -ऋषिः a class of sages like Śuśruta; L. D. B. -कीर्ति a. famous, renowned. (-m.) 1 a generous man. -2 a divine sage. (f.) N. of the wife of Śatrughna. -देवी N. of Sarasvatī. -धर a. remembering what is heard, retentive. (-रः) the ear; राष्ट्रमुत्तरपाञ्चालं याति श्रुतधरान्वितः Bhāg.4. 25.51. -श्रवस् m. N. of the father of Śiśupāla. ˚अनुजः the planet Saturn.
samadhigam समधिगम् 1 P. 1 To approach. -2 To study, यथा यथा हि पुरुषः शास्त्रं समधिगच्छति Ms.4.2. -3 To get, acquire; यत्ते समधिगच्छन्ति यस्यैते तस्य तद्धनम् Ms.8.416. -4 To excel, surpass.
samāvartanam समावर्तनम् 1 Return. -2 Especially, a pupil's return home after finishing his course of holy study.
samāvṛtta समावृत्त p. p. 1 Completed, finished. -2 Returned. -3 See उपनीत; स उपाध्यायेनानुज्ञातः समावृत्तस्तस्माद्गुरुकुलवासाद् गृहाश्रमं प्रत्यपद्यत Mb.1.3.81 (com. समावृत्तो मेखलाजिनादि ब्रह्मचर्याश्रमलिङ्गं त्यक्त्वा स्नातकत्वं प्राप्तः) -4 Assembled; ततस्तेषु हरीन्द्रेषु समावृत्तेषु सर्वशः Mb.3.283.14. समावृत्तः samāvṛttḥ समावृत्तकः samāvṛttakḥ समावृत्तः समावृत्तकः A pupil who has returned home after finishing his course of holy study.
saha सह ind. 1 With, together with, along with, accompanied by (with instr.); शशिना सह याति कौमुदी सह मेघेन तडित् प्रलीयते Ku.4.33. -2 Together, simultaneously, at the same time; अस्तोदयौ सहैवासौ कुरुते नृपतिर्द्विषाम् Subhāṣ. (The following senses are given of this word:-- साकल्य, सादृश्य, यौगपद्य, विद्यमानत्व, समृद्धि, संबन्ध and सामर्थ्य.) -Comp. -अध्ययनम् 1 studying together; U.2. -2 fellowstudentship. -अध्यायिन् m. a fellow-student. -अपवाद a. disagreeing. -अर्थ a. 1 having the same object. -2 synonymous. (-र्थः) the same or common object. -अर्ध a. together with a half. -आलापः conversation with. -आसनम् sitting on the same seat. -आसिका company, sitting together; समुद्रः सहासिकां यां सुमतिः प्रतीच्छति Rām. ch.2.85. -उक्तिः f. a figure of speech in Rhetoric; सा सहोक्तिः सहार्थस्य बलादेकं द्विवाचकम् K. P.1; e.g. पपात भूमौ सह सैनिकाश्रुभिः R.3.61. -उटजः a hut made of leaves. -उत्थायिन् a. rising or conspiring together. -उदरः a uterine brother, brother of whole blood; जनन्यां संस्थितायां तु समं सर्वे सहोदराः Ms.9.92; सहोदरा कुङ्कुमकेसराणां भवन्ति नूनं कविताविलासाः Vikr.1.21. -उपमा a kind of Upamā. -ऊढः, -ऊढजः the son of a woman pregnant at marriage; (one of the 12 kinds of sons recognized in old Hindu law); या गर्भिणी संस्क्रियते ज्ञाताज्ञातापि वा सती । वोढुः स गर्भो भवति सहोढ इति चोच्यते ॥ Ms.9.173. -एकासनम् see सहासनम् Y.2.284. -कर्तृ m. a co-worker, assistant; तस्य कर्मानुरूपेण देर्यो$शः सहकर्तृभिः Ms.8.26. -कारः 1 co-operation. -2 a mango tree; क इदानीं सहकारमन्तरेण पल्लवितामतिमुक्तलतां सहेत Ś.3. ˚भञ्जिका a kind of game. - कारिन्, -कृत्, -कृत्वन् a. co-operating. (-m.) a coadjutor, associate, colleague. -कृत a. co-operated with, assisted or aided by. -क्रिया simultaneous performance; स हि न्यायः संभूयकारिणां सहक्रियेति सर्वत्रैव ŚB. on MS.11.1. 57. -खट्वासनम् sitting together on a bed; Ms.8.357; see सहैकासनम्. -गमनम् 1 accompanying. -2 a woman's burning herself with her deceased husband's body, self-immolation of a widow. -चर a. accompanying, going or living with; यानि प्रियासहचरश्चिरमध्यवात्सम् U.3.8. (-रः) 1 a companion, friend, associate; श्मशानेष्वाक्रीडा स्मरहर पिशाचाः सहचराः Śiva-mahimna 24. -2 a follower, servant. -3 a husband. -4 a surety. (-री f.) 1 a famale companion. -2 a wife, mate; प्रेक्ष्य स्थितां सहचरीं व्यवधाय देहम् R.9.57. -चरित a. 1 accompanying, attending, associating with. -2 Congruent, homogeneous, -चारः 1 accompaniment. -2 agreement, harmony. -3 (in logic) the invariable accompaniment of the hetu (middle term) by the sādhya (major term). -4 right course (opp. व्यभिचार). -चारिन् see सहचर. -ज a. 1 inborn, natural, innate; सहजं कर्म कौन्तेय सदोषमपि न त्यजेत् Bg.18. 48; सहजामप्यपहाय धीरताम् R.8.43. -2 hereditary; सहजं किल यद्विनिन्दितं न खलु तत्कर्म विवर्जनीयम् Ś.6.1. (-जः) 1 a brother of whole blood; तृतीयो मे नप्ता रजनिचरनाथस्य सहजः Mv.4.7. -2 the natural state or disposition. ˚अरिः a natural enemy. ˚उदासीनः a born neutral. ˚मित्रम् a natural friend. -जात a. 1 natural; see सहज. -2 born together, twin-born. -जित् a. victorious at once; स्वर्णेता सहजिद् बभ्रुरिति राजाभिधीयते Mb.3.185.28. -दार a. 1 with a wife. -2 married. -देवः N. of the youngest of the five Pāṇḍavas; the twin brother of Nakula, born of Mādrī by the gods Aśvins. He is regarded as the type of manly beauty. -धर्मः same duties. ˚चारिन् m. a husband. ˚चारिणी 1 a lawful wife, one legally married (also सहधर्मिणी in this sense). -2 a fellow-worker. -पथिन् m., -पन्थाः m., f. a fellow-traveller. -पांशुक्रीडिन, पांशुकिल m a friend from the earliest childhood. -भावः 1 companionship. -2 concomitance. -भाविन् m. a friend, partisan, follower. -भू a. natural, innate; औत्सुक्येन कृतत्वरा सहभुवा व्यावर्तमाना ह्रिया Ratn.1.2. -भोजनम् eating in company with friends. -मनस् a. with intelligence. -मरणम् see सह- गमन. -मृता a woman who has burnt herself with her husband. -युध्वन् m. a brother in arms. -रक्षस् m. one of the three kinds of sacrificial fires. -वसतिः, -वासः dwelling together; सहवसतिमुपेत्य यैः प्रियायाः कृत इव मुग्धविलोकितोपदेशः Ś.2.3. -वासिन् m. a fellow-lodger. -वीर्यम् fresh butter. -संसर्गः carnal contact. -सेविन् a. having intercource with. -स्थः a companion.
siddha सिद्ध p. p. 1 Accomplished, effected, performed, achieved, completed. -2 Gained, obtained, acquired. -3 Succeeded, successful; one who has attained his object; याताबला व्रजं सिद्धा मयेमा रंस्थथ क्षपाः Bhāg.1.22.27. -4 Settled, established; नैसर्गिकी सुरभिणः कुसुमस्य सिद्धा मूर्ध्नि स्थितिर्न चरणैरवताडनानि U.1.14. -5 Proved, demonstrated, substantiated; तस्मादिन्द्रियं प्रत्यक्षप्रमाणमिति सिद्धम् T. S.; साक्षिप्रत्ययसिद्धानि (कार्याणि) Ms.8.178. -6 Valid, sound (as a rule). -7 Admitted to be true. -8 Decided, adjudicated (as a law-suit). -9 Paid, discharged, liquidated (as debt). -1 Cooked, dressed (as food); अभ्रच्छाया खलप्रीतिः सिद्धमन्नं च योषितः । किंचित्कालोपभोग्यानि यौवनानि धनानि च ॥Pt.2.117. -11 Matured, ripened. -12 Thoroughly prepared, compounded, cooked together (as drugs). -13 Ready (as money). -14 Subdued, won over, subjugated (as by magic). -15 Brought under subjection, become propitious. -16 Thoroughly conversant with or skilled in, proficient in; as in रस- सिद्ध q. v. -17 Perfected, sanctified (as by penance); अप्रमत्तो$खिलस्वार्थे यदि स्यात् सिद्ध आत्मनि Bhāg.11.23.29. -18 Emancipated. -19 Endowed with supernatural powers or faculties. -2 Pious, sacred, holy. -21 Divine, immortal, eternal. -22 Celebrated, well-known, illustrious; अथर्वशिरसि प्रोक्तैर्मन्त्रैः सिद्धां विधानतः Rām.1.15.2; एवं तौ लोकसिद्धाभिः क्रीडाभिश्चेरतुर्वने Mb.1.18.16. -23 Shining, splendid. -24 Hit (as a mark). -25 Peculiar, singular. -26 Invariable, unalterable. -27 Satisfied; Bhāg.11.23.29. -द्धः 1 A semi-divine being supposed to be of great purity and holiness, and said to be particularly characterized by eight supernatural faculties called Siddhis q. v.; उद्वेजिता वृष्टिभिराश्रयन्ते शृङ्गाणि यस्यातप- वन्ति सिद्धाः Ku.1.5. -2 An inspired sage or seer (like Vyāsa). -3 Any sage or seer, a prophet; सिद्धादेश Ratn.1. -4 One skilled in magical arts, a magician. -5 A law-suit, judicial trial. -6 A kind of hard sugar. -7 The dark thorn-apple. -8 One who has attained his object; सिद्धः कचो वत्स्यति मत्सकाशे Mb.1.76.7. -द्धम् Sea-salt. -Comp. -अङ्गना, -योषित् a beatified woman, a female siddha. -अञ्जनम् magical ointment or collyrium; वसुपूर्णन् कलशान् सिद्धाञ्जनेन ज्ञात्वा Dk.1.4. -अन्तः 1 the established end. -2 the demonstrated conclusion of an argument, established view of any question, the true logical conclusion (following on the refutation of the Pūrvapakṣa). -3 a proved fact, established truth, dogma, settled doctrine. -4 any established text-book resting on conclusive evidence; मध्येसभं दैवविदः सर्वसिद्धान्त- पारगाः Śiva B.6.8. ˚कोटिः f. the point in an argument which is regarded as a logical conclusion. ˚कौमुदी N. of a celebrated commentary on Pāṇini's grammar by भट्टोजी- दीक्षित. ˚पक्षः the logically correct side of an argument. -अन्नम् cooked food. -अर्थ a. one who has accomplished his desired object, successful. (-र्थः) 1 white mustard; यन्त्रस्थसिद्धार्थपदाभिषेकं लब्ध्वाप्यसिद्धार्थममन्यत स्वम् N.1.6; अविरललग्नगौरसिद्धार्थकप्रकारतया काञ्चनरसखचितामिव मालाम् K. (Pūrvabhāga); Bhāg.4.9.59. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 of the great Buddha. -आदेशः 1 the prediction of a seer. -2 a prophet, fortune-teller. -आपगा f. the river Gaṅgā. -आसनम् a particular posture in religious meditation. -औषधम् a specific panacea. -काम a. having the wishes fulfilled. -क्षेत्रम् the abode of sages or Siddhas. -गङ्गा, -नदी, -सिन्धुः the celestial Ganges. -ग्रहः N. of a particular kind of madness or dementia. -जलम्, -सलिलम् sour rice-gruel. -देवः N. of Śiva. -द्रव्यम् any magical object. -धातुः quick-silver. -नरः sorcerer, fortune-teller. -पक्षः the established or logical side of an argument. -पथः the atmosphere; छिन्नाः सिद्धपथे देवा- र्लघुहस्तैः सहस्रधा Bhāg.6.1.25. -पुरुषः = सिद्धः (1,3,4) above. -पुष्पः the Karavīra plant. -प्रयोजनः white mustard. -मानस a. having a completely satisfied mind. -मोदकः sugar prepared from bamboo-manna. -यात्रिकः one wandering about for the acquisition of magical power; Pt.5. -योगः magical agency. -योगिन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -रस a. mineral;, metallic. (-सः) 1 quick-silver; अयोविकारे स्वरितत्वमिष्यते कुतो$यसां सिद्धरस- स्पृशामपि N.9.42. -2 an alchemist. -रूपम् the right or correct thing. -लक्ष a. one who has hit the mark. -लोकः the world of the Blest (सिद्ध). -वस्तिः a strong injection (of oil &c.); Suśr. -विद्या the doctrine relating to perfect beings. -वेदनः an elephant having perfect sensitivity; Mātaṅga L.8.25. -व्यञ्जनः an ascetic-spy; सिद्धव्यञ्जनैर्माणवप्रकाशनम् Kau. A.4. -संकल्प a. one who has accomplished his desired object. -संबन्ध a. one whose kindred are well known. -साधकः N. of Śiva. -साधनः white mustard. (-नम्) 1 the performance of magical rites for the acquisition of supernatural powers &c. -2 the materials employed in mystical or chemical processes. -साधित a. one who has learned by practice (not by study). -साध्य a. accomplished, proved. (-ध्यम्) a dogma, demonstrated conclusion. -सिद्ध a. thoroughly efficacious. -सेनः N. of Kārtikeya. -स्थाली the boiler or pot of a seer (it is supposed to be a vessel which is gifted with the property of overflowing with any kind of food at the desire of the possessor). -हेमन् purified gold.
sauvādhyāyika सौवाध्यायिक a. (-की f.) Belonging to sacred study (or स्वाध्याय q. v.).
snāta स्नात p. p. 1 Bathed, washed, purified by ablution; ततः शुक्लाम्बराः स्नातास्तरुणाः शतमष्ट च Mb.7.82.8. -2 Versed in; मन्ये त्वां विषये वाचां स्नातमन्यत्र छान्दसात् Bhāg. 1.4.13. -तः 1 One whose course of holy study is over; वणिङ्मुनिनृपस्नाता निर्गम्यार्थान् प्रपेदिरे Bhāg.1.21. 49. -2 An initiated householder; cf. स्नातक. -ता = ऋतुस्नाता; तपसा द्योतितां स्नातां ददर्श भगवानृषिः Mb.3.97.13.
sva स्व pron. a. 1 One's own, belonging to oneself, often serving as a reflexive pronoun; स्वनियोगमशून्यं कुरु Ś.2; प्रजाः प्रजाः स्वा इव तन्त्रयित्वा 5.5; oft. in comp. in this sense; स्वपुत्र, स्वकलत्र, स्वद्रव्य. -2 Innate, natural, inherent, peculiar, inborn; सूर्यापाये न खलु कमलं पुष्यति स्वामभिख्याम् Me.82; Ś.1.19; स तस्य स्वो भावः प्रकृतिनियतत्वादकृतकः U. 6.14. -3 Belonging to one's own caste or tribe; शूद्रैव भार्या शूद्रस्य सा च स्वा च विशः स्मृते Ms.3.13;5.14. -स्वः 1 One's own self. -2 A relative, kinsman; एनं स्वा अभि- संविशन्ति भर्ता स्वानां श्रेष्ठः पुर एता भवति Bṛi. Up.1.3.18; (दौर्गत्यं) येन स्वैरपि मन्यन्ते जीवन्तो$पि मृता इव Pt.2.1; Ms. 2.19. -3 The soul. -4 N. of Viṣṇu. -स्वा A woman of one's own caste. -स्वः, -स्वम् 1 Wealth, property; as in निःस्व q. v. -2 (In alg.) The plus or affirmative quantity; cf. धनः; स्वशब्दो$यमात्मीयधनज्ञातीनां प्रत्येकं वाचको न समुदायस्य ŚB. on MS.6.7.2. The Ego. -4 Nature (स्वभावः); वृत्तिर्भूतानि भूतानां चराणामचराणि च । कृता स्वेन नृणां तत्र कामाच्चोदनयापि वा ॥ Bhāg.12.7.13. -Comp. -अक्षपादः a follower of the Nyāya system of philosophy. -अक्षरम् one's own hand-writing. -अधिकारः one's own duty or sway; स्वाधिकारात् प्रमत्तः Me.1; स्वाधिकारभूमौ Ś.7. -अधिपत्यम् one's own supremacy, sovereignty. -अधि- ष्ठानम् one of the six Chakras or mystical circles of the body. -अधीन a. 1 dependent on oneself, self-dependent. -2 independent. -3 one's own subject. -4 in one's own power; स्वाधीना वचनीयतापि हि वरं बद्धो न सेवाञ्जलिः Mk.3. 11. ˚कुशल a. having prosperity in one's own power; स्वाधीनकुशलाः सिद्धिमन्तः Ś.4. ˚ पतिका, ˚भर्तृका a woman who has full control over her husband, one whose husband is subject to her; अथ सा निर्गताबाधा राधा स्वाधीनभर्तृका । निजगाद रतिक्लान्तं कान्तं मण्डनवाञ्छया Gīt.12; see S. D.112. et seq. -अध्यायः 1 self-recitation, muttering to oneself. -2 study of the Vedas, sacred study, perusal of sacred books; स्वाध्यायेनार्चयेदृषीन् Ms.3.81; Bg.16.1; T. Up.1.9.1. -3 the Veda itself. -4 a day on which sacred study is enjoined to be resumed after suspension. ˚अर्थिन् m. a student who tries to secure his own livelihood during his course of holy study; Ms.11.1. -अध्यायिन् m. 1 a student of the Vedas. -2 a tradesman. -अनुभवः, अनुभूतिः f. 1 self-experience. -2 self-knowledge; स्वानुभूत्येकसाराय नमः शान्ताय तेजसे Bh.2.1. अनुभावः love for property. -अनुरूप a. 1 natural, inborn. -2 worthy of oneself. -अन्तम् 1 the mind; मम स्वान्तध्वान्तं तिरयतु नवीनो जलधरः Bv.4.5; Mv.7.17. -2 a cavern. -3 one's own death, end. -अर्जित a. self-acquired. -अर्थ a. 1 self-interested. -2 having its own or true meaning. -3 having one's own object or aim. -4 pleonastic. (-र्थः) 1 one's own interest, self-interest; सर्वः स्वार्थं समीहते Śi.2.65; स्वार्थात्सतां गुरुतरा प्रणयिक्रियैव V. 4.15. -2 own or inherent meaning; स्वार्थे णिच्, स्वार्थे कप्रत्ययः &c.; परार्थव्यासङ्गादुपजहदथ स्वार्थपरताम् Bv.1.79 (where both senses are intended). -3 = पुरुषार्थः q. v.; Bhāg.12.2.6. ˚अनुमानम् inference for oneself, a kind of inductive reasoning, one of the two main kinds of अनुमान, the other being परार्थानुमान. ˚पण्डित a. 1 clever in one's own affairs. -2 expert in attending to one's own interests. ˚पर, ˚परायण a. intent on securing one's own interests, selfish; परार्थानुष्ठाने जडयति नृपं स्वार्थपरता Mu.3.4. ˚विघातः frustration of one's object. ˚सिद्धिः f. fulfilment of one's own object. -आनन्दः delight in one's self. -आयत्त a. subject to, or dependent upon, oneself; स्वायत्तमेकान्तगुणं विधात्रा विनिर्मितं छादनमज्ञतायाः Bh. 2.7. -आरब्ध, -आरम्भक a. self-undertaken. -आहत a. coined by one's self. -इच्छा self-will, own inclination. ˚आचारः acting as one likes; self-will. ˚मृत्युः an epithet of Bhīṣma. -उत्थ a. innate. -उदयः the rising of a sign or heavenly body at any particular place. -उपधिः a fixed star. -कम्पनः air, wind. -कर्मन् one's own duty (स्वधर्म); स्वकर्मनिरतः सिद्धिं यथा विन्दति तच्छृणु Bg.18. 45. -कर्मस्थ a. minding one's own duty; अधीयीरंस्त्रयो वर्णाः स्वकर्मस्था द्विजातयः Ms.1.1. -कर्मिन् a. selfish. -कामिन् a. selfish. -कार्यम् one's own business or interest. -कुलक्षयः a fish. -कृतम् a deed done by one's self. -कृतंभुज् a. experiencing the results of former deeds (प्रारब्धकर्म); मा शोचतं महाभागावात्मजान् स्वकृतंभुजः Bhāg.1. 4.18. -गतम् ind. to oneself, aside (in theatrical language). -गृहः a kind of bird. -गोचर a. subject to one's self; स्वगोचरे सत्यपि चित्तहारिणा Ki.8.13. -चर a. self-moving. -छन्द a. 1 self-willed, uncontrolled, wanton. -2 spontaneous. -3 wild. (-न्दः) one's own will or choice, own fancy or pleasure, independence. (-न्दम्) ind. at one's own will or pleasure, wantonly, voluntarily; स्वच्छन्दं दलदरविन्द ते मरन्दं विन्दन्तो विदधतु गुञ्जितं मिलिन्दाः Bv.1.15. -ज a. 1 self-born. -2 natural (स्वाभाविक); आगता त्वामियं बुद्धिः स्वजा वैनायिकी च या Rām.2.112.16. (-जः) 1 a son or child. -2 sweat, perspiration. -3 a viper. (-जा) a daughter. (-जम्) blood. -जनः 1 a kinsman, relative; इतःप्रत्यादेशात् स्वजनमनुगन्तुं व्यवसिता Ś. 6.8; Pt.1.5. -2 one's own people or kindred, one's household. ˚गन्धिन् a. distantly related to. (स्वजनायते Den. P. 'becomes or is treated as a relation'; Pt.1.5.) -जातिः 1 one's own kind. -2 one's own family or caste. -ज्ञातिः a kinsman. -ता personal regard or interest; अस्यां मे महती स्वता Svapna.1.7. -तन्त्र a. 1 self-dependent, uncontrolled, independent, self-willed. -2 of age, full-grown. (-न्त्रम्) one's own (common group of) subsidiaries; जैमिनेः परतन्त्रापत्तेः स्वतन्त्रप्रतिषेधः स्यात् MS. 12.1.8. (-न्त्रः) a blind man. -दृश् a. seeing one's self; ईयते भगवानेभिः सगुणो निर्गुणः स्वदृक् Bhāg.3.32.36. -देशः one's own country, native country. ˚जः, ˚बन्धुः a fellow countryman. -धर्मः 1 one's own religion. -2 one's own duty, the duties of one's own class; Ms.1.88,91; स्वधर्मे निधनं श्रेयः परधर्मो भयावहः Bg.3.35. -3 peculiarity, one's own rights. -निघ्न a. depending on or subservient to oneself; (पुराणि च) निगृह्य निग्रहाभिज्ञो निन्ये नेता स्वनिघ्नताम् Śiva B.25.9. -पक्षः 1 one's own side or party. -2 a friend. -3 one's own opinion. -पणः one's own stake. -परमण्डलम् one's own and an enemy's country. -प्रकाश a. 1 self-evident. -2 self-luminous. -प्रतिष्ठ a. astringent. -प्रधान a. independent. -प्रयोगात् ind. by means of one's own efforts. -बीजः the soul. -भटः 1 one's own warrior. -2 bodyguard. -भावः 1 own state. -2 an essential or inherent property, natural constitution, innate or peculiar disposition, nature; स्वभावहेतुजा भावाः Mb.12.211.3; पौरुषं कारणं केचिदाहुः कर्मसु मानवाः । दैवमेके प्रशंसन्ति स्वभावमपरे जनाः ॥ 12.238.4; Bg.5.14; स्वभावो दुरतिक्रमः Subhāṣ.; so कुटिल˚, शुद्ध˚, मृदु˚, चपल˚, कठिन˚ &c. ˚आत्मक a. natural, inborn; स्वभावतः प्रवृत्तो यः प्राप्नोत्यर्थ न कारणात्। तत् स्वभावात्मकं विद्धि फलं पुरुष- सत्तम ॥ Mb.3.32.19. ˚उक्तिः f. 1 spontaneous declaration. -2 (in Rhet.) a figure of speech which consists in describing a thing to the life, or with exact resemblance; स्वभावोक्तिस्तु डिम्भादेः स्वक्रियारूपवर्णनम् K. P.1, or नानावस्थं पदार्थानां रूपं साक्षाद्विवृण्वती Kāv.2.8. ˚ज a. innate, natural. ˚भावः natural disposition. ˚वादः the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties, (and not by the agency of a Supreme Being). ˚सिद्ध a. natural, spontaneous, inborn. -भूः m. 1 an epithet of Brahman. -2 of Śiva. -3 of Viṣṇu. -f. one's own country, home. -मनीषा own judgement. -मनीषिका indifference. -मात्रेण ind. by one's self. -युतिः the line which joins the extremities of the perpendicular and diagonal. -यूथ्यः a relation. -योनि a. related on the mother's side. (-m., f.) own womb, one's own place of birth. (-f.) a sister or near female relative; रेतःसेकः स्वयोनीषु कुमारीष्वन्त्यजासु च (गुरुतल्पसमं विदुः) Ms.11.58. -रसः 1 natural taste. -2 proper taste or sentiment in composition. -3 a kind of astringent juice. -4 the residue of oily substances (ground on a stone.) -राज् a. 1 self-luminons; त्वमकरणः स्वराडखिलकारकशक्तिधरः Bhāg.1. 87.28. -2 self-wise; Bhāg.1.1.1. -m. 1 the Supreme Being. -2 one of the seven rays of the sun. -3 N. of Brahmā; दिदृक्षुरागादृषिभिर्वृतः स्वराट् Bhāg.3.18.2. -4 N. of Viṣṇ&u; हस्तौ च निरभिद्येतां बलं ताभ्यां ततः स्वराट् Bhāg.3. 26.59. -5 a king with a revenue of 5 lacs to one crore Karṣas; ततस्तु कोटिपर्यन्तः स्वराट् सम्राट् ततः परम् Śukra.1. 185. -राज्यम् 1 independent dominion or sovereignty. -2 own kingdom. -राष्ट्रम् own kingdom. -रुचिः one's own pleasure. -रूप a. 1 similar, like. -2 handsome, pleasing, lovely. -3 learned, wise. (-पम्) 1 one's own form or shape, natural state or condition; तत्रान्यस्य कथं न भावि जगतो यस्मात् स्वरूपं हि तत् Pt.1.159. -2 natural character or form, true constitution. -3 nature. -4 peculiar aim. -5 kind, sort, species. ˚असिद्धि f. one of the three forms of fallacy called असिद्ध q. v. -लक्षणम् a peculiar characteristic or property. -लोकः 1 one's own form (आत्मरूप); व्यर्थो$पि नैवोपरमेत पुंसां मत्तः परावृत्तधियां स्वलोकात् Bhāg.11.22.34. -2 self-knowledge; पुष्णन् स्वलोकाय न कल्पते वै Bhāg.7.6.16. -बत् a. possessed of property; स्ववती श्रुत्यनुरोधात् ŚB. on MS.6.1.2. -वश a. 1 self-controlled. -2 independent. -वहित a. 1 self-impelled. -2 alert, active. -वासिनी a woman whether married or unmarried who continues to live after maturity in her father's house. -विग्रहः one's own body. -विषयः one's own country, home. -वृत्तम् one's own business. -वृत्ति a. living by one's own exertions. -संविद् f. the knowledge of one's own or the true essence. -संवृत a. self-protected, self-guarded; मायां नित्यं स्वसंवृतः Ms.7.14. -संवेदनम् knowledge derived from one's self. -संस्था 1 self-abiding. -2 self-possession. -3 absorption in one's own self; उन्मत्तमत्तजडवत्स्वसंस्थां गतस्य मे वीर चिकित्सितेन Bhāg.5.1.13. -स्थ a. 1 self-abiding. -2 self-dependent, relying on one's own exertions, confident, firm, resolute; स्वस्थं तं सूचयन्तीव वञ्चितो$सीति वीक्षितैः Bu. Ch.4.37. -3 independent. -4 doing well, well, in health, at ease, comfortable; स्वस्थ एवास्मि Māl.4; स्वस्थे को वा न पण्डितः Pt.1.127; see अखस्थ also. -5 contented, happy. (-स्थम्) ind. at ease, comfortably, composedly. -स्थानम् one's own place or home, one's own abode; नक्रः स्वस्थानमासाद्य गजेन्द्रमपि कर्षति Pt.3.46. ˚विवृद्धिः (Mīmāṁsā) augmentation in its own place (opp. दण्डकलितवत् आवृत्तिः); तत्र पूर्णे पुनरावृत्तिर्नास्तीति दण्डकलितवद् न स्यात् । न च वृद्ध्या विना तद न्तरं पूर्यते इति स्वस्थानविवृद्धिरागतेति ŚB. on MS.1.5.83. -स्वरूपम् one's true character. -हन्तृ m. suicide. -हरणम् confiscation of property. -हस्तः one's own hand or handwriting, an autograph; see under हस्त. -हस्तिका an axe. -हित a. beneficial to oneself (-तम्) one's own good or advantage, one's own welfare. -हेतुः one's own cause.
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"study" has 21 results.
     
akālaka(1)not limited by any time-factors for its study such as certain periods of the day or the year. (2) not characterized by any technical terms expressive of time such as adyatanī, parokṣā occurring in the ancient Prātiśākhya and grammar works. The term akalika is used by the writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti in connection with the grammar of Pāṇini. confer, compare “पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम्” Kās. on P. II.4.21 explained by the writer of the Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. as पूर्वाणि व्याकरणानि अद्यतनादिकालपरिभाषायुक्तानि तद्रहितम् ।
uṇādisūtradaśapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
golḍsṭyūkaraa well known German scholar who made a sound study of Paini's Sanskrit Vyakarana and wrote a very informative treatise entitled 'Panini, his place in Sanskrit Literature.' He lived in the latter half of the 19th century.
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
dayānandasarasvatia brilliant Vedic scholar of the nineteenth century belonging to North India who established on a sound footing the study of the Vedas and Vyakarana and encouraged the study of Kasikavrtti. He has written many books on vedic studies.
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
puruṣottamavidyāvāgīśaa famous grammarian of Bengal, who wrote the grammar work Prayogaratnamala in the fifteenth century. The work betrays a deep study and scholarship of the writer in the Mantrasāstra.
prayojanaobject, motive or purpose in undertaking a particular thing; the word is used although rarely, in the sense of a cause also; confer, compare इमान्यस्य प्रयोजनानि अध्येयं व्याकरणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1. For the advantages of the study of Vyakarana, see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1. See also Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII pp.226,227, D.E. Society's edition.
prauḍhamanoramāpopularly called मनोरमा also; the famous commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi of Bhattoji Diksita written by the author himself to explain fully in a scholarly manner the popular grammar written by him; , the word प्रौढमनेारमा is used in contrast with बालमनोरमा another commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi by Vasudevadiksita. On account of the difficult nature of it, it is usual to read the प्रौढमनेारमा upto the end of the Karaka-prakarana only in the Sanskrit PathaSalas before the study of the Sabdendusekhara and the Paribhsendusekhara is undertaken.
madhyakaumudīcalled also मध्यमकौमुदी a work on grammar which is an abridgment, to a certain extent, of Bhaṭṭojī's Siddhāntakaumudī. The treatise was written by Varadarāja, a pupil of Bhaṭṭojī for facilitating the study of the Siddhānta-kaumudi.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
laghuśabdenduśekharaname of a commentary on Bhațțojī's Siddhāntakaumudī written by Nāgeśa Bhațța, the stalwart Grammarian of the eighteenth century. The work is named लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर which differentiates it from the author's another work बृहच्छब्देन्दुशेखर of which the former is an abridgment. As the study of the Laghuśabdenduśekhara is very common and as the Bŗhatśabdenduśekhara is seldom studied, it is always the Laghuśabdenduśekhara that is understood by the simple and popular name Śekhara.
lībiś[ LIEBICH, BRUNO ]a European grammarian belonging to Breslau who lived in the last quarter of the nineteenth and the first quarter of the twentieth century. He made a critical study of Sanskrit grammar and edited | the Cāndra Vyākaraņa and the Kșīratarańgiņī.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudīan extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita.
vyākaraṇādhyayanaprayojanathe purpose of the study of Grammar which is beautifully summed up and discussed in the first Ahnika by Patanjali in his Mahabhasya.
śikṣāgeneral name given to a work on Phonetics. Although there are many such works which are all called शिक्षा, the work, which is often referred to, by the word, is the Siksa named पाणिनीयशिक्षा, about the authorship of which, however, there is a doubt whether it was the work of Panini or of somebody belonging to his school. The Siksa works are helpful, no doubt, for the study of grammar, but no topic belonging to Siksa is given by Panini which apparently means that these works do not come under the subject or province of Grammar. The reason why the Siksa topics are not given by Panini, is worth consideration. These Siksa works are not specifically related to a particular Veda and it cannot be said whether they preceded or succeeded the Pratisakhya works.
śeṣa(l)any other senses than what are given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare शेषे P.IV.2.92: (2) surname of a reputed family of grammarians belonging to Southern India which produced many grammarians, from the fifteenth century to the eighteenth century. Ramacandra Sesa was the first grammarian in the family who wrote the Prakriyakaumudi in the fifteenth century. His descendants developed the system of studying grammar by the study of topics as given in the Prakriya Kaumudi and wrote several works of the nature of glosses and comments.
saṃkṣiptasāraname of a complete grammar-work written by क्रमदीश्वर for facility of study. This grammar appears to have been written before the time of कैयटं or हेमचन्द्र, as can be seen from the popular stanza परेत्र पाणिनयिज्ञा: केचित् कालापकोविदा; ।| एके विश्रान्तविद्याः स्युरन्ये संक्षिप्तसारका; ll
siddhāntakaumudīa critical and scholarly commentary on the Sutras of Panini, in which the several Sutras are arranged topicwise and fully explained with examples and counter examples. The work is exhaustive, yet not voluminous, difficult yet popular, and critical yet lucid. The work is next in importance to the Mahabhasya in the system of Panini, and its study prepares the way for understanding the Mahabhasya. It is prescribed for study in the courses of Vyakarana at every academy and Pathasala and is expected to be committed to memory by students who want to be thorough scholars of Vyakarana.By virtue of its methodical treatment it has thrown into the back-ground all kindred works and glosses or Vrttis on the Sutras of Panini. It is arranged into two halves, the first half dealing with seven topics ( 1 ) संज्ञापरिभाषा, ( 2 ) पञ्त्वसंधि, ( 3 ) षड्लिङ्ग, ( 4 ) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, ( 5 ) कारक, ( 6 ) समास, ( 7 ) तद्धित, and the latter half dealing with five topics, ( 1 ) दशगणी, ( 2 ) द्वादशप्राक्रिया ( 3 ) कृदन्त ( 4 ) वैदिकी and ( 5 ) स्वर. The author भट्टोजीदीक्षित has himself written a scholarly gloss on it called प्रौढमनेरमा on which, his grandson, Hari Diksita has written a learned commentary named लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got a large number of commentaries on it out of which, the commentaries प्रौढमनेरमा, बालमनोरमा, (by वासुदेवदीक्षित) तत्त्वबोधिनी and लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर are read by almost every true scholar of Vyakarana. Besides these four, there are a dozen or more commentaries some of which can be given below with their names and authors ( I ) सुबेाधिनी by जयकृष्णमौनि, ( 2 ) सुबोधिनी by रामकृष्णभट्ट ( 3 ) वृहृच्छब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेश, ( 4 ) बालमनेारमा by अनन्तपण्डित, ( 5 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरहृस्य by नीलकण्ठ, ( 6 ) रत्नार्णव, by कृष्णमिश्र ( 7 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरत्नाकर by रामकृष्ण, ( 8 ) सरला by तारानाथ,(9) सुमनोरमा by तिरुमल्ल,(10)सिद्वान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by लक्ष्मीनृसिंह, (11 )सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by विश्वेश्वरतीर्थ, (12) रत्नाकर by शिवरामेन्द्रसरस्वती and (13) प्रकाश by तोलापदीक्षित. Although the real name of the work is वैयाकरणसिद्धान्ततकौमुदी, as given by the author, still popularly the work is well known by the name सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. The work has got two abridged forms, the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi both written by Varadaraja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita.
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vāritara,vāritaratva

float on water; a test for improperly processed metal. This is one of the physical analytical parameters for bhasma, and is applied to study the lightness and fineness of prepared bhasma.









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