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samundanam2.4.29NeuterSingulartemaḥ, stemaḥ
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BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
stemam. equals tema-, wetness, moisture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stemaSee . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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stemaḥ स्तेमः Moisture, wetness.
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akṣan akṣ-án, n. eye (weak stem of ákṣi), x. 127, 1.
asma asmá, prn. stem of 1. prs. pl.; A. asmá̄n us, viii. 48, 3. 11; x. 15, 5; D. asmábhyàm to us, i. 85, 12; x. 14, 12; asmé to us, i. 160, 5; ii. 33, 12; Ab. asmád from us, ii. 33, 2; vii. 71, 1. 2; than us, ii. 33, 11; G. asmá̄kam of us, vi. 54, 6; L. asmé in or on us, ii. 35, 4; iv. 50, 10. 11; viii. 48, 10; asmá̄su on us,iv. 51, 10.
ima imá, dem. prn. stem, this, A. m. imám, ii. 35, 2; x. 14, 4; 15, 6; N. m. pl. imé, vi. 54, 2; viii. 48, 5; n. imá̄, ii. 12, 3; x. 15, 4; imá̄ni, vii. 61, 6; 71, 6 [111]. [227]
eta e-tá, dem. prn. stem, this: n. etád, iii. 59, 5; acc. m. etám this, x. 14, 9; him, [229] x. 34, 4; inst. eténa, v. 83, 6; n. pl. etá̄, x. 15, 14; m. pl. eté these, vii. 103, 9 [prn. root e + tá this].
ena e-na, enc. prn. stem of 3. prs. he, she, it: acc. enam him, ii. 12, 5; iii. 59, 3; vii. 103, 2; x. 14, 11; 34, 4; 168, 2; acc. pl. enān them, vii. 103, 3; gen. du. enos of them two, vii. 103, 4 [prn. root e].
jagmi jágm-i, n. nimble, speeding, i. 85, 8 [from red. stem jag(a)m of gam go].
jāgṛvi já̄gṛ-vi, a. watchful, v. 11, 1; stimulating, x. 34, 1 [from red. stem of 2. gṛ wake].
naktam nákt-am, acc. adv. by night, vii. 71, 1. 2; x. 34, 10 [stem nakt, cp. Lat. nox = noct-s].
naptṛ náptṛ, m. (weak stem of nápāt) son: gen. náptur, ii. 35, 11; dat. náptre, ii. 35, 14 [ná-pitṛ having no father = ‘nephew’, ‘grandson’].
pāda pá̄d-a, m. foot, x. 90, 11; one-fourth, x. 90, 3. 4 [sec. stem formed from acc. pá̄d-am of pád foot].
yuyudhi yúyudh-i, m. warrior, i. 85, 8 [from red. stem of yudh fight].
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amu prn. stem (nm. sg. m. f. asau, n. adás).
asma prn. stem of 3 prs. sg.
asma prn. stem of 1 prs. pl.
āva prn. stem of 1st pers. dual.
i prn. stem of the 3rd prs.
ena (encl.) prn. stem of 3rd pers. he, she, it.
kudāradāra m. pl. bad wife as a wife; -drishta, pp. imperfectly seen; -drishti, f. defective sight; false system; a. heterodox; -desa, m. bad country; -daisika, m. bad guide.
kṛtāṅka a. branded; -½añgala, a. having the palms joined in supplication to (d.); -½âtithya, a. having practised hospi tality; hospitably entertained; -½âtman, a. whose mind is cultivatedor purified; -½âdara, a. treated with due respect; -½anuvyâdha, a. filled with (in.); -½anta, a. making an end, decisive; m. matter, affair, case; fate; Death, Yama; system, doctrine: -nagarî, f. city of Yama, -samtrâsa,m. N. of a Râkshasa; -½antara, a. having made one's way to (g.); -½anná, n. cooked food; -½aparâdha, a. hav ing committed an offence against (g.); -½abhi sheka, a. hvg. performed a religious ablution; consecrated;-½abhyâsa, a. kept to one's studies (by, --°ree;); -½artha, a. having attained his object; satisfied: -tâ, f., -tva, n. satisfaction.
gotama m. N. of a Rishi (pl. his descendants); the biggest ox; N. of the founder of the Nyâya system of philosophy.
tantra n. loom; warp; groundwork, underlying principle, essence; system; stand ard; main point; rule, doctrine; manual; section in a manual; a class of magical and mystical treatises; spell; physic, specific; government; --°ree;, line, rank, troop; a. chiefly concerned with, dependent on (--°ree;).
tarka m. supposition, conjecture; re flexion, speculation; speculative doctrine, philosophical system (of which there are six, the Pûrvaand Uttara-Mîmâmsâ, Nyâya, Vaiseshika, Sâ&ndot;khya, and Yoga); refutation, reductio ad absurdum (in logic); -gñâna, n. knowledge derived from speculation; -vid, m. philosopher, dialectician; -vidyâ, -sâstra, n. science of thought; -samgraha, m. T. of a manual on the Nyâya system.
tāntrika a. (â, î) completely versed in a system, specialist; taught in a Tantra.
darśana a. (î) --°ree;, seeing, looking at; knowing; showing, teaching; n. 1. with active meaning: seeing, looking at, beholding; sight of, meeting with, visiting, attendance at (--°ree; or g.); adoration (of, g.); eyesight; review of (g.); inspection, investigation of (--°ree;); foreseeing (--°ree;); perception, understanding, in sight; recognition of (--°ree;); opinion, intention; doctrine, philosophical system; 2. with ps. meaning: becoming or being visible, appear ance, presence, attendance (in court); occur rence, mention (esp. in a standard work); ap parition, vision; 3. with cs. meaning: showing; with concrete meaning: eye; it is often --°ree; a. having a -appearance, looking --; -m dâ, show oneself.
na prn. stem in nau, nas.
naya m. leading; behaviour, conduct; discreetness, prudence, towards (lc.); worldly wisdom, policy; design, plan; principle, system, doctrine; -kovida, a. worldly wise, versed in policy; -kakshus, n. eye of wisdom; a. en dowed with the eye of wisdom; -gña, a. worldly wise; knowing the system of (--°ree;).
nidarśaka a. seeing; announcing; -darsana, a. (î) showing; announcing; teaching; n. seeing, sight; reference to (--°ree;); showing, authority, evidence; instance, example, illustration; symptom; prognostic; system; contradictory instance; -darsin, a. (--°ree;) seeing, understanding; pleasing; -dâghá, m. heat, hot season, summer: -dhâman, m. sun, -½avadhi, m. hot season; -dâna, n. rope, halter; prime cause, original form; cause; a class of Buddhistic works: in. originally, essentially, really; -didrâsu, des. a. sleepy; -didhyâsana, n. profound meditation; -di dhyâsitávya, fp. to be profoundly meditated on; -desa, m. command, order; neighbour hood: e sthâ, be at any one's (d.) command.
nyāya m. [going back, reference, precedent], rule, standard, axiom, principle, method; manner; propriety, correct way; logical proof or conclusion, syllogism; logic, the Nyâya system of philosophy;lawsuit; decision, judgment: in., ab., °ree;--, after the manner of (--°ree;); in. -tas, °ree;--, suitably, properly; -vartin, a. behaving with propriety; -vâdin, a. speaking suitably; -vid, m. connoisseur; -vidyâ, f. logic; -vritta,pp. behaving with propriety; -sâstra, n. treatise on logic; -sikshâ, f. logic.
paramāṇu m. infinitesimal por tion, atom: -tâ, f. atomic nature, -kârana vâda, m. doctrine of atoms, Vaiseshika system.
pātañjala a. composed by Patañ gali; m. follower of the Yoga system of Patañgali; n. the Yoga system of Patañgali; the Mahâbhâshya of Patañgali.
pūrvamadhyānha m. forenoon; -mârin, a. dying before, predeceasing; -mî mâmsâ, f. earlier Mîmâmsâ (the philosophi cal system founded by Gaimini and dealing with the discussion of the sacred text); -mu kha, a. facing eastwards.
pratitadvid f. recognition of the contrary; -tantra-siddhânta, m. doc trine recognised in various systems (but not in all); -tara, m. sailor; -tar&asharp;m, with bhû, retire more and more; -taru, ad. at every tree; -tryaham, ad. for three days each time.
pradhāna n. (that which is put for ward), important or chief thing, object, or person; essential, best, or most important part, head (°ree;-=principal, chief, head); chaos, unevolved nature; supreme oruniversal soul; --°ree; a. having at the head or as the chief person or thing, chiefly dependent on; devoted to; a. most excellent, best, foremost, principal, chief; pre-eminent in (in.); better, than (ab.), superior, to (ab.): -ka, n. unevolved nature; -kârana-vâda, m. the system asserting that unevolved nature is the cause of the world, the Sâmkhya or evolutionist theory; -tama, spv. pre-eminent, most important; -tara, cpv. better, superior; -tas, ad. in consequence of his superiority, as being the most excellent; -tâ, f. excellence, pre-eminence, superiority, premiership; -tva, n. id.; -purusha, m. chief person, authority; -bhâg, a. pre-eminent among, foremost of (g.); -mantrin, m. prime minister; -vâdin, m. adherent of the Sâm khya system; -½a&ndot;ga, n. chief member of the body, chief person of the state; -½âtman, m. supreme or universal soul; -½adhyaksha, m. chief superintendent: -tâ, f. office of --.
prastha m. n. [standing forth, promi nent], table-land on a mountain, plateau; level expanse, plain; a measure of capacity (=32 Palas); -sthâna, n. setting out, march ing forth, proceeding, departure; advent; de spatch (of wares), journey to the next world; religious mendicancy; way of thinking, method, system, sect; kind of inferior drama: -dundubhi, m. drum giving the sig nal for marching; -sthânîya, a. relating to departure; -sthâpana, n. sending away, de spatching, dismissing; giving currency to (an expression); -sthâpita, cs. pp. (√ sthâ) sent away, despatched; -sthâpya, cs. fp. to be sent away or dismissed; -sthâyin, a.setting out, departing; -sthita, pp. (√ sthâ) set out, departed; marched forth; gone on a journey; n. departure: -yâgyâ, f. verse pro nounced on offering the Soma vessels called &open;prasthita;&close; -sthiti, f.setting out, depar ture; -stheya, fp. n. imps. one should set out or depart.
bandhana a. (î) binding, fettering; captivating; n. binding, tying, fastening; bandaging; tying on (of a girdle etc.); entwining, clasping; capture; confinement, imprisonment, captivity; construction (of a bridge etc.); embanking or damming up (water); bridging over; connexion; fixing upon, directing towards (lc.); checking, suppressing; mundane bondage (opp. final liberation); bond, fetter; rope, cord, thong, halter, tether; fig. bond = that which holds any thing (g.) together; prison; sinew, muscle; embankment; stalk, stem (of flower or fruit): --°ree; a. bound to (lc.), fettered by (--°ree;): -kâr-in, a. (--°ree;) fettering, clasping: (-i)-tâ,f. abst. n.; -stha, a. being or living in confinement or captivity, imprisoned; m. captive, prisoner; -½agâra, m. house of bondage, prison.
bhāṣā f. speech, talk, language; vernacular tongue (either=spoken Sanskrit of Pânini as opposed to Vedic or Prâkrit as opposed to Sanskrit); description, definition; plaint, charge, or accusation (in law); -kit raka, n. play on words; -gña, a. versed in languages; m. N.; -parikkheda, m. T. of a compendium of the Vaiseshika system; -sa ma, m. sentence identical with the vernacular (i.e. consisting of words which may be ac counted Sanskrit as well as Prâkrit: rh.).
manas n. mind (in its widest sense as the seat of intellectual operations and of emotions), internal organ; understanding, intellect; soul, heart; conscience; thought, conception; imagination; cogitation, reflexion; inclination, desire, will; mood, disposition; in the philosophical systems manas is regarded as distinct from soul (âtman), of which it is only the instrument, and is (except in the Nyâya) considered perishable:-kri, make up one's mind, resolve; fix one's heart or affections upon any one (g.); -kri, pra-kri, dhâ, vi-dhâ, dhri, bandh, and nivesaya, direct the thoughts to, think of (d., lc., prati, or inf.); -sam-â-dhâ, collect oneself; in.mánasâ, in the mind; in thought or imagination; with all one's heart, will ingly; by the leave of (g.); manasâ½iva, as with a thought, in a trice; manasâ man, think of in one's mind, -gam, go to in thought =imagine, remember, -sam-gam, become unanimous; manasi kri, bear or ponder in mind, -ni-dhâ, impress on the mind, trea sure in the heart; meditate, -vrit, be pass ing in one's mind; manas is often used --°ree; a. with an inf. in -tu=wishing or intend ing to (e. g. prashtu-manas, desirous of inquiring).
mīmāṃsā f. [des. fr. √ man] deep reflexion, inquiry, examination, discus sion; opinion; discussion of a sacred text; designation of a philosophical system, which is divided into two distinct branches: the former, called Pûrvaor Karma-mîmâmsâ, and founded by Gaimini, is chiefly concerned with the correct interpretation of Vedic ritual; the latter, called Uttara-, Brahma-, or Sârî raka-mîmâmsâ,but best known under the name of Vedânta, and founded by Bâdarâ yana, is a pantheistic system discussing chiefly the nature of Brahman or the uni versal soul.
yoga m. [√ yug] yoking; team; vehi cle; equipment (of an army); performance, employment, use, application, of (g., --°ree;); remedy, cure; means, expedient; device, trick; spell, magic; fraud (°ree;-=spurious); opportunity; undertaking (V.); union, con tact, with (in. ± saha or --°ree;); combination, mixture; connexion, relation; connexion with, acquisition of (in., --°ree;); gain, profit; order, succession; aggregate, sum; fitness, propriety; strenuousness, exertion, endea vour, zeal, assiduity; occupation; mental concentration, systematic abstraction, Yoga system of philosophy; follower of the Yoga system; unity of the soul and nature (Sâm khya ph.); connexion of a word with its root, etymology, etymological meaning of a word; syntactical dependence of a word, construc tion; (concentrated sentence), grammatical rule; conjunction (of stars); constellation: in. yogena, by means of an expedient or stratagem; by means or in consequence of, in accordance with (--°ree;, also -yogât and -yoga tas); suitably, duly, in the correct manner; yogatas, id.; strenuously, assiduously.
varṇarāśi m. alphabet; -lopa, m. dropping of a letter; -varti: -kâ, f. paint brush; -vikriyâ, f. violation of the rules of caste; -vritta, n. metre measured by the number of syllables; -vyatikrântâ, pp. f.having transgressed with a man of lower caste; -vyavasthiti, f. caste system; -sik shâ, f. phonetics; -sreshtha, m. best man by caste, Brâhman; -samsarga, m. mixture of castes by intermarriage; -samhâra, m. assem blyrepresentative of castes; -samkara, m. mixture of colours (rare); mixture of castes by intermarriage; -samghâta, m., -samghâta, m., -samâmnâya, m. (combination of letters), alphabet; -sthâna, n. place (in the mouth) of the production of a letter.
vedāntin m. follower of the Ve dânta system.
vedānta m. end of the Veda (rare); end of Vedic study (rare); text forming the conclusion or the essence of the Veda, i.e. an Upanishad and the theologico-philosophical doctrine based thereon (Uttara-mîmâmsâ or Vedânta system): -krit, m. author of the Vedântas; -sâra, m. essence of the Vedânta, T. of a compendium of the Vedânta system; -½abhihita, pp. contained in the Vedânta; -½upagata, pp.accruing from the Vedânta (reward).
vaināśika a. believing in com plete annihilation (vinâsa); m. Buddhist: -tantra, n., -samaya, m. doctrine or system of the Buddhists.
vaiśeṣika a. (î) [visesha] special, peculiar, specific; distinguished, pre-eminent; relating to, based on, or treating of the Vaise shika doctrine; m. follower of the Vaiseshika system; n. peculiarity; Vaiseshika system of Kanâda; -ya, n. peculiarity, distinction; pre-eminence, superiority, importance.
śarīraka n. (--°ree; a. f. ikâ) a wretched tiny body; the wretched body; body (metr. for sarîra); -kartri, m., -krit, m. father; -karshana, n. emaciation of the body; -grahana, n. assumption of a bodily form; -ga, a. produced from, belonging to, per formed with the body, bodily; m. offspring, son; god of love; -ganman, a. id.; -tulya, a. (equal to=) dear as one's own body; -tyâga, m. abandonment of the body, renunciation of life; -danda, m. corporal punishment; -dhâtu, m. chief constituent of the body (flesh, blood etc.); -dhrik, m. corporeal being; -nipâta, m. collapse of the body, falling down dead; -nyâ sa, m. casting off the body, death; -pâta, m. collapse of the body, death; -pîdâ, f. bodily suffering; -prabhava, m. begetter, father; -baddha, pp. confined in a body, in carnate; -bandha, m. fetters of the body; assumption of a (new) body, rebirth: in. bodily (disappear); -bhâg, m. embodied being; -bheda, m. collapse of the body, death; -yashti, f. slender body, slim figure; -yâtrâ, f. sustenance of the body; -yoga-ga, a. produced from bodily contact; -vat, a.provided with a body; substantial; m. em bodied being; -vimokshana, n. liberation from the body, death; -vritta, pp. careful of his body or life; -vritti, f. maintenance of the body, support of life; -vaikalya, n. in disposition of body, distemper; -susrûshâ, f. personal attendance; -soshana, n. morti fication of the body; -samdhi, m. joint of the body; -sâda, m. bodily exhaustion, emacia tion; -stha, a. existing in the body; -sthiti, f.maintenance of the body.
ṣaḍgava m. n. team of six bulls; n. six cows; --°ree;, aggregate of six (animals); -guna, a. sixfold; having six good qualities; m. pl. qualities perceived by the six (i. e. the five senses and Manas); six excellences; six expedients (of a king in foreign politics); -gunî-kri, multiply by six; -guru-sishya, m. (pupil of six teachers), N. of a commentator on Kâtyâyana's Sarvânukramanî (12th century); -ga, m. (produced fromor based on the other six notes), the first note of the Indian gamut; -darsana, n. the six philosophical systems; a. conversant with the six philosophical systems; -bhâga, m. sixth part, one-sixth, sp. as a tax imposed by kings (w. ab. or g.): -bhâg, a. receiving one-sixth of (g.); -bhuga, a. six-armed; hexagonal; -rasa, a. having the six tastes (food); -râtrá, m. period or celebration of six days; -vaktra, a. hav ing six mouths; m. ep. ofSkanda: î, f. six faces; -varga, m. aggregate or group of six; the five senses and Manas; the six inward enemies of man (kâma, krodha, lobha, harsha, mâna, mada; sts. --°ree; with ripuor satru-); -vimsá, a. (î) twenty-sixth; consisting of twenty-six; -vimsati, f. twenty-six: -tama, a. twenty-sixth; -vimsat-ka, a. consisting of twenty-six; (shád)-vidha, a. sixfold; (shád) vidhâna, a. forming a sixfold order.
saṃhita pp. (√ dhâ) put together, composed of, etc.: â, f. union (rare, U.); euphonic combination (=samdhi); Vedic text treated according to the rules of euphonic combination (opp. pada orword text); syste matically arranged text; extensive compila tion (Râmâyana, legal codes, Purânas, etc.); complete system of astrology (opp. scientific astronomy); -hriti, f. 1. destruction of the world; conclusion, end; 2.the root hri + sam; -hotrá, n. community of sacrifice (RV.1); -hrâda, m. loud noise or shout etc.; Shouter, N. of an Asura, son of Hiranya-kasipu; -hrâdin, a. making a loud noise, tinkling; -hlâdin, a. refreshing; -hvayitavaí, d. inf. of sam + √ hvâ.
sattarka m. orthodox system of philosophy.
samīkṣā f. perceiving, behold ing; desire to see; glance; opinion (regard ing, prati); deep insight; -îkshitavya, fp. to be found out; -îkshya, fp. id.; n. Sâ&ndot; khya system of philosophy.
sāṃkhya a. [samkhyâ] relating to grammatical number; m. calculator, delibera tor; adherent of the Sâmkhya doctrine; n. the philosophical system, attributed to Kapila, which enumerates the twenty-five Tattvas or principles (an evolutionist doctrine): -puru sha, m. the universal soul in the Sâmkhya system; -yoga, n. the Sâmkhya and the Yoga systems; m. the theistical Sâmkhya Yoga: -vâdin, m. adherent of thetheistical Sâmkhya-Yoga.
skandha m. V., C.: shoulder; C.: branching part of the stem, trunk of a tree (also S.); division, part; tract, path, region (of the winds; rare); section of a treatise (rare); quantity, aggregate (rare); often incorr. for skanda: -ka, n. kind of Aryâ metre; -desa, m. (region of the) shoulder; region of the trunk; -pîtha, n. shoulder-blade; -vat, a. having a (thick) trunk or many trunks; -siras, n. shoulder-blade.
stambha m. prop, post, pillar, column, (slender) stem (also fig. of arms; V., C.; ord. mg.); strengthening, support (rare); rigidness, fixedness; stupefaction, paralysis; stoppage, obstruction, suppression (also by magical means); pride, arrogance: -ka, a. stopping, arresting; m. N. of an attendant of Siva.
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"stem" has 49 results.
     
aniṭkārikā(1)name given to Stanzas giving a complete list of such roots as do not allow the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. For such Kārikās see Sid. Kaum. on VII.1.5 as also Kāśikā on VII. 2.10; ( 2 ) a short treatise enumerating in 11 verses the roots which do not admit the augment इट् before the ārdhadhatuka affixes. The work is anonymous, and not printed so far, possibly composed by a Jain writer. The work possibly belongs to the Kātantra system and has got short glosses called व्याख्यान, अवचूरि, विवरण, टीका, टिप्पणी and the like which are all anonymous.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
indraname of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; confer, compare the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya edition by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
uṇādisūtra,uṇādisūtrapāṭhathe text of the Sūtras which begins with the Sūtras prescribing the affix उण् after the roots कृ, वा, पा, जि, स्वद्, साध् and अश्; cf Uṅādi Sūtras 1.1. for the different versions of the text See उणादि. Similar Sūtras in Kātantra, Āpiśali, Sakaṭāyana and other systems of grammar are also called Uṇādi Sūtras.
kalāpa(कलाप-व्याकरण)alternative name given to the treatise on grammar written by Sarvavarman who is believed to have lived in the days of the Sātavāhana kings. The treatise is popularly known by the namc Kātantra Vyākaraṇa. The available treatise,viz. Kalpasūtras, is much similar to the Kātantra Sūtras having a few changes and additions only here and there.It is rather risky to say that Kalāpa was an ancient system of grammar which is referred to in the Pāṇini Sūtra कलापिनोण् P. IV.3.108. For details see कातन्त्र.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantraparibhāṣāvṛtti(1)name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha written by Bhāvamiśra, probably a Maithila Pandit whose date is not known. He has explained 62 Paribhāṣās deriving many of them from the Kātantra Sūtras. The work seems to be based on the Paribhāṣā works by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and others on the system of Pāṇini, suitable changes having been made by the writer with a view to present the work as belonging to the Kātantra school; (2) name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha of the Kātantra school explaining 65 Paribhāṣās. No name of the author is found in the Poona manuscript. The India Office Library copy has given Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. as the author's name; but it is doubted whether Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. was the author of it. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
jñāpakaliterallyindirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, confer, compareM.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 et cetera, and others The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systemanuscript. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.
daivaname of a system of grammar or a work on grammar the peculiarity of which is the omission of the एकशेष topic; confer, compare अनेकशेषं दैवं स्यात्
nyāyaratnamañjūṣāa work dealing with Vyākarana Paribhāsas or maxims as found in Hemacandra's system of grammar, written bv Hemahamsaganin, a pupil of Ratnasekhara, in 1451. The author has written a commentary also on the work, named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa..
padārthameaning of a word, signification of a word; that which corresponds to the meaning of a word; sense of a word. Grammarians look upon both-the generic notion and the individual object as Padārtha or meaning of a word, and support their view by quoting the sūtras of Pāņini जात्याख्यायामेकस्मिन् बहुवचनमन्यतरस्याम् I. 2.58 and सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ I. 2.64; confer, compare किं पुनराकृतिः पदार्थ अाहोस्विद् द्रव्यम् । उभयमित्याह । कथं ज्ञायते । उभयथा ह्याचार्येण सूत्राणि प्रणीतानि । अाकृतिं पदार्थे मत्वा जात्याख्यायामित्युच्यते | द्रव्यं पदार्थे मत्वा सरूपाणामित्येकशेष अारभ्यते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in I. 1. first Āhnika. In rules of grammar the meaning of a word is generally the vocal element or the wording, as the science of grammar deals with words and their formation; confer, compare स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा, P. I. 1. 68. The possession of vocal element as the sense is technically termed शब्दपदार्थकता as opposed to अर्थपदार्थकता; confer, compare सोसौ गोशब्दः स्वस्मात्पदार्थात् प्रच्युतो यासौ अर्थपदार्थकता तस्याः शब्दपदार्थकः संपद्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.44 V. 3. The word पदार्थ means also the categories or the predicaments in connection with the different Śāstrās or lores as for instance, the 25 categories in the Sāmkhyaśāstra or 7 in the Vaiśeșika system or 16 in the NyayaŚāstra. The Vyākaranaśāstra, in this way to state, has only one category the Akhandavākyasphota or the radical meaning given by the sentence in one strok
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
paribhāṣāprakāśāan independent treatise explaining the various Paribhasas in the system of Panini's grammar, written by Visnusesa of the famous SeSa family.
paribhāṣārthasaṃgrahṛa treatise on the Paribhasas in the system of Panini's grammar written by Vaidyanatha Sastrin.
paribhāṣāvṛttia general name given to an explanatory independent work on Paribhasas of the type of a gloss on a collection of Paribhasas,irrespective of the system of grammar, whether it be that of Panini, or of Katantra, or of Jainendra or of Hemacandra. The treatises of Vyadi (Panini system), Durgasimha and BhavamiSra (Katantra system), Purusottamadeva and Siradeva (Panini system), Abhyankar (Jainendra system) and others are all known by the name Paribhasavritti.
paribhāṣāsegraha'a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his paribhasa.work named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundredition
paribhāṣāsūcanaan old work on the Paribhasas in the system of Panini's Grammar, believed to have been written by Vyaadi, who lived after Kaatyayana and before Patanjali. The work is written in the old style of the MahabhaSya and consists of a short commentary on 93 Paribhasas.
paribhāṣenduśekharathe reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis.
pāṭha(1)recital of a sacred Vedic or Sastra work; the original recital of an authoritative text;(2) the various artificial ways or methods of such a recital; c.g. पदपाठ, क्रमपाठ et cetera, and others in the case of Vedic Literature: (3) an original recital such as the सुत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ, वार्तिकपाठ and परिभाषापाठ in the case of the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar; the five Paathas are called पञ्चपाठी; (4) recitation; confer, compare नान्तरेण पाठं स्वरा अनुबन्धा वा शक्या विज्ञातुम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.1 Vaart. 13; (5) reading, variant: confer, compare चूर्णादीनि अप्राण्युपग्रहादिति सूत्रस्य पाठान्तरम् Kaas. on P.V.2.134.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
prayogaratnamālāname of a recognised treatise on grammar written by पुरुषोत्तमविद्यावागीश of Bengal in the fourteenth century. The treatise explains many words which, although current in language and literature, cannot be easily formed by rules of grammar. The author has tried to form them by applying rules of grammar given in the grammatical systems of Panini and Katantra. The alphabet given in this treatise is according to the system of the Tantra Sastra which shows a scholarship of the author in that branch The grammar was studied much in Bengal and Assam.
belavalakara[ SHRIPAD KRISHNA BELVALKAR ]a well-known Sanskrit scholar of the present day who has been the General Editor of the Mahabharata published by the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona. He has written a book on grammar reviewing very briefly the various systems of Sanskrit grammar, which is named "Systems of Sanskrit Grammar".
bhaṭṭojīsurnamed Diksita; a stalwart grammarian of the Panini system who flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century and wrote many independent books and commentaries such as the Siddhantakaumudi, the Praudhamanorama, the Vaiyakaranasiddhantakarika, the Sabdakaustubha and others. The most reputed work out of these, however, is the Siddhantakaumudi which is very popular even today and which has almost set aside other works of its kind such as the Prakriyakaumudi and others. Bhattoji was a Telagu Brahmana, as generally believed, and although he belonged to the South, he made Varanasi his home where he prepared a school of learned Grammarians. Although he carried on his work silently in Varanasi, he was envied by the reputed rhetorician of his time Pandita Jagannātha, who criticised his work ( Bhattojis work ) named Manorama very severely. See प्रौढमनोरमा a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got many commentaries of which the Tattvabodhini written by Bhattoji's pupil Jnanendrasarasvati is appreciated much by learned grammarians.
munitrayathe popular and honorific term for the three prominent grammarians of the Paninian system of grammar wiz. पाणिनि, कात्यायन and पतञ्जलि who were the pioneers of that system; confer, compare मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य Siddhanta-Kaumud beginning.
lalitāvṛttiname given to the Paribhāșāvŗtti written by Purușottamadeva, a famous grammarian of the Eastern branch of Pāņini's system which prevailed in Bengal from the eighth to the end of the twelfth century A.D. See पुरुषोत्तमदेव.
viśrāntavidyādharaname of a grammar work of a general type which once occupied a prominent position and was studied as a text book of grammar, representing an independent system. The work is referred to by Hemacandra and Haribhadra. It is attributed to Vāmana who may be the same as one of the joint writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti. In that case the date of the work is the 7th century A. D.;confer, compare the popular verse परेत्र पाणिनीयज्ञाः केचित्कालपकोविदा: । एकेकं विश्रान्तविद्याः स्युरन्ये संक्षिप्तसारकाः quoted in Vol.VII p. 388 Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya D.E. Society's edition.
viṣṇumiśraa scholar of the Supadma system of grammar who has written a commentary named मकरन्द on the सुपद्मव्याकरण and also a commentary on the सुपद्मसमाससंग्रह.
vyañjanasaṃdhia junction or coalescence of two consonants as distinguished from स्वरसंधि. In Panini's system of grammar the name हृल्संधि is given to व्यञ्जनसंधि and the Siddhantakaumudi has given a separate section for it.
vyākaraṇaGrammar the development of the meaning of the term can be seen by the senses given below in a serial order and the examples after those senses; (a) analysis or explanation by analysis; (b) rules of explanation; (c) specific rules explaining the formation of words; d) explanation of the formation of rules; (e) a treatise in which such an explanation is given; (f) a collection of such treatises and (g) a systematic explanation of the formation of words in a language (व्याकरणशास्त्र or शब्दानुशासन); confer, compare(a) व्यक्रियते अनेन इति व्याकरणम् ; M.Bh.on Ahnika 1, Vart. 12: confer, compare (b) लक्ष्यलक्षणे व्याकरणम्: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1, Vart. 14; confer, compare (c) न यथा लोके तथा व्याकरणे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.1. Vart. 7; d) सर्वत्रैव हि व्याकरणे पूर्वोच्चारित: संज्ञी परोच्चारिता संज्ञा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P. I. 1.1. Vart 7: (e) न तथा लोके यथा व्याकरणे M.Bh. on P, I. 1.23 Vart. 4: confer, compare(f)इह च व्याकरणे शब्दे कार्यस्य संभव:, अर्थं असंभवः | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.68. confer, compare (g) व्याकरणं नाम इयमुत्तरा विद्या । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.32. The word व्याकरण is mostly used in the sense of ’the Science of Grammar ' in the Mahabhasya. It is explained by modern scholars as 'the law of the corrections of speech and etymological science' and described both as a science and an art.
vyākaraṇāntaraa term used by scholars of the Paniniyan system of grammar with respect to grammar works of other systems such as the Katantra, the Sakatyana, and others; confer, compare श्रन्थिग्रन्थिदाम्भिस्वञ्जीनां लिटः कित्वं व्याकरणान्तरे S.K. on अश्नॊतेश्च P. VII.4.72.
vyāpyaliterally that which is occupied; the word refers to a kind of an object where the object is occupied by the verbal activity of the transitive root; the word अाप्य is also used in this sense: confer, compare कर्म निर्वर्त्ये विकार्यं प्राप्यं च ग्रस्य प्रकृत्युच्छेदो गुणान्तरं वोत्पद्यते तद्विकार्यम् SrinagaraPrakasa 2, The term is used as a technical term instead of the term कर्म in the Hemacandra, Candra and other systems of grammar: confer, compare Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II.2.3;Candra I.1.23.
śabdānuśāsanaliterally science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentence. The word is used in connection with standard works on grammar which are complete and self-sufficient in all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned features. Patanjali has begun his Mahabhasya with the words अथ शब्दानुशासनम् referring possibly to the vast number of Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and hence the term शब्दानुशासन according to him means a treatise on the science of grammar made up of the rules of Panini with the explanatory and critical varttikas written by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras.The word शब्दानुशासन later on, became synonymons with Vyakarana and it was given as a title to their treatises by later grammarians, or was applied to the authoritative treatise which introduced a system of grammar, similar to that of Panini. Hemacandra's famous treatise, named सिद्धहैमचन्द्र by the author,came to be known as हैमशब्दानुशासन. Similarly the works on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्तिशाकटायन and देवनन्दिन् were called शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and जैनेन्द्र' शब्दानुशासन respectively.
śambhuGod Siva who is supposed to have composed, or to have inspired Panini to compose, the fourteen . Sutras अइउण् , ऋलृक् et cetera, and others giving the alphabet of the Panini system ; confer, compare त्रिषष्टिः चतुःषष्टिर्वा वर्णाः शम्भुमते मताः Pāṇini. Siksa, St. 3.
śaraṇadevaa prominent grammarian of the Eastern school of Panini's system of grammar who lived in the thirteenth century and wrote works on Panini's grammar. His work named दुर्घटवृत्ति which ex. plains according to Panini's rules, the Varttikas thereon, and the Jnapakas deduced from them,the various words difficult to be explained, is much appreciated by scholars of grammar. He has quoted from a large number of classical works, and referred to many works of the Eastern grammarians who followed the Kasika school.
śākaṭāyana(1)name of an ancient reputed scholar of Grammar and Pratisakhyas who is quoted by Panini. He is despisingly referred to by Patanjali as a traitor grammarian sympathizing with the Nairuktas or etymologists in holding the view that all substantives are derivable and can be derived from roots; cf तत्र नामान्याख्यातजानीति शाकटायनो नैरुक्तसमयश्च Nir.I.12: cf also नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् M. Bh on P.III.3.1. Sakatayana is believed to have been the author of the Unadisutrapatha as also of the RkTantra Pratisakhya of the Samaveda ; (2) name of a Jain grammarian named पाल्यकीर्ति शाकटायन who lived in the ninth century during the reign of the Rastrakuta king Amoghavarsa and wrote the Sabdanusana which is much similar to the Sutrapatha of Panini and introduced a new System of Grammar. His work named the Sabdanusasana consists of four chapters which are arranged in the form of topics, which are named सिद्धि. The grammar work is called शब्दानुशासन.
śāstrascientific treatment of a subject; a system of thoughts giving a scientific treatment of any subject. The word is applied to the rules of Panini and sometimes to an individual rule; confer, compare शास्त्रबाध or अशास्त्रबाध or विप्रतिषेधशास्त्र,frequently used by the commentators; confer, compare न हि संदेहादलक्षणं शास्त्रामित्यर्थः Nagesa's Par. Sek. on Pari. 1; confer, compare पदान्तादिष्वेव विकारशास्त्रम् R.Pr.II.2
śāstrakṛtthe originator or the founder of a Sastra or system of particular thoughts. The word was used by ancient grammarians for Panini, the founder of the great system of grammar, or of grammar in general; confer, compare व्यत्ययमिच्छति शास्त्रकृदेषां सोपि च सिध्यति बाहुलकेन M.Bh. on P. III. 1. 85
śeṣa(l)any other senses than what are given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare शेषे P.IV.2.92: (2) surname of a reputed family of grammarians belonging to Southern India which produced many grammarians, from the fifteenth century to the eighteenth century. Ramacandra Sesa was the first grammarian in the family who wrote the Prakriyakaumudi in the fifteenth century. His descendants developed the system of studying grammar by the study of topics as given in the Prakriya Kaumudi and wrote several works of the nature of glosses and comments.
śeṣādria grammarian of the seventeenth century who has written a work, Paribhasabhaskara, on the Paribhasas of the Panini system; the treatise is written in the manner of Siradeva's Paribhasavrtti which has been taken as a basis by him.
śraddhāa technical term for nounstems ending in आ in the feminine gender used in the Katantra Grammar; confer, compare अा श्रद्धा Kat. II. 1.10.
śrīmaṇikaṇṭhaa famous grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय, प्रगल्भतर्कसिंह and भट्टाचार्य and who has written a systematic work on caserelations named कारकखण्डनमण्डन; the work is also known by the name षट्कारकखण्डनमण्डन.
siddhāntakaumudīa critical and scholarly commentary on the Sutras of Panini, in which the several Sutras are arranged topicwise and fully explained with examples and counter examples. The work is exhaustive, yet not voluminous, difficult yet popular, and critical yet lucid. The work is next in importance to the Mahabhasya in the system of Panini, and its study prepares the way for understanding the Mahabhasya. It is prescribed for study in the courses of Vyakarana at every academy and Pathasala and is expected to be committed to memory by students who want to be thorough scholars of Vyakarana.By virtue of its methodical treatment it has thrown into the back-ground all kindred works and glosses or Vrttis on the Sutras of Panini. It is arranged into two halves, the first half dealing with seven topics ( 1 ) संज्ञापरिभाषा, ( 2 ) पञ्त्वसंधि, ( 3 ) षड्लिङ्ग, ( 4 ) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, ( 5 ) कारक, ( 6 ) समास, ( 7 ) तद्धित, and the latter half dealing with five topics, ( 1 ) दशगणी, ( 2 ) द्वादशप्राक्रिया ( 3 ) कृदन्त ( 4 ) वैदिकी and ( 5 ) स्वर. The author भट्टोजीदीक्षित has himself written a scholarly gloss on it called प्रौढमनेरमा on which, his grandson, Hari Diksita has written a learned commentary named लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got a large number of commentaries on it out of which, the commentaries प्रौढमनेरमा, बालमनोरमा, (by वासुदेवदीक्षित) तत्त्वबोधिनी and लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर are read by almost every true scholar of Vyakarana. Besides these four, there are a dozen or more commentaries some of which can be given below with their names and authors ( I ) सुबेाधिनी by जयकृष्णमौनि, ( 2 ) सुबोधिनी by रामकृष्णभट्ट ( 3 ) वृहृच्छब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेश, ( 4 ) बालमनेारमा by अनन्तपण्डित, ( 5 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरहृस्य by नीलकण्ठ, ( 6 ) रत्नार्णव, by कृष्णमिश्र ( 7 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरत्नाकर by रामकृष्ण, ( 8 ) सरला by तारानाथ,(9) सुमनोरमा by तिरुमल्ल,(10)सिद्वान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by लक्ष्मीनृसिंह, (11 )सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by विश्वेश्वरतीर्थ, (12) रत्नाकर by शिवरामेन्द्रसरस्वती and (13) प्रकाश by तोलापदीक्षित. Although the real name of the work is वैयाकरणसिद्धान्ततकौमुदी, as given by the author, still popularly the work is well known by the name सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. The work has got two abridged forms, the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi both written by Varadaraja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita.
sīradevaa prominent grammarian of the Eastern part of India who lived in the twelfth century A. D. He was a very sound scholar of Panini's grammar who wrote a few glosses on prominent works in the system. His Paribhasavrtti is a masterly independent treatise among the recognised works on the Paribhasas in which he has quoted very profusely from the works of his predecessors, such as the Kasika, Nyasa, Anunyasa and others. The reputed scholar Maitreya Raksita is more often guoted than others.
sūtrakārathe original writer of the sutras; e. g. पाणिनि, शाकटायन, शर्ववर्मन् , हेमचन्द्र and others. In Panini's system, Panini is called Sutrakara, as contrasted with Katyayana,who is called the Varttikakara and Patanjali, who is called the Bhasyakara;confer, compare पाणिने: सूत्रकारस्य M.Bh. on P.II 2.1.1.
svarasahitoccāraṇarecital of the veda Samhita text with intonation or accents, as contrasted with एकश्रुत्युच्चारण which is specially prescribed in a few cases; tonal system showing distinction between words of different senses although pronounced alike, in the Samhita text. exempli gratia, for example नतेन and न तेन.
hṛradattaname of a reputed grammarian of Southern India who wrote a very learned and scholarly commentary, named पदमञ्जरी, on the Kasikavrtti which is held by grammarians as the standard vrtti or gloss on the Sutras of Panini,and studied especially in the schools of the southern grammarians. Haradatta was a Dravida Brahmana, residing in a village on the Bank of Kaveri. His scholarship in Grammar was very sound and he is believed to have commented on many grammarworks.The only fault of the scholar was a very keen sense of egotism which is found in his work, although it can certainly be said that the egotism was not ill-placed and could be justified: confer, compare एवं प्रकटितोस्माभिर्भाष्ये परिचय: पर:। तस्य निःशेषतो मन्ये प्रतिपत्तापि दुर्लभः॥ also प्रक्रियातर्कगहने प्रविष्टो हृष्टमानसः हरदत्तहरिः स्वैरं विहरन् ! केन वार्यते | Padamajari, on P. I-13, 4. The credit of popularising Panini's system of grammar in Southern India goes to Haradatta to a considerable extent.
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
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nāla stemSB 3.8.19
nivṛnta stemlessCC Madhya 1.156
śarau stemsMM 52
dyāv-ābhūmyoḥ the two planetary systems Bhūrloka and BhuvarlokaSB 5.20.43
abhyasyataḥ of the person practicing this yoga systemSB 7.15.34
abja-khaṇḍe by the stems of lotus flowersSB 1.11.2
varṇa-āśrama-ācāra the practices of the varṇāśrama systemSB 5.22.4
varṇa-āśrama-ācāra by one's execution of duties in the varṇāśrama systemSB 12.12.54
varṇa-āśrama-ācāra-vatā who behaves according to the system of four divisions of social order and four divisions of spiritual lifeCC Madhya 8.58
dharma-ācāri-madhye among persons who actually follow the Vedic principles or religious systemCC Madhya 19.147
tataḥ adhastāt below the planetary system MahātalaSB 5.24.30
rasā-ādhipatyam sovereignty of the lower planetary systemsSB 6.11.25
rasa-ādhipatyam sovereignty in the lower planetary systemsSB 11.14.14
tri-adhīśaḥ the master of the three planetary systemsSB 4.16.19
tri-adhīśaḥ the master of three places, namely Goloka Vṛndāvana, Vaikuṇṭhaloka and the material world, or the master of Mahā-Viṣṇu, Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu and Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, or the master of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśvara, or the master of the three worlds (the higher, lower and middle planetary systems)CC Madhya 21.33
adhīśvarāḥ O great governors of the planetary systemsSB 6.7.36
adhyātma-yoge in that yoga system meant for realization of one's true selfSB 11.6.11
āgama-āmnāya unto the source of the paramparā system of all Vedic knowledgeSB 8.3.15
mṛṇāla-agra-bhujaḥ those who eat the tops of the stemsCC Antya 1.92
akhila-loka containing all planetary systemsSB 3.28.25
akhila-jagatām of all the planetary systemsSB 12.6.67
akhila-loka of the universal planetary systemsCC Adi 5.141
akhila-loka of the universal planetary systemsCC Madhya 20.306
āmnāta systematicallySB 1.9.26
āgama-āmnāya unto the source of the paramparā system of all Vedic knowledgeSB 8.3.15
bhagavat-āśrita-āśrita-anubhāvaḥ the consequence of taking shelter of a devotee who has similarly taken shelter of a spiritual master in the paramparā system (one is sure to get out of the great nescience of the bodily concept of life)SB 5.13.25
sakala-loka-anubhāvasya who is auspicious for all planetary systemsSB 5.24.30
anupaśyati observes in a systematic wayIso 6
anupūrvaśaḥ systematicallySB 3.5.22
anuśṛṇuyāt continually hears in the paramparā systemCC Antya 5.48
anyatra elsewhere (in religious systems other than bhāgavata-dharma)SB 6.16.41
yoga-ārūḍhaḥ one who has actually attained perfection in the yoga systemCC Madhya 24.160
ārurukṣanti persons who desire to come to the upper planetary systemsSB 8.11.5
varṇa-āśrama the system of eight social ordersSB 4.14.18
varṇa-āśrama-ācāra the practices of the varṇāśrama systemSB 5.22.4
varṇa-āśrama the social system of sanctified occupational and spiritual ordersSB 10.75.21
varṇa-āśrama of the divine system of occupational and spiritual divisions of societySB 10.84.18
varṇa-āśrama the Vedic system of social and occupational divisionsSB 11.10.1
varṇa-āśrama of the varṇāśrama systemSB 11.17.1-2
varṇa-āśrama the varṇāśrama systemSB 11.17.9
varṇa-āśrama of the varṇāśrama systemSB 11.20.2
varṇa-āśrama the divine system of occupational and spiritual orders of societySB 12.2.38
varṇa-āśrama-ācāra by one's execution of duties in the varṇāśrama systemSB 12.12.54
varṇa-āśrama-ācāra-vatā who behaves according to the system of four divisions of social order and four divisions of spiritual lifeCC Madhya 8.58
bhagavat-āśrita-āśrita-anubhāvaḥ the consequence of taking shelter of a devotee who has similarly taken shelter of a spiritual master in the paramparā system (one is sure to get out of the great nescience of the bodily concept of life)SB 5.13.25
bhagavat-āśrita-āśrita-anubhāvaḥ the consequence of taking shelter of a devotee who has similarly taken shelter of a spiritual master in the paramparā system (one is sure to get out of the great nescience of the bodily concept of life)SB 5.13.25
atalam the first planetary system below the earthSB 2.5.40-41
khe avasthitaḥ yaḥ this person Brahmā, who was situated in the higher planetary system in the skySB 10.13.15
yaḥ ayam this systemBG 6.33
bhagavat-āśrita-āśrita-anubhāvaḥ the consequence of taking shelter of a devotee who has similarly taken shelter of a spiritual master in the paramparā system (one is sure to get out of the great nescience of the bodily concept of life)SB 5.13.25
bhakti-lakṣaṇaḥ being practiced to the devotional systemSB 2.1.21
bhakti-śāstra of the system of devotional serviceCC Antya 10.100
sārva-bhaumam sovereignty of the whole earthly planetary systemSB 6.11.25
bhū-maṇḍala of the planetary system known as Bhū-maṇḍalaSB 5.16.1
bhū-golasya of the planetary system known as BhūgolakaSB 5.20.38
bhūḥ the lower planetary systems up to the stratum of the earthSB 2.5.38
bhūḥ of the planetary system known as BhūḥSB 5.20.23
mṛṇāla-agra-bhujaḥ those who eat the tops of the stemsCC Antya 1.92
bhūmau in the middle planetary systemsSB 6.11.22
bhūrlokaḥ the entire planetary system from Pātāla to the earthly planetary systemSB 2.5.42
bhūrlokaḥ the entire planetary system known as BhūrlokaSB 8.21.31
bhuvaḥ of the Bhuvaḥ planetary systemSB 5.20.23
tri-bhuvana three statuses of planetary systemsSB 1.9.33
bhuvana-drumāya unto the tree of the planetary systemSB 3.9.16
bhuvana all the planetary systemsSB 10.69.39
bhuvana-traya of the three planetary systems making up the universeSB 11.4.4
bhuvana-trayam the three planetary systemsSB 12.11.5
caudda bhuvana fourteen planetary systemsCC Madhya 1.267
bhuvana planetary systemsCC Madhya 20.288
tri-bhuvanāya the three planetary systems of the universeSB 10.40.19
caudda-bhuvane in those fourteen planetary systemsCC Madhya 1.267
bhuvanera planetary systemsCC Adi 12.16
bhuvarlokaḥ the Bhuvarloka planetary systemSB 2.5.42
bila-svargam to the region of the lower planetary system known as PātālaSB 6.5.13
jyotiḥ-cakram the planetary systemsSB 10.8.37-39
caudda bhuvana fourteen planetary systemsCC Madhya 1.267
caudda-bhuvane in those fourteen planetary systemsCC Madhya 1.267
chalaḥ a cheating religious systemSB 7.15.13
tri-daśaiḥ by all the demigods from the higher planetary systemsSB 6.9.46
deva-yānasya which fulfills the desire to be elevated to the higher planetary systems and to BrahmalokaSB 8.8.2
tri-dhāma-paramam to the highest planetary systemSB 3.24.20
tri-dhāmabhiḥ by the three planetary systemsSB 3.8.31
sūkṣma-dharma-marma subtle intricacies of the religious systemCC Madhya 11.112
dharma-ācāri-madhye among persons who actually follow the Vedic principles or religious systemCC Madhya 19.147
dharmaḥ system of religionSB 4.19.24-25
para-dharmaḥ imitating religious systems for which one is unfitSB 7.15.13
dharmaḥ pious activities within the varṇāśrama systemSB 11.14.20
dharmaḥ the system of religionSB 11.21.18
dharmaḥ execution of the system of varṇa and āśramaCC Antya 5.10
dharmam religious systemSB 4.19.37
veda-dharme in the Vedic systemCC Adi 11.9
dharmeṇa with the religious systemSB 6.16.42
dhiṣṇya of the various planetary systemsSB 10.69.7-8
diva-okasām of the inhabitants of the upper planetary systemSB 8.17.28
divaḥ of the upper planetary systemSB 5.21.2
divam the higher planetary system known as SvargalokaSB 8.11.5
divaukasām of the denizens of the upper planetary systemsSB 8.5.34
divi in the higher planetary systemBG 18.40
divi in the higher planetary systemsSB 4.9.60
divi in the upper planetary systemsSB 6.11.22
divi in the higher planetary systemsSB 7.9.23
divi in the higher planetary systemSB 8.20.19
divya-varṣa celestial years, or years counted according to the higher planetary systemSB 10.3.36
divyāḥ in the sky of the higher planetary systemSB 8.4.2
bhuvana-drumāya unto the tree of the planetary systemSB 3.9.16
dvi-padām of ordinary human beings (who do not follow the varṇāśrama system)SB 11.17.1-2
dvīpa and other different planetary systemsSB 5.26.40
dyauḥ the higher planetary systemsSB 5.18.32
dyauḥ the higher planetary systemsSB 8.7.27
dyauḥ the upper planetary systemSB 8.18.4
dyauḥ the planetary systemsSB 8.20.21
dyāv-ābhūmyoḥ the two planetary systems Bhūrloka and BhuvarlokaSB 5.20.43
dyo the upper planetary systemSB 8.17.10
dyu-patayaḥ the predominating deities of higher planetary systems (Lord Brahmā and others)CC Madhya 21.15
loka-eka-nātha the only proprietor of all the planetary systemsSB 6.9.33
sura-gaṇāḥ the inhabitants of the upper planetary systemsSB 7.9.8
kinnara-gandharvāḥ the Kinnaras and Gandharvas, inhabitants of various planets in the heavenly planetary systemSB 10.3.6
yoga-gatibhiḥ the practice of the mystic yoga systemSB 4.23.12
bhū-golasya of the planetary system known as BhūgolakaSB 5.20.38
goloka the planetary system Goloka VṛndāvanaCC Madhya 24.22
graha planetary systemSB 3.7.33
grahān all the planets of the solar systemSB 4.12.34
mādhukarī grāsa and practicing the mādhukarī systemCC Madhya 20.92
guṇa-sańkhyāna of the sāńkhya-yoga systemSB 8.16.30
śrī-gurūn unto the spiritual masters in the paramparā system, beginning from Mādhavendra Purī down to Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī ṭhākura PrabhupādaCC Antya 2.1
śrī-gurūn unto the spiritual masters in the paramparā system, beginning from Mādhavendra Purī down to Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī ṭhākura PrabhupādaCC Antya 3.1
hiṃsram a system of killing and sacrificing animalsSB 7.15.48-49
viśva-īśvare in the master of all the planetary systemsSB 10.8.49
akhila-jagatām of all the planetary systemsSB 12.6.67
janaḥ the planetary system above MaharSB 2.1.28
janaḥ the Janaloka planetary systemSB 3.13.44
janalokaḥ the Janaloka planetary systemSB 2.5.39
sthāna-jayāt than achievement of the place or planetary systemsSB 5.19.23
jita-śvāsasya and conquered his breathing systemSB 11.15.1
jyotiḥ-lokāya unto the resting place of all the planetary systemsSB 5.23.8
jyotiḥ-cakram the planetary systemsSB 10.8.37-39
loka-kalpaḥ of the arrangement of the planetary systemsSB 12.4.20-21
karma-mayam obtainable by the Vedic ritualistic systemSB 5.20.33
abja-khaṇḍe by the stems of lotus flowersSB 1.11.2
tat-khara-nāla the stem of the lotusSB 3.8.19
khe in the higher planetary systems in the skySB 6.12.34
khe avasthitaḥ yaḥ this person Brahmā, who was situated in the higher planetary system in the skySB 10.13.15
kinnara-gandharvāḥ the Kinnaras and Gandharvas, inhabitants of various planets in the heavenly planetary systemSB 10.3.6
kriyā-yajñān activities and sacrifices (which elevate one to a higher planetary system)SB 7.15.52
kriyā in the systematic practiceSB 12.11.2-3
kuvalaya of this planetary systemSB 5.16.7
nava-lakṣaṇā possessing nine different systems, as above mentionedCC Madhya 9.259-260
bhakti-lakṣaṇaḥ being practiced to the devotional systemSB 2.1.21
padminī-latā the stems of lotus flowersCC Antya 18.91
loka the planetary systemsBG 11.20
loka-traye in the three planetary systemsBG 11.43
loka-mayaḥ full of planetary systemsSB 2.5.40-41
loka the planetary systemsSB 2.5.42
loka the planetary systemsSB 2.7.2
vividha-loka different planetary systemsSB 2.7.5
loka-traya the three (upper, middle and lower) planetary systemsSB 3.8.25
loka-saṃsthāna situation of the planetary systemSB 3.9.27-28
loka-vitānaḥ the extension of the planetary systemsSB 3.26.52
akhila-loka containing all planetary systemsSB 3.28.25
sarva-loka by all planetary systemsSB 4.9.25
loka-pālānām of the directors of planetary systemsSB 5.20.30
sakala-loka-svastaye for the benefit of all the planetary systemsSB 5.20.40
vividha-loka-yātrā the livelihood of the various planetary systemsSB 5.20.41
sakala-loka-anubhāvasya who is auspicious for all planetary systemsSB 5.24.30
loka-eka-nātha the only proprietor of all the planetary systemsSB 6.9.33
loka-pālāḥ all the chiefs of various higher planetary systemsSB 8.10.26
tri-loka-sthitaye to maintain the three worlds, the upper, middle and lower planetary systemsSB 10.3.20
loka-pālaiḥ by the rulers of the planetary systemsSB 10.74.33-34
loka of the planetary systems of the universeSB 10.80.25-26
loka-kalpaḥ of the arrangement of the planetary systemsSB 12.4.20-21
loka-saṃsthayā according to the positions of the planetary systemsSB 12.11.9
akhila-loka of the universal planetary systemsCC Adi 5.141
loka planetary systemsCC Madhya 11.217
akhila-loka of the universal planetary systemsCC Madhya 20.306
lokāḥ the planetary systemsBG 8.16
lokaḥ the planetary systemSB 2.5.38
lokāḥ the planetary systemSB 2.8.11
lokāḥ planetary systemsSB 4.12.36
lokāḥ planetary systemsSB 4.25.39
trayaḥ lokāḥ the three planetary systems (upper, middle and lower)SB 6.13.1
lokāḥ higher planetary systems like heaven, the moon, the sun and BrahmalokaSB 7.7.40
lokaiḥ by the different planetary systemsSB 2.8.11
sva-lokam respective higher planetary systemsSB 4.6.45
lokam all the planetary systemsSB 7.10.70
ṛṣi-lokam to the planetary system where the seers and munis go (Maharloka)SB 7.12.17
lokān planetary systemsSB 1.16.32-33
lokān all the planetary systemsSB 4.24.65
lokān planetary systemsSB 5.20.37
lokān all the planetary systemsSB 6.5.22
lokān planetary systemsSB 7.4.5-7
lokān all the different planetary systemsSB 7.9.38
lokān to the destination of the higher planetary systemSB 8.16.9
lokān three planetary systemsSB 8.19.33
lokān throughout all the planetary systemsSB 10.70.35
lokānām of all planetary systemsSB 8.23.20-21
lokānām in all the planetary systemsSB 11.10.30
jyotiḥ-lokāya unto the resting place of all the planetary systemsSB 5.23.8
lokayoḥ of planetary systemsSB 4.16.5
lokeṣu planetary systemsBG 3.22
lokeṣu in all the planetary systems within the universeSB 6.5.43
tri-lokīm the three planetary systemsSB 4.12.35
trai-lokya three planetary systemsSB 4.24.39
tri-lokyāḥ of the three planetary systemsSB 2.2.23
tri-lokyāḥ of the three worlds (the higher, middle and lower planetary systems)SB 6.8.1-2
mādhukarī grāsa and practicing the mādhukarī systemCC Madhya 20.92
dharma-ācāri-madhye among persons who actually follow the Vedic principles or religious systemCC Madhya 19.147
mahaḥ the planetary system above the luminariesSB 2.1.28
maharlokaḥ the planetary system occupied by great sages and saintsSB 2.5.38
mahātalam the fifth planetary system belowSB 2.5.40-41
mahītalam the planetary system named MahītalaSB 2.1.27
bhū-maṇḍala of the planetary system known as Bhū-maṇḍalaSB 5.16.1
sūkṣma-dharma-marma subtle intricacies of the religious systemCC Madhya 11.112
svarga-martya the upper and lower planetary systemsCC Madhya 12.198
vidhi-mate according to the Vedic systemCC Adi 15.24
loka-mayaḥ full of planetary systemsSB 2.5.40-41
karma-mayam obtainable by the Vedic ritualistic systemSB 5.20.33
mṛṇāla-agra-bhujaḥ those who eat the tops of the stemsCC Antya 1.92
mukhyaiḥ with all the chiefs of the various planetary systemsSB 8.23.20-21
tri-mūrdhnaḥ beyond the three higher planetary systemsSB 2.6.19
tri-nābhāya within the stem growing from whose navel live all the three worldsSB 8.17.26
nābhi-nāla the stem from the navelCC Adi 5.110
tat-khara-nāla the stem of the lotusSB 3.8.19
puṣkara-nāla-tantūn in the network of the fibers of a lotus stemSB 6.13.15
nābhi-nāla the stem from the navelCC Adi 5.110
nālam having a stem that is the resting placeCC Adi 1.10
nālam having a stem that is the resting placeCC Adi 5.93
tat-nālam its stemBs 5.18
nālāt out of the lotus stemSB 10.14.13
sei padma-nāle within the stem of that lotus flowerCC Adi 5.103
sei padma-nāle within the stem of that lotusCC Madhya 20.288
nālena through the stemSB 3.9.37
loka-eka-nātha the only proprietor of all the planetary systemsSB 6.9.33
nava-lakṣaṇā possessing nine different systems, as above mentionedCC Madhya 9.259-260
rasa-okāṃsi in the lower planetary system known as RasātalaSB 9.20.31
diva-okasām of the inhabitants of the upper planetary systemSB 8.17.28
dvi-padām of ordinary human beings (who do not follow the varṇāśrama system)SB 11.17.1-2
paddhatim systemSB 4.8.22
parisara-paddhatim from which the system of the arteries comesCC Madhya 24.166
parisara-paddhatim from which the system of the arteries comesCC Madhya 24.213
sei padma-nāle within the stem of that lotus flowerCC Adi 5.103
sei padma-nāle within the stem of that lotusCC Madhya 20.288
padminī-latā the stems of lotus flowersCC Antya 18.91
pākhaṇḍam a concocted, atheistic systemSB 5.26.15
loka-pālāḥ all the chiefs of various higher planetary systemsSB 8.10.26
loka-pālaiḥ by the rulers of the planetary systemsSB 10.74.33-34
loka-pālānām of the directors of planetary systemsSB 5.20.30
para-dharmaḥ imitating religious systems for which one is unfitSB 7.15.13
tri-dhāma-paramam to the highest planetary systemSB 3.24.20
paripāṭyām in the sense of systematic arrangementCC Madhya 24.24
parisara-paddhatim from which the system of the arteries comesCC Madhya 24.166
parisara-paddhatim from which the system of the arteries comesCC Madhya 24.213
pātāla-vivara the caves of the Pātāla planetary systemSB 5.24.31
pātālam the seventh planetary system belowSB 2.5.40-41
sapta-pātālera of the seven lower planetary systemsCC Antya 9.8
tri-patat falling into each of the three planetary systemsSB 11.6.13
dyu-patayaḥ the predominating deities of higher planetary systems (Lord Brahmā and others)CC Madhya 21.15
yoga-pathaiḥ by the system of yoga (mystic bodily power to attain the godly stage)SB 1.6.35
yoga-pathaiḥ by the yoga systemSB 3.27.6
yoga-pathaiḥ by the procedures of the yoga systemSB 11.20.24
tri-piṣṭapam the kingdom of the three planetary systemsSB 1.3.19
tri-piṣṭapam the higher planetary system, where various demigods liveSB 7.4.8
prāṇam the prāṇāyāma system of controlling the bodily airsSB 11.14.35
prāṇāyāmaḥ the yogic system of controlling the breathSB 11.19.36-39
yoga-pravartakaiḥ the authors of the yoga systemSB 3.32.12-15
pravilīyate is systematically vanquishedSB 1.18.45
tri-pṛṣṭhe on the planet of Brahmā (which is situated above the three planetary systems, namely the upper, intermediate and lower worlds)SB 1.19.23
tri-pṛṣṭhe the three planetary systemsSB 2.7.20
puṣkara-nāla-tantūn in the network of the fibers of a lotus stemSB 6.13.15
rasā-ādhipatyam sovereignty of the lower planetary systemsSB 6.11.25
rasa-okāṃsi in the lower planetary system known as RasātalaSB 9.20.31
rasa-ādhipatyam sovereignty in the lower planetary systemsSB 11.14.14
rasāḥ the lower planetary systemSB 8.17.10
rasām the lower planetary systemSB 8.20.23
rasām in the lower planetary systemSB 9.20.31
rasātalam the sixth planetary system belowSB 2.5.40-41
rasātalāt from the lowest planetary system (Rasātala)SB 5.18.6
rasāyāḥ of the lower planetary systemsSB 5.25.13
rasāyām and in the lower planetary systemsSB 6.11.22
rīti the systemCC Madhya 8.265
rodasī both the higher planetary system and the earthSB 10.7.35-36
rodasyoḥ in both the lower and upper planetary systemsSB 8.21.27
ṛṣi-lokam to the planetary system where the seers and munis go (Maharloka)SB 7.12.17
ṛṣibhyaḥ than the planetary systems of the ṛṣisSB 4.9.25
sa-vyāhṛtikān along with the vyāhṛtis (the invocations of the names of the seven planetary systems: bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ, svaḥ, mahaḥ, janaḥ, tapaḥ and satya)SB 12.6.44
saḥ that system of religionSB 6.16.41
sakala-loka-svastaye for the benefit of all the planetary systemsSB 5.20.40
sakala-loka-anubhāvasya who is auspicious for all planetary systemsSB 5.24.30
loka-saṃsthāna situation of the planetary systemSB 3.9.27-28
loka-saṃsthayā according to the positions of the planetary systemsSB 12.11.9
sāńkhya by the sāńkhya-yoga system (the analytical study of material conditions)SB 5.19.10
sāńkhyam the system of Sāńkhya philosophySB 11.14.20
guṇa-sańkhyāna of the sāńkhya-yoga systemSB 8.16.30
sāńkhyasya of the system of analytic philosophySB 11.13.39
sapta seven systemsSB 2.5.36
sapta ūrdhvam and seven systems upwardsSB 2.5.36
sapta-pātālera of the seven lower planetary systemsCC Antya 9.8
sarva-loka by all planetary systemsSB 4.9.25
sārva-bhaumam sovereignty of the whole earthly planetary systemSB 6.11.25
bhakti-śāstra of the system of devotional serviceCC Antya 10.100
satya the Satyaloka planetary systemSB 3.13.44
satyalokaḥ the Satyaloka planetary systemSB 2.5.39
satyam the topmost planetary systemSB 2.1.28
sei padma-nāle within the stem of that lotus flowerCC Adi 5.103
sei padma-nāle within the stem of that lotusCC Madhya 20.288
setavaḥ whose laws of morality concerning the varṇāśrama system in human societySB 7.8.48
śrī-gurūn unto the spiritual masters in the paramparā system, beginning from Mādhavendra Purī down to Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī ṭhākura PrabhupādaCC Antya 2.1
śrī-gurūn unto the spiritual masters in the paramparā system, beginning from Mādhavendra Purī down to Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī ṭhākura PrabhupādaCC Antya 3.1
sthāna-jayāt than achievement of the place or planetary systemsSB 5.19.23
sthānam the planetary systemsSB 2.10.1
tri-loka-sthitaye to maintain the three worlds, the upper, middle and lower planetary systemsSB 10.3.20
sūkṣma-dharma-marma subtle intricacies of the religious systemCC Madhya 11.112
sura-gaṇāḥ the inhabitants of the upper planetary systemsSB 7.9.8
śuśruma I have heard by the paramparā systemSB 6.9.1
sutalam the planetary system named SutalaSB 2.1.27
sutalam the third planetary system belowSB 2.5.40-41
suvaḥ of the Svaḥ planetary systemSB 5.20.23
sva-lokam respective higher planetary systemsSB 4.6.45
svarga in the higher planetary systemsSB 6.17.28
svarga in the heavenly planetary systemCC Madhya 9.270
svarga-martya the upper and lower planetary systemsCC Madhya 12.198
svargaḥ elevation to the higher planetary systemSB 8.21.33
bila-svargam to the region of the lower planetary system known as PātālaSB 6.5.13
svarge to higher planetary systemsCC Madhya 20.118
svargya gives promotion to the higher planetary systems (the goal of the karmīs)SB 5.14.46
svargyam giving elevation to higher planetary systemsSB 8.4.14
svarlokaḥ the planetary systems occupied by the demigodsSB 2.5.38
svarlokaḥ the higher planetary system, beginning with the heavenly planetsSB 2.5.42
svarlokaḥ the upper planetary systemSB 8.21.31
jita-śvāsasya and conquered his breathing systemSB 11.15.1
sakala-loka-svastaye for the benefit of all the planetary systemsSB 5.20.40
vasudhā-talam the lower planetary systemSB 5.1.30
talātalam the fourth planetary system belowSB 2.5.40-41
yoga-tantram an elaborate description of the mystic yoga systemSB 9.21.26
puṣkara-nāla-tantūn in the network of the fibers of a lotus stemSB 6.13.15
tapaḥ the planetary system above the JanasSB 2.1.28
tapaḥ the Tapoloka planetary systemSB 3.13.44
tapolokaḥ the Tapoloka planetary systemSB 2.5.39
tāre this systemCC Madhya 20.139
tat-khara-nāla the stem of the lotusSB 3.8.19
tat that celebration performed by the demigods in the upper planetary systemSB 10.12.35
tat-nālam its stemBs 5.18
tataḥ adhastāt below the planetary system MahātalaSB 5.24.30
trai-lokya three planetary systemsSB 4.24.39
loka-traya the three (upper, middle and lower) planetary systemsSB 3.8.25
bhuvana-traya of the three planetary systems making up the universeSB 11.4.4
trayaḥ the three planetary systemsSB 4.8.78
trayaḥ lokāḥ the three planetary systems (upper, middle and lower)SB 6.13.1
bhuvana-trayam the three planetary systemsSB 12.11.5
loka-traye in the three planetary systemsBG 11.43
tri-piṣṭapam the kingdom of the three planetary systemsSB 1.3.19
tri-bhuvana three statuses of planetary systemsSB 1.9.33
tri-pṛṣṭhe on the planet of Brahmā (which is situated above the three planetary systems, namely the upper, intermediate and lower worlds)SB 1.19.23
tri-lokyāḥ of the three planetary systemsSB 2.2.23
tri-mūrdhnaḥ beyond the three higher planetary systemsSB 2.6.19
tri-pṛṣṭhe the three planetary systemsSB 2.7.20
tri-dhāmabhiḥ by the three planetary systemsSB 3.8.31
tri-dhāma-paramam to the highest planetary systemSB 3.24.20
tri-lokīm the three planetary systemsSB 4.12.35
tri-adhīśaḥ the master of the three planetary systemsSB 4.16.19
tri-lokyāḥ of the three worlds (the higher, middle and lower planetary systems)SB 6.8.1-2
tri-daśaiḥ by all the demigods from the higher planetary systemsSB 6.9.46
tri-piṣṭapam the higher planetary system, where various demigods liveSB 7.4.8
tri-nābhāya within the stem growing from whose navel live all the three worldsSB 8.17.26
tri-loka-sthitaye to maintain the three worlds, the upper, middle and lower planetary systemsSB 10.3.20
tri-bhuvanāya the three planetary systems of the universeSB 10.40.19
tri of the three (planetary systems of the universe, or the three modes of nature)SB 10.87.16
tri-patat falling into each of the three planetary systemsSB 11.6.13
tri-adhīśaḥ the master of three places, namely Goloka Vṛndāvana, Vaikuṇṭhaloka and the material world, or the master of Mahā-Viṣṇu, Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu and Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, or the master of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśvara, or the master of the three worlds (the higher, lower and middle planetary systems)CC Madhya 21.33
tridivam the planetary system of the demigodsSB 8.23.19
upadharma of the irreligious system of so-called sannyāsaSB 4.19.38
upadharmeṣu towards false religious systemsSB 4.19.24-25
upari above (in the higher planetary systems)SB 5.14.41
sapta ūrdhvam and seven systems upwardsSB 2.5.36
varṇa-āśrama the system of eight social ordersSB 4.14.18
varṇa-āśrama-ācāra the practices of the varṇāśrama systemSB 5.22.4
varṇa-āśrama the social system of sanctified occupational and spiritual ordersSB 10.75.21
varṇa-āśrama of the divine system of occupational and spiritual divisions of societySB 10.84.18
varṇa-āśrama the Vedic system of social and occupational divisionsSB 11.10.1
varṇa-āśrama of the varṇāśrama systemSB 11.17.1-2
varṇa-āśrama the varṇāśrama systemSB 11.17.9
varṇa-āśrama of the varṇāśrama systemSB 11.20.2
varṇa-āśrama the divine system of occupational and spiritual orders of societySB 12.2.38
varṇa-āśrama-ācāra by one's execution of duties in the varṇāśrama systemSB 12.12.54
varṇa-āśrama-ācāra-vatā who behaves according to the system of four divisions of social order and four divisions of spiritual lifeCC Madhya 8.58
varṇāśrama according to the system of varṇa and āśramaSB 9.10.50
varṇāśrama-vatām among those engaged in the varṇāśrama systemSB 10.80.33
varṇāśrama-vatām of the followers of the varṇāśrama systemSB 11.18.47
divya-varṣa celestial years, or years counted according to the higher planetary systemSB 10.3.36
vasudhā-talam the lower planetary systemSB 5.1.30
varṇa-āśrama-ācāra-vatā who behaves according to the system of four divisions of social order and four divisions of spiritual lifeCC Madhya 8.58
varṇāśrama-vatām among those engaged in the varṇāśrama systemSB 10.80.33
varṇāśrama-vatām of the followers of the varṇāśrama systemSB 11.18.47
veda-dharme in the Vedic systemCC Adi 11.9
vibhakta systematically dividedSB 10.69.1-6
vidhi-mate according to the Vedic systemCC Adi 15.24
visa like the filaments of a lotus stemSB 10.39.44-45
viśva-īśvare in the master of all the planetary systemsSB 10.8.49
vitalam the planetary system named VitalaSB 2.1.27
vitalam the second planetary system belowSB 2.5.40-41
loka-vitānaḥ the extension of the planetary systemsSB 3.26.52
pātāla-vivara the caves of the Pātāla planetary systemSB 5.24.31
vivarāṇām of the lower planetary systemsSB 6.1.4-5
vividha-loka different planetary systemsSB 2.7.5
vividha-loka-yātrā the livelihood of the various planetary systemsSB 5.20.41
sa-vyāhṛtikān along with the vyāhṛtis (the invocations of the names of the seven planetary systems: bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ, svaḥ, mahaḥ, janaḥ, tapaḥ and satya)SB 12.6.44
yaḥ ayam this systemBG 6.33
khe avasthitaḥ yaḥ this person Brahmā, who was situated in the higher planetary system in the skySB 10.13.15
kriyā-yajñān activities and sacrifices (which elevate one to a higher planetary system)SB 7.15.52
deva-yānasya which fulfills the desire to be elevated to the higher planetary systems and to BrahmalokaSB 8.8.2
yasyām by such systematic remembranceSB 2.1.21
vividha-loka-yātrā the livelihood of the various planetary systemsSB 5.20.41
yena by which pseudo religious systemSB 5.6.10
yeṣu in those lower planetary systemsSB 5.24.9
yoga-pathaiḥ by the system of yoga (mystic bodily power to attain the godly stage)SB 1.6.35
yoga-pathaiḥ by the yoga systemSB 3.27.6
yoga of the yoga systemSB 3.29.5
yoga-pravartakaiḥ the authors of the yoga systemSB 3.32.12-15
yoga-gatibhiḥ the practice of the mystic yoga systemSB 4.23.12
yoga-tantram an elaborate description of the mystic yoga systemSB 9.21.26
yoga of the yoga systemSB 11.15.8-9
yoga-pathaiḥ by the procedures of the yoga systemSB 11.20.24
yoga practice of the mystic yoga systemCC Adi 17.24
yoga the mystic yoga systemCC Madhya 20.136
yoga-ārūḍhaḥ one who has actually attained perfection in the yoga systemCC Madhya 24.160
yoga of the yoga systemCC Antya 7.22
yogābhyām by practice of the yoga systemSB 5.19.10
yogaḥ yoga systemBG 6.24
yogaḥ the yoga systemSB 3.25.13
yogaḥ the standard system of yogaSB 10.47.33
yogaḥ the aṣṭāńga-yoga systemSB 11.12.1-2
yogaḥ yoga systemSB 11.13.14
yogaḥ in the yoga systemSB 11.13.37
yogaḥ the yoga systemSB 11.14.20
yogam the eightfold yoga systemBG 6.3
yogam yoga systemSB 3.25.14
yogam the mystic yoga systemSB 8.14.8
yogam the system of mystic yogaSB 11.28.43
yogasya of cultivation of the yoga systemSB 2.8.19
yogasya of the yoga systemSB 3.28.1
yogasya of the yoga systemSB 11.13.39
yogayoḥ and the aṣṭāńga-yoga systemSB 11.13.38
adhyātma-yoge in that yoga system meant for realization of one's true selfSB 11.6.11
yogena by the yoga systemBG 13.25
yogena by the mystic yoga systemsSB 11.12.9
yogena by the mystic yoga systemSB 11.20.32-33
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
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ajāmodārka

medicine made in distillation process using ajāmoda; it is indicated in diseases ofdigestive system.

āmrāta

Plant wild mango; Indian hog plum; dried stem bark of Spondius pinnata, S. mangifera, S.acuminata.

anāla

having no stalk or stem.

annavahasrotas

the digestive system, channel that carries food from stomach to small intestine.

anulomana

1. purging; push excretory products out of the body; 2. carminative, that prevents formation of gas in the digestive system.

aralu

Plant stembark of Ailanthus excelsa, tree of heaven.

arimeda

Plant cassie flower tree, white bark acacia; dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea; A fornesiana; syn. distiller’s acacia, needle bush.

arjuna

1. Plant stem bark of Terminalia arjuna; T. tomentosa; 2. an eye disease on the sclera, subconjuctival heamorrhage.

arkapuṣpi

Plant 1. lesser mallow plant, Hibiscus hirtus; 2. holostemma creeper, Holostemma rheedii, H. ada-kodien.

ārtavavahasrotas

(ārtav.vaha.śrotas) reproductive system in women.

asthisamhāri

Plant adamant creeper; dried stem of Cissus quadrangularis.

āyurveda

the classical Indian system of medicine.

bījasāra

Plant Indian kino tree, dried stembark of Pterocarpus marsupium

bilva

Plant Bengal quince; bael fruit; dried root & stembark of Aegle marmelos.

bilvādilehya

a semi-solid preparation from bael fruit and ten other ingredients; indicated in problems of digestive system.

cavya

Plant cubeb; elephant pepper; dried stem of Piper retrofractum; P. chaba; P. officinarum

dāḍimāṣṭakacūrṇa

powdered preparation used in digestive system complaints.

dāruharidra

Plant Indian barberry, false turmeric, dried stem of Berberis aristata; Coscinium fenestratum is used in Kerala as dāruharidra due to similarity in therapeutic action to Berberis species.

gojihva

Plant leaf and stem of Onosma bracteatum, sedge.

guḍūci

Plant heart-leaved moonseed; moon creeper; dried stem of Tinospora cardifolia; guḍūcisatva extract of guḍūci as immuno-modulator.

jīmūtaka

Plant Lepeocercis serrata; Indian blue stem grass, musta.

lodhra

Plant lodh tree, dried stem bark of Symplocos racemosa, S. hamiltonia.

māgadhamāna

system of weights and measures in magadha region and adopted by Carakasamhita.

mahānimba

Plant Persian lilac, dried stembark of Melia azedarachta.

māṃsavahasrotas

muscular system.

medovahasrotas

adipose tissue system.

mīmāmsa

1. examination, reflection; 2. liturgical hermeneutics, one of the six systems of Indian philosophy.

nimbu,nimbuka

Plant lemon, Citrus limon; Pogostemon parviflorus and Marjorana hortensis are also considered; Citrus medica.

nyāya

system of philosophy propounded by Gautama; one of the six systems of Indian philosophy.

pañcāmlaka

Plant bījapūraka (citron), jambīra (lemon), nāranga (orange), amlavetasa (bladderdock), tintriṇi (tamarind) is one set; leaves, stembark, flowers, fruits and roots of lime together is another set.

pancāṅgam

stembark, leaves, fruits, roots and flowers of the same plant together.

pāribhadra

Plant 1. coral tree, stembark of Erythrina indica, E. variegata; 2. neem tree; 3. Himalayan pine or longleaf pine tree, Pinus deodera; 4. a gemstone, aquamarine.

pāṭalā

Plant rose flower fragrant, trumpet flower tree, yellow snake tree, stembark of Stereospermum suaveolens, syn. Bignonia suaveolens.

pramāṇa

means of acquiring certain knowledge, proof; epistemological standards.

prāṇavahasrotas

(prāṇa.vaha.srotas) respiratory system.

purīṣavahasrotas

excretory system.

puṣpanetra

flower tube; a kind of catheter; a disease affecting the female reproductive system.

raktavahasrotas

haemopoietic system.

rasavahasrotas

cardio-vascular system or circulatory system.

śākhoṭaka

Plant sandpaper mulberry, stembark of Strebulus asper.

śālmali

Plant silk-cotton tree, stem bark of Salmalia malabarica, Bombax malabaricum, B. ceiba

sāñkhya

system of philosophy propounded by Kapila, one of the six systems of Indian philosophy.

saptaparṇa

Plant dita, devil’s tree, stem bark of Alstonia scholaris.

śirīṣa

Plant lebbeck tree, stembark of Albizzia lebbeck

snuhi

Plant milkhedge, stem of Euphorbia neriifolia , snuhikshāra alkali preparation from snuhi.

śukravahasrotas

reproductive system in men.

tejovati

Plant stem bark & dried fruit of Zanthoxylum alatum, Z. armatum.

udakavahasrotas

body fluid system.

vaiṣeṣika

system of philosophy propounded by Kanāda, one of the six systems of Indian philosophy.

varuṇa

1. Plant three-leaved caper, dried stem bark of Crataeva nurvala; 2. god of water, sea, rivers; 3. Plant Cappris trifoliate, Crataeva religiosa.

yavāniṣāḍava

medicine in powdered form made from Trachyspermum ammi and others, used in the diseases of digestive system.









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