Select your preferred input and type any Sanskrit or English word. Enclose the word in “” for an EXACT match e.g. “yoga”.
Amarakosha Search Results for
Monier-Williams Search Results for stem2 results for stem
Apte Search Results for
stemaḥ स्तेमः Moisture, wetness.
Macdonell Vedic Search 11 results
akṣan akṣ-án, n. eye (weak stem of ákṣi), x. 127, 1. asma asmá, prn. stem of 1. prs. pl.; A. asmá̄n us, viii. 48, 3. 11; x. 15, 5; D. asmábhyàm to us, i. 85, 12; x. 14, 12; asmé to us, i. 160, 5; ii. 33, 12; Ab. asmád from us, ii. 33, 2; vii. 71, 1. 2; than us, ii. 33, 11; G. asmá̄kam of us, vi. 54, 6; L. asmé in or on us, ii. 35, 4; iv. 50, 10. 11; viii. 48, 10; asmá̄su on us,iv. 51, 10. ima imá, dem. prn. stem, this, A. m. imám, ii. 35, 2; x. 14, 4; 15, 6; N. m. pl. imé, vi. 54, 2; viii. 48, 5; n. imá̄, ii. 12, 3; x. 15, 4; imá̄ni, vii. 61, 6; 71, 6 .  eta e-tá, dem. prn. stem, this: n. etád, iii. 59, 5; acc. m. etám this, x. 14, 9; him,  x. 34, 4; inst. eténa, v. 83, 6; n. pl. etá̄, x. 15, 14; m. pl. eté these, vii. 103, 9 [prn. root e + tá this]. ena e-na, enc. prn. stem of 3. prs. he, she, it: acc. enam him, ii. 12, 5; iii. 59, 3; vii. 103, 2; x. 14, 11; 34, 4; 168, 2; acc. pl. enān them, vii. 103, 3; gen. du. enos of them two, vii. 103, 4 [prn. root e]. jagmi jágm-i, n. nimble, speeding, i. 85, 8 [from red. stem jag(a)m of gam go]. jāgṛvi já̄gṛ-vi, a. watchful, v. 11, 1; stimulating, x. 34, 1 [from red. stem of 2. gṛ wake]. naktam nákt-am, acc. adv. by night, vii. 71, 1. 2; x. 34, 10 [stem nakt, cp. Lat. nox = noct-s]. naptṛ náptṛ, m. (weak stem of nápāt) son: gen. náptur, ii. 35, 11; dat. náptre, ii. 35, 14 [ná-pitṛ having no father = ‘nephew’, ‘grandson’]. pāda pá̄d-a, m. foot, x. 90, 11; one-fourth, x. 90, 3. 4 [sec. stem formed from acc. pá̄d-am of pád foot]. yuyudhi yúyudh-i, m. warrior, i. 85, 8 [from red. stem of yudh fight].
Macdonell Search 41 results
amu prn. stem (nm. sg. m. f. asau, n. adás). asma prn. stem of 3 prs. sg. asma prn. stem of 1 prs. pl. āva prn. stem of 1st pers. dual. i prn. stem of the 3rd prs. ena (encl.) prn. stem of 3rd pers. he, she, it. kudāradāra m. pl. bad wife as a wife; -drishta, pp. imperfectly seen; -drishti, f. defective sight; false system; a. heterodox; -desa, m. bad country; -daisika, m. bad guide. kṛtāṅka a. branded; -½añgala, a. having the palms joined in supplication to (d.); -½âtithya, a. having practised hospi tality; hospitably entertained; -½âtman, a. whose mind is cultivatedor purified; -½âdara, a. treated with due respect; -½anuvyâdha, a. filled with (in.); -½anta, a. making an end, decisive; m. matter, affair, case; fate; Death, Yama; system, doctrine: -nagarî, f. city of Yama, -samtrâsa,m. N. of a Râkshasa; -½antara, a. having made one's way to (g.); -½anná, n. cooked food; -½aparâdha, a. hav ing committed an offence against (g.); -½abhi sheka, a. hvg. performed a religious ablution; consecrated;-½abhyâsa, a. kept to one's studies (by, --°ree;); -½artha, a. having attained his object; satisfied: -tâ, f., -tva, n. satisfaction. gotama m. N. of a Rishi (pl. his descendants); the biggest ox; N. of the founder of the Nyâya system of philosophy. tantra n. loom; warp; groundwork, underlying principle, essence; system; stand ard; main point; rule, doctrine; manual; section in a manual; a class of magical and mystical treatises; spell; physic, specific; government; --°ree;, line, rank, troop; a. chiefly concerned with, dependent on (--°ree;). tarka m. supposition, conjecture; re flexion, speculation; speculative doctrine, philosophical system (of which there are six, the Pûrvaand Uttara-Mîmâmsâ, Nyâya, Vaiseshika, Sâ&ndot;khya, and Yoga); refutation, reductio ad absurdum (in logic); -gñâna, n. knowledge derived from speculation; -vid, m. philosopher, dialectician; -vidyâ, -sâstra, n. science of thought; -samgraha, m. T. of a manual on the Nyâya system. tāntrika a. (â, î) completely versed in a system, specialist; taught in a Tantra. darśana a. (î) --°ree;, seeing, looking at; knowing; showing, teaching; n. 1. with active meaning: seeing, looking at, beholding; sight of, meeting with, visiting, attendance at (--°ree; or g.); adoration (of, g.); eyesight; review of (g.); inspection, investigation of (--°ree;); foreseeing (--°ree;); perception, understanding, in sight; recognition of (--°ree;); opinion, intention; doctrine, philosophical system; 2. with ps. meaning: becoming or being visible, appear ance, presence, attendance (in court); occur rence, mention (esp. in a standard work); ap parition, vision; 3. with cs. meaning: showing; with concrete meaning: eye; it is often --°ree; a. having a -appearance, looking --; -m dâ, show oneself. na prn. stem in nau, nas. naya m. leading; behaviour, conduct; discreetness, prudence, towards (lc.); worldly wisdom, policy; design, plan; principle, system, doctrine; -kovida, a. worldly wise, versed in policy; -kakshus, n. eye of wisdom; a. en dowed with the eye of wisdom; -gña, a. worldly wise; knowing the system of (--°ree;). nidarśaka a. seeing; announcing; -darsana, a. (î) showing; announcing; teaching; n. seeing, sight; reference to (--°ree;); showing, authority, evidence; instance, example, illustration; symptom; prognostic; system; contradictory instance; -darsin, a. (--°ree;) seeing, understanding; pleasing; -dâghá, m. heat, hot season, summer: -dhâman, m. sun, -½avadhi, m. hot season; -dâna, n. rope, halter; prime cause, original form; cause; a class of Buddhistic works: in. originally, essentially, really; -didrâsu, des. a. sleepy; -didhyâsana, n. profound meditation; -di dhyâsitávya, fp. to be profoundly meditated on; -desa, m. command, order; neighbour hood: e sthâ, be at any one's (d.) command. nyāya m. [going back, reference, precedent], rule, standard, axiom, principle, method; manner; propriety, correct way; logical proof or conclusion, syllogism; logic, the Nyâya system of philosophy;lawsuit; decision, judgment: in., ab., °ree;--, after the manner of (--°ree;); in. -tas, °ree;--, suitably, properly; -vartin, a. behaving with propriety; -vâdin, a. speaking suitably; -vid, m. connoisseur; -vidyâ, f. logic; -vritta,pp. behaving with propriety; -sâstra, n. treatise on logic; -sikshâ, f. logic. paramāṇu m. infinitesimal por tion, atom: -tâ, f. atomic nature, -kârana vâda, m. doctrine of atoms, Vaiseshika system. pātañjala a. composed by Patañ gali; m. follower of the Yoga system of Patañgali; n. the Yoga system of Patañgali; the Mahâbhâshya of Patañgali. pūrvamadhyānha m. forenoon; -mârin, a. dying before, predeceasing; -mî mâmsâ, f. earlier Mîmâmsâ (the philosophi cal system founded by Gaimini and dealing with the discussion of the sacred text); -mu kha, a. facing eastwards. pratitadvid f. recognition of the contrary; -tantra-siddhânta, m. doc trine recognised in various systems (but not in all); -tara, m. sailor; -tar&asharp;m, with bhû, retire more and more; -taru, ad. at every tree; -tryaham, ad. for three days each time. pradhāna n. (that which is put for ward), important or chief thing, object, or person; essential, best, or most important part, head (°ree;-=principal, chief, head); chaos, unevolved nature; supreme oruniversal soul; --°ree; a. having at the head or as the chief person or thing, chiefly dependent on; devoted to; a. most excellent, best, foremost, principal, chief; pre-eminent in (in.); better, than (ab.), superior, to (ab.): -ka, n. unevolved nature; -kârana-vâda, m. the system asserting that unevolved nature is the cause of the world, the Sâmkhya or evolutionist theory; -tama, spv. pre-eminent, most important; -tara, cpv. better, superior; -tas, ad. in consequence of his superiority, as being the most excellent; -tâ, f. excellence, pre-eminence, superiority, premiership; -tva, n. id.; -purusha, m. chief person, authority; -bhâg, a. pre-eminent among, foremost of (g.); -mantrin, m. prime minister; -vâdin, m. adherent of the Sâm khya system; -½a&ndot;ga, n. chief member of the body, chief person of the state; -½âtman, m. supreme or universal soul; -½adhyaksha, m. chief superintendent: -tâ, f. office of --. prastha m. n. [standing forth, promi nent], table-land on a mountain, plateau; level expanse, plain; a measure of capacity (=32 Palas); -sthâna, n. setting out, march ing forth, proceeding, departure; advent; de spatch (of wares), journey to the next world; religious mendicancy; way of thinking, method, system, sect; kind of inferior drama: -dundubhi, m. drum giving the sig nal for marching; -sthânîya, a. relating to departure; -sthâpana, n. sending away, de spatching, dismissing; giving currency to (an expression); -sthâpita, cs. pp. (√ sthâ) sent away, despatched; -sthâpya, cs. fp. to be sent away or dismissed; -sthâyin, a.setting out, departing; -sthita, pp. (√ sthâ) set out, departed; marched forth; gone on a journey; n. departure: -yâgyâ, f. verse pro nounced on offering the Soma vessels called &open;prasthita;&close; -sthiti, f.setting out, depar ture; -stheya, fp. n. imps. one should set out or depart. bandhana a. (î) binding, fettering; captivating; n. binding, tying, fastening; bandaging; tying on (of a girdle etc.); entwining, clasping; capture; confinement, imprisonment, captivity; construction (of a bridge etc.); embanking or damming up (water); bridging over; connexion; fixing upon, directing towards (lc.); checking, suppressing; mundane bondage (opp. final liberation); bond, fetter; rope, cord, thong, halter, tether; fig. bond = that which holds any thing (g.) together; prison; sinew, muscle; embankment; stalk, stem (of flower or fruit): --°ree; a. bound to (lc.), fettered by (--°ree;): -kâr-in, a. (--°ree;) fettering, clasping: (-i)-tâ,f. abst. n.; -stha, a. being or living in confinement or captivity, imprisoned; m. captive, prisoner; -½agâra, m. house of bondage, prison. bhāṣā f. speech, talk, language; vernacular tongue (either=spoken Sanskrit of Pânini as opposed to Vedic or Prâkrit as opposed to Sanskrit); description, definition; plaint, charge, or accusation (in law); -kit raka, n. play on words; -gña, a. versed in languages; m. N.; -parikkheda, m. T. of a compendium of the Vaiseshika system; -sa ma, m. sentence identical with the vernacular (i.e. consisting of words which may be ac counted Sanskrit as well as Prâkrit: rh.). manas n. mind (in its widest sense as the seat of intellectual operations and of emotions), internal organ; understanding, intellect; soul, heart; conscience; thought, conception; imagination; cogitation, reflexion; inclination, desire, will; mood, disposition; in the philosophical systems manas is regarded as distinct from soul (âtman), of which it is only the instrument, and is (except in the Nyâya) considered perishable:-kri, make up one's mind, resolve; fix one's heart or affections upon any one (g.); -kri, pra-kri, dhâ, vi-dhâ, dhri, bandh, and nivesaya, direct the thoughts to, think of (d., lc., prati, or inf.); -sam-â-dhâ, collect oneself; in.mánasâ, in the mind; in thought or imagination; with all one's heart, will ingly; by the leave of (g.); manasâ½iva, as with a thought, in a trice; manasâ man, think of in one's mind, -gam, go to in thought =imagine, remember, -sam-gam, become unanimous; manasi kri, bear or ponder in mind, -ni-dhâ, impress on the mind, trea sure in the heart; meditate, -vrit, be pass ing in one's mind; manas is often used --°ree; a. with an inf. in -tu=wishing or intend ing to (e. g. prashtu-manas, desirous of inquiring). mīmāṃsā f. [des. fr. √ man] deep reflexion, inquiry, examination, discus sion; opinion; discussion of a sacred text; designation of a philosophical system, which is divided into two distinct branches: the former, called Pûrvaor Karma-mîmâmsâ, and founded by Gaimini, is chiefly concerned with the correct interpretation of Vedic ritual; the latter, called Uttara-, Brahma-, or Sârî raka-mîmâmsâ,but best known under the name of Vedânta, and founded by Bâdarâ yana, is a pantheistic system discussing chiefly the nature of Brahman or the uni versal soul. yoga m. [√ yug] yoking; team; vehi cle; equipment (of an army); performance, employment, use, application, of (g., --°ree;); remedy, cure; means, expedient; device, trick; spell, magic; fraud (°ree;-=spurious); opportunity; undertaking (V.); union, con tact, with (in. ± saha or --°ree;); combination, mixture; connexion, relation; connexion with, acquisition of (in., --°ree;); gain, profit; order, succession; aggregate, sum; fitness, propriety; strenuousness, exertion, endea vour, zeal, assiduity; occupation; mental concentration, systematic abstraction, Yoga system of philosophy; follower of the Yoga system; unity of the soul and nature (Sâm khya ph.); connexion of a word with its root, etymology, etymological meaning of a word; syntactical dependence of a word, construc tion; (concentrated sentence), grammatical rule; conjunction (of stars); constellation: in. yogena, by means of an expedient or stratagem; by means or in consequence of, in accordance with (--°ree;, also -yogât and -yoga tas); suitably, duly, in the correct manner; yogatas, id.; strenuously, assiduously. varṇarāśi m. alphabet; -lopa, m. dropping of a letter; -varti: -kâ, f. paint brush; -vikriyâ, f. violation of the rules of caste; -vritta, n. metre measured by the number of syllables; -vyatikrântâ, pp. f.having transgressed with a man of lower caste; -vyavasthiti, f. caste system; -sik shâ, f. phonetics; -sreshtha, m. best man by caste, Brâhman; -samsarga, m. mixture of castes by intermarriage; -samhâra, m. assem blyrepresentative of castes; -samkara, m. mixture of colours (rare); mixture of castes by intermarriage; -samghâta, m., -samghâta, m., -samâmnâya, m. (combination of letters), alphabet; -sthâna, n. place (in the mouth) of the production of a letter. vedāntin m. follower of the Ve dânta system. vedānta m. end of the Veda (rare); end of Vedic study (rare); text forming the conclusion or the essence of the Veda, i.e. an Upanishad and the theologico-philosophical doctrine based thereon (Uttara-mîmâmsâ or Vedânta system): -krit, m. author of the Vedântas; -sâra, m. essence of the Vedânta, T. of a compendium of the Vedânta system; -½abhihita, pp. contained in the Vedânta; -½upagata, pp.accruing from the Vedânta (reward). vaināśika a. believing in com plete annihilation (vinâsa); m. Buddhist: -tantra, n., -samaya, m. doctrine or system of the Buddhists. vaiśeṣika a. (î) [visesha] special, peculiar, specific; distinguished, pre-eminent; relating to, based on, or treating of the Vaise shika doctrine; m. follower of the Vaiseshika system; n. peculiarity; Vaiseshika system of Kanâda; -ya, n. peculiarity, distinction; pre-eminence, superiority, importance. śarīraka n. (--°ree; a. f. ikâ) a wretched tiny body; the wretched body; body (metr. for sarîra); -kartri, m., -krit, m. father; -karshana, n. emaciation of the body; -grahana, n. assumption of a bodily form; -ga, a. produced from, belonging to, per formed with the body, bodily; m. offspring, son; god of love; -ganman, a. id.; -tulya, a. (equal to=) dear as one's own body; -tyâga, m. abandonment of the body, renunciation of life; -danda, m. corporal punishment; -dhâtu, m. chief constituent of the body (flesh, blood etc.); -dhrik, m. corporeal being; -nipâta, m. collapse of the body, falling down dead; -nyâ sa, m. casting off the body, death; -pâta, m. collapse of the body, death; -pîdâ, f. bodily suffering; -prabhava, m. begetter, father; -baddha, pp. confined in a body, in carnate; -bandha, m. fetters of the body; assumption of a (new) body, rebirth: in. bodily (disappear); -bhâg, m. embodied being; -bheda, m. collapse of the body, death; -yashti, f. slender body, slim figure; -yâtrâ, f. sustenance of the body; -yoga-ga, a. produced from bodily contact; -vat, a.provided with a body; substantial; m. em bodied being; -vimokshana, n. liberation from the body, death; -vritta, pp. careful of his body or life; -vritti, f. maintenance of the body, support of life; -vaikalya, n. in disposition of body, distemper; -susrûshâ, f. personal attendance; -soshana, n. morti fication of the body; -samdhi, m. joint of the body; -sâda, m. bodily exhaustion, emacia tion; -stha, a. existing in the body; -sthiti, f.maintenance of the body. ṣaḍgava m. n. team of six bulls; n. six cows; --°ree;, aggregate of six (animals); -guna, a. sixfold; having six good qualities; m. pl. qualities perceived by the six (i. e. the five senses and Manas); six excellences; six expedients (of a king in foreign politics); -gunî-kri, multiply by six; -guru-sishya, m. (pupil of six teachers), N. of a commentator on Kâtyâyana's Sarvânukramanî (12th century); -ga, m. (produced fromor based on the other six notes), the first note of the Indian gamut; -darsana, n. the six philosophical systems; a. conversant with the six philosophical systems; -bhâga, m. sixth part, one-sixth, sp. as a tax imposed by kings (w. ab. or g.): -bhâg, a. receiving one-sixth of (g.); -bhuga, a. six-armed; hexagonal; -rasa, a. having the six tastes (food); -râtrá, m. period or celebration of six days; -vaktra, a. hav ing six mouths; m. ep. ofSkanda: î, f. six faces; -varga, m. aggregate or group of six; the five senses and Manas; the six inward enemies of man (kâma, krodha, lobha, harsha, mâna, mada; sts. --°ree; with ripuor satru-); -vimsá, a. (î) twenty-sixth; consisting of twenty-six; -vimsati, f. twenty-six: -tama, a. twenty-sixth; -vimsat-ka, a. consisting of twenty-six; (shád)-vidha, a. sixfold; (shád) vidhâna, a. forming a sixfold order. saṃhita pp. (√ dhâ) put together, composed of, etc.: â, f. union (rare, U.); euphonic combination (=samdhi); Vedic text treated according to the rules of euphonic combination (opp. pada orword text); syste matically arranged text; extensive compila tion (Râmâyana, legal codes, Purânas, etc.); complete system of astrology (opp. scientific astronomy); -hriti, f. 1. destruction of the world; conclusion, end; 2.the root hri + sam; -hotrá, n. community of sacrifice (RV.1); -hrâda, m. loud noise or shout etc.; Shouter, N. of an Asura, son of Hiranya-kasipu; -hrâdin, a. making a loud noise, tinkling; -hlâdin, a. refreshing; -hvayitavaí, d. inf. of sam + √ hvâ. sattarka m. orthodox system of philosophy. samīkṣā f. perceiving, behold ing; desire to see; glance; opinion (regard ing, prati); deep insight; -îkshitavya, fp. to be found out; -îkshya, fp. id.; n. Sâ&ndot; khya system of philosophy. sāṃkhya a. [samkhyâ] relating to grammatical number; m. calculator, delibera tor; adherent of the Sâmkhya doctrine; n. the philosophical system, attributed to Kapila, which enumerates the twenty-five Tattvas or principles (an evolutionist doctrine): -puru sha, m. the universal soul in the Sâmkhya system; -yoga, n. the Sâmkhya and the Yoga systems; m. the theistical Sâmkhya Yoga: -vâdin, m. adherent of thetheistical Sâmkhya-Yoga. skandha m. V., C.: shoulder; C.: branching part of the stem, trunk of a tree (also S.); division, part; tract, path, region (of the winds; rare); section of a treatise (rare); quantity, aggregate (rare); often incorr. for skanda: -ka, n. kind of Aryâ metre; -desa, m. (region of the) shoulder; region of the trunk; -pîtha, n. shoulder-blade; -vat, a. having a (thick) trunk or many trunks; -siras, n. shoulder-blade. stambha m. prop, post, pillar, column, (slender) stem (also fig. of arms; V., C.; ord. mg.); strengthening, support (rare); rigidness, fixedness; stupefaction, paralysis; stoppage, obstruction, suppression (also by magical means); pride, arrogance: -ka, a. stopping, arresting; m. N. of an attendant of Siva. Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar KV Abhyankar
"stem" has 49 results.
aniṭkārikā (1) name given to Stanzas giving a complete list of such roots as do not allow the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. For such Kārikās see Sid. Kaum. on VII.1.5 as also Kāśikā on VII. 2.10; ( 2 ) a short treatise enumerating in 11 verses the roots which do not admit the augment इट् before the ārdhadhatuka affixes. The work is anonymous, and not printed so far, possibly composed by a Jain writer. The work possibly belongs to the Kātantra system and has got short glosses called व्याख्यान, अवचूरि, विवरण, टीका, टिप्पणी and the like which are all anonymous. asiddha invalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidat Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the edition invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given confer, compare . Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. it (1) a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, 1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; ( Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । confer, compare P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, et cetera, and others P.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compare P.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past confer, compare affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; participle. P.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्; confer, compare P.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compare VII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist, confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past confer, compare participle. P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compare P.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel; confer, compare P.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed; confer, compare P.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compare P I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the confer, compare affix ई (ङीप्) feminine. P.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compare P.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel. confer, compare P.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि, confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217，ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compare P.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the confer, compare affix ई ( ङीप् ) feminine. P.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation confer, compare सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 exempli gratia, for example (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: et cetera, and others शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34. confer, compare indra name of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya confer, compare by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127. edition uṇādi affixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; et cetera, and others Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriv confer, compare The derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; edition उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. confer, compare on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; et cetera, and others confer, compare on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). uṇādisūtra,uṇādisūtrapāṭha the text of the Sūtras which begins with the Sūtras prescribing the affix उण् after the roots कृ, वा, पा, जि, स्वद्, साध् and अश्; cf Uṅādi Sūtras 1.1. for the different versions of the text See उणादि. Similar Sūtras in Kātantra, Āpiśali, Sakaṭāyana and other systems of grammar are also called Uṇādi Sūtras. kalāpa (कलाप-व्याकरण) alternative name given to the treatise on grammar written by Sarvavarman who is believed to have lived in the days of the Sātavāhana kings. The treatise is popularly known by the namc Kātantra Vyākaraṇa. The available treatise,viz. Kalpasūtras, is much similar to the Kātantra Sūtras having a few changes and additions only here and there.It is rather risky to say that Kalāpa was an ancient system of grammar which is referred to in the Pāṇini Sūtra कलापिनोण् P. IV.3.108. For details see कातन्त्र. kātantra name of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. . A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375. Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. kātantraparibhāṣāvṛtti (1) name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha written by Bhāvamiśra, probably a Maithila Pandit whose date is not known. He has explained 62 Paribhāṣās deriving many of them from the Kātantra Sūtras. The work seems to be based on the Paribhāṣā works by and others on the system of Pāṇini, suitable changes having been made by the writer with a view to present the work as belonging to the Kātantra school; (2) name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha of the Kātantra school explaining 65 Paribhāṣās. No name of the author is found in the Poona manuscript. The India Office Library copy has given Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana. as the author's name; but it is doubted whether Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. was the author of it. See परिभाषासंग्रह Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. by B. O. R. I. Poona. edition jñāpaka indirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, literally M.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 confer, compare The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given et cetera, and others , is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their syste a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given manuscript. ;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. daiva name of a system of grammar or a work on grammar the peculiarity of which is the omission of the एकशेष topic; अनेकशेषं दैवं स्यात् confer, compare nyāyaratnamañjūṣā a work dealing with Vyākarana Paribhāsas or maxims as found in Hemacandra's system of grammar, written bv Hemahamsaganin, a pupil of Ratnasekhara, in 1451. The author has written a commentary also on the work, named . Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. padārtha meaning of a word, signification of a word; that which corresponds to the meaning of a word; sense of a word. Grammarians look upon both-the generic notion and the individual object as Padārtha or meaning of a word, and support their view by quoting the sūtras of Pāņini जात्याख्यायामेकस्मिन् बहुवचनमन्यतरस्याम् I. 2.58 and सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ I. 2.64; किं पुनराकृतिः पदार्थ अाहोस्विद् द्रव्यम् । उभयमित्याह । कथं ज्ञायते । उभयथा ह्याचार्येण सूत्राणि प्रणीतानि । अाकृतिं पदार्थे मत्वा जात्याख्यायामित्युच्यते | द्रव्यं पदार्थे मत्वा सरूपाणामित्येकशेष अारभ्यते, confer, compare in I. 1. first Āhnika. In rules of grammar the meaning of a word is generally the vocal element or the wording, as the science of grammar deals with words and their formation; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा, P. I. 1. 68. The possession of vocal element as the sense is technically termed शब्दपदार्थकता as opposed to अर्थपदार्थकता; confer, compare सोसौ गोशब्दः स्वस्मात्पदार्थात् प्रच्युतो यासौ अर्थपदार्थकता तस्याः शब्दपदार्थकः संपद्यते confer, compare I. 1.44 V. 3. The word पदार्थ means also the categories or the predicaments in connection with the different Śāstrās or lores as for instance, the 25 categories in the Sāmkhyaśāstra or 7 in the Vaiśeșika system or 16 in the NyayaŚāstra. The Vyākaranaśāstra, in this way to state, has only one category the Akhandavākyasphota or the radical meaning given by the sentence in one strok Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). paribhāṣā an authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different syste confer, compare Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह. manuscript. paribhāṣāprakāśā an independent treatise explaining the various Paribhasas in the system of Panini's grammar, written by Visnusesa of the famous SeSa family. paribhāṣārthasaṃgrahṛ a treatise on the Paribhasas in the system of Panini's grammar written by Vaidyanatha Sastrin. paribhāṣāvṛtti a general name given to an explanatory independent work on Paribhasas of the type of a gloss on a collection of Paribhasas,irrespective of the system of grammar, whether it be that of Panini, or of Katantra, or of Jainendra or of Hemacandra. The treatises of Vyadi (Panini system), Durgasimha and BhavamiSra (Katantra system), Purusottamadeva and Siradeva (Panini system), Abhyankar (Jainendra system) and others are all known by the name Paribhasavritti. paribhāṣāsegraha' a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his paribhasa.work named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundr edition paribhāṣāsūcana an old work on the Paribhasas in the system of Panini's Grammar, believed to have been written by Vyaadi, who lived after Kaatyayana and before Patanjali. The work is written in the old style of the MahabhaSya and consists of a short commentary on 93 Paribhasas. paribhāṣenduśekhara the reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis. pāṭha (1) recital of a sacred Vedic or Sastra work; the original recital of an authoritative text;(2) the various artificial ways or methods of such a recital; c.g. पदपाठ, क्रमपाठ in the case of Vedic Literature: (3) an original recital such as the सुत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ, वार्तिकपाठ and परिभाषापाठ in the case of the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar; the five Paathas are called पञ्चपाठी; (4) recitation; et cetera, and others नान्तरेण पाठं स्वरा अनुबन्धा वा शक्या विज्ञातुम् confer, compare on P.I.3.1 Vaart. 13; (5) reading, variant: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). चूर्णादीनि अप्राण्युपग्रहादिति सूत्रस्य पाठान्तरम् Kaas. on P.V.2.134. confer, compare pāṇini the illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation o the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native pl feminine. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition. accusative case. prayogaratnamālā name of a recognised treatise on grammar written by पुरुषोत्तमविद्यावागीश of Bengal in the fourteenth century. The treatise explains many words which, although current in language and literature, cannot be easily formed by rules of grammar. The author has tried to form them by applying rules of grammar given in the grammatical systems of Panini and Katantra. The alphabet given in this treatise is according to the system of the Tantra Sastra which shows a scholarship of the author in that branch The grammar was studied much in Bengal and Assam. belavalakara [ SHRIPAD KRISHNA BELVALKAR ] a well-known Sanskrit scholar of the present day who has been the General Editor of the Mahabharata published by the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona. He has written a book on grammar reviewing very briefly the various systems of Sanskrit grammar, which is named "Systems of Sanskrit Grammar". bhaṭṭojī surnamed Diksita; a stalwart grammarian of the Panini system who flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century and wrote many independent books and commentaries such as the Siddhantakaumudi, the Praudhamanorama, the Vaiyakaranasiddhantakarika, the Sabdakaustubha and others. The most reputed work out of these, however, is the Siddhantakaumudi which is very popular even today and which has almost set aside other works of its kind such as the Prakriyakaumudi and others. Bhattoji was a Telagu Brahmana, as generally believed, and although he belonged to the South, he made Varanasi his home where he prepared a school of learned Grammarians. Although he carried on his work silently in Varanasi, he was envied by the reputed rhetorician of his time Pandita Jagannātha, who criticised his work ( Bhattojis work ) named Manorama very severely. See प्रौढमनोरमा . The Siddhāntakaumudi has got many commentaries of which the Tattvabodhini written by Bhattoji's pupil Jnanendrasarasvati is appreciated much by learned grammarians. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. munitraya the popular and honorific term for the three prominent grammarians of the Paninian system of grammar wiz. पाणिनि, कात्यायन and पतञ्जलि who were the pioneers of that system; मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य Siddhanta-Kaumud beginning. confer, compare lalitāvṛtti name given to the Paribhāșāvŗtti written by Purușottamadeva, a famous grammarian of the Eastern branch of Pāņini's system which prevailed in Bengal from the eighth to the end of the twelfth century A.D. See पुरुषोत्तमदेव. viśrāntavidyādhara name of a grammar work of a general type which once occupied a prominent position and was studied as a text book of grammar, representing an independent system. The work is referred to by Hemacandra and Haribhadra. It is attributed to Vāmana who may be the same as one of the joint writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti. In that case the date of the work is the 7th century A. D.; the popular verse परेत्र पाणिनीयज्ञाः केचित्कालपकोविदा: । एकेकं विश्रान्तविद्याः स्युरन्ये संक्षिप्तसारकाः quoted in Vol.VII p. 388 Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya D.E. Society's edition. confer, compare viṣṇumiśra a scholar of the Supadma system of grammar who has written a commentary named मकरन्द on the सुपद्मव्याकरण and also a commentary on the सुपद्मसमाससंग्रह. vyañjanasaṃdhi a junction or coalescence of two consonants as distinguished from स्वरसंधि. In Panini's system of grammar the name हृल्संधि is given to व्यञ्जनसंधि and the Siddhantakaumudi has given a separate section for it. vyākaraṇa Grammar the development of the meaning of the term can be seen by the senses given below in a serial order and the examples after those senses; (a) analysis or explanation by analysis; (b) rules of explanation; (c) specific rules explaining the formation of words; d) explanation of the formation of rules; (e) a treatise in which such an explanation is given; (f) a collection of such treatises and (g) a systematic explanation of the formation of words in a language (व्याकरणशास्त्र or शब्दानुशासन); (a) व्यक्रियते अनेन इति व्याकरणम् ; M.Bh.on Ahnika 1, Vart. 12: confer, compare (b) लक्ष्यलक्षणे व्याकरणम्: confer, compare Ahnika 1, Vart. 14; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). (c) न यथा लोके तथा व्याकरणे confer, compare on P. I. 1.1. Vart. 7; d) सर्वत्रैव हि व्याकरणे पूर्वोच्चारित: संज्ञी परोच्चारिता संज्ञा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.1. Vart 7: (e) न तथा लोके यथा व्याकरणे M.Bh. on P, I. 1.23 Vart. 4: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). (f)इह च व्याकरणे शब्दे कार्यस्य संभव:, अर्थं असंभवः | confer, compare on P. I. 1.68. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). (g) व्याकरणं नाम इयमुत्तरा विद्या । confer, compare on P. I. 2.32. The word व्याकरण is mostly used in the sense of ’the Science of Grammar ' in the Mahabhasya. It is explained by modern scholars as 'the law of the corrections of speech and etymological science' and described both as a science and an art. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). vyākaraṇāntara a term used by scholars of the Paniniyan system of grammar with respect to grammar works of other systems such as the Katantra, the Sakatyana, and others; श्रन्थिग्रन्थिदाम्भिस्वञ्जीनां लिटः कित्वं व्याकरणान्तरे S.K. on अश्नॊतेश्च P. VII.4.72. confer, compare vyāpya that which is occupied; the word refers to a kind of an object where the object is occupied by the verbal activity of the transitive root; the word अाप्य is also used in this sense: literally कर्म निर्वर्त्ये विकार्यं प्राप्यं च ग्रस्य प्रकृत्युच्छेदो गुणान्तरं वोत्पद्यते तद्विकार्यम् SrinagaraPrakasa 2, The term is used as a technical term instead of the term कर्म in the Hemacandra, Candra and other systems of grammar: confer, compare confer, compare II.2.3;Candra I.1.23. Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. śabdānuśāsana science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentence. The word is used in connection with standard works on grammar which are complete and self-sufficient in all the literally mentioned features. Patanjali has begun his Mahabhasya with the words अथ शब्दानुशासनम् referring possibly to the vast number of Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and hence the term शब्दानुशासन according to him means a treatise on the science of grammar made up of the rules of Panini with the explanatory and critical varttikas written by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras.The word शब्दानुशासन later on, became synonymons with Vyakarana and it was given as a title to their treatises by later grammarians, or was applied to the authoritative treatise which introduced a system of grammar, similar to that of Panini. Hemacandra's famous treatise, named सिद्धहैमचन्द्र by the author,came to be known as हैमशब्दानुशासन. Similarly the works on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्तिशाकटायन and देवनन्दिन् were called शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and जैनेन्द्र' शब्दानुशासन respectively. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. śambhu God Siva who is supposed to have composed, or to have inspired Panini to compose, the fourteen . Sutras अइउण् , ऋलृक् giving the alphabet of the Panini system ; et cetera, and others त्रिषष्टिः चतुःषष्टिर्वा वर्णाः शम्भुमते मताः confer, compare Siksa, St. 3. Pāṇini. śaraṇadeva a prominent grammarian of the Eastern school of Panini's system of grammar who lived in the thirteenth century and wrote works on Panini's grammar. His work named दुर्घटवृत्ति which ex. plains according to Panini's rules, the Varttikas thereon, and the Jnapakas deduced from them,the various words difficult to be explained, is much appreciated by scholars of grammar. He has quoted from a large number of classical works, and referred to many works of the Eastern grammarians who followed the Kasika school. śākaṭāyana (1) name of an ancient reputed scholar of Grammar and Pratisakhyas who is quoted by Panini. He is despisingly referred to by Patanjali as a traitor grammarian sympathizing with the Nairuktas or etymologists in holding the view that all substantives are derivable and can be derived from roots; cf तत्र नामान्याख्यातजानीति शाकटायनो नैरुक्तसमयश्च Nir.I.12: cf also नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् M. Bh on P.III.3.1. Sakatayana is believed to have been the author of the Unadisutrapatha as also of the RkTantra Pratisakhya of the Samaveda ; (2) name of a Jain grammarian named पाल्यकीर्ति शाकटायन who lived in the ninth century during the reign of the Rastrakuta king Amoghavarsa and wrote the Sabdanusana which is much similar to the Sutrapatha of Panini and introduced a new System of Grammar. His work named the Sabdanusasana consists of four chapters which are arranged in the form of topics, which are named सिद्धि. The grammar work is called शब्दानुशासन. śāstra scientific treatment of a subject; a system of thoughts giving a scientific treatment of any subject. The word is applied to the rules of Panini and sometimes to an individual rule; शास्त्रबाध or अशास्त्रबाध or विप्रतिषेधशास्त्र,frequently used by the commentators; confer, compare न हि संदेहादलक्षणं शास्त्रामित्यर्थः Nagesa's Par. Sek. on Pari. 1; confer, compare पदान्तादिष्वेव विकारशास्त्रम् R.Pr.II.2 confer, compare śāstrakṛt the originator or the founder of a Sastra or system of particular thoughts. The word was used by ancient grammarians for Panini, the founder of the great system of grammar, or of grammar in general; व्यत्ययमिच्छति शास्त्रकृदेषां सोपि च सिध्यति बाहुलकेन M.Bh. on P. III. 1. 85 confer, compare śeṣa (l) any other senses than what are given ; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. शेषे P.IV.2.92: (2) surname of a reputed family of grammarians belonging to Southern India which produced many grammarians, from the fifteenth century to the eighteenth century. Ramacandra Sesa was the first grammarian in the family who wrote the Prakriyakaumudi in the fifteenth century. His descendants developed the system of studying grammar by the study of topics as given in the Prakriya Kaumudi and wrote several works of the nature of glosses and comments. confer, compare śeṣādri a grammarian of the seventeenth century who has written a work, Paribhasabhaskara, on the Paribhasas of the Panini system; the treatise is written in the manner of Siradeva's Paribhasavrtti which has been taken as a basis by him. śraddhā a technical term for nounstems ending in आ in the feminine gender used in the Katantra Grammar; अा श्रद्धा Kat. II. 1.10. confer, compare śrīmaṇikaṇṭha a famous grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय, प्रगल्भतर्कसिंह and भट्टाचार्य and who has written a systematic work on caserelations named कारकखण्डनमण्डन; the work is also known by the name षट्कारकखण्डनमण्डन. siddhāntakaumudī a critical and scholarly commentary on the Sutras of Panini, in which the several Sutras are arranged topicwise and fully explained with examples and counter examples. The work is exhaustive, yet not voluminous, difficult yet popular, and critical yet lucid. The work is next in importance to the Mahabhasya in the system of Panini, and its study prepares the way for understanding the Mahabhasya. It is prescribed for study in the courses of Vyakarana at every academy and Pathasala and is expected to be committed to memory by students who want to be thorough scholars of Vyakarana.By virtue of its methodical treatment it has thrown into the back-ground all kindred works and glosses or Vrttis on the Sutras of Panini. It is arranged into two halves, the first half dealing with seven topics ( 1 ) संज्ञापरिभाषा, ( 2 ) पञ्त्वसंधि, ( 3 ) षड्लिङ्ग, ( 4 ) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, ( 5 ) कारक, ( 6 ) समास, ( 7 ) तद्धित, and the latter half dealing with five topics, ( 1 ) दशगणी, ( 2 ) द्वादशप्राक्रिया ( 3 ) कृदन्त ( 4 ) वैदिकी and ( 5 ) स्वर. The author भट्टोजीदीक्षित has himself written a scholarly gloss on it called प्रौढमनेरमा on which, his grandson, Hari Diksita has written a learned commentary named लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got a large number of commentaries on it out of which, the commentaries प्रौढमनेरमा, बालमनोरमा, (by वासुदेवदीक्षित) तत्त्वबोधिनी and लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर are read by almost every true scholar of Vyakarana. Besides these four, there are a dozen or more commentaries some of which can be given below with their names and authors ( I ) सुबेाधिनी by जयकृष्णमौनि, ( 2 ) सुबोधिनी by रामकृष्णभट्ट ( 3 ) वृहृच्छब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेश, ( 4 ) बालमनेारमा by अनन्तपण्डित, ( 5 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरहृस्य by नीलकण्ठ, ( 6 ) रत्नार्णव, by कृष्णमिश्र ( 7 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरत्नाकर by रामकृष्ण, ( 8 ) सरला by तारानाथ,(9) सुमनोरमा by तिरुमल्ल,(10)सिद्वान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by लक्ष्मीनृसिंह, (11 )सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by विश्वेश्वरतीर्थ, (12) रत्नाकर by शिवरामेन्द्रसरस्वती and (13) प्रकाश by तोलापदीक्षित. Although the real name of the work is वैयाकरणसिद्धान्ततकौमुदी, as given by the author, still popularly the work is well known by the name सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. The work has got two abridged forms, the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi both written by Varadaraja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita. sīradeva a prominent grammarian of the Eastern part of India who lived in the twelfth century A. D. He was a very sound scholar of Panini's grammar who wrote a few glosses on prominent works in the system. His Paribhasavrtti is a masterly independent treatise among the recognised works on the Paribhasas in which he has quoted very profusely from the works of his predecessors, such as the Kasika, Nyasa, Anunyasa and others. The reputed scholar Maitreya Raksita is more often guoted than others. sūtrakāra the original writer of the sutras; e. g. पाणिनि, शाकटायन, शर्ववर्मन् , हेमचन्द्र and others. In Panini's system, Panini is called Sutrakara, as contrasted with Katyayana,who is called the Varttikakara and Patanjali, who is called the Bhasyakara; पाणिने: सूत्रकारस्य M.Bh. on P.II 2.1.1. confer, compare svarasahitoccāraṇa recital of the veda Samhita text with intonation or accents, as contrasted with एकश्रुत्युच्चारण which is specially prescribed in a few cases; tonal system showing distinction between words of different senses although pronounced alike, in the Samhita text. नतेन and न तेन. exempli gratia, for example hṛradatta name of a reputed grammarian of Southern India who wrote a very learned and scholarly commentary, named पदमञ्जरी, on the Kasikavrtti which is held by grammarians as the standard vrtti or gloss on the Sutras of Panini,and studied especially in the schools of the southern grammarians. Haradatta was a Dravida Brahmana, residing in a village on the Bank of Kaveri. His scholarship in Grammar was very sound and he is believed to have commented on many grammarworks.The only fault of the scholar was a very keen sense of egotism which is found in his work, although it can certainly be said that the egotism was not ill-placed and could be justified: एवं प्रकटितोस्माभिर्भाष्ये परिचय: पर:। तस्य निःशेषतो मन्ये प्रतिपत्तापि दुर्लभः॥ also प्रक्रियातर्कगहने प्रविष्टो हृष्टमानसः हरदत्तहरिः स्वैरं विहरन् ! केन वार्यते | Padamajari, on P. I-13, 4. The credit of popularising Panini's system of grammar in Southern India goes to Haradatta to a considerable extent. confer, compare hemacandra a Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
Vedabase Search 445 results
nāla stem SB 3.8.19 nivṛnta stemless CC Madhya 1.156 śarau stems MM 52 dyāv-ābhūmyoḥ the two planetary systems Bhūrloka and Bhuvarloka SB 5.20.43 abhyasyataḥ of the person practicing this yoga system SB 7.15.34 abja-khaṇḍe by the stems of lotus flowers SB 1.11.2 varṇa-āśrama-ācāra the practices of the varṇāśrama system SB 5.22.4 varṇa-āśrama-ācāra by one's execution of duties in the varṇāśrama system SB 12.12.54 varṇa-āśrama-ācāra-vatā who behaves according to the system of four divisions of social order and four divisions of spiritual life CC Madhya 8.58 dharma-ācāri-madhye among persons who actually follow the Vedic principles or religious system CC Madhya 19.147 tataḥ adhastāt below the planetary system Mahātala SB 5.24.30 rasā-ādhipatyam sovereignty of the lower planetary systems SB 6.11.25 rasa-ādhipatyam sovereignty in the lower planetary systems SB 11.14.14 tri-adhīśaḥ the master of the three planetary systems SB 4.16.19 tri-adhīśaḥ the master of three places, namely Goloka Vṛndāvana, Vaikuṇṭhaloka and the material world, or the master of Mahā-Viṣṇu, Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu and Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, or the master of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśvara, or the master of the three worlds (the higher, lower and middle planetary systems) CC Madhya 21.33 adhīśvarāḥ O great governors of the planetary systems SB 6.7.36 adhyātma-yoge in that yoga system meant for realization of one's true self SB 11.6.11 āgama-āmnāya unto the source of the paramparā system of all Vedic knowledge SB 8.3.15 mṛṇāla-agra-bhujaḥ those who eat the tops of the stems CC Antya 1.92 akhila-loka containing all planetary systems SB 3.28.25 akhila-jagatām of all the planetary systems SB 12.6.67 akhila-loka of the universal planetary systems CC Adi 5.141 akhila-loka of the universal planetary systems CC Madhya 20.306 āmnāta systematically SB 1.9.26 āgama-āmnāya unto the source of the paramparā system of all Vedic knowledge SB 8.3.15 bhagavat-āśrita-āśrita-anubhāvaḥ the consequence of taking shelter of a devotee who has similarly taken shelter of a spiritual master in the paramparā system (one is sure to get out of the great nescience of the bodily concept of life) SB 5.13.25 sakala-loka-anubhāvasya who is auspicious for all planetary systems SB 5.24.30 anupaśyati observes in a systematic way Iso 6 anupūrvaśaḥ systematically SB 3.5.22 anuśṛṇuyāt continually hears in the paramparā system CC Antya 5.48 anyatra elsewhere (in religious systems other than bhāgavata-dharma) SB 6.16.41 yoga-ārūḍhaḥ one who has actually attained perfection in the yoga system CC Madhya 24.160 ārurukṣanti persons who desire to come to the upper planetary systems SB 8.11.5 varṇa-āśrama the system of eight social orders SB 4.14.18 varṇa-āśrama-ācāra the practices of the varṇāśrama system SB 5.22.4 varṇa-āśrama the social system of sanctified occupational and spiritual orders SB 10.75.21 varṇa-āśrama of the divine system of occupational and spiritual divisions of society SB 10.84.18 varṇa-āśrama the Vedic system of social and occupational divisions SB 11.10.1 varṇa-āśrama of the varṇāśrama system SB 11.17.1-2 varṇa-āśrama the varṇāśrama system SB 11.17.9 varṇa-āśrama of the varṇāśrama system SB 11.20.2 varṇa-āśrama the divine system of occupational and spiritual orders of society SB 12.2.38 varṇa-āśrama-ācāra by one's execution of duties in the varṇāśrama system SB 12.12.54 varṇa-āśrama-ācāra-vatā who behaves according to the system of four divisions of social order and four divisions of spiritual life CC Madhya 8.58 bhagavat-āśrita-āśrita-anubhāvaḥ the consequence of taking shelter of a devotee who has similarly taken shelter of a spiritual master in the paramparā system (one is sure to get out of the great nescience of the bodily concept of life) SB 5.13.25 bhagavat-āśrita-āśrita-anubhāvaḥ the consequence of taking shelter of a devotee who has similarly taken shelter of a spiritual master in the paramparā system (one is sure to get out of the great nescience of the bodily concept of life) SB 5.13.25 atalam the first planetary system below the earth SB 2.5.40-41 khe avasthitaḥ yaḥ this person Brahmā, who was situated in the higher planetary system in the sky SB 10.13.15 yaḥ ayam this system BG 6.33 bhagavat-āśrita-āśrita-anubhāvaḥ the consequence of taking shelter of a devotee who has similarly taken shelter of a spiritual master in the paramparā system (one is sure to get out of the great nescience of the bodily concept of life) SB 5.13.25 bhakti-lakṣaṇaḥ being practiced to the devotional system SB 2.1.21 bhakti-śāstra of the system of devotional service CC Antya 10.100 sārva-bhaumam sovereignty of the whole earthly planetary system SB 6.11.25 bhū-maṇḍala of the planetary system known as Bhū-maṇḍala SB 5.16.1 bhū-golasya of the planetary system known as Bhūgolaka SB 5.20.38 bhūḥ the lower planetary systems up to the stratum of the earth SB 2.5.38 bhūḥ of the planetary system known as Bhūḥ SB 5.20.23 mṛṇāla-agra-bhujaḥ those who eat the tops of the stems CC Antya 1.92 bhūmau in the middle planetary systems SB 6.11.22 bhūrlokaḥ the entire planetary system from Pātāla to the earthly planetary system SB 2.5.42 bhūrlokaḥ the entire planetary system known as Bhūrloka SB 8.21.31 bhuvaḥ of the Bhuvaḥ planetary system SB 5.20.23 tri-bhuvana three statuses of planetary systems SB 1.9.33 bhuvana-drumāya unto the tree of the planetary system SB 3.9.16 bhuvana all the planetary systems SB 10.69.39 bhuvana-traya of the three planetary systems making up the universe SB 11.4.4 bhuvana-trayam the three planetary systems SB 12.11.5 caudda bhuvana fourteen planetary systems CC Madhya 1.267 bhuvana planetary systems CC Madhya 20.288 tri-bhuvanāya the three planetary systems of the universe SB 10.40.19 caudda-bhuvane in those fourteen planetary systems CC Madhya 1.267 bhuvanera planetary systems CC Adi 12.16 bhuvarlokaḥ the Bhuvarloka planetary system SB 2.5.42 bila-svargam to the region of the lower planetary system known as Pātāla SB 6.5.13 jyotiḥ-cakram the planetary systems SB 10.8.37-39 caudda bhuvana fourteen planetary systems CC Madhya 1.267 caudda-bhuvane in those fourteen planetary systems CC Madhya 1.267 chalaḥ a cheating religious system SB 7.15.13 tri-daśaiḥ by all the demigods from the higher planetary systems SB 6.9.46 deva-yānasya which fulfills the desire to be elevated to the higher planetary systems and to Brahmaloka SB 8.8.2 tri-dhāma-paramam to the highest planetary system SB 3.24.20 tri-dhāmabhiḥ by the three planetary systems SB 3.8.31 sūkṣma-dharma-marma subtle intricacies of the religious system CC Madhya 11.112 dharma-ācāri-madhye among persons who actually follow the Vedic principles or religious system CC Madhya 19.147 dharmaḥ system of religion SB 4.19.24-25 para-dharmaḥ imitating religious systems for which one is unfit SB 7.15.13 dharmaḥ pious activities within the varṇāśrama system SB 11.14.20 dharmaḥ the system of religion SB 11.21.18 dharmaḥ execution of the system of varṇa and āśrama CC Antya 5.10 dharmam religious system SB 4.19.37 veda-dharme in the Vedic system CC Adi 11.9 dharmeṇa with the religious system SB 6.16.42 dhiṣṇya of the various planetary systems SB 10.69.7-8 diva-okasām of the inhabitants of the upper planetary system SB 8.17.28 divaḥ of the upper planetary system SB 5.21.2 divam the higher planetary system known as Svargaloka SB 8.11.5 divaukasām of the denizens of the upper planetary systems SB 8.5.34 divi in the higher planetary system BG 18.40 divi in the higher planetary systems SB 4.9.60 divi in the upper planetary systems SB 6.11.22 divi in the higher planetary systems SB 7.9.23 divi in the higher planetary system SB 8.20.19 divya-varṣa celestial years, or years counted according to the higher planetary system SB 10.3.36 divyāḥ in the sky of the higher planetary system SB 8.4.2 bhuvana-drumāya unto the tree of the planetary system SB 3.9.16 dvi-padām of ordinary human beings (who do not follow the varṇāśrama system) SB 11.17.1-2 dvīpa and other different planetary systems SB 5.26.40 dyauḥ the higher planetary systems SB 5.18.32 dyauḥ the higher planetary systems SB 8.7.27 dyauḥ the upper planetary system SB 8.18.4 dyauḥ the planetary systems SB 8.20.21 dyāv-ābhūmyoḥ the two planetary systems Bhūrloka and Bhuvarloka SB 5.20.43 dyo the upper planetary system SB 8.17.10 dyu-patayaḥ the predominating deities of higher planetary systems (Lord Brahmā and others) CC Madhya 21.15 loka-eka-nātha the only proprietor of all the planetary systems SB 6.9.33 sura-gaṇāḥ the inhabitants of the upper planetary systems SB 7.9.8 kinnara-gandharvāḥ the Kinnaras and Gandharvas, inhabitants of various planets in the heavenly planetary system SB 10.3.6 yoga-gatibhiḥ the practice of the mystic yoga system SB 4.23.12 bhū-golasya of the planetary system known as Bhūgolaka SB 5.20.38 goloka the planetary system Goloka Vṛndāvana CC Madhya 24.22 graha planetary system SB 3.7.33 grahān all the planets of the solar system SB 4.12.34 mādhukarī grāsa and practicing the mādhukarī system CC Madhya 20.92 guṇa-sańkhyāna of the sāńkhya-yoga system SB 8.16.30 śrī-gurūn unto the spiritual masters in the paramparā system, beginning from Mādhavendra Purī down to Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī ṭhākura Prabhupāda CC Antya 2.1 śrī-gurūn unto the spiritual masters in the paramparā system, beginning from Mādhavendra Purī down to Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī ṭhākura Prabhupāda CC Antya 3.1 hiṃsram a system of killing and sacrificing animals SB 7.15.48-49 viśva-īśvare in the master of all the planetary systems SB 10.8.49 akhila-jagatām of all the planetary systems SB 12.6.67 janaḥ the planetary system above Mahar SB 2.1.28 janaḥ the Janaloka planetary system SB 3.13.44 janalokaḥ the Janaloka planetary system SB 2.5.39 sthāna-jayāt than achievement of the place or planetary systems SB 5.19.23 jita-śvāsasya and conquered his breathing system SB 11.15.1 jyotiḥ-lokāya unto the resting place of all the planetary systems SB 5.23.8 jyotiḥ-cakram the planetary systems SB 10.8.37-39 loka-kalpaḥ of the arrangement of the planetary systems SB 12.4.20-21 karma-mayam obtainable by the Vedic ritualistic system SB 5.20.33 abja-khaṇḍe by the stems of lotus flowers SB 1.11.2 tat-khara-nāla the stem of the lotus SB 3.8.19 khe in the higher planetary systems in the sky SB 6.12.34 khe avasthitaḥ yaḥ this person Brahmā, who was situated in the higher planetary system in the sky SB 10.13.15 kinnara-gandharvāḥ the Kinnaras and Gandharvas, inhabitants of various planets in the heavenly planetary system SB 10.3.6 kriyā-yajñān activities and sacrifices (which elevate one to a higher planetary system) SB 7.15.52 kriyā in the systematic practice SB 12.11.2-3 kuvalaya of this planetary system SB 5.16.7 nava-lakṣaṇā possessing nine different systems, as above mentioned CC Madhya 9.259-260 bhakti-lakṣaṇaḥ being practiced to the devotional system SB 2.1.21 padminī-latā the stems of lotus flowers CC Antya 18.91 loka the planetary systems BG 11.20 loka-traye in the three planetary systems BG 11.43 loka-mayaḥ full of planetary systems SB 2.5.40-41 loka the planetary systems SB 2.5.42 loka the planetary systems SB 2.7.2 vividha-loka different planetary systems SB 2.7.5 loka-traya the three (upper, middle and lower) planetary systems SB 3.8.25 loka-saṃsthāna situation of the planetary system SB 3.9.27-28 loka-vitānaḥ the extension of the planetary systems SB 3.26.52 akhila-loka containing all planetary systems SB 3.28.25 sarva-loka by all planetary systems SB 4.9.25 loka-pālānām of the directors of planetary systems SB 5.20.30 sakala-loka-svastaye for the benefit of all the planetary systems SB 5.20.40 vividha-loka-yātrā the livelihood of the various planetary systems SB 5.20.41 sakala-loka-anubhāvasya who is auspicious for all planetary systems SB 5.24.30 loka-eka-nātha the only proprietor of all the planetary systems SB 6.9.33 loka-pālāḥ all the chiefs of various higher planetary systems SB 8.10.26 tri-loka-sthitaye to maintain the three worlds, the upper, middle and lower planetary systems SB 10.3.20 loka-pālaiḥ by the rulers of the planetary systems SB 10.74.33-34 loka of the planetary systems of the universe SB 10.80.25-26 loka-kalpaḥ of the arrangement of the planetary systems SB 12.4.20-21 loka-saṃsthayā according to the positions of the planetary systems SB 12.11.9 akhila-loka of the universal planetary systems CC Adi 5.141 loka planetary systems CC Madhya 11.217 akhila-loka of the universal planetary systems CC Madhya 20.306 lokāḥ the planetary systems BG 8.16 lokaḥ the planetary system SB 2.5.38 lokāḥ the planetary system SB 2.8.11 lokāḥ planetary systems SB 4.12.36 lokāḥ planetary systems SB 4.25.39 trayaḥ lokāḥ the three planetary systems (upper, middle and lower) SB 6.13.1 lokāḥ higher planetary systems like heaven, the moon, the sun and Brahmaloka SB 7.7.40 lokaiḥ by the different planetary systems SB 2.8.11 sva-lokam respective higher planetary systems SB 4.6.45 lokam all the planetary systems SB 7.10.70 ṛṣi-lokam to the planetary system where the seers and munis go (Maharloka) SB 7.12.17 lokān planetary systems SB 1.16.32-33 lokān all the planetary systems SB 4.24.65 lokān planetary systems SB 5.20.37 lokān all the planetary systems SB 6.5.22 lokān planetary systems SB 7.4.5-7 lokān all the different planetary systems SB 7.9.38 lokān to the destination of the higher planetary system SB 8.16.9 lokān three planetary systems SB 8.19.33 lokān throughout all the planetary systems SB 10.70.35 lokānām of all planetary systems SB 8.23.20-21 lokānām in all the planetary systems SB 11.10.30 jyotiḥ-lokāya unto the resting place of all the planetary systems SB 5.23.8 lokayoḥ of planetary systems SB 4.16.5 lokeṣu planetary systems BG 3.22 lokeṣu in all the planetary systems within the universe SB 6.5.43 tri-lokīm the three planetary systems SB 4.12.35 trai-lokya three planetary systems SB 4.24.39 tri-lokyāḥ of the three planetary systems SB 2.2.23 tri-lokyāḥ of the three worlds (the higher, middle and lower planetary systems) SB 6.8.1-2 mādhukarī grāsa and practicing the mādhukarī system CC Madhya 20.92 dharma-ācāri-madhye among persons who actually follow the Vedic principles or religious system CC Madhya 19.147 mahaḥ the planetary system above the luminaries SB 2.1.28 maharlokaḥ the planetary system occupied by great sages and saints SB 2.5.38 mahātalam the fifth planetary system below SB 2.5.40-41 mahītalam the planetary system named Mahītala SB 2.1.27 bhū-maṇḍala of the planetary system known as Bhū-maṇḍala SB 5.16.1 sūkṣma-dharma-marma subtle intricacies of the religious system CC Madhya 11.112 svarga-martya the upper and lower planetary systems CC Madhya 12.198 vidhi-mate according to the Vedic system CC Adi 15.24 loka-mayaḥ full of planetary systems SB 2.5.40-41 karma-mayam obtainable by the Vedic ritualistic system SB 5.20.33 mṛṇāla-agra-bhujaḥ those who eat the tops of the stems CC Antya 1.92 mukhyaiḥ with all the chiefs of the various planetary systems SB 8.23.20-21 tri-mūrdhnaḥ beyond the three higher planetary systems SB 2.6.19 tri-nābhāya within the stem growing from whose navel live all the three worlds SB 8.17.26 nābhi-nāla the stem from the navel CC Adi 5.110 tat-khara-nāla the stem of the lotus SB 3.8.19 puṣkara-nāla-tantūn in the network of the fibers of a lotus stem SB 6.13.15 nābhi-nāla the stem from the navel CC Adi 5.110 nālam having a stem that is the resting place CC Adi 1.10 nālam having a stem that is the resting place CC Adi 5.93 tat-nālam its stem Bs 5.18 nālāt out of the lotus stem SB 10.14.13 sei padma-nāle within the stem of that lotus flower CC Adi 5.103 sei padma-nāle within the stem of that lotus CC Madhya 20.288 nālena through the stem SB 3.9.37 loka-eka-nātha the only proprietor of all the planetary systems SB 6.9.33 nava-lakṣaṇā possessing nine different systems, as above mentioned CC Madhya 9.259-260 rasa-okāṃsi in the lower planetary system known as Rasātala SB 9.20.31 diva-okasām of the inhabitants of the upper planetary system SB 8.17.28 dvi-padām of ordinary human beings (who do not follow the varṇāśrama system) SB 11.17.1-2 paddhatim system SB 4.8.22 parisara-paddhatim from which the system of the arteries comes CC Madhya 24.166 parisara-paddhatim from which the system of the arteries comes CC Madhya 24.213 sei padma-nāle within the stem of that lotus flower CC Adi 5.103 sei padma-nāle within the stem of that lotus CC Madhya 20.288 padminī-latā the stems of lotus flowers CC Antya 18.91 pākhaṇḍam a concocted, atheistic system SB 5.26.15 loka-pālāḥ all the chiefs of various higher planetary systems SB 8.10.26 loka-pālaiḥ by the rulers of the planetary systems SB 10.74.33-34 loka-pālānām of the directors of planetary systems SB 5.20.30 para-dharmaḥ imitating religious systems for which one is unfit SB 7.15.13 tri-dhāma-paramam to the highest planetary system SB 3.24.20 paripāṭyām in the sense of systematic arrangement CC Madhya 24.24 parisara-paddhatim from which the system of the arteries comes CC Madhya 24.166 parisara-paddhatim from which the system of the arteries comes CC Madhya 24.213 pātāla-vivara the caves of the Pātāla planetary system SB 5.24.31 pātālam the seventh planetary system below SB 2.5.40-41 sapta-pātālera of the seven lower planetary systems CC Antya 9.8 tri-patat falling into each of the three planetary systems SB 11.6.13 dyu-patayaḥ the predominating deities of higher planetary systems (Lord Brahmā and others) CC Madhya 21.15 yoga-pathaiḥ by the system of yoga (mystic bodily power to attain the godly stage) SB 1.6.35 yoga-pathaiḥ by the yoga system SB 3.27.6 yoga-pathaiḥ by the procedures of the yoga system SB 11.20.24 tri-piṣṭapam the kingdom of the three planetary systems SB 1.3.19 tri-piṣṭapam the higher planetary system, where various demigods live SB 7.4.8 prāṇam the prāṇāyāma system of controlling the bodily airs SB 11.14.35 prāṇāyāmaḥ the yogic system of controlling the breath SB 11.19.36-39 yoga-pravartakaiḥ the authors of the yoga system SB 3.32.12-15 pravilīyate is systematically vanquished SB 1.18.45 tri-pṛṣṭhe on the planet of Brahmā (which is situated above the three planetary systems, namely the upper, intermediate and lower worlds) SB 1.19.23 tri-pṛṣṭhe the three planetary systems SB 2.7.20 puṣkara-nāla-tantūn in the network of the fibers of a lotus stem SB 6.13.15 rasā-ādhipatyam sovereignty of the lower planetary systems SB 6.11.25 rasa-okāṃsi in the lower planetary system known as Rasātala SB 9.20.31 rasa-ādhipatyam sovereignty in the lower planetary systems SB 11.14.14 rasāḥ the lower planetary system SB 8.17.10 rasām the lower planetary system SB 8.20.23 rasām in the lower planetary system SB 9.20.31 rasātalam the sixth planetary system below SB 2.5.40-41 rasātalāt from the lowest planetary system (Rasātala) SB 5.18.6 rasāyāḥ of the lower planetary systems SB 5.25.13 rasāyām and in the lower planetary systems SB 6.11.22 rīti the system CC Madhya 8.265 rodasī both the higher planetary system and the earth SB 10.7.35-36 rodasyoḥ in both the lower and upper planetary systems SB 8.21.27 ṛṣi-lokam to the planetary system where the seers and munis go (Maharloka) SB 7.12.17 ṛṣibhyaḥ than the planetary systems of the ṛṣis SB 4.9.25 sa-vyāhṛtikān along with the vyāhṛtis (the invocations of the names of the seven planetary systems: bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ, svaḥ, mahaḥ, janaḥ, tapaḥ and satya) SB 12.6.44 saḥ that system of religion SB 6.16.41 sakala-loka-svastaye for the benefit of all the planetary systems SB 5.20.40 sakala-loka-anubhāvasya who is auspicious for all planetary systems SB 5.24.30 loka-saṃsthāna situation of the planetary system SB 3.9.27-28 loka-saṃsthayā according to the positions of the planetary systems SB 12.11.9 sāńkhya by the sāńkhya-yoga system (the analytical study of material conditions) SB 5.19.10 sāńkhyam the system of Sāńkhya philosophy SB 11.14.20 guṇa-sańkhyāna of the sāńkhya-yoga system SB 8.16.30 sāńkhyasya of the system of analytic philosophy SB 11.13.39 sapta seven systems SB 2.5.36 sapta ūrdhvam and seven systems upwards SB 2.5.36 sapta-pātālera of the seven lower planetary systems CC Antya 9.8 sarva-loka by all planetary systems SB 4.9.25 sārva-bhaumam sovereignty of the whole earthly planetary system SB 6.11.25 bhakti-śāstra of the system of devotional service CC Antya 10.100 satya the Satyaloka planetary system SB 3.13.44 satyalokaḥ the Satyaloka planetary system SB 2.5.39 satyam the topmost planetary system SB 2.1.28 sei padma-nāle within the stem of that lotus flower CC Adi 5.103 sei padma-nāle within the stem of that lotus CC Madhya 20.288 setavaḥ whose laws of morality concerning the varṇāśrama system in human society SB 7.8.48 śrī-gurūn unto the spiritual masters in the paramparā system, beginning from Mādhavendra Purī down to Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī ṭhākura Prabhupāda CC Antya 2.1 śrī-gurūn unto the spiritual masters in the paramparā system, beginning from Mādhavendra Purī down to Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī ṭhākura Prabhupāda CC Antya 3.1 sthāna-jayāt than achievement of the place or planetary systems SB 5.19.23 sthānam the planetary systems SB 2.10.1 tri-loka-sthitaye to maintain the three worlds, the upper, middle and lower planetary systems SB 10.3.20 sūkṣma-dharma-marma subtle intricacies of the religious system CC Madhya 11.112 sura-gaṇāḥ the inhabitants of the upper planetary systems SB 7.9.8 śuśruma I have heard by the paramparā system SB 6.9.1 sutalam the planetary system named Sutala SB 2.1.27 sutalam the third planetary system below SB 2.5.40-41 suvaḥ of the Svaḥ planetary system SB 5.20.23 sva-lokam respective higher planetary systems SB 4.6.45 svarga in the higher planetary systems SB 6.17.28 svarga in the heavenly planetary system CC Madhya 9.270 svarga-martya the upper and lower planetary systems CC Madhya 12.198 svargaḥ elevation to the higher planetary system SB 8.21.33 bila-svargam to the region of the lower planetary system known as Pātāla SB 6.5.13 svarge to higher planetary systems CC Madhya 20.118 svargya gives promotion to the higher planetary systems (the goal of the karmīs) SB 5.14.46 svargyam giving elevation to higher planetary systems SB 8.4.14 svarlokaḥ the planetary systems occupied by the demigods SB 2.5.38 svarlokaḥ the higher planetary system, beginning with the heavenly planets SB 2.5.42 svarlokaḥ the upper planetary system SB 8.21.31 jita-śvāsasya and conquered his breathing system SB 11.15.1 sakala-loka-svastaye for the benefit of all the planetary systems SB 5.20.40 vasudhā-talam the lower planetary system SB 5.1.30 talātalam the fourth planetary system below SB 2.5.40-41 yoga-tantram an elaborate description of the mystic yoga system SB 9.21.26 puṣkara-nāla-tantūn in the network of the fibers of a lotus stem SB 6.13.15 tapaḥ the planetary system above the Janas SB 2.1.28 tapaḥ the Tapoloka planetary system SB 3.13.44 tapolokaḥ the Tapoloka planetary system SB 2.5.39 tāre this system CC Madhya 20.139 tat-khara-nāla the stem of the lotus SB 3.8.19 tat that celebration performed by the demigods in the upper planetary system SB 10.12.35 tat-nālam its stem Bs 5.18 tataḥ adhastāt below the planetary system Mahātala SB 5.24.30 trai-lokya three planetary systems SB 4.24.39 loka-traya the three (upper, middle and lower) planetary systems SB 3.8.25 bhuvana-traya of the three planetary systems making up the universe SB 11.4.4 trayaḥ the three planetary systems SB 4.8.78 trayaḥ lokāḥ the three planetary systems (upper, middle and lower) SB 6.13.1 bhuvana-trayam the three planetary systems SB 12.11.5 loka-traye in the three planetary systems BG 11.43 tri-piṣṭapam the kingdom of the three planetary systems SB 1.3.19 tri-bhuvana three statuses of planetary systems SB 1.9.33 tri-pṛṣṭhe on the planet of Brahmā (which is situated above the three planetary systems, namely the upper, intermediate and lower worlds) SB 1.19.23 tri-lokyāḥ of the three planetary systems SB 2.2.23 tri-mūrdhnaḥ beyond the three higher planetary systems SB 2.6.19 tri-pṛṣṭhe the three planetary systems SB 2.7.20 tri-dhāmabhiḥ by the three planetary systems SB 3.8.31 tri-dhāma-paramam to the highest planetary system SB 3.24.20 tri-lokīm the three planetary systems SB 4.12.35 tri-adhīśaḥ the master of the three planetary systems SB 4.16.19 tri-lokyāḥ of the three worlds (the higher, middle and lower planetary systems) SB 6.8.1-2 tri-daśaiḥ by all the demigods from the higher planetary systems SB 6.9.46 tri-piṣṭapam the higher planetary system, where various demigods live SB 7.4.8 tri-nābhāya within the stem growing from whose navel live all the three worlds SB 8.17.26 tri-loka-sthitaye to maintain the three worlds, the upper, middle and lower planetary systems SB 10.3.20 tri-bhuvanāya the three planetary systems of the universe SB 10.40.19 tri of the three (planetary systems of the universe, or the three modes of nature) SB 10.87.16 tri-patat falling into each of the three planetary systems SB 11.6.13 tri-adhīśaḥ the master of three places, namely Goloka Vṛndāvana, Vaikuṇṭhaloka and the material world, or the master of Mahā-Viṣṇu, Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu and Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, or the master of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśvara, or the master of the three worlds (the higher, lower and middle planetary systems) CC Madhya 21.33 tridivam the planetary system of the demigods SB 8.23.19 upadharma of the irreligious system of so-called sannyāsa SB 4.19.38 upadharmeṣu towards false religious systems SB 4.19.24-25 upari above (in the higher planetary systems) SB 5.14.41 sapta ūrdhvam and seven systems upwards SB 2.5.36 varṇa-āśrama the system of eight social orders SB 4.14.18 varṇa-āśrama-ācāra the practices of the varṇāśrama system SB 5.22.4 varṇa-āśrama the social system of sanctified occupational and spiritual orders SB 10.75.21 varṇa-āśrama of the divine system of occupational and spiritual divisions of society SB 10.84.18 varṇa-āśrama the Vedic system of social and occupational divisions SB 11.10.1 varṇa-āśrama of the varṇāśrama system SB 11.17.1-2 varṇa-āśrama the varṇāśrama system SB 11.17.9 varṇa-āśrama of the varṇāśrama system SB 11.20.2 varṇa-āśrama the divine system of occupational and spiritual orders of society SB 12.2.38 varṇa-āśrama-ācāra by one's execution of duties in the varṇāśrama system SB 12.12.54 varṇa-āśrama-ācāra-vatā who behaves according to the system of four divisions of social order and four divisions of spiritual life CC Madhya 8.58 varṇāśrama according to the system of varṇa and āśrama SB 9.10.50 varṇāśrama-vatām among those engaged in the varṇāśrama system SB 10.80.33 varṇāśrama-vatām of the followers of the varṇāśrama system SB 11.18.47 divya-varṣa celestial years, or years counted according to the higher planetary system SB 10.3.36 vasudhā-talam the lower planetary system SB 5.1.30 varṇa-āśrama-ācāra-vatā who behaves according to the system of four divisions of social order and four divisions of spiritual life CC Madhya 8.58 varṇāśrama-vatām among those engaged in the varṇāśrama system SB 10.80.33 varṇāśrama-vatām of the followers of the varṇāśrama system SB 11.18.47 veda-dharme in the Vedic system CC Adi 11.9 vibhakta systematically divided SB 10.69.1-6 vidhi-mate according to the Vedic system CC Adi 15.24 visa like the filaments of a lotus stem SB 10.39.44-45 viśva-īśvare in the master of all the planetary systems SB 10.8.49 vitalam the planetary system named Vitala SB 2.1.27 vitalam the second planetary system below SB 2.5.40-41 loka-vitānaḥ the extension of the planetary systems SB 3.26.52 pātāla-vivara the caves of the Pātāla planetary system SB 5.24.31 vivarāṇām of the lower planetary systems SB 6.1.4-5 vividha-loka different planetary systems SB 2.7.5 vividha-loka-yātrā the livelihood of the various planetary systems SB 5.20.41 sa-vyāhṛtikān along with the vyāhṛtis (the invocations of the names of the seven planetary systems: bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ, svaḥ, mahaḥ, janaḥ, tapaḥ and satya) SB 12.6.44 yaḥ ayam this system BG 6.33 khe avasthitaḥ yaḥ this person Brahmā, who was situated in the higher planetary system in the sky SB 10.13.15 kriyā-yajñān activities and sacrifices (which elevate one to a higher planetary system) SB 7.15.52 deva-yānasya which fulfills the desire to be elevated to the higher planetary systems and to Brahmaloka SB 8.8.2 yasyām by such systematic remembrance SB 2.1.21 vividha-loka-yātrā the livelihood of the various planetary systems SB 5.20.41 yena by which pseudo religious system SB 5.6.10 yeṣu in those lower planetary systems SB 5.24.9 yoga-pathaiḥ by the system of yoga (mystic bodily power to attain the godly stage) SB 1.6.35 yoga-pathaiḥ by the yoga system SB 3.27.6 yoga of the yoga system SB 3.29.5 yoga-pravartakaiḥ the authors of the yoga system SB 3.32.12-15 yoga-gatibhiḥ the practice of the mystic yoga system SB 4.23.12 yoga-tantram an elaborate description of the mystic yoga system SB 9.21.26 yoga of the yoga system SB 11.15.8-9 yoga-pathaiḥ by the procedures of the yoga system SB 11.20.24 yoga practice of the mystic yoga system CC Adi 17.24 yoga the mystic yoga system CC Madhya 20.136 yoga-ārūḍhaḥ one who has actually attained perfection in the yoga system CC Madhya 24.160 yoga of the yoga system CC Antya 7.22 yogābhyām by practice of the yoga system SB 5.19.10 yogaḥ yoga system BG 6.24 yogaḥ the yoga system SB 3.25.13 yogaḥ the standard system of yoga SB 10.47.33 yogaḥ the aṣṭāńga-yoga system SB 11.12.1-2 yogaḥ yoga system SB 11.13.14 yogaḥ in the yoga system SB 11.13.37 yogaḥ the yoga system SB 11.14.20 yogam the eightfold yoga system BG 6.3 yogam yoga system SB 3.25.14 yogam the mystic yoga system SB 8.14.8 yogam the system of mystic yoga SB 11.28.43 yogasya of cultivation of the yoga system SB 2.8.19 yogasya of the yoga system SB 3.28.1 yogasya of the yoga system SB 11.13.39 yogayoḥ and the aṣṭāńga-yoga system SB 11.13.38 adhyātma-yoge in that yoga system meant for realization of one's true self SB 11.6.11 yogena by the yoga system BG 13.25 yogena by the mystic yoga systems SB 11.12.9 yogena by the mystic yoga system SB 11.20.32-33
Ayurvedic Medical Dr. Potturu with thanks Dictionary
Purchase Kindle edition
medicine made in distillation process using ajāmoda; it is indicated in diseases ofdigestive system.
āmrāta wild mango; Indian hog plum; dried stem bark of Spondius pinnata, S. mangifera, S.acuminata. Plant anāla
having no stalk or stem.
the digestive system, channel that carries food from stomach to small intestine.
1. purging; push excretory products out of the body; 2. carminative, that prevents formation of gas in the digestive system.
aralu stembark of Ailanthus excelsa, tree of heaven. Plant arimeda cassie flower tree, white bark acacia; dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea; A fornesiana; syn. distiller’s acacia, needle bush. Plant arjuna
stem bark of Terminalia arjuna; T. tomentosa; 2. an eye disease on the sclera, subconjuctival heamorrhage. Plant arkapuṣpi 1. lesser mallow plant, Hibiscus hirtus; 2. holostemma creeper, Holostemma rheedii, H. ada-kodien. Plant ārtavavahasrotas
(ārtav.vaha.śrotas) reproductive system in women.
asthisamhāri adamant creeper; dried stem of Cissus quadrangularis. Plant āyurveda
the classical Indian system of medicine.
bījasāra Indian kino tree, dried stembark of Pterocarpus marsupium Plant bilva Bengal quince; bael fruit; dried root & stembark of Aegle marmelos. Plant bilvādilehya
a semi-solid preparation from bael fruit and ten other ingredients; indicated in problems of digestive system.
cavya cubeb; elephant pepper; dried stem of Piper retrofractum; P. chaba; P. officinarum Plant dāḍimāṣṭakacūrṇa
powdered preparation used in digestive system complaints.
dāruharidra Indian barberry, false turmeric, dried stem of Berberis aristata; Coscinium fenestratum is used in Kerala as dāruharidra due to similarity in therapeutic action to Berberis species. Plant gojihva leaf and stem of Onosma bracteatum, sedge. Plant guḍūci heart-leaved moonseed; moon creeper; dried stem of Tinospora cardifolia; Plant satva extract of guḍūci as immuno-modulator. guḍūci jīmūtaka Lepeocercis serrata; Indian blue stem grass, musta. Plant lodhra lodh tree, dried stem bark of Symplocos racemosa, S. hamiltonia. Plant māgadhamāna
system of weights and measures in magadha region and adopted by Carakasamhita.
mahānimba Persian lilac, dried stembark of Melia azedarachta. Plant māṃsavahasrotas
adipose tissue system.
1. examination, reflection; 2. liturgical hermeneutics, one of the six systems of Indian philosophy.
nimbu,nimbuka lemon, Citrus limon; Pogostemon parviflorus and Marjorana hortensis are also considered; Citrus medica. Plant nyāya
system of philosophy propounded by Gautama; one of the six systems of Indian philosophy.
pañcāmlaka bījapūraka (citron), jambīra (lemon), nāranga (orange), amlavetasa (bladderdock), tintriṇi (tamarind) is one set; leaves, stembark, flowers, fruits and roots of lime together is another set. Plant pancāṅgam
stembark, leaves, fruits, roots and flowers of the same plant together.
pāribhadra 1. coral tree, stembark of Erythrina indica, E. variegata; 2. neem tree; 3. Himalayan pine or longleaf pine tree, Pinus deodera; 4. a gemstone, aquamarine. Plant pāṭalā rose flower fragrant, trumpet flower tree, yellow snake tree, stembark of Stereospermum suaveolens, syn. Bignonia suaveolens. Plant pramāṇa
means of acquiring certain knowledge, proof; epistemological standards.
(prāṇa.vaha.srotas) respiratory system.
flower tube; a kind of catheter; a disease affecting the female reproductive system.
cardio-vascular system or circulatory system.
śākhoṭaka sandpaper mulberry, stembark of Strebulus asper. Plant śālmali silk-cotton tree, stem bark of Salmalia malabarica, Bombax malabaricum, B. ceiba Plant sāñkhya
system of philosophy propounded by Kapila, one of the six systems of Indian philosophy.
saptaparṇa dita, devil’s tree, stem bark of Alstonia scholaris. Plant śirīṣa lebbeck tree, stembark of Albizzia lebbeck Plant snuhi milkhedge, stem of Euphorbia neriifolia , Plant kshāra alkali preparation from snuhi. snuhi śukravahasrotas
reproductive system in men.
tejovati stem bark & dried fruit of Zanthoxylum alatum, Z. armatum. Plant udakavahasrotas
body fluid system.
system of philosophy propounded by Kanāda, one of the six systems of Indian philosophy.
three-leaved caper, dried stem bark of Crataeva nurvala; 2. god of water, sea, rivers; 3. Plant Cappris trifoliate, Crataeva religiosa. Plant yavāniṣāḍava
medicine in powdered form made from Trachyspermum ammi and others, used in the diseases of digestive system.