sic one of the substitutes ( स् ) for the general sign च्लि of the aorist tense ( लुङ् ); च्लि लुङि | च्ले; सिच् P. III.1. 43, 44. confer, compare a sic samāsa-ending affix अस्. See the word अस्. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. sicipād name given by convention to the second pada of the seventh adhyaya of Paninis Astadhyayi as the pada begins with the sutra सिचि वृद्धि; परस्मैपदेषु. P. VII. 2. 1. aṃ (ं) nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot the vowel preceding it. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare confer, compare V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also confer, compare 1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) atisvārya (अतिस्वार also) name of the seventh musical note in the singing of Sāman. क्रष्टुप्रथमद्वितीयतृतीयचतुर्थमन्द्रातिस्वार्याः confer, compare XXIII. 13. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. anudāttatara quite a low tone, completely grave; generally applied to the tone of that grave or anudātta vowel which is immediately followed by an acute ( उदात्त ) vowel. When the three Vedic accents were sub-divided into seven tones viz. उदात्त, उदात्ततर्, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितस्थोदात्त and एकश्रुति corresponding to the seven musical notes, the अनुदात्ततर was the name given to the lowest of them all. अनुदात्ततर was termed सन्नतर also; उदात्तस्वरितपरस्य सन्नतरः P.I.2.40; confer, compare also M, Bh. on I.2.33. confer, compare āgama augment, accrement, a word element which is added to the primitive or basic word during the process of the formation of a complete word or pada. The āgama is an adventitious word element and hence differs from ādeśa, the substitute which wholly takes the place of the original or ( आदेशिन् ). Out of the several āgamas mentioned by Pāṇini, those that are marked with mute ट् are prefixed, those, marked with क्, are affixed, while those, marked with म्, are placed immediately after the last vowel of the word. The augments become a part and parcel of the word to which they are added, and the characteristics of which they possess; यदागमास्तद्गुणीभूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते, also आगमानां आगमिधर्मिवैशिष्ट्यम् confer, compare Pari.11. Those grammarians, who hold the view that words are unproduced and eternal, explain the addition of an augment as only the substitution of a word with an augment in the place of a word without an augment; Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. आदेशास्तर्हिमे भविष्यन्ति अनागमकानां सागमकाः confer, compare on I.1.20; I.1.46. The term āgama is defined as अन्यत्र विद्यमानस्तु यो वर्णः श्रुयतेधिकः । आगम्यमानतुल्यत्वात्स आगम इति स्मृतः Com. on Tait. Prāt.I. 23. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). āśubodha (1) name of a work on grammar written by Tārānātha called Tarka-vācaspatī, a reputed Sanskrit scholar of Bengal of the 19th century A.D. who compiled the great Sanskrit Dictionary named वाचस्पत्यकेाश and wrote commentaries on many Sanskrit Shastraic and classical works. The grammar called अाशुबोध is very useful for beginners; (2) name of an elementary grammar in aphorisms written by रामकिंकरसरस्वती, which is based on the Mugdhabodha of Bopadeva. upagīta a fault in the pronunciation of letters, noticed sometimes in the utterance of a letter adjoining such a letter as is coloured with a musical tone on account of the proximity of the adjacent letter which is uttered in a musical note and which therefore is called 'प्रगीत'; प्रगीतः सामवदुच्चारितः । उपगीतः समीपवर्णान्तरगीत्यानुरक्तः Kaiyaṭa's confer, compare on M.Bh. I. Āhnika 1. Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa. ekavṛtti single vṛtti or gloss on the Vedic as well as classical portions of grammar. adeva has used this term in his Bhāṣāvṛtti to contrast his Vṛtti (भाषावृत्ति) with the Kāśikāvṛtti and the Bhāgavṛtti which deal with both the portions; Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti. अनार्ष इत्येकवृत्तावुपयुक्तम् Bhāṣāvṛtti on I.1.16, confer, compare also Bhāṣāvṛtti on III. 4.99, IV.3.22 and VI.3.20.एकवृत्ति is possibly used by confer, compare adeva in the sense of मुख्यवृत्ति or साधारणवृत्ति i. e. the common chief gloss on both the portions. Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti. tatpuruṣa name of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष id est, that is P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, confer, compare , and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; et cetera, and others परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, confer, compare on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: confer, compare राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; exempli gratia, for example P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compare P.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona. confer, compare dṛṣṭa seen in use in Vedic Literature, or Classical Literature, or in the talk of cultured people; said in connection with words which a grammarian tries to explain; दृष्टानुविधिश्छन्दसि भवति' Vyadi Pari. Patha 68. confer, compare dhātu a root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; et cetera, and others ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् exempli gratia, for example P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, confer, compare अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; exempli gratia, for example P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा confer, compare शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; exempli gratia, for example P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) confer, compare गोप्ता, गेीपिता, exempli gratia, for example P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past confer, compare passive voice. participle. क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, exempli gratia, for example P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, confer, compare अगमत् exempli gratia, for example P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past confer, compare passive voice. participle. लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् confer, compare on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona. confer, compare nyāsoddyota a learned commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's written by Mallinātha, the standard commentator of prominent Sanskrit classics. Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. pāṇini the illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation o the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native pl feminine. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition. accusative case. prayogaviṣaya sphere or domain of the use of words; the whole Vedic and classical recognized literature: cf महान् हि शब्दस्य प्रयोगविषयः । सप्तद्वीपा वसुमती त्रयो लोकाः चत्वारो वेदाः साङ्गाः सरहस्याः बहुधा विाभन्नाः, एकशतमध्वर्युशाखाः, सहस्रवर्त्मा सामवेदः, एकविंशतिधा बाह् वृच्यम् , नवधाथर्वणो वेदो वाकोवाक्यामितिहासः पुराणं वैद्यकमित्येतावाञ्शब्दस्य प्रयोगविषयः Ahnika 1. Vrt. 5 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). brahmarāśi the sacred Sanskrit alphabet given in the fourteen sutras of Mahesvara, named Aksarasamamnaya which is called ब्रह्मराशि as it contains the basic letters of शब्द which is Brahma according to Grammarians; सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्यसमाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः confer, compare Ahnika 2 end; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also एते पञ्चषष्टिवर्णा ब्रह्मराशिरात्मवाचः V. Pr.VIII. 25. confer, compare madhyama (1) the middle person ( मध्यमपुरुष ), युष्मद्युपपदे...मध्यम: P. I. 4.105; confer, compare also confer, compare VII. 7; (2) middling tone or effort Nirukta of Yāska. मध्यमेन स वाक्ययोग: confer, compare XVIII. 4, where the commentator explains the word as उच्चनीचसमाहारविलक्षण: वाक्प्रयोगः | the word मध्यमा is used in this sense as qualifying a mode of utterance. वृत्ति; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. अभ्यासार्थे द्रुतां वृत्तिं प्रयोगार्थे तु मध्यमाम् ! Ṟ. Pr. XIII. 19; cf also चतुष्कला मध्यमायार्म् confer, compare 32; (3) one of the seven modes of speech or tones. cf सप्त वाचः स्थानानि भवन्ति | उपांशुध्वाननिमदेापव्दिमन्मन्द्रमध्यमताराणि Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. XXIII.4 and 5 and also कण्ठे मध्यमम् XVIII.11 where the commentatator explains मध्यम as यत्र कण्ठे स्थाने प्रयोग उपलभ्यते तन्मध्यमं नाम षष्ठं वाचस्स्थानम् | (4) one of the seven musical notes originating or proceeding from the Svarita accent Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. , स्वारतप्रभवा ह्येते षड्जमध्यमपञ्चमाः Pāṇ Śikṣā. confer, compare mallinātha a reputed commentator on many classical poetic and dramatic works, who flourished in the fourteenth century. He was a scholar of Grammar and is believed to have written a commentary on the Śabdenduśekhara and another named न्यासोद्योत on the न्यास of जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि. mahābhāṣya the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the literally of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे confer, compare scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplement et cetera, and others Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to edition , he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ). confer, compare yam (1) one of pair a twin letter available in pronunciation before a nasal letter and similar to it, when the nasal consonant is preceded by any one of the four consonants of the five classes; a transitional sound intervening between a non-nasal and the following nasal as a counterpart of the n6n-nasal: वर्गेष्वाद्यानां चेतुर्णो पञ्चमे पर मध्ये यमो नाम पूर्वसदृशो वर्णः प्रातिशाख्ये प्रसिद्धः S.K. on P.व्व्III. l.1; (2) name given to the seven musical notes, found in the singing of Saaman; confer, compare मन्द्रमध्यमत्राख्येषु त्रिषु वाचः स्थानेषु प्रत्येकं सत स्थरभेदा भवन्ति कुष्टप्रथमद्वितीयतृतीयचतुर्थमन्द्रातित्वार्यः यमाः ' confer, compare XXIII. 13,14. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. yuc krt affix यु changed into अन, (1) applied in the sense of 'a habituated agent' to intransitive roots in the sense of movement or utterance, to Atmanepadi roots beginning with a consonant, to the roots जु, चेकम् सृ, शुच्, कुघ्, as also to roots in the sense of decoration: चलन:, शब्दन:: cf P.III. 2. 148-15I: (2) applied to causal roots, as also to the roots आस् श्रन्थ् and others in the sense of verbal activity when the word so formed has always the feminine gender; exempli gratia, for example कारणा, हृरणा, आसना, घट्टना,वेदना exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others P.III.3.107 and the Varttikas thereon; (3) applied to roots ending in अा and preceded by the indeclinables ईषद्, दुस् or सु in the sense of easy or difficult for obtainment and, wherever seen to any root in the Vedic language, as also to some other roots as found in actual use in the classical literature; e. g. ईषद्दानो गौर्मवता, दु्ष्पानः, सुपान: confer, compare सूपसदन:, दुर्योधनः, दुर्मर्षण: et cetera, and others , et cetera, and others P.III.8.128-130. confer, compare liṭ an affix of the perfect tense; परोक्षे लिट् P.III.2.115 for which the specific affixes णल्, अतुस् उस् confer, compare are substituted after roots which take Parasmaipada affixes. Before the lit affixes, a monosyllabic root is reduplicated while dissyllabic roots and denominative and other secondary roots, formed by adding an affix to an original root,take the affix अाम् after which all 'liț' personal endings are dropped and the forms of the roots कृ,भू and अस् with the necessary personal-endings, are placed immediately after the word ending in अाम् , but often with the intervention of a word or more in the Vedic language and rarely in the classical language; et cetera, and others तं पातयां प्रथममास पपात पश्चात् ; confer, compare कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि P.III.I. 35 to 42. confer, compare vic krt affix वि (which also becomes nil or zero) applied to a root in the sense of an agent, as observed in Vedic and classical use, as also to the root यज् with उप and roots ending in अा generally in Vedic Literature but sometimes in popu1ar language; विजुपे छन्दसि । आतो मनिन्कनिबवनिपश्च। अन्येभ्योपि दृश्यन्ते | कीलालपाः, शुभ्ंयाः confer, compare Kas on P. III. 2.73, 74, 75. et cetera, and others veṣāyika (1) pertaining to the word विषय in the sutra विषयो देशे P. IV.2. 52; the term refers to the affixes prescribed in the sense of ’country' or ’district' (विषय) in P. IV. 2.52-54 as contrasted with नैवासिक affixes prescribed in the sense of 'inhabited district' by P. IV. 2.69-80 (2) one of the three senses of the locative case, viz. the sense 'substratum' of the locative case, which is not physical but which is a topical one, forming an object or aim of an , action as specified by the word 'about'; taddhita affix. अधिकरणं नाम त्रिप्रकारं व्यापकमौपश्लेषिकं वैषयिकमिति | confer, compare śaraṇadeva a prominent grammarian of the Eastern school of Panini's system of grammar who lived in the thirteenth century and wrote works on Panini's grammar. His work named दुर्घटवृत्ति which ex. plains according to Panini's rules, the Varttikas thereon, and the Jnapakas deduced from them,the various words difficult to be explained, is much appreciated by scholars of grammar. He has quoted from a large number of classical works, and referred to many works of the Eastern grammarians who followed the Kasika school. saṃsvāra a combination or collection of the Svaras or musical notes for purposes of singing the Sama hymns. saptasvara lit, the seven accents; the term refers to the seven accents formed of the subdivisions of the three main Vedic accents उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित viz उदात्त, उदात्ततर, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितोदात्त,and एकश्रुति: cf त एते तन्त्रे तरनिर्देशे सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति ( उदात: । उदात्ततरः । अनुदात्तः ! अनुदात्ततरः । स्वरित: । स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः । एकश्रुतिः सप्तम: ॥ M. Bh on P. I. 2. 33. It is possible that these seven accents which were turned into the seven notes of the chantings of the samans developed into the seven musical notes which have traditionally come down to the present day known as सा रे ग म प ध नी; उदात्ते निषादगान्धारौ अनुदात्ते ऋषभधैवतौ । स्वरितप्रभवा ह्येते षड्जमध्यमपञ्चमाः। confer, compare Siksa. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions the seven accents differently; Pāṇini. उदात्तादयः परे सप्त । यथा-अभिनिहितक्षैप्र-प्राशश्लिष्ट-तैरोव्यञ्जन-तैरोविराम-पादवृत्तताथाभाव्याः Uvvata on V.Pr.I.l l4. confer, compare sāmavaśa name of a Samdhi or euphonic change of the type of the vowels अ, इ and उ being lengthened in some specified cases chiefly for the sake of music ( साम ) or metre. This lengthening is given the name प्लुति in the Rk Pratisakhya: दीर्ध ह्रस्वो व्यञ्जनेन्यस्त्वृकाराद् यथादिष्टं सामवशः स सन्धिः | confer, compare VII.1. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) svara (l) vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.