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Results for po
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
abhrakam2.9.101NeuterSingularsauvīram, potāñjanam, yāmunam
dhūmaketuḥ3.3.65MasculineSingulardhātā, poṣṭā
gaṇḍaḥ2.6.91MasculineSingularkapolaḥ
kāśamMasculineSingularikṣugandhā, poṭagalaḥ
naḍaḥMasculineSingulardhamanaḥ, poṭagalaḥ
niyāmakaḥMasculineSingularpotavāhaḥthe crew
palāśaḥMasculineSingularvātapothaḥ, kiṃśukaḥ, parṇaḥ
pārāvataḥ2.5.16MasculineSingularkalaravaḥ, kapotaḥ
poṭā2.6.15FeminineSingular
potādhānamNeuterSingularsmall fry
potaḥMasculineSingularship
potaḥ3.3.66MasculineSingularbhūmidharaḥ, nṛpaḥ
potaḥ2.5.40MasculineSingularśāvakaḥ, śiśuḥ, pākaḥ, arbhakaḥ, ḍimbhaḥ, pṛthukaḥ
potram3.3.188NeuterSingularrāṣṭram
sāṃyātrikaḥMasculineSingularpotavaṇika voyaging merchant
śuṣirāFeminineSingularvidrumalatā, kapotāṅghriḥ, naṭī, nalī
varāhaḥ2.5.3MasculineSingularkolaḥ, bhūdāraḥ, ghoṇī, kiraḥ, ghṛṣṭiḥ, kroḍaḥ, daṃṣṭrī, potrī, sūkaraḥ, stabdharomā, kiṭiḥ
vikalāṅgaḥ2.6.46MasculineSingularapogaṇḍaḥ
yavakṣāraḥ2.9.109MasculineSingularsauvarcalam, rucakam, ‍kāpotaḥ, ‍sukhavarcakaḥ
upoddhātaḥMasculineSingularudāhāraḥan example or opposite argument
kapotapālikā2.2.15FeminineSingularviṭaṅkam
upodakāFeminineSingular
potam2.5.45NeuterSingular
vārāṅgarūpopetaḥ3.1.11MasculineSingularsiṃhahananaḥ
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Results for po630 results for po
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
po(Nominal verb pauḥ-), fr. Nom. pāvaya- Va1rtt. 2 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poḍum. the parietal bone, the bone forming the upper part of the skull View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pogaṇḍamfn. not full-grown or adult, young View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pogaṇḍamfn. deformed, having a redundant or defective member View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pogaṇḍam. a boy, one from his 5th to his 16th year (see a-p-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
polam. ( pul-) magnitude, bulk, heap (gaRa jvalādi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pof. See next. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
po() f.a kind of cake (see pūlikā-, paulī-, pūpālī-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
polikā() f.a kind of cake (see pūlikā-, paulī-, pūpālī-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
polindam. the mast or the ribs of a ship or boat (see padāra-, raka-, pādālinda-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ponakaSee śata-p-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poñch cl.1 A1. poñchate-, to clean (shoes) (prob. for proñch- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ponnūrusthalamāhātmyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
popuvamfn. (fr. Intensive) purifying much or repeatedly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pora equals parvan-, in nīla-p- and śata-p- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poraka idem or ' equals parvan-, in nīla-p- and śata-p- q.v ' in śata-p-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣam. ( puṣ-) thriving, prosperity, abundance, wealth, growth, increase View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣam. nourishing, nurture, rearing, maintaining, supporting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣadham. (with Buddhists) fasting, a fasting day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣadham. sacred day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣadheyan. fasting must be observed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣadhikamfn. relating to fasting or a festival day (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣadhoṣitamfn. keeping the fast View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣadhotsavam. sacred festival View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣakamf(ikā-)n. nourishing, feeding, a nourisher, supporter, breeder, keeper etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣakamf(ikā-)n. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') subsisting on or by View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣamind. (with puṣ-) to thrive or prosper in (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣaṇamfn. nourishing, cherishing (see pakṣa-p-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣaṇan. the act of nourishing, fostering, keeping, supporting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣaṇīyamfn. to be nourished or kept or protected View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣasSee viśv/āyu-poṣas-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣayiṣṇumfn. causing to thrive, advantageous, beneficial View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣayitnumfn. causing to grow or thrive, nourishing, fostering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣayitnum. the Indian cuckoo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣayitṛmfn. (fr. Causal) one who nourishes or cherishes or rears View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣinmfn. nourishing, rearing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣitamfn. nourished, cherished, supported View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣitavyamfn. to be cherished or protected View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣitṛmfn. one who breeds or rears View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣṭṛmfn. equals ṣitṛ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣṭṛm. grey bonduc View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣṭṛvaramfn. the best of nourishers, nourishing best View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣukamfn. prospering, growing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣyamfn. thriving, well fed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣyamfn. abundant, copious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣyamfn. causing wealth or prosperity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣyamfn. to be nourished or fed or brought up or taken care of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣyaputram. an adopted son () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣyaputrakam. an adopted son () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣyaputrakaraṇan. adoption View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣyavargam. a class of persons or objects to be cherished (as parents, children, guests, and the sacred fire) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṣyāvatmfn. causing prosperity, beneficial View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭam. ( puṭ-?) the foundation of a house (see pota-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭam. putting together, uniting, mixing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭam. equals śakala- (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭāf. a hermaphrodite or a woman with a beard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭāf. a female servant or slave View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potam. (hardly fr. -;but see ) a young animal or plant (mostly in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' exempli gratia, 'for example' mṛga-p-"a young deer", cūta-p-"a young mango tree") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potam. a fetus which has no enveloping membrane View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potam. cloth, a garment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potam. the foundation of a house (see poṭa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potamn. a vessel, ship, boat [ confer, compare Latin putus;Lit.pautas.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potabaṇijSee -vaṇij-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potābham. a species of camphor (see potāsa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potabhaṅgam. shipwreck View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potācchādanan. "cloth-covering", a tent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potādhānan. small fry, a shoal of young fish, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potadhāra() m. a ship-owner, master of a vessel. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potadhārin() m. a ship-owner, master of a vessel. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭagalam. (only ) a species of reed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭagalam. Saccharum Spontaneum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭagalam. a fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭagalam. equals pañcajanya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potajamfn. produced from a fetus which has no enveloping membrane (opp. to jarāyu-ja-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭakam. a servant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potakam. a young animal or plant (mostly in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound'; see pota-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potakam. Name of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potakam. the site or foundation of a house (see gṛha-p-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potakīf. Turdus Macrourus or Basella Lucida View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭalam. () a bundle or packet. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potalam. or n. Name of a seaport on the indu-s (= ;later applied to the residence of the Dalai Lama in Lhassa) (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potālam. Name of a Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potālam. wrong reading for potala-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭalaka() m. a bundle or packet. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potalakam. or n. Name of a mountain (equals potala-?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potalakapriyam. "fond of the mountain potalaka-", Name of a buddha- or of a jina- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭalikā() f. a bundle or packet. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potalikāf. See go-potalikā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potanan. Name of a town View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potaplavam. "floating in a ship", a seaman, mariner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potarakam. or n. equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potarakṣam. "ship-governing", the rudder of a boat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potāsam. a species of camphor (English potash?). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potaśālim. small or young rice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potatvan. the state or condition of (being) a ship View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potavāha() m. "boat-conductor", a boatman, steersman. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potavāhaka() m. "boat-conductor", a boatman, steersman. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potavaṇijm. "ship-merchant", a voyaging merchant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭāyaNom. A1. yate- equals poṭāṃ karoti- Va1rtt. 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potāyaNom. A1. yate-, to be a ship View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potham. ( puth-) a blow, stroke View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pothaa big ship, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pothakī pothaki f. a kind of ulcer on the eyelids (see poṭika-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pothaki pothakī f. a kind of ulcer on the eyelids (see poṭika-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pothikāSee ava-p-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pothitamfn. hurt, injured, killed, destroyed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭīf. the rectum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭīf. a large alligator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭikāf. a species of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭikam. a pustule, boil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potikāf. (only ) cloth, a garment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potikāf. Basella Lucida or Rubra View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potikāf. Anethum Sowa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potikāf. equals mūlapotī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potimatsakam. Name of a prince (varia lectio pautimatsyaka-and yotimatsaka-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potṛ m. "Purifier", Name of one of the 16 officiating priests at a sacrifice (the assistant of the Brahman; equals yajñasya śodhayiṭri- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potṛm. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potṛm. "Purifier", Name of one of the 16 officiating priests at a sacrifice (the assistant of the Brahman; equals yajñasya śodhayiṭri- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potṛm. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potṛf. (trī-) Name of durgā- (see pautrī-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potran. the soma- vessel of the potṛ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potran. the office of the potṛ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potran. the snout of a hog, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potran. a ploughshare View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potran. a garment or a thunderbolt (equals vastra- varia lectio vajra- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potran. a ship or boat (see pota-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potramaṇḍalan. "snout-orb", the round snout (of a hog etc.),
potrāyudham. armed with a snout, a hog, boar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potrīf. Name of durgā- (see pautrī-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potriin compound for trin-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potrīf. a garment (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potridaṃṣṭrājam. a kind of gem (supposed to be produced in the tusk of a boar) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potrinm. "snouted", a wild boar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potrirathāf. "hog-vehicled", (with Buddhists) Name of māyā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potrirathāf. (with jaina-s) Name of a śakti- or female divinity. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potrīyamfn. relating or belonging to the potṛ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potṛtṛprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potṛtvaprayoga m. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭṭalan. idem or '() f. a bundle or packet.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭṭalakam. or n. idem or 'f. idem or 'n. idem or '() f. a bundle or packet.' ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭṭalīf. idem or 'n. idem or '() f. a bundle or packet.' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭṭalīkṛto put together into a bundle or packet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poṭṭilam. (with jaina-s) Name of the ninth arhat- of the future utsarpiṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potum. (1. -) equals mānabhāṇḍa-śo-dhaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potyāf. equals potānāṃ samūhaḥ- gaRa pāśādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poviyam. Name of the father of gaṅga-dāsa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pof. a kind of wind instrument View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poyāladaham. or n. Name of a tank or pool View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākāśapolim. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākṣepopamāf. idem or 'f. (with siddhi-) the magical power of attraction, (= ākarṣiṇī- siddhiḥ-, Scholiast or Commentator).' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alponamfn. slightly defective, not quite complete or not finished. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alpopāyam. small means. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapoddhāryamfn. of which nothing is to be taken off View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anukapolamind. along the cheek View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupoptamfn. not filled up or covered by heaping up, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupoṣaṇan. not fasting.
āpo(in compound for 2. and 3. āpas-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apobdhamfn. bound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apobh( ubh-), (Imper. 2. plural /apombhata-) to bind, fetter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apocchad( ud-chad-), (ind.p. -chādya-) to uncover View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpodam. patronymic of the ṛṣi- dhaumya- (varia lectio āyoda-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apodakamf(ā-)n. waterless, watertight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apodakamf(ā-)n. not watery, not fluid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apoddhāryaSee an-apoddhāry/a-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpodevatamfn. having the water as deity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpodevata āpo-maya-, etc. See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpodevatyamfn. idem or 'mfn. having the water as deity ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apodhaSee sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order , . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apoḍhamfn. ( vah-), carried off, removed, taken away. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apodi( i-) to go away altogether, withdraw from (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apodikāf. the pot-herb Basella Rubra or Lucida View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apoditya(mfn.) n. impersonal or used impersonally to be completely gone away from (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apodūhto strip off View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apogaṇḍamfn. not under sixteen years of age View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apogaṇḍamfn. a child or infant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apogaṇḍamfn. timid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apogaṇḍamfn. flaccid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apogaṇḍamfn. having a limb too many or too few View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apoh(1 ūh-), -uhāti- (imperfect tense /apauhat-) to strip off, push away, frighten away etc., to remove or heal (diseases) ; A1. to keep away from one's self, avoid ; to give up ; (in disputation) to object, deny View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apoham. pushing away, removing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apoham. (in disputation) reasoning, arguing, denying. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apohanan. idem or 'm. (in disputation) reasoning, arguing, denying.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apohanīyamfn. to be taken away, or removed, or expiated. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpohiṣṭhīyamfn. belonging to the hymn x, 9 of the (which begins with /āpo h/i ṣṭh/ā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpohiṣṭhīyan. Name of a sāman-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apohitamfn. removed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apohitamfn. (in disputation) denied (the opposite of sthāpita-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apohyamfn. equals apohanīya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpokliman. (in astronomy) = .
āpomātrāf. the subtle elementary principle of water. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpomayamfn. consisting of water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apombhanan. a fetter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpomūrtim. Name of a son of manu- svārociṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpomūrtim. Name of one of the seven ṛṣi-s of the tenth manvantara-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aponaptṛ([ ]) m. "grandson of the waters."Name of agni- or fire as sprung from water. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aponaptriya([PBr.]) ([ ]) mfn. relating to agni-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aponaptrīya([ ]) mfn. relating to agni-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aporṇavanan. untying commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aporṇu( ūrṇu-), /apa ūrṇoti-, /aporṇute-, once aporṇauti- ([ ]), to uncover, unveil, open : A1. to uncover one's self. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apo( uṣ-) equals apa-- 2. vas- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpośānamfn. "taking water" ([ āpas-being a rare form of the accusative for apas-]) id est sipping water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpośānan. sipping water before and after eating. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpothya ind.p. having squeezed or compressed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apotkṛṣ( kṛṣ-), (ind.p. -kṛṣya-) to disjoin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apotsṛjto relinquish, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arkapuṣpottaran. Name of a sāman-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arṇavapotam. a boat or ship. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvapoṣakam. a groom, , Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvapotam. a foal, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupodghātikamfn. (fr. upodghāta-), occasioned, occasional commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupoditeyam. a descendant of aupoditī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupoditimf(ī-). a descendant of upodita- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupoditim. Name of tumiñja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avāpoh(1. ūh-), (ind.p. pohya-) to remove View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avapothikāf. anything used for knocking down, as stones etc. thrown from the walls of a city on the besiegers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avapothitamfn. thrown or knocked down View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avyapohyamfn. undeniable, in contestable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
badarītapovanan. the penance grove or hermitage at badarī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahurāyaspoṣamf(-)n. possessing much wealth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balipodakīf. Basella Cordifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāṣpodbhavam. the rising or starting of tears View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāṣpotpīḍam. a gush or torrent of tears View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāṣyapradīpoddyotanan. bhāṣyapradīpa
bhāvapradīpoddyotam. bhāvapradīpa
bhūripoṣinmfn. "much-nourishing", cherishing multitudes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhatkapolamfn. having fat puffy cheeks commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhattapovratan. a particular penitential observance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
campopalakṣitamfn. "marked by campā-", dwelling in campā- and its vicinity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caṇḍapotakam. Name of an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potkaṭam. Name of a family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daṇḍapoṇa(id est pavana-), a strainer with a handle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darpopaśāntif. allaying pride View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
deśāpokṣāf. spying or inspecting a land View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhūpoṣmanm. the heat or smoke of burnt frankincense View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pocchiṣṭan. "lamp-sediment", soot. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potsavam. a festival of lights View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dugdhapoṣyam. a suckling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
duṣpoṣamfn. difficult to be nourished View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
duṣpoṣatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
garbhapoṣaṇan. "nourishing a foetus", gestation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopoṣam. increase of cowherds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopotalikāf. a cow Introd. 35; 97, and on Va1rtt. 6. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhakapotam. a domestic pigeon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhakapotakam. idem or 'm. a domestic pigeon ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhapoṣaṇan. maintenance of a household View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhapotakam. the site of a habitation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haṃsapoṭṭalīf. a particular mixture, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hotāpotāraum. dual number the hotṛ- and potṛ- priests View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ibhapoṭāf. a young elephant, a cub. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalakapotam. "water-pigeon", Name of a bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalaśapotakam. Name of a nāga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalpopaniṣadf. "science of medicine", pharmacology View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalpotthāyinmfn. , misprint for kalyotthāyin-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmarūpodbhavāf. a kind of musk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapolam. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).), ( kap- ) the cheek (of men or elephants etc.) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapolam. plural Name of a school belonging to the white yajur-veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
polam. plural Name of a school of the sāma-veda-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapolabhittif. idem or 'n. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).), the cheekbone ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapolakāṣam. any object against which the cheeks or temples are rubbed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapolakāṣam. the elephant's temples and cheeks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapolakavim. Name of a poetry or poetic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapolapālior ī- f. the side of a cheek View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapolapattran. a mark painted on the cheek View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapolaphalakan. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).), the cheekbone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapolarāgam. colour or flush in the cheek. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapolatāḍanan. striking the cheeks (as a token of confession of fault) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapof. the fore-part of the knee, knee-cap or pan View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotam. ( kav- ;fr. 2. ka-+ pota-?), a dove, pigeon, (especially) the spotty-necked pigeon (in the veda-s often a bird of evil omen) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotam. a bird in general View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotam. a frieze, cornice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotam. a particular position of the hands commentator or commentary on etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotam. the grey colour of a pigeon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotam. the grey ore of antimony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potamf(ī-)n. (fr. kapota- ), belonging to or coming from a pigeon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potamf(ī-)n. of the colour of a pigeon, of a dull white colour, grey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potam. natron, fossil alkali View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potam. antimony, a collyrium or application for the eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potan. a flock of pigeons commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potan. antimony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potan. Name of two sāman-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potam. (also) a vānaprastha- who has collected food (like a pigeon) for a year, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotabāṇāf. a kind of perfume View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotābhamfn. pigeon-coloured, lead-grey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotābham. a pale or dirty white colour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotacaraṇāf. a kind of perfume View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotahastam. a particular position of the hands. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotahastakam. idem or 'm. a particular position of the hands.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotakamf(ikā-)n. pigeon-coloured, lead-grey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotakam. a small pigeon or dove etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotakam. a particular position of the hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotakan. ore of antimony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potakamfn. fr. kapotakīya- gaRa bilvakādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotakarburamfn. spotted like a dove, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotakīf. a kind of bird (equals śyāmā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotakīyamf(ā-)n. abounding in or relating to pigeons gaRa naḍādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotāṅghrif. a kind of perfume View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotāñjanan. ore of antimony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potāñjanan. antimony, a collyrium for the eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotapādamfn. pigeon-footed gaRa hasty-ādi- ( reads kaṭola-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotapadadarśanan. the sight of the foot-print of a dove, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotapākam. the young of a pigeon gaRa nyaṅkv-ādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotapākam. plural Name of a mountain-tribe on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotapākīf. a princess of this tribe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potapākyam. a prince of the kapotapāka-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotapālif. frieze, cornice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotapālīf. idem or 'f. a dove-cot, pigeon-house, aviary ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotapālikāf. a dove-cot, pigeon-house, aviary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotapeṭakan. a flight of doves, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotaretasam. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potaretasam. a patronymic fr. kapota-r- commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotārim. "enemy of the pigeons", a hawk, falcon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotaromanm. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotasāram. the grey ore of antimony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotavakran. a particular plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotavallīf. Name of a plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotavaṅkāf. Name of a medicinal plant (used as a remedy for the stone) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotavarṇamfn. pigeon-coloured, lead-grey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotavarṇīf. small cardamoms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotavegāf. Ruta Graveolens View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potavṛttimfn. one who subsists like a pigeon, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapof. the female of a pigeon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pof. a kind of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potim. () a patronymic fr. kapota- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotikāf. the female of a pigeon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotinmfn. pigeon-shaped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotinmfn. having pigeons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karanyastakapolāntamind. the end of the cheek held in the hand. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karipotam. a young elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaśyapottarasaṃhitāf. Name of a dharma-śāstra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaupodakī equals kaumod- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalekapotanyāyam. the rule of the doves alighting upon a threshing-floor, , Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalekapotikā f. the rule of the doves alighting upon a threshing-floor, , Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
krīḍāmarkaṭapotam. a young monkey serving as a plaything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛṣṇakāpof. a kind of plant (see śveta-k-and kṛṣṇa-sarpā-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣudrapotikāf. Name of a pot-herb (a variety of Basella) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣudropodakanāmnīf. Name of a pot-herb (a variety of Basella) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣudropodakīf. Name of a pot-herb View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuladīpotsavam. Name of a festival. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
podakan. well-water. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lakṣapuṣpodhyāpanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lavapottaman. "best salt", river or rock salt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lavapottaman. nitre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahākapolam. "great-cheeked", Name of one of the attendants of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahākāpolam. plural a particular school of the sāma-veda-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahākapotam. a species of serpent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāpoṭagalam. a species of large rush or reed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
manuṣyapotam. a little boy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
markaṭapotam. a young monkey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mayūrapoṣakam. "breeder of peacock", Name of the father of candra-gupta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgapota() () m. a young deer, fawn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgapotaka() m. a young deer, fawn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mukhapoñchana(for -proñchana-) n. a cloth or napkin for wiping the mouth (wrong reading -pocchana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūlakapo( ) f. a radish. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūlakapotikā(Sulr. ) ( ) f. a radish. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūlapof. a species of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāgapotam. equals -putra- (varia lectio pannagedra-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
neṣṭāpotāraum. dual number the neṣṭṛ- (See next) and the potṛ-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nīlapora m. a species of sugarcane (see -ghora-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣpoṣamfn. not being nourished View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nivāpodakan. a libation of water offered to deceased progenitors (read ka-bhojana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nṛpocitam. "suited to a king, kingly", Dolichos Catjang (equals rāja-māṣa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pādapopagamanan. the abiding etc. (See prec.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pādapopagatamfn. abiding under a tree (while expecting death) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pakṣapoṣaṇamfn. favouring a party, factious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcataponvitamfn. idem or 'mfn. sitting between the 5 fires (see )' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañjarakapotam. a pigeon in a cage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poktamfn. addressed in ill-omened words View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parataḥpoṣamfn. receiving food from another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paripoṣam. full growth or development View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paripoṣakamfn. nourishing, confirming. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paripoṣaṇan. the act of cherishing or furthering or promoting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paripoṣaṇīyamfn. to be nourished or promoted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paripoṭam. peeling off (a particular disease of the ear) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paripoṭakam. idem or 'm. peeling off (a particular disease of the ear) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paripoṭanan. peeling off, desquamation, losing the bark or skin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paripoṭavatmfn. peeling off, losing the skin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalapuṣpopaśobhitamfn. adorned with fruits and flowers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratīpoktif. contradiction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyaporṇu( -apa-ūrṇu-) A1. -aporṇute-, to uncover one's self in the presence of (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyupoditamfn. ( vad-) addressed with offensive words View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūgapotam. a young Areca-tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punarupoḍhāf. married again, re-married View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣpodakāf. "having flower for water", Name of a river in the lower world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣpodbhavam. "sprung from flower", Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣpodyānan. a flower-garden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣpopagamamfn. bearing flower View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣpopajīvinm. equals puṣpājīvin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣpotkaṭāf. Name of a rākṣasī- (the mother of rāvaṇa- and kumbha-karṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣpottaram. or n. (with jaina-s) Name of a particular heaven View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāyaspoṣam. increase of property or wealth or prosperity (see bahu-r-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāyaspoṣamfn. increasing riches (said of kṛṣṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāyaspoṣadāmfn. granting increase of wealth or prosperity () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāyaspoṣadāvanmfn. granting increase of wealth or prosperity () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāyaspoṣakamfn. (fr. -poṣa-) gaRa arīhaṇādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāyaspoṣavanimfn. procuring increase of riches View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
poccayam. a collection of lovely forms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
popajīvanan. the gaining a livelihood by a beautiful form View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
popajīvinmfn. gaining a livelihood by a beautiful form View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasrapoṣam. ( ) () welfare or wealth (increased) a thousand-fold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasrapoṣāf. () welfare or wealth (increased) a thousand-fold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasrapoṣamfn. prosperity (increasing) a thousand-fold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasrāpoṣam. equals sahasra-p- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasrapoṣakāmamfn. "desirous of a thousand-fold wealth" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasrapoṣakāmamfn. "desirous of a thousand-fold wealth" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasrapoṣapuṣimfn. (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasrapoṣapuṣimfn. (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasrapoṣinmfn. thriving a thousand-fold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasrapoṣyan. equals -poṣ/a- m. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākapotam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākaṭapotikāf. Basella Rubra View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālapotam. a young Sal tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samādhiyogarddhitapovidyāviraktimatmfn. possessing or accompanied with meditation and self-abstraction and supernatural power and mortification and knowledge and indifference View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samapoh( -apa-- 1 ūh-) P. -apāhati-, to dispel completely, entirely exclude View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samīpopagatamfn. approached near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampoṣyamfn. to be well nourished or supported View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupoḍhaSee p.1170, col, 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupoḍhamfn. (1. ūh-) brought near, presented, offered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupoḍhamfn. commenced, begun (as a battle) (also -upolha- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupoḍhamfn. risen (as the moon) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupopaviṣṭamfn. (see upopa-[for upa-upa-]- viś-) seated together, sitting down View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupo( -upa-uṣ-) P. -upoṣati-, to burn or consume together, burn up completely View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupoṣakamfn. fasting, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupoṣitamf(ā-)n. engaged in, devoted to (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupoṣitamf(ā-)n. one who has fasted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaṅkhapoṭalinm. a particular mixture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāpodakan. equals śāpāmbu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāpoddhāram. deliverance from a curse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sapotamf(ā-)n. having a ship or boat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāpotsargam. the utterance of a curse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarūpopamāf. varia lectio for samāna-rūp- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvatapomayamf(ī-)n. containing all penances, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvāyudhopotamfn. possessing all weapon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śataponam. (for pavana-?) a sieve View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śataponakam. fistula in ano View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatapora m. (prob. fr. parvan-) a kind of sugar-cane (see -ghora-and nīla-pora-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śataporakam. (prob. fr. parvan-) a kind of sugar-cane (see -ghora-and nīla-pora-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāyampoṣam. food taken in the evening View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sikatopoptamfn. strewn with sand, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śilpopajīvinm. equals śilpa-jīvin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
solkālātāvapothikamfn. with machines for hurling down fire-brands and lighted darts (on the enemy;these machines appear to have been a kind of catapult or ballista)
stanapoṣikam. plural Name of a people (varia lectio -yoṣika-etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukapolamf(ā-)n. having beautiful cheeks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukapolāsyamfn. having a face with beautiful cheeks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śukapotram. a kind of harmless snake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
supoṣamfn. prosperous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
supoṣamfn. easy to be maintained, not requiring much support ( supoṣatā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
supoṣatāf. supoṣa
śvapoṣakam. a dog-feeder, huntsman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svapoṣamind. (with puṣ-) to prosper in one's person View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svarūpopaniṣadf. Name of an upaniṣad-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svarūpotprekṣāf. a kind of simile View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svayamapoditan. that from which one is by one's self exempted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvetakapotam. a kind of mouse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvetakapotam. a kind of snake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvetakāpof. a kind of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śyenakapotīyamfn. (the story) of the hawk and the pigeon (see śibi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapoin compound for pas-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapobalam. the power acquired by religious austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapobhaṅgam. interruption of religious austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapobhṛtmfn. undergoing austerities, (m.) an ascetic
tapodan. "granting religious merit", Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapodaany sacred place, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapodānan. idem or 'any sacred place, ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapodhāmann. "place of austerities", Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapodhanamf(ā-)n. rich in religious austerities, (m.) a great ascetic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapodhanam. Name of a son of manu- tāmasa-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapodhanam. of a ṛṣi- of the 12th manv-antara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapodhanam. of a muni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapodhanam. equals pasvipattra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapodhanāf. Sphaeranthus mollis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapodharmam. Name of a son of the 13th manu- (varia lectio rma-bhṛtha-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapodhṛtim. Name of a ṛṣi- of the 12th manv-antara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapodyutim. "brilliant with religious merit", Name of a ṛṣi- of the 12th manv-antara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapogaccham. equals -g-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapomfn. born from heat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapomfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapomfn. become (a god or saint) through religious austerity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapolokam. one of the 7 worlds (also called tapar-l-,situated above the jana-l-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapolokam. plural Name of a family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapomayamf(ī-)n. consisting in or composed of religious austerities, 3990; 14430 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapomayamf(ī-)n. practising religious austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapomūlamfn. founded on religious austerity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapomūlam. Name of a son of manu- tāmasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapomūrtif. an incarnation of religious austerity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapomūrtim. equals paso-m- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taponidhānan. a treasury of Penance, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taponidhim. "austerity-treasury", an eminently pious man (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taponidhim. ([ pasāṃ n- (G)i, 67, 3]) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taponiṣṭhamfn. practising austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taponityamfn. devoting one's self incessantly to religious austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taponityam. Name of a man (with the patronymic pauruśiṣṭi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapontamfn. ending with penance, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taponubhāvam. equals paḥ-prabh- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taporājam. the moon (as presiding over austerities) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taporāśim. an accumulation of religious austerities (puruṣottama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taporatamfn. rejoicing in religious austerity, pious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taporatimfn. idem or 'mfn. rejoicing in religious austerity, pious ' , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taporatim. Name of a son of manu- tāmasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taporatim. equals -ravi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taporavim. "sun of ascetics", Name of a ṛṣi- of the 12th manv-antara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taporthīyamfn. destined for austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapośanam. "whose food is austerity", Name of a ṛṣi- of the 12th manvantara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapośanam. of a son of manu- tāmasa-, 428. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapovanan. a grove in which religious austerities are performed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapovanāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapovariṣṭhamfn. excellent in penance, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapovāsam. equals paḥsthala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapovatmfn. engaged in austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapovaṭam. brahmāvarta- (in central India) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapovidhānan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapovidhim. Name of two jaina- texts. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapovrātam. a multitude of austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapovṛddhamfn. rich in religious austerity () . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapoyajñamfn. sacrificing by austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapoyogam. the practice of penance, ib, i, 41 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapoyuktamfn. engaged in austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udarapoṣaṇan. feeding the belly, supporting life. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uktipoṣam. a pleonastic expression, , Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upod( upa-ud-) P. -unatti-, to wet, moisten View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodāhṛP. -harati-, to quote in addition, mention a further quotation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodakamfn. near to water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodakaf(ī-, ikā-)n. Basella Cordifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodāsṛpP. (imperfect tense -āsarpat-) to creep out towards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodāsṛptamfn. crept out towards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodayamind. about the time of sunrise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodbalakamfn. helping, promoting on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodbalakamfn. confirming, asserting on commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodbalanan. the act of confirming, assertion, ratification commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodbalayaNom. (fr. bala-) upodbalayati-, to help, promote commentator or commentary on ; to assert, confirm, ratify commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodbalitamfn. confirmed, asserted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoddhan( upa-ud-han-), Causal -ghātayati-, to speak of at the beginning, introduce, begin, commence on on commentator or commentary on
upodghātam. an introduction, preface, commencement, beginning on etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodghātam. any observation or episodical narrative inserted by the way View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodghātam. anything begun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodghātam. an example, opposite argument or illustration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodghātam. analysis, the ascertainment of the elements of anything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodghātapādam. Name of the third part of the vāyu-purāṇa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodgrahP. -gṛhṇāti-, to bring near (to the mouth) after (others have done so) ; to perceive, know [Comm.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodgṛhya ind.p. holding together and holding upwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoḍhamfn. (in some cases not to be distinguished from 2. upoḍha- q.v under upoh-) brought near, effected, appeared View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoḍhamfn. etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoḍhamfn. near (in time and space) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoḍhāf. "brought home in addition to", a second or inferior but favourite wife (edition Schlegel; vāvātā-[q.v.] edition Bombay i, 14, 35) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoḍhaFor 1. See upa-vah-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoḍhafor 2. See upoh-, next column View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoḍhamfn. (in some cases not to be distinguished from 1. upoḍha-,) pushed or driven near, near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoḍhamfn. brought near, caused to appear, produced etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoḍhamfn. brought about, advanced, commenced View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoḍhamfn. heaped up, accumulated, gathered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodiP. -eti-, to go towards, advance to meet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodīkā varia lectio for upodikā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoditam. Name of a man on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoditim. Name of a ṛṣi- (son of gopāla-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upodyamP. -yacchati-, to erect by supporting or propping View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoh( upa-- 1 ūh-; see upa-vah-) P. upohati-, to push or pull or draw near ; to drive near, impel towards ; to push under, insert ; to add, accumulate ; to bring near, cause to appear, produce ; Passive voice upohyate-, to draw near, approach (as a point of time) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoham. the act of accumulating, heaping up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upohya ind.p. having pushed near etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upokṣ( upa-ukṣ-) P. -ukṣati-, to sprinkle in addition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoktavatīf. (scilicet ṛc-) a verse containing any form of upa-vac- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upolapamfn. nearly of the character of a shrub, shrub-like View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upolava Name (also title or epithet) of a plant, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upondanan. wetting, watering, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uponnī(upa-ud--) P. -nayati-, to lead up towards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upopadhāA1. (Potential -dadhīta-) to bring near or procure in addition to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upopaparāmṛśP. (imperative 2. sg. -mṛśa-) to touch closely View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upopaviśP. -viśati-, to sit down or take a seat by the side of, sit down near to (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upopayātamfn. approached, come near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upo( upa-uṣ-) P. upoṣati- (but Potential /upauṣet- , against ) to burn down, burn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoṣadham. Name of a man () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoṣaṇan. a fast, fasting. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoṣaṇīyaprabham. = amitā- bha-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoṣayaNom. P. upoṣayati-, to celebrate or pass (time) by fasting. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoṣitamfn. one who has fasted, fasting etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoṣitan. a fast, fasting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoṣyamfn. to be celebrated or passed by fasting (as time). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upoṣya ind.p. having fasted, fasting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upotamfn. put into, wrapped, enveloped (in armour or mail) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upotaSee upa-ve-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upof. varia lectio for upodikā- below View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upotkram(upa-ud-kram-) P. (imperfect tense 3. plural up/od-akrāman-) to go up or ascend towards (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upotsad(upa-ud-sad-) P. to set out or depart towards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upotsic(upa-ud-sic-) P. -siñcati-, to pour out upon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upottamfn. moistened, wet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upottamamfn. last but one etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upottaman. (with or without akṣara-) the last vowel but one etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upottaramfn. later, , Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upotthā( upa-ud-sthā-) P. -tiṣṭhati-, to stand up or rise towards, advance to meet, approach etc. ; to rise or set out towards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upotthāya ind.p. having risen towards, advancing to meet etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upotthitamfn. risen up towards, approached, come near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utpoṣadham. Name of an ancient king () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaipotākhyan. a kind of dance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vālāgrapotikāf. a kind of pleasure-house floating on a lake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
valgupodakīAmaranthus Polygamus or Oleraceus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
valliśākaṭapotikāf. a kind of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaṃśapotam. "bamboo shoot"and,"child of a good family" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vanyopodakīf. a species of creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vapodaramfn. fat-bellied, corpulent (said of indra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vapoddharaṇan. the aperture through which the omentum is taken out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varāṅgarūpopetamfn. handsome and well shaped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varāṅgarūpopetamfn. (according to to others, "shaped like an elephant") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varapotam. a kind of antelope View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varapotan. (prob.) a kind of vegetable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātapotha m. the tree Butea Frondosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātapothakam. the tree Butea Frondosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedyupoṣaṇamfn. burning the vedi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikalpopahāram. an optional offering. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipodhāmfn. (fr. vipas-+ dhā-) bestowing inspiration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipodhāSee vip-, p.972. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipothitamfn. crushed, shattered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrapoṣim. thriving or prosperous condition of men or of sons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśrāntapuṣpodgamamfn. ceased from shooting forth blossoms
viśvāyupoṣasmfn. (viśvāyu--) causing prosperity to all men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vratopoham. (with aṅgirasām-) Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyājatapodhanam. a feigned or false ascetic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapoḍhamfn. driven away, removed, destroyed ( vyapoḍhābhra ḍhābhra- mfn.having the clouds driven away) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapoḍhamfn. manifested, displayed, exhibited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapoḍhamfn. opposite, contrary, reverse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapoḍhābhramfn. vyapoḍha
vyapoh( -apa-- 1 ūh-) P. -apohati- (Epic also te-), to drive away, keep off, remove, destroy etc. ; to atone for, expiate (guilt) ; to heal, cure (sickness) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapoham. driving away, keeping off, removal, destruction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapoham. denial, negation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapoham. sweepings, rubbish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapohakamfn. driving away, removing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapohakamfn. driving away, removing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapohanastotran. Name of a stotra- (prob. equals vyapoha-stava-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapohastavam. Name of a chapter of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapohyamfn. deniable (See a-vy-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yonipoṣaṇan. the growing of seed or grain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pocchrayam. the ceremony of erecting a sacrificial post View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
polūkhalikamfn. having sacrificial posts and mortars (for pounding) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
Results for po82 results
     
po पो a. Pure, clean.
poḍuḥ पोडुः The bone forming the upper part of the skull.
pogaṇḍa पोगण्ड a. [पौः शुद्धो गण्ड एकदेशो यस्य Tv.] 1 Young, not adult or fullgrown. -2 Having a deficient or redundant member. -3 Deformed. -ण्डः A boy, one from his 5th to his 16th year; 'बाल आ षोडशाद् वर्षात् पोगण्डश्चापि शब्दितः' Nārad; Ms.8.148; cf. अपोगण्ड.
polaḥ पोलः 1 A heap. -2 Bulk, magnitude.
polikā पोलिका पोली A kind of cake (of wheat).
polindaḥ पोलिन्दः The mast of a ship.
poplūyamāna पोप्लूयमान a. Floating often and often; (पुष्पसंचयान्) पोप्लूयमानानपरान् पश्य त्वं तनुमध्यमे Rām.2.95.1.
poṣadhaḥ पोषधः A fasting day, sacred day; Buddh.
poṣaḥ पोषः [पुष्-घञ्] 1 Nourishing, supporting, maintaining. -2 Nourishment, growth, increase, advance. -3 Prosperity, plenty, abundance.
poṣakaḥ पोषकः One who maintains or nourishes, a supporter.
poṣaṇam पोषणम् Nourishing, fostering, supporting, maintaining.
poṣayitnuḥ पोषयित्नुः The cuckoo.
poṣin पोषिन् पोष्टृ a. [पुष्-णिनि तृच् च] One who feeds, nourishes &c. -m. A feeder, nourisher, protector.
poṣita पोषित p. p. Nourished, supported &c.
poṣitṛ पोषितृ a. One who feeds, nourishes &c. -m. A feeder.
poṣya पोष्य a. [पुष्-कर्मणि ण्यत्] 1 To be fed, nourished or supported. -2 Well-fed, thriving. -3 Causing prosperity. -4 Abundant, copious. -Comp. -पुत्रः, -सुतः an adopted son; अधुना कृत्तिकादीनां षण्णां यः पोष्यपुत्रकः । तन्नाम चक्रुस्ताः प्रेम्णा कार्तिकश्चेति कौतुकात् ॥ Brav. P. -वर्गः a class of relatives, who must be nourished and protected.
poṭā पोटा 1 A masculine woman, a woman with a beard or such other masculine features; पोटा तु स्त्री नृलक्षणा Abh. Chin. -2 A hermaphrodite. -3 A female servant.
poṭaḥ पोटः 1 The foundation of a house. -2 Putting together, uniting, mixing. -Comp. -गलः 1 a kind of reed (नल). -2 a kind of grass (काश); पोटगलास्तु धमनो नडः Abh. Chin.11.93. -3 a kind of fish.
potaḥ पोतः [पू-तन्; Uṇ.3.86] 1 The young of any animal, cub, colt, foal &c.; पिब स्तन्यं पोत Bv.1.6; मृगपोतः; शार्दूल˚ Mu.2.8; करिपोतः &c; वीरपोतः a young warrior; कोप्ययं वीरपोतः U.5.3. -2 An elephant ten years old. -3 A ship, raft, boat; पोतो दुस्तरवारिराशितरणे H.2.124; नभस्वता प्रतीपेन भग्नपोता इवार्णवे Śiva B.22.11; हा विपद्- वारिनिधिपतितजनोद्धरणपोत Nāg.5. -4 A garment, cloth. -5 The young shoot of a plant. -6 The site or foundation of a house. -7 A foetus having no enveloping membrane. -Comp. -आच्छादनम् a tent. -आधानम् a shoal of small fish. -धारिन् m. the master of a vessel. -प्लवः a mariner, seaman. -भङ्गः a ship-wreck. -रक्षः the rudder of a boat or ship. -वणिज् m. a sea-faring merchant; धत्ते पोतवणिग्जनैर्धनदतां यस्यान्तिके सागरः Śiva B. 29.89. -वाहः a rower, steersman.
poṭakaḥ पोटकः A servant. पोटलः pōṭalḥ पोटलकः pōṭalakḥ पोटलिका pōṭalikā पोटलः पोटलकः पोटलिका See पोट्टलः &c.
potakaḥ पोतकः 1 The young of an animal. -2 young plant. -3 The site of a house.
potana पोतन a. 1 Sacred, holy. -2 Purifying.
potāsaḥ पोतासः A kind of camphor.
potāyitam पोतायितम् p. p. of the denominative of पोत; an elephant's roar produced with the lips and (or) soft palate; तत् पोतायितमोष्ठतालुजनितम् Mātaṅga L.2.13.
pothā पोथा A kind of wind instrument.
pothaḥ पोथः A blow, stroke; तथा तयोर्गदापोथैर्दिशः सर्वाः प्रति- श्रुताः Rām.7.32.55.
pothakī पोथकी Red pimples on the eyelids (Mar. रांजणवाडी).
pothita पोथित p. p. Hurt, killed, destroyed.
poṭī पोटी 1 A large alligator. -2 The rectum. पोट्टल pōṭṭala पोट्टलिका pōṭṭalikā पोट्टली pōṭṭalī पोट्टल पोट्टलिका पोट्टली A bundle, packet, parcel.
poṭikaḥ पोटिकः A boil, pustule.
potṛ पोतृ m. 1 One of the sixteen officiating priests at a sacrifice (assistant of the priest called ब्रह्मन्). -2 An epithet of Viṣṇu.
potram पोत्रम् [पू-त्र] 1 The snout of a hog; धृतविधुरधरं महा- वराहं गिरिगुरुपोत्रमपीहितैर्जयन्तम् Bk.1.6; Ki.13.53. -2 A boat, ship. -3 A plough share. -4 The thunderbolt. -5 A garment. -6 The office of the Potṛi. -Comp. -आयुधः a hog, boar.
potrin पोत्रिन् m. A hog, boar.
potyā पोत्या A multitude of boats.
apoḍha अपोढ p. p. Carried away, removed &c. See अपवह्.
apoḍha अपोढ see under अप-वह्.
apodaka अपोदक a. Ved. 1 Waterless; water-tight (नौः Rv. 1.116.3.). -2 Not watery, not fluid. -कम् [अपकृष्टमुदकं यस्मात्] Poison &c. that removes water (जलापकर्षहेतु विषादि).
apodikā अपोदिका की f. A sort of pot-herb (अपनद्धमुदकं यस्याः, तत्फलेषूदकवत्त्यात्तथात्वम्). -की see उपोदकी. Bassella Lueida or Rubra (Mar. थोरमयाळ
apoh अपोह् 1 U. [अप-उह् or ऊह्] To remove, drive or push away, dispel, take away, destroy; स हि विघ्नान- पोहति Ś.3.1; कुसुमानि...प्रभवन्त्यायुरपोहितुं यदि R.8.44,54; पूर्वमुत्सवमपौहदुत्सवः (उत्तरः) 19.5 pushed away, displaced, supplanted; मनसिजरुजं सा वा दिव्या ममालमपोहितुम् V.3.1; अकिञ्चिदपि कुर्वाणः सौख्यैर्दुःखान्यपोहति U.2.19 Removes; Bk.17.83;15.119; Ms.8.414,11.18; कल्पनाया अपोढः कल्पनापोढः P.II.1.38 Sk. removed from, or beyond imagination -2 To heal, cure (as illness). 3 To avoid, give up, leave; सर्वान् रसानपोहेत Ms.1.86; पञ्चवठ्यां ततो रामः...अनपोढस्थितिस्तस्थौ R.12.31 not leaving (the path of) propriety. -4 To deny; स्थाप्यते$पोह्यते वा चेत् S. D.73. -5 To reason, argue by way of opposing a statement.
apohaḥ अपोहः 1 Removing, driving away, healing &c. -2 Removal of doubt by the excercise of the reasoning faculty. -3 Reasoning, arguing; reasoning faculty. -4 Negative reasoning (opp. ऊह) (अपरतर्कनिरासाय कृतो विपरीतस्तर्कः). one of the dhiguṇas q. v. स्वयमूहापोहासमर्थः; इमे मनुष्या दृश्यन्ते ऊहापोहविशारदाः Mb.13. 145.43. ऊहापोहमिमं सरोजनयना यावद्विधत्तेतराम् Bv.2.74; hence ऊहापोह = complete discussion of a question. -5 Excluding all things not coming under the category in point; तद्वानपोहो वा शब्दार्थः (where Maheśvara paraphrases अपोह by अतद्व्यावृत्ति i. e. तद्भिन्नत्यागः), -6 A superfluous member attached to a structure of some construction.
apohanam अपोहनम् 1 Removal &c. = अपाह above. -2 Reasoning faculty; मत्तः स्मृतिर्ज्ञानमपोहनं च Bg.15.15 (Mr Telang translates अ˚ by removal; Lok. Tilak translates as नाश.) ततो धर्मस्ततो ज्ञानं यावत्स्मृतिरपोहनम् Bhāg.11.13.6.
apohita अपोहित a. 1 Removed; न च सामर्थ्यमपोहितं क्वचित् Ki.2. 27. -2 Denied (in disputation, opp. to स्थापित).
apohya अपोह्य अपोहनीय pot. p. To be removed, taken away; मृत्युर्बुद्धिमतापोह्यो यावद् बुद्धिबलोदयम् Bhāg.1.1.48. expiated (as sin); to be established by reason. अपौरुष apauruṣa पौरुषेय pauruṣēya अपौरुष पौरुषेय a. 1 Unmanly, cowardly, timid. -2 Superhuman, not of the authorship of man, of divine origin; अपौरुषेया वेदाः; अपौरुषेयप्रतिष्ठः सुवर्णबिन्दुरि- त्याख्यायते Māl.9. not set up by (the hand of) man. -षम् -षेयम् 1 Cowardice, pussilanimity. -2 Superhuman power.
āpoklimam आपोक्लिमम् N. of the 3rd, 6th, 9th, or 12th position (in Astrol.); तृतीयं षष्ठनवममन्त्यं चापोक्लिमं विदुः; also केन्द्रात् परं पणफरं पूर्वमापोक्लिमं मतम्. [cf. Gr. apoklima].
āpomaya आपोमय a. (-यी f.) [आपस्-विकारे प्राचुर्ये वा मयट्] Consisting of water; आपोमयः प्राणः Ch. Up.6.5.4.
āpomātrā आपोमात्रा The subtle elementary principle of water; आपश्चापोमात्रा च Praśna. Up.4.8.
āpośānaḥ आपोशानः N. of a kind of prayer or formula repeated before and after eating (the formulas being respectively अमृतोपस्तरणमसि स्वाहा and अमृतापिधानमसि स्वाहा); आपोशानक्रियापूर्वं सत्कृतान्नमकुत्सयन् Y.1.31,16. -नम् The act of making an उपस्तरण (seat) and अपिधान (covering) for the food eaten.
upoṣaṇam उपोषणम् A fast, fasting; नास्ति स्त्रीणां पृथग् यज्ञो न व्रतं नाप्युपोषणम् Ms.3.155.
upoṣita उपोषित a. One who has fasted, -तम् A fast, fasting.
upoḍha उपोढ p. p. 1 Collected, accumulated, increased, stored up; उपोढतपसाम् Ś.5.7; ˚बलस्य ते M.5.1; V.2.7; so ˚मदः, ˚हर्षः &c. -2 Brought near, proximate, near; उपोढकल्याणफलो$भिरक्षन् Ki.17.54,13.23. -3 Arrayed for battle (as an army). -4 Begun, commenced; तदुपोढं महद्युद्धमन्योन्यवधकाङ्क्षिणोः Rām.6.16.18. उपोढशब्दा न रथाङ्गनेमयः Ś.7.1 causing sound. -5 Married. -6 A battle-array. -ढा A second, favourite wife; cf. वावाता in Rām.1.14.35.
upoḍha उपोढ See under उपवह्.
upo उपोती = उपोदिका q. v.
upotta उपोत्त a. Moistened, wet; Yv. Ts.4.
upottama उपोत्तम a. Last but one. -मम् (अक्षरम्) The last letter but one; cf. उपोत्तमं रिति P.IV.1.217.
upodaka उपोदक a. Near water. -कः proximity of water. -कम् ind. Near water. -का, -दिका, -दीका The plant Basella Rubra (पूतिका; Mar. थोर मयाळ).
upodgrahaḥ उपोद्ग्रहः Knowledge.
upodghātaḥ उपोद्घातः 1 A beginning, commencement. -2 An introduction, a preface. -3 An example, an apposite argument or illustration. -4 An occasion, medium, means; तत्प्रतिच्छन्दकमुपोद्घातेन माधवान्तिकमुपेयात् Māl.1. -5 Analysis, ascertaining the elements of anything. -6 Alluding to, mentioning; Mu.3. -Comp. -पादः N. of the third part of the Vāyu P.
upodbalayati उपोद्बलयति Den. P. To confirm, strengthen.
upodbalaka उपोद्बलक a. Confirming; तस्य पक्षस्योपोद्बलकानि Ś. B. तस्यैवोपोद्बलकमेतत् 1.2.64.
upodbalanam उपोद्बलनम् Confirmation, corroboration. उपोषणम् upōṣaṇam उपोषितम् upōṣitam उपोषणम् उपोषितम् A fast.
upoh उपोह् 1 P. (उप-ऊह्) 1 To propel, push or impel towards; उपोह्य रुचिरां नावम् Rām.; so धनुः. -2 To push under, insert; कूर्चावधस्तादुपोह्य Kātyāyana. -3 To bring near, produce; connected with उपवह् in this sense; q. v. -4 To accumulate, collect. -pass. 1 To be brought about. -2 To advance, begin.
upoḍha उपोढ p. p. See under उपवह्.
upohaḥ उपोहः Ved. Adding, accumulating; उपोहश्च समहश्च क्षत्तारौ ते प्रजापते Av.3.24.7.
kapotaḥ कपोतः [को वायुः पोत इव यस्य Tv.] 1 A dove, pigeon. -2 A bird in general. -3 A particular position of the hands. -4 The grey colour of a pigeon. -Comp. -अङ्घ्रिः f. a sort of perfume. -अञ्जनम् antimony. -अरिः a hawk, falcon. -आभ a. of the colour of a pigeon. (-भः) a pale of dirty white colour. -चरणा a sort of perfume. -पालिका, -पाली f. an aviary, a pigeon-house, dove-cot. -राजः the king of pigeons. -वर्णी Small cardamoms. -वाणा a kind of perfume. -वृत्तिः f. to be very frugal, gathering very little for maintenance; कपोतवृत्त्या पक्षेण व्रीहिद्रोणमुपार्जयत् Mb.3.26.5. -सारम् antimony. -हस्तः a mode of folding the hands in supplication, fear &c.; कपोतहस्तकं कृत्वा Ś.6.
kapotakaḥ कपोतकः 1 A small pigeon; Bhāg.11.7.72. -2 A mode of folding the hands together. -कम् Antimony.
kapotakīyā कपोतकीया A place abounding in pigeons.
kapo कपोती 1 A female pigeon. -2 A kind of sacrificial post.
kapolaḥ कपोलः [Uṇ.1.66] A cheek; क्षामक्षामकपोलमाननम् Ś.3.9,6.15; R.4.68. -ली The knee-cap. -Comp. -काषः any object against which anything (especially the cheeks) is rubbed; लीनालिः सुरकरिणां कपोलकाषः Ki.5.26. -ताडनम् Striking the cheeks (in confession of fault). -पत्रम् A mark painted on the cheek; कपोल- पत्रान्मकरात्सकेतुः N.7.6. -पालिः, -ली f. The side of a cheek; कपोलपालिं तव तन्वि मन्ये Bv.2.1. -फलकः the (broad) cheeks. -भित्तिः f. the temples and cheeks; or excellent (i. e. broad) cheeks; cf. गण्डभित्ति. -रागः the flush in the cheek.
pota कापोत a. (ती f.) [कपोत-अण्] 1 grey, of a dirty white colour. -2 Not hoarding much, very frugal; स्तुवन्वृत्तिं च कापोतीं दुहित्रा स ययौ पुरात् Bhāg.9.18.25. -तम् 1 A flock of pigeons. -2 Antimony. -3 Natron. -4 Fossil. -तः The grey colour. -Comp. -अञ्जनम् antimony applied to the eyes as collyrium.
kaupodakī कौपोदकी The mace of Kṛiṣṇa.
khalekapotanyāyaḥ खलेकपोतन्यायः The maxim of the pigeons flocking together on the open ground to pick up grains of corn, simultaneously; अर्थेन प्रधानोपकारेण खलेकपोतवत् युगपत् संनि- पतन्त्यङ्गानि । ŚB. on MS.11.1.16.
tapomaya तपोमय a. 1 Consisting in religious penance; एतान्य- दर्शन्गुरवः पुराणाः स्वान्येव तेजांसि तपोमयानि Mv.1.42. -2 Practising penace, devout. -यः The Supreme Being.
paripoṭaḥ परिपोटः पोटकः A particular disease of the ear (in medicine) (by which the ear loses its skin).
paripoṣaṇam परिपोषणम् 1 Feeding, nourishing. -2 Furthering, promoting.
vispoṭaḥ विस्पोटः टा 1 A boil, pimple, tumour. -2 Smallpox. -3 Cracking, crashing; Mb.
vyapoḍha व्यपोढ p. p. Expelled, removed. -2 Contrary, opposite; व्यपोढपार्श्वैरपवर्तितत्रिकाः Ki.4.15. -3 Manifested, displayed, shown.
vyapoh व्यपोह् 1 P. 1 To atone for, expiate. -2 To heal, cure. -3 To drive away, remove, keep off; व्यपोह्य शीर्षकपाले T. Up.1.6.1.
vyapohaḥ व्यपोहः 1 Expelling, driving away, keeping off. -2 Heap (समूह); अत्रैवात्रेति च विभो जातमत्रिं वदन्त्यपि । तथा भस्मव्यपोहेभ्यो ब्रह्मर्षिगणसंमताः ॥ Mb.13.85.8. -3 Denial, negation.
śataponaḥ शतपोनः A sieve.
śataponakaḥ शतपोनकः Fistula in the anus (with many external openings).
sapota सपोत a. Having a boat.
samupoḍha समुपोढ p. p. 1 Gone upwards, risen; यथेन्दावानन्दं व्रजति समुपोढे कुमुदिनी U.5.26. -2 Increased. -3 Brought near; समुपोढेषु कामेषु निरपेक्षः परिव्रजेत् Ms.6.41. -4 Restrained. -5 Begun.
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poṣa póṣ-a, m. prosperity, i. 1, 3 [puṣ thrive].
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pogaṇḍa a. not full grown; m. boy.
poṣa m. thriving, prosperity; de velopment, increase; abundance, wealth; nourishing, nurture, rearing.
poṣaka a. nourishing, breeding, rearing; m. nourisher, breeder; -ana, a. cherishing, favouring (--°ree;); n. nurture, maintenance, cultivation (of trees, of the senses); -anîya, fp. to be nourished; -ayitnú, a. causing to thrive (ac.); -ayishnú, a. beneficial; -i-tri, m. nourisher, breeder; -in, a. rearing, bringing up (--°ree;); -u-ka, a. thriving; -tri, m. nourisher, bringer up; -ya, fp. thriving, well-fed; abundant; causing prosperity; to be nourished: -putraka, m. adopted son.
pota m. young of an animal (only --°ree; with names of animals); young shoot, young -(only --°ree; with names of plants); m. n. vessel, ship, bark, boat: -ka, m. young of an animal; young tree (--°ree;); -tva, n. condition of a boat or ship.
potaplava m. boatman; -banig, m. voyaging merchant; -bha&ndot;ga, m. ship wreck; -½âdhâna, n. fry (of fish).
potāsa m. kind of camphor.
potha m. blow, with (--°ree;).
poṭī f. straight gut.
potikā f. cloth, garment.
potra n. Soma-vessel of the Potri; office of the Potri; boar's snout: (a)-ka, m. N.
potrin m. wild boar.
potrīya a. belonging or relating to the Potri.
anapoḍha pp. not pushed away; not given up.
anukampokti f. expression of sympathy.
apoha m. removal; combating, disputing; -na, a. removing; n. removal.
apoḍha pp. √ vah.
apogaṇḍa a. not under age, over sixteen.
ātapovanam ad. up to the hermits' wood.
āpo&100;śāna n. rinsing of the mouth accompanied by the words âpo&zip;sâna before & after eating.
āpomaya a. consisting of water.
upoḍha pp. (√ vah) married.
upoṣita pp. (√ vas, dwell) n. id.
upoṣaṇa n. fasting.
upodbalaka a. supporting: -tva, n. abst. n.; -bala-ya, den. P. support.
upodghāta m. introduction; be ginning; apt instance.
upodaka a. close to the water; î, f. a plant.
kapotikā f. dove: -nyâya, m. fashion of a dove (which did good even to an enemy).
kapota m. pigeon; î, f. female pigeon; -ka, m. little pigeon; -pâlî, f. dove-cot.
kapola m. cheek; -kâsha, m. object which rubs against the cheek; -pâlî, f. edge of the cheek; -phalaka, n., -bhitti, f., -mû la, n. cheek-bone.
kampottara a. trembling vio lently.
pota a. (î) peculiar to pigeons.
khalekapotanyāya m. manner in which a flock of pigeons swoop on a threshing-floor; -kapotikâ, f. id.
gṛhakapota m. domestic pigeon; -karma-kara, m. domestic; -karma-dâsa, m. domestic slave; -karman, n. household affair; -kâraka, m. carpenter; -kârin, m. kind of wasp; -kârya, n. household affair; -kritya, n. id.; kind of tax; -gupta, (pp.) m. N.; -kkhidra, n. hole or weak point in the house; -ga, a. born in the house; -gana, m. family; -gâta, pp. born in the house; -dâru, n. beam of a house; -dâha, m. con flagration; -dîpti, f. light (=ornament) of the house; -devatâ, f. pl. domestic deities; -dvâra, n. house-door; -nadikâ, f. drain of a house; -nirvâha, m. housekeeping; -pá, m. guardian of the house; (á)-pati, m. master of the house, paterfamilias; ep. of Agni; one who has precedence at a Sattra; village magistrate; -pâta, m. collapse of a house; -pâla, m. guardian of the house; -poshana, n. maintenance of the household; -bali, m.domestic offering: -bhug, m. bird that feeds on the domestic offering (sparrows, crows, and other birds); -bhartri, m. master of the house; -bhogin, m. member of the house hold; -medhá, 1. m. domestic sacrifice; 2. a.performing or taking part in the domestic sacrifices; m. householder, paterfamilias; -medhín, a. id.; m. married Brâhman house holder (second stage in his religious life): -î, f. Brâhman housewife.
tapodhana a. whose wealth is pen ance; devout, pious; m. ascetic, devotee; N.; -nidhi, m. treasury of penance; rigorous devotee; -bhrit, a. devout, pious; m. devotee, ascetic; -maya, a. (î) consisting of penance or austerity; devoted to piety; -mûla, a. having austerity for its root; -yagña, a. sacri ficing with penance; -yukta, pp. ascetic, pious; m. ascetic, devotee; -rata, pp. delighting in penance, devout; -rati, a. id.; -vat, a. ascetic, devout; -vana, n. sacred grove (in which ascetics practise penance); -vriddha, pp. abounding in penance, rigorously ascetic, very pious.
bāṣpotpīḍa m. gush of tears.
māyākapota m. phantom pigeon: -vapus, a. having the body of a --; -kâra, a. acting deceitfully; -kkhadma para, a. intent on deceit and fraud; -devî, f. N. of the mother of Buddha; -dhara, a.versed in jugglery or witchcraft; m. N. of a prince of the Asuras; -½adhika, a. abound ing in magic arts; -patu, a. skilled in witch craft; -pur, -purî, f. N. of a town; -prayoga, m. trickiness; versatility; -batu, m. N. of aprince of the Sabaras; -½abhyudayana, m. N. of a Kâyastha; -maya, a. (î) illusory, unreal; m. N. of a Râkshasa; -yantra, n. en chantment: °ree;--=magical; -vakana, n. hypo critical speech; (&asharp;)-vat, a. practising sorcery (RV.); deceitful, cunning; attended with magical arts: -î, f. kind of personified magi cal art; N. of a fairy's wife; N. of a prin cess; -vâda, m. doctrine of illusion (a term applied to Buddhism and Vedântism); -vid,a. familiar with magical arts; -vín, a. skilled in magic; fraudulent; guileful, deceitful; illusory; m. magician, sorcerer, juggler; -sîla, a. deceitful, fraudulent.
rāyaspoṣa m. increase of wealth (g. of rai).
vapoddharaṇa n. aperture for extracting the caul (S.).
śāpodaka n. water with which a curse is pronounced.
śilpopajīvin m. artist, craftsman.
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potṛ Is the name of one of the priests (Rtvij) of the sacri­ficial ritual. Already known to the Rigveda, he is frequently mentioned later in the Brāhmanas. But as Oldenberg observes, the Potṛ is not in the later literature a priest of any importance, but is practically a mere name. Judging by the derivation of the name from the root pū, ‘purify,’ it would seem that he was properly engaged in the purification of the Soma pavamāna, Soma purifying itself,’ and was perhaps employed to sing hymns to this Soma. Potra4 denotes both the office and the Soma vessel of the Potr.
upoditi gaupāleya Is mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāh­mana as a seer of Sāmans.
aupoditi ‘Descendant of Upodita,’ is the patronymic applied in the Taittirīya Samhitā to Tumiñja, and in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra to Gaupālāyana, son of Vyāghrapad, Sthapati (‘ general ’) of the Kurus. In the form of Aupoditeya, a metro­nymic from Upoditā, the name is found in the śatapatha Brāhmana, where the Kānva text calls him Tumiñja Aupo­diteya Vaiyāghrapadya.
kapota Is the name of a bird, probably the ‘ pigeon ’ (its sense in the later language), occurring from the Rigveda onwards. It is associated in some passages with the owl (Ulūka) as a messenger of Nirrti (‘dissolution,’ ‘misfortune’). This aspect of the pigeon as a bird of evil omen is probably based on an ancient belief which is also found beyond the confines of India.
taponitya (‘Constant in penance’) Pauru-śisti (‘descendant of Puruśista’) is the name of a teacher in the Taittirīya Upanisad who believed in the value of penance (tapas).
tumiñja aupoditi Is mentioned in the Taittirīya Samhitā as a Hotr priest at a Sattra, or ‘ sacrificial session,’ and as having been engaged in a discussion with Suśravas.
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popriṃ vayam amṛtaṃ jātovāhoyividosam (JB.1.176, -taṃ jāto vā , hiṃ māyi dāyivam) JB.1.169,176. Fragment: poprim JB.1.169,176; dāsam, dāyivam JB.1.176. Variations of pra-pra etc.
poṣaṃ rayīṇām ariṣṭiṃ tanūnām RV.2.21.6c; PG.1.18.6c.
poṣaṃ dehi KS.1.7; 31.6.
poṣam eva dive-dive RV.1.1.3b; TS.3.1.11.1b; 4.3.13.5b; MS.4.10.4b: 152.9; śB.11.4.3.19b; Kś.5.12.19b.
poṣāya VS.2.23. See poṣāya vaḥ.
poṣāya tvā VS.14.22; TS.7.1.11.1; 5.13.1; MS.1.1.3: 2.7; 1.3.30: 40.9; 1.11.3: 164.4; 2.8.3: 109.2; 2.11.6: 144.3; 4.7.4: 99.1; KS.17.3; 40.2; KSA.1.2; 5.9 (bis); śB.5.2.1.25; 8.3.4.10; TB.3.8.3.6; Apś.2.8.3; Mś.1.1.3.17; 1.2.6.4; 1.3.5.24; 2.5.4.7.
poṣāya vaḥ Apś.1.16.3. See poṣāya.
po viśvaṃ tad invati RV.2.5.2d.
potar yaja MS.3.6.8 (bis): 71.4,5; Apś.12.24.1; Mś.2.4.1.28. P: potaḥ Vait.19.5.
potrād ā somaṃ pibatā divo naraḥ RV.2.36.2d; AVś.20.67.4d.
potrād yajñaṃ punītana RV.1.15.2b.
potrāgnīdhro (read potāgnī?) nihitaṃ pādam ekam GB.1.5.24d.
potrāt somaṃ draviṇodaḥ piba ṛtubhiḥ RV.2.37.2d; AVś.20.67.7d.
agnitapo yathāsatha # RV.5.61.4c.
atāpo gharmo manuṣo duroṇe # RV.7.70.2b.
atiṣṭhipo diva ātāsu barhaṇā # RV.1.56.5b.
anyavāpo 'rdhamāsānām # VS.24.37; TS.5.5.17.1; MS.3.14.18: 176.6; KSA.7.7.
aparimitapoṣāyai tvātisṛjāmi # Kauś.24.20.
apo achā manaso na prayukti # RV.10.30.1b.
apo adyānv acāriṣam # VS.20.22a; MS.1.3.39a: 46.12; KS.4.13a; 29.3; 38.5a; śB.12.9.29; Lś.2.12.13a; Mś.1.7.4.47; MG.1.1.17; 11.25; 2.2.26; ApMB.2.6.6a (ApG.4.11.22); VārG.5.32. P: apo adya Kś.19.5.18. See next, apo divyā acāyiṣam, and āpo adyānv.
apo anv acāriṣam (JB. 'nv acārṣam) # TS.1.4.45.3a; 46.2a; TB.2.6.6.5a; JB.2.68a; Apś.7.27.16; 8.8.18; 18.10; 13.22.6. See under prec.
apo apācīr aparā apejate # RV.5.48.2c.
apo asṛjann anu vṛtratūrye # RV.10.66.8d.
apo ūrṇoti tamo arciṣā yan # RV.10.88.12d.
apo gā agne yuvase niyutvān # RV.6.60.2d; KS.4.15d.
apo gā vajrin yuvase sam indūn # RV.6.47.14d.
apochatu (AVś. apochantu) mithunā yā (AVś. ye) kimīdinā (AVś. kimīdinaḥ) # RV.7.104.23b; AVś.8.4.23b.
apochantī duḥṣvapnyam # AVP.1.99.1a. Cf. apeyaṃ rātry.
apochantv abhikṛtvarīḥ # AVś.2.8.2b. Cf. apa durhārdam.
apoḍhaṃ janyaṃ bhayam # Apś.6.5.6; Mś.1.6.1.15.
apoḍhāḥ senā abhītvarīḥ # Apś.6.5.6; Mś.1.6.1.15.
apo dattodadhiṃ bhinta # AVP.3.31.1b--5b; VS.18.55c; MS.2.4.7b (ter): 44.10,12,14; 2.12.3b: 146.18. See udno datto-, and cf. deva parameṣṭhinn.
apo divyā acāyiṣam # AVś.7.89.1a; 10.5.46a. P: apo divyāḥ Vait.3.18; 24.6; Kauś.42.13. See under apo adyānv.
apo divyā asṛjad varṣyā abhi # RV.10.98.5d; N.2.11d.
apo divyāḥ payasvatīḥ # KS.37.9d.
apodīco apa śūrādharācaḥ # RV.10.131.1c; AVś.20.125.1c; AB.6.22.2c; GB.2.6.4; TB.2.4.1.3c.
apo devā madhumatīr agṛbhṇan # VS.10.1a; śB.5.3.4.3. P: apo devāḥ Kś.15.4.43. See under apo devīr maetc.
apo devīḥ piśācānām # AVP.12.20.8a.
apo devīḥ prajāpatim # AVś.11.6.11b; AVP.15.14.4b.
apo devīḥ praṇayāni # Apś.1.16.8a.
apo devīr upa bruve # AVP.1.2.3a; Apś.4.5.5b. See apo devīr upa hvaye, and ā devīr avase.
apo devīr upasṛja (MS. -sṛjā) madhumatīḥ # VS.11.38a; TS.4.1.2.4a; MS.2.7.4a: 78.5; 3.1.5: 6.19; KS.16.4a; 19.5; śB.6.4.3.2a. Ps: apo devīr upasṛja Apś.16.2.11; apo devīḥ Kś.16.3.2; Mś.6.1.1.29.
apo devīr upa hvaye # RV.1.23.18a; AVś.1.4.3a; 6.23.1d; AB.2.20.23a. P: apo devīḥ Kauś.65.8. See under apo devīr upa bruve.
apo devīr madhumatīr agṛhṇan (MS.KS. agṛbhṇām) # TS.1.8.11.1a; MS.2.6.8a: 68.9; KS.15.6a; Apś.18.13.19. See apo devā, and āpo devīr madhumatīr.
apo devīr madhumatīr ghṛtaścutaḥ # AVś.10.9.27a.
apo devīr varuṇāya prajānan # AVP.14.1.1b.
apo devo vi gāhate # RV.9.3.6b; SV.2.607b.
apo dhanvāny ati yātho ajrān # RV.6.62.2d.
apo na kṣodo 'vṛṇītam eṣe # RV.1.180.4b.
apo na dhīro manasā suhastyaḥ # RV.1.64.1c.
apo na nāvā duritā tarema # RV.6.68.8d; 7.65.3d; KS.12.14d.
apo nayanta ūrmayaḥ # SV.1.478b; 2.114b. See apāṃ na yanty.
apo na vajrin duritāti parṣi bhūri # RV.8.97.15b.
apo na vāṃ sunoty akṣṇayādhruk # RV.1.122.9b.
apo niṣiñcann asuraḥ pitā naḥ # RV.5.83.6d; AVś.4.15.12a; AVP.5.7.10e; TS.3.1.11.7d; KS.11.13d.
apo 'nu vi krame 'ham # AVś.10.5.33.
apo bibhrataṃ tamasā parīvṛtam # RV.10.113.6d.
apo bhagābhiṣecanīḥ # AVP.8.10.9b.
apo 'bhivyakhyam (JG. 'bhivīkṣe) # KhG.2.5.31; JG.1.17.
apo manuṣyān oṣadhīḥ # AVś.8.9.23c.
apo mahi vyayati cakṣase tamaḥ # RV.7.81.1c. See apo mahī.
apo mahīr abhiśaster amuñcaḥ # RV.10.104.9a.
apo mahī vṛṇute cakṣuṣā tamaḥ # SV.1.303c; 2.101c; TB.3.1.3.2c. See apo mahi.
apo māṃsaṃ bibhratī mā vyathiṣṭhāḥ # AVP.14.5.9c.
apo mā prāpan malam etad agne # AVś.14.2.69e.
apo muñcāmi na prajām # VS.4.13; śB.3.2.2.20; Apś.10.13.9. P: apo muñcāmi Kś.7.4.37.
apo mauṣadhīmatīḥ etc. # see āpo mauṣadhīmatīḥ etc.
apo yat tūrṇiś carati prajānan # RV.10.88.6d; N.7.27d.
apo yad agna uśadhag vaneṣu # RV.3.6.7c.
apo yad adriṃ puruhūta dardaḥ # RV.4.16.8a; AVś.20.77.8a.
apo yahvīr asṛjat sartavā u # RV.5.29.2d.
apo yācāmi bheṣajam (MS. yātām abheṣajam) # RV.10.9.5c; AVś.1.5.4c; AVP.1.1.4c; MS.4.9.27c: 139.10; TB.2.5.8.6c; TA.4.42.4c.
apo yūṣṇā (TS.KSA. yūṣeṇa) # VS.25.9; TS.5.7.20.1; MS.3.15.8: 180.1; KSA.13.10.
apo yena sukṣitaye tarema # RV.7.56.24c.
apo rireca sakhibhir nikāmaiḥ # RV.4.16.6b; AVś.20.77.6b.
aporṇute vakṣa usreva barjaham # RV.1.92.4b.
aporṇuvantas tama ā parīvṛtam # RV.4.45.2c.
apo vandasva savṛdhaḥ sayonīḥ # RV.10.30.10d.
apo 'vabhṛtham abhyupaimi # Kś.4.15.5.
apo vasānaḥ ka u tac ciketa # AVś.10.2.7d.
apo vasānaḥ pari kośam arṣati # RV.9.107.26a.
apo vasānaḥ pari gobhir uttaraḥ # RV.9.107.18c.
apo vasānam andhasā # RV.9.16.2b.
apo vasānā divam utpatanti # RV.1.164.47b; AVś.6.22.1b; 9.10.22b; 13.3.9b; MS.4.12.5b: 193.7; KS.11.9b,13b; N.7.24b. See miho vasānā.
apo vasāno adhi sāno avye # RV.9.96.13b; SV.1.532b.
apo vasāno abhi gā iyakṣati # RV.9.78.1b.
apo vasāno arṣasi # RV.9.107.4b; SV.1.511b; 2.25b; JB.1.121,322.
apo vasāno mahiṣo vi gāhate # RV.9.86.40b.
apo vasiṣṭha sukratuḥ # RV.9.2.3c; SV.2.389c.
apo vastinā # VS.25.7. Cf. apa āsyena.
apo vā gacha yadi tatra te hitam # RV.10.16.3c; AVś.18.2.7c; TA.6.1.4c; 7.3c; 9.2.
apo vṛṇānaḥ pavate kavīyan (SV. kavīyān; TS. kavyan) # RV.9.94.1c; SV.1.539c; TS.7.1.20.1c; KSA.1.11c.
apo vṛṇānā vitanoti māyinī # RV.5.48.1d.
apo vṛtraṃ varivāṃsaṃ parāhan # RV.4.16.7a; AVś.20.77.7a.
apo vṛtvī rajaso budhnam āśayat # RV.1.52.6b.
apo 'śāna # śB.11.5.4.5 (bis); AG.1.22.2; śG.2.4.5; Kauś.56.12; GG.2.10.34; PG.2.3.2 (bis); HG.1.5.10; JG.1.12; ApMB.2.6.14 (ApG.5.11.25). Cf. YDh.1.31,106; VHDh.8.56; AuśDh.3.102; BṛhPDh.4.167; 5.259,260; VyāsaDh.3.70.
apoṣā anasaḥ sarat # RV.4.30.10a; N.11.47a.
apo ṣu ṇa iyaṃ śaruḥ # RV.8.67.15a.
apo ṣu myakṣa etc. # see next but one.
apoṣṭaṃ sarvaṃ kṣetriyam # AVP.1.99.1c. Cf. apa kṣetriyam.
apo su (MS. ṣu) myakṣa varuṇa bhiyasaṃ mat # RV.2.28.6a; MS.4.14.9a: 229.1.
apo hy eṣām ajuṣanta devāḥ # RV.4.33.9a.
aruṣastūpo ruśad asya pājaḥ # RV.3.29.3c; VS.34.14c.
alpo roditi no mahān # AVP.5.21.4d.
asnātāpo vṛṣabho na pra veti # RV.10.4.5c.
āpo agniṃ yaśasaḥ saṃ hi pūrvīḥ # RV.3.1.11b.
āpo agniṃ pra hiṇuta pitṝṃr upa # AVś.18.4.40a. P: āpo agnim Kauś.88.23. See āpo devīḥ prahiṇutā-.
āpo agraṃ divyā oṣadhayaḥ # AVś.8.7.3a.
āpo agre viśvam āvan # AVś.4.2.6a. See under āpo ha yad bṛhatīr.
āpo achāvadāmasi # AVś.19.2.3d; AVP.8.8.9d.
āpo adyānv acāriṣam # RV.1.23.23a; 10.9.9a; AVP.1.33.1a; Aś.3.6.27. See under apo etc.
āpo amīvacātanīḥ # RV.10.137.6b; AVś.3.7.5b; 6.91.3b; AVP.3.2.7b; 5.18.9b.
āpo arṣanti sindhavaḥ # RV.9.2.4b; 66.13b; SV.2.390b; JB.3.137b.
āpo asmān praviśantu # KA.1.72a; 2.72.
āpo asmān (MS. mā) mātaraḥ śundhayantu (AVś.AVPṃS.KS. sūdayantu; TS.Apś. śundhantu) # RV.10.17.10a; AVś.6.51.2a; AVP.6.3.4a; VS.4.2a; TS.1.2.1.1a; KS.2.1a; MS.1.2.1a: 10.1; 3.6.2: 61.7; śB.3.1.2.11; Aś.6.13.11; 8.12.6; Apś.10.6.1. P: āpo asmān śś.4.15.4; Kś.7.2.15; VHDh.8.12,23.
āpo asmāsu jāgṛta # KA.1.72b; 2.72.
āpo garbhaṃ janayantīḥ # AVP.4.1.8a; GB.1.1.39. See āpo vatsaṃ. Cf. JAOS. xix. 11.
āpo gṛheṣu jāgrata # HG.2.4.5a. See āpo jāgṛta, āpo deveṣu, and āpo haviḥṣu.
āpo janayathā ca naḥ # RV.10.9.3c; AVś.1.5.3c; SV.2.1189c; VS.11.52c; 36.16c; TS.4.1.5.1c; 5.6.1.4c; 7.4.19.4c; MS.2.7.5c: 80.2; 4.9.27c: 139.8; KS.16.4c; 35.3c; TA.4.42.5c; 10.1.12c; KA.1.219Bc; ApMB.2.7.15c.
āpo jāgṛta # MS.1.1.3: 2.11; KS.1.3; 31.2; Mś.1.1.3.37. See under āpo gṛheṣu.
āpo jyotī raso 'mṛtaṃ brahma # TA.10.15.1; 28.1; Tā.10.68; Karmap.2.1.7; śaṅkhaDh.9.16; LVyāsaDh.2.18; PrāṇāgU.1; MahānU.13.1; 15.3; śirasU.6. P: āpo jyotiḥ BṛhPDh.2.66. See om āpo etc., and śiraḥ.
āpo divyāḥ payasvatīḥ # AVś.4.8.4d,6b; 8.2.14f; AVP.4.2.5d; 4.27.4f. See divyena payasā.
āpo dīkṣā tayā varuṇo rājā dīkṣayā dīkṣitaḥ # TB.3.7.7.6; Apś.10.11.1.
āpo devatā # TS.4.4.10.2; MS.2.13.20: 166.4; KS.39.13.
āpo devīḥ pratigṛbhṇīta (TS.KS.Apś. -gṛhṇīta) bhasmaitat # VS.12.35a; TS.4.2.3.2a; MS.2.7.10a: 88.3; KS.16.10a; 19.12; śB.6.8.2.3; Apś.16.12.11. Ps: āpo devīḥ pratigṛbhṇīta Mś.6.1.4.33; āpo devīḥ Kś.16.6.26, (28); BṛhPDh.2.134,135.
āpo devīḥ prathamajā ṛtena (AVś.AVP. ṛtasya) # RV.10.109.1d; AVś.5.17.1d; AVP.9.15.1d.
āpo devīḥ prahiṇutāgnim # HG.2.10.6a. See āpo agniṃ pra.
āpo devīr agrepuvo agreguvo 'gra imaṃ yajñaṃ nayatāgre yajñapatiṃ dhatta (TB. omits dhatta) # TS.1.1.5.1; TB.3.2.5.3; 3.6.1. P: āpo devīr agrepuvaḥ Apś.1.11.10. See devīr āpo agre-.
āpo devīr ubhayāṃs tarpayantu # AVś.18.4.39d; HG.2.12.10d; ApMB.2.20.24d.
āpo devīr ghṛtaminvā ū āpaḥ (KS. ghṛtam id āpa āsan; AVP. ghṛtam id āpa āhuḥ) # AVP.3.4.5a; MS.2.13.1a: 153.1; KS.35.3a; 39.2a. See āpo bhadrā.
āpo devīr bṛhatīr viśvaśaṃbhuvaḥ # VS.4.7a; TS.1.2.2.1a; 6.1.2.2,3; MS.1.2.2a: 10.13; 3.6.4: 64.3; KS.2.2a; 23.2; śB.3.1.4.15a. P: āpo devīḥ Mś.2.1.2.1.
āpo devīr madhumatīr agṛhṇata # AVP.14.1.6a. See under apo devīr madhumatīr agṛhṇan.
āpo devīr mātaraḥ sūdayiṣṇavaḥ # AVP.6.3.5a.
āpo devīr yajñakṛtaḥ # AVP.5.14.2a.
āpo devīr yajñiyā māviśantu # TS.7.3.13.1c; KSA.3.3c.
āpo devīḥ śuddhāyuvaḥ śuddhā yūyaṃ devāṃ ūḍhvam # TS.1.3.8.2. P: āpo devīḥ śuddhāyuvaḥ TS.6.3.8.4; Apś.7.18.4. See devīr āpaḥ śuddhā.
āpo devīḥ śuddhāḥ stha # TB.3.7.4.2a; Apś.1.11.10a.
āpo devīḥ śundhata mā madhumantaṃ madhumatīr devayajyāyai # MS.1.2.1: 9.7. P: āpo devīḥ Mś.2.1.1.21; MG.1.5.4. Cf. under daivyāya karmaṇe.
āpo devīs sarasvatīḥ # ApMB.2.11.18b.
āpo devīḥ svadantu (VSK. sadantu) svāttaṃ cit sad devahaviḥ # VS.6.10; VSK.6.2.4; śB.3.7.4.6. P: āpo devīḥ Kś.6.3.32. See svāttaṃ sad, svāttaṃ havyaṃ, and svāttaṃ cit.
āpo devebhir nivṛtā atiṣṭhan # RV.10.98.6b.
āpo deveṣu jāgratha # PG.1.16.22a. See under āpo gṛheṣu.
āpo dhāraya mātiguḥ # TB.3.7.4.14d; Apś.1.14.3d.
āpo 'dhvaryuḥ # Mś.1.8.1.1. See vāto 'dhvaryuḥ.
āpo na devīr upa yanti hotriyam # RV.1.83.2a; AVś.20.25.2a; AB.2.20.9; KB.12.1; Aś.5.1.13. P: āpo ua devīḥ śś.6.7.6.
āpo na dvīpaṃ dadhati prayāṃsi # RV.1.169.3d.
āpo na dhāyi savanaṃ ma ā vaso # RV.8.50 (Vāl.2).3c.
āpo na nimnair udabhir jigatnavaḥ # RV.10.78.5c.
āpo naptre ghṛtam annaṃ vahantīḥ # RV.2.35.14c.
āpo na pravatā yatīḥ # RV.8.6.34b; 13.8b; 9.24.2b; SV.2.312b; JB.3.86b.
āpo na pravatāsaran # RV.9.6.4b.
āpo na makṣu sumatir bhavā naḥ # RV.9.88.7c; SV.2.823c.
āpo na vajrinn anv okyaṃ saraḥ # RV.8.49 (Vāl.1).3c.
āpo 'navartayaḥ # AVP.2.75.4a.
āpo na vṛktabarhiṣaḥ # RV.8.33.1b; AVś.20.52.1b; 57.14b; SV.1.261b; 2.214b.
āpo na sindhum abhi yat samakṣaran # RV.10.43.7a; AVś.20.17.7d.
āpo na sṛṣṭā adhavanta nīcīḥ # RV.7.18.15b.
āpo nāma stha # śG.2.6.1; JG.1.12.
āpo nimneva savanā haviṣmataḥ # RV.1.57.2b; AVś.20.15.2b.
āpo nudantu (ApMBḥG. bādhantāṃ) nirṛtiṃ parācaiḥ # AVś.6.124.2d; ApMB.2.22.11d; HG.1.16.7d.
āpo brahma janā viduḥ # AVś.10.7.10b.
āpo brahma samāhitāḥ # AVś.10.7.11d.
āpo bhadrā ghṛtam id āpa āsan (TS. āsuḥ) # AVś.3.13.5a; TS.5.6.1.3a. P: āpo bhadrāḥ TB.2.8.9.3; 3.12.1.1; Apś.14.18.1. See āpo devīr ghṛtam-.
āpo bhavantu pītaye # RV.10.9.4b; AVś.1.6.1b; AVP.1.1.1b; VS.36.12b; KS.13.15b; 38.13b; TB.1.2.1.1b; 2.5.8.5b; TA.4.42.4b; KA.1.219Db; Apś.5.4.1b; Mś.6.1.5.22b; HG.1.5.7b; VārG.4.3b. See śaṃ no bhavantu pītaye.
āpo 'bhigaraḥ # TA.3.6.1. See vāto 'bhigaraḥ.
āpo bhūyiṣṭhā ity eko abravīt # RV.1.161.9a.
āpo bhṛgvaṅgirasāṃ smṛtam # GB.1.5.26d.
āpo bhṛgvaṅgiromayam # GB.1.1.39b.
āpo bhṛgvaṅgirorūpam # GB.1.1.39a.
āpo madhumatīr imāḥ # AVś.18.4.39b; HG.2.12.10b; ApMB.2.20.24b.
āpo madhumatīr uta # AVP.4.20.4b.
āpo madhyaṃ kva vo nūnam antaḥ # RV.10.111.8d.
āpo marīcīḥ pari pāntu sarvataḥ (MG. viśvataḥ) # PG.3.3.6a; MG.2.8.6a. See next.
āpo marīcīḥ pra vahantu no dhiyaḥ # AG.2.4.14a. See prec.
āpo malam iva prāṇaikṣīt (Apś. prāṇijan) # AVś.2.7.1c; Apś.6.20.2c.
āpo mā tatra nayantu # AVś.19.43.7c.
āpo mā tasmāc chumbhantu # AVś.12.2.40c.
āpo mā tasmāt sarvasmāt # AVś.7.64.1c; 10.5.22c. See next.
āpo mā tasmād enasaḥ # VS.6.17e; Lś.2.2.11e; Apś.7.21.6a. See prec.
āpo mā mātaraḥ etc. # see āpo asmān.
āpo mā śundhantu duṣkṛtāt # AVP.10.9.4a.
āpo 'mṛtam (Kauś. 'mṛtaṃ stha; PrāṇāgU. 'mṛtam asi) # GB.1.1.39 (ter); Kauś.90.18; PrāṇāgU.1. See amṛtam āpaḥ.
āpo me retasi śritā reto hṛdaye hṛdayaṃ mayy aham amṛta amṛtaṃ brahmaṇi # TB.3.10.8.6.
āpo me hotrāśaṃsinaḥ (AG. -śaṃsinyaḥ) # ṣB.2.10; Apś.10.1.14; AG.1.23.12.
āpo me hotrāśaṃsinas te me devayajanaṃ dadātu (!) hotrāśaṃsino devayajanaṃ me datta # ṣB.2.10. See āpo hotrāśaṃsinas.
āpo me hotrāśaṃsinas te mopahvayantām # ṣB.2.5.
āpo (AVP. apo) mauṣadhīmatīr etasyā diśaḥ pāntu # AVś.19.17.6a; AVP.7.16.6.
āpo yaṃ vaḥ prathamaṃ devayantaḥ # RV.7.47.1a; VHDh.8.27. Cf. BṛhD.5.174.
āpo yat ta āsu madanti devīḥ # RV.1.173.8b.
āpo yad vas tapas tena taṃ prati tapata yo 'smān dveṣṭi yaṃ vayaṃ dviṣmaḥ # AVś.2.23.1.
āpo yad vas tejas tena tam atejasaṃ kṛṇuta yo etc. # AVś.2.23.5.
āpo yad vaḥ śocis tena taṃ prati śocata yo etc. # AVś.2.23.4.
āpo yad vo 'rcis tena taṃ praty arcata yo etc. # AVś.2.23.3.
āpo yad vo haras tena taṃ prati harata yo etc. # AVś.2.23.2.
āpo yam adya prāpan # AVP.8.8.6c.
āpo yavā (ViDh. vā) amṛtaṃ yavāḥ # BDh.3.6.5b; ViDh.48.18b.
āpo yoktrāṇi muñcata # RV.3.33.13b; AVś.14.2.16b.
āpo ripraṃ nirvahata # Apś.7.4.5; Mś.1.7.3.24.
āpo revatīḥ kṣayathā hi vasvaḥ # RV.10.30.12a; Aś.4.13.7; 7.11.7a; PG.3.5.3a. P: āpo revatīḥ KS.12.15; AB.2.16.1; KB.11.4; śś.6.3.11; 9.20.7.
āpo revatīḥ śṛṇutā havaṃ me # RV.10.30.8d.
āpo vatsaṃ janayantīḥ # AVś.4.2.8a. See āpo garbhaṃ.
āpo vā amṛtaṃ etc. # see āpo yavā.
āpo vā idaṃ sarvam # TA.10.22.1; MahānU.14.1.
āpo vājajito vājaṃ vaḥ sariṣyantīr vājaṃ jeṣyantīr vājinīr vājajito vājajityāyai saṃmārjmy apo annādā annādyāya # Apś.8.8.2. ūha of agne vājajid vājaṃ tvā sariṣyantaṃ.
āpo vātaḥ parvatāso vanaspatiḥ # RV.8.54 (Vāl.6).4c.
āpo vātā oṣadhayaḥ # AVś.18.1.17c.
āpo vāyur āpo vāyuḥ # JB.1.333.
āpo vidyutaḥ paripāntu sarvataḥ (MG. paripāntv āyuḥ) # AG.2.4.14d; MG.2.8.6d. See āpo viśvataḥ.
āpo vidyud abhraṃ varṣam # AVś.4.15.9a. See vāto vidyud etc.
āpo vimoktrīr mayi teja indriyam # TB.3.7.14.1f,2f (bis); Apś.13.21.3f (ter).
āpo viśvataḥ (vḷ. vidyutaḥ) paripāntu sarvataḥ # AG.1.2.11d (crit. notes). See āpo vidyutaḥ.
āpo viśvasya bheṣajīḥ # AVś.3.7.5c; 6.91.3c; AVP.3.2.7c; 5.18.9c. See under āpaś ca viśvabheṣajīḥ.
āpo viśvasya sūdanīḥ # AVP.6.3.9c.
āpo vṛtās tā varuṇena vṛtās tābhir vṛtābhir vartrībhir yasmād bhayād bibhemi tad vāraye svāhā # AG.3.11.1.
āpo vo mithunaṃ mā no mithunaṃ rīḍhvam # TA.1.16.1.
āpo vratapatnyaḥ etc. # Kauś.56.7. Cf. agne vratapate vrataṃ etc.
āpo 'si janmanā vaśā sā yajñaṃ garbham adhatthāḥ sā mayā saṃbhava # MS.2.13.15: 164.5. Cf. Apś.16.32.4, and dakṣiṇā vaśā.
āpo ha mahyaṃ tad devīḥ # AVś.6.24.1c.
āpo ha yad bṛhatīr (TSṃS.KS. yan mahatīr) viśvam (TA. garbham) āyan # RV.10.121.7a; VS.27.25a; 32.7a; VSK.29.34d; TS.4.1.8.5a; MS.2.13.23a: 169.2; KS.40.1a; TA.1.23.8a. P: āpo ha yat TS.2.2.12.1. See next, and āpo agre.
āpo ha yasya viśvam āyuḥ # AVP.4.1.7a. See under prec.
āpo haviḥṣu jāgṛta # Apś.1.14.3a. See under āpo gṛheṣu.
āpo ha śleṣma prathamaṃ saṃbabhūva # Apś.6.14.7a.
āpo hiraṇyaṃ jugupus trivṛdbhiḥ # AVś.19.27.9c; AVP.10.7.9c.
āpo hiraṇyavarṇāḥ # AVP.8.8.2c.
āpo hi ṣṭhā mayobhuvaḥ # RV.10.9.1a; AVś.1.5.1a; SV.2.1187a; VS.11.50a; 36.14a; TS.4.1.5.1a; 5.6.1.4a; 7.4.19.4a; MS.2.7.5a: 79.16; 3.1.6: 8.10; 4.9.27a: 139.3; KS.16.4a; 19.5; 35.3a; śB.6.5.1.2; TB.3.9.7.5; TA.4.42.4a; 10.1.11a; KA.1.219a; 3.219; Apś.7.21.6; 9.12.2; 18.8; 13.15.13; 14.18.1; 16.4.1; AG.2.8.12; 9.8; 4.6.14; Kauś.6.17; HG.1.10.2; 21.5; 2.18.9; MG.1.2.11; ApMB.2.7.13a (ApG.5.12.6); BDh.2.5.8.11; LVyāsaDh.2.19; N.9.27a. P: āpo hi ṣṭhā MS.2.13.1: 153.4; KSA.4.8; Aś.5.20.6; śś.4.11.6; 15.3; 8.6.7; 7.12,20; 9.28.6; 14.57.7; Vait.28.11; Kś.16.3.16; Mś.4.3.43; 6.1.2.2; 6.1.6.19 (20); PG.1.8.6; 2.2.14; 6.13; 14.21; 3.5.4; VārG.9.9; ViDh.64.18; 65.3; GDh.26.10; ParDh.11.34; 12.10; LVyāsaDh.1.22; VHDh.8.25; BṛhPDh.2.38,50,56,129; Rvidh.1.3.5; 4.10; 3.4.3,6. Designated as āpo-hi-ṣṭhīyam (sc. sūktam) śG.3.1.4; āpo-hi-ṣṭhāḥ (sc. ṛcaḥ) VāDh.15.20; VHDh.4.30; āpo-hi-ṣṭhīyāḥ (sc. ṛcaḥ) śś.4.11.6; 21.5; 8.6.7; 7.12,20; 14.57.7; Lś.2.10.20; 3.6.6; 4.11.7; Apś.15.11.16; 20.18.7; śG.1.14.8; MG.1.1.24; 6.4; 11.26; 2.2.27; Svidh.1.2.5. This and the next hymn of AVś. (1.6.1) are designated as śaṃbhumayobhū (sc. sūkte) Vait.10.19; Kauś.9.1,4; 18.25; 19.1; 41.14; 43.12; this hymn alone as sindhudvīpasya sūktam Rvidh.3.11.4. Cf. BṛhD.6.153. See abdaivatam.
āpo hetiḥ # VS.15.18; TS.4.4.3.2; MS.2.8.10: 115.4; KS.17.9; śB.8.6.1.19.
āpo hotrāśaṃsinas te me hotrāśaṃsino hotrāśaṃsino devayajanaṃ me datta # Apś.10.3.1. See āpo me hotrāśaṃsinas te me devayajanaṃ.
upo adarśi śundhyuvo na vakṣaḥ # RV.1.124.4a; N.4.16a.
upo adṛśran tamasaś cid antaḥ # RV.7.67.2b.
upo asmāṃ iḍā hvayatām # TB.3.5.8.2; 13.2; śB.1.8.1.24,25. See upāsmāṃ etc.
upo asmān (sc. brāhmaṇā hvayadhvam) # Kś.9.12.11. See next.
upo asmān brāhmaṇān brāhmaṇā hvayadhvam # Apś.12.26.3; Mś.2.4.1.50. See prec.
upo ukthāmadā śraud vimadā adan # TB.2.6.15.2 (see comm.).
upo enaṃ jujuṣur namasas pade # RV.8.23.9c.
upo emi cikituṣo vipṛcham # RV.7.86.3b.
upo te andho madyam ayāmi # RV.7.92.1c; VS.7.7c; TS.1.4.4.1c; 3.4.2.1c; MS.1.3.6c: 32.10; KS.4.2c; 13.11c; śB.4.1.3.18c.
upo te tanvaḥ śatam # AVś.13.4.44b.
upo te baddhe baddhāni # AVś.13.4.45a.
upottamebhyaḥ svāhā # AVś.19.22.11. Cf. Kauś.26.34.
upodake loke ni dadhāmy asau # VS.35.6b; śB.13.8.3.3b.
upo devān daivīr viśaḥ prāgur vahnīr (MS. vahnaya) uśijaḥ # TS.1.3.7.1; 6.3.6.1; MS.1.2.15: 24.8; 3.9.6: 123.14. P: upo devān daivīr viśaḥ Apś.7.12.8; Mś.1.8.3.3. See upa etc.
upo namobhir vṛṣabhaṃ viśema # RV.8.96.6d.
upo nayasva vṛṣaṇā tapuṣpā # RV.3.35.3a.
upo nu sa saparyan # SV.1.196b. See upānasaḥ.
upo nūnaṃ yuyuje vṛṣaṇā harī # SV.1.308c. See upa etc.
upopa me parā mṛśa # RV.1.126.7a; N.3.20. Cf. BṛhD.1.52; 4.3.
upopa śravasi śravaḥ # RV.8.74.9b.
upopen nu maghavan bhūya (MS. bhūyā) in nu te # RV.8.51 (Vāl.3).7c; SV.1.300c; VS.3.34c; 8.2c; TS.1.4.22.1c; 5.6.4c; MS.1.3.26c: 39.2; 1.5.5: 73.4; KS.4.10c; 7.2c,4; śB.2.3.4.38; 4.3.5.10c. P: upa KS.7.5.
upo matiḥ pṛcyate sicyate madhu # RV.9.69.2a; SV.2.721a; JB.3.298.
upo manyāya manyave # ā.4.13b.
upo ratheṣu pṛṣatīr ayugdhvam # RV.1.39.6a.
upo rayiṃ bahulaṃ viṣyatā naḥ # MS.4.14.9c: 228.2.
upo rayir devajūto na etu # RV.7.84.3c.
upo ruruce yuvatir na yoṣā # RV.7.77.1a. P: upo ruruce śś.6.5.6.
upo venasya joguvāna oṇim # RV.1.61.14c; AVś.20.35.14c.
upo ṣu jātam apturam # RV.9.61.13a; SV.1.487a; 2.112a,685a; JB.1.90 (followed by the fragment apturam); 3.273a; PB.6.9.4; 15.5.6; 16.11.2.
upo ṣu jātam āryasya vardhanam # RV.8.103.1c; SV.1.47c; 2.865c.
upo ṣu śṛṇuhī giraḥ # RV.1.82.1a; SV.1.416a; AB.4.3.1; Aś.6.2.4; Lś.5.2.10. P: upo ṣu śṛṇuhi śś.3.17.2.
upo ha yad vidathaṃ vājino guḥ (TB. gūḥ) # RV.7.93.3a; MS.4.11.1a: 159.9; TB.3.6.12.1a.
upo harīṇāṃ patim # RV.8.24.14a; SV.2.860a.
upohaś ca samūhaś ca # AVś.3.24.7a.
ekarūpo guhā bhavan # AVP.9.12.2d.
ekarūpo bhavasi saṃ samṛdhyā # AVś.12.3.21b.
katamenāpo divam udvahanti # AVP.13.7.4a.
kapota iva garbhadhim # RV.1.30.4b; AVś.20.45.1b; SV.1.183b; 2.949b.
kapota (MS. -tā) ulūkaḥ śaśas te nirṛtyai (TS.KSA. nairṛtāḥ) # VS.24.38; TS.5.5.18.1; MS.3.14.19: 176.10; KSA.7.8.
kapotolūkābhyām apadaṃ tad astu # AVś.6.29.2c.
kaśyapodvardhayan giraḥ # RV.9.114.2b.
kaśyapo māsām # MS.3.14.18: 176.7. See māsāṃ ka-.
kaśyapo 'yaṃ jamadagnir vasiṣṭhaḥ # AVP.11.5.13a.
kaśyapo vīryāya kam # AVP.7.5.1d.
kenāpo anv atanuta # AVś.10.2.16a.
kṣapo jinvantaḥ pṛṣatībhir ṛṣṭibhiḥ # RV.1.64.8c.
kṣapo bhāsi puruvāra saṃyataḥ # RV.2.2.2d.
kṣapo madema śaradaś ca pūrvīḥ # RV.4.16.19d.
kṣapo rājann uta tmanā # RV.1.79.6a; SV.2.913a; VS.15.37a; TS.4.4.4.5a; MS.2.13.8a: 157.13; KS.39.15a.
kṣapo vastuṣu rājasi # RV.8.19.31d; SV.2.1173d.
kṣipo mṛjanti pari gobhir āvṛtam # RV.9.86.27c.
khajāpo 'jopakāśinīḥ # ApMB.2.13.10b. See bajābo-.
gṛhapopa spṛśa # HG.2.9.2; ApMB.2.18.33.
gopoṣaṃ ca me (Mś.Aś. gopoṣaṃ ca no; TB.Apś. gopoṣaṃ no) vīrapoṣaṃ ca yacha (AVśṃś. dhehi) # AVś.13.1.12d; TB.3.7.2.7; Aś.1.12.37d; Apś.9.3.1d; Mś.3.1.28d.
gopoṣaṇam asi gopoṣasyeśiṣe gopoṣāya tvā # SMB.1.8.6.
tapo amuro dakṣiṇataḥ pavase nabhasvān # AVP.2.69.2.
tapojāṃ api gachatāt # RV.10.154.5d; AVś.18.2.15d,18d.
tapojāṃ vācam asme niyacha devāyuvam # TA.4.7.3; 5.6.7. See vācam asme, and vājam asmin.
tapo 'tiṣṭhat tapyamānaḥ samudre # AVś.11.5.26b.
tapo dīkṣā ca pūyate # AVP.9.26.11b.
tapo dīkṣām upaniṣedur agre # AVś.19.41.1b; AVP.1.53.3b. See next.
tapo dīkṣām ṛṣayaḥ suvarvidaḥ # TS.5.7.4.3b; TA.3.11.9b. See prec.
tapo navadaśaḥ # VS.14.23; TS.4.3.8.1; 5.3.3.3; MS.2.8.4: 109.3; KS.17.4; 20.13; śB.8.4.1.14.
tapo brahma parāmṛtam # VaradapU.1.2f.
tapobhir agne juhvā pataṃgān # MS.2.7.15c: 97.10. See tapūṃṣy.
tapo me dīkṣā # Apś.10.10.6.
tapo me dhāḥ # TA.4.5.4.
tapo me pratiṣṭhā # JB.2.66; TB.3.7.7.10; Apś.10.3.8.
tapo ye cakrire mahaḥ (TA. mahat) # RV.10.154.2c; AVś.18.2.16c; TA.6.3.2c.
tapo yonir asi (KS. asi prājāpatyam) # MS.2.13.2: 153.6; 3.2.6: 23.3; KS.39.2; Mś.6.1.7.1.
tapo vadiṣye # TA.4.1.1.
tapo vaso cikitāno acittān # RV.3.18.2c; KS.35.14c. See tapā etc.
tapo 'vāntaradīkṣāyām # KS.34.14.
tapo pavitraṃ vitataṃ divas pade # RV.9.83.2a; SV.2.226a; AB.1.20.4; 7.9.3; JB.1.81; 3.54a.
tapo ṣv agne antarāṃ amitrān # RV.3.18.2a; KS.35.14a; KB.8.4; TA.4.5.5a; Apś.14.29.3a; 15.7.9. P: tapo ṣv agne śś.5.9.10.
tapo 'si # VS.37.11; MS.4.9.3: 123.9; śB.14.1.3.17; TA.4.5.2; Apś.15.4.1; 7.4.
tapo 'si brahmaṇo yoniḥ # TB.3.7.7.1; Apś.10.6.5.
tapo 'si loke śritam, tejasaḥ pratiṣṭhā, tvayīdam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartṛ viśvasya janayitṛ # TB.3.11.1.2.
tapo ha jajñe karmaṇaḥ # AVś.11.8.6c.
tapo ha yakṣaṃ prathamaṃ saṃbabhūva # TB.3.12.3.1d.
tasyāpo apsarasa (KS. 'psarasa; MS. 'psarasā) ūrjo nāma (TS. 'psaraso mudāḥ) # VS.18.41; TS.3.4.7.2; MS.2.12.2: 145.5; KS.18.14; śB.9.4.1.10.
dvārapopa (ApMB. dvārāpopa) spṛśa # ApMB.2.18.42 (ApG.7.20.6); HG.2.9.2.
po jīryanti nāmṛtam # AVP.13.4.5a.
patiripo na janayo durevāḥ # RV.4.5.5b.
parāsutṛpo abhi śośucānaḥ # RV.10.87.14d. See prec.
po niṣadvaro janaḥ # AB.7.15.1c; śś.15.19c.
piśaṅgarūpo nabhaso vayodhāḥ # AVś.9.4.22a. Cf. prec.
piśaṅgarūpo bhavati # AVP.9.3.6a.
pupoṣa prajāḥ purudhā jajāna # RV.3.55.19b; N.10.34b.
brahmaṇāpombhāmasi # AVP.1.49.3b.
po mauṣadhīr hiṃsīḥ # VS.6.22; śB.3.8.5.10; śś.8.12.11. P: māpo mauṣadhīḥ Kś.6.10.3.
maivāpo moṣadhīr (!) hiṃsīḥ # Aś.3.6.24a.
yayāpo gupitā imāḥ # AVś.10.10.4b.
po yasyāṃ nimīyate # AVś.12.1.38b.
po virohañ chataśākho adhvaraḥ samāvṛtaḥ # Kauś.125.2a.
po hy arukṣad dviṣatāṃ vadhāya # Kauś.125.2a.
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"po" has 1098 results.
     
apoddhāradisintegration of the constituent elements of a word; analysis; अपोद्धार पृथक्करणम् commentary on Vāk. Pad. II. 449: confer, compare अपोद्धारपदार्था ये ये चार्थाः स्थितलक्षणः Vāk. Pad.I.24.
upottamaliterallyone near or before the last; the term is generally used in connection with words having two or more syllables, where it means the vowel before the last (vowel); confer, compare उपोत्तमं रिति P. VI.1.217 and योपधाद्गुरूपोत्तमाद्वुञ् P.V.1.132 where the writer of the Kāśikā explains it as त्रिप्रभृतीनामन्त्यमुत्तमं तस्य समीपमुपोत्तमम् । giving रमणीय and वसनीय as examples where the long ई is upottama; confer, compare also T.Pr. XI.3. and Nir.I.19 where the word refers to the third out of the four feet of the verse.
upodbalakaa supporting assertion or statement; cf तस्यैवोपोद्बलकमेतत् M.Bh. on I.2.64. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 38-39.
vyākaraṇamahābhāṣyapradīpoddyotathe wellknown scholarly commentary by the stalwart grammarian Nagesabhatta on the Mahabhasyapradipa of Kaiyata. See उद्द्योत and नागेश.
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
aṃśugaṇaalso अंश्वादिगण a class of words headed by अंशु which have their last vowel accented acute when they stand at the end of a tatpuruṣa, correspond with the word प्रति as the first member. confer, compare P. VI.2.193.
aḥ( : )visarga called visarjanīya in ancient works and shown in writing by two dots, one below the other, exactly of the same size, like the pair of breasts of a maiden as jocularly larly expressed by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.. confer, compare अः ( : ) इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः । कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसजर्नीयसंज्ञो भवति ( दुर्गसिंह on कातन्त्र I.1.16). विसर्ग is always a dependent letter included among the Ayogavāha letters and it is looked upon as a vowel when it forms a part of the preceding vowel; while it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into the Jihvāmūlīya or the Upadhmānīya letter.
a,k(ೱ),(ೱ)जिह्वामूलीय, represented by a sign like the वज्र in writing, as stated by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. who remarks वज्राकृतिर्वर्णो जिह्वामूलीयसंज्ञो भवति. the Jihvāmūlīya is only a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the guttural letter क् or ख् . It is looked upon as a letter (वर्ण), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. e. g. विष्णु ೱ करोति.
a,pೱ,(ೱ)Upadhmānīya represented by a sign like the temple of an elephants stated by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. who remarks "गजकुम्भाकृतिर्वर्ण उपध्मानीयसंज्ञो भवति." Kāt.I. It is a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the labial letter p ( प् ) or ph ( फ ). It is looked upon as a letter ( वर्ण ), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. अ:कार name given to the nominative case. case in the Taittiriya Prātiśākhya. cf अ:कार इति प्रथमाविभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 23.
akathitanot mentioned by any other case-relation such as अपादान, संप्रदान and अधिकरण; stated with respect to the indirect object, governed by roots possessing two objects such as दुह्, याच् and others, which in the passive woice is put in the nominative case. The in-direct object is called akathita because in some cases there exists no other case-relation as, for example, in पौरवं गां याचते or भिक्षते, or माणवकं पन्थानं पृच्छति; while, in the other cases, the other case-relations (with the activity expressed by the verb) are wilfully suppressed or ignored although they exist, as for instance in गां दोग्धि पयः, अन्ववरुणद्धि गां व्रजम्; see अकथितं च P.1.4.51 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon.
akampitanot shaken; tremulous: said with respect to vowels in Vedic utterance, kampa being looked upon as a fault of utterance., cf अकम्पितान् । कम्पनं नाम स्वराश्रितपाठदोषः प्रायेण दाक्षिणात्यानां भवति । तमुपलक्ष्य स वर्ज्य:। R.Pr.III.31
akarmakaintransitive, without any object, (said with regard to roots which cannot possess an object or whose object is suppressed or ignored). The reasons for suppression are briefly given in the well-known stanza ; धातोरर्थान्तरे वृत्तेर्धात्वर्थेनोपसंग्रहात् । प्रसिद्धेरविवक्षातः कर्मणोऽकर्मिकाक्रिया ॥ In the case of intransitive roots, the verbal activity and its fruit are centred in one and the same individual viz. the agent or कर्ता confer, compare फलव्यापारयोरेकनिष्ठतायामकर्मकः Vāk. Pad.
akāryanot a grammatical positive operation: e. g. elision (लोप.) confer, compare ननु च लोप एवेत्कार्यं स्यात् । अकार्यं लोपः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.2.
akṛtasaṃhitawords ending with a breathing or visarga which are not looked upon as placed immediately before the next word and hence which have no combination with the following vowel e. g. एष देवो अमर्त्यः R. V. 1X.8.1.
akṛtsna-akṛtsnāan epithet applied to the pronunciation of Veda words improperly which does not serve any useful purpose. confer, compare अकृत्स्ना अप्रयोजना इत्यर्थ: Uvaṭa on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 68.
aṅkitanot possessing the mute letter k (क्) or g (ग्) orṅ ( ङ् ) and hence not preventing the guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes for the preceding vowel, if they occur. e. g. मृजेर ङ्कित्सु प्रत्ययेषु मृजिप्रसङगे मार्जिः साधुर्भुवति M.Bh. on P. I.I.I Vart.10.
akriyājanot a result of a verbal activity; the expression is used in connection with qualities ( on a substance) as opposed to the activities found in it. confer, compare अाधेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोs सत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV. 1.44.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
akhaṇḍaśābdabodhaunitary import; the meaning of a sentence collectively understood.
agrathe original Samhita text as opposed to pratṛṇna ( प्रतृण्ण ) or padapāṭha, (पदपाठ) which is the recital of separate words.
aṅitnot marked with the mute letter ṅ ( ङ्) signifying the absence of the prohibition of the guṇa or the vṛddhi substitute. cf अङिति गुणप्रतिषेधः ( वक्तव्यः ) M.Bh. III.3.83 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2. In the case of the preposition ā ( अा ) unmarked with ṅ (ड् ), it signifies a sentence or remembrance of something confer, compare वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् exempli gratia, for example आ एवं नु मन्यसे, आ एवं किल तत् confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.l.14.
acikitsyaimpossible to amend, not to be discussedition confer, compare एवं च 'पूजितो य: सुरैरपि' इति अचिकित्स्यः अपशब्दः;Padamañjari on P.II.2.12.
aḍactaddhita affix. affix अड applied in the sense of pitiable or poor to a word preceded by the word उप when the whole word after उप is dropped, e.g उपड् ( उपेन्द्रदत्त + अड् ) see. p. V. 3. 80.
atantraimplying no specific purpose: not intended to teach anything, अविवक्षित; exempli gratia, for example ह्रस्वग्रहणमतन्त्रम् Kāś and Si. Kau. on तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P.1.2.32: confer, compare also अतन्त्रं तरनिर्देशः ( the use of तरप् does not necessarily convey the sense of the comparative degree in Pāṇini's rules) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.2.33. This statement has been given as a distinct Paribhāṣa by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and Sākaṭāyana. The author of the Mahābhāṣya appears to have quoted it from the writings of Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and the earlier grammarians See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on अल्पाच्तरम् P. II.2.34.
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
atipattiabsence of any possibility ; Sec क्रियातिपत्ति. confer, compare P. III.3.139 Cān. 1.3.107.
atiprasaṅgaover-application of a definition which is looked upon as a serious fault: e. g. अतिप्रसङ्गो व्रश्चा दिषु P.VI.1.66 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
atiśāyanaexcellence, surpassing; the same as अतिशय in Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V. 2 confer, compare अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ P. V. 3.55, also confer, compare भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेऽतिशायने । संसर्गेऽ स्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.2.94, where अतिशायन means अतिशाय. Patañjali, commenting on P. V.3.55 clearly remarks that for अतिशय, or for अतिशयन, the old grammarians, out of fancy only, used the term अतिशायन as it was a current term in popular usage; confer, compare देश्याः सूत्रनिबन्धाः क्रियन्ते यावद् ब्रूयात् प्रकर्षे अतिशय इति तावदतिशायन इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on , P. V.3.55.
ātisparśaexcess of contact, which to a certain extent spoils the pronunciation and leads to.a fault. अतिस्पर्श is the same as दुःस्पर्श, the letter ळ being called दुःस्पृष्ट on account of excess of contact. This excess of contact ( अतिस्पर्श) in the case of the utterance of the letter र् results into a fault as it practically borders on stammering; confer, compare अतिस्पर्शो बर्बरता च रेफे, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 26.
atyādigaṇathe group of prepositions headed by अति which are compounded with a noun in the acc. case ; confer, compare अत्यादयः क्रान्ताद्यर्थे द्वितीयया Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). om P. II. 2.18.
atvatpossessing or having a short अ vowel in it; archaic form used by Pāṇini in उपदेशेsत्वतः (P. VII. 2.62) instead of अद्वत् the correct one; confer, compare छन्दोवत्सूत्राणि भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1 and I.4.3.
adantaending with the short vowel अ; confer, compare P. VIII.4.7: a term applied to nouns of that kind, and roots of the tenth conjugation which are given with the letter अ at their end which is not looked upon as mute (इत्) c.g. कथ,गण. et cetera, and others Mark also the root पिच described by पतञ्जलि as अदन्त confer, compare पिबिरदन्तः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56., Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 4.43.
adādiname given to the class of roots belonging to the second conjugation, as the roots therein begin with the root अद्. The word अदिप्रभृति is also used in the same sense; confer, compare अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः p.II. 4.72: confer, comparealso अदाद्यनदाद्योरनदादेरेव given by Hemacandra as a Paribhāṣā corresponding to the maxim लुग्विकरणालुग्विकरणयोरलुग्विकरणस्य Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. Pari.61.
adyatanītech. term of ancient grammarians signifying in general the present time of the day in question, the occurrence of the immediate past or future events in which is generally expressed by the aorist (लुड्) or the simple future ( लृट् ); the other two corresponding tenses imperfect and first future (viz. लड् and लुट्) being used in connection with past and future events respectively, provided the events do not pertain to that day which is in question; confer, compare 'वा चाद्यतन्याम्' M.Bh. P.III.2.102 Vār.6, वादृतन्याम् P, VI.4.114. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (2) term for the tense showing immediate past time called लुङ् in Pāṇini's grammar e. g. मायोगे अद्यतनी । मा कार्षीत् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.III. 1.22, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III. 3.11.
advyupasargenot preceded by (two or more) prepositions; i. e. preceded by only one preposition. confer, compare छादेर्घेऽद्व्युपसर्गस्य P.VI.4.96 prescribing short अ for the long अा of the root छाद् before the kṛt (affix). affix घ, eg. प्रच्छदः
adhikaraṇa(1)support: a grammatical relation of the nature of a location : place of verbal activity. confer, compare अाधारोsधिकरणम् P.I.4.45; (2) one of the six or seven Kārakas or functionaries of verbal activity shown by the locative case. cf सप्तम्यधिकरणे च P.II.4.36;(3)substance, 'dravya' confer, compare अनधिकरणवाचि अद्रव्यवाचि इति गम्यते M.Bh. on II.1.1.
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
adhunātaddhita affix. affix applied to the pronoun इदम् which is changed into इ before the affix and then elided by P. VI.4.148, or changed into अ in which case धुना or अधुना could be looked upon as a taddhita affix. affix.
adhyāsasuperimposition : a relation between a word and its sense according to the grammarians; confer, compare Vāk. Pad. II.240. (2) appendage; confer, compare आहुस्त्वेकपदा अन्ये अध्यासानेकपातिनः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XVII.43.
anackapossessing no अच् or vowel in it. cf इन्द्रे द्वौ अचौ, एको यस्येतिलोपेनापहृतोऽपर एकादेशेन ततः अनच्कः इन्द्रशब्दः संपन्नः confer, compare Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on Par. 52.: M.Bh. on I. 4.2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 22.
ananyavadbhāvabeing the same, being looked upon as not different. See अनन्य a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
anabhihitanot conveyed or expressed by another id est, that is by any one of the four factors viz.verbal affix, kṛt affix,taddhita affix and compound. The rule अनभिहिते (P. II.3.I) and the following rules lay down the different case affixes in the sense of the different Kārakas or auxiliaries of the verbal activity, provided they are not shown or indicated in any one of the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned four ways; e. g. see the acc. case in कटं करोति, the inst, case in दात्रेण लुनाति, the dative case case in देवदत्ताय गां ददाति, the ablative case. case in ग्रामादा गच्छति, or the locative casecase in स्थाल्यां पचति.
anarthaka(1)without any signification;literally having no meaning of themselves, id est, that ispossessing a meaning only when used in company with other words or parts of words which bear an independent sense;(the word is used generally in connection with prepositions); exempli gratia, for example अधिपरी अनर्थकौ P.1.4.93, confer, compare अनर्थान्तरवाचिनावनर्थकौ । धातुनोक्तां क्रियामाहतुः । तदविशिष्टं भवति यथा शङ्के पय: ॥ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.93; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1.3: confer, compare also अनर्थकौ अनर्थान्तरवाचिनौ Kāś. on I.4.93, explained as अनर्थान्तरवाचित्वादनर्थकावित्युक्तम् न त्वर्थाभावादिति दर्शयति by न्यासकार; (2) meaningless, purposeless: confer, compare प्रमाणभूत आचार्यो दर्भपवित्रपाणिः महता यत्नेन सूत्रं प्रणयति स्म । तत्राशक्यं वर्णेनाप्यनर्थकेन भवितुं किं पुनरियता सूत्रेण M.Bh. on I.1.1, as also सामर्थ्ययोगान्न हि किंचिदस्मिन् पश्यामि शास्त्रे यदनर्थकं स्यात् M.Bh. on P. VI.I.77. See for details M.Bh. on I.2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 12: III.1.77 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 and Kaiyaṭa and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon; (3) possessed of no sense absolutely as some nipātas केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः केचन च निरर्थकाः U1. varia lectio, another reading, on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII.9; निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P. I. 2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).12 confer, compare also जन्या इति निपातनानर्थक्यं P. IV. 4.82. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, एकागारान्निपातनानर्थक्यं P. V.1.113 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, also 114 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).1.
anavakāśahaving no occasion or scope of application; used in connection with a rule the whole of whose province of application is covered by a general rule, and hence which becomes technically useless, unless it is allowed to set aside the general rule: confer, compare अनवकाशा हि विधयो बाधका भवन्तिrules which have no opportunity of taking effect( without setting aside other rules ) supersede those rules; M.Bh. on V.4.154, also Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on Pari. 64.
anavakāśatvaabsence of any opportunity of taking effect, scopelessness considered in the case of a particular rule, as a criterion for setting aside that general rule which deprives it of that opportunity confer, compare अनवकाशत्वं निरवकाशत्वं वा बाधकत्वे बीजम्. This अनवकाशत्व is slightly different from अपवादत्व or particular mention which is defined usually by the words सामान्यविधिरुत्सर्गः । विशेषविधिरपवादः ।
anavayavaliterally having no parts; impartite; without any concern with the individual component parts; application in totality; confer, compare सिद्धं तु धर्मोपदेशने अनवयवविज्ञानाद्यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु P. VI. 1.84 Vārt 5 and the Bhāṣya thereon; अस्मिञ् शास्त्रे अनवयवेन शास्त्रार्थसंप्रत्ययः स्यात् । a rule in grammar applies to all cases where its application is possible; it cannot be said to have its purpose served by applying to a few cases only.
anāpyahaving or possessing no āpya or object; intransitive (root): confer, compare चालशब्दार्थाद् अनाप्याद् युच् Cāndra I.2 97 standing for चलनशब्दार्थाद् अकर्मकाद् युच् P. III.2.148.
anārṣa(1)non-vedic: not proceeding from any Ṛṣi, or Vedic Seer, confer, compare संबुद्धौ शाकल्यस्येतौ अनार्षे P. I.1.16, also Kāś. on the same: confer, compare किमिदमुपस्थितं नाम । अनार्ष इतिकरणः M.Bh.on VI.1.129: (2) pertaining to the Padapāṭha which is looked upon as अनार्ष i, e. not proceeding from any Vedic Seer; confer, compare अनार्षे इतिकरणः । स च द्व्यक्षर आद्युदात्तश्च, Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.23; confer, compare also Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. III. 1.3.
anikṛt affix in the sense of curse, exempli gratia, for example अजीवनिस्ते शठ भूयात्; confer, compareआक्रोशे नञि अनिः P.III.3.112. This affix अनि gets its न् changed into ण् after ऋ or रेफ of the preceding preposition as in अप्रयाणिः;confer, compare Kāś, on VIII.4.29.
aniṭ(1)not admitting the augment इट् to be prefixed to it; the term is strictly to be applied to ārdhadhātuka affixes placed after such roots as have their vowel characterized by a grave accent ( अनुदात्तस्वर ); the term अनिट् being explained as अनिडादि qualifying the अार्धधातुक affix; (2) in a secondary way, it has become customary to call such roots अनिट् as do not allow the augment इट् to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. Such roots are termed अनुदात्त verily because they are possessed of an anudātta vowel. e. g. कृ, भृ, जि, गम् , हन् et cetera, and others as against भु, धू, तॄ, श्वि, वृ, वद्, फल्, चल्, et cetera, and others which have their vowel characterized by an acute (उदात्त ) accent. For a complete list of such roots see the well-known stanzas given in the Siddhāntakaumudī incidentally on अात्मनेपदेष्वनतः P. VII.1.5. ऊदॄदन्तैर्यौतिरुक्ष्णुशीङ्स्नु....निहताः स्मृताः ॥ १ ॥ शक्लृपच्मुचिरिचवच्विच् .........धातवो द्व्यधिकं शतम् ॥ as also some lists by ancient grammarians given in the Mahābhāṣya on एकाच उपदेशेनुदात्तात्. P. VII. 2.10 or in the Kāśikā on the same rule P. VII.2.10.
aniṭkārikā(1)name given to Stanzas giving a complete list of such roots as do not allow the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. For such Kārikās see Sid. Kaum. on VII.1.5 as also Kāśikā on VII. 2.10; ( 2 ) a short treatise enumerating in 11 verses the roots which do not admit the augment इट् before the ārdhadhatuka affixes. The work is anonymous, and not printed so far, possibly composed by a Jain writer. The work possibly belongs to the Kātantra system and has got short glosses called व्याख्यान, अवचूरि, विवरण, टीका, टिप्पणी and the like which are all anonymous.
anitya(1)not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or paribhāṣā whose application is voluntary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obligatory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be usedition On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
animittaot serving as a cause, not possessing a causal relation; e. g. संनिपातलक्षणे विधिरनिमित्तं तद्विघातस्य Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 85. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.39.
anirdiṣṭārthawhose sense has not been specifically stated ; the word is used with reference to such affixes as are not prescribed in any specific sense or senses and hence as are looked upon as possessing the sense which the base after which they are prescribed has got: confer, compare अनिर्दिष्टार्थाः प्रत्ययाः स्वार्थे भवन्ति -affixes, to which no meaning has been assigned, convey the meaning of the bases to which they are added; confer, compare Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 113; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2.4, III, 2.67, III.3.19, III. 4.9, VI.1.162.
anīyarkṛt affix, termed कृत्य also forming the pot. passive voice. participle. of a root; confer, compare तव्यत्तव्यानीयरः P.III.1.96. exempli gratia, for example see the forms करणीयं, हरणीयं, the mute र् showing the acute accent on the penultimate vowel,
anukaraṇa(1)imitation; a word uttered in imitation of another; an imitative name: confer, compare अनुकरणे चानितिपरम् P.I.4.62; अनुकरणं हि शिष्टशिष्टाप्रतिषिद्धेषु यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु, Śiva sūtra 2 Vārt 1; confer, compare also प्रकृतिवद् अनुकरणं भवति an imitative name is like its original Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 36; also M.Bh. on VIII. 2.46; (2) imitative word, onomatopoetic word; confer, compare एवं ह्याहुः कुक्कुटाः कुक्कुड् इति । नैवं त आहुः । अनुकरणमेतत्तेषाम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.48. confer, compare also दुन्दुभि: इति शब्दानुकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.IX. 12.
anukramaṇaenumeration (in the right order as.opposed to व्युत्क्रम ); e. g. अथ किमर्थमुत्तरत्र एवमादि अनुक्रमणं क्रियते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.58; also on IV. 2.70; verbal forms of the root क्रम् with अनु occur in this sense very frequently; exempli gratia, for example यदित ऊर्ध्वं अनुक्रमिष्यामः; so also the past passive participle. अनुक्रान्तं occurs frequently in the same sense. अनुतन्त्र literally that which follows Tantra id est, that is Śāstra which means the original rules of a Śāstra; technical term for Vartika used by Bhartṛhari;confer, compare सूत्राणां सानुतन्त्राणां भाष्याणां च प्रणेतृभिः Vāk. Pad. I.23, where the word अनुतन्त्र is explained as Vārtika by the commentator.
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.id est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
anudāttataraquite a low tone, completely grave; generally applied to the tone of that grave or anudātta vowel which is immediately followed by an acute ( उदात्त ) vowel. When the three Vedic accents were sub-divided into seven tones viz. उदात्त, उदात्ततर्, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितस्थोदात्त and एकश्रुति corresponding to the seven musical notes, the अनुदात्ततर was the name given to the lowest of them all. अनुदात्ततर was termed सन्नतर also; confer, compare उदात्तस्वरितपरस्य सन्नतरः P.I.2.40; confer, compare also M, Bh. on I.2.33.
anunādaa fore-sound : a preceding additional sound which is looked upon as a fault: e. g. ह्वयामि whom pronounced as अह्वयामि. This sound is uttered before an initial sonant consonant. It is also uttered before initial aspirates or visarga. confer, compare घोषवतामनुनादः पुरस्ताद् आदिस्थानां, क्रियते धारणं वा । सोष्मोष्माणामनुनादोप्यनादः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.18,19.
anupapadyamānāimpossibility of being explained; confer, compare तत्र सिद्धायां अनुपपद्यमानायां इतरथा उपपादयिषेत्, Nir II.2.
anupapannaimpossible to be explained, not consistent , confer, compare अथाप्यनुपपन्नार्था भवन्ति । ओषधे त्रायस्वैनम् । Nirukta of Yāska.I.15.
anupradānaan effort outside the mouth in the production of sound at the different vocal organs such as कण्ठ, तालु et cetera, and others which is looked upon as an external effort or bāhyaprayatna. अनुप्रदान is one of the three main factors in the production of sound which are ( 1 ) स्थान, ( 2 ) करण or आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न and ( 3 ) अनुप्रदान or बाह्यप्रयत्न; confer, compare स्थाकरणप्रयत्नेभ्यो वर्णा जायन्ते Cān. The commentator on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.describes अनुप्रदान as the मूलकारण or उपादानकारण, the main cause in the production of articulate sound confer, compare अनुप्रदीयते अनेन वर्णः इति अनुप्रदानम्: cf also अनुप्रदीयते इत्यनुप्रदानं प्रयत्न इत्यर्थः; Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. I. Generally two main varieties of बाह्यप्रयत्न are termed अनुप्रदान which are mentioned as (i) श्वासानुप्रदान (emission of breath) and नादानुप्रदान (resonance), the other varieties of it such as विवार, संवार, घोष, अघोष, अल्पप्राण, मह्मप्राण, उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित being called merely as बाह्यप्रयत्न.
anuprayogasubsequent utterance; literally post-position as in the case of the roots कृ, भू and अम् in the periphrastic perfect forms; confer, compare आम्प्रत्ययवत् कृञोऽ नुप्रयोगस्य, P.I.3.63; यथाविध्यनुप्रयोगः पूर्वस्मिन् III.4.4.
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
anusaṃhāraindependent mention, a second time, of a thing already mentioned,for another purpose; confer, compare 'अलोन्त्यस्य' इति स्थाने विज्ञातस्यानुसंहारः P.I.1.53 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1.
anekārtha(1)possessed of a plural sense referring to many things. confer, compare अनेकार्थे युष्मदस्मदी Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II. 2.98 also अनेकार्थाश्रयश्च पुनरेकशेषः P. I. 2.64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 15; (2) possessed of many senses, confer, compare अनेकार्था अपि धातवो भवन्ति M. Bh, on P.III.2.48; also confer, compare यान्यनेकार्थानि एकशब्दानि तान्यतोनुक्रमिष्यामः Nirukta of Yāska.IV.1.
anekālpossessed of many ietters; literally possessed of not one letter, cf अनेकाल् शित् सर्वस्य P. I.1.55.
anaimittikanot possessed of any definite cause; अनैमित्तिको ह्यनुबन्धलेाप: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.20 also on I. 1.59 and I. 2.64.
antaḥkāryaliterally interior operation; an operation inside a word in its formation-stage which naturally becomes antaraṅga as contrasted with an operation depending on two complete words after their formation which is looked upon as bahiraṅga.
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
antaraṅgabalīyastvathe strength which an antaraṅga rule or operation possesses by virtue of which it supersedes all other rules or operations,excepting an apavāda rule, when or if they occur simultaneously in the formation of a word.
antaratamavery close or very cognate being characterized (l) by the same place of utterance, or (2) by possessing the same sense, or (3) by possessing the same qualities, or (4) by possessing the same dimension ; cf स्थानेन्तरतमः P.I. I.50 and Kāś. thereon अान्तर्यं स्थानार्थगुणुप्रमाणतः स्थानतः दण्डाग्रम् , अर्थतः वतण्डी चासौ युवतिश्च वातण्ड्ययुवतिः । गुणतः पाकः, त्यागः, रागः । प्रमाणतः अमुष्मै अमूभ्याम् ॥
antavadbhāvasupposed condition of being at the end obtained by the single substitute(एकादेश) for the final of the preceding and the initial of the succeeding word. confer, compare अन्तादिवच्च । योयमेकादेशः स पूर्वस्यान्तवत् परस्थादिवत् स्यात् । Sid. Kau. on अन्तादिवच्च P.VI. 1.84.
antādivadbhāvacondition, attributed to a single substitute for the final of the preceding and initial of the succeeding word, of being looked upon either as the final of the preceding word or as the initial of the succeeding word but never as both (the final as well as the initial) at one and the same time; confer, compare उभयत आश्रये नान्तादिवत् Sīr. Pari 39 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.48.
antodāttaa word with its last vowel accented acute. Roots, crude : noun bases and compound words generally have their last vowel accented acute; confer, compare फिषः (प्रातिपदिकस्य ) अन्त उदात्तः स्यात् Phiṭ Sūtra 1-1; धातोः (P. VI.1.162} अन्त उदात्तः स्यात्; समासस्य ( P.VI.1.223) अन्त उदात्तः स्यात् ।
anyārtha(1)having another purpose or signification: confer, compare अन्यार्थं प्रकृतं अन्यार्थं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on l.1.23; (2) another sense which is different from what is expressed confer, compare अन्यार्थो बहुव्रीहिः Cān. II.2.46.
anyonyasaṃśrayareciprocally dependent and hence serving no purpose; same as इतरेतराश्रय which is looked upon as a fault. cf अन्योन्यसंश्रयं त्वेतत् । स्वीकृतः शब्दः शब्दकृतं च स्त्रीत्वं M.Bh. on IV.1.3.
anvaya(1)construing, construction: arrangement of words according to their mutual relationship based upon the sense conveyed by them, शब्दानां परस्परमर्थानुगमनम् । (2) continuance, continuation;confer, compare घृतघटतैलवट इति ; निषिक्ते घृते तैले वा अन्वयाद्विशेषणं भवति अयं घृतघटः, अयं तैलघट इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II. 1.1.
ap(1)kṛt affix अ, in the sense of verbal activity (भाव) or any verbal relation (कारक) excepting that of an agent, (कर्तृ) applied to roots ending in ऋ or उ and the roots ग्रह्,वृ,दृ et cetera, and others mentioned in P. III.3.58 and the following rules in preference to the usual affix घञ. exempli gratia, for example करः, गरः, शरः, यवः, लवः, पवः, ग्रहः, स्वनः etc, confer, compare P.III, 3.57-87 ; (2) compound-ending अप् applied to Bahuvrīhi compounds in the feminine gender ending with a Pūraṇa affix as also to Bahuvrīhi compounds ending with लोमन् preceded by अन्त् or वहिर् e. g. कल्याणीपञ्चमा रात्रयः, अन्तर्लोमः,बहिर्लोमः पटः confer, compare P. V. 4.116, 117.
apāya(1)point of departure, separation; confer, compare ध्रुवमपायेपादानम् P.I.4.24; (2) disappearance; confer, compare संनियेागशिष्टानामन्यतरापाये उभयोरप्यपायः । तद्यथा । देवदत्तयज्ञदत्ताभ्यामिदं कर्म कर्तव्यम् । देवदत्तापाये यज्ञदत्तेपि न करोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.36.
apārthakawithout any purpose or object, useless; confer, compare ततोनिष्टादर्शनादपार्थकमेतत् Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.I.4.80.
apitnot marked with the mute letter प्, A Sārvadhātuka affix not marked with mute प् is looked upon as marked with ड् and hence it prevents the guṇa or vṛddhi substitution for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate vowel if it be अ. e. g. कुरुतः तनुतः, कुर्वन्ति where no guṇa takes place for the vowel उ confer, compare सार्वधातुकमपित्. P.I.2.4.
appayadīkṣitaअप्पदीक्षित A famous versatile writer of the sixteenth century A. D. (1530-1600 ), son of रङ्गराजाध्वरीन्द्र a Dravid Brāhmaṇa. He wrote more than 60 smaller or greater treatises mainly on Vedānta, Mimāṁsā, Dharma and Alaṁkāra śāstras; many of his works are yet in manuscript form. The Kaumudi-prakāśa and Tiṅantaśeṣasaṁgraha are the two prominent grammatical works written by him. Paṇdit Jagannātha spoke very despisingly of him.
aprātipatti(1)impossibility to obtain the correct form; (2) absence or want of apprehension, cf शब्दानां चाप्रतिपत्तिः प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1, I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8.
aprayuktanot found in popular or current use, exempli gratia, for example the words ऊष, तेर, चक्र et cetera, and others यद्यप्यप्रयुक्ता अवश्यं दीर्घसत्त्रवल्लक्षणेनानुविधेयाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1, also यथालक्षणमप्रयुक्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.I.24
abhayacandraa Jain grammarian , who wrote प्रक्रियासंग्रह, based on the Śabdānuśāsana Vyākaraṇa of the Jain Śākatāyana.His possible date is the twelfth century A. D.
abhāṣitapuṃskathat which does not convey a masculine sense; a word which is not declined in the masculine gender; a word possessing only the feminine gender e.gखट्वा, लता et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अभाषितपुंस्काच्च P. VII. 3.48.
abhidhānadesignation, denotation, expression of sense by a word which is looked upon as the very nature of a word. The expression अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम् ( denotation of sense is only a natural characteristic of a word ) frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on 1.2.64 Vārt 93, II.1.1, confer, compare नपुसकं यदूष्मान्तं तस्य बह्वभिधानजः ( Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII.7 ) where the word बह्वभिधान means बहुवचन.
abhinidhānaliterally that which is placed near or before; the first of the doubled class consonants; a mute or sparṣa consonant arising from doubling and inserted before a mute; confer, compare अघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथमः अभिनिधानः स्पर्शपरात्तस्य सस्थानः ( Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 9. ) explained by त्रिभाष्यरत्न as स्पर्शपरादघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथम आगमस्तस्य स्पर्शस्य समानस्थानः अभिनिधानो भवति । अभिनिधीयते इत्यभिनिधानः आरोपणीयः इत्यर्थः । यथा यः क्कामयेत अश्मन्नूर्जम् । यः प्पाप्मना । The Ṛk. prātiśākhya explains the term अभिनिधान somewhat differently; confer, compare अभिनिधानं कृतसंहितानां स्पर्शन्ति:स्थानामपवाद्य रेफम् । संघारणं संवरणं श्रुतेश्च स्पर्शोदयानामपि चावसाने Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 5, explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शपराणां स्पर्शानां रेफं वर्जयित्वा अन्तःस्थानां च वर्णानां कृतसंहितानां च सतां संधारणं वर्णश्रुतेश्च संवरणं भवति । तदेतद् अभिनिधानं नाम । यथा उष मा षड् द्वा द्वा । ऋ. सं ८।६८।१४ इह षड् इत्यत्र अभिनिधानम् ॥ अभिनिघान possibly according to उव्वट here means the first of the doubled letter which, although the second letter is attached to it, is separately uttered with a slight pause after it. अभिनिधान means, in short, something like 'suppression.' The Ṛk. Tantra takes a still wider view and explains अभिनिधान as the first of a doubled consonant, cf ; अभिनिधानः । क्रमजं च पूर्वान्ततस्वरं भवति । Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 21.
abhiprāya(1)अभिप्रायसंधि a kind of euphonic combination where the nasal letter न् is dropped and the preceding vowel ( अ ) is nasalised e. g, दधन्याँ यः । स्ववाँ यातु : (2) view, purpose, intention; confer, compare तद् व्यक्तमाचार्यस्याभिप्रायो गम्येत, इदं न भवतीति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27; confer, compare also स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P.1.3.72.
abhyāsalit, doubling or reduplication technically the word refers to the first portion of the reduplication, which is called the reduplicative syllable as opposed to the second part which is called the reduplicated syllable; confer, compare पूर्वोभ्यासः P. VI.1.4. (2) Repetition, the sccond part which is repeated; confer, compare दोऽभ्यासे(RT.165) explained as दकारः अभ्यासे लुप्यते । पटत्पटेति । द्रसद्रसेति ; (3) repeated action; confer, compare अभ्यासः पुनः पुनः करणमावृत्तिः Kāś. on P.1-3, 1.
ayogavāhathe letters or phonetic elements अनुस्वार,विसर्ग,जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय and यम called so,as they are always uttered only in combination with another phonetic element or letter such as अ or the like, and never independently; confer, compare अकारादिना वर्णसमाम्नायेन संहिताः सन्तः ये वहन्ति आत्मलाभं ते अयेागवाहाः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Vāj.Pr.VIII.18. These अयोगवाह letters possess the characteristics of both, the vowels as well as consonants;confer, compareअयोगवाहानामट्सु उपदेशः कर्तव्यः णत्वं प्रयोजनम् । शर्षु जष्भावत्वे प्रयोजनम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on शिवसूत्र हयवरट्.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
arthavadgrahaṇaparibhāṣāa well known maxim or Paribha of grammarians fully stated as अर्थवद्ग्रहणे नानर्थकस्य ग्रहणम्, deduced from the phrase अर्थवद्ग्रहणात् frequently used by the Vārttikakāra. The Paribhāṣā lays down that 'when a combination of letters employed in Grammar, is possessed of a sense, it has to be taken as possessed of sense and not such an one as is devoid of sense.'
ardhajaratīyaa queer combination of half the character of one and half of another, which is looked upon as a fault; confer, compare न चेदानीमर्धजरतीयं लभ्यं वृद्धिर्मे भविष्यति स्वरो नेति । तद्यथा । अर्धं जरत्याः कामयते अर्धं नेति; M.Bh. on IV. 1.78; confer, compare also अर्ध जरत्याः पाकाय अर्धं च प्रसवाय ।
ardhamātrāhalf of a mātra or 'mora'., confer, compare अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणाः Par. Śekh. Pari. 122, signifying that not a single element of utterance in Pāṇini's grammar is superfluous. In other words, the wording of the Sūtras of Pāṇini is the briefest possible, not being capable of reduction by even half a mora.
ardhahrasvodāttathe acute (उदात्त) accent which becomes specially उदात्त or उदात्ततर when the vowel, which posseses it, forms the first half of a स्वरित vowel.
arśaādia class of words which take the taddhita affix अच्(अ) in the sense of the affix मतुप् i. e.in the sense of possession; cf अर्शति अस्य विद्यन्ते अर्शसः । उरस:। आकृतिगणश्चायम् यत्राभिन्नरूपेण शब्देन तद्वतोभिधानं तत् सर्वमिह द्रष्टव्यम् Kāś. on P. V.2.127.
aliṅga(1)not possessed of a definite gender; confer, compare अलिङ्गमसंख्यमव्ययसंज्ञं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.38; II.4.82;(2)अलिङे ह्युष्मदस्मदी (Sid. Kau. on P.VII.2.90)
aliṅgavacananot possessed of a definite gender and number; a term generally used in connection with अव्ययs or indeclinables.
aluksamāsaa compound in which the case-affixes are not droppedition The Aluk compounds are treated by Pāṇini in VI.3.I to VI.3.24.
alaukikavigrahathe dissolution of a compound not in the usual popular manner. e. g. राजपुरुष: dissolved as राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु, as contrasted with the लौकिकविग्रह viz. राज्ञः पुरुष: । see also अधिहरि dissolved as हरि ङि in the अलौकिकविग्रह.
alpataranot of frequent occurence in the spoken language or literature the term is used in connection with such words as are not frequently used; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः । व्रंततिर्दम्नाः जाटय आट्णारो जागरूको द्विर्धिहोमीति Nir I.14.
alpaprāṇa(1)non-aspirate letters letters requiring little breath from the mouth for their utterance as opposed to mahāprāṇa; (2) non-aspiration; one of the external articulate efforts characterizing the utterance of non-aspirate letters.
alpāctarahaving a smaller number of vowels in it; such a word is generally placed first in a Dvandva compound; cf अल्पाच्तरम्, P.II.2.34. अल्पाच्तरे पूर्वं भवति प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ अपाच्तर is the same as अल्पाच्क used in the प्रक्रियाकौमुदी or अल्पस्वरतर in Kātantra (Kāt, II.5.12).
alpāpekṣaam operation requiring a smaller number of causes, which merely on that account cannot be looked upon as अन्तरङ्ग. The antaraṅga operation has its causes occurring earlier than those of another operation which is termed बहिरङ्ग confer, compare बहिरङगान्तरङश्ङ्गशब्दाभ्यां बह्वपेक्षत्वाल्पापेक्षत्वयोः शब्दमर्यादयाsलाभाच्च । तथा सति असिद्धं बह्वपेक्षमल्पापेक्ष इत्येव वदेत् ॥ Par.Śek. Pari. 50.
avakāśaoccasion; possibility of application; confer, compare इको गुणवृद्धी इत्यस्यावकाशः। चयनं चायकः लवनं लावकः इति । इहोभयं प्राप्नोति | मेद्यति । मार्ष्टीति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6.
avagraha(1)separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; exempli gratia, for example पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originatedition The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. (Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; confer, compare also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।(Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.36); also confer, compare यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ exempli gratia, for example शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; confer, compare समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.
avagrahavirāmathe interval or pause after the utterance of the first member of a compound word when the members are uttered separately. This interval is equal to two moras according to Tait. Pr. while, it is equal to one mora according to the other Prātiśākhyas.
avayavamember or portion, as opposed to the total or collection (समुदाय) which is called अवयविन्; confer, compare अवयवप्रसिद्धेः समुदायप्रसिद्धिर्बलीयसी Par.Śek. Pari. 98. The conventional sense is more powerful than the derivative sense.
avaśiṣṭaliṅga(v.1. अविशिष्टलिङ्ग)a term occurring in the liṅgānuśāsana meaning 'possessed of such genders as have not been mentioned already either singly or by combination' id est, that is possessed of all genders.Under अवशिष्टलिङ्ग are mentioned indeclinables, numerals ending in ष् or न् , adjectives, words ending with kṛtya affixes id est, that is potential passive participles, pronouns, words ending with the affix अन in the sense of an instrument or a location and the words कति and युष्मद् (See पाणिनीय-लिङ्गानुशासन Sūtras 182-188).
avibhāgapakṣaa view of grammarians according to which there are words which are looked upon as not susceptible to derivation. The terms अखण्डपक्ष and अव्युत्पन्नपक्ष are also used in the same sense.
aviravikanyāyaa maxim mentioned by Patañjali in connection with the word आविक where the taddhita affix ठक् (इक), although prescribed after the word अवि in the sense of 'flesh of sheep' (अवेः मांसम्), is actually put always after the base अविक and never after अवि. The maxim shows the actual application of an affix to something allied to, or similar to the base, and not to the actual base as is sometimes found in popular use confer, compare द्वयोः शब्दयोः समानार्थयोरेकेन विग्रहोऽपरस्मादुत्पत्तिर्भविष्यति अविरविकन्यायेन । तद्यथा अवेर्मांसमिति विगृह्य अविकशब्दादुत्पत्तिर्भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.88; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.89; IV.2.60; IV.3.131,V.1.7,28; VI.2.11.
avṛttiabsence of, or prohibition of, a vṛtti or composite expression; monformation of a composite expression; confer, compare समानाधिकरणानां सर्वत्रावृत्तिरयोगादेकेन M.Bh. on III.1. 8.
avyayaindeclinable, literally invariant, not undergoing a change. Pāṇini has used the word as a technical term and includes in it all such words as स्वर्, अन्तर् , प्रातर् etc, or composite expressions like अव्ययीभावसमास, or such taddhitānta words as do not take all case affixes as also kṛdanta words ending in म् or ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. He gives such words in a long list of Sutras P. I.1.37 to 41; confer, compare सदृशं त्रिषु लिङ्गेषु सर्वासु च विभक्तिषु । वचनेषु च सर्वेषु यन्न व्येति तदव्ययम् Kāś. on P.I.1.37.
avyayībhāvaname of a compound so called on account of the words forming the compound, being similar to indeclinables: e. g. निर्मक्षिकम् , अधिहरि, यथामति, यावज्जीवम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare अनव्ययं अव्ययं भवतीत्यव्ययीभावः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.I.5. The peculiarity of the avyayībhāva compound is that the first member of the compound plays the role of the principal word; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानोऽव्ययीभावः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.6.
avyavasthāabsence of proper disposal; absence of a proper method regarding the application of a rule: confer, compare पुनर्ऋच्छिभावः पुनराडिति चक्रकमव्यवस्था प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.60 V. 5.
avyāptiinsufficient extension, as opposed to अतिव्याप्ति or over application; confer, compareसर्वौपाधिव्यभिचारार्थम् । अव्याप्त्यतिव्याप्त्यसंभवादिदोषपरिहारार्थम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on II.1.32.
avyutpattipakṣathe view held generally by grammarians that all words are not necessarily susceptible to analysis or derivation, an alternative view opposed to the view of the etymologists or Nairuktas that every word is derivable; confer, compare पाणिनेस्त्वव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष एवेति शब्देन्दुशेखरे निरूपितम् Pari. Śekh. Pari. 22; वाचक उपादान: स्वरूपवानिति अव्युत्पत्तिपक्षे Vyāḍi's Saṁgraha.
aśvaghāsādicompounds like अश्वघास which cannot be strictly correct as चतुथींसमास, but can be षष्ठीसमास if the word तदर्थ in the rule चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः be understood in the sense of 'meant for' a particular thing which is to be formed out of it: confer, compare विकृतिः प्रकृत्येति चेदश्वघासादीनामुपसंख्यानम् M.Bh. on II.1.36.
aṣṭakaanother name for the famous work of Pāṇini popularly called the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; confer, compare अष्टावध्यायाः परिमाणमस्य सूत्रस्य अष्टकं पाणिनीयम् । दशकं वैयाघ्रपदीयम् । त्रिंकं काशकृत्स्नम् । Kāś on P.IV. 1.58; (2) students of Pāṇini's grammar, e. g. अष्टकाः पाणिनीयाः; confer, compare सूत्राच्च कोपधात् । Kāś. on P.IV. 2. 65.
aṣṭādhyāyīname popularly given to the Sūtrapāṭha of Pāṇini consisting of eight books (adhyāyas) containing in all 3981 Sūtras,as found in the traditional recital, current at the time of the authors of the Kāśika. Out of these 398l Sūtras, seven are found given as Vārtikas in the Mahābhāṣya and two are found in Gaṇapāṭha.The author of the Mahābhāṣya has commented upon only 1228 of these 3981 sūtras. Originally there were a very few differences of readings also, as observed by Patañjali ( see Mbh on I.4.1 ); but the text was fixed by Patañjali which, with a few additions made by the authors of the Kāśika,as observed a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., has traditionally come down to the present day. The Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is believed to be one of the six Vedāṅga works which are committed to memory by the reciters of Ṛgveda. The text of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is recited without accents. The word अष्टाध्यायी was current in Patañjali's time; confer, compare शिष्टज्ञानार्था अष्टाध्यायी Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 3.109.
as(1)case affix of the nominative and accusative plural and the ablative and genitive singular (जस् , शस्, ङसि and ङस् ) (2) taddhita affix अस् ( असि ) added to पूर्व, अधर and अवर, by P.V.3.39: (3) compoundending अस् ( असिच् ) applied to the words प्रजा and मेधा standing at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound (P.V.4.122): (4) Uṇādi affix अस् prescribed by the rule सर्वधातुभ्योऽसुन् and subsequent rules (628-678) to form words such as मनस्,सरस् et cetera, and others(5) ending syllable अस्, with or without sense, of words in connection with which special operations are given in grammar; confer, compare P.VI.4.14; confer, compare also अनिनस्मन्ग्रहणान्यर्थवता चानर्थकेन च तदन्तविधिं प्रयोजयन्ति Par.Śek. Pari. 16.
asaṃkhyanot possessing any notion of number; the word is used in connection with avyayas or indeclinables; यथैव हि अलिङ्गमव्ययमेवमसंख्यमपि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.82.
asaṃbhavaImpossibility of occurrence (used in connection with an operation); cf नावश्यं द्विकार्ययोग एव विप्रतिषेधः । किं तर्हि । असंभवेपि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (2) impossibility of a statement, mention, act et cetera, and others confer, compare असंभवः खल्वपि अर्थादेशनस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.1.
asaṃhitāabsence of juxta-position, absence of connectedness; confer, compare यदि तावत्संहितया निर्देशः क्रियते भ्वादय इति भवितव्यम् । अथासंहितया भू अादय इति भविंतव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.1.
asamartha(1)syntactically not connected, e. g. राज्ञः and पुरुषः in the sentence भार्या राज्ञः पुरुषो देवदत्तस्य (2) unable to enter into a compound word, the term is used in connection with a word which cannot be compounded with another word, although related in sense to it, and connected with it by apposition or by a suitable case affix, the reason being that it is connected more closely with another word: confer, compare सापेक्षमसमर्थं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.1.1.; exempli gratia, for example the words कष्टं and श्रितः in the sentence महत् कष्टं श्रितः.
asamarthasamāsaa compound of two words, which ordinarily is inadmissible, one of the two words being more closely connected with a third word, but which takes place on the authority of usage, there being no obstacle in the way of understanding the sense to be conveyed; e. g. देवदत्तस्य गुरुकुलम् । देवदत्तस्य दासभार्या । असूर्यंपश्यानि मुखानि, अश्राद्धभोजी ब्राह्मणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.1.
asamastanot compounded, not entered into a compound with another word; confer, compare समासे असमस्तस्य Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II.3.13.
asamāsa(1)absence of a compound. उपसर्गादसमासेपि णोपदेशस्य P. VIII.4.14; (2) an expression conveying the sense of a compound word although standing in the form of separate words: चार्थे द्वन्द्ववचने असमासेपि वार्थसंप्रत्ययादनिष्टं प्राप्नोति । अहरहर्नयमानो गामश्वं पुरुषं पशुम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.2.29.
asthaअ, अा and अा३. This term is used in Ṛk Tantra confer, compare अस्थनामिनी सन्ध्यम् R.T.94, अस्थ possibly means 'belonging to अ i. e. all the three grades ह्रस्व, दीर्घ and प्लुत of अ'.
asvapadavigrahaa term used for those compounds, the dissolution of which cannot be shown by the members of the compound: e. g. सुमुखी; confer, compare भवति वै कश्चिदस्वपदविग्रहोपि बहुव्रीहिः । तद्यथा । शोभनं मुखमस्याः सुमुखीति । M.Bh. on V.4.5.
ākāṅkṣāexpectancy with regard to sense-completion, generally in compounds such as साकाङ्क्ष, निराकाङ्क्ष et cetera, and others confer, compare अस्त्यस्मिन्नाकाङ्क्षा इत्यतः साकाङ्क्षम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2.114.
aākhyātaverbal form, verb; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातं सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि Nirukta of Yāska.I.1; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्यातोपसर्गनिपाताश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1. Āhnika 1 ; also A.Prāt. XII. 5, अाकार अाख्याते पदादिश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.2.37 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2, आख्यातमाख्यातेन क्रियासातत्ये Sid. Kau. on II.1.72, क्रियावाचकमाख्यातं Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1; confer, compare भारद्वाजकमाख्यातं भार्गवं नाम भाष्यते । भारद्वाजेन दृष्टत्वादाख्यातं भारद्वाजगोत्रम् V. Prāt. VIII. 52; confer, compare also Athar. Prāt.I.I.12, 18; 1.3.3,6; II.2.5 where ākhyāta means verbal form. The word also meant in ancient days the root also,as differentiated from a verb or a verbal form as is shown by the lines तन्नाम येनाभिदधाति सत्त्वं, तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातुः R.Pr.XII.5 where 'आख्यात' and 'धातु' are used as synonyms As the root form such as कृ, भृ et cetera, and others as distinct from the verbal form, is never found in actual use, it is immaterial whether the word means root or verb.In the passages quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. from the Nirukta and the Mahābhāṣya referring to the four kinds of words, the word ākhyāta could be taken to mean root (धातु) or verb (क्रियापद). The ākhyāta or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being and bccoming while nouns (नामानि) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the activities and things in this world but with every process and entity; confer, compare पूर्वापूरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे Nir.I.;अस्तिभवतिविद्यतीनामर्थः सत्ता । अनेककालस्थायिनीति कालगतपौर्वापर्येण क्रमवतीति तस्याः क्रियात्वम् । Laghumañjūṣā. When a kṛt (affix). affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a word ending with a kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of bhāva or verbal activity is treated as a noun and regularly declined;confer, compareकृदभिहितो भावे द्रव्यवद् भवति M.Bh. on II.2.19 and III. 1.67, where the words गति, व्रज्या, पाक and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words ending with kṛt (affix). affixes such as कर्तुं, कृत्वा, and others, the modern grammarians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be,in a way, looked upon as ākhyātas; confer, compare अव्ययकृतो भावे Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa.
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
āgamaaugment, accrement, a word element which is added to the primitive or basic word during the process of the formation of a complete word or pada. The āgama is an adventitious word element and hence differs from ādeśa, the substitute which wholly takes the place of the original or ( आदेशिन् ). Out of the several āgamas mentioned by Pāṇini, those that are marked with mute ट् are prefixed, those, marked with क्, are affixed, while those, marked with म्, are placed immediately after the last vowel of the word. The augments become a part and parcel of the word to which they are added, and the characteristics of which they possess;confer, compareयदागमास्तद्गुणीभूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते, also आगमानां आगमिधर्मिवैशिष्ट्यम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.11. Those grammarians, who hold the view that words are unproduced and eternal, explain the addition of an augment as only the substitution of a word with an augment in the place of a word without an augment; confer, compare आदेशास्तर्हिमे भविष्यन्ति अनागमकानां सागमकाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20; I.1.46. The term āgama is defined as अन्यत्र विद्यमानस्तु यो वर्णः श्रुयतेधिकः । आगम्यमानतुल्यत्वात्स आगम इति स्मृतः Com. on Tait. Prāt.I. 23.
aāṅthe preposition आ. See the word आ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
ācāryapreceptor, teacher; a designation usually given to Pāṇini by Patañjali in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare the usual expression तज्ज्ञापयति आचार्यः as also अाचार्यप्रवृत्तिर्ज्ञापयति; also confer, compare नेदानीमाचार्याः सूत्राणि कृत्वा निवर्तयन्ति; confer, compare also the popular definition of अाचार्य given as 'निशम्य यद्गिरं प्राज्ञा अविचार्यैव तत्क्षणम् । संभावयन्ति शिरसा तमाचार्यं प्रचक्षते ।"
ācāryadeśīyaa partisan of the preceptor Pāṇini or the Sūtrakāra who is looked upon as having approxmately the same authority as the Sūtrakāra; confer, compare अाचार्यदेशीय अाहन वक्तव्य इति l Kaiyaṭa on I.4.105, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
ācitādia class of words headed by the word अाचित which do not have their final vowel accented acute by P. VI.2.146 when they are preceded by the prepositions प्र, परा et cetera, and others although they are used as proper nouns. exempli gratia, for example आचितम्,निरुक्तम्, प्रश्लिष्टम्; confer, compare Kāśikā on P. VI.2.146.
aāṭactaddhita affix.affix (आट) in the sense of possession added to the word वाच्; exempli gratia, for example वाचाटः confer, compare P.V.2.125.
ātideśikaapplied by extension or transfer of epithet as opposed to औपदेशिक. See the word अतिदेश; the term is often used in connection with rules or operations which do not apply or occur by the direct expression of the grammarian; confer, compare यदि आतिदेशिकेन कित्वेन औपदेशिकं कित्वं बाध्येत. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.1.; confer, compare also अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् Par.Śek. Pari. 93.6.
ātmanepadaa technical term for the affixes called तड् (त, आताम् et cetera, and others) and the affix अान ( शानच् , चानश्, कानच् ), called so possibly because, the fruit of the activity is such as generally goes to the agent (आत्मने) when these affixes are usedition Contrast this term (Ātmanepada) with the term Parasmaipada when the fruit is meant for another. For an explanation of the terms see P. VI.3.7 and 8.
ātvatpossessed of the vowel आ; containing the vowel आ; e.g पाकः, दायः et cetera, and others confer, compare कर्षात्वतो घञोन्त उदात्तः P.VI. 1.159.
āditpossessed of the mute indicatory letter अा signifying the nonapplication of the augment इ (इट् ) to the past-passive voice. participle. term क्त. e. g. क्ष्विण्ण from the root ञिक्ष्विदाः similarly खिन्न, भिन्न et cetera, and others confer, compare आदितश्र P.VII. 2.16.
ādeśa(1)substitute as opposed to sthānin, the original. In Pāṇini's grammar there is a very general maxim, possessed of a number of exceptions, no doubt, that 'the substitute behaves like the original' (स्थानिवदादेशः अनल्विधौ P.I.1.56.); the application of this maxim is called स्थानिवद्भाव; for purposes of this स्थानिवद्भाव the elision (लोप) of a phonetic element is looked upon as a sort of substitute;confer, compare उपधालेपस्य स्थानिवत्त्वात् Kāś. on P.I.1.58. Grammarians many times look upon a complete word or a word-base as a substitute for another one, although only a letter or a syllable in the word is changed into another, as also when a letter or syllable is added to or dropped in a word; confer, compare पचतु, पचन्तु ... इमेप्यादेशाः । कथम् । अादिश्यते यः स आदेशः । इमे चाप्यादिश्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; cf also सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः M.Bh. on P. I.1.20; confer, compare also अनागमकानां सागमका आदेशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20: (2) indication, assignment; confer, compare योयं स्वरादेशः अन्तोदात्तं, वधेराद्युदात्तत्वं, स्वः स्वरितमिति अादेशः R.Pr.I.30-32; confer, compare also अादेशः उपदेशः commentary on Tai.-Prāt. II.20: confer, compare also अनादेशे अविकारः V.Pr.IV.131, where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.remarks यत्र उदात्तादीनां स्वराणां सन्धौ आदेशो न क्रियते तत्र अविकारः प्रत्येतव्यः । confer, compare also एकारो विभक्त्यादेशः छन्दसि A.Pr. II.1.2, where ए is prescribed as a substitute for a caseaffix and त्ये and अस्मे are cited as examples where the acute acent is also prescribed for the substitute ए.
ādya(1)premier; confer, compare इदमाद्यं पदस्थानं (व्याकरणनामकं ) सिद्धिसोपानपर्वणाम् Vāk. Pad. I.16; (2) preceding as opposed to succeeding (उत्तर); confer, compare सहाद्यैर्व्यञ्जनैः V.Pr.I.100 (3) original; confer, compare आद्यप्रकृतिः परमप्रकृतिः (original base) Bhāṣā Vṛtti. IV.1.93; (4) first, preceding, आद्ये योगे न व्यवाये तिङः स्यु; M.Bh. on III.1-91.
ādheyaa thing placed in another or depending upon another, as opposed to ādhāra or the container; confer, compare आधेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.1.44.
aānaṅsubstitute आन् in the place of the last letter (ऋ) of the first member of dvandva compounds of words meaning deities or of words showing blood-relationship which end with the vowel ऋ; exempli gratia, for example होतापोतारौ, मातापितरो confer, compare P.VI.3.25, 26.
ānantarya(1)close proximity; absence of any intermediary element generally of the same nature: अनन्तरस्य भावः आनन्तर्यम्; confer, compare नाजानन्तर्ये वहिष्ट्वप्रक्लृप्तिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 21: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 51. This close proximity of one letter or syllable or so, with another, is actually id est, that isphonetically required and generally so found out also, but sometimes such proximity is theoretically not existing as the letter required for proximity is technically not present there by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्. In such cases, a technical absence is not looked upon as a fault. confer, compare कचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्ये शास्त्रकृतमनानन्तर्ये यथा ष्टुत्वे, क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतं यथा जश्त्वे । यत्र कुतश्चिदेवानन्तर्यं तदाश्रयिष्यामः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.3.13. (2) close connection by mention together at a common place et cetera, and others;confer, compare सर्वाद्यानन्तर्यं कार्यार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27.
ānarthakyaabsence of any utility; superfluity; absence of any object or purpose; confer, compare स्थानिवद्वचनानर्थक्यं शास्त्रासिद्धत्वात् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.VI.1.86 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5 confer, compare also P.VI.1.158 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; VI.1.161 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, VI.1.166 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, VI.1.167 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
ānunāsikyanasalization; utterance through the nose, an additional property possessed by vowels and the fifth letters of the 5 classes (ङ्, ञ्, ण् ,न्, म्) confer, compare आनुनासिक्यं तेषामधिको गुणः M.Bh. on I.1.9.
ānupūrvyasaṃhitāthe saṁhitā-pāṭha or recital of the running Vedic text in accordance with the constituent words;exempli gratia, for example शुनः शेपं चित् निदितम् or नरा शंसं वा पूषणम्, as opposed to the अनानुपूर्व्यसंहिता which is actually found in the traditional recital exempli gratia, for example शुनश्चिच्छेपं निदितम् Ṛk saṁh. V 2.7 or नरा वा शंसं पूषणम् Ṛk saṁh. X.64.3. See R. Prāt. II 43.
ānumānikaobtained or made out by inference such as Paribhāṣā rules as opposed to Śrauta rules such as the Sūtras of Pāṇini; confer, compare आनुमानिकं स्थानित्वमवयवयो; Kāś. on VI.1.85; also confer, compare आनुमानिकस्थान्यादेशभावकल्पनेपि श्रौतस्थान्यादेशभावस्य न त्यागः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on Pari. 11; confer, compare also किं च पूर्वत्रेत्यस्य प्रत्यक्षत्वेन अानुमानिक्या अस्या बाध एवोचितः Pari. Śek. on Pari. 50.
āpiśala(1)a work of अापिशलि, possibly his grammar; confer, compare आपिशलमधीते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.14; (2) a student of Āpiśali's grammar: आपिशलमधीते आपिशला ब्राह्मणी Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.14: अापिशलपाणिनीयव्याडीयगौतमीयाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 2.36.; confer, compare तथा चापिशलाः पाणिनीयाः पठन्ति-आगमोनुपघातेन विकारश्चोपमर्दनात् । आदेशस्तु प्रसङ्गेन लोपः सर्वापकर्षनात्.
ābhācchāstraa rule given in the section called आभीयप्रकरण extending from P.VI.4.22 to VI.4.175, wherein one rule or operation is looked upon as invalid to another ; confer, compare असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22 and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). thereon; confer, compare also यावता अनिदितां हलः इत्यपि आभाच्छास्त्रम् Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.Pari. 38.
ābhīyāsiddhatvainvalidity or supposed invisibility of one rule with respect to another, in the section called अाभीयप्रकरण. See अाभाच्छास्त्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
aāmantritakārakaa word connected with the verbal activity possessed by अामन्त्रित exempli gratia, for example कुण्डेन in कुण्डेनाटन्; confer, compare अामन्त्रिते या धातुवाच्या क्रिया तस्याः कारकम् Kaiyaṭa on P.II.1.2.
aāmantryaa word in the vocative case; literally a word possessed of the sense of invocation; confer, compare अामन्त्र्यमाणेर्थं वर्तमानः शब्द अामन्त्र्यः Śāk. I.3.88; confer, compare also अमन्त्रयते यत्तदामन्त्र्यम् commentary on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II.1.25.
aāminactaddhita affix. affix अामिन् in the sense of possession, applied to the word स्व; confer, compare स्वामिन्नैश्वर्ये P.V.2.126.
āmreḍita(1)iterative: a repeated word, defined as द्विरुक्तं पदम् confer, compare द्विरुक्तमात्रेडितं पदम् exempli gratia, for example यज्ञायज्ञा वो अग्नये Vāj. Prāt. I. 146; (2). the second or latter portion, of a repeated word according to Pāṇini; c. तस्य (द्विरुक्तस्य) परमाम्रेडितम् P. VIII.1.2. The Āmreḍita word gets the grave accent and has its last vowel protracted when it implies censure; confer, compare P.VIII.1.3 and VIII. 2.95.Haradatta has tried to explain how the term आम्रेडित means the first member; confer, compare ननु अाम्रेडितशब्दे । निघण्टुषु प्रसिद्धः अाम्रेडितं द्विस्त्रिरुक्तमिति । सत्यमर्थे प्रसिद्धः इह तु शब्दे परिभाष्यते । महासंज्ञाकरणं पूर्वाचार्यानुरोधेन Padamañj. on VIII.1.2.
āmreḍitasamāsaan iterative compound: confer, compare आम्रेडितसमासे तु । A. Prāt. III.1.5.
āy(1)the affix आय applied to the roots गुप्, धूप् and others ending with which they are looked upon as roots; confer, compare P. III.1.28: P.III.1. 32. The affix is applied optionally when an ārdhadhātuka affix is to follow, exempli gratia, for example गोपायिता, गोप्ता; confer, compare P.III. 1.31; (2) augment; confer, compare असतो वर्णस्य उपजनः R. Prāt. XIV. 1 Uvaṭa.
ārṣaderived from the holy sages; founded on sacred tradition, such as the Vedāṅgas;confer, compare कृत्स्नं च वेदाड्गमनिन्द्यमार्षम् R. Prāt. XIV 30. The word is explained as स्वयंपाठ by the commentary on Vāj Prāt. IX.2I, and as Vaidika saṁdhi on X.l3. Patañjali has looked upon the pada-pāṭha or Pada-text of the Saṁhitās of the Vedas, as anārṣa, as contrasted with the Saṁhitā text which is ārṣa; confer, compare आर्ष्याम् in the sense संहितायाम् R. Prāt. II.27; confer, compare also पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् M.Bh. on III.1.109.
āviṣṭāliṅgahaving a fixed gender as opposed to अनाविष्टलिङ्गpossessed of all genders; confer, compare अविश्लिङ्गा जातिः । यल्लिङ्गमुपादाय प्रवर्तते न तल्लिङ्गे जहाति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.52 exempli gratia, for example the word प्रमाण in प्रमाणं वेदाः.
āśvalāyanaprātiśākhyaan authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the Ṛksaṁhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa.
āhitāgnyādia class of compound words headed by the word आहिताग्नि in which the past passive voice. participle. is optionally placed first. exempli gratia, for exampleआहिताग्निः अग्नयाहितः; जातपुत्रः पुत्रजातः The class आहिताम्न्यादि is stated to be आकृतिगण, confer, compare Kāś.on P.II.2.37.
i(1)the vowel इ, representing all its eighteen forms viz. short, long protracted, acute, grave, circumflex, pure and nasalised; exempli gratia, for example इ in यस्येति च P.VI.4.128;(2) Uṅādi affix ई(3)tad-affix इच्(इ)applied to Bahuvrihi compounds in the sense of exchange of action or as seen in words like द्विदण्डि exempli gratia, for example केशाकेशि, दण्डादण्डि, द्विमुसलि et cetera, and others confer, compare इच् कर्मव्यतिहारे P.V.4. 127,also V.4.128; (4) kṛt (affix). affix कि (इ) confer, compare उपसर्गे घोः किः P.III.3.92; (5) augment इट् (इ); see इट् (6) conjugational affix इट् of the 1st person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada
ikantaddhita affix. affix इक applied to compound words with पद as the latter member exempli gratia, for example पूर्वपदिक confer, compare इकन्पदोत्तरपदात् P.IV.2.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).
iṅgyaa separable word as opposed to अनिङ्ग्य; part of a compound word which is separated or may be separated from the remaining part when the word is split up into its constituent parts. Generally the word is applied to the first part of a compound word when it is split up in the recital of the padapāṭha. The 'iṅgya' word is shown by a pause or avagraha after it which is shown in writing by the sign (ऽ): confer, compare इङ्गयेत विभागेन चाल्यते इति इङ्गयम् । इङ्गयमिति विभागपदस्य संशा commentary on Tait. Prāt. 1.48. सावग्रहं पदमिङ्गयम् Com.on T.Pr. I.48.
ic(1)short wording or pratyāhāra for vowels except अ. confer, compare इजोदश्च गुरुमतोSनृच्छः P.III.1.36; cf also VI. I.104, VI.3.68. VIII.4.31,32; (2) Samāsānta affix इ after Bahuvrīhi compounds showing a mutual exchange of actions. exempli gratia, for example केशाकेशि, दण्डादण्डि confer, compare इच् कर्मव्यतिहारे P.V.4. 127 also 128.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
itaretarapossessed of interdependence; depending upon each other; confer, compare इतरेतरं कार्यमसद्वत् Candra Pari. 5 }. Grammatical operations are of no avail if the rules stating them are mutually depending on each other. The word इतरेतर has the sense of इतरेतराश्रय here.
itaretarayogamutual relationship with each other. Out of the four senses of the indeclinable च viz. समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार, the Dvandva compound is formed of words connected in the last two ways and not in the first two ways. The instances of द्वन्द्व in the sense of इतरेतरयोग are धवखदिरपलाशाः, प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ etc; confer, compare Kāś.on P. II.2.29 confer, compare also प्लक्षश्च न्यग्रोधश्चेत्युक्ते गम्यत एतत्प्लक्षोपि न्यग्रोधसहायो न्यग्रोधोपि प्लक्षसहाय इति M.Bh. on II.2.29; confer, compare also इतरेतरयोगः स यदा उद्रिक्तावयवभेदो भवति Sīradeva's ParibhāṣāvṛttiPari. 16.
itaretarāśrayadepending upon each other; confer, compare इतरेतराश्रयाणि च कार्याणि न प्रकल्पन्ते । तद्यथा । नौर्नावि बद्धा नेतरेतरत्राणाय भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1. See इतरेतर a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
iditpossessed of the mute indicatory letter इ; e. g the roots नदि, विदि and the like, in whose case the augment नुम् ( न् ) is affixed to the last vowel; cf इदितो नुम् धातोः P. VII.1.58.
inactaddhita affix. affix इन in the sense of possession applied to the word नि which is changed into चिक, exempli gratia, for example चिकिनः confer, compare इनच् पिटच् चिकचि च P.V.2.33.
ini(1)kṛt affix इन् applied to the roots क्री with धि, जु with प्र, and the roots जि, दृ, क्षि and others, e. g. सोमविक्रयी, प्रजवी, जयी et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III 2.93 and III.2.156-157: (2) taddhita affix. affix इन् affixed to the word पाण्डुकम्बल in the sense of 'covered with' ( confer, compare P, IV.2.11), in the sense of collection to the word खल exempli gratia, for example खलिनी confer, compare P.IV.2.51, to the word अनुब्राह्मण in sense 'student of' exempli gratia, for example अनुब्राह्मणी confer, compare P.IV.2.62, to the words कर्मन्द and कृशाश्च confer, compare P.IV.3.lll, to the word चूर्ण confer, compare P.IV.4.23 and to the word श्राद्ध confer, compare P.V.2.85 and साक्षात् confer, compare P. V. 2. 91 in specified senses and in the general sense of possession to words ending in अ, cf P. V.2.115-117 and to certain other words confer, compare P.V.2.128-37.
indraname of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; confer, compare the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya edition by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.
iractaddhita affix. affix ( इर ) in the sense of possession applied in Vedic Literature to रथ exempli gratia, for example रथिरः; confer, compare P.V. 2.109 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).3.
iranataddhita affix. affix ( इर ) in the sense of possession applied in Vedic Literature; to मेघा exempli gratia, for example confer, compare P. मेधिरः V.2.109 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
ilac(1)taddhita affix. affix इल (इलच्) in the sense of pity; e. g. देवियः, यज्ञिलः confer, compare P.IV.2.79. The taddhita affix.affix घन् is also affixed in the same sense. See ईय. (2) taddhita affix. affix इल (इलच्) in the sense of possession, prescribed after the words फेन, लोमन् कपि, सिकता, शर्करा, तुन्द, उदर, घट, यव et cetera, and others; exempli gratia, for example फेनिल, लोमिल, कपिल, सिकतिल तुन्दिल et cetera, and others confer, compare P.V.2.99, 100, 105, 117.
iṣṭaa word frequently used in the Vārttikas and the Mahābhāṣya and other treatises in the senses of (1) a desired object, (2) a desired purpose, (3) a desired statement, (4) a desired form id est, that is the correct form : confer, compare इष्टान्वाख्यानं खल्वपि भवति: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).I.1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 1. योगविभागादिष्टसिद्धिः Pari.Śek. Pari. 114.
iṣṭhavadbhāvapossession of the same properties for causing grammatical operations as the taddhita affix. affix इष्ठन् possesses, as for instance, the elision of the syllable beginning with the last vowel ( टिलोप ), substitution of the masculine gender. base for the feminine. base (पुंवद्भाव) et cetera, and others, before the denom affix णिच्; exempli gratia, for example एतयति in the sense of एनीं आचष्टे; similarly प्रथयति, पटयति, दवयति, confer, compare M.Bh. on. P.VI.4. 155 Vārt, 1.
iṣṇukṛt affix इष्णुच् applied,in the sense of 'possessed of habitual behaviour action, or splendid accomplishment,' to the roots अलंकृ, निराकृ, प्रजन् , उत्पत् et cetera, and others e.g अलंकरिष्णुः,उत्पतिष्णुः, सहिष्णुः,चरिष्णुः et cetera, and others;confer, compareP.III.2.136-138.
īthe long vowel ई which is technically included in the vowel इ in Pāṇini's alphabet being the long tone of that vowel; (2) substitute ई for the vowel अा of the roots घ्रा and ध्मा before the frequentative sign यङ् as for example in जेघ्रीयते, देध्मीयते, confer, compare P.VII. 4.31; (3) substitute ई for the vowel अ before the affixes च्वि and क्यच् as, for instance, in शुक्लीभवति, पुत्रीयति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.VII.4.32, 33; (4) substitute ई for the vowel अा at the end of reduplicated bases as also for the vowel आ of bases ending in the conjugational sign ना, exempli gratia, for example मिमीध्वे, लुनीतः et cetera, and others; cf P.VI. 4.113; (5) substitute ई for the locative case case affix इ ( ङि ) in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example सरसी for सरसि in दृतिं न शुश्कं सरसी शयानम्,: confer, compare Kāś. on P. VII.1.39: (6) taddhita affix. affix ई in the sense of possession in Vedic Literature as for instance in रथीः,सुमङ्गलीः, confer, compare Kāś on. P.V.2.109: (7) the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् , ङीञ् or ङीन् ); confer, compare P.IV.1.58, 15-39, IV.1.40-65, IV.1.13.
īdit(a root)possessed of long ई as a mute indicatory ending meant for prohibiting the addition of the augment इ to the past participle. terminations त and तवत् ; exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, दीप्तः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P VII.2.14.
īmasactaddhita affix. affix ईमस added to the word मल in sense of possession: e. g. मलीमसः, confer, compare P. V. 2.114.
īractad-affix added to the word अण्ड in the sense of possession: exempli gratia, for example अण्रडीरः;confer, compare काण्डाण्डादीरन्नीरचौ P.V.2.111.
uktipadaउक्तिपदानि a short anonymous treatise on case-relations, compounds et cetera, and others written mostly in Gujarati.
uktiratnākara'a short grammar work, written by साधुसुन्दर, explaining declension, cases and their meanings, compounds, et cetera, and others and giving a list of Prākṛta words with their Sanskrit equivalents.
ugrabhūtior उग्राचार्य writer of a gloss on the Nirukta, called Niruktabhāṣya believed to have lived in the 18th century A. D; writer also of a grammatical work Śiṣyahitāvṛtti or Śiṣyahitānyāsa, which was sent to kāshmir and made popular with a large sum of money spent upon it, by his pupil Ānanadpāla.
uccaritapronounced or uttered; the phrase उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः is used in connection with the mute indicatory letters termed इत् in Pāṇini's grammar, as these letters are not actually found in use in the language and are therefore supposed to vanish immediately after their purpose has been servedition The phrase 'उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनोSनुबन्धा:' has been given as a Paribhāṣā by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.(Pari.11), in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 14), in the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa (Pari.54) and also in the Kalāpa Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 71). Patañjali has used the expression उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः in connection with ordinary letters of a word, which have existence for a moment and which also vanish immediately after they have been uttered; confer, compare उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः खल्वपि वर्णा: ...न वर्णो वर्णस्य सहायः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4. 109.
uccāraṇapronunciation, enunciation (in the Śāstra). The phrase उच्चारणसामर्थ्यात् is often found used in the Mahābhāṣya and elsewhere in connection with the words of Pāṇini, everyone of which is believed to , have a purpose or use in the Śāstra, which purpose, if not clearly manifest, is assigned to it on the strength (सामर्थ्य) of its utterance; confer, compare उच्चारणसामर्थ्यादत्र ( हिन्येाः ) उत्वं न भविष्यति M.Bh. on III.4.89 V.2; confer, compare also M.Bh. on IV.4.59, VI.4.163, VII.1.12,50, VII.2.84, In a few cases, a letter is found used by Pāṇini which cannot be assigned any purpose but which has been put there for facility of the use of other letters. Such letters are said to be उच्चारणार्थ; confer, compare जग्धि: । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:। नानुबन्धः । Kāś. on II.4.36.च्लि लुडि. । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:; चकारः स्वरार्थः । Kāś, on III.1. 43. The expressions मुखसुखार्थः and श्रवणार्थः in the Mahābhāṣya mean the same as उच्चारणार्थः.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
uṇādeikośaa metrical work explaining the उणादि words referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. with meanings assigned to them. There are two such compositions one by Rāmatarkavāgīśa or Rāmaśarma and the other by Rāmacandra Dīkṣita.
uṇādiprātipadikaword form or crude base, ending with an affix of the uṇ class, which is looked upon as practically underived, the affixes un and others not being looked upon as standard affixes applied with regular meanings attached to them and capable of causing operations to the preceding base as prescribed by rules of grammar; confer, compare उणादयोS व्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि । व्युत्पन्नानीति शाकटायनरीत्या । पाणिनेस्त्वव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष एवेति शब्देन्दुशेखरे निरूपितम्. Pari. Śek. on Paribhāṣa 22.
uṇādisūtradaśapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable.
uṇādisūtrapañcapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into five chapters which is possessed of a scholarly commentary written by Ujjvaladatta. There is a commentary on it by Bhaṭṭoji Dīkṣita also.
uṇādisūtravṛttia gloss on the Uṇādi Sūtras in the different versions. Out of the several glosses on the Uṇādi Sūtras, the important ones are those written by Ujjvaladatta, Govardhana, Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva, Rāmacandra Dīkṣita and Haridatta. There is also a gloss called Uṇādisūtrodghātana by Miśra. There is a gloss by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. on the Kātantra version of the Uṇādi Sūtras.
utkarādia class of words headed by the word उत्कर, to which the taddhita affix छ is added in the four senses, the affix being popularly known as चातुरर्थिक; confer, compare उत्करीयम्, शफरीयम् et cetera, and others; Kāś. on P.V.2.90.
uttara(1)following, subsequent, e. g. उत्तरपद, the latter part of a compound word; (2) end of a word, पदान्त; confer, compare उत्तरे पदान्ते वर्तमानः Com. on T.Pr. III.1.
uttarapadathe latter member or portion of a compound word as contrasted with पूर्वपद; confer, compare पतिरुत्तरपदमाद्युदात्तम् Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II. 3. 11; cf also अलुगुत्तरपदे P. VI. 3.1.
uttarārthaserving a purpose in subsequent rules; of use in a subsequent rule; confer, compare योगविभाग उत्तरार्थः, क्त्वाग्रहणमुत्तरार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.22.
utvatpossessed of short उ; confer, compare नोत्वद्वर्ध्रबिल्वात् P.IV.3.15I.
udāttathe acute accent defined by Pāṇini in the words उचैरुदात्त: P.I.2. 29. The word उच्चैः is explained by Patañjali in the words 'आयामो दारुण्यं अणुता स्वस्य इति उचैःकराणि शब्दस्य' where आयाम (गात्रनिग्रह restriction of the organs), दारुण्य (रूक्षता rudeness ) and स्वस्य अणुता ( कण्ठस्य संवृतता closure of the glottis) are given as specific characteristics of the acute accent. The acute is the prominent accent in a word-a simple word as also a compound word-and when a vowel in a word is possessed of the acute accent, the remaining vowels have the अनुदात्त or the grave accent. Accent is a property of vowels and consonants do not possess any independent accent. They possess the accent of the adjoining vowel connected with it. The acute accert corresponds to what is termed 'accent' in English and other languages.
udupadhatvapossession of short उ as the penultimate letter, e. g. इदुदुपधस्य चाप्रत्ययस्य P.VII.3.41.
uddeśadescription; mention of qualities; confer, compare गुणैः प्रापणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on I. 3.2: the word is used in contrast with उपदेश or direct mention; confer, compare कः पुनुरुद्देशोपदेशयोर्विशेषः । प्रत्यक्षमाख्यानमुपदेशो गुणैः प्रापणमुद्देशः । प्रत्यक्षं तावदाख्यानमुपदेशः तद्यथा । अगोज्ञाय कश्चिद्गां सक्थनि कर्णे वा गृहीत्वोपदिशति । अयं गौरिति । स प्रत्यक्षमाख्यातमाह । उपदिष्टो मे गौरिति । गुणैः प्रापणमुद्देशः । तद्यथा । कश्चित्कंचिदाह । देवदत्तं मे भवानुद्दिशतु इति । स इहस्थः पाटलिपुत्रस्थं देवदत्तमुद्दिशति । अङ्गदी कुण्डली किरीटी...ईदृशो देवदत्त इति । स गुणैः प्राप्यमाणमाह । उद्दिष्टो मे दवदत्त इति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.2; (2) spot, place, passage of occurrence: उद्देश उपदेशदेशः; confer, compare यथोद्देशं संज्ञापरिभाषम् Pari.Śek. Pari. 2.
uddeśyareferred to; pointed out, subject, as contrasted with the predicate मानान्तरप्राप्तमुद्देश्यम् ; confer, compare उद्दश्यप्रतिनिर्दिश्यमानयोरैक्यमापद्यत् सर्वनाम पर्यायेण तत्तल्लिङभाक् । तद्यथा | शैत्यं हि यत्सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य, शैत्यं हि य यत्तत्प्रकृतिर्जलस्य वा । उद्देश्य in grammar refers to the subjectpart of a sentence as opposed to the predicate-participle. In the sentence वृद्धिरादैच् the case is strikingly an opposite one and the explanation given by Patañjali is very interesting;confer, compare तदेतदेकं मङ्गलार्थं आचार्यस्य मृष्यताम् । माङ्गलिक अाचार्यः महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थं वृद्धिशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्कते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.1.
uddyotathe word always refers in grammar to the famous commentary by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa written in the first decade of the 18th century A. D. om the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa. The Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.appears to be one of the earlier works of Nāgeśa. It is also called Vivaraṇa. The commentary is a scholarly one and is looked upon as a final word re : the exposition of the Mahābhāṣya. It is believed that Nāgeśa wrote 12 Uddyotas and 12 Śekharas which form some authoritative commentaries on prominent works in the different Śāstras.
upagrahaa term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मनेपदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेशव्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.
upadeśivadvacanastatement to the effect that a word should be looked upon as occurring in the original instruction although it is not there. See उपदेश.confer, compare नुम्विधावुपदेशिवद्वचनं प्रत्ययविध्यर्थम् P. VII.1.58. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1.
upanyāsaproposition, statement, The remark 'विषम उपन्यासः' is of frequent occurrence in the Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya in connection with statements that are defective and have to be refuted or corrected; confer, compare M.Bh. on P.1.1.21,46,50; I.2.5 et cetera, and others
upapadavibhaktia case termination added to a word on account of the presence of another word requiring the addition;confer, compare the well-known Paribhāṣā,उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 94; and M.Bh. on I.4. 96 stating the possession of greater force in the case of a kāra-kavibhakti than in the case of an upapadavibhakti.
upapadasamāsathe compound of a word, technically termed as उपपद by Pāṇini according to his definition of the word in III.1.92., with another word which is a verbal derivative; confer, compare कुम्भकारः, नगरकारः Here technically the compound of the words कुम्भ, नगर et cetera, and others which are upapadas is formed with कार,before a case-termination is added to the nominal base कार; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 75.
upamanyu(1)the famous commentator on the grammatical verses attributed to Nandikeśvarakārikā. which are known by the name नन्दिकेश्वरकारिका and which form a kind of a commentary on the sūtras of Maheśvara; (2) a comparatively modern grammarian possibly belonging to the nineteenth century who is also named Nandikeśvarakārikā.kārikābhāṣya by Upamanyu.and who has written a commentory on the famous Kāśikāvṛtti by Jayāditya and Vāmana. Some believe that Upa-manyu was an ancient sage who wrote a nirukta or etymological work and whose pupil came to be known as औपमन्यव.
upalakṣaṇaimplication, indication: a thing indicatory of another thing. The term is very frequently found in commentary works in connection with a word which signifies something beyond it which is similar to it; the indication is generally inclusive; confer, compare Kāśikā on भीस्म्योर्हेतुभये P.I.3.68 भयग्रहणमुपलक्षणार्थं विस्मयोपि तत एव । as also मन्त्रग्रहणं तु च्छन्दस उपलक्षणार्थम् Kāś. on II.4.80. The verbal forms of लक्ष् and उपलक्ष् as also the words लक्षयितुम्, लक्षणीय, लक्षित et cetera, and others possess the sense of 'expressing the meaning not primarily, but secondarily by indication or implication'.
upasaṃyoga(1)union;confer, compare नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति prepositions are signs to show that such a union with another sense has occurred in the case of the noun or verb to which they are prefixed, Nirukta of Yāska.I.3.; (2) addition; confer, compare अक्रियमाणे हि संज्ञाग्रहणे गरीयानुपसंयोगः कर्तव्यः स्यात् M.Bh. on P. IV.2.21. Vārt, 2.
upasamastacompounded together, joined together by special grammatical connection called समास; confer, compare न केवल; पथिशब्दः स्त्रियां वर्तते । उपसमस्तस्तर्हि वर्तते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 18.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upasargadyotyatāthe view or doctrine that prefixes, by themselves, do not possess any sense, but they indicate the sense of the verb or noun with which they are connectedition For details See Vākyapadīya II.165-206; also vol. VII. pages 370-372 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya edition by the D. E. Society, Poona.
upasargayogaconnection with a prefix; joining of the prefix. Some scholars of grammar hold the view that the Upasarga is prefixed to the root and then the verbal form is arrived at by placing the desired terminations after the root, while others hold the opposite view: confer, compare पूर्वं धातुः साधनेनोपयुज्यते पश्चादुपसर्गेण । अन्ये तु पूर्वं धातुरुपसर्गेण युज्यते पश्चात्साधनेनेत्याहुः Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti Pari. 131, 132; cf also vol. VII. Mahābhāṣya edited by the D. E. Society, Poona, pages 371-372.
upasargavivaraṇaa short anonymous work on the nature of upasargas or prepositions explaining their meanings with illustrations.
upasthitaa word used father technically in the sense of the word इति which is used in the Krama and other recitals when Vedic reciters show separately the two words compounded together by uttering the compound word first, then the word इति and then the two compound words, exempli gratia, for example सुश्लोक ३ इति सु-श्लोक। विभावसो इति विभा-वसो. The Kāśikā defines the word उपस्थित as समुदायादवच्छिद्य पदं येन स्वरूपे अवस्थाप्यते तद् उपस्थितम् । इतिशब्दः । Kāś.on VI.1.129. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya explains the word rather differently, but in the same context.The word after which इति is placed is called upasthita exempli gratia, for example the word बाहू in बाहू इति or विभावसौ in विभावसो इति as contrasted with स्थित id est, that is the word without इति exempli gratia, for example बाहू or विभावसो, as also contrasted with स्थितोपस्थित id est, that is the whole word विभावसो इति विभाsवसो which is also called संहित or मिलित; (2) occurring, present; cf कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् . यत्र कार्यं तत्रोपस्थितं द्रष्टव्यम् । Par.Śek. Pari.3.
upahita(1)with, preceded by; e g. दीर्घोपहित, ह्रस्वोपहित; (2) sticking to, connected with, 'उपश्लेषित': confer, compareDurga on Nir.V.12;(3) coming to be placed near or in juxtaposition with the preceding word: confer, compare आवोन्तोपहितात् सतः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.15.
upācarita(1)sibilation substitution of a sibilant letter for a visarga: confer, compare प्लुतोपाचरिते च R.Pr. XI.19; (2) name of the saṁdhi in which a visarga is changed into a sibilant letter; confer, compare सर्वत्रैवोपाचरितः स संधिः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)IV.14 which corresponds to Pāṇini VIII.3.18 and 19.
upādānahypothesis, presumption, acceptance.
ubhayatobhāṣaliterally speaking or showing both the padas or voices; possessed of both the padas viz. the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada. The word is found commonly used in the Dhātupaṭha of Pāṇini.
ubhayapada(1)double voice--the Parasmaipada as well as the Ātmanepada; (2) both the words or members (in a compound); confer, compare उभयपदार्थप्रधानो द्वन्द्वः Kāś on P.I.2.57.
ubhayavatpossessed of both the kinds of properties; confer, compare य इदानीमुभयवान् स तृतीयामाख्यां लभते स्वरित इति M.Bh. on P.I.2.81 ; confer, compare also उभयवान् स्वरितः V. Pr.I.110.
uraḥprabhṛtia class of words headed by the word उरस् to which the samāsānta affix क (कप् ) is added, when these words stand at the end of Bahuvrihi compounds; confer, compare व्यूढमुरोस्य व्यूढोरस्कः similarly प्रियसर्पिष्कः, Kāś. on P.V.I.151.
uvaṭaalso उव्वट or ऊअट a reputed Kaāśmirian scholar and writer who was the son of Vajrata. He wrote many learned commentaries, some of which are known as Bhasyas. Some of his important works are Ṛkprātiśākhyabhāṣya, Vājasaneyī prātiśākhyabhāṣya, Vājasaneyīsamhitābhāṣya, Vedārthadīpika et cetera, and others
us(1)substitute for झि ending of the third person.plu., in the perfect tense and in the present tense in the case of the roots विद् and ब्रू, exempli gratia, for example विदुः and आहुः confer, compare P. III.4.82-84 ; (2) substitute जुस् (उस्) for झि in the potential and the benedictive moods, as also after the aorist sign स् and after roots of the third conjugation, roots ending in आ and the root विद्, e. g. पचेयुः भूयासुः अकार्षुः, अबिभयुः अदुः, अविदुः, et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on III.4.108-112.
ūnadeficient, wanting; often in compounds exempli gratia, for example पादोन, ह्यून, एकोन; confer, compare व्यूहैः संपत्समीक्ष्योने Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VIII. 28; एकह्यूनाधिकता सैव निवृदूनाधिका भुरिक् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII.1.
ūryādia class of words headed by the words ऊरी उररी et cetera, and others ending in the taddhita affix च्वि, which are given the designation गति provided they are related to a verbal activity, and as a result, which can be compounded with kṛdanta words ending in त्वा, तुम्, et cetera, and others cf ऊरीकृत्य, ऊरीकृतम् et cetera, and others: Kāś on P, I.4.61.
ūṣmanaspiration letters, spirants called breathings also: the name is given to letters or sounds produced with unintonated breath through an open posision of the mouth; confer, compare विवृतमूष्मणाम् M. Bh, on P.I.1.10 Vārt, 3. The word refers to the letters श्, ष्, सु, ह्, visarga, jihvāmūlīya, upadhmāniya and anusvāra; confer, compare ऊष्मा वायुस्तत्प्रधाना वर्णा ऊष्माणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.12; confer, compare also Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.10.
fourth vowel in Pāṇini's alphabet; possessed of long and protracted varieties and looked upon as cognate ( सवर्ण ) with लृ which has no long type in the grammar of Pāṇini; confer, compare R.Pr.I,9: V.Pr.VIII.3. (2) uṇādi suffix च् applied to the root स्था to form the word स्थृ; e. g. सव्येष्ठा सारथिः; confer, compare सव्ये स्थश्छन्दसि Uṇ Sū, II. 101.
ṛkārathe letter ऋ with its 18 varieties made up of the ह्रस्व, दीर्घ, प्लुत, and सानुनासिक varieties and characterized by the three accents. ऋ and लृ are looked upon as cognate in Pāṇini's grammar and hence, ऋ could be looked upon as possessed of 30 varieties including 12 varieties of लृ.
ṛktantraa work consisting of five chapters containing in all 287 sūtras. It covers the same topics as the Prātiśākhya works and is looked upon as one of the Prātiśākhya works of the Sāma Veda. Its authorship is attributed to Śākaṭāyana according to Nageśa, while औदिव्राज is held as its author by some, and कात्यायन by others. It bears a remarkable similarity to Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. especially in topics concerning coalescence and changes of स् and न् to ष् and ण् respectively. It cannot be definitely said whether it preceded or followed Pāṇini's work.
ṛkprātiśākhyaone of the Prātiśākhya works belonging to the Aśvalāyana Śākha of the Ṛg Veda. The work available at present, appears to be not a very old one,possibly written a century or so after Pāṇini's time. It is possible that the work, which is available, is based upon a few ancient Prātiśākhya works which are lost. Its authorship is attributed to Śaunaka.The work is a metrical one and consists of three books or Adhyāyas, each Adhyāya being made up of six Paṭalas or chapters. It is written, just as the other Prātiśākhya works, with a view to give directions for the proper recitation of the Veda. It has got a scholarly commentary written by Uvaṭa and another one by Kumāra who is also called Viṣṇumitra. See अाश्वलायनप्रातिशाख्य.
ṛtvatpossessed of short ऋ; confer, compare रीगृत्वतः संयोगार्थम् P.VII.4.90. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1.
ṛditpossessed of the mute indicatory letter ऋ, signifying in the Grammar of Pāṇini the prevention of the shortening of the long vowel in the reduplicated syllable of the Causal Aorist form of roots which are marked with it; e. g. अशशासत् अबबाधत्, अययाचत् et cetera, and others confer, compare नाग्लोपिशास्वृदिताम् P.VII.4.2.
ediphthong vowel ए made up of अ and इ, and hence having कण्ठतालुस्थान as its place of origin. It has no short form according to Pāṇini. In cases where a short vowel as a substitute is prescribed for it in grammar, the vowel इ is looked upon as its short form. Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya has observed that followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāṇāyanīya branches of the Sāmaveda have short ए ( ऍ ) in their Sāmaveda recital and has given सुजाते अश्वसूनृते, अध्वर्यो अद्रिभिः सुतम् as illustrations; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1-48; as also the article on.
ekatiṅpossessed of one verb; given as a definition of a sentence: confer, compare एकतिङ् P.II.1.1 Vārt 10, explained by Patañjali as एकतिङ् वाक्यसंज्ञं भवतीति वक्तव्यम् । ब्रूहि ब्रूहि ।
ekadeśaa part or a portion of the whole;confer, compare एकदेशविकृतमनन्यवत् Pari-Śek. Pari 37; also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Śivasūtra 2 Vārt 4: एकदेशोनुवर्तते M.Bh. on P.VI. 1.93 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5; confer, compare also पदेकदज्ञानपि तान् प्रतीयात् R.Pr. IX. 16.
ekadeśin( a thing or a substance )composed of parts; cf the term एकदेशिसमास or एकदेशितत्पुरुष, used in connection with compounds of words such as पूर्व, पर and others with words showing the constituted whole ( एकदेशिन्) prescribed by the rule पूर्वपराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनेकाधिकरणे P. II. 2.1 ; (2) a partisan; confer, compare the word सिद्धान्त्येकदेशिन् used often by commentators.
ekamātrika(1)possessed of one matra or mora; (2) a term used for a short vowel which measures one mātrā or mora; confer, compare एकमात्रो ह्रस्वः व्यञ्जनानि च । Ath.Pr.1.60.
ekamunipakṣaa view or doctrine propounded by one of the many ancient sages or munis who are believed to be the founders of a Sastra; a view propounded only by Pāṇini, to the exclusion of Kātyāyana and Patañjali; confer, compare एकमुनिपक्षे तु अचो ञ्णितीत्यत्राच इति योगं विभज्य...व्यवस्थितविभाषात्रोक्ता Durghaṭa-Vṛtti I.1.5; see also I.4.24, II.3.18.
ekavākyaan expression giving one idea, either a single or a composite one. A positive statement and its negation, so also, a general rule and its exception are looked upon as making a single sentence on account of their mutual expectancy even though they be sometimes detached from each other confer, compare विदेशस्थमपि सदेकवाक्यं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.4.67; confer, compare also निषेधवाक्यानामपि निषेध्यविशेषाकाङ्क्षत्वाद्विध्येकवाक्यतयैव अन्वयः । तत्रैकवाक्यता पर्युदासन्यायेन । संज्ञाशास्त्रस्य तु कार्यकालपक्षे न पृथग्वाक्यार्थबोधः । Par. Śek on Pari. 3. Such sentences are, in fact, two sentences, but, to avoid the fault of गौरव, caused by वाक्यभेद, grammarians hold them to be composite single sentences.
ekavibhaktia pada having the same case in the various dissolutions of the compound word; e. g. the word कौशाम्बी in the compound word निष्कौशाम्बिः, which stands only in the ablative case कौशाम्ब्याः, although the word निष्क्रान्त, which stands for the word निस्, could be used in many cases. The word नियतविभक्तिक is also used in the same sense.
ekavṛttisingle vṛtti or gloss on the Vedic as well as classical portions of grammar. Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva has used this term in his Bhāṣāvṛtti to contrast his Vṛtti (भाषावृत्ति) with the Kāśikāvṛtti and the Bhāgavṛtti which deal with both the portions; confer, compareअनार्ष इत्येकवृत्तावुपयुक्तम् Bhāṣāvṛtti on I.1.16, confer, comparealso Bhāṣāvṛtti on III. 4.99, IV.3.22 and VI.3.20.एकवृत्ति is possibly used by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva in the sense of मुख्यवृत्ति or साधारणवृत्ति i. e. the common chief gloss on both the portions.
ekaśabdaa word having one sense only, as opposed to अनेकशब्द many words having the same sense or synonyms which are given in निघण्टु as also in अमरकोष; confer, compare अथ यान्यनेकार्थानि एकशब्दानि तान्यतोनुक्रमिष्यामः Nirukta of Yāska.IV.1.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
ekaśeṣanirdeśastatement by subsistence of one word out of many. The phrase is very often used in the Mahābhāṣya where the omission of an individual thing is explained by saying that the expression used is a composite one including the omitted thing along with the thing already expressed; confer, compare एकशेषनिर्देशोयम् । सर्वादीनि च सर्वादीनि च सर्वादीनि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.I.27, on I.1.59, I.2.39, as also on I.3.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5,I.4. 101 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19 et cetera, and others
ekaśrutithat which has got the same accent or tone; utterance in the same tone; monotone. The word is applied to the utterance of the vocative noun or phrase calling a man from a distance, as also to that of the vowels or syllables following a Svarita vowel in the Saṁhitā id est, that is the continuous utterance of Vedic sentences; confer, compare एकश्रुति दूरात्संबुद्वौ and the foll. P.I.2.33-40 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon. In his discussion on I.2.33 Patañjali has given three alternative views about the accent of Ekaśruti syllables : (a) they possess an accent between the उदात्त (acute) and अनुदात्त (grave), (b) they are in the same accent as is possessed by the preceding vowel, (c) Ekaśruti is looked upon as the seventh of the seven accents; confer, compare सैषा ज्ञापकाभ्यामुदात्तानुदात्तयोर्मध्यमेकश्रुतिरन्तरालं ह्रियते। ... सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति | उदात्तः, उदात्ततर:, अनुदात्तः, अनुदात्ततर:, स्वरितः स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः, एकश्रुतिः सप्तमः । M.Bh. on P.I.2.33.
ekasvarapossessed of one vowel,monosyllabic; a term used by Hemacandra in his grammar for the term एकाच् of Pāṇini: confer, compare आद्योंश एकस्वरे Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.IV.1.2, which means the same as एकाचेा द्वे प्रथमस्य P.VI.1.1.
ekācpossessed of a single vowel, monosyllabic; confer, compare एकाचो द्वे प्रथमस्य P. VI.1.1.
ekādeśaa single substitute in the place of two original units; exempli gratia, for example ए in the place of अ and इ,or ओ in the place of अ and उ. The ādeśas or substitutes named पूर्वरूप and पररूप are looked upon as ekadeśas in Pāṇini's grammar although instead of them, the omission of the latter and former vowels respectively, is prescribed in some Prātiśākhya works. गुण and वृद्धि are sometimes single substitutes for single originals, while they are sometimes ekadeśas for two original vowels exempli gratia, for example तवेदम्, ब्रह्मौदनः, उपैति, प्रार्च्छति, गाम्, सीमन्तः et cetera, and others; see P.VI.1.87 to ll l, confer, compare also A.Pr.II 3.6.
ekāntapart, portion. Augments or Āgamas in the Vyākaraṇa Śāstra are looked upon as forming a part of the word to which they are attached; confer, compare अथ यस्यानुबन्ध आसज्यते, किं स तस्य एकान्तो भवति आहोस्विदनेकान्तः । एकान्तस्तत्रेापलब्धेः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.9, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).9; confer, compare also एकान्ताः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari, 5.
ekārathe letter ए; looked upon as a diphthong ( संध्यक्षर ) made up of the letters अ and इ. The combination of the two constituent parts is so complete as cannot allow any of the two parts to be independently working for saṁdhi or any other operation with its adjoining letter; cf नाव्यपवृत्तस्य अवयवे तद्विधिर्यथा द्रव्येषु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Śivasūtra 3 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9.
ekārtha(1)possessed of one sense as contrasted with बह्वर्थ, द्व्यर्थ etc: (2) synonym, confer, compare बहवो हि शब्दा एकार्था भवन्ति । तद्यथा इन्द्रः शक्रः पुरुहूतः पुरंदरः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9; (3) Possessed of a composite sense; confer, compare समासे पुनरेकार्थानि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 1.1 Vārt I. The words एकार्थ्य and एकार्थत्व derived from the word एकार्थ are often found used in the sense of 'possession of a composite sense' एकार्थस्य भाव: एकार्थता,ऐकार्थ्ये एकार्थत्वं वा; confer, compare समासस्यैकार्थत्वंत्संज्ञाया अप्रसिद्धिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.42 Vārt 1; confer, compare also the word एकार्थीभावः (4) potent to be connected; समर्थ; confer, compare सुप्सुपा एकार्थम् ( समस्यते ) C. Vy. II.2.1; (5) analogous समानाधिकरण confer, compare एकार्थं चानेकं च । एकः समानः अर्थः अधिकरणं यस्य तदेकार्थं समानाधिकरणम् Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. Vy. III. 1.22: confer, compare also एकार्थे च । Śāk. II.1.4.
ekālpossessed of one single phonetic element or letter confer, compare अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः P. I.2.41.
aidiphthong vowel ऐ; composite form of आ and ए, also termed वृद्धि in Pāṇini's grammar.
aikapadyatreatment as one single word especially found in the case of compound words (सामासिकपद) which, as a result of such treatment, have only one accent (acute) and one case affix after the whole word; confer, compare अयं खल्वपि बहुव्रीहिरस्त्येव प्राथमकल्पिकः । यस्मिन्नैकपद्यमैकस्व र्यमेकविभक्तित्वं च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P.I.1.29. See एकपद.
aikaśrutyapossession of the same tone or accent; uniformity of tone or accent. See the word एकश्रुति a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; also see P. I.2.39 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1,2; VIII. 1.55 Vārt, 1.
aikasvaryahaving only one principal accent (Udātta or Svarita) for the whole compound word which is made up of two or more individual words confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.29.
aikārthyapossession of a single composite sense (by all words together in a compound); cf संंघातस्य ऐकार्थ्यात् सुबभावो वर्णात् M.Bh. on I. 2.45 Vārt 10; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.2.29 Vārt, 7; confer, compare also नाम नाम्नैकार्थ्ये समासो बहुलम् Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III.1.18 where the commentator explains ऐकार्थ्य as एकार्थीभावः In the commentary on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III 2.8 ऐकार्थ्य is explained as ऐकपद्य
aindraname of an ancient school of grammar and of the treatise also, belonging to that school, believed to have been written under instructions of Indra. The work is not available. Patañjali mentions that Bṛhaspati instructed Indra for one thousand celestial years and still did not finish his instructions in words': (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.1 ). The Taittirīya Saṁhitā mentions the same. Pāṇini has referred to some ancient grammarians of the East by the word प्राचाम् without mentioning their names, and scholars like Burnell think that the grammar assigned to Indra is to be referred to by the word प्राचाम्. The Bṛhatkathāmañjarī remarks that Pāṇini's grammar threw into the background the Aindra Grammar. Some scholars believe that Kalāpa grammar which is available today is based upon Aindra,just as Cāndra is based upon Pāṇini's grammar. References to Aindra Grammar are found in the commentary on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa, in the Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva as also in the commentary upon the Mahābhārata by Devabodha.Quotations, although very few, are given by some writers from the work. All these facts prove that there was an ancient pre-Pāṇinian treatise on Grammar assigned to इन्द्र which was called Aindra-Vyākaraṇa.For details see Dr.Burnell's 'Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians' as also Vol. VII pages 124-126 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya, edited by the D.E.Society, Poona.
oṃkārathe syllable ओं called by the term प्रणव and generally recited at the beginning of Vedic works. Patañjali has commented upon the word briefly as follows; पादस्य वा अर्धर्चस्य वा अन्त्यमक्षरमुपसंहृत्य तदाद्यक्षरशेषस्य स्थाने त्रिमात्रमोंकारं त्रिमात्रमोंकारं वा विदधति तं प्रणव इत्याचक्षते M.Bh. on VIII.2.89.
oṣṭhayaliterally produced upon the lip: a letter ofthe labial class;letters उ,ऊ, ओ, औ, प्, फ्, ब्, भ्, म् and व् are given as ओष्ठय letters in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. See the word ओष्ठ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For the utterance of the letter व् tips of the teeth. are also employed; hence the letter व् is said to have दन्तौष्ठ as its स्थान.. ओस् the case affix ओस् of the genitive case and the loc, dual number
auttarapadikapertaining to the ulterior member of a compound confer, compare औत्तरपदिके ह्रस्वत्व (P.VI.3.61) कृते तुक् प्राप्नोति M.Bh. on I.1.62.
aupamanyavaname of an ancient etymologist referred to by Yaska in his Nirukta possibly as a commentator on निघण्टु; confer, compare निगन्तव एव सन्तो निगमनान्निघण्टव उच्यन्यन्ते इत्यौपमन्यवः Nirukta of Yāska.I.1. line 4.
aurasaproduced from the chest ; the Visajanīya and h (हकार) are looked upon as औरस and not कण्ठ्य by Some ancient phoneticians;confer, compare केचिदाचार्याः एतौ हकारविसर्जनीयौ उर:स्थानाविच्छन्ति commentary on R.Pr.I.18: confer, compare also हकारं पञ्चमैर्युक्तमन्तस्थाभिश्च संयुतम् । उरस्यं तं विजानीयात्कण्ठ्यमाहुरसंयुतम् । Pān. Śikṣā. 16.
{{c|-( anusvāra ) ṃanusvāraor nasal (l) looked upon as a phonetic element, independent, no doubt, but incapable of being pronounced without a vowel Preceding it. Hence, it is shown in writing with अ although its form in writing is only a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the line cf अं इत्यनुस्वारः । अकार इह उच्चारणर्थ इति बिन्दुमात्रो वर्णोनुस्वारसंज्ञो भवति Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Vyāk I.1.19; (2) anusvāra,showing or signifying Vikāra id est, that is अागम and used as a technical term for the second विभक्ति or the accusative case. See the word अं a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 1.
or विसर्गः literally letting out breath from the mouth; sound or utterance caused by breath escaping from the mouth; breathing. The Visarjanīya, just like the anusvāra, is incapable of being independently utteredition Hence, it is written for convenience as अः although its form for writing purposes is only two dots after the vowel preceding it; confer, compare अः इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः इति कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसर्जनीयसंज्ञो भवति । Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Vyāk. I.1.16. See अः a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 2.
ᳶ upadhmānīyaliterally blowing; a term applied to the visarga when followed by the consonant प् or फ्. The upadhmānīya is looked upon as a letter or phonetic element, which is always connected with the preceding vowel. As the upadhmānīya is an optional substitute for the visarga before the letter प् or फ्, when, in writing, it is to be shown instead of the visarga, it is shown as ᳶ, or as w , or even as x just as the Jihvāmūlīya; confer, compare उपध्मायते शब्दायते इति, उप समीपे ध्मायते शब्द्यते इति वा commentary on Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I:; : confer, compare also कपाभ्यां प्रागर्धविसर्गसदृशो जिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयौः:S.K.on P.VIII.2.1.
m̐ nāsikyaa nasal letter or utterance included among the अयोगवाह letters analogous to anusvāra and yama letters. It is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as हुँ इति नासिक्यः on which Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.makes the remark अयमृक्शाखायां प्रसिद्धः. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya mentions नासिक्य, यम and अनुस्वार as नासिक्य or nasal letters, while Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.defines नासिक्य as a letter produced only by the nose; confer, compare केवलनासिकया उच्चार्यमाणे वर्णॊ नासिक्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya calls the letter ह् as nāsikya when it is followed by the consonant न् or ण् or म् and gives अह्नाम् , अपराह्णे and ब्रह्म as instances. The Pāṇinīya Śikṣā does not mention नासिक्य as a letter. The Mahābhāṣya mentions नासिक्य as one of the six ayogavāha letters; confer, compare के पुनरयोगवाहाः । विसर्जनीयजिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयानुस्वारानुनासिक्ययमाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Śivasūtra 5 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, where some manuscripts read नासिक्य for अानुनासिक्य while in some other manuscripts there is neither the word आनुनासिक्य nor नासिक्य. It is likely that the anunāsika-colouring given to the vowel preceding the consonant सू substituted for the consonants म, न् and others by P. VIII. 3.2. to 12, was looked upon as a separate phonetic unit and called नासिक्य as for instance in सँस्कर्ता, मा हिँसीः, सँशिशाधि et cetera, and others
yamaa letter called यम which is uttered partly through the nose. A class consonant excepting the fifth, when followed by the fifth viz. ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न or म् , gets doubled in the Vedic recital, when the second of the doubled consonant which is coloured by the following nasal consonant is called यम. This यम letter is not independent. It necessarily depends upon the following nasal consonant and hence it is called अयोगवाह. The nasalization is shown in script as xx followed by the consonant; e. g. पलिक्क्नी, अगूग्रे, et cetera, and others The pronunciation of this yama or twin letter is seen in the Vedic recital only; confer, compare पलिक्कनी ... कखगघेभ्य; परे तत्सदृशा एव यमाः S. K. on P. VIII. 2.1. confer, compare कु खु गु घु इति यमाः विंशतिसंख्याका भवन्ति Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII.24.
k(1)taddhita affix.affix क applied to the words of the ऋश्य group in the four senses called चातुरर्थिक e. g. ऋश्यकः, अनडुत्कः, वेणुकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.IV.2.80; (2) taddhita affix. affix क applied to nouns in the sense of diminution, censure, pity et cetera, and others e. g. अश्वक्रः, उष्ट्रकः, पुत्रकः, confer, compare P.V. 3.70-87: (3) taddhita affix. affix क in the very sense of the word itself ( स्वार्थे ) exempli gratia, for example अविकः, यावकः, कालकः; confer, compare P.V.4.2833; (4) Uṇādi affix क exempli gratia, for example कर्क, वृक, राका, एक, भेक, काक, पाक, शल्क et cetera, and others by Uṇādi sūtras III. 40-48 before which the angment इट् is prohibited by P. VII.2.9; (5) kṛt affix क ( अ ) where क् is dropped by P. I. 3.8, applied, in the sense of agent, to certain roots mentioned in P.III.1.135, 136, 144, III. 2.3 to 7, III.2.77 and III.3.83 exempli gratia, for example बुध:, प्रस्थः, गृहम्, कम्बलदः, द्विपः, मूलविभुजः, सामगः, सुरापः et cetera, and others; (6) substitute क for the word किम् before a case affix, confer, compare P.VII.2.103; (7) the Samāsānta affix कप् (क) at the end of Bahuvrīhi compounds as prescribed by P.V.4.151-160.
karkyādia class of words headed by the word कर्की, the word प्रस्थ after which in a compound, does not have the acute accent on its first vowel. e. g. कर्कीप्रस्थः; confer, compare P.VI.2.87.
kaḍārādia class of words headed by the word कडार which, although adjectival,are optionally placed first in the Karmadhāraya compound, exempli gratia, for example कडारजैमिनिः जैमिनिकडारः; confer, compare Kāś. on II.2.38.
kaṇvādia class of words forming a portion of the class of words called गर्गादि, and headed by the word कण्व, to the derivatives of which, formed by the afix यञ् by the rule गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् (P.IV.1.105) the affix अण् is added in the miscellaneous senses; exempli gratia, for example काण्वाः छात्राः; similarly गौकक्षाः, शाकलाः , अगस्तयः, कुण्डिनाः etc: confer, compare P.IV.2.111 and II. 4.70.
kap(1)kṛt affix क prescribed after the root दुह् exempli gratia, for example कामदुघा, confer, compare P.III.2. 70;(2) the Samāsānta अ at the end of Bahuvrīhi compounds exempli gratia, for example व्वूढोरस्कः, बहुदण्डिका, बहुकुमारीकः,बहुकर्तृकः, confer, compare P.V.4.151-154. For its prohibition, see P.V.4.155-160.
karaṇa(1)lit instrument; the term signifies the most efficient means for accomplishing an act; confer, compare क्रियासिद्धी यत् प्रकृष्टोपकारकं विवक्षितं तत्साधकतमं कारकं करणसंज्ञं भवति, Kāś. on साधकतमं करणम् P.I.4.42, e. g. दात्रेण in दात्रेण लुनाति; (2) effort inside the mouth (अाभ्यन्तर-प्रयत्न ) to produce sound; e. g. touching of the particular place ( स्थान ) inside the mouth for uttering consonants; confer, compare स्पृष्टं स्पर्शानां करणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P, I.1.10 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (3) disposition of the organ which produces the sound; confer, compare श्वासनादोभयानां विशेषः करणमित्युच्यते । एतच्च पाणिनिसंमताभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न इति भाति । Com. on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII.3;confer, compare also स्थानकरणानुप्रदानानि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.32: confer, compare also अनुप्रदानात्संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् । जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 2. where karaṇa is described to be of five kinds अनुप्रदान (id est, that is नाद or resonance), संसर्ग (contact), स्थान, करणविन्यय and परिमाण; confer, compareअकारस्य तावत् अनुप्रदानं नादः, संसर्गः कण्ठे, स्थानं हनू, करणविन्ययः ओष्ठौ, परिमाणं मात्राकालः । अनुप्रदानादिभिः पञ्चभिः करणैर्वर्णानां वैशेष्यं जायते Com. on Tai. Pr. XXIII.2. The Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya mentions two karaṇas संवृत and विवृत; confer, compare द्वे करणे संवृतविवृताख्ये वायोर्भवतः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 11; (4) use of a word exempli gratia, for example इतिकरणं, वत्करणम्; confer, compare किमुपस्थितं नाम । अनार्षं इतिकरणः M.Bh.on. P.VI.1.129.
karmadhārayaname technically given to a compound-formation of two words in apposition i. e. used in the same case, technically called समानाधिकरण showing the same substratutm; confer, compare तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः I 2.42. The karmadhāraya compound is looked upon as a variety of the tatpuruṣa compound. There is no satisfactory explanation of the reason why such a compound is termed कर्मधारय. Śākaṭāyana defines Karmadhāraya as विशेषणं व्यभिचारि एकार्थं कर्मधारयश्च where the word विशेषण is explained as व्यावर्तक or भेदक (distinguishing attribute) showing that the word कर्म may mean भेदकक्रिया. The word कर्मधारय in that case could mean 'कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयति असौ कर्मधारयः' a compound which gives a specification of the thing in hand.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
kamenāmanliterally noun showing action, participle. कर्मप्रवचनीय a technical term used in connection with a preposition which showed a verbal activity formerly, although for the present time it does not show it; the word is used as a technical term in grammar in connection with prefixes or उपसर्गs which are not used along.with a root, but without it confer, compare कर्म प्रोक्तवन्तः कर्मप्रवचनीयाः इति M.Bh. on P.I.4.83; exempli gratia, for example शाकल्यस्य संहितामनु प्रावर्षत्, अन्वर्जुनं योद्धारः, अा कुमारं यशः पाणिनेः; confer, compare Kāś. on P.I.4.83 to 98.
karmavadbhāvathe activity of the agent or kartā of an action represented as object or karman of that very action, for the sake of grammatical operations: e. g. भिद्यते काष्ठं स्वयमेव;. करिष्यते कटः स्वयमेव. To show facility of a verbal activity on the object, when the agent or kartā is dispensed with, and the object is looked upon as the agent, and used also as an agent, the verbal terminations ति, त; et cetera, and others are not applied in the sense of an agent, but they are applied in the sense of an object; consequently the sign of the voice is not अ (शप्), but य (यक्) and the verbal terminations are त, आताम् et cetera, and others (तङ्) instead of ति, तस् et cetera, and others In popular language the use of an expression of this type is called Karmakartari-Prayoga. For details see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III.1.87. Only such roots as are कर्मस्थक्रियक or कर्मस्थभावक id est, that is roots whose verbal activity is noticed in the object and not in the subject can have this Karmakartari-Prayoga.
kalaa fault of pronunciation consequent upon directing the tongue to a place in the mouth which is not the proper one, for the utterance of a vowel; a vowel so pronounced; confer, compare संवृतः कलो ध्मात: ... रोमश इति confer, comparealso निवृत्तकलादिकामवर्णस्य प्रत्यापत्तिं वक्ष्यामि M.Bh. Āhnika 1.
kalāpa(कलाप-व्याकरण)alternative name given to the treatise on grammar written by Sarvavarman who is believed to have lived in the days of the Sātavāhana kings. The treatise is popularly known by the namc Kātantra Vyākaraṇa. The available treatise,viz. Kalpasūtras, is much similar to the Kātantra Sūtras having a few changes and additions only here and there.It is rather risky to say that Kalāpa was an ancient system of grammar which is referred to in the Pāṇini Sūtra कलापिनोण् P. IV.3.108. For details see कातन्त्र.
kalāparatnaa commentary on the kāraka portion of the Kalāpa grammar ascribed to the famous commentator Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti..
kalpana,kalpanāsupposition, assumption; cf गुणकल्पनया च भिक्षुनटसूत्रयोश्छन्दस्त्वम् Kāś. on P. IV.3.110; confer, compare also अनेकक्लिष्टकल्पनापेक्षया अस्या उचितत्वात् Pari. Śek. on. Pari. 94.
kalmanthe same as karman or object of an action especially when it is not fully entitled to be called karman, but looked upon as karman only for the sake of being used in the accusative case; subordinate karman, as for instance the cow in गां पयो दोग्धि. The term was used by ancient grammarians; confer, compare विपरीतं तु यत्कर्म तत् कल्म कवयो विदुः M.Bh. on P.I.4.51. See कर्मन्.
kavikalpadrumaa treatise on roots written by Bopadeva, the son of Keśava and the pupil of Dhaneśa who lived in the time of Hemādri, the Yādava King of Devagiri in the thirteenth century. He has written a short grammar work named Mugdhabodha which has been very popular in Bengal being studied in many Tols or Pāṭhaśālās.
kavicandraauthor of a small treatise on grammar called Sārasatvarī. He lived in the seventeenth century A.D. He was a resident of Darbhaṅgā. Jayakṛṣṇa is also given as the name of the author of the Sārasatvarī grammar and it is possible that Jayakṛṣṇa was given the title, or another name, Kavicandra.
kaskādia class of compound-words headed by कस्क in which the visarga occurring at the end of the first member is noticed as changed into स् against the usual rules e. g. कस्क:, कौतस्कुतः भ्रातुष्पुत्रः, सद्यस्कालः, धनुष्कपालम् and others; confer, compare P. VIII.3.48. As this कस्कादिगण is said to be अाकृतिगण, similar words can be said to be in the कस्कादिगण although they are not actually mentioned in the गणपाठ.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantraparibhāṣāpāṭhaname given to a text consisting of Paribhāṣāsūtras, believed to have been written by the Sūtrakāra himself as a supplementary portion to the main grammar. Many such lists of Paribhāṣāsūtras are available, mostly in manuscript form, containing more than a hundred Sūtras divided into two main groups-the Paribhāṣā sūtras and the Balābalasūtras. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
kātantrapariśiṣṭaascribed to Śrīpatidatta, whose date is not known; from a number of glosses written on this work, it appears that the work was once very popular among students of the Kātantra School.
kātantravṛttiname of the earliest commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.. The commentary was once very popular as is shown by a number of explanatory commentaries written upon it, one of which is believed to have been written by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. himselfeminine. See Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti..
kātantrasūtravṛttian old Vṛtti on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Vararuci who is, of course, different from Vararuci Kātyāyana. The Vṛtti appears to have been occupying a position similar to that of Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti..
kātya(1)another name sometimes given to Katyāyana to whom is ascribed the composition of the Vārttikas on Pāṇini-sūtras; (2) an ancient writer Kātya quoted as a lexicographer by Kṣīrasvāmin, Hemacandra and other writers.
kātyāyanathe well-known author of the Vārttikas on the sūtras of Pāṇini. He is also believed to be the author of the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya and many sūtra works named after him. He is believed to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्याः made by Patañjali in connection with the statement 'यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु' which is looked upon as Kātyāyana's Vārttika. Some scholars say that Vararuci was also another name given to him, in which case the Vārttikakāra Vararuci Kātyāyana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Kātantra grammar are ascribedition For details see The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pages I93-223 published by the D. E.Society, Poona.See also वार्तिकपाठ below.
kāraan affix, given in the Prātiśākhya works and,by Kātyāyana also in his Vārttika, which is added to a letter or a phonetic element for convenience of mention; exempli gratia, for example इकारः, उकारः ; confer, compare वर्णः कारोत्तरो वर्णाख्या; वर्णकारौ निर्देशकौ Tai. Pra.I. 16: XXII.4.;confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1.37. It is also applied to syllables or words in a similar way to indicate the phonetic element of the word as apart from the sense of the word: e. g.' यत एवकारस्ततीन्यत्रावधारणम् Vyak. Paribhāṣā , confer, compare also the words वकार:, हिंकारः: (2) additional purpose served by a word such as an adhikāra word; confer, compare अधिकः कारः , पूर्वविप्रतिषेघा न पठितव्या भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.11.
kārakaliterally doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारकशब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्थान्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: confer, compare also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and कर्तृ to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
kārakakārikāpossibly another name for the treatise on Kārakas known as कारकचक्र written by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva the reputed grammarian of Bengal who lived in the latter half of the twelfth century A. D. See कारकचक्र.
kārakakaumudīa work on the Kātantra grammar discussing the Kāraka portion.
kārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaalso called षट्कारक-खण्डनमण्डन which is a portion of theauthor's bigger work named त्रिलो-चनचन्द्रिका. The work is a discourse on the six kārakas written by Maṇikaṇṭha, a grammarian of the Kātantra school. He has also written another treatise named Kārakavicāra
kārakacakra(1)written by Puruṣotta madeva a reputed grammarian of Bengal who wrote many works on grammar of which the Bhasavrtti, the Paribhāṣāvṛtti and Jñāpakasamuccya deserve a special mention. The verse portion of the Kārakacakra of which the prose portion appears like a commentary might be bearing the name Kārakakaumudī.
kārakanirṇayaa work discussing the various Kārakas from the Naiyāyika view-point written by the well-known Naiyāyika, Gadādhara Chakravartin of Bengal, who was a pupil of Jagadīśa and who fourished in the 16th century A. D. He is looked upon as one of the greatest scholars of Nyāyaśāstra. His main literarywork was in the field of Nyāyaśāstra on which he has written several treatises.
kārakavibhakticase affix governed by a verb or verbal derivative as contrasted with उपपदविभक्ति a case affix governed by a noun, not possessing any verbal activity. See the word कारक a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., See also the word उपपदविभक्ति.
kārakavivekaknown as कारकवाद also; a short work on the meaning and relation of words written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya who lived in the beginning of the eighteenth century. The work forms the concluding portion of a larger work called कारकविवेक which was written by शिरोमणिभट्टाचार्य.. The work कारकवाद has a short commentary written by the author himselfeminine.
kārtakaujapādia class of words headed by the word कार्तकौजप, which are all dvandva compounds, and which have their first member retaining its own accent; e. g. कार्तकौजपौ, आवन्त्यश्मकाः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P.VI.2.37.
kārtikeyathe original instructor of the Kātantra or Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Grammar, to Śarvavarman who composed the Sūtras according to inspiration received by him. The Kātantra, hence, has also got the name Kaumara Vyākaraṇa.
kārmanāmikathe word is found used in Yāska's Nirukta as an adjective to the word संस्कार where it means belonging to nouns derived fromroofs (कर्मनाम)"like पाचक,कर्षक et cetera, and othersThe changes undergone by the roots in the formation of such words i. e. words showing action are termed कार्मनामिकसंस्कार; confer, compare कर्मकृतं नाम कर्मनाम। तस्मिन् भवः कार्मनामिकः Durgavṛtti on Nirukta of Yāska.I.13. कार्य(l) brought.into existence by activity (क्रियया निर्वृत्तं कार्यम् ) as oppo- sed to नित्य eternal; confer, compare एके वर्णाञ् शाश्वतिकान् न कार्यान् R.Pr. XIII.4 confer, compare also ननु च यस्यापि कार्याः ( शब्दाः ) तस्यापि पूजार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 17;(2) which should be done, used in connection with a grammatical operation: confer, compare कार्य एत्वे सयमीकारमाहुः ।| अभैष्म इत्येतस्य स्थाने अभयीष्मेति । R.Pr. XIV.16; confer, compare also विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I.4.2; (3) a grammatical opera- tion as for instance in the phrases द्विकार्ययोगे, त्रिकार्ययोगे et cetera, and others; confer, compare also गौणमुख्ययोर्मुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्ययः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 15;(4) object of a transitive verb: confer, compare शेषः कार्ये Śāk.
kāryakālaparibhāṣāone of the important Paribhāṣā, regarding the application of the Paribhāṣā rules. See कायैकाल. For details see Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 3.
kāryātideśalooking upon the substitute as the very original for the sake of operations that are caused by the presence of the original;the word is used in contrast with रूपातिदेश where actually the original is restored in the place of the substitute on certain conditions. For details see Mahābhāṣya on द्विर्वचनेचि P. 1.1.59.
kālanotion of time created by different contacts made by a thing with other things one after another. Time required for the utterance of a short vowel is taken as a unit of time which is called मात्रा or कालमात्रा, literally measurement of time; (2) degree of a vowel, the vowels being looked upon as possessed of three degrees ह्रस्व,दीर्घ,& प्लुत measured respectively by one, two and three mātrās; confer, compare ऊकालोSझ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P.I.2.27; (3) time notion in general, expressed in connection with an activity in three ways past (भूत), present (वर्तमान), and future (भविष्यत्) to show which the terms भूता, वर्तमाना and भविष्यन्ती were used by ancient grammarians; cf the words पूर्वकाल, उत्तरकाल; also confer, compare पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम् Kāś. on P. II. 4.21 ; (4) place of recital ( पाठदेश ) depending on the time of recital, confer, compare न परकालः पूर्वकाले पुनः (V.Pr.III. 3) a dictum similar to Pāṇini's पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1.
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
kāśyapaname of an ancient grammarian quoted by Pāṇini, possibly an author of some Prātiśākhya work now lost.
kāṣṭhādia class of words headed by the word काष्ठ after which a word standing as a second member in a compound gets the grave accent for it,e. g. काष्ठाध्यापकः, परमाध्यापक et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII.1.67.
ki(1)kṛt affix इ prescribed after धु roots with a prefix attached;exempli gratia, for exampleप्रदिः प्रधिः confer, compare P.III.3.92, 93; (2) kṛt affix इ looked upon as a perfect termination and, hence, causing reduplication and accusative case of the noun connected, found in Vedic Literature added to roots ending in अा, the root ऋ, and the roots गम्, हन् and जन्; exempli gratia, for example पपि; सोमं, जगुरिः, जग्मिः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. III.2.171: (2) a term used in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for the term संबुद्वि.
kiṃśulakādia class of words headed by the word किंशुलक, which get their final vowel lengthened when the word गिरि is placed after them as a second member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e. g. किंशुलकागिरिः, अञ्जनागिरिः; confer, compare Kāś. on P. VI.3.117.
kit(1)marked with the mute letter क् which is applied by Pāṇini to affixes, for preventing guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes to the preceding इक् vowel (इ, उ, ऋ or लृ); confer, compareक्ङिति च, Pāṇ. I.1.5; (2) considered or looked upon as marked with mute indicatory क् for preventing guna; confer, compare असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् and the following P.I.2.5 et cetera, and others The affixes of the first type are for instance क्त, क्त्वा, क्तिन् and others. The affixes of the second type are given mainly in the second pada of the first Adhyāya by Pāṇini. Besides the prevention of guṇa and wrddhi, affixes marked with कु or affixes called कित्, cause Saṁprasāraṇa (see P. VI.1.15,16), elision of the penultimate न् (P.VI.4.24), elision of the penultimate vowel (P. VI.4.98,100), lengthening of the vowel (VI.4.15), substitution of ऊ (VI.4.19,21), elision of the final nasal (VI. 4.37), substitution of अI (VI.4.42). The taddhita affixes which are marked with mute क् cause the Vṛddhi substitute for the first vowel in the word to which they are addedition
kitkaraṇamarking with the mute letter क्, or looking upon as marked with mute क् for purposes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; ( see कित् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. ). The word is often used in the Mahābhāṣya; see M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, 5, 46; I.2.5, et cetera, and others
kuṅkumavikāśaa commentary by SivaBhaṭṭa on Jinendrabuddhi's Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā which is known popularly as Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa..
kuṇaravāḍavaname of an ancient granmarian who lived possibly after Pāṇini and before Patañjali and who is referred to in the Mahābhāṣya as giving an alternative forms for the standard form of certain words; confer, compare कुणरवाडवस्त्वाह नैषां शंकरा शंगरैषा M.Bh. on III.2.14; cf also कुणरवस्त्वाह नैष वहीनरः । कस्तर्हि । विहीनर एषः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.3.1.
kumbhapadyādia class of words headed by कुम्भपदी in which the word पाद at the end of the compound is changed into पाद् and further changed into पद् before the feminine affix ई; exempli gratia, for example कुम्भपदी, शतपदी, द्रुपदी, पञ्चपदी et cetera, and others; cf Kāś. on P. V.4.138, 139.
kurvadrūpaeffective or efficient, as opposed to dormant, as applied to निमित्त (cause); confer, compareनिमित्तशब्दोयमस्ति योग्यतामात्रे । कुसुलस्थेष्वपि बीजेषु वक्तारो भवन्ति अङ्कुरनिमित्तान्येतानीति अस्ति च कुर्वद्रूपे । Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on P.VII.2.36.
kṛtliterally activity; a term used in the grammars of Pāṇini and others for affixes applied to roots to form verbal derivatives; confer, compare कृदतिङ् । धातोः ( ३ ।१।९१ ) इत्यधिकारे तिङ्कवर्जितः प्रत्ययः कृत् स्यात् । Kāś. on III.1.93, The kṛt affixes are given exhaustively by Pāṇini in Sūtras III.1.91 to III.4. I17. कृत् and तद्धित appear to be the ancient Pre-Pāṇinian terms used in the Nirukta and the Prātiśākhya works in the respective senses of root-born and noun-born words ( कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त according to Pāṇini's terminology), and not in the sense of mere affixes; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः Nirukta of Yāska.I.14: अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; तिङ्कृत्तद्धितसमासा: शब्दमयम् V.Pr. I.27; also confer, compare V.Pr. VI.4. Patañjali and later grammarians have used the word कृत् in the sense of कृदन्त; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari Śek.Pari.75. The kṛt affixes are given by Pāṇini in the senses of the different Kārakas अपादान, संप्रदान, करण, अाधकरण, कर्म and कर्तृ, stating in general terms that if no other sense is assigned to a kṛt affix it should be understood that कर्ता or the agent of the verbal activity is the sense; confer, compare कर्तरि कृत् । येष्वर्थनिर्देशो नास्ति तत्रेदमुपतिष्ठते Kāś. on III.4.67. The activity element possessed by the root lies generally dormant in the verbal derivative nouns; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति, क्रियावदपि । M.Bh.on V.4.19 and VI. 2.139
kṛtādeia class of words such as कृत, मित, मत, भूत, उक्त and others with which the words श्रेणि, एक, पूग, कुण्ड, राशि and others are compounded, provided both the words forming the compound are in the same case;.exempli gratia, for example श्रेणिकृता:, एककृताः, कुण्डभूताः et cetera, and others cf Kāś. on P.II.1.59.
kṛtārthalit which has got its purpose served: a term used in connection with a rule that has been possible to be applied (without clash with another rule) in the case of certain instances, although it comes into conflict in the case of other istances confer, compare तत्र कृतार्थत्वाद् दिकशब्दपक्षे परेण ठञ्जतौ स्याताम् Kāś. P.IV. 3.5. The word चरितार्थ is used almost in the same sense.
kṛtyaliterally that which should be done; the word कृत्य is used as a tech nical term in grammar in the sense of kṛt affixes which possess the sense 'should be done'. Pāṇini has not defined the term कृत्य but he has introduced a topic ( अधिकार ) by the name कृत्य (P. III.1.95), and mentioned kṛt afixes therein which are to be called कृत्य right on upto the mention of the affix ण्वुल्. in P.III. 1.133; confer, compare कृत्याः प्राङ् ण्वुलः P. III. 1.95 The kṛtya affixes, commonly found in use, are तव्य, अनीय and य ( यत्, क्यप् and ण्यत् ).
kṛtrimaartificial; technical, as opposed to derivative. In grammar, the term कृत्रिम means 'technical sense', as contrasted with अकृत्रिम 'ordinary sense'; confer, compare कृत्रिमाकृत्रिमयोः कृत्रिमे कार्यसंप्रत्यय: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 9.
kṛtrimākṛtrimaparibhāṣāa term popularly used by grammarians for the परिभाषा or maxim that out of the two senses, the technical and the derived ones, the technical sense should be preferred; in rare cases, the other too, is preferred confer, compare Pari. Śek. Pari.9.
kṛtsvarathe same as कृदुत्तरपदप्रकृतिस्वर, the retention of its accent by the second member of a tatpuruṣa compound, if the first member is a word termed Gati or Kāraka, by the rule गतिकारकोपपदात् कृत् P.VI.2. 139; confer, compare अव्ययस्वरस्य कृत्स्वरः M.Bh. on VI.2.52; confer, compareविभक्तीषत्स्वरात्कृत्स्वरः M.Bh. VI.2.52 Vārt, 6.
kṛllopathe dropping or removal of the verbal noun(कृदन्त)after the words प्र, परा etc when they are compounded with the following noun; exempli gratia, for example the dropping of गत from the expression निर्गतः कौशाम्ब्याः when it is compounded into निष्कौशाम्बिः । confer, compare कृल्लोपे निष्कौशाम्बिः, निर्वाराणसिः M.Bh. on P.I.4.l. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 18.
kevalaisolated;a term applied to a letter or a word when it is not combined with another letter or another word in a compound; confer, compare धर्मादनिच् केवलात् । केवलान्न पदसमुदायात् Kāś. on P.V.4.124; (2) simple (word) without an affix added: confer, compare अर्थवत्ता नोपपद्यते केवलेन अवचनात् । P. I. 2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7, also कृत्तद्धितान्तं चैवार्थवत् । न केवलाः कृतस्तद्धिता बा M.Bh.on P.I.4.14.
kaimarthakyaiit. position of questioning the utility; absence of any apparent utility: confer, compare कैमर्थक्यान्नियमो भवति विधेयं नास्तीति कृत्वा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 4.3, III.1.46; III.2.127, III. 3.19; VI.4.49, VII.2.26, and VIII.4.32.
kaiyaṭaname of the renowned commentator on the Mahābhāṣya, who lived in the 11th century. He was a resident of Kashmir and his father's name was Jaiyaṭa. The commentary on the Mahābhāṣya was named महाभाष्यप्रदीप by him, which is believed by later grammarians to have really acted as प्रदीप or light, as without it, the Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali would have remained unlit, that is unintelligible, at several places. Later grammarians attached to प्रदीप almost the same importance as they did to the Mahābhāṣya and the expression तदुक्तं भावकैयटयोः has been often used by commentators. Many commentary works were written on the Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.out of which Nageśa's Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.is the most popular. The word कैयट came to be used for the word महाभाष्यप्रदीप which was the work of Kaiyaṭa. For details see Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII. pp. 389-390.
koṭarādia class of words headed by the word कोटर which get their final vowel lengthened when the word वन is placed after them as a seconditional member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; exempli gratia, for example कोटरावणम्, मिश्रकावणम्. confer, compare Kāś. on P.VI.3.117.
kodṇḍarāmaa scholar of Sanskrit Vyākaraṇa who composed शब्दसिद्धान्तमञ्जरी a small treatise dealing with the declension of nouns.
ktvākṛt (affix). affix त्वा added to roots (1) in the sense of prohibition conveyed by the word अलं or खलु preceding the root, exempli gratia, for example अलं कृत्वा, खलु कृत्वा; confer, compare P. III.4.18; (2) in the sense of exchange in the case of the root मा, e. g. अपमित्य याचते; confer, compare P. III.4.19; (3) to show an activity of the past time along with a verb or noun of action showing comparatively a later time, provided the agent of the former and the latter activities is the same; exempli gratia, for example भुक्त्वा व्रजति, स्नात्वा पीत्वा भुक्त्वा व्रजति; confer, compare P. III.4. 21. This kṛt affix is always added to roots when they are without any prefix; when there is a prefix the indeclinable, ending in त्वा, is always compounded with the prefix and त्वा is changed into य (ल्यप्), exempli gratia, for example प्रकृत्य, प्रहृत्य; confer, compare समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1.37. The substitution of य is at will in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कृष्णं वासो यजमानं परिधापयित्वा ( instead of परिधाप्य ), confer, compare P. VII.1.38, while sometimes, य is added after त्वा as an augment e. g. दत्वाय सविता धियः confer, compare P. VII.l.47, as also sometimes त्वी or त्वीनम् is substituted for त्वा e. g. इष्ट्वीनं देवान्, स्नात्वी मलादिव, confer, compare P. VII.1.48, 49.
kratvādia class of words headed by the word क्रतु, which have their first vowel accented acute in a Bahuvrīhi dompound, provided the first member of the compound is the word सु; exempli gratia, for example सुक्रतुः, सुप्रपूर्तिः et cetera, and others; confer, compare confer, compare Kāś. on P. VI.2.118.
īśeḥ(VII.2.77)अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. l to 4; confer, compare also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, confer, compare also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 1. For details and special features, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ch. X and XI: confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
kramaṇadoubling. Irregular doubling is looked upon as a fault; confer, compare क्रमणं वा अयथेाक्तम् R.Pr. XIV. 25.
kramapāṭharecital of the Vedic Saṁhitā by means of separate groups of two words, repeating each word except the first of the Vedic verseline; see क्रम a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The various rules and exceptions are given in detail in Paṭalas ten and eleven of the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. The Vedic Saṁhitā or Saṁhitāpāṭha is supposed to be the original one and the Padapāṭha prepared later on, with a view to preserving the Vedic text without any change or modification of a letter, or accent; confer, compare न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and VIII. 2.16, where Patañjali clearly says that grammar-rules are not to follow the Padapāṭha, but, the writer of the Padapāṭha is to follow the rules already laid down. The Jaṭāpāṭha, the Ghanapāṭha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapāṭha as they are not mentioned in the Prātiśākhya works.
kriyāaction, verbal activity; confer, compare क्रियावचनो धातु: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.1 ; confer, compare also क्रियावाचकमाख्यातम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8. quoted by Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.in his Bhāṣya on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50; confer, compare also उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I.4.59, लक्षणहेत्वेाः क्रियायाः P.III. 2.126; confer, compare also यत्तर्हि तदिङ्गितं चेष्टितं निमिषितं स शब्दः । नेत्याह क्रिया नाम सा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1. The word भाव many times is used in the same sense as kriyā or verbal activity in the sūtras of Pāṇini. confer, compare P.I.2.21 ; I.3.13; III. 1. 66.etc; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति a statement made frequently by the Mahābhāṣyakāra. Some scholars draw a nice distinction between क्रिया and भाव, क्रिया meaning dynamic activity and भाव meaning static activity: confer, compare अपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यो धात्वर्थो भावः । सपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यस्तु क्रिया Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.87. Philosophically क्रिया is defined as सत्ता appearing in temporal sequence in various things. When सत्ता does not so appear it is called सत्त्व.
kraiyādikaa root belonging to the class of roots which are headed by क्री and which are popularly known as roots of the ninth conjugation; confer, compare यथा तु वार्तिकं तथा कैयादिकस्याप्यत्र ग्रहणमिष्यते Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.48.
krauḍyādia class of words headed by the word क्रौडि which do not take the feminine affix ई when they stand at the end of a compound; exempli gratia, for example कल्याणक्रौडा, सुभगा, पृथुजघना et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.1.56.
kvasukṛt affix वस्, taking the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) in the feminine gender, prescribed in the sense of perfect tense, which is mostly found in Vedic Literature and added to some roots only such as सद्, वस्, श्रु et cetera, and others in the spoken language; e. g. जक्षिवान् पपिवान् उपसेदिवान् कौत्स; पाणिनिम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.2.107-109.
kṣipraliterally rapid, accelerated, a short name given in the a Prātiśākhya works to a Saṁdhi or euphonic combination of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ,; लृ with a following dissimilar vowel; confer, compare Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.Bhāṣya on R.Pr. III.10; confer, compare also इको यणचि P.VI.1.77. The name Kṣipra is given to this Saṁdhi possibly because the vowel, short or long, which is turned into a consonant by this saṁdhi becomes very short (id est, that is shorter than a short vowel id est, that is a semi-vowel). The word क्षैप्र is also used in this sense referring to the Kṣiprasaṁdhi.
khsecond consonant of the guttural class of consonants possessed of श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष and विवार qualities.
gthird letter of the guttural class of consonants, possessed of the properties घोष, संवृत, नाद and अल्पप्राण; some grammarians look upon the word क्ङित् (P.I.1.5) as made up of क् , ग् and ङ् and say that the Guna and Vṛddhi substitutes do not take place in the vowels इ, उ, ऋ, and लृ if an affix or so, marked by the mute letter ग् follows.
gaṅgeśaśarmāwriter of Kātantra-kaumudī possibly different from the reputed Gaṅgeśa Upādhyāa who is looked upon as the founder of the Navyanyāya school of modern Naiyāyikas, and who lived in the twelfth century A. D.
gaṇasūtraa statement of the type of a Sūtra in the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini where mention of a word or words in the Gaṇapāṭha is made along with certain conditions; e. g. पूर्वपुरावरo, स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् , in the सर्वादिगण, and क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः, तसिलादय: प्राक्पाशपः in the स्वरादिगण. Some of the gaṇasūtras are found incorporated in the Sūtrapāṭha itself Many later grammarians have appended their own gaṇapāṭha to their Sūtrapāṭha.
gati(1)literally motion; stretching out, lengthening of a syllable. The word is explained in the Prātiśakhya works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel इ or उ after it, exempli gratia, for example हाइ or हायि for हा; similarly आ-इ or अा -यि ; (2) a technical term used by Pāṇini in connection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called गति, confer, compare P.I.4.60-79. The words called gati can be compounded with the following word provided the latter is not a verb, the compound being named tatpuruṣa e.g, प्रकृतम् , ऊरीकृत्य confer, compare P.II.2.18; the word गति is used by Pāṇini in the masculine gender as seen in the Sūtra गतिरनन्तरः P.VI. 2.49 and hence explained as formed by the addition of the affix क्तिच् to गम्, the word being used as a technical term by the rule क्तिच्क्तौ च संज्ञायाम् P.III.3.174; (3) realization, understanding; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.9; सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 76; अगत्या हि परिभाषा अाश्रीयते Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva Pari. Pāṭha 119.
gatikārakaparibhāṣāa popular name given to the maxim गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पतेः; confer, compare Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 75.
gatisamāsaa compound with the preceding gati word prescribed by the rule कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18; confer, compare गतिसमास । निष्कौशाम्बिः, निर्वाराणसि: M.Bh. on II. 4. 26 .
gadāa popular name given to the scholarly commentary written by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara. The commentary is called काशिका also, as it was written in the town of Kāśī (Vārāṇasī).
garīyastvagreater effort or prolixity of expression which is looked upon as a fault in connection with grammar-works of the sūtra type where every care is taken to make the expression as brief as possible; confer, compare अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणाः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 122. The word गौरव is often used for गरीयस्त्व.
gavāśvaprabhṛtithe dvandva compound words गवाश्व, गवाविक गवैडक, अजाविक, कुब्जमाणवक, पुत्रपौत्र मांसशोणित and others which are to be declined in the neuter gender and singular number; confer, compare P. II. 4.11.
gahādia class of words headed by the word गह to which the taddhita affix ईय (छ) is added in the Saisika or miscellaneous senses; e. g. गहीयम् , अन्तस्थीयम्; this class called 'gahiya' is looked upon as अाकृतिगण, and hence the words वैणुकीयम् वैत्रकीयम् and the like could be explained as correct; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.138.
gārgyaan ancient reputed grammarian and possibly a writer of a Nirukta work, whose views, especially in.connection with accents are given in the Pratisakhya works, the Nirukta and Panini's Astadhyayi. Although belonging to the Nirukta school, he upheld the view of the Vaiyakaranas that all words cannot be derived, but only some of them: cf Nirukta of Yāska.I. 12.3. cf, also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 167, Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.5, III. 14.22: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 13; XIII. 12: P. VII. 3.99, VIII. 3.20, VIII. 4.69.
guṇādia class of words headed by the word गुण, which, when preceded by the word बहु in a Bahuvrihi compound, do not have their last vowel acute; e. g. बहुगुणा रज्जुः; बह्वक्षरं पदम् , et cetera, and others This class of गुणादि words is considered as आकृतिगण; confer, compare Kas, on P. VI. 2.176.
guṇinpossessed of a quality ; cf इह कदाचिद् गुणो गुणिविशेपको भवति । तद्यथा पट: शुक्ल इति । कदाचिच्च गुणिना गुणो व्यपदिश्यते। पटस्य शुक्ल इति। Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.21.
guru(1)possessed of a special effort as opposed to लघु; confer, compare तद् गुरु भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1। (2) heavy, a technical term including दीर्घ (long) vowel as also a ह्रस्व (short) vowel when it is followed by a conjunct consonant, (confer, compare संयोगे गुरु । दीर्घ च। P. I. 4.11, 12) or a consonant after which the word terminates or when it (the vowel) is nasalized; confer, compare Tai. Pr. XXII. 14, confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 5.
gotrinda( चक्रवर्तिन् )writer of Samasavada, a short treatise on the sense conveyed by compound words.
goṣadādia class of words to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुन् ) is added in the sense of possession provided the word so formed refers to a chapter ( अध्याय ) or a section ( अनुवाक ) c. दैवासुरः, वैमुक्तः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.62.
gauṇa(l)a word subordinate in syntax or sense to another; adjectival; उपसर्जनीभूतः (2) possessing a secondary sense, e. g the word गो in the sense of 'a dull man';confer, compareगौणमुख्ययेार्मुख्ये कार्यसम्प्रत्ययः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.15, I.4. 108, VI. 3. 46. See also Par. Sek Pari. 15; (3) secondary, as opposed to primary; confer, compare गौणे कर्मणि दुह्यादे; प्रधाने नीहृकृष्वहाम् ।.
gauravagreatness of effort; prolixity as opposed to लाघव; confer, compare पर्यायशब्दानां लाघवगौरवचर्चा नाद्रियते Par.Sek.Par.115; confer, compare also पदगौरवाद्योगविभागो गरीयान् Par. Sek. Pari. 121.
gaurādia class of words to which the affix ई ( ङीष्) is added to form the feminine base; exempli gratia, for example गौरी, मत्सी, हयी, हरिणी; the class contains a large number of words exceeding 150; for details see Kasika on P.IV.1. 41; (2) a small class of eleven words, headed by the word गौर which do not have the acute accent on the last syllable in a tatpurusa compound when they are placed after the preposition उप; confer, compare P. VI.2.194.
gmintaddhita affix. affix in the sense of possession; confer, compare वाचो ग्मिनिः। वाग्मी । P.I.2.124.
gha(l)consonant घ्, अ being added at the end for facility of pronunciation; confer, compareTai. Pr.I.21; (2) technical term for the taddhita affix. affixes तरप् and तमप्, confer, compare P.I.1.22, causing the shortening of ई at the end of bases before it, under certain conditions, confer, compare P. VI. 3.43-45, and liable to be changed into तराम् and तमाम् after किम्, verbs ending in ए, and indeclinables; confer, compare P.V.4.11; (3) taddhita affix. affix घ ( इय) in the sense of 'a descendant' applied to क्षत्र, and in the sense of 'having that as a deity' applied to अपोनप्तृ अपांनप्तृ and also to महेन्द्र and to the words राष्ट्र et cetera, and others, exempli gratia, for example क्षत्रियः, अपोनाप्त्रिय:, अपांनप्त्रियः, महेन्द्रियम्,राष्ट्रियः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV.1.138, IV.2.27, 29, 93; (4) taddhita affix. affix घ, applied to अग्र, समुद्र and अभ्र in the sense of 'present there', to सहस्र in the sense of 'possession', to, नक्षत्र without any change of sense, and to यज्ञ and ऋत्विज् in the sense of 'deserving'; confer, compare P.IV.4.117,118,135, 136,141, V.1.71 ; (5) krt affix अ when the word to which it has been applied becomes a proper noun id est, that isa noun in a specific sense or a technical term; confer, compare III.3. 118, 119,125.
ghuṭa conventional term for the first five case-affixes; confer, compare घुटि च Kat. II. 1.68. The term घुट् is used in the Katantra Vyakarana and corresponds to the term सर्वनामस्थान of Panini.
ṅyāppāda popular name given by grammarians to the first pada of the fourth adhyaya of Panini's Astadyayi as the pada begins with the rule ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात् IV. I.I.
cfirst consonant of palatal class of consonants, possessed of the properties, श्वास, अघोष, अल्पप्राण and कण्ठविवृतत्व. च् at the beginning of an affix is mute e. g. च्फञ्, confer, compare चुट् P. I. 3.7; words, having the mute letter च् (dropped), have their last vowel accented acute e. g. भङ्गुरम् । भासुरम् । confer, compare चित: VI. 1.163.
ca(l)the letter च्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance, cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) a Bratyahara or short term standing for the palatal class of consonants च्, छ्, ज्,झ् and ञ्; cf इचशेयास्तालौ Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 66; (3) indeclinable च called Nipata by Panini; confer, compare चादयोSसत्त्वे P. I. 4.57, च possesses four senses समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 2.29. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2.29 Vart. 15 for a detailed explanation of the four senses. The indeclinable च is sometimes used in the sense of 'a determined mention' or avadharana; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 1.48 and 72. It is also used for the purpose of अनुवृत्ति or अनुकर्षण i. e. drawing a word from the previous rule to the next rule; (confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.90) with a convention that a word drawn thus, does not proceed to the next rule; confer, compare चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र Par. Sek Pari. 78; (4) a conventional term for अभ्यास (reduplicative syllable) used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; confer, compare चविकारेषु अपवादा उत्सर्गान्न बाधन्ते Kat. Pari. 75.
caṇthe indeclinable च (with ण् as a mute letter added to it which of course disappears) possessing the sense of चेत् or condition. exempli gratia, for example अयं च मरिष्यति confer, compare Kas, on P. VIII. 1.30.
caturthīsamāsathe tatpurusa compound with the first word in the dative case in its dissolution; confer, compare वतुर्थीसमासे सति पूर्वपदकृतिस्वरत्वेन भवितव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 1.36.
carcā(1)splitting up of a word into its component parts, which is generalty shown in the Padaptha by अवग्रहं (S). The word, hence means पदपाठ or recital by showing separately the constitutent words of the Samhita or the running text of the Veda. The word is used almost in the same sense in the Mahabhasya in respect of showing the words of a sutra separately; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऐजिति । किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत्समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति M.Bh. on Mahesvara Sutra 1 Wart. 6l ; (2) a repeated word; confer, compare इतिकरणात् पुरतो यत् पुनः पदवचनं तत् चर्चाशब्देनोच्यते. Uvvata on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.20; (3) a discussion or a debate where consideration is given to each single word; confer, compare प्रर्यायशब्दानां लाघवगौरवचर्चा नाद्रियते Par. Sek. Pari. 115.
carcāguṇarepetition of a word in the पद्पाठ, क्रमपाठ, जटापाठ et cetera, and others where the several Pathas appear to be called चर्चा.In the पदपाठ a word in a compound is repeated twice, in the क्रमपाठ every word is repeated twice, in the जटापाठ, six times.
caṃrcāpadacomponent words of a running text or of a compound word.
cāṅgudāsathe same as चङ्गु or चाङ्गु or चङ्गुदास,a grammarian who composed a compendium on grammar called वैयाकरणजीवातु and also a commentary on it.
cāndraname of a treatise on grammar written by Candra, who is believed to have been the same as Candragomin. The Grammar is based upon that of Panini, but it does not treat Vedic forms and accents. See the word चन्द्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For details see pp. 375376 Patanjali Mahabhasya. Vol. VII, D.E. Society's Edition.
cāritārthyafulfilment of the object or the Purpose. The word is used in connection with a rule of grammar. See चरितार्थ.
cārthathe meaning of the indeclinable च to convey which, as existing in different individuals, the dvandva compound is prescribeditionOut of the four senses possessed by the inde clinable च, the Dvandva compound is prescribed in two senses viz.इतरेतरयोग and समाहार out of the four समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार: confer, compare कः पुनश्चेन कृतोर्थः समुच्चयोन्वाचय इतरेतरयोगः समाहार इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.2.29; confer, compare also Candra Vyakarana II.2.48
cālutaddhita affix. affix ( आलु ) applied to the word हृदय, in the sense of possession, optionally along with the affixes वत् इन् and इक. exempli gratia, for example हृदयालुः, हृदयवान् , हृदयी and हृदयिकः; confer, compare Kas: on V.2. 122.
cullibhaṭṭia grammarian who is supposed to have written a gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini; confer, compare तत्र च वृतिः पाणिनिप्रणीतानां सूत्राणां विवरणं चुल्लिभट्टिनल्लूरादि( V. 1. निर्लूरादि-) विरचितम् , Nyasa, on the benedictory verse of Kasika: वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा घातुनामपारायणादिषु at the very beginning.
cūrṇia gloss on the Sutras of Panini referred to by Itsing and Sripatidatta, Some scholars believe that Patanjali's Mahabhasya is referred to here by the word चूर्णि, as it fully discusses all the knotty points. Others believe that चूर्णि,stands for the Vrtti of चुल्लिभाट्टि. In Jain Religious Literature there are some brief comments on the Sutras which are called चूर्णि and there possibly was a similar चूर्णि on the sutras of Panini.
cokkanāthaa southern grammarian of the seventeenth century who has composed in 430 stanzas a short list of the important roots with their meaning. The work is called धातुरत्नावली.
codaka(1)an objector; the word is common in the Commentary Literature where likely objections to a particular statement are raised, without specific reference to any individual objector, and replies are given, simply with a view to making matters clear; (2) repetition of a word with इति interposed: confer, compare चेदकः परिग्रहः इत्यनर्थान्तरम्. See अदृष्टवर्ण and परिग्रह.
cvyarthapossessing the sense of च्वि. See च्वि confer, compare P. III. 2. 56 also P. III. 3. 127 Vart. 1.
chthe second consonant of the palatal class of consonants ( चवर्ग ), which is possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, मह्याप्राण and कण्ठविवृतकारित्व. छ् , placed at the beginning of affixes, is mute; while ईय् is substituted for छ् standing at the beginning of taddhita affixes; confer, compare P. I. 3.7 and VII. 1.2. छ् at the end of roots has got ष्, substituted for it: confer, compare P. VIII. 2.36.
chataddhita affix. affix ईय, added ( 1 ) to the words स्वसृ, भ्रातृ and to words ending with the taddhita affix. affix फिञ्: confer, compare P. IV. 1.143,144 and 149; (2) to the dvandva compound of words meaning constellations,to the words अपोनप्तृ, अपांनप्तृ, महेन्द्र, द्यावापृथिवी, शुनासीर et cetera, and others as also to शर्करा, उत्कर , नड et cetera, and others in certain specified senses, confer, compare P. IV. 2.6, 28, 29, 32, 48, 84, 90 &91 ;(3) to words beginning with the vowel called Vrddhi (आ,ऐ or औ),to words ending with गर्त, to words of the गह class, and to युष्मद् and अस्मद् in the शैषिक senses, confer, compare P. IV. 3.114, 137-45 and IV. 3.1 ; (4) to the words जिह्वामूल, अङ्गुलि, as also to words ending in वर्ग in the sense of 'present there '; confer, compare P.IV.3.62-64; (5) to the words शिशुक्रन्द, यमसम, dvandva compounds, इन्द्रजनन and others in the sense of 'a book composed in respect of', confer, compare P.IV. 3.88; (6)to words meaning warrior tribes, to words रैवतिक etc, as also अायुध, and अग्र, in some specified senses: cf P.IV. 3.91, 131, IV. 4.14, 117; (7) to all words barring those given as exceptions in the general senses mentioned in the second. V.I.1-37; (8) to the words पुत्र, कडङ्कर, दक्षिण, words ending in वत्सर, अनुप्रवचन et cetera, and others होत्रा, अभ्यमित्र and कुशाग्र in specified senses; confer, compare P. V. 1. 40, 69,70,91,92, 111,112,135, V. 2.17, V.3.105; (9) to compound words in the sense of इव; e. g. काकतालीयम् , अजाकृपाणीयम् et cetera, and others confer, compare V. 3. 106;and (10) to words ending in जति and स्थान in specified senses; confer, compare P. V.4, 9,10.
chakārathe letter छ, the word कार being looked upon as an affix added to the consonant छ् which, by the addition of अ, is made a complete syllable; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 16, 21.
chandas(1)Vedic Literature in general as found in the rule बहुलं छन्दसि which has occurred several times in the Sutras of Panini, confer, compare छन्दोवत्सूत्राणि भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1, and I.4.3; confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 1, 4; (2) Vedic Samhita texts as contrasted with the Brahmana texts; confer, compareछन्दोब्राह्मणानि च तद्विषयाणि P, IV.2.66; () metre, metrical portion of the Veda.
chpādaa popular name given by grammarians to the first pada of the fifth Adhyaya of Painis Astadhyayi as the pada begins with the rule प्राक् क्रीताच्छः P. V. 1.1.
chāyāa learned commentary on Nagesa's Mahabhasyapradipoddyota written by his pupil बाळंभट्ट (possibly the same as, or the son of, वैद्यनाथ पायगुण्डे) who lived in the eighteenth century.
jthird consonant of the palatal class of consonants, possessed of the properties नाद, घोष, अल्पप्राण and कण्ठसंवृत्तकारित्व. ज् at the beginning of affixes is mute in Panini's grammar.
jagaddharaa poet and grammarian of Kasmira of the fourteenth century who wrote a commentary named बालबोधिनी on the Katantra Sutras.
jagannātha(1)the well-known poet and scholar of Vyakarana and Alam kara who wrote many excellent poetical works. He lived in the sixteenth century. He was a pupil of कृष्णशेष and he severely criticised the views of Appaya Diksita and Bhattoji Diksita. He wrote a sort of refutation of Bhattoji's commentary Praudha-Manorama on the Siddhānta Kaumudi, which he named प्रौढमनेारमाखण्डन but which is popularly termed मनोरमाकुचमर्दन. His famous work is the Rasagangadhara on Alankrasastra; (2) writer of a commentary on the Rk-Pratisakhya by name Varnakramalaksana; (3) writer of Sarapradipika, a commentary on the Sarasvata Vyakarana.
jayadevaa grammarian, ( of course different from well-known poet), to whom a small treatise on grammar by name इष्टतन्त्रव्याकरण is attributedition
jayādityaone of the famous joint authors ( जयादित्य and वामन ) of the well-known gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini, popularly called काशिकावृत्ति. As the काशिकावृत्ति is mentioned by It-sing, who has also mentioned Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya, as a grammer treatise Written some 40 years before his visit, the time of काशिकावृत्ति is fixed as the middle of the 7th century A.D. Some scholars believe that जयादित्य was the same as जयापीड a king of Kasmira and बामन was his minister. For details, see pp. 386388 of the Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII published by the D.E. Society, Poona. See काशिका.
jahatsvārthā( वृत्ति )a composite expression where the constituent members give up their individual sense. In compound words such as राजपुरुष in the sentence राजपुरुषमानय the word राजन् gives up its sense in as much as he, the king,is not brought; पुरुष also gives up its sense as every man is not brought. It is of course to be noted that although the sense is given up by cach word, it is not completely given up: cf जहदप्यसेो स्वार्थ नात्यन्ताय जहाति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 2. For detailed explanation see Mahabhasya on P. II. I. I. Vart. 2.
jahaddharmatvaabandonment or giving up of properties in the case of a word included in a वृत्ति or composite expression; confer, compare जहद्धर्मत्वाच्छब्दप्रवृत्तेः Durghata Vrtti on P. II. 2.6.
jātābhīyāsiddhatvainvalidity of a grammatical operation prescribed by a rule in the अाभीय section (P. VI. 4.22 upto the end of the fourth pada ) which, although it has taken place, is to be looked upon as not having taken place when any other operation in the same section is to take effect. See आभीयासिद्व.
jātipakṣathe view that जाति, or genus only, is the denotation of every word. The view was first advocated by Vajapyayana which was later on held by many, the Mimamsakas being the chief supporters of the view. See Mahabhasya on P. I. 2.64. See Par. Sek. Pari. 40.
jātīyartaddhita affix. affix जातीय in the sense of प्रकार or variety; e. g. पटुजातीयः, मृदुजातीयः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.69. Originally जातीय was possibly an independent word, but as its use, especially as a noun, was found restricted, it came to be looked upon as an affix on the analogy of the affixes कल्प, देश्य, देशीय and others.
jātyaname of a variety of the Svarita or circumflex accent; the original svarita accent as contrasted with the svarita for the grave which follows upon an acute as prescribed by P. in VIII. 4.67, and which is found in the words इन्द्रः, होता et cetera, and others The jatya svarita is noticed in the words स्वः, क्व, न्यक्, कन्या et cetera, and others; .confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वं स्वरितमनुदात्तं पदेक्षरम्। अतोन्यत् स्वरितं स्वारं जात्यमाचक्षते पदे॥ जात्या स्वभावेनैव उदात्तानुदात्तसंगतिं विना जातो जात्यः । तं जात्यमाचक्षतै व्याडिप्रभृयः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) and commentary III. 4.
jit(l)literally affix marked with the mute letter ज्; e. g. जस्, जसि, जुस्. the word जित् is not however found used in this sense; (2) a word supposed to be marked with the mute indicatory letter ज्.The word is used in this sense by the Varttikakara saying that such a word does not denote itself but its synonyms; confer, compare जित् पर्यायवचनस्यैव राजांद्यर्थम् P.I.1.68 Vart. 7. In the Sutra सभा राजामनुष्यपूर्वा P.II. 4. 23, the word राजन् is supposed to be जित् and hence it denotes इन्, ईश्वर et cetera, and others; but not the word राजन् itself; (3) In the Pratisakhya works जित् means the first two consonants of each class (वर्ग); exempli gratia, for example क्, ख्,च्, छ्. et cetera, and others which are the same as खय् letters in Panini's terminology; confer, compare द्वौ द्वौ प्रथमौ जित्, V. Pr.I.50;III.13.
jinendrabuddhia reputed Buddhist Grammarian of the eighth century who wrote a scholarly commentary on the Kasikavrtti ofJayaditya and Vamana. The commentary is called न्यास or काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका and the writer is referred to as न्यासकार in many later grammar works Some scholars identify him with पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् the writer of the जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण, but this is not possible as पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् was a Jain Grammarian who flourished much earlier.
jihvāmūlasthāna(l)having the root of the tongue as the place of its production;the phonetic element or letter called जिह्वामूलीय; (2) name given to that phonetic element into which a visarga is changed when followed by क् or ख्; cf X क इति जिह्वामूलीयः V.Pr.VIII.19. The जिह्वामूलीय letter is called जिह्व्य also; see Nyasa on I. 1.9. The Rk. Pratisakhya looks upon ऋ, लृ, जिह्वामूलीय, and the guttural letters as जिह्वामूलस्थान.
jumaranandina grammarian of the fourteenth century A. D. who ' revised and rewrote the.grammar संक्षिप्तसार and the commentary named रसवती on it, which were composed by क्रमदीश्वर in the thirteenth century. The work of जुमरनन्दिन् is known as जौमारव्याकरण.
jñāpakaliterallyindirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, confer, compareM.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 et cetera, and others The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systemanuscript. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.
jñāpakasādhyarealizable, or possible to be drawn, from a wording in the Sūtra of Pāņini in the manner shown a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. See ज्ञापक.
jñāpanaa conclusion or inference, drawn from a word or words in a Sūtra, with a view to assign a purpose to that or to those words which otherwise would have been without a purpose. The word is sometimes used in the sense of ज्ञापक, and refers to the word or words supposed to be without any purpose and therefore looked upon as a reason or हेतु for the desired conclusion to be drawn. The words किमेतस्य ज्ञापने प्रयोजनम् occur very frequently in the Mahābhāșya: cf, M.Bh. on P. Ι. I. 11, 14,19, 55, 68, Ι. 2.41 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others
jyotsnā(Ι)name of a commentary by Rāmacandra possibly belonging to the 18th century on the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya; (2) name of a commentary on Nāgeśa's 'Laghuśabdenduśekhara by Udayaṃakara Pāṭhaka of Vārāṇasi in the 18th century.
jhfourth consonant of the palatal class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, and महाप्राणत्व; झ् at the beginning of an affix in Panini Sutras is mute; e. g. the affixes झि, झ et cetera, and others; cf चुटूं P. I. 3.7.
jhaa verbal ending of the 3rd person. Atm. for ल ( id est, that is लकार ); cf P.III.4. 78;for the letter झ् , अन्त् is substituted; confer, compare झोन्तः P. VIII.1.3, but ईरे in the perfect tense; confer, compare P. III. 4.81 and रन् in the potential and benedictive moods; confer, compare P. III. 4.85.
jhi(1)verb-ending of the 3rd person. plural Parasmaipada, substituted for the लकार of the ten lakaras, changed to जुस in the potential and the benedictive moods, and optionally so in the imperfect and after the sign स् of the aorist; confer, compareP,III. 4. 82, 83, 84, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112: (2) a conventional term for अव्यय (indeclinable) used in the Jainendra Vyakaraha.
ñ(1)the nasal (fifth consonant) of the palatal class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, कण्टसंवृतत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्य; (2) mute letter, characterized by which an affix signifies वृद्धि for the preceding vowel; ञ् of a taddhita affix, however, signifies वृद्धि for the first vowel of the word to which the affix is added; (3) a mute letter added to a root at the end to signify that the root takes verb-endings of both the padas.
ñyataddhita affix य signifying the substitution of vrddhi as also the acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition It is added (1) to words headed by प्रगदिन् in the four senses termed वंतुरर्थ exempli gratia, for exampleप्रागृद्यम्, शारद्यम् et cetera, and others;confer, compareP.IV. 2.80; (2).to the word गम्भीर and अव्ययीभाव compounds in the sense of present there', exempli gratia, for example गाम्भीर्यम् , पारिमुख्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.3.58, 59 (3) to the word विदूर exempli gratia, for example वैदुर्य; confer, compare P. IV.3.84;.(4) to the words headed by शण्डिक in the sense of 'domicile of', exempli gratia, for example शाण्डिक्यः ; confer, compare P. IV.3.92; (5) to the words छन्दोग, औक्थिक, नट et cetera, and others in the sense of duty (धर्म) or scripture (अाम्नाय) e. g. छान्दोग्यम् , औविथक्यम् नाट्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.129; (6) to the word गृहपति in the sense of ’associated with'; exempli gratia, for example गार्हपत्यः (अग्निः);confer, compareP.IV.4.90;(7) to the words ऋषभ and उपानह् ; confer, compare P. V.1.14; .(8) to the words अनन्त, आवसथ et cetera, and others,confer, compare P. V.4.23; (9) to the word अतिथि; confer, compare P.V.4.26; and (10) to the words in the sense of पूग(wandering tribes for earning money), as also to the words meaning व्रात (kinds of tribes) as also to words ending with the affix च्फञ् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.V.3. 112, 113.
the first consonant of the lingual class ( टवर्ग ) possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When prefixed or affixed to an affix as an indicatory letter, it signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ); confer, compare P. IV. 1.15, When added to the conjugational affixes ( लकार ) it shows that in the Atmanepada the vowel of the last syllable is changed to ए. confer, compare P. III. 4.79. When added to an augment ( अागम ), it shows that the augment marked with it is to be prefixed and not to be affixed; e. g. नुट्, तुट् et cetera, and others; cf P. I. 1.46.
ṭacthe samasanta affix अ added to certain specified words at the end of the tatpurusa and other compounds exempli gratia, for example राजसखः, पञ्चगवम्, महानसम्, समक्षम् , अध्यात्मम् et cetera, and others cf P.V.4.91-112.
ṭīṭactaddhita affix. affix टीट added to the preposition अच in the sense of 'lowering of the nose' ( नासिकाया: नतम् ) e. g. अवटीटम्: confer, compare P. V. 2.31
ṭhthe second consonant of the lingual class possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्टत्व and महाप्राणत्व. For the syllable ठ at the beginning of taddhita affixes, the syllable इक is substituted; if however the affix (beginning with ठ ) follows upon a word ending in इस्, उस्, उ, ऋ, लृ and त् then क is added instead of इक; e. g. धानुष्क:, औदश्वित्कः et cetera, and others; confer, compare टस्येकः, इसुसुक्तान्तात् कः, P. VII. 3.50, 51. Some scholars say that इक् and क् are substituted for ठ् by the sutras quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare KS. on VII. 3.50.
ṭhakpādaa popular name given to the fourth pada of the fourth adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi.The pada begins with the rule प्राग्वहतेष्ठक् P.IV.4.1 prescribing the taddhita affix ठक् in the senses prescribed in rules be. ginning with the next rule ' तेन दीव्यति खनति जयति जितम् ' and ending with the rule 'निकटे वसति' P.IV.4.73.
ṭhañtaddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) causing Vrddhi and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, applied (1) to महृाराज, प्रोष्ठपद and क्वाचिन् in the specifieditionsenses, confer, compare P. IV.2.35, 4l e. g. माहृाराजिक, प्रौष्ठपदिक et cetera, and others; (2) to words काशि, चेदि, संज्ञा and others, along with ञिठ, e. g. काशिकी, काशिका, also with ञिठ to words denoting villages in the Vahika country exempli gratia, for example शाकलिकी शाकलिका; as also to words ending in उ forming names of countries in all the Saisika senses confer, compare P. IV.2.116-120; (3) to compound words having a word showing direction as their first member, to words denoting time, as also to the words शरद्, निशा and प्रदोष in the Saisika senses; cf P. IV.3.6, 7, 1115; (4) to the words वर्षा (1n Vedic Literature), and to हेमन्त and वसन्त in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P.IV.3.1921; (5) to संवत्सर, अाग्रहायणी, words having अन्तः as the first member, to the word ग्राम preceded by परि or अनु, to multisyllabic words having their last vowel accented acute, to words denoting sacrifices, to words forming names of sages, to words ending in ऋ and to the word महाराज in the specific senses which are mentioned; confer, compare P. IV.3.50, 60, 61, 67, 68, 69, 78, 79, 97; (6) to the words गोपुच्छ, श्वगण, आक्रन्द, लवण, परश्वध, compound words having a multisyllabic words as their first member, and to the words गुड et cetera, and others in the specified senses;confer, compareP.IV.4.6,II, 38, 52, 58, 64, 103;(7) to any word as a general taddhita affix. affix (अधिकारविहित), unless any other affix has been specified in the specified senses ' तेन क्रीतम् ' ' तस्य निमित्तम्' ... ' तदर्हम्' mentioned in the section of sutras V. 1. 18. to 117; (8) to the words अय:शूल, दण्ड, अजिन, compound words having एक or गो as their first member as also to the words निष्कशत and निष्कसहस्र; confer, compare P.V.2.76, 118,119.
ṭhantaddhita affix. affix इक or क (according to P. VII.3.51), causing the addition of आ, and not ई,..for forming the feminine base, applied (1) to the word नौ and words with two syllables in the sense of 'crossing' or 'swimming' over; confer, compare P.IV.4. 7; exempli gratia, for example नाविकः नाविका, बाहुकः बाहुक्रा; (2) to the words वस्र, क्रय, and विक्रय and optionally with छ to अायुघ in the sense of maintaining (तेन जीवति) ; confer, compare P. IV. 4.13, 14; (3) to the word प्रतिपथ, words ending with अगार, to the word शत, to words showing completion ( पूरणवाचिन् ), to the words अर्ध, भाग, वस्त्र, द्रव्य, षण्मास and. श्राद्ध in specified senses; confer, compare P. IV 4.42, 70, V. 1.21, 48, 49, 51, 84, V. 2, 85, and 109; (4) to words ending in अ as also to the words headed by व्रीहि, and optionally with the affix इल्च् to तुन्द and with the affix व to केशin the sense of मतुप्(possession); cf P.V. 2. 115, 116, 117 and 109.
ṭhitmarked with the mute letter ठ्. There is no affix or word marked with mute ठ् (at the end) in Panini's grammar, but to avoid certain technical difficulties, the Mahabhasyakara has proposed mute ठ् instead of 'ट् in the' case of the affix इट् of the first person. singular. perf Atm. and ऊठ् prescribed as Samprasarana substitute by P. VI. 4.132 e: g. प्रष्ठौहः, प्रष्ठौहा; confer, compare M.Bh. on III.4.79 and VI.4.19.
(1)third letter of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, and अल्पप्राण; (2) mute letter applied to affixes by Panini to show the elision of the टि part (confer, compare P. 1. 1.64.) of the preceding word viz. the penultimate vowel and the consonant or consonants following it; cf, टेः ; ( लोप: डिति प्रत्यये परे ) VI.4.143. The syllable ति of विंशति is also elided before an affix markwith the mute letter ड्.
ḍacasamasanta (अ) added to a Bahu vrihi compound meaning a numeral exempli gratia, for example उपदशाः उपविंशाः confer, compare P.V.474.
ḍatitaddhita affix. affix अति affixed to the word किम् to show number or measurement; exempli gratia, for example कति ब्राह्मणाः, confer, compare P.V.2.41. The words ending with the affix डति are termed संख्या and षट् for purposes of declension et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.I.1.23,25
ḍāctaddhita affix. affix आ applied to dissyllabic words, used as imitation of sounds, or used as onomatopoetic, when connected with the root कृ or भू or अम्. The word to which डाच् is applied becomes generally doubled; c. g पटपटाकरोति, पटपटाभवति पटपटास्यात्; confer, compare P.V.4.57. The affix डाच् is also applied to द्वितीय, तृतीय, to compound words formed of a numeral and the word गुण, as also to the words सपत्र, निष्पत्र, सुख, प्रिच etc when these words are connected with the root कृ;exempli gratia, for example द्वितीयाकरोति,तृतीया करोति, द्विगुणाकरोति, सपत्राकरोति, सुखाकरोति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.V.4. 58 to 67.
ḍāpfeminine. affix आ added optionally to words ending in मन् and to Bahuvrihi compounds ending in अन् to show feminine gender, the words remaining as they are when the optional affix डाप् is not applied; exempli gratia, for example दामा, सीमा, सुपर्वा; confer, compare P. IV. I.l l, 12, 13.
ḍit(l)possessed of the mute letter ड् added for the purpose of the elision of डि (last vowel and the consonant or consonants after it) of the preceding word. See ड.
ḍupactad affix उप added to the word कुतू in the sense of diminutive: exempli gratia, for example कुतुपः a small oil-pot ( कुतू );confer, compare V.3. 89.
(1)fourth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व and महृाप्राणत्व; (2) the consonant ढ् which is elided when followed by ढ् and the preceding vowel is lengthened; e. g. गाढा, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.13 and VI. 3.111 ; (3) substitute ढ् for ह् at the end of a पद, or, if followed by any consonant excepting a semivowel or a nasal excepting in the cases of roots beginning with द् or the roots द्रुह्, मुह् et cetera, and others as also वह् and अाह् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.31, 32, 33, 34; (4) ढ् at the beginning of a taddhita affix. affix which has got एय् substituted for it; confer, compare गाङ्गेय:, वैनतेयः ; confer, compare P. V. 3.102.
ḍhakañtaddhita affix. affix एयक applied (1) to the word कुल optionally along with यत् and ख, when it is not a member of a compound;.e. g.