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     Grammar Search "pe" has 7 results.
     
pe: feminine nominative dual stem: pa
pe: neuter nominative dual stem: pa
pe: feminine accusative dual stem: pa
pe: neuter accusative dual stem: pa
pe: masculine dative singular stem:
pe: masculine locative singular stem: pa
pe: neuter locative singular stem: pa
     Amarakosha Search  
19 results
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
ghṛtāmṛtam3.3.82MasculineSingularmahābhītiḥ, jīvanāpekṣikarma
jagat3.3.86MasculineSingularkṛtrimam, lakṣaṇopetam
kakṣyā3.3.166FeminineSingularātmavān, arthātanapetaḥ
kuṭannaṭamNeuterSingulargonardam, dāśapuram, kaivartīmustakam, vāneyam, paripelavam, plavam, gopuram
paṭaḥ2.10.18MasculineSingularuṣṇaḥ, dakṣaḥ, caturaḥ, ‍‍‍peśalaḥ, sūtthānaḥ
pecakaḥ3.3.6MasculineSingularekadeśaḥ, pratikūlaḥ
pelavam3.1.66MasculineSingularviralam, tanu
peśalaḥ3.3.213MasculineSingularmantrī, sahāyaḥ
peśī2.5.40Ubhaya-lingaSingularaṇḍam, koṣaḥ
peṭakaḥ3.3.20MasculineSingularstrīdhanam
piṭakaḥ2.10.30MasculineSingular‍‍‍peṭakaḥ, peṭā, mañjūṣā
tilam2.9.19MasculineSingulartilapejaḥ
ulūkaḥ2.5.16MasculineSingularpecakaḥ, divāndhaḥ, kauśikaḥ, ghūkaḥ, divābhītaḥ, vāyasārātiḥ, niśāṭanaḥ
viṣṇuḥ1.1.18-21MasculineSingularadhokṣajaḥ, vidhuḥ, yajñapuruṣaḥ, viśvarūpaḥ, vaikuṇṭhaḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, svabhūḥ, govindaḥ, acyutaḥ, janārdanaḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ, madhuripuḥ, devakīnandanaḥ, puruṣottamaḥ, kaṃsārātiḥ, kaiṭabhajit, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, jalaśāyī, muramardanaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, dāmodaraḥ, mādhavaḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, viśvaksenaḥ, indrāvarajaḥ, padmanābhaḥ, trivikramaḥ, śrīpatiḥ, balidhvaṃsī, viśvambharaḥ, śrīvatsalāñchanaḥ, narakāntakaḥ, mukundaḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, viṣṭaraśravāḥ, keśavaḥ, daityāriḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, śārṅgī, upendraḥ, caturbhujaḥ, vāsudevaḥ, śauriḥ, vanamālī(45)vishnu, the god
cāmpeyaḥ2.2.63MasculineSingularcampakaḥ, hemapuṣpakaḥ
cāmpeyaḥ2.2.65MasculineSingularkesaraḥ, nāgakesaraḥ, kāñcanāhvayaḥ
capeṭaḥ2.6.84MasculineSingularpratalaḥ, prahastaḥ
vārāṅgarūpopetaḥ3.1.11MasculineSingularsiṃhahananaḥ
vājapeyam3.5.31NeuterSingular
     Monier-Williams
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695 results for pe
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
peb cl.1 A1. pebate- (varia lectio for sev-, q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pecakam. (1. pac-?) an owl (see kṛṣṇa-p-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pecakam. the tip or the root of an elephant's tail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pecakam. a couch, bed (equals paryaṅka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pecakam. a louse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pecakam. a cloud View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pecakinm. an elephant (varia lectio picakin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pecikāf. a kind of owl (varia lectio picaka-and pecuka-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pecilam. idem or 'm. an elephant (varia lectio picakin-).' (varia lectio picila-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pecun. Colocasia Antiquorum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pecukan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peculīf. idem or 'n.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peḍāf. idem or 'm. or n. idem or 'm. a basket ' (varia lectio laka-).' (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peḍḍabhaṭṭam. Name of the commentator mallinātha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peḍḍanācāryam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peḍhālam. Name of the eighth arhat- of the future utsarpiṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pedum. ( pad-?) Name of a man (under the especial protection of the aśvin-s, by whom he was presented with a white horse that killed serpents) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pejam. See tila-p- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pef. equals peyā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pekim. or f. a species of bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pel cl.1.10. P. pelati- (), pel/ayati- () , to go. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pelam. a small part View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pelam. going View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pelan. equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pelakam. a testicle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pelavamf(ā-)n. delicate, fine, soft, tender (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound'"delicate like"or"too delicate for") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pelavamf(ā-)n. thin, slim, slender (opp. to bahala-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pelavakṣauman. fine linen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pelavapuṣpapattrinmfn. having tender flowers for arrows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peli gaRa chāttry-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pelinm. a horse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peliśālāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peluvāsa(?) m. a chameleon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pe cl.1 P. peṇati-, to go ; to grind ; to embrace (see paiṇ-, praiṇ-, laiṇ-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṇḍam. a way, road View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peñjūṣāf. the wax of the ear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pepīyamānamfn. (1. -, Intensive) drinking separately or greedily View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pef. a kind of musical instrument View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
perajaor peroja- n. a turquoise (confer, compare Persian $) .
peralasthalamāhātmyan. Name of chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peramabhaṭṭam. Name of the father of jagan-nātha- paṇḍita-rāja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peraṇi f. (in music) a kind of dance. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peraṇīf. (in music) a kind of dance. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peroja (with sāka-, sāhi-), m. Name (also title or epithet) of a Sultan (Firo1z Shah), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
perumfn. drinking (;perhaps rather = 3. p/eru-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
perumfn. (p/eru-), thirsty (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
perum. (only ) the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
perum. fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
perum. the ocean View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
perum. the golden mountain (see meru-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
perumfn. (1. pṛ-) carrying across, rescuing, delivering (For 1.See column 2.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
perumfn. ( -, pyai-) swelling or causing to swell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
perum. seed, germ, off-spring (with ap/ām-= soma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
perubhaṭṭam. (with lakṣmīkānta-) Name of the Guru of jagan-nātha- paṇḍita-rāja- (see perama-bh-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
perukam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pe cl.1 A1. peṣate-, to exert one's self, strive diligently View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pes cl.1 P. pesati-, to go (equals pis-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśam. ( piś-) an architect, carpenter(?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśam. ornament, decoration (see puru--and su--; gaRa gaurādi-and sidhmādi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣamf(ī-)n. ( piṣ-) pounding, grinding (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') (see śilā-p-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣam. the act of pounding or grinding or crushing (see piṣṭa-p-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣakamf(ikā-)n. one who pounds or grinds (see gandhaka-peṣikā-).
peṣākam. a small grind-stone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśalamf(ā-)n. (gaRa sidhmādi-) artificially formed, adorned, decorated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśalamf(ā-)n. beautiful, charming, lovely, pleasant etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśalamf(ā-)n. soft, tender, delicate, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśalamf(ā-)n. expert, skilful, clever View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśalamf(ā-)n. fraudulent, crafty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśalam. Name of viṣṇu-, V. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśalan. charm, grace, beauty, loveliness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśalākṣamfn. having beautiful eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśalākṣatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśalamind. tenderly, delicately View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśalamadhyamfn. slender-waisted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśalatvan. dexterity, skill View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśalīkṛto render beautiful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśanamf(ī-)n. well formed, beautiful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣaṇan. pounding, grinding (of grain) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣaṇan. crushing (ṇaṃ--,to be crushed) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣaṇan. a threshing floor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣaṇan. a hand-mill View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣaṇan. Euphorbia Antiquorum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣaṇavatmfn. a word formed for the explanation of pipiṣvat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣaṇīf. See below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣaṇif. equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣaṇīf. a grind-stone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣaṇīputrakam. a small grind-stone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣaṇīyamfn. to be ground or pounded or pulverized View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśasn. shape, form, colour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśasn. an artificial figure, ornament, embroidery, an embroidered garment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśaskarīf. a bee (conceived of as a female) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśaskārīf. a female embroiderer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśaskārinm. a wasp View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśaskṛtm. the hand (as"the artist") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśaskṛtm. a wasp View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśasvat(p/eśas--) mfn. decorated, adorned View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśīf. See below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśim. wrong reading for peṣi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśif. an egg or equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśīf. (gaRa gaurādi-) a piece of flesh or meat (also māṃsa-p-or peśī māṃsa-mayī-) (see piśita-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśīf. the fetus shortly after conception ( peśītva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśīf. a muscle (of which there are said to be 500 in the human body) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśīf. the peel or rind (of fruit) (see peśikā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśīf. a kind of drum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśīf. a sheath, scabbard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśīf. a shoe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśīf. the egg of a bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśīf. spikenard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśīf. a blown bud View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśīf. Name of a piśācī- and a rākṣasī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśīf. of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśīind. for śa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣim. a thunderbolt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣīind. for peṣa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣīf. swaddling-clothes (others"churning-stick";others"nurse" equals hiṃsikā-, piśācikā-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśikāf. rind, shell (of fruit) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśīkośam. a bird's egg View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣīkṛ(ind.p. -kṛtya-or -kṛtvā-), to crush, pound (see 2. peśī-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśīkṛtamfn. cut into pieces, carved (see 1. peṣī-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśitṛm. one who cuts in pieces or carves, carver, a View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśītvan. peśī
peṣṭṛmfn. who or what pounds or grinds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣṭran. ( piś-) a bone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pesukamfn. ( pis-) spreading, extending View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśvaramfn. (prob.) who or what grinds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pesvaramfn. () going, moving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pesvaramfn. destructive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pesvaramfn. splendid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣyamfn. equals peṣaṇīya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣyamfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') to be ground into View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśyaṇḍan. a piece of flesh (especially the fetus soon after conception) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśyaṇḍan. a bird's egg View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṭamf(ā-,or ī-)n. (fr. piṭa-, ṭaka-, quod vide) a basket, bag View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṭamf(ā-,or ī-)n. a multitude View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṭamf(ā-,or ī-)n. a retinue View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṭam. the open hand with the fingers expanded (equals pra-hasta-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṭakamf(ikā-)n. (fr. piṭa-, ṭaka-, quod vide)a little basket, casket, box (see kośa-peṭaka-, bhūṣaṇa-peṭikā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṭakam. n. equals dvaṃdva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṭakan. a multitude, company, quantity, number (kaṃ-kṛ-,with instrumental case"to join or consort with") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṭākam. a basket View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṭakandakam. a species of bulbous plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṭālun. idem or 'm. a species of bulbous plant ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṭikāf. a species of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṭṭālam. or n. idem or 'm. a basket ' (varia lectio laka-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṭṭibhaṭṭam. Name of the father of viśveśvara-bhaṭṭa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
petvam. (1. -?) a ram, wether View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
petvam. a small part, W View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
petvan. nectar, amṛta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
petvan. ghee or clarified butter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pev cl.1 A1. pevate- equals sev- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peyamfn. to be drunk or quaffed, drinkable etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peyamfn. to be tasted, tastable (opp. to ghreya-, spṛśya-etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peyamfn. to be taken (as medicine) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peyamfn. to be drunk in or enjoyed by (see śrotra-p-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peyam. (sc. yajña-kratu-) a drink offering, libation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pef. rice gruel or any drink mixed with a small quantity of boiled rice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peyam. a species of anise (equals miśreyā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peyan. a drink, beverage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peyālam(?) ind. once more, repeatedly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peyūṣam. or n. (= and varia lectio for pīyūṣa- q.v) biestings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peyūṣam. fresh butter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peyūṣam. nectar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyupe( i-), -upaiti- (3. plural -/upayanti-) to go near, approach, arrive at, enter etc. ; (with apaḥ-) to bathe ; to approach (in copulation) ; to go to meet any one (accusative) ; to enter a state or condition, obtain, share (Ved. infinitive mood -upaitos-) etc. ; to admit as an argument or a position (perf. p. genitive case plural -upeyuṣām-) commentator or commentary on and on ; to select as (accusative) ; to agree with, approve of (See abhy-upeta-): Passive voice -upeyate- to be approved of, admitted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyupe(-upā- i-), (Imper. 2. sg. -upaihi-) to approach (for refuge, śaraṇam-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyupekṣ( īkṣ-), (perf. p. -upekṣitavat-) to overlook, allow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyupetamfn. approached, arrived at (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyupetamfn. (with gṛham-) staying in a house View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyupetamfn. furnished with (in compound [ ]or instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyupetamfn. agreed upon, assented to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyupetamfn. promised View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyupetavyamfn. to be admitted or assented to commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyupetya ind.p. having arrived at (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyupetyahaving entered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyupetyahaving assented or agreed to. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyupetyāśuśrūṣāf. breach of a contracted service, a title of law treating of disputes between the master and a servant who has broken his agreement commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyupeyivasmf(yuṣī-)n. (perf. p.) having approached, arrived at (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyupeyivasmf(yuṣī-)n. having admitted (See 1. abhy-upe-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ācāravyapetamfn. deviating from established custom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhipeṣaṇamfn. serving to pound or grind upon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhyupekṣ(- upa-- īkṣ-; P. - upe- kṣati-), to disregard, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhyupekṣāf. disregard, neglect, indifference, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āgamanirapekṣamfn. independent of a written voucher or title. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agrapeyan. precedence in drinking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākaśāpeyam. a descendant of akaśāpa-, (gaRa śubhrādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alpecchamfn. having little or moderate wishes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alpecchumfn. idem or 'mfn. having little or moderate wishes ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alpenaind. instrumental case (with a perf. Pass. p. ) "for little", cheap
alpeśākhyamfn. "named after an insignificant chief or master", of low origin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alpetaramfn. "other than small", large View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alpetaratvan. largeness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āmapeṣam. plural grains pounded in a raw (id est uncooked) condition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āmrapeśīf. a portion of dried mango fruit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapekṣamfn. regardless, careless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapekṣamfn. indifferent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapekṣamfn. impartial View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapekṣamfn. irrespective of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapekṣamfn. irrelevant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapekṣāf. disregard, carelessness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapekṣamind. irrespectively, carelessly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapekṣamāṇamfn. not looking about, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapekṣatvan. disregard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapekṣatvan. irrelevance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapekṣatvan. irrespectiveness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapekṣatvātind. from having no reference to, since (it) has no reference to. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapekṣinmfn. regardless of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapekṣinmfn. indifferent to. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapekṣitamfn. disregarded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapekṣitamfn. unheeded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapekṣitamfn. unexpected. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapekṣya ind.p. disregarding, irrespective of. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapetamfn. not gone off, not past View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapetamfn. not separated, faithful to, possessed of. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
annapeyan. explains the word vāja-p/eya- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antaḥpeyan. supping up, drinking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupeta([ ]) or anupeta-pūrva- ([ ]), mfn. not yet entered at a teacher's (for instruction). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupetanot affected by, devoid of (compound), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupeyamfn. not to be married, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupeyamānamfn. not being approached (sexually), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anurūpeṇaind. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' conformably, according. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyonyasāpekṣamfn. mutually relating. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apaṭīkṣepeṇaind. with a toss of the curtain, precipitate entrance on the stage (indicating hurry and agitation) (see paṭīkṣepa-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ape( i-) P. A1. apaiti-, /apāyati- (imperfect tense A1. /apāyata- ) to go away, withdraw, retire, run away, escape ; to vanish, disappear. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apehi(Imper. 2. sg. in compound) means"excluding, expelling." View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apehipraghasā(scilicet kriyā-) f. a ceremony from which gluttons are excluded, (gaRa mayūravyaṃsakādi-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apehipraghasāetc. See ape-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apehivāṇijā(scilicet kriyā-) f. a ceremony from which merchants are excluded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apehivātā(scilicet latā-) f. "useful in expelling wind", the plant Poederia Foetida View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apej( īj-), /apejate- to drive away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣ( īkṣ-) to look away, to look round ; to have some design ; to have regard to, to respect ; to look for, wait for ; to expect, hope ; to require, have an eye to ; with na-, not to like View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣāf. looking round or about, consideration of, reference, regard to (in compound;rarely locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣāf. dependence on, connection of cause with effect or of individual with species View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣāf. looking for, expectation, hope, need, requirement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣābuddhif. (in vaiśeṣika- philosophy) a mental process, the faculty of arranging and methodizing, clearness of understanding. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣaṇan. equals apekṣā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣaṇamfn. not looking at (compound), (conjectural). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣaṇīyamfn. to be considered or regarded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣaṇīyamfn. to be looked for or expected
apekṣaṇīyamfn. to be wished or required View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣaṇīyamfn. desirable. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣayāind. with regard to (in compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpekṣikamfn. (fr. apekṣā-), relative, having relation or reference to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpekṣikatvan. the state of being relative View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣinmfn. considering, respecting, regardful of, looking to (in compound;rarely genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣinmfn. looking for, expecting, requiring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣinmfn. depending on. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣitamfn. considered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣitamfn. referred to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣitamfn. looked for, expected View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣitamfn. wished, required. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣitāf. expectation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣitavya equals apekṣaṇīya- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣya equals apekṣaṇīya-. 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apekṣya ind.p. with regard or reference to. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apendramfn. without indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ape( īṣ-), (Aorist 3. sg. /apa /aiyeḥ-) to withdraw from (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apeśalamfn. unclever. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpeṣam ind.p. having pressed or rubbed against, touching View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpeṣamSee under ā-piṣ-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apeśasmfn. shapeless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apetamfn. escaped, departed, gone, having retired from, free from (ablative or in compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apetabhimfn. one whose fear is gone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apetaprajananamfn. one who has lost his generative energy, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apetaprāṇamfn. lifeless, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apetarākṣasīf. the plant Ocimum Sanctum (also apreta-r-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apeyamf(ā-)n. unfit for drinking, not to be drunk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpeyam. plural (fr. 1. ap-?) , a particular class of gods. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpeyaand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpeyatvan. the being of this class (see āpyeya-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arthāpekṣamfn. pursuing (worldly) objects, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṣṭāṅgopetamfn. (said of excellent water), ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvapeja m. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśvapejinm. followers or pupils of āśva-pejin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvapeśas(/āśva-.) mfn. decorated with horses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvapeyam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśvapeyin m. followers or pupils of āśva-peyin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atipeśalamfn. very dexterous. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātmānapekṣamfn. not regarding one's self, not selfish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupendramfn. relating to viṣṇu-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
auṣadhapeṣakam. one who grinds or pounds medicaments View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avyapetamfn. not separated, contiguous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayogapeśalamfn. unskilled in emergencies, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahupuṣpaphalopetamfn. having many flowers and fruits View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balopetamfn. idem or 'mfn. idem or 'mfn. endowed with power or strength ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaṭapeṭakan. a troop of soldiers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūṣaṇapeṭikāf. a jewel-casket View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūṣāpeṭīf. a jewel-case
bījapeśikāf. "semen-receptacle", the scrotum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bilvapef. the dried shell of the bilva- fruit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bilvapeśikā f. the dried shell of the bilva- fruit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmāpetam. Name of one of the rākṣasa-s said to dwell in the sun during the month māgha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmopetam. Name of a rakṣas- (see brahmāpeta-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakṣurapetamfn. one who has lost his eyes, blind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
campeśam. "lord of campā-", karṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cāmpeyam. (fr. campā-) Michelia Campaka View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cāmpeyam. Mesua ferrea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cāmpeyam. equals yaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cāmpeyam. a prince of campā-
cāmpeyam. Name of a son of viśvā-mitra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cāmpeyamn. gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cāmpeyakan. a filament (especially of a lotus) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
capeṭam. a slap with the open hand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
capeṭāf. idem or 'm. a slap with the open hand ' Va1rtt. 13 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
capeṭāf. of ṭa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
capeṭāghātam. a slap with the open hand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
capeṭāpātanan. "id.", in compound capeṭāpātanātithi tithi- mfn. blown with the open hand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
capeṭāpātanātithimfn. capeṭāpātana
capeṭīf. idem or 'f. idem or 'm. a slap with the open hand ' Va1rtt. 13 ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
capeṭīf. the 6th day in the bright half of month bhādrapada- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
capeṭikāf. equals ṭa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chadmarūpeṇa instrumental case ind. in disguise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cūrṇapeṣamind. (with piṣ-,to grind) so as to pulverise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
damopetamfn. endowed with self-control, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daśapeyam. Name of a soma- libation (part of a rāja-sūya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmāpetamfn. departing from virtue, wicked, unrighteous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmāpetan. immorality, vice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmopetamfn. endowed with virtues View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhūtapāpeśvaratīrthan. Name of tīrtha-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīrghāpekṣinmfn. very regardful or considerate (Bombay edition dīrghapr-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dugdhapef. a kind of Curcuma View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
duḥkhopetamfn. affected by pain, suffering distress View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dūrāpetamfn. not even distantly to be thought of, quite out of the question View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dūrāpetatvan. commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durjanamukhacapeṭikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durjanamukhamahācapeṭikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
duṣpeṣaṇamfn. difficult to be pounded or crushed commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvātriṃśailakṣaṇopetamfn. () "having 32 auspicious marks upon the body", illustrious, great. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvipendram. equals -pa-pati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvipendradānan. the rut-fluid of a large elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvīpeśam. lord of an island, viceroy, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvipeśvaram. equals p/eudra-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekārthasamupetamfn. arrived at one object. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
evaṃguṇopetamfn. idem or 'mfn. idem or 'mfn. idem or 'mfn. possessing such qualities or good qualities etc.' ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhakapeṣikāf. a female servant who grinds or prepares perfumes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaupeyaSee gaupteya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopendram. "chief herdsman", kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopendram. Name of the author of kāvyālaṃkāra-dhenu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopeśam. (equals pendra-) kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopeśam. Name of nanda- (kṛṣṇa-'s foster-father) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopeśam. of śākya-muni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopeśvaram. a form of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopeśvaram. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopeśvaratīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇopetamfn. endowed with good qualities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇopetamfn. endowed with any requisites View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hiraṇyapeśas(h/iraṇya-.) mfn. adorned with golden, having golden lustre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalpeśvaramāhātmyan. Name (also title or epithet) of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jambudvīpeśvaram. a sovereign of India, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jyotīrūpeśvaran. Name of a liṅga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kākapeyamfn. "crow-drinkable", full to the brim or to the brink with water so that a crow may drink commentator or commentary on (see pāli- kāka-peyya-in Mahaparinibbana Sutta.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kālapeśīf. Name of a plant (equals śyāmā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kālapeśikāf. Rubia Munjista View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalpetaramf(ā-)n. having or requiring a different kind of treatment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peyamf(ī-)n. (fr. kapi-), belonging or peculiar to a monkey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peyam. a descendant of kapi- commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peyam. (plural) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peyan. monkey tricks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peyamf(ī-)n. customary among the Kapis, , Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapotapeṭakan. a flight of doves, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāryāpekṣinmfn. pursuing a particular object View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāryopekṣāf. neglect of duty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaśyapeśvara n. Name of a tīrtha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaśyapeśvaratīrthan. Name of a tīrtha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāśyapeyam. a patronymic of the twelve āditya-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāśyapeyam. of garuḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāśyapeyam. of aruṇa- (the sun) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kīlālapeśas(k/īl-) mfn. ornamented with the beverage kīl/āla- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kośapeṭakam. n. a chest or strong box in which treasure is kept View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣapeśam. equals kṣapā-nātha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetropekṣam. Name of a son of śva-phalka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pepiśācakam. plural View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pepitācakam. a frog in a well, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuruvājapeyam. a particular kind of vājapeya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lājapef. water with parched grain, rice-gruel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lapetam. Name of a demon presiding over a particular disease of children View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lapeṭikāf. Name of a place of pilgrimage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madanamukhacapeṭāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhupeyamfn. sweet to drink View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhupeyan. the drinking of sweetness (as soma- etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhvatantracapeṭāpradīpam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahādevavājapeyinm. Name of learned man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāgaṇapatikalpepañcatriṃśatpīṭhikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahākāśabhairavakalpeśarabheśvarakavaca(k-) n. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahopekṣāf. great forgiveness, Sukh, i View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
makhāpetam. Name of a rākṣasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māṃsamayīpeśīf. a piece of flesh View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māṃsapeśīf. a piece of flesh Name of the fetus from the 8th till the 14th day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māṃsapeśīf. a muscle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṅgalopepsāf. the desire for prosperity or happiness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṇipuṣpeśvaram. Name of one of śiva-'s attendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
manopetamfn. destitute of understanding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānuṣopetamfn. joined with human effort View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māṣapeṣamind. (with piṣ-) as if beans were ground View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛjopetamfn. equals mṛjā-vat-, Pancar. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛṇālikāpelavamfn. as delicate as a lotus-fibre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mukhacapeṭikāf. a slap on the face, box on the ear (see durjanam-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nairapekṣamfn. = (prob. wrong reading for) nir-ap- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nairapekṣan. wrong reading for next. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nairapekṣyan. disregard, indifference View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nairapekṣyan. complete independence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
netrapeyamfn. to be drunk in or enjoyed by the eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirapekṣamf(ā-)n. regardless of. indifferent to, independent of (locative case or compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirapekṣamf(ā-)n. desireless, careless, indifferent, disinterested etc. (also -ka- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirapekṣā f. () disregard, indifference, independence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirapekṣamfn. disregarded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirapekṣamind. regardlessly, accidentally View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirapekṣatā f. () disregard, indifference, independence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirapekṣatvan. () disregard, indifference, independence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirapekṣinmfn. indifferent, independent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirapekṣitamfn. regardless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirapekṣyamfn. not to be regarded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirupekṣamfn. not neglectful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirupekṣamfn. free from trick or fraud View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirvyapekṣamf(ā-)n. disregarding, indifferent to (locative case or compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣpeṣam. rubbing together, grinding, striking or clashing and the sound produced by it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣpeṣaṇan. idem or 'mfn. put down with a stamp, .' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣpeṣavatmfn. put down with a stamp, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣpeyamfn. being drunk out or up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nṛpecchāf. the royal pleasure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nṛpeśasmfn. formed by or consisting of men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nṛpeṣṭam. a kind of onion (see nṛpa-priya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyāyopetamfn. rightly admitted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramukhacapeṭikāf. "slap in the face of another", Name of a controversial work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāripelan. equals pari-pelava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paripelavamf(ā-)n. very fine or small, very delicate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paripelavan. (also -pela- ) Cyperus Rotundus or a similar kind of grass View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryanuyojyopekṣaṇan. paryanuyojya
pāṣaṇḍacapeṭikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṣaṇḍamukhacapeṭikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṣaṇḍāsyacapeṭikāf. equals da-mukha-capetikā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṭīkṣepeṇapraviśto enter in a hurry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalāpekṣāf. regard to results, expectation of consequences View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalāpetamfn. deprived of fruit, unproductive, unfertile View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalopetamfn. possessing fruit, yielding fruit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṣṭapeṣam. "grinding flour or what is already ground", useless labour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṣṭapeṣaṇan. idem or 'm. "grinding flour or what is already ground", useless labour ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṣṭapeṣaṇanyāyam. the rule of grinding flour (yena-,on the principle of"grinding the ground" id est labouring uselessly) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prajñāpeta(jñāp-) mfn. destitute of wisdom or knowledge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇayapeśalamfn. soft through affection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇayopetamfn. possessing candour, frank, open View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇayopetamind. praṇaya
prāṇopetamfn. living, alive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratāpendram. Name of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratipeṣamind. rubbing or pressing against each other (uraḥ-pratipeṣaṃ yudhyante-,they fight breast to breast) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātipeyam. idem or 'm. patronymic of balhika- ' (also plural) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyupe( -upa-i-) P. -upaiti-, to approach again, recommence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyupekṣitamfn. ( īkṣ-) disregarded, neglected View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyupeyamfn. to be met or dealt with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāyopetamfn. idem or 'mfn. equals prāyopaviṣṭa- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṇyapāpekṣitṛmfn. seeing good and bad deeds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
purupeśa mfn. multiform View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
purupeśasmfn. multiform View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvakalpeind. in former times View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvakalpeṣuind. in former times View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvapeyan. precedence in drinking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvapeyan. precedence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣpapeśalamfn. as delicate, as flower View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣpeṣum. equals pa-bāṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rajjupeḍāf. a rope-basket View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rakṣāpekṣakam. (kṣāp-) a doorkeeper or porter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rakṣāpekṣakam. a guard of the women's apartments View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rakṣāpekṣakam. a catamite View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rakṣāpekṣakam. an actor, mime View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raṇāpetamfn. flying away from battle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
randhrāpekṣinmfn. watching for weak places, spying out holes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛtapeśasmfn. having a perfect shape ([ ]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛtapeśasmfn. (looking like water ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛtapeyam. a particular ekāha- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rūkṣapeṣamind. ( piṣ-,to pound) having pounded (anything) into dry powder (without adding butter or any liquid) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rūpaguṇopetamfn. endowed with it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pendriyan. the organ which perceives form and colour, the eye View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśvaram. Name of a god View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśvarīf. Name of a goddess, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktyapekṣamfn. having regard or reference to ability, according to power or capacity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samabhyupe( -upa-- 5 i-) P. upaiti-, to go very near, approach View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samabhyupeyamfn. to be gone or approached or followed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samabhyupeyan. equals sam-abhyupagamana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śambhuvākyapelāśāṭīkāf. Name of an astronomy work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃhananabalopetamfn. endowed with firmness and strength View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃhananopetamfn. endowed with strength or muscularity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samopetamfn. (for sam-ā-up-,5. i-) furnished or endowed with, possessed of (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampeṣam. gaRa saṃtāpādi- (see sāmpeṣika-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampeṣa ṣaṇa- See sam-piṣ-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampeṣaṇan. the act of grinding together, pounding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃśayopetamfn. possessed of uncertainty, doubtful, uncertain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupe( -upa-- 5 i-) -upaīti-, to come together, meet (as friends or foes) ; to have sexual intercourse ; to come near, approach, go to (accusative) ; to have recourse to, apply to, ; to attain, incur, partake of ; to occur, happen, appear ; to come upon, befall ; to be absorbed in
samupekṣ( -upa-īkṣ-) A1. -upekṣate- (Epic also ti-), to look completely over or beyond, take no notice of, disregard, neglect, abandon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupekṣakamfn. overlooking, not heeding, disregarding. neglecting (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupepsumfn. (fr. Desiderative of sam-upa-āp-) wishing to obtain, striving after (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupetamfn. come together etc. etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupetamfn. come, arrived View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupetamfn. furnished or supplied with, abounding in (instrumental case or compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saniṣpeṣamind. with a clashing sound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pekṣamfn. having regard or respect to (locative case or accusative with prati-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pekṣamfn. requiring or presupposing anything, dependent on (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pekṣatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pekṣatvan. dependence on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāpeṭam. or n. (?) floating reed etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāpeyam. Name of a teacher (plural his school) gaRa śaunakādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāpeyinm. Name of a disciple of yājñavalkya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāpeyinm. the followers of śāpeya- gaRa śaunakādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarpeṣṭan. "loved by snakes", the Sandal tree or wood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarpeśvaram. "serpent-king", Name of vāsuki- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarpeśvaram. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarpetarajanam. plural the serpent-race and the itara-jana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvaguṇopetamfn. endowed with every good quality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvākaraprabhākaravaropetam. Name of particular samādhi-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvāpekṣamfn. relating to every particular View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvasvāmiguṇopetamfn. endowed with all the qualities of a master View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṣpeyam. Name of a teacher gaRa śaunakādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṣpeyinm. plural the school of śāṣpeya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śataprāyaścittavājapeyaName of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saubhāgyalakṣmīkalpeśyāmalāmbāstotran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāvitrīpeñjaran. Name of work (see gāyatrī-p-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
savyapekṣamfn. requiring, presupposing, dependent on or connected with (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śilāpeṣam. a grindstone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śilāpeṣam. grinding with a storax View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtivākyāpetam. Name of work (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtyapetamfn. departed from memory, forgotten View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtyapetamfn. illegal, unjust View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapeyam. a sacrifice in which soma- is drunk, soma- libation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapeyan. a draught of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrautavājapeyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrotrāpetamfn. equals śrotra-hīna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrotrapeyamfn. to be drunk in by the ear or attentively heard, worth hearing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stūpeśāṇam. on (varia lectio sūp-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śucipeśas(ś/uci-.) mfn. brightly adorned View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukhāpetamfn. gradually deprived of pleasure (as opp. to sukhād-ap-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukhapeyamfn. easy or pleasant to drink View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuktipeśīf. "pearl-envelope", a pearl-oyster View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
supeśam. fine woven cloth or texture of any kind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
supeśamfn. equals -p/eśas- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
supeśalamf(ā-)n. very beautiful or handsome View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pesāṇam. (locative case of sūpa-+ ś-) ( stūpe-ś-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
supeśasmfn. well adorned, beautiful, handsome View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuṣkapeṣamind. (with piṣ-) to grind anything in a dry state (id est without any fluid) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sutapeyan. the drinking of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svalpecchamfn. having few wishes, unpretentious, unassuming ( svalpecchatā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svalpecchatāf. svalpeccha
svayamupetamfn. approached of one's own accord View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
syapeṭārikā(?) f. a kind of game View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tadapekṣamfn. having regard to that View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tailapeṣamind. (with piṣ-,to grind) so as to extract oil ("with oil"Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
talaniṣpeṣam. striking (of the bow-string) against the tala- (-tra-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
talpe locative case of pa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
talpejamf(ā-)n. produced on a bed or couch View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
talpeśayamf(-)n. equals paś/īvan- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāmbūlapeṭikāf. equals -karaṅka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśvaratīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taraṇipeṭakam. a baling-vessel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilapejam. barren sesamum Va1rtt. 6. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
traiviṣṭapeyam. plural idem or 'm. plural "inhabitants of tri-v- ", the gods ' , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaspeyan. the racer's or conqueror's drinking, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaspeyaSee 2. t/ur-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ucchrayopetamfn. possessing height, high, lofty, elevated. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udapeṣam(ind.p. of piṣ-) ind. by grinding in water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upakūpeind. near a well View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upāyopeyameans and object, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upe( upa-i-) P. -eti-, to go or come or step near, approach, betake one's self to, arrive at, meet with, turn towards etc. ; to approach (any work), undergo, set about, undertake, perform (a sacrifice), devote one's self to ; to come near to, reach, obtain, enter into any state, fall into ; undergo, suffer etc. ; to approach sexually ; ; to approach a teacher, become a pupil ; to occur, be present, make one's appearance ; to happen, fall to one's share, befall, incur etc. ; to join (in singing) ; to regard as, admit, acknowledge commentator or commentary on ; to comprehend, understand : Intensive A1. (1. plural -īmahe-) to implore (a god) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upe( upa-ā-i-) P. -eti-, to approach, come near or towards ; to apply to, implore ; (with śaraṇam-) to approach for protection ; to approach sexually ; to reach, obtain, strive to obtain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upeḍakīyaor upaiḍakīya- Nom. (fr. eḍaka-) P. upeḍakīyati- or upai-, to behave as a sheep towards on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣ( upa-īkṣ-) A1. -īkṣate- (rarely P.) to look at or on ; to perceive, notice ; to wait on patiently, expect ; to overlook, disregard, neglect, abandon etc. ; to connive at, grant a respite to, allow ; to regard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣam. Name of a son of śva-phalka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣāf. overlooking, disregard, negligence, indifference, contempt, abandonment etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣāf. endurance, patience View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣāf. dissent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣāf. trick, deceit (as one of the minor expedients in war) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣāf. regard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣakamfn. overlooking, disregarding, indifferent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣaṇan. the act of disregarding, overlooking, disregard, indifference, connivance etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣaṇan. not doing, omission View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣaṇan. care, circumspection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣaṇīyamfn. to be overlooked or disregarded, unworthy of regard, any object of indifference commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣitamfn. looked at View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣitamfn. overlooked, disregarded etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣitavyamfn. to be looked at View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣitavyamfn. to be regarded or paid attention to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣitavyamfn. to be overlooked or disregarded, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣyamfn. idem or 'mfn. to be overlooked or disregarded, ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣya ind.p. having looked at, looking at View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣyaoverlooking etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upen( upa-in-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upendhyamfn. ( indh-), to be kindled or inflamed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upendram. "younger brother of indra-", Name of viṣṇu- or kṛṣṇa- (born subsequently to indra-, especially as son of aditi-, either as āditya- or in the dwarf avatāra-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upendram. Name of a nāga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upendrāf. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upendrabalam. Name of various men. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upendradattam. Name of various men. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upendraguptam. Name of various men. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upendraśaktim. Name of a merchant.
upendravajrāf. Name of a metre (consisting of four lines of eleven instants each). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upenitamfn. driven in, pressed or pushed in View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upepsāf. desire to obtain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upepsāf. See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upe( upa-- 1 iṣ-) P. to tend towards, endeavour to attain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upe( upa-īṣ-) P. (infinitive mood upeṣ/e- ) to rush upon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upe( upa-ā-īṣ-) A1. (1. sg. īṣe-) to approach (with prayers), apply to, implore View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upe( upa-eṣ-;for the saṃdhi-See ) P. upeṣati-, to creep near, approach creeping View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upeṣatm. Name of an evil demon ([ ]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upetamfn. one who has come near or approached, one who has betaken himself to, approached (for protection), arrived at, abiding in etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upetamfn. one who has obtained or entered into any state or condition, one who has undertaken (exempli gratia, 'for example' a vow) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upetamfn. come to, fallen to the share of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upetamfn. (a pupil) who has approached (a teacher) , initiated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upetamfn. accompanied by, endowed with, furnished with, having, possessing etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upetamfn. one who has approached (a woman sexually) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upetapūrvamfn. one who has gone to a teacher before, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upetavyamfn. to be set about or commenced commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upetif. approach, approximation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upetṛmfn. one who sets about or undertakes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upetyamfn. to be set about or commenced ; 4. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upetya ind.p. having approached, approaching etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upeyamfn. to be set about or undertaken, a thing undertaken View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upeyamfn. to be approached sexually View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upeyamfn. to be striven after or aimed at, that which is aimed at, aim commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upeyivasmfn. one who has approached etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uraspeśamfn. wearing ornaments on the breast, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāgapetamfn. destitute of speech, dumb View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaidhavyalakṣaṇopef. a girl who has the marks of widowhood (unfit for marriage) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeśas(v/āja--) mfn. adorned with precious gifts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyamn. "the drink of strength or of battle", Name of one of the seven forms of the soma--sacrifice (offered by kings or Brahmans aspiring to the highest position, and preceding the rāja--su1ya and the bṛhaspati--sava) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyamn. Name of the 6th book of the śatapatha-brāhmaṇa- in the kāṇva-śākhā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyam. equals vājapeye bhavo mantraḥ-, or vājapeyasya vyākhyānaṃ kalpaḥ- on vArttika 5 etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyādisaṃśayanirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyagraham. a ladleful taken at the vājapeya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyahautran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyahotṛsaptakan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyakamfn. belonging or relating to the vāja-peya- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyakḷptif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyakratorudgātṛprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyapaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyarahasyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyarājasūyamn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyārcikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyārcikaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyasāmann. Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyasarvapṛṣṭhāptoryāmaudgātraprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyastomaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyaudgātraprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyayājinm. one who offers (or has offered) a vājapeya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyayūpam. the sacrificial post at the vājapeya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyikamf(ī-)n. idem or 'mfn. belonging or relating to the vāja-peya- sacrifice ' (see Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyinmfn. one who has performed a vāja-peya- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vajraniṣpeṣam. the clashing or concussion of thunderclouds, a thunder-clap. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vanopetamfn. one who has retired to the forest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varāṅgarūpopetamfn. handsome and well shaped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varāṅgarūpopetamfn. (according to to others, "shaped like an elephant") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varṇāpetamfn. equals varṇa-hīna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varnopetamfn. having tribe or caste View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varpeyum. Name of a son of raudrāśva-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāspeyam. the tree nāga-kesara- (commonly called Nagesar) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastrapeśīf. a fringe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastrapeṭāf. a clothes-basket View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikalpenaind. vikalpa
viniṣpeṣam. grinding to pieces, rubbing together, friction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrapeśas(vīr/a--) m. forming the ornament of heroes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrapeśas r/a--; according to to some,"consisting in male children" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣṭapeind. viṣṭapa
viśvapeśas(viśv/a--) mfn. containing all adornment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṭapeṭakam. or n. a multitude of rogues View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vittapeṭā f. money receptacle, a purse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vittapeṭīf. money receptacle, a purse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vividhopetamfn. (equals vi-vidha-above) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vratopetamfn. one who has undertaken a religious vow, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding vr/ā- (according to to some also,"a woman, especially a wanton or lustful woman"). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyape( -apa-- 5 i-) P. -apaiti-, to go apart or asunder, separate ; to cease, disappear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapekṣ( -apa-īkṣ-) A1. -apeṣate-, to look about, look for, regard, mind, pay regard or attention to (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapekṣa(in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') See apekṣā- below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapekṣāf. regard, consideration (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' regarding, minding) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapekṣāf. looking for, expectation (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' expectant of) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapekṣāf. requisite, supposition (See sa-vy-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapekṣāf. application, use View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapekṣāf. (in gram.) rection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapekṣāf. the mutual application of two rules View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapekṣakamfn. mindful of (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapekṣaṇan. looking for, expectation, regard, consideration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapekṣaṇiyamfn. to be looked for or expected View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapekṣitamfn. looked for, expected View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapekṣitamfn. mutually expected or looked to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapekṣitamfn. mutually related View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapekṣitamfn. employed, applied
vyapekṣyamfn. to be looked for or expected View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapetamfn. gone apart or asunder, separated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapetamfn. passed away, disappeared, ceased etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapetamfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') opposed to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapetabhayamfn. free from fear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapetabhīmfn. free from fear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapetadhairyamfn. one who has abandoned firmness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapetaghṛṇamfn. devoid of compassion, pitiless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapetaharṣamfn. devoid of joy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapetakalmaṣamfn. having taint or guilt removed, free from sin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapetamadamatsaramfn. free from infatuation and selfishness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyupe( -upa-- 3 i-) P. -upaiti-, to extend or be distributed (intr.) in or over, kath-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajñāpetam. "destitute of sacrifice", Name of a rākṣasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajñapuruṣavājapeyayājikārikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajñopeta wrong reading for yajñ/ap/eta-.
yantrapeṣaṇīf. a hand-mill View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
96 results
     
pecakaḥ पेचकः 1 An owl; अनेन भिन्नाञ्जनमेचकेन कृत्वाक्षिलेपं खलु पेचकेन Rām. Ch.6.29. -2 The root of an elephant's tail; Mātaṅga L.3.2;6.1,13. -3 A couch, bed. -4 A cloud. -5 A louse. -6 A shelter on a street; Mānasāra.
pecakin पेचकिन् m., पेचिलः An elephant.
peḍā पेडा A large bag.
pel पेल् 1 P., 1 U. (पेलति, पेलयति-ते) 1 To go or move. -2 To shake or tremble.
pe पेला f. (= वाद्यविशेषः) A kind of musical instrument; भेरी-पेलोरु-झल्लरी-भीमरवम् Bk.13.45.
pelaḥ पेलः 1 Going. -2 A small part. -लम्, -पेलकः A testicle.
pelava पेलव a. 1 Delicate, fine, soft, tender; धनुषः पेलवपुष्प- पत्रिणः Ku.4.29;5.4;7.65. -2 Lean, thin, slender; कथमातपे गमिष्यसि परिबाधापेलवैरङ्गैः Ś.3.21. -Comp. -क्षौमम् fine linen.
peliḥ पेलिः पेलिन् m. A horse.
pelinī पेलिनी Cabbage (Mar. कोबी); Gīrvāṇa.
pe पेण् 1 P. (पेणति) 1 To go. -2 To grind. -3 To embrace.
peṇḍaḥ पेण्डः A way, road.
peñjūṣaḥ पेञ्जूषः The wax of the ear; see पिञ्जूषः.
pera पेर (रो) जम् A Turquoise gem.
pe पेरा A kind of musical instrument (= खरमुखाकारवाद्यम्); पूर्णाः पेराश्च सस्वनुः Bk.14.3; पेराश्चापूरयन् कलाः 17.7.
peruḥ पेरुः 1 The sun. -2 Fire. -3 The ocean. -4 The gold-mountain (Meru).
pe पेष् 1 Ā. (पेषते) To resolve upon, strive diligently for.
pes पेस् 1 P. (पेसति) To go, move.
peśa पेश (ष स) ल a. 1 Soft, tender, delicate; पुष्पचाप- मिव पेशलं स्मरः R.11.45;9.4; Me.95 (v. l.) -2 Thin, slender (as waist); एषा त्वया पेशलमध्ययापि घटाम्बु- संवर्धितबालचूता R.13.34. -3 Lovely, beautiful, charming, good; न मृणालानि विचारपेशलानि Bv.2.2. -4 Expert, clever, skilful; किं वा तत्त्वविवेकपेशलमतिर्योगीश्वरः को$पि किम् Bh.3.56; एकोन्मीलनपेशलः U.6.34. -5 Crafty, fraudulent. -6 Decorated, adorned. -लम् Beauty, charm, loveliness. -लः N. of Viṣṇu.
peśaḥ पेशः 1 Form, shape. -2 Ornament, decoration; अवदद् वदतां श्रेष्ठो वाचः पेशैर्विमोहयन् Bhāg.1.29.17.
peṣaḥ पेषः [पिष्-घञ्] Grinding, pounding, crushing; पादे- नासृक्पङ्कपेषं पिपेष Śi.18.45.
peṣaka पेषक a. 1 Pounding, grinding. -2 One who pounds, grinds.
peśana पेशन a. 1 Ved. Well-formed. -2 Adorned.
peṣaṇam पेषणम् [पिष्-ल्युट्] 1 Pounding, pulverizing. -2 A threshing-floor. -3 A stone and muller, any grinding or pounding apparatus.
peṣaṇiḥ पेषणिः f., -पेषणी, -पेषाकः A mill-stone, a grindstone, muller; Ms.3.68.
peśas पेशस् n. 1 Form. -2 Gold; यथा पेशस्कारी पेशसो मात्रा- मपादायान्यन्नवतरं कल्याणतरं रूपं तनुते Bṛi. Up.4.4.4. -3 Brightness, lustre. -4 Decoration, ornament. -Comp. -कारिन् 1 a wasp; निक्षिप्य चाप्यधाच्छैलैः पेशस्कारीव कीटकम् Bhāg.1.67.7. -2 a goldsmith; Bṛi. Up.4.4.4. -कृत् m. 1 the hand; अन्धावमीषां पौराणां निर्वाक्पेशस्कृतावुभौ Bhāg. 4.25.54. -2 a wasp; Bhāg.7.1.28.
peśiḥ पेशिः शी f. 1 A piece of flesh. -2 A ball or mass of flesh; दशाहेन तु कर्कन्धूः पेश्यण्डं वा ततः परम् Bhāg.3.31.2. -3 An egg. -4 A muscle; पञ्च पेशीशतानि च (भवन्ति) Y.3.1. -5 The foetus shortly after conception. -6 A bud on the point of blowing. -7 The thunderbolt of Indra (said to be m. also). -8 A kind of musical instrument; Mb.6.43.8. -9 The shell or rind (of fruits). -1 A sheath, scabbard. -11 A shoe. -12 Whey. -13 Well-cooked rice; L. D. B. -14 A case, covering; मुक्तभिः सलिलरयास्तशुक्तिपेशी Śi.8.9. -Comp. -कोशः, -षः a bird's egg.
peṣiḥ पेषिः A thunderbolt.
peśikā पेशिका A shell, rind.
peṣīkṛ पेषीकृ To crush, pound; इत्युक्तमात्रे मां हत्वा पेषीकृत्वा Mb.1.76.38.
pesvara पेस्वर a. 1 Going, moving. -2 Destructive.
peṭaḥ पेटः (-टा, -टी -टम् also) 1 A bag, basket -2 A chest. -3 A multitude. -4 A retinue, train. -टः The open hand with the fingers extended.
peṭakaḥ पेटकः कम् 1 A basket, box, bag. -2 A multitude, quantity.
peṭakaḥ पेटकः पेटाकः A bag, basket, box.
peṭikā पेटिका पेटी A small bag, a basket.
peṭṭālaḥ पेट्टालः लम् (also पेट्टालकः, -कम्) A basket, box; इति पेट्टालकमर्पयति Māl.6.18/19.
petvam पेत्वम् 1 Nectar. -2 Ghee. -त्वः A ram (?).
pev पेव् 1 Ā. 1 To serve. -2 To enjoy. -3 To approach.
peya पेय a. [पा-पाने कर्मणि यत्] 1 Drinkable, fit to be quaffed or drunk; भोज्यं पेयं तथा चूष्यं लेह्यं खाद्यं च चर्वणम् । निष्पेयं चैव भक्ष्यं स्यादन्नमष्टविधं स्मृतम् Rājanighaṇṭu. -2 Sapid. -यम् 1 Water. -2 Milk. -3 A drink, beverage. -या 1 Rice-gruel. -2 A drink mixed with a small quantity of boiled rice.
peyuḥ पेयुः 1 The sea. -2 Fire. -3 The sun.
peyūṣaḥ पेयूषः षम् 1 Nectar. -2 The milk of a cow that has calved within seven days; सप्तरात्रप्रसूतायाः क्षीरं पेयूष- मुच्यते Hārāvalī; Ms.5.6. -3 Fresh ghee.
adhipeṣaṇam अधिपेषणम् [पिष्-ल्युट्] Pounding or grinding upon, serving to pound or grind upon.
anapekṣa अनपेक्ष क्षिन् a. [न. त.] 1 Regardless. -2 Careless, not minding or heeding, indifferent. -3 Independent or irrespective (of another), not requiring any other thing. -4 Impartial. -5 Irrelevant, unconnected, unconcerned. -क्षा Disregard, indifference, carelessness. -क्षम् adv. Without regard to, independently or irrespectively of; carelessly, accidentally; ˚त्वात् since it has no reference to.
anapeta अनपेत a. 1 Not gone off, not past; अनपेतकालं कथयां- बभूवुः Ki.6.3 without loss of time, without delay. -2 Not deviating from, faithful to, not leaving (with abl.); अर्थादनपेतम् अर्थ्यम् Sk.; धर्मपथ्यर्थन्यायादनपेते P.IV. 4.92. See अपेत also. -3 Not devoid of, possessed of; ऐश्वर्यादनपेतमीश्वरमयं लोको$र्थतः सेवते Mu.1.14.
anupeta अनुपेत a. 1 Not endowed with. -2 Not invested with the sacred thread (अनुपनीत). यं प्रव्रजन्तमनुपेतमपेत- कृत्यम् Bhāg.1.2.2.
ape अपे [अप-इ] 2 P. 1 To go away, depart, withdraw, retire, run away, escape; अपोहि begone, avaunt, away, hence, get you gone; to disappear, vanish, pass away; die or perish also; धर्मश्चापैति Ms.1.82; हृदयात्प्र- त्यादेशव्यलीकमपैतु ते Ś.7.24; रम्या नवद्युतिरपैति न शाद्वलेभ्यः Ki.5.37 does not leave. -2 To be wanting, be omitted, be deprived of, be free from. -3 To start (Ved.)
apeta अपेत p. p. Gone away, disappeared; अपेतयुद्धाभिनिवेश- सौम्यः Śi.3.1. -2 Departing or deviating from, swerving from, contrary (with abl.); अर्थादनपेतं अर्थ्यम् P.IV. 4.92 Sk. (धर्मपथ्यर्थन्यायादनपेते); स़्मृत्यपेतादिकारिणः Y.2.4. -3 Free from, devoid of, deprived of (with abl. or in comp.); सुखादपेतः Sk.; उदवहदनवद्यां तामवद्यादपेतः R.7.7 faultless; ˚ भीः Ms.7.197; भर्तर्यपेततमसि प्रभुता तवैव Ś.7.32 free from (mental) darkness. -Comp. -राक्षसी N. of a plant, Ocimum Sanctum (तुलसी) (अस्याः राक्षसतुल्यपापा- दिहरणात्तन्नामत्वम्).
apekṣ अपेक्ष् [अप्-ईक्ष्] 1 A. 1 To look round or about for something, to look or hope for, expect. -2 To wait for, await; सज्जो रथो भर्तुर्विजयप्रस्थानमपेक्षते Ś.2 awaits; क्षणमपे- क्षस्व U.7; K.84; न कालमपेक्षते स्नेहः Mk.7. न स्वयं दैवमा- दत्ते पुरुषार्थमपेक्षते H.Pr.3; पादेन नापैक्षत सुन्दरीणां संपर्कमासि- ञ्जितनूपुरेण Ku.3.26. -3 To require, want, stand in need of; wish or desire for; शब्दार्थौ सत्कविरिव द्वयं विद्वान- पेक्षते Śi.2.86; न शालेः स्तम्बकरिता वप्तुर्गुणमपेक्षते Mu.1.3; प्रभुता रमणेषु योषितां न हि भावस्खलितान्यपेक्षते V.4.26; Ku.3. 18; Pt.2.26. -4 To have regard to, look to, have in view, have an eye to; किमपेक्ष्य फलं पयोधरान् ध्वनतः प्रार्थयते मृगाधिपः Ki.2.21; यतः शब्दो$यं व्यञ्जकत्वे$र्थान्तरमपेक्षते S. D. -5 To take into account or consideration, consider, think of, respect, care for; उपकृतमपि नापेक्षते K.35,197, 257,315; नूनमस्यायमनपेक्षितास्मदवस्थो व्यापारः Māl.9; अनले- ष्विष्टवान् कस्मान्न त्वया$पेक्षितः पिता Bk.6.128; Ś.5.16, Ms. 8.39; with न not to like, not to care for; अनपेक्षितराज- राजम् Mu.3.18; तदानपेक्ष्य स्वशरीरमार्दवम् Ku.5.18.
apekṣā अपेक्षा क्षणम् 1 Expectation, hope, desire. -2 Need, requirement, necessity; निरपेक्ष without hope or need, regardless of; निर्विशङ्का निरुद्विग्ना निरपेक्षा च भैथिली Rām.6. 47.9. द्रोणस्तथोक्तः कर्णेन सापेक्षः फाल्गुनं प्रति (उवाच) Mb.12. 2.12. सापेक्षत्वे$पि गमकत्वात्समासः; अनपेक्षः शुचिर्दक्षः Bg.12.16; or in comp.; स्फुलिङ्गावस्थया वह्निरेधापेक्ष इव स्थितः Ś.7.15 awaiting kindling. -3 Consideration, reference, regard, with the obj. in loc. case; more usually in comp.; मध्यभङ्गानपेक्षम् Ratn.1.15 regardless of; the instr. and sometimes loc. of this word frequently occur in comp. meaning 'with reference to', 'out of regard for', 'with a view to', 'for the sake of'; सा$पि कार्यकरणापेक्षया क्षुरमेकमा- दाय तस्याभिमुखं प्रेषयामास Pt.1; नियमापेक्षया R.1.94; वृषला- पेक्षया Mu.1; पौरजनापेक्षया 2 out of regard for; किमकौश- लादुत प्रयोजनापेक्षया 3 with a view to gain some object; प्रथमसुकृतापेक्षया Me.17; दण़्डं शक्त्यपेक्षम् Y.2.26, in proportion to, in accordance with; अत्र व्यङ्ग्यं गुणीभूतं तदपेक्षया वाच्यस्यैव चमत्कारिकत्वात् K. P.1 as compared with it. -4 Connection, relation, dependence as of cause with effect or of individual with species; शरीरसाधनापेक्षं नित्यं यत्कर्म तद्यमः Ak. -5 Care, attention, heed; देशा$पेक्षास्तथा यूयं यातादायाङ्गुलीयकम् Bk.7.49. -6 respect, reference. -7 (In gram.) = आकाङ्क्षा q. v. -Comp. -बुद्धिः (In Vaiśeṣika Phil.) the distinguishing perception by which we apprehend 'this is one', 'this is one' &c. and which gives rise to the notion of duality; see Sarva. chap. 1 where अपेक्षाबुद्धिः = विनाशकविनाशप्रति- योगिनी बुद्धिः; cf. Bhāshā P. द्वित्वादयः परार्धान्ता अपेक्षाबुद्धिजा मताः । अनेकाश्रयपर्याप्ता एते तु परिकीर्तिताः ॥ अपेक्षाबुद्धिनाशाच्च नाश- स्तेषां निरूपितः । 17-8. अपेक्ष्य apēkṣya क्षितव्य kṣitavya क्षणीय kṣaṇīya अपेक्ष्य क्षितव्य क्षणीय pot. p. To be desired, wanted, hoped for, expected, considered &c.; desirable.
apekṣita अपेक्षित p. p. Looked for, expected; wanted, desired, required; considered, referred to &c. -तम् Desire, wish; regard, reference, consideration.
apekṣin अपेक्षिन् a. Hoping, waiting for, wishing or desiring for, wanting; considering, caring; usually as last member of comp.; गुरुर्विधिबलापेक्षी R.15.85; प्रयोजनापेक्षितया Ku.3.1 according to.
apeya अपेय a. Not fit to be drunk; अपेयेषु तडागेषु बहुतरमुदकं भवति Mk.2.
apehi अपेहि (Imper. 2nd sing.) Used as the first member of some compounds (belonging to the class मयूर- व्यंसकादि P.II.1.72); ˚करा, ˚द्वितीया, ˚प्रकसा, ˚वाणिजा, ˚स्वागता where it has the sense of 'excluding', 'expelling', 'refusing admission to'; e. g. ˚वाणिजा a ceremony where merchants are excluded; so ˚द्वितीया &c. -Comp. -वाता N. of a plant which expels wind. अपोगण्डः apōgaṇḍḥ अपौगण्ड apaugaṇḍa अपोगण्डः अपौगण्ड [अ-पोगण्डः, or अपसि (बैध) कर्मणि गण्डः त्याज्यः Tv.] 1 Having a limb too many or too few (redundant or deficient). -2 Not under 16 years of age; बाल आषोडशाद्वर्षात्पोगण़्डश्चापि संज्ञितः । Nārada; अजडश्चेदपौगण्डो विषये चास्य भुज्यते । Ms.8.148; पोगण्डः पञ्चमा- दब्दादर्वाक् च दशमाब्दतः । -3 A child or infant (किशोर, शिशु). -4 Very timid; -5 Wrinkled, flaccid. -6 One past 16.
abhyupe अभ्युपे 2. P. [˚उप-इ] 1 To go near, approach, arrive, enter; व्यतीतकालस्त्वहमभ्युपेतः R.5.14,16.22; त्रिरह्नो$ भ्युपयन्नपः Ms.11.259 entering the water i. e. bathing; Y.3.3. -2 To go to or enter a particular state, attain to; सत्यं न तद्यच्छलमभ्युपैति H.3.54 so ब्राह्मणतां, वैश्यतां, सखित्वम् &c. -3 To agree, (to do something), accept, promise, undertake; मन्दायन्ते न खलु सुहृदामभ्युपेतार्थकृत्याः Me.4. अस्यै दास्यमभ्युपेतं मया Dk.44,55,89,138,159. -4 To admit, grant, own, acknowledge, Śi.11.67; श्रुत्यैव च तर्कस्याभ्युपेतत्वात् Ś. B.; Dk.45. -5 To approve, agree with, assent to. -6 To obey, submit to, be faithful to; विरोध्य मोहात्पुनरभ्युपेयुषाम् Ki.18.42.
abhyupetya अभ्युपेत्य ind. Having approached; having aggreed or promised. -Comp. -अशुश्रूषा one of the 18 titles of Hindu law, breach of contract or engagement between master and servant (where the servant does not work having agreed to do so). अभ्युषः abhyuṣḥ अभ्यूषः abhyūṣḥ अभ्योषः abhyōṣḥ अभ्युषः अभ्यूषः अभ्योषः [अभितः उ-ऊ-ष्यते अग्निना दह्यते, उ ऊ-ष् बाहु˚ क] 1 A sort of cake or bread (Mar. पोळी or रोटी) (अर्धस्विन्नयवादेर्घृतादिना भर्जितयवादेर्वा घृतपक्वान्नस्य 'पोळी' इति ख्यातस्य नाम). -2 Half parched food (in general). अभ्यु (-भ्यू) ष्य, -षीय, अभ्योष्य, अभ्योषीय a. Belonging to, consisting of, or fit for, the above cake.
āpekṣika आपेक्षिक a. (-की f.) [अपेक्षा-ठक्] Raising expectations.
utpekṣ उत्पेक्ष् 1 Ā. [उत्प्र-ईक्ष्] 1 To look up to; Pt.1. to expect; K.35,229; to anticipate, see in prospect; उत्प्रेक्षमाणा जघनाभिघातम् Mu.2. -2 To see, perceive, behold -3 To guess, conjecture; भगवति किमुत्प्रेक्षसे कुतस्त्यो$यमिति U.4,6; K.67.121,198-9. -4 To believe, fancy; K.18; Ve.2.1; उत्प्रेक्षामो वयं तावन्मतिमन्तं बिभीषणम् Rām. -5 To remember, think of; तदुत्प्रेक्ष्योत्प्रेक्ष्य प्रियसखि गतांस्तांश्च दिवसान् Amaru.43; U.6.37. -6 To transfer (with loc.). -7 To illustrate by a supposed simile; see उत्प्रेक्षा below.
upe उपे 2 P. [उप-इ] 1 To approach, come near, arrive at, reach (a place, person &c.); परमं साम्यमुपैति Muṇḍ. Up.3.1.3. लतामुपेत्य Ś.1; so राजानम्, दुर्गम् &c. योगी परं स्थानमुपैति चाद्यम् Bg.8.28,1.15,9.28. -2 To go to (a master), become a pupil. उपेत्य पप्रच्छ Praśna. Up.1.2; 6.1. -3 To have intercourse with (a woman), cohabit; वाच्यश्चानुपयन् पतिः Ms.9.4. -4 To under go, perform, undertake, practise; तपः, सत्रम् &c. -5 To go to or pass into any state; योगम् R.16.84; भेदम् Ku.2.4; to fall into (misfortune &c.); क्षयम्, मत्युम्, सुखम्, दुःखम्, निद्राम् &c. -6 To obtain, attain to; तस्य प्रिया ज्ञातयः सुकृतमुपयन्ति Kauṣ. Up.1.1; उपैति शस्यं परिणामरम्यताम् Ki.4.22. -7 To incur, be present at. -8 To fall to one's lot or share, befall; उद्योगिनं पुरुषसिंहमुपैति लक्ष्मीः Pt.1.361; Bg.6.27. -9 To consider as, admit, acknowledge.
upeta उपेत p. p. 1 Come near, approached, arrived at; लोकाश्च वो मयोपेता देवा अप्यनुमन्वते Bhāg.1.23.32. -2 Present. -3 Endowed with, possessed of, having; with instr. or in comp.; पुत्रमेवंगुणोपेतं चक्रवर्तिनवाप्नुहि Ś.1.12. -4 Blockaded. -5 Fallen into. -6 Approached for sexual gratification.
upetiḥ उपेतिः f. Arrival, approach.
upetṛ उपेतृ a. 1 Approaching near to. -2 Contriving, one who uses expedients; Ms.7.215.
upeya उपेय pot. p. 1 To be gone to or approached. -2 To be effected by means; उपायदर्शने M.1. -3 Assailable. -4 To be sought; Ms.7.215. -5 To be obtained. -6 To be approached sexually; -यः A thing to be obtained; अवरः श्रद्धयोपेत उपेयान्विन्दते$ञ्जसा Bhāg.4.18.4.
upeyivas उपेयिवस् a. (उप इण् क्वसु P.III.2.19) One who has gone near उपेयिवांसि कर्तारः पुरीमाजातशात्रवीम् Śi.2.114.
upekṣ उपेक्ष् 1 Ā. 1 To neglect, overlook, disregard, connive at; किमात्मनिर्वादकथामुपेक्षे R.14.34; उपेक्षते यः श्लघ- लम्बिनीर्जटाः Ku.5.47. -2 To let escape or let go; नोपेक्षेत क्षणमपि राजा साहसिकं नरम् Ms.8.344. -3 To quit, abandon. -4 To despise, slight. -5 To notice, consider, have regard to; एवमुच्चावचानर्थान् प्राहुः ते उपेक्षितव्याः Nir. -6 To look at, regard, perceive; प्रासादस्था हपुपैक्षत Nala.22.5.
upekṣaka उपेक्षक a. 1 Disregarding, neglecting. -2 Patient, enduring.
upekṣaṇam उपेक्षणम् = उपेक्षा.
upekṣaṇīya उपेक्षणीय a. To be overlooked, disregarded; object of indifference
upekṣā उपेक्षा 1 Overlooking, disregard, neglect. -2 Indifference, contempt, disdain; कुर्यामुपेक्षां हतजीविते$स्मिन् R.14.65. -3 Leaving, quitting. -4 Endurance, patience. -5 Dissent. -6 Neglect, trick or deceit (one of the 7 expedients in war). -7 A sort of भावना in Yoga, q. v. -8 Regard, consideration.
upeḍakīy उपेडकीय् Den. P. (उप-एडक) To behave as a sheep towards; Kāśikā on Pāṇini VI.1.94.
upenita उपेनित a. Driven or pressed in. Śat. Br.
upendraḥ उपेन्द्रः [उपगत इन्द्रं अनुजत्वात्] N. of Viṣṇu or Kṛiṣṇa as the younger brother of Indra in his 5th or dwarf incarnation; see इन्द्र; उपेन्द्रवज्रादपि दारुणो$सि Gīt.5; यदुपेन्द्रस्त्वमतीन्द्र एव सः Śi.16.7. -Comp. वज्रा f. N. of a metre; see App. -अपत्यम् Madana, God of love. ... उद्भटोपेन्द्रापत्यपराक्रमैकनिधयो भद्राणि संतन्वते Chola Champu P.27, verse 61.
aupendra औपेन्द्र a. Belonging to Upendra; नरेन्द्रैरौपेन्द्रं वपुरथ विशद्धाम वीक्षांबभूवे Śi.2.79.
peya कापेय a. Belonging or peculiar to a monkey; कच्चिन्न खलु कापेयी सेव्यते चलचित्तता Rām.6.127.23; Mv.5.63. -यम् monkey tricks; P.V.1.127. -कापेयम् [कपेर्भावः कर्म वा ढक्] 1 The monkey species. -2 Monkey-like behaviour, monkey tricks. एतदप्यस्य कापेयं यदर्कमुपतिष्ठति Mbh. on P.I.3.25. -3 N. of a sage, the son of कपिः शौनकः कापेयः Ch. Up.4.3.7.
kāśyapeyaḥ काश्यपेयः 1 An epithet of the twelve Ādityas. -2 Of the sun. -3 Garuḍa. -4 Dāruka; सारथेस्तु रथस्थस्य काश्यपेयस्य विस्मिताः Mb.7.147.55. -5 Gods and demons.
capeṭaḥ चपेटः 1 The palm of the hand with the fingers extended. -2 A blow with the open hand; तत्तस्याः स पिता राजा चपेटं कुपितो ददौ Ks.66.139.
capeṭā चपेटा चपेटिका A blow with the open hand; खण्डिकोपाध्यायः शिष्याय चपेटिकां ददाति Mbh.; चपेटापाटनातिथिम् K. P.
capeṭī चपेटी f. The sixth day in the bright half of the month Bhādrapada; Skanda P.
cāmpeyaḥ चाम्पेयः 1 The Champaka tree. -2 The Nāgakesara tree. -यम् 1 Filament, especially of a lotus flower. -2 Gold. -3 The Dhattura plant; m. (also in the last two senses).
cāmpeyakam चाम्पेयकम् A stamen or filament.
nairapekṣyam नैरपेक्ष्यम् Disregard, indifference.
paripelava परिपेलव a. Very delicate or fine, excessively tender; स्फीतमध्यपरिपेलवं कलम् Bṛi. S. -वम् A kind of fragrant grass (Mar. नागरमोथा).
vāspeyaḥ वास्पेयः The tree called नागकेशर.
viniṣpeṣaḥ विनिष्पेषः Bruising, crushing, grinding.
vyape व्यपे 2 P. 1 To depart or deviate from, be free from; व्यपेतमदमत्सरः Y.1.268; स्मृत्याचारव्यपेतेन मार्गेण 2.5. -2 To go away, separate, part asunder; समेत्य च व्यपेयाताम् H.4.69; Ms.9.142;11.98.
vyapeta व्यपेत p. p. 1 Separated, severed. -2 Gone away, departed; oft. in comp.; व्यपेतकल्मष, व्यपेतभी, व्यपेतहर्ष &c.; व्यपेतभीः प्रीतमनाः पुनस्त्वं तदेव मे रूपमिदं प्रपश्य Bg.11.49. -3 Contrary, opposed to. -4 Immoral; मत्तया विश्लथन्नीव्या व्यपेतं निरपत्रपम् Bhāg.6.2.6. -Comp. -कल्मष a. free from sin; व्यपेतकल्मषो नित्यं ब्रह्मलोके महीयते Ms.4.26.
vyapekṣ व्यपेक्ष् 1 Ā. 1 To mind, care for, regard; न व्यपैक्षत समुत्सुकाः प्रजाः R.19.6. -2 To expect.
vyapekṣa व्यपेक्ष a. 1 Expecting, expectant. -2 Eager, attentive. -3 Regarding, minding. -4 Disregarding, indifferent (निरपेक्ष); त्वयि धर्मव्यपेक्षे तु किं स्याद्धर्मपथे स्थितम् Rām.2.45.26.
vyapekṣaka व्यपेक्षक a. Mindful; वैराग्यबुद्धिः सततमात्मदोषव्यपेक्षकः Mb.14.19.9.
vyapekṣā व्यपेक्षा 1 Expectation, hope. -2 Regard, consideration; अथ काश्चिदजव्यपेक्षया गमयित्वौ समदर्शनः समाः R.8.24. -3 Mutual relation, inter-dependence. -4 Mutual regard. -5 Application. -6 (In gram.) The mutual application of two rules.
vyapekṣaṇam व्यपेक्षणम् Expecting, expectation.
vyapekṣita व्यपेक्षित p. p. 1 Hoped, expected. -2 Regarded, minded. -3 Mutually connected. -4 Employed, applied, used.
samupe समुपे 2 P. 1 To get, obtain. -2 To assemble, meet. -3 To attack, assail. -4 To go to, reach. -5 To fall to the lot of. -6 To undergo, suffer.
samupeta समुपेत p. p. 1 Come together, assembled, collected. -2 Arrived at. -3 Furnished or endowed with, possessed of. -4 Inhabited by.
samupekṣaka समुपेक्षक a. Disregarding, neglecting.
saṃpeṣaṇam संपेषणम् Rubbing together, pounding.
savyapekṣa सव्यपेक्ष a. Connected with, dependent on; स्नेहश्च निमित्तसव्यपेक्षश्चेति विप्रतिषिद्धमेतत् Māl.1; U.6.
pekṣa सापेक्ष a. 1 Having regard to, dependent on, (usually in comp.). -2 Favourable, partial; सुकेशं प्रति सापेक्षः प्राह देवगणान् प्रभुः Rām.7.6.9.
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pepiśat pépiś-at, pr. pt. int. thickly painting, x. 127, 7 [piś paint].
supeśas su-péśas, a. (Bv.) well-adorned, ii. 35, 1 [péśas, n. ornament].
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pecaka m. owl; root of an elephant's tail.
peḍā f. basket.
pelava a. soft, tender, delicate; too delicate for (--°ree;): -pushpa-pattrin, a. hav ing delicate flowers as arrows.
peru a. [√ 2. pri] passing through; leading through, delivering.
peṣa a. (î) crushing, grinding (--°ree;); m. id. (--°ree; with object or instrument); -aka, m., -ikâ, f. crusher, grinder (--°ree;); -ana, n. crushing, grinding: -m yâ, be crushed; -anî, f. grindstone; -tri, m.crusher, grinder; -tra, n. bone; -ya, fp. to be ground to (--°ree;).
peśa m. [√ pis] ornament.
peśala a. artistically fashioned, decorated; beautiful, charming, lovely; tender; refined; skilful, dexterous, clever, ingenious; n. beauty, charm: -tva, n. dexterity, skill; -½aksha, a. lovely-eyed: -tâ, f. abst. n.
peśana a. (î) well-formed; decorated, beautiful.
peśas n. form, figure; artistic figure, ornament, embroidery; embroidered garment.
peśaskārin m. wasp; -kâr&isharp;, f. female embroiderer; -krit, m. hand (as a fashioner); wasp.
peśī f. lump of flesh or meat; muscle; kind of drum.
peṭa m. (?), â, î, f. basket, casket.
peṭaka m. n., ikâ, f. little basket, casket; n. multitude, company, flock: -m -kri, band themselves together.
peṭṭāla n. (?) basket: -ka, n. (?) id.
petva m. ram; wether.
peya fp. to be drunk or imbibed; drinkable; that can be tasted; delectable to (e. g. the ear); m. libation; n. drinking, draught (--°ree;, V.); drink.
peyūṣa m. or n. (?) cow's biestings; nectar.
anapeta pp. not removed from, not diverging from (ab.).
anapekṣin a. disregarding (g.).
anapekṣita pp. disregarded.
anapekṣā f. disregard; careless ness; independence.
anapekṣamāṇa pr. pt. pay ing no regard to (ac.).
anapekṣam ad. without regard to (--°ree;).
anapekṣa a. regardless; inde pendent; -tva, n. independence.
anupeta pp. who has not yet gone to his teacher; -pûrva, a. id.
anupekṣaṇa a. not neglecting; not hvg. the consent of (in.); -tva, n. abst. n.
apeta pp. √ i; -prâna, a. deceased; -bhî, a. fearless.
apekṣya fp. to be regarded.
apekṣin a. regarding; waiting for.
apekṣita pp. intentional; n. purpose, business; -tâ, f. expectation; -tva, n. requisiteness.
apekṣā f. looking about; attention, consideration, regard; expectation; require ment: in. with regard to, in comparison with.
apelava a. not tender, rude.
apeya fp. undrinkable; forbidden to be drunk.
alpecchu a. of moderate wishes; -½itara, a. great, considerable: -tva, n. -ness.
asṛkpaṅkapeṣam abs.w. √ pish, pound to a bloody pulp; -pâta, m. track of blood; flow of blood.
upeyivas pt. pf. √ i, having gone to.
upeya fp. (√ i) that is to be under taken; to be approached (carnally).
upendra m. ep. of Vishnu (sub-Indra); -vagrâ, f. a metre.
upeta pp. endued: -pûrva, a. pre viously apprenticed to a teacher.
upekṣaka a. indifferent; -ana, n. disregard; indifference; indulgence, toler ance; -â, f. disregard, indifference; neglect; -ya, fp. to be disregarded or overlooked.
upāyopeya n. means and end.
aupendra a. belonging to Vishnu.
kāryakaraṇāpekṣā f. view to carrying out one's design; -kartri, m. promoter of the cause of (g.); -kârana, n. a special object as a cause, special reason: -tas, ad. from special motives, -tva, n. being effect and cause; -kâla, m. time for action; -kintaka, m. manager of a business.
kāryopekṣā f. neglect of of ficial duty; -½uparodha, m. interruption of business.
kṣapeśa m. moon.
gopendra m. chief of herdsmen, ep. of Krishna; -½îsa, m. id.
capeṭa m. slap; â, î, f. id.
cāmpeya m. prince of Kampâ.
puṣpeṣu m. (flower-arrowed), Kâma.
pratyupeya fp. to be met or treated with (in.); -½urasam, ad. against or upon the breast; -½usha, m., -½ushas, n. day break; -½ûrdhvam, ad. upwards, above (ac.); -½ûsha, m. or n. (?) dawn, daybreak; -½ûshas, n. id.; -½ûha, m. hindrance, impediment, obstacle: -kârin, a. obstructing; -½ûhana, n. suspension, cessation.
pendriya n. organ perceiving form and colour, eye; -½ukkaya, m. collection of beautiful forms; -½audârya-guna½upeta, pp. endowed with the qualities of beauty and nobility.
śāpeṭa m. or n. sedge etc. washed ashore (S., very rare).
pekṣa a. paying regard to (lc., prati); requiring, dependent on (--°ree;): -tva, n. dependence: e&zip;pi gamakatvât samâ sah, the compound holds, even though part of it is in construction with a word outside of it, because it readily makes its meaning understood (referring to the theory of the Hindu grammarians that the words in a compound should be so connected in construc tion as to form a whole of their own and should therefore not govern anything outside the compound, as in actual literature they often do).
sarpeśvara m. lord of the serpents (Vâsuki).
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pedu is the name in the Rigveda of a protágǒ of the Aśvins, who gave him, in order, as it seems, to replace- a bad steed, a mythical horse, hence called Paidva, which probably repre­sents the horse of the sun.
peruka occurs in an obscure verse of the Rigveda as the name of a patron of the poet.
peśas Denotes in the Rigveda and later an embroidered garment such as a female dancer would wear. The fondness of the Indians for such raiment is noted by Megasthenes and by Arrian, who refer to their iσθψ κατάστικτος. So in one passage a garment (vastra) is calledpeśana, with which Roth happily compares the Roman vestis coloribus intexta. The making of such garments was a regular occupation of women, as is indicated by the Peśas-kārī, the ‘ female embroiderer,’ figuring in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘ human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda, though the commentator on the Taittirlya Brāhmana interprets the word as ‘ wife of a maker of gold.’ Pischel, however, thinks that Peśas never means anything but colour or form.
peśitṛ Is the name of one of the victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda. The sense is quite uncertain. The word is rendered by the St. Petersburg Dictionary and by Weber as ‘one who cuts in pieces,’ a ‘carver,’ but Sāyana thinks that it means one who causes an enmity which has been lulled to rest to break out again.
petva Is found twice in the Atharvaveda. In the first passage reference is made to its vāja, which Zimmer argues can only mean ‘strength,’ ‘swiftness,’ though naturally the sense of ‘ male power ’ would seem more appropriate in a spell intended to remove lack of virility. In the second passage the Petva is mentioned as overcoming the horse (see Ubhayādant), a miracle which has a parallel in the Rigveda, where the Petva overcomes the female lion. The animal also occurs in the list of victims at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda Samhitās, and occasionally elsewhere. It appears to be the ‘ram’ or the ‘wether,’ the latter being the sense given to it by the commentator on the Taittirīya Samhitā. But there is no conclusive evidence in favour of this meaning, while on the whole the passage of the Atharvaveda, in which vāja is found, accords best with the sense of ‘ ram.’ Hopkins, however, renders the word as ‘ goat,’ though for what reason is not clear. Whether it is connected in any way with Pitva or Pidva is quite uncertain.
peya (descendant of Kapi ’). The Kāpeyas are men­tioned as priests of Citraratha in the Kāthaka Samhitā and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. See also Saunaka.
vājapeya Is the name of a ceremony which, according to the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa and later authorities, is only per­formed by a Brahmin or a Kṣatriya. The same Brāhmaṇa insists that this sacrifice is superior to the Rājasūya, but the consensus of other authorities assigns to it merely the place of a preliminary to the Bphaspatisava in the case of a priest, and to the Rājasūya in the case of a king, while the śatapatha is compelled to identify the Bṛhaspatisava with the Vājapeya. The essential ceremony is a chariot race in which the sacrificer is victorious. There is evidence in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra® showing that once the festival was one which any Aryan could perform. Hillebrandt, indeed, goes so far as to compare it with the Olympic games; but there is hardly much real ground for this: the rite seems to have been developed round a primitive habit of chariot racing, transformed into a ceremony which by sympathetic magic secures the success of the sacrificer. In fact Eggeling seems correct in holding that the Vājapeya was a preliminary rite performed by a Brahmin prior to his formal installation as a Purohita, or by a king prior to his consecration. The Kuru Vājapeya was specially well known.
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peravaḥ stha Mś.4.3.11. See preravaḥ, and cf. Apś.15.9.8.
peruṃ tuñjānā patyeva jāyā TS.3.1.11.8d. See eruṃ.
perum asyasy arjuni RV.5.84.2d; TS.2.2.12.3d.
perur indrāya pinvate TA.3.11.7c.
peśasvatī tantunā saṃvayantī (KSṭB. saṃvyayantī) MS.3.11.1c: 140.7; KS.38.6c; TB.2.6.8.3c. See tantuṃ tataṃ peśasā.
peṣī bibharṣi mahiṣī jajāna RV.5.2.2b; JB.3.96b.
peśo na śukram (KSṭB. śuklam) asitaṃ vasāte VS.19.89d; MS.3.11.9d: 154.5; KS.38.3d; TB.2.6.4.4d.
peśo maryā apeśase RV.1.6.3b; AVś.20.26.6b; 47.12b; 69.11b; SV.2.820b; VS.29.37b; TS.7.4.20.1b; MS.3.16.3b: 185.8; KSA.4.9b.
petvas teṣām ubhayādam (read -dan ?) AVś.5.19.2c. See yetvas.
anūpe gomān gobhir akṣāḥ # RV.9.107.9a; SV.2.348a; N.5.3.
apīpemeha vajriṇam # RV.8.66.7b; AVś.20.97.1b; SV.1.272b; 2.1041b.
apejate śūro asteva śatrūn # RV.6.64.3c.
apeta etu nirṛtiḥ # Kauś.97.7,8a. P: apeta etu Vait.38.1. See apāsmad, and cf. apeto nirṛtiṃ.
apeta naśyatād itaḥ # HG.2.3.7c; ApMB.2.13.10c.
apeta vīta vi ca sarpatātaḥ # RV.10.14.9a; AVś.18.1.55a; VS.12.45a; TS.4.2.4.1a; MS.2.7.11a: 89.2; 3.2.3: 18.1; KS.16.11a; 20.1; śB.7.1.1.2; TB.1.2.1.16a; TA.1.27.5a; 6.6.1a; AG.4.2.10. Ps: apeta vīta śś.4.14.7; Vait.28.24; Kś.17.1.3; Apś.5.9.1; 16.14.1; Mś.6.1.5.1; apeta TS.5.2.3.1 (bis); Kauś.80.42.
apetaḥ śapathaṃ jahi # TB.3.10.8.1b.
apetetaḥ sadānvāḥ # AVP.5.1.5a.
apeteto apsarasaḥ # AVP.12.8.1a.
apeto apacitvarīḥ # AVP.1.21.5a.
apeto jaṅgiḍāmatim # AVś.19.34.3c; AVP.11.3.3c.
apeto janyaṃ bhayam # KB.9.4a; śś.5.13.3a. See apa janyaṃ.
apeto nirṛtiṃ hatha # TA.1.28.1b. Cf. under apāsmad.
apeto yantu paṇayaḥ # VS.35.1a; śB.13.8.2.3a. P: apeto yantu Kś.21.3.32.
apeto rakṣasāṃ bhāga eṣaḥ # Kauś.130.2b.
apeto vāyo (AVP. vāyuḥ) savitā ca duṣkṛtam # AVś.4.25.4a; AVP.4.34.6a.
apetv asya grīvābhyaḥ # AVP.1.21.5c.
aped aghāni mṛjmahe # TA.6.1.2b.
aped asya gṛhād ayat # AVP.5.1.1d.
aped u hāsate tamaḥ # RV.10.127.3c. Cf. apeyaṃ.
aped eṣa dhvasmāyati # RV.8.66.15c.
apendra dviṣato manaḥ # RV.10.152.5a; AVś.1.21.4a; AVP.2.88.5a; TS.3.5.8.1a; 9.2; Apś.12.7.7. P: apendra śG.6.5.6.
apendra prāco maghavann amitrān # AVś.20.125.1a; GB.2.6.4,12; Vait.32.13. Designated as sukīrti GB.2.6.8; Vait.27.24; 33.12. See apa prāca.
apemaṃ jīvā arudhan gṛhebhyaḥ # AVś.18.2.27a. P: apemam Kauś.80.18.
apemāṃ mātrāṃ mimīmahe # AVś.18.2.40a.
apeyaṃ rātry uchatu # AVś.2.8.2a. P: apeyam Kauś.26.42. Cf. aped u, and apochantī.
apehi tvaṃ paribādha # SMB.2.5.7a (GG.4.6.5).
apehi nirāla # AVś.6.16.3d.
apehi no gṛhebhyaḥ # AVP.5.1.2a.
apehi manasas pate # RV.10.164.1a; AVś.20.96.23a; śG.1.4.2. P: apehi KhG.4.1.22; Rvidh.4.20.1. Cf. BṛhD.8.67. See paro 'pehi etc.
apehi vatsatantyāḥ # AVP.5.1.2b.
apehy arir asy arir vā asi # AVś.7.88.1. P: apehi Kauś.29.6.
asaṃtāpe abhiśriyau # AVś.8.2.14b.
asaṃtāpe sutapasā huve vām (AVś. sutapasau huve 'ham) # AVś.4.26.3a; AVP.4.36.6a.
āmapeṣāṃ āmapātre papātha # AVP.5.36.5b.
ālumpet sruco agnaye # AVś.12.4.34b.
udānarūpe me tarpaya (VārG. tarpayāmi) # MG.1.9.25; VārG.12.2.
udānarūpe me pāhi # KS.5.5; 8.13; GB.2.1.7; Vait.3.20; Lś.4.11.21; Mś.1.4.2.12. See next.
upec chivena cakṣuṣā # śś.8.11.14a.
upeḍānā (śś. -lānā) iha no adya gacha # Aś.2.14.31b; śś.1.17.19b.
upeta śamitāraḥ # KS.30.8a,9a.
upedaṃ savanaṃ sutam # RV.1.16.5b; 21.4b; 6.60.9b; SV.2.343b; JB.3.90b.
upedam upaparcanam # RV.6.28.8a; TB.2.8.8.12a; Lś.3.3.4a. See upeho-.
uped ahaṃ dhanadām apratītam # RV.1.33.2a.
uped dadāti na svaṃ muṣāyati # RV.6.28.2b; AVś.4.21.2b; TB.2.8.8.11b.
upendra tava vīrye (AVś. vīryam) # RV.6.28.8d; AVś.9.4.23d; TB.2.8.8.12d; Lś.3.3.4d.
upendro vīryaṃ dadau # AVś.19.34.8d; AVP.11.3.8d.
upemaṃ yajñam ā vahāta indram # RV.3.35.2d.
upem agmann ṛṣayaḥ sapta viprāḥ # RV.9.92.2d.
upemaṃ cārum adhvaram # RV.5.71.1c.
upem asṛkṣi vājayur vacasyām # RV.2.35.1a; MS.4.12.4a: 187.17; KS.12.15a; Apś.16.7.4a. P: upem asṛkṣi Mś.5.2.1.29; 6.1.3.3 (7). Cf. BṛhD.4.90.
upem asthur joṣṭāra iva vasvaḥ # RV.4.41.9c.
upemāṃ suṣṭutiṃ mama # RV.8.5.30c; 8.6d; MS.4.10.2c: 147.14; Aś.3.12.27c; śś.3.19.16c; Apś.9.9.3c.
upem ā yāta manasā juṣāṇāḥ # RV.1.171.2c.
upe daivaṃ me dāyam # AB.7.17.6c; śś.15.25c.
upeyāṃ tava putratām # AB.7.17.6d,7d; śś.15.25d (bis).
upelānā etc. # see upeḍānā etc.
upeva divi dhāvamānam # RV.8.3.21d.
upeṣantam udumbalam # AVś.8.6.17c.
upehi viśvadha # ā.4.14.
upehopaparcana # AVś.9.4.23a. See upedam upa-.
upopen nu maghavan bhūya (MS. bhūyā) in nu te # RV.8.51 (Vāl.3).7c; SV.1.300c; VS.3.34c; 8.2c; TS.1.4.22.1c; 5.6.4c; MS.1.3.26c: 39.2; 1.5.5: 73.4; KS.4.10c; 7.2c,4; śB.2.3.4.38; 4.3.5.10c. P: upa KS.7.5.
ṛdūpe cid ṛdūvṛdhā # RV.8.77.11d; N.6.33d.
kalpetāṃ dyāvāpṛthivī # AVP.3.23.4a; VS.13.25a; 14.6a,15a,16a,27a; 15.57a; TS.4.4.11.1; MS.1.6.2a: 89.4; 2.8.12a (bis): 116.4,12; 3.3.3: 35.18; KS.7.10a (bis),14a; śB.8.7.1.6; TB.1.2.1.18a; Apś.5.20.4; Mś.1.5.5.18.
kaśyapenābhṛtaṃ sahaḥ # AVP.7.5.8d.
kaśyapevāṃsā # MS.4.13.4: 203.13; KS.16.21; AB.2.6.15; TB.3.6.6.3; Aś.3.3.1; śś.5.17.5.
kāśyapenābhimantritā # TA.10.1.8b (footnote, p. 774); MahānU.4.5f.
kīlālape somapṛṣṭhāya vedhase # RV.10.91.14c; VS.20.78c; MS.3.11.4c: 146.14; KS.38.9c; TB.1.4.2.2c; Apś.19.3.2c.
kṣaperaṃs tryaham utsṛjya # Kauś.141.5b.
talpeje talpa uttuda # TA.4.39.1b.
turaspeye yo haripā avardhata # RV.10.96.8b; AVś.20.31.3b.
drāpe andhasas pate # VS.16.47a; TS.4.5.10.1a; MS.2.9.9a: 127.6; KS.17.16a; śB.9.1.1.24.
dvīpe rājño varuṇasya # KS.3.8a; Aś.3.6.24a. See apsu te rājan.
nānārūpe ahanī karṣi māyayā # AVś.13.2.3b.
nṛpeśaso vidatheṣu pra jātāḥ # RV.3.4.5c.
pebhyaś ca pratigrahaḥ (RVKh. -hāt) # RVKh.9.67.12c; TA.10.1.12d; MahānU.4.11d; BDh.2.5.8.3d.
pipeśa nākaṃ stṛbhir damūnāḥ # RV.1.68.10b.
puṣpebhyaḥ svāhā # VS.22.28; TS.7.3.19.1; 20.1; MS.3.12.7: 163.2; KSA.3.9,10.
pūrvapeyaṃ hi vāṃ hitam # RV.1.135.4e.
prāpeyaṃ sarvā ākūtīḥ (AVP. sarvām ākūtim) # AVś.3.20.9c; AVP.3.34.10c.
mamaivopehi putratām # AB.7.17.5d; śś.15.25d.
pena yūpa āpyate # VS.19.17c.
pe baddhaṃ mumucima (AVP. pramumucimā) yad annam # AVP.5.28.2d; Vait.10.17d.
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"pe" has 1048 results.
     
apekṣārelation of dependance; confer, compare अयुक्तैवं बहुनोपेक्षा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.92.
alpāpekṣaam operation requiring a smaller number of causes, which merely on that account cannot be looked upon as अन्तरङ्ग. The antaraṅga operation has its causes occurring earlier than those of another operation which is termed बहिरङ्ग confer, compare बहिरङगान्तरङश्ङ्गशब्दाभ्यां बह्वपेक्षत्वाल्पापेक्षत्वयोः शब्दमर्यादयाsलाभाच्च । तथा सति असिद्धं बह्वपेक्षमल्पापेक्ष इत्येव वदेत् ॥ Par.Śek. Pari. 50.
opperṭ[Gustav Oppert 1836-1908 ]a German scholar of Sanskrit who edited the Śabdānuśāsana of Śākaṭāyana.
parasparavyapekṣāmutual expectancy possessed by two words, which is called सामर्थ्र्य in grammar. Such an expectancy is necessary between the two or more words which form a compound: confer, compare परस्परव्यपेक्षां सामर्थ्र्यमेके P.II.1.1, V.4; confer, compare also इह राज्ञ: पुरुष इत्युक्ते राजा पुरुषमपेक्षते ममायमिति पुरुषोपि राजानमपेक्षते अहृमस्य इति | M.Bh. om II.1.1.
pejataddhita affix. affix added to the word तिल optionally with the affix पिञ्ज; e. g. तिलपेजः. See पिञ्ज.
pedubhaṭṭaa grammarian.who has written a treatise named औणादिकपदार्णव on the Unadi sutras.
bahvapekṣaliterally depending on many; the word is used in the sense of depending on many causal factors ( निमित्तानि ) and given as the definition of a kind of बहिरङ्ग by some grammarians; confer, compare अल्पापेक्षमन्तरङ्गं बह्वपेक्षं बहिरङ्गम् . This kind of अन्तरङ्गबहिरङ्गत्व, cited by Kaiyata is, however, disapproved by Nagesabhatta; confer, compare बहुिरङ्गान्तरङ्गाशब्दाभ्यां बह्वपेक्षत्वाल्पापेक्षत्वयोः शब्दमर्यादया अलाभाच्च । तथा सति असिद्धं बह्वपेक्षमल्पापेक्षे इत्येव वदेत् । Par. Sek. on Pari. 50.
yogāpekṣaconcerning only that particular rule to which it refers. The word is many times used in connection with a deduction ( ज्ञापक ) which is not to be applied in general, but which is restricted to the functions of that rule from which the deduction is drawn; confer, compare योगोपक्षं ज्ञापकम् M.Bh. on P. I.1.23 Vart.10, P.III.1.95 Vart.2.,P.IV. 1.87 Vart. 2, confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.62 and V.1.1.
vyapekṣāmutual relationship in sense, as obtaining between two different words ( पद ) connected with each other in a sentence, as contrasted with compositeness of sense as seen in two words joined into a compound word ( समास ) ; व्यपेक्षा is given as an alternative definition of the word सामर्थ्य along with एकार्थीभाव as the other one, in the Mahabhasya: e. g. there is व्यपेक्षा between सर्पिः and पिब in the sentence सर्पिष्पिब, but not in तिष्ठतु सर्पिः पिब त्वमुद्कम्: confer, compare तथेदमपरं द्वैतं भवति एकार्थाभावो वा सामर्थ्यं स्याद् व्यपेक्षा वेति ! Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II,1.1 ; cf, also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, VIII.3 44.
vyapetahaving an intervention of ( a letter, or letters or a pada); the word is used in the same sense as व्यवाहित; confer, compare स्वापिग्रहणं व्यपेतार्यम् | व्यपेतार्थोयमारम्भः। सुष्वापयिषति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.VII.4.67.
pekṣawith an expectancy in sense; although in grammar expectancy is at the root of, and forms a sort of a connecting link for, the various kinds of relations which exist between the different words of a sentence which has to give a composite sense, yet, if a word outside a compound is connected with a word inside a compound, especially with a second or further member, the sense becomes ambiguous; and expectancy in such cases is looked upon as a fault; e. g. अप्रविष्टविषयो हि रक्षसाम् Raghu XI. When, however, in spite of the fault of expectancy the sense is clear, the compound is admissible; confer, compare यदि सविशेषणानां वृत्तिर्न वृत्तस्य वा विशेषणं न प्रयुज्यते इत्युच्यते देवदत्तस्य गुरुकुलम् देवदत्तस्य गुरुपुत्रः,अत्र वृत्तिर्न प्राप्नोति। अगुरुकुलपुत्रादीनामिति वक्तव्यम् I Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P II.1.1 ; confer, compare also the expression सापेक्षत्वेपि गमकत्वात्समास: often used by commentators.
sāmānyāpekṣarefering only to a general thing indicated, and not to any specific instances. The word is used in connection with a Jnapana or indication drawn from the wording of a rule, which is taken to apply in general to kindred things and rarely to specific things; confer, compare इदं च सामान्यापेक्षं ज्ञापकं भावतिङोपि पूर्वमुत्पत्तेः । Pari. sek. on Pari. 50.
a(1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perfeminine. second.pluraland first and third person.singular.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अ प्रत्ययात् et cetera, and others (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 exempli gratia, for example अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. exempli gratia, for example भवति, तुदति et cetera, and others; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; exempli gratia, for example द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imperfeminine. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् confer, compare P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, et cetera, and others in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; (9) taddhita affix. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ et cetera, and others in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the inst. instrumental case. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
aḥ( : )visarga called visarjanīya in ancient works and shown in writing by two dots, one below the other, exactly of the same size, like the pair of breasts of a maiden as jocularly larly expressed by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.. confer, compare अः ( : ) इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः । कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसजर्नीयसंज्ञो भवति ( दुर्गसिंह on कातन्त्र I.1.16). विसर्ग is always a dependent letter included among the Ayogavāha letters and it is looked upon as a vowel when it forms a part of the preceding vowel; while it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into the Jihvāmūlīya or the Upadhmānīya letter.
a,k(ೱ),(ೱ)जिह्वामूलीय, represented by a sign like the वज्र in writing, as stated by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. who remarks वज्राकृतिर्वर्णो जिह्वामूलीयसंज्ञो भवति. the Jihvāmūlīya is only a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the guttural letter क् or ख् . It is looked upon as a letter (वर्ण), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. e. g. विष्णु ೱ करोति.
a,pೱ,(ೱ)Upadhmānīya represented by a sign like the temple of an elephants stated by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. who remarks "गजकुम्भाकृतिर्वर्ण उपध्मानीयसंज्ञो भवति." Kāt.I. It is a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the labial letter p ( प् ) or ph ( फ ). It is looked upon as a letter ( वर्ण ), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. अ:कार name given to the nominative case. case in the Taittiriya Prātiśākhya. cf अ:कार इति प्रथमाविभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 23.
akacaffix prescribed before the last syllable of pronouns and indeclinables without any specific sense for it (P.V.3.71) e. g. सर्वकः, उच्चकैः et cetera, and others
akathitanot mentioned by any other case-relation such as अपादान, संप्रदान and अधिकरण; stated with respect to the indirect object, governed by roots possessing two objects such as दुह्, याच् and others, which in the passive woice is put in the nominative case. The in-direct object is called akathita because in some cases there exists no other case-relation as, for example, in पौरवं गां याचते or भिक्षते, or माणवकं पन्थानं पृच्छति; while, in the other cases, the other case-relations (with the activity expressed by the verb) are wilfully suppressed or ignored although they exist, as for instance in गां दोग्धि पयः, अन्ववरुणद्धि गां व्रजम्; see अकथितं च P.1.4.51 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon.
akampitanot shaken; tremulous: said with respect to vowels in Vedic utterance, kampa being looked upon as a fault of utterance., cf अकम्पितान् । कम्पनं नाम स्वराश्रितपाठदोषः प्रायेण दाक्षिणात्यानां भवति । तमुपलक्ष्य स वर्ज्य:। R.Pr.III.31
akāryanot a grammatical positive operation: e. g. elision (लोप.) confer, compare ननु च लोप एवेत्कार्यं स्यात् । अकार्यं लोपः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.2.
akālaka(1)not limited by any time-factors for its study such as certain periods of the day or the year. (2) not characterized by any technical terms expressive of time such as adyatanī, parokṣā occurring in the ancient Prātiśākhya and grammar works. The term akalika is used by the writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti in connection with the grammar of Pāṇini. confer, compare “पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम्” Kās. on P. II.4.21 explained by the writer of the Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. as पूर्वाणि व्याकरणानि अद्यतनादिकालपरिभाषायुक्तानि तद्रहितम् ।
akṛtnot established; said of a grammatical operation which has not taken place e. g. अकृतसंधिकार्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 2.100, W. 3.84, also कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि नित्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI.4.62.
akṛtakāridoing or accomplishing what is not done or accomplished; the expression is used in connection with grammatical operations like ह्रस्वकरण or दीर्घकरण only in cases where it is necessary i, e. where already there is no hrasva or drgha confer, compare अकृतकारि खल्वपि शास्त्रमग्निवत् । तद्यथा । अग्निर्यददग्धं तद्दहति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 1.127. the rules of Grammar, like fire, are applied to places where they produce a change.
akṛtavyūhashort expression for the grammatical maxim अकृतव्यूहाः पाणिनीयाः which means "the followers of Pāṇini do not insist on the taking effect of a rule when its cause or causes disappear." See Par. śek. Par. 56.
akṛtrimanon-technical: not formed or not arrived at by grammatical operations such as the application of affixes to crude bases and so on; natural; assigned only by accident. cf the gram. maxim कृत्रिमाकृतिमयोः कृत्रिमे कार्यसंप्रत्ययः which means "in cases of doubt whether an operation refers to that expressed by the technical sense or to that which is expressed by the ordinary sense of a term, the operation refers to what is expressed by the technical sense." Par. śek. Par.9 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.28.
akṛtsna-akṛtsnāan epithet applied to the pronunciation of Veda words improperly which does not serve any useful purpose. confer, compare अकृत्स्ना अप्रयोजना इत्यर्थ: Uvaṭa on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 68.
aktadefinite, known or specified definitely. confer, compare अक्तपरिमाणानामर्थानां वाचका भवन्ति य एते संख्याशब्दाः परिमाणशब्दाश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.72.
akṣaraa letter of the alphabet, such as a (अ) or i (इ) or h (ह) or y (य्) or the like. The word was originally applied in the Prātiśākhya works to vowels (long, short as also protracted), to consonants and the ayogavāha letters which were tied down to them as their appendages. Hence अक्षर came later on to mean a syllable i. e. a vowel with a consonant or consonants preceding or following it, or without any consonant at all. confer, compare ओजा ह्रस्वाः सप्तमान्ताः स्वराणामन्ये दीर्घा उभये अक्षराणि R Pr. I 17-19 confer, compareएकाक्षरा, द्व्यक्षरा et cetera, and others The term akṣara was also applied to any letter (वर्ण), be it a vowel or a consonant, cf, the terms एकाक्षर, सन्ध्यक्षर, समानाक्षर used by Patañjali as also by the earlier writers. For the etymology of the term see Mahābhāṣya अक्षरं न क्षरं विद्यात्, अश्नोतेर्वा सरोक्षरम् । वर्णे वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 2 end.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
agnaukaravāṇinyāyaanalogy conveyed by the expression अग्नौ करवाणि implying permission to the agent to do certain other things in a sacrificial session when, as a matter of fact, he is only permitted to work as an agent at the sacrificial action ( अग्नौकरण ), by virtue of the reply ' कुरु ' to his request made in the sentence अग्नौ करवाणि. confer, compare अग्नौकरवाणिन्यायेन भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on. II.2.24.
aglopaelision of the vowel a, i,u , r or l ( अ, इ, उ, ऋ or लृ ) which prevents Sanvadbhāva confer, compare सन्वल्लघुनि चङ्परेSनग्लोपे P. VII.4.93, as also नाग्लोपिशास्वृदिताम् VII.4.2 where the elision prevents the shortening of the penultimate vowel if it is long.
aṅga(1)the crude base of a noun or a verb to which affixes are added; a technical term in Pāṇini's grammar for the crude base after which an affix is prescribed e. g. उपगु in औपगव,or कृ in करिष्यति et cetera, and others confer, compare यस्मात् प्रत्ययविधिस्तदादि प्रत्ययेSङ्गम् P.I.4.13; (2) subordinate participle. constituent part confer, compare पराङ्गवद् in सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे P. II.1.2, also विध्यङ्गभूतानां परिभाषाणां Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Par. 93.10: (3) auxiliary for an operation, e. g. अन्तरङ्ग, बहिरङ्ग et cetera, and others confer, compare अत्राङगशब्देन शब्दरूपं निमित्तमेव गृह्यते Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Par.50; (4) element of a word or of an expression confer, compare अङ्गव्यवाये चाङ्गपरः Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 190, अङ्गे च क्म्ब्यादौ R.T. 127. व्यञ्जनं स्वराङ्गम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.21.1.
aṅgavṛttaan operation prescribed in the section named aṅgādhikara, comprising the fourth quarter of the sixth book and the whole of the seventh book of Pāṇini.
aṅgādhikāraa large section of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. covering five quarters (VI.4.1 to the end of VII) in which the various operations undergone by crude bases before various affixes et cetera, and others are prescribedition
aṭ(1)token term standing for vowels and semi-vowels excepting l ( ल्) specially mentioned as not interfering with the substitution of ṇ ( ण् ) for n ( न् ) exempli gratia, for example गिरिणा, आर्येण, खर्वेण et cetera, and others Sec P.VIII.4.2; (2) augment a (अट्) with an acute accent, which is prefixed to verbal forms in the imperfect and the aorist tenses and the conditional mood. exempli gratia, for example अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् Sec P.IV.4.71; (3) augment a ( अट् ) prescribed in the case of the roots रुद्, स्वप् et cetera, and others before a Sārvadhātuka affix beginning with any consonant except y ( य्), exempli gratia, for example अरोदत्, अस्वपत्, अजक्षत्, आदत् et cetera, and others; see P.VII.3, 99, 100;(4) augment a ( अट् ) prefixed sometimes in Vedic Literature to affixes of the Vedic subjunctive (लेट्) exempli gratia, for example तारिवत्, मन्दिवत् et cetera, and others see P.III.4.94.
aḍactaddhita affix. affix अड applied in the sense of pitiable or poor to a word preceded by the word उप when the whole word after उप is dropped, e.g उपड् ( उपेन्द्रदत्त + अड् ) see. p. V. 3. 80.
aṇ(1)token term ( प्रत्याहार ) for all vowels and semivowels which, when prescribed for an operation, include all such of their sub-divisions as are caused by length, protraction accent or nasalization. cf अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.60;(2) token term for the vowels अ, इ and उ in all Pānini's rules except in the rule I.1.69 given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. e.g see ढ्रलोपे पूर्वस्य दीर्घोणः P.VI.3. 111, केऽणः P.VII.4.13. and अणोऽ प्रगृह्यस्य. P.VIII.4.57: (3) tad, affix. a ( अ ) prescribed generally in the various senses such as 'the offspring', 'dyed in,' 'belonging to' et cetera, and others except in cases where other specific affixes are prescribed cf प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् P. IV.1.83; (4) kṛ. affix a ( अ ), applied, in the sense of an agent, to a root with an antecedent word (उपपद) standing as its object. e. g. कुम्भकारः, see P.III.2.1: काण्डलावः, see P.III.3.12.
aṇuthe minimum standard of the guantity of sound, which is not perceived by the senses, being equal to one-fourth of a Mātrā; confer, compare अणोस्तु तत्प्रमाणं स्यात् मात्रा तु चतुराणवात् ॥ see T.Pr. 21.3, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1.60, A.Pr. III.65. Ṛk. tantra, however, defines अणु as half-a-mātrā. confer, compare अर्धमणु ( R.T. 1.41 ).
at(1)tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar for short अ, cf तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70; अदेङ् गुणः P.I.1.2; (2) personal ending अ for इ ( इट् ) of the Ist person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada in the Potential, P III. 4. 106; (3) caseaffix in the case of युष्मद् and अस्मद् for ablative case. singular. and plural P.VII. 1.31,32: (4) tad-affix अत् (अ) prescribed after किम् in the sense of the locative case case before which किम् is changed to कु, क्व being the taddhita affix. formation; confer, compare P. V.3.12 and VII.2.105:(5) substitute अत्(शतृ) for लट् forming the present and future participles in the Parasmaipada. active voice confer, compare लटः शतृशानचौ. P.III. 2.124 and लृटः सद्वा P. III.3.14.
atantraimplying no specific purpose: not intended to teach anything, अविवक्षित; exempli gratia, for example ह्रस्वग्रहणमतन्त्रम् Kāś and Si. Kau. on तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P.1.2.32: confer, compare also अतन्त्रं तरनिर्देशः ( the use of तरप् does not necessarily convey the sense of the comparative degree in Pāṇini's rules) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.2.33. This statement has been given as a distinct Paribhāṣa by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and Sākaṭāyana. The author of the Mahābhāṣya appears to have quoted it from the writings of Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and the earlier grammarians See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on अल्पाच्तरम् P. II.2.34.
atādrūpyātideśaconveyance of only the properties of one to another without conveying the actual form, described as the significance of antādivadbhāva. confer, compare न वा अताद्रूप्यातिदेशात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI.1.85 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 26. See ताद्रूप्यातिदेश below.
atāmpersonal affix of the third person. plural or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada in the Imperative (लोट्). confer, compare P. III.4.90.
atikramapassing over a word in the क्रमपाठ without repeating it; passing beyond, confer, compare अतिक्रम्य परिग्रहः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X.7, which means catching a word for repetition by coming back after passing over it, e. g. इन्द्राग्नी अपात् । इन्द्राग्नी इति इन्द्राग्नी । or अनु दक्षि । दक्षि दावने | दक्षीति दक्षि ।
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
ativyaktaquite distinct; used with respect to pronunciation नातिव्यक्तं न चाव्यक्तमेवं वर्णानुदीरयेत् confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVII.8.
ativyastaquite apart, used with respect to lips which are widely apart ( विश्लिष्टौ ) in the utterance of long अा and ओ; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II.12, 13.
ativyāptithe same as अतिप्रसङ्ग, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Extensive application with respect to a rule which applies to places where it should not apply. See Par. Śekh on Pari. 28, Pari. 85; also Padamañj. on Kāś. II.I.32.
atulyabalanot having the same force: not belonging to the same type out of the four types of rules viz. पर, नित्य, अन्तरङ्ग and अपवाद. confer, compare अतुल्यबलयोः स्पर्धो न भवति Jainendra Pari. 66.
atuspersonal ending of perfeminine. 1st person. dual number confer, compare परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः P. III.4.82.
atepersonal ending of present tense. 3rd per. plural substituted for झ ( अन्त ), the अ of झ ( अन्त ) being changed into ए and न being omitted: see झोन्त: (P.VII.1.3) अदभ्यस्तात् (P. VII. 1.4) and टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे (P. III. 4.79).
atyayapast happening, cf अत्ययो भूतत्वमतिक्रमः । अतीतानि हिमानि निर्हिमम् ! निःशीतम् Kāś. on P. II.1.6.
athusconjugational affix of perfeminine. 2nd person. dual Parasmaipada. substituted for the personal ending थस्, confer, compare P. III. 4.82.
adarśanaa term in ancient grammars and Prātiśākhyas meaning nonappearance of a phonetic member वर्णस्यादर्शनं लोपः (V. Pr 1. 141),explained as अनुपलब्धिः by उव्वट. Later on, the idea of non-appearance came to be associated with the idea of expectation and the definition of लोप given by Pāṇini in the words अदर्शनं लोपः (as based evidently on the Prātiśākhya definition) was explained as non-appearance of a letter or a group of letters where it was expected to have been present. See Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4 and Kaiyaṭa thereon.
adṛṣṭanot seen properly; doubtful; indistinct;said with respect to a letter which is not distinctly deciphered in the Saṁhitāpātha: exempli gratia, for example तन्नः ( R. Saṁh. I. 107. 3 ): the last letter त् of तत् is deciphered in the Pada-pātha which is given as तत्न: confer, compare अदृष्टवर्णे प्रथमे चोदकः स्यात् प्रदर्शकः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 15.
adyatanītech. term of ancient grammarians signifying in general the present time of the day in question, the occurrence of the immediate past or future events in which is generally expressed by the aorist (लुड्) or the simple future ( लृट् ); the other two corresponding tenses imperfect and first future (viz. लड् and लुट्) being used in connection with past and future events respectively, provided the events do not pertain to that day which is in question; confer, compare 'वा चाद्यतन्याम्' M.Bh. P.III.2.102 Vār.6, वादृतन्याम् P, VI.4.114. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (2) term for the tense showing immediate past time called लुङ् in Pāṇini's grammar e. g. मायोगे अद्यतनी । मा कार्षीत् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.III. 1.22, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III. 3.11.
adviyoniliterally not made up of two elements, and hence, produced with a single effort, an expression used for simple vowels ( समानाक्षर ) such as अ, इ, उ, ऋ, लृ and simple consonants क्, ख्, ग् et cetera, and others as distinguished from diphthongs ( सन्ध्यक्षर ) such as ए, ऐ, ओ, औ and conjunct consonants क्व, ध्र , et cetera, and others which appear to have been termed द्वियोनि confer, compare अपृक्तमेकाक्षरमद्वियोनि यत् R.Pr.XI.3.
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
aghikārasūtraa superintending aphorism, which gives no meaning of itself where it is mentioned, but gives its meaning in the number of aphorisms that follow: e. gthe rules प्रत्यय:, परश्च and अाद्युदात्तश्च P. III.1.1, 2, 3 or सह सुपा. P.II.1.4.
adhyāsasuperimposition : a relation between a word and its sense according to the grammarians; confer, compare Vāk. Pad. II.240. (2) appendage; confer, compare आहुस्त्वेकपदा अन्ये अध्यासानेकपातिनः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XVII.43.
anatyantagatiabsence of the verbal activity in all ways or respects incomplete activity; exempli gratia, for example छिन्नकम् not completely cut, confer, compare अनत्यन्तगतौ क्तात् P. V.4.4.
anadyatanaperiod of time not pertaining to the day in question; used in connection with past time, to express which the imperfect is generally used; also in connection with the future time, to express which the first future is generally used e gह्यः अपचत्, श्वः कर्ता et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.2.111,113; III. 3.15,135: V.3.21.
anantara(1)immediate, contiguous अव्यवहित. confer, compare हलोनन्तराः संयोगः P.1. 1.7, also गतिरनन्तरः P. VI.2.49: confer, compare अनन्तरं संयोगः V. Pr.I.48. ; (2) nearest, as compared with others of the same type; confer, compare अथवा अनन्तरा या प्राप्तिः सा प्रतिषिध्यते M.Bh. on I.1.43; confer, compare Pari. Śek. अनन्तरस्य विधिर्वा भवति प्रतिषेधो वा, which means that a prescriptive or prohibitive rule applies to the nearest and not to the distant one.Par.Śek. 61,Cān. Par.30.
anabhidhānainability to express the meaning desiredition The expression न वा अनभिधानात् frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya referring to such words or phrases as could be formed by rules of grammar or could be used according to rules but,are not found in current use recognized by learned persons or scholars; confer, compare तच्चानभिधानं यत्राप्तैरुक्तं तत्रैव, अन्यत्र तु यथालक्षणं भवत्येव Padamañj. on III. 2.1;also confer, compare अनभिधानाद् व्यधिकरणानां बहुव्रीहिर्न भविष्यति । यत्र त्वभिधानमस्ति तत्र वैयधिकरण्येपि भवत्येव समासः, कण्ठेकाल इति; Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on II. 2.24: for examples of अनभिधान, sec also M.Bh.अभिधानलक्षणाः कृत्तद्धितसमासाः अनभिधानान्न भविष्यन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.3.19. also on III. 2.1. V.5, IV.2.1. See Kāś. on III,1.22, III.3.158.
anabhinirvṛttathat which is not applied; literally(an operation or vidhi) which has not taken place or which has not been effective; confer, compare प्रसक्तस्य अनभिनिर्वृत्तस्य प्रतिषेधेन निवृत्तिः शक्या कर्तुं नानभिनिर्वृत्तस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.5; IV. 1.37. Cfeminine. also न चानभिनिर्वृत्ते बहिरङ्गे अन्तरङ्गं प्राप्नोति । तत्र निमित्तमेव बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गस्य M.Bh. on VI.4.22: VIII.3.15.
anabhyāsaa wording which does not contain any reduplicative syllable; an epithet applied to such roots as are not to be reduplicated a second time before affixes of the perfect, as they are already reduplicated; confer, compare लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य P. VI.1.8.
anarthaka(1)without any signification;literally having no meaning of themselves, id est, that ispossessing a meaning only when used in company with other words or parts of words which bear an independent sense;(the word is used generally in connection with prepositions); exempli gratia, for example अधिपरी अनर्थकौ P.1.4.93, confer, compare अनर्थान्तरवाचिनावनर्थकौ । धातुनोक्तां क्रियामाहतुः । तदविशिष्टं भवति यथा शङ्के पय: ॥ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.93; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1.3: confer, compare also अनर्थकौ अनर्थान्तरवाचिनौ Kāś. on I.4.93, explained as अनर्थान्तरवाचित्वादनर्थकावित्युक्तम् न त्वर्थाभावादिति दर्शयति by न्यासकार; (2) meaningless, purposeless: confer, compare प्रमाणभूत आचार्यो दर्भपवित्रपाणिः महता यत्नेन सूत्रं प्रणयति स्म । तत्राशक्यं वर्णेनाप्यनर्थकेन भवितुं किं पुनरियता सूत्रेण M.Bh. on I.1.1, as also सामर्थ्ययोगान्न हि किंचिदस्मिन् पश्यामि शास्त्रे यदनर्थकं स्यात् M.Bh. on P. VI.I.77. See for details M.Bh. on I.2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 12: III.1.77 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 and Kaiyaṭa and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon; (3) possessed of no sense absolutely as some nipātas केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः केचन च निरर्थकाः U1. varia lectio, another reading, on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII.9; निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P. I. 2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).12 confer, compare also जन्या इति निपातनानर्थक्यं P. IV. 4.82. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, एकागारान्निपातनानर्थक्यं P. V.1.113 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, also 114 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).1.
analvidhiopp. of अल्विधि; an operation not concerning a single letter, exempli gratia, for example स्थानिवदादेशोsनल्विधौ P.I. 1.56 and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). thereon; confer, compare स्थानिवदादेशो ह्यवर्णविधौ Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Pari.39.
anavakāśahaving no occasion or scope of application; used in connection with a rule the whole of whose province of application is covered by a general rule, and hence which becomes technically useless, unless it is allowed to set aside the general rule: confer, compare अनवकाशा हि विधयो बाधका भवन्तिrules which have no opportunity of taking effect( without setting aside other rules ) supersede those rules; M.Bh. on V.4.154, also Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on Pari. 64.
anavakāśatvaabsence of any opportunity of taking effect, scopelessness considered in the case of a particular rule, as a criterion for setting aside that general rule which deprives it of that opportunity confer, compare अनवकाशत्वं निरवकाशत्वं वा बाधकत्वे बीजम्. This अनवकाशत्व is slightly different from अपवादत्व or particular mention which is defined usually by the words सामान्यविधिरुत्सर्गः । विशेषविधिरपवादः ।
anavasthitaundetermined, indefinite; See M.Bh. quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on अनवस्थान; cf also आर्धधातुकीयाः सामान्येन भवन्ति अनवस्थितेषु प्रत्ययेषु । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; III.1.4, VII.2.10, VII.4.9. The substitutes caused by an ārdhadhātuka affix are, in fact, effected by virtue of the prospective application of the ārdhadhātuka affix before its actual application.
anākāṅkṣanot depending on another for the completion of its sense: confer, compare न यद्यनाकाङ्क्षे P. III.4.23, and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. thereon which explains अनाकाङक्षे as न विद्यते आकाङ्क्षा अपेक्षा यस्य तस्मिन्.
anānupūrvyasaṃhitāthat saṁhitā text which has an order of words in it, which is different from what obtains in the Pada-pāṭha, and which appears appropriate according to the sense intended in the passage. There are three places of such combinations of words which are not according to the succcession of words in the Pada-pāṭha, quoted in the R.Pr. शुनश्चिच्छेपं निदितं सहस्रात् Rk. Saṁ. V.2.7, नरा वा शंसं पूषणमगोह्यम् Rk. Saṁ. X. 64.3; नरा च शंसं दैव्यम् Rk. Saṁh. IX. 86. 42. confer, compare एता अनानुपूर्व्यसंहिताः । न ह्येतेषां त्रयाणां पदानुपूर्व्येण संहितास्ति Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.78.
anārṣa(1)non-vedic: not proceeding from any Ṛṣi, or Vedic Seer, confer, compare संबुद्धौ शाकल्यस्येतौ अनार्षे P. I.1.16, also Kāś. on the same: confer, compare किमिदमुपस्थितं नाम । अनार्ष इतिकरणः M.Bh.on VI.1.129: (2) pertaining to the Padapāṭha which is looked upon as अनार्ष i, e. not proceeding from any Vedic Seer; confer, compare अनार्षे इतिकरणः । स च द्व्यक्षर आद्युदात्तश्च, Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.23; confer, compare also Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. III. 1.3.
anitya(1)not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or paribhāṣā whose application is voluntary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obligatory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be usedition On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
anipātyanot necessary to be specifically or implicitly stated, as it can be brought about or accomplished in the usual way: e. g. द्वन्द्वम् । लिङ्गमशिष्यं लोकाश्रयत्वाल्लिङ्गस्य । तत्र नपुंसकत्वमनिपात्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.1.15. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.2.27 and VI. 1.207.
aniyatapuṃskawhose sex-especially whether it is a male or a female-is not definitely known from its mere sight; small insects which are so. The term क्षुद्रा in P. IV.1.131 is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as क्षुद्रा नाम अनियतपुंस्का अङ्गहीना वा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV.1.131.
anirdiṣṭārthawhose sense has not been specifically stated ; the word is used with reference to such affixes as are not prescribed in any specific sense or senses and hence as are looked upon as possessing the sense which the base after which they are prescribed has got: confer, compare अनिर्दिष्टार्थाः प्रत्ययाः स्वार्थे भवन्ति -affixes, to which no meaning has been assigned, convey the meaning of the bases to which they are added; confer, compare Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 113; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2.4, III, 2.67, III.3.19, III. 4.9, VI.1.162.
anīyarkṛt affix, termed कृत्य also forming the pot. passive voice. participle. of a root; confer, compare तव्यत्तव्यानीयरः P.III.1.96. exempli gratia, for example see the forms करणीयं, हरणीयं, the mute र् showing the acute accent on the penultimate vowel,
anuttamaother than उत्तम or the first person; confer, compare विभाषितं सोपसर्गमनुत्तमम् P. VII.1.53 and Kāśika thereon.
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.id est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
anudeśa(1)reference, mention, statement referring to a preceding element. confer, compare यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् P.I. 3.10; confer, compare आसिद्धवचनात् सिद्धमिति चेद् उत्सर्गलक्षणानामनुदेशः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.57, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3. (2) declaration, prescription : the same as अतिदेश. confer, compare स्थान्यादेशपृथक्त्वादेशे स्थानिवद् अनुदेशो गुरुवद् गुरुपुत्र इति यथा P. I.1.56 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1; (3) a grammatical operation confer, compare यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् ! समसंबन्धी विधिर्यथासंख्यं स्यात् Sid. Kau. on P.I. 8.10. See the word अनुद्देश in this sense confer, compare संख्यातानामनूद्देशो यथासंख्यम् V, Pr.I.143.
anunyāsaa commentary on न्यास (काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका by जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि). The work is believed to have been written by इन्दुमित्र. It is not available at present except in the form of references to it which are numerous especially in Siradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.
anuprayogasubsequent utterance; literally post-position as in the case of the roots कृ, भू and अम् in the periphrastic perfect forms; confer, compare आम्प्रत्ययवत् कृञोऽ नुप्रयोगस्य, P.I.3.63; यथाविध्यनुप्रयोगः पूर्वस्मिन् III.4.4.
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
anuvādarepetition of a rule already laid down or of a statement already made confer, compare प्रमाणान्तरावगतस्य अर्थस्य शब्देन संकीर्तनमात्रमनुवाद: Kāś. on II.4.3.
anuvidhioperation in conformity with what is found. The expression छन्दसि दृष्टानुविधिः is often found in the Mahābhāṣya: confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.5, I.1.6, I.1.21, III.1.9, III.1.13, VI.1.6, VI.1.77, VI.1.79, VI. 4.128,VI.4.141, VIII.2.108.
anuvṛttirepetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the subsequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intended interpretation. The word is of common use in books on Pāṇini's grammar. This recurrence is generally continuous like the stream of a river ( गङ्गास्रोतोवत् ); sometimes however, when it is not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवृत्ति. In rare cases it is taken backwards in a sūtra work from a subsequent rule to a previous rule when it is called अपकर्ष.
anuṣaṅga(1)literally attaching, affixing: augment, अनुषज्यते असौ अनुषङ्गः; (2) a term for the nasal letter attached to the following consonant which is the last, used by ancient grammarians; confer, compare अव्यात्पूर्वे मस्जेरनुषङ्गसंयेगादिलोपार्थम् confer, compare P.I.1.47 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 and M.Bh. thereon; confer, compare थफान्तानां चानुषङ्गिणाम् Kat. IV. 1.13. The term अनुषङ्ग is defined in the kātantra grammar as व्यञ्जनान्नः अनुषङ्ग. The term is applied to the nasal consonant न् preceding the last letter of a noun base or a root base; penultimate nasal of a root or noun base: Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.1.12.
anusaṃhāraindependent mention, a second time, of a thing already mentioned,for another purpose; confer, compare 'अलोन्त्यस्य' इति स्थाने विज्ञातस्यानुसंहारः P.I.1.53 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1.
antafinal, phonetically last element remaining, of course, after the mute significatory letters have been droppedition confer, compare अनुत्तरलक्षणोन्तः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.21 Vārt, 6.
antaḥkāryaliterally interior operation; an operation inside a word in its formation-stage which naturally becomes antaraṅga as contrasted with an operation depending on two complete words after their formation which is looked upon as bahiraṅga.
antaḥstha,antaḥsthāfeminine., also writen as अन्तस्थ, अन्तस्था feminine., semivowel; confer, compare अथान्तस्थाः । यिति रेिन लेिति वितिः; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII.14-15: confer, compare चतस्रोन्तस्थाः explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शोषमणामन्तः मध्ये तिष्ठन्तीति अन्तस्थाः R.Pr.I.9, also पराश्चतन्नान्तस्थाः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 8. The ancient term appears to be अन्तस्थाः feminine. used in the Prātiśākhya works. The word अन्तःस्थानाम् occurs twice in the Mahābhāṣya from which it cannot be said whether the word there is अन्तःस्थ m. or अन्तःस्था feminine. The term अन्तस्थ or अन्तस्था is explained by the commentators on Kātantra as स्वस्य स्वस्य स्थानस्य अन्ते तिष्ठन्तीति ।
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
antaraṅgabalīyastvathe strength which an antaraṅga rule or operation possesses by virtue of which it supersedes all other rules or operations,excepting an apavāda rule, when or if they occur simultaneously in the formation of a word.
antaraṅgalakṣaṇacharacterized by the nature of an antaraṅga operation which gives that rule a special strength to set aside other rules occurring together with it.
antāmaffix of the imperative 3rd person. plur. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada, substituted for the original affix झ, e. g. एधन्ताम्.
antiaffix of the present tense. 3rd person. plural Paras, substituted for the original affix झि, e. g. कुर्वन्ति, भवन्ति.
antuaffix of the imperative 3rd person. plural Paras. substituted for the original affix झि. exempli gratia, for example भवन्तु, कुर्वन्तु
anteaffix of the present tense. 3rd person. plural or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada substituted for the original affix झ, e g. एधन्ते वर्तन्ते.
anyonyasaṃśrayareciprocally dependent and hence serving no purpose; same as इतरेतराश्रय which is looked upon as a fault. cf अन्योन्यसंश्रयं त्वेतत् । स्वीकृतः शब्दः शब्दकृतं च स्त्रीत्वं M.Bh. on IV.1.3.
anvakṣarasaṃdhia combination of letters according to the order of the letters in the Alphabet; a samdhi or euphonic combination of a vowel and a consonant, called अन्वक्षर-अनुलोमसंधि where a vowel precedes a consonant; and अन्वक्षरप्रतिलोमसंधि where a consonant precedes a vowel, the consonant in that case being changed into the third of its class; एष स्य स च स्वराश्च पूर्वे भवति व्यञ्जनमुत्तरं यदेभ्यः। तेन्वक्षरसेधयेानुलोमाः प्रतिलोमाश्च विपर्यये त एव ।। R Pr. II.8.9 e. g. एष देवः, स देवः and others are instances of अन्वक्षरानुलोमसंधि where विसर्ग after the vowel is dropped; while हलव्यवाड् अग्निः is an instance of अन्वक्षरप्रतिलोमसंधि where the consonant ट् precedes the vowel अ.
anvavasargarelaxation or wide opening of the sound-producing organs as done for uttering a vowel of grave accent. confer, compare अन्ववसर्गः गात्राणां विस्तृतता Tait. Pr. XXII.10.
apavādaa special rule which sets aside the general rule; a rule forming an exception to the general rule. exempli gratia, for example आतोनुपसर्गे कः III.2.2 which is an exception of the general rule कर्मण्यण् III.2.1; confer, compare येन नाप्राप्तो यो विधिरारभ्यते स तस्य बाधको भवति, तदपवादोयं येागो भवति; Pari. Śekh. Par 57; for details see Pari. Śekh. Pari. 57-65: cf न्यायैर्मिश्रानपवादान् प्रतीयात् । न्याया उत्सर्गाः महाविधयः । अपवादा अल्पविषयाः विधय: । तानुत्सर्गेण मिश्रानेकीकृताञ् जानीयात् । अपवादविषयं मुक्त्वा उत्सर्गाः प्रवर्तन्ते इत्यर्थः । Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 23 and commentary thereon ; (2) fault; confer, compare शास्त्रापवादात् प्रतिपत्तिभेदात् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 30 on which उव्वट remarks शास्त्राणामपवादा दोषाः सन्ति पुनरुक्तता अविस्पष्टार्थता, कष्टशब्दार्थता...
apavādanyāyathe convention that a rule laying down an exception supersedes the general rule; confer, compare सिद्धं त्वपवादन्यायेन P. I.3.9 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7
apavādabalīyastcathe convention that a special rule is always stronger than the general rule.
apavādavipratiṣedhaa conflict with a special rule, which the special rule supersedes the general rule: confer, compare 'अलोन्त्यस्य' इति उत्सर्गः । तस्य 'आदेः परस्य' 'अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य' इत्यपवादौ अपवादविप्रतिषेधात्तु सर्वादेशो भविष्यति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.54 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1.
apavṛktathat which has already happened or taken place; confer, compare न्याय्या त्वेषा भूतकालता । कुतः । आद्यपवर्गात् । आदि रत्रापवृक्तः । एष च नाम न्याय्यो भूतकालो यत्र किंचिदपवृक्तं दृश्यते M.Bh. on III.2.102
apāya(1)point of departure, separation; confer, compare ध्रुवमपायेपादानम् P.I.4.24; (2) disappearance; confer, compare संनियेागशिष्टानामन्यतरापाये उभयोरप्यपायः । तद्यथा । देवदत्तयज्ञदत्ताभ्यामिदं कर्म कर्तव्यम् । देवदत्तापाये यज्ञदत्तेपि न करोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.36.
apitnot marked with the mute letter प्, A Sārvadhātuka affix not marked with mute प् is looked upon as marked with ड् and hence it prevents the guṇa or vṛddhi substitution for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate vowel if it be अ. e. g. कुरुतः तनुतः, कुर्वन्ति where no guṇa takes place for the vowel उ confer, compare सार्वधातुकमपित्. P.I.2.4.
aprayeāga(1)non-employment of a word in spite of the meaning being available: confer, compare संभावनेलमिति चेत्सिद्धाप्रयोगे P.III.3.154; (2) non-employment confer, compare उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः a standard dictum of grammar not allowing superfluous words which is given in M.Bh. on P.I.1.4 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 16 and stated in Cāndra and other grammars as a Paribhāṣā.
aprayoginnot-found in actual use among the people although mentioned in the śāstra-texts; a mute indicatory letter or letters. confer, compare अप्रयोगी इत् Sāk. I.1.5 Hem I.1.37 Jain.I.2.3 and M.Bh. Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on III.8.31.
aprāptavikalpasame as अप्राप्तविभाषा one of the three kinds of optional application of a rule; confer, compare त्रिसंशयास्तु भवन्ति प्राप्ते अप्राप्ते उभयत्र चेति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 20; optional application of a rule prescribing an operation; eg; ऊर्णोतेर्विभाषा अनुपसर्गाद्वा I.3.43. हृक्रोरन्यतरस्याम् । अभिवादयति गुरुं माणवकेन पिता । अप्राप्तविकल्पत्वातृतीयैव Kāś. on I.1.53. विभाषा सपूर्वस्य । स्थूलपतिः स्थूलपत्नी । अप्राप्तविभाषेयमयरुसंयोगत्वात् ।
aprāptavidhiprescribing an operation which otherwise cannot be had. अग्रादिष्वप्राप्तविधेः समासप्रतिषेधः P.III. 4.24 Vārt 1.
aprāpti(i)non-occurrence for nonrealization of a grammatical operation or ruleअप्रतिषेधः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8; (2) prohibition of the occurrence of a rule or operation, confer, compare अप्राप्तेर्वा । अथवानन्तरा या प्राप्तिः सा प्रतिषिध्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.I.43, I.1.63.
abāghakanot coming in the way of rules otherwise applicable; the word is used in connection with निपातन i. e. constituted or announced forms or specially formed words which are said to be अबाधक i. e. not coming in the way of forms which could be arrived at by application of the regular rules. Siradeva has laid down the Paribhāṣā अबाधकान्यपि निपातनानि भवन्ति defending the form पुरातन in spite of Pāṇini's specific mention of the word पुराण in the rule पुराणप्रोक्तेषुo IV. 3. 105.
abhaktanot-forming an integral part of another; quite independent (used in connection with augments). confer, compare किं पुनरयं पूर्वान्त आहोस्वित् परादिराहोस्विद् अभक्ताः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1. 47, 1.1.51. एवं तर्ह्यभक्तः करिष्यते M. Bh on VI.1.71, VI.1.135, and VII.2.82.
abhayanandina reputed jain Grammarian of the eighth century who wrote an extensive gloss on the जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण. The gloss is known as जैनेन्द्रव्याकरणमहावृत्ति of which वृहज्जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण appears to be another name.
abhiprāya(1)अभिप्रायसंधि a kind of euphonic combination where the nasal letter न् is dropped and the preceding vowel ( अ ) is nasalised e. g, दधन्याँ यः । स्ववाँ यातु : (2) view, purpose, intention; confer, compare तद् व्यक्तमाचार्यस्याभिप्रायो गम्येत, इदं न भवतीति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27; confer, compare also स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P.1.3.72.
abhivyādānaabsorption of a vowel when two long vowels of the same kind come together exempli gratia, for example ता आपः = तापः, अवसा आ = अवसा, the resultant vowel being pronounced specially long consisting of some more mātrā, which is evidently, a fault of pronunciation. confer, compare आदानं आरम्भः; विपुलं विशालं वा आदानं व्यादानम् । अभिव्याप्तं अभिभूतं व्यादानं अभिव्यादानम् Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 27.
abhyastarepeated, redoubled word or wording or part of a word. The term अभ्यस्त is applied to the whole doubled expression in Pāṇini's grammar, confer, compare उभे अभ्यस्तम् P. VI.1.6; (2) the six roots with जक्ष् placed at the head viz. जक्ष् , जागृ, दरिद्रा , चकास्, शास्, दीधी and वेवी which in fact are reduplicated forms of घस् , गृ, द्रा, कास् , शस् , धी and वी.
abhyāsalit, doubling or reduplication technically the word refers to the first portion of the reduplication, which is called the reduplicative syllable as opposed to the second part which is called the reduplicated syllable; confer, compare पूर्वोभ्यासः P. VI.1.4. (2) Repetition, the sccond part which is repeated; confer, compare दोऽभ्यासे(RT.165) explained as दकारः अभ्यासे लुप्यते । पटत्पटेति । द्रसद्रसेति ; (3) repeated action; confer, compare अभ्यासः पुनः पुनः करणमावृत्तिः Kāś. on P.1-3, 1.
abhyāhataomission of any sound; a fault of utterance. अम् (1)a technical brief term in Panini's grammar including vowels, semivowels, the letter ह् and nasals; (2) a significant term for the accusative case showing change or substitution or modification: confer, compare अं विकारस्य Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.28 explained as अमिति शब्दे विकारस्याख्या भवति । अमिति द्वितीय विभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् । (3) augment अ applied to the penultimate vowel of सृज् & दृश् (P. VI.1.58, 59 and VII.1.99) (4) substitute tor Ist person. singular. affix मिप्, by P.III.4.101 (5) Acc. singular. case affix अम् .
ayogavāhathe letters or phonetic elements अनुस्वार,विसर्ग,जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय and यम called so,as they are always uttered only in combination with another phonetic element or letter such as अ or the like, and never independently; confer, compare अकारादिना वर्णसमाम्नायेन संहिताः सन्तः ये वहन्ति आत्मलाभं ते अयेागवाहाः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Vāj.Pr.VIII.18. These अयोगवाह letters possess the characteristics of both, the vowels as well as consonants;confer, compareअयोगवाहानामट्सु उपदेशः कर्तव्यः णत्वं प्रयोजनम् । शर्षु जष्भावत्वे प्रयोजनम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on शिवसूत्र हयवरट्.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
arthanirdeśamention or specification of sense. confer, compare अवश्यमुत्तरार्थमर्थनिर्देशः कर्तव्यः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). IV.1.92.
ardhamātrāhalf of a mātra or 'mora'., confer, compare अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणाः Par. Śekh. Pari. 122, signifying that not a single element of utterance in Pāṇini's grammar is superfluous. In other words, the wording of the Sūtras of Pāṇini is the briefest possible, not being capable of reduction by even half a mora.
ardhavisargaa term used for the Jihvāmūliya and Upadhmāniya into which a visarga is changed when followed by the letters क्, ख, and the letters प्, फ् respectively.
ardhahrasvodāttathe acute (उदात्त) accent which becomes specially उदात्त or उदात्ततर when the vowel, which posseses it, forms the first half of a स्वरित vowel.
alakṣaṇathat which is not a proper लक्षण i. e. Sūtra; a Sūtra which does not teach definitely; a Sūtra which cannot be properly applied being ambiguous in sense. cf व्याख्यानतो विशेषप्रतिपत्तिर्नहि संदह्यादलक्षणम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. I.
aluksamāsaa compound in which the case-affixes are not droppedition The Aluk compounds are treated by Pāṇini in VI.3.I to VI.3.24.
alontyavidhian operation, which, on the strength of its being enjoined by means of the genitive case, applies to the last letter of the wording put in the genitive; confer, compare नानर्थकेलोन्त्यविधिरनभ्यासविकारे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.65, confer, compare अलोन्त्यस्य । षष्ठीनिर्दिष्टोन्त्यस्यादेशः स्यात् S.K. on P. I.1.52.
alvidhian operation prescribed with reference to one single letter; confer, compare स्थानिवदादेशोs नल्विधौ P.I.1.56.
avacanasomething which need not be specifically prescribed or stated, being already available or valid; cf तृतीयासमासे अर्थग्रहणमनर्थकं अर्थगतिर्हि अवचनात् P. II.1.30 V.1.
avāgyogavidone who is not conversant with the proper use of language: confer, compare अथ योऽवाग्योगविद् विज्ञानं तस्य शरणम्; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 1.1.1.
avilambitaname of a fault in pronouncing a word where there is the absence of a proper connection of the breath with the place of utterance; 'अविलम्बितः वर्णान्तरासंभिन्नः' Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on M.Bh I.1.1. There is the word अवलम्बित which is also used in the same sense; confer, compare ग्रस्तं निरस्तमवलम्बितं निर्हतम् ० M. Bh on I.1.1.
avivakṣita(1)not taken technically into consideration, not meant: confer, compare अविवक्षिते कर्मणि षष्ठी भवति M.Bh on II.3. 52; (2) unnecessary; superfluous; the word is especially used in connection with a word in a Sūtra which could as well be read without that word. The word अतन्त्रं is sometimes used similarly.
aviśeṣaabsence of specification; confer, compare गामादाग्रहणेष्वविशेषः M.Bh.I.1.20 Vārt 1; Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 106.
aviśeṣitanot specified, mentioned without any specific attribute; confer, compare एवमपि प्रयत्नः अविशेषितः भवति M.Bh. on I.1.9; confer, compare also Kātan. VI.1.63.
avyayībhāvaname of a compound so called on account of the words forming the compound, being similar to indeclinables: e. g. निर्मक्षिकम् , अधिहरि, यथामति, यावज्जीवम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare अनव्ययं अव्ययं भवतीत्यव्ययीभावः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.I.5. The peculiarity of the avyayībhāva compound is that the first member of the compound plays the role of the principal word; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानोऽव्ययीभावः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.6.
avyavasthāabsence of proper disposal; absence of a proper method regarding the application of a rule: confer, compare पुनर्ऋच्छिभावः पुनराडिति चक्रकमव्यवस्था प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.60 V. 5.
aśmādia class of words headed by the word अश्मन् to which the taddhita affix र is applied in the four senses specified in P.IV.2.67 to 70; exempli gratia, for example अश्मरः, ऊषरम् , नगरम् , पामरः गह्वरम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.2.80.
aśvādi(1)a class of words headed by the word अश्व to which the affix फञ्(अायन) is added in the sense of गोत्र (grandchildren et cetera, and others); exempli gratia, for exampleआश्वायनः जातायनः, औत्सायनः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.1. 110; (2) a class of words headed by the word अश्व to which the taddhita affix यत् is added in the sense of a cause of the type of a meeting or an accidental circumstance; exempli gratia, for example आश्विकम् अाश्मिकम् confer, compare P. V.1.39.
as(1)case affix of the nominative and accusative plural and the ablative and genitive singular (जस् , शस्, ङसि and ङस् ) (2) taddhita affix अस् ( असि ) added to पूर्व, अधर and अवर, by P.V.3.39: (3) compoundending अस् ( असिच् ) applied to the words प्रजा and मेधा standing at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound (P.V.4.122): (4) Uṇādi affix अस् prescribed by the rule सर्वधातुभ्योऽसुन् and subsequent rules (628-678) to form words such as मनस्,सरस् et cetera, and others(5) ending syllable अस्, with or without sense, of words in connection with which special operations are given in grammar; confer, compare P.VI.4.14; confer, compare also अनिनस्मन्ग्रहणान्यर्थवता चानर्थकेन च तदन्तविधिं प्रयोजयन्ति Par.Śek. Pari. 16.
asaṃbhavaImpossibility of occurrence (used in connection with an operation); cf नावश्यं द्विकार्ययोग एव विप्रतिषेधः । किं तर्हि । असंभवेपि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (2) impossibility of a statement, mention, act et cetera, and others confer, compare असंभवः खल्वपि अर्थादेशनस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.1.
asattva(1)absence of सत्त्व or entity; (2) other than a substance i. e. property, attribute, et cetera, and others confer, compare प्रादयः असत्त्ववचना निपातसंज्ञा भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 4.59; confer, compare also सोऽसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.44. confer, compare also चादयोऽ सत्त्वे P.I.4.57.
asarūpanot having the same outward form or appearance; e. g. the affixes अण्, अच्, ण, अट्, ञ्, and the like which are, in fact, सरूप as they have the same outward form viz. the affix अ. अण् and यत् are असरूप; confer, compare वाऽसरूपोऽस्त्रियाम् P.III. 1.94.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
asiddhatvainvalidity of a rule or operation on account of the various considerations sketched a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. See असिद्ध.
asiddhaparibhāṣāthe same as Antaraṅga Paribhāṣā or the doctrine of the invalidity of the bahiraṅga operation. See the word असिद्ध a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For details see the Paribhāṣā 'asiddham , bahiraṅgam antaraṅge' Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 50 and the discussion thereon. Some grammarians have given the name असिद्धपरिभाषा to the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे as contrasted with अन्तरङ्गं बहुिरङ्कगाद् वलीयः which they have named as बहिरङ्गपरिभाषा.
aspṛṣṭanot in contact with any vocal organ; the term is used in connection with the effort required for the utterance of vowels, अनुस्वार and sibilants when no specific contact with a vocal organ is necessary: confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारेाष्मणामस्पृष्टं करणं स्थितम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 3.
asmadfirst person; the term is used in the sense of the first person in the grammars of Hemacandra and Śākaṭāyana. confer, compare त्रीणि त्रीण्यन्ययुष्मदस्मदि (Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III.3.17);
asvayaṃdṛṣṭaA term used for the perfect tense; confer, compare कृ चकारमस्वयंदृष्टे (R.T. 19l).
ākarṣādia class of words headed by the word आकर्ष to which the taddhita affix कन् (क) is applied in the sense of clever or expert; e. g. आकर्षकः, त्सरुकः, शकुनिकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. अाकर्षादिभ्यः कन् P.V.2.64.
ākāṅkṣa(or साकाङ्क्ष also)expectant of another word in the context, e. g. कूज and व्याहर in अङ्ग कूज३, अङ्ग व्याहर३ इदानीं ज्ञास्यसि जाल्म Kāś. on अङ्गयुक्तं तिङाकाङ्क्षम् (P.VIII.2.96).
ākāṅkṣāexpectancy with regard to sense-completion, generally in compounds such as साकाङ्क्ष, निराकाङ्क्ष et cetera, and others confer, compare अस्त्यस्मिन्नाकाङ्क्षा इत्यतः साकाङ्क्षम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2.114.
ākāṅkṣyaa word for which there is expectancy of another word for the completion of sense.
aākṛtigaṇaa class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operation; confer, compare श्रेण्यादयः कृतादिभिः । श्रेण्यादयः पठ्यन्ते कृतादिराकृतिगणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.59. Haradatta defines the word as प्रयोगदर्शनेन आकृतिग्राह्यो गणः अाकृतिगण:। अत्र अादिशब्दः प्रकारे । अाकृतिगणेपि उदाहरणरूपेण कतिपयान् पठति कृत मत इत्यादि Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on II.I.59 ; confer, compare Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.of Kaiyaṭa also on II.1. 59.Some of the gaṇas mentioned by Pāṇini are ākṛtigaṇas, exempli gratia, for example अर्शआदिगण, मूलविभुजादिगण, स्नात्व्यादिगण, शिवादिगण, पचादिगण, and others.
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
aāṅgaan operation prescribed in the section, called aṅgādhikāra, in the the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, made up of five Pādas consisting of the fourth quarter of the 6th adhyāya and all the four quarters of the seventh adhyāya. आङ्गात् पूर्वं विकरणा एषितव्याः M. Bh on I.3.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5; confer, compare also वार्णादाङ्गं बलीयो भवति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 55: also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2.3.
ācitādia class of words headed by the word अाचित which do not have their final vowel accented acute by P. VI.2.146 when they are preceded by the prepositions प्र, परा et cetera, and others although they are used as proper nouns. exempli gratia, for example आचितम्,निरुक्तम्, प्रश्लिष्टम्; confer, compare Kāśikā on P. VI.2.146.
aāṭ(1)augment अा prefixed to roots beginning with a vowel in the imperfect, aorist and conditional, which is always accented (उदात्त); confer, compare P.VI.4.72; (2) augment अा prefixed to the imperative first person terminations, exempli gratia, for example करवाणि, करवै et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.4.92: (3) augment अा to be prefixed to caseaffixes which are डित् after nouns called nadī: exempli gratia, for example कुमार्यं; cf P.VII. 3.112.
ātāmĀtmanepada third person dual ending, technically substituted for लकार by P.III.4.78
ātideśikaapplied by extension or transfer of epithet as opposed to औपदेशिक. See the word अतिदेश; the term is often used in connection with rules or operations which do not apply or occur by the direct expression of the grammarian; confer, compare यदि आतिदेशिकेन कित्वेन औपदेशिकं कित्वं बाध्येत. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.1.; confer, compare also अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् Par.Śek. Pari. 93.6.
ātiśāyikaa tad-affix in the sense of excellence; a term applied to the affixes तम and इष्ठ as also तर and ईयस् prescribed by Pāṇini by the rules अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ and द्विवचनविभज्योपपदे तरबीयसुनौ confer, compare P.V.3.55, 57. This superlative affix is seen doubly applied sometimes in Vedic Lit. eg.श्रेष्ठतमाय कर्मणे Yaj. Saṁ. I.1; confer, compare also तदन्ताच्च स्वार्थे छन्दसि दर्शनं श्रेष्ठतमायेति P.V.3.55 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).3.
aātmanebhāṣaa technical term used for such roots as speak for the agent himself; the term अात्मनेभाष means the same as the term अात्मनेपदिन्. The term अात्मनेभाष is not mentioned by Pāṇini; but the writer of the Vārtikas explains it, confer, compare आत्मनेभाषपरस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI.3.7 and 8 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1; confer, compare also आत्मनेपदिनश्च धातवो वैयाकरणैरात्मनेभाषशब्देन व्यवह्रियन्ते,Kaiyaṭa on VI.3.7.The term is found in the Atharva-Prātiśākhya. III. 4.7. It cannot be said whether the term came in use after Pāṇini or, although earlier, it belonged to some school other than that of Pāṇini or, Pāṇini put into use the terms Ātmanepada and Parasmaipada for the affixes as the ancient terms Ātmanebhāṣa and Parasmaibhāṣa were in use for the roots.
ādiṣṭa(1)prescribed for substitution; specified for an operation : confer, compare सिद्धे तु आदिष्टस्य युड्वचनात् M.Bh. on VI.1. 155; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 1.I58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.3.28 Vār. 5; confer, compare also आदिष्टाच्चैवाचः पूर्वः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.57; (2) indicated or stated; अादिष्टा इमे वर्णाः.
ādeśa(1)substitute as opposed to sthānin, the original. In Pāṇini's grammar there is a very general maxim, possessed of a number of exceptions, no doubt, that 'the substitute behaves like the original' (स्थानिवदादेशः अनल्विधौ P.I.1.56.); the application of this maxim is called स्थानिवद्भाव; for purposes of this स्थानिवद्भाव the elision (लोप) of a phonetic element is looked upon as a sort of substitute;confer, compare उपधालेपस्य स्थानिवत्त्वात् Kāś. on P.I.1.58. Grammarians many times look upon a complete word or a word-base as a substitute for another one, although only a letter or a syllable in the word is changed into another, as also when a letter or syllable is added to or dropped in a word; confer, compare पचतु, पचन्तु ... इमेप्यादेशाः । कथम् । अादिश्यते यः स आदेशः । इमे चाप्यादिश्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; cf also सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः M.Bh. on P. I.1.20; confer, compare also अनागमकानां सागमका आदेशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20: (2) indication, assignment; confer, compare योयं स्वरादेशः अन्तोदात्तं, वधेराद्युदात्तत्वं, स्वः स्वरितमिति अादेशः R.Pr.I.30-32; confer, compare also अादेशः उपदेशः commentary on Tai.-Prāt. II.20: confer, compare also अनादेशे अविकारः V.Pr.IV.131, where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.remarks यत्र उदात्तादीनां स्वराणां सन्धौ आदेशो न क्रियते तत्र अविकारः प्रत्येतव्यः । confer, compare also एकारो विभक्त्यादेशः छन्दसि A.Pr. II.1.2, where ए is prescribed as a substitute for a caseaffix and त्ये and अस्मे are cited as examples where the acute acent is also prescribed for the substitute ए.
ādyantavattvaअाद्यन्तवद्भाव, consideration of a single or solitary letter as the initial or the final one according to requirements for opcrations prescribed for the initial or for the final. Both these notions --the initial and the final-are relative notions, and because they require the presence of an additional letter or letters for the sake of being called initial or final it becomes necessary to prescribe आद्यन्तवद्भाव in the case of a single letter; confer, compareअाद्यन्तवदेकस्मिन् । आदौ इव अन्त इव एकस्मिन्नपि कार्यं भवति । यथा कर्तव्यमित्यत्र प्रत्ययाद्युदात्तत्वं भवति एवमौपगवमित्यत्रापि यथा स्यात् । Kāś. on P.I.1.21 ; confer, compare also अाद्यन्तवच्च । अपृक्तस्य आदिवदन्तवच्च कार्यं भवति । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.55. This अाद्यन्तवद्भाव of Pāṇini is, in fact, a specific application of the general maxim known as vyapadeśivadbhāva by virtue of which "an operation which affects something on account of some special designation, which for certain reasons attaches to the letter, affects likewise that which stands alone;" confer, compare Pari.Śek. Pari. 30.
ādyudāttanipātanaspecific mention of a word with the accent udātta or acute on the first syllable; confer, compare आद्युदात्तनिपातनं करिष्यते M.Bh. on I.1. 56, VI.1.12.
aādhārādheyabhāvaa non-differential relation (अभेदसंसर्ग) between the personal endings तिप् , तस् et cetera, and others and the noun in the nominative case which is the subject of the verbal activity;relation of a thing and its substratum: confer, compare निपातातिरिक्तनामार्थधात्वर्थयोर्भेदान्वयस्य अव्युत्पन्नत्वात्.
ādhikyasuperfluity, superiority, notion of surplus; cf यदत्राधिक्यं वाक्यार्थः सः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.3.46, II.3. 50.
ādheyaa thing placed in another or depending upon another, as opposed to ādhāra or the container; confer, compare आधेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.1.44.
āna(1)kṛt affix (शानच् or चानश्) substituted for the lakāra लट् and applied to ātmanepadi roots forming the present participle; (2) kṛt (affix). affix कानच् applied to ātmanepadi roots in the sense of past time forming the perfect participle confer, compare लिटः कानज्वा P.III.2.106.
ānarthakyaabsence of any utility; superfluity; absence of any object or purpose; confer, compare स्थानिवद्वचनानर्थक्यं शास्त्रासिद्धत्वात् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.VI.1.86 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5 confer, compare also P.VI.1.158 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; VI.1.161 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, VI.1.166 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, VI.1.167 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
aāniimp. 1st per.sing affix नि with the augment अा prefixed, which has got its न् changed into ण् by P. VIII.4.16.
ānunāsikyanasalization; utterance through the nose, an additional property possessed by vowels and the fifth letters of the 5 classes (ङ्, ञ्, ण् ,न्, म्) confer, compare आनुनासिक्यं तेषामधिको गुणः M.Bh. on I.1.9.
ānupūrvīserial order, successive order of grammatical operations or the rules prescribing them as they occur; confer, compare अानुपूर्व्या सिद्धमेतत् M.Bh. on V.3.5; confer, compare also ययैव चानुपूर्व्या अर्थानां प्रादुर्भावस्तयैव शब्दानामपि । तद्वत् कार्यैरपि भवितव्यम् M.Bh. on. P.I.1.57.
aāntaryaproximity; close affinity ; close relationship. There are four kinds of such proximity as far as words in grammar are concerned; Re: the organs of speech (स्थानतः)as in दण्डाग्रम्, regarding the meaning(अर्थतः)as in वातण्ड्ययुवतिः, regarding the quality (गुण) as in पाकः रागः, and regarding the prosodial value (प्रमाण) as in अमुष्मै, अमूभ्याम्; confer, compare अनेकविधं अान्तर्यं स्थानार्थगुणप्रमाणकृतम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.13. confer, compare also Kāś. on I.1.50.
aānpadword ending with अान् which has the consonant dropped and the preceding आ nasalized; e. g. सर्गा इव सृजतम् Ṛk.Saṁ. VIII. 35. 20, महा इन्द्रः Ṛk Saṁ VI.19.1; confer, compare दीर्घादटि समानपादे, अातोऽटि नित्यम् P. VIII.3.9, VIII.3.3; confer, compare also हन्त देवो इति चैता अान्-पदाः पदवृत्तयः R.Pr.IV.26,27.
ābhācchāstraa rule given in the section called आभीयप्रकरण extending from P.VI.4.22 to VI.4.175, wherein one rule or operation is looked upon as invalid to another ; confer, compare असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22 and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). thereon; confer, compare also यावता अनिदितां हलः इत्यपि आभाच्छास्त्रम् Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.Pari. 38.
ābhīkṣṇyarepetition of an action; confer, compare पौनःपुन्यं आभीक्ष्ण्यम् Kāś. on III.4.22; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III.4.24: VIII.1.4; VIII.1.12.
aābhīyakāryaan operation prescribed by a rule in the section called अाभीयप्रक्ररण. See अाभाच्छास्त्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
ābhīyāsiddhatvainvalidity or supposed invisibility of one rule with respect to another, in the section called अाभीयप्रकरण. See अाभाच्छास्त्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
ām(1)augment आ prescribed in connection with the words चतुर् and अनडुह् before the case-affixes called सर्वनामस्थान; confer, compare चतुरनडुहोराम् उदात्तः P.VII.1.98; (2) the affix आम् added before लिट् or a perfect termination by rules कास्प्रत्ययादाम् अमन्त्रे लिटि and the following (P. III 1.35-39), as for instance, in कासांचक्रे, ऊहांचक्रे, दयांचक्रे, जागरांचकार, विभयांचकार et cetera, and others; (3) geni. plural caseaffix आम् as in दृषदाम्, शरदाम्, with न् prefixed in रामाणाम् et cetera, and others, and with स् prefixed in सर्र्वेषाम् et cetera, and others; (4) locative case singular. case-affix अाम् substituted for इ (ङि); confer, compare ङेराम् नद्याम्नीभ्यः P.VI.4.116.
aāmantrita(1)a word in the vocative singular. confer, compare सामन्त्रितम् P.II.3.48: a tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar, the peculiar features of which are पराङ्गवद्भाव (confer, compare P.II.1.2), अविद्यमानवद्भाव (confer, compare P.VIII.1.72), द्वित्व (confer, compare P.VIII. 1.8), अद्युदात्तत्व (confer, compare P.VI.1.198), सर्वानुदात्तत्व(confer, compare P.VIII.1.19), splitting of ए into अा and इ, exempli gratia, for example अग्रे into अग्ना ३ इ (confer, compare P.VIII.2.107 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3); (2) Vocative case, confer, compare ओकार अामन्त्रितजः प्रगृह्यः Ṛk. Prāt. I.28; Vāj. Pr. III.139: II.17: II.24 VI.1.
āmreḍita(1)iterative: a repeated word, defined as द्विरुक्तं पदम् confer, compare द्विरुक्तमात्रेडितं पदम् exempli gratia, for example यज्ञायज्ञा वो अग्नये Vāj. Prāt. I. 146; (2). the second or latter portion, of a repeated word according to Pāṇini; c. तस्य (द्विरुक्तस्य) परमाम्रेडितम् P. VIII.1.2. The Āmreḍita word gets the grave accent and has its last vowel protracted when it implies censure; confer, compare P.VIII.1.3 and VIII. 2.95.Haradatta has tried to explain how the term आम्रेडित means the first member; confer, compare ननु अाम्रेडितशब्दे । निघण्टुषु प्रसिद्धः अाम्रेडितं द्विस्त्रिरुक्तमिति । सत्यमर्थे प्रसिद्धः इह तु शब्दे परिभाष्यते । महासंज्ञाकरणं पूर्वाचार्यानुरोधेन Padamañj. on VIII.1.2.
aāropaattribution or imputation of properties which leada to the secondary sense of a word; confer, compare अप्रसिद्धश्च संज्ञादिरपि तद्गुणारोपादेव बुध्यते Par. Sek. on Pari. 15.
ārdhadhātukaa term used in contrast to the term सार्वधातुक for such verbal and kṛt affixes, as are not personal endings of verbs nor marked with the mute letter श् confer, compare तिङ्शित् सार्वधातुकम् । आर्धधातुकं शेषः। P.III.4.113 and 114. The personal endings of verbs in the perfect tense and the benedictive mood are termed ārdhadhātuka, confer, compare P. III. 4.115, 116; while both the terms are promiscuously found utilised in the Vedic Literature; confer, compare P. III. 4. 117. The main utility of the ārdhadhātuka term is the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to the ārdhadhātuka affixes. The term आर्धधातुका was in use in works of the old Vaiyākaraṇas; confer, compare अथवा आर्धधातुकासु इति वक्ष्यामि कासु आर्धधातुकासु । उक्तिषु युक्तिषु रूढिषु प्रतीतिषु श्रुतिषु संज्ञासु M.Bh. on II. 4.35. It cannot be said how the term ārdhadhātuka originatedition Probably such affixes or pratyayas, like the kṛt affixes generally, as could be placed after certain roots only were called ārdhadhātuka, as contrasted with the verbal and the present participle affixes which were termed sārvadhātuka on account of their being found in use after every root.
ārdhadhātukādhikārathe topic or section in Pāṇini's grammar where operations, caused by the presence of an ārdhadhātuka affix ahead, are enumerated, beginning with the rule आर्धधातुके VI.4.46 and ending with न ल्यपि VI.4.69, Such operations are summed up in the stanza अतो लोपो चलोपश्च णिलोपश्च प्रयोजनम् । आल्लोप इत्वमेत्वं च चिण्वद्भावश्च सीयुटि; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). as also Kāś, on VI.4.46.
aāvṛttirepetition, exempli gratia, for example पदावृत्तिः; see commentary on Vāj. Prāt. IV.21; confer, compare also आवृत्तितः सप्तदशत्वं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 2.
āśraya(1)relation of dependence; confer, compare अाश्रयात्सिद्धत्वं भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; (2) substratum, place of residence; confer, compare गुणवचनानां शब्दानामाश्रयतो लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति । शुद्धं वस्त्रम् । शुक्ला शाटी । शुक्लः कम्बलः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.2.29.
āśvalāyanaprātiśākhyaan authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the Ṛksaṁhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa.
aāsthāpita(1)placed after, following, which follow: confer, compare आस्थथितानामनन्तरोव्रतानाम् Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV.1. (2) properly placed at the end exempli gratia, for example सिष्यद् इति सिष्यदे.
āhitad-affix added to the word दक्षिण in the general sense of direction but when distance is specially meant; exempli gratia, for example दक्षिणाहि वसति, दक्षिणाहि रमणीयम्. See Kāś. on आहि च दूरे P. V.3.37.
i(1)the vowel इ, representing all its eighteen forms viz. short, long protracted, acute, grave, circumflex, pure and nasalised; exempli gratia, for example इ in यस्येति च P.VI.4.128;(2) Uṅādi affix ई(3)tad-affix इच्(इ)applied to Bahuvrihi compounds in the sense of exchange of action or as seen in words like द्विदण्डि exempli gratia, for example केशाकेशि, दण्डादण्डि, द्विमुसलि et cetera, and others confer, compare इच् कर्मव्यतिहारे P.V.4. 127,also V.4.128; (4) kṛt (affix). affix कि (इ) confer, compare उपसर्गे घोः किः P.III.3.92; (5) augment इट् (इ); see इट् (6) conjugational affix इट् of the 1st person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada
ikpadopasthitithe presence of the word इक् (vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ) in a rule, where the operations गुण and वृद्धि are prescribed by putting the words गुण and वृद्धि; exempli gratia, for example सिचि वृद्धिः परस्मैपदेषु P.VII.2.1; confer, compare इको गुणवृद्वी P.I.1.3.
iglakṣaṇavṛddhithe substitution of the vowel called वृद्वि id est, that is the vowel आ, ए or औ prescribed specifically for the vowels called इक् id est, that is इ, उ, ऋ and लृ, exempli gratia, for example तस्मादिग्लक्षणा वृद्विः P.1.1.3. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 11; confer, comparealso इग्लक्षणवृद्धिप्रतिषेधस्तावत् Sīradeva's ParibhāṣāvṛttiPari. 2.
id(1)augment इ prefixed,in general in the case of all roots barring a few roots ending in vowels except ऊ and ऋ and roots शक्, पच्, et cetera, and others, to such affixes of non-conjugational tenses and moods as begin with any consonant except ह् and य्; confer, compare आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः P.VII.2.35 to 78 and its exceptions P.VII.2.8 to 34; (2) personal ending of the third person singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
itaretarapossessed of interdependence; depending upon each other; confer, compare इतरेतरं कार्यमसद्वत् Candra Pari. 5 }. Grammatical operations are of no avail if the rules stating them are mutually depending on each other. The word इतरेतर has the sense of इतरेतराश्रय here.
itaretarāśrayadepending upon each other; confer, compare इतरेतराश्रयाणि च कार्याणि न प्रकल्पन्ते । तद्यथा । नौर्नावि बद्धा नेतरेतरत्राणाय भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1. See इतरेतर a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
itkāryaa grammatical operation caused by इत् i. e. by a mute letter which is purely indicatory; confer, compare एवं तर्हि इत्कार्याभावादत्र इत्संज्ञा न भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.3.2. See इत् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
ini(1)kṛt affix इन् applied to the roots क्री with धि, जु with प्र, and the roots जि, दृ, क्षि and others, e. g. सोमविक्रयी, प्रजवी, जयी et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III 2.93 and III.2.156-157: (2) taddhita affix. affix इन् affixed to the word पाण्डुकम्बल in the sense of 'covered with' ( confer, compare P, IV.2.11), in the sense of collection to the word खल exempli gratia, for example खलिनी confer, compare P.IV.2.51, to the word अनुब्राह्मण in sense 'student of' exempli gratia, for example अनुब्राह्मणी confer, compare P.IV.2.62, to the words कर्मन्द and कृशाश्च confer, compare P.IV.3.lll, to the word चूर्ण confer, compare P.IV.4.23 and to the word श्राद्ध confer, compare P.V.2.85 and साक्षात् confer, compare P. V. 2. 91 in specified senses and in the general sense of possession to words ending in अ, cf P. V.2.115-117 and to certain other words confer, compare P.V.2.128-37.
indraname of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; confer, compare the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya edition by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.
ire( इरेच् )substitute for the perfect 3rd person. plural or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada affix झ; exempli gratia, for example चक्रिरे, ऊचिरे et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.4.81.
iṣṭhathe superlative taddhita affix. affix इष्ठन् in the sense of अतिशायन or अतिशय ( excellence ). The commentators, however, say that the taddhita affixes तम and इष्ठ,like all the taddhita affixes showing case-relations, are applied without any specific sense of themselves, the affixes showing the sense of the base itself ( स्वार्थे ); e. g गुरुतमः, गरिष्ठः; पटुतमः, पठिष्ठः; पचतितमाम्, कर्तृतमः, करिष्ठः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.V.3.55-64 The affixes ईयस् and इष्ठ are applied only to such substantives which denote quality; confer, compare P.V.3.58.
iṣṭhavadbhāvapossession of the same properties for causing grammatical operations as the taddhita affix. affix इष्ठन् possesses, as for instance, the elision of the syllable beginning with the last vowel ( टिलोप ), substitution of the masculine gender. base for the feminine. base (पुंवद्भाव) et cetera, and others, before the denom affix णिच्; exempli gratia, for example एतयति in the sense of एनीं आचष्टे; similarly प्रथयति, पटयति, दवयति, confer, compare M.Bh. on. P.VI.4. 155 Vārt, 1.
īyastad-affix ईयसुन् , showing superiority or excellence of one individual over another in respect of a quality, added to a substantive expresive of quality; when the substantive ends in the affix तृ, that affix तृ is removed: exempli gratia, for example पटीयान्, लघीयान्, गरीयान्, दोहीयसी (धेनुः) confer, compareP.V.3.57-64.
īśvarānandaauthor of (l) a gloss on Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣya-pradīpa, and (2)an independent treatise Śābdabodhataraṅgiṇī. He is believed to have been a pupil of सत्यानन्द and iived in the latter part of the 16th century A.D.
u(1)labial vowel standing for the long ऊ and protracted ऊ3 in Pāṇini's grammar unless the consonant त् is affixed to it, उत् standing for the short उ only: (2) Vikaraṇa affix उ of the 8th conjugation ( तनादिगण ) and the roots धिन्व् and कृण्व्;confer, compareP.III. 1.79-80; (3) substitute (उ) for the vowel अ of कृ,exempli gratia, for example कुरुतः, कृर्वन्ति before weak Sārvadhātuka affixes, confer, compareP.VI 4.110; (4) kṛt (affix). affix उ added to bases ending in सन् and the roots आशंस्, भिक्ष्, विद्, इष् as also to bases ending in क्यच् in the Vedic Literature,exempli gratia, for example चिकीर्षुः भिक्षुः, बिन्दुः,इच्छुः,सुम्नयु; confer, compare P. III. 2.168-170; (5) Uṅādi affix उ ( उण् ) e.g, कारुः, वायुः, साधुः, et cetera, and others; confer, compare Uṅādi I.1; (6) mute vowel उ added to the first letters of a class of consonants in Pāṇini's grammar to show the whole class of the five letters; exempli gratia, for example कु, चु, टु, तु, पु which stand for the Guttural, the palatal the lingual, the dental and the labial classes respectively; confer, compare also ष्टुना ष्टुः P.VIII.4.41(7) उ added to न् showing the consonant न् as nasalized n; cf, नुः V.Pr. III.133.
uktārthaa word or expression whose sense has been already expressedition The expression उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः is frequently used in the Mahābhāṣya and the Vārttikas and cited as a Paribhāṣā or a salutary conventional maxim against repetition of words in the Paribhāṣāpāṭhas of Vyādi (Par. 51), Candragomin (Par 28) and Kātantra (Par. 46) and Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. (Par. 46) grammars.
ugrabhūtior उग्राचार्य writer of a gloss on the Nirukta, called Niruktabhāṣya believed to have lived in the 18th century A. D; writer also of a grammatical work Śiṣyahitāvṛtti or Śiṣyahitānyāsa, which was sent to kāshmir and made popular with a large sum of money spent upon it, by his pupil Ānanadpāla.
uṅa technical term for उपधा, the penultimate letter in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa; confer, compare इदुदुङः Jain. V. 4.28.
uccaistarāṃspecially accented; उदात्ततरः confer, compare उच्चैस्तरां वा वषट्कारः P. I.2.35.
uṇādiprātipadikaword form or crude base, ending with an affix of the uṇ class, which is looked upon as practically underived, the affixes un and others not being looked upon as standard affixes applied with regular meanings attached to them and capable of causing operations to the preceding base as prescribed by rules of grammar; confer, compare उणादयोS व्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि । व्युत्पन्नानीति शाकटायनरीत्या । पाणिनेस्त्वव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष एवेति शब्देन्दुशेखरे निरूपितम्. Pari. Śek. on Paribhāṣa 22.
uttama(1)the best,the highest,the last: (2) the last letter of the consonantclasses, the nasal; cf, A.Pr.II.4.14; R.Pr.IV.3; confer, compare also अनुत्तम meaning non-nasal; (3) the उत्तमपुरुष or the premier or the first person constituting the affixes मि, वस् and मस् and their substitutes, confer, compare P.I.4.107.
utsargaa general rule as contrasted with a special rule which is called अपवाद or exception; confer, compare उत्सर्गापवादयोरपवादो बलीयान् Hema. Pari.56; प्रकल्प्य वापवादविषयं तत उत्सर्गोभिनिविशते Par.Śek. Pari.63, Sīra. Pari.97; confer, compare also उत्सर्गसमानदेशा अपवादा;. For the बाध्यबाधकभाव relation between उत्सर्ग and अपवाद and its details see Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara on Paribhāṣās 57 to 65: confer, compare also न्यायैर्मिश्रान् अपवादान्प्रतीयात् explained by the commentator as न्याया उत्सर्गा महाविषया विधयः अपवादा अल्पविषया विधयः । तान् उत्सर्गेण भिश्रानेकीकृतान् जानीयात् । अपवादविषयं मुक्त्वा उत्सर्गाः प्रवर्तन्ते इत्यर्थः R.Pr.I.23.
udāttathe acute accent defined by Pāṇini in the words उचैरुदात्त: P.I.2. 29. The word उच्चैः is explained by Patañjali in the words 'आयामो दारुण्यं अणुता स्वस्य इति उचैःकराणि शब्दस्य' where आयाम (गात्रनिग्रह restriction of the organs), दारुण्य (रूक्षता rudeness ) and स्वस्य अणुता ( कण्ठस्य संवृतता closure of the glottis) are given as specific characteristics of the acute accent. The acute is the prominent accent in a word-a simple word as also a compound word-and when a vowel in a word is possessed of the acute accent, the remaining vowels have the अनुदात्त or the grave accent. Accent is a property of vowels and consonants do not possess any independent accent. They possess the accent of the adjoining vowel connected with it. The acute accert corresponds to what is termed 'accent' in English and other languages.
udupadhatvapossession of short उ as the penultimate letter, e. g. इदुदुपधस्य चाप्रत्ययस्य P.VII.3.41.
uddyotathe word always refers in grammar to the famous commentary by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa written in the first decade of the 18th century A. D. om the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa. The Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.appears to be one of the earlier works of Nāgeśa. It is also called Vivaraṇa. The commentary is a scholarly one and is looked upon as a final word re : the exposition of the Mahābhāṣya. It is believed that Nāgeśa wrote 12 Uddyotas and 12 Śekharas which form some authoritative commentaries on prominent works in the different Śāstras.
upagrahaa term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मनेपदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेशव्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.
upajīvyaa term used by later grammarians in connection with such a rule on which another rule depends confer, compare उपजीव्यादन्तरङ्गाच्व प्रधानं प्रबलम् Pari. Śekh. on Pari. 97, as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on हेतुमति च P. III.1.26. The relationship known as उपजीव्योपजीवकभाव occurs several times in grammar which states the inferiority of the dependent as noticed in the world.
upadhāpenultimate letter, as defined in the rule अलोन्त्यात्पूर्वं उपघा P. I. 1.65, exempli gratia, for example see ह्रस्वोपध, दीर्घोपध, लघूपध, अकारोपध et cetera, and others; literally उपधीयते निधीयते सा that which is placed near the last letter.
upadhālopina word or a noun which has got the penultimate letter omitted; confer, compare अन उपधालेपिनोन्यतरस्याम् P. IV. 1. 28.
upadhmānīyaa letter or a phonetic element substituted for a visarga followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class. Visarga is simply letting the breath out of the mouth. Where the visarga is followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class, its pronunciation is coloured by labial utterance. This coloured utterance cannot be made independently; hence this utterance called 'उपध्मानीय' ( similar to a sound blown from the mouth ) is not put in, as an independent letter, in the वर्णसमाम्नाय attributed to महेश्वर. Patañjali, however, has referred to such dependent utterances by the term अयोगवाहवर्ण. See अयेागवाह; confer, compare xक इति जिह्वामूलीयः । जिह्वामूलेन जन्यत्वात् । xप इत्युपध्मानीयः । उपध्मानेन जन्यत्वात्. अयेगवाह is also called अर्धविसर्ग. See अर्धविसर्ग.
upapadavidhia grammatical operation caused by a word which is near; cf उपपदविधौ भयाढ्यादिग्रहणं P. I.1.72 Vārt 9, also अतिप्रसङ्ग उपपदविधौ P. IV 1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8 where rules such as 'कर्मण्यण्' and the following are referred to as उपपदविधि, the words कर्मणि, स्तम्ब, कर्ण, et cetera, and others being called उपपद by the rule तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्; P. III.1.92.
upabdimatthe fourth out of the seven stages or places in the production of articulate speech, upāṁśu being the first stage; confer, compare सशब्दमुपद्भिमत् Tait. Pr. 23.9 explained by the commentator as: सशब्दं परश्राव्यशब्दसहितम् । यत्र प्रयुज्यमानः शब्दः परैरक्षरव्यञ्जनववेकवर्जे श्रूयते तदुपद्विमत्संज्ञं भवति ।
upamāa well-known term in Rhetorics meaning the figure of speech ' simile ' or ' comparison '. The word is often found in the Nirukta in the same sense; confer, compare अथात उपमाः | 'यत् अतत् तत्सदृशम्'इति गार्ग्यः । Nir III.13. Generally an inferior thing is compared to another that is superior in quality.
upasaṃkhyānamention, generally of the type of the annexation of some words to words already given, or of some limiting conditions or additions to what has been already statedition The word is often found at the end of the statements made by the Vārttikakāra on the sūtras of Pāṇini.: confer, compare P.I.1.29 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1: I.1.36 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3 et cetera, and others The words वाच्य and वक्तव्य are also similarly useditionThe word is found similarly used in the Mahābhāṣya also very frequently.
upasamastacompounded together, joined together by special grammatical connection called समास; confer, compare न केवल; पथिशब्दः स्त्रियां वर्तते । उपसमस्तस्तर्हि वर्तते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 18.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upāṃśuliterally inaudible. The word is explained in the technical sense as the first place or stage in the utterance of speech where it is perfectly inaudible although produced; confer, compare उपांशु इति प्रथमं वाचः स्थानम् Com. on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII, 5.
upāntaliterally near the last; penultimate. The word is generally found used in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa.
ubhayatobhāṣaliterally speaking or showing both the padas or voices; possessed of both the padas viz. the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada. The word is found commonly used in the Dhātupaṭha of Pāṇini.
ubhayavatpossessed of both the kinds of properties; confer, compare य इदानीमुभयवान् स तृतीयामाख्यां लभते स्वरित इति M.Bh. on P.I.2.81 ; confer, compare also उभयवान् स्वरितः V. Pr.I.110.
urutāopening (of the hole of the throat); the words , उरुता स्वस्य are
us(1)substitute for झि ending of the third person.plu., in the perfect tense and in the present tense in the case of the roots विद् and ब्रू, exempli gratia, for example विदुः and आहुः confer, compare P. III.4.82-84 ; (2) substitute जुस् (उस्) for झि in the potential and the benedictive moods, as also after the aorist sign स् and after roots of the third conjugation, roots ending in आ and the root विद्, e. g. पचेयुः भूयासुः अकार्षुः, अबिभयुः अदुः, अविदुः, et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on III.4.108-112.
ūṅfeminine. affix ऊ prescribed after masculine nouns ending in the vowel ऊ and denoting a human being as also after some other specific masculine bases cf ऊङुतः P.IV. I.66 and the following sūtras. exempli gratia, for example कुरूः, पङ्गूः श्वश्रूः, करभोरूः, भद्रबाहूः et cetera, and others
ūṣmanaspiration letters, spirants called breathings also: the name is given to letters or sounds produced with unintonated breath through an open posision of the mouth; confer, compare विवृतमूष्मणाम् M. Bh, on P.I.1.10 Vārt, 3. The word refers to the letters श्, ष्, सु, ह्, visarga, jihvāmūlīya, upadhmāniya and anusvāra; confer, compare ऊष्मा वायुस्तत्प्रधाना वर्णा ऊष्माणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.12; confer, compare also Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.10.
fourth vowel in Pāṇini's alphabet; possessed of long and protracted varieties and looked upon as cognate ( सवर्ण ) with लृ which has no long type in the grammar of Pāṇini; confer, compare R.Pr.I,9: V.Pr.VIII.3. (2) uṇādi suffix च् applied to the root स्था to form the word स्थृ; e. g. सव्येष्ठा सारथिः; confer, compare सव्ये स्थश्छन्दसि Uṇ Sū, II. 101.
ṛktantraa work consisting of five chapters containing in all 287 sūtras. It covers the same topics as the Prātiśākhya works and is looked upon as one of the Prātiśākhya works of the Sāma Veda. Its authorship is attributed to Śākaṭāyana according to Nageśa, while औदिव्राज is held as its author by some, and कात्यायन by others. It bears a remarkable similarity to Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. especially in topics concerning coalescence and changes of स् and न् to ष् and ण् respectively. It cannot be definitely said whether it preceded or followed Pāṇini's work.
ṛkprātiśākhyaone of the Prātiśākhya works belonging to the Aśvalāyana Śākha of the Ṛg Veda. The work available at present, appears to be not a very old one,possibly written a century or so after Pāṇini's time. It is possible that the work, which is available, is based upon a few ancient Prātiśākhya works which are lost. Its authorship is attributed to Śaunaka.The work is a metrical one and consists of three books or Adhyāyas, each Adhyāya being made up of six Paṭalas or chapters. It is written, just as the other Prātiśākhya works, with a view to give directions for the proper recitation of the Veda. It has got a scholarly commentary written by Uvaṭa and another one by Kumāra who is also called Viṣṇumitra. See अाश्वलायनप्रातिशाख्य.
ṛṣicchandsthe metre of the Vedic seers. The seven metres गायत्री, उष्णिक्, अनुष्टुप्, बृहती, पङ्क्ति, त्रिष्टुप् and जगती consisting respectively of 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44 and 48 syllables are named ऋषिच्छन्दस् as contrasted with the metres दैव, प्राजापत्य and आसुर, which, when combined together, make the metres of the Vedic seers, For details see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI.1.5.
ekavākyaan expression giving one idea, either a single or a composite one. A positive statement and its negation, so also, a general rule and its exception are looked upon as making a single sentence on account of their mutual expectancy even though they be sometimes detached from each other confer, compare विदेशस्थमपि सदेकवाक्यं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.4.67; confer, compare also निषेधवाक्यानामपि निषेध्यविशेषाकाङ्क्षत्वाद्विध्येकवाक्यतयैव अन्वयः । तत्रैकवाक्यता पर्युदासन्यायेन । संज्ञाशास्त्रस्य तु कार्यकालपक्षे न पृथग्वाक्यार्थबोधः । Par. Śek on Pari. 3. Such sentences are, in fact, two sentences, but, to avoid the fault of गौरव, caused by वाक्यभेद, grammarians hold them to be composite single sentences.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
ekādeśaa single substitute in the place of two original units; exempli gratia, for example ए in the place of अ and इ,or ओ in the place of अ and उ. The ādeśas or substitutes named पूर्वरूप and पररूप are looked upon as ekadeśas in Pāṇini's grammar although instead of them, the omission of the latter and former vowels respectively, is prescribed in some Prātiśākhya works. गुण and वृद्धि are sometimes single substitutes for single originals, while they are sometimes ekadeśas for two original vowels exempli gratia, for example तवेदम्, ब्रह्मौदनः, उपैति, प्रार्च्छति, गाम्, सीमन्तः et cetera, and others; see P.VI.1.87 to ll l, confer, compare also A.Pr.II 3.6.
ekārathe letter ए; looked upon as a diphthong ( संध्यक्षर ) made up of the letters अ and इ. The combination of the two constituent parts is so complete as cannot allow any of the two parts to be independently working for saṁdhi or any other operation with its adjoining letter; cf नाव्यपवृत्तस्य अवयवे तद्विधिर्यथा द्रव्येषु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Śivasūtra 3 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9.
egeliṃg( Eggeling )a well-known German scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who flourished in the l9th century and who edited the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa with the commentary of Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. and many appendices in 1876.
(1)the substitute ए for the perfect affix त, substituted for the whole त by reason of the indicatory letter श् attached to ए; confer, compare लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच् and अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य P. III.4.8l and I.1.55; (2) affix ए applied to the root चक्ष् in Vedic Literature; confer, compare नावचक्षे । नावख्यातव्यमित्यर्थः Kāś. on P.III.4.15.
aikapadyatreatment as one single word especially found in the case of compound words (सामासिकपद) which, as a result of such treatment, have only one accent (acute) and one case affix after the whole word; confer, compare अयं खल्वपि बहुव्रीहिरस्त्येव प्राथमकल्पिकः । यस्मिन्नैकपद्यमैकस्व र्यमेकविभक्तित्वं च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P.I.1.29. See एकपद.
aittvasubstitution of ऐ for ए by the rule एत ऐ prescribing the substitution of the vowel ऐ for ए in the case of the imperative first person terminations; cf P. III.4.93.
auttarapadikapertaining to the ulterior member of a compound confer, compare औत्तरपदिके ह्रस्वत्व (P.VI.3.61) कृते तुक् प्राप्नोति M.Bh. on I.1.62.
autsargikaan affix or an operation resulting from the general rule ( उत्सर्ग ); confer, compare अपत्ये कुत्सिते मूढे मनौरोत्सर्गिकः स्मृत: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.161 ; confer, compare also एवमप्यौत्सर्गिकाणां तद्विषयता न प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.66.
aupamikafigurative metaphorical application or statement: confer, compare ( विराट् ) पिपीलिकमध्या इत्यौपमिकम् Nirukta of Yāska.VII. 13. औपश्लेषिक resulting from immediate contact immediately or closely connected; one of the three types of अधिकरण or location which is given as the sense of the locative case; confer, compare अधिकरणं नाम त्रिप्रकारं-व्यापकम् ओपश्लेषिकम्, वैषयिकमिति ... इको यणचि | अचि उपाश्लिष्टस्येति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI. 1.72.
{{c|-( anusvāra ) ṃanusvāraor nasal (l) looked upon as a phonetic element, independent, no doubt, but incapable of being pronounced without a vowel Preceding it. Hence, it is shown in writing with अ although its form in writing is only a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the line cf अं इत्यनुस्वारः । अकार इह उच्चारणर्थ इति बिन्दुमात्रो वर्णोनुस्वारसंज्ञो भवति Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Vyāk I.1.19; (2) anusvāra,showing or signifying Vikāra id est, that is अागम and used as a technical term for the second विभक्ति or the accusative case. See the word अं a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 1.
or विसर्गः literally letting out breath from the mouth; sound or utterance caused by breath escaping from the mouth; breathing. The Visarjanīya, just like the anusvāra, is incapable of being independently utteredition Hence, it is written for convenience as अः although its form for writing purposes is only two dots after the vowel preceding it; confer, compare अः इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः इति कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसर्जनीयसंज्ञो भवति । Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Vyāk. I.1.16. See अः a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 2.
yamaa letter called यम which is uttered partly through the nose. A class consonant excepting the fifth, when followed by the fifth viz. ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न or म् , gets doubled in the Vedic recital, when the second of the doubled consonant which is coloured by the following nasal consonant is called यम. This यम letter is not independent. It necessarily depends upon the following nasal consonant and hence it is called अयोगवाह. The nasalization is shown in script as xx followed by the consonant; e. g. पलिक्क्नी, अगूग्रे, et cetera, and others The pronunciation of this yama or twin letter is seen in the Vedic recital only; confer, compare पलिक्कनी ... कखगघेभ्य; परे तत्सदृशा एव यमाः S. K. on P. VIII. 2.1. confer, compare कु खु गु घु इति यमाः विंशतिसंख्याका भवन्ति Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII.24.
k(1)taddhita affix.affix क applied to the words of the ऋश्य group in the four senses called चातुरर्थिक e. g. ऋश्यकः, अनडुत्कः, वेणुकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.IV.2.80; (2) taddhita affix. affix क applied to nouns in the sense of diminution, censure, pity et cetera, and others e. g. अश्वक्रः, उष्ट्रकः, पुत्रकः, confer, compare P.V. 3.70-87: (3) taddhita affix. affix क in the very sense of the word itself ( स्वार्थे ) exempli gratia, for example अविकः, यावकः, कालकः; confer, compare P.V.4.2833; (4) Uṇādi affix क exempli gratia, for example कर्क, वृक, राका, एक, भेक, काक, पाक, शल्क et cetera, and others by Uṇādi sūtras III. 40-48 before which the angment इट् is prohibited by P. VII.2.9; (5) kṛt affix क ( अ ) where क् is dropped by P. I. 3.8, applied, in the sense of agent, to certain roots mentioned in P.III.1.135, 136, 144, III. 2.3 to 7, III.2.77 and III.3.83 exempli gratia, for example बुध:, प्रस्थः, गृहम्, कम्बलदः, द्विपः, मूलविभुजः, सामगः, सुरापः et cetera, and others; (6) substitute क for the word किम् before a case affix, confer, compare P.VII.2.103; (7) the Samāsānta affix कप् (क) at the end of Bahuvrīhi compounds as prescribed by P.V.4.151-160.
kampanaa fault in uttering an accented vowel especially a vowel with the circumflex accent which is not properly uttered by the Southerners as remarked by Uvvata; cf कम्पनं नाम रचराश्रितपाठदोषः । स च प्रायेण दाक्षिणात्यानां भवति । स च वर्ज्यः । Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.18.
kartṛagent of an action, subject; name of a kāraka or instrument in general, of an action, which produces the fruit or result of an action without depending on any other instrument; confer, compare स्वतन्त्रः कर्ता P. I.4.54, explained as अगुणीभूतो यः क्रियाप्रसिद्धौ स्वातन्त्र्येण विवक्ष्यते तत्कारकं कर्तृसंज्ञं भवति in the Kāśikā on P.I. 4.54. This agent, or rather, the word standing for the agent, is put in the nominative case in the active voice (confer, compare P.I.4.54), in the instrumental case in the passive voice (cf P. II.3.18), and in the genitive case when it is connected with a noun of action or verbal derivative noun, (confer, compare P.II.3.65).
kartṛvedanāexperience (of something) by the agent himself; confer, compare सुखादिभ्यः कर्तृवेदनायाम् P. III.1.18
kartṛsthabhāvaka(a root)whose action or happening is noticed functioning in the subject; exempli gratia, for example the root स्मृ. confer, compare कर्तस्थभावकश्चायं (स्मरतिः) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). of I.3.67, कतृस्थभावकश्च शेतिः (शीधातुः) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.3.55.
karmadhārayaname technically given to a compound-formation of two words in apposition i. e. used in the same case, technically called समानाधिकरण showing the same substratutm; confer, compare तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः I 2.42. The karmadhāraya compound is looked upon as a variety of the tatpuruṣa compound. There is no satisfactory explanation of the reason why such a compound is termed कर्मधारय. Śākaṭāyana defines Karmadhāraya as विशेषणं व्यभिचारि एकार्थं कर्मधारयश्च where the word विशेषण is explained as व्यावर्तक or भेदक (distinguishing attribute) showing that the word कर्म may mean भेदकक्रिया. The word कर्मधारय in that case could mean 'कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयति असौ कर्मधारयः' a compound which gives a specification of the thing in hand.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
karmavadbhāvathe activity of the agent or kartā of an action represented as object or karman of that very action, for the sake of grammatical operations: e. g. भिद्यते काष्ठं स्वयमेव;. करिष्यते कटः स्वयमेव. To show facility of a verbal activity on the object, when the agent or kartā is dispensed with, and the object is looked upon as the agent, and used also as an agent, the verbal terminations ति, त; et cetera, and others are not applied in the sense of an agent, but they are applied in the sense of an object; consequently the sign of the voice is not अ (शप्), but य (यक्) and the verbal terminations are त, आताम् et cetera, and others (तङ्) instead of ति, तस् et cetera, and others In popular language the use of an expression of this type is called Karmakartari-Prayoga. For details see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III.1.87. Only such roots as are कर्मस्थक्रियक or कर्मस्थभावक id est, that is roots whose verbal activity is noticed in the object and not in the subject can have this Karmakartari-Prayoga.
karmasthabhāvaka(roots)having their verbal action or happening noticed in the object; e. g. the root आस् and शी in बालमासयति शाययति where the function of the root bears effect in the Object boy and not in the movements of the object as in the sentence बालमवरुणद्धि. See कर्मस्थक्रिय a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. as also M.Bh. on III.1.87 and Kaiyaṭa on the same.
karmāpadiṣṭaoperations prescribed specifically for objects i. e. prescribed in the case of objects which are described to be functioning as the subject to show facility of the verbal action: e. g. the vikaraṇa यक् or the affix च्णि; confer, compare कर्मापदिष्टाविधय: कर्मस्थभावकानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां वा भवन्ति । कर्तृस्थभावकाश्च दीपादयः M.Bh.on I.1.44.
karṣaṇaextension; protraction, defined as kālaviprakarṣa by commentators; a peculiarity in the recital as noticed in the pronunciation of ट् when followed by च् , or ड् when followed by ज् exempli gratia, for example षट्चै; षड्जात. confer, compare Nār. Śik. I.7.19.
kalaa fault of pronunciation consequent upon directing the tongue to a place in the mouth which is not the proper one, for the utterance of a vowel; a vowel so pronounced; confer, compare संवृतः कलो ध्मात: ... रोमश इति confer, comparealso निवृत्तकलादिकामवर्णस्य प्रत्यापत्तिं वक्ष्यामि M.Bh. Āhnika 1.
kalāpinthe author of the work referred to as Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. in the Mahābhāṣya which perhaps was a work on grammar as the word कालाप is mentioned with the word in the Mahābhāṣya, confer, compare M.Bh. on कलापिनोSणू P. IV.3. 108. Kalāpin is mentioned as a pupil of Vaiśampāyana in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare वैशम्पायनान्तेवासी कलापी M.Bh. on P. IV.3.104.
kalmanthe same as karman or object of an action especially when it is not fully entitled to be called karman, but looked upon as karman only for the sake of being used in the accusative case; subordinate karman, as for instance the cow in गां पयो दोग्धि. The term was used by ancient grammarians; confer, compare विपरीतं तु यत्कर्म तत् कल्म कवयो विदुः M.Bh. on P.I.4.51. See कर्मन्.
kāṇḍamāyananame of an ancient writer of a Prātiśākhya work who held that Visarga before the consonant स् is dropped only when स् is followed by a surd consonant; confer, compare Tai.Pr. IX. 1.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantrapañjikāa name usually given to a compendium of the type of Vivaraṇa or gloss written on the Kātantra Sūtras. The gloss written by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. on the famous commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. ( the same as the the famous Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. or another of the same name ) known as दौर्गसिंही वृत्ति is called Kātantra Pañjika or Kātantravivaraṇa. A scholar of Kātantra grammar by name Kuśala has written a Pañjika on दुर्गसिंहृ's वृत्ति which is named प्रदीप, Another scholar, Trivikrama has written a gloss named Uddyota.
kātantrapariśiṣṭaascribed to Śrīpatidatta, whose date is not known; from a number of glosses written on this work, it appears that the work was once very popular among students of the Kātantra School.
kātantravyākhyāsāraa work of the type of a summary written by Rāmadāsa Cakravartin of the twelfth century.
kātantrasūtravṛttian old Vṛtti on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Vararuci who is, of course, different from Vararuci Kātyāyana. The Vṛtti appears to have been occupying a position similar to that of Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti..
kānacaffix अान forming perfect partciples which are mostly seen in Vedic Literature. The affix कानच् is technically a substitute for the लिट् affix. Nouns ending in कानच् govern the accusative case of the nouns connected with them: exempli gratia, for example सोमं सुषुवाणः; confer, compare P. III.3.106 and P.II.3.69.
kāmacāraoption; permission to do as desired liberty of applying any of the rules of grammar that present themselves; confer, compare तत्र कामचारो गृह्यमाणेन वा विभक्तिं विशेषयितुं अङ्गेन वा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.27 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6.
kārakaliterally doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारकशब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्थान्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: confer, compare also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and कर्तृ to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
kārakacakra(1)written by Puruṣotta madeva a reputed grammarian of Bengal who wrote many works on grammar of which the Bhasavrtti, the Paribhāṣāvṛtti and Jñāpakasamuccya deserve a special mention. The verse portion of the Kārakacakra of which the prose portion appears like a commentary might be bearing the name Kārakakaumudī.
kārmanāmikathe word is found used in Yāska's Nirukta as an adjective to the word संस्कार where it means belonging to nouns derived fromroofs (कर्मनाम)"like पाचक,कर्षक et cetera, and othersThe changes undergone by the roots in the formation of such words i. e. words showing action are termed कार्मनामिकसंस्कार; confer, compare कर्मकृतं नाम कर्मनाम। तस्मिन् भवः कार्मनामिकः Durgavṛtti on Nirukta of Yāska.I.13. कार्य(l) brought.into existence by activity (क्रियया निर्वृत्तं कार्यम् ) as oppo- sed to नित्य eternal; confer, compare एके वर्णाञ् शाश्वतिकान् न कार्यान् R.Pr. XIII.4 confer, compare also ननु च यस्यापि कार्याः ( शब्दाः ) तस्यापि पूजार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 17;(2) which should be done, used in connection with a grammatical operation: confer, compare कार्य एत्वे सयमीकारमाहुः ।| अभैष्म इत्येतस्य स्थाने अभयीष्मेति । R.Pr. XIV.16; confer, compare also विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I.4.2; (3) a grammatical opera- tion as for instance in the phrases द्विकार्ययोगे, त्रिकार्ययोगे et cetera, and others; confer, compare also गौणमुख्ययोर्मुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्ययः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 15;(4) object of a transitive verb: confer, compare शेषः कार्ये Śāk.
kāryakālaalong with the operation; confer, compare कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् , rules laying down technical terms and regulating rules are to be interpreted along with the rules that prescribe or enjoin operations ( provided the technical terms occur in those rules, or, the regulating rules concern those rules). See Pari. Śek. Pari 3.
kāryātideśalooking upon the substitute as the very original for the sake of operations that are caused by the presence of the original;the word is used in contrast with रूपातिदेश where actually the original is restored in the place of the substitute on certain conditions. For details see Mahābhāṣya on द्विर्वचनेचि P. 1.1.59.
kāryinthe word or wording that undergoes the operation; confer, compare सतो हि कार्यिणः कार्येण भवितव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1. 1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7, also कार्यमनुभवन् हि कार्यो निमित्ततया नाश्रीयते Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 10.
kālanotion of time created by different contacts made by a thing with other things one after another. Time required for the utterance of a short vowel is taken as a unit of time which is called मात्रा or कालमात्रा, literally measurement of time; (2) degree of a vowel, the vowels being looked upon as possessed of three degrees ह्रस्व,दीर्घ,& प्लुत measured respectively by one, two and three mātrās; confer, compare ऊकालोSझ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P.I.2.27; (3) time notion in general, expressed in connection with an activity in three ways past (भूत), present (वर्तमान), and future (भविष्यत्) to show which the terms भूता, वर्तमाना and भविष्यन्ती were used by ancient grammarians; cf the words पूर्वकाल, उत्तरकाल; also confer, compare पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम् Kāś. on P. II. 4.21 ; (4) place of recital ( पाठदेश ) depending on the time of recital, confer, compare न परकालः पूर्वकाले पुनः (V.Pr.III. 3) a dictum similar to Pāṇini's पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1.
kālasāmānyatime in general; unspecified time; confer, compare वर्तमाने लडुक्तः कालसामान्ये न प्राप्नोति Kāś. on P.III.3.142.
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
ki(1)kṛt affix इ prescribed after धु roots with a prefix attached;exempli gratia, for exampleप्रदिः प्रधिः confer, compare P.III.3.92, 93; (2) kṛt affix इ looked upon as a perfect termination and, hence, causing reduplication and accusative case of the noun connected, found in Vedic Literature added to roots ending in अा, the root ऋ, and the roots गम्, हन् and जन्; exempli gratia, for example पपि; सोमं, जगुरिः, जग्मिः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. III.2.171: (2) a term used in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for the term संबुद्वि.
kiṃśulakādia class of words headed by the word किंशुलक, which get their final vowel lengthened when the word गिरि is placed after them as a second member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e. g. किंशुलकागिरिः, अञ्जनागिरिः; confer, compare Kāś. on P. VI.3.117.
kit(1)marked with the mute letter क् which is applied by Pāṇini to affixes, for preventing guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes to the preceding इक् vowel (इ, उ, ऋ or लृ); confer, compareक्ङिति च, Pāṇ. I.1.5; (2) considered or looked upon as marked with mute indicatory क् for preventing guna; confer, compare असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् and the following P.I.2.5 et cetera, and others The affixes of the first type are for instance क्त, क्त्वा, क्तिन् and others. The affixes of the second type are given mainly in the second pada of the first Adhyāya by Pāṇini. Besides the prevention of guṇa and wrddhi, affixes marked with कु or affixes called कित्, cause Saṁprasāraṇa (see P. VI.1.15,16), elision of the penultimate न् (P.VI.4.24), elision of the penultimate vowel (P. VI.4.98,100), lengthening of the vowel (VI.4.15), substitution of ऊ (VI.4.19,21), elision of the final nasal (VI. 4.37), substitution of अI (VI.4.42). The taddhita affixes which are marked with mute क् cause the Vṛddhi substitute for the first vowel in the word to which they are addedition
kuṇaptaddhita affix. affix कुण added to words of पीलु group in the sense of 'ripened condition';exempli gratia, for exampleपीलुकुणः=पीलूनां पाकः; confer, compare P.V.2.24.
kuppuśāstrina famous grammarian of the eighteenth century who wrote some works on grammar of which the परिभाषाभास्कर is an independent treatise on Paribhāṣās.
kulālādia class of words headed by the word कुलाल to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुञ्) is applied in the sense of 'made by', provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e g.कौलालकम् , वारुडकम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.3.118.
kṛtliterally activity; a term used in the grammars of Pāṇini and others for affixes applied to roots to form verbal derivatives; confer, compare कृदतिङ् । धातोः ( ३ ।१।९१ ) इत्यधिकारे तिङ्कवर्जितः प्रत्ययः कृत् स्यात् । Kāś. on III.1.93, The kṛt affixes are given exhaustively by Pāṇini in Sūtras III.1.91 to III.4. I17. कृत् and तद्धित appear to be the ancient Pre-Pāṇinian terms used in the Nirukta and the Prātiśākhya works in the respective senses of root-born and noun-born words ( कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त according to Pāṇini's terminology), and not in the sense of mere affixes; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः Nirukta of Yāska.I.14: अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; तिङ्कृत्तद्धितसमासा: शब्दमयम् V.Pr. I.27; also confer, compare V.Pr. VI.4. Patañjali and later grammarians have used the word कृत् in the sense of कृदन्त; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari Śek.Pari.75. The kṛt affixes are given by Pāṇini in the senses of the different Kārakas अपादान, संप्रदान, करण, अाधकरण, कर्म and कर्तृ, stating in general terms that if no other sense is assigned to a kṛt affix it should be understood that कर्ता or the agent of the verbal activity is the sense; confer, compare कर्तरि कृत् । येष्वर्थनिर्देशो नास्ति तत्रेदमुपतिष्ठते Kāś. on III.4.67. The activity element possessed by the root lies generally dormant in the verbal derivative nouns; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति, क्रियावदपि । M.Bh.on V.4.19 and VI. 2.139
kṛtvasuctaddhita affix. affix कृत्वम् applied to numerals to convey the sense of repetition, e. g. पंञ्चकृत्वः दशकृत्वः confer, compare संख्यायाः क्रियाभ्यावृत्तिगणने कृत्वसुच् P. V. 4.17.
kṛdgrahaṇamention of a kṛt id est, that is of a word ending with a kṛt affix. The word mainly occurs in the Paribhāṣā कृद्ग्रहणे गतिकारकपूर्वस्यापि ग्रहणम् which occurs first as an expression of the Vārttikakāra (P.I.4.13 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9) and has been later on given as a Paribhāṣā by later grammarians (Pari. Śek. Pari.28).The Paribhāṣā is referred to as वृद्ब्रह्मणपरिभाषा in later grammar works especially commentary works.
koṭarādia class of words headed by the word कोटर which get their final vowel lengthened when the word वन is placed after them as a seconditional member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; exempli gratia, for example कोटरावणम्, मिश्रकावणम्. confer, compare Kāś. on P.VI.3.117.
koṇḍabhaṭṭaa reputed grammarian who wrote an extensive explanatory gloss by name Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa on the Vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakārikā of Bhaṭṭoji Dīkṣita. Another work Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra. which is in a way an abridgment of the Bhūṣaṇa, was also written by him. Koṇḍabhaṭṭa lived in the beginning of the l7th century. He was the son of Raṅgojī and nephew of Bhaṭṭojī Dīkṣita. He was one of the few writers on the Arthavicāra in the Vyākaraṇaśāstra and his Bhūṣaṇasāra ranks next to the Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Besides the Bhūṣaṇa and Bhūṣaṇasāra, Koṇḍabhaṭṭa wrote two independent works viz. Vaiyākaraṇsiddhāntadīpika and Sphoṭavāda.
kyapkṛt afix य applied to the roots व्रज् and यज् in the sense of 'verbal activity' and to the roots अजू with सम्, षद् with नि et cetera, and others to form proper nouns e. g. व्रज्या, इज्या, समज्या, निषद्या et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. III. 3.98 and 99; (2) kṛtya affix य in the sense of 'should be done' applied to the roots वद्, भू and हन् (when preceded by certain words put as upapada), as also to roots with penultimate ऋ and the roots मृज्, इ, स्तु and others; e. g. ब्रह्मोद्यम् , ब्रह्मभूयम् , इत्यम् , स्तुत्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1. 106,121.
krama(1)serial order or succession as contrasted with यौगपद्य or simultaneity. The difference between क्रम and यौगपद्य is given by भर्तृहरि in the line क्रमे विभिद्यते रूपं यौगपद्ये न भिद्यते Vāk. Pad. II. 470. In order to form a word by the application of several rules of grammar, a particular order is generally followed in accordance with the general principle laid down in the Paribhāṣā पूर्वपरनित्यान्तरङ्गापवादानामुत्तरोत्तरं बलीयः, as also according to what is stated in the sūtras असिद्धवदत्राभात्, पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् et cetera, and others (2) succession, or being placed after, specifically with reference to indeclinables like एव, च et cetera, and others which are placed after a noun with which they are connectedition When an indecinable is not so connected, it is called भिन्नक्रम; confer, compare परिपन्थं च तिष्ठति (P.IV. 4.36), चकारो भिन्नक्रमः प्रत्ययार्थं समुच्चिनोति, Kāś. on P. IV. 4.36; also ईडजनोर्ध्वे च । चशब्दो भिन्नक्रमः
īśeḥ(VII.2.77)अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. l to 4; confer, compare also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, confer, compare also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 1. For details and special features, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ch. X and XI: confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
kramapāṭharecital of the Vedic Saṁhitā by means of separate groups of two words, repeating each word except the first of the Vedic verseline; see क्रम a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The various rules and exceptions are given in detail in Paṭalas ten and eleven of the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. The Vedic Saṁhitā or Saṁhitāpāṭha is supposed to be the original one and the Padapāṭha prepared later on, with a view to preserving the Vedic text without any change or modification of a letter, or accent; confer, compare न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and VIII. 2.16, where Patañjali clearly says that grammar-rules are not to follow the Padapāṭha, but, the writer of the Padapāṭha is to follow the rules already laid down. The Jaṭāpāṭha, the Ghanapāṭha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapāṭha as they are not mentioned in the Prātiśākhya works.
kriyāaction, verbal activity; confer, compare क्रियावचनो धातु: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.1 ; confer, compare also क्रियावाचकमाख्यातम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8. quoted by Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.in his Bhāṣya on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50; confer, compare also उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I.4.59, लक्षणहेत्वेाः क्रियायाः P.III. 2.126; confer, compare also यत्तर्हि तदिङ्गितं चेष्टितं निमिषितं स शब्दः । नेत्याह क्रिया नाम सा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1. The word भाव many times is used in the same sense as kriyā or verbal activity in the sūtras of Pāṇini. confer, compare P.I.2.21 ; I.3.13; III. 1. 66.etc; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति a statement made frequently by the Mahābhāṣyakāra. Some scholars draw a nice distinction between क्रिया and भाव, क्रिया meaning dynamic activity and भाव meaning static activity: confer, compare अपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यो धात्वर्थो भावः । सपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यस्तु क्रिया Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.87. Philosophically क्रिया is defined as सत्ता appearing in temporal sequence in various things. When सत्ता does not so appear it is called सत्त्व.
kriyātipattiliterally over-extension or excess of action; the word is, however, used in grammar in the sense of non-happening of an expected action especially when . it forms a condition of the conditional mood ( लृङ् ); confer, compare कुताश्चिद्वैगुण्यादनभिनिर्वृत्तिः क्रियायाः क्रियातिपत्तिः Kāś. on P. III. 3.139; confer, compare also नान्तरेण साधनं क्रियायाः प्रवृत्तिरस्तीति साधनातिपत्तिश्चेत्कियातिपत्तिरपि भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.3.139.
kriyāsamabhihārarepetition or intensity of a verbal activity; confer, compare समभिहारः पौनः पुन्यं भृशार्थो वा, Kāś. on P.I.4.2.
kvasukṛt affix वस्, taking the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) in the feminine gender, prescribed in the sense of perfect tense, which is mostly found in Vedic Literature and added to some roots only such as सद्, वस्, श्रु et cetera, and others in the spoken language; e. g. जक्षिवान् पपिवान् उपसेदिवान् कौत्स; पाणिनिम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.2.107-109.
kvinkṛt zero affix, id est, that is an affix of which every letter is dropped and nothing remains, added to the roots स्पृश्, यज्, सृज्, दृश्, et cetera, and others under certain conditions; exempli gratia, for example घृतस्पृक्, ऋत्विक्, यादृक्, तादृक्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.2.58-60.
kvibantaa substantive ending with the kṛt affix क्विप् (zero affix) added to a root to form a noun in the sense of the verbal action (भाव). The words ending with this affix having got the sense of verbal activity in them quite suppressed, get the noun terminations सु, औ, जस् et cetera, and others and not ति, तः et cetera, and others placed after them; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद् भवति. However, at the same time, these words undergo certain operations peculiar to roots simply because the kṛt affix entirely disappears and the word formed, appears like a root; confer, compare क्विबन्ता धातुत्वं न जहति. Kaiyaṭa's Prad. on VII.1.70.
khañtaddhita affix. affix ईन, applied to महाकुल in the sense of a descendant; e. g. माहाकुलीनः confer, compare P. IV. 1.141, to ग्राम (P. IV. 2.94), to युष्मद् and अस्मद् in the Śaiṣika senses (P.IV.3.1), to प्रतिजन, इदंयुग et cetera, and others (P. IV. 4.99), to माणव and चरक (P. V.1.11), to ऋत्विज् (P.IV.3.71), to मास (P. IV. 3.81), to words meaning corn in the sense of 'a field producing corn' (P.V.2.1), to सर्वचर्मन् (P.V.2.5), and to the words गोष्ठ, अश्व, शाला et cetera, and others in some specified senses (P. V. 3.18-23). A vṛddhi vowel ( अा, ऐ or औ ) is substituted for the first vowel of the word to which this affix खञ् is applied, as ञ् is the mute letter applied in the affix खञ्.
khaśkṛt affix added to the roots यज् (causal), ध्मा, धे,रुज्, वह्, लिह्, पच् , दृश् , तप्, मन् et cetera, and others preceded by certain specified upapada words. The root undergoes all the operations such as the addition of the conjugational sign et cetera, and others before this खश् on account of the mute letter श् which makes खश् a Sārvadhātuka affix, and the augment म् is added to the preceding उपपद if it is not an indeclinable on account of the mute letter ख्; e. g. जनमेजयः, स्तनंधयः, नाडिंधमः, असूयै. पश्यः पण्डितंमन्यः etc,; confer, compare Pāṇ. III2.28-37, 83.
gthird letter of the guttural class of consonants, possessed of the properties घोष, संवृत, नाद and अल्पप्राण; some grammarians look upon the word क्ङित् (P.I.1.5) as made up of क् , ग् and ङ् and say that the Guna and Vṛddhi substitutes do not take place in the vowels इ, उ, ऋ, and लृ if an affix or so, marked by the mute letter ग् follows.
gaṅgādhara[GANGADHARA SHASTRI TELANG] (l)a stalwart grammarian and Sanskrit scholar of repute who was a pupil of Bālasarasvatī of Vārāṇaśī and prepared in the last century a host of Sanskrit scholars in Banaras among whom a special mention could be made of Dr. Thebaut, Dr. Venis and Dr. Gaṅgānātha Jhā. He was given by Government of India the titles Mahāmahopādhyāya and C. I.E. His surname was Mānavallī but he was often known as गङाधरशास्त्री तेलङ्ग. For details, see Mahābhāṣya, D.E. Society Ed.Poona p.p.33, 34; (2)an old scholar of Vyākarana who is believed to have written a commentary on Vikṛtavallī of Vyādi; (3) a comparatively modern scholar who is said to have written a commentary named Induprakāśa on the Śabdenduśekhara; (4) author of the Vyākaraṇadīpaprabhā, a short commentary on the Vyākaraṇa work of Cidrūpāśramin. See चिद्रूपाश्रमिन्.
gaṇasūtraa statement of the type of a Sūtra in the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini where mention of a word or words in the Gaṇapāṭha is made along with certain conditions; e. g. पूर्वपुरावरo, स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् , in the सर्वादिगण, and क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः, तसिलादय: प्राक्पाशपः in the स्वरादिगण. Some of the gaṇasūtras are found incorporated in the Sūtrapāṭha itself Many later grammarians have appended their own gaṇapāṭha to their Sūtrapāṭha.
gatyarthaa root denoting motion; the word frequently occurs in the Sūtras of Pāṇini and the Mahābhāṣya in connection with some special operations prescribed for roots which are गत्यर्थ. There is also a conventional expression सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्था: meaning 'roots denoting motion denote also knowledge'; confer, compare Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. Pari. 121 .
garīyasinvolving a special effort.The word is frequently used by the Vārttikakāra and old grammarians in connection with something, which involves greater effort and longer expression and, hence, not commendable in rules of the Shastra works where brevity is the soul of 'wit'; confer, compare पदगौरवाद्योगवेिभागो गरीयान् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 121. The word गुरु is also sometimes used in a similar sense; confer, compare तद् गुरु भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1 Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. l Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
garīyastvagreater effort or prolixity of expression which is looked upon as a fault in connection with grammar-works of the sūtra type where every care is taken to make the expression as brief as possible; confer, compare अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणाः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 122. The word गौरव is often used for गरीयस्त्व.
galatpadathe word occurs in the Prātiśākhya works in connection with the definition of संक्रम, in the kramapātha. The word संक्रम means bringing together two words when they are combined according to rules of Samdhi. (See the word संक्रम). In the Kramapātha, where each word occurs twice by repetition, a word occurring twice in a hymn or a sentence is not to be repeated for Kramapātha, but it is to be passed over. The word which is passed over in the Kramapātha is called गलत्पद; e. g. दिशां च पतये नमो नमो वृक्षेभ्यो हरिकेशेभ्यः पशूनां पतये नमो नमः सस्पिञ्जराय त्विषीमतॆ पथीनां पतये नमः । In the Kramapātha पतये नमः and नमः are passed over and पशूनां is to be connected with सस्पिञ्जराय. The words पतये नमः and नमः are called galatpada; confer, compare गलत्पदमतिक्रम्य अगलता सह संधानं संक्रम; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 197. There is no गलत्पद in पदपाठ.
gārgyaan ancient reputed grammarian and possibly a writer of a Nirukta work, whose views, especially in.connection with accents are given in the Pratisakhya works, the Nirukta and Panini's Astadhyayi. Although belonging to the Nirukta school, he upheld the view of the Vaiyakaranas that all words cannot be derived, but only some of them: cf Nirukta of Yāska.I. 12.3. cf, also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 167, Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.5, III. 14.22: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 13; XIII. 12: P. VII. 3.99, VIII. 3.20, VIII. 4.69.
gāvaa technical term for the term अाङ्ग (pertaining to the base in the grammar of Panini); confer, compare वार्णात् गावं बलीयः Kat. Pari. 72.
guṇa(1)degree of a vowel; vocalic degree, the second out of the three degrees of a vowel viz. primary degree, guna degree and vrddhi degree exempli gratia, for example इ, ए and ऐ or उ, ओ and औ. अ is given as a guna of अ; but regarding अ also,three degrees can be stated अ, अ and आ. In the Pratisakhya and Nirukta ए is called गुण or even गुणागम but no definiti6n is given ; confer, compare गुणागमादेतनभावि चेतन R.Pr.XI.6;शेवम् इति विभीषितगुणः। शेवमित्यपि भवति Nir.X.17: (2) the properties of phonetic elements or letters such as श्वास,नाद et cetera, and others: confer, compareṚgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) Ch.XIII : (3) secondary, subordinate;confer, compare शेषः,अङ्गं, गुणः इति समानार्थाः Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.on Nirukta of Yāska.I.12: (4) properties residing in a substance just as whiteness, et cetera, and others in a garment which are different from the substance ( द्रव्य ). The word गुण is explained by quotations from ancient grammarians in the Maha bhasya as सत्वे निविशतेsपैति पृथग्जातिषु दृश्यते । अाघेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोSसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः ॥ अपर आह । उपैत्यन्यज्जहात्यन्यद् दृष्टो द्रव्यान्तरेष्वपि। वाचकः सर्वलिङ्गानां द्रव्यादन्यो गुणः स्मृतः ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.44;cf also शब्दस्पर्शरूपरसगन्धा गुणास्ततोन्यद् द्रव्यम् ,M.Bh.on V.1.119 (5) properties of letters like उदात्तत्व, अनुदात्तत्व, स्वरितत्व, ह्र्स्वत्व, दीर्घत्व, प्लुतत्व, अानुनासिक्य et cetera, and others; confer, compare भेदकत्वाद् गुणस्य । आनुनासिक्यं नाम गुणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.. Vart, 13: (6) determinant cf भवति बहुव्रीहौ तद्गुणसंविज्ञानमपि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.27; (7) technical term in Panini's grarnmar standing for the vowels अ, ए and ओ, confer, compare अदेङ्गुणः P.I.1.2. For the various shades of the meaning of the word गुण, see Mahabhasya on V.1.119. " गुणशब्दोयं बह्वर्थः । अस्त्येव समेष्ववयवेषु वर्तते ।...... चर्चागुणांश्च ।
guṇabhāvina vowel, liable to take the guna substitute e. g. इ, उ, ऋ, लृ and the penultimate अ; confer, compare यत्र क्ङित्यनन्तरो गुणभाव्यस्ति तत्रैव स्यात् । चितम् । स्तुतम् । इह तु न स्याद्भिन्नः भिन्नवानिति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.5.
guṇabhedadifference in properties; confer, compare एकोयमात्मा उदकं नाम तस्य गुणभेदादन्यत्वं भवति । अन्यदिदं शीतमन्यदिदमुष्णमिति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I, 1.2.
guṇībhūtasubordinate, literally which has become subordinated, which has become submerged, and therefore has formed an integral part of another; e. g. an augment ( अागम ) with respect to the word to which it has been added;confer, compareयदागमास्तद्गुणी भूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.20 Vart. 5; Par. Sek. Pari. 11.
guru(1)possessed of a special effort as opposed to लघु; confer, compare तद् गुरु भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1। (2) heavy, a technical term including दीर्घ (long) vowel as also a ह्रस्व (short) vowel when it is followed by a conjunct consonant, (confer, compare संयोगे गुरु । दीर्घ च। P. I. 4.11, 12) or a consonant after which the word terminates or when it (the vowel) is nasalized; confer, compare Tai. Pr. XXII. 14, confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 5.
goṣṭhaca taddhita affix.affix applied to words like गो and others in the sense of 'a place'; confer, compare गेष्ठजादयः स्थानादिषु पशुनाम। पशुनामादिभ्य उपसंख्यानम् | गवां स्थानं गोगोष्ठम्, अश्वगोष्ठम्: महिषीगोष्ठम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.1. varia lectio, another reading,2.29 It is very likely that words like गोष्ठ, दघ्न and others were treated as pratyayas by Panini and katyayana who followed Panini, because they were found always associated with a noun preceding them and never independently.
gauṇamukhyanyāyathe maxim that the primary sense occurs to the mind earlier than the secondary sense, and hence words used in the primary sense should be always taken for grammatical operations in preference to words in a secondary sense. See the word गेोण.
grahaṇavatspecifically mentioned in a rule, individually mentioned; confer, compare ग्रहणवता प्रातिपदिकेन तदन्तविधिर्नास्ति Par. Sek.Pari.31. See the word ग्रहण.
gh(1)fourth consonant of the guttural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदानत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2)the consonant घ at the beginning of a taddhita affix. affix which is always changed into इय्; confer, compare P. VII. 1. 9; (3) substitute for ह् at the end of roots beginning with द्, as also of the root नह् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.VIII.2.32,33,34; (4) substitute for the consonant व् of मतुव् placed after the pronouns किम् and इदम् which again is changed into इय् by VII.1.9: exempli gratia, for example कियान्, इयान्: confer, compare P.V. 2.40.
gha(l)consonant घ्, अ being added at the end for facility of pronunciation; confer, compareTai. Pr.I.21; (2) technical term for the taddhita affix. affixes तरप् and तमप्, confer, compare P.I.1.22, causing the shortening of ई at the end of bases before it, under certain conditions, confer, compare P. VI. 3.43-45, and liable to be changed into तराम् and तमाम् after किम्, verbs ending in ए, and indeclinables; confer, compare P.V.4.11; (3) taddhita affix. affix घ ( इय) in the sense of 'a descendant' applied to क्षत्र, and in the sense of 'having that as a deity' applied to अपोनप्तृ अपांनप्तृ and also to महेन्द्र and to the words राष्ट्र et cetera, and others, exempli gratia, for example क्षत्रियः, अपोनाप्त्रिय:, अपांनप्त्रियः, महेन्द्रियम्,राष्ट्रियः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV.1.138, IV.2.27, 29, 93; (4) taddhita affix. affix घ, applied to अग्र, समुद्र and अभ्र in the sense of 'present there', to सहस्र in the sense of 'possession', to, नक्षत्र without any change of sense, and to यज्ञ and ऋत्विज् in the sense of 'deserving'; confer, compare P.IV.4.117,118,135, 136,141, V.1.71 ; (5) krt affix अ when the word to which it has been applied becomes a proper noun id est, that isa noun in a specific sense or a technical term; confer, compare III.3. 118, 119,125.
ghañkrt affix अ causing the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel applied in various senses as specified in P.III.3. 16-42, III.3. 45-55,III.3.120-125, exempli gratia, for example पाद:, रोग:, आयः, भावः, अवग्राहृः प्रावारः, अवतारः, लेखः रागः etc
ghantaddhita affix. affix अ applied to the words शुक्र, तुग्र, पात्र, and to multisyllabic words in specified senses, causing the acute accent on the first vowel of the word so formed; confer, compareIV.2.26, IV.4. 115, V.1.68, V.3.79, 80.
ghinuṇkrt affix इन् causing the substitution of Vrddhi for the preceding vowel, as also to the penultimate vowel अ, applied to the eight roots शम्,तम्, दम् et cetera, and others, as also to संपृच्, अनुरुध् et cetera, and others and कस्, लष् लप्, et cetera, and others. e. g. शमी,तमी, दमी, संपर्की, संज्वारी, प्रलापी et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. III.2.141-145.
ghoṣavata consonant characterized by the property घोष, at the time of its utterance; confer, compare तृतीयचतुर्थाः संवृतकण्ठाः नादानुप्रदाना घोषवन्तः M.Bh. on P,I.1.9.
(1)fifth letter of the guttural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदान, अल्पप्राणत्व and अानुनासिक्य; (2) the consonant ङ् getting the letter ,क as an augment added to it, if standing at the end of a word and followed by a sibilant, e. g. प्राङ्कूशेते confer, compare ङ्णो: कुक् टुक् शरि P. VIII. 3.28; (3) the consonant ङ् which, standing at the end of a word and preceded by a short vowel, causes the vowel following it to get the augment ङ् prefixed to it; e. g, प्रत्यङ्ङास्ते confer, compare ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण् नित्यम् P. VIII.3.32.
ṅīṣfeminine. afix ई, which is udatta, applied to words in the class of words headed by गौर, as also to noun bases ending in affixes marked with.mute ष्, as also to words mentioned in the class headed by बहुः confer, compare P.IV.1.41-46.It is also added in the sense of 'wife of' to any word denoting a male person; confer, compare P. IV. 1. 48, and together with the augment आनुक् (आन्) to the words इन्द्र, वरुण etc exempli gratia, for example इन्द्राणी, वरुणानि, यवनानि meaning 'the script of the Yavanas' confer, compare P. IV. 1.49. It is also added words ending in क्रीत and words ending in क्त and also to words expressive of ' limbs of body ' under certain conditions; confer, compare P.IV.1. 50-59 and IV. 1.61-65.
cfirst consonant of palatal class of consonants, possessed of the properties, श्वास, अघोष, अल्पप्राण and कण्ठविवृतत्व. च् at the beginning of an affix is mute e. g. च्फञ्, confer, compare चुट् P. I. 3.7; words, having the mute letter च् (dropped), have their last vowel accented acute e. g. भङ्गुरम् । भासुरम् । confer, compare चित: VI. 1.163.
cakrakaa kind of fault in the application of operations, resulting in confusion; a fault in which one returns to the same place not immediately as in Anavastha but after several steps; confer, compare पुनर्ऋच्छिभावः पुनराट् इति चक्रकमव्यवस्था प्राप्नोति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.60 Vart 5.
caṅgudāsaor चाड्गुदास a scholar of grammar who has written an independent work on Sanskrit Vyakaana called वैयाकरणजीवातु. The treatise is also known as चाङ्गुसूत्र or चाङ्गु-व्याकरण.
caṇthe indeclinable च (with ण् as a mute letter added to it which of course disappears) possessing the sense of चेत् or condition. exempli gratia, for example अयं च मरिष्यति confer, compare Kas, on P. VIII. 1.30.
caṇaptaddhita affix. affix चण in the sense of वित्त (known by) applied to a word which refers to that thing by which a person is known. e. g. विद्याचणः, केशचण:; confer, compare P. V. 2.26.
caritārthawhich has got already a scope of application; the term is used by commentators in connection with a rule or a word forming a part of a rule which applies in the case of some instances and hence which cannot be said to be ब्यर्थ (superfluous) or without any utility and as a result cannot be said to be capable of allowing some conclusion to be drawn from it according to the dictum ब्यर्थं सज्ज्ञापयति confer, compare अपवादो यद्यन्यत्र चरितार्थस्तर्ह्यन्तरङ्गेण बाध्यते Par. Sek. Pari. 65.
carkarītaa term used by the ancient grammarians in connection with a secondary root in the sense of frequency; the term यङ्लुगन्त is used by comparatively modern grammarians in the same sense. The चर्करीत roots are treated as roots of the adadi class or second conjugation and hence the general Vikarana अ ( शप् ) is omitted after them.The word is based on the 3rd person. sing form चर्करीति from .the root कृ in the sense of frequency; exempli gratia, for example चर्करीति, चर्कर्ति, बोभवीति बोभोति; confer, compare चर्करीतं च a gana-sutra in the gana named ’adadi’ given by Panini in connection with अदिप्रभृतिभ्य; शपः Pāṇini. II.4.72; confer, compare also चर्करीतमिति यङ्लुकः प्राचां संज्ञा Bhasa Vr. on P. II. 4.72, The word चेक्रीयित is similarly used for the frequentative when the sign of the frequentative viz. य ( यङ् ) is not elidedition See चेक्रीयित.
carcā(1)splitting up of a word into its component parts, which is generalty shown in the Padaptha by अवग्रहं (S). The word, hence means पदपाठ or recital by showing separately the constitutent words of the Samhita or the running text of the Veda. The word is used almost in the same sense in the Mahabhasya in respect of showing the words of a sutra separately; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऐजिति । किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत्समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति M.Bh. on Mahesvara Sutra 1 Wart. 6l ; (2) a repeated word; confer, compare इतिकरणात् पुरतो यत् पुनः पदवचनं तत् चर्चाशब्देनोच्यते. Uvvata on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.20; (3) a discussion or a debate where consideration is given to each single word; confer, compare प्रर्यायशब्दानां लाघवगौरवचर्चा नाद्रियते Par. Sek. Pari. 115.
carcāguṇarepetition of a word in the पद्पाठ, क्रमपाठ, जटापाठ et cetera, and others where the several Pathas appear to be called चर्चा.In the पदपाठ a word in a compound is repeated twice, in the क्रमपाठ every word is repeated twice, in the जटापाठ, six times.
cāṅgudāsathe same as चङ्गु or चाङ्गु or चङ्गुदास,a grammarian who composed a compendium on grammar called वैयाकरणजीवातु and also a commentary on it.
ciṇsubstitute इ causing vrddhi, in the place of the aorist vikarana affix च्लि, prescribed in the case of all roots in the passive voice and in the case of the roots पद्, दीप्, जन् et cetera, and others in the active voice before the affix त of the third person. singular. in the Atmanepada, which in its turn is elided by P. VI. 4. 104. cf P. III. 1.60-66.
codaka(1)an objector; the word is common in the Commentary Literature where likely objections to a particular statement are raised, without specific reference to any individual objector, and replies are given, simply with a view to making matters clear; (2) repetition of a word with इति interposed: confer, compare चेदकः परिग्रहः इत्यनर्थान्तरम्. See अदृष्टवर्ण and परिग्रह.
cilathe sign of the aorist ( लुड् ) for which generally सिच् and अङ्, क्स, चङ् and चिण् are substituted in specified cases; confer, compare P. III. 1. 43-66.
chthe second consonant of the palatal class of consonants ( चवर्ग ), which is possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, मह्याप्राण and कण्ठविवृतकारित्व. छ् , placed at the beginning of affixes, is mute; while ईय् is substituted for छ् standing at the beginning of taddhita affixes; confer, compare P. I. 3.7 and VII. 1.2. छ् at the end of roots has got ष्, substituted for it: confer, compare P. VIII. 2.36.
chataddhita affix. affix ईय, added ( 1 ) to the words स्वसृ, भ्रातृ and to words ending with the taddhita affix. affix फिञ्: confer, compare P. IV. 1.143,144 and 149; (2) to the dvandva compound of words meaning constellations,to the words अपोनप्तृ, अपांनप्तृ, महेन्द्र, द्यावापृथिवी, शुनासीर et cetera, and others as also to शर्करा, उत्कर , नड et cetera, and others in certain specified senses, confer, compare P. IV. 2.6, 28, 29, 32, 48, 84, 90 &91 ;(3) to words beginning with the vowel called Vrddhi (आ,ऐ or औ),to words ending with गर्त, to words of the गह class, and to युष्मद् and अस्मद् in the शैषिक senses, confer, compare P. IV. 3.114, 137-45 and IV. 3.1 ; (4) to the words जिह्वामूल, अङ्गुलि, as also to words ending in वर्ग in the sense of 'present there '; confer, compare P.IV.3.62-64; (5) to the words शिशुक्रन्द, यमसम, dvandva compounds, इन्द्रजनन and others in the sense of 'a book composed in respect of', confer, compare P.IV. 3.88; (6)to words meaning warrior tribes, to words रैवतिक etc, as also अायुध, and अग्र, in some specified senses: cf P.IV. 3.91, 131, IV. 4.14, 117; (7) to all words barring those given as exceptions in the general senses mentioned in the second. V.I.1-37; (8) to the words पुत्र, कडङ्कर, दक्षिण, words ending in वत्सर, अनुप्रवचन et cetera, and others होत्रा, अभ्यमित्र and कुशाग्र in specified senses; confer, compare P. V. 1. 40, 69,70,91,92, 111,112,135, V. 2.17, V.3.105; (9) to compound words in the sense of इव; e. g. काकतालीयम् , अजाकृपाणीयम् et cetera, and others confer, compare V. 3. 106;and (10) to words ending in जति and स्थान in specified senses; confer, compare P. V.4, 9,10.
jthird consonant of the palatal class of consonants, possessed of the properties नाद, घोष, अल्पप्राण and कण्ठसंवृत्तकारित्व. ज् at the beginning of affixes is mute in Panini's grammar.
jaṭāa kind of Vedic recital wherein each word is repeated six times. जटा is called one of the 8 kinds ( अष्टविकृति) of the Kramapatha, which in its turn is based on the Padapatha; confer, compare जटा माला शिखा रेखा ध्वजो दण्डो रथो घनः। अष्टौ बिकृतय: प्रोक्ताः क्रमपूर्वा मनीषिभिः । जटा is defined as अनुलोमविलोमाभ्यां त्रिवारं हि पठेत् क्रमम् । विलोमे पदवत्संधिः अनुलोमे यथाक्रमम् । The recital of ओषधयः संवदन्ते संवदन्ते सोमेन can be illustrated as ओषधयः सं, समोषधयः, ओषधयः सं, सं वदन्ते, वदन्ते सं, सेवदन्ते, वदन्ते सोमेन,सोमेन वदन्ते , वदन्ते सोमेन ।
jahaddharmatvaabandonment or giving up of properties in the case of a word included in a वृत्ति or composite expression; confer, compare जहद्धर्मत्वाच्छब्दप्रवृत्तेः Durghata Vrtti on P. II. 2.6.
jātabahiraṅgāsiddhatvainvalidity of a Bahiranga operation that has already taken place by virtue of the Antaranga-paribhasa-असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्ङ्गेthat which is ' bahiranga' is regarded as not having taken effect when that which is 'antarahga' is to take effect. For details see Par. Sek. Paribhasa 50.
jātābhīyāsiddhatvainvalidity of a grammatical operation prescribed by a rule in the अाभीय section (P. VI. 4.22 upto the end of the fourth pada ) which, although it has taken place, is to be looked upon as not having taken place when any other operation in the same section is to take effect. See आभीयासिद्व.
jātīyartaddhita affix. affix जातीय in the sense of प्रकार or variety; e. g. पटुजातीयः, मृदुजातीयः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.69. Originally जातीय was possibly an independent word, but as its use, especially as a noun, was found restricted, it came to be looked upon as an affix on the analogy of the affixes कल्प, देश्य, देशीय and others.
jāmitautologous, unnecessarily repeated; the word is defined and illustrated by Yaska as;-तद्यत्समान्यामृचि समानाभिव्याहारं भवति तज्जामि भवतीत्येकं । मधुमन्तं मधुश्चुतमिति यथा Nir.x.16.2. For other definitions of the word जामि conveying practically the same idea, confer, compare Nir.X. 16. 3 and 4.
jusverbal termination उस् substituted for the original झि of the third person. pl, in certain cases mentioned inP.III.4.108,109,110,111, and 112.
jñāpakaliterallyindirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, confer, compareM.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 et cetera, and others The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systemanuscript. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.
jhfourth consonant of the palatal class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, and महाप्राणत्व; झ् at the beginning of an affix in Panini Sutras is mute; e. g. the affixes झि, झ et cetera, and others; cf चुटूं P. I. 3.7.
jhaa verbal ending of the 3rd person. Atm. for ल ( id est, that is लकार ); cf P.III.4. 78;for the letter झ् , अन्त् is substituted; confer, compare झोन्तः P. VIII.1.3, but ईरे in the perfect tense; confer, compare P. III. 4.81 and रन् in the potential and benedictive moods; confer, compare P. III. 4.85.
jhacwording of the affix झ (see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) suggested by the Varttikakara to have the last vowel of अन्त acute, by चितः (P.VI.1.163) the property चित्व being transferred from the original झ to अन्त; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. तथा च झचश्चित्करणमर्थवद् भवति on P.VII.1.3.
jhi(1)verb-ending of the 3rd person. plural Parasmaipada, substituted for the लकार of the ten lakaras, changed to जुस in the potential and the benedictive moods, and optionally so in the imperfect and after the sign स् of the aorist; confer, compareP,III. 4. 82, 83, 84, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112: (2) a conventional term for अव्यय (indeclinable) used in the Jainendra Vyakaraha.
jhita term, meaning 'having झ् as इत्' used by the Varttikakra in connection with those words in the rules of Panini which themselves as well as words referring to their special kinds, are liable to undergo the prescribed operation; confer, compare झित् तस्य च तद्विशेषाणां च मत्स्याद्यर्थम्। पक्षिमत्स्यमृगान् हन्ति। मात्त्प्यिक;। तद्विशेषाणाम्। शाफरिकः शाकुलिकः । M.Bh.on P.I. 1. 68 Vart. 8.
ñ(1)the nasal (fifth consonant) of the palatal class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, कण्टसंवृतत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्य; (2) mute letter, characterized by which an affix signifies वृद्धि for the preceding vowel; ञ् of a taddhita affix, however, signifies वृद्धि for the first vowel of the word to which the affix is added; (3) a mute letter added to a root at the end to signify that the root takes verb-endings of both the padas.
the first consonant of the lingual class ( टवर्ग ) possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When prefixed or affixed to an affix as an indicatory letter, it signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ); confer, compare P. IV. 1.15, When added to the conjugational affixes ( लकार ) it shows that in the Atmanepada the vowel of the last syllable is changed to ए. confer, compare P. III. 4.79. When added to an augment ( अागम ), it shows that the augment marked with it is to be prefixed and not to be affixed; e. g. नुट्, तुट् et cetera, and others; cf P. I. 1.46.
ṭacthe samasanta affix अ added to certain specified words at the end of the tatpurusa and other compounds exempli gratia, for example राजसखः, पञ्चगवम्, महानसम्, समक्षम् , अध्यात्मम् et cetera, and others cf P.V.4.91-112.
ṭhthe second consonant of the lingual class possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्टत्व and महाप्राणत्व. For the syllable ठ at the beginning of taddhita affixes, the syllable इक is substituted; if however the affix (beginning with ठ ) follows upon a word ending in इस्, उस्, उ, ऋ, लृ and त् then क is added instead of इक; e. g. धानुष्क:, औदश्वित्कः et cetera, and others; confer, compare टस्येकः, इसुसुक्तान्तात् कः, P. VII. 3.50, 51. Some scholars say that इक् and क् are substituted for ठ् by the sutras quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare KS. on VII. 3.50.
ṭhaka very common taddhita affix. affix इक, or क in case it is added to words ending in इस् , उस् , उ, ऋ, ल् and त् according to P. VII. 3. 51, causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ठक् is added to (1) रेवती and other words in the sense of descendant ( अपत्य ) e. g. रैवतिकः:, दाण्डग्राहिकः, गार्गिकः, भागवित्तिकः यामुन्दायनिकः, confer, compare P. IV. 1.146-149; (2) to the words लाक्षा,रोचना et cetera, and others in the sense of 'dyed in', e. g. लाक्षिकम्, रौचनिकम् ; confer, compare P. IV. 2.2; (3) to the words दधि and उदश्वित् in the sense of संस्कृत 'made better ', e. g. दाधिकम् , औदश्वित्कम् ( क instead of इक substituted for टक् ), confer, compare P. IV.2. 18, 19; (4) to the words अाग्रहायुणी, अश्वत्थ et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 22, 23; (5) to words expressive of inanimate objects, to the words हस्ति and धेनु, as also to the words केश and अश्व in the sense of 'multitude '; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 47, 48; (6) to the words क्रतु, उक्थ and words ending in सूत्र, वसन्त et cetera, and others, in the sense of 'students of' ( तदधीते तद्वेद ), confer, compare P. IV. 2.59, 60, 63; (7) to the words कुमुद and others as also to शर्करा as a चातुरर्थिक affix; confer, compare P. IV. 2.80, 84; (8) to the words कन्था, भवत् and वर्षा in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P. IV. 2.102, 115, IV. 3.18; (9) to the words उपजानु and others in the sense 'generally present '; confer, compare P. IV. 3. 40; (10) to the words consisting of two syllables, and the words ऋक्, ब्राह्मण et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'explanatory literary work'; confer, compare P. IV.3.72: ( 11) to words meaning 'sources of income ' in the sense of 'accruing from’; confer, compare P. IV. 3.75; (12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place in the sense of ' भक्ति ', cf P. IV. 8.96; and (13) to the words हल् and सीर in the sense of 'belonging to', confer, compare P. IV. 3.124. The taddhita affix. affix ठक् is added as a general termination, excepting in such cases where other affixes are prescribed, in specified senses like 'तेन दीव्यति, ' 'तेन खनति,' 'तेन संस्कृतम्' et cetera, and others; cf P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to words हल, सीर, कथा, विकथा, वितण्डा et cetera, and others in specified senses, confer, compare P. IV.4. 81, 102 ठक् is also added as a general taddhita affix. affix or अधिकारविहितप्रत्यय, in various specified senses, as prescribed by P. V.1.19-63,and to the words उदर, अयःशूल,दण्ड, अजिन, अङ्गुली, मण्डल, et cetera, and others and to the word एकशाला, in the prescribed senses; confer, compare P. V. 2.67,76, V. 3.108,109; while, without making any change in sense it is added to अनुगादिन् , विनय, समय, उपाय ( औपयिक being the word formed), अकस्मात्, कथंचित्; (confer, compareआकस्मिक काथंचित्क), समूह,विशेष, अत्यय and others, and to the word वाक् in the sense of 'expressed'; confer, compare P. V. 4.13, 34, 35. The feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ) is added to words ending in the affix टक् to form feminine. bases.
ṭhacataddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) with the vowel अ accented acute applied to (1) कुमुद and others as a Caturarthika affix; confer, compare P. IV.2.80; (2) to multisyllabic words and words beginning with उप which are proper nouns for persons; confer, compare P. V.3.78, 80; and (3) to the word एकशाला in the sense of इव; confer, compare P. V.3.109. The base, to which टच् is added, retains generally two syllables or sometimes three, the rest being elided before the affix ठच् e. g. देविकः, वायुकः, पितृकः शेबलिकः et cetera, and others from the words देवदत्त, वायुदत्त, पितृदत्त, शेवलदत्त et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. V,3.83, 84.
ṭhañtaddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) causing Vrddhi and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, applied (1) to महृाराज, प्रोष्ठपद and क्वाचिन् in the specifieditionsenses, confer, compare P. IV.2.35, 4l e. g. माहृाराजिक, प्रौष्ठपदिक et cetera, and others; (2) to words काशि, चेदि, संज्ञा and others, along with ञिठ, e. g. काशिकी, काशिका, also with ञिठ to words denoting villages in the Vahika country exempli gratia, for example शाकलिकी शाकलिका; as also to words ending in उ forming names of countries in all the Saisika senses confer, compare P. IV.2.116-120; (3) to compound words having a word showing direction as their first member, to words denoting time, as also to the words शरद्, निशा and प्रदोष in the Saisika senses; cf P. IV.3.6, 7, 1115; (4) to the words वर्षा (1n Vedic Literature), and to हेमन्त and वसन्त in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P.IV.3.1921; (5) to संवत्सर, अाग्रहायणी, words having अन्तः as the first member, to the word ग्राम preceded by परि or अनु, to multisyllabic words having their last vowel accented acute, to words denoting sacrifices, to words forming names of sages, to words ending in ऋ and to the word महाराज in the specific senses which are mentioned; confer, compare P. IV.3.50, 60, 61, 67, 68, 69, 78, 79, 97; (6) to the words गोपुच्छ, श्वगण, आक्रन्द, लवण, परश्वध, compound words having a multisyllabic words as their first member, and to the words गुड et cetera, and others in the specified senses;confer, compareP.IV.4.6,II, 38, 52, 58, 64, 103;(7) to any word as a general taddhita affix. affix (अधिकारविहित), unless any other affix has been specified in the specified senses ' तेन क्रीतम् ' ' तस्य निमित्तम्' ... ' तदर्हम्' mentioned in the section of sutras V. 1. 18. to 117; (8) to the words अय:शूल, दण्ड, अजिन, compound words having एक or गो as their first member as also to the words निष्कशत and निष्कसहस्र; confer, compare P.V.2.76, 118,119.
ṭhantaddhita affix. affix इक or क (according to P. VII.3.51), causing the addition of आ, and not ई,..for forming the feminine base, applied (1) to the word नौ and words with two syllables in the sense of 'crossing' or 'swimming' over; confer, compare P.IV.4. 7; exempli gratia, for example नाविकः नाविका, बाहुकः बाहुक्रा; (2) to the words वस्र, क्रय, and विक्रय and optionally with छ to अायुघ in the sense of maintaining (तेन जीवति) ; confer, compare P. IV. 4.13, 14; (3) to the word प्रतिपथ, words ending with अगार, to the word शत, to words showing completion ( पूरणवाचिन् ), to the words अर्ध, भाग, वस्त्र, द्रव्य, षण्मास and. श्राद्ध in specified senses; confer, compare P. IV 4.42, 70, V. 1.21, 48, 49, 51, 84, V. 2, 85, and 109; (4) to words ending in अ as also to the words headed by व्रीहि, and optionally with the affix इल्च् to तुन्द and with the affix व to केशin the sense of मतुप्(possession); cf P.V. 2. 115, 116, 117 and 109.
ṭhitmarked with the mute letter ठ्. There is no affix or word marked with mute ठ् (at the end) in Panini's grammar, but to avoid certain technical difficulties, the Mahabhasyakara has proposed mute ठ् instead of 'ट् in the' case of the affix इट् of the first person. singular. perf Atm. and ऊठ् prescribed as Samprasarana substitute by P. VI. 4.132 e: g. प्रष्ठौहः, प्रष्ठौहा; confer, compare M.Bh. on III.4.79 and VI.4.19.
(1)third letter of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, and अल्पप्राण; (2) mute letter applied to affixes by Panini to show the elision of the टि part (confer, compare P. 1. 1.64.) of the preceding word viz. the penultimate vowel and the consonant or consonants following it; cf, टेः ; ( लोप: डिति प्रत्यये परे ) VI.4.143. The syllable ति of विंशति is also elided before an affix markwith the mute letter ड्.
ḍāverb-ending आ, causing elision of the penultimate vowel as also of the following consonant, substituted for the 3rd person. sing, affix तिप् of the first future; exempli gratia, for example क्रर्ता ; confer, compare P.II.4.85; (2) case ending आ substituted in Vedic Literature for any case affix as noticed in Vedic usages; exempli gratia, for example नाभा पृथिव्याम्: confer, compare P. VII.1.39
(1)fourth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व and महृाप्राणत्व; (2) the consonant ढ् which is elided when followed by ढ् and the preceding vowel is lengthened; e. g. गाढा, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.13 and VI. 3.111 ; (3) substitute ढ् for ह् at the end of a पद, or, if followed by any consonant excepting a semivowel or a nasal excepting in the cases of roots beginning with द् or the roots द्रुह्, मुह् et cetera, and others as also वह् and अाह् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.31, 32, 33, 34; (4) ढ् at the beginning of a taddhita affix. affix which has got एय् substituted for it; confer, compare गाङ्गेय:, वैनतेयः ; confer, compare P. V. 3.102.
ḍhaktaddhita affix. affix एय causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ढक् is added in the sense of अपत्य (descendant) (I) to words ending in feminine affixes, to words ending in the vowel इ, excepting इ of the taddhita affix. afix इञ्, to words of the class headed by शुभ्र, to words मण्डूक, विकर्ण, कुषीतक, भ्रू , .कुलटा and to words headed by कल्याणी which get इन substituted for its !ast vowel; exempli gratia, for example सौपर्णेयः, दात्तेयः शौभ्रेय, माण्डूकेयः, , वैकर्णेयः, कौषीतकेयः, भ्रौवेयः,.कौलटेयः, काल्याणिनेयः etc: cf Kas on P. IV.I. 1 19-127; (2) to the words पितृष्वसृ and मातृष्वसृ with the vowel ऋ elided and to the word . दुष्कुल, पितृष्वसेय:, मातृष्वसेयः, दौष्कुलेयः, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.133, 134, 142: (3) to the word कलि in the sense of Sama, to the word अग्नि in the sense of 'dedicated to a deity' ( सास्य देवता ) as also to the words नदी, मही, वाराणसी, श्रावस्ती and others in the Saisika senses; e. g. कालेयं साम, आग्नेयः, नादेयम् महियम् et cetera, and others cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.8, 33, 97: (4) to the words तूदी, धुर् , कपि, ज्ञाति, व्रीहि and शालि in the specified senses; confer, compare P. IV. 3.94, IV. 4.77, V. 1.127, V. 2.2.
ḍhakañtaddhita affix. affix एयक applied (1) to the word कुल optionally along with यत् and ख, when it is not a member of a compound;.e. g. कौलेयकः, कुल्यः, कुलीनः; confer, compare P.'IV. 1. 140; (2) to the words कत्त्रि and others in the Saisika senses as also to the words कुल, कुक्षि and ग्रीवा, if the words formed with the affix added, respectively mean dog, sword and ornament : e. g. कात्त्रेयकः कौलेयक: (श्वा), कौक्षेयकः (असिः), ग्रैवेयकः (अलंकारः): confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV 2.95,96.
ḍhañtaddhita affix. affix एय causing Vrddhi substituted for the first vowel of the base and the addition of the feminine. affix ङीप् (इ), applied (1) to words meaning quadrupeds and words in the class of words headed by गृष्टि in the sense of अपत्य; e. g. कामण्डलेयः, गार्ष्टेयः, हालेय:, बालेयः etc; confer, compare P. IV.1.135,136; (2) to the word क्षीर, words of the class headed by सखि, the words कोश, दृति, कुक्षि, कलशि, अस्ति, अहि,ग्रीवा,वर्मती,एणी,पथि,अतिथि,वसति,स्वपति, पुरुष, छदि्स, उपधि, बलि, परिखा, and वस्ति in the various senses mentioned in connection with these words; exempli gratia, for exampleक्षेरेयः, .साखेयम् कौशेयम् दात्र्ऱेयम् , कौक्षेयम् etc, cf Kas'. on P. IV. 2. 20, 80, IV. 3. 42, 56, 57, 94, 159, IV.4.1 04, V.1.10,13,17, V.3.101.
ḍhraktaddhita affix. affix एर ( एय् + र ) applied in the sense of offspring to the word गोधा and optionally with ढक् to words meaning persons having a bodily defect or a low social status; e. g. गौधेरः, काणेरः दासेरः; काणेयः, दासेयः, cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1. 129, 131.
(1)fifth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties, नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्यः (2) the mute letter ण् indicating the substitution of vrddhi ( confer, compare P. VII. 2. 115-117) when attached to affixes; (3) the consonant ण् at the beginning of roots which is changed into न्; the roots, having ण् at the beginning changeable to न्, being called णोपदेशः (4) ण् as a substitute for न् following the letters ऋ, ॠ, र्, and ष् directly, or with the intervention of consonants of the guttural and labial classes, but occurring in the same word, Such a substitution of ण् for न् is called णत्व; confer, compare P.VIII.4. I-39. For णत्व in Vedic Literature; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)V.20-28, T.Pr.VII.1-12. V.Pr.III.84-88;(5) the consonant ण् added as an augment to a vowel at the beginning of a word when it follows the consonant ण् at the end of the previous word; confer, compare P. VIII. 3. 32. In the Vedic Pratisakhyas this augment ण् is added to the preceding ण् and looked upon as a part of the previous word.
ṇa(1)krt affix अ, added optionally to the roots headed by ज्वल् and ending with कस् in the first conjugation (see ज्वलिति a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) in the sense of agent, and necessarily to the root श्यै, roots ending with अा and the roots व्यध्, आस्रु, संस्रु, इ with अति, सो with अव, हृ with अव, लिह्, श्लिष् and श्वस्, to the roots दु and नी without any prefix and optionally to ग्रह्: e. g. ज्वालः or ज्वलः, अवश्यायः, दायः, धायः, व्याधः, अास्त्रावः, संस्त्रवः, अत्यायः, अवसायः, अवहार:, लेहः, श्लेष:, श्वास:, दावः, नाय:, ग्रहः or ग्राहः: ; in the case of the root ग्रह् the affix ण is applied by ब्यवस्थितविभाषा, the word ग्रहः meaning a planet and the word ग्राहः meaning a crocodile; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.140-143; (2) krt affix अ in the sense of verbal activity ( भाव ) applied along with the affix अप् to the root अद् with नि; exempli gratia, for exampleन्यादः निघसः; confer, compare P. III.3.60; (3) krt affix ण prescribed by the Varttikakara after the roots तन्, शील्. काम, भक्ष् and चर् with आ; confer, compare P.III.1.140 Vart 1, and III. 2.l Vart. 7; (4) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added along with टक् also, to a word referring to a female descendant (गेीत्रस्त्री) if the resultant word indicates censure ; e. g. गार्भ्यः गार्गिकः confer, compare P. IV.1.147, 150; (5) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added also with the affix फिञ्, to the word फाण्टाहृति: (6) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of 'a game' added to a word meaning 'an instrument in the game'; exempli gratia, for example दाण्डा, मौष्टा: confer, compare P. IV.2.57: {7) taddhita affix. affix अ added to the word छत्त्र and others in the sense of 'habituated to' exempli gratia, for example छात्र:, शैक्षः, पौरोहः चौर:: confer, compare P.IV. 4.62: (8) taddhita affix. affix अ added to the words अन्न, भक्त, सर्व, पथिन् , यथाकथाच, प्रज्ञा, श्रद्धा, अर्चा, वृत्तिं and अरण्य in the senses specified with respect to each ; exempli gratia, for example आन्नः (मनुष्यः) भाक्तः ( शालिः ), सार्वे ( सर्वस्मै हितम् ), पान्थः, याथाकथाचं (कार्यम्), प्राज्ञः or प्रज्ञावान् , श्राद्धः or श्रद्धावान् , अार्चः or अर्चावान् , घार्त्तः or वृत्तिमान् and अारण्याः ( सुमनसः ); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV. 4.85, 100, V.1.10, 76, 98, V.2.101 and IV.2.104 Varttika.
ṇamulkrt affix अम्, causing vrddhi to the final vowel or to the penultimate अ, (!) added to any root in the sense of the infinitive in Vedic Literature when the connected root is शक्: exempli gratia, for example अग्निं वै देवा विभाजं नाशक्नुवन; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 4.14; (2) added to any root to show frequency of a past action, when the root form ending with णमुल् is repeated to convey the sense of frequency : exempli gratia, for example भोजं भोजं व्रजति, पायंपायं व्रजति, confer, compare Kas on P. III. 4.22; (3) added to a root showing past action and preceded by the word अग्रे, प्रथम or पूर्व, optionally along with the krt affix क्त्वा; exempli gratia, for example अग्रेभोजं or अग्रे भुक्त्वा व्रजति; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.24;(4) added in general to a root specified in P.III.4.25 to 64, showing a subordinate action and having the same subject as the root showing the main action, provided the root to which णमुल् is added is preceded by an antecedent or connected word, such as स्वादुम् or अन्यथा or एवम् or any other given in Panini's rules; confer, compare P. III.4.26 to III.4.64; exempli gratia, for example स्वादुंकारं भुङ्क्ते, अन्यथाकारं भुङ्क्ते, एवंकारं भुङ्क्ते, ब्राह्मणवेदं भोजयति, यावज्जीवमधीते, समूलकाषं कषति, समूलघातं हन्ति, तैलपेषं पिनष्टि, अजकनाशं नष्टः et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.26-64. When णमुल् is added to the roots कष्, पिष्, हन् and others mentioned in P. III. 4. 34 to 45, the same root is repeated to show the principal action. The word ending in णमुल् has the acute accent (उदात) on the first vowel (confer, compare P.VI.I. 94) or on the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare P. VI.1.193.
ṇalpersonal ending अ substituted for तिप् and मिप् in लिट् or the perfect, and in the case of विद् and ,ब्रू in लट् or the present tense. tense optionally; cf P. III, 4. 82, 83, 84. The affix णल् on account of being marked by the mute letter ण् causes vrddhi to the preceding vowel; the vrddhi is, however, optional in the case of the 1st person. ( मिप् ) confer, compare P. VII.1.91. अौ is substituted for णल् after roots ending in आ; confer, compare P. VII .1.34.
ṇicaffix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् et cetera, and others e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; confer, compare P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising et cetera, and others ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; confer, compare P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, exempli gratia, for example सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, et cetera, and others: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: confer, compare णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे et cetera, and others; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
ṇit(1)an affix with the mute con.sonant ण् added to it to signify the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate अ or for the first vowel of the word if the affix applied is a taddhita affix; confer, compare P. VII.2.115117: e. g. अण्, ण, उण्, णि et cetera, and others: (2) an affix not actually marked with the mute letter ण् but looked upon as such for the purpose of vrddhi; e. g. the Sarvanamasthana affixes after the words गो and सखि, confer, compare P. VII.1.90, 92.
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
ṇyataddhita affix.affix य (l) applied in the sense of 'descendant' as also in a few other senses, mentioned in rules from IV. 1. 92 to IV.3.168, applied to the words दिति, अदिति, अादित्य and word; with पति as the उत्तरपद in a compound, c. g. दैत्यः, आदित्यः, प्राजापत्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P. IV.1 84; (2) applied in the sense of a descendant ( अपत्य ) applied to the words कुरु, गर्ग, रथकार, कवि, मति, दर्भ et cetera, and others, e.gकौरव्यः, गार्ग्यः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kas:, on P. IV. I.15I ; (3) applied in the sense of अपत्य or descendant to words ending in सेना,to the word लक्षण and to words in the sense of artisans, e.gकारिषेण्यः, लाक्षण्यः, तान्तुवाय्यः, कौम्भकार्यः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.152; (4) applied in the Catuararthika senses to the words संकाश, काम्पिल्थ, कश्मीर et cetera, and others, exempli gratia, for example साङ्काश्यम्, काम्पिल्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.80; (5) applied to the word परिषद् and optionally with the affix ठक् to the word सेना in the specified senses; e. g. परिषदं समवैति, परिषदि साधुर्वा पारिषद्य्ः, सेनां समवेति सैन्यः सैनिको वा; confer, compare Kas on P. IV. 44, 45, 101 ; (6) applied as a taddhita affix. affix called ' tadraja , to the word कुरु and words beginning with न e. g. कौरव्यः नैषध्यः; confer, compare Kas on P. IV. 1.172; कुरवः, निषधाः et cetera, and others are the nominative case. plural formanuscript.
ṇvul(1)a very general krt affix अक, causing vrddhi and acute accent to the vowel preceding the affix, applied to a root optionally with तृ (i. e. तृच् ) in the sense of an agent e. g कारकः हारकः also कर्ता, हर्ता ; Cf P. III. 1.33; (2) krt. affix अक applied optionally with the affix तुम् to a root when it refers to an action for which another action is mentioned by the principal verb; e. g. भोजको व्रजति or भोक्तुं व्रजति; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्; P. III. 3.10; (3) krt affix अक, necessarily accompanied by the feminine. affix अा added to it, applied to a root if the sense given by the word so formed is the name of a disease or a proper noun or a narration or a query ; e. g. प्रवाहिका, प्रच्छर्दिका, शालभञ्जिका, तालभञ्जिका, कारिक, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.108, 109, 110.
tthe first consonant of the dental class of consonants which has got the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When used as a mute letter by Panini, त् signifies the Svarita accent of the vowel of that affix or so, which is marked with it: e. g. कार्यम्, हार्यम्, पयस्यम् confer, compare P. VI.1.185. When appied to a vowel at its end, त् signifies the vowel of that grade only, possessed by such of its varieties which require the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with त् , e. g. अात् stands for अा with any of the three accents as also pure or nasalised; अात् does not include अं or अ 3 confer, compare तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70. The use of the indicatory mute त् for the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. purpose is seen also in the Pratis akhya works; confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 114 Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 234.
t(1)personal ending of the third pers singular. Atm: confer, compare P. III. 4.78, which is changed to ते in the perfect tense and omitted after the substitute चिण् for च्लि in the aorist; confer, compare P.VI.4.04: (2) personal ending substituted for the affix थ of the Paras. 2nd person. plural in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional for which, तात्, तन and थन are substituted in Vedic Literature, and also for हि in case a repetition of an action is meant; confer, compare P. III. 4. 85, 10l as also VII. 1. 44, 45 and III. 4. 2-5. cf P. III. 4. 85 and III. 4. 10I ; (3) taddhita affix. affix त applied to the words कम् and शम् e. g. कन्तः, शन्त:, confer, compare P. V. 2. 138: (4) taddhita affix. affix त applied to दशत् when दशत् is changed to श; confer, compare दशानां दशतां शभावः तश्च प्रत्ययः । दश दाशतः परिमाणमस्य संधस्य शतम्, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. l. 59; (5) .general term for the affix क्त of the past passive voice. part, in popular use: (6) a technical term for the past participle affixes (त) क्त and तवत् ( क्तवतु ) called निष्ठा by Panini; confer, compare P. I.1.26; the term त is used for निष्ठI in the Jainendra Vyakararna.
taṅ(1)a short term used for the nine personal endings of the Atmanepada viz. त,अाताम्...महिङ् which are themselves termed Atmanepada; confer, compare तङानौ अात्मनेपदम् P. 1.4. 100 (2) the personal-ending त of the 2nd person. plural (substituted for थ by III.4 101) looked upon as तङ् sometimes, when it is lengthened in the Vedic Literature: confer, compare तङिति थादेशस्य ङित्त्वपक्षे ग्रहणम् । भरता जातवेदसम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 3. 133.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
tadantavidhia peculiar feature in the interpretation of the rules of Panini, laid down by the author of the Sutras himself by virtue of which an adjectival word, qualifying its principal word, does not denote itself, but something ending with it also; confer, compare येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य P.I.1.72.This feature is principally noticed in the case of general words or adhikaras which are put in a particular rule, but which Occur in a large number of subsequent rules; for instance, the word प्रातिपदिकात्, put in P.IV.1.1, is valid in every rule upto the end of chapter V and the words अतः, उतः, यञः et cetera, and others mean अदन्ताद् , उदन्तात् , यञन्तात् et cetera, and others Similarly the words धातोः (P.III.1.91) and अङ्गस्य (P.VI. 4.1 ) occurring in a number of subsequent rules have the adjectival words to them, which are mentioned in subsequent rules, denoting not only those words,but words ending with them. In a large number of cases this feature of तदन्तविधि is not desirable, as it, goes against arriving at the desired forms, and exceptions deduced from Panini's rules are laid down by the Varttikakara and later grammarians; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 16,23, 31 : also Mahabhasya on P.I.1.72.
tadādividhia convention similar to the तदन्तविधि of Panini,laid down by the Varttikakara laying down that in case an operation is prescribed for something followed by a single letter, that single letter should be taken to mean a word beginning with that single letter: confer, compare यस्मिन्विधिस्तदादावल्ग्रहणे P.I.1.72 Vart. 29: Par. Sek. Pari. 33.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word त