pada (rarely m.) a step, pace, stride n. pada a footstep, trace, vestige, mark, the foot itself, n. etc. ( ,on foot; padena- ,at every step, everywhere, on every occasion; pade pade- ,the three steps or footprints of trīṇi padāni viṣṇoḥ- [i.e. the earth, the air, and the sky; viṣṇu- see ],also Name of a constellation or according to some"the space between the eyebrows"; sg. viṣṇoḥ padam- Name of a locality; , padaṃ- - dā or padāt padaṃ- - gam ,to make a step, move on; cal- ,with padaṃ- - kṛ locative case to set foot in or on, to enter;with ,to set the foot upon the head of [ mūrdhni- genitive case ] id est overcome;with or citte- ,to take possession of any one's heart or mind;with hṛdaye- locative case or ,to have dealings with prati- with padaṃ ni- - dhā locative case,to set foot in = to make impression upon;with ,to set the foot on a person's [ padavyām- genitive case or in the beginning of a compound ]track, to emulate or equal; with padam ni- - bandh locative case,to enter or engage in) pada a sign, token, characteristic n. pada a footing, standpoint n. pada position, rank, station, site, abode, home n. etc. ( ,to spread or extend one's position; padam ā- - tan ,having caused to wander from place to place) padāt padam bhrāmayitvā- pada a business affair, matter, object or cause of ( n. genitive case or compound) etc. pada a pretext n. pada a part, portion, division ( n. see , dvi- - ) tri- - pada a square on a chess-board n. pada a plot of ground n. pada the foot as a measure of length (= 12 or 15 fingers' breadth, or 1/2 or 1/3 or 3/7 of a n. ) prakrama- pada a ray of light ( n. m. ) pada a portion of a verse, quarter or line of a stanza n. etc. pada a word or an inflected word or the stem of a noun in the middle cases and before some n. s taddhita- pada n. equals pada- pāṭha- pada common n. Name of the parasmE-pada and Atmane-pada pada any one in a set of numbers the sum of which is required n. pada a period in an arithmetical progression n. pada a square root n. pada a quadrant n. pada protection n. [ confer, compare Greek ; Latin peda;op-pidumforop-pedum.] padabandha a footstep, pace m. padabhañjana separation or analysis or explanation of words n. padabhañjikā a commentary which separates or analyses or explains words f. padabhañjikā a register, journal, calendar or almanac f. padabhāvārthacandrikā f. Name of work padabhraṃśa loss of a place, dismissal from an office m. padacandrikā "elucidation of words", f. Name of several works. padacaturūrdhva a kind of metre (in which every n. is 4 syllables longer than the preceding) pada- padaccheda separation of words at a particular place, caesura, padacihna a foot-words (in speaking), parsing n. padacyuta fallen from a position, dismissed from office mfn. padadārḍhya fixedness or security of text, n. padadevatā a deity supposed to preside over a f. particular class of words ( see ). - gotra- padadīpikā f. Name of several works. padadyotinī f. Name of commentator or commentary on padaga going on foot mfn. padaga a footman, foot-soldier m. padagāḍha or m. n. Name of work padagata gone on foot mfn. padagata described or recorded in a line or stanza mfn. padagati going on foot, manner of going, gait f. padaghātam (with ind. ) to strike with the feet upon ( han- accusative) padagotra a family supposed to preside over a n. particular class of words ( see ). - devatā- padahita the substitute for a husband, m. padaikadeśa a part of a word m. padajāta a class of words n. padajāta a group of (connected) words, a sentence or period n. padajñā knowing places or one's own place ( mfn. id est home) padajyotis n. Name of work padaka versed in the mfn. pada- pāṭha- ( gaRa ) kramā- di padaka a kind of ornament ( m. equals ) niṣka- padaka m. Name of a man padaka m. plural his descendants gaRa yaskā- di padaka a step, pace n. padaka an office, dignity n. padaka a foot n. padakāla m. equals - pāṭha- padakamala a lotus-like foot n. padakāra the author of the m. pada- pāṭha- padakārikāratnamālā f. Name of work padakaumudī f. Name of work padakrama a series of steps, pace, walking m. ( see ) citra- padakramam- padakrama a series of quarters of verses m. padakrama a m. particular method of reciting or writing the ( veda- See ) krama- padakrama (or m. plural in the beginning of a compound) the and the different pada- pāṭha- s krama- pāṭha- padakramaka the n. - and pada- krama- pāṭha- padakramalakṣaṇa n. Name of work padakramavid familiar with the mfn. and pada- krama- pāṭha- padakṛt m. equals - kāra- padakṛtya n. Name of commentator or commentary on padamālā "word-wreath", a magical formula, an incantation f. padamañjarī f. Name of various works. padana who or what goes or moves mfn. ( see ) . padanī following the steps of another mfn. padanidhana having the mfn. ( nidhana- q.v) at the end of every quarter of a verse (as a ), sāman- padanīya to be investigated mfn. ( padanīyatva - tva- n. ) padanīyatva n. padanīya padanuṣaṅga anything appended to a m. or quarter of a verse pada- ( see ). padā- nuṣ padanyāsa putting down the feet, step, footmark m. etc. padanyāsa position of the feet in a m. particular attitude padanyāsa conduct, procedure (?) m. idem or ' position of the feet in a m. particular attitude ' padanyāsa writing down (quarters of) verses m. padanyāsa Asteracantha Longifolia or Tribulus Lanuginosus m. padapaddhati a series or row of footsteps f. padapadma n. equals - kamala- padapañcaka or m. n. Name of work padapaṅkaja n. equals - kamala- padapaṅkti a series of footsteps, track f. padapaṅkti a series of words f. padapaṅkti a kind of metre (of 5 f. s of 5 syllables each) pada- padapaṅkti a sacred brick called after this metre f. padapāta foot-fall, tread, step m. padapāṭha the m. method of recitation or writing (a method of arranging each word of a Vedic text separately in its original form[ pada- see ]without regard to the rules of pada- ; saṃdhi- see and krama- ) saṃhitā- pāṭha- padapūraṇa filling out or completing a verse mfn. padapūraṇa the action of completing a verse n. padaracanā arrangement of words, literary composition f. padaratnāvalī f. padaśabda the noise of footsteps m. padasadhātu a manner of singing n. padasamaya m. equals - pāṭha- padasaṃdarbha m. Name of work padasaṃdhāna putting together words (writing them into one word), n. ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding padasaṃdhi the euphonic combination of words m. padasaṃghāṭa connecting those words together which in the m. are separated by a kind of refrain saṃhitā- Va1rtt. 3 padasaṃghāta m. idem or ' connecting those words together which in the m. are separated by a kind of refrain saṃhitā- Va1rtt. 3 ' padasaṃghāta a writer, an annotator, one who collects or classifies words m. padasaṃhitā f. equals - pāṭha- padasaṃtāna combination of words, m. padasamūha a series of words or parts of verses m. padasamūha m. equals - pāṭha- padaśas step by step, gradually ind. padaśas word by word, ind. padaśāstra the science of separately written words, n. Scholiast or Commentator padaśreṇi a series of steps f. padastha standing on one's feet, going on foot mfn. padastha mfn. equals - sthita- padasthāna footprint, footmark n. padasthita being in a station or office mfn. padaṣṭhīva n. sg. the feet and knees padastobha m. Name of several s sāman- padastobha m. Name of work padatā the original form of a word f. padatā f. equals next padatva the state of (being) a word, n. padatvarā "foot-speeder (?)", a shoe f. padavādya (in music) a sort of drum. n. padavākyaratnākara m. Name of work padavākyaratnākarakārikāsaṃgraha m. Name of work padavākyārthapañjikā f. Name of work padavāmīka elephantiasis, m. padavāya ( m. ) a leader, guide, forerunner vī- padavedin "acquainted with words", a linguist or philologist m. padavi f. equals , a way, path - vī- padavī ( m. Nominal verb ) a leader, guide, forerunner s- ( see ) - vāya- padavī ( f. Nominal verb ) a road, path, way, track, reach, range vī- padavī f. accusative with , gam- etc., to go the way of ( yā- see under , artha- padavī- , ghana- - , pavana- - , mokṣa- - , yauvana- - , sādhu- - , smaraṇa- - ; hāsya- - or padam- - dhā [comp. or ni- - dhā padavyām genitive case ],to tread in the footsteps of a person id est imitate or rival him) etc. padavī station, situation, place, site f. padaviccheda ( ) separation of words. m. padavid conversant or familiar with ( mfn. genitive case) ( see ). - jñā- padavigraha ( ) separation of words. m. padavikṣepa a step, pace, walking m. padavikṣepa a horse's paces m. padavirāma the pause after a quarter of a verse m. padaviṣṭambha tread, step, stamp with the foot m. padavīya footsteps, track n. (if not accusative for ). vy/am- padavṛtti the hiatus between two words in a sentence f. padavṛtti f. Name of commentator or commentary on padavyākhyāna explanation of words n. gaRa . ṛg- ayanā- di padayojana n. Name of work padayojanā f. Name of work padayojanikā f. Name of work padayopana destroying (n. the act of destroying) the footsteps mf( )n. ī- abhī pada ( varia lectio ) - pāda- "whose foot or step is without fear", m. Name of a ṛṣi- abhī pada abhīpāda See 1. . a- bhī- adhas pada Ved. placed under the feet, under foot mfn. adhas pada ( ) /am- the place under the feet n. adhas padam under foot. ind. adhikṣi padabjanetra having eyes which eclipse the lotus. mfn. agni pada "whose foot has stepped on the sacrificial fire place", m. Name of a horse āgni pada ( mfn. gaRa vyuṣṭā- di q.v) aja pada goat-footed. mfn. alabdha pada one who has found no place in or has made no impression upon ( mfn. locative case), al padakṣiṇa defective in presents (as a ceremony) mfn. al padarśana ([ ]) of confined views, narrow-minded. mfn. antaḥ padam in the middle of an inflected word ind. antya pada (in n. arithmetic) the last or greatest root (in the square) . anu pada following closely mfn. anu pada m. Name of a man or tribe, ( gaRa upakā- di q.v) anu pada a chorus, refrain, burden of a song or words sung again after regular intervals n. anu pada n. Name of an belonging to the upāṅga- sāma- veda- anu pada word for word n. anu pada on the heels of, close behind or after. n. anu padam step by step ind. anū padas to fail (or become extinct) after ( accusative) anu padasta ([ ]) or ([ an- upadasya- ]) or ([ /an- upadasyat- ]) or ([ /an- upadasvat- ]) or ([ /an upadāsuka- ]) not drying up, not decaying. mfn. anu padasūtra a commentary explaining the text (of a n. ) word for word. brāhmaṇa- anu padavī a road followed after another f. a pada no place, no abode n. a pada the wrong place or time n. etc. a pada footless mfn. a padah to burn up, to burn out so as to drive out a padakṣiṇam away from the right, to the left side ind. a padama without self-restraint mfn. a padama of wavering fortune. mfn. a padarohiṇi the parasitical plant Epidendron Tesselloides. f. a padarpa free from pride or self-conceit, mf( )n. ā- a padaruhā the parasitical plant Epidendron Tesselloides. f. a padas (3. plural ) to fail - dasyanti- id est become dry a padaśa (fr. mfn. ), (any number) off or beyond ten daśan- a padaśa (fr. mfn. ), without a fringe (as a garment) daśā- a padastha not being in its place mfn. a padastha out of office. mfn. a padava free from forest-fire. mfn. a padavāpad free from the calamity of fire. mfn. apalā padaṇḍa a fine imposed on one who denies or evades (in law). m. apā pada = mfn. - apa- , vipad- āpra padam to the end or fore part of the foot ind. apra padana a bad place of refuge n. aprasiddha pada an obsolete word. n. apūrva pada not preceded by another word ( mfn. id est not standing at the end of a compound), ardhāntaraika padatā (in rhetoric) placing a single word (which belongs grammatically to one hemistich) into the other half or hemistich of the verse f. ardha pada half a n. (or the fourth part of a verse) pāda- ārdra pada moist-footed mf( )n. ī- ārdra pada having wet feet, mfn. artha pada n. Name of the s on vārttika- artha padavī the path of advantage ( f. vīṃ- ,"to be intent on one's advantage"), gam- āruṇeya pada n. Name of an . āraṇyaka- aśi pada not causing mf( )n. /ā- id est averting the sickness called śipada- āśiraḥ padam from the foot up to the head ind. ās pada ( n. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' fr. mf( )n. ā- with pada- prefixed, ā- being inserted) , place, seat, abode s- etc. ās pada the tenth lunar mansion n. ās pada business, affair n. ās pada dignity, authority n. ās pada power n. ās padatā the state of being the place or abode of. f. ās padatva the state of being the place or abode of. n. āśrama pada a hermitage n. āśrama pada a period in the life of a Brahman n. aṣṭa pada having eight mf( )n. ā- s (as a metre) pada- aṣṭa pada consisting of 8 words, , Scholiast or Commentator aṣṭā pada "having eight legs", a spider m. aṣṭā pada a worm m. aṣṭā pada the fabulous animal m. sarabha- aṣṭā pada a wild sort of jasmin m. aṣṭā pada a pin or bolt m. aṣṭā pada the mountain m. kailāsa- aṣṭā pada a chess-board on which each line has 8 squares or 64 in all, aṣṭā pada ( mn. gaRa ardharcā- di q.v) a kind of chequered cloth or board for drafts, dice, etc. etc. aṣṭā pada ( mn. equals - pruṣ- q.v) gold asthānastha pada having a word in the wrong place mfn. asvāṅgapūrva pada (a compound) the first part of which is not (a word denoting) part of the body mfn. aśva pada the print of a horse's foot, n. ati pada (in prosody) too long by one mfn. or foot, pada- ātmane pada "word to one's self", form for one's self n. id est that form of the verb which implies an action belonging or reverting to self, the terminations of the middle voice avastātpra padana (anything) attained from below (as heaven) mfn. aviṣama padatā having equal feet (one of the 80 minor marks of a f. ), buddha- . avyakta pada inarticulate. mfn. bahu pada many-footed mfn. bhadantago padatta m. Name of 2 Buddhist teachers. bhadra pada n. Name of a metre bhādra pada (fr. m. ) the month bhadra- padā- (a rainy month corresponding to the period from about the middle of August to the middle of September) bhādra- bhagavadgītāprati pada n. Name of work bhārata padaprakāśa m. Name of work bhramara pada a kind of metre n. bhū pada "earth-fixed, earth-rooted", a tree m. biḍāla pada a n. particular measure of weight (= ) karṣa- biḍāla padaka a n. particular measure of weight (= ) karṣa- brahma pada the place of n. brahma- brahma pada the station or rank of n. or of a Brahman brahmā- brahmasūtra pada the word or statement of a n. brahma- sūtra- brahmasūtra pada consisting of such a word or statement mf( or ā- )n. ī- calat padam so as to move ind. carcā pada n. plural the words repeated (in reciting the while veda- is added) iti- Introd. on Va1rtt. 11 and 14. cāru pada m. Name of a son of namasyu- caturiḍas padastobha ( m. see ) iḍas- pad/e- Name of a . sāman- catuṣ pada (in compound) 4 s pāda- catuṣ pada n. sg. or plural , 4 partitions or divisions catuṣ pada ( mf( )n. ā- ), quadruped c/at- catuṣ pada consisting of 4 mf( )n. ā- s pāda- catuṣ pada consisting of 4 words mf( )n. ā- catuṣ pada comprising 4 partitions or divisions mf( )n. ā- catuṣ pada (in mf( )n. ā- algebra) tetranomial catuṣ pada a quadruped m. catuṣ pada ( m. equals ?) a kind of coitus pāśava- catuṣ pada ( m. plural) certain zodiacal signs (viz. , meṣa- , vṛṣa- , siṃha- , makara- pūr vā- rdha ) dhanuḥ- parā- rdha catuṣ pada m. Name of a shrub catuṣ pada n. Name of a particular karaṇa- ic, 5 and 8 catvāriṃśat pada ( ) ś/at- - having 40 feet mf( )n. ā- citra pada full of various (or graceful) words and expressions mfn. citra pada a metre of 4x23 syllables n. citra pada a metre of 4 x 8 syllables n. citra padakramam at a good or brisk pace ind. cūrṇa pada a peculiar movement (walking backwards and forwards) n. cūrṇa pada a kind of easy prose n. dakṣiṇā pada having the feet towards the south, mf( )n. ī- dar pada m. . śiva- daśana pada "teeth-mark", a bite n. daśa pada 10 feet long and broad mf( )n. ā- deva pada a word containing a god's name n. deva pada n. equals - pāda- dhrau pada (in music) a kind of dance ( n. see ). dhrupadā- khya nṛtya- dhrauva padaṭīkā f. Name of a commentator or commentary dhruva pada n. Name of work dhyānās pada place of meditation, n. dī pada one who gives a lamp mfn. drau pada belonging to or descendant from mf( )n. ī- drupada- droṇaśarma pada n. Name of a tīrtha- dru pada a wooden pillar, a post (to which captives are tied), any pillar or column n. dru pada m. Name of a king of the s (son of pañcāla- and father of pṛṣata- , of dhṛṣṭa- dyumna- or śikhaṇḍinī- , and of śikhaṇḍinī- , the wife of the kṛṣṇā- princes, hence called pāṇḍu- ) draupadī- dru padaputra m. patronymic of dhṛṣṭa- dyumna- druta pada a quick pace or step n. druta pada a form of metre n. druta padam quickly ind. durbodha padabhañjikā f. Name of a commentator or commentary on durbodha padabhañjinī of a f. commentator or commentary on durga padaprabodha m. Name of a commentator or commentary duṣ pada unfathomable or inaccessible (river) mfn. duṣpra padana difficult to be attained or entered mfn. on dvādaśa pada consisting of 12 words, mf( )n. ā- dvai pada a combination or compound of 2 words m. ( dvaipadaśas - śas- ind. ) ; 2 s pāda- dvai pada relating to a stanza consisting of 2 mfn. s pāda- dvai padaśas ind. dvaipada dvi pada ( mf( )n. ā- ) 2-footed dv/i- - dvi pada consisting of 2 mf( )n. ā- s pāda- etc. dvi pada containing 2 words mf( )n. ā- dvi pada binomial mf( )n. ā- dvi pada a biped, (contemptuously) a man m. dvi pada a brick 2 m. s long pāda- dvi pada m. Name of particular signs of the zodiac dvi pada a kind of metre n. dvi padapati "lord of men", a king, prince m. dvi padarāśi any one of the signs Gemini, Libra Aquarius, Virgo, and half of Sagittarius m. eka pada one and the same place or spot n. eka pada the same panel n. eka pada a single word n. eka pada a simple word, a simple nominal formation n. eka pada one and the same word n. eka pada taking one step mf( and ā- [ ī- ])n. eka pada having only one foot mf( and ā- [ ī- ])n. eka pada occupying only one panel mf( and ā- [ ī- ])n. eka pada consisting of a single word, named with a single word mf( and ā- [ ī- ])n. etc. eka pada a kind of coitus m. eka pada m. plural Name of a fabulous race eka padam (= - ind. ), pade- eka padastha being in the same word. mfn. eka padavat like one word ind. eṇī pada a kind of snake m. gadgada pada inarticulate speech n. gandharva pada the abode of the n. s gandharva- gaṇḍū pada a kind of worm, earth-worm m. gaṇḍū padabhava lead n. geya pada a song sung before any one with the lute n. ghana pada the cube root n. ghana pada water, ghana padavī "cloud-path", the sky f. gīrvāṇa padamañjari f. Name of work go pada the mark or impression of a cow's hoof in the soil n. ( see .) g/oṣp- go padala the betel-nut tree m. go padanta m. Name of an author go padatta m. Name of a Buddhist author. gopra padanīya n. Va1rtt. 1 goṣ pada ( mfn. ) ( g/oṣ- - )"showing marks of cow's hoofs" , frequented by kine goṣ pada "mark of a cow's foot in the soil", water filling up such a mark, any small puddle n. goṣ pada etc. See goṣ padamātra as large as the impression of a cow's hoof mfn. ( see .) go- pada- goṣ padapram so as to fill only the impression of a cow's hoof ind. on goṣ padapūram so as to fill only the impression of a cow's hoof ind. on goṣ padatrirātravrata n. idem or ' a kind of religious observance n. ' goṣ padatṛtīyāvrata a kind of religious observance n. gṛhapra padana (solemn) entrance into a house, n. haṃsa pada goose-foot (as a mark), Nar. n. haṃsa pada a n. particular weight ( equals ) karṣa- haṃsa pada m. plural See prec. haṃsa pada a kind of metre m. haṃsa pada m. Name of an apsaras- harās pada n. idem or ' m. 's abode, śiva- kailāsa- ' haricandanās pada a place where yellow sandal grows n. hari pada ( n. according to to some) the vernal equinox hāsās pada an object of jest or laughter. n. hasti pada the track of an elephants n. hasti pada "elephants-footed", m. Name of a serpent-demon hāsti pada (fr. m. ) hasti- p- Name of a man hāsti pada relating or belonging to mfn. hasti- pada- hāsya padavī the roar of laughter ( f. ,"to incur ridicule") vīṃ- - yā ( hāsyapadavībhāva - bhāva- m. equals - tā- ) hāsya padavī a jest, joke ( f. plural) hāsya padavībhāva m. hāsyapadavī hāsyās pada a laughing-stock, butt ( n. hāsyāspadatva - tva- ) n. hāsyās padatva n. hāsyāspada hatasam pada mfn. idem or ' whose prosperity is blighted, reduced to penury mfn. ' hrī pada cause of shame n. ilās pada n. Name of a tīrtha- indra pada m. equals . indra- tā- indu pada a moon-ray, m. jāla pada mfn. Name of a locality gaRa ( varaṇā- di varia lectio ) dī- jāla pada mfn. jala padavi f. equals - nirgama- jana pada m. sg. or plural a community, nation, people (as opposed to the sovereign) etc. jana pada m. sg. an empire, inhabited country etc. ( in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f( ). ā- ) jana pada mankind m. jāna pada ( mfn. gaRa ) living in the country ( utsā- di ) jana- pad/a- jāna pada inhabitant of the country m. ( ) jāna pada belonging to or suited for the inhabitants of the country m. jāna pada one who belongs to a country, subject m. jāna pada m. Name of an apsaras- jana padaghātaka a plunderer of a country m. jana padamahattara the chief of a country m. jana padamaṇḍala the district formed by a country n. janmās pada n. equals ma- kṣetra- jātijāna pada relating to the (4) castes and to the country mfn. kāka pada the mark of a crow's foot or a similar mark or figure n. kāka pada marks or lines in the skin similar to a crow's foot n. kāka pada the foundation or base of anything so shaped n. kāka pada the sign V in n. manuscripts marking an omission kāka pada a particular flourish of the pen indicating an oft-recurring word n. kāka pada a modus coeundi m. kalpānu pada n. Name of work belonging to the . sāma- veda- kāmāśrama pada n. idem or ' the hermitage of the god of love m. ' kāñcī pada the hips, haunches ( n. equals ) - guṇa- sthāna- kandar padahana a section of the n. . śiva- purāṇa- kaniṣṭha pada least root (that quantity of which the square multiplied by the given multiplicator and having the given addend added or subtrahend subtracted is capable of affording an exact square root) n. kapota padadarśana the sight of the foot-print of a dove, n. kararuha pada a scratch with the finger-nail n. kārya padavī the way to action, f. . kathita pada repetition, tautology n. kauṇa padanta m. Name of (uncle of the bhīṣma- s) pāṇḍu- khura padavī a horse's footmarks f. kopa pada appearance of anger, pretended wrath n. krama pada the conjunction of words in the n. reading (more usually krama- ) pada- krama- kriyā pada "action-word", a verb. n. kṛta pada being about to ( mfn. infinitive mood), kṛtās pada one who takes up a station or residence or abode mfn. kṛtās pada supporting, resting on mfn. kṛtās pada governed, ruled. mfn. kṣetra pada a place sacred to a deity ( n. genitive case) kṣudra pada "a small foot", a kind of measure of length (equal to 10 n. s), aṅgula- . kū padanḍa a mast, m. kū padardura m. equals - kacchapa- labdhās pada one who has gained a footing or secured a position mfn. laghusaṃdeśa pada (speech) expressing a request in few words mf( )n. ā- lalita pada consisting of amorous or graceful words, elegantly composed mf( )n. ā- lalita pada a kind of metre n. lalita padabandhana an amorous composition in verse, a metrical composition treating of love n. liṅgo padaṃśa m. equals liṅgā- rśas lupta pada wanting (whole) words mfn. madhyama pada the middle number (which is sometimes omitted and requires to be supplied in a compound consisting of two words) n. madhyama padalopa the omission of the middle member of a compound (as in, m. ,the king of the era, for śāka- pārthiva- ,the king dear to the era) sākapriya- pārthiva- madhyama padalopin ( m. scilicet ) a compound which omits the middle member samāsa- mahā pada (perhaps) great space n. mahā padapaṅkti a kind of metre f. mahās pada ( ) hā- s "having a great position", mighty, powerful mfn. mahattama pada holding a great or high position (said of a saint) mfn. māheśvara pada n. Name of a tīrtha- mantra pada a sacred or magical word n. mayūra padaka a scratch or impression in the form of a peacock's foot made with the fingernails n. meghās pada "cloud-region", the atmosphere, sky n. mekhalā pada "girdle -place", the hips n. mitra pada " n. 's place", mitra- Name of a locality mṛga pada n. equals mṛryāḥ padam- gaRa . kukkuty- ādi- muhūrta padavī f. mūlako padaṃśam with a bite at a radish ind. nāga pada a kind of coitus m. nakha pada nail-mark, scratch n. nakha pada Unguis Odoratus n. nāma pada name n. nānā pada a different or independent word n. ( nānāpadavat - vat- ind. ) nānā padavat ind. nānāpada nandi padacchandas n. Name of work on Prakrit metres (in Prakrit.) naṣṭoddiṣṭaprabodhakadhrauva padaṭīkā f. Name of work on music. nayana padavī ( f. ) range or field of sight. niḥśabda padam with soundless ind. id est inaudible steps nirās pada restless, homeless, portionless, objectless mfn. nirāśrama pada (a wood) having no hermitages in it mfn. nirupa pada having no epithet mfn. nirupa pada not connected with a subordinate word mfn. Scholiast or Commentator niṣ pada mfn. idem or ' footless mf( )n. ī- gaRa .' kumbhapady- ādi- niṣ pada (with, n. ) a vehicle moving without feet (as a ship etc.) yāna- nivā padatti sacrificial gift f. nṛpās pada "a king's place", a palace n. nyāyasāra padapañjikā f. Name of work nyūna padatā f. nyūna padatva want of one word in a sentence n. padma pada m. equals - pāda- pañcāla padavṛtti (prob.) a kind of hiatus f. pañca pada ( mf( )n. ā- ) containing 5 p/a- s pada- paniṣ pada ( mf( )n. ā- Intensive of ) quivering, palpitating spand- pā pada bringing misfortune, inauspicious mfn. pā padarśana looking at faults, malevolent mfn. pā padarśin looking at faults, malevolent mfn. parābhava pada an object of contempt n. parama pada the highest state or position, eminence, final beatitude n. parama padanirṇāyaka m. Name of work parama padasopāna n. Name of work para pada the highest position, final emancipation n. parasmai pada "word for another", the transitive or active verb and its terminations n. parasmai pada ( n. plural) paribhava pada an object or occasion of contempt n. paribhavāś pada n. equals va- pada- paryāya padamañjarī f. Name of work paurajāna pada belonging to town and country mf( )n. ī- paurajāna pada townsmen and country-people m. plural pavana padavī path of the wind, the air f. piṇḍa pada a kind of arithmetical calculation n. pitṛ pada the world or state of the n. s pitṛ- prabhā padaśakti f. Name of work prācya padavṛtti a term applied to the rule according to which f. remains in e- particular cases unchanged before a- pragṛhīta pada having the words pronounced separately mf( )n. ā- prāk pada the first member of a compound n. pramadās pada the gynaeceum of a prince n. pra pada n. idem or ' the point of the foot, tip of the toes ( (fr. 3. f. ) the fore part of the foot pad- ' prapadais dais- on tiptoe) ind. pra padais ind. prapada pra padam a term applied to a ind. particular mode of recitation (in which the Vedic verses are divided, without reference to the sense and construction, into parts of an equal number of syllables and between these parts particular formulas inserted containing the word ) pa- padye- pra padana entering, entrance into ( n. compound) pra padana access, approach n. prati pada n. Name of an upā- ṅga prāti pada (fr. mf( )n. ī- ) forming the commencement - pad- prāti pada m. Name of a man prati padam (also ind. da- in the beginning of a compound) at every step, on every occasion, at every place, everywhere prati padam at every word, word by word ind. prati padam literally, expressly ( ind. Va1rtt.1; vi, 2, 26 ) Sch. prati padam each, singly ind. ( equals pratyekam- Scholiast or Commentator) pratī padarśanī "turning away the face", a woman f. prati padatva walking step by step n. pratiṣṭhita pada containing verses of a fixed or constant number of syllables mfn. pratyantajana pada a bordering country n. prauṣṭha pada relating to the mf( )n. ī- nakṣatra- proṣṭha- pada- prauṣṭha pada (with or m. scilicet ), the month māsa- or August-September (also called bhādra- and pūrva- bhādrapadā- ) uttara- bh- prauṣṭha pada m. Name of one of 's treasure-keepers kubera- prauṣṭha pada n. Name of a of pariśiṣṭa- proṣṭha pada (and m. ) f( ). ā- sg. dual number and plural "the foot of a stool", Name of a double of the 3rd and 4th lunar mansions nakṣatra- ( ) pr/oṣṭhāp- pṛthagjana pada each single country or people n. pṛthak pada consisting of single mfn. id est uncompounded words ( pṛthakpadatva - tva- ) n. pṛthak padatva n. pṛthakpada punaḥ pada "repeated verse or line", a refrain n. punaḥ pada containing a repeated mf( )n. ā- purīṣa pada n. Name of particular passages inserted (to fill up) in the recitation of the verses mahānāmnī- pūrvabhadra pada (and m. f( ). ā- plural) equals - bhādrap- pūrvabhādra pada (and m. pl.) the 25th f( ). ā- , the former of the two called nakṣatra- (containing two stars) bhādrapadā- pūrva pada the first member of a n. compound etc. pūrva padaprakṛtisvara having the original accent of the first member of a mfn. compound pūrva padatva n. Va1rtt. 2. puṣ pada "flower-giving", a tree m. puṣ padaṃṣṭra "having flower for fangs", m. Name of a serpent-demon puṣ padanta "flower-toothed", m. Name of śiva- puṣ padanta of an attendant of m. śiva- puṣ padanta of an attendant of m. . viṣṇu- puṣ padanta (also m. ) of a - ka- (author of the gandharva- mahimnaḥ- ) stavaḥ- puṣ padanta of a m. vidyā- dhara- puṣ padanta of a serpent-demon m. puṣ padanta (with m. s) of the 9th jaina- of present arhat- avasarpiṇī- puṣ padanta of a m. particular being puṣ padanta of the elephant of the north-west quarter m. puṣ padanta of the mountain m. śatruṃ- jaya- puṣ padanta ( m. dual number) sun and moon puṣ padanta n. Name of a temple puṣ padanta of a palace n. puṣ padanta of a gate n. puṣ padantabhid m. Name of śiva- (prob. wrong reading for ) pūṣa- danta- bhid- puṣ padantānvaya in an elephant with m. particular marks (descended from the race of ) puṣpa- danta- puṣ padantatīrtha n. Name of a tīrtha- puṣ padantavat one who has flowered teeth mfn. puṣ padantī f. Name of a rākṣasī- puṣpa padavī ( f. ) "course of the menses", the vulva. rādhākṛṣṇa padacihna n. Name of work rahasya padavī f. Name of work rāja pada the rank of a king, royalty n. rājñī pada the rank or dignity of a queen n. rājya pada royal rank, majesty n. rāmahṛdayās pada n. rāmahṛdaya rāmānujasiddhānta padavī f. Name of work raśanāguṇās pada "place for the cord of a girdle", the waist n. raśanā pada "place for the girdle", the hip n. ratha pada "carriage-foot", a wheel n. rātri padavicāra m. Name of work reṇu padavī a path of dust f. ṛk pada a part of a n. , ṛc- śabda padamañjarī m. Name of a grammar. sadāśiva pada n. Name of work sādhu padavī the path or way of the good f. sajana pada having the same country, a fellow-countryman mfn. samākṣara padakrama containing a succession of mfn. s or metrical feet of the succession of syllables pada- samānajana pada being of the same people mfn. sama pada "holding the feet even", a m. particular posture in sexual union sama pada an attitude in shooting m. samartha padavidhi m. Name of a gram. work samaya pada n. plural any matters or points agreed upon saṃdeha pada subject to doubt, doubtful mfn. saṃdeśa pada n. plural the words of a message saṃgitaka pada a situation or office at a conceit or theatre n. saṃkhyā pada a numeral n. ( varia lectio) saṃnyāsa padamañjarī f. Name of work sam pada (for 2. See column 2) equals furnished with ( sam- panna- in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') sam pada (for 1. n. See column 1) standing with the feet together or even ( equals ) samam pada- yugmam- sām pada (fr. mfn. ) relating to the equipment or preparation of, requisite for ( sam- pad- compound) sampadvi pada (prob.) good and ill-luck n. on sampra pada n. plural standing on tiptoe ( see ) . saṃsāra padavī the road of the world f. saṃsāra padavī f. equals prec. saṃyugagoṣ pada a contest in a cow's footstep (met."an insignificant struggle") n. sānandagadgada padam speaking indistinctly through joy ind. sāndra pada a kind of metre n. śaṅkās pada ( ) śaṅkā- sp cause of doubt, ground or matter of suspicion n. śaṅkha pada m. Name of a son of manu- svārociṣa- śaṅkha pada m. equals next sapta pada making the 7 steps (described above) mf( )n. ā- sapta pada consisting of 7 mf( )n. ā- s pāda- etc. sāpta pada (fr. mfn. ) belonging to seven steps, based or depending on seven steps (="sincere","true") sapta- pada- śāra pada a kind of bird m. ( varia lectio for ). sāra- p- sāra pada "having strong feet", a kind of bird reckoned among the m. s ( viṣkira- varia lectio, ) śāra- p- sar padamanī a kind of plant (= f. ) vandhyā- karkoṭakī- sar padaṃṣṭra a snake's fang m. sar padaṃṣṭra Croton Polyandrum or Tiglium m. sar padaṃṣṭrā Tragia Involucrata f. sar padaṃṣṭrī Odina Pinnata or Tragia Involucrata f. sar padaṃṣṭrikā Odina Pinnata or Tragia Involucrata f. sar padaṇḍā a kind of pepper f. sar padaṇḍī a kind of plant ( f. equals ) go- rakṣī- sar padantī Tiaridium Indicum f. sar padaṣṭa a snake-bite n. sarvadharma padaprabheda a m. particular samādhi- sarva pada n. plural (or ibc.) words of every kind sasam pada happy, delighted mfn. śaśa pada a hare's track (easily got over) n. śaśa padaśakti f. Name of work śaśikhaṇḍa pada m. Name of a vidyā- dhara- śastra pada "knife-mark", incision n. śata pada (with n. ) an astronomical circle with a hundred divisions for exhibiting the various divisions of the cakra- s nakṣatra- śata padacakra n. idem or ' (with n. ) an astronomical circle with a hundred divisions for exhibiting the various divisions of the cakra- s nakṣatra- ' ṣaṭ pada having six places or quarters (as a town) mfn. ṣaṭ pada six-footed, (a verse) consisting of six divisions or mfn. s pāda- etc. ṣaṭ pada a six-footed animal, insect m. ṣaṭ pada a n. particular advantageous position in chess ṣaṭ padajya "having bees for a string", mfn. Name of 's bow kāma- deva- ṣaṭ padapriya "beloved by bees", Mesua Roxburghii m. ṣaṭtriṃśat padakajñāna n. Name of work saukhyās pada n. Name of a town śauvā pada (fr. mfn. ) relating to or coming from a wild beast, ferocious, savage, wild śvā- pada- śayanās pada n. equals na- bhūmi- siddha pada n. Name of a sacred place siddhāśrama pada (the place of) the hermitage of the Blest n. śikṣā pada moral precept n. śikṣā padaprajñapti f. Name of a part of the ( vinaya- q.v) śilī pada ( m. equals ) enlarged or swelled leg, elephantiasis ślī- p- śimiṣī pada ( m. see ) a śamanīṣada- rākṣasa- śi pada See . a- śipad/a- śiras pada the upper part n. śiva pada final liberation, emancipation n. śleṣārtha padasaṃgraha m. Name of a dictionary of ambiguous words (by ). śrīharṣa- kavi- ślī pada (thought by some to be fr. n. + śliṣ- ;others suppose pada- to have the meaning "elephant") morbid enlargement of the leg, swelled leg, elephantiasis ślī- ślī padaprabhava "source of elephantiasis", the Mango tree m. smaraṇa padavī "road of (mere) memory", death ( f. = "dead, killed") vīṃ gamitaḥ- ṣoḍaśa pada consisting of 16 mf( )n. ā- s pada- soma pada m. plural Name of particular worlds soma pada n. Name of a tīrtha- sopa pada together with a secondary word mfn. śrīkaṇṭha padalāñchana "marked by the name m. ", śrī- kaṇṭha- Name of the poet bhava- bhūti- śrotra padavī the range of hearing ( f. ,"to come within the range of hearing") vīm upa- - yā sthira pada firmly rooted mf( )n. ā- sthūlaṣaṭ pada a kind of large wasp or bee m. stobha pada n. Name of a treatise on the . stobha- stuti pada an object of praise n. sucaritārtha pada (speech) containing well selected sense and words mfn. sūktāmṛtapunarukto padaṃśanadaśana n. Name of a medicine work by . saj- jana- śūnya padavī "path to non-existence", the way or passage of the soul ( f. equals ) brahma- randhra- su pada a good word n. su pada the word n. su- suprasiddha padamañjarī f. Name of work surās pada "god's abode", a temple n. śva pada a dog's foot (or its mark branded on the body) n. śvā pada ( m. ) śv/ā- - a beast of prey, wild beast n. etc. śvā pada a tiger m. śvā pada m. plural Name of a people ( wrong reading ) svāp- śvā pada relating or belonging to a wild beast ( mfn. equals ) śauvāpada- śvā pada etc. śvā- vidh- See . sva pada one's own place or abode n. sva pada one's own position or rank n. svā pada See . śvā- pada- śvā padarājan a king of the beasts m. śvā padasevita frequented or infested by wild beasts mfn. svarga pada m. Name of a tīrtha- svatvās pada site of ownership, that in which any one has proprietorship n. tā pada mfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' causing pain tat pada the place of that n. tat pada the word n. tad- tat pada Ficus religiosa m. tejas pada a mark of dignity, n. . tīrtha pada mfn. idem or ' , Nominal verb pād- having sanctifying feet ( mfn. ) kṛṣṇa- ' trai pada three-fourths n. tri pada three-footed mfn. tri pada extending over 3 squares mfn. tri pada ( mfn. ) having 3 divisions (a stanza) and ( f. ) tr/ipadā- ( ) f. p/adā- etc. tri pada measuring 3 feet mfn. tri pada containing 3 words mfn. tri pada 3 words n. tri pada the n. metre gāyatrī- tri padaprabhṛti containing 3 or more words mfn. tṛṇaṣaṭ pada "grass-infesting six-footed", a wasp m. uccaiḥ pada a high situation n. ucca pada a high situation, high office. n. udāravṛttārtha pada of excellent words and meaning and metre mfn. udgrāha padavṛtti the f. udgrāha- before a long vowel saṃdhi- upacāra pada a courteous or polite word, a mere compliment n. u padadhi placing upon, mfn. u padadya ind.p. having taken or taking upon one's self u padagdha burnt, set on fire mfn. u padah P. ( - dahati- Aorist - adhā- - kṣīt- ) to burn, set fire to u padambh Causal (3. P. plural ) to lessen, diminish, destroy - dambhayanti- u padambh to fail, u padaṃś u padaṃśa anything eaten in addition (to excite thirst or appetite), a relish, spice m. u padaṃśa a kind of venereal disease m. u padaṃśa the tree Moringa Hyperanthera (the scraped root of which is used for horse-radish) m. u padaṃśa a kind of shrub m. u padaṃśaka a particular plant m. u padaṃśam ind.p. having taken an additional bit or morsel of (with instrumental case or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') on u padaṃśin afflicted with the mfn. ( upadaṃśa- q.v) disease u padarśaka etc. See . upa- - dṛś u padarśaka one who shows the way, a door-keeper m. u padarśana the act of exhibiting, representing n. u padarśana a commentary n. u padarśita caused to appear, shown mfn. u padarśita perceived, distinguished mfn. u padarśita explained. mfn. u padas P. ( - dasyati- subjunctive - dasat- ) to fail, be wanting, be extinguished or exhausted, dry up ; to want, lose, be deprived of ( instrumental case) : Causal , to cause to fail or cease, extinguish - dāsayati- u padaśa nearly ten, almost ten mfn. commentator or commentary on u padasta etc. See , . an- upadasta- u padaśya p. ind. equals above. upa- daṃśam- upahāsās pada a laughing-stock. n. upa pada a word standing near or accompanying another to which it is subordinate (either a subordinate word in a compound [but not in a n. compound] generally forming the first member, or a discriminative appellation at the end of proper names, as bahu- vrīhi- , varman- etc.;or a preposition, particle etc. prefixed to a verb or noun;or a secondary word of any kind which is governed by or limits the general idea contained in the principal word) śarman- upa pada ( n. ,"those trees which have the word vṛkṣāḥ kalpo- papadāḥ- as accompanying word " kalpa- equals kalpa- vṛkṣāḥ- ; see ) upa pada a bit, little n. upa padasamāsa a compound containing an m. ( upa- pada- exempli gratia, 'for example' ). kumbha- kāra- uttama pada a high office. n. uttamopa pada one to whom the best term is applicable, best, good. mfn. uttara pada the last member of a compound word n. etc. uttara padakīya relating to or studying the last word or term mfn. commentator or commentary uttri pada an upright tripod n. vācaka pada containing expressive (not senseless) words mfn. vācaka pada an expressive or significant word, explicit term n. vaiyākaraṇa padamañjarī f. Name of work vaiyā pada (fr. mfn. ), Kaiy. vyāpad- vakra pada a cloth marked with various patterns n. vākya pada a word in a sentence n. vallī pada a kind of cloth with various markings or patterns n. vā padaṇḍa a weaver's loom m. ( see and vāna- - ). vāya- d- varga pada a square root n. varṣa pada a calendar n. vasukal padatta m. Name of poets vāyvās pada "wind-place", the atmosphere, sky n. vedāntācāryapra padana n. Name of work veda padadarpaṇa m. Name of a treatise on the -text of the pada- ( veda- see ). padapāṭha- veda padastava (prob.) wrong reading for . - pādastava- vidheya pada an object to be accomplished n. vighnita pada one whose steps are impeded mfn. vilīnaṣaṭ pada having bees clinging or attached mfn. viracita pada (a speech or song etc.) the words of which are artificially composed or arranged, rhythmic, poetic mfn. viṣama pada having unequal steps (as a path) mf( )n. ā- viṣama pada having unequal mfn. s (a stanza) pāda- viṣama padavṛtti f. Name of various commentaries viśeṣaṇa pada a title of honour n. viṣṇu pada "station or footmark of n. ", the zenith viṣṇu- viṣṇu pada the sky n. etc. viṣṇu pada the mark of n. 's foot worshipped at viṣṇu- gayā- viṣṇu pada n. Name of a sacred hill (also called viṣṇupadagiri , da- giri- ) m. etc. viṣṇu pada a lotus n. viṣṇu pada m. the sea of milk n. viṣṇu pada m. Name of the Ganges (as issuing from 's foot) viṣṇu- etc. viṣṇu pada of the town m. dvārikā- viṣṇu padagiri m. viṣṇupada viṣṇu padaśrāddha n. Name of a particular (performed in the temple containing śrāddha- 's footprint) viṣṇu- viṣṇu padatīrtha the sacred place called n. ( gayā- equals ) viṣṇu- pada- viṣu pada the autumnal equinox(?) n. viśvarū padarśana n. Name of two chs. in the of the krīḍā- khaṇḍa- vitarka padavī the path of conjecture or supposition f. vivāda pada the subject of a dispute or lawsuit n. vivādās pada the subject of a lawsuit ( n. vivādāspadibhūta di- bhūta- become the subject of a lawsuit, litigated, contested at law) mfn. viveka padavī "path of discrimination", reflection f. vyadhikaraṇa pada containing words in different cases (as a mfn. , bahuvrīhi- exempli gratia, 'for example' ,"one who has black colour in the throat"[= kaṇṭhe- kāla- ,"black-throated"]) kālakaṇṭha- vyāghra pada a species of plant m. vyasta pada confused statement of a case (in a law-court;as, when a man is accused of debt, it is stated in defence that he has been assaulted), counter-plaint n. vyasta pada (in gram.) a simple or uncompounded word n. vyavahāra pada a title or head of legal procedure, occasion or case of litigation ( n. see below - mātṛkā- ), yajurveda pada n. Name of work yakārādi pada a word beginning with n. (euphemistically applied to any form of ya- ) yabh- yama pada a repeated word n. yathājana padam according to countries ind. yathā padam according to word, word by word ind. yathopa padam as it happens, ind. yauga pada n. equals next yauvana padavī the path of youth ( f. ,having entered on adolescence) vīm ārūḍhaḥ- yoga pada a state of self-concentration or meditation n. yoga padaka n. wrong reading for - paṭṭaka- q.v
pada a word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' ( confer, compare III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and confer, compare affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु taddhita affix. as also before the et cetera, and others affixes मत्, वत् taddhita affix. which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; et cetera, and others स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् confer, compare on P. I. 2. 64 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra. 2; Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा confer, compare on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् confer, compare , (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others , (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words et cetera, and others verbs like एधते, वर्धते, id est, that is Verbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words. et cetera, and others asva padavigraha a term used for those compounds, the dissolution of which cannot be shown by the members of the compound: e. g. सुमुखी; भवति वै कश्चिदस्वपदविग्रहोपि बहुव्रीहिः । तद्यथा । शोभनं मुखमस्याः सुमुखीति । M.Bh. on V.4.5. confer, compare ātmane pada a technical term for the affixes called तड् (त, आताम् ) and the affix अान ( शानच् , चानश्, कानच् ), called so possibly because, the fruit of the activity is such as generally goes to the agent (आत्मने) when these affixes are us et cetera, and others Contrast this term (Ātmanepada) with the term Parasmaipada when the fruit is meant for another. For an explanation of the terms see P. VI.3.7 and 8. edition ukti pada उक्तिपदानि a short anonymous treatise on case-relations, compounds written mostly in Gujarati. et cetera, and others uttara pada the latter member or portion of a compound word as contrasted with पूर्वपद; पतिरुत्तरपदमाद्युदात्तम् confer, compare II. 3. 11; cf also अलुगुत्तरपदे P. VI. 3.1. Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. udgrāha padavṛtti name given in the Rk. Prātiśākhya to the Udgrāhasaṁdhi where the vowel अ is followed by a long vowel; e.g, कः ईषते =क ईषते R.Pr.II.10. upa pada a word placed near; an adjoining word. In Pāṇini's grammar, the term उपपद is applied to such words as are put in the locative case by Pāṇini in his rules prescribing kṛt affixes in rules from 1 II. 1, 90 to III. 4 end; literally तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम् P.III.1.92; confer, compare कर्मणि in कर्मण्यण् P. III.2.1. The word is also used in the sense of an adjoining word connected in sense. e. g. युष्मद्युपपदे as also प्रहासे च मन्योपपदे P.I.4.105,106; exempli gratia, for example also क्रियार्थायां क्रियायामुपपदे धातोर्भविष्यति काले तुमुन्ण्वुलौ भवतः Kāś. on P.III.3.10; confer, compare also इतरेतरान्योन्योपपदाच्च P.I.3.10, मिथ्योपपदात् कृञोभ्यासे P.I.3.71, as also उपपदमतिङ् P.II.2.19; and गतिकारकोपपदात्कृत् P. VI.2.139. Kaiyaṭa on P.III.1. 92 confer, compare 2 explains the word उपपद as उपोच्चारि or उपोच्चारितं पदं उपपदम्. The word उपपद is found used in the Prātiśākhya literature where it means a word standing near and effecting some change: Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). च वा ह अह एव एतानि चप्रभृतीनि यान्युपपदानि उक्तानि आख्यातस्य विकारीणिo Uvaṭa on confer, compare VI. 23. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. upa padavidhi a grammatical operation caused by a word which is near; cf उपपदविधौ भयाढ्यादिग्रहणं P. I.1.72 Vārt 9, also अतिप्रसङ्ग उपपदविधौ P. IV 1.1. 8 where rules such as 'कर्मण्यण्' and the following are referred to as उपपदविधि, the words कर्मणि, स्तम्ब, कर्ण, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). being called उपपद by the rule तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्; P. III.1.92. et cetera, and others upa padavibhakti a case termination added to a word on account of the presence of another word requiring the addition; the well-known Paribhāṣā,उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी. confer, compare Pari. 94; and M.Bh. on I.4. 96 stating the possession of greater force in the case of a kāra-kavibhakti than in the case of an upapadavibhakti. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. upa padasamāsa the compound of a word, technically termed as उपपद by Pāṇini according to his definition of the word in III.1.92., with another word which is a verbal derivative; कुम्भकारः, नगरकारः Here technically the compound of the words कुम्भ, नगर confer, compare which are upapadas is formed with कार,before a case-termination is added to the nominal base कार; et cetera, and others गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः confer, compare Pari. 75. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. ubhaya pada (1) double voice--the Parasmaipada as well as the Ātmanepada; (2) both the words or members (in a compound); उभयपदार्थप्रधानो द्वन्द्वः Kāś on P.I.2.57. confer, compare eka pada made up of one word; consisting of one word; अथवा सन्त्येकपदान्यप्यवधारणानि । यथा अब्भक्षो वायुभक्षः । अप एव भक्षयति वायुमव भक्षयति । M.Bh. first Āhnika; (2) a continuous word paraphrased as अखण्डपद and समानपद by commentators; confer, compare तेनानन्तरा षष्ठयेकपदवत् V.Pr.II. 18: (3) every individual word: confer, compare बहुक्रमे क्रमेत तस्यैकपदानि नि:सृजन् R.Pr.XI.18. confer, compare galat pada the word occurs in the Prātiśākhya works in connection with the definition of संक्रम, in the kramapātha. The word संक्रम means bringing together two words when they are combined according to rules of Samdhi. (See the word संक्रम). In the Kramapātha, where each word occurs twice by repetition, a word occurring twice in a hymn or a sentence is not to be repeated for Kramapātha, but it is to be passed over. The word which is passed over in the Kramapātha is called गलत्पद; e. g. दिशां च पतये नमो नमो वृक्षेभ्यो हरिकेशेभ्यः पशूनां पतये नमो नमः सस्पिञ्जराय त्विषीमतॆ पथीनां पतये नमः । In the Kramapātha पतये नमः and नमः are passed over and पशूनां is to be connected with सस्पिञ्जराय. The words पतये नमः and नमः are called galatpada; गलत्पदमतिक्रम्य अगलता सह संधानं संक्रम; confer, compare IV. 197. There is no गलत्पद in पदपाठ. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. gīrvāṇa padamañjarī a grammatical work written by वरदराज, pupil of Bhattoji Diksita in the 17th century who wrote many works on grammar such as मध्यकौमुदी, लघुकौमुदी et cetera, and others caṃrcā pada component words of a running text or of a compound word. tri pada made up of a collection of three padas or words; the word is used in connection with a Rk or a portion of the kramapatha: यथॊक्तं पुनरुक्तं त्रिपदप्रभृति T.Pr.I.61. The word is found used in connection with a bahuvrihi compound made up of three words; confer, compare the term त्रिपदबहुव्रीहि. confer, compare nānā pada different words as opposed to समानपद or a single word; confer, compare III. 80; T.Pr. XXIV. 3, XX. 3. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. pañcāla padavṛtti the usage or the method of the Pañcālas; the eastern method of euphonic combinations, viz. the retention of the vowel अ after the preceding vowel ओ which is substituted for the Visarga; e. g. यो अस्मै; confer, compare II. 12; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI. 19. This vowel अ which is retained, is pronounced like a short ओ or अर्धओकार by the followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāņāyaniya branches of the Sāmavedins; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. commentary on confer, compare XI. 19 as also Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. Āhnika 1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). padakāṇḍa (1) a term used in connection with the first section of the Vākyapadīya named ब्रह्मकाण्ड also, which deals with padas, as contrasted with the second section which deals with Vākyas; (2) a section of the Așțadhyāyī of Pāņini, which gives rules about changes and modifications applicable to the pada, or the formed word, as contrasted with the base (अङ्ग) and the suffixes. The section is called पदाधिकार which begins with the rule पदस्य P.VIII.1.16. and ends with the rule इडाया वा VIII. 3. 54. padakāra one who has divided the Samhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada-text. The term is applied to ancient Vedic Scholars शाकल्य, आत्रेय, कात्यायन and others who wrote the Padapātha of the Vedic Samhitās. The term is applied possibly through misunderstanding by some scholars to the Mahābhāsyakāra who has not divided any Vedic Samhitā,but has, in fact, pointed out a few errors of the Padakāras and stated categorically that grammarians need not follow the Padapāțha, but, rather, the writers of the Padapāțha should have followed the rules of grammar. Patañjali, in fact, refers by the term पदकार to Kātyāyana, who wrote the Padapātha and the Prātiśākhya of the Vājasaneyi-Samhitā in the following statement--न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम्। यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् literally on P. III.1. 109; VI. 1. 207; VIII. 2.16; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also अदीधयुरिति पदकारस्य प्रत्याख्यानपक्षे उदाहरणमुपपन्नं भवति ( परिभाषासूचन of व्याडि Pari. 42 ) where Vyādi clearly refers to the Vārtika of Kātyāyana ' दीधीवेव्योश्छन्दोविषयत्वात् ' P. I. 1.6 confer, compare I. The misunderstanding is due to passages in the commentary of स्कन्दस्वामिन् on the Nirukta passage I. 3, उब्वटटीका on ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य XIII. 19 and others where the statements referred to as those of Patañjali are, in fact, quotations from the Prātiśākhya works and it is the writers of the Prātiśākhya works who are referred to as padakāras by Patañ jali in the Mahābhāsya. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). padacandrikā a grammar work on the nature of words written by कृष्णशेष of the sixteenth century. padapakṣa the same as पदसंस्कारपक्ष. See पदसंस्कारपक्ष. padapāṭha the recital of the Veda text pronouncing or showing each word separately as detached from the adjoining word. It is believed that the Veda texts were recited originally as running texts by the inspired sages, and as such, they were preserved by people by oral tradition. Later on after several centuries, their individually distinct words were shown by grammarians who were called Padakāras. The पदपाठ later on had many modifications or artificial recitations such as क्रम, जटा, घन in which each word was repeated twice or more times, being uttered connectedly with the preceding or the following word, or with both. These artificial recitations were of eight kinds, which came to be known by the term अष्टविकृतयः. et cetera, and others padaprakṛti a term used in connection with the Samhitā text or संहितापाठ which is believed to have been based upon words ( पदानि प्रकृति: यस्याः सा ) or which forms the basis of words or word-text or the padapātha (पदानां प्रकृतिः); cf पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. padaprabheda lit, divisions of words: parts of speech. There are four parts of speech viz.नामन् , आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात given by ancient grammarians and the authors of the Prātiśākhya works, while there are given only two, सुबन्त and तिङन्त by Pāņini. For details see pp. 145, 146 Vol. VII. Mahābhāșya D. E. Society's edition. padamañjarī the learned commentary by Haradatta on the काशिकावृत्ति. Haradatta was a very learned grammarian of the Southern School, and the Benares School of Grammarians follow पदमञ्जरी more than the equally learned another commentary काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका or न्यास. In the Padamanjarī Haradatta is said to have given everything of importance from the Mahābhāșya; अधीते हि महाभाष्ये व्यर्था सा पदमञ्जरी. For details see Mahābhāșya D. E. S. Ed. Vol. VII P. 390-391. confer, compare padavākyaratnākara a disquisition on grammar dealing with the different ways in which the sense of words is convey The work consists of a running commentary on his own verses by the author Gokulanātha Miśra who, from internal evidence, appears to have flourished before Koņdabhațța and after Kaiyața. edition padavāda or padavādipakṣa view that words are real and have an existence and individuality of their own. The view is advocated by the followers of both the Mīmāmsā schools and the logicians who believe that words have a real existence. Grammarians admit the view for practical purposes, while they advocate that the अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट alone is the real sense. Vākyapadīya II.90 and the foll. confer, compare padavidhi an operation prescribed in connection with words ending with case or verbal affixes and not in connection with noun-bases or root-bases or with single letters or syllables. पदविधि is in this way contrasted with अङ्गविधि ( including प्रातिपदिकविधि and धातुविधि ), वर्णविधि and अक्षरविधि, Such Padavidhis are given in Pāņini's grammar in Adhyāya2, Pādas l and 2 as also in VI.1.158, and in VIII. 1.16 to VIII.3.54 and include rules in connection with compounds, accents and euphonic combinations. When, however, an operation is prescribed for two or more padas, it is necessary that the two padas or words must be syntactically connectible; समर्थः पदविधिः P. II.1.1. confer, compare padavirāma pause between two words measuring two mātrās, or equal to the time required for the utterance of a long vowel; e. g. in इषे त्वोर्जे त्वा, the pause between इषे and त्वा is measured by two mātrās; पदविरामो द्विमात्रः confer, compare XXII.13.Some Prātiśākhya texts declare that the pause between two words is of one mātra as at avagraha; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. R Pr. II.1 and confer, compare 35-38. Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. padavyavasthāsūtrakārikā a metrical work on the determination of the pada or padas of the roots attributed to Vimalakīrti. padavyavasthāsūtrakārikāṭīkā a short gloss on the पदव्यवस्थासूत्रकारिका written by Udayakīrti, a Jain grammarian padasaṃskārapakṣa an alternative view with वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष regarding the formation of words by the application of affixes to crude bases. According to the Padasamskāra alternative, every word is formed independently, and after formation the words are syntactically connected and used in a sentence. The sense of the sentence too, is understood after the sense of every word has been understood; सुविचार्य पदस्यार्थं वाक्यं गृह्णन्ति सूरयः Sira. on Pari. 22. According to the other alternative viz. वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष, a whole sentence is brought before the mind and then the constituent individual words are formed confer, compare राम +सु, गम् + अ + ति । Both the views have got some advantages and some defects; exempli gratia, for example Par. Sek. Pari. 56. confer, compare padasphoṭa expression of the sense by the whole word without any consideration shown to its division into a base and an affix. For instance, the word रामेण means 'by Rama' irrespective of any consideration whether न is the affix or इन is the affix which could be any of the two, or even one, different from the two; उपायाः शिक्षमाणानां वालानामपलापनाः Vākyapadīya II.240. confer, compare parasmai pada a term used in grammar with reference to the personal affixs ति, त: applied to roots. The term परस्मैपद is given to the first nine afixes ति, त:, अन्ति, सि, थ:, थ, मि, व: and म:, while the term आत्मनेपद is used in connection with the next nine त, आताम् et cetera, and others ; et cetera, and others परस्मै परोद्देशार्थफलकं पदम् Vac. Kosa. The term परस्मैपद is explained by some as representing the Active_Voice as contrasted with the Passive Voice which necessarily is characterized by the Aatmanepada affixes. The term परस्मैभाष in the sense of परस्मैपद was used by ancient grammarians and is also found in the Vaarttika अात्मनेभाषपस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI. 3.8 Vart.1 . The term परस्मैभाष as applied to roots, could be explained as परस्मै क्रियां (or क्रियाफलं) भाषन्ते इति परस्मैभाषाः and originally such roots as had their activity meant for another, used to take the परस्मैपद् affixes, while the rest which had the activity meant for self, took the अात्मनेपद affixes. Roots having activity for both, took both the terminations and were termed उभयपदिनः. confer, compare pūrva pada anterior member, the first out of the two members of a compound, as contrasted with the next member which is उत्तरपद; पूर्वपदोत्तरपदयोरेकोदशः पूर्वपदत्यान्तवद्भवति, confer, compare on P.VI.1.85 Vart. 4. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). pūrva padaprakṛtisvara retention of the original acute accent of the first member in a compound as is generally noticed in the bahuvrihi compound and in special cases in other compounds; cf बहुव्रीहौ प्रकृत्या पूर्वपदम् and the following rules P. WI. 2.1 to 63. prati padapāṭha (1) recital ofeach and every word; (2) enumeration of every word; किं शब्दानां प्रतिपत्तौ प्रतिपदपाठः कर्तव्यः, confer, compare on Ahn. 1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). prati padavidhāna express statement by a definite wording; एवं तर्हि उभयमनेन क्रियते अपवादविषये चानिवृत्तिः उत्सर्गविषये च प्रतिपदविधानम् । confer, compare on III 3. 12. Vart.l: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also प्रतिपदविधाना च षष्ठी न समस्येत । का पुनः षष्ठी प्रतिपदविधाना का कृद्योगा । सर्वा षष्ठी प्रतिपदविधाना शेषलक्षणां वर्जयित्वा । क्रतृकर्मणोः कृति इति या षष्ठी सा कृद्योगा; confer, compare on P. II. 2.8 and II.2.10. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). prati padavidhi an injunction or operation stating expressly the word or words for which it is meant; यं विधिं प्रति उपदेशोनर्थकः स विधिर्बाध्यते । दत्वं प्रति नुमः प्रतिपदविधिरनर्थकः, रोः पुनर्निमित्तमेव. M.Bh. on P. VIII. 2.72. confer, compare prācya padavṛtti succession of two vowels where the former vowel, which is either ए, or ओ remains without coalescence with the following vowel अ, even though by rules it is liable to be changed; सुजाते अश्वसूनृते । अध्वर्यो अद्रिभिः सुतम् । In such cases the vowel अ is pronounced like ए. This view is held by the senior Sakalya (स्थविरशाकल्य); exempli gratia, for example प्राच्यपञ्चाल-उपधानिभोदयाः शाकल्यस्य स्थविरस्येतरा स्थितिः, R.Pr. II.44; confer, compare also स पूर्वस्यार्धसदृशमेकेषाम् confer, compare XI.19 and the commentaries thereon; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. also छन्दोगानां सात्यमुग्रिराणायनीया अर्धमेकारमर्धमोकारं चाधीयते । सुजाते ए अश्वसूनृते । अध्वर्यो ओ अद्रिभिः सुतम् । confer, compare on Siva Sutra 3, 4 as also on P.I.1.48. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). madhyama padalopa the dropping of the middle word or member ( of a compound generally) as for instance in शाकपार्थिक for शाकप्रियपार्थिव; the word मध्यमपदलोप is also used in the sense of a compound. The compounds which have the middle word dropped are enumerated by the Vārttikakāra under the Vārttika शाकपार्थिवादीनां मध्यमपदलेापश्च Bh. Vṛ. II.1.60 literally ; cf also Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). II.6.30. Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra. yuga padadhikaraṇavacanatā denotation of two or more things by one single member by virtue of their being put together in a dvandva compound of two or more words; the grammarians advocate this doctrine stating that in a dvandva compound such as घटपटौ or घटपटम् , the word घट has the capacity of expressing the sense of both घट and पट, which in a sentence घटः पटश्च, it does not possess. Similarly पट also has the capacity of conveying the sense of both पट and घट. Possibly this theory is advocated by grarnmarians, on the analogy of words like पितरौ or मातरौ for मातापितरौ, द्यावा for द्यावापृथिवी and so on; सिद्धं तु युगपदधिकरणवचने द्वन्द्ववचनात् P. II 2.29 Vart. 2. For details see Vyakaranamahabhasya on चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II. 2.29. confer, compare yuga padadhikaraṇavivakṣā desire to express two or more senses simultaneously (by one word) ; सर्वाणि द्वन्द्व बह्वर्थानि। युगपदधिकरणविवक्षायां द्वन्द्वो भवति confer, compare on P. II.4.62. See युगपदधिकरणवचनता. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). viṣama padavyākhyā or विषमी (1) a critical commentary on Nāgeśa's Laghuśabdenduśekhara written by Rāghavendrācārya Gajendragadkar of Satara who lived in the first half of the nineteenth century and who has also written a gloss named त्रिपथगा on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara; (2) name of a commentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Cidrūpāśraya: (3) name of a commentary on Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti. akṣarapaṅkti name given to the dvipada virāj verses divided into padās of five syllables. cf विराजो द्विपदाः केचित् सर्वा आहुश्चतुष्पदाः । कृत्वा पञ्चाक्षरान्पादांस्तास्तथाSक्षरपङ्क्तयः XVII. 50. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) agra the original Samhita text as opposed to pratṛṇna ( प्रतृण्ण ) or padapāṭha, (पदपाठ) which is the recital of separate words. at (1) tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar for short अ, cf तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70; अदेङ् गुणः P.I.1.2; (2) personal ending अ for इ ( इट् ) of the Ist person. singular. in the Potential, P III. 4. 106; (3) caseaffix in the case of युष्मद् and अस्मद् for or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada ablative case. and singular. P.VII. 1.31,32: (4) tad-affix अत् (अ) prescribed after किम् in the sense of the plural case before which किम् is changed to कु, क्व being the locative case formation; taddhita affix. P. V.3.12 and VII.2.105:(5) substitute अत्(शतृ) for लट् forming the present and future participles in the Parasmaipada. active voice confer, compare लटः शतृशानचौ. P.III. 2.124 and लृटः सद्वा P. III.3.14. confer, compare aniṅgya not separable into two padas or words by means of avagraha; संध्य ऊष्माप्यनिङ्ग्ये: confer, compare V.41; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also confer, compare IX.25, XIII.30. See इङ्ग्य below. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) anudāttet one whose mute significatory letter is uttered with a grave accent: a term applied to a root characterized by an indicatory mute vowel accented grave, the chief feature of such a root being that it takes only the Ātmanepada affixes c. g. आस्ते, वस्ते, literally ; et cetera, and others अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; such a root, in forming a derivative word in the sense of habit, takes the affix युच् e. g. वर्त्तनः, वर्धन: confer, compare provided the root begins with a consonant; et cetera, and others अनुदात्तेतश्र हलादेः P. III.2.149. confer, compare antaraṅga a highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himsel The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 feminine. 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). , it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken pl a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष). accusative case. avagraha (1) separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originat exempli gratia, for example The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. ( edition II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।( confer, compare on IV.2.36); also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् ( confer, compare on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; exempli gratia, for example समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः ( confer, compare V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. āgama augment, accrement, a word element which is added to the primitive or basic word during the process of the formation of a complete word or pada. The āgama is an adventitious word element and hence differs from ādeśa, the substitute which wholly takes the place of the original or ( आदेशिन् ). Out of the several āgamas mentioned by Pāṇini, those that are marked with mute ट् are prefixed, those, marked with क्, are affixed, while those, marked with म्, are placed immediately after the last vowel of the word. The augments become a part and parcel of the word to which they are added, and the characteristics of which they possess; यदागमास्तद्गुणीभूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते, also आगमानां आगमिधर्मिवैशिष्ट्यम् confer, compare Pari.11. Those grammarians, who hold the view that words are unproduced and eternal, explain the addition of an augment as only the substitution of a word with an augment in the place of a word without an augment; Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. आदेशास्तर्हिमे भविष्यन्ति अनागमकानां सागमकाः confer, compare on I.1.20; I.1.46. The term āgama is defined as अन्यत्र विद्यमानस्तु यो वर्णः श्रुयतेधिकः । आगम्यमानतुल्यत्वात्स आगम इति स्मृतः Com. on Tait. Prāt.I. 23. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). ātām Ātmanepada third person dual ending, technically substituted for लकार by P.III.4.78 aātmanepadin a root which always takes the Ātmanepada affixes. (See ). a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. aātmanebhāṣa a technical term used for such roots as speak for the agent himself; the term अात्मनेभाष means the same as the term अात्मनेपदिन्. The term अात्मनेभाष is not mentioned by Pāṇini; but the writer of the Vārtikas explains it, आत्मनेभाषपरस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI.3.7 and 8 confer, compare 1; Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). also आत्मनेपदिनश्च धातवो वैयाकरणैरात्मनेभाषशब्देन व्यवह्रियन्ते,Kaiyaṭa on VI.3.7.The term is found in the Atharva-Prātiśākhya. III. 4.7. It cannot be said whether the term came in use after Pāṇini or, although earlier, it belonged to some school other than that of Pāṇini or, Pāṇini put into use the terms Ātmanepada and Parasmaipada for the affixes as the ancient terms Ātmanebhāṣa and Parasmaibhāṣa were in use for the roots. confer, compare ārṣa derived from the holy sages; founded on sacred tradition, such as the Vedāṅgas; कृत्स्नं च वेदाड्गमनिन्द्यमार्षम् R. Prāt. XIV 30. The word is explained as स्वयंपाठ by the confer, compare on Vāj Prāt. IX.2I, and as Vaidika saṁdhi on X.l3. Patañjali has looked upon the pada-pāṭha or Pada-text of the Saṁhitās of the Vedas, as anārṣa, as contrasted with the Saṁhitā text which is ārṣa; commentary आर्ष्याम् in the sense संहितायाम् R. Prāt. II.27; confer, compare also पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् M.Bh. on III.1.109. confer, compare iṅgya a separable word as opposed to अनिङ्ग्य; part of a compound word which is separated or may be separated from the remaining part when the word is split up into its constituent parts. Generally the word is applied to the first part of a compound word when it is split up in the recital of the padapāṭha. The 'iṅgya' word is shown by a pause or avagraha after it which is shown in writing by the sign (ऽ): इङ्गयेत विभागेन चाल्यते इति इङ्गयम् । इङ्गयमिति विभागपदस्य संशा confer, compare on Tait. Prāt. 1.48. सावग्रहं पदमिङ्गयम् Com.on T.Pr. I.48. commentary it (1) a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, 1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; ( Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । confer, compare P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, et cetera, and others P.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compare P.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past confer, compare affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; participle. P.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्; confer, compare P.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compare VII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist, confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past confer, compare participle. P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compare P.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel; confer, compare P.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed; confer, compare P.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compare P I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the confer, compare affix ई (ङीप्) feminine. P.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compare P.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel. confer, compare P.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि, confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217，ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compare P.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the confer, compare affix ई ( ङीप् ) feminine. P.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation confer, compare सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 exempli gratia, for example (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: et cetera, and others शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34. confer, compare īyaṅ' afix ईय added to the root ऋत्, ङ् showing the application of the Ātmanepada affixes; e. g. ऋतीयते P. III.1.29 confer, compare udayakīrti author of a treatise giving rules for the determination of the pada or padas of roots; the treatise is named पदव्यवस्थासूत्रकारिकाटीका He was a Jain grammarian, and one of the pupils of Sādhusundara. upagraha a term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's . The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मनेपदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेशव्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him. Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. upasarga preposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': सोपसर्गेषु नामसु confer, compare XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; et cetera, and others उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् confer, compare I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, Nirukta of Yāska. ), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see et cetera, and others I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Nirukta of Yāska. 7 and Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa. thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attach Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa. It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः edition XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 15, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. ubhayatobhāṣa speaking or showing both the padas or voices; possessed of both the padas viz. the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada. The word is found commonly used in the Dhātupaṭha of Pāṇini. literally ubhayapadin a root conjugated in both the Padas; a root to which both, the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada terminations are affixed; roots वृ, भी, मुच् exempli gratia, for example et cetera, and others urobṛhatī a variety of the Vedic metre बृहती in which the first pada consists of twelve syllables and the rest of eight syllables; confer, compare XVI. 33. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) uṣṇih (उष्णिक्) name of the second of the main seven Vedic metres which are known by the name प्रजापतिच्छन्दस्. The Uṣṇik metre consists of 28 syllables divided into three padas of 8, 8 and 12 sylla bles. It has got many varieties such as पुरउष्णिह्, ककुभ् and others; for details see XVI 20-26. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ūrdhvabṛhatī ( विराज् ) a variety of the metre Bṛhatī which has three padas of twelve syllables each; त्रयो द्वादशका यस्याः सा होर्ध्ववृहती विराट् confer, compare XVI.33. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ekavibhakti a pada having the same case in the various dissolutions of the compound word; e. g. the word कौशाम्बी in the compound word निष्कौशाम्बिः, which stands only in the ablative case कौशाम्ब्याः, although the word निष्क्रान्त, which stands for the word निस्, could be used in many cases. The word नियतविभक्तिक is also used in the same sense. aikapadika given in the group of ekapadas or solitarily stated words as contrasted with anekapadas or synony See एकपद manuscript. . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. kartrabhiprāya meant for the agent of the action. The word is used in connection with the fruit or result of an action; when the result is for the agent, roots having both the Padas get the Ātmanepada terminations; स्वरितञ्जितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P.I.3.72. confer, compare karmavyatihāra exchange of verbal activity; reciprocity of action; कर्मव्यतिहार means क्रियाव्यतिहार or क्रियाविनिमय; कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14.; also कर्मव्यतिहारे णच् स्त्रियाम् । व्यावक्रोशी, व्यात्युक्षी Kāś. on P.III.3.43. The roots having their agents characterized by a reciprocity of action take the Ātmanepada terminations; confer, compare P. I. 3.14. confer, compare kāraka doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारकशब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्थान्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: literally also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and कर्तृ to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa confer, compare . pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona. kārakavibhaktibalīyastva the dictum that a Kāraka case is stronger than an Upapada case,e. g. the accusative case as required by the word नमस्कृत्य,which is stronger than the dative case as required by the word नमः. Hence the word मुनित्रयं has to be used in the sentence : मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य and not the word मुनित्रयाय उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari. 94. confer, compare kit (1) marked with the mute letter क् which is applied by Pāṇini to affixes, for preventing guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes to the preceding इक् vowel (इ, उ, ऋ or लृ); क्ङिति च, Pāṇ. I.1.5; (2) considered or looked upon as marked with mute indicatory क् for preventing guna; confer, compare असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् and the following P.I.2.5 confer, compare The affixes of the first type are for instance क्त, क्त्वा, क्तिन् and others. The affixes of the second type are given mainly in the second pada of the first Adhyāya by Pāṇini. Besides the prevention of guṇa and wrddhi, affixes marked with कु or affixes called कित्, cause Saṁprasāraṇa (see P. VI.1.15,16), elision of the penultimate न् (P.VI.4.24), elision of the penultimate vowel (P. VI.4.98,100), lengthening of the vowel (VI.4.15), substitution of ऊ (VI.4.19,21), elision of the final nasal (VI. 4.37), substitution of अI (VI.4.42). The taddhita affixes which are marked with mute क् cause the Vṛddhi substitute for the first vowel in the word to which they are add et cetera, and others edition kyaṅ affix य taking Ātmanepada terminations after it, added in the sense of similar behaviour to a substantive. The substantive to which this affix य is added, becomes a denominative root; e. g. काकः श्येनायते, कुमुदं पुष्करायते, Kāś. on P. III. 1.11-12, also on P. III, 1.14-18. confer, compare kyap kṛt afix य applied to the roots व्रज् and यज् in the sense of 'verbal activity' and to the roots अजू with सम्, षद् with नि to form proper nouns e. g. व्रज्या, इज्या, समज्या, निषद्या et cetera, and others , et cetera, and others P. III. 3.98 and 99; (2) kṛtya affix य in the sense of 'should be done' applied to the roots वद्, भू and हन् (when preceded by certain words put as upapada), as also to roots with penultimate ऋ and the roots मृज्, इ, स्तु and others; e. g. ब्रह्मोद्यम् , ब्रह्मभूयम् , इत्यम् , स्तुत्यम् confer, compare et cetera, and others Kāś. on P. III. 1. 106,121. confer, compare kyaṣ affix य added to certain nouns like लोहित and others to form denominative roots after which terminations of both the padas are placed लोहितायति, लोहितायते; exempli gratia, for example Kāś. on P. III. 1.13. confer, compare kanip kṛt affix वन् in the sense of agent added to (l) a root preceded by an Upasarga or a Subanta Upapada or sometimes even without any preceding word; प्रतरित्वा, धीवा, पीवा; (2) to the root दृश्, preceded by an Upapada which is the object of the root दृश्, exempli gratia, for example पारदृश्वा; (3) to roots युध् and कृञ् having राजन् as their object, exempli gratia, for example राजयुध्वा, राजकृत्वा ; exempli gratia, for example Pāṇini III.2.94-96. confer, compare kvip (1) kṛt affix zero, added to the roots सद्, सू, द्विष् and others with a preceding word as upapada or with a prefix or sometimes even without any word, as also to the root हन् preceded by the words ब्रह्मन्, भ्रूण and वृत्र, and to the root कृ preceded by सु, कर्मन् , and to the roots सु, and चि under certain conditions et cetera, and others उपसत्, सूः, प्रसूः, पर्णध्वत्, ब्रह्महा, वृत्रहा, सोमसुत्, अग्निचित्; exempli gratia, for example P.III. 2.61, 76, 77, 87-92: 177-179; (2) the denominative affix zero applied to any substantive in the sense of behaviour अश्वति, गर्दभति confer, compare ; et cetera, and others M.Bh. and Kāś, on P.III.1.11. confer, compare khal kṛt afix अ added to any root preceded by the word ईषद्, दुस् or सु, and to the roots भू and कृ preceded by an upapada word forming either the subject or the object of the roots, e. g. ईषत्करः कटो भवता, ईषदाढ्यंभवं भवता; P. III. 3.126, 127. confer, compare khaś kṛt affix added to the roots यज् (causal), ध्मा, धे,रुज्, वह्, लिह्, पच् , दृश् , तप्, मन् preceded by certain specified upapada words. The root undergoes all the operations such as the addition of the conjugational sign et cetera, and others before this खश् on account of the mute letter श् which makes खश् a Sārvadhātuka affix, and the augment म् is added to the preceding उपपद if it is not an indeclinable on account of the mute letter ख्; e. g. जनमेजयः, स्तनंधयः, नाडिंधमः, असूयै. पश्यः पण्डितंमन्यः etc,; et cetera, and others Pāṇ. III2.28-37, 83. confer, compare ghana a variety of the क्रमपाठ or recital of the Vedic hymns to show the serial order of words there; one of the eight vikrtis of the padapātha. ṅit (l) affixes with the mute letter ङ् attached to them either before or after, with a view to preventing the guna and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding इ, उ, ऋ, or लृ, as for example, the affixes चङ्, अङ् and others (2) affixes conventionally called ङित् after certain bases under certain conditions; गाङ्कुटादिम्यो ञ्णिन्ङित् P. I. 2. 1-4; (3) roots marked with the mute letter ङ् signifying the application of the Atmanepada terminations to them: (4) substitutes marked with mute ङ् which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which they are prescribed as substitutes; (5) case affixes marked with mute letter ङ् which cause the substitution of guna to the last vowel इ or उ of words termed घि. confer, compare ṅyāppād a popular name given by grammarians to the first pada of the fourth adhyaya of Panini's Astadyayi as the pada begins with the rule ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात् IV. I.I. ciṇ substitute इ causing vrddhi, in the place of the aorist vikarana affix च्लि, prescribed in the case of all roots in the passive voice and in the case of the roots पद्, दीप्, जन् in the active voice before the affix त of the third et cetera, and others person. in the Atmanepada, which in its turn is elided by P. VI. 4. 104. cf P. III. 1.60-66. singular. chpāda a popular name given by grammarians to the first pada of the fifth Adhyaya of Painis Astadhyayi as the pada begins with the rule प्राक् क्रीताच्छः P. V. 1.1. chas affix ईय added to the word भवत् in the general शैषिक senses, e. g. भवदीयः; cf P. IV.2.115. The mute letter स् has been attached to the affix छस् So that the base भवत् before it could be termed pada ( taddhita affix. सिति च P, I.4.16) and as a result have the consonant त् changed into द् by P. VIII.2.39. confer, compare jaśtva substitution of a जश् consonant prescribed by Panini for any consonant excepting a semi-vowel or a nasal, if followed by any fourth or third consonant out of the class consonants, or if it is at the end of a pada; P.VIII. 2.39, VIII.4. 53. confer, compare jātābhīyāsiddhatva invalidity of a grammatical operation prescribed by a rule in the अाभीय section (P. VI. 4.22 upto the end of the fourth pada ) which, although it has taken place, is to be looked upon as not having taken place when any other operation in the same section is to take effect. See आभीयासिद्व. jainendravyākaraṇa name of a grammar work written by Pujyapada Devanandin, also called Siddhanandin, in the fifth century A.D. The grammar is based on the Astadhyay of Panini,the section on Vedic accent and the rules of Panini explaining Vedic forms being,of course, neglect The grammar is called Jainendra Vyakarana or Jainendra Sabdanusasana. The work is available in two versions, one consisting of 3000 sutras and the other of 3700 sutras. it has got many commentaries, of which the Mahavrtti written by Abhayanandin is the principal one. For details see Jainendra Vyakarana, introduction published by the Bharatiya Jnanapitha Varadasi. edition jhi (1) verb-ending of the 3rd person. Parasmaipada, substituted for the लकार of the ten lakaras, changed to जुस in the potential and the benedictive moods, and optionally so in the imperfect and after the sign स् of the aorist; plural P,III. 4. 82, 83, 84, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112: (2) a conventional term for अव्यय (indeclinable) used in the Jainendra Vyakaraha. confer, compare ñ (1) the nasal (fifth consonant) of the palatal class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, कण्टसंवृतत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्य; (2) mute letter, characterized by which an affix signifies वृद्धि for the preceding vowel; ञ् of a taddhita affix, however, signifies वृद्धि for the first vowel of the word to which the affix is added; (3) a mute letter added to a root at the end to signify that the root takes verb-endings of both the padas. ñit (1) an afix marked with the mute letter ञ्; causing the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, but, causing vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is added in case the affix is a affix: taddhita affix. P.VII.2, 115, 116, 117; (2) a root marked with the consonant ञ् , taking verb-endings of both the Parasmaipada and the Atmanepada kinds; confer, compare करोति, कुरुते, बिभर्ति, बिभृते, क्रीणाति, क्रीणीते elc.; exempli gratia, for example स्वरितञितः कत्राभिप्राये, क्रियाफले P.I.3.72. confer, compare ṭ the first consonant of the lingual class ( टवर्ग ) possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When prefixed or affixed to an affix as an indicatory letter, it signifies the addition of the affix ङीप् ( ई ); feminine. P. IV. 1.15, When added to the conjugational affixes ( लकार ) it shows that in the Atmanepada the vowel of the last syllable is changed to ए. confer, compare P. III. 4.79. When added to an augment ( अागम ), it shows that the augment marked with it is to be prefixed and not to be affixed; e. g. नुट्, तुट् confer, compare ; cf P. I. 1.46. et cetera, and others ṭhakpāda a popular name given to the fourth pada of the fourth adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi.The pada begins with the rule प्राग्वहतेष्ठक् P.IV.4.1 prescribing the taddhita affix ठक् in the senses prescribed in rules be. ginning with the next rule ' तेन दीव्यति खनति जयति जितम् ' and ending with the rule 'निकटे वसति' P.IV.4.73. ḍas (1) affix अस् applied to the word श्वेतवाह and others at the end of a pada i.e when the word श्वेतवाह has got the पदसंज्ञा. श्वेतवाः इन्द्रः । श्वेतवोभ्याम् exempli gratia, for example P.III.2.71 Vārt,1 and 2. confer, compare ṇatvapāda a popular name given by grammarians to the fourth pada Panini's Astadhyayi, as the pada begins with the rule रषाभ्यां नो णः समानपदे and mainly gives rules about णत्व i. e. the substitution of the consonant ण् for न्. confer, compare ṇi common term for णिङ् ( signifying Atmanepada ) and णिच्: cf; णेरणौ यस्कर्मं P. I. 3.67, णेरनिटि VI. 4.51 ; cf also P. I. 3.86, I. 4.52, II.4.46, 51: III. 2.137: VI. 1.31, 48, 54, VI. 4.90; VII. 2.26, VII. 3.36; VII.4.1, VIII. 4.80. ṇiṅ affix इ causing vrddhi, prescribed after the root कम् , the base ending in इ i. e. कामि being called a root: P. III. 1.30, 32. The mute letter ङ् signifies that the root कामि is to take only the Atmanepada affixes e. g. कामयते, अचीकमत. confer, compare ṇic affix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; et cetera, and others P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising confer, compare ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others ; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; et cetera, and others P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, confer, compare सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, exempli gratia, for example : (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others : et cetera, and others confer, compare on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे confer, compare ; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others : et cetera, and others P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97. confer, compare ṇini krt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. et cetera, and others P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय confer, compare in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others ; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf et cetera, and others on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. ṇaupāda a popular name given to the fourth pada of the seventh Adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi, which begins with the rule णौ चङ्युपघाया ह्रस्त्रः P. VII. 4.1. ṇvi krt, affix ण्वि i. e. zero, causing vrddhi, applied to the root भज् and to सह् and वह् in Vedic Literature if the root is preceded by any preposition ( उपसर्ग ) or a substantive as the upapada ; e. g. अर्द्धभाक्, प्रभाक्, तुराषाट् , दित्यवाट्; confer, compare on P. III, 2.62, 63, 64. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. taṅ (1) a short term used for the nine personal endings of the Atmanepada viz. त,अाताम्...महिङ् which are themselves termed Atmanepada; तङानौ अात्मनेपदम् P. 1.4. 100 (2) the personal-ending त of the 2nd confer, compare person. (substituted for थ by III.4 101) looked upon as तङ् sometimes, when it is lengthened in the Vedic Literature: plural तङिति थादेशस्य ङित्त्वपक्षे ग्रहणम् । भरता जातवेदसम् confer, compare on P. VI. 3. 133. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. tana (1) personal ending for त of the second person. Parasmaipada in the imperative in Vedic Literature e.g जुजुष्टन for जुषत plural confer, compare On P VII. 1.45; (2) Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. affixes टयु and टयुल् taddhita affix. अन which, with the augment त्, in effect becomes तन id est, that is सायंतन, चिरंतन, exempli gratia, for example : et cetera, and others P. IV. 3.23. confer, compare tas (1) personal ending of the third dual Parasmaipada substituted technically for ल् (लकार); cf P. III.4.78; (2) person. affix तस् ( तसि or तसिल् ). See तसि and तसिल्. taddhita affix. tāt (1) the same as तातङ् substituted for तु and हि of the imperative and third second. Parasmaipada; singular. P.VII.1.35; (2) substitute तात् for त of the imperative 2nd confer, compare in Vedic Literature; plural गात्रं गात्रमस्यानूनं कृणुतात् exempli gratia, for example Kas on P.VII.1.44. confer, compare tiṅ (1) a brief term (प्रत्याहार) for the 18 personal endings. Out of these eighteen personal endings, which are common for all tenses and moods, the first nine तिप्, तस् all called Parasmaipada, while the other nine त, अाताम् et cetera, and others are named Atmanepada and तङ् also; et cetera, and others तङानावात्मनेपदम्; (2) a verbal form called also अाख्यातक; confer, compare तिङ् खलु अाख्यातका भवान्ति । पचति पठति । V.Pr.I.27. confer, compare tip the personal ending of the 3rd person. substituted for ल (लकार) in the Parasmaipada. For substitutes for तिप् in special cases, see P. VI.1.68, III.4.82, 83, 84. singular. tu (1) short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the dental consonants त्, थ्, द्, ध् and न् P. I. 1.69; (2) personal-ending substituted for ति in the 2nd confer, compare imper. person. Parasmaipada singular. P. III, 4.86; (3) confer, compare affix तु in the sense of possession added in Vedic Literature to कम् and शम् e. g. क्रन्तुः, शन्तु: taddhita affix. P. V. 2.138; (4) unadi affix तु ( तुन्) prescribed by the rule सितनिगमिमसिसच्यविधाञ्कुशिभ्यस्तुन् ( Unadi Sitra I.69 ) before which the augment इ is not added confer, compare सेतुः सक्तुः exempli gratia, for example et cetera, and others P. VII. 2.9 confer, compare th (1) personal-ending of the 2nd person. Parasmaipada,substituted for the ल् of the ten lakara affixes; (2) substitute ( थल् ) for the 2nd pers plural personal ending सिप् in. the perfect tense: (3) unadi affix ( थक् ) added to the roots पा, तॄ, तुद् singular. e. g. पीथः, तीर्थः, et cetera, and others ; cf unadi sutra II. 7; (4) unadi affix ( क्थन् ) | added to the roots हन्, कुष् ，नी et cetera, and others ; e. g, हथः, कुष्टं, नीथः et cetera, and others cf unadi sutra II. 2: (5) unadi affix (थन्) added to the roots उष्, कुष्, गा and ऋ, e. g. ओष्ठः, कोष्ठम् et cetera, and others cf unadi sutra_II. 4; (6) a technical term for the term अभ्यस्त or the reduplicated wording of Panini ( et cetera, and others उभे अभ्यस्तम् ) P. VI. 1. 5, used in the Jainendra Vyakarana. confer, compare thana personal-ending थन substituted for त of the 2nd person. of the imperative Parasmaipada in Vedic ' Literature, e. g. यदिष्ठन for यदिच्छथ: plural confer, compare on P. VII. 1.45. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. thal personal ending थ substituted for सिप् of the 2nd person. Parasmaipada in the perfect tense as also in the present tense in specific cases; singular. P. III. 4.82, 88,84. confer, compare thas personal ending of the 2nd dual Parasmaipada, which is substituted for ल् of the lakara affixes; person. P. III 4.78. confer, compare thās personal ending of the 2nd person. Atmanepada, substituted for ल् of the lakara affixes. singular. d third consonant of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणता;(2) consonant द् substituted for the final letter of nouns ending with the affix वस् as also for the final letter of स्रंस्, ध्वंस् and अनडुह् provided the final letter is at the end of a pada; विद्वद्भयाम् exempli gratia, for example ; cf et cetera, and others on P, VIII. 2.72; (3) consonant द् substituted for the final स् of roots excepting the root.अस्, before the personal ending तिप् of the third Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. person. ; e. g. अचकाद् भवान् ; singular. P. VIII. 3.93. confer, compare devikāpāda a popular name given to the third pada of the seventh adhyaya of Parinis Asadhyāyi as the pada begins with the Sutra दविकाशिंशपादित्यवाट्दीर्घसत्त्रश्रेयसामात् P.VII 3. 1. ghātusabandhapāda conventional name given to the fourth pada of Panini's Astadhyayi which begins with the Sutra धातुसंबन्धे प्रत्ययाः P. III.4.1 dhānyapāda a popular name given to the second pada of the fifth adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi possibly because the pada begins with the Sutra धान्यानां भवने क्षेत्रे खञ्, P. V.2.1 dhvam personal-ending of the second. person. Atmanepada, substituted for ल् of the 10 lakaras. plural dhvāt personal-ending in Vedic Literature, substituted for ध्वम् of the second. person. Atmanepada; plural वारयध्वात् for वारयध्वम् exempli gratia, for example P. VII. 1.42. confer, compare dhve Personal-ending of the second. Pl. Atmanepada in the present and perfect tenses. न् fifth consonant of the dental class of consonants which is possessed of the properties घोष, नादानुप्रदान, अल्पप्राणत्व, संवृतकण्ठत्व and अानुनासिक्य. In Panini's grammar the nasal consonant न् (a)is added as an augment prescribed\ \नुट् or नुम् which originally is seen as न्, but afterwards changed into अनुस्वार or परसवर्ण as required, as for example in पयांसि, यशांसि, निन्दति, वन्दति person. ; et cetera, and others P. VII. 1.58-73, VII. 1.7983; VIII. 3.24; (b) is changed into ण् when it directly follows upon ऋ, ॠ, र् or ष् or even intervened by a vowel, a semivowel except ल् , a guttural consonant, a labial consonant or an anusvara; confer, compare P. VIII. 4.1.1-31. (c) is substituted for the final म् of a root, e. g. प्रशान्, प्रतान् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.64, 65. confer, compare navāhnikī name given to the first nine Ahnikas or lessons of the Mahabhasya which are written in explanation of only the first pada of the first Adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi and which contain almost all the important theories, statements and problems newly introduced by Patanjali. nityasamāsa an invariably effective compound; the term is explained as अस्वपदविग्रहो नित्यसमासः i. e. a compound whose dissolution cannot be shown by its component words as such; e. g. the dissolution of कुम्भकारः cannot be shown as कुम्भं कारः, but it must be shown as कुम्भं करोति स: । The upapadasamasa, the gatisamsa and the dative tatpurusa with the word अर्थ are examples of नित्यसमास. padādhikāra the topic concerning padas words which are regularly formed, as contrasted with words in formation. Several grammatical operations, such as accents or euphonic combinations, are specifically prescribed together by Pāņini at places which are said to be in the Padādhikāra formed by sūtras VIII.1.16 to VIII.3.54. id est, that is padya forming a part of a word or pada; उपोत्तमं नानुदात्तं न पद्यम् confer, compare I. 29; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also पूर्वपद्यः confer, compare I. 30. The word is used in this sense ( पदावयव ) mostly in the Prātiśākhya works. The word is used in the sense of पादसंपन्न, made up of the feet (of verses), in the Rk Prātiśākhya in contrast with अक्षर्य, made up of syllables. In this sense the word is derived from the word पाद; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) पद्याक्षर्ये स उत्थितः R. Pr, XVIII. 3. confer, compare paribhāṣāsegraha' a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his paribhasa.work named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundr edition parvan word, pada; member of a sentence; the word is found used in the sense of पद in the old Pratisaakhya Literature: literally अन्तरेण पर्वणी । पर्वशबेदन पदमुच्यते । पदयोर्मध्ये पद अागमो भवति । यथा प्राङ्कसोमः, प्राङ्क्सोम: । Uvvata on confer, compare I. 138. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. pūrvāparapāda name given to the second pada of the second adhyaya of Panini's Asadhyayi which begins with the Sutra पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे P. II. 2.1. pratyayapāda a conventional name given to the first pada of the third adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi which begins with the rule प्रत्ययः III. 1.1. phala (1) fruit or benefit of an action which goes to the agent; फलव्यापारयोर्धातुः Vaiyakarana-bhusana. A root which is given as Ubhayapadin in Panini's Grammar takes the Atmanepada affixes when the fruit of the activity is meant for the agent, while otherwise it takes the Parasmaipada affixes; (2) The word फल also means the result of a grammatical operation or grammatical injunction. confer, compare bahulapāda name given by grammarians to the third pada of the third adhyaya of the Astdhyayi. bahuvrīhipāda conventional term used for the second pada of the sixth adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi. bṛhatī a Vedic metre consisting of four padas and 36 syllables. There are three padas of eight syllables and the fourth has twelve syllables. It has got further subdivisions known as पुरस्ताद्बृहती, उपरिष्टाद्बृहती, न्यङ्कुसारिणी or उरोबृहती, ऊर्ध्वबृहती विष्टारबृहती, पिपीलिकमध्यमा and विषमपदा. For details see R.Pr. XVI. 31-37. bha (1) the letter or sound भ् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; (2) a technical term in the Grammar of Panini given to a noun base before such case and taddhita affixes as begin with any vowel or with the consonant य्. The utility of this designation of भ to the base is (l) to prevent the substitutes which are enjoined for the final vowel or consonant of a pada (a word ending with a case-affix or a base before case and affixes beginning with any consonant excepting य् ) just as the substitution of Visarga, anusvara, the first or third consonant, and others given in P. VIII. 4.37 and the following. For the various changes and operations for a base termed भ see P. VI. 4.129 to 175. taddhita affix. mahiṅ personal ending of the Atmanepada first person (उत्तमपुरुष) plural; तिप्तस्झि ... वहिमहिङ् P. III.4.78. महिष्यादि a class of words headed by the word महिषी to which the confer, compare affix अ (अण्) is added in the sense Of 'proper for' ( धर्म्यम् ); taddhita affix. माहिषम् पौरोहितम् , हौत्रम्: exempli gratia, for example Kas,on P.IV.4.48. confer, compare mip personal ending मि of the first person ( उत्तमपुरुष ) Parasmaipada: singular. तिप्तस्झि...महिङ् P. III.4.78. confer, compare muk augment म् prefixed to the affix अान ( शानच् , चानच् , and शानन्) of the id est, that is present tense. Atmanepada; e. g. एधमान:, वर्धमानेः पवमानः, यजमानः, participle. ; et cetera, and others आने मुक् P. VII. 2. 82. See मान. confer, compare yaḍluganta a secondary root formed by adding the affix यङ् to roots specified in P. III. 1.22,23,24, which affix is sometimes dropped: यङोचि च ; P. II. 4. 74. The yanluganta roots take the parasmaipada personal endings and not the atmanepada ones which are applied to yananta roots. confer, compare yāsuṭ augment यास् prefixed to the parasmaipada case-endings of लिङ् (the potential and the benedictive) which is accented acute; कुर्यात्, क्रियात्. exempli gratia, for example yuvapāda a conventional term used for the first pada of the seventh adhyaya which begins with the sutra युवोरनाकौ P.VII.i.1. yuṣmatpād conventional name given to the third pada of the fourth adhyaya of Paini's Astadhyayi which begins with the sutra युष्मदस्मदोरन्यतरस्यां खञ् च P. IV. 3.1. raktapāda conventional name given to the second pada of the fourth Adhyaya of Paini's Astadhyayi as the Pada begins with the Sutra तेन रक्तं रागात् P. IV. 2.1. ran personal ending रन् substituted for the personal ending झ of the प्रथमपुरुष (third person) Atmanepada of 'lin' (potential and benedictive); झस्य रन् P.III. 4.105. confer, compare riphita (1) a Visarga in the Padapatha which has originated from र् in the Samhita-patha; (2) a word or pada which has got a रिफित at its end; क:, स्व: प्रातः confer, compare (which in the Samhitapatha are कर् , स्वर् , प्रातर् et cetera, and others ;) et cetera, and others R.Pr. I.30 to 36 V.Pr.IV. 18.192. confer, compare liṭ an affix of the perfect tense; परोक्षे लिट् P.III.2.115 for which the specific affixes णल्, अतुस् उस् confer, compare are substituted after roots which take Parasmaipada affixes. Before the lit affixes, a monosyllabic root is reduplicated while dissyllabic roots and denominative and other secondary roots, formed by adding an affix to an original root,take the affix अाम् after which all 'liț' personal endings are dropped and the forms of the roots कृ,भू and अस् with the necessary personal-endings, are placed immediately after the word ending in अाम् , but often with the intervention of a word or more in the Vedic language and rarely in the classical language; et cetera, and others तं पातयां प्रथममास पपात पश्चात् ; confer, compare कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि P.III.I. 35 to 42. confer, compare lohitādi (1) a class of words headed by लोहित to which the affix क्यव् ( य ) is added in the sense of 'becoming', to form a denominative root-base which gets the verb-endings of both the padas; e. g. लोहितायति, लोहितायते; निद्रायति, निद्रायते; the class लोहितादि is considered as अाकृतिगण so that similar denominative verb-bases could be explained; confer, compare on P.III.1. 13; (2) a class of words headed by लेहित, to which the Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. affix ष्फ ( अायनी ) is added after they have got the taddhita affix यञ् added to them in the sense of 'a grandchild'; e. g. लौहित्यायनी, कात्यायनी feminine. ; cf et cetera, and others on P. IV. 1.18. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. vahi atmanepada personal-ending of the first person ( उत्तमपुरुष) dual, substituted for the general ल् affix; तिप्तसझि... महि़्ङ् P.III.4.78. confer, compare vigraha lit, separation of the two parts of a thing; the term is generally applied to the separation of the constituent words of a compound word: it is described to be of two kinds : ( a ) शास्त्रीयविग्रहृ or technical separation; e. g. राजपुरुष्: into राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु and ( 2 ) लौकिकविग्रहं or common or popular separation ; e. g. राजपुरूष: into राज्ञ: पुरुष:. It is also divided into two kinds according to the nature of the constituent words (a) स्वपदाविग्रह separation by means of the constituent words, राजहितम् into राज्ञे हृितम्;(b) अस्वपदविग्रह, e. g. राजार्थम् into राज्ञे इदम् ;or exempli gratia, for example सुमुखीं into शोभनं मुखं अस्याः exempli gratia, for example M.Bh. on P.V.4.7. The compounds whose separation into constituent words cannot be shown by those words (viz. the constituent words) are popularly termed nityasamsa. The term नित्यसमास is explained as नित्यः समासो नित्यसमासः | यस्य विग्रहो नास्ति । M.Bh. on P.II.2.19 Vart. 4. The upapadasamsa is described as नित्यसमास. Sometimes especially in some Dvandva compounds each of the two separated words is capable of giving individually the senses of both the words confer, compare the words द्यावा and क्षामा of the compound द्यावाक्षामा. The word विग्रह is found used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the separate use of a word as contrasted with the use in a compound; cf अच्छेति विग्रहे प्लुतं भवति R.Pr.VII.1. विग्रहृ is defined as वृत्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः in the Siddhantakaumudi. exempli gratia, for example vimalakīrti a Jain grammarian of the sixteenth century who wrote a short metrical work on the padas of roots, known by the name पदव्यवस्थासूत्रकारिका. vṛtādi a class of roots headed by the root वृत् which take optionally the Parasmaipada affixes when the vikaraṇa स्य of the future tense and the conditional mood, or the desiderative vikaraṇa सन् is added to them; वर्त्स्यति,वर्तिष्यते; अवर्त्स्यत्, अवर्तिष्यत्,; विवृत्सति, विवर्तिषते exempli gratia, for example Kāś. on P.I.3.92; confer, compare also P.VII.2.59. confer, compare vṛtti (1) treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare confer, compare on P. I.4. 109, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). ll ; ( 5 ) nature Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन confer, compare II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; Nirukta of Yāska. परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar. confer, compare vṛddhipāda name given to the first pada of Panini's Astadhyayi by grammarians, as the beginning of the pada is made by the Sutra वृद्धिरादैच्. vyapeta having an intervention of ( a letter, or letters or a pada); the word is used in the same sense as व्यवाहित; स्वापिग्रहणं व्यपेतार्यम् | व्यपेतार्थोयमारम्भः। सुष्वापयिषति confer, compare on P.VII.4.67. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). śatapāda conventional name given to the fourth pada of the fifth adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi which begins with the sutra पादशतस्य संख्यांदेवींप्सायां वुन् लेपश्च P. V. 4.1. śatṛ krt affix अत् in the sense of ' the agent of the present time ', applied to any root which takes the Parasmaipada personal affixes लट: शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे P. III. 2.126,8. The words formed with this शतृ (अत्) affix are termed present participles in the declension of which, by virtue of the indicatory vowel ऋ in शतृ, the augment नुम् is inserted after the last vowel of the base, and the root receives such modifications as are caused by a Sarvadhatuka affix, the affix शतृ being looked upon as a Sarvadhatuka affix on account of the indicatory letter श्. The word ending in this affix शतृ governs a noun forming its object, in the accusative case. confer, compare śānac (1) krt affix ( अान ) substituted for the Atmanepada लट् affixes, to which म् is prefixed if the base before the affix ends in अ; e. g. एधमान, विद्यमान, etc; cf P. III. 2. 124, 125, 126; (2) Vikarana affix ( अान ) substituted for श्ना before the personal ending हि of the imperative second person singular, if the preceding root ends in a consonant: e. g. पुषाण, मुषाण, P. III. 1. 83. confer, compare śānān krt affix (आन) substituted for the Atmampada affixes instead of शानच्, prescribed after the roots पू and यज्; the application of शानन् for शानच् is for the acute accent on the initial vowel of the root; पवमानः with the acute accent on the initial vowel as contrasted with विद्यमान; with the acute accent on the last vowel; exempli gratia, for example P. III. 2.128. confer, compare śeṣakṛṣṇa one of the prominent grammarians belonging to the Sesa family, who was the son of नरससिंहशेत्र. He wrote a gloss on the Prakriyakaumudi and two small works Prakrtacandrika and Padacandrika. Two other minor grammar works viz. the Yanlugantasiromani and Upapadamatinsutravyakhyana are ascribed to शेषकृष्ण who may be the same as शेषकृष्ण the son of नरसिंह, or another, as there were many persons who had the name Krsna in the big family. saṃbandhapāda name given by convention by grammarians to the fourth pada of the third adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi ， which begins with the sutra धातुसंबन्धे प्रत्ययाः P. III. 4.1. saṃhitā position of words or parts of words in the formation ofa word quite near each other which results into the natural phonetic coalescence of the preceding and the following letters. Originally when the Vedic hymns or the running prose passages of the Yajurveda were split up into their different constituent parts namely the words or padas by the Padakaras, the word संहिता or संहितापाठ came into use as contrasted with the पदपाठ. The writers of of the Pratisakhyas have conseguently defined संहिता as पदप्रकृतिः संहिता, while Panini who further split up the padas into bases ( प्रकृति ) and affixes ( प्रत्यय ) and mentioned several augments and substitutes, the phonetic combinations, which resulted inside the word or pada, had to be explained by reason of the close vicinity of the several phonetic units forming the base, the affix, the augment, the substitute and the like, and he had to define the word संहृिता rather differently which he did in the words परः संनिकर्षः संहिता; cf P.I.4.109: also संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः । नित्य समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते Sabdakaustubha on Maheshvara Sutra 5.1. confer, compare saṃhitāpāṭha the running text or the original text of the four Vedas as originally compos This text, which was the original one, was split up into its constituent padas or separate words by ancient sages शौनक, अात्रेय and others,with a view to facilitating the understanding of it, and consequently to preserving it in the oral tradition.The original was called मूलप्रकृति of which the पदपाठ and the क्रमपाठ which were comparatively older than the other artificial recitations such as the जटापाठ, घनपाठ and others, are found mentioned in the Pratisakhya works. edition sapādasaptādhyāyī a term used in connection with Panini's first seven books and a quarter of the eighth, as contrasted with the term Tripadi, which is used for the last three quarters of the eighth book. The rules or operations given in the Tripadi, are stated to be asiddha or invalid for purposes of the application of the rules in the previous portion, viz. the Sapadasaptadhyayi, and hence in the formation of' words all the rules given in the first seven chapters and a quarter, are applied first and then a way is prepared for the rules of the last three quarters. It is a striking thing that the rules in the Tripadi mostly concern the padas or formed words, the province, in fact, of the Pratisakhya treatises, and hence they should, as a matter of fact, be applicable to words after their formation and evidently to accomplish this object, Panini has laid down the convention of the invalidity in question by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII. 2,1. samarthapāda name given by Siradeva and other grammarians to the first pada of the second adhyaya of Paninis Astadhyayi which begins with the sutra समर्थः पदविधिः P.II.1.1. samarthādhikāra the province or the jurisdiction of the rule समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा (P. IV. 1. 82), all the three words in which continue further on, and become valid in every rule upto the end of the second pada of the fifth adhyaya; समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा । त्रयमप्यधिक्रियते समर्थानामिति च प्रथमादिति च वेति च । स्वार्थिकप्रत्ययावधिश्चायमधिकारः । प्राग्दिशो विभक्तिरिति यावत् । स्वार्थिकेषु ह्यस्य उपयोगो नास्ति । विकल्पोपि तत्रानवस्थितः । confer, compare on P.IV.1.82. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. samāpatti restoration of the resultant to the original, as for instance, restoration of the padapatha and the kramapatha to the Samhitapatha; प्रकृतिदर्शनं समापत्तिः confer, compare III. I.7. Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. sarvavibhaktyanta ending with all cases; the term is used as an adjective of the word समास and refers to a compound which can be dissolved by putting the first member in any case: cf सर्वविभक्यन्तः समासो यथा विज्ञायेत | अल: परस्य विधिः; अलि विधिरित्यादि literally on P.I.1.56. सर्वस्यद्वेपाद conventional name given to the first pada of the eighth adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi which begins with the Sutra सर्वस्य द्बे VIII.1.1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). sāmatantravyākaraṇa an anonymous ancient work of the type of the Pratisakhya works dealing with the euphonic changes and accents in the padapatha of the Samaveda. sicipād name given by convention to the second pada of the seventh adhyaya of Paninis Astadhyayi as the pada begins with the sutra सिचि वृद्धि; परस्मैपदेषु. P. VII. 2. 1. sīyuṭ augment सीय्, prefixed to the personal affixes which are substituted for the लिङ् affixes in the Atmanepada; पचेत पचेयाताम् exempli gratia, for example P. III. 4.102. confer, compare subanta name given to a word formed with the addition of a case-affix and hence capable of being used in a sentence by virtue of its being called a पद by the rule सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् The ancient grammarians gave four kinds of words or padas viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात which Panini has brought under two heads सुबन्त including नाम, उपसर्ग and निपात and तिङन्त standing for आख्यातः सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् P. I. 4. 14. confer, compare sthiti utterance of a pada or padas in the Padapatha without इति; the utterance with इति being called उपस्थिति; पदं यदा केवलमाह सा स्थितिः confer, compare XI.15; (2) established practice or view: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) शाकल्यस्य स्थविरस्येतरा स्थितिः। confer, compare II. 44. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) snañ affix स्न,added in many taddhita senses, अपत्य, जात,समूहृ, अागत and others mentioned upto P. V. Ist pada end; e. g. स्त्रैणः पौस्नः, taddhita affix. स्त्रीपुंसाभ्यां नत्र्स्नर्ञौ भवनात् P.IV.1.87. confer, compare sva (1) personal-ending of the second person Atmanepada in the imperative mood; cf थास: से | सवाभ्यां वामौ | P.III.4.80, 91 ; (2) a term used in the sense of स्ववर्गीय (belonging to the same class or category) in the Pratisakhya works; cf स्पर्श: स्वे R.T.25; singular. also कान्त् स्वे confer, compare 1. 55; Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. also R, Pr.IV.1 ; and VI.1 ;(3) cognate, the same as सवर्ण defined by Panini in तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. P.I.1.9; the term is found used in the Jain grammar works of Jainendra, Sakatayana and Hemacanda cf ]ain. I.1.2 SikI. 1.2; Hema. I.1.17. confer, compare svara (l) vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. svaritet marked with a mute circumflex vowel; the term is used in connection with roots in the Dhatupatha which are said to have been so marked for the purpose of indicating that they are to take personal endings of both the padas; स्वरितञित: कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P. I.3.72. confer, compare hemacandra a Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.