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     Grammar Search "nyak" has 3 results.
     
nyak: neuter nominative singular stem: nyac
nyak: neuter accusative singular stem: nyac
nyak: neuter vocative singular stem: nyac
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7 results
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
chatrā2.9.38FeminineSingular‍vitunnakam, kustumburu, dhānyakam
lakṣmīḥ1.1.27FeminineSingularbhārgavī, , haripriyā, padmā, kṣīrasāgarakanyakā, ramā, lokamātā, śrīḥ, padmālayā, lokajananī, kṣīrodatanayā, indirā, kamalālaxmi, goddess of wealth
nyakṣam3.3.233MasculineSingulartarkaṇaḥ, varṣam
revā1.10.32FeminineSingularnarmadā, somodbhavā, mekalakanyakānarmada(river)
puṇyakam2.7.41NeuterSingular
piṇyākaḥ3.3.9MasculineSingularśaśāṅkaḥ
piṇyākam3.5.32NeuterSingular
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116 results for nyak
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
nyak ny-/akna-, nyag- etc. See under 1. and 2. ny-añc-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakin compound for 2. ny-añc- below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakind. (ny-/ak-) downwards, down View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakind. humbly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakind. with kṛ-, to bring down, humble View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakind. (nyag-) with bhū-, to humble one's self. be humble or modest: Caus. -bhāvayati- = kṛ- (see nyak--.and nyag--above) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakkāram. humiliation, contempt, disregard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakkaraṇan. lowering, degrading, treating with disrespect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakkṛtamfn. humbled, treated with contempt or contumely View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakkṛtif. equals -kāra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakkṛtyaind. having humbled, by humbling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyaknamfn. bent down View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakṣa ny-aṅka-, ny-aṅku- etc. See ny-añj-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakṣamfn. (hardly fr. ni-+ akṣa-;but see ) low, inferior View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakṣamfn. whole, entire (see 2. ny-añc-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakṣam. a buffalo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakṣam. Name of paraśurāma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakṣan. entireness ( nyakṣeṇa kṣeṇa- ind.entirely) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakṣan. grass View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakṣeṇaind. nyakṣa
nyaktaSee ny-añj-.
nyaktamfn. anointed, decorated (?) ( vy-/akta-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyaktamfn. imbued with, having the nature of (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agninyakta(n/i-- ny-), mfn. mingled with agni- (id est having agni- incidentally mentioned), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ananyakāryamfn. having no other business, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyakamfn. another, other View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyakāmamfn. loving another. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyakāramfn. intent on other business, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyakārukāf. a worm bred in excrement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyakriya mfn. intent on other business, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyakṛta(any/a--) mfn. done by another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyakṣetran. another territory or sphere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyonyakalaham. mutual quarrel. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyonyakṛtyan. mutual services, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparakānyakubjam. Name of a village in the western part of kānyakubja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avamanyakamfn. equals -mantṛ- (with genitive case) (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahudhānyakam. or n. (?) Name of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāṭṭadīpikānyakkāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedadhikkāranyakkārahuṃkṛtif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedadhikkāranyakkāranirūpaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmakanyakam. (prob.) idem or '(prob.) m. Clerodendrum Siphonantus ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmakanyakāf. Ruta Graveolens View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmakanyakāf. Name of sarasvatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devakanyakāf. a celestial maiden, a nymph View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhanyakam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhānyakamfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' for dhānya-), grain, corn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhānyakam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhānyakan. equals dhānyāka-, coriander (see dhanyāka-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhānyakalkam. bran, chaff, straw View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhānyakartanan. "corn-reaping", Name of chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhānyakaṭakaName of a country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhānyakhalam. threshing-floor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhānyakośa m. store of grain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhānyakośam. ear of corn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhānyakoṣam. store of grain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhānyakoṣam. ear of corn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhānyakoṣṭakan. equals -kūṭa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhānyakṣetran. a corn-field, rice-field View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhānyakūṭam. or n. granary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopakanyakāf. a cow-herdess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemadhānyakam. a particular weight (= 1 1/2 māṣaka-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jagatīpatikanyakāf. "king's daughter", a princess (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaghanyakārinmfn. (in med.) attending extremely unskilfully View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaladhikanyakāf. equals -- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jāmadagnyakam. equals jāmadagniya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyakamfn. the smallest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyakāf. a girl, maiden, virgin, daughter etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyakāf. the constellation Virgo in the zodiac View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyakāf. Name of durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyakāf. Aloe Indica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyakācchalan. beguiling a maiden, seduction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyakāchala n. beguiling a maiden, seduction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyakāgāran. the women's apartments View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyakāguṇam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyakājātam. the son of an unmarried woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyakāpatim. a daughter's husband, son-in-law View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyakubjan. (f(ā-). ), Name of an ancient city of great note (in the north-western provinces of India, situated on the kālī nadī-,a branch of the gaṅgā-, in the modern district of Farrukhabad;the popular spelling of the name presents, perhaps, greater variations than that of any place in India[ exempli gratia, 'for example' Kanauj,Kunnoj,Kunnouj,Kinoge,Kinnoge,Kinnauj,Kanoj,Kannauj,Kunowj,CanowjCanoje,Canauj,etc.];in antiquity this city ranks next to ayodhyā- in Oude;it is known in classical geography as Canogyza;but the name applies also to its dependencies and the surrounding district;the current etymology[ kanyā-,"a girl", shortened to kanya-,and kubja-,"round-shouldered or crooked"] refers to a legend in ,relating to the hundred daughters of kuśanābha-, the king of this city, who were all rendered crooked by vāyu- for non-compliance with his licentious desires;the ruins of the ancient city are said to occupy a site larger than that of London) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakubjan. Name of a city (equals kanya-kubja- q.v) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakubjamf(ī-)n. belonging to or dwelling in kānyakubja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyakubjadeśam. the country round kanyakubja-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakubjīf. a princess or a female inhabitant of kānyakubja- commentator or commentary on [In wrongly printed kānyākubja-.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyakumārīf. Name of durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kauṇḍinyakan. Name of a kalpa-sūtra- commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kukanyakāf. a bad girl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulakanyakāf. a girl of good family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumbhīdhānyakam. idem or 'm. one who has grain stored in jars sufficient for six days or (according to others) for one year's consumption on Va1rtt. 5. ' (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kusūladhānyakam. a householder etc. who has three years' grain in store View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitrakanyakam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mekalakanyakāf. "daughter of mekala-", Name of the river narma-- (also -kanyā- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mekalakanyakātatam. or n. Name of a district View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mekhalakanyakāf. wrong reading for mekala-k- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāgakanyakā(L.) f. a serpent-virgin (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nṛpatikanyakāf. a princess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parjanyakrandya(j/an-) mfn. muttering like parjanya- or a rain-cloud View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
priyadhānyakaramfn. causing dearness of corn (opp. to su-bhikṣa-kārin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājakanyakāf. a king's daughter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājanyakamfn. inhabited by warriors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājanyakan. a number or assemblage of warriors (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājanyakumāram. a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sainyakakṣam. equals senā-k- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sainyakṣobham. a mutiny in an army View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmānyakavipraśaṃsāf. praise of poets in general (not of single ones) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmānyakramavṛttif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāpatnyakan. rivalry, enmity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvāṅgavedanāsāmanyakarmaprakāśam. Name of chapter of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukanyakamfn. having a beautiful daughter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūnyakamfn. (equals śūnya-) empty, void gaRa yāvādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūnyakan. absence, lack of (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūnyakarṇam. an ear adorned with an earring (Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapasvikanyakā(OR tapasvikanyā-) f. the daughter of an ascetic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tucchadhānyakan. chaff View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārakanyakāf. "girl (taken) in turn", a harlot, courtezan View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsarakanyakāf. "daughter of day", night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viprāvamanyakamfn. despising Brahmans View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣakanyakā f. a girl supposed to cause the death of a man who has had intercourse with her View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vraṇasāmānyakarmaprakāśam. Name of a section of the jñāna-bhāskara-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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nyak न्यक् ind. An adverb, prefixed to कृ or भू, to imply 'contempt', 'degradation' or 'humiliation'.
nyakāknakā न्यकाक्नका f. A worm of ordure; L. D. B.
nyakkṛ न्यक्कृ 8 U. To insult, contemn, slight, degrade, humiliate. न्यक्करणम् nyakkaraṇam न्यक्कारः nyakkārḥ न्यक्करणम् न्यक्कारः Humiliation, degradation, disrespect, contempt, insult; न्यक्कारो हृदि वज्रकील इव मे तीव्रं परिस्पन्दते Mv.5.22;3.4; अयं हि न्यक्कारो जननि मनुजस्य श्रवणयो G. L.32.
nyakṣa न्यक्ष a. 1 Low, inferior, vile, mean. -2 Whole, entire. -क्षः 1 A buffalo. -2 An epithet of Paraśurāma. -क्षम् 1 The whole. -2 A kind of grass.
nyakta न्यक्त p. p. 1 Anointed, smeared. -2 Mixed up, blended together.
anyaka अन्यक a. Another, other (= अन्य).
kanyakā कन्यका 1 A girl; संबद्धवैखानसकन्यकानि R.14.28;11.53. -2 An unmarried girl, virgin, maiden; गृहे गृहे पुरुषाः कुलकन्यकाः समुद्वहन्ति Māl.7; Y.1.15. -3 A technical name for a girl ten years old; (अष्टवर्षा भवेद्गौरी नववर्षा च रोहिणी । दशमे कन्यका प्रोक्ता अत ऊर्ध्वं रजस्वला Śabdak.) -4 (In Rhet.) One of the several kinds of heroines; an unmarried girl serving as a chief character in a poetical composition; see under अन्यस्त्री. -5 The sign Virgo. -6 N. of Durgā; Bhāg.1.2.12. -Comp. -च्छलः seduction; पैशाचः कन्यकाच्छलात् Y.1.61. -जनः a maiden; विशुद्धमुग्धः कुलकन्यकाजनः Māl.7.1. -जातः the son of an unmarried girl; कानीनः कन्यकाजातः Y.2.129 (= कानीन); for instance व्यास, कर्ण &c.
kanyakā कन्यका कन्यिका 1 Young girl. -2 A virgin. According to पराशरसंहिता, a कन्यका is a ten years old girl दशमे कन्यका प्रोक्ता; कन्यका हि निर्दोषदर्शना भवन्ति Nāg.1.
nyakubjaḥ कान्यकुब्जः N. of a city; see कन्याकुब्ज.
rājanyakam राजन्यकम् A collection of warriors or Kṣatriyas.
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hiraṇyākṣa hiraṇyākṣá, a. (Bv.) golden-eyed, i. 35, 8 [akṣá = akṣí eye].
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nyakkāra m. humiliation; disregard; -kriti, f. id.
nyakta pp. √ añk; -½ãkna, pp. √ ak.
anyakartṛka a. hvg. another agent (gr.); -krita, pp. done by others; -kshetrá, n. foreign country; -gata, pp. re ferring to another; -gâmin, a. adulterous.
devakanyakā f. celestial maid en; -kanyâ, f. id.; -karma-krit, a. perform ing a divine rite; -karman, n. divine rite; -kalasa, m. N.; -kârya, n. divine rite; con cern or errand of the gods.
dhanyaka m. N.; -tara, cpv. luckier (than, in.); -tâ, f. fortunate condition.
vārakanyakā f. (girl taken in turn), courtezan.
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aṅgārāvakṣayaṇa A word of doubtful meaning found in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.It is rendered ‘tongs’ by Max Muller and Bǒhtlingk in their translations. The St. Petersburg Dictionary explains it as ‘ a vessel in which coals are extinguished,’ and Monier-Williams as ‘ an instrument for extinguishing coals.’ The smaller St. Petersburg Dictionary renders the word ‘ coal-shovel or tongs.’ Cf. Ulmukāva- ksayana.
ajātaśatru He is mentioned as a King of Kāśī (Kāśya) in the Brhadāranyaka and Kausītaki Upanisads, where he in­structs the proud Brāhmana Bālāki as to the real nature of the self. He is not to be identified with the Ajātasattu of the Buddhist texts.
aṇu This is the designation in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad of a cultivated grain, apparently the Panicum miliaceum.
atithi (‘guest’).—A hymn of the Atharvaveda celebrates in detail the merits of hospitality. The guest should be fed before the host eats, water should be offered to him, and so forth. The Taittirīya Upanisad also lays stress on hospitality, using the expression * one whose deity is his guest ’ (atithi-deva). In the Aitareya Áranyaka it is said that only the good are deemed worthy of receiving hospitality. The guest-offering forms a regular part of the ritual, and cows were regularly slain in honour of guests.
atṛṇāda This term (‘ not eating grass ’) was applied, ac­cording to the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, to a newborn calf.
anuvyākhyāna is a species of writing referred to in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. Sañkara interprets it as ‘explana­tion of the Mantras.’ As the term, in the plural, follows Sūtras, this interpretation is reasonable. Sieg, however, equates the word with Anvākhyāna, ‘ supplementary narrative.’
arundhatī As the name of a star, is often referred to in the Sūtra literature, but only once in a late Áranyaka.
argala The word which is usual later to denote the wooden pin of a door is found in the śānkhāyana Áranyaka in the compound argalesīke to denote the pin and bar of the door of a cow-pen. Cf. Isīkā.
aśvala the Hotr priest of Janaka, King of Videha, appears as an authority in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad
asita varṣagaṇa is a pupil of Harita Kaśyapa according to the Vamśa or Genealogy in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad
ahan ‘Day.’ Like other peoples, the Indians used night as a general expression of time as well as day, but by no means predominantly.Night is also termed the dark (krsna), as opposed to the light (arjuna), day. Aho-rātra is a regular term for ‘ day and night ’ combined.The day itself is variously divided. In the Atharvaveda a division into ‘ the rising sun ’ (udyan sūryah), ‘ the coming together of the cows’ (sam-gava), ‘midday’ (madhyam-dina),*afternoon ’ (aparāhna), and ‘ sunset ’ (astam-yan) is found. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana the same series appears with ‘ early ’ (prātar) and ‘ evening ’ (sāyāhna) substituted for the first and last members, while a shorter list gives prātar, samgava, sāyam. In the Maitrāyanī Samhitā there is the series ‘ dawn ’ (usas), samgava, madhyamdina, and aparāhna. The morning is also, according to Zimmer, called api-śarvara, as the time when the dark is just past. It is named svasara, as the time when the cows are feeding, before the -first milking at the samgava, or when the birds are awakening. It is also called pra-pitva, according to Zimmer. But Geldner points out that that term refers to the late midday, which also is called api-śarvara, as bordering on the coming night, being the time when day is hastening to its close, as in a race. From another point of view, evening is called abhi-pitva, the time when all come to rest. Or again, morning and evening are denoted as the dawning of the sun (uditā sūryasya)i or its setting (ni-mruc). The midday is regularly madhyam ahnām, madhye, or madhyamdina. Samgava16 is the forenoon, between the early morning (prātar) and midday (madhyamdina). The divisions of time less than the day are seldom precisely given. In the śatapatha Brāhmana, however, a day and night make up 30 muhūrtas; 1 muhūrta=ι5 ksipra; 1 ksipra — 15 etarhi; 1 etarhi= 15 idāni; 1 idāni = 15 breathings; 1 breath¬ing =1 spiration; 1 spiration = ι twinkling (nimesa), etc. In the śānkhāyana Áranyaka the series is dhvamsayo, nimesāh, kāsthāh, kalāh, ksanā, muhūrtā, ahorātrāh. A thirtyfold division of day as well as of night is seen in one passage of the Rigveda by Zimmer, who compares the Babylonian sixty¬fold division of the day and night. But the expression used— thirty Yojanas—is too vague and obscure—Bergaigne refers it to the firmament—to build any theory upon with safety.
ākhyāyikā This word occurs apparently but once in the Vedic literature, in the late Taittirīya Áranyaka, where its significance is doubtful.
āgastya appears as a teacher in the Aitareya and Sāñkhāyana Áranyakas
āgniveśya Several teachers of this name are mentioned in the Vamśas or Genealogies of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. In the Mādhyandina recension Ágniveśya is a pupil of Saitava. In the Kānva recension he is a pupil of Sāndilya and Anabhimlāta in one Vamśa, and of Gārgya in the second Vamśa.
ātreya Is the patronymic of a pupil of Mānti in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. An Atreya appears as a Purohita of Añga in the Aitareya Brāhmana. An Atreya was regularly the priest in certain rites, and an Átreyī occurs in an obscure passage in the Satapatha Brāhmana.
ātreyīputra Is mentioned as a pupil of Gautamīputra in a Vamśa, or Genealogy, in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad
ādarśa ‘mirror,’ is a term found only in the Upanisads and Áranyakas.
ānabhimlāta is mentioned in a Vamśa, or Genealogy, in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Anabhimlāta.
ā bhūti tvāsṭra Tvāstra is mentioned in two Vamśas, or Genealogies, of the BrhadāranTvāstra is mentioned in two Vamśas, or Genealogies, of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Viśvarūpa Tvāstra, both teachers being no doubt equally mythical.yaka Upanisad as a pupil of Viśvarūpa Tvāstra, both teachers being no doubt equally mythical.
āmikṣā Designates a mess of clotted curds. It is not known to the Rigveda, but occurs in all the later Samhitās, Brāh­manas,etc., and is associated with the Vaiśya in the Taittirīya Áranyaka.
aruṇi Is the patronymic normally referring to Uddālaka, son of Aruna Aupaveśi. Uddālaka is probably also meant by Aruni Yaśasvin, who occurs as a teacher of the Subrahmanyā (a kind of recitation) in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana. Arunis are referred to both in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana and in the Kāthaka Samhitā, as well as in the Aitareya Aranyaka.
ārtabhāgīputra Is mentioned as a pupil of Sauñgī-putra in a Vamśa or Genealogy in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. Artabhāga is a patronymic of Jaratkārava in the same Upanisad
ārya Is the normal designation in the Vedic literature from the Rigveda onwards of an Aryan, a member of the three upper classes, Brāhmana, Ksatriya, or Vaiśya, as the formal division is given in the Satapatha Brāhmana. The Arya stands in opposition to the Dāsa, but also to the Sūdra. Sometimes the expression is restricted to the Vaiśya caste, the Brāhmana and the Ksatriya receiving special designations; but this use is not common, and it is often uncertain also whether Arya is not meant. The phrase śūdrāryau is espe¬cially ambiguous, but appears to have denoted originally the śūdra and the Aryan, for in the Mahāvrata ceremony the fight between a Sūdra and an Arya is represented in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as one between a Brāhmana and a śūdra, though the Sūtra treats it as a fight between a Vaiśya and a śūdra. The word Arya (fem. Aryā or An) also occurs frequently used as an adjective to describe the Aryan classes (viśah),Q or name (nāman), or caste (varna), or dwellings (dhāman) ; or again reference is made to the Aryan supremacy (vrata) being extended over the land. Aryan foes (vrtra)u are referred to beside Dāsa foes, and there are many references to war of Aryan versus Aryan, as well as to war of Aryan against Dāsa. From this it can be fairly deduced that even by the time of the Rigveda the Aryan communities had advanced far beyond the stage of simple conquest of the aborigines. In the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas the wars alluded to seem mainly Aryan wars, no doubt in consequence of the fusion of Arya and Dāsa into one community. Weber considers that the five peoples known to the Rigveda were the Aryans and the four peoples of the quarters (dis) of the earth, but this is doubtful. Aryan speech (vāc) is specially referred to in the Aitareya and śāñkhāyana Áranyakas
ālambāyanīputra Mentioned in a Vamśa or Genealogy of the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Alambl-putra. In the Mādhyandina recension the relation is reversed, for there he is teacher of Álambī-putra and pupil of Jāyantī-putra.
ālambiputra Is a pupil of Jāyantī-putra according to a Vamśa in the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad but of ^lambāyanī-putra according to the Mādhy­andina
āvika (‘ coming from the sheep,’ avi) is a term for * wool,’ which occurs first in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad
āśrama (‘resting-place’) does not occur in any Upanisad which can be regarded as pre-Buddhistic. Its earliest use as denoting the stages of a Hindu’s life is found in the śvetāśvatara Upanisad. In one passage of the Chāndogya Upanisad reference is made only to the Brahmacārin and householder, to whom, as a reward for study, the procreation of children, the practice of Yoga, abstention from injury to living creatures, and sacrifices, freedom from transmigration are promised. In another place three states are contemplated, but not as con­secutive. The Brahmacārin may either become a householder or become an anchorite, or remain in his teacher’s house all his life. Similarly, reference is made to the death of the anchorite in the forest, or the sacrifice in the village. In contrast with all three is the man who stands fast in Brahman (Brahma- samstha). In the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad the knowerof the Atman is contrasted with those who (1) study, or (2) sacrifice and give alms, or (3) are anchorites, and in another place with those who sacrifice and make benefactions, and those who practice asceticism. This position of superiority to, and distinction from, the Aśramas became later a fourth Aśrama, the Grhastha, or householder, who was in the second stage, being required to pass not only into the stage of Vānaprastha, but also that of the Sannyāsin (Bhiksu, Parivrājaka). The first stage, that of the Brahmacārin, was still obligatory, but was no longer allowed to remain a permanent one, as was originally possible.
asurāyaṇa Is mentioned as a pupil of Traivani in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad in both recensions, but as a pupil of Asuri in the third Vamśa
āsuri Occurs in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Bhāradvāja and teacher of Aupajandhani, but in the third as a pupil of Yājñavalkya and teacher of Asurāyana. He appears as a ritual authority in the first four books of the śatapatha Brāh¬mana, and as an authority on dogmatic, specially noted for his insistence on truth, in the last book.
āsurivāsin Is a name of Prāśnī-putra in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad
āhneya Patronymic of Sauca (Taittirīya Áranyaka, ii. 12).
itihāsa As a kind of literature, is repeatedlymentioned along with Purāna in the later texts of the Vedic period. The earliest reference to both occurs in the late fifteenth book of the Atharvaveda. Itihāsa then appears in the Satapatha Brāhmana, the Jaiminīya, Brhadāranyaka, and Chāndogya Upanisads. In the latter it is expressly declared with Purāna to make up the fifth Veda, while the Sāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra makes the Itihāsa a Veda and the Purāna a Veda. The Itihāsa-veda and the Purāna-veda appear also in the Gopatha Brāhmana, while the śatapatha identifies the Itihāsa as well as the Purāna with the Veda. In one passage Anvākhyāna and Itihāsa are distinguished as different classes of works, but the exact point of distinction is obscure; probably the former was supplementary. The Taittirīya Áranyaka mentions Itihāsas and Purānas in the plural. There is nothing to show in the older literature what dis¬tinction there was, if any, between Itihāsa and Purāna; and the late literature, which has been elaborately examined by Sieg, yields no consistent result. Geldner has conjectured that there existed a single work, the Itihāsa-purāna, a collection. of the old legends of all sorts, heroic, cosmogonic, genealogical; but though a work called Itihāsa, and another called Purāna, were probably known to Patañjali, the inaccuracy of Geldner’s view is proved by the fact that Yāska shows no sign of having known any such work. To him the Itihāsa may be a part of the Mantra literature itself, Aitihāsikas being merely people who interpret the Rigveda by seeing in it legends where others see myths. The fact, however, that the use of the compound form is rare, and that Yāska regularly has Itihāsa, not Itihāsa-purāna, is against the theory of there ever having been one work. The relation of Itihāsa to Akhyāna is also uncertain. Sieg considers that the words Itihāsa and Purāna referred to the great body of mythology, legendary history, and cosmogonic legend available to the Vedic poets, and roughly classed as a fifth Veda, though not definitely and finally fixed. Thus, Anvākhyānas, Anuvyākhyānas, and Vyākhyānas could arise, and separate Ákhyānas could still exist outside the cycle, while an Akhyāna could also be a part of the Itihāsa-purāna. He also suggests that the word Akhyāna has special reference to the form of the narrative. Oldenberg, following Windisch, and followed by Geldner, Sieg, and others, has found in the Akhyāna form a mixture of prose and verse, alternating as the narrative was concerned with the mere accessory parts of the tale, or with the chief points, at which the poetic form was naturally produced to correspond with the stress of the emotion. This theory has been severely criticized by Hertel and von Schroeder. These scholars, in accordance with older suggestions of Max Muller and Levi, see in the so-called Ákhyāna hymns of the Rigveda, in which Oldenberg finds actual specimens of the supposed literary genus, though the prose has been lost, actual remains of ritual dramas. Elsewhere it has been suggested that the hymns in question are merely literary dialogues.
indragopa (‘protected by Indra’), masc., is a designation of the cochineal insect in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad
iṣīkā ‘a stalk of reed grass,’ occurs frequently from the Atharvaveda onwards, often as an emblem of fragility. In the śāñkhāyana Áranyaka it seems to denote the pin fixed in the bar of a pen to keep cattle in (argalesīke, bolt and pin’). A basket (śūrpa) of Isīkā is referred to in the Satapatha Brāhmana.
ugra In one passage of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad seems to have a technical force, denoting ‘ man in authority,’ or according to Max Muller’s rendering, ‘policeman.’ Roth compares a passage in the Rigveda, where, however, the word has simply the general sense of ‘ mighty man.’ Bǒhtlingk, in his rendering of the Upaniṣad, treats the word as merely adjectival.
ugradeva Is mentioned with Turvaśa and Yadu in the Rigveda apparently as a powerful protector. The name occurs also in the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa and the Taittirīya Araṇyaka, where he is styled Rājani and called a leper (kilāsa).
uttāna āṅgirasa Is mentioned in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as a quasi-mythical person who received all good things, and yet was not harmed, as he was really a form of the earth, according to Sāyaṇa’s explanation. His name occurs also in the Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, and the Taittirīya Araṇyaka.
udaṅka śaulbāyana His views on Brahman, which he identified with the vital airs (prāṇa), are mentioned in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad. He would thus have been a contemporary of Janaka of Videha. He is also mentioned in the Taittirīya Samhitā as holding that the Daśarātra ceremony was the prosperity or best part of the Sattra (4 sacrificial session ’).
uddālaka aruṇi Uddālaka, son of Aruna, is one of the most prominent teachers of the Vedic period. He was a Brāh­mana of the Kurupañcālas, according to the śatapatha Brāh­mana. This statement is confirmed by the fact that he was teacher of Proti Kausurubindi of Kauśāmbī, and that his son Svetaketu is found disputing among the Pañcālas. He was a pupil of Aruna, his father, as well as of Patañcala Kāpya, of Madra, while he was the teacher of the famous Yājñavalkya Vājasaneya and of Kausītaki, although the former is represented elsewhere as having silenced him. He overcame in argument Prācīnayogya śauceya, and apparently also Bhadrasena Ajāta- śatrava, though the text here seems to read the name as Arani. He was a Gautama, and is often alluded to as such. As an authority on questions of ritual and philosophy, he is repeatedly referred to by his patronymic name Aruni in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, the Chāndogya Upanisad, and occasionally in the Aitareya, the Kausītaki, and the Sadvimśa Brāhmanas, as well as the Kausītaki Upanisad. In the Maitrāyanī Samhitā he is not mentioned, according to Geldner, but only his father Aruna; his name does not occur, according to Weber, in the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, but in the Kāthaka Samhitā he is, as Aruni, known as a contemporary of Divodāsa Bhaimaseni, and in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana he is mentioned as serving Vāsistha Caikitāneya. In the Taittirīya tradition he seldom appears. There is an allusion in the Taittirīya Samhitā to Kusurubinda Auddālaki, and according to the Taittirīya Brāhmana, Naciketas was a son of Vājaśravasa Gautama, who is made out to be Uddālaka by Sāyana. But the episode of Naciketas, being somewhat unreal, cannot be regarded as of historical value in proving relationship. Aruna is known to the Taittirīya Samhitā. A real son of Uddālaka was the famous śvetaketu, who is expressly reported by Apastamba to have been in his time an Avara or later authority, a statement of importance for the date of Aruni.
uddālakāyana Is mentioned as a pupil of Jābālāyana in the second Vamśa (list of teachers) contained in the Kānva recen­sion of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
upaniṣad in the Brāhmanas normally denotes the secret sense ’ of some word or text, sometimes the * secret rule ’ of the mendicant. But in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad it is already used in the plural as the designation of a class of writings, no doubt actually existing and similar to the Upanisads in the nature of their subject-matter and its treatment. Similarly the sections of the Taittirīya Upanisad end with the words ily upanisad. The Aitareya Aranyaka commences its third part with the title The Upanisad of the Samhitā/ and the title occurs also in the Sāñkhāyana Aranyaka. The exact primary sense of the expression is doubtful. The natural derivation, adopted by Max Muller and usual ever since, makes the word mean firstly a session of pupils, hence secret doctrine, and secondly the title of a work on secret doctrine. Oldenberg, however, traces the use of the word to the earlier sense of ‘worship’ {cf. upāsana). Deussen considers the original sense to have been ‘secret word,’ next ‘secret text,’ and then ‘ secret import,’ but this order of meaning is im¬probable. Hopkins8 suggests that Upanisad denotes a sub¬sidiary treatise, but this sense does not account naturally for the common use as ‘ secret meaning,’ which is far more frequent than any other.
upamanthanī Is used in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad to denote ‘ churning sticks.’ In the Vājasaneyi Samhitā the ‘ churner ’ (upamanthitr) is included in the list of victims at the human sacrifice (purusamedha), and the verb upa-manth is often used of churning or mixing fluids.
upaveśi Is mentioned as a pupil of Kuśri in a Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. See also Aupaveśi.
uṣasta cākrāyaṇa Is mentioned as a teacher in the Brhad­āranyaka and Chāndogya Upanisads, the name in the latter work appearing as Usasti.
ṛgveda The formal name of the collection of Res, first appears in the Brāhmanas, and thereafter frequently in the Aranyakas and Upanisads.
ṛṣi ‘Seer,’ is primarily a composer of hymns to the gods. In the Rigveda reference is often made to previous singers and to contemporary poets. Old poems were inherited and refurbished by members of the composer’s family, but the great aim of the singers was to produce new and approved hymns. It is not till the time of the Brāhmanas that the composition of hymns appears to have fallen into disuse, though poetry was still produced, for example, in the form of Gāthās, which the priests were required to compose them¬selves and sing to the accompaniment of the lute at the sacrifice. The Rsi was the most exalted of Brāhmanas, and his skill, which is often compared with that of a carpenter, was regarded as heaven-sent. The Purohita, whether as Hotr or as Brahman (see Rtvij), was a singer. No doubt the Rsis were normally attached to the houses of the great, the petty kings of Vedic times, or the nobles of the royal household. Nor need it be doubted that occasionally the princes them¬selves essayed poetry: a Rājanyarsi, the prototype of the later Rājarsi or * royal seer,’ who appears in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, though he must be mythical as Oldenberg points out, indicates that kings cultivated poetry just as later they engaged in philosophic disputations. Normally, how¬ever, the poetical function is Brahminical, Viśāmitra and others not being kings, but merely Brāhmanas, in the Rigveda. In the later literature the Rsis are the poets of the hymns preserved in the Samhitās, a Rsi being regularly16 cited when a Vedic Samhitā is quoted. Moreover, the Rsis become the representatives of a sacred past, and are regarded as holy sages, whose deeds are narrated as if they were the deeds of gods or Asuras. They are typified by a particular group of seven, mentioned four times in the Rigveda, several times in the later Samhitās, and enumerated in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as Gotama, Bharadvāja, Viśvāmitra, Jamadagni, Vasistha, Kaśyapa, and Atri. In the Rigveda itself Kutsa, Atri, Rebha, Agastya, the Kuśikas, Vasistha, Vyaśva, and others appear as Rsis; and the Atharvaveda contains a long list, including Añgiras, Agasti, Jamadagni, Atri, Kaśyapa, Vasistha, Bharadvāja, Gavisthira, Viśvāmitra, Kutsa, Kaksīvant, Kanva, Medhātithi, Triśoka, Uśanā Kāvya, Gotama, and Mudgala. Competition among the bards appears to have been known. This is one of the sides of the riddle poetry (Brahmodya) that forms a distinctive feature of the Vedic ritual of the Aśva¬medha, or horse sacrifice. In the Upanisad period such competitions were quite frequent. The most famous was that of Yājñavalkya, which was held at the court of Janaka of Videha, as detailed in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, and which was a source of annoyance to Ajātaśatru of Kāśī. According to an analogous practice, a Brāhmana, like Uddālaka Aruni, would go about disputing with all he came across, and compete with them for a prize of money.
eraṇḍa The castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis), is first mentioned in the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka
aitareya perhaps a patronymic from Itara, though the commentator Sāyana regards the word as a metronymic from Itarā, is an epithet of Mahidasa in the Aitareya Aranyaka and the Chāndogya Upanisad.
audavāhi ‘Descendant of Udavāha,’ appears in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a teacher of Bhāradvāja.
aupajandhani Descendant of Upajandhana,’ is the patro­nymic of a teacher mentioned in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad1 as a pupil of Asuri, and also 2 as a pupil of Sāyakāyana.
aupasvatīputra ‘Son of a female descendant of Upa- svant ’ (?), is mentioned as a pupil of Pārāśarīputra in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
aurṇavābha ‘Descendant of Urnavābhi.’ This is the ^name of · a pupil of Kaundinya mentioned in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. A teacher of this name is frequently referred to in the Nirukta. His explanations in two passages agree with those of the Nairuktas or etymological school of interpreters of the Rigveda. In other passages3 he appears rather to belong to the school of the Aitihāsikas, who relied on traditional legends. He was thus probably, as Sieg suggests, an eclectic.
kabandha atharvaṇa Is mentioned in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad along with Sudhanvan Añgirasa, as a teacher, but is semi-mythical. His son was Vicārin Kābandhi.
kalpa In the Taittifīya Aranyaka seems to denote Kalpa Sūtra.
kahoḍa kauṣītaki Is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, and the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka, as a teacher, contemporary with Yājña- valkya. Cf. Kāhodi.
kāṇvīputra is mentioned as a pupil of Kāpīputra in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
kātyāyani Is the name of one of the two wives of Yājña- valkya in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
kātyāyanīputra ‘son of Kātyāyanī,’ is mentioned in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Gotamīputra and of Kauśikīputra. A Jātū- karnya Kātyāyanīputra is named as a teacher in the Sāñkh¬āyana Aranyaka.
kāpīputra (‘ son of Kāpī ’) is mentioned in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Atreylputra.
kāpya (‘ descendant of Kapi') is the patronymic of Sanaka and Navaka, two obviously fictitious persons who served at the Sattra (‘ sacrificial session ’) of the Vibhindukīyas in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana. It is also the patronymic of Patañcala in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. See also Kaiśorya.
kārśakeyīputra (‘son of Kārśakeyī ’) is the name of a man mentioned in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadā­ranyaka Upanisad. In the Kānva recension he is a pupil of Prācīnayogīputra; in the Mādhyamdina recension his teacher’s name is Prāśnīputra Asurivāsin.
kāvaṣeya (‘ descendant of Kavasa ’) is the constant patro­nymic of Tura. The Kāvaseyas are also mentioned as teachers of philosophical points in the Rigveda Aranyakas.
kāśa Roth finds this word, which denotes a species of grass (Saccharum spontaneum) used for mats, etc., in one passage of the Rigveda, but the reading is uncertain. The word has this sense in the Taittirīya Aranyaka.
kāśi The name Kāśi denotes (in the plural1) the people of Kāśi (Benares), and Kāśya, the king of Kāśi. The Satapatha Brāhmana tells of Dhrtarāstra, king of Kāśi, who was defeated by Satānīka Sātrājita, with the result that the Kāśis, down to the time of the Brāhmana, gave up the kindling of the sacred fire. Sātrājita was a Bharata. We hear also of Ajātaśatru as a king of Kāśi; and no doubt Bhadrasena Ajātaśatrava, a contemporary of Uddālaka, was also a king of Kāśi. The Kāśis and Videhas were closely connected, as was natural in view of their geographical position. The compound name Kāśi-Videha occurs in the Kausītaki Upanisad; in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad Gārgī describes Ajātaśatru as either a Kāśi or a Videha king. The Sāñkhāyana Srauta Sūtra mentions one Purohita as acting for the kings of Kāśi, Kosala, and Videha; and the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra mentions Kāśi and Videha in close proximity. Weber,8 indeed, throws out the suggestion that the Kāśis and the Videhas together con¬stitute the Uśīnaras, whose name is very rare in Vedic literature. As Kosala and Videha were in close connexion, Kāśi and Kosala are found combined in the compound name Kāśi- Kauśalyas of the Gopatha Brāhmana. Though Kāśi is a late word, it is quite possible that the town is older, as the river Varanāvatī referred to in the Athar¬vaveda may be connected with the later Vārānasī (Benares).It is significant that while the Kāśis, Kosalas, and Videhas were united, any relations which the Kuru-Pañcala peoples may have had with them were hostile. It is a fair conclusion that between these two great groups of peoples there did exist some political conflict as well as probably a difference of culture in some degree. The śatapatha Brāhmana,11 in the story of the advance of Aryan civilization over Kosala and Videha, preserves a clear tradition of this time, and a piece of evidence that in the Kuru-Pañcāla country lay the real centre of the Brāhmana culture (see also Kuru-Pañcāla). That the Kosala-Videhas were originally settlers of older date than the Kuru-Pañcālas is reasonably obvious from their geographical position, but the true Brāhmana culture appears to have been brought to them from the Kuru-Pañcala country. It is very probable that the East was less Aryan than the West, and that it was less completely reduced under Brahmin spiritual supremacy, as the movement of Buddhism was Eastern, and the Buddhist texts reveal a position in which the Ksatriyas rank above Brāhmanas. With this agrees the fact that the later Vedic texts display towards the people of Magadha a marked antipathy, which may be reasonably explained by that people’s lack of orthodoxy, and which may perhaps be traced as far back as the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. It is, of course, possible that the Kosala-Videhas and Kāśis actually were merely offshoots of the tribes later known as the Kuru-Pañcālas, and that they by reason of distance and less complete subjugation of the aborigines lost their Brahminical culture. This hypothesis, however, appears less likely, though it might be supported by a literal inter-pretation of the legend of the Aryan migration in the śatapatha Brāhmana.
kāśyapībālākyāmātharīputra (‘ son of Kāśyapī, Bālākyā, and Mātharī ’). This curious name is given in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad to a teacher, pupil of Kautsīputra.
kāṣāyaṇa Kāsāyana is mentioned in the second Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a teacher, pupil of Sāya- kāyana according to the Kānva, of Saukarāyana according to the Mādhyamdina recension.
kumbyā Is a word mentioned after Rc, Yajus, Sāman, and Gāthā in the Satapatha Brāhmana to denote a form of speech. In the Aitareya Aranyaka it appears as one of the forms of measured speech together with Rc and Gāthā. The precise meaning of the term is unknown. Weber suggests the sense ‘ refrain.’
kuru The Kurus appear as by far the most important people in the Brāhmana literature. There is clear evidence that it was in the country of the Kurus, or the allied Kuru- Pañcālas, that the great Brāhmanas were composed. The Kurus are comparatively seldom mentioned alone, their name being usually coupled with that of the Pañcālas on account of the intimate connexion of the two peoples. The Kuru-Pañcālas are often expressly referred to as a united nation. In the land of the Kuru-Pañcālas speech is said to have its particular home ; the mode of sacrifice among the Kuru-Pañcālas is proclaimed to be the best ; the Kuru-Pañcāla kings perform the Rājasūya or royal sacrifice ; their princes march forth on raids in the dewy season, and return in the hot season Later on the Kuru-Pañcāla Brahmins are famous in the Upanisads. Weber and Grierson have sought to find traces in Vedic literature of a breach between the two tribes, the latter scholar seeing therein a confirmation of the theory that the Kurus belonged to the later stream of immigrants into India, who were specially Brahminical, as opposed to the Pañcālas, who were anti-Brahminical. In support of this view, Weber refers to the story in the Kāthaka Samhitā of a dispute between Vaka Dālbhya and Dhrtarāstra Vaicitravīrya, the former being held to be by origin a Pañcāla, while the latter is held to be a Kuru. But there is no trace of a quarrel between Kurus and Pañcālas in the passage in question, which merely preserves the record of a dispute on a ritual matter between a priest and a prince: the same passage refers to the Naimisīya sacrifice among the Kuru-Pañcālas, and emphasizes the close connexion of the two peoples. Secondly, Weber conjectures in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā that Subhadrikā of Kāmpīla was the chief queen of the king of a tribe living in the neighbour¬hood of the clan, for whose king the horse sacrifice described in the Samhitā was performed. But the interpretation of this passage by Weber is open to grave doubt ; and in the Kānva recension of the Samhitā a passage used at the Rājasūya shows that the Kuru-Pañcālas had actually one king. More¬over, there is the evidence of the Satapatha Brāhmana that the old name of the Pañcālas was Krivi. This word looks very like a variant of Kuru, and Zimmer plausibly conjectures that the Kurus and Krivis formed the Vaikarna of the Rigveda, especially as both peoples are found about the Sindhu and the Asikni.The Kurus alone are chiefly mentioned in connexion with the locality which they occupied, Kuruksetra. We are told, however, of a domestic priest (Purohita) in the service of both the Kurus and the Srñjayas, who must therefore at one time have been closely connected. In the Chāndogya Upanisad reference is made to the Kurus being saved by a mare (aśvā), and to some disaster which befel them owing to a hailstorm. In the Sūtras, again, a ceremony (Vājapeya) of the Kurus is mentioned. There also a curse, which was pronounced on them and led to their being driven from Kuruksetra, is alluded to. This possibly adumbrates the misfortunes of the Kauravas in the epic tradition. In the Rigveda the Kurus do not appear under that name as a people. But mention is made of a prince, Kuruśravana (‘ Glory of the Kurus ^, and of a Pākasthāman Kaurayāna. In the Atharvaveda there occurs as a king of the Kurus Pariksit, whose son, Janamejaya, is mentioned in the śata¬patha Brāhmana as one of the great performers of the horse sacrifice.It is a probable conjecture of Oldenberg’s that the Kuru people, as known later, included some of the tribes referred to by other names in the Rigveda. Kuruśravana, shown by his name to be connected with the Kurus, is in the Rigveda called Trāsadasyava, * descendant of Trasadasyu,’ who is well known as a king of the Pūrus. Moreover, it is likely that the Trtsu- Bharatas, who appear in the Rigveda as enemies of the Pūrus, later coalesced with them to form the Kuru people. Since the Bharatas appear so prominently in the Brāhmana texts as a great people of the past, while the later literature ignores them in its list of nations, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that they became merged in some other tribe. Moreover, there is evidence that the Bharatas occupied the territory in which the Kurus were later found. Two of them are spoken of in a hymn of the Rigveda as having kindled fire on the Drsadvatī, the Apayā, and the Sarasvatī—that is to say, in the sacred places of the later Kuruksetra. Similarly, the goddess Bhāratī (‘ belonging to the Bharatas ’) is constantly mentioned in the Aprī (‘ propitiatory ’) hymns together with Sarasvatī. Again, according to the śatapatha Brāhmana, one Bharata king was victorious over the Kāśis, and another made offerings to Gañgā and Yamunā, while raids of the Bharatas against the Satvants are mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmana. Nor is it without importance that the Bharatas appear as a variant for the Kuru-Pañcālas in a passage of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, and that in the list of the great performers of the horse sacrifice the names of one Kuru and two Bharata princes are given without any mention of the people over which they ruled, while in other cases that information is specifically given.The territory of the Kuru-Pañcālas is declared in the Aitareya Brāhmana to be the middle country (Madhyadeśa). A group of the Kuru people still remained further north—the Uttara Kurus beyond the Himālaya. It appears from a passage of the śatapatha Brāhmana that the speech of the Northerners— that is, presumably, the Northern Kurus—and of the Kuru- Pañcālas was similar, and regarded as specially pure. There seems little doubt that the Brahminical culture was developed in the country of the Kuru-Pañcālas, and that it spread thence east, south, and west. Traces of this are seen in the Vrātya Stomas (sacrifices for the admission of non - Brahminical Aryans) of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, and in the fact that in the śāñkhāyana Áranyaka it is unusual for a Brahmin to dwell in the territory of Magadha. The repeated mention of Kuru- Pañcāla Brahmins is another indication of their missionary activity. The geographical position of the Kuru-Pañcālas renders it probable that they were later immigrants into India than the Kosala-Videha or the Kāśis, who must have been pushed into their more eastward territories by a new wave of Aryan settlers from the west. But there is no evidence in Vedic literature to show in what relation of time the immigration of the latter peoples stood to that of their neighbours on the west. It has, however, been conjectured, mainly on the ground of later linguistic phenomena, which have no cogency for the Vedic period, that the Kurus were later immigrants, who, coming by a new route, thrust themselves between the original Aryan tribes which were already in occupation of the country from east to west. Cf. also Krtvan. For other Kuru princes see Kauravya.
kurukṣetra (‘ land of the Kurus ’) is always regarded in the Brāhmana texts as a particularly sacred country. Within its boundaries flowed the rivers Drsadvatī and Sarasvatī, as well as the Apayā. Here, too, was situated Saryanāvant, which appears to have been a lake, like that known to the Satapatha Brāhmana by the name of Anyatah-plaksā. According to Pischel, there was also in Kuruksetra a stream called Pastyā, which he sees in certain passages of the Rigveda. The boun¬daries of Kuruksetra are given in a passage of the Taittirīya Áranyaka as being Khāndava on the south, the Tūrghna on the north, and the Parīnah on the west. Roughly speaking, it corresponded to the modern Sirhind.
kumāra hārita Is mentioned in the first Vamśa (list- of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Gālava.
kuśri vājaśravasa Appears as a teacher concerned with the lore of the sacred fire in the Satapatha Brāhmana, and in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad he is mentioned as a pupil of Vājaśravas. It is not clear whether he is identical with the Kuśri of the last Vamśa of the Brhadāranyaka in the Kānva recension, and of the Vamśa in the tenth book of the śatapatha, who is mentioned as a pupil of Yajñavacas Rājastambāyana.
kṛṣi ‘ploughing.’ The cultivation of the soil was no doubt known to the Indians before they separated from the Iranians, as is indicated by the identity of the expressions yavam krs and sasya in the Rigveda with yao karesh and hahya in the Avesta, referring to the ploughing in of the seed and to the grain which resulted. But it is not without significance that the expressions for ploughing occur mainly in the first and tenth books of the Rigveda, and only rarely in the so-called ‘ family ’ books (ii.-vii.). In the Atharvaveda Prthī Vainya is credited with the origination of ploughing, and even in the Rigveda the Aśvins are spoken of as concerned with the sowing of grain by means of the plough. In the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas ploughing is repeatedly referred to. Even in the Rigveda there is clear proof of the importance attached to agriculture. In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana the Vrātyas, Hindus without the pale of Brahminism, are de¬scribed as not cultivating the soil.The plough land was called Urvarā or Ksetra; manure (Sakan, Karīsa) was used, and irrigation was practised (Khani- tra). The plough (Lāñgala, Sira) was drawn by oxen, teams of six, eight, or even twelve being employed. The operations of agriculture are neatly summed up in the śatapatha Brāhmana as ‘ ploughing, sowing, reaping, and threshing ’ (
kṛṣṇa hārīta Is mentioned as a teacher in the Aitareya Áranyaka. The Sāñkhāyana Áranyaka has Krtsna in the parallel passage.
kaiśorya ‘Descendant of Kaiśori,’ is the patronymic of Kāpya in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Brhad­āranyaka Upanisad.
kauṇṭharavya Is mentioned as a teacher in the Aitareya and Sāñkhāyana Aranyakas.
kauṇḍinya Is mentioned as a pupil of Sāndilya in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. See also Vidarbhīkaundinya, and the following.
kauṇḍinyāyana Is mentioned in the first Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Mādhyamdina recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Kaundinya, pupil of Kaundinya and Agniveśya; in the second as a pupil of the two Kaundinyas, pupils of Aurnavābha, pupil of Kaundinya, pupil of Kaundinya, pupil of Kaundinya and Agniveśya. Neither Vamśa is of much value.
kautsīputra (‘son of a female descendant of Kutsa ’) is mentioned as a pupil of Baudhīputra in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad in the Mādhyamdina recension.
kauravyayaṇiputra (‘Son of a female descendant of Kuru ’) is mentioned as a teacher in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
kauśika Is an epithet of Indra as connected with the Kuśikas,’ and also of Viśvāmitra as ‘son of Kuśika. A teacher named Kauśika is mentioned as a pupil of Kaundinya in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
kauśikāyani (‘ descendant of Kauśika ’) is mentioned as a teacher and a pupil of Ghrtakauśika in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
kauśikīputra (‘ son of a female descendant of Kuśika ’) is mentioned in a Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Alam- bīputra and Vaiyāghrapadīputra.
kauṣītaki (‘ descendant of Kusītaka ’) is the patronymic of a teacher, or series of teachers, to whom the doctrines set forth in the Kausītaki Brāhmana and in the śāñkhāyana Áranyaka, and the śrauta and Grhya Sūtras, are referred. He is rarely mentioned elsewhere. The doctrine of Kausītaki is called the Kausītaka. The pupils of Kausītaki are known as the Kausī- takis in the Nidāna Sūtra, and in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana they with Kusītaka are stated to have been cursed by Luśākapi. Elsewhere they are called Kausītakins. If the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka can be trusted, there were among them at least two leading teachers, Kahoda and Sarvajit, the former of whom is mentioned elsewhere.
krauñcikīputra ‘son of a female descendant of Krauñca,’ is mentioned as a pupil of Vaittabhatīputra in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
kṣudrasūktas Makers of short hymns,’ is the name given in the Aitareya Áranyaka to the authors of certain hymns of the Rigveda. Cf. Mahāsūkta.
khara Ass,’ is mentioned in the Aitareya Aranyaka, where a team of asses is alluded to. Probably the passages in the śatapatha Brāhmana, where the word is used to denote an earth mound on which the sacrificial vessels were placed, pre­suppose the sense of ‘ ass,’ the mound being shaped in this form.
khalakula Is a word occurring in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, where Sāyana glosses it by Kulattha, a kind of pulse (Dolichos uηiflorus).
khalva Is some sort of grain or leguminous plant, perhaps, as Weber thinks, the Phaselus radiatus. It is mentioned with other grains of all sorts in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, and as being crushed with the Drsad in the Atharvaveda. It occurs also in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, where Sañkara glosses it with ηispāva.
khāṇḍava Is mentioned in the Taittirīya Áranyaka as one of the boundaries of Kuruksetra. There seems no reason to doubt its identity with the famous Khāndava forest of the Mahābhārata. The name occurs also in the Pañcaviipśa Brāhmana and the śātyāyanaka.
gaṅgā The modern Ganges, is mentioned directly in the Rigveda only once, in the Nadī-stuti or Praise of Rivers.’ But it is also referred to in the derivative form gāúgyah as an epithet of Urukaksa. The name of this river does not occurin the other Samhitās, but appears in the śatapatha Brāhmana, where victories of Bharata Dauhsanti on both Gañgā and Yamunā are referred to, and in the Taittirīya Aranyaka especial honour is assigned to those who dwell between the Gañgā and the Yamunā, this being, no doubt, the region in which that text originated. The identification of the Gañgā with the Apayā made by Ludwig must be rejected: see Apayā.
gardabha The ass,’ is mentioned in the Rigveda as inferior to the horse. In the Taittirīya Samhitā he again appears as inferior to the horse, but at the same time as the best bearer of burdens (bhāra-bhāritama) among animals. The same authority styles the ass dvi-retas, ‘having double seed,’ in allusion to his breeding with the mare as well as the she-ass. The smallness of the young of the ass, and his capacity for eating, are both referred to. The disagreeable cry of the animal is mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and in allusion to this the term ‘ ass ’ is applied opprobriously to a singer in the Rigveda. A hundred asses are spoken of as a gift to a singer in a Vālakhilya hymn. The mule (aśvatara) is the offspring of an ass and a mare, the latter, like the ass, being called dvi- retas, ‘ receiving double seed,’ for similar reasons. The male ass is often also termed Rāsabha. The female ass, Gardabhī, is mentioned in the Atharvaveda and the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
gardabhīvipīta Is the name of a teacher who was a Bhāradvāja and a contemporary of Janaka, mentioned in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
gāthā In the Rigveda usually means only ‘song,’ ‘verse,’ like Gātu. In one passage, however, it already has a more special sense, as it is classed with Nārāśamsī and Raibhī, a collocation repeatedly found later. The commentators identify the three terms with certain verses of the Atharvaveda, but Oldenberg has shown that this identification is incorrect for the Rigveda. Gāthās are often mentioned elsewhere, and are referred to as metrical in the Aitareya Áranyaka, where the Rc, Kumbyā, and Gāthā are classed as forms of verse. The Aitareya Brāhmana distinguishes between Rc and Gāthā as divine and human respectively. According to the usage of the Brāhmanas and the liturgical literature, as stated by the St. Petersburg Dictionary, the Gāthās are, though religious in content, distinguished from Rc, Yajus, and Sāman as non- Vedic—that is, are not Mantras. This view is consistent with the fact that the phrase Yajña-gāthā, meaning a verse summarizing a sacrificial usage, is not rare. The Satapatha Brāhmana preserves several Gāthās, which generally accord with this description as epitomizing the sacrifices of famous kings, and the Maitrāyanī Samhitā states that a Gāthā is sung at a wedding. Sometimes Gāthā is qualified as Nārāśamsī, where it must be a eulogy of a generous donor.
gārgī vācaknavī Is referred to in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad1 as a female contemporary and rival of Yājñavalkya.
gārgīputra Son of Gargī,’ occurs as the name of three teachers in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Mādhyamdina recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. The earliest of these three was the pupil of Bādeyīputra and the teacher of the second Gārgīputra. The latter was the teacher of Pārāśarīkaundinīputra, the teacher of the third Gārgīputra.
gārgya ‘Descendant of Garga,’ is the patronymic of Bālāki in the Brhadāranyaka and the Kausītaki Upanisads. Two Gārgyas are mentioned in the second Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad: one of them is the pupil of Gārgya, who again is the pupil of Gautama. Others occur in the Taittirīya Áranyaka and in the Nirukta, as well as later in the ritual Sūtras. Thus the family was evidently long connected with the development of liturgy and grammar.
gārgyāyaṇa Descendant of Gārgya,’ is mentioned as a pupil of Uddālakāyana in the second Vamśa in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad (Kānva).
gālava Is mentioned as a pupil of Vidarbhīkaundinya in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. It is possibly the same man that is referred to regarding a point of ritual in the Aitareya Aranyaka. A grammarian of this name is mentioned in the Nirukta.
giri Mountain ’ or * height,’ is a word that occurs repeatedly in the Rigveda. Thus reference is made to the trees on the hills, hence called ‘tree-haired’ (vrksa-keśāh), and to the streams proceeding from the hills to the sea (samudra,)? The term is frequently coupled with the adjectival parvata. The Rigveda mentions the waters from the hills, and the Athar­vaveda6 refers to the snowy mountains. Actual names of mountains, as Mūjavant, Trikakud, Himavant, are very rare. References to Krauñca, Mahāmeru, and Maināg-a, are confined to the Taittirīya Aranyaka, while Nāvaprabhramśana can no longer be considered a proper name.
gṛtsamada Is the name of a seer to whom the Sarvānu- kramanī attributes the authorship of the second Mandala of the Rigveda. This tradition is supported by the Aitareya Brāhmana and the Aitareya Aranyaka. The Kausītaki Brāhmana speaks of him as a Bhārgava, ‘ descendant of Bhrgu,’ with a variant Bābhrava, ‘ descendant of Babhru,’ but the later tradition keeps to the former patronymic.4 The Grtsamadas are often mentioned in the second Mandala of the Rigveda,5 and are also called Sunahotras,6 but never Gārtsamadas or Saunahotras, and Grtsamada himself never occurs there.
gotamīputra Son of Gotamī,’ is mentioned as a pupil of Bhāradvājī-putra in the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. See also Gautamī-putra.
gośruti vaiyāghrapadya (‘Descendant of Vyāghrapad’) is mentioned as a pupil of Satyakāma in the Chāndogya Upanisad. In the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka the name appears as Gośruta.
gautama ‘Descendant of Gotama,’ is a common patro­nymic, being applied to Aruna, Uddālaka Aruni, Kuśri, Sāti, Hāridrumata. Several Gautamas are mentioned in the Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as pupils of Agni- veśya, of Saitava and Prācīnayogya, of Saitava, of Bhārad- vaja, of Gautama, and of Vatsya. referred to elsewhere.
gautamīputra (‘Son of a female descendant of Gotama ’) is mentioned in the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Bhāradvājīputra. In the Mādhyamdina a Gautamīputra is a pupil of Atreyī- putra, pupil of a Gautamīputra, pupil of Vātsīputra. See also Gotamīputra.
gaupavana Descendant of Gopavana ’) is mentioned as a pupil of Pautimāsya in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad
graha (‘Seizing ’) is a term applied to the sun in the śata­patha Brāhmana, most probably not in the later sense of ‘ planet,’ but to denote a power exercising magical influence. The sense of ‘ planet ’ seems first to occur in the later literature, as in the Maitrāyanī Upanisad. The question whether the planets were known to the Vedic Indians is involved in obscurity. Oldenberg recognizes them in the Adityas, whose number is, he believes, seven : sun, moon, and the five planets. But this view, though it cannot be said to be impossible or even unlikely, is not susceptible of proof, and has been rejected by Hillebrandt, Pischel, von Schroeder,Macdonell, and Bloom­field, among others. Hillebrandt sees the planets in the five Adhvaryus mentioned in the Rigveda, but this is a mere con­jecture. The five bulls (uksānah) in another passage of the Rigveda have received a similar interpretation with equal uncertainty, and Durga, in his commentary on the Nirukta, even explains the term bhūmija, ‘ earth-born,’ which is only men­tioned by Yāska, as meaning the planet Mars.Thibaut, who is generally sceptical as to the mention of planets in the Veda, thinks that Brhaspati there refers to Jupiter; but this is extremely improbable, though in the Taittirīya Samhitā Brhaspati is made the regent of Tisya. A reference to the planets is much more probable in the seven suns (sapta sūryāh) of the late Taittirīya Áranyaka. On the other hand, Ludwig’s efforts to find the five planets with the sun, the moon, and the twenty-seven Naksatras (lunar mansions) in the Rigveda, as corresponding to the number thirty-four used in connexion with light19 (jyotis) and the ribs of the sacrificial horse, is far¬fetched. See also Sukra, Manthin, Vena.
ghṛtakauśika Is mentioned in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Mādhyamdina recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Pārāśaryāyana.
caraka primarily denotes a ‘ wandering student,’ a sense actually found in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. More especially it denotes the members of a school of the Black Yajurveda, the practices of which are several times referred to with disapproval in the Satapatha Brāhmana. In the Vāja­saneyi Samhitā the Caraka teacher (Carakācārya) is enumerated among the sacrificial victims at the Purusamedha, or human sacrifice. His dedication there to ill-doing is a clear hint of a ritual feud.
cūḍa bhāgavitti (‘Descendant of Bhagavitta ’) is mentioned in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Madhuka Paingya.
caikitāneya (‘Descendant of Cekitāna’) is mentioned as a teacher in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana. The Caikitā- neyas are also referred to there in connexion with the Sāman which they worshipped. Brahmadatta Caikitāneya is brought into connexion with the Sāman in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, and Vāsistha Caikitāneya is known to the Sadvimśa and Vamśa Brāhmanas. The word is a patronymic, formed from Caikitāna, according to śañkara, but more probably from Cekitāna, a name found in the Epic.
cora ‘Thief,’ is only found in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, a late work, in its last book. The Vedic terms are Taskara Tāyu, Stena, and Paripanthin.
janaka King of Videha, plays a considerable part in the śatapatha Brāhmana and the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, as well as in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana and the Kausītaki Upanisad. He was a contemporary of Yājñavalkya Vāja-saneya, of śvetaketu Aruneya, and of other sages.6 He had become famous for his generosity and his interest in the dis¬cussion of the nature of Brahman, as ultimate basis of reality, in the life-time of Ajātaśatru of Kāśi. It is significant that he maintained a close intercourse with the Brahmins of the Kuru-Pañcālas, such as Yājñavalkya and śvetaketu; for this indicates that the home of the philosophy of the Upanisads was in the Kuru-Pañcāla country rather than in the east. There is a statement in the śatapatha Brāhmana that he became a Brahmin (brahma). This does not, however, signify a change of caste, but merely that in knowledge he became a Brahmin (see Ksatriya). Janaka is occasionally mentioned in later texts: in the Taittirīya Brāhmana he has already become quite mythical; in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra a sapta-rātra or seven nights’ rite is ascribed to him. It is natural to attempt to date Janaka by his being a con¬temporary of Ajātaśatru, and by identifying the latter with the Ajātasattu of the Pāli texts11: this would make the end of the sixth century B.C. the approximate date of Janaka. But it is very doubtful whether this identification can be supported: Ajātaśatru was king of Kāśi, whereas Ajātasattu was king of Magadha, and his only connexion with Kāśi was through his marriage with the daughter of Pasenadi of Kosala. More¬over, the acceptance of this chronology would be difficult to reconcile with the history of the development of thought; for it would make the rise of Buddhism contemporaneous with the Upanisads, whereas it is reasonably certain that the older Upanisads preceded Buddhism Nor do the Vedic texts know anything of Bimbisāra or Pasenadi, or any of the other princes famed in Buddhist records. The identification of Janaka of Videha and the father of Sītā is less open to objection, but it cannot be proved, and is somewhat doubtful. In the Sūtras Janaka appears as an ancient king who knew of a time when wifely honour was less respected than later.
jambhaka As the name of a demon, presumably identical with the demon causing Jambha, is mentioned in the Vāja­saneyi Samhitā and the Sāñkhāyana Aranyaka.
jarāyu Is found once in the Atharvaveda in the sense of a serpent’s skin.’ Usually it denotes the outer covering (chorion) of the embryo, as opposed to the ulva, the inner covering (amnion). Living things are occasionally classified according to their mode of origin. In the Chāndogya Upanisad they are divided into (a) āηda-ja, egg-born ’; (b) jīva-ja, * born alive,’ or born from the womb; (c) udbhij-ja, ‘ propagated by sprouts.’ In the Aitareya Áranyaka4 the division is fourfold: (a) āηda-ja; (b) jāru-ja, that is, jarāyu-ja (found in the Atharvaveda, and needlessly read here by Bohtlingk); (c) udbhij-ja; and (d) sveda-ja, ‘sweat-born,’ explained as ‘insects.’
jātūkarṇya ‘Descendant of Jātūkarna,’ is the patronymic of several persons. (a) A pupil of Asurāyana and Yāska bears this name in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad in the Kānva recension. In the Mādhyamdina he is a pupil of Bhāradvāja. (b) A Kātyāyanī-putra, ‘son of Kātyāyanī,’ bears this name in the Sāñkhāyana Áranyaka. (c) A Jātūkarnya is mentioned in the Kausītaki Brāhmana as a contemporary of Alīkayu Vācaspatya and other sages. (d) Jātūkarnya is in the Sūtras5 frequently a patronymic of teachers whose identity cannot be determined. The same person or different persons may here be meant.
jānaka ‘Descendant of Janaka,’ is the patronymic of Kratuvid in some MSS. of the Aitareya Brāhmana. In the Taittirīya Samhitā the name appears instead as Kratujit Jānaki. Jānaka is also, according to some manuscripts of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, the patronymic of Ayasthūna, but is here no doubt a misreading of Jānaki.
jānaki ‘Descendant of Janaka,’ is the patronymic of Kratujit in the Taittirīya Samhitā, of Kratuvid in the Aitareya Brāhmana, and of Ayasthūna in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, where he is mentioned as a pupil of Cūda Bhāg*avitti, and as teacher of Satyakāma Jābāla.
jābālāyana ‘Descendant of Jābāla,’ is the patronymic of a teacher, a pupil of Mādhyamdināyana, who is mentioned in the second Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
jāyantīputra ‘Son of Jāyantī,’ is mentioned in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Māndūkāyanīputra.
jāra ‘Lover,’ has no sinister sense in the early texts generally, where the word applies to any lover. But it seems probable that the Jāra at the Purusamedha, or human sacrifice, must be regarded as an illegitimate lover; this sense also appears in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, and Indra is styled the lover of Ahalyā, wife of Gautama.
jāratkārava (‘Descendant of Jaratkāru’) Artabhāga (‘de­scendant of Rtabhāga’) is the name of a teacher mentioned in the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka and the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
jāla Occurs in the Atharvaveda and the Sūtras in the sense of ‘ net.’ Jālaka is used in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad of a reticulated membrane resembling a woven covering.
jitvan śailini Is the name of a teacher in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, a contemporary of Janaka and Yājñavalkya. He held that speech (vāc) was Brahman.
jihvāvant bādhyoga Is the name, in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, of a teacher, pupil of Asita Vārsāgana.
jaivantāyana ‘Descendant of Jīvanta,’ is mentioned in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a teacher, with Saunaka and Raibhya, of Rauhināyana.
jaivala ‘Descendant of Jīvala,’ is the patronymic of Pravāhana in the Brhadāranyaka and Chāndogya Upani­sads. Jaivali, the king, in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana is the same person.
jñātṛ Occurs in two passages of the Atharvaveda and one of the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka with a somewhat obscure sense. Zimmer conjectures not unnaturally that the word is a technical term taken from law, meaning ‘witness.’ The reference is, perhaps, to a custom of carrying on transactions of business before witnesses as practised in other primitive societies. Roth suggests that the word has the sense of ‘surety.’ But Bloomfield and Whitney ignore these inter¬pretations.
tāṇḍavinda Is the name of a teacher mentioned in the śāñkhāyana Áranyaka.
tāta Apparently ‘dada’s boy,’ an affectionate term of address by a father (cf. Tata) to a son, is found in the Brāhmanas, occurring in the vocative only. But in the sense of father,’ through confusion with Tata, Aitareya Aranyaka.
tārukṣya Is the name of a teacher in the Aitareya and śāñkhāyana Aranyakas. In the former passage Tārksya is a variant reading, and in the latter Tārksya is read, but this is probably only due to confusion with Tārksya, the reputed author of a Rigvedic hymn.
tura kāvṣeya Is mentioned in the Vamśa (list of teachers) at the end of the tenth book of the śatapatha Brāhmana as the source of the doctrine set forth in that book, and as separated, in the succession of teachers, from Sāndilya by Yajñavacas and Kuśri. In the same Brāhmana he is quoted by śāndilya as having erected a fire-altar on the Kārotī. In the Aitareya Brāhmana he appears as a Purohita, or ‘ domestic priest,’ of Janamejaya Pāriksita, whom he consecrated king. In the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad4 and a Khila he appears as an ancient sage. Oldenberg, no doubt rightly, assigns him to the end of the Vedic period. He is probably identical with Tura, the deva-muni, ‘saint of the gods,’ who is mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana.
tūrghna Is mentioned in the Taittirīya Aranyaka as the northern part of Kuruksetra. Its exact position, however, cannot be ascertained.
tṛṇajalayuka ‘Caterpillar,’ is mentioned in the Brhad­āranyaka Upanisad.
taittirīya Is the name of one of the divisions of the Black Yajurveda, which is, however, not found thus described until the Sūtra period. The school is represented by a Samhitā, a Brāhmana, and an Áranyaka, besides an Upanisad, which forms a part of the Áranyaka.
taila ‘Sesamum oil/ is mentioned in the Atharvaveda, where reference is made to keeping such oil in jars. In the Sāñkhāyana Aranyaka, reference is made to anointing with sesamum oil.
traivaṇi Is mentioned as a pupil of Aupacandhani or Aupa- jandhani in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. In the Madhyamdina recension his name occurs twice in the second Vamśa, in both cases as a pupil of Aupajandhani.
tvāṣṭra ‘Descendant of Tvastr/ is the patronymic, in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, of the mythical teacher Ablliiti.
dant ‘Tooth,’ is frequently mentioned from the Rigveda onwards. Cleansing (dhāv) the teeth was an ordinary act, especially in preparation for a sacrifice, and accompanied bathing, shaving of the hair and beard (keśa-śmaśru), and the cutting of the nails. A hymn of the Atharvaveda celebrates the appearance of the first two teeth of a child, though its exact interpretation is doubtful. In the Aitareya Brāhmana there is a reference to a child’s first teeth falling out. The word seems in the Rigveda once to denote an elephant’s tusk. Whether dentistry was practised is doubtful. The occurrence in the Aitareya Aranyaka of Hiranya-dant, ‘gold-toothed,’ as the name of a man, is perhaps significant, especially as it is certain that the stopping of teeth with gold was known at Rome as early as the legislation of the Twelve Tables.
dāra ‘Wife,’ is found in the Sūtras (usually as a plural masculine), and once (as a singular) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
dāsya Occurs once in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad (iv. 2, 30 Mādhyamdina = 23 Kānva) in the sense of‘slavery.’
div ‘Sky.’ The world as a whole is regarded as divided into the three domains of ‘earth/ ‘air’ or ‘atmosphere,’ and ‘heaven’ or ‘sky’ (div) or alternatively into ‘heaven and earth’ (dyāvā-prthivī), which two are then considered as com­prising the universe, the atmosphere being included in the sky. Lightning, wind, and rain belong to the atmosphere, solar and The shape of the earth is compared with a wheel in the Rigveda, and is expressly called * circular ’ (pari-mandala) in the Satapatha Brāhmana. When earth is conjoined with heaven, the two are conceived as great bowls (camvā) turned towards each other. In the Aitareya Aranyaka the two are regarded as halves of an egg. The distance of heaven from the earth is given by the Atharvaveda as a thousand days’ journey for the sun-bird, by the Aitareya Brāhmana as a thousand days’ journey for a horse, while the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana whimsically estimates the distance as equivalent to a thousand cows standing one on the top of the other.According to Zimmer, the Vedic poets conceived the atmosphere to be above the earth in its upper division only, but below it in its lower stratum. The evidence, however, for the latter assumption is quite insufficient. The theory of the Aitareya Brāhmana is that the sun merely reverses its bright side at night, turning its light on the stars and the moon while it retraverses its course to the east; and it has been shown that this is probably the doctrine of the Rigveda also. See also Sūrya and Candramās. For the Vedic knowledge of the planets, see Graha. There is no geographical division of the earth in Vedic literature. The Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana states that the centre of the earth is a span north of the Plaksa Prāsravanā, and that the centre of the sky is the constellation of the seven Esis, the Great Bear. For the quarters, see Diś.
dīrghatamas (‘ Long darkness ’) Māmateya (* son of Mamatā ’) Aucathya (‘son of Ucatha’) is mentioned as a singer in one hymn of the Rigveda, and is referred to in several passages by his metronymic, Māmateya, alone. He is said, both in the Rigveda and in the Sāñkhāyana Áranyaka, to have attained the tenth decade of life. In the Aitareya Brāhmana he appears as the priest of Bharata. The Brhaddevatā contains a preposterous legend made up of fragments of the Rigveda,® according to which Dīrghatamas was born blind, but recovered his sight; in old age he was thrown into a river by his servants, one of whom, Traitana, attacked him, but killed himself instead. Carried down by the stream, he was cast up in the Añga country, where he married Uśij, a slave girl, and begot Kaksīvant. The two legends here combined are not even con­sistent, for the second ignores Dīrghatamas’ recovery of sight. To attach any historical importance to them, as does Pargiter, would seem to be unwise.
dṛptabālāki gārgya (‘Descendant of Garga ’) is the name of a teacher who is mentioned in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a contemporary of Ajātaśatru of Kāśi.
daiva Is the patronymic of the mythical Atharvan in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
dhanadhānī A ‘treasure house,’ is mentioned in the Taittirīya Áranyaka
dharma Are the regular words, the latter in the Rigveda, and both later, for ‘ law ’ or ‘ custom.’ But there is very little evidence in the early literature as to the administra­tion of justice or the code of law followed. On the other hand, the Dharma Sūtras contain full particulars.Criminal Law.—The crimes recognized in Vedic literature vary greatly in importance, while there is no distinction adopted in principle between real crimes and what now are regarded as fanciful bodily defects or infringements of merely conventional practices. The crimes enumerated include the slaying of an embryo (
dhavitra Occurring in the Satapatha Brāhmana and the Taittirīya Aranyaka, denotes a ‘ fan ’ of hide or leather for blowing the sacrificial fire.
dhānya (neut.), A derivative from the preceding word, denotes ‘grain’ in general. It is found in the Rigveda and later. According to the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, there are ten cultivated (grāmyāηi) kinds of grain : rice and barley (vrīhi- yavāh), sesamum and beans (tila-māsāh), Panicum Miliaceum and Italicum (aηu-priyciηgavah), maize (godhūmāh), lentils (masūrāh), Khalvāh and Dolichos uniflorus (khala-kulab). The horse is called ‘ corn-eating {dhānyādd) in the Aitareya and śatapatha Brāhmanas, and men are mentioned as * purifying corn ’ (dhānyā-krt) in the Rigveda.
dhṛṣṭi Found in the dual in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, the śatapatha Brāhmana, and the Sūtras, seems to denote ‘ fire- tongs.’
nagara Is in early Vedic literature found only in the deriva­tive adjective, used as a proper name, Nagarin, but it appears in the sense of ‘town’ in the Taittirīya Áranyaka, and frequently in the later language.
nalada ‘Nard’ (N ardastachys Jatamansi) is a plant mentioned in the Atharvaveda, in the Aitareya and the śāñkhāyana Aranyakas (where it is mentioned as used for a garland), as well as in the Sūtras. In the Atharvaveda the feminine form of the word, Naladī, occurs as the name of an Apsaras, or celestial nymph.
nāka Is the name of a teacher in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana.1 Presumably he is identical with Nāka Maudgalya (‘descendant of Mudgala’), who is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmana,2 the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad,3 and the Taittirīya Upanisad.[1]
nāga Appears once in the Satapatha Brāhmana in the form mahāηāga, where ‘ great snake ’ or ‘ great elephant ’ may be meant. In the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, and in a citation found in the Aitareya Brāhmana the sense of ‘elephant’ is clearly intended. In the Sūtras the mythic Nāga already occurs.
nirvacana In the Taittirīya Áranyaka and the Nirukta means explanation,’ especially etymological. Cf Nirukta.
naidhruvi ‘Descendant of Nidhruva,’ is the patronymic of Kaśyapa in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
paṅkti Originally a ‘set of five,’ denotes as early as the Rigveda a series ’ generally. In the Taittirīya Aranyaka the word is used of the series of a man’s ancestors whom he purifies by certain conduct.
pañcālacaṇḍa Is the name of a teacher in the Aitareya and the śāñkhāyana Aranyakas.
paḍbīśa The foot-fetter ’ of a horse in five passages, two in the Rigveda, and one each in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, the Chāndogya Upanisad, and the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka. Elsewhere its uses are metaphorical. According to Roth,® the literal sense is ‘foot-fastening’ (pad being = pad, ‘foot,’ and bīśa, written visa in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, being connected with the Latin viηcire, ‘bind’). Pischel[2] objects that the sense of * foot-fastening’ involves the absurdity, in the Upanisad passages, of a fine horse from the Sindhu (Indus) being spoken of as tearing up the peg to which it is fastened. He suggests instead the meaning of ‘ hobble,’ which must be right.8
patañcala kāpya Is the name of a sage mentioned twice in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. According to Weber, his name is reminiscent of Kapila and Patañjali of the śāñkhya- Yoga system, but this suggestion may be regarded as quite improbable.
pati Under these words denoting primarily, as the evidence collected in the St. Petersburg Dictionary shows, ‘ lord ’ and ‘ lady,’ and so * husband ’ and * wife,’ it is convenient to consider the marital relations of the Vedic community. Child Marriage.—Marriage in the early Vedic texts appears essentially as a union of two persons of full development. This is shown by the numerous references to unmarried girls who grow old in the house of their fathers (amā-jur), and who adorn themselves in desire of marriage, as well as to the paraphernalia of spells and potions used in the Atharvavedic tradition to compel the love of man or woman respectively, while even the Rigveda itself seems to present us with a spell by which a lover seeks to send all the household to sleep when he visits his beloved. Child wives first occur regularly in the Sūtra period, though it is still uncertain to what extent the rule of marriage before puberty there obtained. The marriage ritual also quite clearly presumes that the marriage is a real and not a nominal one: an essential feature is the taking of the bride to her husband’s home, and the ensuing cohabitation. Limitations on Marriage.—It is difficult to say with certainty within what limits marriage was allowed. The dialogue of Yama and Yam! in the Rigveda seems clearly to point to a prohibition of the marriage of brother and sister. It can hardly be said, as Weber thinks, to point to a practice that was once in use and later became antiquated. In the Gobhila Grhya Sūtra and the Dharma Sūtras are found prohibitions against marriage in the Gotra (‘ family ’) or within six degrees on the mother’s or father’s side, but in the śatapatha Brāh-mana marriage is allowed in the third or fourth generation, the former being allowed, according to Harisvamin, by the Kanvas, and the second by the Saurāstras, while the Dāksi- nātyas allowed marriage with the daughter of the mother’s brother or the son of the father’s sister, but presumably not with the daughter of the mother’s sister or the son of the father’s brother. The prohibition of marriage within the Gotra cannot then have existed, though naturally marriages outside the Gotra were frequent. Similarity of caste was also not an essential to marriage, as hypergamy was permitted even by the Dharma Sūtras, so that a Brāhmana could marry wives of any lower caste, a Ksatriya wives of the two lowest castes as well as of his own caste, a Vaiśya a Sūdrā as well as a Vaiśyā, although the Sūdrā marriages were later disapproved in toto. Instances of such intermarriage are common in the Epic, and are viewed as normal in the Brhaddevatā. It was considered proper that the younger brothers and sisters should not anticipate their elders by marrying before them. The later Samhitās and Brāhmanas present a series of names expressive of such anticipation, censuring as sinful those who bear them. These terms are the pari-vividāna, or perhaps agre-dadhus, the man who, though a younger brother, marries before his elder brother, the latter being then called the parivitta; the agre-didhisu, the man who weds a younger daughter while her elder sister is still unmarried; and the Didhisū-pati, who is the husband of the latter. The passages do not explicitly say that the exact order of birth must always be followed, but the mention of the terms shows that the order was often broken. Widow Remarriage. The remarriage of a widow was apparently permitted. This seems originally to have taken the form of the marriage of the widow to the brother or other nearest kinsman of the dead man in order to produce children. At any rate, the ceremony is apparently alluded to in a funeral hymn of the Rigveda ; for the alternative explanation, which sees in the verse a reference to the ritual of the Purusamedha (‘human sacrifice’), although accepted by Hillebrandt and Delbruck, is not at all probable, while the ordinary view is supported by the Sūtra evidence. Moreover, another passage of the Rigveda clearly refers to the marriage of the widow and the husband’s brother {devr), which constitutes what the Indians later knew as Niyoga. This custom was probably not followed except in cases where no son was already born. This custom was hardly remarriage in the strict sense, since the brother might—so far as appears—be already married himself. In the Atharvaveda, a verse refers to a charm which would secure the reunion, in the next world, of a wife and her second husband. Though, as Delbruck thinks, this very possibly refers to a case in which the first husband was still alive, but was impotent or had lost caste (patita), still it is certain that the later Dharma Sūtras began to recognize ordinary remarriage in case of the death of the first husband Pischel finds some evidence in the Rigveda to the effect that a woman could remarry if her husband disappeared and could not be found or heard of. Polygamy. A Vedic Indian could have more than one wife. This is proved clearly by many passages in the Rigveda; Manu, according to the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, had ten wives ; and the Satapatha Brāhmana explains polygamy by a characteristic legend. Moreover, the king regularly has four wives attributed to him, the Mahisī, the Parivrktī, the Vāvātā, and the Pālāgalī. The Mahisī appears to be the chief wife, being the first, one married according to the śata¬patha Brāhmana. The Parivrktī, ‘ the neglected,’ is explained by Weber and Pischel as one that has had no son. The Vāvātā is ‘the favourite,’ while the Pālāgalī is, according to Weber, the daughter of the last of the court officials. The names are curious, and not very intelligible, but the evidence points to the wife first wedded alone being a wife in the fullest sense. This view is supported by the fact emphasized by Delbruck, that in the sacrifice the Patnī is usually mentioned in the singular, apparent exceptions being due to some mythological reason. Zimmer is of opinion that polygamy is dying out in the Rigvedic period, monogamy being developed from pologamy; Weber, however, thinks that polygamy is secondary, a view that is supported by more recent anthropology. Polyandry.—On the other hand, polyandry is not Vedic. There is no passage containing any clear reference to such a custom. The most that can be said is that in the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda verses are occasionally found in which husbands are mentioned in relation to a single wife. It is difficult to be certain of the correct explanation of each separate instance of this mode of expression; but even if Weber’s view, that the plural is here used majestatis causa, is not accepted, Delbruck’s explanation by mythology is probably right. In other passages the plural is simply generic. Marital Relations.—Despite polygamy, however, there is ample evidence that the marriage tie was not, as Weber has suggested, lightly regarded as far as the fidelity of the wife was concerned. There is, however, little trace of the husband’s being expected to be faithful as a matter of morality. Several passages, indeed, forbid, with reference to ritual abstinence, intercourse with the strī of another. This may imply that adultery on the husband’s part was otherwise regarded as venial. But as the word strī includes all the ‘womenfolk,’ daughters and slaves, as well as wife, the conclusion can hardly be drawn that intercourse with another man’s ‘wife’ was normally regarded with indifference. The curious ritual of the Varunapraghāsās, in which the wife of the sacrificer is questioned as to her lovers, is shown by Delbruck to be a part of a rite meant to expiate unchastity on the part of a wife, not as a normal question for a sacrificer to put to his own wife. Again, Yājñavalkya’s doctrine in the Satapatha Brāhmana, which seems to assert that no one cares if a wife is unchaste (parah-pumsā) or not, really means that no one cares if the wife is away from the men who are sacrificing, as the wives of the gods are apart from them during the particular rite in question. Monogamy is also evidently approved, so that some higher idea of morality was in course of formation. On the other hand, no Vedic text gives us the rule well known to other Indo-Germanic peoples that the adulterer taken in the act can be killed with impunity, though the later legal literature has traces of this rule. There is also abundant evidence that the standard of ordinary sexual morality was not high. Hetairai. In the Rigveda there are many references to illegitimate love and to the abandonment of the offspring of such unions,ββ especially in the case of a protege of Indra, often mentioned as the parāvrkta or parāvrj. The ‘son of a maiden ’ (kumārī-putra) is already spoken of in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. Such a person appears with a metronymic in the Upanisad period: this custom may be the origin of metro- nymics such as those which make up a great part of the lists of teachers (Vamśas) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. The Vājasaneyi Samhitā refers to illicit unions of śūdra and Arya, both male and female, besides giving in its list of victims at the Purusamedha, or ‘human sacrifice,’ several whose designations apparently mean ‘ courtesan (atītvarī) and ‘ procuress of abortion ’ (
pathin saubhara (‘Descendant of Sobhari ’) is mentioned in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as the pupil of Ayāsya Aúgirasa.
paricarmaṇya Denotes a thong of leather in the Kausītaki Brāhmana and the śāñkhāyana Áranyaka.
paridhāna Denotes ‘garment,’ probably * under garment,’ in the Atharvaveda and the Brhadāranyaka Upani­sad. A garment of saffron is mentioned in the śānkhāyana Aranyaka.
parīṇah Is the name of a place in Kuruksetra mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, the Taittirīya Aranyaka, and the Sūtras.
paśu Means animal ’ generally, including man. There is frequent mention of the five sacrificial animalsthe horse, the cow, the sheep, the goat, and man. Seven such domestic animals are spoken of in the Atharvaveda and later; probably, as Whitney observes, merely as a sacred mystic number, not, as the commentator explains, the usual five with the ass and the camel added. Animals are also referred to as ubhayadaηt and anyatodant. They are further6 classified as those which take hold with the hand (hastādānāh), man (purusa) telephant (hastiri), and ape (markata), and those which grasp by the mouth (mukhādānāh). Another division is that of biped (dvipād) and quadruped (catuspād). Man is a biped; he is the first (pro- thama) of the beasts ; he alone of animals lives a hundred years (śatāyus), and he is king of the animals. He possesses speech (vāc) in conjunction with the other animals. In the Aitareya Aranyaka an elaborate distinction is drawn between vegetables, animals, and man in point of intellect.Of animals apart from man a threefold division is offered in the Rigveda into those of the air (υāyavya), those of the jungle (<āranya), and those of the village (grāmya), or tame animals. The division into āranya and grāmya animals is quite common. In the Yajurveda Samhitās is found a division into eka-śapha, ‘ whole-hoofed ’; ksudra, ‘small’; and āranya, ‘ wild,’ the two former classes denoting the tame animals. The horse and the ass are eka-śapha ; the ksudra are the sheep, the goat, and the ox: this distinction being parallel to that of ubhayadant and anyatodant. Zimmer sees in a passage of the Atharvaveda a division of wild animals (āranya) into five classes: those of the jungle described as the ‘dread beasts which are in the wood ’ (tnrgā bhīmā vane hitāh) ; winged creatures, represented by the Hamsa, ‘ gander,’ Suparna, ‘eagle,’ Sakuna, ‘bird’; amphibia—Simśumāra, ‘alligator,’ and Ajagara, ‘crocodile’ (?); ‘fish,’ Purīkaya, Jasa, and Matsya; insects and worms (described as rajasāh). But this division is more ingenious than probable, and it is ignored by both Bloomfield and Whitney.
pākadūrvā Is, in a verse of the Rigveda, included with Kiyāmbu and Vyalkaśā among the plants used for growing on the spot where the corpse of the dead man has been consumed with fire. The verse is repeated in the Taittirīya Aranyaka. with the variant Kyāmbu. In the Atharvaveda the word is read śāndadūrvā. Pākadūrvā is probably, as Sāyana understands it, parifiakva-dūrvā, ‘ ripe or edible millet.’ śāndadūrvā is explained by the commentator in various ways, as millet * having egg-shaped roots ’ (i.e., sānda, not śānda), or as * having long joints,’ with the additional remark that it was called brhad- dūrvā, ‘ large millet.’ In the Taittirīya Aranyaka, on the other, hand, the commentary explains Pākadūrvā as small millet.
pārāśarīkauṇḍinīputra Is mentioned in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad in the Mādhyamdina recension, as a pupil of Gārgīputra.
pārāśarīputra Son of a female descendant of Parāśara,’ is mentioned in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Brhad­āranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Kātyāyanīputra,1 of Aupasva- tīputra, of Vātsīputra, of Vārkārunīputra, and of Gārgī­putra. Different men are no doubt meant.
pārāśaryāyaṇa Is mentioned in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Pārāśarya.
pārikṣita ‘Descendant of Pariksit,’ is the patronymic of Janamejaya in the Aitareya Brāhmana and the śatapatha Brāhmana. The Pāriksitīyas appear in the śatapatha Brāh­mana and the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra as performers of the horse sacrifice. In a Gāthā there cited they are called Pāri- ksitas. Apparently they were the brothers of Janamejaya, named Ugrasena, Bhīmasena, and Srutasena. In the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad the question whither they have gone is made the subject of a philosophical discussion. It is clear that the family had passed away before the time of the Upanisad, and it is also clear that there had been some serious scandal mingled with their greatness which they had, in the opinion of the Brahmins, atoned for by their horse sacrifice with its boundless gifts to the priests. Weber sees in this the germ of the Epic stories which are recorded in the Mahābhārata. The verses relating to Pariksit in the Atharvaveda are called Pāriksityah in the Brāhmanas.
pippala Is found in two passages of the Rigveda meaning ‘ berry,’ used with a mystic signification, and in neither case with any certain reference to the berry of the fig-tree. In the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad the general sense of ‘berry’ is not necessary, and the special sense of ‘berry’ of the Peepal is quite possible: the latter meaning is perhaps intended in the śatapatha Brāhmana. In the Atharvaveda the feminine form of the word, Pippalī, appears denoting berries used as a remedy for wounds, like Arundhatī.
punardatta (‘ Given again ’) is the name of a teacher in the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka.
pṛthivī Denotes the ‘ earth’ as the ‘ broad’ one in the Rigveda and later, being often personified as a deity both alone and with Div, ‘heaven,’ as Dyāvā-Pṛthivī. Mention is often made of three earths, of which the world on which we live is the highest. The earth is girdled by the ocean, according to the Aitareya Brāhmana. The Nirukta places one of the three earths in each of the worlds into which the universe is divided (see Div). In the śatapatha Brāhmana the earth is called the ‘ firstborn of being,’ and its riches (vitta) are referred to ; hence in a late passage of the śānkhāyana Aranyaka the earth is styled vasu-matī, ‘ full of wealth.’ The word also occurs in the Rigveda, though rarely, in the form of Pṛthvī.
paiṅgīputra (‘Son of a female descendant of Piñga ’) is the name of a teacher, pupil of śaunakīputra, in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāraṇyaka Upanisad (Mādhyamdina).
pautimāṣīputra ‘Son of a female descendant of Pūtimāṣa,’ is the metronymic of a teacher in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Kāṇva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
pautimāṣya ‘Descendant of Pūtimāsa,’ is the patronymic of a teacher, a pupil of Gaupavana, in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Kāṇva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
pautimāṣyāyaṇa Descendant of Pautimāṣya', is the patronymic of a teacher, who, with Kauṇḍinyāyana, taught Raibhya in the first two Vaṃśas (lists of teachers) of the Mādhyaṃdina recension of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad
pauruśiṣṭi ‘Descendant of Puruśista,’ is the patronymic of Taponitya in the Taittirīya Upaniṣad (1 = Taittirīya Araṇyaka).
paulkasa Is the name of one of the victims at the Puruṣa- medha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda. The name also occurs in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as that of a despised race of men, together with the Cāndāla. The Maitrāyaηī Samhitā has the variant Puklaka or Pulkaka, clearly the same as Pulkasa, of which Paulkasa is a derivative form, showing that a caste is meant (cf Kaulāla, Pauñji§tha). In the accepted theory the Pulkasa is the son of a Niṣāda or śūdra by a Kṣatriya woman, but this is merely speculative; the Paulkasa may either have been a functional caste, or, as Fick5 believes, an aboriginal clan living by catching wild beasts, and only occasionally reduced to menial tasks.
pauṣkarasādi (‘Descendant of Puṣkarasādi ’) is the name of a teacher mentioned in the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka, as well as the Taittirlya Prātiśākhya. A Puṣkarasādi is mentioned in the Dharma Sūtra of Apastamba and elsewhere.
prakṣa Is the form in the Taittirlya Samhitā of the usual name, Plakṣa, of a tree, being merely a phonetic alteration for the sake of the etymology. According to Aufrecht, the same word is found in two passages of the Sāmaveda, the same reading occurring in the Aitareya Aranyaka. Oldenberg, however, questions the correctness of the reading Prakṣa, both in the latter passage and in the Sāmaveda.
praghātha Is the name given in the Aitareya Araṇyaka to the poets of the eighth Maṇdala of the Rigveda, so called because they composed Pragātha strophes (that is, verses con­sisting of a Brhatī or Kakubh followed by a Satobrhatī).
prativeśya Is mentioned in the Vamśa (list of teachers) at the end of the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka as the pupil of Bphad- diva. Cf. Prātiveśya.
pratyakṣadarśana n., means ‘seeing with one’s own eyes,’ as opposed to seeing in a vision (svapna). A section on such visions appears in the Rigveda Araṇyakas.
pratyenas Is found with Ugra and Sūta-grāmanī in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, clearly denoting an officer of police. The sense must be that of the humbler ‘servants’ of the king rather than ‘ magistrates,’ as Max Muller, in his translation, takes it. In the Kāthaka Samhitā and the Sāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra the word means, according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, the next heir, who is responsible for the debts of a dead man.
pravara Denotes a ‘ covering ’ or ‘ woollen cloth ’ in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
pracmayogiputra ‘Son of a female descendant of Prācīna- yoga,’ is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Sāmjīvīputra in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Mādhyamdina recension of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad.
prācīnayogya ‘Descendant of Prācmayoga,’ is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Pārāśarya, in the first Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad. A Prācīnayogya is mentioned also in the Chāndogya and the Taittirlya Upaniṣads, and the same patronymic is found in the śatapatha Brāhmana and in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana (see Puluça, Satyayajña, Somaśuçma).
prājāpatya Descendant of Prajāpati,’ is only a patronymic of mythical persons like Arum Suparneya (descendant of Suparṇā’) in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, or of Prajāvant in the Aitareya Brāhmana.
prāṇa Properly denoting ‘breath,’ is a term of wide and vague significance in Vedic literature. It is frequently men­tioned from the Rigveda onwards; in the Áranyakas and Upanisads it is one of the commonest symbols of the unity of the universe. In the narrow sense Prāṇa denotes one of the vital airs, of which five are usually enumerated—Prāna, Apāna, Vyāna, Udāna, and Samāna; but often only two, Prāna and Apāna, or Prāna and Vyāna, or Prāṇa and Udāna; or three, Prāṇa, Apāna, and Vyāna, or Prāṇa, Udāna, and Vyāna, or Prāṇa, Udāna, and Samāna; or four, Prāṇa, Apāna, Vyāna, and Samāna, or Prāṇa, Apāna, Udāna, Vyāna. The exact sense of each of these breaths when all are mentioned cannot be determined. Prāṇa is also used in a wider sense to denote the organs of sense, or as Sāyana puts it, the ‘orifices of the head,’ etc. These are given as six in one passage of the śatapatha Brāhmana, presumably the eyes, ears, and nostrils. More frequently there are stated to be seven in the head, the mouth being then included. Sometimes again they are mentioned as nine, or as seven in the head and two below. Ten are counted in the śatapatha Brāhmaria and the Jaiminiya Brāhmana, while even eleven are mentioned in the Kāthaka Upanisad, and twelve in the Kāthaka Samhitā, where the two breasts are added. Exactly what organs are taken to make up the numbers beyond seven is not certain. The tenth is the navel (nābhi) in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā j when eleven are named the Brahma-randhra (suture in the crown) may be included; in the Atharvaveda, as interpreted by the Brhad- āraṇyaka Upaniṣad, the seventh and eighth are the organs of taste and speech respectively. But usually these make one only, and the eighth and ninth are either in the breast or below (the organs of evacuation). The word Prāṇa has sometimes merely the general sense of breath, even when opposed to Apāna. But its proper sense is beyond question ‘ breathing forth,’ ‘ expiration,’ and not as the St. Petersburg Dictionary explains it, ‘ the breath inspired,’ a version due to the desire to interpret Apāna as ‘expiration,’ a meaning suggested by the preposition apa, ‘away.’ This being clearly shown both by the native scholiasts and by other evidence, Bǒhtlingk later accepted the new view.
prāṇabhṛt Denotes a ‘ living being’ or ‘ man ’ in the Bṛhad- āraṇyaka Upanisad and the śatapatha Brāhmana. Prāṇin has the same sense.
prātiveśya Is mentioned in the Vamśa (list of teachers) in the śānkhāyana Aranyaka as a pupil of Prativeśya.
prātībodhīputra ‘Son of a female descendant of Pratī-bodha,’ is the name of a teacher in the Aitareya and the śāñkhāyana Araṇyakas.
prātṛda Descendant of Pratpd,’ is the patronymic of a teacher called Bhālla in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmaṇa and of another teacher in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad.
prādhvaṃsana ‘Descendant of Pradhvamsana,’ is the patronymic, in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad, of the mythical Mrtyu, who is there said to be the pupil of Pradhvamsana.
prāśnīputra (‘Son of Prāśnī’) Ásuri-vāsin is mentioned in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Ásurāyaṇa
priyavrata somāpi Is the name of a teacher in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa and the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka, in which he is said to be the son of Somapa. The name Priya- vrata is also found in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, where a Rauhināyana of that name is mentioned as a teacher.
plākṣi ‘Descendant of Plakṣa,’ is the name of a man mentioned in the Taittirīya Áraṇyaka and the Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. In the same Prātiśākhya3 a Plākçāyana, or ‘ descendant of Plākṣa,’ is mentioned.
pluṣi Is the name of some noxious insect in the Rigveda. It is also included in the list of victims at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda Sainhitās, and is mentioned in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upanisad. Possibly a species of ant may be meant.
bahvṛca Denotes an adherent of the Rigveda. The term is found in the Brāhmanas of the Rigveda, in the śatapatha and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmanas, and in the Araṇyakas of the
bādeyīputra (‘Son of Bādeyī’) is mentioned in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Mādhyamdina recension of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Mauçikī- putra.
bāṇavant In the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad denotes an ‘arrow’ like Bāṇa. Its more normal sense is ‘quiver’ (lit., ‘ containing arrows ’), which is its sense in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the śatapatha Brāhmana.
bādhyoga (‘Descendant of Badhyoga’) is the patronymic of Jihvāvant, a pupil of Asita Vārṣag-aṇa, in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Mādhyamdina recension of the Brhadāraṇyaka Upanisad.
bādhva Is the name of a teacher in the Aitareya Aranyaka. The reading in the śānkhāyana Aranyaka is Vātsya.
bābhrava ‘Descendant of Babhru,’ is the patronymic of Vatsanapāt in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.1 In the legend of śunahśepa the Kāpileyas and the Bābhravas are enumerated as the descendants of śunahśepa under his adoptive name of Devarāta Vaiśvāmitra. A Sāman, or Chant, of Babhru is mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa.
bisa Denotes the radical fibres of the lotus, which seem to have been eaten as a delicacy as early as the times of the Atharvaveda. It is mentioned also in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa and the Aitareya Araṇyaka.
buḍila aśvatarāávi Is mentioned several times in the Brāhmaṇa literature as a teacher. According to the Chāndogya and the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣads, he was a contemporary of Janaka of Videha, and, according to the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, of Aśvapati, the Kekaya king. He is also mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa.
bṛsī denoting a ‘cushion’ of grass, is mentioned in the Aitareya Araṇyaka and the Sūtras. The incorrect forms Vṛśī and Vṛṣī also occur occasionally.
bṛhaddiva Appears in a hymn of the Rigveda as its author, calling himself an Atharvan. He is mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, and is named in the Vamśa (list of teachers) of the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka as a pupil of Sumnayu.
baijavāpa ‘Descendant of Bījavāpa,’ is the name of a teacher in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Mādhyamdina recension of the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
baijavāpāyana ‘Descendant of Bayavāpa,’ is the name of a teacher in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Mādhyaipdina recension of the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad. The name is also spelt Vaijavāpāyana.
baudhīputra Son of a female descendant of Bodha,’ is the name of a pupil of śālañkāyanīputra in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Mādhyamdina recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upaniṣad.
brahmadatta caikitāneya (Descendant of Cekitāna’) is the name of a teacher in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad, He is mentioned also in the Jaiminiya Upanisad as patronized by Abhipratārin, the Kuru king.
brāmaṇa Descendant of a Brahman' (i.e., of a priest), is found only a few times in the Rigveda, and mostly in its latest parts. In the Atharvaveda and later it is a very common word denoting ‘priest,’ and it appears in the quadruple division of the castes in the Purusa-sūkta (‘hymn of man’) of the Rigveda. It seems certain that in the Rigveda this Brāhmaṇa, or Brahmin, is already a separate caste, differing from the warrior and agricultural castes. The texts regularly claim for them a superiority to the Kṣatriya caste, and the Brahmin is able by his spells or manipulation of the rite to embroil the people and the warriors or the different sections of the warriors. If it is necessary to. recognize, as is sometimes done, that the Brahmin does pay homage to the king at the Rājasūya, nevertheless the unusual fact is carefully explained away so as to leave the priority of the Brahmin unaffected. But it is expressly recognized that the union of the Ksatriya and the Brāhmaṇa is essential for complete prosperity. It is admitted that the king or the nobles might at times oppress the Brahmins, but it is indicated that ruin is then certain swiftly to follow. The Brahmins are gods on earth, like the gods in heaven, but this claim is hardly found in the Rigveda. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Brahmin is said to be the ‘ recipient of gifts * (ādāyt) and the * drinker of the offering ’ (āpāyT). The other two epithets applied, āvasāyī and yathā- kāma-prayāpya, are more obscure; the former denotes either ‘ dwelling everywhere ’ or ‘ seeking food ’; the latter is usually taken as * moving at pleasure,’ but it must rather allude to the power of the king to assign a place of residence to the Brahmin. In the śatapatha Brāhmana the prerogatives of the Brah¬min are summed up as Arcā, ‘honour’; Dāna, ‘gifts’; Aj'yeyatā,‘ freedom from oppression ’; and Avadhyatā, ‘ freedom from being killed.’ On the other hand, his duties are summed up as Brāhmanya, ‘ purity of descent’; Pratirūpa-caryā, ‘devotion of the duties of his caste’; and Loka-pakti, ‘the perfecting of people ’ (by teaching). ī. Respect paid to Brahmins. The texts are full of references to the civilities to be paid to the Brahmin. He is styled bhagavant, and is provided with good food and entertain¬ment wherever he goes. Indeed, his sanctity exempts him from any close inquiry into his real claim to Brahminhood according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Gifts to Brahmins. The Dānastuti (‘Praise of gifts’) is a recognized feature of the Rigveda, and the greed of the poets for Dakṣiṇās, or sacrificial fees, is notorious. Vedic texts themselves recognize that the literature thence resulting (Nārā- śamsī) was often false to please the donors. It was, however, a rule that Brahmins should not accept what had been refused by others; this indicates a keen sense of the danger of cheapening their wares. So exclusively theirs was the right to receive gifts that the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa has to explain how Taranta and Purumīlha became able to accept gifts by composing a Rigvedic hymn. The exaggerations in the celebration of the gifts bestowed on the priests has the curious result of giving us a series of numerals of some interest (Daśan). In some passages certain gifts those of a horse or sheep are forbidden, but this rule was not, it is clear, generally observed. Immunities of Brahmins. The Brahmin claimed to be exempt from the ordinary exercise of the royal power. When a king gives all his land and what is on it to the priests, the gift does not cover the property of the Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. The king censures all, but not the Brahmin, nor can he safely oppress any Brahmin other than an ignorant priest. An arbitrator (or a witness) must decide (or speak) for a Brahmin against a non-Brahmin in a legal dispute. The Brahmin’s proper food is the Soma, not Surā or Parisrut, and he is forbidden to eat certain forms of flesh. On the other hand, he alone is allowed to eat the remains of the sacrifice, for no one else is sufficiently holy to consume food which the gods have eaten. Moreover, though he cannot be a physician, he helps the physician by being beside him while he exercises his art. His wife and his cow are both sacred. 4.Legal Position of. Brahmins.—The Taittirīya Samhitā lays down a penalty of a hundred (the unit meant is unknown) for an insult to a Brahmin, and of a thousand for a blow ; but if his blood is drawn, the penalty is a spiritual one. The only real murder is the slaying of a Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmana. The crime of slaying a Brahmin ranks above the sin of killing any other man, but below that of killing an embryo (bhrūna) in the Yajurveda ; the crime of slaying an embryo whose sex is uncertain is on a level with that of slaying a Brahmin. The murder of a Brahmin can be expiated only by the horse sacrifice, or by a lesser rite in the late Taittirīya Araṇyaka.The ritual slaying of a Brahmin is allowed in the later ceremonial, and hinted at in the curious legend of śunahśepa ; and a Purohita might be punished with death for treachery to his master. 5.Purity of Birth. The importance of pure descent is seeη in the stress laid on being a descendant of a Rṣi (ārseya). But, on the other hand, there are clear traces of another doctrine, which requires learning, and not physical descent, as the true criterion of Rsihood. In agreement with this is the fact that Satyakāma Jābāla was received as a pupil, though his parentage was unknown, his mother being a slave girl who had been connected with several men, and that in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the ceremony on acceptance as a pupil required merely the name of the pupil. So Kavasa is taunted in the Rigveda Brāhmaṇas as being the son of a female slave (Dāsī), and Vatsa cleared himself of a similar imputation by a fire ordeal. Moreover, a very simple rite was adequate to remove doubts as to origin. In these circumstances it is doubtful whether much value attaches to the Pravara lists in which the ancestors of the priest were invoked at the beginning of the sacrifice by the Hotṛ and the Adhvaryu priests.66 Still, in many parts of the ritual the knowledge of two or more genera¬tions was needed, and in one ceremony ten ancestors who have drunk the Soma are required, but a literal performance of the rite is excused. Moreover, there are clear traces of ritual variations in schools, like those of the Vasisthas and the Viśvāmitras. 6. The Conduct of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required to maintain a fair standard of excellence. He was to be kind to all and gentle, offering sacrifice and receiving gifts. Especial stress was laid on purity of speech ; thus Viśvan- tara’s excuse for excluding the Syaparnas from his retinue was their impure (apūtā) speech. Theirs was the craving for knowledge and the life of begging. False Brahmins are those who do not fulfil their duties (cf, Brahmabandhu). But the penances for breach of duty are, in the Sūtras, of a very light and unimportant character. 7. Brahminical Studies. The aim of the priest is to obtain pre-eminence in sacred knowledge (brahma-varcasam), as is stated in numerous passages of Vedic literature. Such distinction is not indeed confined to the Brahmin: the king has it also, but it is not really in a special manner appropriate to the Kṣatriya. Many ritual acts are specified as leading to Brahmavarcasa, but more stress is laid on the study of the sacred texts : the importance of such study is repeatedly insisted upon. The technical name for study is Svādhyāya : the śatapatha Brāhmana is eloquent upon its advantages, and it is asserted that the joy of the learned śrotriya, or ‘student,’ is equal to the highest joy possible. Nāka Maudgfalya held that study and the teaching of others were the true penance (tapas).7δ The object was the ‘ threefold knowledge’ (trayī vidyā), that of the Rc, Yajus, and Sāman, a student of all three Vedas being called tri-śukriya or tn-sukra, ‘thrice pure.’ Other objects of study are enumerated in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, the Chāndogya Upanisad, etc. (See Itihāsa, Purāna; Gāthā, Nārāśamsī; Brahmodya; Anuśās- ana, Anuvyākhyāna, Anvākhyāna, Kalpa, Brāhmaria; Vidyā, Ksatravidyā, Devajanavidyā, Nakçatravidyā, Bhūta- vidyā, Sarpavidyā; Atharvāñgirasah, Daiva, Nidhi, Pitrya, Rāśi; Sūtra, etc.) Directions as to the exact place and time of study are given in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka and in the Sūtras. If study is carried on in the village, it is to be done silently (manasā); if outside, aloud (vācā). Learning is expected even from persons not normally competent as teachers, such as the Carakas, who are recognized in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as possible sources of information. Here, too, may be mentioned the cases of Brahmins learning from princes, though their absolute value is doubtful, for the priests would naturally represent their patrons as interested in their sacred science: it is thus not necessary to see in these notices any real and independent study on the part of the Kṣatriyas. Yājñavalkya learnt from Janaka, Uddālaka Aruni and two other Brahmins from Pravāhaṇa Jaivali, Drptabālāki Gārgya from Ajātaśatru, and five Brahmins under the lead of Aruṇa from Aśvapati Kaikeya. A few notices show the real educators of thought: wandering scholars went through the country and engaged in disputes and discussions in which a prize was staked by the disputants. Moreover, kings like Janaka offered rewards to the most learned of the Brahmins; Ajātaśatru was jealous of his renown, and imitated his generosity. Again, learned women are several times mentioned in the Brāhmaṇas. A special form of disputation was the Brahmodya, for which there was a regular place at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and at the Daśarātra (‘ ten-day festival,). The reward of learning was the gaining of the title of Kavi or Vipra, ‘ sage.’ 8. The Functions of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required not merely to practise individual culture, but also to give others the advantage of his skill, either as a teacher or as a sacrificial priest, or as a Purohita. As a teacher the Brahmin has, of course, the special duty of instructing his own son in both study and sacrificial ritual. The texts give examples of this, such as Áruṇi and Svetaketu, or mythically Varuṇa and Bhṛgu. This fact also appears from some of the names in the Vamśa Brāhmana" of the Sāmaveda and the Vamśa (list of teachers) of the śāñkhāyana Áraṇyaka. On the other hand, these Vamśas and the Vamśas of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa show that a father often preferred to let his son study under a famous teacher. The relation of pupil and teacher is described under Brahmacarya. A teacher might take several pupils, and he was bound to teach them with all his heart and soul. He was bound to reveal everything to his pupil, at any rate to one who was staying with him for a year (saηivatsara-vāsin), an expression which shows, as was natural, that a pupil might easily change teachers. But, nevertheless, certain cases of learning kept secret and only revealed to special persons are enumerated. The exact times and modes of teaching are elaborately laid down in the Sūtras, but not in the earlier texts. As priest the Brahmin operated in all the greater sacrifices; the simple domestic {grhya) rites could normally be performed without his help, but not the more important rites {śrauta). The number varied : the ritual literature requires sixteen priests to be employed at the greatest sacrifices (see Rtvij), but other rites could be accomplished with four, five, six, seven, or ten priests. Again, the Kauçītakins had a seventeenth priest beside the usual sixteen, the Sadasya, so called because he watched the performance from the Sadas, seat.’ In one rite, the Sattra (‘sacrificial session') of the serpents, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, adds three more to the sixteen, a second Unnetṛ, an Abhigara, and an Apagara. The later ritual places the Brahman at the head of all the priests, but this is probably not the early view (see Brahman). The sacrifice ensured, if properly performed, primarily the advantages of the sacrificer (yajamāna), but the priest shared in the profit, besides securing the Daksiṇās. Disputes between sacrificers and the priests were not rare, as in the case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas, or Janamejaya and the Asitamrgras and the Aiçāvīras are referred to as undesirable priests. Moreover, Viśvāmitra once held the post of Purohita to Sudās, but gave place to Vasiṣtha. The position of Purohita differed considerably from that of the ordinary priest, for the Purohita not merely might officiate at the sacrifice, but was the officiator in all the private sacrifices of his king. Hence he could, and undoubtedly sometimes did, obtain great influence over his master in matters of secular importance; and the power of the priesthood in political as opposed to domestic and religious matters, no doubt rested on the Purohita. There is no recognition in Vedic literature of the rule later prevailing by which, after spending part of his life as a Brahma- cārin, and part as a householder, the Brahmin became an ascetic (later divided into the two stages of Vānaprastha, ‘forest-dweller,’ and Samnyāsin, ‘mystic ’). Yājñavalkya's case shows that study of the Absolute might empty life of all its content for the sage, and drive him to abandon wife and family. In Buddhist times the same phenomenon is seen applying to other than Brahmins. The Buddhist texts are here confirmed in some degree by the Greek authorities. The practice bears a certain resemblance to the habit of kings, in the Epic tradition,of retiring to the forest when active life is over. From the Greek authorities it also appears what is certainly the case in the Buddhist literature that Brahmins practised the most diverse occupations. It is difficult to say how far this was true for the Vedic period. The analogy of the Druids in some respects very close suggests that the Brahmins may have been mainly confined to their professional tasks, including all the learned professions such as astronomy and so forth. This is not contradicted by any Vedic evidence ; for instance, the poet of a hymn of the Rigveda says he is a poet, his father a physician (Bhiṣaj), and his mother a grinder of corn (Upala-prakṣiṇī). This would seem to show that a Brahmin could be a doctor, while his wife would perform the ordinary household duties. So a Purohita could perhaps take the field to assist the king by prayer, as Viśvāmitra, and later on Vasiṣtha do, but this does not show that priests normally fought. Nor do they seem normally to have been agriculturists or merchants. On the other hand, they kept cattle: a Brahmacarin’s duty was to watch his master’s cattle.129 It is therefore needless to suppose that they could not, and did not, on occasion turn to agricultural or mercan¬tile pursuits, as they certainly did later. But it must be remembered that in all probability there was more purity of blood, and less pressure of life, among the Brahmins of the Vedic age than later in Buddhist times, when the Vedic sacrificial apparatus was falling into grave disrepute. It is clear that the Brahmins, whatever their defects, represented the intellectual side of Vedic life, and that the Kṣatriyas, if they played a part in that life, did so only in a secondary degree, and to a minor extent. It is natural to suppose that the Brahmins also composed ballads, the precursors of the epic; for though none such have survived, a few stanzas of this character, celebrating the generosity of patrons, have been preserved by being embedded in priestly compositions. A legend in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa shows clearly that the Brahmins regarded civilization as being spread by them only: Kosala and Videha, no doubt settled by Aryan tribes, are only rendered civilized and habitable by the influence of pious Brahmins. We need not doubt that the non-Brahminical tribes (see Vrātya) had attained intellectual as well as material civilization, but it is reasonable to assume that their civilization was inferior to that of the Brahmins, for the history of Hinduism is the conquest by the Brahmins not by arms, but by mind of the tribes Aryan and non-Aryan originally beyond the pale.
brāhmaṇa Religious explanation,’ is the title of a class of books which as such are only mentioned in the Nirukta and the Taittirīya Aranyaka, and then in the Sūtras, where the names of the Brāhmaṇas occur, showing that literary works were in existence.
bhaṅgyaśravas Is the name of a man in the Taittirīya Aranyaka.
bharata Is the name of a people of great importance in the Rigveda and the later literature. In the Rigveda they appear prominently in the third and seventh Maṇdalas in connexion with Sudās and the Tftsus, while in the sixth Maṇdala they are associated with Divodāsa. In one passage the Bharatas are, like the Tṛtsus, enemies of the Pūrus: there can be little doubt that Ludwig’s view of the identity of the Bharatas and and Tṛtsus is practically correct. More precisely Oldenberg considers that the Tṛtsus are the Vasiṣhas, the family singers of the Bharatas; while Geldner recognizes, with perhaps more probability, in the Tṛtsus the royal family of the Bharatas. That the Tṛtsus and Bharatas were enemies, as Zimmer holds, is most improbable even on geographical grounds, for the Tṛtsus in Zimmer’s view occupied the country to the east of the Paruçṇī (Ravi), and the Bharatas must therefore be regarded as coming against the Tṛtsus from the west, whereas the Rigveda recognizes two Bharata chiefs on the Sarasvatī, Ápayā, and Dpçadvatī that is, in the holy land of India, the Madhyadeśa. Hillebrandt sees in the connexion of the Tṛtsus and the Bharatas a fusion of two tribes; but this is not supported by any evidence beyond the fact that in his opinion some such theory is needed to explain Divodāsa's appearing in connexion with the Bharadvāja family, while Sudās, his son, or perhaps grandson {cf. Pijavana), is connected with the Vasiṣthas and the Viśvāmitras. In the later literature the Bharatas appear as especially famous. The śatapatha Brāhmaṇa mentions Bharata Dauh- ṣanti as a king, sacrificer of the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and śatānīka Sātrājita, as another Bharata who offered that sacrifice. The Aitareya Brāhmaṇa mentions Bharata Dauh- ṣanti as receiving the kingly coronation from Dlrghatamas Māmateya, and śatānīka as being consecrated by Somaśuçman Vājaratnāyana, a priest whose name is of quite late origin. The geographical position of the Bharata people is clearly shown by the fact that the Bharata kings win victories over the Kāśis, and make offerings on the Yamunā (Jumna) and Gañgfā (Ganges). Moreover, in the formula of the king’s proclamation for the people, the variants recorded include Kuravah, Pañcālāh, Kuru-Pañcālāh,, and Bharatāh ; and the Mahābhārata consistently recognizes the royal family of the Kurus as a Bharata family. It is therefore extremely probable that Oldenberg is right in holding that the Bharatas in the times of the Brāhmaṇas were merging in the Kuru-Pañcāla people. The ritual practices of the Bharatas are repeatedly mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, and the Taittirīya Aranyaka. Already in the Rigveda there is mention made of Agni Bhārata (‘of the Bharatas’). In the Apr! hymns occurs a goddess Bhāratī, the personified divine protective power of the Bharatas : her association in the hymns with Sarasvatī reflects the connexion 'of the Bharatas with the Sarasvatī in the Rigveda. Again, in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa Agni is referred to as brāhmana Bhārata, ‘priest of the Bharatas,’ and is invited to dispose of the offering Manusvat Bharatavat, ‘like Manu,’ ‘like Bharata.’ In one or two passages Sudās or Divodāsa and, on the other hand, Purukutsa or Trasadasyu appear in a friendly relation. Possibly this points, as Oldenberg suggests, to the union of Bharatas and Pūrus with the Kurus. A Bharata is referred to in the fifth Mandala of the Rigveda who he was is uncertain.
bhāgavitti (‘Descendant of Bhagavitta ’) is the patronymic of a teacher called Cūṣla or Cūla in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
bhāradvāja ‘Descendant of Bharadvāja is the patronymic of many teachers. In the Vaṃśas (lists of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, Bhāradvājas are mentioned as pupils of Bhāradvāj'a, Pārāśarya, Balākākauśika, Aitareya, Asurāyaṇa, and Ba\javāpāyana.β A Bhāradvāja occurs in the Rigveda, and śūça Vālmeya is mentioned as a Bhāradvāja in the Vamśa Brāhmana.
bhālukīputra ‘Son of Bhālukī, is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Krauficikīputra or of Prācīnayogīputra, in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad.
bhujyu lāhyāyani (‘Descendant of Lahyāyana ’) is the name of a teacher, a contemporary of Yājflavalkya, in the Bṛhad- āraṇyaka Upaniṣad (iii. 3, 1).
magadha Is the name of a people who appear throughout Vedic literature as of little repute. Though the name is not actually found in the Rigveda, it occurs in the Atharvaveda, where fever is wished away to the Gandhāris and Mūjavants, northern peoples, and to the Añgfas and Magadhas, peoples of the east. Again, in the list of victims at the Purusamedha (‘ human sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda,3 the Māgadha, or man of Magadha, is included as dedicated to ati-krusta, ‘ loud noise ’ (?), while in the Vrātya hymn of the Atharvaveda[1] the Māgadha is said to be connected with the Vrātya as his Mitra, his Mantra, his laughter, and his thunder in the four quarters. In the śrauta Sūtras6 the equipment characteristic of the Vrātya is said to be given, when the latter is admitted into the Aryan Brahminical community, to a bad Brahmin living in Magadha ·(brahma-bandhu Māgadha-deśīya), but this point does not occur in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa. On the other hand, respectable Brahmins sometimes lived there, for the Kausītaki Araṇyaka mentions Madhyama, Prātībodhī-putra, as Magadha-vāsin, ‘living in Magadha.’ Oldenberg, however, seems clearly right in regarding this as unusual. The Magadhas are evidently a people in the Baudhāyana and other Sūtras, possibly also in the Aitareya Araṇyaka. It is therefore most improbable that Zimmer can be right in thinking that in the Yajurveda and the Atharvaveda the λlāgadha is not a man of Magadha, but a member of the mixed caste produced by a Vaiśya marrying a Kṣatriya woman. But the theory of mixed castes, in any case open to some doubt, cannot be accepted when used to explain such obviously tribal names as Māgadha. The fact that the Māgadha is often in later times a minstrel is easily accounted for by the assumption that the country was the home of minstrelsy, and that wandering bards from Magadha were apt to visit the more western lands. This class the later texts recognize as a caste, inventing an origin by intermarriage of the old-established castes. The dislike of the Magadhas, which may be Rigvedic, since the Kīkatas were perhaps the prototype of the Magadhas, was in all probability due, as Oldenberg13 thinks, to the fact that the Magadhas were not really Brahminized. This is entirely in accord with the evidence of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa14 that neither Kosala nor Videha were fully Brahminized at an early date, much less Magadha. Weber15 suggests two other grounds that may have influeṇced the position—the persistence of aboriginal blood and the growth of Buddhism. The latter consideration is hardly applicable to the Yajurveda or the Atharvaveda; but the imperfect Brahminization of the land, if substituted for it in accordance with Oldenberg’s suggestion, would have some force. The former motive, despite Olden- berg’s doubt, seems fully justified. Pargiter18 has gone so far as to suggest that in Magadha the Aryans met and mingled with a body of invaders from the east by sea. Though there is no evidence for this view in the Vedic texts, it is reason¬able to suppose that the farther east the Aryans penetrated, the less did they impress themselves upon the aborigines. Modern ethnology confirms this a priori supposition in so far as it shows Aryan types growing less and less marked as the eastern part of India is reached, although such evidence is not decisive in view of the great intermixture of peoples in India.
mañjiṣṭhā Madder,’ is mentioned in the Aitareya and śāñkhāyana Araṇyakas.
maṇi Is the name in the Rigveda and later of a ‘jewel’ used as an amulet against all kinds of evil. That either ‘pearl’ or ‘diamond’ is denoted is not clear. It is evident that the Maṇi could be strung on a thread (sūtra), which is referred to in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa and elsewhere; the Maṇi was certainly also worn round the neck, for in the Rigveda occurs the epithet mani-grīva, ‘ having a jewel on the neck.’ An amulet of Bilva is celebrated in the śāñkhāyana Áraṇyaka, and many varieties of amulet are there enumerated. The ‘jeweller’ (mani-kāra) is mentioned in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘ human sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda.
madra Denotes a people who are mentioned in the Bṛhad- āranyaka Upaniṣad Kāpya Patañcala was then living among them. Their name appears elsewhere in Vedic literature, only in that of a branch, the Uttara Madras, the ‘northern Madras,’ who are referred to in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa as living beyond the Himālaya (parena Himavantam) in the neigh­bourhood of the Uttara Kurus, probably, as Zimmer con­jectures, in the land of Kaśmīr. The Madras mentioned in the Upaniṣad were, like the Kurus, probably settled some­where in Kurukçetra in the Madhyadeáa or ‘Middle Land.’ Cf. Madrag-āra.
madhuchandas The reputed author of the first ten hymns of the first Maṇdala of the Rigveda, is mentioned as a Rṣi in the Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa and the Aitareya Aranyaka. In the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa he counts as the fifty-first son of Viávā- mitra, and his Praūga (hymn at the morning service) is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa.
mantha In the Rigveda and later denotes a drink in which solid ingredients are mixed with a fluid by stirring, usually parched barley-meal (Saktu) with milk. All sorts of mixed beverages of this type are mentioned in the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka.
maru In the plural, is mentioned in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, as the utkara (‘mound of earth thrown up ’ from the excavation of the altar) of Kurukçetra. This seems to mean that the Maru deserts (the later Maru-sthala) were so called because they stood to the ‘altar,’ Kurukṣetra, in the same relation as the waste earth of the utkara to the altar at the sacrifice.
masūra Is the name of a kind of lentil (Ervum hirsutum) in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
maharṣi A ‘great Rṣi,’ is mentioned in the Taittirīya Aranyaka. Cf. Mahābrāhmaṇa.
mahābrāhmaria A ‘great Brahmin,’ is found in the Brhad­āraṇyaka Upanisad denoting a Brahmin of great consequence. Cf. Maharsi.
mahāmatsya A ‘ great fish,’ is mentioned in the Brhad­āraṇyaka Upanisad.
mahāmeru ‘Great Meru,’ is the name of a mountain in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka.
mahāsuhaya A ‘great {i.e., high-spirited) horse,’ is the description in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad of the steed from the Indus (saindhava) which tears away the peg of its hobble (padbīśa-śaṅkhu).
mahāsūkta m. plur., the ‘composers of the long hymn’ of the tenth Mandala of the Rigveda are mentioned in the Aitareya Aranyaka and the Sūtras. Cf. Kṣudra-sūkta.
mahidāsa aitareya (‘Descendant of Itara or Itarā’) is the name of the sage from whom the Aitareya Brāhmana and Aranyaka take their names. He is several times referred to in the Aitareya Araṇyaka, but not as its author. He is credited with a life of 116 years in the Chāndogya Upanisad and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana.
mākṣavya ‘Descendant of Makṣu,’ is the patronymic of a teacher in the Aitareya Aranyaka.
māṭharī ‘female descendant of Mat-hara,’ occurs in the curious name, Kāśyapī-bālākyā-mātharī-putra, of a teacher in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad (Mādhyamdina).
māṇti Is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Gautama, in the a pupil of Gautama, in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
māṇḍavī Female descendant of Maṇdu occurs in the name of a teacher, Vātsī-māridavī-putra, in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad ( Mādhyamdina).
māṇḍavya Descendant of Maṇdu,’ is mentioned as a teacher in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, in the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka, and in the Sūtras. He is also mentioned as a pupil of Kautsa in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upaniṣad.
māṇḍūkāyanīputra ‘Son of a female descendant of Māṇ- dūka,’ is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Māṇdūkīputra in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad.[1
māṇḍūkīputra ‘Son of a female descendant of Mandūka,’ is mentioned as a teacher, a pupil of śāṇdilīputra, in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad.
māṇḍūkeya ‘Descendant of Māndūka,’ is the patronymic of several teachers in the Rigveda Áranyakas—viz., śūravīra, Hrasva, Dīrgha, Madhyama Prātībodhīputra. The Māṇ- dūkeyas also occur as a school in the Araṇyakas: a special form of the text of the Rigveda evidently appertained: to them.®
mādhyaṃdināyana ‘Descendant of Madhyamdina,’ is the patronymic of a teacher mentioned in the Kāṇva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upaniṣad.
mādhyama (‘Relating to the middle’) is a term applied in the Kauṣītaki Brāhmana and the Aitareya Araṇyaka to denote the ‘ authors of the middle books’ of the Rigveda.
māsa Denotes a 'month' a period of time repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda and lateṛ The Characteristic days (or rather nights) of the month were those of new moon, Amā-vasya, 'home-staying (night),' and 'of the full moon,' Paurṇa-māsi. Two hymns of the Atharvveda celebrate these days respectively. A personification of the phases of the moon is seen in the four names Sinīvālī the day before new moon; Kuhū also called Guṅgū, the new moon day;Anumati, the day before full moon; and Rākā, the day of new mooṇ The importance of the new and full moon days respectively. One special day in the month, the Ekāṣṭakā, or eighth day after full moon, was importanṭ In the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa there stated to be in the year twelve such, mentioned between the twelve days of full moon and twelve days of new moon. But one Ekāṣṭakā is referred to in the Yajurveda Saṃhitas and elsewhere as of quite special importance. This was, in the accordant opinion of most comentators, the eighth day after the full moon of Magha. It marked the end of the year, or the begining of the new year. Though the Kauṣītaki Brāmaṇa places places the winter solstice in the new moon of Māgha, the latter date probably means the new moon preceding full moon in Māgha, not the new moon following full moon; but it is perhaps possible to account adequately for the importance of the Ekāstakā as being the first Aṣṭakā after the beginning of the new year. It is not certain exactly how the month was reckoned, whether from the day after new moon to new moon—the system known as amānta, or from the day after full moon to full moon—the pūr- nimānta system, which later, at any rate, was followed in North India, while the other system prevailed in the south. Jacobi argues that the year began in the full moon of Phālguna, and that only by the full moon’s conjunction with the Nakṣatra could the month be known. Oldenberg12 points to the fact that the new moon is far more distinctively an epoch than the full moon; that the Greek, Roman, and Jewish years began with the new moon; and that the Vedic evidence is the division of the month into the former (j>ūrva) and latter (apara) halves, the first being the bright (śukla), the second the dark (krsna) period. Thibaut considers that to assume the existence of the pīirnimānta system for the Veda is unnecessary, though possible. Weber assumes that it occurs in the Kausītaki Brāhmaṇa as held by the scholiasts. But it would probably be a mistake to press that passage, or to assume that the amānta system was rigidly accepted in the Veda: it seems at least as probable that the month was vaguely regarded as beginning with the new moon day, so that new moon preceded full moon, which was in the middle, not the end or. the beginning of the month. That a month regularly had 30 days is established by the conclusive evidence of numerous passages in which the year is given 12 months and 360 days. This month is known from the earliest records, being both referred to directly and alluded to. It is the regular month of the Brāhmaṇas, and must be regarded as the month which the Vedic Indian recognized. No other month is mentioned as such in• the Brāhmaṇa literature ; it is only in the Sūtras that months of different length occur. The Sāmaveda Sūtras10 refer to (i) years with 324 days—i.e., periodic years with 12 months of 27 days each; (2) years with 351 days—i.e., periodic years with 12 months of 27 days each, plus another month of 27 days; (3) years with 354 days—i.e., 6 months of 30 days, and 6 with 29 days, in other words, lunar synodic years; (4) years with 360 days, or ordinary civil (sāvana) years; (5) years with 378 days, which, as Thibaut clearly shows, are third years, in which, after two years of 360 days each, 18 days were added to bring about correspondence between the civil year and the solar year of 366 days. But even the Sāmasūtras do not mention the year of 366 days, which is first known to the Jyotiṣa and to Garga. That the Vedic period was acquainted with the year of 354 days cannot be affirmed with certainty. Zimmer, indeed, thinks that it is proved by the fact that pregnancy is estimated at ten months, or sometimes a year. But Weber may be right in holding that the month is the periodic month of 27 days, for the period is otherwise too long if a year is taken. On the other hand, the period of ten months quite well suits the period of gestation, if birth takes place in the tenth month, so that in this sense the month of 30 days may well be meant. The year of 12 months of 30 days each being admittedly quite unscientific, Zimmer23 is strongly of opinion that it was only used with a recognition of the fact that intercalation took place, and that the year formed part of a greater complex, normally the five year Yuga or cycle. This system is well known from the Jyotiṣa: it consists of 62 months of 29£4 days each = 1,830 days (two of these months being intercalary, one in the middle and one at the end), or 61 months of 30 days, or 60 months of 30^ days, the unit being clearly a solar year of 366 days. It is not an ideal system, since the year is too long; but it is one which cannot be claimed even for the Brāhmaṇa period, during which no decision as to the true length of the year seems to have been arrived at. The references to it seen by Zimmer in the Rigveda are not even reasonably plausible, while the pañcaka yuga, cited by him from the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, occurs only in a quotation in a commentary, and has no authority for the text itself. On the other hand, there was undoubtedly some attempt to bring the year of 360 days—a synodic lunar year—roughly into connexion with reality. A Sāmasūtra27 treats it as a solar year, stating that the sun perambulates each Naxatra in days, while others again evidently interpolated 18 days every third year, in order to arrive at some equality. But Vedic literature, from the Rigveda downwards,29 teems with the assertion of the difficulty of ascertaining the month. The length is variously given as 30 days, 35 days,31 or 36 days. The last number possibly indicates an intercalation after six years (6x6 = 36, or for ritual purposes 35), but for this we have no special evidence. There are many references to the year having 12 or 13 months. The names of the months are, curiously enough, not at all ancient. The sacrificial texts of the Yajurveda give them in their clearest form where the Agnicayana, ‘building of the fire-altar,’ is described. These names are the following: (1) Madhu, (2) Mādhava (spring months, vāsantikāv rtū); (3) Sukra, (4) Suci (summer months, graismāv rtū); (5) Nabha (or Nabhas), (6) Nabhasya (rainy months, vārsikāv rtū); (7) Iṣa, (8) ūrja (autumn months, śāradāυ rtū); (9) Saha (or Sahas),35 (10) Sahasya (winter months, haimantikāυ rtū); (II) Tapa (or Tapas),35 (12) Tapasya (cool months, śaiśirāv rtū). There are similar lists in the descriptions of the Soma sacrifice and of the horse sacrifice, all of them agreeing in essentials. There are other lists of still more fanciful names, but these have no claim at all to represent actual divisions in popular use. It is doubtful if the list given above is more than a matter of priestly invention. Weber points out that Madhu and Mādhava later appear as names of spring, and that these two are mentioned in the Taittirīya Aranyaka as if actually employed; but the evidence is very inadequate to show that the other names of the months given in the list were in ordinary use. In some of these lists the intercalary month is mentioned. The name given to it in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā is Amhasas- pati, while that given in the Taittirīya and Maitrāyaṇī Sarphitās is Sarpsarpa. The Kāthaka Sarphitā gives it the name of Malimluca, which also occurs elsewhere, along with Samsarpa, in one of the lists of fanciful names. The Atharvaveda describes it as sanisrasa, ‘slipping,’ owing no doubt to its unstable condition. The other method of naming the months is from the Nakçatras. It is only beginning to be used in the Brāhmaṇas, but is found regularly in the Epic and later. The Jyotisa mentions that Māgha and Tapa were identical: this is the fair interpretation of the passage, which also involves the identifica¬tion of Madhu with Caitra, a result corresponding with the view frequently found in the Brāhmanas, that the full moon in Citrā, and not that in Phalgunī, is the beginning of the year. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa are found two curious expressions, yava and ayava, for the light and dark halves of the month, which is clearly considered to begin with the light half. Possibly the words are derived, as Eggling thinks, from yu, ‘ ward off,’ with reference to evil spirits. The word Parvan (‘ joint ’ = division of time) probably denotes a half of the month, perhaps already in the Rigveda. More precisely the first half, the time of the waxing light, is called pūrva-paksa, the second, that of the waning light, apara-paka. Either of these might be called a half-month (ardha-ināsa).
māhācamasya ‘Descendant of Mahācamasa,’ is the patro­nymic of a teacher to whom the Taittirīya Áraṇyaka ascribes the addition of Mahas to the triad Bhūr Bhuvas Svar.
māhārajana ‘Dyed with saffron’ (mahā-rajana), is applied to a garment (Vāsas) in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upanisad
māhitthi ‘Descendant of Mahittha,’ is the patronymic of a teacher mentioned several times in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. He is said to be a pupil of Vāmakakçāyaṇa in the Bṛhad­āraṇyaka Upanisad.
mudga Denoting a kind of bean (PJiaseolus Mungo), occurs in a list of vegetables in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā.A soup of rice with beans ’ (mudgaudana) is mentioned in the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka and the Sūtras. Cf perhaps Mudgala.
maitreyī Is the name of one of the wives of Yājñavalkya according to the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
maināka ‘Descendant of Menakā,’ is the name of a mountain among the Himālayas in the Taittirlya Araṇyaka. There is a various reading Maināga.
mauṣikīputra ‘son of a female descendant of Mūsikā,’ is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Hārikarmputra in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Mādhyamdina recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad (vi. 4, 30).
yājñavalkya ‘Descendant of Yajñavalkya,’ is repeatedly mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as an authority on questions of ritual. He is, however, also given as an authority on questions of philosophy in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad, but Oldenberg is, no doubt, right in thinking that no possible importance can be attached to the mention of Yājñavalkya in the latter capacity. He is said to have been a pupil of Uddālaka Arum, whom he opposed successfully in a dispute.5 His two wives, Maitreyī and Kātyāyanī, are mentioned in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upanisad, which concludes with a passage ascribing to Yājñavalkya Vājasaneya the ‘white Yajus ’ {śuklāni yajUmsi). It is remarkable that Yājñavalkya is never mentioned in any other Vedic text outside the śatapatha Brāhmana y except the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka, where, however, both/\ references are merely transcripts from the śatapatha. It has been supposed by Oldenberg10 and others that Yājñavalkya belonged to Videha, but despite the legend of Janaka’s patronage of him, his association with Uddālaka, the Kuru-Pañcāla, renders this doubtful.
yāska (‘Descendant of Yaska’) is mentioned in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad as a contemporary of Ásurāyaiia and a teacher of Bhāradvāja. Whether Yāska, author of the Nirukta, was the same person, it is, of course, impossible to say.
yoga Denotes the yoke of oxen or horses drawing a car in the Atharvaveda and the Brhadāranyaka Upaniṣad.
rājani ‘Descendant of Rajana,’ is the patronymic of Ugra- deva in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana and the Taittirīya Aranyaka.
rājanyabandhu Denotes a Rājanya, but usually with a depreciating sense. Thus in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa Janaka is called by the Brahmins, whom he defeated in disputation, ‘ a fellow of a Rājanya’; the same description is applied to Pravāh- aṇa Jaivali in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad for a similar reason. On the other hand, in one passage where reference is made to men eating apart from women, princes are said to do so most of all: the term Rājanyabandhu cannot here be deemed to be contemptuous, unless, indeed, it is the expression of Brahmin contempt for princes, such as clearly appears in the treatment of Nagnajit in another passage. Again, in a passage in which the four castes are mentioned, the Vaiśya precedes the Rājanyabandhu, a curious inversion of the order of the second and third castes.
rājādhirāja ‘King of kings,’ later a title of paramount sovereignty, is only found in Vedic literature in the late Taittirīya Araṇyaka as a divine epithet.
rāthītarīputra ‘ son of a female descendant of Rathītara,’ is the name of a teacher in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, the pupil of Bhālukī-putra, according to the Kāṇva recension (vi. 5, 1), of the Krauñcikī- putras according to the Mādhyamdina (vi. 4, 32).
rādheya Descendant of Rādhā,' is the metronymic of a teacher in the śāñkhāyana Áraṇyaka.
raibhya Descendant of Rebha,’ is the name of a teacher in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Mādhyamdina recension of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad, where he is said to be a pupil of Pautimāsyāyaṇa and Kauṇdin- yāyana.
rauhiṇa (‘Born under the Nakṣatra Rohiṇī’) Vāsiçtha (‘descendant of Vasiç^ha ’), is the name of a man in the Taittirlya Aranyaka.
rauhiṇāyana (‘Descendant of Rauhiṇa’) is the patronymic of Priyavrata in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. It is also in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Mādhyam­dina recension of the Brhadāraṇyaka Upanisad the name of a teacher, a pupil of śaunaka and others.
lambana Is the reading in the Kāṇva recension of the Bṛhεdāraṇyaka Upaniṣad for Ádambara, ‘drum,’ in the Mādhyamdina recension.
lāhyāyana ‘Descendant of Lahya, is the patronymic of Bhujyu in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upanisad.
lauhitya ‘Descendant of Lohita,’ is the patronymic of a large number of teachers in the Jaiminlya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa, which clearly must have been the special object of study of the Lauhitya family. See Kpçṇadatta, Kpçṇarāta, Jayaka, Tri- veda Kyçṇarāta, Dakṣa Jayanta, Palligupta, Mitrabhūti, Yaśasvin Jayanta, Vipaácit Dpdhajayanta, Vaipaścita Dārdhajayanti, Vaipaścita Dārdhajayanti Dpdhajayanta, śyā- majayanta, śyāmasujayanta, Satyaáravas. A Lauhitya or Lauhikya is also mentioned as a teacher in the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka. The form of name (Jayanta) affected by the family, and the silence of the older texts, proves that they were modern.
vaṃśa (lit. ‘Bamboo’) in the sense of * spiritual gene- alogy,’ ‘ list of teachers/ is found in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Vamśa Brāhmaṇa, and the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka.
vaṇga The designation of Bengal proper, is not found in the earlier Vedic literature unless it is to be recognized in the curious word Vañgāvagadhāh, which occurs in the Aitareya Araṇyaka, and which suggests amendment to Vañga-Magadhāh, ‘the Vangas and the Magadhas,’ two neighbouring peoples. The name is certainly found in the Baudhāyana Dharma Sūtra.
vatsanapāt bābhrava (‘Descendant of Babhru’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Pathin Saubhara, in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Brhadāraṇyaka Upanisad.
varṇa ‘Colour,’ is a common word in the Rigveda and later. A large number of colours are enumerated in Vedic literature, but it is not possible to deduce any clear information as to the accuracy with which the Vedic Indian distinguished colours, or as to the principle on which his distinctions werebased. The Rigveda seems to show that red or yellow colours were the most noticed, but this may be accidental. 'Black' or ‘dark’ is denoted by krsna, 'white' or ‘light-coloured’ by śukla or śveta. 'Black' seems to be meant in one passage of the Rigveda by śyenī also. 'Dark-grey' or 'dusky' is expressed by śyāma. The sense of nīla is doubtful, perhaps ‘dark-blue,’ bluish-black.’ The series of words hart, harina, harit, harita, seems, on the whole, to denote 'yellow,' but 'green' is also a possible rendering, since the epithet is used of the frog. ‘Brown’ is certainly the meaning of babhru, which is used of the Vibhītaka nut (see Akça). ‘Reddish-brown’ seems to be the tinge implied by kapila ('monkey-coloured'), while piūgala appears to denote a shade of brown in which yellow pre-dominates, ‘tawny.’ ‘Yellow ’ is expressed by pita as well as pāiidu. A garment of saffron (māhārajana) is mentioned in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad. Rudhira and lohita are red, while aruna is ‘ruddy.’ Kalmāsa means ‘spotted,’ and śilpa dappled,’ while mingled shades like aruna-piśañga, ‘reddish brown,’ also occur.
vasukra And his wife are the reputed composers of certain hymns of the Rigveda. The ascription goes back to the Rigveda Araṇyakas.
vācaknavī ‘Descendant of Vacaknu,’ is the patronymic of a woman with the further patronymic of Gārgl, who appears as a student of Brahman in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
vājaśravas Is mentioned in the last Varpśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāraṇyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Jihvāvant Bādhyoga.
vājasaneya Is the patronymic of Yājfiavalkya in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad and the Jaiminlya Brāhmaṇa. His school, the Vājasaneyins, are mentioned in the Sūtras.
vātaraśana ‘Wind-girt,’ is applied to the Munis in the Rigveda and to the Rṣis in the Taittirīya Aranyaka. Naked ascetics, such as are known throughout later Indian religious history, are evidently meant.
vātsīputra Son of a female descendant of Vatsa,’ as the name of a teacher mentioned in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad as a pupil of Pārāśarīputra according to the Kāṇva recension, as a pupil of Bhāradvājīputra according to the Mādhyaipdina.
vātsīmāṇdavīputra Is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Pārāáarīputra, according to the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Mādhyamdina recension of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
vātsya Descendant of Vatsa' is the name of one or more teachers. One is mentioned in the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka, where the Aitareya Araṇyaka in the parallel passage has Bādhva. Others occur in the Vaṃśas (lists of teachers) of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad as pupils of Kuśri, śāṇdilya, or another Vātsya, while a Vātsya is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmana.
vātsyāyana Descendant of Vātsya' is the name of a teacher in the Taittirlya Araṇyaka.
vādana Denotes the plectrum of a harp in the Araṇyakas of the Rigveda.
vārkāruṇīputra Is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Artabhāgīputra, in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
vārṣagaṇa ‘Descendant of Vṛṣagana is the patronymic of Asita in the Bṛhadāranyaka Upaniṣad.
vārṣagamputra ‘Son of a female descendant of Vṛṣagaṇa,’ is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Gautamī-putra in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Mādhyamdina recension of the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
vālakhilya Is the term applied in the Brāhmaṇas to the supplementary hymns inserted after Rigveda. The Rṣis of these hymns are so named in the Taittirīya Aranyaka.Cf. 2. Khila.
vāliśikhāyani Is the name of a teacher in the śāṅkhāyana Araṇyaka.
vāsiṣtha ‘Descendant of Vasiṣtha,’ is the patronymic of Sātyahavya, a teacher mentioned several times in the later Samhitās, of Rauhlna in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka, and of Caikitāneya. Moreover, reference is made to the claim of the Vāsiṣṭhas to be Brahman priest at the sacrifice. A Vāsistha is mentioned as a teacher in the Vamśa Brāhmaṇa and the Jaiminlya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa.
vitta In the Rigveda and later denotes ‘'wealth' 'posses­sions.' The earth is referred to in the Taittirīya Upaniṣad3 as full of riches (vittasya pcirna). The doctrine that a man’s greatness depends on his wealth is found as early as the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa.4 The striving after wealth (vittaisanā) is mentioned in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad6 as one of the things abandoned by the sage.
vidagdha śākalya Is the name of a teacher, a contemporary and rival of Yājñavalkya at the court of Janaka of Videha in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana, and the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa.
vidarbhīkauṇḍineya is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Vatsanapāt in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.1
videha Is the name of a people who are not mentioned before the Brāhmaṇa period. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the legend of Videgha Māthava preserves clearly a tradition that in Videha culture came from the Brahmins of the West, and that Kosala was brahminized before Videha. The Videhas, however, derived some fame later from the culture of their king Janaka,who figures in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad as one of the leading patrons of the Brahman doctrine. In the Kausītaki Upaniṣad the Videhas are joined with the Kāśis ; in the list of peoples in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa the Videhas are passed over, probably because, with Kosala and Kāśi, they are included in the term Prāeyas, easterners.’ Again, in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra it is recorded that the Kāśi, Kosala, and Videha kingdoms had each the one Purohita, Jala Jātūkarṇya; and in another passage of the same text the connexion between the Videha king, Para Átṇāra, and the Kosala king, Hiraṇya- nābha, is explained, while the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa speaks of Para Atṇāra as the Kosala king, descendant of Hiranyanābha. Another king of Videha was Namī Sāpya, mentioned in the Pañcavirpśa Brāhmaṇa. In the Samhitās of the Yajurveda ‘cows of Videha’ seem to be alluded to, though the com¬mentator on the Taittirīya Samhitā merely takes the adjective vaidehī as ‘having a splendid body’ (viśista-deha-sambandhinī), and the point of a place name in the expression is not very obvious. The Videhas also occur in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra in Brāhmana-like passages. The boundary of Kosala and Videha was the Sadānīrā, probably the modern Gandak (the Kondochates of the Greek geographers), which, rising in Nepal, flows into the Ganges opposite Patna. Videha itself corresponds roughly to the modern Tirhut.
vipracitti Is the name of a teacher in the first two Vaπiśas (lists of teachers) in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
vīrahatyā Murder of a man' is one of the crimes referred to in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka. The Vīra-han, man-slayer/ is often mentioned in the older texts. Cf Vaira.
vṛṣaṇaśva Is the name of a man referred to in the Rigveda, where Indra is called Menā, perhaps his ‘wife’ or ‘daughter.’ The same legend is alluded to in the Jaiminīya Brāhmaṇa, the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, the Sadvimśa Brāhmana, and the Taittirīya Araṇyaka, but it is clear that all of these texts had no real tradition of what was referred to.
vṛṣala In the dicing hymn of the Rigveda denotes an out­cast’; the same sense appears in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, where the touch of either a Vṛṣala or a Vṛṣalī is to be avoided.
vaikhānasa Is the name of a mythical group of Rṣis who are said in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa to have been slain at Muni- maraṇa by Rahasyu Devamalimluc, and who are mentioned in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka also. An individual Vaikhānasa is Puruhanman.
vaiṭṭabhaṭīputra Is the name in the Kāṇva recension of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad of a teacher, a pupil of Kārśakeyīputra, Cf. Vaidabhrtīputra.
vaida ‘Descendant of Vida,’ is the patronymic of Hiraṇya- dant in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa and the Aitareya Araṇyaka. The word is also written Baida.
vaidabhṛtīputra ‘Son of a female descendant of Vedabhṛt,’ is the name of a teacher in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Mādhyamdina recension of the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad. Cf. Vaittabhatīputra.
vaiyāghrapadīputra ‘Son of a female descendant of Vyā- ghrapad,’ is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Kāṇvī-putra, in the Kāṇva recension of the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
vaiyāghrapadya ‘Descendant of Vyāghrapad,’ is the patro­nymic of Indradyumna Bhāllaveya in the śatapatha Brāh­maṇa and the Chāndogya Upaniṣad, of Budila Áśvatarāśvi in the Chāndogya Upaniṣad, and of Gośruti in that Upaniṣad and in the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka. In the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa the patronymic is applied to Rāma Krātiyāteya.
vaiśaṃpāyana ‘Descendant of Viśampa,’ is the name of a teacher, famous later, but in the earlier Vedic literature known only to the Taittirīya Araṇyak and the Gṛhya Sūtras.
vaiṣṭhapureya ‘Descendant of Viṣthapura,’ is the name of a teacher in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad in the Mādhyamdina recension (ii. 5, 20; iv. 5, 25). He was a pupil of śāṇdilya and Rauhiṇāyana.
vyadhvara Perforating,’ designates a worm in one passage of the Atharvaveda, where there seems to be no good reason to alter the reading to Vyadvara, though Whitney thinks that it may rather be connected with vi-adhvan than with the root vyadh, ‘pierce.’ The term occurs with Maśaka,‘fly,’ in the Hiraṇyakeśi Gṛhya Sūtra, and perhaps also in another passage of the Atharvaveda, where, however, both Whitney and Shañkar Paṇdit read Vyadvara.
vyaṣṭi Is the name of a mythical teacher in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
vyākhyāna In one passage of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa clearly denotes a narrative ’ merely—viz., that of the dispute of Kadrū and Suparṇī. In other passages the word means simply ‘commentary.’ In the Brhadāranyaka Upaniṣad, used in the plural, it signifies a species of writing, apparently ‘ com­mentaries,’ though its exact relation to Anuvyākhyāna must remain obscure. Sieg thinks that the Vyākhyānas were forms of narrative like Anvākhyāna and Anuvyākhyāna.
vyāsa pārāśarya (‘Descendant of Parāśara’) is the name of a mythical sage who in the Vedic period is found only as a pupil of Viçvaksena in the Vamśa (list of teachers) at the end of the Sāmavidhāna Brāhmaṇa and in the late Taittirīya Araṇyaka.
śaṅkhadhma A ‘conch-blower,’ is enumerated among the victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘ human sacrifice’) in the Yajur­veda,1 and is mentioned in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
śarīra ‘Body,’ is a word of frequent occurrence in Vedic literature. The interest of the Vedic Indians seems early to have been attracted to the consideration of questions connected with the anatomy of the body. Thus a hymn of the Atharva­veda enumerates many parts of the body with some approach to accuracy and orderly arrangement. It mentions the heels (pārsnf), the flesh (māmsa), the ankle-bones (gulphau), the fingers (angulīh), the apertures (kha), the two metatarsi (uchlakau), the tarsus (pratisthā), the two knee-caps (astliī- vantau), the two legs {janghe), the two knee-joints (jānunoh sandhī). Then comes above the two knees (jānū) the four­sided (catuçtaya), pliant (śithira) trunk (kabandha). The two hips (śronī) and the two thighs (ūrū) are the props of the frame (ktisindha). Next come the breast-bone (uras), the cervical cartilages (grīvāh), the two breast pieces (stanau), the two shoulder-blades (/kaphodau), the neck-bones (skandhau), and the backbones (prstīh), the collar-bones (amsau), the arms (bāhu), the seven apertures in the head (sapta khāni śīrsani), the ears (karnau), the nostrils (nāsike), the eyes (caksanī), the mouth (mukha), the jaws (hanū), the tongue (jihvā), the brain (mas- tiska), the forehead (lalāta), the facial bone (kakātikā), the cranium (kapāla), and the structure of the jaws (cityā hanvoh). This system presents marked similarities with the later system of Caraka and Suśruta,4 which render certain the names ascribed to the several terms by Hoernle. Kaphodau, which is variously read in the manuscripts,5 is rendered ‘ collar-bone ’ by Whitney, but ‘ elbow ’ in the St. Petersburg Dictionary. Skandha in the plural regularly denotes 'neck-bones,’ or, more precisely, ‘cervical vertebrae,’ a part denoted also by usnihā in the plural. Prsii denotes not * rib,’ which is parśu, but a transverse process of a vertebra, and so the vertebra itself, there being in the truncal portion of the spinal column seventeen vertebrae and thirty-four transverse processes. The vertebrae are also denoted by kīkasā in the plural, which sometimes is limited to the upper portion of the vertebral column, sometimes to the thoracic portion of the spine. Anūka also denotes the vertebral column, or more specially the lumbar or thoracic portion of the spine; it is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa that there are twenty transverse processes in the lumbar spine (udara) and thirty-two in the thoracic, which gives twenty-six vertebrae, the true number (but the modern division is seven cervical, twelve thoracic, five lumbar, and two false—the sacrum and the coccyx). The vertebral column is also denoted by karūkara, which, however, is usually found in the plural denoting the transverse processes of the vertebrae, a sense expressed also by kuntāpa. Grīvā, in the plural, denotes cervical vertebrae, the number seven being given by the Satapatha Brāhmana, but usually the word simply means windpipe, or, more accurately, the cartilaginous rings under the skin. Jatru, also in the plural, denotes the cervical cartilages, or possibly the costal cartilages, which are certainly so called in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, where their number is given as eight. Bhamsas, which occurs thrice in the Atharvaveda, seems to denote the pubic bone or arch rather than the ‘buttocks’ or ‘fundament,’ as Whitney takes it. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the number of bones in the the human body is given as 360. The number of the bones of the head and trunk are given in another passage as follows: The head is threefold, consisting of skin (tvac), bone (1asthi), brain (matiska); the neck has 15 bones : 14 transverse processes (karūkara) and the strength (vīrya)—i.e., the bone of the centre regarded as one—as the 15th ; the breast has 17: 16 cervical cartilages (Jatru), and the sternum (uras) as the 17th ; the abdominal portion of the spine has 21 : 20 transverse processes (kimtāpa), and the abdominal portion (udara) as the 21st; the two sides have 27: 26 ribs (parśu), and the two sides as the 27th; the thoracic portion of the spine (anūka) has 33: 32 transverse processes, and the thoracic portion as 33rd. There are several enumerations of the parts of the body, not merely of the skeleton, in the Yajurveda Samhitās. They include the hair (lomāni), skin (tvac), flesh (māinsá), bone (1asthi), marrow (majjan), liver (yakrt), lungs (kloman), kidneys (matasne), gall (pitta), entrails (āntrāni), bowels (gudāh), spleen (ptīhan), navel (nābht), belly (udara), rectum (vanisthu), womb (yoni), penis (plāśi and śepa), face (mukha), head (śiras), tongue (jihvā), mouth (āsan), rump (pāyu), leech (vāla), eye (caksus), eyelashes (paksmāni), eyebrows (utāni), nose (was), breath (iiyāna), nose-hairs (nasyāni), ears (karnau), brows (bhrū), body or trunk (ātman), waist (upastha), hair on the face (śmaśrūni), and on the head (keśāh). Another enumeration gives śiras, mukha, keśāh, śmaśrūni, prāna (breath), caksus, śrotra (ear), jihvā, vāc (speech), manas (mind), arigulik, añgāni (limbs), bāhū, hastau (hands), karnau, ātmā, uras (sternum), prstllj, (vertebrae), udara, amsau, grīvāh, śronī, ūrū, aratnī (elbows), jānūni, nūbhi, pāyu, bhasat (fundament), āndau (testicles), pasas (membrum virile), jañghā, pad (foot), lomāni, tvac, māmsa, asthi, majjan. Another set of names includes vanisthu, purītat (pericardium), lomāni, tvac, lohita (blood), medas (fat), māmsāni, snāvāni (sinews), asthīni, majjānah, ret as (semen), pāyu, kośya (flesh near the heart), pārśvya (intercostal flesh), etc. The bones of the skeleton of the horse are enumerated in the Yajurveda Samhitās. In the Aitareya Araṇyaka the human body is regarded as made up of one hundred and one items ; there are four parts, each of twenty-five members, with the trunk as one hundred and first. In the two upper parts there are five four-jointed fingers, two kakçasī (of uncertain meaning), the arm (dos), the collar-bone (akça), and the shoulder-blade (artisa-phalaka). In the two lower portions there are five four-jointed toes, the thigh, the leg, and three articulations, according to Sāyaṇa’s commentary. The śānkhāyana Araṇyaka enumerates three bones in the head, three joints (parvāni) in the neck, the collar-bone {akṣa), three joints in the fingers, and twenty-one transverse processes in the spine (anūka).sg The Maitrāyaṇī Samhitā enumerates four constituents in the head {prāna, caksns, śrotra, vāc), but there are many variations, the number going up to twelve on one calculation. In the Taittirīya Upaniṣad an enumeration is given consisting of carma (skin), māinsa, snāvan, asthi, and majjan; the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has lomāni, mānμa, tvac, asthi, majjan, and the Aitareya Araṇyaka couples majjānah, snāvāni, and asthīni. Other terms relating to the body are kañkūsa, perhaps a part of the ear, yoni (female organ), kaksa (armpit), Danta (tooth), nakha (nail), prapada (forepart of the foot), hallks'tia (gall).
śākalya ‘Descendant of śakala,’ is the patronymic of Vidag'dha in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, and of Sthavira in the Aitareya and śāñkhāyana Aranyakas. An undefined śākalya is mentioned in the same Araṇyakas, in the Nirukta, and often later, as a teacher dealing with the text of the Rigveda. Weber is inclined to identify Vidagdha with the śākalya who is known as the maker of the Pada Pātha of the Rigveda, but Oldenberg thinks that the latter was later than the Brāhmana period. Geldner8 identifies the two; this view, however, is not very probable.
śāñkhāyana As the name of a teacher is not mentioned in the Kausītaki Brāhmaṇa, but it occurs in the Vaipśa (list of teachers) at the end of the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka, where Gunākhya is given as the authority for that work. In the śrauta Sūtras the name of śāñkhāyana never occurs, but the Gṛhya Sūtras seem to recognize as a teacher Suyajña śāñkhā¬yana. In later times the school flourished in Northern Gujarat, śāñkhāyana appears in the Taittirīya Prātiśākhya along with Kāṇdamāyana.
śaṇdila Masc. plur.. is the term applied to the ‘ descendants of śāṇdilya ’ in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka.
śāṇdilīputra ‘Pupil of a female descendant of śaṇdila,’ is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Rāthītarīputra, in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
śāṇḍilya ‘Descendant of śaṇdila,’ is the patronymic of several teachers (see Udara and Suyajña). The most important śāṇdilya is the one cited several times as an authority in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, where his Agni, or ‘sacrificial fire,’ is called śaṇdila. From this it appears clearly that he was one of the great teachers of the fire ritual which occupies the fifth and following books of the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. In the Vamśa (list of teachers) at the end of the tenth book he is given as a pupil of Kuśri and a teacher of Vātsya ; another list at the end of the last book in the Kāṇva recension gives him as a pupil of Vātsya, and the latter as a pupil of Kuśri. In the confused and worthless lists of teachers at the end of the second and fourth books of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad he is said to be the pupil of various persons—Kaiśorya Kāpya, Vaiṣtapureya, Kauśika, Gautama, Bayavāpa, and Ánabhimlāta. No doubt different śāndilyas may be meant, but the lists are too confused to claim serious consideration.
śārkarāksa Descendant of śarkarākṣa,' is the patronymic of Jana in the śatapatha Brāhmana and the Chāndogya Upaniṣad. In the plural they occur in the Aitareya Araṇyaka and the Taittirīya Araṇyaka. It is not necessary to assume that the form is incorrect for śārkarākṣa.
śālaṅkāyanīputra ‘Son of a female descendant of śalanku,’ is the name of a teacher, a, pupil of Vārçagraṇīputra in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Mādhyaipdina recension of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
śilpa kaśyapa Is named in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad1 as a teacher, a pupil of Kaśyapa Naidhruvi.
śūravīra māṇdukya (‘Descendant of Mandūka’) is the name of a teacher in the Araṇyakas of the Rigveda.
śauṅgīputra Son of a female descendant of śuñga,’ is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Sāmkftī-putra in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
śauca (‘Descendant of śuci’) is the patronymic of a man, called also Áhneya, who is mentioned as a teacher in the Taittiπya Araṇyaka.
śaunaka ‘Descendant of śunaka,’ is a common patronymic. It is applied to Indrota and Svaidāyana. A śaunaka appears as a teacher of Rauhiṇāyána in the Brhadāranyaka Upaniṣad. A śaunaka-yajña, or śaunaka sacrifice, occurs in the Kausītaki Brāhmana. In the Chāndogya Upaniṣad Atidhanvan śaunaka appears as a teacher. That Upaniṣad and the Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmana mention a śaunaka Kāpeya who was a contemporary of Abhipratārin Kakçaseni, whose Purohita śaunaka was according to another passage of the latter Upaniṣad. In the Sūtras, the Bṛhaddevatā, etc., a śaunaka appears as a great authority on grammatical, ritual, and other matters.
śaunakīputra ‘Son of a female descendant of śunaka,’ is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Kāśyapībālākyāmātharī- putra in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Mādhyamdina recension of the Br hadāranyaka Upaniṣad.
śyāvāśva Is the name of a man mentioned several times in the Rigveda. The Anukramanī (Index) assigns to him a series of hymns in the fifth, eight, and ninth books. In one of the hymns śyāvāśva mentions, apparently as his patrons, Taranta (a son of Vidadaśva) and Purumīlha, as well as Rathavīti. On this hymn is based a legend found in the Bṛhaddevatā, that he was the son of Arcanānas, who was sacrificing for Rathavīti Dālbhya. The father was anxious to obtain the king’s daughter for his son in marriage; but though the father was willing, his wife insisted on her son-in-law being a Rṣi. The father and son, repulsed, were returning home, when they met on the way Taranta and Purumīdha, former patrons of the father. These showed him respect, while Taranta’s wife, śaśīyasī, presented śyāvāśva with much wealth. The son was then fortunate enough to meet the Maruts in the forest, and praised them, thus becoming a seer. As a result the king himself ultimately offered his daughter to śyāvāśva. Sieg seeks to show that this legend is presupposed in the Rigveda; but it is difficult to accept this view, since the references in the Rigveda are very obscure, and śaśīyasī is probably no more than an epithet. That there is some Itihāsa at the back of the hymn is clear: what it is can hardly now be determined. śyāvāśva's obtaining gifts from Vaidadaśvi is referred to also in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra. His name occurs in the Atharvaveda in two lists of persons, of which the former includes Purumīdha, the latter also Arcanānas and Atri. A Sāman is ascribed to him in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, and he is perhaps referred to in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka. In the śānkhāyana śrauta Sūtra and the Pañcaviφśa Brāhmana he is styled Arcanānasa, ‘ son of Arcanānas,’ and later he is called Atreya, ‘descendant of Atri.’
śramaṇa ‘mendicant monk,’ is first found in the Upaniṣads. According to Fick, anyone could become a śramaṇa. For the time of Megasthenes this seems indicated by his evidence, which, however, refers only to the east of India, beyond the Madhyadeśa proper. The Vedic evidence is merely the name and the fact that Tāpasa, ‘ascetic,’ follows it in the Brhad­āraṇyaka Upaniṣad and the Taittirīya Araṇyaka.
śloka In the plural, is found enumerated after the Upaniṣads, and before the Sūtras, in the list of literary types given in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad. In the Taittirīya Upaniṣad- the Sloka-kṛt appears: he is rather the ‘poet,’ as Max Muller renders it, than merely one who ‘calls aloud,’ as the St. Peters­burg Dictionary explains the term. Exactly what is meant cannot be said: ‘verses’ generally may be intended, several kinds being preserved in the Brāhmaṇas and called ślokas.
satyakāma (‘Lover of truth’) Jābāla ('descendant of Jabālā') is the name of a teacher, the son of a slave girl by an unknown father. He wás initiated as a Brahmacārin, or religious student, by Gautama Hāridrumata according to the Chāndogya Upaniṣad. He is often cited as an authority in that Upaniṣad and in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, where he learns a certain doctrine from Jānaki Áyasthūṇa. He is also mentioned in the Aitareya and the Satapatha Brāhmaṇas.
sanātana Is the name of a mythical Rṣi in the Taittirīya Samhitā. In the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad he appears in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) as the pupil of Sanaga and the teacher of Sanāru, both equally mythical persons.
sapta sūryāḥ The 'seven suns' referred to in the Samhitās, are named in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka as Aroga, Bhrāja, Paṭara, Patañga, Svarṇara, Jyotiṣīmant, and Vibhāsa, but these occur very rarely even later. Weber at one time thought that the seven planets (see Graha) were meant by the phrase, but later he abandoned the idea. Probably the 'seven rays' of the Rigveda are meant.
sākamaśva devarāta Is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Viśvāmitra, in the Vamśa (list of teachers) which concludes the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka.
sāṃkṛtva ‘Descendant of Samkṛti,’ is the name of a teacher whose pupil was Pārāśarya in the first two Vaṃśas (lists of teachers) in the Mādhyamdina recension of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
sādin In the Atharvaveda denotes the ‘rider’ of a horse as opposed to a-sāda, ‘pedestrian.’ An aśva-sādin, ‘horse-rider,’ is known to the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. The Taittirīya Brāh­maṇa and the Rigveda itself contain clear references to horse-riding, while the Aitareya Araṇyaka refers to mounting a horse sideways. Aśvalāyana knows sādya as a ‘riding horse’ opposed to vahya, a ‘draught animal.’
sāyakāyana (‘Descendant of Sāyaka’) is the patronymic of śyāparṇa in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, and also of a teacher, a pupil of Kauśikāyani in the second Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
sudeva kāśyapa (‘Descendant of Kaśyapa’) is the name of a teacher in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka who set forth the expiation for lack of chastity.
sudhanvan áñgirasa (‘Descendant of Añgiras’) is the name of a teacher in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
sumnayu Is mentioned in the Varpśa (list of teachers) at the end of the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka as a pupil of Uddā- laka.
sūtra Has the sense of ‘thread’ in the Atharvaveda and later. In the sense of a 'book of rules' for the guidance of sacrificers and so forth, the word occurs in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
saitava ‘Descendant of Setu,’ is the name of a teacher in the first two Vamśas (list of teachers) in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad. He is described as a pupil of Pārāśarya or of Pārāśaryāyaṇa.
soma prātiveśya (‘Descendant of Prativeśya’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Prativeśya, in the Vamśa (list of teachers) at the end of the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka.
saukarāyaṇa Is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Kāṣāyaṇa or Traivaṇi, in the second Varpśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
saubhara ‘Descendant of Sobhari,’ is the patronymic of Pathin in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
saumapi ‘Descendant of Somāpa,’ is the patronymic of a teacher called Priyavrata in the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka.
sthavira Literally ‘elder,’ is used as a sort of epithet of several men; Sthavira śākalya occurs in the Aitareya Araṇ- yaka and the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka, and Sthavira Jātūkarṇya in the Kausītaki Brāhmaṇa. Cf. the names Hrasva and Dīrgha.
svapna ‘Dream,’ is referred to in the Rigveda and later. Evil dreams are often mentioned. The Áranyakas of the Rigveda contain a list of dreams with their signification, as well as of pratyaksa-darianāni, ‘sights seen with one’s own eyes.’
svara Denotes in the Upaniṣads the sound of a vowel: these are described as being ghosavant, ‘sonant,’ and also as balavant, ‘ uttered with force.’ The precise word for a mute is sparśa, ‘ contact,’ while ūsman denotes a ‘sibilant,’ and svara a ‘vowel,’ in the Aitareya and śāñkhāyana Áraṇyakas. The semivowels are there denoted by anta-sthā (‘intermediate’) or aksara. Another division in the Aitareya Aranyaka is into ghosa, ūsman, and vyañjana, apparently ‘vowels,’ ‘ sibilants,’ and ‘consonants’ respectively. Ghosa elsewhere in that Aran­yaka seems to have the general sense of ‘sounds.’ The Taittirlya Upaniṣad refers to mātrā, a ‘ mora ’; bala, ‘ force ’ of utterance, and varna, ‘letter,’ an expression found else­where in the explanation of om, as compacted of a + u -f- in. The Aitareya Araṇyaka and the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka recognize the three forms of the Rigveda text as pratrnna, nirbhuja, and'ubhayain-antarena, denoting respectively the Sarphitā, Pada, and Krama Pāthas of the Rigveda. The same authorities recognize the importance of the distinction of the cerebral and dental n and s, and refer to the Māṇdūkeyas’ mode of recitation. They also discuss Sandhi, the euphonic ‘combination’ of letters. The Prātiśākhyas of the several Samhitās develop in detail the grammatical terminology, and Yāska's Nirukta contains a good deal of grammatical material. The śatapatha Brāhmaṇa distinguishes the genders, and the Pañcaviφśa Brāhmana the division of words in the Sāman recitation.
harita kaśyapa Is mentioned as a teacher, a pupil of śilpa Kaśyapa, in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
hārikarṇīputra ‘Son of a female descendant of Hari- karṇa,’ is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Bhāradvājī-putra, in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Mādhyamdina recen­sion of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
hiraṇyadant (‘ Gold-toothed ’) Vaida (‘ descendant of Veda ’) is the name of a teacher in the Aitareya Brāhmana and the Aitareya Araṇyaka. The name presumably refers to the use of gold'to stop the teeth ; see Dant.
hrasva māṇḍūkeya (‘Descendant of Maṇdūka’) is the name of a teacher in the Aitareya Araṇyaka.
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nyak tapati sūryaḥ RV.10.60.11b; AVś.6.91.2b; AVP.1.111.1b.
nyak sindhūṃr avāsṛjat RV.8.32.25b.
anyakṛtasyainaso 'vayajanam asi svāhā (Apśṃś. omit svāhā) # Tā.10.59; Apś.13.17.9; Mś.2.5.4.8; MahānU.18.1. See anājñātājñātakṛtasya, and cf. enasa-enaso.
anyakṣetrāṇi vā imā (AVP. imāḥ) # AVś.5.22.8d; AVP.12.1.6d; 12.2.3d.
anyakṣetre aparuddhaṃ carantam # AVś.3.3.4b; AVP.2.74.4b.
anyakṣetre na ramase (AVP. -te) # AVś.5.22.9a; AVP.5.21.7a; 12.2.4a.
iḍenyakratūr etc. # incorrect for īḍenya-, q.v.
īḍenyakratūr (text iḍe-, by misprint) aham # Apś.4.5.5a. See vareṇyakratūr.
kanyakumārī (MahānU. -kumāryai) dhīmahi # TA.10.1.7b; MahānU.3.12b.
parjanyakrandyaṃ (MS. -kradyaṃ) sahaḥ # RV.8.102.5b; TS.3.1.11.8b; MS.4.11.2b: 167.3; KS.40.14b.
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"nyak" has 2 results.
     
nyaka technical term in the Jainendra Vyākarana for the term उपसर्जन defined by Pānini in the rules प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् and एकविभक्ति चा पूर्वनिपाते P.I.2.43, 44.
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18 results
     
nyakhanan dugSB 9.8.8
nyakkāra dishonorSB 7.1.23
kanyakā-girā in the words of the goddess DurgāSB 10.4.24
kanyakā iti the name Kanyakā or Kanyā-kumārīSB 10.2.10
kanyakā the daughter of TimeSB 4.27.23
kanyakā a maidenSB 6.6.44
kanyakā a daughterSB 9.18.5
kanyakā the femaleSB 9.21.34
kanyakā one daughterSB 9.22.26
kanyakā iti the name Kanyakā or Kanyā-kumārīSB 10.2.10
kanyakā-girā in the words of the goddess DurgāSB 10.4.24
kanyakā of the unmarried girlsSB 10.62.28
kanyakāḥ girlsSB 3.23.26
kanyakāḥ daughtersSB 4.1.34
kanyakāḥ daughtersSB 9.20.15
kanyakāḥ daughters (of Śūra)SB 9.24.27
kanyakām His brideSB 10.58.53
nyakubja brāhmaṇas from KānyakubjaCC Madhya 18.133
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29 results
     
nyakkāra noun (masculine) contempt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
disregard (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
humiliation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36520/72933
nyakkṛ verb (class 8 ātmanepada) to humiliate
Frequency rank 24461/72933
nyakkṛti noun (feminine) contempt humiliation
Frequency rank 36521/72933
nyakṣa noun (masculine) a buffalo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Paraśurāma (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 56812/72933
nyakṣa noun (neuter) entireness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
grass (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 56813/72933
anyaka adjective another (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
other (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18814/72933
avamanyaka adjective
Frequency rank 45191/72933
uttamakanyakā noun (feminine) Name einer Pflanze
Frequency rank 47142/72933
kanyaka noun (masculine) name of a king
Frequency rank 48516/72933
kanyakā noun (feminine) Aloe indica Linn. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
daughter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
girl (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
maiden (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Durgā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the constellation Virgo in the zodiac (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
virgin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2754/72933
kanyakapañcamūlī noun (feminine) laghupañcamūlī
Frequency rank 48517/72933
kanyakubja noun (neuter) name of an ancient city of great note (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19117/72933
nyakubja noun (neuter) name of a city (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16672/72933
kumbhīdhānyaka noun (masculine) one who has grain stored in jars sufficient for six days or (according to others) for one year's consumption (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34143/72933
kuśūladhānyaka noun (masculine) [a term similar to kumbhīdhānyaka]
Frequency rank 49852/72933
kusūladhānyaka noun (masculine) householder etc who has three years grain in store (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49889/72933
kauṇḍinyaka noun (masculine) a kind of poisonous insect (?)
Frequency rank 23787/72933
kṣīrasāgarakanyakā noun (feminine) name of Lakṣmī
Frequency rank 50617/72933
dhānyaka noun (neuter) dhānyāka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Coriandrum sativum Linn. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 565) coriander (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6325/72933
brahmakanyakā noun (feminine) name of Sarasvatī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ruta Graveolens (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60395/72933
mekalakanyakā noun (feminine) name of the river Narmadā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 38383/72933
rājanyaka noun (neuter) a number or assemblage of warriors (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 38717/72933
vanyakanda noun (masculine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 64629/72933
vanyakarkoṭī noun (feminine) name of a plant
Frequency rank 64630/72933
vanyakusumbhaka noun (masculine) Name einer Pflanze
Frequency rank 64631/72933
vārakanyakā noun (feminine) a harlot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
courtesan (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 65173/72933
viṣakanyakā noun (feminine) a girl supposed to cause the death of a man who has had intercourse with her (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 39551/72933
vrīhidhānyaka noun (masculine) a kind of rice
Frequency rank 67039/72933
śūnyaka noun (neuter) absence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lack of (gen.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 68106/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
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āraṇyaka

forest-born; any of Sanskrit religious and philosophical treatises, post-Vedic in ori intended to interpret Vedic concepts.

dhānyaka

Plant coriander seeds; Coriandrum sativum.

hiranyākshatantra

a compendium on pediatrics.

piṇyāka

oil cake of sesamum; flour of grain remaining after extracting oil.

veśavāra

1.ginger (sunṭhi), pepper (marīca), long pepper (pippali), coriander (dhānyaka),black cumin (ajāji), pomegranate (dāḍima), piper chaba (pippalimūlam) together are known as veśavāra; 2. boneless meat minced, steamed and added with spices, ghee et Century

     Wordnet Search "nyak" has 39 results.
     

nyak

parjanyakālaḥ, prāvṛṭkālaḥ, vṛṣṭikālaḥ, meghāgamaḥ, meghākālaḥ, meghasamayaḥ, ghanasamayaḥ, jaladāgamaḥ   

bhārate deśe vṛṣṭeḥ hetubhūtāt bhāratīyamahāsāgarāt vān vāyuḥ।

aiṣamaḥ parjanyavāyoḥ vilambena kṛṣiḥ durgatā।

nyak

dharmātman, puṇyātman, puṇyakartṛ, puṇyakarmin, puṇyavat   

yaḥ puṇyaṃ karoti।

puṇyātmanaḥ puruṣasya jīvanam ānandena gacchati।

nyak

apanata, nata, nāmita, ānata, avanata, pariṇata, praṇata, avanata, namra, añcita, avanamra, avabhugna, nyakra, nyañcita, vakra, pravha   

yaḥ añcati।

phalaiḥ vṛkṣaḥ nataḥ।

nyak

vanya, āraṇyaka   

yaḥ vanam adhivasati।

vanyānāṃ jīvānāṃ hatyā vaidhanikaḥ aparādhaḥ asti।

nyak

lakṣmīḥ, ramā, kamalā, nārāyaṇī, padmahastā, śrīḥ, viṣṇupriyā, mā, māyā, haripriyā, padmā, padmālayā, bhārgavī, cañcalā, indirā, abjavāhanā, abjā, abdhijā, ambujāsanā, amalā, īśvarī, devaśrī, padmamālinī, padmaguṇā, piṅgalā, maṅgalā, śriyā, śrīpradā, sindhujā, jaganmayī, amalā, varavarṇinī, vṛṣākapāyī, sindhukanyā, sindhusutā, jaladhijā, kṣīrasāgarasutā, dugdhābdhitanayā, kṣīrasāgarakanyakā, kṣīrodatanayā, lokajananī, lokamātā   

dhanasya adhiṣṭhātrī devatā yā viṣṇupatnī asti iti manyate।

dhanaprāptyarthe janāḥ lakṣmīṃ pūjayanti।

nyak

hiraṇyakaśipuḥ   

daityarājaḥ yaḥ prahlādasya pitā āsīt।

hiraṇyakaśipuṃ hantuṃ bhagavān nṛsiṃharūpeṇa avatīrṇaḥ।

nyak

dhāneyam, āvalikā, chattradhānyam, tīkṣṇakalkaḥ, dhanikaḥ, dhanikam, dhānam, dhānakam, dhānā, dhāneyakam, dhānyam, dhānyā, dhānyakam, dhānyeyam, dhenikā, dhenukā, bhidā, vaṃśyā, vanajaḥ, vitunnakaḥ, vitunnakam, vedhakam, śākayogyaḥ, sucaritrā, sūkṣmapatram, sauraḥ, saurajaḥ, saurabhaḥ   

laghukṣupaḥ yasya parṇāni sugandhitāni santi।

dhāneyasya tiktikā apūpena saha rucikarā bhavati।

nyak

tanayā, kanyā, sutā, ātmajā, duhitā, putrī, kanyakā, nandinī, akṛtā, aṅgajā   

strī apatyam।

sa uttarasya tanayām upayeme irāvatīm।

nyak

anūḍhā, avivāhitā, kanyakā, adattā   

sā strī yasyāḥ vivāhaḥ na sampannaḥ।

pitarau anūḍhāyāḥ kanyāyāḥ vivāhasya cintāṃ kurvataḥ।

nyak

kumārī, kanyā, kanyakā, kanīnakā, agrū, akṣatā   

yasyāḥ kaumāryaṃ na bhagnam।

navarātrotsave kumārībhyaḥ bhojanaṃ yacchati।

nyak

bālā, kanyā, bālikā, kanyakā   

sā strī yā bālyāvasthāyām asti।

bālā putrikayā khelati।

nyak

agnisikhaḥ, agnisekharaḥ, ambaram, asṛk, kanakagauram, kaśmīrajanma, kāntam, kāveram, kāśmīram, kāśmīrajanmā, kāśmīrasambhavam, kucandanam, kusumātmaka, kesaravaram, goravaḥ, gauram, ghasram, ghusṛṇam, ghoraḥ, javā, jāguḍam, dīpakaḥ, dīpakam, nakulī, pāṭalam, piṇyākaḥ, piṇyākam, piśunam, pītakāveram, pītacandanam, pītikā, pītakam, pītanam, puṣparajaḥ, priyaṅgum, bālhikam, bāhlika, raktam, raktacandanam, raktasaṃjñam, raktāṅgam, rañjanaḥ, rudhiram, rohitam, lohitacandanam, vareṇyam, varṇam, varṇyam, vahniśikham, vahniśekharam, veram, śaṭham, śoṇitam, saṃkocam, saṃkocapiśunam, surārham, sūryasaṃjñam, saurabham, haricandanam   

puṣpe vartamānaḥ strīliṅgī avayavaviśeṣaḥ yaḥ keśa sadṛśaḥ asti।

agnisikhaḥ kṣapasya jananāṅgena sambadhitaḥ asti।

nyak

rikta, śūnya, śūnyaka, vasika, vitāna, vikta, sūna   

yasya antarbhāge kimapi nāsti।

pathikena yācakasya bhikṣapātre kānicana rūpyakāṇi nikṣiptāni।

nyak

ākaraḥ, khaniḥ, khanī, khāniḥ, khānī, khanyākaraḥ, gañjaḥ, gañjā, gañjam, kulyā, yoniḥ   

ratnādyutpattisthānam।

ativṛṣṭyā aṅgārasya ākarasya jalapūrītatvāt tatra śatajanāḥ hatāḥ।

nyak

kuśūlaḥ, śasyabhāṇḍam, bhāṇḍāgāraḥ, dhānyāgāraḥ, dhānyakoṣṭhakam   

dhānyasaṅgrahasthānam।

kṛṣakaḥ dhānyasthāpanāya kuśūlaṃ saṃmārṣṭi।

nyak

piṇyākaḥ, piṇyākam, tilakalkaḥ   

saṃcūrṇanāt anantaraṃ avaśiṣṭaḥ tilasya kalkaḥ।

saḥ mahiṣīṃ klinnaṃ piṇyākaṃ bhakṣayati।

nyak

vanavāsin, āraṇyaka, āraṇyavāsin   

yaḥ vane nivasati।

ekaḥ vanavāsī mahātmā mama gṛhe āgataḥ।

nyak

vanya, āraṇyaka   

vanasambandhī।

cirakālaṃ vane vāsāt vanyānāṃ janānāṃ bhayaṃ vinaśyati।

nyak

chatrā, avārikā, sugandhi, dhānyakam, dhānyabījam, tumburu, tumbarī, kustumburuḥ, kustumbarī   

upaskaraviśeṣaḥ, kustumbarīkṣupasya vṛttākārabījāni।

prasāde api chatrāḥ upayujyante।

nyak

tīrthasthānam, puṇyakṣetram, puṇyabhūmiḥ, puṇyasthānam   

dharmagranthānusāreṇa tat pavitraṃ sthānaṃ yatra śraddhayā arcanādayaḥ kriyante।

vārāṇasī iti hindūnāṃ khyātaṃ tīrthasthānam asti।

nyak

mṛganayanī, hiraṇyākṣī   

sā strī yasyāḥ netre mṛgasadṛśe staḥ।

asmin padye kavinā nāyikāyai mṛganayanī iti saṃjñā dattā।

nyak

brāhmī, somalatā, sarasvatī, saumyā, suraśreṣṭhā, śāradā, suvarcalā, kapotavagā, vaidhātrī, divyatejāḥ, mahauṣadhī, svayaṃbhuvī, saumyalatā, sureṣṭā, brahmakanyakā, maṇaḍūkamātā, maṇḍukī, surasā, medhyā, vīrā, bhāratī, varā, parameṣṭhinī, divyā, śāradā   

kṣupaviśeṣaḥ-yaḥ bheṣajarupeṇa upayujyate yasya guṇāḥ vātāmlapittanāśitvaṃ tathā ca buddhiprajñāmedhākārītvam।

brāhmī prāyaḥ gaṅgātaṭe haridvāranagarasya samīpe dṛśyate।

nyak

vanya, agrāmya, āraṇyaka, araṇyabhava   

vane vartamānaḥ।

etad vanyaṃ mūlam asti।

nyak

hiṅguḥ, hiṅgukaḥ, sahasravedhī, sahasravīryā, śūlahṛt, śūlahṛd, śūlanāśinī, śūladviṭ, śālasāraḥ, vāhikaḥ, rāmaṭhaḥ, rāmaṭham, ramaṭhadhvaniḥ, ramaṭham, rakṣoghnaḥ, bhedanam, bhūtāriḥ, bhūtanāśanaḥ, billam, villam, bāhlikam, balhikam, piṇyākaḥ, piṇyākam, pinyāsaḥ, dīptam, ugragandham, ugravīryam, atyugram, agūḍhagandham, jatukam, jantughnam, bālhī, sūpadhūpanam, jatu, jantunāśanam, sūpāṅgam, gṛhiṇī, madhurā, keśaram   

upaskaraviśeṣaḥ- bālhika-pārasya-khorāsāna-mūlatānādi-deśe jāyamānāt kṣupāt niryāsitam ugragandhī dravyam।

hiṅguḥ upaskararūpeṇa vyañjaneṣu tathā ca oṣadhirupeṇa bheṣajeṣu upayujyate।

nyak

grīvā, manyākā, kandhiḥ, śirodharā   

pṛṣṭhavartī bhāgaḥ yaḥ śiraḥ dehena saha yunakti।

mama grīvāyāṃ pīḍā asti।

nyak

nyakubjaḥ   

prācīnaḥ prāntaḥ yaḥ vartamānasya kanojasya samīpe āsīt।

asmākaṃ pūrvajāḥ kānyakubjāt atra āgatāḥ।

nyak

bṛhadāraṇyakopaniṣad, bṛhadāraṇyaka   

pramukhā upaniṣad।

bṛhadāraṇyakopaniṣad yajurvedasya śatapathabrāhmaṇasya bhāgaḥ।

nyak

kanyākumārī   

tamiḻnāḍurājyasya dakṣiṇatame taṭe sthitaṃ nagaram।

kanyākumārī ekaṃ prasiddhaṃ yātrāsthalam asti।

nyak

kanyākumārīmaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kanyākumārīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ nāgarakoīlanagare asti।

nyak

araṇyakāṇḍam   

rāmāyaṇasya tṛtīyaṃ kāṇḍam।

araṇyakāṇḍe śūrpaṇakhāyāḥ praṇayanivedanādīnāṃ ghaṭanānāṃ varṇanam asti।

nyak

araṇyakapotaḥ   

araṇye vartamānaḥ kapotaḥ।

asmin prāṇisaṅgahālaye araṇyakapotasya naikāḥ prajātayaḥ santi।

nyak

vanyakṣetram   

vanena paritaḥ kṣetram।

asmākaṃ yānaṃ ardhahorāṃ yāvat vanyakṣetre abhramat।

nyak

prādhānyakramaḥ   

śreṣṭhatāyāḥ anusāreṇa vyavasthāpanam।

bhāratīyān netṝn prādhānyakrame sthāpayatu।

nyak

dhānyakaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

dhānyakasya ullekhaḥ daśakumāracarite vartate

nyak

hiraṇyākṣaḥ   

ekaḥ kuṭumbaḥ ।

hiraṇyākṣasya ullekhaḥ harivaṃśe asti

nyak

kanyakāguṇaḥ   

ekaḥ janasamudāyaḥ ।

kanyakāguṇānām ullekhaḥ viṣṇupurāṇe asti

nyak

nyakubjaḥ   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

kānyakubjasya ullekhaḥ mahābhārate vartate

nyak

dhanyakaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

dhanyakasya ullekhaḥ daśakumāracarite asti

nyak

dhānyakaṭakaḥ   

ekaḥ deśaḥ ।

dhānyakaṭakasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

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