Donate
 
    
Select your preferred input and type any Sanskrit or English word. Enclose the word in “” for an EXACT match e.g. “yoga”.
     Amarakosha Search  
25 results
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
āpaḥ1.10.3-4FemininePluralsalilam, payaḥ, jīvanam, kabandham, puṣkaram, arṇaḥ, nīram, śambaram, vāḥ, kamalam, kīlālam, bhuvanam, udakam, sarvatomukham, toyaḥ, kṣīram, meghapuṣpam, vāri, jalam, amṛtam, vanam, pāthaḥ, ambhaḥ, pānīyam, ambu, ghanarasaḥwater
artanam2.4.32NeuterSingularṛtīyā, hṛṇīyā, ghṛṇā
atyalpam3.1.62MasculineSingularaṇīyaḥ, alpiṣṭham, alpīyaḥ, kanīyaḥ
bhṛtyaḥ2.10.17MasculineSingular‍paricārakaḥ, ‍‍kiṅkaraḥ, ‍gopyakaḥ, dāseyaḥ, bhujiṣyaḥ, niyojyaḥ, dāsaḥ, ‍‍praiṣyaḥ, ceṭakaḥ, dāseraḥ
daivam1.4.28NeuterSingularniyatiḥ, vidhiḥ, diṣṭam, bhāgadheyam, bhāgyamdestiny or luck
garbhāgāramNeuterSingularvāsagṛham, pānīyaśālikā
jīvantīFeminineSingularjīvanī, jīvā, jīvanīyā, madhuḥ, sravā
mṛgaḥ3.3.24MasculineSingularsnānīyam, rajaḥ, kausumaḥreṇuḥ
niyamaḥ2.7.53MasculineSingular
niyamaḥ2.7.41MasculineSingularvratam
niyāmakaḥMasculineSingularpotavāhaḥthe crew
niyuddham2.8.108NeuterSingularbāhuyuddham
niyutam3.5.24NeuterSingular
pūḥFeminineSingularnagarī, pattanam, puṭabhedanam, sthānīyam, nigamaḥ, purī
rathakuṭumbinaḥ2.8.61MasculineSingulardakṣiṇasthaḥ, yantā, sūtaḥ, kṣattā, sārathiḥ, niyantā, savyeṣṭhaḥ, prājitā
ratnam2.9.94NeuterSingularhiraṇyam, ‍tapanīyam, ‍bharma, jātarūpam, rukmam, a‍ṣṭāpadaḥ, suvarṇam, hema, śātakumbham, karburam, mahārajatam, kārtasvaram, kanakam, hāṭakam, gāṅgeyam, cāmīkaram, kāñcanam, jāmbūnadam
saṃvit1.5.5FeminineSingularpratiśravaḥ, saṃśravaḥ, pratijñānam, abhyupagamaḥ, āśravaḥ, āgūḥ, samādhiḥ, aṅgīkāraḥ, niyamaḥagreement
śayyā1.2.138FeminineSingularśayanīyam, śayanam
utsedhaḥ3.3.103MasculineSingularsamarthanam, nīvākaḥ, niyamaḥ
udgamanīyam2.6.113NeuterSingular
yajñiyam2.7.29MasculineSingular
dakṣaṇīyaḥ3.1.3MasculineSingulardakṣiṇyaḥ, dakṣiṇārhaḥ
vanīyakaḥ3.1.48MasculineSingularyācakaḥ, arthī, yācānakaḥ, mārgaṇaḥ
gaṇanīyam3.1.64MasculineSingulargaṇeyam
kanīyān3.3.243MasculineSingularnirbandhaḥ, parāgaḥ, arkādayaḥ
     Monier-Williams
          Search  
316 results for niy
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
niyāP. -yāti-, to pass over (with a carriage) ; to come down to (accusative), 75, 5 ; to fall into, incur (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamP. -yacchati-, to stop (trans.), hold back, detain with (locative case) ; (A1.) to stop (intrans.), stay, remain ; to keep back, refuse ; (A1.) to fail, be wanting ; to fasten, tie to (locative case), bind up (hair etc.) etc. ; to hold over, extend (śarma-) ; to hold downwards (the hand) ; to bring near, procure, bestow, grant, offer, present (rain, gifts etc.) etc. ; to hold in, keep down, restrain, control, govern, regulate (as breath, the voice, the organs of sense etc.) etc. ; to suppress or conceal (one's nature) ; to destroy, annihilate (opp. to sṛj-) ; to restrict (food etc.; see below) ; to fix upon, settle, determine, establish on ; (in gram.) to lower, pronounce low id est with the anudātta- : Causal -yamayati-, to restrain, curb, check, suppress, restrict
niyamam. restraining, checking, holding back, preventing, controlling etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamam. keeping down, lowering (as the voice) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamam. limitation, restriction ( niyamena mena- ind.with restrictions id est under certain conditions ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamam. reduction or restriction to (with locative case or prati-), determination, definition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamam. any fixed rule or law, necessity, obligation ( niyamena mena- ind.and niyamāt māt- ind.as a rule, necessarily, invariably, surely) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamam. agreement, contract, promise, vow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamam. any act of voluntary penance or meritorious piety (especially a lesser vow or minor observance dependent on external conditions and not so obligatory as yama- q.v) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamam. a particular process applied to minerals (especially to quicksilver wrong reading yāma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamam. (in rhetoric) a common-place, any conventional expression or usual comparison View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamam. (in mīmāṃsā- philosophy) a rule or precept (laying down or specifying something otherwise optional) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamam. restraint of the mind (the 2nd of the 8 steps of meditation in yoga-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamam. performing five positive duties View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamam. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamam. Necessity or Law personified as a son of dharma- and dhṛti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyāmam. equals niyama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyāmam. a sailor, boatman (see next and nir-yāma-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamabhaṅgam. breach of a stipulation or contract View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamadharmam. a law prescribing restraints View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamahetum. a regulating cause View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyāmakamf(ikā-)n. restraining, checking, subduing, controlling, governing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyāmakamf(ikā-)n. restrictive, limiting, defining ( niyāmakatā -- f. niyāmakatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyāmakam. a guide or ruler View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyāmakam. a charioteer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyāmakam. a sailor or boatman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyāmakatāf. niyāmaka
niyāmakatvan. niyāmaka
niyamalaṅghanan. transgression of a fixed rule or obligation, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamanamfn. subduing, taming, overpowering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamanan. the act of subduing etc. etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamanan. restriction, limitation, definition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamanan. precept, fixed practice or rule View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamanan. coercion, humiliation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyāmana(prob.) wrong reading for ni-yamana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamānandam. another Name of nimbārka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamaniṣṭhāf. rigid observance of prescribed rites View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamapālam. "observer of vows", Name of a sage (from whom the Nepalese derive the N. Nepal) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamaparamfn. observing fixed rules View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamaparamfn. relating to or corroborative of a rule View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamapattran. a written agreement or stipulation
niyamasthitif. state of self-restraint, ascetism View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamātind. niyama
niyamavatmfn. practising religious observances View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamavatīf. a woman in her monthly courses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamenaind. niyama
niyamenaind. niyama
niyamitamfn. checked, restrained, bound by, confined in, fastened to (compound) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamitamfn. stopped, suppressed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamitamfn. fixed on, determined, destined to be (infinitive mood) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamitamfn. governed, guided View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamitamfn. regulated, prescribed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamitamfn. stipulated, agreed upon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamojjhitif. spontaneousness, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamopamāf. a simile which expressly states that something can be compared only with something else View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamyaind. having restrained or checked or bound etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamyamfn. to be restrained etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamyamfn. to be (or being) limited or restricted or defined View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyānan. a way, access View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyantavyamfn. to be restrained or checked or controlled or forced etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyantavyatvan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyantrP. -yantrayati- (infinitive mood -yantrayitum-), to restrain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyantṛm. who or what holds in or restrains or governs or tames, etc. etc. ( niyantṛtva -tva- n. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyantṛm. a restrainer, governor, tamer (especially of horses), charioteer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyantraṇan. restraining, checking, governing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyantraṇan. restricting to a certain sense, defining, definition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyantranāf. shutting up, closure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyantranāf. control, restraint (a-n-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyantritamfn. restrained, checked, fettered, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyantritamfn. dammed up, embanked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyantritamfn. restricted to a certain sense (as a word) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyantritamfn. governed by, depending on (instrumental case or compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyantṛtvan. niyantṛ
niyantuSee dur-niy/antu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatA1. -yatate-, to arrive at, come to (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyata ti-, etc. See under ni-yam-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatamfn. (n/i--) held back or in, fastened, tied to (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatamfn. put together (hands) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatamfn. restrained, checked, curbed, suppressed, restricted, controlled etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatamfn. limited in number View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatamfn. connected with, dependent on (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatamfn. contained or joined in (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatamfn. disciplined, self-governed, abstemious, temperate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatamfn. constant, steady, quite concentrated upon or devoted to (locative case) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatamfn. fixed, established, settled, sure, regular, invariable, positive, definite etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatamfn. customary, usual (see a-n- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatamfn. (in gram.) pronounced with the anudātta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatam. Name of the saṃdhi- of ās- before sonants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatan. plural (in sāṃkhya-) the organs of sense View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatabhojanamfn. abstemious in food, temperate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatāhāramfn. idem or 'mfn. equals -ta-bhojana- ' (śva-māṃsa-n-,eating only dog's flesh ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatakālamfn. limited in time, temporary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatamind. (am-) always, constantly, decidedly, inevitably, surely View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatamaithunamfn. abstaining from cohabitation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatamānasamfn. of subdued mind or spirit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyātana wrong reading for ni-pātana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatāñjalimfn. putting the joined hands to the forehead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatānupūrvyamfn. limited as to the order of words View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatāptif. (in dramatic language) sure expectation of attaining an object by overcoming a particular obstacle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatāśinmfn. equals -ta-bhojana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatātmanmfn. self-controlled, self-restrained View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatavācmfn. limited as to the use of words View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatavibhaktikamfn. limited as to case, standing always in the same case View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyataviṣayavartinmfn. steadily abiding in one's own sphere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatavratamfn. constant in the observance of vows, regular in observances, pious, religious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatendriyamfn. having the passions subdued or restrained View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatif. the fixed order of things, necessity, destiny, fate etc. (sometimes personified as a goddess, niyati- and āyati- being regarded as daughters of meru- and wives of dhātṛ- and vidhātṛ- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatif. restraint, restriction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatif. religious duty or obligation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatif. self-command, self-restraint View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatīf. Name of durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyavaSee under ni-yu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyavam. compact order, continuous line or series View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyayinSee under ni--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyayinmfn. going over, passing over (as a carriage) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyoddhṛm. idem or 'f. place for pugilists ' or a cock View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyodhakam. a combatant, wrestler, pugilist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyogam. tying or fastening to (see -pāśa-below) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyogam. employment, use, application View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyogam. injunction, order, command ( niyogāt gāt- ind.,or niyogena gena- ind.by order of, in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound'), commission, charge, appointed task or duty, business (especially the appointing a brother or any near kinsman to raise up issue to a deceased husband by marrying his widow) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyogam. necessity ( niyogena gena- ind.necessarily, certainly, surely ), obligation, fate, destiny View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyogakaraṇan. making a command, commanding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyogakṛtm. executing another's command View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyogapāśam. the trace on a carriage (literally string for tying [sc. the horses to it]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyogaprayojanan. the object of any appointment, authorized act or duty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyogārtham. the object of an authorized act or appointment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyogasaṃsthitamfn. being in an office or commission View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyogasthamfn. being under another's command, obedient to (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyogātind. niyoga
niyogatasind. according to order or command View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyogavidhim. the form of appointing to any act or duty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyogenaind. niyoga
niyogenaind. niyoga
niyoginmfn. appointed, employed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyoginm. a functionary, official, minister View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyogyain a-n- wrong reading for a-niyoga- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyogyam. lord, master View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyogyarthagrahopāyam. the resource of confiscating the property of men in office View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojakamfn. in sarva-n- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojanan. the act of tying or fastening (as to the sacrificial post) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojanan. that with which anything is tied or fastened View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojanan. enjoining, urging, impelling, commanding, directing, appointing to (locative case) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojanīf. a halter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojanīyamfn. equals niyoktavya- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojayitavyamfn. to be appointed or directed to (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojayitavyamfn. to be punished with (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojikāf. Name of a daughter of the demon duḥ-saha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojitamfn. put, placed, laid, (jewel) set in (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojitamfn. connected with, attached to, fixed on (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojitamfn. appointed, authorized View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojitamfn. enjoined, directed, commanded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojitamfn. urged, impelled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojyamfn. to be fastened or attached to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojyamfn. to be endowed or furnished with (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojyamfn. to be enjoined (a-n-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojyamfn. to be committed or intrusted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojyamfn. to be appointed or employed or directed or commanded etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojyam. a functionary, official, servant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyojyānvayanirūpaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyoktavyamfn. to be placed in or put to (locative case; ātmā sukhe niyoktavyaḥ-,we shall enjoy ourselves ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyoktavyamfn. to be appointed or authorized or charged or intrusted with (locative case) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyoktavyamfn. to be harassed or prosecuted (varia lectio abhi-yokt-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyoktṛm. one who joins or fastens or attaches View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyoktṛm. a ruler, lord, master View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyuP. A1. -yauti-, or -yuv/ati-, te-, (1. sg. A1. -yuve-; imperative 2. dual number P. -yuyotam-; ind.p. -yūya-), to bind on, fasten ; to bring near, procure, bestow ; Intensive 3. sg. -yoyuve- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyuddhan. fighting (especially with fists), pugilistic combat, close or personal struggle etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyuddhabhūf. place for pugilists View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyuddhakuśalamfn. skilled in fighting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyuddhaśīlamfn. skilled in fighting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyudhA1. -yudhyate- (rarely ti-), to fight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyudrathamfn. one whose car is drawn by a team of horses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyujP. A1. -yunakti-, -yuṅkte-, to bind on, tie or fasten to (locative case) etc. ; (with dhuri-) to tie to the pole of a carriage id est yoke, harness ; (met.) to place in front id est employ in the hardest work (also guru-dhūrṣu- ) ; to join, put together (especially the hands in a certain position; see kapota-) Scholiast or Commentator on ; to attach to id est make dependent on (dative case or locative case) ; to enjoin, order, command, coerce, impel, appoint, instal (double accusative), trust or charge with, direct or commission or authorize to (locative case dative case, artham- in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound',or infin.) etc. ; to confer or intrust anything (accusative) upon or to (locative case) ; to place at, put in the way (with locative case) ; to direct towards, fix (mind or eyes upon, with locative case) ; to use, employ : Causal -yojayati-, to harness (horses etc.), put or tie to (locative case) ; to set or lay (a trap or snare etc.) ; to enjoin, urge, impel, coerce, appoint or instal as (double accusative), appoint to (locative case), direct or compel or request or command to (dative case locative case accusative with prati-,or artham- in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') ; commit or intrust anything (accusative) to (locative case) etc. ; to put in any place or state (locative case) ; to confer or bestow upon (locative case) ; to use, employ (reason etc.) ; to accomplish, perform (a rite) ; to endow or furnish with, cause to partake of (instrumental case)
niyujyaind. having joined or attached or harnessed or appointed etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyuktamfn. bound on, bound, chained, fettered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyuktamfn. tied or fastened or attached or directed to, put or placed or fixed on (locative case) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyuktamfn. appointed, directed, ordered, commissioned, charged, intrusted (locative case; dative case; artham- in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound'; infinitive mood or compound) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyuktamfn. used or employed for (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyuktamfn. prescribed, fixed, settled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyuktam. a functionary, official View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyuktakamfn. appointed, elected, placed in authority View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyuktamind. by all means, necessarily View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyuktif. injunction, order, command, charge, office View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyutf. (ni-y/ut-) equals prec. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyutf. team of horses (especially of vāyu-'s horses) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyutf. plural series of words, verses, a poem View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyutamfn. (n/i--) fixed, fastened View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyutam. or n. a very high number, generally a million View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyutaSee under ni-yu-, column 2 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyutsāf. (prob. for ni-yuyutsā-,fr. Desiderative) Name of the wife of prastāva- and mother of vibhu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyutvatmfn. (y/ut--) drawn by a team of horses (as a carriage, vāyu-, indra-, the marut-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyutvatmfn. forming a series, flowing continuously or abundantly (as soma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyutvatmfn. containing the word niyut- or niyut-vat- (as a verse or hymn) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyutvatīyamfn. belonging to niyutvat- id est vāyu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiniyamam. definiteness as to (compound), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiniyuktamfn. ( yuj-), occupied in. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agniyaunamfn. produced from fire, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agniyojanan. the act of stirring the sacrificial fire (to make it blaze up). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agniyutam. Name of the author of the hymn x, 116 in the ṛg-- veda-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyamam. absence of control or rule or fixed order or obligation, unsettledness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyamam. indecorous or improper conduct View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyamam. uncertainty, doubt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyamamfn. having no rule, irregular. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyamitamfn. having no rule View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyamitamfn. irregular. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyamopamāf. (in rhetoric) a kind of simile (in which the upamāna- is not restricted to a certain person or thing), . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyantraṇamind. unconstrainedly, freely View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyantraṇānuyogamfn. to be questioned unreservedly, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyasitamfn. relaxed, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyatamfn. not regulated, uncontrolled, not fixed, uncertain, unrestricted, irregular, casual View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyatamfn. not unaccentuated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyatāṅkam. (in arithmetic) an indeterminate digit. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyatapuṃskāf. "having no fixed husband", a woman unchaste in conduct. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyatātmanm. one whose self or spirit is not regulated or under proper control. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyatavṛttimfn. having no fixed or regular employment or income. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyogam. non-application View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyogam. an unfitting employment or commission. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyoginmfn. not attached or clinging to. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyuktamfn. not appointed, not authoritative View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniyuktam. an assessor at a court who has not been formally appointed and is not entitled to vote. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anniyatmfn. being desirous of food View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anukaniyas an-, asi-, as-, the next youngest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuniyujto attach to, place under the authority of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avācaniyamfn. not to be read View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avibhāvaniyamfn. imperceptible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avilaṅghaniyamfn. not to be exceeded or transgressed, prescribed, fixed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avirecaniyamfn. not to be purged, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
baliniyamanodyutamfn. prepared to subdue bali- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
budhniyamfn. -next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daṇḍaniyogam. infliction of punishment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmadhātuniyatam. a particular samādhi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durniyantumfn. difficult to be checked or held back View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jāmadagniya patronymic fr. jamad-agni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
janiyaNom. (3. plural y/anti-) to wish for a wife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jñāniyaNom. P. to wish for knowledge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kālaniyogam. "time's ordinance", fate, destiny View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karaṇaniyamam. repression or restraint of the organs of sense. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāniyamam. "great vow", Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāniyutan. a particular high number View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāśāntiviniyogamālāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṇḍūkayoganiyatamfn. intent upon the frog-meditation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mithoviniyogam. employing mutually in any occupation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mithyātvaniyatamfn. bent on falsehood, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāmaniyatapraveśam. Name of a samādhi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniyamam. a strict rule as to applying an example to particular persons or things only View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiniyatamfn. ( yam-) fixed or adopted for each single case, particular or different for each case View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratipuṃniyatamfn. settled for every soul singly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyātmaviniyatamfn. individual View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puruṣaniyamam. (in gram.) a restriction as to person. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudrajāpaviniyogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃniyacchanan. (fr. present tense stem) checking, restraining, guiding (of horses) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃniyacchaniyatamfn. restrained, controlled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃniyamP. -yacchati-, to hold together, keep back, restrain, subdue, suppress etc. ; to annihilate, destroy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃniyamam. exactness, precision View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃniyantṛmfn. one who restrains or chastises, a chastiser (with genitive case). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃniyogam. connection with, attachment, application (to any pursuit etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃniyogam. appointment, commission View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃniyogam. injunction, precept ;119 vArttika 3 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃniyojitamfn. (fr. Causal) appointed, commissioned View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃniyojitamfn. destined, assigned View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃniyojyamfn. to be appointed or employed or commissioned View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃniyujP. -yunakti-, to connect with, place or put in (locative case) ; to appoint, employ : Causal yojayati-, to place in or on (locative case) ; to appoint to, intrust with (locative case;or artham-, arthāya- in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃniyuktamfn. attached to, connected with (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃniyuktamfn. appointed, employed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saniyamamf(ā-)n. restricted, limited ( saniyamatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saniyamamf(ā-)n. one who has undertaken a religious observance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saniyamatvan. saniyama
sarvaniyantṛm. all-subduer ( sarvaniyantṛtva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvaniyantṛtvan. sarvaniyantṛ
sarvaniyojakamfn. impelling or directing all (viṣṇu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārvaseniyajñam. a particular sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sautrāmaṇīviniyogasūtrārtham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāgniyajamānam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suniyatf. equals śobhanā vidhā- () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suniyatamfn. well put together View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suniyatamfn. well disciplined or self-governed (with vācā- instrumental case"suppressing speech") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suniyuktamfn. well constructed or built (see su-niry-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tiroahniya(r/o--) mfn. equals hnya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tiroahniyaetc. See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tithiniyamam. Name of a chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaniyujA1. to tie or join to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vācaṃniyamamfn. silent, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vartanaviniyogam. appointment of means of subsistence, salary, wages View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyamP. -yacchati-, to restrain, check, control, keep in check, regulate etc. ; to draw in, withdraw ; to keep off View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyamam. limitation, restriction to (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyamam. restraint, government View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyamyamfn. to be restricted or limited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyatamfn. restrained, checked, regulated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyatamfn. retrenched, limited (See compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyatacetasmfn. one who has a controlled or regulated mind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyatāhāramfn. moderate in food or diet, abstemious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyogam. apportionment, distribution, division View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyogam. appointment to (locative case), commission, charge, duty, task, occupation etc.
viniyogam. employment, use, application (especially of a verse in ritual) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyogam. relation, correlation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyogam. equals adhikāra-,"governing rule" on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyogam. separation, abandonment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyogam. impediment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyogamālāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyogasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyogasatkriyāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyojitamfn. (fr. Causal) appointed or directed or applied to, destined for, chosen as (with locative case, artham-or arthāya-) etc. (paśu-tve-,destined for a sacrificial victim; adhipati-tve-,appointed to the sovereignty) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyojitamfn. commissioned, charged, deputed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyojyamfn. to be applied or used or employed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyoktavyamfn. to be appointed to or employed in View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyoktavyamfn. to be enjoined or commanded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyoktṛmfn. one who appoints etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyoktṛmfn. appointer to (locative case), employer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyoktṛmf(trī-)n. containing the special disposition of anything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyujA1. -yuṅkte- (rarely P. -yunakti-; see on ), to unyoke, disjoin, loose, detach, separate ; to discharge (an arrow) at (locative case) ; to assign, commit, appoint to, charge or entrust with, destine for (dative case locative case,or artham-) etc. (with sakhye-,to chose for a friend) ; to apply, use, employ ; to eat : Passive voice -yujyate-, to be unyoked etc. ; to fall to pieces, decay : Causal -yojayati-, to appoint or assign to, commit to (locative case,or arthāya-,or /artham-) etc. ; to entrust anything (accusative) to (locative case) ; to offer or present, anything (accusative) to (dative case) ; to use, employ ; to perform View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyuktamfn. unyoked, disjoined etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyuktamfn. appointed to, destined for (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyuktamfn. enjoined, commanded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viniyuktātmanmfn. one who has his mind fixed on or directed towards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipādaniyamfn. to be killed, destructible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśeṣaniyamam. a particular observance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yathāviniyogamind. in the succession or order stated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
49 results
     
niyam नियम् 1 P. 1 To restain, curb, check, control, govern; प्रकृत्या नियताः स्वया Bg.7.2; (सुतां) शशाक मेना न नियन्तुमुद्यमात् Ku.5.5; 'could not dissuade her', &c. -2 To suppress, suspend, hold in (as breath, &c.); Ms. 2.192; न कथंचन दुर्योनिः प्रकृतिं स्वां नियच्छति Ms.1.59 'does not suppress or conceal', &c. -3 To offer, give; को नः कुले निवपनानि नियच्छतीति Ś.6.25. -4 To punish, chastise; नियन्तव्यश्च राजभिः Ms.9.213. -5 To regulate or direct in general; लोको नियम्यत इवात्मदशान्तरेषु Ś.4.2. -6 To attain, obtain; तालज्ञश्चाप्रयासेन मोक्षमार्गं नियच्छति Y.3.115; Ms.2.93. -7 To put on, assume. -8 To place upon. -Caus. (नियमयति) 1 To restrain, control, regulate, check, punish; नियमयसि विमार्गप्रस्थितानात्तदण्डः Ś.5.8. -2 To bind, fasten; Śi.7.56; R.5.73. -2 To moderate, lessen, mitigate, relieve; छायाद्रुमैर्नियमितार्कमयूखतापः Ś.4.11; Ku.1.6.
niyamaḥ नियमः 1 Restraining, checking. -2 Taming, subduing. -3 Confining, preventing. -4 A restraint, check; वाचि नियमः U.2.2; अधर्मानियमः Ms.8.122. -5 Restriction, limitation; Mb.14.13.11. -6 A rule or precept, law (in general), usage; नायमेकान्ततो नियमः Ś. B. -7 Regularity; कुसुमसुकुमारमूर्तिर्दधती नियमेन तनुतरं मध्यम् Ratn. 1.2. -8 Certainty, ascertainment. -9 An agreement, promise, vow, engagement. -1 Necessity, obligation. -11 Any voluntary or self-imposed religious observance (dependent on external conditions); [The earliest explanation of this expression is the one found in the ŚB. on MS.4.2.24. cf. को$यं नियमः । अनियतस्य नियतता । प्रयोगाङ्गतया सर्वे देशाः प्राप्नुवन्ति, न तु समच्चयेन । यदा समो न तदा विषमः । यदा विषमो न तदा समः । स एष समः प्राप्तश्चाप्राप्तश्च । यदा न प्राप्तः स पक्षो विधिं प्रयोजयति. This is very nicely stated in the Vārttika--'नियमः पाक्षिके सति']; R.1.94; Ki.5.4; (see Malli. on Śi.13.23). -12 Any minor observance or lesser vow, a duty prescribed to be done, but which is not so obligatory as a यम q. v. शौचमिज्या तपो दानं स्वाध्यायोपस्थनिग्रहः । व्रतमौनोपवासं च स्नानं च नियमा दशा ॥ Atri. -13 Penance, devotion, religious austerities; नियमविघ्न- कारिणी Ś.1; R.15.74. -14 (In Mīm. phil.) A rule or precept which lays down or specifies something which, in the absence of that rule, would be optional; विधिरत्यन्तमप्राप्तौ नियमः पाक्षिके सति. -15 (In Yoga phil.) Restraint of the mind, the second of the 8 principal steps of meditation in Yoga; दशैते नियमाः प्रोक्ता योगशास्त्र- विशारदैः Tantrasāra. -16 (In Rhet.) A poetical commonp lace or convention, as the description of the cuckoo in spring, peacocks in the rains &c. -17 Defining, definition. -18 Keeping down, lowering (as the voice). -19 Keeping secret; मन्त्रस्य नियमं कुर्याः Mb.5. 141.2. -2 Effort (यत्न); यथैते नियमं पौराः कुर्वन्त्यस्मिन्निवर्तने Mb.2.46.2. (नियमेन as a rule, invariably). -Comp. -उपमा a simile which expressly states that something can be compared only with something else. -धर्मः a law prescribing restraints. -निष्ठा rigid observance of prescribed rites. -पत्रम् a written agreement. -विधिः a religious rite, daily ritual; नियमविधिजलानां बर्हिषां चोप- नेत्री Ku.1.6. -स्थ a. observing penance; Ku.5.13. -स्थितिः f. steady observance of religious obligations, asceticism. -हेतुः a regulating cause.
niyāmaḥ नियामः 1 Restraint. -2 A religious vow. -3 A boatman.
niyāmaka नियामक a. (-मिका f.) 1 Restraining, checking. -2 Subduing, overpowering. -3 Limiting, restricting, defining more closely. -4 Guiding, governing. -कः 1 A master, ruler. -2 A charioteer. -3 A boatman, sailor. -4 A pilot.
niyāmakatā नियामकता 1 Controlling. -2 Exact definition.
niyamanam नियमनम् 1 Checking, punishing, restraining, subduing; नियमनादसतां च नराधिपः R.9.6. -2 Restriction, limitation. -3 Humiliation. -4 A precept, fixed rule. -5 Binding, tying down.
niyamavatī नियमवती A woman having the monthly courses.
niyamita नियमित p. p. 1 Checked, curbed, restrained. -2 Moderated, tempered. -3 Removed, lessened; नियमित- परिखेदा Ku.1.6. -4 Governed, guided. -5 Regulated, prescribed, laid down. -6 Fixed, agreed upon, stipulated. -7 Bound, confined; ब्रह्मा येन कुलालवन्नियमितो ब्रह्माण्डभाण्डोदरे. Bh. -8 Observed (as a vow or penance).
niyānam नियानम् Ved. A cow-pen; यन्नियानं न्ययनम् Rv.1.19.4.
niyantṛ नियन्तृ m. 1 A charioteer, driver; नियन्तरि व्याकुलमुक्त- रज्जुके Śi.12.24. -2 A governor, ruler, master, regulator; न व्यतीयुः प्रजास्तस्य नियन्तुर्नेमिवृत्तयः R.1.17;15.51. -3 A punisher, chastiser. -4 The Supreme Being.
niyantraṇam नियन्त्रणम् णा 1 Checking, reserve, restraint; अनि- यन्त्रणानुयोगो नाम तपस्विजनः Ś.1. -2 Restricting, confining (to a particular sense); अनेकार्थस्य शब्दस्यैकार्थ- नियन्त्रणम् S. D.2. -3 Guiding, governing. -4 Defining.
niyantrita नियन्त्रित p. p. Curbed, restrained, checked. -2 Guided, governed. -3 Restricted, confined to (a particular sense, as a word).
niyata नियत p. p. 1 Curbed, restrained; तं तं नियममास्थाय प्रकृत्या नियताः स्वया Bg.7.2. -2 Subdued, controlled, self-possessed, self-governed. -3 Abstemious, temperate. -4 Attentive, intent. -5 Fixed, permanent, constant, steady; अन्यथासिद्धिशून्यस्य नियता पूर्ववर्तिता Bhāṣā. P. -6 (a) Certain, settled, sure; Pt.1.284. (b) Fixed; प्रकृतिनियतत्वादकृतकः U.6.14; fixed in number, limited; बाणाः पञ्च मनोभवस्य नियतास्तेषामसंख्यो जनः (लक्ष्यः) Ratn.3.3. -7 Inevitable. -8 Positive, definite. -9 Forming the subject of consideration, relevant or irrelevant; see तुल्ययोगिता. -1 Maintained, observed (as a vow &c.); नियतैकपतिव्रतानि पश्चात्तरुमूलानि गृहीभवन्ति तेषाम् Ś.7.2. -11 Held back, fastened, tied; पशूनां त्रिशतं तत्र यूपेषु नियतं तदा Rām.1.14.32. -12 Connected with, dependent on; वाच्यर्था नियताः सर्वे Ms.4.256. -13 (in gram.) Pronounced with अनुदात्त. -तम् (pl.) (in Sāṅkhya) the organs of sense. -तम् ind. 1 Always, constantly. -2 Positively, certainly, invariably, inevitably, surely. -3 Forcibly. -Comp. -काल a. Limited in time, temporary; Kaśi. on P.I.4.44. -मानस a. of subdued mind. -वाच a. limited as to the use of words. -व्रत a. pious, religious.
niyātana नियातन See निपातन.
niyatiḥ नियतिः f. 1 Restraint, restriction. -2 Destiny, fate, luck, fortune (good or bad); (sometimes personified as a goddess, the sister of Āyati, both being daughters of Meru and wives of Dhātṛi and Vidhātṛi); नियति- बलान्नु Dk.; नियतेर्नियोगात् Śi.4.34; Ki.2.12;4.21. -3 A religious duty or obligation; नियतिः कारणं लोके नियतिः कर्मसाधनम् । नियतिः सर्वभूतानां नियोगोष्बिह कारणम् ॥ Rām.4.25. 4. -4 Self-command, self-restraint.
niyavaḥ नियवः Ved. 1 Mixing, mixture. -2 A continuous line.
niyoddhṛ नियोद्धृ m. 1 A combatant, wrestler. -2 A cock.
niyodhakaḥ नियोधकः A combatant, wrestler.
niyogaḥ नियोगः 1 Employment, use, application. -2 An injunction, order, command, direction, commission, charge, appointed task or duty, any business committed to one's care; यः सावज्ञो माधवश्रीनियोगे M.5.8; मनो नियोगक्रिययोत्सुकं मे R.5.11; अथवा नियोगः खल्वीदृशो मन्दभाग्यस्य U.1; आज्ञा- पयतु को नियोगो$नुष्ठीयतामिति Ś.1; त्वमपि स्वनियोगमशून्यं कुरु 'go about your own business', 'do your appointed duty', (frequently occurring in plays, and used as a courteous way of asking servants to withdraw). -3 Fastening or attaching to. -4 Necessity, obligation; तत् सिषेवे नियोगेन स विकल्पपराङ्मुखः R.17.49. -5 Effort, exertion. -6 Certainty, ascertainment. -7 An invariable rule; न चैष नियोगो वृत्तिपक्षे नित्यः समास इति ŚB. on MS.1.6.5. -8 Commission, act; न कर्ता कस्यचित् कश्चिन्नियोगेनापि चेश्वरः Rām. 4.25.5. -9 Right (अधिकार); अलघुनि बहु मेनिरे च ताः स्वं कुलिशभृता विहितं पदे नियोगम् Ki.1.16. -1 A practice prevalent in ancient times which permitted a childless widow to have intercourse with the brother or any near kinsman of her deceased husband to raise up issue to him, the son so born being called क्षेत्रज; cf. Ms.9.59.:-- देवराद्वा सपिण्डाद्वा स्त्रिया सम्यङ् नियुक्तया । प्रजे- प्सिताधिगन्तव्या सन्तानस्य परिक्षये ॥; see 6, 65 also. (Vyāsa begot पाण्डु and धृतराष्ट्र on the widows of विचित्रवीर्य in this way).
niyogin नियोगिन् a. 1 Appointed, employed. -2 Authorized -m. An officer, dependent, minister, functionary; अपराधे$पि निःशङ्को नियोगी चिरसेवकः H.2.96.
niyogyaḥ नियोग्यः A lord, master.
niyojanam नियोजनम् 1 Fastening, attaching. -2 Ordering, prescribing. -3 Urging, impelling. -4 Appointing. -5 Ved. That with which anything is tied. -नी A halter.
niyojita नियोजित a. Directed, ordered. -2 Appointed. -3 Joined to. -4 Instigated, incited. -5 Used, employed.
niyojyaḥ नियोज्यः One charged with any duty, a functionary, an officer, a servant, employee; सिध्यन्ति कर्मसु महत्स्वपि यन्नियोज्याः Ś.7.4.
niyoktavya नियोक्तव्य a. 1 To be placed in or put to. -2 To be appointed, intrusted, charged. -3 To be harassed, prosecuted; न स राज्ञा नियोक्तव्यः Ms.8.186.
niyoktṛ नियोक्तृ m. An employer, a master.
niyuddham नियुद्धम् Fighting on foot, close fight, personal struggle, wrestling; तिष्ठेदानीं सुसन्नद्धो नियुद्धे नास्ति मत्समः Madhyamavyāyoga.
niyuj नियुज् 7 Ā. 1 To appoint, depute, order (with loc.) यन्मां विधेयविषये स भवान्नियुङ्क्ते Māl.1.9; असाधुदर्शी तत्रभवान् काश्यपः य इमामाश्रमधर्मे नियुङ्क्ते Ś.1; Ku.3.13; R.5.29. -2 To join, unite, fasten to. -3 To prescribe, ordain. -4 To yoke, harness (as horses). -5 To employ, engage. -6 To authorize. -7 To commit, consign, entrust. -8 To urge, incite, constrain. -9 To trouble, harass. -Caus. 1 To join, unite, provide, or endow with, give to; (स्मरं) वपुषा स्वेन नियोजयिष्यति Ku.4.42. -2 To yoke, harness. -3 To incite, urge; तत् किं कर्मणि घोरे मां नियोजयसि केशव Bg.3.1; प्रश्नकर्मणि मां नियोजयति K; Pt.5.81. -4 To appoint, employ; ईदृशेषु नियोगेषु नियोजिता Mu.6. -5 To use, employ; स्थानेष्वेव नियोक्तव्या भृत्याश्चाभरणानि च Pt.1.72; Ku.4.15. -6 To devote, apply. -7 To expose, put to; श्रमाय मां नियोजयसि Pt.2. -8 To accomplish, perform (a rite); पूर्वं दैवं नियोजयेत् Ms.3.24.
niyukta नियुक्त p. p. 1 Directed, ordered, instructed, commanded. -2 Authorised, appointed; नियुक्तः क्षत्रियो द्रव्ये खड्गं दर्शयते ध्रुवम् H.2.95. -3 Permitted to raise issue; see नियोग (7) below. -4 Attached to. -5 Fastened to. -6 Ascertained. -7 Prompted, incited. -8 Used, employed; नियुक्तौ हव्यकव्ययोः Ms.5.16. -क्तः A functionary, an officer, any one charged with some business. -क्तम् ind. By all means, necessarily.
niyuktiḥ नियुक्तिः f. 1 Injunction, order, command. -2 Appointment, commission, office, charge.
niyut नियुत् m. Ved. 1 A horse, particularly of Vāyu. -2 A praiser. -f. A line, row.
niyutam नियुतम् 1 A million. -2 A hundred thousand. -3 Ten thousand crores or 1 Ayutas.
aniyata अनियत a. 1 Uncontrolled, unrestricted. -2 Indefinite, uncertain, not fixed; irregular (forms also); ˚वेलं आहारो$श्यते Ś.2 at irregular hours. -3 Causeless, casual, incidental, occasional; ˚रुदितस्मितम् (वदनकमलकम्) U.4.4; Māl.1.2. -Comp. -अङ्कः an indeterminate digit (in Math.) -आत्मन् a. not self-possessed, whose soul is not properly controlled. -पुंस्का a woman loose in conduct, unchaste. -वृत्ति a. 1 having no regular or fixed employment or application (as a word). -2 having no regular income.
aniyantraṇa अनियन्त्रण a. Unrestrained, uncontrolled, free; ˚अनु- योगो नाम तपस्विजनः Ś.1.
aniyamaḥ अनियमः 1 Absence of rule, control, regulation or fixed order; no settled rule or direction; प्रामाण्यबुद्धिर्बेदेषु साधनानामनेकता । उपास्यानामनियम एतद्धर्मस्य लक्षणम् ॥ Lok. Tilak. पञ्चमं लघु सर्वत्र सप्तमं द्विचतुर्थयोः । षष्ठे पादे गुरु ज्ञेयं शेषे- ष्वनियमो मतः ॥ Ch. M. -2 Irregularity, uncertainty. indefiniteness, vagueness, doubt. -3 Improper conduct, अनियमित a. Irregular.
aniyukta अनियुक्त a. Not appointed or authoritative. -क्तः An assessor at a court who has not been formally appointed and who is not entitled to vote.
abhiniyukta अभिनियुक्त a. Occupied in, busy.
abhiniyogaḥ अभिनियोगः Close application, attention or intentness, absorption; कार्य˚ Mu.1.
pratiniyata प्रतिनियत a. 1 Settled, predestined; विधिर्वन्द्यः सो$पि प्रतिनियतकर्मैकफलदः Bh.2.94. -2 Firm, unshakable; विपक्षाणां हेतीः प्रतिनियतधैर्यानुभवतः Mv.6.34.
pratiniyamaḥ प्रतिनियमः 1 A general rule. -2 A separate allotment; जननमरणकरणानां प्रतिनियमाद्युगपत् प्रवृत्तेश्च Sāṅ. K.18. -3 A strict rule applying only to a particular case.
viniyam विनियम् 1 P. 1 To restrain, check, curb; मनसैवेन्द्रिय- ग्रामं विनियम्य समन्ततः Bg.6.24. -2 To limit, restrict.
viniyata विनियत p. p. Controlled, checked, restrained, regulated; as in विनियताहार, विनियतवाच् &c.
viniyamaḥ विनियमः Control, restraint, check.
viniyuj विनियुज् 7 U. 1 To use, expend. -2 To appoint, employ. -3 To divide, apportion, distribute; प्रत्येकं विनियुक्तात्मा कथं न ज्ञास्यसि प्रभो Ku.2.31. -4 To disconnect, separate. -5 To discharge (an arrow). -Caus. 1 To appoint, employ. -2 To enjoin, order, command; भृत्येषु विनियोजयेत् Ms.7.226. -3 To offer, present, give. -4 To perform, do, dispose of.
viniyukta विनियुक्त p. p. 1 Separated, loosed, detached. -2 Attached to, appointed. -3 Applied to. -4 Commanded, enjoined. -Comp. -आत्मन् a. one who has his mind fixed on.
viniyoktṛ विनियोक्तृ a. Appointer, employer; तेषु तेषु हि कृत्येषु विनियोक्ता महेश्वरः Mb.3.32.24.
viniyogaḥ विनियोगः 1 Separation, parting, detachment. -2 Leaving, giving up, abandoning. -3 Employment, use, application, disposal; बभूव विनियोगज्ञः साधनीयेषु वस्तुषु R.17.67; प्राणायामे विनियोगः &c.; अनेनेदं तु कर्तव्यं विनियोगः प्रकीर्तितः ।; आर्ष छन्दश्च दैवत्यं विनियोगस्तथैव च Yogiyājñavalkya. -4 Appointment to a duty, commission, charge; विनि- योगप्रसादा हि किङ्कराः प्रभविष्णुषु Ku.6.62. -5 An obstacle, impediment. -6 Relation, corelation.
saṃniyuj संनियुज् See नियुज्.
saṃniyogaḥ संनियोगः 1 Union, attachment. -2 Appointment. -3 Precept.
     Macdonell Search  
22 results
     
niyama m. restraint, limitation; re striction to (lc. or prati with ac.); fixed rule, certainty, absolute necessity (in a particular case); contract, promise; vow; self-imposed (religious) observance, minor (occasional) duty: ab. necessarily, certainly; in. id.; with certain limitations; -yamana, n. restraining, subduing; restriction; -yama-vat, a. prac tising religious observances; -yamya, fp. to be restrained, -subdued; -limited; -re stricted; -y&asharp;na, n. going in, entry; -yâma ka, a. (ikâ) restraining, checking; restricting.
niyantavya fp. to be restrained or held in check; -guided; -enforced; -yantrí, m. restrainer, ruler; charioteer: -tva, n. faculty of restraining; -yantrana, n. restraining; limitation.
niyata pp. √ yam: -m, ad. cer tainly, assuredly; n. pl. organs of sense (ph.); -kâla, a. lasting for a limited time, temporary; -vasati, a. having his permament abode any where; -vishaya-vartin, a.steadily abiding in his appointed sphere; -vrata, a. faithful to one's vow; -½âtman, a. self-controlled.
niyatendriya a. having one's senses restrained.
niyati f. fixed order of things, necessity, destiny; Fate.
niyoga m. fastening; appointed duty, function; employment, appointment, commission, business; order, injunction; neces sity, certainty; destiny: in. necessarily, certainly; -krit, a. acting in one's behalf, agent; -samsthita, pp. being in office; -stha, a. being under the orders of (g.); -½artha, m. commission.
niyogin m. authorised person, deputy, agent, functionary; -i½artha-graha½u pâya, m. resource of confiscating the property of public functionaries.
niyojana n. tying up; cord; injunction, commission; -yogayitavya, cs. fp. to be punished with (in.); to be urged to (lc.); -yogya, fp. to be fastened; -endowed with; -instructed in (in.); -commissioned; -entrusted; m. servant, dependent; -yodhaka, m. pugilist.
niyoktavya fp. to be applied or directed to; -commissioned or appointed to (lc.); -called to account.
niyukta pp. √ yug; m. public functionary, official; -yukti, f. appointment, employment (for, -artham); -yú-t, f. be stowal; series; team, steed, esp. of Vâyu: pl. verses, poem; -yuta, pp. √ yu;n. a certain large number, gnly. million; -yuddha, n. fight, esp. with fists.
akālaniyama m. no limit of time.
aniyujyamāna pr. ps. pt. unauthorised.
aniyukta pp. not commissioned, not instructed; unfamiliar with (lc.).
aniyamopamā f. kind of simile.
aniyama m. lack of limitation; want of self-restraint.
aniyantraṇā f. absoluteness.
aniyantraṇa a. unconstrained: -m, ad. without limit, freely; -½anuyoga, a. to be asked without constraint.
aniyatātman a. not having his mind controlled.
aniyata pp. unrestrained, un limited, uncertain; unusual; -vritti, a. hav ing no fixed means of livelihood; -velam, ad. at an uncertain time.
pratipuṃniyata pp. specially meant for every soul; -purusha, m. similar man, representative; companion; doll; °ree;-or -m, ad. man for man, for each man; for every soul; -pustaka, n. copy of an original manuscript, transcript; -pûgaka, a. honour ing (--°ree; or g.); -pûgana, n. doing honour to (g.); -pûgâ, f. id. (with g. or lc.); -pûgya, fp. to be honoured; -pûrana, n. filling, oc cupation of (g.); being filled with (in.); stoppage, obstruction; -prishthâ, f. each side of a leaf.
baliniyamanodyata pp. bent on vanquishing Bali; -putra, m. son of Bali, pat. of the Asura Bâna; -push- ta, (pp.) m. (fed on the rice-offering), crow; -bhug, a. eating the food-offering;m. crow; -bhrit, a. paying tribute; -bhogana, m. crow; -mát, a. receiving tribute; attended with food oblations.
saṃniyacchana n. curbing, guiding; -yantri, m. restrainer; -yama, m. exactness; -yoga, m. commission; precept, injunction; -roddhavya, fp. to be confined; -rodha, m. obstruction, suppression;-vâya, m. combination; -vritti, f. return (in aand abhûyah-); -vesa, m. entrance, taking up a position; inclusion (rare); impression (of a mark, --°ree;); combination, arrangement; posi tion (--°ree; a. situated in or on); form, appear ance; dwelling-place; assemblage: -m kri, take up a position in (--°ree;); make room for (--°ree;); -vesana, n. dwelling-place, abode; -vesayitavya, fp. to be inserted; -hita, pp. (√ dhâ) near etc.: -½apâya, a. having destruc tion near at hand, perishable, transient.
     Vedic Index of
     Names and Subjects  
134 results
     
acyut He acted as Pratihartr at the Sattra celebrated by the Vibhindukīyas and described in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana
anuvaktṛ satya sātyakīrta is mentioned as a teacher in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana Upanisad
abhipratārin kākṣaseni is mentioned in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana,the Chāndogya Upanisad, and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, as engaged in discussions on philo­sophy. The Jaiminīya Brāhmana further reports that his sons divided the property amongst themselves while he was yet alive. He was a Kuru and a prince.
abhiṣeka (‘besprinkling’).—The Vedic king was conse­crated after his election with an elaborate ritual, which is fully described in the Taittirīya, Pañcavimśa,śatapatha, and Aitareya Brāhmanas, and for which the Mantras are given in the Samhitās. The consecration took place by sprinkling with water (abhisecanīyā āpah).6 Only kings could be consecrated, the people not being worthy of it (anabhisecanīyāh). The sprinkler (abhisektr) is mentioned in the list of victims at the Purusamedha. The Abhiseka is an essential part of the Rājasūya, or sacrifice of royal inauguration, being the second of its component members.
aṣāḍha uttara pārāśarya Is mentioned as a teacher in a Vamśa or Genealogy in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana
aṣṭakarṇī Is an expression which occurs in one passage of the Rigveda,and which Roth was at first inclined to interpret as a proper name. There can, however, be no doubt that it means a cow, not a man, as suggested by Grassmann. The exact reason why a cow should be so described is uncertain. Roth was later inclined to see in it the sense ‘ having pierced ears,’ similar epithets being at a later period known to Pānini (bhinna-karna, chinna-karna). Grassmann’s more obvious rendering, ‘having the sign for (the number) marked on the ear,’ is supported by the similar epithets, ‘ having the mark of a lute on the ear ’ (karkari-karnyah), ‘ having the mark of a sickle on the ear’ (ιdātra-kamyah), ‘ having the mark of a stake on the ear * (sthūnā- kaniycih), ‘ having the ears bored * (
asitamṛga is the designation in the Aitareya Brāhmana1 of a family of the Kaśyapas who were excluded from a sacrifice by Janamejaya, but who took away the conduct of the offering from the Bhūtavīras, whom the king employed. In the Jaiminīya Brāhmana[1] and the Sadvimsa Brāhmana[2] the Asita- mrgas are called 4 sons of the Kaśyapas,’ and one is mentioned as Kusurubindu4 Auddālaki.
ākramaṇa In the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana this word is used with the specific sense of ‘steps to climb trees.’
ājakeśin Is the name of a family in which, according to the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana, Baka used violence against Indra
aruṇi Is the patronymic normally referring to Uddālaka, son of Aruna Aupaveśi. Uddālaka is probably also meant by Aruni Yaśasvin, who occurs as a teacher of the Subrahmanyā (a kind of recitation) in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana. Arunis are referred to both in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana and in the Kāthaka Samhitā, as well as in the Aitareya Aranyaka.
āsandī This is a generic term for a seat of some sort, occurring frequently in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas, but not in the Rigveda. In the Atharvaveda the settle brought for the Vrātya is described at length. It had two feet, length­wise and cross-pieces, forward and cross-cords, showing that it was made of wood and also cording. It was also covered with a cushion (Ástarana) and a pillow (Upabarhana), had a seat (Asāda) and a support (Upaśraya). Similar seats are described in the Kausītaki Upanisad and the Jaiminīya Brāhmana. The seat for the king at the royal consecration is described in very similar terms in the Aitareya Brāhmana, where the height of the feet is placed at a span, and the lengthwise and cross-pieces are each to be a cubit, while the interwoven part (vivayana) is to be of Muñja grass, and the seat of Udumbara wood. In another passage of the Atharvaveda Lanman seems to take the seat meant as a ‘ long reclining chair.’ There also a cushion (Upadhāna) and coverlet (Upavāsana) are mentioned. The śatapatha Brāhmana repeatedly describes the Ásandī in terms showing that it was an elaborate seat. In one place8 it is said to be made of Khadira wood, perforated (vi-trnnā), and joined with straps (vardhra-yutā) like that of the Bhāratas. At the Sautrāmanī rite (an Indra sacrifice) the seat is of Udumbara wood, is knee-high, and of unlimited width and depth, and is covered with plaited reed-work. The imperial seat10 is to be shoulder-high, of Udumbara wood, and wound all over with cords of Balvaja grass (.Eleusina indica). Elsewhere11 the seat is a span high, a cubit in width and depth, of Udumbara wood, and covered with reed-grass cords, and daubed with clay.
itihāsa As a kind of literature, is repeatedlymentioned along with Purāna in the later texts of the Vedic period. The earliest reference to both occurs in the late fifteenth book of the Atharvaveda. Itihāsa then appears in the Satapatha Brāhmana, the Jaiminīya, Brhadāranyaka, and Chāndogya Upanisads. In the latter it is expressly declared with Purāna to make up the fifth Veda, while the Sāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra makes the Itihāsa a Veda and the Purāna a Veda. The Itihāsa-veda and the Purāna-veda appear also in the Gopatha Brāhmana, while the śatapatha identifies the Itihāsa as well as the Purāna with the Veda. In one passage Anvākhyāna and Itihāsa are distinguished as different classes of works, but the exact point of distinction is obscure; probably the former was supplementary. The Taittirīya Áranyaka mentions Itihāsas and Purānas in the plural. There is nothing to show in the older literature what dis¬tinction there was, if any, between Itihāsa and Purāna; and the late literature, which has been elaborately examined by Sieg, yields no consistent result. Geldner has conjectured that there existed a single work, the Itihāsa-purāna, a collection. of the old legends of all sorts, heroic, cosmogonic, genealogical; but though a work called Itihāsa, and another called Purāna, were probably known to Patañjali, the inaccuracy of Geldner’s view is proved by the fact that Yāska shows no sign of having known any such work. To him the Itihāsa may be a part of the Mantra literature itself, Aitihāsikas being merely people who interpret the Rigveda by seeing in it legends where others see myths. The fact, however, that the use of the compound form is rare, and that Yāska regularly has Itihāsa, not Itihāsa-purāna, is against the theory of there ever having been one work. The relation of Itihāsa to Akhyāna is also uncertain. Sieg considers that the words Itihāsa and Purāna referred to the great body of mythology, legendary history, and cosmogonic legend available to the Vedic poets, and roughly classed as a fifth Veda, though not definitely and finally fixed. Thus, Anvākhyānas, Anuvyākhyānas, and Vyākhyānas could arise, and separate Ákhyānas could still exist outside the cycle, while an Akhyāna could also be a part of the Itihāsa-purāna. He also suggests that the word Akhyāna has special reference to the form of the narrative. Oldenberg, following Windisch, and followed by Geldner, Sieg, and others, has found in the Akhyāna form a mixture of prose and verse, alternating as the narrative was concerned with the mere accessory parts of the tale, or with the chief points, at which the poetic form was naturally produced to correspond with the stress of the emotion. This theory has been severely criticized by Hertel and von Schroeder. These scholars, in accordance with older suggestions of Max Muller and Levi, see in the so-called Ákhyāna hymns of the Rigveda, in which Oldenberg finds actual specimens of the supposed literary genus, though the prose has been lost, actual remains of ritual dramas. Elsewhere it has been suggested that the hymns in question are merely literary dialogues.
indrota daivāpa śaunaka Is mentioned in the śata­patha Brāhmana as the priest who officiated at the horse sacrifice of Janamejaya, although this honour is attributed in the Aitareya Brāhmana to Tura Kāvaseya. He also appears in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana as a pupil of Sruta,and is mentioned in the Vamśa Brāhmana. He cannot be connected in any way with Devāpi, who occurs in the Rigveda
iṣa śyāvāśvi Is mentioned in a Vamsa (‘ list of teachers ’) of the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana as a pupil of Agastya.
uccaiḥśravas kaupayeya Appears in the Jaiminīya Upani­ṣad Brāhmaṇa as a king of the Kurus and as maternal uncle of Keśin. His connexion with the Kurus is borne out by the fact that Upamaśravas was son of Kuru- śravaṇa, the names being strikingly similar.
uddālaka aruṇi Uddālaka, son of Aruna, is one of the most prominent teachers of the Vedic period. He was a Brāh­mana of the Kurupañcālas, according to the śatapatha Brāh­mana. This statement is confirmed by the fact that he was teacher of Proti Kausurubindi of Kauśāmbī, and that his son Svetaketu is found disputing among the Pañcālas. He was a pupil of Aruna, his father, as well as of Patañcala Kāpya, of Madra, while he was the teacher of the famous Yājñavalkya Vājasaneya and of Kausītaki, although the former is represented elsewhere as having silenced him. He overcame in argument Prācīnayogya śauceya, and apparently also Bhadrasena Ajāta- śatrava, though the text here seems to read the name as Arani. He was a Gautama, and is often alluded to as such. As an authority on questions of ritual and philosophy, he is repeatedly referred to by his patronymic name Aruni in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, the Chāndogya Upanisad, and occasionally in the Aitareya, the Kausītaki, and the Sadvimśa Brāhmanas, as well as the Kausītaki Upanisad. In the Maitrāyanī Samhitā he is not mentioned, according to Geldner, but only his father Aruna; his name does not occur, according to Weber, in the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, but in the Kāthaka Samhitā he is, as Aruni, known as a contemporary of Divodāsa Bhaimaseni, and in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana he is mentioned as serving Vāsistha Caikitāneya. In the Taittirīya tradition he seldom appears. There is an allusion in the Taittirīya Samhitā to Kusurubinda Auddālaki, and according to the Taittirīya Brāhmana, Naciketas was a son of Vājaśravasa Gautama, who is made out to be Uddālaka by Sāyana. But the episode of Naciketas, being somewhat unreal, cannot be regarded as of historical value in proving relationship. Aruna is known to the Taittirīya Samhitā. A real son of Uddālaka was the famous śvetaketu, who is expressly reported by Apastamba to have been in his time an Avara or later authority, a statement of importance for the date of Aruni.
ulukya janaśruteya Is mentioned as a teacher in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana.
ṛṣyaśṛṅga Appears as a teacher, pupil of Kāśyapa, and as bearing the patronymic Kāśyapa in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana and in the Vamśa Brāhmana.The more correct spelling of the name is Rśya-śrñga.
eḍaka Appears to denote a ‘ vicious ram ’ in the Satapatha and Jaiminīya Brāhmanas.
aikṣvāka Descendant of Iksvāku,’ is the patronymic borne by Purukutsa in the śatapatha Brāhmana. Another Aiksvāka is Vārsni, a teacher mentioned in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana. A king Hariścandra Vaidhasa Aiksvāka is known to the Aitareya Brāhmana, and Tryaruna is an Aiksvāka in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana.
kakṣa Is the name of two men mentioned as teachers in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana. One is Kaksa Vārakya, pupil of Prosthapada Vārakya, and the other Kaksa Vārāki or Vārakya,\ pupil of Daksa Kātyā- yani Atreya. See also Urukaksa.
kāṇḍviya Is mentioned as an Udgātr in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana
kāpya (‘ descendant of Kapi') is the patronymic of Sanaka and Navaka, two obviously fictitious persons who served at the Sattra (‘ sacrificial session ’) of the Vibhindukīyas in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana. It is also the patronymic of Patañcala in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. See also Kaiśorya.
kārīradi Kārīradi is the name of persons mentioned in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana as holding a special view of the Udgītha (Sāmaveda Chant).
kilāta Is the form of the name. Kirata that appears in the śatapatha, śātyāyanaka, and Jaiminīya Brāhmanas.
kubera vārakya Is mentioned in a list of teachers in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana as a pupil of Jayanta Vārakya.
kusurubinda auddālaki Appears as an authority on ritual matters in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, the Taittirīya Samhitā, the Jaiminīya Brāhmana, and the Sadvimśa Brāhmana. He may have been the brother of Svetaketu, as suggested by Weber.
kṛṣṇa Appears as the name of a seer in one hymn of the Rigveda. Tradition assigns to him or to Viśvaka, son of Krsna (Kārsni), the authorship of the following hymn. The word Krsniya may be a patronymic formed from the same name in two other hymns of the Rigveda, where the Aśvins are said to have restored Visnāpū to Viśvaka Krsniya. In that case Krsna would seem to be the grandfather of Visnāpū. This Krsna may be identical with Krsna Angirasa mentioned in the Kausītaki Brāhmana.
kṛṣṇadatta lauhitya (‘ descendant of Lohita ’) is mentioned in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāh­mana as a pupil of Syāmasujayanta Lauhitya.
kṛṣṇadhṛti sātyaki (‘ descendant of Satyaka') is mentioned in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāh­mana as a pupil of Satyaśravas.
kṛṣṇarāta lauhitya (‘descendant of Lohita’) is mentioned : in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāh-mana as a pupil of Syāmajajayanta Lauhitya.
keśin dārbhya (* descendant of Darbha ’) is a somewhat enigmatic figure. According to the Satapatha Brāh¬mana and the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana he was a king, sister’s son of Uccaihśravas, according to the latter authority. His people were the Pañcālas, of whom the Keśins must there¬fore have been a branch, and who are said to have been threefold (tvyanīka). A story is told of his having a ritual dispute wτith ṣandika in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā ; this appears in another form in the śatapatha Brāhmana. He was a contemporary of a fellow sage, Keśin Sātyakāmi, according to the Maitrā¬yanī and Taittirīya Samhitās. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmana attributes to him a Sāman or chant, and the Kausītaki Brāh¬mana tells how he was taught by a golden bird. In view of the fact that the early literature always refers to Dārbhya as a sage, it seems doubtful whether the commentator is right in thinking that the śatapatha refers to a king and a people, when a sage alone may well be meant, while the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana is of no great authority. The latter work may have assumed that the reference in the Kāthaka Samhitā to the Keśin people signifies kingship, but this is hardly necessary.
krātujāteya Is a patronymic of Rāma Krātujāteya Vaiyā- ghrapadya in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana.
kṣaimi ‘descendant of Ksema,’ is the patronymic of Suda- ksina in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana.
galūnasa arkṣākāyaṇa (‘ descendant of Eksāka’) is mentioned as a teacher in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana.
gupta Is the name in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana of Vaipaścita Dārdhajayanti Gupta Lauhitya. All the three other names being patronymics show that he was descended from the families of Vipaścit, Drdhajayanta, and Lohita.
gobala (‘ox-strength *) Vārsna (‘ descendant of Vrsni ’) is mentioned as a teacher in the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana.
gośru jābāla Is mentioned as a sage in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana
gaurivīti śāktya (‘Descendant of śakti’) or Gaurīviti, as the name is also spelt, is the Rsi, or Seer, of a hymn of the Rigveda, and is frequently mentioned in the Brāhmanas. According to the Jaiminīya Brāhmana, he was Prastotr at the Sattra, or sacrificial session, celebrated by the Vibhindukīyas and mentioned in that Brāhmana.
gauṣūkti Is the name of a pupil of Isa śyāvāśvi according to the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana in a Vamśa (list of teachers).It is also the name, in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, of a teacher who appears to have been needlessly invented to explain the Gausūkta Sāman (chant), which is really the Sāman of Gosūktin.
caikitāneya (‘Descendant of Cekitāna’) is mentioned as a teacher in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana. The Caikitā- neyas are also referred to there in connexion with the Sāman which they worshipped. Brahmadatta Caikitāneya is brought into connexion with the Sāman in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, and Vāsistha Caikitāneya is known to the Sadvimśa and Vamśa Brāhmanas. The word is a patronymic, formed from Caikitāna, according to śañkara, but more probably from Cekitāna, a name found in the Epic.
cyavana Are variant forms of the name of an ancient Ṛṣi, or seer. The Rigveda represents him as an old decrepit man, to whom the Aśvins restored youth and strength, making him acceptable to his wife, and a husband of maidens. The legend is given in another form in the śatapatha Brāh¬mana, where Cyavana is described as wedding Sukanyā, the daughter of śaryāta. He is there called a Bhrgu or Añgirasa, and is represented as having been rejuvenated by immersion in a pond—the first occurrence of a motive, later very common in Oriental literature. Another legend about Cyavāna is apparently alluded to in an obscure hymn of the Rigveda, where he seems to be opposed to the Paktha prince Tūrvayāna, an Indra worshipper, while Cyavāna seems to have been specially connected with the Aśvins. This explanation of the hymn, suggested by Pischel, is corroborated by the Jaiminīya Brāhmana, which relates that Vidanvant, another son of Bhrgu, supported Cyavana against Indra, who was angry with him for sacrificing to the Aśvins; it is also note¬worthy that the Aśvins appear in the śatapatha Brāhmana as obtaining a share in the sacrifice on the suggestion of Sukanyā. But a reconciliation of Indra and Cyavana must have taken place, because the Aitareya Brāhmana relates the inauguration of śāryāta by Cyavana with the great Indra consecration (aindrena mahābhisekena). In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaça Cyavana is mentioned as a seer of Sāmans or Chants.
janaka King of Videha, plays a considerable part in the śatapatha Brāhmana and the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, as well as in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana and the Kausītaki Upanisad. He was a contemporary of Yājñavalkya Vāja-saneya, of śvetaketu Aruneya, and of other sages.6 He had become famous for his generosity and his interest in the dis¬cussion of the nature of Brahman, as ultimate basis of reality, in the life-time of Ajātaśatru of Kāśi. It is significant that he maintained a close intercourse with the Brahmins of the Kuru-Pañcālas, such as Yājñavalkya and śvetaketu; for this indicates that the home of the philosophy of the Upanisads was in the Kuru-Pañcāla country rather than in the east. There is a statement in the śatapatha Brāhmana that he became a Brahmin (brahma). This does not, however, signify a change of caste, but merely that in knowledge he became a Brahmin (see Ksatriya). Janaka is occasionally mentioned in later texts: in the Taittirīya Brāhmana he has already become quite mythical; in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra a sapta-rātra or seven nights’ rite is ascribed to him. It is natural to attempt to date Janaka by his being a con¬temporary of Ajātaśatru, and by identifying the latter with the Ajātasattu of the Pāli texts11: this would make the end of the sixth century B.C. the approximate date of Janaka. But it is very doubtful whether this identification can be supported: Ajātaśatru was king of Kāśi, whereas Ajātasattu was king of Magadha, and his only connexion with Kāśi was through his marriage with the daughter of Pasenadi of Kosala. More¬over, the acceptance of this chronology would be difficult to reconcile with the history of the development of thought; for it would make the rise of Buddhism contemporaneous with the Upanisads, whereas it is reasonably certain that the older Upanisads preceded Buddhism Nor do the Vedic texts know anything of Bimbisāra or Pasenadi, or any of the other princes famed in Buddhist records. The identification of Janaka of Videha and the father of Sītā is less open to objection, but it cannot be proved, and is somewhat doubtful. In the Sūtras Janaka appears as an ancient king who knew of a time when wifely honour was less respected than later.
janaśruta (‘Famed among men ’) Kāndviya is the name of a pupil of Hrtsvāśaya, mentioned in a Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana, and of Vārakya, a pupil of Jayanta, referred to in the same Brāh­mana. Cf. Jānaśruti.
jayaka lauhitya (‘Descendant of Lohita ’) is mentioned in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana as a pupil of Yaśasvin Jayanta Lauhitya.
jayanta Is the name of several teachers in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana: (a) Jayanta Pārāśarya (‘descendant of Parāśara’) is mentioned as a pupil of Vipaśeit in a Vamśa (list of teachers). (b) Jayanta Vārakya (‘ descendant of Varaka’) appears in the same Vamśa as a pupil of Kubera Vārakya. His grandfather is also mentioned there as a pupil of Kamsa Vārakya. A Jayanta Vārakya, pupil of Suyajña Sāndilya, perhaps identical with the preceding, is found in another Vamśa. (d)Jayanta is a name of Yaśasvin Lauhitya. See also Daksa Jayanta Lauhitya.
jābāla ‘Descendant of Jabāla,’ is the metronymic of Mahā- śāla and Satyakāma. Jābāla is also mentioned as a teacher in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana, which refers to the Jābālas4 as well. The Jābāla Grhapatis are spoken of in the Kausītaki Brāhmana.
jaimini Does not appear till the Sūtra period. But a Jaiminīya Samhitā of the Sāmaveda is extant, and has been edited and discussed by Caland; and a Jaiminīya Brāhmana, of which a special section is the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāh­mana, is known and has formed the subject of several articles by Oertel.
jaivala ‘Descendant of Jīvala,’ is the patronymic of Pravāhana in the Brhadāranyaka and Chāndogya Upani­sads. Jaivali, the king, in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana is the same person.
jvālāyana ‘Descendant of Jvāla,’ is the name of a man, a pupil of Gausūkti, mentioned in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana (iv. 16, 1), in a list of teachers.
triveda kṛṣṇarāta lauhitya (‘Descendant of Lohita ’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of śyāmajayanta Lauhitya, according to a Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana
dakṣa kātyāyani ātreya Is mentioned in the Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana as a pupil of Sañkha Bābhravya.
dakṣa jayanta lauhitya (‘Descendant of Lohita ’) is men­tioned in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana as a pupil of Krsnarāta Lauhitya.
daśan ‘Ten,’ forms the basis of the numerical system of the Vedic Indians, as it does of the Aryan people generally. But it is characteristic of India that there should be found at a very early period long series of names for very high numerals, whereas the Aryan knowledge did not go beyond 1,000. In the Vājasaneyi Samhitā the list is 1 ; 10; 100; 1,000 ; ιο,οοο {ayuta) \ ιοο,οοο (ηiyuta); ι,οοο,οοο(prayuta); 10,000,000 {arbuda); 100,000,000 (ηyarbuda)', 1,000,000,000 (samudra); 10,000,000,000 (madhya); ιοο,οοο,οοο,οοο (aηta); 1,000,000,000,000 {parārdha). In the Kāthaka Samhitā the list is the same, but ηiyuta and prayuta exchange places, and after ηyarbuda a new figure (badva) intervenes, thus increasing samudra to ιο,οοο,οοο,οοο, and so on. The Taittirīya Samhitā has in two places exactly the same list as the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. The Maitrāyanī Samhitā has the list ayuta, prayuta, then ayuta again, arbuda, ηyarbuda, samudra, madhya, aηta, parārdha. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmana has the Vājasaneyi list up to ηyarbuda inclusive, then follow ηikharvaka, badva, aksita, and apparently go = ι,οοο,οοο,οοο,οοο. The Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana list replaces nikharvaka by nikharva, badva by padma, and ends with aksitir vyomāntah. The śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra con¬tinues the series after nyarbuda with nikharvāda, samudra, salila, antya, ananta (=10 billions).But beyond ayuta none of these numbers has any vitality. Badva, indeed, occurs in the Aitareya Brāhmana, but it cannot there have any precise numerical sense j and later on the names of these high numerals are very much confused. An arithmetical progression of some interest is found in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, where occurs a list of sacrificial gifts in which each successive figure doubles the amount of the preceding one. It begins with dvādaśa-mānam hiranyam, * gold to the value of 12 ’ (the unit being uncertain, but probably the Krsnala18), followed by ‘to the value of 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1,536, 3072/ then dve astāvimśati-śata-māne, which must mean 2 x 128 X 24 (the last unit being not a single māna, but a number of 24 mānas) = 6,144, then 12,288, 24,576, 49,152, 98,304, 196,608, 393,216. With these large numbers may be compared the minute theoretical subdivision of time found in the śatapatha Brāhmana, where a day is divided into 15 muhūrtas—1 muhūrta =15 ksipras, 1 ksipra =15 etarhis, I etarhi = 15 idānis, 1 idāni =15 prānas. The śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra15 has a decimal division of the day into 15 muhūrtas—• i muhūrta = 10 nimesas, 1 nimesa = 10 dhvamsis. Few fractions are mentioned in Vedic literature. Ardha, pāda, śapha, and kalā denote J, J, TV respectively, but only the first two are common. Trtīya denotes the third part.16 In the Rigveda Indra and Visnu are said to have divided ι,οοο by 3, though how they did so is uncertain. Tri-pād denotes 4 three-fourths.’ There is no clear evidence that the Indians of the Vedic period had any knowledge of numerical figures, though it is perfectly possible.
dāya Occurs in the Rigveda only in the sense of ‘reward’ of exertion (śrama), but later it means ‘inheritance’—that is, a father’s property which is to be divided among his sons either during his lifetime or after his death. The passages all negative the idea that the property 0/ the family was legally family property: it is clear that it was the property of the head of the house, usually the father, and that the other members of the family only had moral claims upon it which the father could ignore, though he might be coerced by his sons if they were physically stronger. Thus Manu is said in the Taittirīya Samhitā to have divided his property among his sons. He omitted Nābhānedistha, whom he afterwards taught how to appease the Añgirases, and to procure cows. This is a significant indication that the property he divided was movable property, rather than land (Urvarā). In the Aitareya Brāhmana the division is said to have been made during Manu’s lifetime by his sons, who left only their aged father to Nābhānedistha. According to the Jaiminīya Brāhmana, again, four sons divided the inheritance while their old father, Abhipratārin, was still alive. It is, of course, possible to regard Dāya as denoting the heritable property of the family, but the developed patria potestas of the father, which was early very marked, as shown by the legend of Sunahśepa, is inconsistent with the view that the sons were legally owners with their father, unless and until they actually insisted on a division of the property. Probably— there is no evidence of any decisive character—land was not divided at first, but no doubt its disposal began to follow the analogy of cattle and other movable property as soon as the available supply of arable land became limited. As for the method of division, it is clear from the Taittirīya Samhitā that the elder son was usually preferred; perhaps this was always the case after death. During the father’s life¬time another might be preferred, as appears from a passage of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Women were excluded from partition or inheritance, according to the śatapatha Brāhmana and the Nirukta. They were, no doubt, supported by their brothers; but if they had none they might be reduced to prostitution. Detailed rules of inheritance appear in the Sūtras.
dārḍhajayanti ‘Descendant of Drdhajayanta,’ is the patro­nymic of Vaipaścita Gupta Lauhitya and of Vaipaścita Drdhajayanta Lauhitya in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana
dālbhya ‘Descendant of Dalbha,’ is a variant of Dārbhya. It is the patronymic of {a) Keśin in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana j (b) Caikitāyana in the Chāndogya Upanisad and the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana; (c) Vaka in the Chāndogya Upanisad and the Kāthaka Samhitā.
div ‘Sky.’ The world as a whole is regarded as divided into the three domains of ‘earth/ ‘air’ or ‘atmosphere,’ and ‘heaven’ or ‘sky’ (div) or alternatively into ‘heaven and earth’ (dyāvā-prthivī), which two are then considered as com­prising the universe, the atmosphere being included in the sky. Lightning, wind, and rain belong to the atmosphere, solar and The shape of the earth is compared with a wheel in the Rigveda, and is expressly called * circular ’ (pari-mandala) in the Satapatha Brāhmana. When earth is conjoined with heaven, the two are conceived as great bowls (camvā) turned towards each other. In the Aitareya Aranyaka the two are regarded as halves of an egg. The distance of heaven from the earth is given by the Atharvaveda as a thousand days’ journey for the sun-bird, by the Aitareya Brāhmana as a thousand days’ journey for a horse, while the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana whimsically estimates the distance as equivalent to a thousand cows standing one on the top of the other.According to Zimmer, the Vedic poets conceived the atmosphere to be above the earth in its upper division only, but below it in its lower stratum. The evidence, however, for the latter assumption is quite insufficient. The theory of the Aitareya Brāhmana is that the sun merely reverses its bright side at night, turning its light on the stars and the moon while it retraverses its course to the east; and it has been shown that this is probably the doctrine of the Rigveda also. See also Sūrya and Candramās. For the Vedic knowledge of the planets, see Graha. There is no geographical division of the earth in Vedic literature. The Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana states that the centre of the earth is a span north of the Plaksa Prāsravanā, and that the centre of the sky is the constellation of the seven Esis, the Great Bear. For the quarters, see Diś.
durvarāha Probably denotes a ‘wild boar.’ It is mentioned in the Satapatha Brāhmana and the Jaiminīya Upanisad. Brāhmana.
dṛḍhacyut ágasti (‘Descendant of Agastya ’) is mentioned in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana as having been Udgātr priest at the Sattra (‘ sacrificial session ’) of the Vibhindukīyas.
dṛti aindrota (‘Descendant of Indrota’) is mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana as a contemporary of Abhipratārin Kāksaseni and as a pupil of Indrota Daivāpa in a Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana. Possibly the same Drti is meant in the compound Drti-Vātavantau, which is found in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana.The former is here said to have continued, after the Mahāvrata was over, the sacrificial session in which both had been engaged, with the result that his descendants prospered more than the Vātavatas.
devataras syāvasāyana kāśyapa (‘Descendant of Kaśyapa’) is mentioned in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana as a pupil of Rśyaśrñga. In the Vamśa Brāhmana, as śāvasāyana, he is a pupil of his father śavas, who again was a pupil of Kāśyapa.
daivāpa ‘Descendant of Devāpi,’ is the patronymic of Indrota in the śatapatha Brāhmana and the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana. No connexion can be traced with the Devāpi of the Rigveda.
nagarin jānaśruteya (‘Descendant of Janaśruti’) is men­tioned as a priest in the Aitareya Brāhmana, and as Nagarin Jānaśruteya Kāndviya in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana (iii. 40, 2).
navaka Is mentioned as having wished for a wife at the Sattra of the Vibhindukīyas in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana.
nāka Is the name of a teacher in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana.1 Presumably he is identical with Nāka Maudgalya (‘descendant of Mudgala’), who is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmana,2 the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad,3 and the Taittirīya Upanisad.[1]
nṛtū Occurs once in the Rigveda denoting a female ‘ dancer.’ In another passage Nrti is found coupled with hāsa, ‘laughter,’ in the description of the funeral ritual; but though it is clear that a joyful celebration is meant (like the Irish ‘ wake ’ or the old-fashioned feasting in Scotland after a funeral), it is difficult to be certain that actual dancing is here meant. Dancing is, however, often referred to in the Rigveda and later. Nrtta- gīta, ‘ dance and song,’ are mentioned in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana as found in the sixth world. See also Sailūsa.
naimiśi Is the epithet of Sitibāhu Aisakrta in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana. It is probably to be taken as an indication that Sitibāhu came from the Naimiśa forest.
pataṅga prājāpatya (‘Descendant of Prajāpati ’) is credited by the Anukramanī (Index) with the authorship of a hymn of the Rigveda in which Patañga means the ‘sun-bird.’ He is also mentioned in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana.
pati Under these words denoting primarily, as the evidence collected in the St. Petersburg Dictionary shows, ‘ lord ’ and ‘ lady,’ and so * husband ’ and * wife,’ it is convenient to consider the marital relations of the Vedic community. Child Marriage.—Marriage in the early Vedic texts appears essentially as a union of two persons of full development. This is shown by the numerous references to unmarried girls who grow old in the house of their fathers (amā-jur), and who adorn themselves in desire of marriage, as well as to the paraphernalia of spells and potions used in the Atharvavedic tradition to compel the love of man or woman respectively, while even the Rigveda itself seems to present us with a spell by which a lover seeks to send all the household to sleep when he visits his beloved. Child wives first occur regularly in the Sūtra period, though it is still uncertain to what extent the rule of marriage before puberty there obtained. The marriage ritual also quite clearly presumes that the marriage is a real and not a nominal one: an essential feature is the taking of the bride to her husband’s home, and the ensuing cohabitation. Limitations on Marriage.—It is difficult to say with certainty within what limits marriage was allowed. The dialogue of Yama and Yam! in the Rigveda seems clearly to point to a prohibition of the marriage of brother and sister. It can hardly be said, as Weber thinks, to point to a practice that was once in use and later became antiquated. In the Gobhila Grhya Sūtra and the Dharma Sūtras are found prohibitions against marriage in the Gotra (‘ family ’) or within six degrees on the mother’s or father’s side, but in the śatapatha Brāh-mana marriage is allowed in the third or fourth generation, the former being allowed, according to Harisvamin, by the Kanvas, and the second by the Saurāstras, while the Dāksi- nātyas allowed marriage with the daughter of the mother’s brother or the son of the father’s sister, but presumably not with the daughter of the mother’s sister or the son of the father’s brother. The prohibition of marriage within the Gotra cannot then have existed, though naturally marriages outside the Gotra were frequent. Similarity of caste was also not an essential to marriage, as hypergamy was permitted even by the Dharma Sūtras, so that a Brāhmana could marry wives of any lower caste, a Ksatriya wives of the two lowest castes as well as of his own caste, a Vaiśya a Sūdrā as well as a Vaiśyā, although the Sūdrā marriages were later disapproved in toto. Instances of such intermarriage are common in the Epic, and are viewed as normal in the Brhaddevatā. It was considered proper that the younger brothers and sisters should not anticipate their elders by marrying before them. The later Samhitās and Brāhmanas present a series of names expressive of such anticipation, censuring as sinful those who bear them. These terms are the pari-vividāna, or perhaps agre-dadhus, the man who, though a younger brother, marries before his elder brother, the latter being then called the parivitta; the agre-didhisu, the man who weds a younger daughter while her elder sister is still unmarried; and the Didhisū-pati, who is the husband of the latter. The passages do not explicitly say that the exact order of birth must always be followed, but the mention of the terms shows that the order was often broken. Widow Remarriage. The remarriage of a widow was apparently permitted. This seems originally to have taken the form of the marriage of the widow to the brother or other nearest kinsman of the dead man in order to produce children. At any rate, the ceremony is apparently alluded to in a funeral hymn of the Rigveda ; for the alternative explanation, which sees in the verse a reference to the ritual of the Purusamedha (‘human sacrifice’), although accepted by Hillebrandt and Delbruck, is not at all probable, while the ordinary view is supported by the Sūtra evidence. Moreover, another passage of the Rigveda clearly refers to the marriage of the widow and the husband’s brother {devr), which constitutes what the Indians later knew as Niyoga. This custom was probably not followed except in cases where no son was already born. This custom was hardly remarriage in the strict sense, since the brother might—so far as appears—be already married himself. In the Atharvaveda, a verse refers to a charm which would secure the reunion, in the next world, of a wife and her second husband. Though, as Delbruck thinks, this very possibly refers to a case in which the first husband was still alive, but was impotent or had lost caste (patita), still it is certain that the later Dharma Sūtras began to recognize ordinary remarriage in case of the death of the first husband Pischel finds some evidence in the Rigveda to the effect that a woman could remarry if her husband disappeared and could not be found or heard of. Polygamy. A Vedic Indian could have more than one wife. This is proved clearly by many passages in the Rigveda; Manu, according to the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, had ten wives ; and the Satapatha Brāhmana explains polygamy by a characteristic legend. Moreover, the king regularly has four wives attributed to him, the Mahisī, the Parivrktī, the Vāvātā, and the Pālāgalī. The Mahisī appears to be the chief wife, being the first, one married according to the śata¬patha Brāhmana. The Parivrktī, ‘ the neglected,’ is explained by Weber and Pischel as one that has had no son. The Vāvātā is ‘the favourite,’ while the Pālāgalī is, according to Weber, the daughter of the last of the court officials. The names are curious, and not very intelligible, but the evidence points to the wife first wedded alone being a wife in the fullest sense. This view is supported by the fact emphasized by Delbruck, that in the sacrifice the Patnī is usually mentioned in the singular, apparent exceptions being due to some mythological reason. Zimmer is of opinion that polygamy is dying out in the Rigvedic period, monogamy being developed from pologamy; Weber, however, thinks that polygamy is secondary, a view that is supported by more recent anthropology. Polyandry.—On the other hand, polyandry is not Vedic. There is no passage containing any clear reference to such a custom. The most that can be said is that in the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda verses are occasionally found in which husbands are mentioned in relation to a single wife. It is difficult to be certain of the correct explanation of each separate instance of this mode of expression; but even if Weber’s view, that the plural is here used majestatis causa, is not accepted, Delbruck’s explanation by mythology is probably right. In other passages the plural is simply generic. Marital Relations.—Despite polygamy, however, there is ample evidence that the marriage tie was not, as Weber has suggested, lightly regarded as far as the fidelity of the wife was concerned. There is, however, little trace of the husband’s being expected to be faithful as a matter of morality. Several passages, indeed, forbid, with reference to ritual abstinence, intercourse with the strī of another. This may imply that adultery on the husband’s part was otherwise regarded as venial. But as the word strī includes all the ‘womenfolk,’ daughters and slaves, as well as wife, the conclusion can hardly be drawn that intercourse with another man’s ‘wife’ was normally regarded with indifference. The curious ritual of the Varunapraghāsās, in which the wife of the sacrificer is questioned as to her lovers, is shown by Delbruck to be a part of a rite meant to expiate unchastity on the part of a wife, not as a normal question for a sacrificer to put to his own wife. Again, Yājñavalkya’s doctrine in the Satapatha Brāhmana, which seems to assert that no one cares if a wife is unchaste (parah-pumsā) or not, really means that no one cares if the wife is away from the men who are sacrificing, as the wives of the gods are apart from them during the particular rite in question. Monogamy is also evidently approved, so that some higher idea of morality was in course of formation. On the other hand, no Vedic text gives us the rule well known to other Indo-Germanic peoples that the adulterer taken in the act can be killed with impunity, though the later legal literature has traces of this rule. There is also abundant evidence that the standard of ordinary sexual morality was not high. Hetairai. In the Rigveda there are many references to illegitimate love and to the abandonment of the offspring of such unions,ββ especially in the case of a protege of Indra, often mentioned as the parāvrkta or parāvrj. The ‘son of a maiden ’ (kumārī-putra) is already spoken of in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. Such a person appears with a metronymic in the Upanisad period: this custom may be the origin of metro- nymics such as those which make up a great part of the lists of teachers (Vamśas) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. The Vājasaneyi Samhitā refers to illicit unions of śūdra and Arya, both male and female, besides giving in its list of victims at the Purusamedha, or ‘human sacrifice,’ several whose designations apparently mean ‘ courtesan (atītvarī) and ‘ procuress of abortion ’ (
palāva Is found in the Atharvaveda and the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana in the sense of * chaff/
palligupta lauhitya ('Descendant of Lohita’) is mentioned in a Vamśa (‘list of teachers’) in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana as a pupil of śyāmajayanta Lauhitya. The name is obviously a late one, for Palli is not found in the early literature, and the name of the Lauhitya family is otherwise known in post-Vedic works only.
pāñcāla Means a ‘ king of the Pañcāla people,’ and is applied to Durmukha in the Aitareya Brāhmana and to śona in the śatapatha Brāhmana. The term is also found in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana. See also Pañcāla.
pārthaśravasa ‘Descendant of Prthu-śravas,’ is found as the name of a demon in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana.
pārṣṇa śailana Is mentioned as a teacher in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana.
puluṣa prācīnayogya (‘Descendant of Prācīnayoga’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Dpti Aindroti śaunaka, in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa. He taught Pauluçi Satyayajña.
pauluṣi ‘Descendant of Puluṣa,’ is the patronymic of Sat- yayajña in the śatapatha Brāhmana and the Chān- dogya Upanisad. In the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāh­mana the form is Paulusita, which is perhaps merely an error.
pratīdarśa śvaikna Is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāh­mana as sacrificing with the Dākṣāyana offering, and as teaching Suplan Sārñjaya, who thence became Sahadeva Sārñjaya. In a second passage he is called Pratīdarśa Aibhāvata, and again brought into connexion with Suplan Sārñjaya. According to Eggeling, he is to be deemed a king of the śviknas ; apparently, too, he was a descendant of Ibhāvant. A Pratīdarśa is also mentioned in the Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmana.
pravāhaṇa jaivali (‘Descendant of Jīvala ’) is the name of a prince, contemporary with Uddālaka, who appears in the Upaniṣads as engaged in philosophical discussions. He is probably identical with the Jaivali of the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana.
prācīnayogya ‘Descendant of Prācmayoga,’ is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Pārāśarya, in the first Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad. A Prācīnayogya is mentioned also in the Chāndogya and the Taittirlya Upaniṣads, and the same patronymic is found in the śatapatha Brāhmana and in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana (see Puluça, Satyayajña, Somaśuçma).
prācīnaśāla aupamanyava (‘Descendant of Upamanyu’) is the name of a householder and theologian in the Chāndogya Upanisad. A Prācīnaśāli appears as an Udgātṛ priest in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmaria, and the Prācīnaśālas are mentioned in the same Upanisad.
prāṇa Properly denoting ‘breath,’ is a term of wide and vague significance in Vedic literature. It is frequently men­tioned from the Rigveda onwards; in the Áranyakas and Upanisads it is one of the commonest symbols of the unity of the universe. In the narrow sense Prāṇa denotes one of the vital airs, of which five are usually enumerated—Prāna, Apāna, Vyāna, Udāna, and Samāna; but often only two, Prāna and Apāna, or Prāna and Vyāna, or Prāṇa and Udāna; or three, Prāṇa, Apāna, and Vyāna, or Prāṇa, Udāna, and Vyāna, or Prāṇa, Udāna, and Samāna; or four, Prāṇa, Apāna, Vyāna, and Samāna, or Prāṇa, Apāna, Udāna, Vyāna. The exact sense of each of these breaths when all are mentioned cannot be determined. Prāṇa is also used in a wider sense to denote the organs of sense, or as Sāyana puts it, the ‘orifices of the head,’ etc. These are given as six in one passage of the śatapatha Brāhmana, presumably the eyes, ears, and nostrils. More frequently there are stated to be seven in the head, the mouth being then included. Sometimes again they are mentioned as nine, or as seven in the head and two below. Ten are counted in the śatapatha Brāhmaria and the Jaiminiya Brāhmana, while even eleven are mentioned in the Kāthaka Upanisad, and twelve in the Kāthaka Samhitā, where the two breasts are added. Exactly what organs are taken to make up the numbers beyond seven is not certain. The tenth is the navel (nābhi) in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā j when eleven are named the Brahma-randhra (suture in the crown) may be included; in the Atharvaveda, as interpreted by the Brhad- āraṇyaka Upaniṣad, the seventh and eighth are the organs of taste and speech respectively. But usually these make one only, and the eighth and ninth are either in the breast or below (the organs of evacuation). The word Prāṇa has sometimes merely the general sense of breath, even when opposed to Apāna. But its proper sense is beyond question ‘ breathing forth,’ ‘ expiration,’ and not as the St. Petersburg Dictionary explains it, ‘ the breath inspired,’ a version due to the desire to interpret Apāna as ‘expiration,’ a meaning suggested by the preposition apa, ‘away.’ This being clearly shown both by the native scholiasts and by other evidence, Bǒhtlingk later accepted the new view.
prātṛda Descendant of Pratpd,’ is the patronymic of a teacher called Bhālla in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmaṇa and of another teacher in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad.
proṣṭhapāda vārakya Is mentioned in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmaṇa as a pupil of Kamsa Vāraki.
plakṣa prāsravaṇa Is the name of a locality, forty-four days’ journey from the spot where the Sarasvatī disappears. It is mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa and the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmaṇa. In the latter text it is said that the middle of the earth is only a span (Prādeśa) to the north of it. In the Rigveda Sūtras3 the locality is called Plākṣa Prasravaṇa, and is apparently meant to designate the source of the Sarasvatī rather than the place of its reappearance.
baka dālbhya ('Descendant of Dalbha’) is the name of a person mentioned in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmaṇa as constraining Indra for the Ájakeśins, and as a Kuru- Pañcāla. fι.
bamba ajadviṣa (‘Descendant of Aja-dviṣ’) is mentioned as a teacher in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmaṇa. Bimba is a various reading.
bābhravya Descendant of Babhru,’ is the patronymic of Girija in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, and of śañkha in the Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa.
bimba Appears in one passage of the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmaṇa to denote the plant Momordica monadelpha.
brahmadatta caikitāneya (Descendant of Cekitāna’) is the name of a teacher in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad, He is mentioned also in the Jaiminiya Upanisad as patronized by Abhipratārin, the Kuru king.
bhagīratha aikṣvāka (Descendant of Ikṣvāku’) is the name of a king in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmaṇa. It is important to note that he is regarded as being on friendly terms with the Kuru-Pañcālas, which points to the Ikṣvākus being allied to that people, and not belonging (as is the case in the Buddhist books) to the east of India.
bhayada ásamātya (‘Descendant of Asamāti ’) is the name of a king in the Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa. Oertel, however, seems to take the name as Abhayada, but this is not probable, for Bhayada is a name in the Purāṇas.
bhālla Is the name or patronymic of a teacher who bears the patronymic Prātṛda in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana
bhāllavin ‘Pupil of Bhallavin,’ is the name of a school of teachers mentioned in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana.
mahāvṛṣa Is the name of a tribe mentioned along with the ! Mμjavants in the Atharvaveda as a locality to which fever is to be relegated. It is reasonable to suppose that they were northerners, though Bloomfield suggests that the name may be chosen more for its sound and sense (as ‘of mighty strength’ to resist the disease) than for its geographical position. In the Chāndogya Upaniṣad3 the place Raikvaparṇa is said to be in the Mahāvrṣa country. The king of the Mahāvrṣas in the Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa is said to be Hrtsvāśaya. The Mahāvṛṣas are also known from a Mantra in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra.
mahidāsa aitareya (‘Descendant of Itara or Itarā’) is the name of the sage from whom the Aitareya Brāhmana and Aranyaka take their names. He is several times referred to in the Aitareya Araṇyaka, but not as its author. He is credited with a life of 116 years in the Chāndogya Upanisad and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana.
mācala Mentioned in the Jaiminīya Brāhmaṇa, apparently denotes some sort of dog found in Vidarbha.
mitrabhūti lauhitya (‘Descendant of Lohita’) is mentioned in the Vaṃśa (list of teachers) in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmaṇa as a pupil of Krçṇadatta Lauhitya.
muñja sāmaśravasa (‘Descendant of Sāmaśravas’) is the name of a man, possibly a king, mentioned in the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmana and the Sadvimśa Brāhmana.
rājakula A ‘kingly family, is mentioned in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmaṇa, where, it is to be noted, such a family is ranked after, not before, a Brāhmaṇa Kula, a ‘Brah­min family.’
rāma krātujāteya (‘Descendant of Kratu-jāta’) Vaiyā- ghra-padya (descendant of Vyāghrapad’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of śañga śātyāyani Átreya, who is mentioned in two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmaṇa.
lohāyasa ‘Red metal is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāh­mana, where it is distinguished from Ayas and gold. In the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmana the contrast is with Kārṣṇā-yasa, ‘iron,’ and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa with Krṣnāyasa, ‘iron.’ ‘Copper’ seems to be meant.
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
vārakya descendant of Varaka,’ is the patronymic, in the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa, of Kamsa, Kubera, Janaśruta* Jayanta, and Proçthapad.
vāstupaśya According to Bohtlingk a name of a Brāh­maṇa, is a mere error for Vāstupasya in the Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa.
vidagdha śākalya Is the name of a teacher, a contemporary and rival of Yājñavalkya at the court of Janaka of Videha in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana, and the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa.
vinaśana ‘Disappearance,’ is the name of the place where the Sarasvatī is lost in the sands of the desert. It is mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa1 and the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa. The locality is the Patiala district of the Panjab. Cf. Plakça Prāsravaṇa.
viśvaka In the Rigveda called Kṛṣṇiya (possibly ‘son of Kṛṣṇa ’) is a protege of the Aśvins, who restored to him his lost son, Viṣṇāpu. See 2. Kṛṣṇa.
vṛṣaṇaśva Is the name of a man referred to in the Rigveda, where Indra is called Menā, perhaps his ‘wife’ or ‘daughter.’ The same legend is alluded to in the Jaiminīya Brāhmaṇa, the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, the Sadvimśa Brāhmana, and the Taittirīya Araṇyaka, but it is clear that all of these texts had no real tradition of what was referred to.
vaipaścita ('Descendant of Vipaścit') Dārdha-jayanti ('descendant of Dr Hιajayanta') Gupta Lauhitya (‘ descendant of Lohita ’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Vaipaácita Dārdhajayanti Drdhajayanta Lauhitya, in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa (iii. 42, 1).
vaipaścita (‘Descendant of Vipaścit ’) Dārdhajayanti (‘descendant of Drdhajayanta’) Drdhajayanta Lauhitya (‘descendant of Lohita’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Vipaścit Drdhajayanta Lauhitya, in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa.
vaiyāghrapadya ‘Descendant of Vyāghrapad,’ is the patro­nymic of Indradyumna Bhāllaveya in the śatapatha Brāh­maṇa and the Chāndogya Upaniṣad, of Budila Áśvatarāśvi in the Chāndogya Upaniṣad, and of Gośruti in that Upaniṣad and in the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka. In the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa the patronymic is applied to Rāma Krātiyāteya.
śakunimitra Is one of the names of Vipaścit Pārāśarya in the Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa.
śakti Is said in the Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa to have been the son of Vasiṣtha, and to have been cast into the fire by the Viśvāmitras. According to Sadguruśiṣya, who appears to follow the śātyāyanaka, the story of śakti is as follows : Viśvāmitra, being defeated in a contest by śakti, had recourse to Jamadagni, who taught him the Sasarparī; later he revenged himself on śakti by having him burnt in the forest. The Bṛhaddevatā relates the first part of the tale only. Geldner sees in the Rigveda a description of the death struggle of śakti, but this interpretation is more than doubtful.
śaryāta Is mentioned once in the Rigveda as a protágá of the Aśvins. Of him in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa and the Jaiminiya Brāhmana is told a story how Cyavana was annoyed by the śāryātas, and appeased by the gift of Sukanyā, Saryāta's daughter, as a wife, and how Cyavana was then restored to youth by the Aśvins. He is there called Mānava (‘ descendant of Manu ’). He appears also as śaryāta Mānava, a sacrificer, in the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa.4
śāṭyāyana ‘Descendant of śāṭya,’ is the patronymic of a teacher mentioned twice in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa1 and often in the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa.2 In a Vamśa (list of teachers) in the latter work3 he is called a pupil of Jvālāyana, while in the Vamśa at the end of the Sāmavidhāna Brāhmaṇa he appears as a pupil of Bādarāyaṇa. The śātyā- yanins, his followers, are frequently mentioned in the Sūtras,4 the śātyāyani Brāhmaṇa5 and the śātyāyanaka® being also referred to in them. It has been shown by Oertel[1] that this Brāhmaṇa bore a close resemblance to, and probably belonged to the same period as, the Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa.
śālāvatya ‘Descendant of śalāvant,’ is the patronymic of śilaka in the Chāndogya Upaniṣad, and of Galūnasa Árkçākāyaṇa in the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa.
śitibāhu aiṣakṛta naimiśi Is mentioned as a sacrificer in the Jaiminīya Brāhmaṇa, where it is recorded that a monkey ran off with his sacrificial cake.
śukra jābāla (‘Descendant of Jabālā’) is the name of a teacher in the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa.
śailana In the plural, is the name of a school of teachers in the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa.
śaunaka ‘Descendant of śunaka,’ is a common patronymic. It is applied to Indrota and Svaidāyana. A śaunaka appears as a teacher of Rauhiṇāyána in the Brhadāranyaka Upaniṣad. A śaunaka-yajña, or śaunaka sacrifice, occurs in the Kausītaki Brāhmana. In the Chāndogya Upaniṣad Atidhanvan śaunaka appears as a teacher. That Upaniṣad and the Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmana mention a śaunaka Kāpeya who was a contemporary of Abhipratārin Kakçaseni, whose Purohita śaunaka was according to another passage of the latter Upaniṣad. In the Sūtras, the Bṛhaddevatā, etc., a śaunaka appears as a great authority on grammatical, ritual, and other matters.
śyāmajayanta lauhitya (‘Descendant of Lohita’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Jayanta Pārāśarya, in a Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa. Another man of the same name occurs in the same place as a pupil of Mitpabhūti Lauhitya.
śyāmasujayanta lauhitya (‘Descendant of Lohita’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Krçṇadhpti Sātyaki, in a Varpśa (list of teachers) of the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa.
śyāvasāyana Is the patronymic of Devataras in the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa. The form is perhaps an error for śāvasāyana.
saṃśliṣṭakā Is the name of an animal mentioned in the Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa and the śātyāyanaka along with the Godhā.
satyayajña (‘True sacrificer ’) Pauluṣi ('descendant of Puluṣa') Prāeīnayogya (If descendant of Prācīnayoga’) is the name of a teacher in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa, the Chāndogya Upaniṣad, and the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa. In the latter text he is said to have been the pupil of Pulusa Prāeīna- yogya.
satyādhivāka caitrarathi (‘Descendant of Citraratha') is the name of a man in the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmana.
sanaka Occurs as the name of one of the two Kāpyas (the other being Navaka) who took part in the sacrifice of the Vibhindukīyas, which is mentioned in the Jaiminiya Brāh­maṇa. Ludwig thinks that the Sanakas are referred to as non-sacrificers in one passage of the Rigveda, but this is very doubtful.
sātyayajñi Is the name of a school of teachers mentioned in the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa with the śailanas and the Kārīradis.
sāyaka jānaśruteya (‘Descendant of Janaáruta’) Kāṇd- viya is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Janaśruta Kāṇdviya, in the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa.
sucitta śailana Is the name of a teacher in the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa.
sudakṣiṇa kṣaimi (‘Descendant of Kṣema ’) is the name of a teacher in the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa (iii. 6, 3 ; 7, I et seq.; 8, 6).
suparṇa ‘Well-winged,’ designates a large bird of prey, the ‘eagle’ or the ‘vulture,’ in the Rigveda and later. In the passages in which it appears as an eater of carrion it must be the vulture. The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa mentions an eagle which separates milk from water like the Kruftc. In the Rigveda the Suparṇa is said to be the child of the śyena, and is distinguished from the latter in another passage: this led Zimmer to think that the falcon is probably meant. The Atharvaveda alludes to its cry, and describes it as living in the hills.
hṛtsvāśaya állakeya Is mentioned in the Jaiminiya Upani­ṣad Brāhmaṇa in the Vamśa (list of teachers) as a pupil of Somaśuçma Sātyayajñi Prācīnayogya.
       Bloomfield Vedic
         Concordance  
30 results
     
niyantā sūnṛtānām RV.8.32.15b.
niyudbhir yātam avamābhir arvāk RV.6.62.11b.
niyudbhir vāyav (VSKṃS.KS.KA. vāya) iṣṭaye duroṇe RV.7.92.3b; VS.27.27b; VSK.29.26b; TS.2.2.12.8b; MS.4.10.6b: 158.4; KS.10.12b; KA.1.198.32b.
niyudbhir vāyav (VSKṃS. vāya) iha tā vi muñca (śś. muñcaḥ) VS.27.33d; VSK.29.28d; MS.4.6.2d: 79.6; śB.4.4.1.15d,17; TA.1.11.8d; Aś.5.18.5d; śś.8.3.10d; Apś.13.13.12. See viyugbhir.
niyudbhiś carṣaṇīnām RV.4.31.4c.
niyudbhiś ca sajoṣasā yuvānā RV.3.58.7b.
niyutaṃ rāya īmahe RV.1.138.3e.
niyutaṃ ca prayutaṃ (KS. cārbudaṃ) ca VS.17.2; TS.4.4.11.3; KS.17.10. Cf. prayutaṃ cā-.
niyutāya svāhā TS.7.2.20.1; KSA.2.10; TB.3.8.16.2.
niyute dve nava cākṣarāṇi JB.2.73b. See dve niyute.
niyute sīda KS.39.6; Apś.16.31.1.
niyuto dāśuṣe narā RV.4.47.4b; 6.60.8b; SV.2.342b; MS.4.11.1b: 159.15; KS.4.15b; JB.3.90b.
niyutvāṃ indrasārathiḥ RV.4.46.2b; 48.2b; AB.2.25.5.
niyutvān vāyav (VSK. vāya) ā gahi RV.2.41.2a; ArS.2.6a; VS.27.29a; VSK.29.29a.
niyutvān vṛṣabho raṇat RV.8.93.20b; TB.2.4.5.1b; 7.13.1b.
niyutvān somapītaye RV.2.41.1c; VS.27.32c.
niyutvantā na ūtaye RV.4.47.3c; SV.2.980c.
niyutvanto grāmajito yathā naraḥ RV.5.54.8a; Aś.2.13.7.
niyutvatā rathena yāhi dāvane RV.1.134.1f.
niyuvānā niyuta spārhavīrāḥ RV.7.91.5a.
aghniyām upasevatām # TB.3.7.4.13d; Apś.1.12.8d.
asikniy# see asikny-.
indrāgniyoḥ (sc. ahaṃ devayajyayānnādo bhūyāsam) # Apś.4.9.13. See agnīndrayor.
indrāgniyor (Mś. -gnyor) ahaṃ devayajyayendriyāvy annādo (Mś. -driyavān vīryavān) bhūyāsam # TS.1.6.2.4; 11.6; Mś.1.4.2.6. See under agnīndrayor.
indrāgniyor aham ujjitim etc. # see indrāgnyor ujjitim etc.
indrāgniyor bhāgadheyī # see indrāgnyor etc.
janiyanti nāv agravaḥ # AVś.14.2.72a. See janīyanto.
tiroahniyān somān prasthitān preṣya # Apś.14.4.8. See aśvibhyāṃ tiro 'hnyān.
tiroahniyā mā suhutā ā viśantu # TS.7.3.13.1c; KSA.3.3c.
durniyantuḥ pariprīto na mitram # RV.1.190.6b.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
     Grammar
     KV Abhyankar
"niy" has 50 results.
     
aniyatanot subject to any limitation confer, compare प्रत्यया नियताः, अर्था अनियताः, अर्था नियताः, प्रत्यया अनियताः M.Bh. on II. 3.50. In the casc of नियमविधि (a restrictive rule or statement ) a limitation is put on one or more of the constituent elements or factors of that rule, the limited element being called नियत, the other one being termed अनियत; also see Kāś. on II.2.30.
aniyatapuṃskawhose sex-especially whether it is a male or a female-is not definitely known from its mere sight; small insects which are so. The term क्षुद्रा in P. IV.1.131 is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as क्षुद्रा नाम अनियतपुंस्का अङ्गहीना वा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV.1.131.
ubhayaniyamaa restriction understood in both the ways; confer, compare सिद्धं तूभयनियमात् उभयनियमोयम् । प्रकृतिपर एव प्रत्ययः प्रयोक्तव्यः, प्रत्ययपरैव च प्रकृतिरिति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.1.2, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 11; cf also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI.2.148.
niyata(1)regulated in size or number; definitely fixed; the word नियत is used in grammar in connection with the nimitta or nimittin in a grammatical operation prescribed by a rule, which, or a part of which, is shown to be superfluous unless there is laid down a regulation; confer, compare शेषग्रहणं कर्तव्यम् । शेषनियमार्थम् | प्रकृत्यर्थौ नियतौ प्रत्यया अनियतास्ते शेषेपि प्राप्नुवन्ति M.Bh. on I.3.12 Vart. 6; (2) The grave accent; cf उदात्तपूर्वं नियतं... स्वर्यते RPr.III.9.
niyatasvara(1)an affix whose accent is definitely given by an indicatory mute letter applied to it; confer, compare M.Bh. on I.1.3; (2) the grave accent; a syllable with a grave accent; grave vowel; confer, compare नियतस्वरोदये R.Pr.XI.25; (3) name of a Samdhi when a visarga is changed into रेफ and then omitted and the preceding vowel is lengthened; cf ह्रस्वस्याकामनियता उभाविमौ R.Pr. IV.9; confer, compare also P. VIII.3.14 and VI.3.111.
niyama(1)restriction; regulation; binding; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in connection with a restriction laid down with reference to the application of a grammatical rule generally on the strength of that rule, or a part of it, liable to become superfluous if the restriction has not been laid down; confer, compare M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on I. 3.63, VI. 4.11; confer, compare also the frequently quoted dictum अनियमे नियमकारिणी परिभाषा; (2) limitation as contrasted with विकल्प or कामचार; confer, compare अनेकप्राप्तावेकस्य नियमो भवति शेषेष्वनियम; पटुमृदुशुक्लाः पटुशुक्लमृदव इति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2. 34 Vart. 2; (3) a regulating rule; a restrictive rule, corresponding to the Parisamkhya statement of the Mimamsakas, e. g. the rule अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; the grammarians generally take a rule as a positive injunction avoiding a restrictive sense as far as possible; confer, compare the dictum विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान्. Par. Sek. Pari. 100; the commentators have given various kinds of restrictions,. such as प्रयोगनियम,अभिधेयनियम,अर्थनियम, प्रत्ययनियम, प्रकृतिनियम, संज्ञानियम et cetera, and otherset cetera, and others; (4) grave accent or anudatta; confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वं नियतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 9; see नियत (2).
niyāmakalimiting; limitative; confer, compare तुः क्रियते । स नियामको भविष्यति । अमेवापञ्चम्याः इति M. Bh, on II. 4.83; confer, compare also लोके निमित्तं द्विविधं दृष्टम् । कार्यस्थितौ नियामकं तदनियामकं च Par. Sek. Pari. 56.
niyogaan obligatory order or command, such as that of a preceptor, as contrasted with स्वभाव; cf धातोः परः अकारोऽकशब्दो वा नियोगतःकर्तारं ब्रुवन्कृत्संज्ञश्च भवति ......... स्वभावतः कर्तारं ब्रुवन्कृत्संज्ञश्च भवति et cetera, and others Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 4.67 Vart. 8 where Kaiyata explains नियोग as अाचार्यनियोग.
prakṛtiniyamarestriction regarding the base, as contrasted with प्रत्ययनियम, confer, compare किमयं प्रत्ययनियम: प्रकृतिपर एव प्रत्ययः प्रयोक्तव्यः अप्रकृतिपरो नेति । अाहोस्वित् प्रकृतिनियमः । प्रत्ययपरैव प्रकृतिः प्रयोक्तव्या अप्रत्ययप्ररा नेति [ M.Bh. on P.III. 1.2.
prakṛtyarthaniyamarestriction regarding the sense of the radical base; confer, compare प्रकृत्यर्थनियमे अन्येषां प्रत्ययानामभावः । अनुदात्तङितस्तृजादयो न प्राप्नुवन्ति M.Bh. on P. I. 3.12 Vart. 5
prayoganiyamageneral rules or principles laid down regarding the use of words in language and literature such as (l) a word recognised as correct should always be used, confer, compare एवमिहापि समानायामर्थगतौ शब्देन चापशब्देन च धर्मनियमः क्रियते शब्देनैवार्थोभिधेयो नापशब्देनेति । एवंक्रियमाणमभ्युदयकारि भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. I. Ahnika l, (2) never a base alone or an affix alone should be used, but always a base with the necessary affix should be used; confer, compare यावता समयः कृतो न केवला प्रकृतिः प्रयोक्तव्या न केवलः प्रत्ययः M. Bh, on P. I. 2.64 Vart. 8, also on P. III. 1.94 Vart. 3; (3) when the sense is already expressed by a word, a word repeating the sense should not be used; confer, compare उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः. Besides these, many minor regulations of the type of Paribhasas are laid down by grammarians. For details see Paribhashasamgraha Introduction.
bhakṣyaniyamarestriction regarding edibles of a particular kindeclinable The word is quoted to illustrate the नियमविधि or restrictive rule in grammar. Although the restriction in the instance पञ्च पञ्चनखा भक्ष्याः is of the kind of परिसंख्या and called परिसंख्या, and not नियम, by the Mimamsakas, the grammarians call it a niyamavidhi. There is no परिसंख्याविधि according to grammarians; they cite only two kinds of vidhi viz. simple vidhi or apurva vidhi and niyamavidhi.
viniyogaemployment separately of different persons or things for different purposes; confer, compare अहेति विनियोगे च P.VIII. 1.61;confer, compare also अह विनियोगे । विनियेागो नाम द्वयोः पुरुषयोंरेकस्मिन्कर्मणि एकस्य पुरुषस्य संबन्धः अन्यस्मिन्कर्मणि अपरस्य V.Pr.VI.21.
ardhavisargaa term used for the Jihvāmūliya and Upadhmāniya into which a visarga is changed when followed by the letters क्, ख, and the letters प्, फ् respectively.
ūṣmanaspiration letters, spirants called breathings also: the name is given to letters or sounds produced with unintonated breath through an open posision of the mouth; confer, compare विवृतमूष्मणाम् M. Bh, on P.I.1.10 Vārt, 3. The word refers to the letters श्, ष्, सु, ह्, visarga, jihvāmūlīya, upadhmāniya and anusvāra; confer, compare ऊष्मा वायुस्तत्प्रधाना वर्णा ऊष्माणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.12; confer, compare also Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.10.
dyotakaindicative, suggestive; not directly capable of expressing the sense by denotation; the nipatas and upasargas are said to be 'dyotaka' and not 'vacaka' by standard grammarians headed by the Varttikakara; confer, compare निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P.I.2.45 Varttika 12; confer, compare Kaiyata also on the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf also निपाता द्योतकाः केचित्पृथगर्थाभिधायिनः Vakyapadiya II.194;, गतिवाचकत्वमपि तस्य ( स्थाधातोः ) व्यवस्थाप्यते, उपसर्गस्तु तद्योतक एव commentary on Vakyapadiya II. 190; confer, compare पश्चाच्छ्रोतुर्बोधाय द्योतकोपसर्गसंबन्ध: Par. Sek. on Pari. 50; cf also इह स्वरादयो वाचकाः चादयो द्योतका इति भेदः Bhasa Vr. om P.I.1.37.The Karmapravacaniyas are definitely laid down as dyotaka, confer, compare क्रियाया द्योतको नायं न संबन्धस्य वाचकः । नापि क्रियापदाक्षेपीं संबन्धस्य तु भेदकः Vakyapadiya II.206; the case affixes are said to be any way, 'vacaka' or 'dyotaka'; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युर्द्वित्त्वादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya II. 165.
dyotya(sense)conveyed by suggestion indirectly and not directly expressed, as in the case of karmapravacaniyas, the krt affixes and the tad, affixes: confer, compare अनुशब्दो लक्षणे द्योत्ये कर्मप्रवचनीयसंज्ञो भवति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 4.84.
dvi:spṛṣṭaa word used many times synonymously with दु:स्पृष्ट; the letters ळ्, ळ् ह्, and upadhmaniya(xप्) are termed द्विःस्पृष्ट or दुःस्पृष्ट.
dvisvarapossessed of two vowels,dissyllabic; confer, compare न पदे द्विस्वरे नित्यम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVI. 17. द्विस्स्पृष्ट a term used for an upadhmaniya letter or a phonetic element resulting from a visarga followed by the letter प्, or फ़्. See उपध्मांनीय.The word is also used sometimes for the pronunciation ळ् of ड्, and ळ्ह् of ढ्. See दुःस्पृष्ट.
pañcālapadavṛttithe usage or the method of the Pañcālas; the eastern method of euphonic combinations, viz. the retention of the vowel अ after the preceding vowel ओ which is substituted for the Visarga; e. g. यो अस्मै; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 12; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI. 19. This vowel अ which is retained, is pronounced like a short ओ or अर्धओकार by the followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāņāyaniya branches of the Sāmavedins; confer, compare commentary on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI. 19 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1.
maitrāyaṇīya prātiśākhyaa Pratiskhya or :Parsada work giving the peculiarities of Sandhi, accent and the like, in changing the Maitrayaniya Samhitaapatha into the Padapatha.
varṇasamāmnāyaa collection of letters or alphabet given traditionally. Although the Sanskrit alphabet has got everywhere the same cardinal letters id est, that is vowels अ, इ et cetera, and others, consonants क्, ख् etc : semivowels य्, र्, ल्, व, sibilants श् ष् स् ह् and a few additional phonetic units such as अनुस्वार, विसर्ग and others, still their number and order differ in the different traditional enumerations. Panini has not mentioned them actually but the fourteen Siva Sutras, on which he has based his work, mention only 9 vowels and 34 consonants, the long vowels being looked upon as varieties of the short ones. The Siksa of Panini mentions 63 or 64 letters, adding the letter ळ ( दुःस्पृष्ट ); confer, compare त्रिषष्टि: चतुःषष्टिर्वा वर्णाः शम्भुमते मताः Panini Siksa. St.3. The Rk Pratisakhya adds four (Visarga, Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya and Anusvara ) to the forty three given in the Siva Sutras and mentions 47. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya mentions 52 letters viz. 16 vowels, 25class consonants, 4 semivowels,six sibilants (श्, ष् , स्, ह् , क्, प् , ) and anusvara. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions 65 letters 3 varieties of अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ, two varieties of ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, 25 class-consonants, four semivowels, four sibilants, and जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय, अनुस्वार, विसर्जनीय, नासिक्य and four यम letters; confer, compare एते पञ्चषष्टिवर्णा ब्रह्मराशिरात्मवाचः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 25. The Rk Tantra gives 57 letters viz. 14 vowels, 25 class consonants, 4 semivowels, 4 sibilants, Visarga,.Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya, Anunasika, 4_yamas and two Anusvaras. The Rk Tantra gives two different serial orders, the Uddesa (common) and the Upadesa (traditional). The common order or Uddesa gives the 14 vowels beginning with अ, then the 25 class consonants, then the four semivowels, the four sibilants and lastly the eight ayogavahas, viz. the visarjanya and others. The traditional order gives the diphthongs first, then long vowels ( अा, ऋ, लॄ, ई and ऊ ) then short vowels (ऋ, लृ, इ, उ, and lastly अ ), then semivowels, then the five fifth consonants, the five fourths, the five thirds, the five seconds, the five firsts, then the four sibilants and then the eight ayogavaha letters and two Ausvaras instead of one anuswara. Panini appears to have followed the traditional order with a few changes that are necessary for the technigue of his work.
vikrama(1)name given to a grave vowel placed between two circumflex vowels, or between a circumflex and an acute, or between an acute and a circumflex; confer, compare स्वरितयोर्मध्ये यत्र नीचं स्यात्, उदात्तयोर्वा अन्यतरतो वा उदात्तस्वरितयोः स विक्रम: T.Pr. XIX.I ; (2) name given to a grave vowel between a pracaya vowel and an acute or a circumflex vowel: confer, compare प्रचयपूर्वश्च कौण्डिन्यस्य T.Pr.XIX.2: (8) repetition of a word or पद as in the Krama recital of the Veda words; (4) name given to a visarjaniya which has remained intact, as for instance in यः प्रणतो निमिषतः ; confer, compare R.Pr. I.5; VI.1 ; the word विक्रम is sometimes used in the sense of visarjaniya in general: cf also अनिङ्गयन् विक्रममेषु कुर्यात् R.Pr. XIII.11.
vyākaraṇāntaraa term used by scholars of the Paniniyan system of grammar with respect to grammar works of other systems such as the Katantra, the Sakatyana, and others; confer, compare श्रन्थिग्रन्थिदाम्भिस्वञ्जीनां लिटः कित्वं व्याकरणान्तरे S.K. on अश्नॊतेश्च P. VII.4.72.
śvāsaliterally breath; the voiceless breath required for uttering some letters; the term is used in the Pratisakhya and Vyakarana books in the sense of breath which is prominently required in the utterance of the hard consonants, sibilants, visarga and the Jihvamuliya and Upadhmaniya letters; the term is used in connection with these letters also; the usual term in use is, of course, श्वासानुप्रदान, the term श्वास showing the property of the breath, with which these letters are characterizedition
śrvasānupradānacaused by the emission of breath; the term is used in contrast with नादानुप्रदान in connection with hard consonants, surds, visarga,the Jihvamuliya and the Upadhmaniya letters: see श्वास a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
(l)a sibilant letter of the cerebral class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, कण्ठविवार and महाप्राण ; (2) mute indicatory letter ष्, attached to nouns as also to affixes with which nouns are formed, such as ष्वुन्, ष्कन्, ष्टरच्, ष्ट्रन् et cetera, and others showing the addition of the feminine affix ई ( ङीष् ); confer, compare षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च P. IV. 1.41 ; (3) changeable to स् when placed at the beginning of roots in the Dhatupatha except in the case of the roots formed from nouns and the roots ष्ठिव् and ष्वष्क्; (4) substitute for the last consonant of the roots ब्रश्च, भ्रस्ज्, सृज्, मृज्, यज्, राज्, भ्राज्, as also of the roots ending in छ् and श् before a consonant excepting a nasal and a semivowel, as also when the consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् et cetera, and others cf P. VIII.2.36 (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 3.39: confer, compare also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष्; e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे , वृक्षष्टकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.41.
ṣaṭkārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaknown also as कारकखण्डनमण्डन a grammar-work on consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् et cetera, and others cf P. VIII.2.36 (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 3.39: confer, compare also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष्; e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे , वृक्षष्टकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.41.
s(l)a sibilant letter of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, कण्ठविवार and महाप्राण ; ( 2 ) substitute for visarjaniya if followed by a hard consonant excepting a sibilant confer, compare P. VIII. 3. 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 46, 47, 48-54,
the last of the spirant consonants, | which is a glottal, voiced letter called also ऊष्म or spirant of a partial contact, i. e. possessed of the properties कण्ठय, नादानुप्रदान, ऊष्म and ईषत्स्पृष्टत्व. This letter has been given twice in the Paninian alphabet, viz. the Mahesvara Sutras, and the Bhasyakara has given the purpose of it, viz. the technical utility of being included among soft consonants along with semi-vowels, nasals and the fifth, the fourth, and the third class-consonants (हश् अश् et cetera, and others),as also among the hard consonants along with the fourth and the third class-letters and spirants ( झ्लू, ). The second letter हू in हल् appears, however, to have only a technical utility,as the purpose of its place there among spirants is served by the jihvamuliya and the Upadhmaniya letters which are,in fact, the velar and the labial spirants respectively, besides the other three शू, षू and सू .The Rk Pratisakhya calls ह as a chest sound. For details, see Mahabhasya on the Siva Sutra हयवरट् Varttikas 1, 2 and 3.
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
     Vedabase Search  
378 results
     
niyā takingCC Madhya 1.139
niyaccha fixSB 4.29.55
niyaccha give upSB 7.5.28
niyacchataḥ and withdrawsSB 10.70.38
niyacchati annihilatesSB 2.10.43
niyacchet must controlSB 2.2.15
niyacchet one should controlSB 11.16.44
niyacchet withdrawSB 2.1.18
niyama a regulative principleCC Antya 16.43
niyama regular practiceCC Madhya 1.65
niyama regulationCC Adi 5.18
CC Antya 10.83-84
CC Antya 20.18
niyama regulative principlesSB 5.9.6
niyama restrictionCC Madhya 16.67
niyama ritual observances (such as visiting holy places)SB 10.52.40
niyama rules and regulationsNoI 2
niyama the ruleCC Antya 8.53
niyama the strict regulative principlesCC Antya 6.309
niyama karila accepted regularlyCC Madhya 15.192
niyama karila accepted regularlyCC Madhya 15.192
niyama kariyāchi I have made a vowCC Antya 3.249
niyama kariyāchi I have made a vowCC Antya 3.249
niyama-ādi restrictions and so onCC Madhya 22.145
niyama-ādi restrictions and so onCC Madhya 22.145
niyama-artham for the restrictionSB 11.21.7
niyama-artham for the restrictionSB 11.21.7
niyama-atyaye after finishing their morning dutiesSB 10.20.9
niyama-atyaye after finishing their morning dutiesSB 10.20.9
niyama-avalopam breaking the vowSB 2.7.6
niyama-avalopam breaking the vowSB 2.7.6
niyama-codanāḥ the regulative principles further meant for controlling the senses and mindSB 7.15.28
niyama-codanāḥ the regulative principles further meant for controlling the senses and mindSB 7.15.28
niyama-kṛt one following regulative principlesSB 6.1.12
niyama-kṛt one following regulative principlesSB 6.1.12
niyama-ṛddhaye to facilitate his spiritual progressSB 12.8.7-11
niyama-ṛddhaye to facilitate his spiritual progressSB 12.8.7-11
niyamāḥ all regulative principlesSB 8.16.61
niyamaḥ austeritiesSB 4.23.4
niyamaḥ disciplinary controlSB 11.20.26
niyamāḥ following major instructions for spiritual disciplineSB 11.12.1-2
niyamaḥ regular daily dutiesSB 11.19.28-32
niyamaḥ regulationCC Madhya 19.143
CC Madhya 6.226
niyamaḥ regulationCC Madhya 6.226
niyamāḥ regulative principlesSB 8.21.2-3
niyamaḥ restrictive regulationSB 11.21.16
niyamaḥ ruleSB 10.87.30
SB 11.17.34-35
niyamaḥ the regulations of day-to-day lifeSB 11.23.45
niyamaḥ the regulative injunctionSB 10.78.33
niyamaiḥ by disciplineSB 3.21.23
niyamaiḥ by regulative principlesSB 4.28.38
niyamaiḥ by strictly following the rules and regulationsSB 4.22.24
niyāmakaḥ regulatorSB 10.78.31-32
niyamam regulationsBG 7.20
niyamam the regulative principlesSB 6.19.19-20
niyamam their vowSB 10.34.19
niyamān minor regulations, such as cleansing the bodySB 11.10.5
niyamān regular dutiesSB 11.18.36
niyamān regular religious dutiesSB 11.14.10
niyamān rules and regulationsSB 2.9.40
niyamān sacred vowsSB 3.16.7
niyamān the rules and regulationsSB 7.12.17
niyamāt under the controlSB 3.29.43
niyamayat He regulatedSB 5.4.14
niyame a regular dutyCC Antya 9.81
niyame in his prescribed dutiesSB 11.18.11
niyame regulatedSB 4.21.18
niyamena by regularly chanting the holy name of the LordSB 6.1.13-14
niyamena by religious observancesSB 3.24.3
niyamena by the laws of natureSB 5.10.11
niyamena with regulationSB 3.29.17
niyamitaḥ restrictedCC Antya 20.16
niyamya by regulatingBG 3.41
SB 2.2.16
niyamya completely controllingSB 11.18.23
niyamya controllingSB 2.7.48
SB 6.16.33
niyamya regulatingBG 18.51-53
BG 3.7
BG 6.26
niyamyate it is regulatedSB 4.26.6
niyantṛ controllerCC Madhya 19.143
niyantṛ regulatorSB 10.87.30
niyantum to controlSB 3.12.6
niyata eternallyBs 5.31
niyata having controlledBG 4.29
niyata permanentSB 2.2.6
niyata-ātmā controlling oneselfSB 8.16.59
niyata-ātmā controlling oneselfSB 8.16.59
niyata-ātmabhiḥ by the self-controlledBG 8.2
niyata-ātmabhiḥ by the self-controlledBG 8.2
niyata-mānasaḥ with a regulated mindBG 6.15
niyata-mānasaḥ with a regulated mindBG 6.15
niyataḥ alwaysSB 1.17.37
niyatāḥ controlledBG 7.20
niyatam alwaysBG 1.43
niyatam prescribedBG 18.9
BG 3.8
niyatam regulatedBG 18.23
SB 4.26.7
niyatasya prescribedBG 18.7
niyatena in this way, regularlySB 4.8.51
niyatiḥ the regulatorBs 5.8
niyatim NiyatiSB 4.1.44
niyogāt by the orderCC Madhya 10.145
niyojayasi You are engagingBG 3.1
niyojila were engagedCC Madhya 4.87
niyojitaḥ engagedBG 3.36
niyojya associatesSB 4.12.28
niyojya engagingNoI 8
niyokṣyati will engageBG 18.59
niyuddha from the fightingSB 10.15.16
niyuddha in wrestlingSB 10.43.32
niyuddha of wrestlingSB 10.44.19
niyuddham the wrestling matchSB 10.43.38
niyuddham wrestlingSB 10.43.36
niyuddhena with fightingSB 10.18.12
niyudhyatoḥ fightingSB 8.2.29
niyujya appointingSB 5.20.31
niyujyate he is engagedSB 10.41.48
niyuktāḥ appointedSB 8.14.1
niyuktaḥ appointmentSB 2.6.32
niyuktaḥ being engaged to work with usSB 5.10.4
niyuktaḥ engagedSB 5.21.16
niyuktāḥ engagedSB 5.21.17
niyuktānām who are engagedSB 12.11.27-28
niyuktāsu being engagedSB 10.9.1-2
niyuńkṣva engageSB 10.4.37
niyuńkṣva please engageCC Madhya 22.16
niyuta-koṭi ten trillionCC Madhya 21.85
niyuta-koṭi ten trillionCC Madhya 21.85
niyuta-yojana-viśālaḥ one million yojanas (eight million miles) wideSB 5.16.5
niyuta-yojana-viśālaḥ one million yojanas (eight million miles) wideSB 5.16.5
niyuta-yojana-viśālaḥ one million yojanas (eight million miles) wideSB 5.16.5
niyuta-yojanaḥ eight million miles longSB 8.24.44
niyuta-yojanaḥ eight million miles longSB 8.24.44
niyutāni lakhs (one lakh equals one hundred thousand)SB 9.20.28
niyute two millionSB 10.5.3
niyutsāyām in his wife, named NiyutsāSB 5.15.6
śauca-ācāra-niyamāḥ whose cleanliness, good behavior and regulated lifeSB 5.26.23
āchaye niyama it is the customCC Madhya 13.196
dhīḥ, dhṛti, rasalā, umā, niyut, sarpiḥ, ilā, ambikā, irāvatī, svadhā, dīkṣā rudrāṇyaḥ the eleven RudrāṇīsSB 3.12.13
āniyā bringingCC Adi 3.102
āniyā bringingCC Adi 14.24
āniyā bringingCC Adi 14.60
āniyā callingCC Adi 17.44
āniyā bringingCC Madhya 3.34
āniyā bringingCC Madhya 4.67
āniyā bringingCC Madhya 4.93
āniyā bringingCC Madhya 6.76
āniyā bringingCC Madhya 6.217
āniyā bringingCC Madhya 11.239
āniyā bringingCC Madhya 12.78
āniyā bringingCC Madhya 14.133
āniyā bringingCC Madhya 20.70
ḍākiyā āniyā calling him to his placeCC Antya 2.102
candana āniyā bringing sandalwood pulpCC Antya 6.96
āniyā bringingCC Antya 6.109
āniyā bringingCC Antya 18.102
āniyā yatane bringing very carefullyCC Antya 19.13
āniyācha have you broughtCC Madhya 20.25
mahā-prasāda āniyācha you have brought the mahā-prasādamCC Antya 11.19
āniyāche broughtCC Antya 12.63
āniyāche has broughtCC Antya 12.107
āniyāchena has broughtCC Antya 12.105
āniyāchi have broughtCC Madhya 11.141
aniyatatvāt because of not being decisiveNBS 75
āniye I can bringCC Madhya 10.152
bhavat-niyama-anupathāḥ who are always obedient to your orderSB 5.10.4
artha-niyāma-katayā due to being the controller of the objectsSB 5.7.6
ātma-niyamāḥ his personal activities for taking care of his bodySB 5.8.8
ātma-niyamaḥ the daily duties of washing, chanting other mantras and so on, according to one's practiceSB 8.16.28
baliṣṭha jāniyā knowing it to be more prominentCC Antya 8.79
bhavat-niyama-anupathāḥ who are always obedient to your orderSB 5.10.4
candana āniyā bringing sandalwood pulpCC Antya 6.96
sva-vidhi-niyoga-śauca-cāritra-vihīnāḥ without character, cleanliness, and the rules and regulations given according to one's own duty in lifeSB 5.6.10
chāniyā pressingCC Antya 10.35
ḍākiyā āniyā calling him to his placeCC Antya 2.102
dhaniyā of coriander seedsCC Antya 10.22
dhīḥ, dhṛti, rasalā, umā, niyut, sarpiḥ, ilā, ambikā, irāvatī, svadhā, dīkṣā rudrāṇyaḥ the eleven RudrāṇīsSB 3.12.13
dhīḥ, dhṛti, rasalā, umā, niyut, sarpiḥ, ilā, ambikā, irāvatī, svadhā, dīkṣā rudrāṇyaḥ the eleven RudrāṇīsSB 3.12.13
dhīḥ, dhṛti, rasalā, umā, niyut, sarpiḥ, ilā, ambikā, irāvatī, svadhā, dīkṣā rudrāṇyaḥ the eleven RudrāṇīsSB 3.12.13
divasa-niyama a fixed date in every monthCC Antya 10.153
e-kathā śuniyā hearing these wordsCC Madhya 12.118
e-kathā śuniyā hearing this descriptionCC Madhya 14.154
dhīḥ, dhṛti, rasalā, umā, niyut, sarpiḥ, ilā, ambikā, irāvatī, svadhā, dīkṣā rudrāṇyaḥ the eleven RudrāṇīsSB 3.12.13
dhīḥ, dhṛti, rasalā, umā, niyut, sarpiḥ, ilā, ambikā, irāvatī, svadhā, dīkṣā rudrāṇyaḥ the eleven RudrāṇīsSB 3.12.13
jagat jiniyā conquering all the worldCC Madhya 15.84
niyā knowingCC Madhya 4.176
niyā knowingCC Madhya 6.200
niyā understandingCC Madhya 8.49
niyā knowing asCC Madhya 8.127
niyā knowingCC Madhya 10.160
niyā knowingCC Madhya 12.220
niyā knowingCC Madhya 13.112
niyā knowingCC Madhya 14.106
niyā knowingCC Madhya 15.222
niyā knowingCC Madhya 18.24
niyā knowingCC Antya 1.11
niyā knowingCC Antya 1.77
nā jāniyā rīti not knowing the regulative principlesCC Antya 5.135
niyā knowingCC Antya 6.280
baliṣṭha jāniyā knowing it to be more prominentCC Antya 8.79
niyā knowingCC Antya 16.55
niyā understandingCC Antya 17.30
niyā knowingCC Antya 18.93
niyāchi knewCC Madhya 20.29
niyāo although knowingCC Antya 19.24
niye knowCC Adi 1.44
niye one can knowCC Adi 8.36
niye knowCC Antya 7.87
nā jāniye did not knowCC Antya 9.98
niye I can understandCC Antya 12.131
jiniyā conqueringCC Madhya 3.110
jagat jiniyā conquering all the worldCC Madhya 15.84
jiniyā being victorious overCC Antya 19.41
kalā-niyamena by the order of plenary portionsCC Adi 5.155
kalā-niyamena by the order of plenary portionsBs 5.39
kariyāche niyame has made a regulative principleCC Antya 5.98
karma-niyamān the regulative principles of fruitive activitiesSB 5.9.4
artha-niyāma-katayā due to being the controller of the objectsSB 5.7.6
e-kathā śuniyā hearing these wordsCC Madhya 12.118
e-kathā śuniyā hearing this descriptionCC Madhya 14.154
kīrtana śuniyā hearing the descriptionCC Madhya 25.220
mahā-prasāda āniyācha you have brought the mahā-prasādamCC Antya 11.19
niyā acceptingCC Madhya 6.168
tāhā nā māniyā not accepting this factCC Madhya 25.41
mardaniyā masseurCC Antya 12.112
mūlya śuniyā hearing the priceCC Antya 9.23
nā śuniye I cannot hearCC Madhya 2.90
tāhā nā māniyā not accepting this factCC Madhya 25.41
nā jāniyā rīti not knowing the regulative principlesCC Antya 5.135
nā jāniye did not knowCC Antya 9.98
nāhika niyame there are no hard and fast rulesCC Madhya 13.200
artha-niyāma-katayā due to being the controller of the objectsSB 5.7.6
bhavat-niyama-anupathāḥ who are always obedient to your orderSB 5.10.4
vrata-niyama vows and regulative principlesCC Madhya 9.113
āchaye niyama it is the customCC Madhya 13.196
se niyama that is the regulationCC Antya 10.95
divasa-niyama a fixed date in every monthCC Antya 10.153
sandhyā-niyamaḥ the rules and regulations of eveningSB 3.14.37
ātma-niyamāḥ his personal activities for taking care of his bodySB 5.8.8
śauca-ācāra-niyamāḥ whose cleanliness, good behavior and regulated lifeSB 5.26.23
ātma-niyamaḥ the daily duties of washing, chanting other mantras and so on, according to one's practiceSB 8.16.28
sa-niyamāḥ along with secondary regular dutiesSB 11.19.33-35
yat-niyamam whose regulative principleSB 9.4.53-54
karma-niyamān the regulative principles of fruitive activitiesSB 5.9.4
nāhika niyame there are no hard and fast rulesCC Madhya 13.200
kariyāche niyame has made a regulative principleCC Antya 5.98
kalā-niyamena by the order of plenary portionsCC Adi 5.155
kalā-niyamena by the order of plenary portionsBs 5.39
svabhāva-niyatam prescribed according to one's natureBG 18.47
sva-vidhi-niyoga-śauca-cāritra-vihīnāḥ without character, cleanliness, and the rules and regulations given according to one's own duty in lifeSB 5.6.10
tat-niyuktaḥ engaged by HimCC Madhya 20.318
tat-niyuktaḥ engaged by HimCC Madhya 21.37
dhīḥ, dhṛti, rasalā, umā, niyut, sarpiḥ, ilā, ambikā, irāvatī, svadhā, dīkṣā rudrāṇyaḥ the eleven RudrāṇīsSB 3.12.13
mahā-prasāda āniyācha you have brought the mahā-prasādamCC Antya 11.19
dhīḥ, dhṛti, rasalā, umā, niyut, sarpiḥ, ilā, ambikā, irāvatī, svadhā, dīkṣā rudrāṇyaḥ the eleven RudrāṇīsSB 3.12.13
nā jāniyā rīti not knowing the regulative principlesCC Antya 5.135
dhīḥ, dhṛti, rasalā, umā, niyut, sarpiḥ, ilā, ambikā, irāvatī, svadhā, dīkṣā rudrāṇyaḥ the eleven RudrāṇīsSB 3.12.13
sa-niyamāḥ along with secondary regular dutiesSB 11.19.33-35
śuniyā sabāra hearing of all the devoteesCC Antya 7.56
sandhyā-niyamaḥ the rules and regulations of eveningSB 3.14.37
sanniyaccha please pacifySB 4.18.2
sanniyamya controllingBG 12.3-4
sanniyamya controllingSB 4.8.24
sanniyamya keeping under full controlSB 10.3.33
dhīḥ, dhṛti, rasalā, umā, niyut, sarpiḥ, ilā, ambikā, irāvatī, svadhā, dīkṣā rudrāṇyaḥ the eleven RudrāṇīsSB 3.12.13
sva-vidhi-niyoga-śauca-cāritra-vihīnāḥ without character, cleanliness, and the rules and regulations given according to one's own duty in lifeSB 5.6.10
śauca-ācāra-niyamāḥ whose cleanliness, good behavior and regulated lifeSB 5.26.23
se niyama that is the regulationCC Antya 10.95
śloka śuniyā hearing this verseCC Antya 1.133
śuniyā after hearingCC Adi 7.43
śuniyā hearingCC Adi 7.134
śuniyā by hearingCC Adi 7.147
śuniyā hearingCC Adi 12.17
śuniyā hearingCC Adi 12.37
śuniyā hearing thisCC Adi 12.48
śuniyā and hearingCC Adi 13.17
śuniyā after hearingCC Adi 14.92
śuniyā after hearingCC Adi 15.15
śuniyā hearing thisCC Adi 16.36
śuniyā hearing thisCC Adi 16.37
śuniyā hearingCC Adi 16.87
śuniyā hearingCC Adi 17.72
śuniyā hearingCC Adi 17.77
śuniyā hearingCC Adi 17.91
śuniyā by hearingCC Adi 17.124
śuniyā hearingCC Adi 17.235
śuniyā hearing thisCC Madhya 1.118
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 1.152
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 1.275
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 3.126
śuniyā hearing thisCC Madhya 3.179
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 3.187
śuniyā hearing thisCC Madhya 6.96
śuniyā hearing this explanationCC Madhya 6.277
śuniyā hearing thisCC Madhya 7.14
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 7.115
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 8.127
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 9.46
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 9.286
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 10.77
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 10.78
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 10.85
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 11.44
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 11.168
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 12.22
e-kathā śuniyā hearing these wordsCC Madhya 12.118
śuniyā after hearingCC Madhya 13.148
e-kathā śuniyā hearing this descriptionCC Madhya 14.154
śuniyā vacana hearing these wordsCC Madhya 15.143
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 16.3
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 16.34
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 16.36
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 16.38
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 16.92
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 16.231
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 16.285
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 17.115
śuniyā after hearingCC Madhya 17.171
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 18.19
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 18.29
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 18.176
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 19.12
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 19.32
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 20.71
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 24.6
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 25.25
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 25.163
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 25.196
kīrtana śuniyā hearing the descriptionCC Madhya 25.220
śuniyā hearingCC Madhya 25.225
śloka śuniyā hearing this verseCC Antya 1.133
śuniyā hearing thisCC Antya 1.178
śuniyā hearingCC Antya 2.131
śuniyā hearingCC Antya 3.66
śuniyā hearingCC Antya 3.70
śuniyā hearingCC Antya 3.72
śuniyā hearingCC Antya 3.175
śuniyā hearingCC Antya 5.116
śuniyā hearingCC Antya 5.129
śuniyā sabāra hearing of all the devoteesCC Antya 7.56
śuniyā hearingCC Antya 7.109
śuniyā hearingCC Antya 7.116
mūlya śuniyā hearing the priceCC Antya 9.23
śuniyā hearingCC Antya 9.87
śuniyā hearingCC Antya 9.127
śuniyā hearingCC Antya 11.75
śuniyā hearingCC Antya 16.70
śuniyā hearingCC Antya 19.29
śuniyā hearingCC Antya 19.106
śuniyācha have heardCC Madhya 2.39
śuniyāche he heardCC Madhya 15.86
śuniyāchi I have heardCC Madhya 17.84
śuniyāchi I have heardCC Madhya 17.116
śuniyāchi we have heardCC Antya 1.122
śuniyāchi we have heardCC Antya 11.96
śuniyāchoń I heardCC Madhya 24.4
nā śuniye I cannot hearCC Madhya 2.90
śuniye I hearCC Madhya 21.18
sva-vidhi-niyoga-śauca-cāritra-vihīnāḥ without character, cleanliness, and the rules and regulations given according to one's own duty in lifeSB 5.6.10
svabhāva-niyatam prescribed according to one's natureBG 18.47
dhīḥ, dhṛti, rasalā, umā, niyut, sarpiḥ, ilā, ambikā, irāvatī, svadhā, dīkṣā rudrāṇyaḥ the eleven RudrāṇīsSB 3.12.13
tāhā nā māniyā not accepting this factCC Madhya 25.41
tat-niyuktaḥ engaged by HimCC Madhya 20.318
tat-niyuktaḥ engaged by HimCC Madhya 21.37
dhīḥ, dhṛti, rasalā, umā, niyut, sarpiḥ, ilā, ambikā, irāvatī, svadhā, dīkṣā rudrāṇyaḥ the eleven RudrāṇīsSB 3.12.13
śuniyā vacana hearing these wordsCC Madhya 15.143
sva-vidhi-niyoga-śauca-cāritra-vihīnāḥ without character, cleanliness, and the rules and regulations given according to one's own duty in lifeSB 5.6.10
sva-vidhi-niyoga-śauca-cāritra-vihīnāḥ without character, cleanliness, and the rules and regulations given according to one's own duty in lifeSB 5.6.10
viniyamya regulatingBG 6.24
viniyatam particularly disciplinedBG 6.18
vrata-niyama vows and regulative principlesCC Madhya 9.113
yat-niyamam whose regulative principleSB 9.4.53-54
āniyā yatane bringing very carefullyCC Antya 19.13
     DCS with thanks   
77 results
     
niyam verb (class 1 ātmanepada) (in gram.) to lower (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to annihilate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be wanting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to bestow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to bind up (hair etc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to bring near (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to control (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to destroy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to detain with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to determine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to establish (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to extend (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to fail (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to fasten (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to fix upon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to govern (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to grant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to hold back (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to hold downwards (the hand) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to hold in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to hold over (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to keep back (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to keep down (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to offer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to present (rain) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to procure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to pronounce low i.e. with the Anudātta (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to refuse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to regulate (as breath) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to remain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to restrain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to restrict (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to settle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to stay (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to stop (intrans.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to stop (trans.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to suppress or conceal (one's nature) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to tie to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 681/72933
niyama noun (masculine) (in Mīm. phil.) a rule or precept (laying down or specifying something otherwise optional) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
(in rhet.) a common-place (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular process applied to minerals (esp. to quicksilver) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
agreement (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any act of voluntary penance or meritorious piety (esp. a lesser vow or minor observance dependent on external conditions and not so obligatory as yama) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any conventional expression or usual comparison (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any fixed rule or law (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
checking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
contract (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
controlling (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
definition (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
determination (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
holding back (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
keeping down (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
limitation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lowering (as the voice) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Necessity or Law personified as a son of Dharma and Dhṛti (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
necessity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
performing five positive duties (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
preventing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
promise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
reduction or restriction to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
restraining (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
restraint of the mind (the 2nd of the 8 steps of meditation in Yoga) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
vow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
niyāmana
Frequency rank 987/72933
niyamaka adjective performing niyāmana
Frequency rank 56058/72933
niyamana noun (masculine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 28661/72933
niyamana noun (neuter) coercion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
definition (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fixed practice or rule (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
humiliation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
limitation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
precept (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
restriction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the act of subduing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one of the Saṃskāras of mercury
Frequency rank 9861/72933
niyamavant adjective
Frequency rank 14982/72933
niyamay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to check to control to fasten
Frequency rank 19510/72933
niyamin adjective
Frequency rank 36252/72933
niyamopamā noun (feminine) [rhet.] a kind of upamā
Frequency rank 56059/72933
niyantray verb (denominative parasmaipada) to check to govern to restrain to restrict
Frequency rank 28660/72933
niyantraṇā noun (feminine) an obligation
Frequency rank 36251/72933
niyantṛ noun (masculine) a driver (of a chariot etc.) name of Śiva who or what holds in or restrains or governs or tames (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7567/72933
niyantṛ adjective regulating subduing
Frequency rank 28659/72933
niyata adjective (in gram.) pronounced with the Anudātta (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
abstemious (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
checked (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
connected with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
constant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
contained or joined in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
controlled (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
curbed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
customary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
definite (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dependent on (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
disciplined (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
established (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fastened (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fixed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
held back or in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
invariable (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
limited in number (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
positive (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
put together (hands) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
quite concentrated upon or devoted to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
regular (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
restrained (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
restricted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
self-governed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
settled (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
steady (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
suppressed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
temperate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tied to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
usual (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14981/72933
niyatam indeclinable certainly invariably
Frequency rank 5044/72933
niyati noun (feminine) destiny (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fate(sometimes personified as a goddess) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
necessity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
religious duty or obligation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
restraint (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
restriction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
self-command (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
self-restraint (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the fixed order of things (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6066/72933
niyatātman adjective konzentriert
Frequency rank 28658/72933
niyatī noun (feminine) name of Durgā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 56057/72933
niyoddhṛ noun (masculine) a cock (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 56068/72933
niyodhaka noun (masculine) a combatant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pugilist (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wrestler (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24377/72933
niyodhay verb (class 10 ātmanepada) to fight against
Frequency rank 56069/72933
niyoga noun (masculine) application (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
appointed task or duty (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
business (esp. the appointing a brother or any near kinsman to raise up issue to a deceased husband by marrying his widow) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
charge (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
command commission (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
destiny (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
employment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
injunction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
obligation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
order (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tying or fastening to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
use (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2262/72933
niyogin noun (masculine) a functionary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
minister (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
official (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21578/72933
niyogin adjective appointed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
employed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 56066/72933
niyojana noun (neuter) appointing to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
commanding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
directing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
enjoining (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
impelling (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
that with which anything is tied or fastened (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the act of tying or fastening (as to the sacrificial post) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
urging (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24376/72933
niyojay verb (class 10 ātmanepada) to accomplish (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to appoint or instal as (double acc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to appoint to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to cause to partake of (instr.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to coerce (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to commit or intrust anything (acc.) to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to confer or bestow upon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to direct or compel or request or command to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to employ (reason etc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to endow or furnish with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to enjoin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to impel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to perform (a rite) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to put in any place or state (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to put or tie to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to set or lay (a trap or snare etc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to urge (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to use (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2283/72933
niyojya noun (masculine) a functionary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
official (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
servant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 56067/72933
niyoktṛ noun (masculine) a ruler (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lord (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
master (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one who joins or fastens or attaches (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 56065/72933
niyoktṛ adjective ruling
Frequency rank 56064/72933
niyuddha noun (neuter) close or personal struggle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fighting (esp. with fists) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pugilistic combat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11666/72933
niyuddhaka noun (neuter) a fight
Frequency rank 56063/72933
niyudh verb (class 4 parasmaipada) to fight (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28662/72933
niyuj verb (class 7 ātmanepada) (met.) to place in front i.e. employ in the hardest work (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to appoint (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to attach to i.e. make dependent on (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to bind on (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to coerce (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to command (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to confer or intrust anything (acc.) upon or to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to direct or commission or authorize to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to direct towards (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to employ (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to enjoin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to fix (mind or eyes upon) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to harness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to impel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to instal (double acc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to join (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to order (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to place at (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to put in the way (with loc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to put together (esp. the hands in a certain position) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to tie or fasten to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to tie to the pole of a carriage i.e. yoke (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to trust or charge with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to use (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1843/72933
niyukti noun (feminine) charge (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
command (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
injunction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
office (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
order (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 56062/72933
niyuta noun (masculine neuter) a million (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a very high number (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7432/72933
niyā verb (class 2 parasmaipada) to come down to (acc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to fall into (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to incur (acc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to pass over (with a carriage) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 56060/72933
niyāma noun (masculine) (alchemy) niyamana
Frequency rank 36253/72933
niyāmaka noun (masculine neuter) a charioteer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a guide or ruler (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a sailor or boatman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
niyamana niyāmakayantra
Frequency rank 11665/72933
niyāmaka adjective controlling (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
defining (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
restraining (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
restrictive (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
img/alchemy.bmp
Frequency rank 5500/72933
niyāmakayantra noun (neuter) a kind of alchemical apparatus
Frequency rank 56061/72933
niyāmana noun (neuter) one of the saṃskāras of mercury
Frequency rank 14983/72933
niyāmay verb (class 10 parasmaipada)
Frequency rank 36255/72933
niyāmin adjective checking restraining
Frequency rank 36254/72933
aniyata adjective casual (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
irregular (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not fixed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not regulated (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not unaccentuated (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
uncertain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
uncontrolled (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unrestricted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6115/72933
aniyatatā noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 42961/72933
aniyantraṇa noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 31851/72933
aniyantrita adjective unrestricted
Frequency rank 31852/72933
aniyama adjective having no rule (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
irregular (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42962/72933
aniyama noun (masculine) absence of control or rule or fixed order or obligation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
doubt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
indecorous or improper conduct (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
uncertainty (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unsettledness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7375/72933
aniyamopamā noun (feminine) [rhet.] a kind of upamā
Frequency rank 42963/72933
aniyamya indeclinable not having constrained
Frequency rank 26317/72933
aniyukta adjective not appointed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not authoritative (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13924/72933
aniyoga noun (masculine) an unfitting employment or commission (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
non-application (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26318/72933
aniyojya adjective
Frequency rank 26319/72933
abhiniyukta adjective occupied in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 44176/72933
aviniyama noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 45392/72933
pariniyam verb (class 1 parasmaipada)
Frequency rank 57301/72933
pātrāpātraparīkṣādānādiniyamavarṇana noun (neuter) name of Skandapurāṇa, Revākhaṇḍa, 50
Frequency rank 57722/72933
pratiniyam verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to distinguish (for each case) to fix specifically
Frequency rank 15910/72933
pratiniyama noun (masculine) a strict rule as to applying an example to particular persons or things only (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
restriction to an individual
Frequency rank 19665/72933
pratipuṃniyata adjective settled for every soul singly (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 58816/72933
mahāniyama noun (masculine) name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[rel.] a kind of tapas (?)
Frequency rank 38125/72933
viniyantṛ adjective without a rider or driver (horse, elephant)
Frequency rank 65717/72933
viniyam verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to check (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to control (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to draw in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to keep in check (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to keep off (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to regulate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to restrain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to withdraw (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11085/72933
viniyuj verb (class 7 ātmanepada) to apply (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to appoint to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to assign (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to charge or entrust with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to commit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to decay (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to destine for (dat) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to detach (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to discharge (an arrow) at (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to disjoin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to eat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to employ (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to fall to pieces (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to loose (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to separate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to unyoke (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to use (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9060/72933
viniyoktṛ adjective appointer to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
employer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one who appoints (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 39367/72933
viniyoga noun (masculine) abandonment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
application (esp. of a verse in ritual) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
appointment to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
apportionment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
charge (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
commission (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
correlation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
distribution (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
division (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
duty (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
employment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
impediment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
occupation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
relation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
separation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
task (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
use (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5943/72933
viniyogitva noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 18457/72933
viniyojaka adjective
Frequency rank 65718/72933
viniyojay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to anything (acc.) to (dat.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to employ (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to entrust anything (acc.) to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to offer or present (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to perform (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to use (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8018/72933
saṃniyantṛ adjective a chastiser (with gen.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one who restrains or chastises (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40672/72933
saṃniyam verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to annihilate to destroy to hold together to keep back to restrain to subdue to suppress
Frequency rank 9978/72933
saṃniyama noun (masculine) exactness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
precision (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40673/72933
saṃniyamana noun (neuter) (alchem.) niyamana
Frequency rank 69927/72933
saṃniyuj verb (class 7 parasmaipada) to appoint to connect with to employ to place or put in
Frequency rank 30902/72933
saṃniyoga noun (masculine) application (to any pursuit etc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
appointment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
attachment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
commission (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
connection with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
injunction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
precept (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40674/72933
saṃniyojay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to appoint to to intrust with to place in or on
Frequency rank 22592/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
     Purchase Kindle edition

adhāraṇīyavega

natural urges, which are not be suppressed. ex: urination , sneeze.

bhedanīya

mild purgatives, laxatives.

jīvanīya

vivifying; herbs that help survive; jīvanīyapañcamūla śatāvari, jīvanti, jīvaka, ṛṣabhaka, vīra.

khurasāniyavāni

Plant a spice from khurasan. Hyoscyamus niger.

mūtravirajanīya

substances that alter the colour of urine.

niyama

regulate, control, observance.

niyamana

restraining (mercury), act of subduing.

niyoga

one of tantrayuktis, injunction, mandate.

pañcapañcamūla

(panca.panca.mūla) the roots mentioned in bṛhatpañcamūla, madhyamapañcamūla, jīvanīyapañcamūla, tṛṇapañcamūla together with the roots of svādamṣṭa, śaireya and karamardika.

pānīya

a weak form of decoction.

ṣaḍangapānīya

infusion or decoction of six drugs, viz. uśīra, parpaṭa, udīcya, musta, śunṭi, raktacandana.

sandhānīya

healing, causing to grow together, drug promoting union of fractured bone fragments.

vāminiyoniroga

semen expelled from vagina after few days, with or without pain.

     Wordnet Search "niy" has 385 results.
     

niy

gopanīyatā, guptatā, guhyatā, gopyatā, guptiḥ, gopanam, gūḍhatā, pracchannatā, rahasyatā, saṃvṛtiḥ, saṃvṛtatā, guptabhāvaḥ   

gopanīyā avasthā gopanīyaḥ bhāvo vā।

asya rahasyasya gopanīyatā sandhāraṇīyā।

niy

anujaḥ, jaghanyajaḥ, kaniṣṭhaḥ, yavīyān, avarajaḥ, kanīyān, yaviṣṭhaḥ, jaghanyaḥ   

kaniṣṭhabhrātā।

bhāskaraḥ mama anujaḥ asti।

niy

samayaḥ, niyamaḥ, saṃskāraḥ, aṅgīkāraḥ, upagamaḥ, abhyupagamaḥ, saṅketaḥ, saṃvādaḥ, vyavasthā, saṃvid, pratijñānam   

kāryasiddhyarthaṃ kāryasamāviṣṭānāṃ ghaṭakānāṃ sāmmukhyam।

ubhayoḥ pakṣayoḥ ayaṃ samayaḥ yat te parasparādhikārāṇām ullaṅghanaṃ na kariṣyanti।

niy

sandhiḥ, madhyasthāvalaṃbananiyamaḥ   

samayaṃ kṛtvā parasparaṃ svābhiyogāt kiñcidapāsanam।

kaśmīraviṣaye bhāratasya pākistānasya ca sandhiḥ āvaśyakaḥ। / śatrūṇāṃ na hi saṃdadhyātsuśliṣṭenāpi sandhinā।

niy

anuyogādhīnatā, anusandhānādhīnatā, vicārādhīnatā, āhvānādhīnatā, abhiyojyatā, anuyojyatā, abhiyojanīyatā, paryanuyogādhīnatā, paryanuyojyatā, anusandhānayogyatā, āhvānayogyatā, āhveyatā, uttaradānādhikāraḥ, uttaradānādhīnatā, pṛcchādhīnatā   

kasyāpi viṣayasya kāryasya vā uttaradānasya adhikāraḥ।

asya kāryasya anuyogādhīnatā kasya।

niy

svajanīya, ātmajanīya   

svajanasambandhi।

ayaṃ vṛtāntaḥ svajanīyaḥ asti।

niy

pūjanīya, upāsanīya, upāsya, arcanīya, arcya, pūjya, vandanīya, vandya, ārādhya, ārādhanīya, stutya, pūjārha, vareṇya, arhya, ārya   

pūjārthe yogyaḥ।

gautamaḥ buddhaḥ pūjanīyaḥ asti।

niy

viśvasanīya, viśvasta, viśrabdha, viśvāsya   

viśvasituṃ yogyaḥ।

śyāmaḥ viśvasanīyaḥ asti।

niy

viśvāsārhaḥ, viśvasanīyaḥ   

viśvastum yogyaḥ।

kaliyuge viśvāsārhaḥ durlabhaḥ।

niy

aviśvasanīyaḥ   

viśvasitum ayogyaḥ।

asmin yuge aviśvasanīyasya saṃjñānaṃ na sulabham।

niy

nītiḥ, nayaḥ, vyavasthā, niyamaḥ, vidhiḥ   

niyamapūrvakācaraṇasya bodhakaṃ vidhānam।

nītiḥ deśam utkarṣaṃ nayati।

niy

paridhānīyabhāgaḥ   

paridhānīyasya bhāgaḥ।

bhujā iti paridhānīyabhāgaḥ asti।

niy

tyājya, tyajanīya, varjya   

yad tyaktuṃ yogyam।

cauryaṃ dhūrtatā ādīni tyājyāni karmāṇi।

niy

ramya, ramaṇīya, ānandamaya, sukhada, paritoṣajanaka, manorama, manohara, subhaga, nandaka, nandana, ānandana, ānandada, harṣaka, harṣakara, harṣaṇa, prītida, modaka, pramodin, ramaṇa, rāmaṇīyaka   

yaḥ ānandayati।

mama yātrā ramyā āsīt।

niy

bhrūṇīya-kośikā, racanātmaka-kośikā   

sā kośikā yā bhrūṇe prāpyate।

saḥ sūkṣmadarśyā bhrūṇīya-kośikāyāḥ adhyayanaṃ karoti।

niy

pūjanīya, pūjya, vandanīya, vandya   

yaḥ pūjārhaḥ।

pūjanīyāyai mātre mama praṇāmaḥ kathaya।

niy

makṣikā, bhambhaḥ, nācikā, gandhatotupā, pataṅgikā, pattikā, vamanīyā, palaṅkaṣā   

kīṭaviśeṣaḥ pṛṣodaraḥ śabdāyamānaḥ kīṭaḥ।

gomaye makṣikāḥ maśanti। /ārṣabhasya rājarṣermanasāpi mahātmanaḥ nānuvartmārhati nṛpo makṣikevagarutvataḥ।

niy

guṇyāṅkaḥ, guṇyaḥ, guṇanīyaḥ   

sā saṃkhyā yasyām kuṭṭakena guṇyate।

asmin praśnedvātriṃśat iti guṇyāṅkam asti।

niy

paryyaṅkaḥ, palyaṅkaḥ, śayyā, śayanam, talpaḥ, khaṭvā, saṃstaraḥ, starimā, śayanīyam, mañcaḥ, mañcakaḥ, prastaraḥ, āstaraṇam   

kāṣṭhādiracitaśayyādhāraḥ।

mātā bālakaṃ paryaṅke śāyayati।

niy

samāpya, samāpanīya   

yaḥ samāptim āgataḥ।

etad kāryaṃ samāpyam asti।

niy

niyata, nibaddha, parimita, mita, sasīma, parisīmita, sīmita, avyāpaka   

yasya avadhiḥ suniścitaḥ।

bhāratasya sarve api prāntāḥ niyatāḥ santi।

niy

śvetavarṇīyaḥ   

yūropakhaṇḍastaḥ amerikākhaṇḍasthāḥ janāḥ yeṣāṃ śarīrasya varṇaḥ śvetaḥ asti।

mumbaīnagare juhūgrāme samudrataṭe naike śvetavarṇīyāḥ dṛśyante।

niy

samājaniyantraṇam   

samājasya niyantraṇasya kriyā।

kecana janāḥ samājaniyantraṇe kuśalāḥ bhavanti।

niy

vāhakaḥ, yantā, niyantā   

yaḥ yānaṃ cālayati।

durghaṭanāgrastasya yānasya vāhakaḥ pradrutaḥ।

niy

kathanīya, kathya, vācya, abhibhāṣya, vaktavya, ākhyātavya   

pratipādanayogyam।

kimarthaṃ etad ḍiṇḍimāyate etad na kathanīyam asti।

niy

varṇanīya, nirdeśya, nirvacanīya, vyākhyeya   

varṇayituṃ yogyaḥ।

adyatanīyā ghaṭanā varṇanīyā asti।

niy

lābhadāyaka, lābhaprada, lābhakara, labhanīya, lābhada, phalada, phalin, saphala, arthaśīla, arthayukta, arthakara   

yasmāt lābhaḥ bhavati।

kāle kṛtaṃ bhojanaṃ svāsthyārthe lābhadāyakaṃ bhavati।

niy

gaṇanīya, vigaṇya, saṅkheya, gaṇeya, gaṇitavya, gaṇya   

gaṇanārham।

atra sthāpitāni vastūni gaṇanīyāni।

niy

punarniyukta   

svasya sthāle punaḥ pūrvavat sthitaḥ।

āsthāpanena karmakarāṇāṃ doṣasya asiddhatvāt te punarniyuktāḥ।

niy

vedhya, vedhanīya, vyadhya, bhedya, ṅedanīya, praveśanīya, praveśya, praveṣṭavya, vedhanārha, bhedārha, bhedayogya   

yasya bhedanaṃ śakyam।

eṣaḥ durgaḥ vedhyaḥ asti।

niy

apaṭhanīya, apaṭhya, apāṭhya   

yad paṭhanīyaṃ nāsti।

eṣaḥ apaṭhanīyaḥ lekhaḥ।

niy

durgama, abhedya, durjaya, alaṅghanīya, alaṅghya, anākramaṇīya, anākramya, durākrama, durākrāma, agamya   

yad bhettuṃ na śakyate।

prācīnakāle rājānaḥ durgamaṃ durgaṃ nirmānti sma।

niy

kṣamya, kṣamārha, kṣamaṇīya, kṣantavya, mraṣṭavya, śodhanīya, mārjanīya, mocanīya, sahanīya   

yaḥ kṣantuṃ yogyaḥ।

bhavataḥ aparādhaḥ kṣamyaḥ।

niy

parivartanaśīla, parivartanīya   

yasmin svābhāvikarītyā parivartanaṃ jāyate।

saṃsāraḥ parivartanaśīlaḥ asti।

niy

khādya, bhojya, āhārya, grāhya, bhakṣya, aśanīya   

bhakṣaṇīyadravyam।

khādyāni phalāni kṣālayitvā eva bhakṣaṇīyāni।

niy

gamya, gamanīya, tārya, taraṇīya   

gamanayogyaḥ।

eṣaḥ gamyaḥ panthāḥ।

niy

praveśya, praveśanīya   

praveṣṭuṃ yogyaḥ।

etad praveśyaṃ dvāram।

niy

sevanīya, sevya, sevitavya   

sevitum arhaḥ।

sevanīyasya padārthasya upabhogenāpi vyādhayaḥ utpadyante।

niy

pratideya, pratyarpaṇīya   

avaśiṣṭatvena deyaḥ।

rāmaḥ pratyarpaṇīyam grahaṃ pratyarpayituṃ pratiśrutavān।

niy

śakyaḥ, sambhāvyaḥ, sambhavanīya, sambhāvita   

yad kartuṃ śakyate।

etad kāryaṃ śakyam ahaṃ kariṣyāmi।

niy

cintanīya, cintya, vicāraṇīya, vicārya, anuśīlanīya, lakṣya, abhilakṣya, avadheya   

cintanayogyam।

etad cintanīyaṃ prakaraṇam।

niy

nindya, nindanīya, aślāghanīya, apraśaṃsanīya, aślāghya   

nindituṃ yogyaḥ।

punaḥ punaḥ kimarthaṃ nidyaṃ karma karoṣi।

niy

yavānī, yavānikā, dīpyakaḥ, dīpyaḥ, yavasāhvaḥ, yavāgrajaḥ, dīpanī, ugragandhā, vātāriḥ, bhūkadambakaḥ, yavajaḥ, dīpanīyaḥ, śūlahantrī, ugrā, tīvragandhā, citrā   

oṣadhīviśeṣaḥ, yasya sagandhāni bījāni bhājane tathā ca bheṣaje upayujyante asya guṇāḥ kaṭutvaṃ tiktatvaṃ uṣṇatvaṃ vāta-arśaḥ-śleṣma-śūla-aṣmān-akṛmi-nāśitvam ca।

yavānyaḥ bījāni patrāṇi ca sugandhitāni santi।

niy

ramaṇīya, ramya, manorama, manohara, subhaga, harṣaka, nandaka, prītida, modaka, pramodin, ramaṇa   

rantuṃ yogyaḥ।

sarovaratīre uṣitam bhāratīya praudyogika saṃsthā pavaī iti ekaṃ ramaṇīyaṃ sthalam।

niy

aniyata, aniścita, anirṇīta, anirdhārita, anirdiṣṭa, avyavasthita, alakṣita, alakṣaṇaँ, aparimita, vaikalpika, sandigdha, avivakṣita   

yad nirdhāritam nāsti।

avakāśāt sarvāṇi yānāni anirdhārite samaye gacchanti।

niy

bhaṅgya, bhañjanīya   

yasya vicchedanaṃ bhavati।

sītāsvayaṃvare rāmeṇa bhaṅgyaḥ dhanuṣyaḥ dvidhākṛtaḥ।

niy

amañcanīya   

yasya mañcanaṃ kartuṃ na yogyam।

etat nāṭakaṃ amañcanīyam ataḥ asya nāṭakasya mañcanaṃ na bhavati।

niy

niyantraṇakakṣaḥ   

vimānapattanakṣetre vidyamānaḥ darpaṇayuktaḥ aṭṭaḥ yasmāt vimānāni tathā ca vimānapattanakṣetraṃ paritaḥ pradeśaḥ nirīkṣyate।

vimānaṃ avatarituṃ sajjībhūtameva tataḥ niyantraṇakakṣeṇa saha tasya saṃmparkaḥ khaṇḍitaḥ।

niy

saṃyamaḥ, saṃyāmaḥ, viyāmaḥ, viyamaḥ, yāmaḥ, yamaḥ, saṃyamanam, niyamaḥ, ātmaniyaṃtraṇam, ātmanigrahaḥ   

cittādivṛttīnām niyaṃtraṇam।

saṃyamāt ārogyasya rakṣaṇam।

niy

niyamapālanam, vidhipālanam   

niyamānāṃ pālanam।

niyamapālanena samāje suvyavasthā pravartate tathā ca samājasya vikāsaḥ bhavati।

niy

tulya, tulanīya, sama, sadṛśa, samāna, sadharma   

sādṛśyayuktaḥ।

tulyaiḥ janaiḥ saha saṃvādo bhavati।

niy

khaṇḍanīya, bhedya, bhaṅgya, khaṇḍya, bhetavya, bhaṅgura, lopya, viśīrya   

yasya khaṇḍaṃ kartuṃ śakyate।

dṛśyavastuni khaṇḍanīyāni santi।

niy

abhedya, abhaṅgya, akhaṇḍanīya, akhaṇḍya, abhetavya, abhaṅgura, alopya, aviśīrya   

yasya khaṇḍanaṃ na bhavati।

bhavataḥ tarkaḥ abhedyaḥ।

niy

daivam, bhāgyam, bhāgaḥ, bhāgadheyam, daivayogaḥ, daivagatiḥ, daivadaśā, daivikam, diṣṭam, niyatiḥ, vidhiḥ   

yadanu manuṣyasya sarvakarmāṇi pūrvaṃ niścitāni bhavanti lalāṭadeśaśca yasya sthānatvena abhimataḥ tat anivāryaṃ tatvam।

karmavādī daive na viśvasiti। / daivaṃ caivātra pañcamam।

niy

niyuktiḥ, niyogaḥ, niyojanam   

kriyākaraṇe adhikāradyotitā patrādi mādhyamena kṛtā kriyā।

śyāmasya niyuktiḥ nausenāyām nāvika pade abhavat।

niy

adhikārī, adhikāravān, ādhikārikaḥ, kāryapravartakaḥ, niyogī, niyuktaḥ, āyuktaḥ   

yaḥ adhikārasthānaṃ bhūṣayati।

śyāmasya pitā senāyām adhikārī asti।

niy

bhṛtyaḥ, anucaraḥ, paricaraḥ, paricārakaḥ, preṣyaḥ, kiṅkaraḥ, ceṭakaḥ, ceṭaḥ, kibhkaraḥ, dāsaḥ, dāśaḥ, bhṛtakaḥ, karmakaraḥ, karmakārī, parijamaḥ, vetanajīvī, sevopajīvī, sevājīvī, bhṛtibhuk, bhṛtijīvī, anujīvī, viyojyaḥ, praiṣyaḥ, bharaṇīyaḥ, vaitānikaḥ, śuśrūṣakaḥ, ceḍaḥ, ceḍakaḥ, pārśvikaḥ, pārśvānucaraḥ, sairindhraḥ, arthī, bhujiṣyaḥ, dāseraḥ, dāseyaḥ, gopyaḥ, gopakaḥ, sevakaḥ   

yaḥ sevate।

mama bhṛtyaḥ gṛhaṃ gataḥ।

niy

vyay, vyayīkṛ, upayuj, vinīyuj   

kṛtavetanatvena athavā pariśrama-mūlyatvena dhanapradānānukūlaḥ kāryapūrtihetukaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

adya vāhanamūlyatvena eva śatarūpyakāṇi avyayayam aham।

niy

jalam, vāri, ambu, ambhaḥ, payaḥ, salilam, sarilam, udakam, udam, jaḍam, payas, toyam, pānīyam, āpaḥ, nīram, vāḥ, pāthas, kīlālam, annam, apaḥ, puṣkaram, arṇaḥ, peyam, salam, saṃvaram, śaṃvaram, saṃmbam, saṃvatsaram, saṃvavaraḥ, kṣīram, pāyam, kṣaram, kamalam, komalam, pīvā, amṛtam, jīvanam, jīvanīyam, bhuvanam, vanam, kabandham, kapandham, nāram, abhrapuṣpam, ghṛtam, kaṃ, pīppalam, kuśam, viṣam, kāṇḍam, savaram, saram, kṛpīṭam, candrorasam, sadanam, karvuram, vyoma, sambaḥ, saraḥ, irā, vājam, tāmarasa, kambalam, syandanam, sambalam, jalapītham, ṛtam, ūrjam, komalam, somam, andham, sarvatomukham, meghapuṣpam, ghanarasaḥ, vahnimārakaḥ, dahanārātiḥ, nīcagam, kulīnasam, kṛtsnam, kṛpīṭam, pāvanam, śaralakam, tṛṣāham, kṣodaḥ, kṣadmaḥ, nabhaḥ, madhuḥ, purīṣam, akṣaram, akṣitam, amba, aravindāni, sarṇīkam, sarpiḥ, ahiḥ, sahaḥ, sukṣema, sukham, surā, āyudhāni, āvayāḥ, induḥ, īm, ṛtasyayoniḥ, ojaḥ, kaśaḥ, komalam, komalam, kṣatram, kṣapaḥ, gabhīram, gambhanam, gahanam, janma, jalāṣam, jāmi, tugryā, tūyam, tṛptiḥ, tejaḥ, sadma, srotaḥ, svaḥ, svadhā, svargāḥ, svṛtikam, haviḥ, hema, dharuṇam, dhvasmanvatu, nāma, pavitram, pāthaḥ, akṣaram, pūrṇam, satīnam, sat, satyam, śavaḥ, śukram, śubham, śambaram, vūsam, vṛvūkam, vyomaḥ, bhaviṣyat, vapuḥ, varvuram, varhiḥ, bhūtam, bheṣajam, mahaḥ, mahat, mahaḥ, mahat, yaśaḥ, yahaḥ, yāduḥ, yoniḥ, rayiḥ, rasaḥ, rahasaḥ, retam   

sindhuhimavarṣādiṣu prāptaḥ dravarupo padārthaḥ yaḥ pāna-khāna-secanādyartham upayujyate।

jalaṃ jīvanasya ādhāram। /ajīrṇe jalam auṣadhaṃ jīrṇe balapradam। āhārakāle āyurjanakaṃ bhuktānnopari rātrau na peyam।

niy

ayogya, ayukta, anucita, anyāya, asaṅgata, anarha, anupayukta, asamañjasa, anupapanna, asadṛśa, apathya, asamīcīna, asambhāvya, asambhavanīya   

yad yuktaṃ nāsti।

tasya ayogyā uktiḥ kalahasya kāraṇam abhavat।

niy

mañcanīya   

prastutiyogyaḥ।

etad nāṭakaṃ mañcanīyam asti।

niy

avācya, avacanīya, akathanīya, akathya, avadya, asaṃbhāṣya, asambhāṣya   

yad kathanīyaṃ nāsti।

mama kecit anubhavāḥ avācyāḥ।

niy

avarṇanīya, avarṇya   

yasya varṇanaṃ kartuṃ na śakyate।

kaśmīrapradeśasya prākṛtikasaundaryam avarṇanīyam।

niy

gopanīya, goptavya, aprakaṭya, gopya, aprakāśya   

yad guptārham।

eṣā gopanīyā vārtā rāmāya mā kathaya।

niy

kalpanātīta, akalpanīya, akalpita, acintya   

kalpanīyāt param।

eṣā vicāradhārā kalpanātītā।

niy

akhaṇḍanīya, abhañjanīya   

yasya khaṇḍāni na bhavanti।

ilekṭrāna iti akhaṇḍanīyaṃ tatvam।

niy

asaṅkhya, asaṅkhyeya, agaṇanīya, agaṇya, agaṇita, ananta   

na gaṇyam।

adya sabhāyām asaṅkhyāḥ janāḥ santi।

niy

atulanīya, apratima, anupama, advitīya, ananyasādhāraṇa, sarvokṛṣṭa   

yad sadṛśaṃ anyad nāsti।

aho atulanīyaṃ dṛśyam etat।

niy

paṭhanīya, supāṭhya, pāṭhya, paṭhya, adhyayanīya, adhyetavya, adhyeya   

paṭhanārthe yogyam।

mānasa iti ekaḥ paṭhanīyaḥ granthaḥ।

niy

aparivartanīya, aparivartanaśīla   

yaḥ parivartanaśīlaḥ nāsti।

jātasya mṛtyuḥ dhruvam iti prakṛteḥ aparivartanīyaḥ niyamaḥ।

niy

pratiṣṭhita, agragaṇya, gaṇamānya, mānya, mānanīya, gauravānvita   

yena pratiṣṭhā labdhā।

paṇḍita maheśaḥ svasya kṣetre pratiṣṭhitaḥ vyaktiḥ asti।

niy

khaṇḍanīya   

khaṇḍituṃ yogyaḥ।

bhavataḥ kathanaṃ khaṇḍanīyam vartate।

niy

kṛṣṇavarṇīya, śvetetara, kṛṣṇa   

yaḥ mānavaḥ śvetavarṇīyaḥ nāsti ।

āṅglāḥ kṛṣṇavarṇīyaiḥ saha durvartanaṃ kṛtavantaḥ।

niy

aviśvasanīya   

yaḥ viśvasituṃ na arhati।

aviśvasanīyā vārtā eṣā।

niy

saṃyamin, niyamin, saṃyamaśīla   

yaḥ saṃyamena jīvati।

saṃyamī vyādhigrastaḥ na bhavati।

niy

avicāraṇīya, aciṃtanīya, avicārya   

yasya cintanaṃ na āvaśyakam।

eṣā vārtā avicāraṇīyā।/ājñā gurūṇāṃ hi avicāraṇīyā।

niy

sthāpanīya, sthāpya, saṃsthāpanīya, nidheya   

sthāpayituṃ yogyam।

eṣā nagnamūrtiḥ sthāpanīyā na vartate।

niy

praśaṃsanīya, praśaṃsya, ślāghya, ślāghanīya, stutya, abhinandanīya   

yaḥ praśaṃsituṃ yogyaḥ।

ye anyān kṛte jīvanti te praśaṃsanīyāḥ santi।

niy

yavānī, yavānikā, dīpyakaḥ, dīpyaḥ, yavasāhvaḥ, yavāgrajaḥ, dīpanī, ugragandhā, vātāriḥ, bhūkadambakaḥ, yavajaḥ, dīpanīyaḥ, śūlahantrī, ugrā, tīvragandhā, citrā   

oṣadhībījaviśeṣaḥ yavānyaḥ sagandhāni bījāni ye bhājane tathā ca bheṣaje upayujyante asya guṇāḥ kaṭutvaṃ tiktatvaṃ uṣṇatvaṃ vāta-arśaḥ-śleṣma-śūla-aṣmān-akṛmi-nāśitvam ca।

yavānī pācanī rucyā tīkṣṇoṣṇā kaṭukā laghuḥ।

niy

śaṅkanīya, saṃśayastha, sandehāspada, saṃśayāspada, śaṅkāspada   

yasyopari sandehaḥ asti।

asya hatyāyāḥ śaṅkanīyaḥ vyaktiḥ harinārāyaṇaḥ asti।

niy

kūṭa, kliṣṭa, duṣkara, mohana, mohanīya   

yat sukaraṃ nāsti।

yudhiṣṭhiraḥ yakṣasya kūṭānāṃ praśnānām uttarāṇi līlayā adadāt anujānāṃ prāṇān arakṣat ca।

niy

nirdhārita, niścita, vihita, niyata, avadhārita   

yad vidhīyate।

ahaṃ nirdhāritaṃ sthānam āgamiṣyāmi।

niy

daraṇīya   

yat dārayituṃ bhaṅktuṃ vā na śakyate।

eṣaḥ tantrīḥ daraṇīyaḥ nāsti।

niy

saṃyuj, ghaṭ, yuj, grath, saṃniyuj, sambandh, anubandh, sandhā, upasandhā, saṃśleṣay, saṃlagnīkṛ   

vastudvayān athavā ekasya eva vastunaḥ bhāgadvayān sīvanena śyānadravyeṇa vā lagnīkaraṇānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

taṣṭrā utpīṭhikāyāḥ ādhāradaṇḍān saṃniyunakti।

niy

niyamollaṅghanam, niyamabhañjanam   

niyamasya atikramasya kriyā bhāvo vā।

adhunā chātrāṇāṃ niyamollaṅghanaṃ nityavārtā eva।

niy

atulanīya, atulya   

yad tulyaṃ nāsti।

bhavatyāḥ sundaratā atulanīyā asti।

niy

aniyata, aniścita, aniyamita   

yad niyataṃ nāsti।

aniyatā jīvanaśailī svāsthyārthe hānikārakā bhavati।

niy

ādhunika, adyatanīya, idānītana, navīna, nūtana, sāmpratika   

vartamānasambandhi।

ādhunikaḥ bhāratīyasamājaḥ bhraṣṭācāram anusarati।

niy

yuj, niyuj   

ratha-halādi-saṃcālanārthe aśva-vṛṣabhādīnāṃ tebhyaḥ yautreṇa bandhanātmakaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

kṛṣakaḥ vṛṣabhaṃ halena karṣaṇārthe yunakti।

niy

cūṇayukta, puṭayukta, veṇiyukta, kavvarayukta, dhammilayukta   

yasmin cūṇāḥ santi।

mātā cūṇayuktam prāvarakaṃ pitare dattavatī।

niy

padaniyuktiḥ, sevā niyuktiḥ   

pade niyuktiḥ।

svasya padaniyukteḥ vārtā śrutvā saḥ ānanditā।

niy

śāsakaḥ, niyantā, anuśāsakaḥ   

yaḥ śāsanaṃ karoti।

śivājī ekaḥ kuśalaḥ śāsakaḥ asti।

niy

niyukta, ādiṣṭa   

yasya kasyāpi kāryārthe sthāne pade vā niyukti jātā।

bālakasya anupālanārthe niyuktaḥ vyaktiḥ adya na āgacchati।

niy

sārathiḥ, sūtaḥ, kṣattā, niyāmaka, niṣaṅgathi, pravetā, rathavāhaka, rathasārathi, saṃgrahītā, saṃgrāhaka, sacakrī, sādi, savyeṣṭhā, sthapati   

yaḥ rathaṃ cālayati।

mahābhārate yuddhe śrīkṛṣṇaḥ arjunasya sārathiḥ āsīt।

niy

namanīya, praṇamya   

namane arhaḥ।

dhanyā bhāratīyā saṃskṛtiḥ yatra mandire pratiṣṭhāpitaḥ pāṣāṇo'pi praṇamyo bhavati।

niy

sambhāvanā, śakyatā, sambhavaḥ, sambhāvanam, sambhāvyatā, sambhāvanīyatā, sambhūtiḥ   

yad sambhavati।

vedhaśālāyāḥ sūcanānusāram adya ativṛṣṭeḥ sambhāvanā asti।

niy

dṛḍha, kaṭhora, anamya, anamanīya   

yaḥ namyaḥ nāsti।

sikandarasya purataḥ porasaḥ dṛḍhaḥ āsīt।

niy

aghaṭanīya, aghaṭya   

yaḥ ghaṭanīyaḥ nāsti।

mauhurtikānusāreṇa eṣā aghaṭanīyā ghaṭanā nāsti।

niy

puruṣaḥ, vyākaraṇīyapuruṣaḥ   

vyākaraṇe śrutiviśeṣeṇa kartṛkarmaṇo upādhiḥ puruṣaḥ tat trividhaḥ uttama-madhyama-prathamāḥ।

vyākaraṇe trividhaḥ puruṣaḥ uttama-madhyama-prathamāḥ।

niy

naddham, niyogapāśaḥ   

sā rajjuḥ yayā paśuṃ yāne yojayati yasyāḥ ekaḥ bhāgaḥ paśukaṇṭhe asti anyad yāne baddhaḥ asti।

kṛṣakaḥ vṛṣabhaṃ yāne yojayati naddhaṃ ca badhnāti।

niy

sundara, cāru, rucira, sudṛśya, śobhana, kānta, vāma, surupa, manorama, manojña, sādhu, saumya, śrīyukta, sumukha, abhirāma, suṣama, peśala, rucya, mañju, mañjula, vṛndāra, manohārin, lāvaṇyavat, rūpavat, bhadraka, ramaṇīya, rāmaṇīyaka, bandhūra, bandhura, valgu, hāri, svarūpa, abhirūpa, divya   

rūpalāvaṇyasampannaḥ।

bālakaḥ sundaraḥ asti।

niy

raktaḥ, raktā, raktam, raktavarṇīyaḥ, raktavarṇīyā, raktavarṇīyam, lohitaḥ, lohitā, lohitāhinī, lohitam, raktavarṇaḥ, raktavarṇā, raktavarṇam, lohitavarṇam, rohitaḥ, rohitā, rohitāhinī, śoṇitaḥ, śoṇitā, śoṇitam, śoṇaḥ, śoṇā, śoṇam, śoṇī, sindūravarṇaḥ, kaṣāyaḥ, kaṣāyā, kaṣāyam, mañjiṣṭhaḥ, mañjiṣṭhī, mañjiṣṭham, aruṇaḥ, aruṇā, aruṇam, pāṭalaḥ, pāṭalā, pāṭalam   

vastūnāṃ raktaguṇatvadyotanārthe upayujyamānaṃ viśeṣaṇam।

rakte guṇe tatvaṃ raktam iti ucyate।

niy

suvarṇam, svarṇam, kanakam, hiraṇyam, hema, hāṭakam, kāñcanam, tapanīyam, śātakumbham, gāṅgeyam, bharmam, karvaram, cāmīkaram, jātarūpam, mahārajatam, rukmam, kārtasvaram, jāmbunadam, aṣṭāpadam, śātakaumbham, karcuram, rugmam, bhadram, bhūri, piñjaram, draviṇam, gairikam, cāmpeyam, bharuḥ, candraḥ, kaladhautam, abhrakam, agnibījam, lohavaram, uddhasārukam, sparśamaṇiprabhavam, mukhyadhātu, ujjvalam, kalyāṇam, manoharam, agnivīryam, agni, bhāskaram, piñajānam, apiñjaram, tejaḥ, dīptam, agnibham, dīptakam, maṅgalyam, saumañjakam, bhṛṅgāram, jāmbavam, āgneyam, niṣkam, agniśikham   

dhātuviśeṣaḥ-pītavarṇīyaḥ dhātuḥ yaḥ alaṅkāranirmāṇe upayujyate।

suvarṇasya mūlyaṃ vardhitam।

niy

viyuj, viniyuj, viṣ   

pṛthakkaraṇānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

sītā taṇḍulaiḥ saha miśritān kusūlān viyuṅkte।

niy

upekṣaṇīya, laṅghanīya   

upekṣitum arhaḥ।

īśvaranirmitaṃ kimapi vastu upekṣaṇīyaṃ nāsti।

niy

viśvāsahīnatā, aviśvasanīyatā   

viśvāsahīnasya avasthā bhāvo vā।

auraṃgajebasya patanasya kāraṇaṃ janān prati viśvāsahīnatā eva।

niy

yūnānīya   

yūnānadeśasya vāsī।

prācīne kāle yūnānīyaiḥ viśva svasya vīratāyāḥ pradarśanaṃ kṛtam।

niy

asādhyaḥ, asādhyam, aśakyam, asādhyā, asādhanīyam, asādhanīyaḥ, asādhanīyā, sādhanāyogyam, asādhitavyam   

sādhayitum aśakyam।

idam asādhyaṃ kāryaṃ mama kṛte kṛpayā anyad dadātu। / ya idaṃ prapaṭhet nityaṃ durgānāmaśatātmakam na asādhyaṃ vidyate tasya triṣu lokeṣu pārvati।

niy

asādhyaḥ, nirauṣadhaḥ, durdharaḥ, asādhaḥ, avāraṇīyaḥ, nirupakramaḥ, durācaraḥ, kṣetriyaḥ, kriyāpathamatikrāntaḥ, vivarjanīyaḥ   

cikitsātikrāntaḥ।

raktakṣayaḥ asādhyaḥ rogaḥ asti।

niy

ājñā, ādeśaḥ, nideśaḥ, nirdeśaḥ, śāsanam, śiṣṭiḥ, śāstiḥ, niyogaḥ, preraṇā, avavādaḥ, prayuktiḥ   

sā kriyā yena vṛddhāḥ bālān kimapi karma kartum ādiśanti।

jyeṣṭhānāṃ ājñāyāḥ pālanaṃ kartavyam। / pituḥ ājñayā rāmaḥ vanavāse gacchati sma।

niy

sahya, sahanīya   

yad soḍhuṃ śakyam।

santānasya kṛtyāni pitṛbhyāṃ sahyāni santi।

niy

anukaraṇīya   

anukaraṇārthe yogyaḥ।

mahātmanām ācaraṇam anukaraṇīyam।

niy

cikitsya, cikitsanīya   

yasya cikitsā sambhavati।

adyatanīyāḥ vaijñānikāḥ sarvān vyādhīn cikitsyān kartuṃ prayatante।

niy

ādaraṇīya, sammānanīya, samādaraṇīya, sammānya, mānya, mānanīya, ārya, māriṣa   

yaḥ mānam arhati।

mahātmā gāndhī mānyaḥ puruṣaḥ āsīt।

niy

svīkārya, svīkaraṇīya, grahaṇīya, grāhya   

svīkartuṃ yogyaḥ।

bhavataḥ sūcanā svīkāryā vartate।

niy

asahya, asahanīya, duḥsaha   

yaḥ svasya ugratayā kaṭhoratayā anaucityena vā sahyaṃ nāsti।

tasya kaṭubhāṣaṇaṃ mama kṛte asahyam asti।

niy

nūtanīkaraṇīya, navīnīkaraṇīya   

nūtanīkartuṃ yogyaḥ।

etad pārapatraṃ nūtanīkaraṇīyaṃ bhavati।

niy

kartavyam, dharmaḥ, svadharmaḥ, kartavyatā, kāryam, kṛtyam, kriyā, niyamaḥ, yamaḥ, vratam, dhurā, tapaḥ   

yat avaśyaṃ karaṇīyam।

deśasevā iti asmākaṃ paramaṃ kartavyam।

niy

vaśīkṛ, svāyattīkṛ, damaya, pradamaya, uddamaya, ubj, ullāpaya, nikṛ, nirji, vinirji, saṃniyam, samaj   

balapūrvakaṃ svādhīnatānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

āṅglaśāsakāḥ ādau bhāratasya laghūni rājyāni vaśyakurvan।

niy

dhūmravarṇīya   

yasya dhūmravarṇaḥ asti।

dhūmikayā sarvaṃ dhūmravarṇīyaṃ dṛśyate।

niy

mallayuddham, bāhuyuddham, niyuddham   

mallayoḥ mallānāṃ vā saṃgrāmaḥ।

naraśārdūlau mallayuddhe samīyatuḥ।

niy

darśanīya, prekṣaṇīya, dṛśya, avekṣaṇīya, ālokanīya   

draṣṭuṃ yogyaḥ।

saḥ vihārārthe prekṣaṇīyān sthalān gacchati।

niy

śravaṇīya, śravya, śrotavya   

śrotuṃ yogyaḥ।

tasya dhvaniḥ mṛduḥ kiṃ tu śravaṇīyaḥ asti।

niy

adarśanīya   

draṣṭum anarhaḥ।

adhunā keṣucana calaccitragṛheṣu adarśanīyān calaccitrān pradarśayanti।

niy

aśrāvya, aśravaṇīya   

śrotum anarhaḥ।

saḥ pratyekasya kṛte aśrāvyaṃ śabdam upayuṅkte।

niy

śravaṇīya, śrāvya   

śrotum arhaḥ।

jyeṣṭhānāṃ śravaṇīyaṃ kathanaṃ vicāraṇīyam।

niy

pañcakoṇīya   

yasya pañcakoṇāḥ santi।

chātrāḥ abhyāsapustikāyāṃ pañcakoṇīyām ākṛtim ārekhanti।

niy

krīḍanakam, krīḍanīyam   

krīḍārthe nirmitaṃ vastu।

bālakaḥ krīḍanakena saha khelati।

niy

cintanīya, cintya, śocanīya   

śocitum arhaḥ।

tasya avasthā cintanīyā asti।

niy

mādaka, madakara, madaprada, madanīya, madayat   

yaḥ madayati।

mādakāt dravyāt ātmānaṃ rakṣa।

niy

udumbaraḥ, kṣīravṛkṣaḥ, hemadugdhaḥ, sadāphalaḥ, kālaskandhaḥ, yajñayogyaḥ, yajñīyaḥ, supratiṣṭhitaḥ, śītavalkaḥ, jantuphalaḥ, puṣpaśūnyaḥ, pavitrakaḥ, saumyaḥ, śītaphalaḥ   

nyagrodhajātīyaḥ vṛkṣaḥ yasya phale jantavaḥ santi।

saḥ udumbarasya chāyāyām upaviṣṭaḥ।

niy

anupradānam, aṃhitiḥ, apavargaḥ, apasarjanam, ijyaḥ, utsargaḥ, utsarjanam, udāttaḥ, upasattiḥ, upasadaḥ, dattam, dādaḥ, dānīyam, dāyaḥ, namas, niryātanam, nirvapaṇam, pradānam, vilambhaḥ, viśraṇanam, vihāpitam, sparśanam, apavarjanam   

kasyāpi sāmājike dhārmikādeḥ kāryārthe dānarūpeṇa vibhinnajanāt saṅkalitaṃ dhanādiḥ।

tena mandirārthe saṅkalitena anupradānena svasya gṛhaṃ vinirmitam।

niy

viṣṭambh, nirudh, saṃhṛ, saṃnigrah, saṃniyam   

kasya api virodhaṃ vidroham upadravam icchāṃ vā balaprayogeṇa pratibandhānukūlavyāpāraḥ।

pāratanttrye āṅglaśāsanaṃ etaddeśīyānāṃ janānām udvegaṃ vyaṣṭabhnot। / kāmakāmaiḥ asmābhiḥ manorathāḥ nirotsyante।

niy

cīnīya   

cīnadeśasambandhī।

eṣaḥ cīnīyena cīnāṃśukena nirmitaḥ।

niy

cīnadeśīyaḥ, cīnavāsīyaḥ, cīnīyaḥ   

cīnadeśasya nivāsī।

naike cīnadeśīyāḥ mama mitrāṇi।

niy

ramya, ramaṇīya, śobhana   

yaḥ śobhate।

adya ṛtuḥ ramyaḥ asti।

niy

śobhā, saundaryam, kāntiḥ, dīptiḥ, ramaṇīyatā, chavi, chaṭā, saundarya, sauṃdarya, kāṃti, kānti, dīpti, ramaṇīyatā, bahāra, sundaratā, indirā   

śobhanasya avasthā bhāvo vā।

sūryāstakāle ākāśasya śobhā vardhate।

niy

asvīkārya, asvīkaraṇīya, apratigrāhya   

svīkartum ayogyaḥ।

kimarthaṃ punaḥpunaḥ asvīkāryaṃ vacanam upadiśasi।

niy

saundarya, sundaratā, ramaṇīyatā, manoharatā, mohakatā, cārutā, abhirāmatā, lālitya, kamanīyatā, kāmyatā, suramyatā   

sundarasya avasthā bhāvo vā।

kaśmirasya saundaryaṃ vilobhanīyam।

niy

nautaraṇīya   

yat nāvā taraṇīyam।

eṣaḥ jalāśayaḥ nautaraṇīyaḥ asti।

niy

niyamabaddha   

niyamena baddhaḥ।

tasya pratyekaṃ kāryaṃ niyamabaddham asti।

niy

aniyantraṇatā   

niyantraṇahīnasya avasthā bhāvo vā।

aniyantraṇatayā samāje arājakatā vardhitā।

niy

trivarṇīya   

varṇatrayātmakaḥ।

bhāratarāṣṭrasya dhvajaḥ trivarṇīyaḥ asti।

niy

koṇīya, koṇayukta   

koṇena yuktaḥ।

etat krīḍāṅgaṇaṃ koṇīyam asti।

niy

daṇḍanīya, daṇḍapātra   

daṇḍayitum arhaḥ।

daṇḍapātraḥ daṇḍanīyaḥ।

niy

daṇḍanīya, daṇḍya   

daṇḍitum arhaḥ।

cauryam iti ekaḥ daṇḍanīyaḥ aparādhaḥ asti।

niy

ramaṇīya, premamaya, premapūrṇa   

premṇā yuktaḥ।

ramaṇīye kāle āryasya virahaḥ asahyaḥ।

niy

madhyagaḥ, niyogī, niyuktaḥ   

vāṇijyakarmanirvahaṇe niyukto janaḥ।

etad yānaṃ mayā madhyagasya sāhāyyena krītam।

niy

lavaṇīya   

lavaṇayuktaḥ।

sāgarasya jalaṃ lavaṇīyam asti।

niy

niyantraṇam, niyantranā, prabhutvam   

anyān svādhikāre kṛtvā kāryavyāpārādīnāṃ pracālanasya avasthā।

svapituḥ vyavasāye idānīṃ rāmasya eva niyantraṇam asti।

niy

niyantrita, pratibaddha   

yasyopari niyantraṇam asti।

śāsanena niyantritā saṃsthā prasuptā।

niy

niyata, sīmita   

yuktāyāḥ sīmnaḥ antare।

niyatena vyayena ārthikasaṃkaṭāt uttarituṃ śakyate।

niy

niyamaḥ   

yogasya aṣṭāṅgeṣu ekaṃ yasmin śaucaṃ santoṣaḥ tapaḥ svādhyāyaḥ īśvarapraṇidhānam ete santi।

sādhuḥ niyamam ācarati।

niy

pānīyam, pānakam, peyam, pāntaḥ, garaḥ, prapāṇam   

śarkarādimiśritaṃ jalam।

śarkarāyāḥ apekṣayā guḍamiśritaṃ pānīyam adhikaṃ rucikaraṃ bhavati।

niy

pānakam, rasikapānīyam, śarbat   

śarbatsaṃjñakaṃ rasikapānīyaviśeṣaḥ, parimitaśarkarādinimbūrasayuktam athavānyāmlayuktam asamayaṃ pānīyam।

mālā yajñadattāya pānakam yacchati।

niy

pratijñā, pratijñānam, samayaḥ, saṃśravaḥ, pratiśravaḥ, vacanam, saṃvid, saṃvit, niyamaḥ, saṃgaraḥ, saṅagaraḥ, saṅketaḥ, abhisaṃdhā, abhisandhā, abhyupagamaḥ, svīkāraḥ, urarīkāraḥ, aṃgīkāraḥ, aṅgīkāraḥ, paripaṇanaṃ, samādhiḥ, āgūḥ, āśravaḥ, sandhā, śravaḥ   

kañcit dṛḍhatāpūrvakaṃ kathanaṃ yat idaṃ kāryam aham avaśyaṃ kariṣyāmi athavā kadāpi na kariṣyāmi iti।

ādhunike kāle alpīyāḥ janāḥ pratijñāṃ pūrayanti।

niy

saṃśodhanīya   

saṃśodhanam arhati iti।

bhavataḥ patriyā saṃśodhanīyā asti iti sampādakaḥ akathayat।

niy

punarniyuktiḥ   

svasya pade sthāne vā punaḥ niyuktiprāpaṇasya kriyā।

saḥ svasya punarniyuktyā ānandat।

niy

saṅgrahaṇīya, saṅgrāhya   

saṅgrahaṃ kartuṃ yogyaḥ।

etāni vastūni saṅgrahaṇīyāni santi।

niy

niyuj, niyojaya, adhikṛ, vidhā, vyāpṛ, pravṛt   

kriyāsu kāryeṣu vā niyojanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

idaṃ kāryaṃ sampādayituṃ saḥ sapta janān nyayuṅkta।

niy

makṣikā, makṣikaḥ, palaṅkaṣā, mākṣakā, bambharāliḥ, vamanīyā, admasad   

uḍḍayane samarthaḥ ekaḥ laghuḥ kīṭaḥ yaḥ prāyaḥ sarvatra bhavati।

svacchatāyāḥ abhāvāt gṛhe makṣikāḥ ḍayante।

niy

kukkuṭaḥ, caraṇāyudhaḥ, nakhāyudhaḥ, svarṇacūḍaḥ, tāmracūḍaḥ, tāmraśikhī, śikhī, śikhaṇḍī, śikhaṇḍikaḥ, kṛkavākuḥ, kalavikaḥ, kālajñaḥ, uṣākaraḥ, niśāvedī, rātrivedī, yāmaghoṣaḥ, rasāsvanaḥ, suparṇaḥ, pūrṇakaḥ, niyoddhā, viṣkiraḥ, nakharāyudhaḥ, vṛtākṣaḥ, kāhalaḥ, dakṣaḥ, yāmanādī, kāhalaḥ   

narakukkuṭī।

prātaḥ kukkuṭasya dhvaniṃ śrutvā ahaṃ jāgṛtaḥ।

niy

vandanīya, praṇamya, namanīya, namya, abhivandanīya, vandya, abhivandya   

nantum arhaḥ।

mātā pitā tathā ca guruḥ vandanīyaḥ asti।

niy

avarudh, saṃyam, niyam, nigrah, saṃrudh, nirudh, nivartaya, praśamaya, śamaya   

icchāniyantraṇānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

ahaṃ sītāṃ mīlitum atīva samutsukaḥ āsam paraṃ tasyāḥ ācaraṇaṃ dṛṣṭvā ātmānam avāruṇadham।

niy

saptavarṇīya   

saptaiḥ varṇaiḥ yuktaḥ।

indradhanuṣaḥ saptavarṇīyaḥ asti।

niy

vidhāyakaḥ, niyāmakaḥ   

yaḥ niyamanaṃ vidhānaṃ vā karoti।

adya saṃsadi vidhāyakānāṃ āpatkālīnā sabhā āyojitā।

niy

sthānīya, sthānika   

sthānasambandhī।

etat banārasanagarasya sthānīyaṃ samācārapatram asti।

niy

vitaraṇam, viniyogaḥ, dānam   

janebhyaḥ vastūnāṃ pradānasya kriyā।

dhanikaḥ nirdhaneṣu vastrāṇāṃ vitaraṇasya anantaraṃ annaṃ vitarati।

niy

caturvarṇīya   

yasmin catvāraḥ varṇāḥ santi।

saḥ caturvarṇīyaṃ vastraṃ paridhārayati।

niy

udraḥ, jalamārjāraḥ, jalanakulaḥ, pānīyanakulaḥ, nīrajaḥ, nīrākhuḥ   

nirmalajalastha māṃsāhārī sastanajantuḥ।

udrasya lomāḥ kṛṣṇavarṇīyāḥ santi।

niy

niyamaḥ, daṇḍaḥ, vidhiḥ   

daṇḍavidhāne vartamānāḥ vividhāḥ niyamāḥ;

bhāratīyadaṇḍavidhānasya niyamena bhrūṇahatyā niṣiddhā

niy

manohara, manorama, mugdha, valgu, spṛhaṇīya, didṛkṣeṇya, didṛkṣeya, mitrayu, lobhanīyatama   

yaḥ manaḥ ākarṣati।

tasya citrakarma manoharam asti।

niy

dvivarṇīya   

yasmin dvau varṇau santi।

śīlā dvivarṇīyāṃ śāṭikāṃ paridhārayati।

niy

pañcavarṇīya   

pañcabhiḥ varṇaiḥ yuktaḥ।

pañcavarṇīyaḥ kaṇṭhanīḍakaḥ ākāśe śobhate।

niy

prārthanīya, abhyarthanīya   

prārthanāṃ kartuṃ yogyaḥ।

mandire āyojite rāmāyaṇasya pāṭhe sarveṣām upasthitiḥ prārthanīyā asti।

niy

yajñamaṇḍapaḥ, yajñavāṭaḥ, yajñasthānam, yajñīyaśālā   

yajñasya gṛham;

munayaḥ rājasūyayajñārthe yajñamaṇḍape samāgatāḥ

niy

varjanīya   

tyaktuṃ yogyaḥ।

mādakapadārthānāṃ sevanaṃ varjanīyam asti।

niy

apekṣaṇīyaḥ, apekṣaṇīyā, apekṣaṇīyam, apekṣitavyaḥ, apekṣitavyā, apekṣitavyam, apekṣyaḥ, apekṣyā, apekṣyam   

apekṣitumarhati;

sarvaiḥ śāsanasevakaiḥ nirdhāritamulyād adhikam sevāmūlyaṃ na apekṣaṇīyam

niy

saṃvaidhānika, saṃvidhānīya, vaidhānika, vidhānīya, sāṃvidhānika   

saṃvidhānasambandhī।

saṃvaidhānikānāṃ niyamānāṃ pālanam iti nāgarikāṇāṃ kartavyam asti।

niy

vaidhānika, vidhānīya   

vidhānarūpeṇa।

vaidhānikaṃ kāryaṃ na anyathā karaṇīyam।

niy

suśobhita, śobhānvita, śobhāyamāna, śobhita, abhimaṇḍita, susajjita, śobhanīya   

yaḥ śobhāṃ vardhayati।

rājñaḥ mastake ratnena suśobhitaṃ mukuṭam asti।

niy

havanīya   

havanārthe yogyaḥ।

havanāt prāk havanīyānāṃ padārthānāṃ saṅkalanaṃ karotu।

niy

svarṇima, suvarṇīya, suvarṇa, haima, hiraṇmaya, svarṇila, hemamaya   

svarṇasya varṇasadṛśaḥ।

śītakāle svarṇimāni kiraṇāni ālhādayanti।

niy

smaraṇīya   

smartumarhaḥ।

pratyekasya jīvane kāpi smaraṇīyā ghaṭanā bhavati eva।

niy

vidhiḥ, bhāgyam, bhavitavyatā, niyatiḥ, yathābhāvaḥ, bhāgyavṛttiḥ, daivam, prāktanam   

yā ghaṭanā niścayena bhavati eva।

vidhiṃ kaḥ api parihartuṃ na śaknoti।

niy

adhiniyamaḥ, kriyākāraḥ   

saṃsadādidvārā nirmitaḥ niyamaḥ।

sarvakāraḥ svānukūlatām anu adhiniyamān parivartayituṃ śaknoti।

niy

navaniyuktiḥ   

kasyāmapi saṃsthāyāṃ kṛtā nūtanā niyuktiḥ।

mama grāmāt dvayoḥ janayoḥ senāyāṃ navaniyuktiḥ abhavat।

niy

niyatāṃśaḥ   

sampūrṇasya saḥ viśiṣṭaḥ bhāgaḥ yaḥ kasmai api dīyate athavā kasmāt api svīkriyate।

udyoge viśiṣṭajātīnāṃ kṛte niyatāṃśaḥ ārakṣitaḥ bhavati।

niy

galanīya   

yaḥ kasminnapi dravapadārthe galati।

śarkarāsaindhavādayaḥ galanīyāḥ padārthāḥ santi।

niy

ullekhanīya, ullekhya   

ullekhituṃ yogyaḥ।

tasya caritraṃ ullekhanīyam asti।

niy

rājasthānīya   

rājasthānasambandhī।

sā rājasthānīye paridhāne śobhanīyā dṛśyate।

niy

niyantraṇasamitiḥ   

saḥ adhikārī vā adhikāriṇāṃ samūhaḥ yaḥ citrapaṭaṃ dṛṣṭvā patrān paṭhitvā vā tatratyam aślīlaṃ bhāgaṃ ruṇaddhi tathā ca citrapaṭaṃ pradarśayituṃ taiḥ dattaṃ pramāṇapatram āvaśyakameva।

niyantraṇasamitiḥ naikān citrapaṭān aruṇat।

niy

tāpānukūlakaḥ, vātaniyantrakaḥ, vātāvasthāpakaḥ   

ekaṃ yantraṃ yena paritaḥ vātāvaraṇaṃ śītalaṃ śuṣkaṃ ca kriyate।

asya prakoṣṭhasya tāpānukūlakaḥ naṣṭaḥ jātaḥ।

niy

damaya, niyam, saṃyam, nigrah   

kasyacana viṣayasya balāt adhikāram upayujya vā anyeṣāṃ jñānaviṣayābhavanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

vadhasya prakaraṇaṃ nyāyālaye upasthiteḥ prāgeva adamyata।

niy

saṃniyam, niyam, nirudh, nigrah, nivāraya, niyamaya, vāraya, vinivāraya, niṣidh, saṃnigrah, saṃniyam, saṃnirudh, avalup   

balāt virodhināṃ damanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

ārakṣakāḥ virodhinaḥ yaṣṭyā tāḍanena saṃnyacchan।

niy

vyay, viniyuj, vyayīkṛ   

niḥśeṣam upayogānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

karmakaraḥ idaṃ gṛhaṃ nirmātuṃ śatagoṇiṃ vajracūrṇam avyayat।

niy

adhikṛ, niyuj, yuj, vyādiś   

kāryanirvahaṇāya kasmin api kāryabhāranidhānānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

prahalaikasmin kṣetre vidyamānaṃ sasyaṃ lavituṃ kṛṣakaḥ pañca puruṣān adhikaroti।

niy

nāvikaḥ, nāvājaḥ, nāvī, niyāmakaḥ, niyāmaḥ, potavāhaḥ, potavāhakaḥ   

yaḥ naukāṃ cālayati।

nāvikaḥ naukāṃ vegena cālayati।

niy

kṣepaṇikaḥ, nāvājaḥ, nāvī, niyāmaḥ, niyāmakaḥ, naujīvikaḥ, potavāhaḥ, potavāhakaḥ   

yaḥ naukāṃ vahati।

saḥ nausenāyāṃ kṣepaṇikaḥ asti।

niy

aniyantrita   

yaḥ niyantritaḥ nāsti।

pragrahāt niṣkrāntaḥ aśvaḥ aniyantritaḥ abhavat।

niy

āśvāsanīyaḥ, āśvāsanīyā, āśvāsanīyam   

āśvāsayitum arhaḥ;

cikitsikayā garbhavatīstrī āśvalanīyā

niy

phālgunīya   

phālgunasya sambandhī।

manoharaḥ phālgunīyaṃ gītaṃ gāyati।

niy

saṃrudh, avarudh, nirudh, nigrah, niyam, saṃyam, nibandh, pratibandh, āvṛ, saṃhṛ   

bhāvanaveganiyantraṇānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

saḥ krodhaṃ saṃruṇaddhi।

niy

ullekhanīya, lekhanīya, ullekhya   

vyapadeṣṭuṃ likhituṃ vā arhaḥ।

ullekhanīyāḥ ghaṭanāḥ itihāsaṃ nirmānti।

niy

stutya, praśaṃsitavya, stavya, kāruṇya, aṅgoṣin, ślokya, śaṃsya, praśastavya, suvṛkti, pāṇya, śravāyya, abhivandya, ślāghanīya, praśasya, vandya, suśasti, pravācya, śravya, īḍenya, mahanīya, śālin, praśasna, stavanīya, īḍya, paṇāyya, śaṃsanīya, praśaṃstavya   

stavanārhaḥ।

stutyasya atitheḥ hārdaṃ svāgataṃ kurmaḥ vayam।

niy

niyamaḥ, śāsanam, vyavasthā   

kāścit niścitāḥ kṛtāḥ paddhatayaḥ।

kāmapi saṃsthāṃ deśaṃ vā pracālayituṃ kecana niyamāḥ nirmīyante।

niy

prakāśya, prakāśanīya   

prakāśitum arhaḥ।

tasya tisraḥ prakāśyāḥ racanāḥ mudraṇālaye santi।

niy

bhedya, bhedanīya, vedhanīya, vedhya   

yaḥ bhettuṃ śakyate।

vedhyaḥ durgaḥ sainikaiḥ āveṣṭitaḥ।

niy

viśvasanīyatā   

viśvastasya avasthā।

asmābhiḥ viśvasanīyatā rakṣaṇīyā eva।

niy

paridhānīya   

yad paridhānārthe yogyam।

etad vastraṃ paridhānīyam asti।

niy

mauktikavarṇīya, mauktikavarṇa   

mauktikasya varṇasya sadṛśaḥ varṇaḥ।

śīlā mauktikavarṇīyāṃ śāṭīṃ dhṛtavatī।

niy

cayanīya   

cayanārthe yogyaḥ।

sāhityaṃ cayanīyaḥ viṣayaḥ asti।

niy

aṅkanīya   

aṅkanārthe yogyaḥ।

eṣaḥ aṅkanīyaḥ upaskaraḥ nāsti।

niy

niyamanam   

tat kāryaṃ yena anyasya pravṛttivighātaḥ bhavati।

bālakānāṃ paryāptaṃ niyamanam āvaśyakam।

niy

pākistānīya, pākastānīyā   

pākistānasya nivāsī।

bhāratapākistānayoḥ sīmolaṅghanaṃ kurvantaḥ naike pākistānīyāḥ gṛhītāḥ।

niy

pākisthānīya   

pākisthānasambandhī।

kecana janāḥ pākisthānīyāṃ rājanītim adhikṛtya carcāṃ kurvanti।

niy

bhūtānīyaḥ, bhūtānīyā   

bhūtānadeśasya nivāsī।

naike bhūtānīyāḥ mama mitrāṇi santi।

niy

akaraṇīya, akaraṇārhya, akārya   

kartum ayogyaḥ;

akaraṇīyaṃ karma pāpasya janakaḥ।

niy

adaṇḍanīya, adaṇḍya   

daṇḍārthe anarhaḥ।

adaṇḍanīyaḥ puruṣaḥ muktaḥ।

niy

adhiniyamanam   

saṃsadā adhiniyamasya svīkṛteḥ kriyā।

asya adhiniyamanam āvaśyakameva।

niy

nitya, niyata, sthira, nirantara, nidhruvi, satata   

sarvadā yaḥ kenāpi saha asti dīrghakālaṃ yāvat tiṣṭhati iti vā।

saṃsāre kimapi vastu nityam nāsti।

niy

yonīya   

yonyāḥ sambaddham।

veśyāḥ prāyaḥ yonīyaiḥ rogaiḥ grastāḥ।

niy

laṅghanīya, atikramaṇīya   

atikrāntuṃ yogyaḥ।

eṣā rītiḥ laṅghanīyā asti।

niy

apūjya, anarghya, apūjanīya   

pūjārthe ayogyaḥ।

dakṣiṇabhārate āghrātitaṃ puṣpam apūjyaṃ manyate।

niy

asambhavam, aghaṭitam, asādhyam, duḥśakam, asaṃbhāvanīyam   

aśakyā ghaṭanā।

kadācit asambhavam api ghaṭate।

niy

anādaraṇīya, nirādaraṇīya, asammānanīya, amānanīya, apūjanīya, apūjya   

yaḥ ādarārthe ayogyaḥ।

janāḥ bhayāt anādaraṇīyaṃ puruṣam ādaraṃ pradarśayati।

niy

aniyamita   

yad niyamitaṃ nāsti।

aniyamitaṃ kāryaṃ lābhadāyakaṃ nāsti।

niy

anivāryatā, anivāryatvam, avaśyaṃbhāvitā, ananyagatitvam, ananyagatitā, āvaśyakatvam, āvaśyakatā, niyatatvaṃ, niyatatā, avaśyakartavyatā, kāryavaśaḥ, kartavyatā, kartavyatvam   

kimapi niścitarūpeṇa kartavyatāyāḥ avasthā।

asya kāryasya anivāryatāyāḥ kadācit bhavantaṃ tarkaṃ na vartate।

niy

apaṭhanīya, apaṭhya   

yaḥ paṭhituṃ na śakyate ।

tasya lekhanam apaṭhanīyam asti।

niy

paṭhanīya, paṭhya, paṭhitavya   

yasya paṭhanaṃ śakyam।

uttarapustikā sulikhitā paṭhanīyā ca āvaśyakī।

niy

balvajaḥ, balvajā, dṛḍhapatrī, tṛṇakṣuḥ, tṛṇavalvajā, mauñjīpatrā, dṛḍhatṛṇā, pānīyāśnā, dṛḍhakṣurā   

tṛṇaviśeṣaḥ।

balvajaḥ bṛhadākārakaḥ bhavati।

niy

yojaya, niyojaya, saṃyojaya, saṃnāhaya, sannāhaya   

saukaryātiśayena aśvavṛṣabhādīnāṃ saṃyojanabhavanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

yānena vṛṣabhau yojayataḥ।

niy

viniyojaya   

kāryaviśeṣasya dhurāvahanapreraṇānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

asmin kārye ahaṃ bhavantaṃ viniyojayāmi।

niy

stanya, stanīya   

stanasambandhī।

stanyānāṃ vyādhinām upacārāḥ kartavyā।

niy

maisiḍoniyādeśaḥ   

yuropakhaṇḍasya deśaviśeṣaḥ।

maisiḍoniyādeśaḥ 1991 tame varṣe yugoslāviyādeśāt svātantryaṃ prāptavān।

niy

niyaṃtrakaḥ, vaśī, adhikārī, śāstā, adhyakṣaḥ, adhiṣṭhātā   

yaḥ kāryāṇāṃ vastunaḥ avasthānāṃ vā niyantraṇaṃ karoti।

asmin vidyutayantre ekaḥ tāpasya niyantrakaḥ vartate।

niy

niyantraka   

yaḥ kāryaṃ vastu avasthā vā niyantrayati।

asya yantrasya uṣmāṅkasya niyantrakaḥ piñjaḥ bhagnaḥ।

niy

māriṭeniyādeśaḥ, māriṭeniyāgaṇarājyam   

vāyavyāphrikākhaṇḍe sthitaḥ deśaviśeṣaḥ।

māriṭeniyādeśe pratīcyasya sahārānāmakasya marusthalasya adhikatamaḥ bhāgaḥ asti।

niy

niyamānusāram, yathāniyamam   

niyamān anatikramya।

niyamānusāraṃ vayam api bhavanapraveśārhāḥ smaḥ।

niy

omānīya   

omānadeśena sambaddham omānadeśasya vā।

aphjalaḥ omānīyāyām udyogasaṃsthāyāṃ kāryaṃ karoti।

niy

tajikistānīya, tajikistānadeśīya   

tajikistānena sambaddhaṃ taja़ikistānasya vā।

saḥ tajikistānīyāṃ jīvanaśailīṃ dṛṣṭvā vismitaḥ।

niy

tajikaḥ, tajikistānīyaḥ   

tajikistānasya ādimaḥ nivāsī।

ahaṃ naikān tajikān jānāmi/anekāḥ tajikāḥ mama paricitāḥ।

niy

ujabekistānadeśīya, ujabekistānīya   

ujabekistānadeśasya nivāsī।

bahūn ujabekistānadeśīyān ahaṃ sādhurupeṇa jānāmi।

niy

cāndanavarṇīya   

candanasya varṇayuktaḥ।

cāndanavarṇīyānāṃ mūrtināṃ parimārjanena idaṃ śvetavastraṃ cāndanavarṇīyaṃ jātam।

niy

niyamanam   

niyatena rūpeṇa kasyāpi vastunaḥ anusaraṇam।

samayasya niyamane adyāpi saḥ uttamaḥ।

niy

niyamanam, niyatiḥ, yantraṇam, saṅkocaḥ   

kasmin api viśeṣakarmaṇi āgatā vivaśatā।

rugṇasya khādye niyamanaṃ kriyatām।

niy

anuvādanīya   

anuvāditum arhaḥ।

etad anuvādanīyaṃ pustakam asti।

niy

jīvantī, jīvanī, jīvā, jīvanīyā, madhusravā, madhuḥ, sravā, payasvinī, jīvyā, jīvadā, jīvadātrī, śākaśreṣṭhā, jīvabhadrā, bhadrā, maṅgalyā, kṣudrajīvā, yaśasyā, śṛṅgāṭī, jīvadṛṣṭā, kāñjikā, śaśaśimbikā, supiṅgalā, madhuśvāsā, jīvavṛṣā, sukhaṅkarī, mṛgarāṭikā, jīvapatrī, jīvapuṣpā, jīvanī   

latāviśeṣaḥ।

jīvantī auṣadharūpeṇa upayujyate।

niy

apaharaṇīya   

yat apahartuṃ yogyam।

apaharaṇīyāni vastūni dṛṣṭvā api saḥ saṃyamī āsīt।

niy

apaharaṇīya   

chalena balena vā haraṇāya yogyam।

coraḥ apaharaṇīyānāṃ vastūnāṃ poṭalaṃ gṛhītvā palāyitaḥ।

niy

gopanīya, guhya   

yaḥ ācchādayati।

gopanīyaḥ manuṣyaḥ kaṭhoraḥ daṇḍaḥ prāpnuyāt।

niy

lakṣaṇīya   

ālakṣayituṃ yogyaḥ।

lakṣaṇīyam idaṃ yat adaḥ kāryam adyapi kimarthaṃ na abhavat।

niy

punarāvedanīya   

punarāvedanena sambaddhaṃ punarāvedanasya vā।

mayā daśavādane punarāvedanīyāya kāryavahanāya nyāyālayaṃ gantavyam।

niy

mānanīyaḥ   

yaḥ atyadhikasya sammānasya pātraḥ (viśeṣarūpeṇa sambodhane prayujyate।)।

mānanīya, bhavataḥ lekhaḥ asmākaṃ patrikāyāṃ prakāśitaḥ।

niy

apraśaṃsanīya, aślāghanīya, aślāghya   

praśaṃsārthe anarham।

sarvāṇi apraśaṃsanīyāni kāryāṇi nindanīyāni na santi।

niy

adhikāritvam, kartavyam, niyogaḥ   

kāryapravartakasya kāryam।

tena pañcaviṃśavarṣāṇi yāvat senāyām adhikāritvam ūḍham।

niy

madguḥ, matsyavedhanī, piculaḥ, pānīyakākikā   

ekaḥ jalīyaḥ pakṣī।

madguḥ bhārate vaṅgadeśe pākisthāne ca dṛśyate।

niy

yajñiyaḥ, yajñīyaḥ   

yāgasambandhini।

kṛṣṇasārastu carati mṛgo yatra svabhāvataḥ। sa jñeyo yajñiyo deśo mlecchadeśastataḥ paraḥ॥ [manu. 2।23]

niy

abādhya, apratibandha, avāraṇīya, durdhara, durādhara   

yasya avarodhanam aśakyam।

abādhyaḥ mṛtyuḥ kasya vaśaṃgataḥ।

niy

abodhagamya, abodhanīya, atarkya, acintya, duravagama, acintanīya   

yasya bodhaḥ na bhavati।

prakṛtau naikāni abodhagamyāni vastūni santi।

niy

kālaniyantrakaḥ, samayaniyantrakaḥ   

yantrasya ekaḥ bhāgaḥ yaḥ samayasya niyantraṇaṃ karoti।

vividhayantreṣu kālaniyantrakaḥ vartate।

niy

sauvarṇa, haima, kāñcana, kānaka, kanakamaya, kāñcanaka, kāñcanīya   

suvarṇaḥ varṇayuktaḥ।

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ sauvarṇayā striyā mugdhaḥ।

niy

abhāvanīya, acintanīya, acitta   

yasya cintanam aśakyam।

madarthe eṣaḥ abhāvanīyaḥ viṣayaḥ।

niy

avyavasthā, anavasthā, aniyamaḥ   

avyavasthitasya avasthā bhāvaḥ vā।

avyavasthāyāṃ kimapi kāryaṃ samyak na bhavati।

niy

kaniṣṭha, kanīyas, anuja, avaraja   

āyuṣaḥ anusāreṇa sarveṣu yuvā।

mama kaniṣṭhaḥ bhrātā āgacchati।

niy

coṣya, coṣaṇīya   

yasya coṣaṇaṃ śakyam।

eṣaḥ rasālaḥ coṣyaḥ asti।

niy

yajñīya, yajuṣya, medhya   

yajñasya yajñena sambaddhaṃ vā।

sādhuḥ yajñīyaṃ karma karoti।

niy

adhikārin, niyukta   

niyamānusāreṇa yaḥ kañcit kāryaṃ kartuṃ samarthaḥ।

adhikārī puruṣaḥ eva asmin viṣaye nirṇayaṃ kartuṃ śaknoti।

niy

koloniyānagaram   

maikronīśiyādeśasya rājadhānī।

koloniyānagarasya janasaṅkhyā 6600 asti।

niy

ośiniyāmahādvīpaḥ   

ekaḥ viśālaḥ mahādvīpaḥ।

ośiniyāmahādvīpaḥ praśāntamahāsāgarasya dakṣiṇe sthitaḥ।

niy

niyāmenagaram   

nījedeśasya rājadhānī।

niyāmenagaraṃ nījedeśasya mahiṣṭhaṃ nagaram asti।

niy

vilaniyasanagaram, vilanānagaram, vilanonagaram   

lithuāniyādeśasya rājadhānī।

vilaniyasanagaraṃ lithuāniyādeśasya prāgdakṣiṇāyāṃ sthitam।

niy

praśasta, śobhanīya, sammānakara, yukta   

yat sammānasya yogyaṃ sāmājike stare svīkṛtaṃ vā।

bhavatā sabhāyāṃ praśastāyāḥ bhāṣāyāḥ prayogaḥ kartavyaḥ।

niy

sādhya, sādhanīya   

seddhuṃ yogyam।

gāyatrīmantraḥ sādhyaḥ।

niy

karaṇīya, kṛtya, kalpa, sādhya   

kartuṃ yogyaḥ।

cauryaṃ kāpaṭyādīni karaṇīyāni karmāṇi na santi।

niy

kṛṣya, karṣaṇīya   

kṛṣikāryaṃ kartuṃ yogyaḥ।

te svasya kṛṣyāyāḥ bhūmeḥ kaścit bhāgaḥ svasevakāya dātum icchati।

niy

aspṛhaṇīyatā, akāmyatā   

aniṣṭatāyāḥ avasthā bhāvaḥ vā।

samprati pratikṣetre aspṛhaṇīyatā vardhamānā।

niy

vibhājya, vibhājanīya, bhājya   

yad vibhaktuṃ śakyate।

catvāri dvābhyāṃ vibhājyāni santi।

niy

niyativādī, daivavādī, daivaparaḥ, daivāyattaḥ, daivaparāyaṇaḥ, daivādhīnaḥ, yadbhaviṣyaḥ   

yaḥ niyativādaṃ svīkaroti।

niyativādinaḥ anusāreṇa sarvameva bhagavatkṛpayā bhavati ।

niy

viniyogaḥ, niveśaḥ, saṃrodhaḥ   

udyoge mūladhanasya niveśanam।

arjitasya dhanasya vyayāt viniyogaḥ varaḥ।

niy

pūrṇiyāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

pūrṇiyāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ pūrṇiyānagare asti।

niy

pūrṇiyānagaram   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ nagaram।

pūrṇiyānagare śīghrameva vimānasevāyāḥ ārambhaḥ bhaviṣyati।

niy

yojanīyā, yojyā   

gaṇitaśāstre saṅkhyāyāḥ viśeṣaṇam। sā saṅkhyā yā kasyām api saṅkhyāyāṃ yujyate।

ka yuta kha ityatra khasthānīyā saṅkhyā kasthānīyāyāṃ saṅkhyāyāṃ yojanīyā asti।

niy

yojyaḥ. yojyā, yojyam, yojanīyaḥ, yojanīyā, yojanīyam, yoktavyaḥ, yoktavyā, yoktavyam, prayojyaḥ. prayojyā, prayojyam, prayojanīyaḥ, prayojanīyā, prayojanīyam, prayoktavyaḥ, prayoktavyā, prayoktavyam, upayojyaḥ, upayojyā, upayojyam, upayojanīyaḥ, upayojanīyā, upayojanīyam, upayoktavyaḥ, upayoktavyā, upayoktavyam   

yojayituṃ yojayituṃ vā yogyaḥ।

pañcāt ekaḥ yojyaḥ yena ṣaṭ saṃkhyā prāpyate। / sabhāyāṃ śiṣṭaśabdāḥ eva prayojyāḥ।

niy

yojitaḥ, niyojitaḥ, yojitā, niyojitā, yojitam, niyojitam   

kāritayojanam।

ahaṃ daṇḍadharo rājā prajānām iha yojitaḥ। [bhāgavate 4।21।22]

niy

niyojya   

niyuktaṃ kartuṃ yogyaḥ।

niyojyānām āvedakānām adhikārī niyuktim akarot।

niy

vismaraṇīya   

yad vismartuṃ śakyate।

jīvanasya naikāḥ ghaṭanāḥ vismaraṇīyāḥ bhavanti।

niy

paryāvaraṇīya   

paryāvaraṇasambandhī।

manoramā paryāvaraṇīyaṃ lekhaṃ likhati।

niy

dūraniyantrakaḥ   

upakaraṇaviśeṣaḥ yena dūrāt eva viśiṣṭasya yantrasya niyantraṇaṃ bhavati।

dūraniyantrakasya piñjasya nodanena dūradarśanasañce citraṃ dṛṣṭam।

niy

varṇīya, varṇin   

varṇasambandhī।

sā śuklīyā varṇīyā strī bhavān prāpṛcchat।

niy

utkṛṣṭapade niyuj, śreṣṭhapade niyuj, pratipad, padavṛddhiṃ kṛ, padavardhanaṃ kṛ, pratipattiṃ dā, puraskṛ   

vartamānapadāt utkṛṣṭapade niyojanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

saṃsthā mām utkṛṣṭapade niyokṣyati।

niy

gānīya, tūryamaya   

svarabaddhaṃ gātuṃ yogyaṃ ca।

mīrāyāḥ gānīyāni padāni sarveṣāṃ manasi bhaktibhāvaṃ janayanti।

niy

niyatamātrā, sthiramātrā   

anapāyinī nityā mātrā।

oṣadhasya niyatamātrā sevanīyā।

niy

samayaḥ, saṃvid, abhisandhiḥ, abhisaṃdhiḥ, niyamaḥ, saṅketaḥ   

prāgeva pratijñātaṃ pratipāditaṃ vā।

gatasaptāhe tena amerikā-bhāratayoḥ vāṇijya-sambandhaviṣaye yaḥ samayaḥ pratipāditaḥ saḥ satyam abhavat।

niy

saṃvarddhanīya, vardhanīya   

vardhayituṃ yogyaḥ।

saṃvarddhanīyebhyaḥ jīvebhyaḥ saḥ kāryaṃ karoti।

niy

gānīya   

saṅgītasambandhī saṅgītasya vā।

adya mama vidyālaye gānīyaḥ kāryakramaḥ asti।

niy

saṃkḷp, saṅkḷp, upakḷp, prayuj, viniyuj   

prayojanam uddiśya sthāpanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

eṣā sāmagrī pūjāyai saṃkalpyate।

niy

abhyañjanīya   

abhyañjanaṃ kartuṃ yogyaḥ।

jvareṇa taptaṃ śarīram abhyañjanīyaṃ na bhavati।

niy

abhyarcanīya, abhyarcya   

pūjanīyaḥ।

mānavatāyāḥ upāsakāḥ abhyarcanīyāḥ bhavanti।

niy

yajñaśālā, yajñiyaśālā   

tat sthānaṃ yatra yajñaḥ kriyate।

yajñaśālāyāṃ yajñakuṇḍaṃ nirmīyate।

niy

saṃvardhanīya, vardhanīya   

yasmin vardhayituṃ yogyaḥ।

uttamānāṃ prakārāṇāṃ kṣupāṇāṃ vardhanārtham ucitā saṃvardhanīyā ca sthitiḥ āvaśyakī।

niy

dṛḍha, pratiṣṭhita, siddha, susthita, supratiṣṭhita, sampratiṣṭhita, sthita, sthāpita, vyavasthita, samavavasthāpita, niyata   

dṛḍhatvam āpannam।

dvayoḥ deśayoḥ dṛḍheṣu sambandheṣu vayaṃ vaimatyaṃ na utpādayāmaḥ।

niy

agrāhya, apratigrāhya, agrahaṇīya, asvīkārya, anādeya   

svīkartum ayogyaḥ।

etādṛśena agrāhyena paṇabandhena bhavān kathaṃ paṇaṃ karoti।

niy

grahaṇīya, pratigṛhya, pratigrahaṇīya, pratigrāhya   

svīkartuṃ yogyaḥ।

tāni vacanāni yadi grahaṇīyāni tarhi eva janāḥ viśvasanti।

niy

amiśraṇīya   

miśrayitum ayogyaḥ।

jale amiśraṇīyānāṃ vastūnāṃ sūciṃ nirmāntu।

niy

tolanīya   

tolayituṃ yogyaḥ।

etat dhānyaṃ tolanīyam asti।

niy

chedya, chedanīya   

chettuṃ yogyaḥ।

takṣakaḥ chedyaṃ kāṣṭham eva chinatti।

niy

śīrya, sādayitavya, śīrta, vipādya, vipāditavya, vipādaniya, khaṇḍya, khaṇḍanīyaḥ, vilupya   

vinaṣṭuṃ yogyaḥ।

kāmam abhirakṣata śīryāṇi vastūni vinaśyanti eva tāni।

niy

vivāhanīya, vivāhya, vedya   

yaḥ vivāhāya yogyaḥ asti।

rameśaḥ svasya vivāhanīyāyāḥ kanyāyāḥ kṛte samyak varam anviṣyati।

niy

āghātavarghanīya   

yad āghātena vardhayitvā naikavidhāni ākārāṇi dhārayati।

kecana dhātavaḥ āghātena vardhanīyāḥ santi।

niy

pūjanīyatva, pūjārhatā, pūjanīyatā   

pūjanīyasya bhāvaḥ।

tulasīpippalādīnāṃ pūjanīyatvaṃ purāṇādiṣu upavarṇitam।

niy

daśalakṣam, १००००००, niyutam, prayutam   

daśalakṣasaṅkhyakaḥ।

etat kṣetraṃ daśalakṣāni hastāni vistṛtam asti।

niy

avaśyam, niyatam, avaśyam eva, avaśyameva, niścitam, suniścitam, addhā, añjasā, itthā, khalu, maṅkṣu   

niścayena bhavitavyam।

adya etad karma avaśyaṃ karaṇīyam।

niy

dūravedhinīyānam   

dūravedhinīsthāpanasya yānam।

saḥ dūravedhinīyānaṃ cālayati।

niy

rūḍha, nirūḍha, pracalita, vyāvahārika, ucita, niyata, pracala, sāmayika, niyama, dharmya, vaiyavahārika, sāṃketika, sāmayācārika, pratna, lokya, laukika   

loke lokeṣu vā pracalitaḥ.;

asya śabdasya rūḍhaḥ arthaḥ kaḥ।

niy

arjanīya, upārjya, arjitavya, labhya, adhigantavya, adhigamanīya, adhigamya, āsādayitavya, āsādya, gamya, prāpaṇīya, prāpya, lambhanīya, samāsādya, samprāpya, samprāpaṇīya, samprāptavya   

prāptum yogyaḥ।

arjanīyasya dhanasya abhilāṣayā eva saḥ tat kāryam akarot।

niy

arthanīya, yācanīya   

yācituṃ yogyaḥ।

idam arthanīyaṃ vastu nāsti।

niy

arpaṇīya   

arpaṇaṃ kartuṃ yogyam।

arpaṇīyāni vastūni śuddhāni bhavitavyāni।

niy

alaṅghanīyatā, alaṅghanīyatvam   

alaṅghanīyasya avasthā।

sāgarasya alaṅghanīyatā sarve jānanti।

niy

alaṅghya, alaṅghanīya, duratikramaṇīya   

yad laṅghayitum aśakyam asti।

alaṅghyaṃ sāgaraṃ laṅghayituṃ prayāsaḥ nāma mūrkhatā eva।

niy

laṅghanīya   

yad laṅghyate।

asyāḥ vāṭikāyāḥ laṅghanīyāṃ bhittim ākramya bālakāḥ phalāni chindanti।

niy

laṅghanīyatā, laṅghanīyatvam   

laṅghanīyasya avasthā।

asyāḥ praṇālyāḥ laṅghanīyatā varṣākāle api tathaiva bhavati।

niy

unmūlanīya, uccāṭanīya   

unmūlanaṃ kartuṃ yogyaḥ।

kṛṣakaḥ kṣetrāt unmūlanīyān kṣupān unmūlayati।

niy

vahanīya, saṃhārya   

voḍhuṃ yogyam।

idaṃ vahanīyam upakaraṇam asti।

niy

avaidha, niyamaviruddha, dharmarodhin   

yad vidhyanusāreṇa yogyaṃ nāsti।

avaidhena kāryeṇa hāniḥ bhavati।

niy

avidhānam, avidhiḥ, niyamavirodhaḥ   

vidhānasya abhāvaḥ।

avidhānasya sthitau rājyasya kāryāṇāṃ sañcālanam asambhavaṃ bhaviṣyati।

niy

avyākhyeya, anirvarṇanīya, nirupākhya, anirvacanīya   

yad adhikaṃ varṇayituṃ na śakyate।

asyāḥ kathāyāḥ paṭhanena pāṭhakasya avyākhyeyā cittavṛtiḥ bhavati।

niy

aśāsāvedanīyaḥ   

jainamatānusāreṇa karmaviśeṣaḥ।

aśāsāvedanīyasya prādurbhāveṇa duḥkham anubhūyate।

niy

asaṅkhyatā, agaṇanīyatā, agaṇyatā, agaṇitatā, anantatā   

agaṇyasya avasthā bhāvo vā।

avakāśastha tārakānāṃ asaṅkhyatā anumānena eva jñātuṃ śakyate।

niy

anapahārya, anapaharaṇīya, ahārya   

yat apahartuṃ na arhati।

jñānam anapahāryaṃ vastu।

niy

anveṣaṇīya   

yasya viṣaye adhikaṃ jñātuṃ śakyate।

etādṛśānāṃ mahatvapūrṇānām anveṣaṇīyānāṃ ca prakaraṇānāṃ viṣaye ārakṣakāḥ katham ajñāḥ bhavitum arhanti।

niy

ākuñcanīya   

ākuñcane yogyaḥ।

jalaukāyāḥ śarīram ākuñcanīyaṃ bhavati।

niy

ākramaṇīya   

ākramitum arhaḥ।

rāṣṭrasya ākramaṇīyā sthitiḥ āntarikayā asthiratayā udbhavati।

niy

ācaraṇīya   

vyavahartum ācarituṃ vā yogyaḥ।

ācaraṇīyānāṃ niyamānām asmābhiḥ pālanaṃ kartavyam।

niy

āropaṇīya   

āropaṇaṃ kartuṃ yogyam।

mṛtasya āropaṇīyānām aṅgānāṃ kuṭumbajanaiḥ dānaṃ kṛtam।

niy

ālapanīya   

ālapituṃ yogyaḥ।

ālapanīyaḥ viṣayaḥ nāsti ayam।

niy

ālāpya, ālāpanīya   

ālāpasya kṛte yogyam।

adya mama svaraḥ ālāpyaḥ nāsti।

niy

āvartanīya   

yasya āvartanaṃ bhavitum arhati।

gītāyāḥ anusāreṇa kāmanānām āvartanīyaṃ svarūpaṃ bhavati।

niy

āvedanīya, āvedya   

āvedanaṃ kartuṃ yogyam।

kāryālayasya sarvāṇi āvedanīyāni patrāṇi taiḥ dṛṣṭāni।

niy

āśrayaṇīya, avalambanīya   

āśrayituṃ yogyaḥ।

āśrayaṇīyaḥ mārgaḥ eva asmān lakṣyaṃ prati prāpayati।

niy

āsvādanīya   

āsvādanārhaḥ।

idaṃ khādyaṃ dṛṣṭvā eva āsvādanīyaṃ na manyate।

niy

guṇanīyam   

saḥ aṅkaḥ yasya guṇanaṃ kriyate।

yadi guṇanīyaṃ pañcāśat tathā guṇanāṅkam pañca iti asti tarhi guṇanaphalaṃ kati bhaviṣyati।

niy

āhavanīyaḥ   

yajñādikarmaṇi upayujyamāneṣu agneḥ triṣu prakāreṣu ekaḥ।

āhavanīyasya āvāhanena yajñasya prārambhaḥ kṛtaḥ।

niy

āhavanīya   

yasya āhutiḥ dīyate।

paṇḍitena āhavanīyānāṃ dravyāṇām āhutiḥ dattā।

niy

īrṣyaṇīya, spṛhaṇīya   

īrṣyāyai yogyam।

tasyāḥ īrṣyaṇīyena saundaryeṇa sakhyaḥ duḥkhitāḥ jātāḥ।

niy

uccāraṇīya, uccārmāṇa   

uccāraṇārthaṃ yad yogyam।

anyeṣāṃ sammukham uccāraṇīyaḥ śabdaḥ nāsti ayam।

niy

vāhya, suvahanīya   

yad ekasmāt sthānāt anyaṃ sthānaṃ prati sahajatayā netuṃ śakyate।

utsave vāhyānāṃ śaucālayānāṃ vyavasthā āsīt।

niy

sadoṣa, niṣedhārha, varjya, parihārya, āśaṅkanīya   

doṣayuktam।

dūradarśane sadoṣasya dṛśyasya darśanaṃ niṣiddham asti।

niy

asaṃvidhānīya   

yad saṃvidhānasya anusāreṇa nāsti।

sarvatra pracālyamānāni asaṃvidhānīyāni kāryāṇi avadhāraṇīyāni।

niy

saniyama, niyantrita, sāvadhāraṇa   

niyamaiḥ yuktaḥ।

saniyamaṃ lekhanaṃ manorañjakaṃ syāt eva iti nāsti।

niy

kailiphorniyārājyam   

praśāntamahāsāgarasya taṭe sthitam amerikādeśasya rājyam।

kailiphorniyārājyam amerikādeśasya darśanīyaṃ rājyam asti।

niy

varjīniyārājyam   

saṃyukta-rājya-amerikādeśasya ekaṃ rājyam।

asmākaṃ mitraṃ varjīniyārājye nivasati।

niy

krikeṭaniyantrakapariṣad   

krikeṭakrīḍāsambaddhā pariṣad।

krikeṭakrīḍāyāṃ bhāgam āvahantaḥ pratyekasya deśasya krikeṭaniyantrakapariṣad asti।

niy

navaniyukta   

yaḥ adhunā eva niyuktaḥ।

navaniyuktānāṃ karmakarāṇāṃ praśikṣaṇaviṣaye asmākaṃ saṃsthā cintayati।

niy

niyantrakaḥ tathā mahālekhā-parīkṣakaḥ   

adhikāriviśeṣaḥ।

rameśasya pitā niyantrakaḥ tathā mahālekhā-parīkṣakaḥ asti।

niy

pāsāḍeniyā   

amerikādeśe vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

mama ekaṃ mitraṃ pāsāḍeniyānagare nivasati।

niy

niyantraka-tathā-mahālekhāparīkṣakaḥ   

saḥ śāsakīyaḥ adhikārī yaḥ saṃvaidhānika kāryāṇi sādhayati tathā sarvakārasya vyayasya nirīkṣaṇaṃ karoti।

niyantraka-tathā-mahālekhāparīkṣakeṇa sarveṣāṃ rājyānāṃ āyavyayasya vivaraṇaṃ yācitam।

niy

pensilaveniyāviśvavidyālayaḥ   

pensilaveniyārājye sthitaḥ ekaḥ khyātaḥ viśvavidyālayaḥ।

śīlā pensilaveniyāviśvavidyālaye paṭhati।

niy

niyamaḥ, siddhāntaḥ, ṛtam, dharma, niyamanam   

kimapi kāryaṃ kartuṃ nirdhāritāḥ nirdeśāḥ।

saṃvid ityapi ekaḥ niyamaḥ eva।

niy

viniyoktṛ   

yaḥ niyuktiṃ karoti।

pradhānamantriṇaḥ viniyoktāraḥ dvayoḥ sabhayoḥ sadasyāḥ santi।

niy

viniyoktṛ   

yaḥ anyān janān svasthāne kāryārthaṃ niyojayati।

viniyoktrī udyogasaṃsthā asmin varṣe karmakarebhyaḥ adhilābhāṃśaṃ dātuṃ vimanyate।

niy

viniyoktā   

saḥ puruṣaḥ saṃsthā vā yaḥ anyān janān svasthāne kāryārthaṃ niyojayati।

viniyoktrā kāryālayena asmin saṃvatsare karmakarān adhilābhāṃśaḥ na dattaḥ।

niy

pensilaveniyārājyam, penasilaveniyārājyam   

amerikādeśe vartamānam ekaṃ rājyam।

pensilaveniyārājyam amerikādeśasya pūrvadiśi sthitam asti।

niy

suniyojita   

samyaktayā niyojitam।

rāṣṭre pratidinaṃ suniyojitāḥ vadhāḥ bhavanti।

niy

tālibānīya   

tālibānena sambandhitaḥ।

yuddhe mṛtāḥ sarve tālibānīyāḥ ātaṅkinaḥ āsan।

niy

kṣepaṇīya   

kṣeptuṃ yogyaḥ।

eṣaḥ vṛtāntaḥ avakare kṣepaṇīyaḥ।

niy

niyatakālikam   

niyate kāle prakāśyamānā māsikā traimāsikā patrikā vā।

asmin vācanālaye vividhaprakārakāṇi niyatakālikāni santi।

niy

niyāmakaḥ   

rijarva baiṃka iti vittakoṣasya ekaḥ uccastarīyaḥ adhikārī।

niyāmakasya ādeśena eva dhanapatrāṇi prakāśitāni bhavanti।

niy

moṭara-vāhana-adhiniyamaḥ   

moṭara-vāhanasambandhī adhiniyamaḥ।

moṭara-vāhana-adhiniyame vāhanacālanena sambaddhāḥ viṣayāḥ api uktāḥ।

niy

māṅganayārajātiḥ, māṅgaṇiyārajātiḥ   

rājasthānarājye vartamānā ekā jātiḥ।

maṅgā iti jātau māṅganayāra iti jātau ca samānatā vartate।

niy

laṅgā-māṅganayārau, laṅgā-māṅgaṇiyārau   

rājasthānapradeśasya laṅgā ca māṅganayāram iti jātī।

laṅgā-māṅganayārayoḥ sadasyāḥ lokakalāyāṃ nipuṇāḥ santi।

niy

kailīphorniyārājyam, kelīphorniyārājyam   

praśāntamahāsāgarasya taṭe sthitam amerikādeśe vartamānam ekaṃ rājyam।

kailīphorniyārājyam amerikādeśasya tṛtīyakramāṅkasya bṛhad rājyam asti।

niy

pensilaveniyāpradeśaḥ   

amerikādeśe vartamānaḥ pradeśaḥ।

rameśaḥ pensilaveniyāpradeśe nivasati।

niy

nimbūpānīyam   

jale nimbūkaṃ niṣpīḍya nirmitaḥ pānārhadravyaviśeṣaḥ।

grīṣmakāle ahaṃ pratidinaṃ nimbūpānīyaṃ pibāmi।

niy

śākyāyanīyāḥ   

ekaḥ vidyālayaḥ ।

śākyayanīyānām ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

niy

śāmāyanīyāḥ   

ekaḥ vidyālayaḥ ।

śāmāyanīyānām ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

niy

sārāyaṇīyaḥ   

ekaḥ vidyālayaḥ ।

sārāyaṇīyānām ullekhaḥ atharvaveda-pariśiṣṭe asti

niy

gaṇapatipūrvatāpanīyopaniṣad   

ekā upaniṣad ।

gaṇapatipūrvatāpanīyopaniṣadaḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

niy

gopālatāpanīyopaniṣad   

ekā upaniṣad ।

gopālatāpanīyopaniṣad vaiṣṇava-upaniṣatsu ekā upaniṣad asti

niy

grāmaṇīyaḥ   

ekaḥ janasamūhaḥ ।

grāmaṇīyānāṃ varṇanaṃ mahābhārate ullikhitāḥ santi

niy

pārāyaṇīyam   

ekaṃ vyākaraṇam ।

pārāyaṇīyasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

niy

jaiminīyaḥ   

sāmavedasya caraṇavyūhasya ca vidyālayaḥ ।

jaiminīyasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

niy

tāpanīyaḥ   

vājasaneyisaṃhitāyāḥ ekā pāṭhaśālā ।

tāpanīyasya ullekhaḥ caraṇavyūhe asti

niy

kātyāyanīya   

naike granthaviśeṣāḥ ।

kātyāyanīyaḥ iti naikeṣāṃ granthānāṃ nāma vartate

niy

devatarasya ullekhaḥ jaiminīya-upaniṣadi asti   

devatara ।

ekaḥ śikṣakaḥ

Parse Time: 1.893s Search Word: niy Input Encoding: IAST IAST: niy