Donate
   
Select your preferred input and type any Sanskrit or English word. Enclose the word in “” for an EXACT match e.g. “yoga”.
Root Search
nal has 1 results
        Root Word (Pāṇini Dhātupāṭha:)Full Root MarkerSenseClassSutra
√ṇalṇalaagandhane (bandhane)1565
 
 
nal has 2 results
Root WordIAST MeaningMonier Williams PageClass
√नल्nalsmelling / gandha345/1Cl.1
√नल्nalspeaking, shining / bhāṣā755/3Cl.10
Amarakosha Search
Monier-Williams Search
278 results for nal
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
नल् cl.1 P. to smell or to bind (confusion of gandhe-and bandhe-?) ; cl.10 P. nālayati-, to speak or shine, ; to bind or confine
नलm. (see naḍ/a-, naḷ/a-) a species of reed, Amphidonax Karka (8-12 feet high) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलm. a measure of length (varia lectio tala-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलm. a particular form of constellation in which all the planets or stars are grouped in double mansions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलm. the 50th year of the cycle of Jupiter which lasts 60 years View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलm. Name of a divine being mentioned with yama- (equals pitṛ-deva-,or -daiva- ;a deified progenitor ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलm. of a daitya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलm. of a king of the niṣadha-s (son of vīra-sena- and husband of damayantī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलm. of a son of niṣadha- and father of nabha- or nabhas- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलm. of a descendant of the latter nala- (son of su-dhanvan- and father of uktha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलm. of a son of yadu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलm. of a monkey-chief (son of tvaṣṭṛ- or viśva-karman-; see -setu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलm. of a medicine author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलn. the blossom of Nelumbium Speciosum (see nalina-, -) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलn. smell, odour (see nal-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलभूमिपालनाटकn. Name of a drama. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलचम्पूf. Name of an artificial poem (half prose half verse) = damayantī-kathā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलचरित n. Name of a poem and a drama. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलचरित्रn. Name of a poem and a drama. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलदmn. (n/a-) Nardostachys Jatamansi, Indian spikenard etc. (alsof(ā-). ; see narada-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलदmn. the root of Andropogon Muricatus ( naladatva -tva- n. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलदn. the blossom of Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलदn. the honey or nectar of a flower View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलदाf. Name of a daughter of raudrāśva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलदmfn. bringing near king nala-, ( naladatva -tva- n. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलदत्वn. nalada
नलदत्वn. nalada
नलदीf. Name of an apsaras- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलदिकmf(ī-)n. dealing in Indian spikenard gaRa kiśorādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलगिरिm. Name of pradyota-'s elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलकn. a bone (hollow like a reed) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलकn. any long bone of the body exempli gratia, 'for example' the tibia or the radius of the arm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलकn. a particular ornament for the nose View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलकाननm. plural Name of a people (equals naḷakān-?; varia lectio nalakālaka-, nabhakānana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलकीलm. the knee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलकिनीf. a leg View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलकिनीf. the knee-cap or -pan View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलकूबरm. Name of a son of kubera- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलकूबरसंहिताf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलमालिन्m. "reed-garlanded", Name of an ocean View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलमीनm. a kind of fish (varia lectio tala-m-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलानन्दm. " nala-'s joy", Name of a drama. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलपाकशास्त्रn. Name of a manual on cookery. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलपट्टिकाf. a mat made with reeds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलप्रियाf. "beloved of nala-", Name of damayantī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलपुरn. Name of a town View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलपुरn. of Nalapura's town = niṣadhā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलसेनm. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलसेतुm. " nala- bridge", the causeway constructed by the monkey nala- for rāma- from the continent to laṅkā- (the modern Adam's Bridge) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलस्तोत्रn. Name of a poem. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलवर्णनn. Name of 2 poems. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलयादवराघवपाण्डवीय n. Name of 2 poems. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलेध्मm. reeds serving as fuel. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलेश्वरतीर्थn. Name of a sacred bathing-place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलीf. a kind of perfume or red arsenic (see naṭī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिकाf. a tube or tubular organ of the body (equals nāḍī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिकाf. a quiver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिकाf. Dolichos Lablab View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिकाf. Polianthes Tuberosa or Daemia Extensa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिकाf. a kind of fragrant substance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिकाबन्धपद्धतिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनn. (fr. nala-because of its hollow stalk?) a lotus flower or water-lily, Nelumbium Speciosum (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनn. the indigo plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनn. water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनदलn. a leaf of the lotus flower (see nalinī-dala-and nava-nalina-dalāya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनदलm. the Indian crane (see puṣkara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनदलm. Carissa Carandas View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनदलm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिननाभm. "lotus-naveled", Name of viṣṇu-kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनासन, m. "the lotus-throned", Name of brahmā- (wrong reading śana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनेशयm. reclining on a lotus, Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनेशयीf. See below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनिmetric. for - in View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीf. (fr. nalina-above or fr. nala-"lotus"as ab-jinī-fr. ab-ja-, padminī-fr. padma-etc.) a lotus, Nelumbium Speciosum (the plant or its stalk) , an assemblage of lotus flowers or a lotus pond etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीf. the Ganges of heaven or rather an arm of it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीf. a myst. Name of one of the nostrils View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीf. a particular class of women (equals padminī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीf. a kind of fragrant substance (equals nalikā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीf. the fermented and intoxicating juice of the cocoa-nut View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीf. Name of the wife of aja-mīḍha- and mother of nīla-
नलिनीf. of 2 rivers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीf. having king nala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनिदल equals -d- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीदलn. a leaf of the lotus plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीदलमयmf(ī-)n. consisting of lotus leaves View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीगुल्मn. Name of an adhyayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीगुल्मn. of a vimāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीकmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' = nalinī-1 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीकाf. a particular pot-herb View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीखण्डn. an assemblage of lotus flowers on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीनन्दनn. Name of a garden of kubera- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीपद्मकोशm. Name of a particular position of the hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीपत्त्रn. equals -dala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीरुहm. "lotus-born", Name of brahmā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीरुहn. the fibres of a lotus-stalk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीसंवर्तिकाf. the young leaf of a water-lily, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिप्ताङ्गmfn. whose body is not anointed (Bombay edition) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलितm. a species of vegetable (equals nālitā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलीयmfn. relating to nala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नल्ल wrong reading for nalva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नल्लाबुधm. Name of authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नल्लादीक्षित m. Name of authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नल्लापण्डित m. Name of authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलोदयm. " nala-'s rise", Name of an artificial poem ascribed to kālidāsa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलोपाख्यानn. "the story of nala-"in View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलोत्तमm. Arundo Bengalensis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नल्वm. a furlong, a measure of distance= 400 (or 104?) cubits (wrong reading nala-, nalla-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नल्वणn. a measure of capacity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नल्वण्गोन्नलकामाभट्ट(?) m. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नल्ववर्त्मगmfn. going the distance of a nalva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नल्ववर्त्मगाf. Leea Hirta or the orange tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आनलn. (fr. anala-),"belonging to agni-", Name of the constellation kṛttikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलm. ( an-), fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलm. the god of fire, digestive power, gastric juice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलm. bile View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलm. wind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलm. Name of vasudeva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलm. of a muni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलm. of one of the eight vasu-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलm. of a monkey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलm. of various plants (Plumbago Zeylanica and Rosea;Semicarpus Anacardium) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलm. the letter r- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलm. the number three View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलm. (in astronomy) the fiftieth year of bṛhaspati-'s cycle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलm. the third lunar mansion or kṛttikā- (?). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनल2. Nom. P. lati-, to become fire, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलद(fr. 3. da-) mfn. quenching fire (said of water) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलदीपनmfn. exciting the digestion, stomachic. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलम्ind. not enough View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलम्ind. insufficiently. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलम्unable to (infinitive mood), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलंकरिष्णुmfn. not given to the use of ornaments View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलंकरिष्णुmfn. unornamented. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलप्रभाf. the plant Halicacabum Cardiospermum. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलप्रियाf. agni-'s wife. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलसmfn. not lazy, active. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलसादm. dyspepsia. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलसखm. "fire's friend", the wind, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलवाटm. Name of ancient pattana-.
आनलविm. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलायNom. A1. yate-, to be or act like fire, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलिm. the tree Sesbana Grandiflora. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनलोपलm. "fire-stone", crystal, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनल्पmfn. not a little, much, numerous. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनल्पघोषmfn. very clamorous, very noisy. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनल्पमन्युmfn. greatly enraged. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्नलिप्साf. desire for food, appetite. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अपरिम्लानललाटताf. the having an unwrinkled forehead (one of the 80 minor marks of a buddha-) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अर्धचन्दनलिप्तmfn. half rubbed with sandal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउर्वानलm. idem or 'm. idem or 'm. Name (also title or epithet) of work on medicine.' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भाजनलोकm. (with Buddhists) the world of inanimate things (opp. to sattva-l- q.v). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भर्तृदर्शनलालसmfn. longing to see a husband View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भिन्नलिङ्गn. incongruity of gender in a comparison View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भिन्नलिङ्गकmf(ikā-)n. containing words of different gender View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ब्रध्नलोक(bradhn/a--) mfn. being in the world of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहन्नलm. a kind of large reed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहन्नलm. the arm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहन्नलmf. the name assumed by arjuna- when living in the family of king virāṭa- as a eunuch in female attire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चन्द्रकालानलn. a kind of diagram View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चन्द्रकालानलचक्रn. idem or 'n. a kind of diagram' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितानल(n-) m. equals gni-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दर्शनलालसmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' desirous of beholding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दवानलm. idem or 'm. see dāv-.' , (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दवानलm. see dāv-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
देवनलm. "god's reed", Arundo Bengalensis (see -nāla-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धनलोभm. desire of wealth, covetousness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धनलोभिन्mfn. equals -lubdha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धनलुब्धmfn. greedy of wealth, avaricious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धर्मानलm. fire of justice, Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ध्यानलक्षणn. "mark of meditation", Name of chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीनलोचनm. (dīpta--?) a cat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीर्घानलn. a mystical Name of the syllable - View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गगनलिह्mfn. reaching up to heaven View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गुरुशोकानलm. the fire of heavy sorrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
होमानलm. idem or 'm. sacrificial fire ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जनलोकm. "world of men", the 5th loka- or next above mahar-loka- (residence of the sons of brahmā- and other godly men), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जनलोकm. see janas-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जङ्घानलकa bone of the leg, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जिनलब्धिm. Name of a Jain sūri- (died A.D. 1350). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जिनलाभm. Name of a Jain sūri- (A.D. 1728-78;author of ātma-prabodha-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्ञानलक्षणाf. "knowledge-marked", (in logic) intuitive knowledge of anything actually not perceivable by the senses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्वालानल(n-) mfn. with rasa- m. Name of a mixture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कालानलm. equals kālāgni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कालानलm. Name of a son of sabhā-nara- (also called kālānara- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कालानलm. of another man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कालानलरसm. Name of a medical drug. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कामानलm. the fire of love, passion, lust View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कनलmfn. shining, bright ([ ]) gaRa arihaṇādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कानलकmfn. (fr. kanala-) gaRa arīhaṇādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कानलकmfn. (varia lectio kālanaka-.)
कुबेरनलिनीf. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कुलानलm. "a family fire-brand (see kulāṅgāra-) ", Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कुनलिन्m. the plant Agati grandiflora View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कुनलिन्etc. See View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मदनललितmf(ā-)n. amorously sporting or dallying
मदनललिताf. a kind of metre
मदनलेखm. a love-letter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मदनलेखाf. idem or 'm. a love-letter ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मदनलेखाf. Name of a daughter of pratipa-mukha- (king of vārāṇasī-), kath-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मदनलेखाf. of another woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
माधवानलm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
माधवानलn. Name of a love-story View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
माधवानलकामकन्दलकथाf. idem or ' f. idem or 'n. Name of a love-story' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
माधवानलकथा f. idem or 'n. Name of a love-story' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
माधवानलनाटकn. Name of a play. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महानलm. Arundo Bengalensis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मखानलm. idem or 'm. equals makha-vahni- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
माखनलालm. Name of a modern author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मन्दानलmfn. equals gni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मन्दानलत्वn. dyspepsia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मन्मथानलm. the fire of love, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मीनलाञ्छनm. equals -ketana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मोहनलालm. Name of an author
मोहनलताf. a plant which has the power of fascinating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नवनलिनदलायNom. A1. yate- (parasmE-pada yamāna-), to resemble the leaf of a fresh lotus blossom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निम्नललाटmfn. having a low forehead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चनलीयn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परमतकालानलm. Name of a pupil of śaṃkara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पतिदर्शनलालसmf(ā-)n. longing to see one's husband View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
फेनलmfn. frothy, foamy (see phenila-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
फुल्लनलिनीf. a lotus plant in full bloom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रपन्नलक्षणn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रश्नलक्षणn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रत्नलक्षणn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रत्नलिङ्गस्थापनविधिm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रत्नलिङ्गेश्वरm. (with Buddhists) Name of svayam-bhū- in his visible form View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शक्रानलाख्यmfn. called indra- and agni- (in the beginning of a compound) (see śakrāgni-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समानलोक(n/a-) mfn. gaining the same heaven View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संध्यावन्दनलघुभाष्यn. Name of work
संहितासमानलक्षणn. Name of a phonetic treatise. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संसारानलm. the fire of mundane existence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सानलmfn. containing fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सानलmfn. together with the nakṣatra- kṛttikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सानलm. the resinous exudation of the Sal tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सनलदानलदmfn. "having the nalada-" (id est uśīra- plant) and"removing heat" (see 3. a-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तनलीf. bird-lime View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शासनलङ्घनn. transgression of an order or command View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्कन्धानलm. fire made with thick logs View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्मशानलोष्टn. a clod of earth from a cemetery, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शोकानलm. equals śokāgni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थलनलिनीf. Hibiscus Mutabilis (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' (nīka-) mfn.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्त्रीधनलोलुपmfn. coveting (another's) wife and property View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शुकनलिकान्यायm. the rule of the parrot (who was causelessly frightened by) the nalikā- plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शुकनलिकान्यायेनind. according to to that rule id est causelessly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुखीनलm. Name of a son of su-cakṣus- (see sukhāvala-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सूर्यकालानलn. a kind of astrological diagram for indicating good and bad fortune View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सूर्यकालानलचक्रn. a kind of astrological diagram for indicating good and bad fortune View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्वानलm. Name of a form or garuḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्वप्नलब्धmfn. obtained or appeared in a dream View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्रिभोनलग्नn. "part of the ecliptic which does not reach the eastern point by 90 degrees", the highest point of the ecliptic above the horizon, Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तुषानलm. idem or 'm. chaff fire ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तुषानलm. a capital punishment consisting in twisting dry straw round a criminal's limbs and setting it on fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उद्विग्नलोचनn. a frightened glance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उद्विग्नलोचनmfn. one who looks frightened View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपादानलक्षणाf. implied signification (beyond the literal meaning exempli gratia, 'for example' kuntāḥ praviśanti-,"spears pierce", where kuntāḥ-implies kuntinaḥ-,"spearmen") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपधानलिङ्गmfn. (a verse) containing the word upa-- dhāna-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपनयनलक्षणn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वडबानलm. (n-) equals vaḍabāgni- (also personified ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वडबानलm. a particular powder (prepared from pepper and other pungent substances to promote digestion) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वाडबानलm. idem or 'm. submarine fire (supposed to be at the south-pole) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वानलm. the black species of tulasī- or holy basil (Ocymum Sanctum) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वनलक्ष्मीf. "forest-ornament", Musa Sapientum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वनलताf. a forest-creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वनलेखाf. equals -rāji- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विघ्नलेशm. a slight obstacle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विज्ञानललितn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विज्ञानललिततन्त्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विज्ञानलतिकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विमानलक्षणn. Name of work on architecture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विरहानलm. the fire of separation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विषानलm. equals viṣāgni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वृन्दावनलीलामृतn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यजमानलोकm. the world of the yajamāna- (y/aj-l- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यतचित्तेन्द्रियानलmfn. one who conquers the tire of his thoughts and senses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यौवनलक्षणn. "sign of youth", the female breast View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यौवनलक्षणn. loveliness, grace View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
योगासनलक्षणn. plural Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
योनलm. equals yava-nāla- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
Apte Search
16 results
nal नल् 1 P. (नलति) 1 To smell. -2 To bind.
nalaḥ नलः 1 A kind of reed; Bhāg.1.6.13; एरण़्डभिण्डार्कनलैः प्रभूतैरपि संचितैः । दारुकृत्यं यथा नास्ति तथैवाज्ञैः प्रयोजनम् ॥ Pt.1.96. -2 N. of a celebrated king of the Niṣadhas and hero of the poem called 'Naiṣadhacharita'. [Nala was a very noble-minded and virtuous king. He was chosen by Damayantī in spite of the opposition of gods, and they lived happily for some years. But Kali--who was disappointed in securing her hand-resolved to persecute Nala, and entered into his person. Thus affected he played at dice with his brother, and having lost everything, he, with his wife, was banished from the kingdom. One day, while wandering through the wilderness, he abandoned his wife, almost naked, and went away. Subsequently he was deformed by the serpent Karkoṭaka, and so deformed he entered the service of king Ṛituparṇa of Ayodhyā as a horse-groom under the name of Bāhuka. Subsequently with the assistance of the king he regained his beloved and they led a happy life; see ऋतुपर्ण and दमयन्ती also.] -3 N. of a monkey-chief, son of Viśvakarman, who, it is said, built the bridge of stones called Nalasetu or 'Adam's bridge' over which Rāma passed to Laṅkā with his army. -4 N. of a year (Nm.) -5 A measure of length (equal to 4 हस्तs); वेदीमष्टनलोत्सेधाम् Mb.7.7.16. -6 N. of divine being (पितृदेव). -लम् 1 A blue lotus; नलनीलमूर्तेः Śrīkanthacharita 1.33. -2 Smell, odour. -Comp. -कीलः the knee. -कूब (व) रः N. of a son of Kubera. -तूला a variety of the hides of aquatic animals; Kau. A.2.11. -दम् 1 a fragrant root (उशीर); Ki.12.5; N.4.116. कतकं नक्रनखरं नलदं नागकेसरम् Śiva. B.3.14. -2 the honey of a flower. -3 the flower of Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis (Mar. जास्वंद). -पट्टिका a sort of mat made of reeds. -मीनः a shrimp or prawn; Rām.3.73.14.
nalakam नलकम् 1 Any long bone of the body; Mv.1.35; जङ्घानलकमुदयिनीर्मज्जधाराः पिबन्ति Māl.5.17. -2 The radius of the arm. -3 A particular ornament for the nose.
nalakinī नलकिनी 1 The knee-pan. -2 The leg.
nalī नली f. A kind of perfume or red arsenic.
nalikā नलिका 1 A tube. -2 A tubular organ of the body (नाडी). -3 A quiver. -4 A kind of fragrant substance.
nalinaḥ नलिनः The (Indian) crane. -नम् 1 A lotus-flower, water-lily. -2 Water. -3 The Indigo plant. (नलिनेशयः an epithet of Visnu.)
nalinī नलिनी 1 A lotus-plant; न पर्वताग्रे नलिनी प्ररोहति Mk.4.17; नलिनीदलगतजलमतितरलम् Moha M.5; Ku.4.6. -2 An assemblage of lotuses. -3 A pond or place abounding in lotuses. राजन्तीं राजराजस्य नलिनीमिव सर्वतः Rām.2.95.4; नलिन्यो यत्र क्रीडन्ति प्रमदाः सुरसेविताः Bhāg.8.15.13. -4 A lotus or the stalk of it. -5 The celestial Ganges. -6 The intoxicating juice of the cocoa-nut. -7 A myst. -8 N. of one of the nostrils. -9 the city of Indra (शक्रपुरी); 'वस्वौकसारा श्रीदस्य शक्रस्य नलिनी पुरी' इति हरिः; Rām.2.94. 26. -Comp. -खण्डम् -षण्डम् a group or assemblage of lotuses. -दलम्, पत्रम् a leaf of the lotus plant. -रुहः an epithet of Brahmā. (-हम्) a lotus-stalk, the fibres of a lotus.
nalvaḥ नल्वः A measure of distance equal to 4 hastas or cubits. -Comp. -वर्त्मगा the orange tree.
analaḥ अनलः [नास्ति अलः पर्याप्तिर्यस्य, बहुदाह्यदहने$पि तृप्तेरभावात् Tv.; cf. नाग्निस्तृप्यति काष्ठानाम्; said by some to be from अन् to breathe]. 1 Fire. -2 Agni or the god of fire. See अग्नि. -3 Digestive power, gastric juice; मन्दः संजायते$नलः Suśr. -4 Wind. -5 Bile. -6 One of the 8 Vasus, the fifth. -7 N. of Vāsudeva. -8 Names of various plants; चित्रक, रक्तचित्रक Plumbago Zeylanica and Rosea, भल्लातक the marking-nut tree. -9 The letter र्. -1 The number three. -11 (Astr.) The 5th year of Bṛhaspati's cycle. -12 The third lunar mansion कृत्तिका. -13 A variety of Pitṛideva or manes (कव्यवाहो$नलः सोमः). -14 [अनान् प्राणान् लाति आत्मत्वेन] The soul (जीव). -15 N. of Viṣṇu (न नलति गन्धं प्रकटयति न बध्यते वा नल्-अच्). -16 The Supreme Being. cf. अनेलो राज्ञि नाले च पुंस्यग्न्यौषधिभेदयोः Nm. -17 Anger; करिणां मुदे सनलदानलदाः Ki.5.25. -Comp. -आत्मजः N. of Kārtikeya; Mb.9.44.11. -आनन्दः N. of a Vedāntic writer, author of Vedānta-Kalpataru. -द a. [अनलं द्यति] 1 removing or destroying heat or fire; -2 = अग्निद q. v. -दीपन a. [अनलं दीपयति] promoting digestion, stomachic. -प्रभा [अनलस्य प्रभेव प्रभा यस्य] N. of a plant (ज्योतिष्मती) Helicacabum Cardiospermum. (Mar. लघुमालकांगोणी). -प्रिया N. of Agni's wife स्वाहा. -वाटः N. of ancient Paṭṭaṇa. -सादः loss of appetite, dyspepsia.
analasa अनलस a. 1 Not lazy, active, diligent, watchful, अनलसो$नलसोमसमद्युतिः R.9.15. -2 Unable, incompetent.
analiḥ अनलिः [अनिति-अच् अनः अलिर्यत्र ब. शकन्ध्वा] N. of a tree (बकवृक्ष) Sesbana Grandiflora (तत्पुष्पाणां मधुपूर्णतया तन्मधु- भिर्भ्रमराणां जीवनधारणात्तथात्वम् Tv.) (Mar. अगस्ता).
analpa अनल्प a. 1 Numerous. -2 Not a little; not small, liberal, noble (as mind &c.); इति क्षमं नैतदनल्पचेतसाम् Ki.14.18; much; जल्पन्त्यनल्पाक्षरम् Pt.1.136 profusely, in many words; विकसितवदनामनल्पजल्पे$पि Bv.1.1;2. 138. -Comp. -घोष a. very clamorous or noisy. -मन्यु a. greatly enraged.
yonalaḥ योनलः = यवनालः.
nalaḥ वानलः A kind of holy basil (the black variety).
nalaḥ सानलः The resinous exudation of the Sāla tree.
Macdonell Search
18 results
nala m. kind of reed (Amphidonax kar ka); N. of a king, husband of Damayantî.
nalada n. Indian spikenard (Nar dostachys Jatamansi); the root of the Andra pogon muricatus.
nalanāman a. named Nala; -mârgana, n. search for Nala; -vâgin, m. horse of Nala; -sa&ndot;kâ, f. suspicion of its being Nala; -sâsana, n. command of Nala; -sam nidhi, f. presence of Nala; -sârathi, m. charioteer of Nala; -siddha, pp. prepared by Nala; -½amâtya, m. minister of Nala; -½asva, m. Nala's horse.
nalikā f. tube.
nalina n. day lotus flower (nelum bium speciosum); -dala, n. petal of --; -nâbha, m. ep. of Krishna; -½âsana, ep. of Brahman.
nalinī f.=nalina; group of or lake overgrown with lotuses: -dala, n. petal of the day lotus: -maya, a. consisting of petals of the day lotus; -pattra, n. petal of the day lotus.
nalodaya m. Nala's success, T. of a poem; -½upâkhyâna, n. episode of Nala.
nalva m. a measure of distance, either =52 or 200 yards.
analāya den. Â. behave like fire.
analasakha m. wind.
analasa a. not idle, diligent.
analam ad. incapable of (inf.).
analaṃkṛta pp. unadorned.
anala m. fire; Agni; -da, a. quenching fire.
analpa a. not a little, much; -tva, n. strength; -½abhyasûya, a. greatly incensed with (lc.).
bṛhannala m. kind of tall reed; m. or â, f. N. assumed by Arguna when he en tered into the service of Virâta as an herma phrodite; -manu, m. the large (=detailed) Manu.
vanalatā f. forest-creeper; -le khâ, f. line of forest, far-extending forest; -vahni, m. forest fire; -vâta, m. forest wind; -vâsa, m. dwelling or residence in the forest; a. living in the forest; m. forest-dweller; -vâsin, a., m. id.; -svan, m. (wild dog), jackal.
saptanalī f. bird-lime.
Vedic Index of
Names and Subjects
18 results1 result
nalada ‘Nard’ (N ardastachys Jatamansi) is a plant mentioned in the Atharvaveda, in the Aitareya and the śāñkhāyana Aranyakas (where it is mentioned as used for a garland), as well as in the Sūtras. In the Atharvaveda the feminine form of the word, Naladī, occurs as the name of an Apsaras, or celestial nymph.
Bloomfield Vedic
Concordance
18 results1 result3 results
nalaṃ plavam ārohaitat TA.6.7.2a.
nalena patho 'nv ihi TA.6.7.2b.
analasya (analasas ?) te priyo 'sāny asau # HG.1.5.13.
Dictionary of Sanskrit Search
"nal" has 528 results
analvidhiopp. of अल्विधि; an operation not concerning a single letter, exempli gratia, for example स्थानिवदादेशोsनल्विधौ P.I. 1.56 and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). thereon; confer, compare स्थानिवदादेशो ह्यवर्णविधौ Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Pari.39.
nalopaelision of न्, which in Panini's grammar is sometimes taken as valid for certain grammatical operations,and otherwise for other operations; confer, compare नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति P.VIII.2.2.
haimaśabdānuśāsanalaghunyāsaa short commentary on Hemacandra's Sabdanusasana written by Devendrassuri. हैमशब्दनुशासनवृत्ति a short gloss called अवचूरि also, written by a Jain grammarian नन्दसुन्दर on the हैमशब्दानुशासन.
a(1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perfeminine. second.pluraland first and third person.singular.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अ प्रत्ययात् et cetera, and others (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 exempli gratia, for example अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. exempli gratia, for example भवति, तुदति et cetera, and others; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; exempli gratia, for example द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imperfeminine. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् confer, compare P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, et cetera, and others in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; (9) taddhita affix. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ et cetera, and others in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the inst. instrumental case. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.
akṛtliterally non-krt: an affix applied to a root, but different from the conjugational affixes. confer, compare अकृत्सार्वधातुक्रयोर्दीर्ध: P. VII. 4.25.
akṣaraa letter of the alphabet, such as a (अ) or i (इ) or h (ह) or y (य्) or the like. The word was originally applied in the Prātiśākhya works to vowels (long, short as also protracted), to consonants and the ayogavāha letters which were tied down to them as their appendages. Hence अक्षर came later on to mean a syllable i. e. a vowel with a consonant or consonants preceding or following it, or without any consonant at all. confer, compare ओजा ह्रस्वाः सप्तमान्ताः स्वराणामन्ये दीर्घा उभये अक्षराणि R Pr. I 17-19 confer, compareएकाक्षरा, द्व्यक्षरा et cetera, and others The term akṣara was also applied to any letter (वर्ण), be it a vowel or a consonant, cf, the terms एकाक्षर, सन्ध्यक्षर, समानाक्षर used by Patañjali as also by the earlier writers. For the etymology of the term see Mahābhāṣya अक्षरं न क्षरं विद्यात्, अश्नोतेर्वा सरोक्षरम् । वर्णे वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 2 end.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
agnaukaravāṇinyāyaanalogy conveyed by the expression अग्नौ करवाणि implying permission to the agent to do certain other things in a sacrificial session when, as a matter of fact, he is only permitted to work as an agent at the sacrificial action ( अग्नौकरण ), by virtue of the reply ' कुरु ' to his request made in the sentence अग्नौ करवाणि. confer, compare अग्नौकरवाणिन्यायेन भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on. II.2.24.
agrathe original Samhita text as opposed to pratṛṇna ( प्रतृण्ण ) or padapāṭha, (पदपाठ) which is the recital of separate words.
ājirādigaṇaclass of words headed by the word अजिर which do not allow lengthening of the final vowel by P. VI.3.119. although they form technical terms e. g. अजिरवती, पुलिनवती et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś on P. VI.3.119.
aṭ(1)token term standing for vowels and semi-vowels excepting l ( ल्) specially mentioned as not interfering with the substitution of ṇ ( ण् ) for n ( न् ) exempli gratia, for example गिरिणा, आर्येण, खर्वेण et cetera, and others Sec P.VIII.4.2; (2) augment a (अट्) with an acute accent, which is prefixed to verbal forms in the imperfect and the aorist tenses and the conditional mood. exempli gratia, for example अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् Sec P.IV.4.71; (3) augment a ( अट् ) prescribed in the case of the roots रुद्, स्वप् et cetera, and others before a Sārvadhātuka affix beginning with any consonant except y ( य्), exempli gratia, for example अरोदत्, अस्वपत्, अजक्षत्, आदत् et cetera, and others; see P.VII.3, 99, 100;(4) augment a ( अट् ) prefixed sometimes in Vedic Literature to affixes of the Vedic subjunctive (लेट्) exempli gratia, for example तारिवत्, मन्दिवत् et cetera, and others see P.III.4.94.
at(1)tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar for short अ, cf तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70; अदेङ् गुणः P.I.1.2; (2) personal ending अ for इ ( इट् ) of the Ist person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada in the Potential, P III. 4. 106; (3) caseaffix in the case of युष्मद् and अस्मद् for ablative case. singular. and plural P.VII. 1.31,32: (4) tad-affix अत् (अ) prescribed after किम् in the sense of the locative case case before which किम् is changed to कु, क्व being the taddhita affix. formation; confer, compare P. V.3.12 and VII.2.105:(5) substitute अत्(शतृ) for लट् forming the present and future participles in the Parasmaipada. active voice confer, compare लटः शतृशानचौ. P.III. 2.124 and लृटः सद्वा P. III.3.14.
atadanubandhakanot having the same mute significatory letter, but having one or two additional ones, confer, compare तदनुबन्धकग्रहणे नातदनुबन्धकस्य ग्रहणम् (Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 84.)
atāmpersonal affix of the third person. plural or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada in the Imperative (लोट्). confer, compare P. III.4.90.
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
atuspersonal ending of perfeminine. 1st person. dual number confer, compare परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः P. III.4.82.
atepersonal ending of present tense. 3rd per. plural substituted for झ ( अन्त ), the अ of झ ( अन्त ) being changed into ए and न being omitted: see झोन्त: (P.VII.1.3) अदभ्यस्तात् (P. VII. 1.4) and टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे (P. III. 4.79).
athusconjugational affix of perfeminine. 2nd person. dual Parasmaipada. substituted for the personal ending थस्, confer, compare P. III. 4.82.
adhika(1)additional or surplus activity which a rule in grammar sometimes shows; अधिकः कारः or अधिकं कार्यम्; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.11, Kāś. on III.2.124, Bh. Vṛ. on III.4.72; ( 2 ) surplus subject matter e. g. अथाख्याः समाम्नायाधिकाः प्राग्रिफितात् (V.Pr. I.33.)
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
anantyanon-final confer, compare अनन्त्यविकारे अन्त्यसदेशस्य when a change does not concern a final letter then it concerns that which immediately precedes the final, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 95. confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI.1.13 Vārt 5.
anādeśa(1)original, not such as is substituted: exempli gratia, for example युष्मदस्मदोरनादेशे P.VII. 2.86; (2) absence of statement, अनिर्देश exempli gratia, for example कर्तरि कृद्वचनमनादेशे स्वार्थविज्ञानात् P. III.4.67, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1: cf the Pari. अनिर्दिष्टार्थाः प्रत्ययाः स्वार्थे भवन्ति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 113.
anitya(1)not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or paribhāṣā whose application is voluntary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obligatory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be usedition On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
anirdaprathamaan underived word: an ancient term used by writers of the Prātiśākhyas to signify 'original' words which cannot be subjected to निर्वचन.
anukaraṇa(1)imitation; a word uttered in imitation of another; an imitative name: confer, compare अनुकरणे चानितिपरम् P.I.4.62; अनुकरणं हि शिष्टशिष्टाप्रतिषिद्धेषु यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु, Śiva sūtra 2 Vārt 1; confer, compare also प्रकृतिवद् अनुकरणं भवति an imitative name is like its original Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 36; also M.Bh. on VIII. 2.46; (2) imitative word, onomatopoetic word; confer, compare एवं ह्याहुः कुक्कुटाः कुक्कुड् इति । नैवं त आहुः । अनुकरणमेतत्तेषाम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.48. confer, compare also दुन्दुभि: इति शब्दानुकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.IX. 12.
anukramaṇaenumeration (in the right order as.opposed to व्युत्क्रम ); e. g. अथ किमर्थमुत्तरत्र एवमादि अनुक्रमणं क्रियते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.58; also on IV. 2.70; verbal forms of the root क्रम् with अनु occur in this sense very frequently; exempli gratia, for example यदित ऊर्ध्वं अनुक्रमिष्यामः; so also the past passive participle. अनुक्रान्तं occurs frequently in the same sense. अनुतन्त्र literally that which follows Tantra id est, that is Śāstra which means the original rules of a Śāstra; technical term for Vartika used by Bhartṛhari;confer, compare सूत्राणां सानुतन्त्राणां भाष्याणां च प्रणेतृभिः Vāk. Pad. I.23, where the word अनुतन्त्र is explained as Vārtika by the commentator.
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.id est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
anudāttopadeśa(a root)pronounced originally i. c. pronounced in the Dhātupāṭha with a grave accent; see the word अनुदात्त a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.: confer, compare अनुदात्तोपदेशवनतितनोत्यादीनामनुनासिकलोपो झलि ङ्किति P. VI.4.37. See also the word अनिट् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
anunādaa fore-sound : a preceding additional sound which is looked upon as a fault: e. g. ह्वयामि whom pronounced as अह्वयामि. This sound is uttered before an initial sonant consonant. It is also uttered before initial aspirates or visarga. confer, compare घोषवतामनुनादः पुरस्ताद् आदिस्थानां, क्रियते धारणं वा । सोष्मोष्माणामनुनादोप्यनादः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.18,19.
anunāsika(a letter)uttered through the nose and mouth both, as different from anusvāra which is uttered only through the nose. confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिकःP.I.1.8, and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). thereon. The anunāsika or nasal letters are the fifth letters of the five classes ( id est, that is ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न्, म् ) as also vowels अ, इ, उ and semivowels when so pronounced, as ordinarily they are uttered through the mouth only; ( exempli gratia, for example अँ, आँ, et cetera, and others or य्यँ, व्वँ, ल्लँ et cetera, and others in सय्यँन्ता, सव्वँत्सरः, सँल्लीनः et cetera, and others) The अनुनासिक or nasalized vowels are named रङ्गवर्ण and they are said to be consisting of three mātras. confer, compare अष्टौ आद्यानवसानेsप्रगृह्यान् आचार्या आहुरनुनासिकान् स्वरान् । तात्रिमात्रे शाकला दर्शयन्ति Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.63.64; confer, compare also अप्रग्रहाः समानाक्षराणि अनुनासिकानि एकेषाम् T. Pr XV.6. Trivikrama, a commentator on the Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Sūtras, explains अनुनासिक as अनु पश्चात् नासिकास्थानं उच्चारणं एषां इत्यनुनासिकाः । पूर्वं मुखस्थानमुच्चारणं पश्चान्नासिकास्थानमुच्चारणमित्यर्थः । अनुग्रहणात्केवलनासिकास्थानोच्चारणस्य अनुस्वारस्य नेयं संज्ञा । and remarks further पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्धसंज्ञेयमन्वर्था । Com. by Tr. on Kat. I 1.13. Vowels which are uttered nasalized by Pāṇini in his works viz. सूत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ et cetera, and others are silent ones i. e. they are not actually found in use. They are put by him only for the sake of a complete utterance, their nasalized nature being made out only by means of traditional convention. e. g. एध, स्पर्ध et cetera, and others confer, compare उपदेशेSजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2; confer, compare also प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः Kāś on I.3.2.
anupradānaan effort outside the mouth in the production of sound at the different vocal organs such as कण्ठ, तालु et cetera, and others which is looked upon as an external effort or bāhyaprayatna. अनुप्रदान is one of the three main factors in the production of sound which are ( 1 ) स्थान, ( 2 ) करण or आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न and ( 3 ) अनुप्रदान or बाह्यप्रयत्न; confer, compare स्थाकरणप्रयत्नेभ्यो वर्णा जायन्ते Cān. The commentator on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.describes अनुप्रदान as the मूलकारण or उपादानकारण, the main cause in the production of articulate sound confer, compare अनुप्रदीयते अनेन वर्णः इति अनुप्रदानम्: cf also अनुप्रदीयते इत्यनुप्रदानं प्रयत्न इत्यर्थः; Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. I. Generally two main varieties of बाह्यप्रयत्न are termed अनुप्रदान which are mentioned as (i) श्वासानुप्रदान (emission of breath) and नादानुप्रदान (resonance), the other varieties of it such as विवार, संवार, घोष, अघोष, अल्पप्राण, मह्मप्राण, उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित being called merely as बाह्यप्रयत्न.
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
anuśāsanatraditional instruction; treatment of a topic; exempli gratia, for example अथ शब्दानुशासनम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.1 where the word is explained as अनुशिष्यन्ते संस्क्रियन्ते व्युत्पाद्यन्ते अनेन इति अनुशासनम्.
antafinal, phonetically last element remaining, of course, after the mute significatory letters have been droppedition confer, compare अनुत्तरलक्षणोन्तः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.21 Vārt, 6.
antakaraṇaliterally bringing about as the final; an affix (which is generally put at the end); ancient term for an affix: confer, compareएतेः कारितं च यकारादिं चान्तकरणम्। अस्तेः शुद्धं च सकारादिं च । Nirukta of Yāska.I.13
antavadbhāvasupposed condition of being at the end obtained by the single substitute(एकादेश) for the final of the preceding and the initial of the succeeding word. confer, compare अन्तादिवच्च । योयमेकादेशः स पूर्वस्यान्तवत् परस्थादिवत् स्यात् । Sid. Kau. on अन्तादिवच्च P.VI. 1.84.
antādivadbhāvacondition, attributed to a single substitute for the final of the preceding and initial of the succeeding word, of being looked upon either as the final of the preceding word or as the initial of the succeeding word but never as both (the final as well as the initial) at one and the same time; confer, compare उभयत आश्रये नान्तादिवत् Sīr. Pari 39 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.48.
antāmaffix of the imperative 3rd person. plur. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada, substituted for the original affix झ, e. g. एधन्ताम्.
antiaffix of the present tense. 3rd person. plural Paras, substituted for the original affix झि, e. g. कुर्वन्ति, भवन्ति.
antuaffix of the imperative 3rd person. plural Paras. substituted for the original affix झि. exempli gratia, for example भवन्तु, कुर्वन्तु
anteaffix of the present tense. 3rd person. plural or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada substituted for the original affix झ, e g. एधन्ते वर्तन्ते.
antya(1)final letter; अन्ते भवमन्त्यम् (2) final consonant of each of the five groups of consonants which is a nasal अन्त्योनुनासिकः R.T. 17.
anyatarataḥoptionally, literally in another way; confer, compare वर्णसंख्ये अन्यतरतः V.P.V.15.
anyatarasyāmoptionally; literally in another way. The term is very common in the rules of Pāṇini, where the terms वा and विभाषा are also used in the same sense.
apoddhāradisintegration of the constituent elements of a word; analysis; अपोद्धार पृथक्करणम् commentary on Vāk. Pad. II. 449: confer, compare अपोद्धारपदार्था ये ये चार्थाः स्थितलक्षणः Vāk. Pad.I.24.
aprakṛtisvaratvanon-retention of the original word accents; confer, compare तत्र यस्य गतेरप्रकृतिस्वरत्वं तस्मादन्तेादात्वं प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI.2.49. See the word प्रकृतिस्वरत्व.
aprāptavikalpasame as अप्राप्तविभाषा one of the three kinds of optional application of a rule; confer, compare त्रिसंशयास्तु भवन्ति प्राप्ते अप्राप्ते उभयत्र चेति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 20; optional application of a rule prescribing an operation; eg; ऊर्णोतेर्विभाषा अनुपसर्गाद्वा I.3.43. हृक्रोरन्यतरस्याम् । अभिवादयति गुरुं माणवकेन पिता । अप्राप्तविकल्पत्वातृतीयैव Kāś. on I.1.53. विभाषा सपूर्वस्य । स्थूलपतिः स्थूलपत्नी । अप्राप्तविभाषेयमयरुसंयोगत्वात् ।
ayaṅthe substitute अय् for the final ई of the root शी by P. VII.4.22.
ayactaddhita affix. affix अय substituted optionally for तय after द्वि and त्रि by P. V.2.43. exempli gratia, for example द्वयम् द्वितयम्; त्रयम् त्रितयम्.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
alpaprāṇa(1)non-aspirate letters letters requiring little breath from the mouth for their utterance as opposed to mahāprāṇa; (2) non-aspiration; one of the external articulate efforts characterizing the utterance of non-aspirate letters.
avaṅsubstitute अव् for the final ओ of the word गो; confer, compare अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य, P. VI.1.123,124.
avayavamember or portion, as opposed to the total or collection (समुदाय) which is called अवयविन्; confer, compare अवयवप्रसिद्धेः समुदायप्रसिद्धिर्बलीयसी Par.Śek. Pari. 98. The conventional sense is more powerful than the derivative sense.
avyutpattipakṣathe view held generally by grammarians that all words are not necessarily susceptible to analysis or derivation, an alternative view opposed to the view of the etymologists or Nairuktas that every word is derivable; confer, compare पाणिनेस्त्वव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष एवेति शब्देन्दुशेखरे निरूपितम् Pari. Śekh. Pari. 22; वाचक उपादान: स्वरूपवानिति अव्युत्पत्तिपक्षे Vyāḍi's Saṁgraha.
avyutpannaunderived, unanalysable; confer, compare उणादयोऽव्युत्पन्नानि प्रा तिपदिकानि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.61 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 22.
aṣṭādhyāyīname popularly given to the Sūtrapāṭha of Pāṇini consisting of eight books (adhyāyas) containing in all 3981 Sūtras,as found in the traditional recital, current at the time of the authors of the Kāśika. Out of these 398l Sūtras, seven are found given as Vārtikas in the Mahābhāṣya and two are found in Gaṇapāṭha.The author of the Mahābhāṣya has commented upon only 1228 of these 3981 sūtras. Originally there were a very few differences of readings also, as observed by Patañjali ( see Mbh on I.4.1 ); but the text was fixed by Patañjali which, with a few additions made by the authors of the Kāśika,as observed a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., has traditionally come down to the present day. The Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is believed to be one of the six Vedāṅga works which are committed to memory by the reciters of Ṛgveda. The text of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is recited without accents. The word अष्टाध्यायी was current in Patañjali's time; confer, compare शिष्टज्ञानार्था अष्टाध्यायी Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 3.109.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
ākhyādesignation, conventional name; confer, compare देवदत्तो मुण्ड्यपि जट्यपि त्यामाख्यां न जहाति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1; confer, compare also स्वमज्ञातिघनाख्यायाम् P.I.1.35; confer, compare also वर्णः कारोत्तरो वर्णाख्या Tai. Prāt. I. 16.
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
āgamaaugment, accrement, a word element which is added to the primitive or basic word during the process of the formation of a complete word or pada. The āgama is an adventitious word element and hence differs from ādeśa, the substitute which wholly takes the place of the original or ( आदेशिन् ). Out of the several āgamas mentioned by Pāṇini, those that are marked with mute ट् are prefixed, those, marked with क्, are affixed, while those, marked with म्, are placed immediately after the last vowel of the word. The augments become a part and parcel of the word to which they are added, and the characteristics of which they possess;confer, compareयदागमास्तद्गुणीभूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते, also आगमानां आगमिधर्मिवैशिष्ट्यम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.11. Those grammarians, who hold the view that words are unproduced and eternal, explain the addition of an augment as only the substitution of a word with an augment in the place of a word without an augment; confer, compare आदेशास्तर्हिमे भविष्यन्ति अनागमकानां सागमकाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20; I.1.46. The term āgama is defined as अन्यत्र विद्यमानस्तु यो वर्णः श्रुयतेधिकः । आगम्यमानतुल्यत्वात्स आगम इति स्मृतः Com. on Tait. Prāt.I. 23.
ācitādia class of words headed by the word अाचित which do not have their final vowel accented acute by P. VI.2.146 when they are preceded by the prepositions प्र, परा et cetera, and others although they are used as proper nouns. exempli gratia, for example आचितम्,निरुक्तम्, प्रश्लिष्टम्; confer, compare Kāśikā on P. VI.2.146.
aāṭ(1)augment अा prefixed to roots beginning with a vowel in the imperfect, aorist and conditional, which is always accented (उदात्त); confer, compare P.VI.4.72; (2) augment अा prefixed to the imperative first person terminations, exempli gratia, for example करवाणि, करवै et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.4.92: (3) augment अा to be prefixed to caseaffixes which are डित् after nouns called nadī: exempli gratia, for example कुमार्यं; cf P.VII. 3.112.
ādeśa(1)substitute as opposed to sthānin, the original. In Pāṇini's grammar there is a very general maxim, possessed of a number of exceptions, no doubt, that 'the substitute behaves like the original' (स्थानिवदादेशः अनल्विधौ P.I.1.56.); the application of this maxim is called स्थानिवद्भाव; for purposes of this स्थानिवद्भाव the elision (लोप) of a phonetic element is looked upon as a sort of substitute;confer, compare उपधालेपस्य स्थानिवत्त्वात् Kāś. on P.I.1.58. Grammarians many times look upon a complete word or a word-base as a substitute for another one, although only a letter or a syllable in the word is changed into another, as also when a letter or syllable is added to or dropped in a word; confer, compare पचतु, पचन्तु ... इमेप्यादेशाः । कथम् । अादिश्यते यः स आदेशः । इमे चाप्यादिश्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; cf also सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः M.Bh. on P. I.1.20; confer, compare also अनागमकानां सागमका आदेशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20: (2) indication, assignment; confer, compare योयं स्वरादेशः अन्तोदात्तं, वधेराद्युदात्तत्वं, स्वः स्वरितमिति अादेशः R.Pr.I.30-32; confer, compare also अादेशः उपदेशः commentary on Tai.-Prāt. II.20: confer, compare also अनादेशे अविकारः V.Pr.IV.131, where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.remarks यत्र उदात्तादीनां स्वराणां सन्धौ आदेशो न क्रियते तत्र अविकारः प्रत्येतव्यः । confer, compare also एकारो विभक्त्यादेशः छन्दसि A.Pr. II.1.2, where ए is prescribed as a substitute for a caseaffix and त्ये and अस्मे are cited as examples where the acute acent is also prescribed for the substitute ए.
ādeśinthat for which a substitute is prescribed; the original, sthānin: confer, compare आदेशिानामादेशाः confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). On P.I.1.56.
ādya(1)premier; confer, compare इदमाद्यं पदस्थानं (व्याकरणनामकं ) सिद्धिसोपानपर्वणाम् Vāk. Pad. I.16; (2) preceding as opposed to succeeding (उत्तर); confer, compare सहाद्यैर्व्यञ्जनैः V.Pr.I.100 (3) original; confer, compare आद्यप्रकृतिः परमप्रकृतिः (original base) Bhāṣā Vṛtti. IV.1.93; (4) first, preceding, आद्ये योगे न व्यवाये तिङः स्यु; M.Bh. on III.1-91.
ādyantavattvaअाद्यन्तवद्भाव, consideration of a single or solitary letter as the initial or the final one according to requirements for opcrations prescribed for the initial or for the final. Both these notions --the initial and the final-are relative notions, and because they require the presence of an additional letter or letters for the sake of being called initial or final it becomes necessary to prescribe आद्यन्तवद्भाव in the case of a single letter; confer, compareअाद्यन्तवदेकस्मिन् । आदौ इव अन्त इव एकस्मिन्नपि कार्यं भवति । यथा कर्तव्यमित्यत्र प्रत्ययाद्युदात्तत्वं भवति एवमौपगवमित्यत्रापि यथा स्यात् । Kāś. on P.I.1.21 ; confer, compare also अाद्यन्तवच्च । अपृक्तस्य आदिवदन्तवच्च कार्यं भवति । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.55. This अाद्यन्तवद्भाव of Pāṇini is, in fact, a specific application of the general maxim known as vyapadeśivadbhāva by virtue of which "an operation which affects something on account of some special designation, which for certain reasons attaches to the letter, affects likewise that which stands alone;" confer, compare Pari.Śek. Pari. 30.
aādhārādheyabhāvaa non-differential relation (अभेदसंसर्ग) between the personal endings तिप् , तस् et cetera, and others and the noun in the nominative case which is the subject of the verbal activity;relation of a thing and its substratum: confer, compare निपातातिरिक्तनामार्थधात्वर्थयोर्भेदान्वयस्य अव्युत्पन्नत्वात्.
ādhṛṣīyaa sub-division of roots belonging to the चुरादिगण or tenth conjugation beginning with युज् and ending with धृष् which take the Vikaraṇa णिच् optionally id est, that is which are also conjugated like roots of the first conjugation; exempli gratia, for example यीजयति,योजयते, योजति;साहयति-ते, सहति.
ānunāsikyanasalization; utterance through the nose, an additional property possessed by vowels and the fifth letters of the 5 classes (ङ्, ञ्, ण् ,न्, म्) confer, compare आनुनासिक्यं तेषामधिको गुणः M.Bh. on I.1.9.
ānupūrvyasaṃhitāthe saṁhitā-pāṭha or recital of the running Vedic text in accordance with the constituent words;exempli gratia, for example शुनः शेपं चित् निदितम् or नरा शंसं वा पूषणम्, as opposed to the अनानुपूर्व्यसंहिता which is actually found in the traditional recital exempli gratia, for example शुनश्चिच्छेपं निदितम् Ṛk saṁh. V 2.7 or नरा वा शंसं पूषणम् Ṛk saṁh. X.64.3. See R. Prāt. II 43.
aābhyantaraprayatnainternal effort made in producing a sound, as contrasted with the external One called बाह्यप्रयत्न. There are four kinds of internal efforts described in the Kāsikāvrtti.; confer, compare चत्वार आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्नाः सवर्णसंज्ञायामाश्रीयन्ते स्पृष्टता, ईषत्स्पृष्टता, संवृतता, विवृतता चेति । Kās. on P. 1.1.9. See also यत्नो द्विधा । आभ्यन्तरो बाह्यश्च et cetera, and others Si. Kau. on I.1.9.
āy(1)the affix आय applied to the roots गुप्, धूप् and others ending with which they are looked upon as roots; confer, compare P. III.1.28: P.III.1. 32. The affix is applied optionally when an ārdhadhātuka affix is to follow, exempli gratia, for example गोपायिता, गोप्ता; confer, compare P.III. 1.31; (2) augment; confer, compare असतो वर्णस्य उपजनः R. Prāt. XIV. 1 Uvaṭa.
aāraktaddhita affix.affix (आर) applied to the word गोधा in the sense of off spring according to the Northern Grammarians;exempli gratia, for example गौधारः, (optional forms गौधेय and गौधेर acc. to others); confer, compare P.IV.1.129, 130.
ārdhadhātukaa term used in contrast to the term सार्वधातुक for such verbal and kṛt affixes, as are not personal endings of verbs nor marked with the mute letter श् confer, compare तिङ्शित् सार्वधातुकम् । आर्धधातुकं शेषः। P.III.4.113 and 114. The personal endings of verbs in the perfect tense and the benedictive mood are termed ārdhadhātuka, confer, compare P. III. 4.115, 116; while both the terms are promiscuously found utilised in the Vedic Literature; confer, compare P. III. 4. 117. The main utility of the ārdhadhātuka term is the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to the ārdhadhātuka affixes. The term आर्धधातुका was in use in works of the old Vaiyākaraṇas; confer, compare अथवा आर्धधातुकासु इति वक्ष्यामि कासु आर्धधातुकासु । उक्तिषु युक्तिषु रूढिषु प्रतीतिषु श्रुतिषु संज्ञासु M.Bh. on II. 4.35. It cannot be said how the term ārdhadhātuka originatedition Probably such affixes or pratyayas, like the kṛt affixes generally, as could be placed after certain roots only were called ārdhadhātuka, as contrasted with the verbal and the present participle affixes which were termed sārvadhātuka on account of their being found in use after every root.
āhitāgnyādia class of compound words headed by the word आहिताग्नि in which the past passive voice. participle. is optionally placed first. exempli gratia, for exampleआहिताग्निः अग्नयाहितः; जातपुत्रः पुत्रजातः The class आहिताम्न्यादि is stated to be आकृतिगण, confer, compare Kāś.on P.II.2.37.
i(1)the vowel इ, representing all its eighteen forms viz. short, long protracted, acute, grave, circumflex, pure and nasalised; exempli gratia, for example इ in यस्येति च P.VI.4.128;(2) Uṅādi affix ई(3)tad-affix इच्(इ)applied to Bahuvrihi compounds in the sense of exchange of action or as seen in words like द्विदण्डि exempli gratia, for example केशाकेशि, दण्डादण्डि, द्विमुसलि et cetera, and others confer, compare इच् कर्मव्यतिहारे P.V.4. 127,also V.4.128; (4) kṛt (affix). affix कि (इ) confer, compare उपसर्गे घोः किः P.III.3.92; (5) augment इट् (इ); see इट् (6) conjugational affix इट् of the 1st person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada
id(1)augment इ prefixed,in general in the case of all roots barring a few roots ending in vowels except ऊ and ऋ and roots शक्, पच्, et cetera, and others, to such affixes of non-conjugational tenses and moods as begin with any consonant except ह् and य्; confer, compare आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः P.VII.2.35 to 78 and its exceptions P.VII.2.8 to 34; (2) personal ending of the third person singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
irmute indicatory ending of roots, signifying the application of the aorist sign अ(अङ्) optionally;e g. अभिदत् or अभैत्सीत् from the root भिद् (भिदिर् in Dhātupāṭha); confer, compare also अच्छिदत्,अच्छैत्सीत् from छिद्(छिदिर्); confer, compare P.III.1.57.
īthe long vowel ई which is technically included in the vowel इ in Pāṇini's alphabet being the long tone of that vowel; (2) substitute ई for the vowel अा of the roots घ्रा and ध्मा before the frequentative sign यङ् as for example in जेघ्रीयते, देध्मीयते, confer, compare P.VII. 4.31; (3) substitute ई for the vowel अ before the affixes च्वि and क्यच् as, for instance, in शुक्लीभवति, पुत्रीयति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.VII.4.32, 33; (4) substitute ई for the vowel अा at the end of reduplicated bases as also for the vowel आ of bases ending in the conjugational sign ना, exempli gratia, for example मिमीध्वे, लुनीतः et cetera, and others; cf P.VI. 4.113; (5) substitute ई for the locative case case affix इ ( ङि ) in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example सरसी for सरसि in दृतिं न शुश्कं सरसी शयानम्,: confer, compare Kāś. on P. VII.1.39: (6) taddhita affix. affix ई in the sense of possession in Vedic Literature as for instance in रथीः,सुमङ्गलीः, confer, compare Kāś on. P.V.2.109: (7) the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् , ङीञ् or ङीन् ); confer, compare P.IV.1.58, 15-39, IV.1.40-65, IV.1.13.
īṣacchvāsaan external effort ( बाह्य-प्रयत्न) in the production of sound charactorized by the emission of breath, when the cavity made by the cords of the throat is kept wide apart, as found in the utterance of the consonants श्, ष् and स.
īṣatspṛṣṭaan external effort ( बाह्यप्रयत्न) in the production of sound charactorized by only a slight contact of the cords of the throat, made in the utteranee ofsemi-vowels confer, compare ईषत्स्पृष्टमन्तःस्थानाम् S.K. on P.I.1.9.
īṣannādaan external effort characterized by slight resonance or sounding of throat cords when they slightly touch one another.
uktārthaa word or expression whose sense has been already expressedition The expression उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः is frequently used in the Mahābhāṣya and the Vārttikas and cited as a Paribhāṣā or a salutary conventional maxim against repetition of words in the Paribhāṣāpāṭhas of Vyādi (Par. 51), Candragomin (Par 28) and Kātantra (Par. 46) and Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. (Par. 46) grammars.
uñchādia class of words headed by the word उञ्छ which have their final vowel accented acute (उदात्त) ; confer, compare उञ्छः म्लेच्छा, जल्पः । एते घञन्ता इति ञित्स्वरः प्राप्तः । Kāś. on P. VI.1.160.
udāttanirdeśaconventional understanding about a particular vowel in the wording of a sūtra being marked acute or Udātta, when ordinarily it should not have been so, to imply that a Paribhāṣā is to be applied for the interpretation of that Sūtra: confer, compare उदात्तनिर्देशात्सिद्धम् P.VI.1.13 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).14, also Sīra. Pari. 112.
uditcharacterized by short उ as a mute indicatory vowel, by virtue of which the word कु, for instance, signifies along with क् its cognate consonants ख्, ग्, घ् and ङ् also; confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P.I.I.69. Roots marked with उ as mute get the augment इ optionally added before the kṛt affix क्त्वा; e gशमित्वा and शान्त्वा from the root शम् ( शमु ) by virtue of the rule उदितो वा P.VII.2.56.
uddyotathe word always refers in grammar to the famous commentary by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa written in the first decade of the 18th century A. D. om the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa. The Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.appears to be one of the earlier works of Nāgeśa. It is also called Vivaraṇa. The commentary is a scholarly one and is looked upon as a final word re : the exposition of the Mahābhāṣya. It is believed that Nāgeśa wrote 12 Uddyotas and 12 Śekharas which form some authoritative commentaries on prominent works in the different Śāstras.
upakādia class of words headed by the word उपक after which the taddhita affix, added in the sense of गोत्र ( grand-children et cetera, and others ) is optionally elided, provided the word is to be used in the plural number; confer, compare उपकलमकाः भ्रष्टककपिष्ठलाः also उपकाः, औपकायनाः; लमकाः, लामकायना ; भ्रष्टकाः भ्राष्टकयः । Kāś. on P. II.4.69.
upajanaliterallyorigin; one that originates, augment, उपजायते असौ उपजन: । The word is used in the sense of 'additional phonetic element'; confer, compare उपजन आगमः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Śivasūtra 5; confer, compare also वर्णव्यत्ययापायोपजनविकारेष्वर्थदर्शनात् । Māheśvarasūtras. 5 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 15. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya gives स् in पुरुश्चन्द्र as an instance ofeminine. उपजन confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 37. In the Nirukta उपजन is given as the sense of the prefix 'उप'; confer, compare उपेत्युपजनम्: The commentary on the Nirukta explains the word उपजन as अाधिक्य.
upadeśainstruction; original enunciation; first or original precepts or teaching; confer, compare उपदेश आद्योच्चारणम् S. K. on T the rule उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2. confer, compare वर्णानामुपदेशः कर्तव्यः; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. I. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 15. For difference between उपदेश and उद्देश see उद्देश; confer, compare also उपदिश्यतेनेनेत्युपदेशः । शास्त्रवाक्यानि, सूत्रपाठः खिलपाठश्च Kāśikā on P. I.3.2; confer, compare also Vyāḍi. Pari. 5; (2) employment (of a word) for others confer, compare उपेदश: परार्थः प्रयोगः । स्वयमेव तु बुद्धया यदा प्ररमृशति तदा नास्त्युपदेशः Kāś. on अदोनुपदेशे P.I.4.70.
upadeśinsuch a word as is found in the original instruction.
upadeśivadbhāvaoccurrence in the original statement before the application of any affixes et cetera, and others, confer, compare एवमप्युपदेशिवद्भावो वक्तव्यः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.56, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 23.
upadeśivadvacanastatement to the effect that a word should be looked upon as occurring in the original instruction although it is not there. See उपदेश.confer, compare नुम्विधावुपदेशिवद्वचनं प्रत्ययविध्यर्थम् P. VII.1.58. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1.
upapadasamāsathe compound of a word, technically termed as उपपद by Pāṇini according to his definition of the word in III.1.92., with another word which is a verbal derivative; confer, compare कुम्भकारः, नगरकारः Here technically the compound of the words कुम्भ, नगर et cetera, and others which are upapadas is formed with कार,before a case-termination is added to the nominal base कार; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 75.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
ubhayadīrghāa hiatus or a stop which occurs between two long-vowelled syllables; the term उभयदीर्घा is a conventional term in the Prātiśākhya literature. The term उभयह्रस्वा is similarly used in connection with short vowels.
ūditmarked with the mute indicatory letter ऊ; confer, compare स्वरतिसूतिसूयतिधूञूदितो वा । prescribing the addition of the augment इ optionally in the case of ऊदित् roots P. VII.2.44.
ṛtshort vowel ऋ. before which the preceding vowel is optionally left as it is, i. e. without coalescence and shortened also if long; confer, compare ऋत्यकः P. VI.1.128.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
ekādeśaa single substitute in the place of two original units; exempli gratia, for example ए in the place of अ and इ,or ओ in the place of अ and उ. The ādeśas or substitutes named पूर्वरूप and पररूप are looked upon as ekadeśas in Pāṇini's grammar although instead of them, the omission of the latter and former vowels respectively, is prescribed in some Prātiśākhya works. गुण and वृद्धि are sometimes single substitutes for single originals, while they are sometimes ekadeśas for two original vowels exempli gratia, for example तवेदम्, ब्रह्मौदनः, उपैति, प्रार्च्छति, गाम्, सीमन्तः et cetera, and others; see P.VI.1.87 to ll l, confer, compare also A.Pr.II 3.6.
ekārtha(1)possessed of one sense as contrasted with बह्वर्थ, द्व्यर्थ etc: (2) synonym, confer, compare बहवो हि शब्दा एकार्था भवन्ति । तद्यथा इन्द्रः शक्रः पुरुहूतः पुरंदरः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9; (3) Possessed of a composite sense; confer, compare समासे पुनरेकार्थानि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 1.1 Vārt I. The words एकार्थ्य and एकार्थत्व derived from the word एकार्थ are often found used in the sense of 'possession of a composite sense' एकार्थस्य भाव: एकार्थता,ऐकार्थ्ये एकार्थत्वं वा; confer, compare समासस्यैकार्थत्वंत्संज्ञाया अप्रसिद्धिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.42 Vārt 1; confer, compare also the word एकार्थीभावः (4) potent to be connected; समर्थ; confer, compare सुप्सुपा एकार्थम् ( समस्यते ) C. Vy. II.2.1; (5) analogous समानाधिकरण confer, compare एकार्थं चानेकं च । एकः समानः अर्थः अधिकरणं यस्य तदेकार्थं समानाधिकरणम् Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. Vy. III. 1.22: confer, compare also एकार्थे च । Śāk. II.1.4.
edhāctaddhita affix.affix एधा substituted for the taddhita affix. affix धा optionally,when applied to the words द्वि and त्रि. exempli gratia, for exampleद्विधा, द्वेधा, दैधम्, त्रिधा, त्रेधा, त्रैधम्; confer, compare Kāś. on एधाच्च P.V.3.46.
enaptaddhita affix. affix एन applied to उत्तर, अधर, and दक्षिण optionally instead of the taddhita affix. affix आति in the senses of दिक्, देश and काल, exempli gratia, for example उत्तरेण, उत्तरतः उत्तरात्, Words with this एन at the end govern the acc. case of the word syntactically connected with them. e. g. तत्रागारं धनपतिगूहान् उत्तरेण Kālidāsa: Meghadūta;confer, compareएनपा द्वितीया P.II.3.31.
au(1)the vowel औ; diphthong vowel made up of आ and ओ; ( 2 ) the substitute औ for the final letter उ of the word मनु before the fem, affix ई; confer, compare मनोः स्त्री मनायी, मनावी,मनुः Kāś. on P. IV. 1. 38; ( 3 ) case ending of the nominative case. and acc. dual called औङ् also.
audavrajian ancient sage and scholar of Vedic Grammar who is believed to have revised the original text of the ऋक्तन्त्रप्रातिशाख्य of the Sāma-Veda. confer, compare Śab. Kaus. I.1.8.
aaupadeśikamentioned in the original statement; confer, compare अन्तग्रहणं औपदेशिकांर्थम् । Kāś. on ष्णान्ता षट् P.I.1.24, confer, compare also औपदेशिकप्रायोगिकयोरौपदेशिकस्यैव ग्रहणम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 120.
ᳵjihvāmūlīyaa phonetical element or unit called Jihvāmūlīya, produced at the root of the tongue, which is optionally substituted in the place of the Visarga (left 0ut breath) directly preceding the utterance of the letter क् or ख् and hence shown as ᳵ क्. See अ ᳵ क् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 2.
ᳶ upadhmānīyaliterally blowing; a term applied to the visarga when followed by the consonant प् or फ्. The upadhmānīya is looked upon as a letter or phonetic element, which is always connected with the preceding vowel. As the upadhmānīya is an optional substitute for the visarga before the letter प् or फ्, when, in writing, it is to be shown instead of the visarga, it is shown as ᳶ, or as w , or even as x just as the Jihvāmūlīya; confer, compare उपध्मायते शब्दायते इति, उप समीपे ध्मायते शब्द्यते इति वा commentary on Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I:; : confer, compare also कपाभ्यां प्रागर्धविसर्गसदृशो जिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयौः:S.K.on P.VIII.2.1.
m̐ nāsikyaa nasal letter or utterance included among the अयोगवाह letters analogous to anusvāra and yama letters. It is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as हुँ इति नासिक्यः on which Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.makes the remark अयमृक्शाखायां प्रसिद्धः. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya mentions नासिक्य, यम and अनुस्वार as नासिक्य or nasal letters, while Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.defines नासिक्य as a letter produced only by the nose; confer, compare केवलनासिकया उच्चार्यमाणे वर्णॊ नासिक्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya calls the letter ह् as nāsikya when it is followed by the consonant न् or ण् or म् and gives अह्नाम् , अपराह्णे and ब्रह्म as instances. The Pāṇinīya Śikṣā does not mention नासिक्य as a letter. The Mahābhāṣya mentions नासिक्य as one of the six ayogavāha letters; confer, compare के पुनरयोगवाहाः । विसर्जनीयजिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयानुस्वारानुनासिक्ययमाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Śivasūtra 5 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, where some manuscripts read नासिक्य for अानुनासिक्य while in some other manuscripts there is neither the word आनुनासिक्य nor नासिक्य. It is likely that the anunāsika-colouring given to the vowel preceding the consonant सू substituted for the consonants म, न् and others by P. VIII. 3.2. to 12, was looked upon as a separate phonetic unit and called नासिक्य as for instance in सँस्कर्ता, मा हिँसीः, सँशिशाधि et cetera, and others
kaḍārādia class of words headed by the word कडार which, although adjectival,are optionally placed first in the Karmadhāraya compound, exempli gratia, for example कडारजैमिनिः जैमिनिकडारः; confer, compare Kāś. on II.2.38.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantraprakriyāa name given to the Kātantra Sūtras which were written in the original form as a Prakriyāgrantha or a work discussing the various topics such as alphabet, euphonic rules, declension, derivatives from nouns, syntax, conjugation derivatives from roots et cetera, and others et cetera, and others
kāmamoptionally; at will; confer, compare काममतिदिश्यतांं वा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.57.
kāraan affix, given in the Prātiśākhya works and,by Kātyāyana also in his Vārttika, which is added to a letter or a phonetic element for convenience of mention; exempli gratia, for example इकारः, उकारः ; confer, compare वर्णः कारोत्तरो वर्णाख्या; वर्णकारौ निर्देशकौ Tai. Pra.I. 16: XXII.4.;confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1.37. It is also applied to syllables or words in a similar way to indicate the phonetic element of the word as apart from the sense of the word: e. g.' यत एवकारस्ततीन्यत्रावधारणम् Vyak. Paribhāṣā , confer, compare also the words वकार:, हिंकारः: (2) additional purpose served by a word such as an adhikāra word; confer, compare अधिकः कारः , पूर्वविप्रतिषेघा न पठितव्या भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.11.
kārtikeyathe original instructor of the Kātantra or Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Grammar, to Śarvavarman who composed the Sūtras according to inspiration received by him. The Kātantra, hence, has also got the name Kaumara Vyākaraṇa.
kārmanāmikathe word is found used in Yāska's Nirukta as an adjective to the word संस्कार where it means belonging to nouns derived fromroofs (कर्मनाम)"like पाचक,कर्षक et cetera, and othersThe changes undergone by the roots in the formation of such words i. e. words showing action are termed कार्मनामिकसंस्कार; confer, compare कर्मकृतं नाम कर्मनाम। तस्मिन् भवः कार्मनामिकः Durgavṛtti on Nirukta of Yāska.I.13. कार्य(l) brought.into existence by activity (क्रियया निर्वृत्तं कार्यम् ) as oppo- sed to नित्य eternal; confer, compare एके वर्णाञ् शाश्वतिकान् न कार्यान् R.Pr. XIII.4 confer, compare also ननु च यस्यापि कार्याः ( शब्दाः ) तस्यापि पूजार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 17;(2) which should be done, used in connection with a grammatical operation: confer, compare कार्य एत्वे सयमीकारमाहुः ।| अभैष्म इत्येतस्य स्थाने अभयीष्मेति । R.Pr. XIV.16; confer, compare also विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I.4.2; (3) a grammatical opera- tion as for instance in the phrases द्विकार्ययोगे, त्रिकार्ययोगे et cetera, and others; confer, compare also गौणमुख्ययोर्मुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्ययः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 15;(4) object of a transitive verb: confer, compare शेषः कार्ये Śāk.
kāryātideśalooking upon the substitute as the very original for the sake of operations that are caused by the presence of the original;the word is used in contrast with रूपातिदेश where actually the original is restored in the place of the substitute on certain conditions. For details see Mahābhāṣya on द्विर्वचनेचि P. 1.1.59.
kiṃśulakādia class of words headed by the word किंशुलक, which get their final vowel lengthened when the word गिरि is placed after them as a second member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e. g. किंशुलकागिरिः, अञ्जनागिरिः; confer, compare Kāś. on P. VI.3.117.
kit(1)marked with the mute letter क् which is applied by Pāṇini to affixes, for preventing guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes to the preceding इक् vowel (इ, उ, ऋ or लृ); confer, compareक्ङिति च, Pāṇ. I.1.5; (2) considered or looked upon as marked with mute indicatory क् for preventing guna; confer, compare असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् and the following P.I.2.5 et cetera, and others The affixes of the first type are for instance क्त, क्त्वा, क्तिन् and others. The affixes of the second type are given mainly in the second pada of the first Adhyāya by Pāṇini. Besides the prevention of guṇa and wrddhi, affixes marked with कु or affixes called कित्, cause Saṁprasāraṇa (see P. VI.1.15,16), elision of the penultimate न् (P.VI.4.24), elision of the penultimate vowel (P. VI.4.98,100), lengthening of the vowel (VI.4.15), substitution of ऊ (VI.4.19,21), elision of the final nasal (VI. 4.37), substitution of अI (VI.4.42). The taddhita affixes which are marked with mute क् cause the Vṛddhi substitute for the first vowel in the word to which they are addedition
koṭarādia class of words headed by the word कोटर which get their final vowel lengthened when the word वन is placed after them as a seconditional member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; exempli gratia, for example कोटरावणम्, मिश्रकावणम्. confer, compare Kāś. on P.VI.3.117.
kaumāra,komāravyākaraṇa(1)an alternative name of the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa given to it on the strength of the traditional belief that the original inspiration for writing it was received by Sarvavarman from Kumara or Kārtikeya; (2) small treatises bearing the name Kaumāravyākaraṇa written by Munipuṅgava and Bhāvasena. The latter has written Kātantrarūpamāla also.
īśeḥ(VII.2.77)अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. l to 4; confer, compare also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, confer, compare also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 1. For details and special features, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ch. X and XI: confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
kramapāṭharecital of the Vedic Saṁhitā by means of separate groups of two words, repeating each word except the first of the Vedic verseline; see क्रम a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The various rules and exceptions are given in detail in Paṭalas ten and eleven of the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. The Vedic Saṁhitā or Saṁhitāpāṭha is supposed to be the original one and the Padapāṭha prepared later on, with a view to preserving the Vedic text without any change or modification of a letter, or accent; confer, compare न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and VIII. 2.16, where Patañjali clearly says that grammar-rules are not to follow the Padapāṭha, but, the writer of the Padapāṭha is to follow the rules already laid down. The Jaṭāpāṭha, the Ghanapāṭha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapāṭha as they are not mentioned in the Prātiśākhya works.
kriyātipattiliterally over-extension or excess of action; the word is, however, used in grammar in the sense of non-happening of an expected action especially when . it forms a condition of the conditional mood ( लृङ् ); confer, compare कुताश्चिद्वैगुण्यादनभिनिर्वृत्तिः क्रियायाः क्रियातिपत्तिः Kāś. on P. III. 3.139; confer, compare also नान्तरेण साधनं क्रियायाः प्रवृत्तिरस्तीति साधनातिपत्तिश्चेत्कियातिपत्तिरपि भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.3.139.
krayādigaṇaa class of roots headed by the root क्री ( डुक्रीञ् ) to which the conjugational sign ना ( श्ना ) is added; roots of the ninth conjugation.
kṣitīśacandra(चक्रवर्तिन्)or K. C. CHATTERJI a scholar of Sanskrit grammar who has written a work on technical terms in Sanskrit, who has edited several grammar works and is at present editing the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa and conducting the Sanskrit journal named Mañjūṣa at Calcutta.
khaśkṛt affix added to the roots यज् (causal), ध्मा, धे,रुज्, वह्, लिह्, पच् , दृश् , तप्, मन् et cetera, and others preceded by certain specified upapada words. The root undergoes all the operations such as the addition of the conjugational sign et cetera, and others before this खश् on account of the mute letter श् which makes खश् a Sārvadhātuka affix, and the augment म् is added to the preceding उपपद if it is not an indeclinable on account of the mute letter ख्; e. g. जनमेजयः, स्तनंधयः, नाडिंधमः, असूयै. पश्यः पण्डितंमन्यः etc,; confer, compare Pāṇ. III2.28-37, 83.
khilapāṭhaa supplementary recital or enunciation which is taken along with the original enunciation or upadeśa generally in the form of the sūtras. The word is used in the Kāśikā in the sense of one of the texts forming a part of the original text which is called upadeśa; confer, compare Kāśikā उपदिश्यते अनेनेत्युपदेश: शास्त्रवाक्यानि सूत्रपाठ: खिलपाठश्च (on P.I.3.2); confer, compare also खिलपाठो धातुपाठः प्रातिपदिकपाठो वाक्यपाठश्च Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on Kāśikā I.3.2.
gaṇapāṭhathe mention individually of the several words forming a class or gaṇa, named after the first word said to have been written by Pāṇini himself as a supplementary work to his great grammar called Aṣṭaka or Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., the Sikṣā,the Dhātupātha and the Lingānuśāsana being the other ones. Other grammarians such as शाकटायन, अापिशलि and others have their own gaṇapāthās. The gaṇapāthā is traditionally ascribed to Pāṇini; the issue is questioned, however, by modern scholars. The text of the gaṇapāṭha is metrically arranged by some scholars. The most scholarly and authoritative treatise on gaṇapāṭha is the Gaṇaratnamahodadhī of Vardhamāna.
gatyarthaa root denoting motion; the word frequently occurs in the Sūtras of Pāṇini and the Mahābhāṣya in connection with some special operations prescribed for roots which are गत्यर्थ. There is also a conventional expression सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्था: meaning 'roots denoting motion denote also knowledge'; confer, compare Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. Pari. 121 .
gia conventional term for उपसर्ग in the Jeinendra Vyākarana.
ghi(1)a tech. term applied to noun bases or Prātipadikas ending in इ and उ excepting the words सखि and पति and those which are termed नदी; confer, compare P. I. 4.79; (2) a conventional term for लधु ( a short vowel) found used in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ghua tech. term applied to the roots दा and धा, as also to those like दे or दो which become दा by the substitution of अा for the final diphthong vowel, barring the root दाप् (to cut) and दैप् (to purify): दाधा ध्वदाप् P.I. 1.20.
ghuṭa conventional term for the first five case-affixes; confer, compare घुटि च Kat. II. 1.68. The term घुट् is used in the Katantra Vyakarana and corresponds to the term सर्वनामस्थान of Panini.
ghoṣaan external effort in the pronunciation of a sonant or a soft consonant which causes depth of the tone: confer, compare अन्ये तु घोषाः स्युः संवृताः et cetera, and others, Sid. Kau. on VIII. 2. 1 .
ṅa(1)fifth consonant of the guttural class of consonants which is a nasal ( अनुनासिक ) consonant; the vowel अ being added at the end for facility of pronunciation; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.21; (2) a conventional term used for all the nasal consonants in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ṅit(l)affixes with the mute letter ङ् attached to them either before or after, with a view to preventing the guna and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding इ, उ, ऋ, or लृ, as for example, the affixes चङ्, अङ् and others (2) affixes conventionally called ङित् after certain bases under certain conditions; confer, compare गाङ्कुटादिम्यो ञ्णिन्ङित् P. I. 2. 1-4; (3) roots marked with the mute letter ङ् signifying the application of the Atmanepada terminations to them: (4) substitutes marked with mute ङ् which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which they are prescribed as substitutes; (5) case affixes marked with mute letter ङ् which cause the substitution of guna to the last vowel इ or उ of words termed घि.
ca(l)the letter च्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance, cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) a Bratyahara or short term standing for the palatal class of consonants च्, छ्, ज्,झ् and ञ्; cf इचशेयास्तालौ Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 66; (3) indeclinable च called Nipata by Panini; confer, compare चादयोSसत्त्वे P. I. 4.57, च possesses four senses समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 2.29. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2.29 Vart. 15 for a detailed explanation of the four senses. The indeclinable च is sometimes used in the sense of 'a determined mention' or avadharana; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 1.48 and 72. It is also used for the purpose of अनुवृत्ति or अनुकर्षण i. e. drawing a word from the previous rule to the next rule; (confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.90) with a convention that a word drawn thus, does not proceed to the next rule; confer, compare चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र Par. Sek Pari. 78; (4) a conventional term for अभ्यास (reduplicative syllable) used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; confer, compare चविकारेषु अपवादा उत्सर्गान्न बाधन्ते Kat. Pari. 75.
candrācāryaa grammarian mentioned by Bhartrhari in his Vakyapadiya as one who took a leading part in restoring the traditional explanation of Panini's Vyakarana which, by the spread of rival easy treatises on grammar, had become almost lost: confer, compare यः पतञ्जलिशिष्येभ्यो भ्रष्टो ब्याकरणागमः । काले स दाक्षिणात्येषु ग्रन्थमात्रे व्यवस्थित: ॥ पर्वतादागमं लब्ध्वा भाष्यबीजानुसारिभि: । स नीतो बहुशाखत्वं चन्द्राचार्यादिभिः पुनः ॥ Vakyapadiya II. 488-489. See चन्द्र and चन्द्रगोमिन्.
cālutaddhita affix. affix ( आलु ) applied to the word हृदय, in the sense of possession, optionally along with the affixes वत् इन् and इक. exempli gratia, for example हृदयालुः, हृदयवान् , हृदयी and हृदयिकः; confer, compare Kas: on V.2. 122.
cikīrṣitadesiderative formation; a term used by ancient grammarians for the term सन्नन्त of Panini on the analogy of the terms भवन्ती, वर्तमाना et cetera, and others confer, compare अा इत्याकांर उपसर्ग; पुरस्तात्, चिकीर्षितज उत्तरः, अाशु शोचयतीति आशुशुक्षणिः Nirukta of Yāska.VI. 1.
chaṇtaddhita affix. affix ईय causing the vrddhi substitute for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition छण् is added (1) to the words पितृत्वसृ and मातृप्वसृ in the sense of अपत्य; confer, compare P IV. 1.132, 134; (2) to the words कृशाश्व,अरिष्ट and others as a चातुरर्थिक affix: confer, compare P. IV. 2.80; (3) to the words तित्तिरि, वरतन्तु, खण्डिक and उख in the sense of 'instructed by', confer, compare P.IV.3.102; and (4) to the word शलातुर in the sense of 'being a national of' or 'having as a domicile.' e. g. शालातुरीयःconfer, compare P. IV. 3.94.
jātīyartaddhita affix. affix जातीय in the sense of प्रकार or variety; e. g. पटुजातीयः, मृदुजातीयः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.69. Originally जातीय was possibly an independent word, but as its use, especially as a noun, was found restricted, it came to be looked upon as an affix on the analogy of the affixes कल्प, देश्य, देशीय and others.
jātyaname of a variety of the Svarita or circumflex accent; the original svarita accent as contrasted with the svarita for the grave which follows upon an acute as prescribed by P. in VIII. 4.67, and which is found in the words इन्द्रः, होता et cetera, and others The jatya svarita is noticed in the words स्वः, क्व, न्यक्, कन्या et cetera, and others; .confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वं स्वरितमनुदात्तं पदेक्षरम्। अतोन्यत् स्वरितं स्वारं जात्यमाचक्षते पदे॥ जात्या स्वभावेनैव उदात्तानुदात्तसंगतिं विना जातो जात्यः । तं जात्यमाचक्षतै व्याडिप्रभृयः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) and commentary III. 4.
jia conventional term for संप्रसारण used in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
jusverbal termination उस् substituted for the original झि of the third person. pl, in certain cases mentioned inP.III.4.108,109,110,111, and 112.
juhotyādigaṇathe class of roots headed by हु after which the vikarana Sap is elided and the root is reduplicated in the four conjugational tenses; third conjugation of roots.
jaumārasaṃskaraṇathe revised version by Jumuranandin of the original grammar treatise in verse called संक्षिप्तसार written by KramadiSvara, The Jaumarasamskarana is the samc as.jaumara Vyakarana, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
jhacwording of the affix झ (see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) suggested by the Varttikakara to have the last vowel of अन्त acute, by चितः (P.VI.1.163) the property चित्व being transferred from the original झ to अन्त; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. तथा च झचश्चित्करणमर्थवद् भवति on P.VII.1.3.
jhaya short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the fourth, third, second and first consonants of the five classes, after which ह् is changed into the cognate of the preceding consonant while श्, is changed into छ् optionally; confer, compare P. VIII. 4.62, 63.
jhi(1)verb-ending of the 3rd person. plural Parasmaipada, substituted for the लकार of the ten lakaras, changed to जुस in the potential and the benedictive moods, and optionally so in the imperfect and after the sign स् of the aorist; confer, compareP,III. 4. 82, 83, 84, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112: (2) a conventional term for अव्यय (indeclinable) used in the Jainendra Vyakaraha.
ñiṭhataddhita affix. affix इक added to words headed by काशी as also to words meaning a village in the Vahika country optionally with the affix ठञ् in the Saisika senses;exempli gratia, for example काशिका, काशिकी, बैदिका, बेदिकी, शाकलिकां, शाकलिकी. The affixes ठञ् and ञिठ are added to the word काल preceded by आपद् as also by some other words; e. g. आपत्कालिका, अापत्कालिकी तात्कालिका, तात्कालिकी et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV.2. 116,117,118 and Varttika on IV. 2.116.
the first consonant of the lingual class ( टवर्ग ) possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When prefixed or affixed to an affix as an indicatory letter, it signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ); confer, compare P. IV. 1.15, When added to the conjugational affixes ( लकार ) it shows that in the Atmanepada the vowel of the last syllable is changed to ए. confer, compare P. III. 4.79. When added to an augment ( अागम ), it shows that the augment marked with it is to be prefixed and not to be affixed; e. g. नुट्, तुट् et cetera, and others; cf P. I. 1.46.
ṭithe final syllable beginning with a vowel; part of a word consisting of the final vowel in a word and the consonants following the final vowel; cf अचेन्त्यादि टि P. I. 1.64.
ṭilopadeletion or elision of the final syllable beginning with a vowel, as prescribed by Panini in certain rules; confer, compare भस्य टेर्लोपः VII. 1.88, टे: P. VI, 4.143, 155 नस्तद्धिते P. VI. 4.144 and अह्नष्टखोरेव P. VI. 4.145.
ṭhantaddhita affix. affix इक or क (according to P. VII.3.51), causing the addition of आ, and not ई,..for forming the feminine base, applied (1) to the word नौ and words with two syllables in the sense of 'crossing' or 'swimming' over; confer, compare P.IV.4. 7; exempli gratia, for example नाविकः नाविका, बाहुकः बाहुक्रा; (2) to the words वस्र, क्रय, and विक्रय and optionally with छ to अायुघ in the sense of maintaining (तेन जीवति) ; confer, compare P. IV. 4.13, 14; (3) to the word प्रतिपथ, words ending with अगार, to the word शत, to words showing completion ( पूरणवाचिन् ), to the words अर्ध, भाग, वस्त्र, द्रव्य, षण्मास and. श्राद्ध in specified senses; confer, compare P. IV 4.42, 70, V. 1.21, 48, 49, 51, 84, V. 2, 85, and 109; (4) to words ending in अ as also to the words headed by व्रीहि, and optionally with the affix इल्च् to तुन्द and with the affix व to केशin the sense of मतुप्(possession); cf P.V. 2. 115, 116, 117 and 109.
ḍaṭtaddhita affix. अ, affix in the sense of पूरण applied to a numeral to form an ordinal numeral; e. g. एकादशः, त्रयोदशः, confer, compare P.V.2.48
ḍāpfeminine. affix आ added optionally to words ending in मन् and to Bahuvrihi compounds ending in अन् to show feminine gender, the words remaining as they are when the optional affix डाप् is not applied; exempli gratia, for example दामा, सीमा, सुपर्वा; confer, compare P. IV. I.l l, 12, 13.
ḍyataddhita affix. affix य (1) added in the sense of ' Sama introduced by' ( दृष्टं साम ) to the word वामदेव ; e. g. वामदेव्यं साम ; cf P. IV. 2.9; (2) added to the word स्रोत्स optionally with यत् in the sense of ’present there ' ( तत्र भवः ) ; e. g.स्त्रोतस्यः, confer, compare P. IV. 4.I 13.
ḍhakañtaddhita affix. affix एयक applied (1) to the word कुल optionally along with यत् and ख, when it is not a member of a compound;.e. g. कौलेयकः, कुल्यः, कुलीनः; confer, compare P.'IV. 1. 140; (2) to the words कत्त्रि and others in the Saisika senses as also to the words कुल, कुक्षि and ग्रीवा, if the words formed with the affix added, respectively mean dog, sword and ornament : e. g. कात्त्रेयकः कौलेयक: (श्वा), कौक्षेयकः (असिः), ग्रैवेयकः (अलंकारः): confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV 2.95,96.
ḍhraktaddhita affix. affix एर ( एय् + र ) applied in the sense of offspring to the word गोधा and optionally with ढक् to words meaning persons having a bodily defect or a low social status; e. g. गौधेरः, काणेरः दासेरः; काणेयः, दासेयः, cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1. 129, 131.
ṇa(1)krt affix अ, added optionally to the roots headed by ज्वल् and ending with कस् in the first conjugation (see ज्वलिति a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) in the sense of agent, and necessarily to the root श्यै, roots ending with अा and the roots व्यध्, आस्रु, संस्रु, इ with अति, सो with अव, हृ with अव, लिह्, श्लिष् and श्वस्, to the roots दु and नी without any prefix and optionally to ग्रह्: e. g. ज्वालः or ज्वलः, अवश्यायः, दायः, धायः, व्याधः, अास्त्रावः, संस्त्रवः, अत्यायः, अवसायः, अवहार:, लेहः, श्लेष:, श्वास:, दावः, नाय:, ग्रहः or ग्राहः: ; in the case of the root ग्रह् the affix ण is applied by ब्यवस्थितविभाषा, the word ग्रहः meaning a planet and the word ग्राहः meaning a crocodile; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.140-143; (2) krt affix अ in the sense of verbal activity ( भाव ) applied along with the affix अप् to the root अद् with नि; exempli gratia, for exampleन्यादः निघसः; confer, compare P. III.3.60; (3) krt affix ण prescribed by the Varttikakara after the roots तन्, शील्. काम, भक्ष् and चर् with आ; confer, compare P.III.1.140 Vart 1, and III. 2.l Vart. 7; (4) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added along with टक् also, to a word referring to a female descendant (गेीत्रस्त्री) if the resultant word indicates censure ; e. g. गार्भ्यः गार्गिकः confer, compare P. IV.1.147, 150; (5) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added also with the affix फिञ्, to the word फाण्टाहृति: (6) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of 'a game' added to a word meaning 'an instrument in the game'; exempli gratia, for example दाण्डा, मौष्टा: confer, compare P. IV.2.57: {7) taddhita affix. affix अ added to the word छत्त्र and others in the sense of 'habituated to' exempli gratia, for example छात्र:, शैक्षः, पौरोहः चौर:: confer, compare P.IV. 4.62: (8) taddhita affix. affix अ added to the words अन्न, भक्त, सर्व, पथिन् , यथाकथाच, प्रज्ञा, श्रद्धा, अर्चा, वृत्तिं and अरण्य in the senses specified with respect to each ; exempli gratia, for example आन्नः (मनुष्यः) भाक्तः ( शालिः ), सार्वे ( सर्वस्मै हितम् ), पान्थः, याथाकथाचं (कार्यम्), प्राज्ञः or प्रज्ञावान् , श्राद्धः or श्रद्धावान् , अार्चः or अर्चावान् , घार्त्तः or वृत्तिमान् and अारण्याः ( सुमनसः ); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV. 4.85, 100, V.1.10, 76, 98, V.2.101 and IV.2.104 Varttika.
ṇamulkrt affix अम्, causing vrddhi to the final vowel or to the penultimate अ, (!) added to any root in the sense of the infinitive in Vedic Literature when the connected root is शक्: exempli gratia, for example अग्निं वै देवा विभाजं नाशक्नुवन; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 4.14; (2) added to any root to show frequency of a past action, when the root form ending with णमुल् is repeated to convey the sense of frequency : exempli gratia, for example भोजं भोजं व्रजति, पायंपायं व्रजति, confer, compare Kas on P. III. 4.22; (3) added to a root showing past action and preceded by the word अग्रे, प्रथम or पूर्व, optionally along with the krt affix क्त्वा; exempli gratia, for example अग्रेभोजं or अग्रे भुक्त्वा व्रजति; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.24;(4) added in general to a root specified in P.III.4.25 to 64, showing a subordinate action and having the same subject as the root showing the main action, provided the root to which णमुल् is added is preceded by an antecedent or connected word, such as स्वादुम् or अन्यथा or एवम् or any other given in Panini's rules; confer, compare P. III.4.26 to III.4.64; exempli gratia, for example स्वादुंकारं भुङ्क्ते, अन्यथाकारं भुङ्क्ते, एवंकारं भुङ्क्ते, ब्राह्मणवेदं भोजयति, यावज्जीवमधीते, समूलकाषं कषति, समूलघातं हन्ति, तैलपेषं पिनष्टि, अजकनाशं नष्टः et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.26-64. When णमुल् is added to the roots कष्, पिष्, हन् and others mentioned in P. III. 4. 34 to 45, the same root is repeated to show the principal action. The word ending in णमुल् has the acute accent (उदात) on the first vowel (confer, compare P.VI.I. 94) or on the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare P. VI.1.193.
ṇalpersonal ending अ substituted for तिप् and मिप् in लिट् or the perfect, and in the case of विद् and ,ब्रू in लट् or the present tense. tense optionally; cf P. III, 4. 82, 83, 84. The affix णल् on account of being marked by the mute letter ण् causes vrddhi to the preceding vowel; the vrddhi is, however, optional in the case of the 1st person. ( मिप् ) confer, compare P. VII.1.91. अौ is substituted for णल् after roots ending in आ; confer, compare P. VII .1.34.
ṇastaddhita affix. affix अस् applied to the word पर्शू in the sense of collection. The original Varttika is पर्श्वाः सण् P. IV. 2. 43 Vart. 3. Some scholars read णस् in the place of सण् in the Varttika which is read as पर्श्वा णम् वक्तव्यः by them.
ṇicaffix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् et cetera, and others e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; confer, compare P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising et cetera, and others ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; confer, compare P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, exempli gratia, for example सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, et cetera, and others: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: confer, compare णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे et cetera, and others; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
ṇyataddhita affix.affix य (l) applied in the sense of 'descendant' as also in a few other senses, mentioned in rules from IV. 1. 92 to IV.3.168, applied to the words दिति, अदिति, अादित्य and word; with पति as the उत्तरपद in a compound, c. g. दैत्यः, आदित्यः, प्राजापत्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P. IV.1 84; (2) applied in the sense of a descendant ( अपत्य ) applied to the words कुरु, गर्ग, रथकार, कवि, मति, दर्भ et cetera, and others, e.gकौरव्यः, गार्ग्यः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kas:, on P. IV. I.15I ; (3) applied in the sense of अपत्य or descendant to words ending in सेना,to the word लक्षण and to words in the sense of artisans, e.gकारिषेण्यः, लाक्षण्यः, तान्तुवाय्यः, कौम्भकार्यः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.152; (4) applied in the Catuararthika senses to the words संकाश, काम्पिल्थ, कश्मीर et cetera, and others, exempli gratia, for example साङ्काश्यम्, काम्पिल्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.80; (5) applied to the word परिषद् and optionally with the affix ठक् to the word सेना in the specified senses; e. g. परिषदं समवैति, परिषदि साधुर्वा पारिषद्य्ः, सेनां समवेति सैन्यः सैनिको वा; confer, compare Kas on P. IV. 44, 45, 101 ; (6) applied as a taddhita affix. affix called ' tadraja , to the word कुरु and words beginning with न e. g. कौरव्यः नैषध्यः; confer, compare Kas on P. IV. 1.172; कुरवः, निषधाः et cetera, and others are the nominative case. plural formanuscript.
ṇyatkrtya affix य which causes vrddhi and which has the circurmflex accent (1) applied to a root ending with ऋ or any consonant to form the pot. passive voice.participle: e. g. कार्यम्, हार्यम् , वाक्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare Kas on P. IV. 1.124; (2) applied to a root ending in उ if a necessity of the activity is to be indicated, e. g. अवश्यलाव्यम् , अवश्यपान्यम् confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.125; (3) taddhita affix. affix य applied to the word षण्मास्र optionally with यप् and ठञ् affixes: e. g. षाण्मास्यः, षण्मास्यः, षाण्मासिकः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 1.84.
ṇvul(1)a very general krt affix अक, causing vrddhi and acute accent to the vowel preceding the affix, applied to a root optionally with तृ (i. e. तृच् ) in the sense of an agent e. g कारकः हारकः also कर्ता, हर्ता ; Cf P. III. 1.33; (2) krt. affix अक applied optionally with the affix तुम् to a root when it refers to an action for which another action is mentioned by the principal verb; e. g. भोजको व्रजति or भोक्तुं व्रजति; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्; P. III. 3.10; (3) krt affix अक, necessarily accompanied by the feminine. affix अा added to it, applied to a root if the sense given by the word so formed is the name of a disease or a proper noun or a narration or a query ; e. g. प्रवाहिका, प्रच्छर्दिका, शालभञ्जिका, तालभञ्जिका, कारिक, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.108, 109, 110.
t(1)personal ending of the third pers singular. Atm: confer, compare P. III. 4.78, which is changed to ते in the perfect tense and omitted after the substitute चिण् for च्लि in the aorist; confer, compare P.VI.4.04: (2) personal ending substituted for the affix थ of the Paras. 2nd person. plural in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional for which, तात्, तन and थन are substituted in Vedic Literature, and also for हि in case a repetition of an action is meant; confer, compare P. III. 4. 85, 10l as also VII. 1. 44, 45 and III. 4. 2-5. cf P. III. 4. 85 and III. 4. 10I ; (3) taddhita affix. affix त applied to the words कम् and शम् e. g. कन्तः, शन्त:, confer, compare P. V. 2. 138: (4) taddhita affix. affix त applied to दशत् when दशत् is changed to श; confer, compare दशानां दशतां शभावः तश्च प्रत्ययः । दश दाशतः परिमाणमस्य संधस्य शतम्, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. l. 59; (5) .general term for the affix क्त of the past passive voice. part, in popular use: (6) a technical term for the past participle affixes (त) क्त and तवत् ( क्तवतु ) called निष्ठा by Panini; confer, compare P. I.1.26; the term त is used for निष्ठI in the Jainendra Vyakararna.
taṅ(1)a short term used for the nine personal endings of the Atmanepada viz. त,अाताम्...महिङ् which are themselves termed Atmanepada; confer, compare तङानौ अात्मनेपदम् P. 1.4. 100 (2) the personal-ending त of the 2nd person. plural (substituted for थ by III.4 101) looked upon as तङ् sometimes, when it is lengthened in the Vedic Literature: confer, compare तङिति थादेशस्य ङित्त्वपक्षे ग्रहणम् । भरता जातवेदसम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 3. 133.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
tadguṇasaṃvijñānaliterally connection with what is denoted by the constituent members; the word refers to a kind of Bahuvrihi compound where the object denoted by the compound includes also what is denoted by the constituent members of the compound; e g. the compound word सर्वादि in the rule सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि includes the word सर्व among the words विश्व, उभय and others, which alone form the अन्यपदार्थ or the external thing and not merely the external object as mentioned in Panini's rule अनेकमन्यमपदार्थे (P.II. 2. 24): confer, compare भवति बहुर्वीहौ तद्गुणसंविज्ञानमपि । तद्यथा । चित्रवाससमानय। लोहितोष्णीषा ऋत्विजः प्रचरन्ति । तद्गुण आनीयते तद्गुणाश्च प्रचरन्ति M.Bh. on I.1.27. For details confer, compare Mahabhasya on P.1.1.27 as also Par. Sek. Pari. 77.
tadbhāvitaproduced or brought into being by some grammatical operation such as the vowel आ in दाक्षि, कारक्र, अकार्षीत् et cetera, and others by the substitution of वृद्धि, as contrasted with the original अा in ग्राम, विघान शाला, माला et cetera, and others; confer, compare किं पुनरिदं तद्भावितग्रहणं वृद्धिरित्येवं ये आकरैकारौकारा भाव्यन्ते तेषां ग्रहणमाहोस्विदादैज्मात्रस्य M.Bh. on I. 1.1.
tana(1)personal ending for त of the second person. plural Parasmaipada in the imperative in Vedic Literature e.g जुजुष्टन for जुषत confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. On P VII. 1.45; (2) taddhita affix. affixes टयु and टयुल् id est, that is अन which, with the augment त्, in effect becomes तन exempli gratia, for example सायंतन, चिरंतन, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. IV. 3.23.
tanap'Personal ending for त of the Second Pers.. plural e. g. दधातन for धत्त. Cf Kas on P. VII. 1.45. See तन.
tanādia class of roots headed by the root तन्, which is popularly caIIed as the eighth conjugation to which the conjugational sign उ is added: exempli gratia, for example तनोतेि, करोति, कुरुते confer, compare P. II. 4.79: III. 1.79.
tap(1)taddhita affix. affix त added to the words पर्वन् and मरुत् to form the words पर्वतः and मरुत्तः; confer, compare P. V. 2.122 Vart. 10; (2) personal ending in Vedic Literature substitutcd for त of the imperative second. person. plural e. g. श्रुणोत ग्रावाणः confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VII. 1.45.
tampersonal ending तम् substituted for थम् in the imperative imperfeminine. potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional; confer, compare P. III. 4.85, 101
tamaṭtaddhita affix. affix तम added optionally with the affix डट् ( अ ) to विंशति, त्रिंशत् et cetera, and others, as also to words ending with them, in the sense of पूरण (completion), and necessarily (नित्यं) to the words शत, सहस्र, षष्टि, सप्तति et cetera, and others e. g. एकविंशतितमः एकविंशः, त्रिंशत्तमः, त्रिंशः, शततमः, षष्टितम:, विंशी, त्रिंशी et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on V. 2.56-58.
tayataddhita affix. affix तयप् applied to a numeral ( संख्या ) in the sense of अवयविन् or 'possessed of parts'; e. g. पञ्च अवयवा अस्य पञ्चतयम् , दशतयम् , चतुष्टयी; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.42. अय is substituted for तय optionally after the numerals द्वि and त्रि and necessarily after उभ; confer, compare P. V. 2.43-44.
taltad, affix त (l) added in the sense of collection (समूह) to the words ग्राम, जन, बन्धु and सहाय and गज also, exempli gratia, for example ग्रामता, जनता et cetera, and others; (2) added in the sense of 'the nature of a thing' ( भाव ) along with the affix त्व optionally, as also optionally along with the affixes इमन्, ष्यञ् et cetera, and others given in P. V. 1.122 to 136; e. g. अश्वत्वम्, अश्वता; अपतित्वम्, अपतिता; पृथुत्वम्, पृथुता, प्रथिमा; शुक्लता, शुक्लत्वम्, शौक्ल्यम्, शुक्लिमा; et cetera, and others, cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.1.119 to 136. Words ending with the affix तल् are always declined in the feminine gender with the feminine. affix अा ( टाप् ) added to then; confer, compare तलन्तः (शब्दः स्त्रियाम् ), Linganusasana 17.
tas(1)personal ending of the third person. dual Parasmaipada substituted technically for ल् (लकार); cf P. III.4.78; (2) taddhita affix. affix तस् ( तसि or तसिल् ). See तसि and तसिल्.
tāmpersonal ending substituted for तस् of the 3rd person. dual in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional; confer, compare P. III.4.85, 101.
tāsconjugational sign or Vikarana (तासि) added to a root in the first future before the personal endings which become accented grave (अनुदात्त); confer, compare P.VI.1.186; it has the augment इ prefixed, if the root, to which it is added, is सेट्, confer, compare P. VI. 4. 62.
ti(1)personal ending तिप् of the 3rd person. singular.; (2) common term for the krt affixes क्तिन् and क्तिच् as also for the unadi affix ति; see क्तिन् and क्तिच्; (3) feminine. affix ति added to the word युवन्. e. g. युवतिः confer, compare P. IV. 1.77; (4) taddhita affix. affix ति as found in the words पङ्क्ति and विंशति confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.1.59; (5) taddhita affix. affix added to the word पक्ष in the sense of 'a root,' and to the words कम् and शम् in the sense of possession (मत्वर्थे ); exempli gratia, for example पक्षतिः, कन्तिः, शान्तिः, confer, compare Kas, on P. V.2.25, 138; (6) a technical term for the term गति in Panini's grammar, confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे; गतिश्च P. 1.4.59, 60. The term ति for गति is used in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
tiṅ(1)a brief term (प्रत्याहार) for the 18 personal endings. Out of these eighteen personal endings, which are common for all tenses and moods, the first nine तिप्, तस् et cetera, and others all called Parasmaipada, while the other nine त, अाताम् et cetera, and others are named Atmanepada and तङ् also; confer, compare तङानावात्मनेपदम्; (2) a verbal form called also अाख्यातक; confer, compare तिङ् खलु अाख्यातका भवान्ति । पचति पठति । V.Pr.I.27.
tiṅarthasenses possessed by the personal endings of verbs, viz. कारक ( कर्ता or कर्म ) संख्या and काल. For details see Vaiyakaranabhusanasara. तिङ्निघात the grave accent for the whole word (सर्वेनिघात्) generally possessed by a verbal form when it is preceded by a word form which is not a verb; confer, compare तिङतिङ: P. VIII. 1.28.
tipthe personal ending of the 3rd person. singular. substituted for ल (लकार) in the Parasmaipada. For substitutes for तिप् in special cases, see P. VI.1.68, III.4.82, 83, 84.
tu(1)short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the dental consonants त्, थ्, द्, ध् and न् confer, compare P. I. 1.69; (2) personal-ending substituted for ति in the 2nd person. imper. singular. Parasmaipada confer, compare P. III, 4.86; (3) taddhita affix. affix तु in the sense of possession added in Vedic Literature to कम् and शम् e. g. क्रन्तुः, शन्तु: confer, compare P. V. 2.138; (4) unadi affix तु ( तुन्) prescribed by the rule सितनिगमिमसिसच्यविधाञ्कुशिभ्यस्तुन् ( Unadi Sitra I.69 ) before which the augment इ is not added exempli gratia, for example सेतुः सक्तुः et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 2.9
tukaugment त् added (1) to the root चि in the form चित्य, the pot. passive voice. participle. of चि confer, compare P. III. 1.132; (2) to the short vowel at the end of a root before a krt affix marked with the mute letter प् exempli gratia, for example अग्निचित्, प्रहृत्य confer, compare P. VI. 1.71 ; (3) to a short vowel before छ् if there be close proximity ( संहिता ) between the two e. g. इच्छति, गच्छति; confer, compare P. VI. 1.73; (4) to the indeclinables अा and मा as also to a long vowel before छ, e. g. आच्छादयति, विचाच्छाद्यते: confer, compare P. VI. 1.74, 75; (5) to a long vowel optionally, if it is at the end of a word, e. g. लक्ष्मीच्छाया, लक्ष्मीछाया, confer, compare P. VI. 1.76; (7) to the letter न् at the end of a word before श्, exempli gratia, for example भवाञ्च्छेते, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.31.
tudādia class of roots headed by the root तुद् which take the conjugational sign अ ( श ) and which are popularly called roots of the sixth conjugation, confer, compare P. III.1.77.
tundādia very small class of words headed by the word तुन्द to which the taddhita affix इल ( इलच् ) is added in the sense of possession ( मत्वर्थ ). The affix इल is optional and the other affixes इन् , इक and मत् are also added; exempli gratia, for example तुन्दिल, तुन्दी, तुन्दिकः, तुन्दवान् ; similarly उदरिलः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.2.117.
tumkrt affix तुम् of the infinitive (1) added to a root optionally with ण्वुल् when the root refers to an action for the purpose of which another action is mentioned by the principal verb ; exempli gratia, for example भोक्तुं व्रजति or भोजको व्रजति्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.3.11; (2) added to a root connected with ' another root in the sense of desire provided both have the same subject; exempli gratia, for example इच्छति भोक्तुम् ; confer, compare P. III. 3.158; (3) added to a root connected with the words काल, समय or वेला; exempli gratia, for example कालो भोक्तुम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.3.167; (4) added to any root which is connected with the roots शक्, धृष्, ज्ञा, ग्लै, घट्, रभ्, लभ्, क्रम्, सह्, अर्ह् and अस् or its synonym, as also with अलम्, or its synonym; exempli gratia, for example शक्नोति भोक्तुम्, भवति भोक्तुम्, वेला भोक्तुम्, अलं भोक्तुम्, पर्याप्तः कर्तुम् : confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4. 65, 66.
tṛctaddhita affix. affix तृ, taking the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ), (1) added to a root optionally with अक ( ण्वुल् ) in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity, the word so formed having the last vowel acute; exempli gratia, for example कर्ता कारक:; हर्ता हारकः; confer, compare P. III I.133; (2) prescribed in the sense of 'deserving one' optionally along with the pot. passive voice. participle. affixes; exempli gratia, for example भवान् खलु कन्यया वोढा, भवान् कन्यां वहेत्, भवता खलु कन्या वोढव्या, वाह्या, वहनीया वा; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.169
tṛjantaa word ending in the affix तृच् and hence getting the guna vowel (i. e. अ ) substituted for the final vowel ऋ before the Sarvanamasthana (i. e. the first five) case affixes; confer, compare तृजन्त आदेशॊ भविष्यति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII. 1.96.
tṛtīyāthe third case; affixes of the third case ( instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति ) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an instrument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: confer, compare P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sentence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word id est, that is हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; exempli gratia, for example पृथग्देवदत्तेन et cetera, and others स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the taddhita affix. affix after them has been elided; exempli gratia, for example पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; confer, compare P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; exempli gratia, for exampleतुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; confer, compare P. II.3.72.
tairovyañjanaa kind of svarita or circumflex-accented vowel which follows an acute-accented vowel, with the intervention of a consonant between the acute accented vowel and the circumflex vowel which (vowel) originally was grave. e. g. इडे, रन्ते, हव्ये, काम्ये; here the vowel ए is तैरोव्यञ्जनस्वरित; confer, compare स्वरो व्यञ्जनयुतस्तैरोव्यञ्जनः, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 117.
tnaptaddhita affix. affix त्न, added to the word नव optionally with the affixes तनप् and ख before which नव is changed to नू ; e. g. नूत्नम् , नूतनम्, नवीनम् ; confer, compare P. V. 4, 30 Vart. 6.
tyadādividhia specific operation prescribed for the pronouns headed by त्यद् e. g. the substitution of अ for the final letter; confer, compare त्यदादिविधौ च प्रयोजनम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1. 27 Vart. 6.
tyaptaddhita affix. affix त्य (1) added to a few specified indeclinables in the Saisika senses; e. g. अमात्य:,इहत्यः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on IV. 2. 104; (2) added to the indeclinables ऐषमस्, ह्यस् and श्वस् optionally along with ट्यु and ठन् ; exempli gratia, for example श्वस्त्यम्, श्वस्तनम्, शौवस्तिकम्; confer, compare Kas, on P. IV. 2.105.
trikaliterally triad; a term used in the Mahabhasya in connection with the Vibhakti affixes id est, that is case endings and personal endings which are in groups of three; confer, compare त्रिकं पुनर्विभक्तिसंज्ञम् M.Bh. on P.I.1,38: confer, compare also कस्यचिदेव त्रिकस्य प्रथमसंज्ञा स्यात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). om P.I.4.101 ; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.2.23, V.1.52, V.1.58.
tvataddhita affix. affix त्व in the sense of duty, nature or essence, prescribed optionally with the affix तल् ( ता ); e. g. अश्वत्वम्, गोत्वम् , अश्वता, गोता; cf तस्य भावस्त्वतलौ P. V. 1.119, also cf त्वतलोर्गुणवचनस्य P. VI. 3. 35 Vart.lo.
th(1)personal-ending of the 2nd person. plural Parasmaipada,substituted for the ल् of the ten lakara affixes; (2) substitute ( थल् ) for the 2nd pers singular. personal ending सिप् in. the perfect tense: (3) unadi affix ( थक् ) added to the roots पा, तॄ, तुद् et cetera, and others e. g. पीथः, तीर्थः, et cetera, and others; cf unadi sutra II. 7; (4) unadi affix ( क्थन् ) | added to the roots हन्, कुष् ,नी et cetera, and others; e. g, हथः, कुष्टं, नीथः et cetera, and others cf unadi sutra II. 2: (5) unadi affix (थन्) added to the roots उष्, कुष्, गा and ऋ, e. g. ओष्ठः, कोष्ठम् et cetera, and others cf unadi sutra_II. 4; (6) a technical term for the term अभ्यस्त or the reduplicated wording of Panini ( confer, compare उभे अभ्यस्तम् ) P. VI. 1. 5, used in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
thanapersonal-ending थन substituted for त of the 2nd person. plural of the imperative Parasmaipada in Vedic ' Literature, e. g. यदिष्ठन for यदिच्छथ: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VII. 1.45.
thalpersonal ending थ substituted for सिप् of the 2nd person.singular. Parasmaipada in the perfect tense as also in the present tense in specific cases; confer, compare P. III. 4.82, 88,84.
thaspersonal ending of the 2nd person. dual Parasmaipada, which is substituted for ल् of the lakara affixes; confer, compare P. III 4.78.
thāspersonal ending of the 2nd person. singular. Atmanepada, substituted for ल् of the lakara affixes.
dthird consonant of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणता;(2) consonant द् substituted for the final letter of nouns ending with the affix वस् as also for the final letter of स्रंस्, ध्वंस् and अनडुह् provided the final letter is at the end of a pada; exempli gratia, for example विद्वद्भयाम् et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, VIII. 2.72; (3) consonant द् substituted for the final स् of roots excepting the root.अस्, before the personal ending तिप् of the third person. singular.; e. g. अचकाद् भवान् ; confer, compare P. VIII. 3.93.
daghnactaddhita affix. affix दघ्न prescribed optionally with द्वयस and मात्र in the sense of measure ( प्रमाणे ), with ङीप् ( ई ) to be added further to form the feminine. base, e. g. जानुदघ्नम्, जानुद्वयसम्, जानुमात्रम् , जानुदघ्नी, confer, compare P. V. 2.37 and IV.1.15; दघ्नच् is added optionally along with अण् as also with द्वयस and मात्र to the words पुरुष and हस्तिन् exempli gratia, for example पुरुषद्वयसम्, पौरुषम् पुरुषदघ्नम्, पुरुषमात्रम्; confer, compare P. V. 2.38.
dūsataddhita affix. affix prescribed after the word अवि in the sense of milk(दुग्ध) along with the affixes सोढ and मरीस optionally, by the Vartikakara; e. g. अविदूसम् । अविसोढम् । अविमरीसम्; confer, compare Kas, on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). IV. 2. 36.
dṛḍhādia class of words headed by दृढ to which the taddhita affix. affix य ( ष्यञ् ) or इमन् ( इमनिच् ) is added in the sense of nature ( भाव ); त्व and तल् ( ता ) can, of course, be added optionally exempli gratia, for example दार्ढ्यम्, द्रढिमा दृढत्वम्, दृढता.See also लावण्य शैत्य, औष्ण्य, जाड्य, पाण्डित्य, मौर्ख्य et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 1. 123.
devatādvandvaa compound word called द्वन्द्व whose members are names of deities; the peculiarities of this Dvandva compound are (a) that generally there are changes at the end of the first member, by virtue of which it appears similar to a word ending in the dual number, and (b) that both the words retain their original accents.exempli gratia, for example इन्द्रासोमौ, सौमापूषणा, अग्नीषोमाभ्यां, मित्रावरुणाभ्याम् ; for changes, confer, compare P. VI.3.25-31; for accent, confer, compare देवताद्वन्द्वानि चानामन्त्रितानि (द्विरुदात्तानिं) । इन्द्राबृहस्पतिभ्याम्, इन्द्राबृहस्पती इति त्रीणि Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.II.48, 49; confer, compare also देवताद्वन्द्वे च P. VI, 2.141.
deśaliterally place; (l) original place of articulation: confer, compare अदेशे वा वचनं व्यञ्जनस्य, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 5; (2) place of origin; उच्चारणस्थान: (3) place of inferential establishment of a Paribhasa et cetera, and others परिभाषादेशः उद्देशः Par. Sek. paribhāṣā. 2,3; (4) passage of the Samhita text, confer, compare.Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 59.
deśīyartaddhita affix. affix देशीय in the sense of slightly less, or almost similar, optionally prescribed with the affixes कल्प and देश्य e. g. मृदुकल्पः, मृदुदेश्यः. मृदुदशीयः confer, compareKas, on P.V.3.67.
dvayasactaddhita affix. affix द्वयस, in the sense of measure, prescribed optionally along with the affixes दघ्न and मात्र; confer, compare ऊरू प्रमाणमस्य ऊरुद्वयसम्; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.37; feminine. ऊरुद्वयसी, confer, compareP.IV.1.15.
dvitvadoubling, reduplication prescribed for (I) a root in the perfect tense excepting the cases where the affix अाम् is added to the root before the personal ending: exempli gratia, for example बभूव, चकार, ऊर्णुनाव et cetera, and others cf P. VI. 1.1,2; (2) a root before the vikarana affixes सन्, यङ्, श्लु and चङ् e. g. बुभूषति, चेक्रीयते, चर्करीति, जुहोति, अचीकरत् et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VI. 1.9l l ; (3) a word ending in अम् . ( णमुल् ) in the sense of repetition, e. g. स्मारं स्मारं वक्ष्ये, भोजं भोजं व्रजति confer, compare आभीक्ष्ण्ये द्वे भवतः P. VIII. 1.12 Vart. 7; (4) any word (a) in the sense of constant or frequent action, (b) in the sense of repetition, (c) showing reproach, or scorn, or quality in the sense of its incomplete possess-, ion, or (d) in the vocative case at the beginning of a sentence in some specified senses; reduplication is also prescribed for the prepositions परि, प्र, सम्, उप, उद्, उपरि, अधि, अघस् in some specified senses confer, compare P. VIII. 1.1 to 15. A letter excepting हृ and र्, is also repeated, if so desired, when (a) it occurs after the letter ह् or र् , which is preceded by a vowel e g. अर्क्कः अर्द्धम् et cetera, and others cf VIII. 4.46; or when (b) it is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant e. g. दद्ध्यत्र, म्द्धवत्र confer, compare P. VIII. 4.47. For details see Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VIII. 4.46-52. The word द्वित्व is sometimes used in the sense of the dual number; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.2.51. The words द्वित्व, द्विर्वचन and द्विरुक्त are generally used as synonymanuscript. Panini generally uses the word द्वे. For द्वित्व in Vedic Literature confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1.4; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 1-8 V, Pr. IV. 101-118.
dvaidhamused adverbially for द्विधा in'the sense of ’optionally' or 'in two ways'; confer, compare द्वैधं शब्दानामप्रतिपत्तिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1. 44 vart. 15.
dhamuñtaddhita affix. affix optionally substituted in the place of the taddhita affix. affix धा after the words द्वि and त्रि; e. g. द्विधा, द्वौधम्, त्रिधा, त्रैधम्; confer, compare P. V. 3.45.
dharmadefined as ऋषिसंप्रदाय, the traditional practices laid down by the sages for posterity; confer, compareकेवलमृषिसंप्रदायो धर्म इति कृत्वा याज्ञिक्राः शास्त्रेण अनुविदधते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika I ; cf also धर्मशास्त्रं in एवं च कृत्वा धर्मशास्त्रं प्रवृत्तम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64, as also धर्मसूत्रकाराः in नैवेश्वर आज्ञापयति नापि धर्मसूत्रकाराः पठन्ति अपवादैरुत्सर्गा बाध्यन्तामिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. l.47; (2) religious merit, confer, compare धर्मोपदेशनमिदं शास्त्रमस्मिन्ननवयवेन शास्त्रार्थः संप्रतीयते , Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. I. 84, cf also ज्ञाने घमै इति चेत्तथाSधर्मः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika l ; ' 3) property possessed by a thing or a letter or a word. e. g. वर्णधर्म; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 2.29; cf also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1, 55, II. 3.33, VIII. 1. 4. confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 8, 13 XIV. 1 et cetera, and others: ( 4 ) the characteristic of being in a substance; in the phrase अयं घटः the dharma viz.घटत्व is predicated of this (इदम्) or, in other words the designation pot ( घटसंज्ञा ) is the predication; the explanation in short, can be given as घटत्ववान् इदंपदार्थः or घटाभिन्नः इदंपदार्थ:
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
ghātusabandhapādaconventional name given to the fourth pada of Panini's Astadhyayi which begins with the Sutra धातुसंबन्धे प्रत्ययाः P. III.4.1
dhātvartheliterally meaning of a root, the verbal activity, named क्रिया or भावः . confer, compare धात्वर्थः क्रिया; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2. 84, III.2.115. The verbal activity is described generally to be made up of a series of continuous subordinate activities carried on by the different karakas or agents and instruments of verbal activity helping the process of the main activity. When the process of the verbal activity is complete, the completed activity is looked upon as a substantive or dravya and a word denoting it, such as पाक,or याग does not get conjugational affixes, but it is regularly declined like a noun.Just as स्वार्थ, द्रब्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या, and कारक are given as प्रातिपदिकार्थ, in the same manner क्रिया, काल, पुरुष, वचन or संख्या, and कारक are given as धात्वर्थ, as they are shown by a verbal form, although strictly speaking verbal activity (क्रियorभाव) alone is the sense of a root, as stated in the Mahbhasya. For details see Vaiyak.Bh.Sara, where it is said that fruit ( फल) and effort ( ब्यापार ) are expressed by a root, confer, compare फलव्यापारयोर्धातुः. The five senses given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are in fact conveyed not by a root, but by a verb or अाख्यात or तिडन्त.
dhi(1)a technical term used for sonant consonants in the Pratisakhya and old grammar works; confer, compare धि शेषः V. Pr.I.53, explained by Uvvata as वर्गाणां उत्तरास्त्रय: यरलवहकाराश्च धिः V.Pr. I.53; the term धि corresponds to हश् of Panini; (2) personal ending धि substituted for हि of the imperative 2nd singular. exempli gratia, for example जुहुधि, छिन्द्धि, भिन्द्धि, श्रुधि, रारन्धि et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.V.4.101-103.
dhṛta or dhṛtapracayaa kind of original grave vowel turned into a circumflex one which is called प्रचय unless followed by another acute or circumflex vowel. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya has mentioned seven varieties of this 'pracaya' out of which धृतप्रचय or धृत is one. For details see Bhasya on धृतः प्रचयः कौण्डिन्यस्य, T.Pr.XVIII.3.
dhyamtaddhita affix. affix ध्यमुञ् substituted for धा optionally after the word एक e. g. ऐकध्यम् , एकधा; confer, compare P. V. 3.44.
dhyaikrt afix ध्यै seen in Vedic Literature, substituted for त्या optionally; e. g. साढयै, साढ्वा; cf P. VI. 3.113.
dhvani(1)sound; confer, compare ध्वनिं कुर्वन्नेवमुच्यतेशब्दं कुरु शब्दं मा कार्षीः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika 1; confer, compare also Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. I. 77; confer, compare also स्फोटः शब्दः, ध्वनिः शब्दगुणः, M.Bh. on I. 1.70 Vart. 5. ध्वनि or sound is said to be the indicator (सूचक्र or व्यञ्जक) of स्फोट the eternal sound.
dhvampersonal-ending of the second. person. plural Atmanepada, substituted for ल् of the 10 lakaras.
dhvātpersonal-ending in Vedic Literature, substituted for ध्वम् of the second. person. plural Atmanepada; exempli gratia, for exampleवारयध्वात् for वारयध्वम् confer, compare P. VII. 1.42.
dhvePersonal-ending of the second. person. Pl. Atmanepada in the present and perfect tenses. न् fifth consonant of the dental class of consonants which is possessed of the properties घोष, नादानुप्रदान, अल्पप्राणत्व, संवृतकण्ठत्व and अानुनासिक्य. In Panini's grammar the nasal consonant न् (a)is added as an augment prescribed\ \नुट् or नुम् which originally is seen as न्, but afterwards changed into अनुस्वार or परसवर्ण as required, as for example in पयांसि, यशांसि, निन्दति, वन्दति et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII. 1.58-73, VII. 1.7983; VIII. 3.24; (b) is changed into ण् when it directly follows upon ऋ, ॠ, र् or ष् or even intervened by a vowel, a semivowel except ल् , a guttural consonant, a labial consonant or an anusvara; confer, compare P. VIII. 4.1.1-31. (c) is substituted for the final म् of a root, e. g. प्रशान्, प्रतान् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.64, 65.
nadīa technical term applied in Panini's grammar to words in the feminine gender ending in ई and ऊ excepting a few like स्त्री,श्री, भ्रू and others; it is optionally applied to words ending in इ and उ, of course in the feminine. gender, before case affixes of the dative, ablative, genitive and locative singular. The term was probably in use before Panini and was taken from the feminine. word नदी which was taken as a model. Very probably there was a long list of words like नद् ( नदट्) चोर ( चोरट् ) et cetera, and others which were given as ending in ट् and to which the affix ई (ङीप्) was added for forming the feminine base;the first word नदी so formed, was taken as a model and all words in the list and similar others were called नदी; confer, compare P. I 4. 3-6.
nandikeśvarakārikāa short treatise of 28 stanzas, attributed to an ancient grammarian नन्दिकेश्वर, which gives a philosophical interpretation of the fourteen sutras attributed to God Siva. The authorship of the treatise is assigned traditionally to the Divine Bull of God Siva. See नन्दिकेश्वर. The treatise is also named नन्दिकेश्वरकारिकासूत्र.
naraperson; personal ending; the term is used in connection with (the affixes of) the three persons प्रथम, मध्यम, and उत्तम which are promiscuously seen sometimes in the Vedic Literature confer, compare सुतिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां ... व्यत्ययमिच्छति ... Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.85.
narendrasūrian old grammarian believed to have been the original writer of the Sarasvata Vyakarana, on the strength of references to him in the commentary on the Sarasvata Vyakarana written by क्षेमेन्द्र as also references in the commentary on the Prakriykaumudi by Vitthalesa. He is believed to have lived in the tenth century A;D.
nāṭactaddhita affix. affix नाट applied to the prefix अव optionally with the affixes टीटच् and भ्रटच्; e. g. अवनाटम्, अवटीटम्, अवभ्रटम्; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.31.
nādi(a root)beginning with न् in the Dhatupatha as contrasted with one beginning with ण् ( णादि ) whose ण् is, of course, changed into न् when conjugational and other forms are arrived at; confer, compare सर्वे नादयो णोपदेशा नृतिनन्दिनदिनक्किनाटिनाथृनाधृनॄवर्जम् M.Bh. on VI. 1.65.
ni(1)personal ending substituted for मि (मिप्) of the 1st person. singular. in the imperative; (2) a technical term in the Jainendra Vyakarana for the term निपात of Panini.
nitya(1)eternal, as applied to word or Sabda in contrast with sound or dhvani which is evanescent (कार्य ). The sound with meaning or without meaning,made by men and animals is impermanent; but the sense or idea awakened in the mind by the evanescent audible words on reaching the mind is of a permanent or eternal nature; confer, compare स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायामादुपजायते; confer, compare also व्याप्तिमत्त्वा्त्तु शब्दस्य Nir.I.1 ; (2) constant; not liable to be set aside by another; confer, compare उपबन्धस्तु देशाय नित्यम्, न रुन्धे नित्यम्। नित्यशब्दः प्राप्त्यन्तरानिषेधार्थः T.Pr.I.59, IV.14; (3) original as constrasted with one introduced anew such as an augment; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.VI.14; (4) permanently functioning, as opposed to tentatively doing so; confer, compare नित्यविरते द्विमात्रम् Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.37; (5) unchangeable, permanent, imperishable; confer, compare अयं नित्यशब्दोस्त्येव कूटस्थेष्वविचालिषु भावेषु वर्तते M.Bh. on P. VIII. 1.4; (6) always or invariably applying, as opposed to optional; the word in this sense is used in connection with rules or operations that do not optionally apply; confer, compare उपपदसमासो नित्यसमासः, षष्ठीसमासः पुनार्वेभाषा; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.2.19; (7) constant,as applied to a rule which applies if another simultaneously applying rule were to have taken effect, as well as when that other rule does not take effect; confer, compare क्वचित्कृताकृतप्रसङ्गमात्रेणापि नित्यता Par. Sek. Pari 46. The operations which are nitya according to this Paribhasa take effect in preference to others which are not 'nitya', although they may even be 'para'; confer, compare परान्नित्यं बलवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 42.
numaugment न् inserted after the last vowel (1) of a root given in the Dhātupātha as ending with mute इ; exempli gratia, for example निन्दति, क्रन्दति, चिन्तयति, जिन्वति et cetera, and others; confer, compare P VII.1.58; (2) of roots मुच् and others before the conjugational sign अ ( श ); e. g. मुञ्चति, लुम्पति; confer, compare P. VII.1.59; (3) of the roots मस्ज्, नश्, रध्, जभ् and लभ् under certain specified conditions, exempli gratia, for exampleमङ्क्त्वा, नंष्टा, रन्धयति, जम्भयति, लम्भयति, आलम्भ्यः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VII. 1.60-69; (4) of declinable bases marked with the mute indicatory letter उ, ऋ or ऌ as also of the declinable wording अञ्च् from the root अञ्च् and युज्, exempli gratia, for exampleभवान्, श्रेयान् , प्राङ्, युङ्, confer, compare Kās. on P. VII.1. 70, 71; (5) of the declinable base in the neuter gender, ending with a vowel or with any consonant excepting a semivowel or a nasal, before a case-ending termed Sarvanāmasthāna; exempli gratia, for example यशांसि, वनानि, जतूनि et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kās. on VII.1.72; (6) of the declinable base in the neuter gender, ending with इ, उ,ऋ or ऌ before a case-ending beginning with a vowel; exempli gratia, for example मधुने, शुचिने et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kās, on P. VII.1.73; (7) of the affix शतृ ( अत् of the present tense. participle.) under certain conditions याती यान्ती; पचन्ती, सीव्यन्ती, confer, compare I .VII.78-8 : (8) of the word अनडुह् before the nominative case. and vocative case. singular. affix सु;exempli gratia, for example अनड्वान् , हे अनड्वन्, confer, compare P. VII.1. 82; (9) of the words दृक्, स्ववस् and स्वतवस् before the nominative case. and vocative case.singular.affix सु in Vedic Literature, e. g. यादृङ्, स्ववान् , स्वतवान् , confer, compare P.VII.1.83.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padapāṭhathe recital of the Veda text pronouncing or showing each word separately as detached from the adjoining word. It is believed that the Veda texts were recited originally as running texts by the inspired sages, and as such, they were preserved by people by oral tradition. Later on after several centuries, their individually distinct words were shown by grammarians who were called Padakāras. The पदपाठ later on had many modifications or artificial recitations such as क्रम, जटा, घन et cetera, and others in which each word was repeated twice or more times, being uttered connectedly with the preceding or the following word, or with both. These artificial recitations were of eight kinds, which came to be known by the term अष्टविकृतयः.
padavākyaratnākaraa disquisition on grammar dealing with the different ways in which the sense of words is conveyedition The work consists of a running commentary on his own verses by the author Gokulanātha Miśra who, from internal evidence, appears to have flourished before Koņdabhațța and after Kaiyața.
padāntainal letter of a word; confer, compare P. VI.1.76, 109; VII.3.3, 9; VIII. 4.35,37, 42, 59. At one place, Patañjali for purposes of argument has explained the word as final in a word; confer, compareनैवं विज्ञायते पदस्यान्तः पदान्तः पदान्तादिति । कथं तर्हि । पदे अन्तः पदान्तः पदान्तादिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII. 4.35.
para(l)subsequent,as opposed to पूर्व or prior the word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a rule or an operation prescribed later on in a grammar treatise; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; ( 2 ) occurring after ( something ); confer, compare प्रत्ययः परश्च P. III. 1.1 and 2; confer, compare also तत् परस्वरम् T.Pr. XXI.2.(3)The word पर is sometimes explained in the sense of इष्ट or desired, possibly on the analogy of the meaning श्रेष्ठ possessed by the word. This sense is given to the word पर in the rule विप्रातिषेधे परं कार्यं with a view to apply it to earlier rules in cases of emergency; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवति M.Bh. on I.1.3.Vārt, 6; परशब्दः इष्टवाची M.Bh. on I. 2.5, I. 4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7; II. 1.69 et cetera, and others
paranipātaliterallyplacing after; the placing of a word in a compound after another as contrasted with पूर्वनिपात . A subordinate word is generally placed first in a compound, confer, compare उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्; in some exceptional cases however, this general rule is not observed as in the cases of राजदन्त and the like, where the subordinate word is placed after the principal word, and which cases, hence, are taken as cases of परनिपात. The words पूर्व and पर are relative, and hence, the cases of परनिपात with respect to the subordinate word ( उपसर्जन ) such as राजद्न्त, प्राप्तजीविक et cetera, and others can be called cases of पूर्वनिपात with respect to the principal word ( प्रधान ) confer, compare परश्शता: राजदन्तादित्वात्परनिपात: Kaas. on P. II.1.39.
paramaprakṛtithe most original base; the original of the original base; the word is used in connection with a base which is not a direct base to which an affix is added, but which is a remote base;confer, compare अापत्यो वा गेात्रम् | परमप्रकृतश्च अापत्यः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.1.89; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). om IV.1.93,98,163.
paravalliṅgatāpossession of the gender of the final member of a compound word, which, in tatpurusa compounds, is the second of the two or the 1ast out of many; confer, compare परवल्लिङ्गद्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयो: (P. II.4 26) इति परवाल्लिङ्गता यथा स्यात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.V.4.68.
parasmaipadaa term used in grammar with reference to the personal affixs ति, त: et cetera, and others applied to roots. The term परस्मैपद is given to the first nine afixes ति, त:, अन्ति, सि, थ:, थ, मि, व: and म:, while the term आत्मनेपद is used in connection with the next nine त, आताम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare परस्मै परोद्देशार्थफलकं पदम् Vac. Kosa. The term परस्मैपद is explained by some as representing the Active_Voice as contrasted with the Passive Voice which necessarily is characterized by the Aatmanepada affixes. The term परस्मैभाष in the sense of परस्मैपद was used by ancient grammarians and is also found in the Vaarttika अात्मनेभाषपस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI. 3.8 Vart.1 . The term परस्मैभाष as applied to roots, could be explained as परस्मै क्रियां (or क्रियाफलं) भाषन्ते इति परस्मैभाषाः and originally such roots as had their activity meant for another, used to take the परस्मैपद् affixes, while the rest which had the activity meant for self, took the अात्मनेपद affixes. Roots having activity for both, took both the terminations and were termed उभयपदिनः.
parasmaibhāṣaliterally speaking the activity or क्रिया for another; a term of ancient grammarians for roots taking the first nine personal affixes only viz. ति, तः... मसू. The term परस्मैपदिन् was substituted for परस्मैभाष later on,more commonly. See परस्मैपद a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The term परस्मैभाष along with अात्मनेभाष is found almost invariably used in the Dhaatupaatha attributed to Paanini; confer, compare भू सत्तायाम् | उदात्त: परस्मैभाषः | एघादय उदात्त अनुदात्तेत अात्मनभाषा: Dhatupatha.
parāthe highest eternal voice or word, the highest and the most lofty of the our divisions of language (वाक), viz. परा,पश्यन्ती, मध्यमा and वैखरी, which, (परा), philosophically is identified with नाद ( व्रह्म ) or शब्दब्रह्म . It is described as वर्णादि -विशेषरहिता चेतनमिश्रा सृष्ट्युपयोगिनी जगदुपादानभूता कुण्डलिनीरूपेण प्राणिनां मूलाधारे वर्तते | कुण्डलिन्याः प्राणवायुसंयोगे परा व्यज्यते | इयं निःष्पन्दा पश्यन्त्यादयः सस्पन्दा अस्या विवर्तः । इयमेव सूक्ष्मस्फोट इत्युच्यते ।
pākṣikaalternative; occurring optionally or alternatively; confer, compare पाक्षिक एष दोषः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.3.46 Vaart. 8; VI. 1.6I Vart. 4, confer, compare also पाक्षिक एक्श्रुत्यविधिर्भवति Kaas. on P. I.2.36.
pāṭha(1)recital of a sacred Vedic or Sastra work; the original recital of an authoritative text;(2) the various artificial ways or methods of such a recital; c.g. पदपाठ, क्रमपाठ et cetera, and others in the case of Vedic Literature: (3) an original recital such as the सुत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ, वार्तिकपाठ and परिभाषापाठ in the case of the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar; the five Paathas are called पञ्चपाठी; (4) recitation; confer, compare नान्तरेण पाठं स्वरा अनुबन्धा वा शक्या विज्ञातुम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.1 Vaart. 13; (5) reading, variant: confer, compare चूर्णादीनि अप्राण्युपग्रहादिति सूत्रस्य पाठान्तरम् Kaas. on P.V.2.134.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtracalled also by the name अष्टक or पाणिनीय-अष्टक; name given to the SUtras of Paanini comprising eight adhyaayaas or books. The total number of SUtras as commented upon by the writers of the Kasika and the Siddhaantakaumudi is 3983. As nine sUtras out of these are described as Vaarttikas and two as Ganasutras by Patanjali, it is evident that there were 3972 SUtras in the Astaka of Paanini according to Patanjali. A verse current among Vaiyakarana schools states the number to be 3996; confer, compare त्रीणि सूत्रसहस्राणि तथा नव शतानि च । षण्णवतिश्च सूत्राणां पाणिनिः कृतवान् स्वयम् । The traditional recital by Veda Scholars who look upon the Astadhyayi as a Vedaanga, consists of 3983 Sutras which are accepted and commented upon by all later grammarians and commentators. The SUtras of Paanini, which mainly aim at the correct formation of words, discuss declension, conjugation, euphonic changes, verbal derivatives, noun derivatives and accents. For details see Vol.VII, Vyaakarana Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's edition pp. 152-162.
pāmādia class of words headed by the word पामन् to which the taddhita affix. affix न is added optionally with मतुप् in the sense of ’possession', exempli gratia, for example पामनः, पामवान् ; वामनः, वामवान् et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kāś. on V.2.100.
pāribhāṣika(l)technical, as opposed to literal; conventional; e. g. the words संबुद्धि, हेतु et cetera, and others cf शब्दैरर्थाभिधानं स्वाभाविकम् । न पारिभाषिकमशक्यत्वात् । लोकत एवार्थावगते: । Kāś on P.I.2.56; confer, compare किमिदम् पारिभाषिक्याः संबुद्धैग्रहणमेकवचनं संबुद्धिराहोस्विदन्वर्थग्रहणं संबोधनं संबुद्धिरिति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.33; (2) derived on the strength of a Paribhasa confer, compare पारिभाषिकं क्वचिदनित्यं स्यात् Kat. Par. vr. Pari. 58.
picchādia class of words headed by the word पिच्छ to which the taddhita affix इल ( इलच् ) is added optionally with मत् ( मतुप् ), in the sense of 'possessed of'; exempli gratia, for exampleपिच्छिलः पिच्छवान्, उरसिलः उरस्वान् et cetera, and others: cf Kāś. om V. 2. 100.
putraṭ(1)the word पुत्र as given in the ancient list of masculine words marked with the mute letter ट् to signify the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ): confer, compare P. IV.1.15: (2) the substitute पुत्रट् ( i. e. पुत्री ) for the word दुहितृ optionally prescribed after the words सूत, उग्र, राज, भोज, कुल and मेरु in the simple sense of 'girl' and not ' daughter ' e. g. राजपुत्री, सूतपुत्री; confer, compare P.VI.3.70 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9.
punaruktaa passage which is repeated in the क्रमपाठ and the other Pāțhas or recitals; the word is also used in the sense of the conventional repetition of a word at the end of a chapter. The word पुनर्वचन is used also in the same sense; confer, compare यथोक्तं पुनरुक्तं त्रिपदप्रभृति त्रिपदप्रभृति । T.Pr.I.6l: confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X.8 and 10.
pūjyapādaoriginally a title, but mostly used in connection with the famous Jain grammarian देवनन्दिन् whose work on grammar called जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण is well-known: see देवनन्दिन्.
pūraṇaan ordinal numeral; literally the word means completion of a particular number ( संख्या ); confer, compare येन संख्या संख्यानं पूर्यते संपद्यते स तस्याः पूरणः । एकादंशानां पूरणः एकादशः । Kas, on P.V. 2.48. The word is used also in the sense of an affix by the application of which the particular number ( संख्या ) referring to an object, is shown as complete; confer, compare यस्मिन्नुपसंजाते अन्या संख्या संपद्यते स प्रत्ययार्थः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.2.48. These Purana pratyayas are given in P. V. 2. 48-58, confer, compare पूरणं नामार्थः । तमाह Xतीयशव्दः । अतः पूरणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.2.3. The word also means 'an ordinal number'; confer, compare पूरणगुणसुहितार्थसदव्ययतव्यसमानाधिकरणेन P.II.2.11.
pūraṇāntaending with an ordinal affix: the same as पूरणप्रत्ययान्त; confer, compare योसौ पूर्णान्तात् स्वार्थ अन् सोपि पूरणमेव M.Bh.on P. II. 2.3.
pūrvapadaprakṛtisvararetention of the original acute accent of the first member in a compound as is generally noticed in the bahuvrihi compound and in special cases in other compounds; cf बहुव्रीहौ प्रकृत्या पूर्वपदम् and the following rules P. WI. 2.1 to 63.
pṛthvādia class of words headed by the word पृथु to which the taddhita affix इमन् ( इमनिच् ) is added optionally with the other usual affixes अण्, त्व and तल् in the sense of 'nature'; e. g. प्रथिमा, पार्थवम् , पृथुत्वम् , पृथुता; similarly म्रदिमा, मार्दवम् मृदुत्वम्, मृदुता पटिमा पाटवम् , पटुता पटुत्वम् ; confer, compare KS. om P.V.1.122.
pejataddhita affix. affix added to the word तिल optionally with the affix पिञ्ज; e. g. तिलपेजः. See पिञ्ज.
praa conventional term for हृस्व (short) generally applied to vowels in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
prakaraṇagranthaliterary works in which the treatment is given in the form of topics by arranging the original sutras or rules differently so that all such rules as relate to a particular topic are found together: the Prakriykaumudi, the Siddhantakumudi and others are called प्रकरणग्रन्थs. Such works are generally known by the name प्राक्रयाग्रन्थ as opposed to वृतिग्रन्थ.
prakṛti(1)material cause: confer, compare. तदर्थे विकृते: प्रकृतौ । प्रकृतिरुपादानकारणं तस्यैव उत्तरमवस्थान्तरं विकृतिः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.V.1.12; (2) original, as opposed to modified' ( विकृति ); the original base of a word which is used in language by the addition of affixes. There are mentioned three kinds of such original words in grammar, roots ( धातु ), noun bases ( प्रातिपदिक ) and affixes (प्रत्यय). प्रकृति is defined as शास्त्रप्रक्रियक्रियाव्यवहारे प्रकृतिप्रत्ययविभागकल्पनय शब्दार्थभावनायां प्रत्ययात् प्रथममुपादानकारणामिव या उपादीयते तां प्रकृतिरिति व्यापदिशन्ति' in the Sringaraprakasa; confer, compare अपशब्दो ह्यस्य प्रकृति: । न चापशब्द: प्रकृतिः , न ह्यपशब्दा उपदिश्यन्ते न चानुपदिष्टा प्रकृतिरस्ति । M.Bh. on Siva Sutra 2; confer, compare also कृत्प्रकृतिर्धातु: M.Bh. on P. VI. 2. 139 Vart. 2; पदप्रकृति: संहिता । पदप्रक्तीनि सर्वचरणानां पार्षदानि Nirukta of Yāska.I.17.
prakṛtipratyāpattirestoration to the original word from the substituted word; exempli gratia, for example the restoration of the root हन् in कंसवधमाचचष्टे कंसं घातयति; confer, compare आख्याताकृदन्ताण्णिज्वक्तव्यस्तदाचष्टे इत्येतस्मिन्नर्थे । कृल्लुक् प्रकृतिप्रत्यापत्तिः प्रकृतिवच्च कारकं भवतीति वक्तव्यम्, M.Bh. on III. 1 26 Vart. 6.
prakrutisvarathe accent id est, that is the acute accent ( उदात्त ) possessed by the original word as contrasted with the accent of the afix ( प्रत्ययस्वर ) which (latter) is looked upon as more powerful; confer, compare (बहुव्रीहौ) पूर्वपदं प्रकृतिस्वरं भवति M.Bh, on II.I.24, II. 2.29 Vart. 17, See Panini Sutras VI.2.1 to 63.
praṇayatacomposition ( of the original Sutra work); confer, compare द्वयमपि चैतत् प्रमाणम् । उभयथा सूत्रप्रणयनात् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P. IV.2. 117: confer, compare also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.1.94 and V.4.21 .
pratisaṃskaraṇaediting with improvement, with an attempt to restore the correct version or the original text in the place of the corrupt one sometimes suitable additions and improvements are also made; e. g. चरकप्रतिसंस्करण attributed to Patanjali.
pratyayaaffix, suffix, a termination, as contrasted with प्रकृति the base; confer, compare प्रत्याय्यते अर्थः अनेन इति प्रत्ययः; confer, compare also अर्थे संप्रत्याययति स प्रत्ययः M.Bh. on III. 1.l Vart. 8; The word प्रत्यय is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'following' or 'that which follows', e. g. स्पर्शे चोषः प्रत्यये पूर्वपद्यः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 30 which is explained by Uvvata as उषः इत्ययं ( शब्दः ) पूर्वपदावयवः सन् स्पर्शे प्रत्यये परभूते इति यावत्; रेफिसंज्ञो भवति; Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.30; confer, compare प्रत्येति पश्चादागच्छति इति प्रत्ययः परः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 7; cf also V. Pr, III. 8. Pratyaya or the suffix is generally placed after the base; cf, प्रत्ययः, परश्च P. III. I. 1,2; but sometimes it is placed before the base; e. g. बहुपटुः confer, compare विभाषा सुपो बहुच् पुरस्तात्तु P. V. 3.68. The conjugational signs (शप् , श्यन् et cetera, and others), the signs of tenses and moods ( च्लि, सिच् , स्य, ताम् et cetera, and others) and the compound endings(समासान्त) are all called pratyayas according fo Panini's grammar, as they are all given in the jurisdiction(अधिकार) of the rule प्रत्ययः III.1.1, which extends upto the end of the fifth chapter ( अध्याय ). There are six main kinds of affixes given in grammar सुप्प्रत्यय, तिङ्प्रत्यय, कृत्प्रत्यय , तद्धितप्रत्यय, धातुप्रत्यय (exempli gratia, for example in the roots चिकीर्ष, कण्डूय et cetera, and others) and स्त्रीप्रत्यय. The word प्रत्यय is used in the sense of realization, in which case the root इ in the word त्यय means'knowing' according to the maxim सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्थाः; confer, compare मन्त्रार्थप्रत्ययाय Nirukta of Yāska.I.15.
pratyayapādaa conventional name given to the first pada of the third adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi which begins with the rule प्रत्ययः III. 1.1.
pratyayānta( प्रकृति )a base ending in an affix, a secondary base as opposed to the original base, which is described to be of six kinds. सुप्प्रत्ययान्ता (प्रकृतिः) as in अहंयुः, सायंतनम् et cetera, and others; तिङ्प्रत्ययान्ता as in पचतितराम् , आस्तिकः, पचतभृज्जता et cetera, and others; कृत्प्रत्ययान्ता as in कृत्रिमम् सांराविणम् et cetera, and others; तद्धितप्रत्ययान्ता as in गार्ग्यायणः, तत्रत्यः et cetera, and others; धातुसंज्ञाप्रत्ययान्ता as in चिकीर्षा, कण्डूया et cetera, and others; स्त्रीप्रत्ययान्ता as in गङ्गेयः, गौरेयः, काद्रवेयः et cetera, and others
pratyāhāraliterally bringing together; bringing together of several letters ( or words in a few cases, such as roots or nouns ) by mentioning the first and the last only for the sake of brevity; the term प्रत्याहार is generally used in connection with brief terms such as अण्, अक् , अच् , हल् and the like, created by Panini in his grammar by taking any particular letter and associating it with any mute final letter ( अनुबन्ध ) of the fourteen Sivasutras, with a view to include all letters beginning with the letter uttered and ending with the letter which precedes the ( mute ) letter. The practice of using such abbreviations was in existence before Panini, possibly in the grammar attributed to Indra. The term प्रत्याहार is not actually used by Panini; it is found in the Rk. Tantra; confer, compare प्रत्याहारार्थो वर्णोनुबन्धो व्यञ्जनम् R.T.I.3. The term appears to have come into use after Panini. Panini has not given any definition of the term प्रत्याहार. He has simply given the method of forming the Pratyaharas and he has profusely used them; confer, compare आदिरन्त्येन सहेता P. I. 1.71. The word कृञ् in P. III.1.40 and तृन् in P. II. 3.69 are used as Pratyaharas. For a list of the Pratyharas which are used by Panini see Kasika on the Maheswara Sutras.
prathamalit, premier, first; the word is used in connection with the personal affixes तिप् , तस्, झि ( अन्ति ) of verbal formanuscript. See the word पुरुष a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare अस्तिर्भवन्तीपरः प्रथमपुरुषः अप्रयुज्यमानोप्यस्तीति । वृक्षः प्लक्षः। Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.1 and 4. The word प्रथम is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the first consonants of the five vargas or groups of consonants; confer, compare प्रथमैर्द्वितीयास्तृतीयैश्चतुर्थाः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 110 confer, compare प्रथमतृतीयादीनामादेशादित्वादेत्वाभावः, M.Bh. on P. VI. 4.120 Vart 3, also confer, compare Katantra I. 4.1 and Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. I. 3.35. The word is also used (in the feminine gender) in the sense of the case affixes सु ( स् ), औ, जस् ( अस् ) of the nominative case. The word is also used in the sense of the premier accent उदात्त (acute); confer, compare प्रथमभाविनः उदात्तभाविनः Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 8.
pradeśaśāstraa rule, laying down a positive original injunction as opposed to the अपवादशास्त्र;confer, compare यैः अर्थाः प्रदिश्यन्ते तानि प्रदेशशास्त्राणि commentary on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI.35.
prayojyathat which is employed or incited or urged; the word which is the subject in the primitive construction and becomes an object in the causal construction, and as a result, which is put in the accusative case being प्रयोज्यकर्म. As, however, the प्रयोज्यकर्म originally occupies the place of the subject in the primitive construction, the term प्रयोज्यकर्ता ( प्रयोज्यश्चासौ कर्ता च ) is often used in connection with it, as contrasted with the term प्रयोजककर्ता which is used with respect to the subject in the causal construction; confer, compare इह च भेदिका देवदत्तस्य यज्ञदत्तस्य काष्ठानामिति प्रयोज्ये कर्तरि षष्ठी न प्राप्नोति । M.Bh. on P. III. 1.26 Vart. l ; confer, compare also Kaiy. on P. I. 2.65.
pravādaa grammatical explanation; detailed explanation by citing the gender, number, krt affix, taddhita affix.affix and the like: confer, compare लिङ्गसंख्यातद्धितकृतरूपभेदाः प्रवादाः । पाण्यादिशब्दानां प्रवादेषु प्रथमो (original) नकारो णत्वमाप्नोति स च प्राकृतः । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIII. 9. The word is explained as a change in the form of a word, as for instance, by the substitution of स् for विसर्ग where विसर्ग is, in fact, expected; confer, compare कबन्धं पृथु इत्येतेषां पदानां प्रवादा रूपभेदा उदये परत्रावस्थिताः दिव इत्येतस्य उपचारं जनयन्ति । यथा दिवस्कबन्धम् , दिवस्पृथुः Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 22; confer, compare also प्रवादाः षडितः परे, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IX. 18. In the Nirukta, the word is used in the sense of 'distinct mention'; confer, compare एवमन्यासामपि देवतानामादित्यप्रवादाः स्तुतयो भवन्ति ( deities are mentioned under the name of Aditya) Nir II.13; cf also वैश्वानरीयाः प्रवादाः Nir, VII. 23.
praśśliṣṭa(l)an additional letter (vowel or consonant) read on splitting up a euphonic combination; confer, compare प्रश्लिष्टा. वर्णावेतौ M.Bh.on P.I.1.9 Vart. 2; (2) ; contracted combination; name of a Samdhi where two vowels coalesce into one single vowel, confer, compare R.Pr. । II. 15-19.
praśleṣa(l)coalescence of two vowels into one, as given in Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.6, and 7, corresponding to the गुण, वृद्वि and दीर्घ substitutes prescribed by the rules आद्गुणः P.IV 1.87; अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः VI.1.101; and वृद्धिरेचि VI. 1.88 which are stated under the jurisdiction of the rule एकः पूर्वपरयोः VI.1.84; (2) finding out the presence of a letter in addition to the letters already present as coalesced, after splitting the combination into its different constituent 1etters. This Practice of finding out an additional letter is resorted to by the commentators only to remove certain difficulties in arriving at some correct forms which otherwise could not be obtained; e. g. see क्ङिति च where क्ङ् is believed to be a combination of ग्, क् and ङ् See प्रश्लिष्ट and प्रश्लिष्टनिर्देश.
prākṛta(1)original, primary,belonging to the Prakrti as contrasted with a वैकृत modification or a modified thing; cf प्रकृतिः स्वभावः, तत्संबन्धी प्राकृतः. commentary on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 28: confer, compare एतद्विकारा एवान्ये, सर्वे तु प्राकृताः समाः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII. 23; confer, compare also तहीन् ... पशूंस्तकारपरः ( नकारः ) सकारं प्राकृतो नित्ये Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.VI. 14; (2) natural, which can be so ordinarily, without any specific effort; confer, compare तस्मात् प्राकृतमेवैतत् कर्म यथा कटं करोति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.5, confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III 1.5 Vart. 8, 9.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
prātihataname given to the circumflex vowel, standing at the beginning of a word and following the final vowel of the previous word which is acute ( उदात्त ); confer, compare अपि चेन्नानापदस्थमुदात्तमथ चेत्सांहितेन स्वर्यते स प्रतिहतः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.xx. 3.
prāptavibhāṣāor प्राप्तविकल्पत्व, optional prescription of some operation or rule which otherwise is obligatory; confer, compare लेपे विभाषा । प्राप्तविभाषेयम् । किमर्थेन योगात् । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 1.45; confer, compare also हृक्रोरन्यतरस्याम् । प्राप्तविकल्पत्वाद् द्वितीयैव I Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 4.53.
prāyikaoptional, to be done at pleasure, common, usual; confer, compare प्रायिकं चैतत् ।
prāvacanaaccentuation, as noticed in the original Samhitapatha; confer, compare प्रावचनो वा यजुषि | प्रवचनशब्देन आर्षपाठ उच्यते । तत्र भवः स्वरः प्रावचनः स च यजुबि भवति । तान्ते वा यज्ञकर्मणि । Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 132.
prasādavāsinyāyainclusion of a thing even though it possesses an additional factor, or consideration, other than what is referred to; cf प्रासादवासिन्यायेन ग्रहणं भवति । तद्यथा केचित्त् प्रासादवासिनः । केचिद् भूमिवासिनः । केचिदुभयवासिन: । ये प्रासादवासिनः गृह्यन्ते ते प्रसादवासिग्रहणेन । ये भूमिवासिनः गृह्यन्ते ते भूमिवासिग्रहणेन । ये उभयवासिनः गृह्यन्ते ते प्रासादवासिग्रहणेन भूमिवासिग्रहणेन च । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.8.
pvādia class of roots headed by the root पू which get their vowel shortened in the four conjugational tenses as also before the present tense.participle. affix; exempli gratia, for example पुनाति पुनानः, लुनाति, लुनन् et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VII.3.80.
phaṇādia class of seven roots headed by the root फण्, which belong to the first conjugation and which have optionally their vowel अ changed into ए and the reduplicative syllable ( अभ्यास) dropped, in the forms of the perfect tense before the affix इथ and weak affixes; e. g. फेणतु:, फेणु:, फेणिथ फफणतुः, पफणुः, पफणिथ et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VI.4.:125.
balādi(1)a class of words headed by the word बल, to which the taddhita affix. affix य is added in the four senses given by Panini in IV.2.67-70. e. g. बल्यः कुल्यम्, तुल्यम् , वन्यम् et cetera, and others cf Kas, on P.IV.2.80; (2) a class of words headed by बल which take the possessive taddhita affix. affix मत् optionally with the regular affix इन् ; e. g. बलवान् , बली; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.136.
bahiraṅgaa rule or operation which is बहिरङ्ग (literally external); the word बहिरङ्ग is used in grammar in connection with a rule or operation, the cause ( निमित्त )of which occurs later in place or time than the cause of the other which is called अन्तरङ्ग. For the various kinds of बहिरङ्गत्व see the word अन्तरङ्ग where the kinds of अन्तरङ्गत्व are given.
bahulaliterally variously applicable; the word is used in the rules of Panini in connection with a grammatical rule or affix or the like that is seen necessarily applied in some cases, optionally applied in a few other cases and not at all applied in the other cases still. The word बहुलम् is used by Panini in all such cases. See P. II. 1.32, 57; II. 3.62; II.4.39, 73, 76, 84, III. 1.34 et cetera, and others; confer, compare the usual explanation of बहुलम् given by grammarians in the lines क्वचित्प्रवृत्तिः क्वचिदप्रवृत्तिः क्वचिद्विभाषा क्वचिदन्यदेव । विधेर्विधानं बहुधा समीक्ष्य चतुर्विधं बाहुलकं वदन्ति Com. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.18.
bahuvrīhipādaconventional term used for the second pada of the sixth adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi.
bahvādia class of words headed by बहु to which the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) is added to form the feminine base; the words ending in अ in this class take the feminine. affix अा ( टाप् ) in case ई which is optional, is not added; other words remain as they are, if ई, is not added; e. g. बह्वी, बहुः; पद्धतिः, पद्धती; गतिः, _ गती; चण्डी, चण्डा; et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.45.
bāhya(प्रयत्न)external effort; the term is used many times in connection with the external effort in the production of articulate sound, as different from the internal effort अाभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न. The external effort is described to be consisting of 11 kinds; confer, compare बाह्यप्रयत्नस्त्वेकादशधा । विवारः संवारः श्वासो नादो घोषोSघोषोSल्पप्राणो महाप्राण उदात्तोनुदात्तः स्वरितश्चेति S.K.on P. I.1.9.
bṛhacchabdaratnaa learned commentary on the commentary मनोरमा of भट्टोजीदीक्षित; the commentary was written by हरिदीक्षित the grandson of Bhattoji. The work is called बृहच्छब्दरत्न in contrast with the लघुशब्दरत्न of the same author (हरिदीक्षित) which is generally studied at the Pathasalas all over the country. The work बृहच्छब्दरत्न is only in a Manuscript form at present. Some scholars believe that it was written by Nagesabhatta, who ascribed it to his preceptor Hari Diksita, but the belief is not correct as proved by a reference in the Laghusabdaratna, where the author himself remarks that he himself has written the बृहच्छब्दरत्न, and internal evidences show that लबुशब्दरत्न is sometimes a word-forword summary of the बृहच्छब्दरत्न. confer, compareविस्तरस्तु अस्मत्कृते बृहच्छब्दरत्ने मदन्तेवासिवृतलधुशब्देन्दुशेखरे च द्रष्टव्यः Laghusabdaratna. For details see Bhandarkar Ins. Journal Vol. 32 pp.258-60.
bha(1)the letter or sound भ् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; (2) a technical term in the Grammar of Panini given to a noun base before such case and taddhita affixes as begin with any vowel or with the consonant य्. The utility of this designation of भ to the base is (l) to prevent the substitutes which are enjoined for the final vowel or consonant of a pada (a word ending with a case-affix or a base before case and taddhita affix. affixes beginning with any consonant excepting य् ) just as the substitution of Visarga, anusvara, the first or third consonant, and others given in P. VIII. 4.37 and the following. For the various changes and operations for a base termed भ see P. VI. 4.129 to 175.
bhartṛharia very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. confer, compare शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'.
bhāveprayeāgaimpersonal form of a sentence when there is no activity mentioned on the part of the agent nor resulting upon the object, but there is a mere mention of verb-activity.
bhāvyamānalit, which is to be produced; which is prescribed by a rule, like an affix; hence, an affix or an augment or a substitute prescribed by a rule as contrasted with the conditions or the original wording for which something is substituted, or after which an affix is placed, or to which an addition is made, or which is deleted; confer, compare भाव्यमानेन सवर्णानांग्रहृणं न Par. Sek. Pari, 19; also confer, compare M.Bh. on P.I. 1.50, I.1. 69,VI.1.85, VI.4.160.
bhāṣyaa learned commentary on an original work, of recognised merit and scholarship, for which people have got a sense of sanctity in their mind; generally every Sūtra work of a branch of technical learning (or Śāstra) in Sanskrit has got a Bhāṣya written on it by a scholar of recognised merit. Out of the various Bhāṣya works of the kind given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., the Bhāṣya on the Vyākaraṇa sūtras of Pāṇini is called the Mahābhāṣya, on the nature of which possibly the following definition is based "सूत्रार्थो वर्ण्यते यत्र पदैः सूत्रानुकारिभिः| स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः ।" In books on Sanskrit Grammar the word भाष्य is used always for the Mahābhāṣya. The word भाष्य is sometimes used in the Mahābhāṣya of Patanjali (confer, compare उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये III.3.19, IV.4.67) where the word may refer to a work like लघुभाष्य which Patañjali may have written, or may have got available to him as written by somebody else, before he wrote the Mahābhāṣya.
bhairavamiśraone of the reputed grammarians of the latter half of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century who wrote commentaries on several prominent works on grammar. He was the son of भवदेव and his native place was Prayāga. He has written the commentary called Candrakalā on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara, Parikṣā on the Vaiyākaraṇabhũṣanasāra, Gadā called also Bhairavī or Bhairavīgadā on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and commentaries (popularly named Bhairavī) on the Śabdaratna and Lingānuśāsana. He is reported to have visited Poona, the capital of the Peśawas and received magnificent gifts for exceptional proficiency in Nyāya and Vyākaraṇa. For details see pp. 24 and 25 Vol. VII . Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya D. E. Society's Edition.
bhraṣṭāvasaraliterally a person or a thing of which the proper occasion has passed; the word is used in connection with the application of a rule even though the proper time of its application is gone, on the analogy of a man who is paid his Dakṣiṇā although the proper time has gone ( भ्रष्टावसरन्यायेन दक्षिणा दीयते); confer, compare न च पुनर्लुक्शास्त्रं प्रवर्तते भ्रष्टावसरत्वात् Kāś. on P. VII.2.101.
matuppādaa conventional name given by grammarians to the third pāda of the eighth Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. as the pāda begins with the sūtra मतुवसोरु संबुद्धौ छन्दसि P. VIII. 3.1.
matublopaelision of the affix मतुप् specially prescribed after words of quality, or words meaning quality, such as शुक्ल, कृष्ण which originally mean the white colour, the black colour et cetera, and others e. g. शुक्लः पट: confer, compare गुणवचनेभ्यो मतुपो लुक् P. V. 2.94 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
madhyaliterally middle; middling variety. The word is used in the sense of the middling effort between the open (विवृत) and the close (संवृत) external efforts which technically is called हकार; confer, compare मध्ये हकारः | मध्ये भव: मध्यः | अ सांप्रतिके | तदयमर्थः | सांप्रतिके प्रकृतिस्थे कण्ठे सति हकारो नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नः क्रियते | तेन च व्यञ्जनेषु घोषो जायते | Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.Bhāṣya on II.6.
madhyapatitaliterally fallen in the middle; the word is used generally in the sense of an augment which is inserted in the middle of a word. Sometimes an affix too, like अकच् or a conjugational sign like श्रम्, is placed in the middle of a word. Such a middling augment is technically ignored and a word together with it is taken as the original word for grammatical operations; exempli gratia, for example उच्चकै:, नीचकै: et cetera, and others cf तन्मध्यपतितस्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यते Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 89.
madhyodāttathe acute or udātta accent to the मध्य vowel which is neither the initial ( अादि) nor the final one ( अन्त ) as laid down by the rule उपोत्तमं रिति P. VI.1.217; confer, compare मध्योदात्तमपि यमिच्छति तत्र रेफमनुबन्धं करोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.3.
mayataddhita affix. affix मयट् (1) in the sense of proceeding therefrom (तत आगत: P. IV.3.92) added to words showing cause or meaning human being; exempli gratia, for example सममयम्, देवदत्तमयम्: (2) in the sense of product (विकार) or part (अवयव) added optionally with अण् to any word, exempli gratia, for example अश्ममयम् , आश्मनम् मूर्वामयम् मौर्वम्, and necessarily to words beginning with आ, ऐ and औ, words of the class headed by the word शर and the words गो, पिष्ट, व्रीहि, तिल and some others: confer, compare P. IV. 3. 143-150; (3) in the sense of proportion, added to a numeral; e. g. द्विमयमुदश्विद्यवानाम्; confer, compare P. V. 2.47; (4) in the sense of "made up of' added to the thing of which there is a large quantity; exempli gratia, for example अन्नमयम्, अपूपमयम् cf; तत्प्रकृतवचने मयट् P.V.4.21,22.
maśpersonal ending म् substituted for अम् in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example वधीं वृत्रम्; confer, compare अमो मश् P. VII. 1.40; See म्.
maspersonal ending of the first person (उत्तमपुरुष) plural; exempli gratia, for example भवाम:, कुर्मः; confer, compare तिप्तस्झिसिप्o III.4.78.
masipersonal ending formed by adding इ to मस् of the 1st person (उत्तमपुरुष) plural in Vedic Literature दीपयामसि, भजयामसि, confer, compare Kāś. on इदन्तो मसि P.VII.1.46.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahābhāṣyapradīpaa very scholarly commentary on Patanjali's MahabhaSya written by Kaiyatabhatta in the eleventh century, The commentary has so nicely explained every difficult and obscure point in the Mahabhasya, and has so thoroughly explained each sentence that the remark of later grammarians that the torch of the Mahabhasya has been kept burning by the Pradipa appears quite apt and justifiedition Kaiyata's commentary has thrown much additional light on the original arguments and statements in the Mahabhasya. There is a learned commentary on the Pradipa written by Nagesabhatta which is named vivarana by the author but which is well known by the name 'Uddyota' among students and teachers of Vyakarana. For details see pp. 389, 390 Vol VII, Patanjala Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition.
mahābhāṣyapradīpavivaraṇa(1)original name of the learned commentary on the 'Pradipa' of Kaiyata written by Nagesabhatta, a stalwart and epoch-making grammarian of the 18th century. The commentary is known popularly by the name 'Uddyota' or Pradipoddyota; (2) name of the commentary on Kaiyata's Pradipa by Nityaananda Parvatiya. The commentary is also known by the name दीपप्रभा.
mahiṅpersonal ending of the Atmanepada first person (उत्तमपुरुष) plural;confer, compare तिप्तस्झि ... वहिमहिङ् P. III.4.78. महिष्यादि a class of words headed by the word महिषी to which the taddhita affix. affix अ (अण्) is added in the sense Of 'proper for' ( धर्म्यम् ); exempli gratia, for example माहिषम् पौरोहितम् , हौत्रम्: confer, compare Kas,on P.IV.4.48.
mātraca taddhita affix. affix in the sense of measure applied optionally with द्वयस and दघ्न to a noun exempli gratia, for example ऊरुमात्रम् प्रस्थमात्रम् ; confer, compare प्रमाणे द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रचः P. V.2.37 and Kasika thereon which remarks that द्वयस and दघ्न are applied in the sense of height, while मात्र is applied in the sense of any measure: confer, compare प्रथमश्च द्वितीयश्च ऊर्ध्वमाने मतौ मम Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.2.37.
mi( मिप् )pcrsonal ending of the first person ( उत्तमपुरुष ) singular; confer, compare तिप्तस्झ तरिझ । P.III.4.78.
mit(1)characterized by the mute letter म्; augments So characterized such as नुम् , अम् and the like, are inserted after the last vowel of a word to which they are to be added; confer, compare मिदचोन्त्यात् परः P. I. 1.47; (2) a technical term applied to the fifty-five roots which are headed by the root घट् and which belong to the first corjugation, to the roots ज्वळ et cetera, and others, as also to the roots जन्, जू, क्नूस्, रञ्ज् and roots ending in अम्. These roots are not really characterized by the mute letter म्, but they are given the designation मित्. The use of the designation मित् is (a) the shortening of the penultimate vowel which : has been lengthened by Vrddhi , before the causal sign णि and (b) ; the optional lengthening of the ; penultimate vowel before the affix ) चिण् and णमुल्, For a complete list ] of 'mit' roots see Dhaatupaatha.
mippersonal ending मि of the first person ( उत्तमपुरुष ) singular. Parasmaipada: confer, compare तिप्तस्झि...महिङ् P. III.4.78.
miśraroots taking personal endings of both the Padas; Ubhayapadin roots: this term मिश्र is given in Bopadeva's grammar.
mumthe augment म् inserted immediately after the final vowel of the word for which it is prescribed: confer, compare अरुर्द्विषदजन्तस्य मुम् P.VI.3.67; confer, compare also P.III.2.26, V. 4.7 and VI.3.69-72.
mūlaprakṛtithe original base of the word used in language; the root and the praatipadika; the word परमप्रकृति , is also used in the same sense.
makḍonel[MACDONELL,ARTHUR ANTHONY ]a deep scholar of Vedic Gram. and Literature who has written an exhaustive Vedic Grammar; in treatment, at places he differs from Panini and follows a different method, but the manner of thinking and argument is on original lines.
y(1)the consonant य् with अ added to it merely for the sake of facility in pronunciation; यकार is also used in the same sense: e. g. लिटि वयो यः: P.VI.1.38 confer, compare T.Pr.I: 17,21;(2) krt affix (यत्) prescribed as कृत्य or potential passive participle; exempli gratia, for exampleचेयम्, गेयम्, शाप्यम् , शक्यम् , गद्यम् , अजर्यम् पण्यम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare अचो यत्...अजर्यं संगतम् P.III. 1.97-105; (3) krt. affix क्यप् which is also an affix called krtya; e. gब्रह्मोद्यम् , भाव्यम्, घात्यम् , स्तुत्यम् , कल्प्यम् , खेयम् , भृत्यः:, भिद्यः, पुष्य:, कृत्यम्,also कार्यम् ; confer, compare P. III. 1.106-128:(4) krt affix ण्यत् ( which is also कृत्य ), e. g कार्यम् , हार्यम् , वाक्यम् , लाव्यम्, कुण्डपाय्यम्. et cetera, and others: cf P. III. 1.124-132: (5) taddhita affix. affix य affixed (a) in the sense of collection to पाश, वात et cetera, and others, as also to खल, गो and रथ, e. g. पाद्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV. 2. 49, 50ः (b) in the चातुरर्थिक senses to बल, कुल, तुल et cetera, and others e. g. वल्यः,.कुल्यम् efeminine. P V.2. 80, (c) as a Saisika taddhita affix. affix to ग्राम्यहः' along with the affix खञ्ज e. g. ग्राम्यः, ग्रामीणः: cf P: IV. 2.94 (d) in the sense of 'good therein' ( तत्र साधुः ) and other stated senses affixed to सभा, सोदर पूर्व, and सोम: e. g. सभ्य:, पूर्व्यः; .et cetera, and others. confer, compare P. IV. 4.105, 109, 133, 137, 138: (e) in the sense of 'deserving it' to दण्ड and other words, e. g. दण्ड्य, अर्ध्र्य, मध्य, मेध्य, et cetera, and others: cf P. V. 1.66: ( f ) in the sense of quality or action to सखि e. g. सख्यम् ; cf P. V. 1.126: (6) taddhita affix. affix यत् applied to (a) राजन् श्वशुर, कुल, मनु in the sense of offspring, (b) शूल्, उखा, वायु, ऋतु and others, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. IV. 2.17, 31, 32, 101, (c) to अर्ध, परार्ध, words in the class headed by दि्श, छन्दस and others in specific senses; cf P. IV. 3-46, 54 et cetera, and others and (d) in specific senses to specific words mentioned here and there in a number of sUtras from IV.4, 75 to V.4.25; (e) to शाखा, मुख, जघन and others in the sense of इव (similar to) exempli gratia, for example शाख्यः, मुख्य:, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 3. 103; (7) case-ending य substituted for ङे of the dative sing; e. g. रामाय confer, compare P. VII. 3.102: (8) verb-affix यक् applied to the nouns कण्डू and others to make them ( denominative ) roots; e. g. कण्डूय,सन्तूय et cetera, and others confer, compare कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् P. III. 1.27 (9) | Vikarana य ( यक् ) applied to any root before the Saarvadhaatuka personal endings to form the base for the passive voice as also the base for the 'Karmakartari' voice e g क्रियते, भूयते, confer, compare सार्वधातुके यक् P. III. 1.67 (10) Unaadi affix य ( यक् ) applied to the root हृन् to form the Vedic word अघ्न्य: cf अघ्न्यादयश्च: ( 11 ) augment य ( यक् ) added to the affix क्त्वा in Vedic Literature: e. g. दत्त्वायः confer, compare क्त्वो यक् P. VII.1.47; (12) verb affix यङ् added to a root to form its Intensive base ( which sometimes is dropped ) and the root is doubledition e. g. चेक्रीयते,चर्करीति;. confer, compare P. III. 1.22,24; (13) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) supposed to be beginning with य in the affix यइ in the sUtra धातेरेकाचो ... यङ् III. 1.22, and ending with ङ् in the sUtra लिड्याशिष्यङ्क III. 1.86, with a view to include the various verb affixes and conjugational signs.
yaḍlugantaa secondary root formed by adding the affix यङ् to roots specified in P. III. 1.22,23,24, which affix is sometimes dropped: confer, compare यङोचि च ; P. II. 4. 74. The yanluganta roots take the parasmaipada personal endings and not the atmanepada ones which are applied to yananta roots.
yatna(1)effort in the utterance of a letter: the word which is generally used for such an effort is प्रयत्न. This effort is described to be oftwo kinds अाभ्यन्तर internal id est, that is below the root of the tongue and बाह्य a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the root of the tongue id est, that is inside the mouth; confer, compare यत्नं द्विधा | अाभ्यन्तरो बाह्यश्च | S. K. on P. I. 1.9; (2) specific effort, by adding a word to a rule for drawing some inference, with a view to removing some technical difficulty: cf तेन पये धावतीत्यादौ यत्नान्तरमास्थेयम् Kaas. on P. VIII. 2. 25. The phrase कर्तव्योत्र यत्न: often occurs in the Mahaabhaasya.
yathānyāsaṃas it is actually put in the rule or a treatise by the author. The phrase is often used in the Mahaabhaasya when after a long discussion, involving further and further difficulties, the author reverts to the original stand and defends the writing of the sUtra as it stands. सिध्यत्येवमपाणिनीयं तु भवति or सूत्रं भिद्यते । तर्हि यथान्यासमेवास्तु is the usual expression found in the Mahaabhaasya; cf, M.Bh. I.1. Aahnika 1, I.1.1, 9, 20, 62, 65 et cetera, and others
yathāvatas it is in the original Samahitpaatha without any change of accent, et cetera, and others when cited in the यद्वत lifeminine. a word formed from यत्: a Padapaatha: the word अव्ययवत् (not allowing any change or reduction) is given by Uvvata in explanation of यथावत्: confer, compare दृश्यते पदं यथावत् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI.31.
yam(1)one of pair a twin letter available in pronunciation before a nasal letter and similar to it, when the nasal consonant is preceded by any one of the four consonants of the five classes; a transitional sound intervening between a non-nasal and the following nasal as a counterpart of the n6n-nasal: confer, compare वर्गेष्वाद्यानां चेतुर्णो पञ्चमे पर मध्ये यमो नाम पूर्वसदृशो वर्णः प्रातिशाख्ये प्रसिद्धः S.K. on P.व्व्III. l.1; (2) name given to the seven musical notes, found in the singing of Saaman; confer, compare मन्द्रमध्यमत्राख्येषु त्रिषु वाचः स्थानेषु प्रत्येकं सत स्थरभेदा भवन्ति कुष्टप्रथमद्वितीयतृतीयचतुर्थमन्द्रातित्वार्यः यमाः ' Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 13,14.
yara short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) for any consonant except ह् standing at the end of a word is optionally changed to the nasal consonant of its class if followed by a nasal letter; confer, compare यरोनुनासिकेनुनासिकेा वा P. VIII.4.45: and (2) is doubled if preceded by र् or ह् as also if preceded by a vowel but not followed by a vowel; exempli gratia, for example अर्क्कः, दद्धयत्र: confer, compare अन्वॊ रहाभ्यां द्वे; अनचिच P. VIII.4.46,47.
yaltaddhita affix. affix य in the sense of possession found in Vedic Literature added optionally with the affix ख (ईन)to the words वेशोभग and यशोभग; e.g वेशोभग्य; वेशोभगीनः यशोभग्य:, यशोभागिन:; confer, compare P.IV.4.131.
yastaddhita affix. affix य with mute स् to indicate the application of the term पद् to the preceding base as a consequence of which the final म् of the words कम् and शम्, after which यस् is prescribed, gets changed into anusvara e. g. कंयु:, दंयु:: cf P.W.2.138.
yukta(1)proper, appropriate, justified; the word is very frequently used in the Mahabhasya and other grammar works; (2) the sense of the original base which is connected with the sense of the affix; confer, compare अथवा युक्तः प्रकृत्यर्थः प्रत्ययार्थेन संबद्धः, Ks. on P. I. 2.51 ; (3) connected with; confer, compare उकारश्चेतिकरणेन युक्त: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 29; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् P. I. 4.50.
yuktavatthe sense of the original base,the affix after which is dropped by means of the term लुप् as contrasted with the terms लोप and लुक् which are used in the same sense: confer, compare लुप्तवदिति निष्ठाप्रत्ययेन क्तवतुना प्रकृत्यर्थ उच्यते । स हि प्रत्ययार्थमात्मना युनक्ति ' KS. on P. I. 3.51.
yuktavadbhāvaliterally behaviour like the original base. The term is used in the sense of possession of, or getting, the same gender and number as was possessed by the base to which the taddhita affix. affix was added and subsequently dropped by a rule of Panini in which the word लुप् is put in the sense of dropping: e. g. कुरयः देश: or अङ्गाः देश: in the sense of कुरूणां or अङ्गानां निवासो जनपदः confer, compare जनपदे लुप् P. IV.3.81 and लुपि युक्तवद् व्यक्तिवचने P.I.2.51;confer, compare also M.Bh. on P. I. 2.51 and 52.
yuktārththe sense possessed by the original word to which the affix, subsequently dropped by means of the word लुप, was addedition
yugapadadhikaraṇavacanatādenotation of two or more things by one single member by virtue of their being put together in a dvandva compound of two or more words; the grammarians advocate this doctrine stating that in a dvandva compound such as घटपटौ or घटपटम् , the word घट has the capacity of expressing the sense of both घट and पट, which in a sentence घटः पटश्च, it does not possess. Similarly पट also has the capacity of conveying the sense of both पट and घट. Possibly this theory is advocated by grarnmarians, on the analogy of words like पितरौ or मातरौ for मातापितरौ, द्यावा for द्यावापृथिवी and so on; confer, compare सिद्धं तु युगपदधिकरणवचने द्वन्द्ववचनात् P. II 2.29 Vart. 2. For details see Vyakaranamahabhasya on चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II. 2.29.
yuvanliterally young person; masculine; the word is given as a technical term in grammar in the sense of one, who is the son of the grandson or his descendant, provided his father is alive; the term is also applied to a nephew, brother, or a paternal relative of the grandson or his descendant, provided his elderly relative, if not his his father, is alive; it is also applied to the grandson, in case respect is to be shown to him: confer, compare P. IV. 1.163-167. The affixes prescribed in the sense of युवन् are always applied to a word ending with a taddhita affix. affix applied to it in the sense of an offspring (अपत्य) or grandson (गोत्र), in spite of the ruling that in the sense of grandson or his descendant (गोत्र), one affix only इञ् or अण् or the like is added to the base; exempli gratia, for example गार्ग्यस्यापत्यं गार्ग्यायण:, दाक्षेरपत्यं दाक्षाय्ण: गार्ग्ये जीवति तस्य भ्राता सपिण्डो वा गाम्यार्यण: तत्रभवान् गार्ग्यः; गार्ग्यायणो वा.
yuvapādaa conventional term used for the first pada of the seventh adhyaya which begins with the sutra युवोरनाकौ P.VII.i.1.
yuṣmatpādconventional name given to the third pada of the fourth adhyaya of Paini's Astadhyayi which begins with the sutra युष्मदस्मदोरन्यतरस्यां खञ् च P. IV. 3.1.
yogavibhāgadivision of a rule which has been traditionally given as one single rule, into two for explaining the formation of certain words, which otherwise are likely to be stamped as ungrammatical formations. The writer of the Varttikas and the author of the Mahabhasya have very frequently taken recourse to this method of योगविभाग; confer, compare P.I.1.3 Vart. 8, I.1.17 Vart.1,I.1.61, Vart. 3; I. 4.59 Vart. 1, II. 4. 2. Vart.2, III.1.67 Vart. 5, III.4.2. Vart. 6, VI.I. I Vart. 5, VI.1.33 Vart.1 et cetera, and others Although this Yogavibhaga is not a happy method of removing difficulties and has to be followed as a last recourse, the Varttikakara has suggested it very often, and sometimes a sutra which is divided by the Varttikakara into two,has been recognised as a couple of sutras in the Sutrapatha which has come down to us at present.
r(1)second letter of the यण् class ( semi-vowels ) which has got the properties नादभागित्व, घोषवत्त्व,' संवृतत्व and अल्पप्राणता i. e. it is a sonant, inaspirate consonant. Regarding its स्थान or place of production, there is a difference of opinion : generally the consonant र् is looked upon as a cerebral or lingual letter (मूर्धन्य); cf ऋटुरषाणां मूर्धा, S.K.also Pāṇini. Siksa; but it is called by some as दन्त्य or दन्तमूलीय: cf रेफस्तु दस्त्ये दन्तमूले वा RT. 8, by others as दन्तमूलीय and and by still others as वर्स्त्य gingival. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya it is described as दन्तमूलीय: cf रो दन्तमूल I. 68, while in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya it is said to be produced by the touch of the middle part of the tip of the tongue just a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the root of the teeth;confer, compare रेफे जिह्वाग्रमध्येन प्रत्यग्दन्तमूलेभ्यः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 41; (2) substitute र् (रेफ ) for the final letter of the word अहन्, as also for the final of अम्रस्, ऊधस्, अवस् and भुवस् optionally with रु, which ( रु) is dropped before vowels, and changed to ओ before अ and soft consonants, while it is changed into visarga before hard consonants and surds.exempli gratia, for example अम्नरेव, अम्र एवः ऊधरेव, ऊधएव: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII, 2-70: (3) the consonants र् (technically) called र् in Panini's grammar ) which is substituted for the consonant स् and for the consonant न् of the word अहन् when the consonant स् or न् stands at the end of a word. This substitute रु, unlike the substitute र् is liable to be changed into visarga, or the consonant य्, or the vowel उ by P. VIII.3.15, 17, VI.1.113, 114.
raktapādaconventional name given to the second pada of the fourth Adhyaya of Paini's Astadhyayi as the Pada begins with the Sutra तेन रक्तं रागात् P. IV. 2.1.
radhādia class of eight roots headed by the root रध् which allow the addition of the augment इ ( इट् ) optionally to the ardhadhatuka affix beginning with any consonant except य्, placed , after them; exempli gratia, for example रघिता रद्धा, त्रता , तर्त्पा तर्पिता et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VII.2.35 and VII.2.45.
ranpersonal ending रन् substituted for the personal ending झ of the प्रथमपुरुष (third person) Atmanepada of 'lin' (potential and benedictive); confer, compare झस्य रन् P.III. 4.105.
raspersonal ending of the third person. ( प्रथमपुरुष ) substituted for the affix झि in the first future ( लुट् ): confer, compare लुट: प्रथमस्य डारौरस: II.4.85.
rāśiusually used in the sense of a collection or a heap or a lunar constellation; the word is often used after the word वर्ण when it means the traditional collection of letters or the alphabet. The words अक्षरराशि, ब्रह्मराशि and अक्षरसमाम्नाय are also used in the same sense.
rikan augment added optionally with रुक् and रीक् to the reduplicative syllable of the frequentative root from a primitive root which ends in ऋ or has a penultimate ऋ; e. g. चरिकर्ति, नरिनर्ति भरिभ्रत् et cetera, and others; confer, compare रुग्रिकौ च लुकि, P.VII. 4.9l and ऋतश्च VII.4.92.
riltaddhita affix. affix रैि added optionally with रिष्टात् to the word ऊर्ध्व which becomes changed into उप; exempli gratia, for exampleउपरि, उपरिष्टात् ; confer, compare ऊर्ध्वस्य उपभावो रिल्रिष्टातिलौ च P.V.3.31 Vart. 1.
rīkaugment री added optionally with रुक् and रिक् to the reduplicative syllable ( अभ्यास ) of the frequentative base of roots having ऋ as their penultimate vowel; exempli gratia, for example वरीवृश्च्यते वरीवृश्चीति, नरीनर्ति, चरीकर्ति; cf रीगृदुपधस्य च P.VII. 4.90.
ru(1)substitute र् for the consonant स् at the end of a word as also for the ष् of सजुत्र् , न् of अहन् and optionally with र् for the final स् of अम्नस्, ऊधस् and अवस् in Veda; exempli gratia, for example अग्निरत्र, वायुरत्र, सजूर्देवोभिः confer, compare P.VIII.2.66; the र् of this रु (as contrasted with the substitute र् which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) is further changed into उ before a soft consonant and before the vowel अ provided it is preceded by the vowel अ, while र् , prescribed as substitute र (which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.), remains unchanged; e g. शिवोर्च्यः, शिवो वन्द्य: as contrasted with अहरत्र, अहर्गण:; (2) substitute र् for the final ज् of अवयज् (e. g, अवयाः), for ह् of श्वेतवह् (exempli gratia, for example श्वेतवाः), and for श् of पुरोडाश् (exempli gratia, for example पुगेडा:) before the case affix सु ; confer, compareP.VIII.4.67;(3)substitute र् (or द्) for the final स् or द् of a verb-form ending with the personal ending सिप् of the 2nd person. sing; confer, compare P. VIII.2.74,75;(4)substitute र् for the final न् of words ending with the affix मत् or वस् in Veda; exempli gratia, for example मरुत्व: हरिवः ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VIII.3.1; (5) substitute र् for the final न् at the end of a word when it is followed by a छव् letter id est, that is the first or a second consonant excepting ख् and फ्; exempli gratia, for example भवांश्चिनोति; confer, compare P.VIII. 3.7; (6) substitute र् for the final न् of नॄन् before the letter प् as also for the final न् of स्वतवान् and कान् under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VIII.3. 10.12.
rukaugment र् added optionally with रिक् to the reduplicative syllable; (see रिक् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.); e.gचर्कर्ति, नर्नर्त्ति; cf P. VII. 4. 91, 92 as also VII. 4.65.
rughādia class of roots headed by the root रुध् which take श्नम् ( न् ) as the conjugational sign inserted after the final vowel, e. g. रुणद्धि ( where रुध् becomes रुणध् ). These roots are popularly called roots of the 8th conjugation.
rūḍhaconventional; traditional; one of the four senses in which words are usedition The senses are यौगिक (derivative ), रूढ (conventional), योगरूढ and यौगिकरूढ; The term रूढ is also used in the sense of ' a conventional word ' confer, compare प्रथमाशब्दो विभक्तिविशेषे रूढः Kās. on P. VI. 1.102.
rūpātideśathe actual replacement of the original in the place of the substitute by virtue of the rule स्थानिवदादेशोनल्विधौ P. I. 1. 56; one of the two kinds of स्थानिवद्भाव wherein the word-form of the original ( स्थानी ) is put in the place of the substitute (आदेश); the other kind of स्थानिवद्भाव being called कार्यातिदेश by means of which grammatical operations caused by the original ( स्थानी ) take place although the substitute (आदेश) has been actually put in the place of the original. About the interpretation of the rule द्विर्वचनेचि P. I.1.59, the grammarians accept the view of रूपातिदेश; confer, compare रूपातिदेशश्चायं नियतकालस्तेन कृते द्विर्वचने पुन: आदेशरूपमेवावतिष्ठते | पपतुः पपुः | अातो लोप इटि च इत्याकारलोपे कृते तस्य स्थानिवद्भावात् एकाचो द्बे० इति द्विर्वचनं भवति Kāś on P.I.1.59; confer, compare also रूपातिदेशश्चायम् | द्विर्वचनेचि इत्यत्रास्य भाष्ये पाठात् | Pari. Bhaskara Pari. 97. For details see Mahābhāșya on P.VII.1.95 96.
re(रेश्)personal ending in Vedic Literature, substituted for त of the प्रथमपुरुष ( 3rd person. ) plural in the Perfect tense; confer, compare लिटस्तझयो रेश् इरेच् P. III. 4.81.
raupersonal ending substituted for the प्रथमपुरुषद्विवचन ( 3rd pers, dual affix तस्) in the periphrastic or first future;e. g. कर्तारौ; confer, compare लुट; प्रथमस्य डारौरसः P. II. 4.85.
raudhādikaa root belonging to the class of roots headed by रुध् which take the conjugational sign न् (श्नम्). See रुधादि a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
l(1)a consonant of the dental class which is a semi-vowel ( यण् ) with liquid contact in the mouth, and which is inaspirate ( अल्पप्राण ),voiced ( घोष ) and both nasalised and unnasalised; (2) name in general ( लकार ) given to the personal endings applied to roots in the ten tenses and moods which take different substitutes ति, त:, अन्ति et cetera, and others and have various modifications and augments in the different tenses and moods; (3) substituted as a semi-vowel ( यण् ) for the vowel ऌ followed by any other vowel in the euphonic combinations; (4)applied at the beginning of nontaddhita affixes as a mute letter indicating the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare लिति; P. VI. 1.193; ( 5 ) substituted for त्, थ्, द्, घ् or न् before ल्, confer, compare P.VIII.4. 60; (6) substituted under certain conditions for the consonant र् (a) of the root कृप्, (b) of prefixes प्र and परा before the root अय्, (c) of the root गॄ in frequentative forms and optionally before affixes beginning with a vowel, and (d ) of the word परि before घ and अङ्क; confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 18 to 22. _ ल (1) consonant ल्; see ल् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.' (2) a general term usually used by ancient grammarians to signifyलोप (elision or disappearance) of a letter or a syllable or a word; confer, compare सर्वसादेर्द्विगोश्च ल: | सवार्तिक:, द्वितन्त्र: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.2.60; (3) taddhita affix. affix ल added to the word क्लिन्न when चिल् and पिल् are substituted for the word क्लिन्न; e.g, चिल्लः, पिल्ल: confer, compare P. V. 2.33 Vārt 2.
lakāra(1)the consonant ल्.; see ल् (1) a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; (2) the personal endings affixed to roots; see ल् (2).
laghukaumudīknown as लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी also, an abridged work based upon the Siddhāntakaumudi of Bhațțojī Dīkşita, written by Bhațțojī's pupil Varadarāja. The work is very valuable and helpful to beginners in grammar. It has got the same topics as the Siddhāntakaumudī, but arranged differently. The work, named सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी is the same as लघुसिध्दान्तकौमुदी. Possibly सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी was the original name given by the author.
lactaddhita affix. affix ल applied optionally with the affix मतुप् to words ending in अा and meaning a detachable or undetachable part of an animal, ; as also to words mentioned in the group headed by the word सिध्म,as also to words वत्स and अस showing affection and strength respectively ; e. g. चूडाल:, सिध्मल:, वत्सल:, et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. V. 2. 96-98.
laṭgeneral personal ending applied to roots (1 ) to show the present time for which the personal endings ति त:...महि are substituted for the formation of verbs and अत् ( शतृ ) and आन or मान ( शानच् ) for the formation of the present participle; (2) to show past time when the indeclinable स्म is used in the sentence along with the verbal form or when the indeclinables ननु, न, नु, पुरा, यावत्, कदा, कर्हि et cetera, and others are used along with the verbal form under specific conditions; e. g. कटं करोति देवदत्त:, यजति स्म युधिष्ठिर:, अहं नु करोमि, वसन्तीह पुरा छात्रा:, यावद् भुङ्क्ते et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. III. 2.118-123, III. 3.4-9.
lasārvadhātukaa personal ending substituted for ल् which in certain cases gets the grave accent in, spite of the general rule that affixes ( which include personal endings ) are acute; confer, compare तास्यनुदात्तेन्डिद्दुपदेशाल्लसार्वधातुकमह्न्विङोः P. VI. 1. 186.
lāvasthāthe original condition of ल् or the personal endings before the affixes तिप्, तस् and others are substituted for them in accordance with the time or mood, as also the person and the number in view;confer, compare लावस्थायामेव स्यादयः, सार्वधातुके श्यनादयः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.III. 1. 33.
liṅgeneral term for the affixes called लिङ् (optative) which includes the potential ( विधिलिङ् ) and the conditional ( अाशीर्लिङ् ) affixes; .confer, compare विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्र्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ् and अाशिषि लिङ्लोटौ P. III. 3.161 and 173.
liṭan affix of the perfect tense; confer, compare परोक्षे लिट् P.III.2.115 for which the specific affixes णल्, अतुस् उस् et cetera, and others are substituted after roots which take Parasmaipada affixes. Before the lit affixes, a monosyllabic root is reduplicated while dissyllabic roots and denominative and other secondary roots, formed by adding an affix to an original root,take the affix अाम् after which all 'liț' personal endings are dropped and the forms of the roots कृ,भू and अस् with the necessary personal-endings, are placed immediately after the word ending in अाम् , but often with the intervention of a word or more in the Vedic language and rarely in the classical language; confer, compare तं पातयां प्रथममास पपात पश्चात् ; confer, compare कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि P.III.I. 35 to 42.
lugvikaraṇaa term used by grammarians especially in the Mahābhāșya; (confer, compare M.Bh. on P.I. 2.4, I.2.12, II.4. 77 et cetera, and others) for such roots as have their Vikaraņa (conjugational sign) dropped by a rule with the mention of the word लुक्;exempli gratia, for example the roots of the second conjugation as contrastedition with other roots; confer, compare लुग्विकरणालुग्विकरणयोरलुग्विकरणस्य Par.Śek. Pari.90.
luṅan affix applied to a root, showing action of immediate past time as contrasted with affixes called लिट् or लङ्. The affix लुङ् is found used, however, in the sense of the past time in general, and irrespective of time in Vedic Literature; confer, compare छन्दसि लुङ्लङ्लिटः P. III. 4.6. The conjugational affixes ति, त:, et cetera, and others are substituted for लुङ् as for the lakāras of other tenses and moods and the distinguishing sign or विकरण is added to a root before the affix called लुङ्; confer, compare च्लि लुङि and the following P. III. 1.43 et cetera, and others
lupdisappearance ( लुप्यते इति लुप् ); a term used by Pāņini with reference to the disappearance of an affix or its part under specified conditions by the express mention of the word लुप्. Although after the disappearance of an affix no operation for the base before, can take place as conditioned by the affix, i. e. although there is no प्रत्ययलक्षण, still, when the disappearanee is mentioned as लुप्, the base gets the gender and number of that original form of it which existed before the affix, which has disappeared, was applied; confer, compare कुरव: दश:, चञ्चेव पुरुष: चञ्चा; confer, compare लुपि युक्तवद् व्यक्तिवचने. P. I. 2.51 and Kāśikā thereon.
luptathat which has been elided or dropped during the process of the formation of words. As elision or लोप is looked upon as a kind of substitutē, in short a zerosubstitutē, the convention of the substitute being looked upon as the original one, viz.the sthānivadbhāva, applies to it.
luptavikaraṇaa term applied to roots after which the conjugational sign is dropped; e. g. roots of the second and third conjugations; confer, compare न लुप्तविकरणेभ्योनुदात्तत्वं भवति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P. VI.1. 186.
lṛcommon term for the affixes लृट् ( second Future ) and लृङ् (conditional), the remnant being लृ after the mute consonants ङ् and ट् have been droppedition
lṛṅgeneral term for the personal affixes of the conditional, which are applied to a root to show the happening of an action only if there was another preceding action, both the actions being expressed by लृङ् or conditional affixes; exempli gratia, for example देवश्चेदवर्षिष्यत् सुभिक्षमभविष्यत्; confer, compare लिङ्निमित्ते लृङ् क्रियातिपत्तौ P. III.3. 139, 140. लृङ् is also used under certain other conditions when some specific partīcles are used; confer, compare P.III.3.141-146, 151.
leṭa general term for the affixes of the Vedic subjunctive, the usual personal-endings ति, तस् et cetera, and others being substituted for लेट् as in the case of other tenses and moods. The augments अट् and आट् are sometimes prefixed to the लेट् affix and the sign ( विकरण ) स् ( सिप् ) is sometimes added to the roots. The forms of लेट् are to be arrived at as they are found actually used in Vedic language, even by placing personal-endings of a person or number different from what is actually requiredition
lopadisappearance of a word or part of a word enjoined in grammar for arriving at the required forms of a word; confer, compare अदर्शनं लोपः P. I.1.52: confer, compare अदर्शनमश्रवणमनुच्चारणमनुपलब्धिरभावो वर्णविनाश इत्यनर्थान्तरम् । एतैः शब्दैर्योर्थोभिधीयते तस्य लोप इतीयं संज्ञा भवति Kāś. on P.I.1. 52. This disappearance in the case of an affix is tantamount to its notional presence or imaginary presence, as operations caused by it do take place although the word element has disappeared; confer, compare प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् । प्रत्यये लुप्तेपि तद्धेतुकं कार्ये भवति Kāś. on P. I.1.62.
lomādiclass of words headed by the word लोमन् to which the taddhita affix. affix, श, in the sense 'possessed of' is added optionally along with the usual affix मत् ( मतुप् ); exempli gratia, for example लोमश:, लोमवान्, रोमश: रोमवान् बभ्रुशः, हरिश:, कपिश: et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.2.100.
v(1)fourth letter of the class of consonants headed by य्, which are looked upon as semi-vowels; व् is a dental, soft, non-aspirate consonant pronounced as ब् in some provinces and written also sometimes like ब्, especially when it stands at the beginning of a word; (2) substitute for उ which is followed by a vowel excepting उ; e. g, मधु+अरि: = मध्वरि:; confer, compare इको यणचि P. VI. I. 77; (3) the consonant व्, which is sometimes uttered with very little effort when it is at the end of a word and followed by a vowel or a semivowel, or a fifth, fourth or third consonant or the consonant ह्. In such cases it is called लघूच्चारण; confer, compare यस्योच्चारणे जिह्वाग्रोपाग्रमध्यमूलानां शैथिल्यं जायते स लघूच्चारण: S. K. on P.VIII.3. 18;(4) solitary remnant of the affixes क्विप्,क्विन्, ण्वि and the like, when the other letters which are mute are dropped and the affix क्वप् or the like becomes a zero affix. This व् also is finally dropped; confer, compare वेरपृक्तस्य P. VI.1.67.
v(1)the semivowel व्: see व्; (2) personal-ending substituted for वस् in the perfect ( लिट् ) first person (उत्तमपुरुष), and in the present tense in the case of the root विद्; confer, compare परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्० and विदो लटो वा. P. III. 4.82,83; (3) krt affix क्विप् , क्विन् or वि of which only व् remains; confer, compare अनिगन्तोञ्चतौ वप्रत्यये P. VI. 2.52; confer, compare also विष्वग्देवयोश्र्च टेरद्यञ्चतौ वप्रत्यये VI.3.92.the affix is mentioned as वप्रत्यय by Panini, but, in fact, it is व् , अ being added for ease in pronunciation; (4) taddhita affix. affix in the sense of possession added along with the other affixes इन् , इक, and वत् to the word केश and to some other words such as मणि, हिरण्य, राजी, अर्णस् et cetera, and others as also to गाण्डी and अजग; confer, compare P. V. 2. 109, 110.
vanaspatyādia class of compound words headed by वनस्पति which retain the original accent of the members of the compound, as for example, in the compound word वनस्पति both the words वन and पति have got their initial vowel अ accented acute; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.VI.2.140.
varadarājaa scholar of grammar and a pupil of Bhattoji Diksita who flourished in the end of the seventeenth century and wrote abridgments of the Siddhanta-kaumudi for beginners in grammar named लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी and मध्यसिद्धान्तकौमुदी as also धातुकारिकावली and गीर्वाणपदमञ्जरी. The work under the name सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी, which is the shortest abridgment, is, in fact, the लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी itselfeminine. It is possible that the auother first prepared the सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी and then, he himself or a pupil of his, put additional necessary matter and prepared the Laghusiddhanta-kaumudi.
varganame given to the different classes of consonants which are headed by an unaspirate surd; e. g. कवर्ग, चवर्ग, टवर्ग, तवर्ग and पवर्ग. The several consonants in each group or class, are, in their serial order, named वगेप्रथम, वर्गद्वितीय et cetera, and others On the analogy of these five classes, the semivowels are called by the name यवर्ग and sibilants, are called by the name शवर्ग,
varṇaphonemic unit: a letter The term was in use in ancient times and found used generally in the masculine gender, but occasionally in the neuter gender too; .e. g. उपदिष्टा इमे वर्णाः M.Bh. Ahnika 1. also मा कदाचिदवर्णे भूत् M.Bh. on Siva Sutras 3, 4.
varṇasamāmnāyaa collection of letters or alphabet given traditionally. Although the Sanskrit alphabet has got everywhere the same cardinal letters id est, that is vowels अ, इ et cetera, and others, consonants क्, ख् etc : semivowels य्, र्, ल्, व, sibilants श् ष् स् ह् and a few additional phonetic units such as अनुस्वार, विसर्ग and others, still their number and order differ in the different traditional enumerations. Panini has not mentioned them actually but the fourteen Siva Sutras, on which he has based his work, mention only 9 vowels and 34 consonants, the long vowels being looked upon as varieties of the short ones. The Siksa of Panini mentions 63 or 64 letters, adding the letter ळ ( दुःस्पृष्ट ); confer, compare त्रिषष्टि: चतुःषष्टिर्वा वर्णाः शम्भुमते मताः Panini Siksa. St.3. The Rk Pratisakhya adds four (Visarga, Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya and Anusvara ) to the forty three given in the Siva Sutras and mentions 47. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya mentions 52 letters viz. 16 vowels, 25class consonants, 4 semivowels,six sibilants (श्, ष् , स्, ह् , क्, प् , ) and anusvara. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions 65 letters 3 varieties of अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ, two varieties of ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, 25 class-consonants, four semivowels, four sibilants, and जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय, अनुस्वार, विसर्जनीय, नासिक्य and four यम letters; confer, compare एते पञ्चषष्टिवर्णा ब्रह्मराशिरात्मवाचः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 25. The Rk Tantra gives 57 letters viz. 14 vowels, 25 class consonants, 4 semivowels, 4 sibilants, Visarga,.Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya, Anunasika, 4_yamas and two Anusvaras. The Rk Tantra gives two different serial orders, the Uddesa (common) and the Upadesa (traditional). The common order or Uddesa gives the 14 vowels beginning with अ, then the 25 class consonants, then the four semivowels, the four sibilants and lastly the eight ayogavahas, viz. the visarjanya and others. The traditional order gives the diphthongs first, then long vowels ( अा, ऋ, लॄ, ई and ऊ ) then short vowels (ऋ, लृ, इ, उ, and lastly अ ), then semivowels, then the five fifth consonants, the five fourths, the five thirds, the five seconds, the five firsts, then the four sibilants and then the eight ayogavaha letters and two Ausvaras instead of one anuswara. Panini appears to have followed the traditional order with a few changes that are necessary for the technigue of his work.
vahiatmanepada personal-ending of the first person ( उत्तमपुरुष) dual, substituted for the general ल् affix; confer, compare तिप्तसझि... महि़्ङ् P.III.4.78.
a term often used in the sutras of Panini and others,' to show the optional application of a rule: confer, compare न वेति विभाषा P.I.2.44: confer, compare also वा गम:I.2.13 et cetera, and others See विभाषा.
vākyapadīyaa celebrated work on meanings of words and sentences written by the famous grammarian Bhartrhari ( called also Hari ) of the seventh century. The work is looked upon as a final authority regarding the grammatical treatment of words and sentences,for their interpretation and often quoted by later grammarians. It consists of three chapters the Padakanda or Brahmakanda, the Vakyakanda and the Samkirnakanda, and has got an excellent commentary written by Punyaraja and Helaraja.
vārttikaa statement which is as much authoritative as the original statement to which it is given as an addition for purposes of correction, completion or explanation. The word is defined by old writers in an often-guoted verseउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तनां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते | तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिण:|This definition fully applies to the varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. The word is explained by Kaiyata as वृत्तौ साधु वार्त्तिकम् which gives strength to the supposition that there were glosses on the Sutras of Panini of which the Varttikas formed a faithful pithy summary of the topics discussedition The word varttika is used in the Mahabhasya at two places only हन्तेः पूर्वविप्रविषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापित: M.Bh. on P.III. 4.37 and अपर आह् यद्वार्त्तिक इति M.Bh. on P. II.2.24 Vart. 18. In अपर अहृ यद्वार्त्तिक इति the word is contrasted with the word वृत्तिसूत्र which means the original Sutra (of Panini ) which has been actuaIly quoted, viz. संख्ययाव्ययासन्नाo II.2. 25. Nagesa gives ' सूत्रे अनुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिक्रत्वम् as the definition of a Varttika which refers only to two out of the three features of the Varttikas stated a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. If the word उक्त has been omitted with a purpose by Nagesa, the definition may well-nigh lead to support the view that the genuine Varttikapatha of Katyayana consisted of a smaller number of Varttikas which along with a large number of Varttikas of other writers are quoted in the Mahabhasya, without specific names of writers, For details see pages 193-223 Vol. VII Patanjala Mahabhasya, D.E, Society's Edition.
vārtikapāṭhathe text of the Varttikas as traditionally handed over in the oral recital or in manuscripts As observed a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.(see वार्त्तिक),although a large number of Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya are ascribed to Katyayana, the genuine Varttikapatha giving such Varttikas only, as were definitely composed by him, has not been preserved and Nagesa has actually gone to the length of making a statement like " वार्तिकपाठ: भ्रष्टः" ; confer, compare . Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on P.I.l.I2 Varttika 6.
vārtikavacanaa small pithy statement or assertion in the manner of the original sutras which is held as much authoritative as the Sutra: cf न ब्रुमो वृत्तिसूत्रवचनप्रामाण्यादिति | किं तर्हि | वार्तिकवचनप्रामाण्यादिति [ M.Bh. on P.II..1.1 Varttika 23.
vārttikasūtrathe same as वार्तिकवचन which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Varttikas are termed Varttika sutras on account of their close similarity with the original Sutras, which in contrast are termed Vrttisutras.
vāsarūpanyāyathe dictum of applying optionally any two or more krt affixes to a root if they become applicable at one and the same time, only provided that those affixes are not in the topic of स्त्रियाम् (P.III.3.94 et cetera, and others) and are not the same in appearance such as ण, अ, क etc , which are the same viz. अ; confer, compare वासरूपेSस्त्रियाम् P.III.1.94; confer, compare also वासरूपन्यायेन ण्वुलपि भावेष्यति M.Bh. on P.III.2.146 Vart.1;confer, comparealso M.Bh. on P.III.2.150 Vart. 1, The word वासरूप and वासरूपविधि are also used in the same sense: confer, compare ताच्छीलिका वासरूपेण न भवन्तीति M.Bh. on P.III. 2.150 Vart. 2, as also ताच्छीलिकेषु वासरूपविधिर्नास्ति Par. Sek. Pari. 67.
vāsudeva( शास्त्री)surnamed Abhyankar, who lived from 1863 to l942 and did vigorous and active work of teaching pupils and writing essays, articles, commentary works and original works on various Shastras with the same scholarship, zeal and acumen for fifty years in Poona. He wrote गूढार्थप्रकाश a commentary on the LaghuSabdendusekhara and तत्त्वादर्श a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara in 1889. His edition of the Patanjala Mahabhasya with full translation and notes in Marathi can be called his magnum opus. See अभ्यंकर.
vikaraṇaan affix placed between a root and the personal ending, for showing the specific tense or mood or voice to convey which, the personal ending is applied; e. g. the conjugational signs शप् , श्यन् , श्रु, श, श्नम्, उ, श्ना and यक्, आम् , as also स्य, तास् , सिप् , अाम् and च्लि with its substitutes. Although the term विकरण is used by ancient grammarians and freely used by the Mahabhsyakara in connection with the affixes, mentioned in the sutras of Panini, such as शप् , श्यन् and others, the term is not found in the Sutras of Panini. The vikaranas are different from the major kinds of the regular affixes तिङ्, कृत्य and other similar ones. The vikaranas can be called कृत्; so also, as they are mentioned in the topic (अधिकार) of affixes or Pratyayas,they hold the designation ' pratyaya '. For the use of the word विकरण see M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12, III, 1.31 and VI. 1.5. The term विकरण is found . in the Yājñavalkya Siksa in the sense of change, ( confer, compare उपधारञ्जनं कुर्यान्मनोर्विकरणे सति ) and possibly the ancient grammarians used it in that very sense as they found the root कृ modified as करु or कुरु, or चि as चिनु, or भू as भव before the regular personal endings तिप् , तस् et cetera, and others
vikalpitamade applicable optionally.
vikṛtamutilated, changed in nature e. g. the word राम into रम् in रामौ which is equivalent to राम् + औ. For technical purposes in grammar a word, although mutilated a little by lopa, agama or varnavikara, is looked upon as the original one for undergoing operations cf एकदेशविकृतमनन्यवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 37.
vikṛtichange, modification as different from the original which is called प्रकृतिः confer, compareप्रकृतिरुपादानकारणं । तस्यैव उत्तरमवस्थान्तरं विकृतिः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.I.12. विकृतिवल्ली a work on the modified recital of the Veda words, or पदपाठविकृति, ascribed to Vyadi who is believed to have been a pupil of वर्ष.
vikrāntaname given to a samdhi where the visarga remains intact although it can , optionally be changed into a sibilant consonant; exempli gratia, for example यः ककुभ:, यः पञ्च, यो वः शिवतमो रसः। cf विक्रान्तसंधिस्तु प्राकृतेापधो वेदितव्यो यत्र विसर्गः श्रूयेत R.Pr.IV.11.
vipratiṣedhaconfict, opposition; opposition or conflict between two rules of equal strength, which become applicable simultaneously when Pāṇini's dictum विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् applies and the rule mentioned later on, or subsequently, in the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is allowed to apply: confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I.4.2: confer, compare also यत्र द्वौ प्रसङ्गौ अन्यार्थौ एकस्मिन्युगपत् प्राप्नुतः स तुल्यबलविरोधी विप्रतिषेध: Kāś. on P.I. 4.2: confer, compare also विप्रतिषेध उत्तरं बलवदलोपे Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.159. The dictum of the application of the subsequent rule is adopted only if the conflicting rules are of equal strength; hence, rules which are either nitya, antaraṅga or apavāda, among which each subsequent one is more powerful than the preceding one and which are all more powerful than the पर or the subsequent rule, set aside the पर rule. There is another dictum that when by the dictum about the subsequent rule being more powerful, an earlier rule is set aside by a later rule, the earlier rule does not apply again in that instance, barring a few exccptional cases; confer, compare सकृद्गतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद् वाधितं तद् बाधितमेव | पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्वम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 40, 39.
vibhaktiliterally division, separation; separation of the base id est, that is that factor which shows the base separately। The word विभक्ति is generally used in the sense of case affixes; but in Pāṇini's grammar the term विभक्ति is applied also to personal endings applied to roots to form verbs; confer, compareविभक्तिश्च । सुप्तिङौ विभक्तिसंज्ञौ स्तः S.K.on Pāṇ. I.4.104. The term is also applied to taddhita affix.affixes which are applied to pronouns, किम् and बहु, ending in the ablative or in the locative case or in other cases on rare occasions. Such affixes are तस् (तसिल् ), त्र, (त्रल्), ह, अत्, दा, ऋहिल्, दानीम्, था ( थाल् ) and थम् given in P.V.3.1 to V.3.26.The case affixes are further divided into उपपदविभक्ति affixes and कारकविभक्ति affixes. For details see P.II.3.1 to 73.
vibhattipādaconventional name given to the third pāda of the fifth Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., as it begins with the Sūtra प्राग्दिशो विभक्तिः P.V.3.1.
vibhaktyarthaliterally the sense of a case-affix, as also of a personal affix; the term is applied to the Kāraka Prakarana or Kāraka chapter or topic in grammar where senses of the विभक्ति affixes are fully discussed and illustrated; confer, compare विभक्त्यर्था: a chapter in the Siddhānta-kaumudi of Bhaṭṭojī Dīkṣita.
vibhāṣāoptionally, alternatively; the word is explained by Pāṇini as नवा in the rule न वेति विभाषा (P.I.1.44)in consonance with its derivation from the root भाष् with वि; confer, compare नेति प्रतिषेधे वेति विकल्पस्तयोः प्रतिषेधविकल्पयोर्विभाषेत्ति संज्ञा भवति । विभाषाप्रदेशेषु प्रतिषेधविकल्पावुपतिष्ठते | तत्र प्रतिषेधेन समीकृते विषये प्रश्चाद्विकल्पः प्रवर्तते. The option (विभाषा) is further divided into three kind प्राप्ते विभाषा, अप्राप्ते विभाषा and उभयत्र विभाषा. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P. I.1.44.
vibhāṣita(1)stated or enjoined optionally; cf मेध्यः पशुर्विभाषितः । आलब्धव्यो नालब्धव्य इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 15; cf also मन्ये धातुर्विभाषितः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.III.1.27 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4: (2) roots taking personal affixes of both the Padas.
vivāraname given to an external effort in the production of a sound when the vocal chords of the glottis or larynx are extended; confer, compare कण्ठबिलस्य विकासः विवारः Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.9. confer, compare also विवरणं कण्ठस्य विस्तरणम् | स एव विवाराख्य: बाह्यः प्रयत्न: | तस्मिन्सति श्वासे नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नः कियते | तद्ध्वनिसंसर्गादघोषो नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नो जायते इति शिक्षायां स्मर्यते Bhāṣya on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 5.
vivṛtaname given to an internal effort (as contrasted with the external effort named विवार ) when the tip, middle, or root of the tongue which is instrumental in producing a sound, is kept apart from the place or sthāna of the Pro duction of the sound; confer, compare तत्रोत्पत्तेः प्राग्यदा जिह्वाग्रोपाग्रमध्यमूलानि तत्तद्वर्णोत्पत्तिस्थानानां ताल्वादीनां दूरतः वर्तन्ते तदा विवृतता Tattvabodhini on S. K. on P.I.1.9.
vivṛtatarapossessed of the internal effort viz. विवृत which is specially strengthenedition The diphthongs have got at the time of their production the internal effort विवृत specially strengthened; confer, compare यदत्रवेर्णं, विवृततरं तदन्यस्मादवर्णात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Māheśvarasūtras. 3,4 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 10.
vuctaddhita affix. affix अक applied optionally with the affixes घ and इल to the preposition उप when the whole word is used as the name of a man exempli gratia, for example उपक:; confer, compare Kāś. on P. V. 3.80.
vuñ(ID taddhita affix. affix अक causing vṛddhi to the vowel of the first syllable of that word to which it is added, as prescribed, (a) to the words denoting an offspring as also to the words उक्ष, उष्ट्र et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'a group'; e. g. अोपगवकम् , औष्ट्रकम् , कैदारकम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.IV.2.39, 40; (b) to the words राजन्य and others in the sense of 'inhabited country' ; e. g. राजन्यकः देवनायकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. IV.2.53, (c) to the words headed by अरीहण such as द्वुघण, खदिर्, मैत्रायण, काशकृत्स्न et cetera, and others in the quadruple senses; exempli gratia, for example अारीहणकम् , द्रौबणकम् , confer, compare P.IV.2.80, (d) to the word धन्व meaning a desert, to words with य् or र for their penultimate, to words ending in प्रस्थ, पुर and वह as also to words headed by धूम, नगर, अरण्य कुरु, युगन्धर et cetera, and others, under certain conditions in the miscellaneous senses; e. g. सांकाश्यकः,पाटलिपुत्रकः, माकन्दकः, आङ्गकः, वाङ्गकः, धौमकः, नागरकः, अारण्यकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.2.121-130,134,135, 136; (e) to the words शरद् , आश्वयुजी, ग्रीष्म, वसन्त, संवत्सर,अाग्रहायणी and others in the specific senses given: confer, compare P. IV. 3.27, 45, 46, 49, 50; (f) to words denoting descendence or spiritual relation, words meaning families and warrior clans, words कुलाल and others, words meaning clans, and students learning a specific Vedic branch in specific senses prescribed : e. g. आचार्यक, मातामहक, ग्लौचुकायनक, कालालक, काठक, कालापक et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.77, 99, 118, 126; (g) to the words शाकल, उष्ट्र, उमा and ऊर्णा in the specially given senses; exempli gratia, for example शाकलः, संघः, औप्ट्रकः, औमम् और्णम्, confer, compareP.IV.3.188,157,158; (h) to words with य् as the penultimate, and a long vowel preceding the last one, to words in the dvandva compound, and to the words मनोज्ञ, कल्याण and others in the sense of 'nature' or 'profession';e.g रामणीयकम् गौपालपशुपालिका, गार्गिका, काठिका etc; confer, compare P. V.1.132,133,134: (2) kṛt affix अक added to the roots निन्द् हिंस् and others, and to the roots देव् and कृश् with a prefix before,in the sense of a habituated,professional or skilled agent; exempli gratia, for example. निन्दकः, परिक्षेपकः, असूयकः, परिदेवकः, आक्रोशकः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.2. 146, 147.
vṛtādia class of roots headed by the root वृत् which take optionally the Parasmaipada affixes when the vikaraṇa स्य of the future tense and the conditional mood, or the desiderative vikaraṇa सन् is added to them; exempli gratia, for example वर्त्स्यति,वर्तिष्यते; अवर्त्स्यत्, अवर्तिष्यत्,; विवृत्सति, विवर्तिषते confer, compare Kāś. on P.I.3.92; confer, comparealso P.VII.2.59.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
vṛttisūtraa rule forming the basis of a vrtti, i. e. a rule on which glosses are written, as contrasted with वार्तिकसूत्र or वार्तिक a pithy Sutralike statement composed as an addition or a modification of the original Sutra; confer, compare केचित्तावदाहुर्यद् वृत्तिसूत्रे इति | संख्ययाव्ययासन्नादूराधिकसंख्यां: संख्येये ( P. II. 2.25 ) इति | M, Bh. on P. II. 2. 24,
veṭa term applied to roots which optionally admit the application of the augment इ (इट्) to the Ardhadhatuka affixes placed after them, e. g. roots having got the indicatory vowel ऊ added to them as also the roots स्वृ, सू, धू and the roots headed by रध् as also some specifically mentioned roots under certain conditions; cf P. VIl. 2.44-51.
vekalpika1it. optional, voluntary; the term is used in connection with a rule or operation prescribed alternatively with another, where there is an option to apply any one of the two and arrive at two forms in the same sense;.
vaibhāṣikaoptional, alternative; confer, compare वेति वैभाषिक: T. Pr.XXII. 7; see वैकल्पिक.
vyañjanāvidyamānavadbhāvaconsideration of a consonant being not present as far as the accentuation of a vowel is concerned, the vowel being looked upon as the initial or the final, irrespective of the consonant .or consonants respectively preceding it, or following it; confer, compare स्वरविधौ व्यञ्जनमविद्यमानवद् भवति Par. Sek. Pari. 79.
vyayaliterallyloss; disappearance the word is used in the sense of inflectional changes. An indeclinable is called अव्यय because it has no inflectional changes. cf तत्कथमनुदात्तप्रकृति नाम स्यात् | दृष्टव्ययं तु भवति । Nirukta of Yāska.I.8; V.23.
vyayavat(1)possessed of व्यय or inflectional change; a declinable word; cf यस्य पुनर्विभक्त्यादिभिर्विकारः क्रियते स व्ययवान् । आद्युदात्त: स च अन्त:शब्दॊ भवति | V: Pr. II.26; (2) characterized by a loss of accent id est, that is the loss of the original accent and the presence of another accent: confer, compare पदान्तस्य पदे दृष्टं स्वरितत्वं न दृश्यते | अदृष्टमनुदात्तत्वं च दृश्यते । Uvvata on R. Pr, XI.31.
vyavasthitavibhāṣāan option which does not apply universally in all the instances of a rule which prescribes an operation optionally, but applies necessarily in : some cases and does not apply at all in the other cases, the total result being an option regarding the conduct of the rule. The rules अजेर्व्यघञपॊ: P. II. 4.56, लट: शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे III. 2.124 and वामि I. 4.5 are some of the rules which have got an option described as व्यवस्थितविभाषा. The standard instances of व्यवस्थितविभाषा are given in the ancient verse देवत्रातो गलो ग्राहः इतियोगे च सद्विधिः | मिथस्ते न विभाष्यन्ते गवाक्षः संशितव्रतः|| M. Bh, on P, III. 3.156; VII.4.41.
vyākaraṇaGrammar the development of the meaning of the term can be seen by the senses given below in a serial order and the examples after those senses; (a) analysis or explanation by analysis; (b) rules of explanation; (c) specific rules explaining the formation of words; d) explanation of the formation of rules; (e) a treatise in which such an explanation is given; (f) a collection of such treatises and (g) a systematic explanation of the formation of words in a language (व्याकरणशास्त्र or शब्दानुशासन); confer, compare(a) व्यक्रियते अनेन इति व्याकरणम् ; M.Bh.on Ahnika 1, Vart. 12: confer, compare (b) लक्ष्यलक्षणे व्याकरणम्: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1, Vart. 14; confer, compare (c) न यथा लोके तथा व्याकरणे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.1. Vart. 7; d) सर्वत्रैव हि व्याकरणे पूर्वोच्चारित: संज्ञी परोच्चारिता संज्ञा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P. I. 1.1. Vart 7: (e) न तथा लोके यथा व्याकरणे M.Bh. on P, I. 1.23 Vart. 4: confer, compare(f)इह च व्याकरणे शब्दे कार्यस्य संभव:, अर्थं असंभवः | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.68. confer, compare (g) व्याकरणं नाम इयमुत्तरा विद्या । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.32. The word व्याकरण is mostly used in the sense of ’the Science of Grammar ' in the Mahabhasya. It is explained by modern scholars as 'the law of the corrections of speech and etymological science' and described both as a science and an art.
vyākaraṇamahābhāṣyapradīpathe original name of the learned commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya by Kaiyatabhatta the well-known grammarian of Kashmir of the eleventh century. See प्रदीप and कैयट.
vyākhyāna(1)explanation of a rule, or a line, or a verse by analysing the rule and giving examples and counter-examples; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऎजिति | किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत्समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति | M.Bh. Ahnika l Vart.11 ; (2)authoritative decision given in places of doubt by ancient scholars; confer, compare याख्थानतो विशेषप्रतिपत्ति: न हि संदेहादलक्षणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika .1; Par.Sek.Pari.1.
vyudāsasetting aside of a rule or operation by means of another more powerful rule, or by means of a conventional dictum.
śā(1)conjugational sign(विकरण) applied to the roots of the sixth conjugation ( तुदादिगण ) in all conjugational tenses and moods ( i, e. the present, the imperfect,the imperative and the potential ) before the personal-endings; confer, compare तुदादिभ्यः शः, P. III.1.77; this sign श ( अ ) has got the initial consonant श्, as an indicatory one, and hence this अ is a Sarvadhatuka affix, but, it is weak and does not cause गुण for the preceding vowel; ( 2 ) taddhita affix. affix श in the sense of possession applied to the words लोमन् and others; e. g. लोमश:, रोमशःconfer, compare P.V.2. 100; (3) krt affix (अ ) applied to the roots पा, घ्रा, ध्मा, धे and दृश् when preceded by a prefix,to the roots लिम्प्, विन्द् et cetera, and othersnot preceded by a prefix, and optionaily to दा and धा of the third conjugation in the sense of an agent'; exempli gratia, for example उत्पिबः, उत्पश्यः, लिम्प:, विन्दः दद:, दायः: confer, compare P.III.1.137-139.
śāṅkaṭactaddhita affix. affix शङ्कट applied optionally with the affix शालच् ( शाल ) to the prefix वि in the sense of the base itself ( स्वार्थे); exempli gratia, for example विशङ्कटम् ! विशालम् ।; confer, compare S.K. on P.V. 2.28; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.2.28 which states विशाले विशङ्कटे शृङ्गे । तस्माद् गौरपि विशङ्कट उच्यते !
śatapādaconventional name given to the fourth pada of the fifth adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi which begins with the sutra पादशतस्य संख्यांदेवींप्सायां वुन् लेपश्च P. V. 4.1.
śatṛkrt affix अत् in the sense of ' the agent of the present time ', applied to any root which takes the Parasmaipada personal affixes confer, compare लट: शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे P. III. 2.126,8. The words formed with this शतृ (अत्) affix are termed present participles in the declension of which, by virtue of the indicatory vowel ऋ in शतृ, the augment नुम् is inserted after the last vowel of the base, and the root receives such modifications as are caused by a Sarvadhatuka affix, the affix शतृ being looked upon as a Sarvadhatuka affix on account of the indicatory letter श्. The word ending in this affix शतृ governs a noun forming its object, in the accusative case.
śapa vikarana affix ( conjugational sign ) applied to roots of the first conjugation and in general to all secondary roots i. e. roots formed from nouns and from other roots before personal-endings which are Sarvadhatuka and which possess the sense of agent, provided there is no other vikarana affix prescribed: e. g. भवति, एधते, कारयति, हारयति, बुभूपति, पुत्रीयति, पुत्रकाम्यति, कामयते, गेीपांयति, कण्ङ्कयति, पटयति, दिनन्ति (यामिन्य:) et cetera, and others confer, compare कर्तरि शप् , P. III.1 .68. This affix शप् is dropped after roots of the second conjugation (अदादि } and those of the third conjugation ( जुहोत्यादि) and in Vedic Literature wherever observed; confer, compare P.II.4.72, 73, 75, 76.
śabdaliterally "sound" in general; confer, compare शब्दं कुरु शब्दं मा कार्षीः | ध्वनिं कुर्वनेवमुच्यते | M.Bh. in Ahnika I; confer, compare also शब्दः प्रकृतिः सर्ववर्णानाम् | वर्णपृक्तः: शब्दो वाच उत्पत्तिः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII.1, XXIII.3.In grammar the word शब्द is applied to such words only as possess sense; confer, compare प्रतीतपदार्थको लोके ध्वनि: शब्द: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika 1: confer, comparealso येनोच्चरितेन अर्थः प्रतीयते स शब्दः Sringara Prakasa I; confer, compare also अथ शब्दानुशासनम् M.Bh. Ahnika 1. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya, शब्द् is said to be constituted of air as far as its nature is concerned, but it is taken to mean in the Pratisakhya and grammar works in a restricted sense as letters possessed of sense, The vajasaneyiPratisakhya gives four kinds of words तिडू, कृत्, तद्धित and समास while नाम, आख्यात, निपात and उपसर्ग are described to be the four kinds in the Nirukta. As शब्द in grammar, is restricted to a phonetic unit possessed of sense, it can be applied to crude bases, affixes, as also to words that are completely formed with case-endings or personal affixes. In fact, taking it to be applicable to all such kinds, some grammarians have given tweive subdivisions of शब्द, vizप्रक्रुति, प्रत्यय,उपत्कार, उपपद, प्रातिपदिक, विभक्ति, उपसर्जन, समास, पद, वाक्य, प्रकरण and प्रबन्ध; confer, compare Sringara Prakasa I.
śabdatattvaliterally the essence of a word; the ultimate sense conveyed by the word which is termed स्फोट by the Vaiyakaranas. Philosophically this Sabdatattva or Sphota is the philosophical Brahman of the Vedantins, which is named as Sabdabrahma or Nadabrahma by the Vaiykaranas,and which appears as the Phenomenal world of the basis of its own powers such as time factor and the like; confer, compare अनादिनिधनं ब्रह्म शब्दतत्वं यदक्षरम् ! विवर्ततेर्थभावेन प्रक्रिया जगतो यतः ॥ vakyapadiya, I.1: cf। also Vakyapadiya II.31.
śabdopadeśascientific and authoritative citation or statement of a word as contrasted with अपशब्दोपदेशः; confer, compare किं शब्दोपदेश: कर्तव्यः आहोस्विदपशब्दोपदेशः आहोस्विदुभयोपदेश इति ।Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika l. शमादि a class of eight roots headed by शम् which get their vowel lengthened before the conjugational sign य (श्यन्) as also before the krt. affix इन् ( घिनुण् ) in the sense of 'habituated to': exempli gratia, for example शाम्यति, शमी, भ्राम्यति, भ्रमी et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.VII.3.74 and P. III.2.141.
śarādia class of words headed by the word शर which have the taddhita affix. affix मय (मयट्) added to them in the sense of 'product' or 'portion': exempli gratia, for example शरमयम् , दर्भमयम् , मृण्मयम्; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.144;(2) a class of words headed by शर which get their final vowel lengthened before the taddhita affix.affix मत् when the whole word forms a proper noun: exempli gratia, for example शरावती, वंशावती, हनूमान् ; confer, compare P.VI.3.119.
śākaṭaa taddhita affix. affix added optionally with शाकिन to the words इक्षु and others in the sense of a field producing the thing; exempli gratia, for example इक्षुशाकटम् ; confer, compare P.V.2.29.
śākinataddhita affix. affix (originally a word formed from शाकी by affixing न as given in Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.V.2.100), applied to the word इक्षु in the sense of a field producing it; e. g. इक्षुशाकिनम्.; confer, compare भवने क्षेत्रे इक्ष्वादिभ्यः शाकटशाकिनौ Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.29.
śānac(1)krt affix ( अान ) substituted for the Atmanepada लट् affixes, to which म् is prefixed if the base before the affix ends in अ; e. g. एधमान, विद्यमान, etc; cf P. III. 2. 124, 125, 126; (2) Vikarana affix ( अान ) substituted for श्ना before the personal ending हि of the imperative second person singular, if the preceding root ends in a consonant: e. g. पुषाण, मुषाण, confer, compare P. III. 1. 83.
śāśvatikaeternal or permanent, as contrasted with कार्य id est, that is produced; confer, compareएतस्मिन्वाक्ये इन्दुमैत्रेययो: शाश्वतिको विरोधः Siradeva Pari.36; cf also एके वर्णाञू शाश्वतिकान् न कार्यान् R.Pr.XIII.4.
śāstrātideśasupposition of the original in the place of the substitute merely for the sake of the application of a grammatical rule as contrasted with रूपातिदेश, the actual restoration of the original form; confer, compare किं पुनरयं शास्त्रातिदेशः । तृचो यच्छास्त्रं तदतिदिश्यते । आहोस्विद्रूपातिदेशः तृचो यद्रूपं तदतिदिश्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VII.1.95.
śitpossessed of, or characterized by, the indicatory letter श्; the krt affixes which are marked with the indicatory श् are termed Sarvadhatuka affixes (confer, compare P.III.4.113), while, the Adesas or substitutes, marked with the indicatory श्, are substituted for the whole of the Sthanin or the original and not for its final letter according to the rule अलोन्त्यस्य P. I.1.52; e. g. शि is substituted,not for the final स् of जस् and शस् but for the whole जस् and the whole शस्; confer, compare P.I.1.55.
śivādia big class of about ninety words headed by the word शिव which have the taddhita affix. affix अ ( अण् ) added to them in the sense of a descendant ( अपत्य ) in spite of other affixes such as इञ् , ण्यत् and others prescribed by other rules, which sometimes do not take place, or do so optionally; exempli gratia, for example शैवः: ताक्ष्ण:, ताक्षण्यः; गाङ्ग: गाङ्गेय:, गङ्गायनि:; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.112. This class is looked upon as आकृतिगण and a word is supposed to be . included in this class, when the ; affix अ is noticed in spite of some other affix being applicable by some other rule.
śuklayajuḥprātiśākhyaname of the Pratisakhya treatise pertaining to the White Yajurveda which is also called the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. This work appears to be a later one as compared with the other PratiSakhya works and bears much similarity with some of the Sutras of Panini. It is divided into eight chapters by the author and it deals with letters, their origin and their classification, the euphonic and other changes when the Samhita text is rendered into the Pada text, and accents. The work appears to be a common work for all the different branches of the White Yajurveda, being probably based on the individually different Pratisakhya works of the different branches of the Shukla Yajurveda composed in ancient times. Katyayana is traditionally believed to be the author of the work and very likely he was the same Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini.
śubhrādia class of words headed by the word शुभ्र to which the taddhita affix एय ( ढक् ) is added in the sense of a descendant in spite of other affixes being prescribed by some other rules which sometimes are added optionally with this एय; exempli gratia, for example शौभ्रेय:, वैधवेय: रौहिणेयः. This class is looked upon as अाकृतिगण and hence if this affix एय is seen applied although not prescribed actually as in the word गाङ्गेय, the word is supposed to have been included in this class; confer, compare P. IV. I.123.
śnama vikarana or conjugational sign of the agama type to be inserted after the last vowel of the roots of the seventh conjugation ( रुधादि ): exempli gratia, for example रुणद्धि, भिनत्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare रुधादिभ्यः श्नम् P.III.1.78.
śnāa vikarana or conjugational sign of the ninth conjugation, to be added to roots headed by क्री before the Sarvadhatuka affixes; exempli gratia, for example क्रीणाति; confer, compare क्र्यादिभ्य: श्ना. P.III.1.81. श्ना is added optionally with श्नुः ( नु ) to the roots स्तम्भ्, स्तुम्भ्, स्कम्भ् , स्कुम्भ् and स्कु. exempli gratia, for exampleस्तभ्नाति, स्तभ्नोति, स्कुभ्नाति, स्कुभ्नोति etc : confer, compare P.III.1.82.
śnua vikarana or a conjugational sign to be placed after the roots headed by सु (id est, that is roots of the fifth conjugation) as also after the root श्रु when श्रु is to be changed into शृ, and the roots अक्ष् and तक्ष्; exempli gratia, for example सुनोति, सुनुते; confer, compare स्वादिभ्यः श्नुः P.III. l.73. It is also added optionally with श्ना to the roots स्तम्भ्, स्तुम्भ् et cetera, and others See श्ना.
śyana vikarana or conjugational sign of the fourth conjugation added to roots headed by दिव्, before the Sarvadhatuka affixes; exempli gratia, for example. दीव्यति, पुष्यति, et cetera, and others श्यन् is added optionally with शप् (अ) to the roots भ्राश्, भ्रम् , क्लम् and others, as also to यस्.
śluvikaraṇaroots characterized by the addition or application of the conjugational sign which is elided by the use of the term श्लु for elision; roots of the third conjugation; confer, compare य एते लुग्विकरणा: श्लुविकरणाश्च M.Bh.on P.III. 1.67 Vart. 2, as also on P. III 1. 91.
ṣa(1)consonant ष् , the vowel अ being added for facility of pronunciation; (2) compound-ending अ, substituted for the final of the word मूर्धन् at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound when the word मूर्धन् is preceded by द्वि or त्रि e. g. द्विमूर्धः, त्रिमूर्धः confer, compare द्वित्रिभ्यां ष मूर्ध्नः P. V. 4.115 (3) a technical term for तत्पुरुषसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ṣacthe compound-ending ( समासान्त ) अ added for the final of the words सक्थि, अक्षि and दारु standing at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound under specific conditions. e. g. विशालाक्ष:,दीर्धसक्थ:, द्व्यङ्गुलं ( दारु ); confer, compare P. V. 4.113, 114.
ṣa(1)consonant ष् , the vowel अ being added for facility of pronunciation; (2) compound-ending अ, substituted for the final of the word मूर्धन् at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound when the word मूर्धन् is preceded by द्वि or त्रि e. g. द्विमूर्धः, त्रिमूर्धः confer, compare द्वित्रिभ्यां ष मूर्ध्नः P. V. 4.115 (3) a technical term for तत्पुरुषसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ṣacthe compound-ending ( समासान्त ) अ added for the final of the words सक्थि, अक्षि and दारु standing at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound under specific conditions. e. g. विशालाक्ष:,दीर्धसक्थ:, द्व्यङ्गुलं ( दारु ); confer, compare P. V. 4.113, 114.
ṣyaṅtaddhita affix. affix य (taking Samprasarana change i e. ई before the words पुत्र and पति and बन्धु in the Bahuvrihi compound) added, instead of the affix अण् or इञ्, in the sense of offspring, (l) to words having a long ( गुरु ) vowel for their penultimate , only in the formation of feminine bases, exempli gratia, for example कारीषगन्ध्या कौमुद्गन्ध्या, वाराह्या; कारीषगन्धीपुत्रः, कारीषगन्धीपति:, कारीषगन्धबिन्धुः ( Bah. compound): cf P.IV.1.78; (2) to words expressive of family names like पुणिक, मुखर et cetera, and others as also to the words क्रौडि, लाडि, व्याडि आपिशलि et cetera, and others and optionally to the words दैवयज्ञि and others in the formation of feminine bases; e. g. पौणिक्या, मौखर्या, क्रौड्या, व्याड्या, अापिशल्या et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. IV.1.79, 80, 81.
ṣyañtaddhita affix. affix (1) in the sense of 'nature ' applied optionally with the affix इमनिच् to words showing colour as also to words headed by दृढ: e. g. शौक्ल्यम् , शुक्लिमा, कार्ष्ण्यम् कृष्णिमा, दार्ढ्यम्, द्रढिमा et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 1.123: (2) in the sense of nature as also in the sense of professional work to words of quality and words headed by ब्राम्हणः e. g. जाड्यम्, ब्राह्मण्यम् cf P.V. 1.124; (3) to the words चतुर्वर्ण, त्रिलोकी and others in the same sense as that of those very words; exempli gratia, for exampleचातुर्वर्ण्यम् त्रैलोक्यम् षाड्गुण्यम् सन्यम् etc, confer, compare P. V. 6.124 Vart, 1.
saṃjñāa technical term; a short wording to convey ample sense; a term to know the general nature cf things; convention; confer, compare वृद्धिशब्द; संज्ञा; अादेच: संज्ञिन: M.Bh. on P.1-1.1. There are two main divisions of संज्ञा-कृत्रिमसंज्ञा or an artificial term such as टि, घु, or भ which is merely conventional, and अकृत्रिमसंज्ञा which refers to the literal sense conveyed by the word such as अव्यय, सर्वनाम and the like. Some grammar works such as the Candra avoid purely conventional terms, These samjhas are necessary for every scientific treatise. In Panini's grammar, there are the first two chapters giving and explaining the technical terms whose number exceeds well-nigh a hundredition
saṃjñābhūta(1)that, which by usage has become a technical word possessed of a conventional sense: confer, compare किं पुनर्यानि एतानि संज्ञाभूतानि अाख्यानानि तत्र उत्पत्त्या भवितव्यम् , Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1. 26 Vart. 7; (2) which stands as a proper noun or the name of a person; confer, compare संज्ञाभूतास्तु न सर्वादयः S. K. on P. I. 1.27.
saṃbodhanacalling or address which is given as one of the additional senses of the nominative case affixes ( confer, compare संबोधने च P. II. 3, 47 ) in addition to those given in the rule प्रातिपदिकार्थलिङ्गपरिमाणवचनमात्रे प्रथमा P. II. 3.46: confer, compare आभिमुख्यकरणं संबोधनम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3.47.
saṃyogāntalopathe elision of the final of the conjunct consonants when they are at the end of a word provided they are not formed of र् as the first member and any consonant except स् as the second member: e.gगोमान्, ऊर्क् et cetera, and others; confer, compare संयोगान्तस्य लोपः,रात्सस्य P.VIII.2.23,24.
saṃvāraone of the external efforts in the production of a sound when the gullet is a little bit contracted as at the time of the utterance of the third, fourth and the fifth of the class-consonants; confer, compare कण्ठबिलस्य संकोचः संवार: Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on P. I. 1.9.
saṃvijñātaconventional: literally known widely among the people, as a result, of course, of convention; confer, compare संविज्ञातानि तानि यथा गौरश्वः पुरुषो हस्तीति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 12.
saṃvṛtaliterally covered or concealed;name of an internal effort in the production of sound which is accompanied with a laryngeal hum; confer, compare संवृतौ घोषवान्: cf also ह्रस्वस्यावर्णस्य प्रयोगे संवृतम् । प्राक्रियादशायां तु विवृतमेव S.K.on P.I.1.9;confer, compare also तत्रेात्पत्तेः प्राभ्यदा जिह्वाग्रोपाग्रमध्यमूलानि तत्तद्वर्णोत्पत्तिस्थानानां ताल्वादीनां समीपमेव केवलं अवतिष्ठन्ते तदा संवृतता Sabdakaus on P. I. 1.9.
saṃsṛṣṭavādipakṣathe theory, that the meaning of a sentence is a novel thing ( अपूर्व ), held by some Mimamsakas who believe that words connected with activity display their phenomenal capacity ( अनुभाविकाशक्ति ) after the recalling of the senses of words by the recalling capacity (स्मारिकाशाक्ति ).
saṃhitāposition of words or parts of words in the formation ofa word quite near each other which results into the natural phonetic coalescence of the preceding and the following letters. Originally when the Vedic hymns or the running prose passages of the Yajurveda were split up into their different constituent parts namely the words or padas by the Padakaras, the word संहिता or संहितापाठ came into use as contrasted with the पदपाठ. The writers of of the Pratisakhyas have conseguently defined संहिता as पदप्रकृतिः संहिता, while Panini who further split up the padas into bases ( प्रकृति ) and affixes ( प्रत्यय ) and mentioned several augments and substitutes, the phonetic combinations, which resulted inside the word or pada, had to be explained by reason of the close vicinity of the several phonetic units forming the base, the affix, the augment, the substitute and the like, and he had to define the word संहृिता rather differently which he did in the words परः संनिकर्षः संहिता; cf P.I.4.109: confer, compare also संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः । नित्य समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते Sabdakaustubha on Maheshvara Sutra 5.1.
saṃhitāpāṭhathe running text or the original text of the four Vedas as originally composedition This text, which was the original one, was split up into its constituent padas or separate words by ancient sages शौनक, अात्रेय and others,with a view to facilitating the understanding of it, and consequently to preserving it in the oral tradition.The original was called मूलप्रकृति of which the पदपाठ and the क्रमपाठ which were comparatively older than the other artificial recitations such as the जटापाठ, घनपाठ and others, are found mentioned in the Pratisakhya works.
sattāexistence, supreme or universal existence the Jati par excellence which is advocated to be the final sense of all words and expressions in the language by Bhartrhari and other grammarians after him who discussed the interpretation of words. The grammarians believe that the ultimate sense of a word is सत्ता which appears manifold and limited in our everyday experience due to different limitations such as desa, kala and others. Seen from the static viewpoint, सत्ता appears as द्रब्य while, from the dynamic view point it appears as a क्रिया. This सत्ता is the soul of everything and it is the same as शव्दतत्त्व or ब्रह्मन् or अस्त्यर्थ; confer, compare Vakyapadiya II. 12. The static existence, further, is . called व्यक्ति or individual with reference to the object, and जाति with reference to the common form possessed by individuals.
san(l)desiderative affix स applied to any root in the sense of desire; e. g. चिकीर्षति, जिहीर्षति, बुभूषति; cf धातोः कर्मणः समानकर्तृकादिदिच्छायां वा P.III. 1.7; (2) applied in specific senses possessed by the root to the roots गुप् , तिज्, कित्, मान्, बध्, दान् and शान्; exempli gratia, for example जुगुप्सते, तितिक्षते, चिकित्सति, मीमांसते, बीभत्सते, दीदांसते, शीशांसते; confer, compare P. III. 1. 5 and 6. The roots to which सन् is applied are reduplicated and the reduplicated form ending with सन् ( स ) is looked upon as a different root from the original one for purposes of conjugation, which takes, however, conjugational affixes of the same Pada as the original root; confer, compare सनाद्यन्ता धातवः III. 1.32.
saptasvaralit, the seven accents; the term refers to the seven accents formed of the subdivisions of the three main Vedic accents उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित viz उदात्त, उदात्ततर, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितोदात्त,and एकश्रुति: cf त एते तन्त्रे तरनिर्देशे सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति ( उदात: । उदात्ततरः । अनुदात्तः ! अनुदात्ततरः । स्वरित: । स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः । एकश्रुतिः सप्तम: ॥ M. Bh on P. I. 2. 33. It is possible that these seven accents which were turned into the seven notes of the chantings of the samans developed into the seven musical notes which have traditionally come down to the present day known as सा रे ग म प ध नी; confer, compare उदात्ते निषादगान्धारौ अनुदात्ते ऋषभधैवतौ । स्वरितप्रभवा ह्येते षड्जमध्यमपञ्चमाः। Pāṇini. Siksa. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions the seven accents differently; confer, compare उदात्तादयः परे सप्त । यथा-अभिनिहितक्षैप्र-प्राशश्लिष्ट-तैरोव्यञ्जन-तैरोविराम-पादवृत्तताथाभाव्याः Uvvata on V.Pr.I.l l4.
samāpattirestoration of the resultant to the original, as for instance, restoration of the padapatha and the kramapatha to the Samhitapatha; confer, compare प्रकृतिदर्शनं समापत्तिः Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. III. I.7.
samāmnāyatraditional enumeration or list of words or letters; confer, compare अक्षरसमाम्नाय, वर्णसमाम्नाय, शब्दसमाम्नाय et cetera, and others; cf अथातो वर्णसमाम्नायं व्याख्यास्याम: Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII.1. अथ वर्णसमाम्नाय: Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. l : cf also समाम्नायः समाम्नात: स व्याख्यातव्यः Nir.I.1. समाम्नायः पाठक्रम: | Com. on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 1.
samāsāntasecondary suffixes which are prescribed at the end of compounds in specific cases and which are looked upon as taddhita affixes; exempli gratia, for examplethe Samasanta डच् ( अ ), causing elision of the last syllable of the compound word, is added to compounds called संख्याबहुव्रीहि; exempli gratia, for example उपदशाः,पञ्चषाः et cetera, and others P.V.4.73. Samasanta अ is added to compounds ending with ऋच्,पुर्, अप्, and धुर,and अच् to words ending with सामन् , लोमन् , अक्षन् , चतुर् पुंस् , अनडुह्, मनस् , वर्चस्, तमस् , श्रेयस् , रहस्, उरस्, गो, तावत्, अध्वन् , etc :under specific conditions; cf P.V.4.68 to 86. अच् ( अ ) is added at the end of the tatpurusa compounds to the words अङ्गुलि, and रात्रि, under specific conditions; confer, compare P.V.4.86, 87: टच् ( अ ) is added at the end of tatpurusa compounds ending in राजन् , अहन् , सखि , गो, and उरस् and under specific conditions to those ending in तक्षन् , श्वन् , सक्थि, नौ, खारी, and अज्जलि as also to words ending in अस् and अन् in the neuter gender in Vedic Literature, and to the word ब्रह्मन् under specific conditions: confer, compare P.V. 4.91 to 105: टच् is added at the end of समाहारद्वन्द्व compounds ending in च् , छ् , ज्, झ्,ञ्, , द्, ष् and ह्, and at the end of अव्ययीभाव compounds ending with the words शरद् , विपाश् , अनस् , and मनस् et cetera, and others as also at the end of words ending in अन् or with any of the class consonants except nasals, confer, compare P.V.4.106-ll2; षच् ( अ ) is added to Bahuvrihi compounds ending with सक्थि and अक्षि as limbs of the body, as also with अङ्गुलि, while ष , अप् and अच् are added to specified words under special conditions; the Samasanta affix असिच् ( अस् ) is added at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound ending in प्रजा, and मेधा, the Samasanta affix इच् is added at the end of the peculiar Bahuvrihi compound formed of दण्ड, मुसल et cetera, and others when they are repeated and when they show a fight with the instruments of fight exchanged; confer, compare P. V.4.113128. Besides these affixes, a general समासान्त affix कप् is added necessarily or optionally as specified in P.V. 4.151-159.
sarvatraliterally at all places, on all occasions; the word is used in connection with an essential application of a rule and not optionally in some cases; confer, compare सर्वत्र लोहितादिकतन्तेभ्यः। पूर्वेण नित्ये प्राप्ते विकल्पार्थं वचनम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.18: confer, compare also प्रत्यये भाषायां नित्यवचनम् P. VIII.4.45 Vart. 1, सर्वत्र शाकल्यस्य VIII. 4.51. et cetera, and others
sarvaprasaṅgaa presentation of all the substitutes for all the original ones indiscriminately; an application in all cases irrespective of any special consideration: confer, compare स्थानिन एकत्वनिर्देशादनेकादेशनिर्देशाच्च सर्वप्रसङ्ग: M.Bh.on P. I. 1. 50 Vart. l and 12; cf also M.Bh. on P.I.1.60, I.3.2, 3,10 etc
sarvalakārathe personal affixes in general pertaining to all the ten lakaras लट् , लिट् et cetera, and others, confer, compare सर्वलकाराणामपवादः ! Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.III. 3.144.
sarvalopathe elision of the entire wording instead of the final letter only, which is prescribed by P. I.1. 52, confer, compare तुः सर्वग्य लोपो बक्तव्य्ः अन्त्यस्य लोपो मा भूदिति | M Bh. on P. VI. 4.154.
sarvavibhaktyantaliterally ending with all cases; the term is used as an adjective of the word समास and refers to a compound which can be dissolved by putting the first member in any case: cf सर्वविभक्यन्तः समासो यथा विज्ञायेत | अल: परस्य विधिः; अलि विधिरित्यादि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.56. सर्वस्यद्वेपाद conventional name given to the first pada of the eighth adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi which begins with the Sutra सर्वस्य द्बे VIII.1.1.
sarvādiliterally a group or a class of words beginning with the word सर्व as the first word in the list; the term is used in general as a synonymous term with Sarvanaman; confer, compare संज्ञोपसर्जनीभूतास्तु न सर्वादयः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.I.1.27. सर्वादेश a substitute for the entire wording instead of the final letter as prescribed by the rule अलेान्त्यस्य P.I.1.52; confer, compare अनेकाल्शीत्सर्वस्य P.I.1.55.
sarvānudāttathe grave accent for the entire word. See सर्वनिधात. सर्वान्त्य final of all those that are denoted or enumerated; confer, compare यदेव सर्वान्त्यमर्थादेशनं तस्यैव विषये स्यात् । M.Bh. on P. IV.2.67.
savarṇacognate, homophonic: a letter belonging to the same technical category of letters possessing an identical place of utterance and internal effort confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. 1, 1. 9. For example, the eighteen varieties of अ, due to its short, long and protracted nature as also due to its accents and nasalization, are savarna to each other. The vowels ऋ and लृ are prescribed to be considered as Savarna although their place of utterance differs. The consonants in each class of consonants are savarna to one another, but by the utterance of one, another cannot be taken except when the vowel उ has been applied to the first. Thus कु stands for क्, ख्, ग्, घ् and ङ्. confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. 1, I. 9 and अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्यय: P. I. 1. 69.
sāṃpratika(l)what is actually expressed .or found in the context; confer, compare सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिर्विज्ञायते M. Bh on P. VI. 1.177 Vart. 1: (2) original, found in the original context of Prakriti; confer, compare सांप्रतिके प्रकृतिस्थे कण्ठे सति हकारो नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नः क्रियते Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 6; (3) of the present time: confer, compare Purus. Pari. 15.
sāṃhitikaoriginal, as belonging to the Samhitapatha of the Sutras and not introduced for some additional purpose without forming a part of the actual affix; confer, compare अाकर्षात् ष्ठल् | इह केषां चित्सांहितिकं षत्वं केषांचित्षिदर्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 4.9.
sāmānādhikaraṇyastanding in apposition; the word is used many times in its literal sense ' having the same substratum.' For instance, in घटं करोति देवदत्तः, the personal ending ति and देवदत्त are said to be समानाधिकरण. The Samanadhikarana words are put in the same case although, the gender and number sometimes differ. See the word समानाधिकरण.
sāmānyaviśeṣabhāvathe relationship between the general and the particular, which forms the basis of the type of apavada which is explained by the analogy of तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय; the word also refers to the method followed by the Sutras of Panini, or any treatise of grammar for the matter of that, where a general rule is prescribed and, for the sake of definiteness some specific rules laying down exceptions, are given afterwards: confer, compare किंचित्सामान्यविशेषवल्लक्षणं प्रवर्त्यं येनाल्पेन यत्नेन महतः शद्बौघान् प्रतिपद्येरन् l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnik 1.
sārvadhātukaa term used in Panini's grammar for affixes applied to verbs, such as the personal endings and those krt affixes which are marked with.the mute letter श्; confer, compare तिङ् शित्सार्वधातुकम् P. III. 4. 113. The term was taken into his grammar by Panini from ancient grammar works and thence in their grammars by other grammarians; confer, compare सार्वधातुकमिति पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्धा संज्ञेयं निरन्वया, स्वभावान्नपुंसकलिङ्गमिति। Trilok-commentary on Kat. III. 1.34, The term सार्वधातुका also was used by ancient grammarians before Panini; confer, compare अापिशलास्तुरुस्तुशम्यमः सर्वधातुकासु च्छन्दसीति पठन्ति. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VII. 3.95.
si( 1 )personal ending सिप् of the second. person. singular.; confer, compare तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थ. .महिङ् P.III.4.78; ( 2 ) Unadi affix क्सि ( सि ) confer, compare लुषिकुषिशुषिभ्य: क्सि: Un. III. 155.
siṃhāvalokitanyāyathe analogy of the backward look peculiar to a lion, who, as he advances, does always look back at the ground coveredition The word is used in grammar with reference to a word taken back from a rule to the preceding rule which technically is called अपकर्षः confer, compare वक्ष्यमाणं विभाषाग्रहणमिह सिंहावलोकितन्यायेन संबध्यते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.3.49.
siddha(1)established; the term is used in the sense of नित्य or eternal in the Varttika सिद्धे शब्दार्थसंबन्धे where, as Patanjali has observed, the word सिद्ध meaning नित्य has been purposely put in to mark an auspicious beginning of the शब्दानुशासनशास्त्र which commences with that Varttika; confer, compare माङ्गलिक आचार्यो महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थे सिद्धशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्क्ते M.Bh.on Ahnika 1; (2) established, proved, formed; the word is many times used in this sense in the Mahabhasya, as also in the Varttikas especially when a reply is to be given to an objection; confer, compare P.I. 1.3 Vart. 17, I.1. 4. Vart. 6: I. I. 5, Vart.5,I.1.9 Vart. 2 et cetera, and others
siddhakāṇḍathe chapter or portion of Panini's grammar which is valid to the rules inside that portion, as also to the rules enumerated after it. The word is used in connection with the first seven chapters and a quarter of the eighth chapter of Panini's Astadhyayi, as contrasted with the last three guarters called त्रिपादी, the rules in which are not valid to any rule in the preceding portion, called by the name सपासप्ताध्यायी or सपादी as also to any preceding rule in the Tripadi itSelf confer, compare पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P, VIII.2.1. सिद्धनन्दिन् an ancient Jain sage who is believed to have written an original work on grammar.
siddhāntasārasvataan independent work on grammar believed to have been written by Devanandin. सिद्धान्तिन् a term used in connection with the writer himself of a treatise when he gives a reply to the objections raised by himself or quoted from others,the term पूर्वपाक्षिन् being used for the objector. सिद्धि formation of a word: establishment of the correct view after the removal of the objection; e. g. संज्ञासिद्वि, कार्यसिाद्व, स्वरसिद्धि. सिप् (1) the personal ending ( सि ) of the second person singular (मध्यमपुरुषैकवचन ) substituted for the affix ल्; of the ten tenses and moods लट्, लिट्, लृट् and others; confer, compare P.III.4.78: (2 Vikarana affix स् added to a root before the affixes of लेट् or Vedic Subjunctive. सिम् a technical term used in the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya for the first eight vowels of the alphabet, viz. अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ and ऋ: confer, compare सिमादितोष्टौ स्वराणाम् V. Pr.. I.44.
sīyuṭaugment सीय्, prefixed to the personal affixes which are substituted for the लिङ् affixes in the Atmanepada; exempli gratia, for example पचेत पचेयाताम् confer, compare P. III. 4.102.
su(l)case affix ( सु ) of the nominative singular and ( सु ) of the locative plural; confer, compare P. IV. 1.2: (2) Unadi affix सु ( क्सु ) applied to the roots इष्: e.g, इक्षु: confer, compare इषः क्सुः Unadi 437. सुक् augment सुक् added according to some grammarians to any word optionally with असुक्, which is prescribed in the case of the words अश्व, वृष, क्षीर and लवण before the affix क्यच् ( य ) in the sense of desire. e. g. दधिस्यति, मधुस्यति et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 1 51 Varttika.
suc(l)taddhita affix. affix स् applied to fद्व, त्रि, चतुर् and to एक optionally, in the sense of 'repetition of the activity' e. g. द्विः करोति et cetera, and others cf Kas, on P. V. 4. 18, 19; (2) Unadi affix स्, see सु a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. सुजनपण्डित a grammarian who wrote a small treatise on genders named लिङार्थचन्द्रिका सुट् (1) short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the first five case-affixes which are called सर्वनामस्थान also, when they pertain to the masculine or the feminine gender: confer, compare सुडनपुंसकस्य I.1.43; (2)augment स् prefixed to the root कृ and to the root कॄ when preceded by certain prepositions and as seen in the words कुस्तुम्बुरु and others as also in the words अपरस्पर गोष्पद, आस्पद, अाश्चर्य, अपस्कर, विप्किर, हरिश्चन्द्र, प्रस्कण्व्, मल्कर, कास्तीर, अजास्तुन्द, कारस्कर and words in the class of words headed by पारस्कर, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VI. 1.135-57: (3) augment स् prefixed to the case-affix अाम् after a pronoun; e. g. सर्वेषाम् confer, compare P. VII. I.52;(4) augment स् prefixed to the consonant त् or थ् pertaining to लिङ् affixes, e. g. कृषीष्ट confer, compare P. III. 4.107.
sup(l)locative case affix सु: (2) short term for case-affixes, as formed by the syllable सु (the nominative case. singular. affix) at the beginning and the final consonant प् of सुप्, the locative plural case-affix in the rule स्वौजसमौट्...ङ्योस्सुप् P. IV. 1.2. These case afixes are called 'vibhakti' also. These सुप् affixes are elided after an indeclinable word; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुप: P. II. 4.82; in Veda स्, शे ( ए ), या, डा, ड्या, याच् and अाल् as seen, are substituted for these case affixes, which sometimes are even dropped or assimilated with the previous vowel of the base: e. g. सन्तु पन्थाः, आर्द्रे चर्मन् et cetera, and others cf, P. VII. 1.39. These caseaffixes are as a rule, grave-accented (अनुदात्त) excepting in such cases as are mentioned in P. VI.1. 166 to 184 and 19l.
subdhātua root formed from a noun or a subanta by the addition of any of the following affixesक्यच् ( by P. III. 1.8, 10 and l9), काम्यच् (by P.III.1.9), क्यङ् (by P. III.1.1 1, 12 and 14-18), क्यष् (by P.III.1.13),णिङ् (by P III.1.20), णिच् (by P.III.1.21 and 25) and यक् (by P.III.1.27)and also by क्विप् or zero affix by P. III. b.l l Varttika 3. All these formations ending with the affixes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are termed roots by the rule सनाद्यन्ता धातव: (P.III. 1. | 32) and are regularly conjugated in all the ten tenses and moods with the general conjugational sign शप् added to them in the conjugational tenses, and स्य, तास् and others in the other tenses and moods, and have verbal derivatives also formed by the addition of suitable krt affixes.
sūtrakārathe original writer of the sutras; e. g. पाणिनि, शाकटायन, शर्ववर्मन् , हेमचन्द्र and others. In Panini's system, Panini is called Sutrakara, as contrasted with Katyayana,who is called the Varttikakara and Patanjali, who is called the Bhasyakara;confer, compare पाणिने: सूत्रकारस्य M.Bh. on P.II 2.1.1.
sūtrapāṭhathe text of Panini's Sutras handed down by oral tradition from the preceptor to the pupil. Although it is said that the actual text of Panini was modified from time to time, still it can be said with certainty that it was fixed at the time of the Bhasyakara who has noted a few different readings only. The Sutra text approved by the Bhasyakara was followed by the authors of the Kasika excepting in a few cases. It is customary with learned Pandits and grammarians to say that the recital of the Sutras of Panini was originally a continuous one in the form of a Samhitatext and it was later on, that it was split up into the different Sutras, which explains according to them the variation in the number of Sutras which is due to the different ways of splitting the Sutrapatha.
sūtraśāṭakanyāyareference to something as present, when, in fact, it is yet to come into existence,on the analogy of the expression अस्य सूत्रस्य शाटकं वय; confer, compare भाविनी संज्ञा विज्ञास्यते सूत्रशाटकवत्। Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 3. 12 Vart. 2.
se(1)one of the several affixes found in Veda in the sense ofतुमुन् ( तुम् of the infinitive); e. g. वृक्षे राय:; confer, compare Pāṇini. III. 4.9; (2) personal-ending substituted for थास् in the present tense., perfect, and other tenses; confer, compare थासः से P. III. 4.80.
soḍhataddhita affix. affix सेाढ prescribed in the sense of ' milk ', optionally along with the affixes दूस and मरीस after the word अवि; e. g. अविसोढम् confer, compare अवेर्दुग्धे सोढदूसमरीसत्र: P. IV. 2. 36. Vart. 5.
sthānaplace of articulation; place of the production of sound, which is one of the chief factors in the production of sound; confer, compare अनुप्रदानात् संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् | जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात्, T.Pr. XXIII. 2. Generally there are given five places of the production of sound viz. कण्ठ, तालु, मूर्धन् , दन्त and ओष्ठ, respectively for the articulation of guttural, palatal cerebral, dental and labial letters and नासिका as an additional one for the articulation of the nasal consonants ञू, मू,ङू, णू and नू For the Jihvamuliya sound (क ), जिंह्वामूल is given as a specific one. For details and minor differences of views, see Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.III, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) 1.18 to 20,Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 2-10; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 65 to 84 and M. Bh, on P. I. 1. 9. (2) place, substratum, which is generally understood as the sense of the genitive case-affix in rules which prescribe substitutes; confer, compare षष्ठी स्थोनोयागा. P. I. 1. 49.
sthāninthe original word or part of a word such as a syllable or two of it or a letter of it, for which a substitute ( आदेश ) is prescribed; confer, compare स्थानिवदादेशोSनाल्विधौ P. 1.I. 56.
sthānivatsimilar to the original in behaviour; confer, compare स्थानिवदादेशोनल्विधौ P.I. 1.59. See स्थानिवद्भाव.
sthānivattvaacting like the original. See स्थानिवद्भाव.
sthānivadbhāvabehaviour of the substitute like the original in respect of holding the qualities of the original and causing grammatical operations by virtue of those qualities. By means of स्थानिवद्भाव,the substitute for a root is,for instance, looked upon as a root; similarly, a noun-base or an affix or so, is looked upon like the original and it can cause such operations or be a recipient of such operations as are due to its being a root or a noun or an affix or the like. This स्यानिवद्भाव cannot be, and is not made also, a universally applicable feature; and there are limitations or restrictions put upon it, the chief of them being अल्विधौ or in the matter of such operations as are caused by the 'property of being a single letter' (अल्विधौ). There are two views regarding this 'behaviour like the original' : (l) supposed behaviour which is only instrumental in causing operations or undergoing them which is called शास्त्रातिदेदा and (2) actual restoration to the form of the original under certain conditions only as prescribed which is called रूपातिदेश. The रूपातिदेश is actually resorted to by some grammarians in the case of the reduplication of roots; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on द्विवेचनेचि P.I.1.59 and M.Bh. on P.I.1.59.See the word रूपातिदेश also. For details see Vol. VII p.p. 241243, Vyākarana Mahabhasya D.E. Society's Edition.
sthānedvirvacanapakṣaone of the two alternative views regarding reduplication according to which two wordings or units of the same form replace the original single wording, confer, compare स्थानेद्विर्वचनपक्षे स्थानिवद्भावात्प्रकृति व्यपदेशः: Siradeva Pari. 68.The other kind of reduplication is called द्वि:प्रयोगाद्विर्वचनपक्ष which looks upon reduplication as the mere placing of an exactly similar unit or wording after the original first unit. This alternative view is accepted in the Kasika: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI.1.1.
sthānyādeśābhāvathe relation between the original and the substitute which is described as of two kinds (1) supposed and actual; confer, compareअानुमानिकस्थान्यादेशभावकल्पनेपि श्रौतस्थान्योदशभावस्य न त्याग: Pari.Sek. Pari.
snataddhita affix. affix स्न added optionally with स,to the word मृद् in the sense of praiseworthy; c. g. मृत्स्ना also मृत्सा; confer, compare सस्नौ प्रशंसायाम्। P.V.4.40.
spṛṣṭaname of one of the four internal efforts when the instrument ( करण) of articulation fully touches the sthana or the place of the production of sound in the mouth. See the word स्पर्श a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.: तत्र स्पृष्टं| प्रयतनं स्पर्शानाम् S.K. on P. VI1I.2.1 ; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.I.1.9.
sphoṭaname given to the radical Sabda which communicates the meaning to the hearers as different from ध्वनि or the sound in ordinary experience.The Vaiyakaranas,who followed Panini and who were headed by Bhartihari entered into discussions regarding the philosophy of Grammar, and introduced by way of deduction from Panini's grammar, an important theory that शब्द which communicates the meaning is different from the sound which is produced and heard and which is merely instrumental in the manifestation of an internal voice which is called Sphota.स्फुटयतेनेन अर्थः: इति स्फोटः or स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायमादुपजायते Vakyapadiya; confer, compare also अभिव्यक्तवादको मध्यमावस्थ आन्तर: शब्द: Kaiyata's Pradipa. For, details see Vakyapadiya I and Sabdakaustubha Ahnika 1. It is doubtful whether this Sphota theory was. advocated before Panini. The word स्फोटायन has been put by Panini in the rule अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य only incidentally and, in fact, nothing can be definitely deduced from it although Haradatta says that स्फोटायन was the originator of the स्फोटवाद. The word स्फोट is not actually found in the Pratisakhya works. However, commentators on the Pratisakhya works have introduced it in their explanations of the texts which describe वर्णोत्पत्ति or production of sound; confer, compare commentary on R.Pr.XIII.4, T.Pr. II.1. Grammarians have given various kinds of sphota; confer, compare स्फोटो द्विधा | व्यक्तिस्फोटो जातिस्फोटश्च। व्यक्तिस्पोटः सखण्ड अखण्डश्च । सखण्ड। वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। अखण्ड: पदवाक्यभेदेन द्विधा ! एवं पञ्च व्यक्तिस्फोटाः| जातिस्फोट: वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। इत्येवमष्टौ स्फोटः तत्र अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट एव मुख्य इति नव्याः । वाक्य जातिस्फोट इति तु प्राञ्चः॥; confer, compare also पदप्रकृतिः संहिता इति प्रातिशाख्यमत्र मानम् । पदानां प्रकृतिरिति षष्ठीतत्पुरुषे अखण्डवाक्यस्फोटपक्षः । बहुव्रीहौ सखण्डबाक्यस्फोट:||
sphoṭana(1)manifestation of the sense of a word by the external sound or dhvani; the same as sphota; (2) separate or distinct pronunciation of a consonant in a way by breaking it from the cor.junct consonants; confer, compare स्फोटनं नाम पिण्डीभूतस्य संयोगस्य पृथगुश्चरणम् स दोषो वा न वा | V. Pr.IV.165.
sya(1)case-ending स्य substituted for the genitive singular case-affix after bases ending in अ; confer, compare टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः P. VII.1.12: (2) Vikarana affix स्य placed before the personal endings of लृट् and लृङ् (the second future tense and the conditional mood); cf स्यतासी लृलुटो: P. III.1.33.
syādaugment स्या affixed to a caseaffix marked with the mute ङ् id est, that is ङे, ङसि, ङस् and ङि of the dative case ablative case. genitive case and locative case singular after a pronoun and optionally after तृतीय and द्वितीय ending with the feminine. affix अा: confer, compare सर्वस्यै सर्वस्याः सर्वस्याम् द्वितीयस्यै, द्वितीयाय, तृतीयस्यै, तृतीयाय; confer, compare P. VII. 3.114, 115.
sva(1)personal-ending of the second person singular. Atmanepada in the imperative mood; cf थास: से | सवाभ्यां वामौ | P.III.4.80, 91 ; (2) a term used in the sense of स्ववर्गीय (belonging to the same class or category) in the Pratisakhya works; cf स्पर्श: स्वे R.T.25; confer, compare also कान्त् स्वे Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 1. 55;confer, comparealso R, Pr.IV.1 ; and VI.1 ;(3) cognate, the same as सवर्ण defined by Panini in तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. P.I.1.9; the term is found used in the Jain grammar works of Jainendra, Sakatayana and Hemacanda cf ]ain. I.1.2 SikI. 1.2; Hema. I.1.17.
svatantrapadopasthitipakṣaan alternative view regarding the explanation of the rule 'इको गुणवृद्धी' P. I. 1. 3 by taking an additional word गुणवृद्धी supplied in the sutra. For full explanation see Sabdakaustubha on P. I. 1. 3.
svapāṭhathe original recital of the Veda; the Samhitapatha as opposed to the Padapatha which is looked upon more or less as artificial.
svarasahitoccāraṇarecital of the veda Samhita text with intonation or accents, as contrasted with एकश्रुत्युच्चारण which is specially prescribed in a few cases; tonal system showing distinction between words of different senses although pronounced alike, in the Samhita text. exempli gratia, for example नतेन and न तेन.
svaritakaraṇamarking or characterizing by.a svarita accent, as is supposed to have been done by Panini when he wrote down his sutras of grammar as also the Dhatupatha, the Ganapatha and other subsidiary appendixes. Although the rules of the Astadhyayi are not recited at present with the proper accents possessed by the various vowels as given by the Sutrakara, still, by convention and traditional explanation, certain words are to be believed as possessed of certain accents. In the Dhatupatha, by oral tradition the accents of the several roots are known by the phrases अथ स्वरितेतः, अथाद्युदाताः, अथान्तेादात्ताः, अथानुदात्तेत: put therein at different places. In the sutras, a major purpose is served by the circumflex accent with which such words, as are to continue to the next or next few or next many rules, have been markedition As the oral tradition, according to which the Sutras are recited at present, has preserevd no accents, it is only the authoritative word, described as 'pratijna' of the ancient grammarians, which now is available for knowing the svarita. The same holds good in the case of nasalization ( अानुनासिक्य ) which is used as a factor for determining the indicatory nature of vowels as stated by the rule उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत्; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः S. K. on P. I.3.2.
svaritapratijñāthe conventional dictum that a particular rule or part of a rule, is marked with the accent स्वरित which enables the grammarians to decide that that rule or that part of a rule is to occur in each of the subsequent Sutras, the limit of continuation being ascertained from convention. It is possible that Panini in his original recital of the Astadhyayi recited the words in the rules with the necessary accents; probably he recited every word, which was not to proceed further, with one acute or with one circumflex vowel, while, the words which were to proceed to the next rule or rules, were marked with an actual circumflex accent ( स्वरित ), or with a neutralization of the acute and the grave accents (स्वरितत्व), that is, probably without accents or by एकश्रुति or by प्रचय; cf स्वरितेनाधिकार: P. I.3.II and the Mahabhasya thereon.
svaritetmarked with a mute circumflex vowel; the term is used in connection with roots in the Dhatupatha which are said to have been so marked for the purpose of indicating that they are to take personal endings of both the padas; confer, compare स्वरितञित: कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P. I.3.72.
svasthaliterally remaining in its own form without admitting any cuphonic change for thc final letter; an ancient term for 'pragrhya' of Panini.
svāśrayapossessed as its own, as contrasted with artificial or intentionally stated ( आनुदेशिक );confer, compare अस्त्वत्र आनुदेशिकस्य वलादित्वस्य प्रतिषेधः । स्वाश्रयमत्र बलादित्वं भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1. 59 Vart. 6.
ha(1)representation of the consonant हू with अ added for facility of pronunciation; (2) a technical term for the internal effort between विवृत and संवृत, which causes घोष in the consonants; confer, compare संवृतविवृतयोर्मध्ये मध्यमप्रक्रारे यः शब्दः क्रियते स हकारसंज्ञो भवति। संज्ञायाः प्रयेाजनं ' हकारो हचतुर्थेषु ' इति ( तै. प्रा.श ९)Tribhasyaratna on T.Pr. II.6; (3) name of an external effort causing घोष: confer, compare सांप्रतिके प्रकृतिस्थे कण्ठे सति हृकारो नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नः क्रियते | तेन च व्यञ्जनेषु घोषो जायते। Vaidikabharana on T.Pr. II.6; (4) name of a kind of external effort of the type of अनुप्रदान found in the utterance of the consonant ( ह् ) and the fourth class-consonants; confer, compare हकारौ हृचतुर्थेषु T.Pr.II.9.
hi(1)personal-ending of the second person. singular. substituted for सि in the imperative mood; confer, compare सेर्ह्यपिच्च P. III. 4.87; (2) a sign-word used in the Vajasaneyi-pratisakhya to mark the termination of the words of the Adhikarasutra V. Pr.III.5, IV.11.
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
Vedabase Search
136 results
nala nalasSB 8.2.14-19
nala pipesSB 1.6.13
nala-sakhaḥ who was a friend of NalaSB 9.9.16-17
nala-sakhaḥ who was a friend of NalaSB 9.9.16-17
nalada of spikenards, rose-purple flowers native to IndiaSB 10.42.28-31
nalaḥ NalaSB 9.23.17
nalakūvara NalakūvaraSB 10.10.23
nalakūvara O Nalakūvara and MaṇigrīvaSB 10.10.42
nalakūvara one of them was NalakūvaraSB 10.9.23
nalāt from NalaSB 9.9.16-17
nalina (like) a lotusSB 10.90.15
nalina lotusSB 4.7.33
nalina of lotusSB 5.2.5
nalina of the lotus flowerCC Antya 7.29
CC Madhya 8.232
CC Madhya 8.80
CC Madhya 9.121
SB 10.47.60
nalina than a lotus flowerSB 10.31.11
nalina-āyata spread like the petals of a lotusSB 2.2.9
nalina-āyata spread like the petals of a lotusSB 2.2.9
nalina-āyata-īkṣaṇaḥ having blooming eyes like the petals of a lotusSB 8.18.1
nalina-āyata-īkṣaṇaḥ having blooming eyes like the petals of a lotusSB 8.18.1
nalina-āyata-īkṣaṇaḥ having blooming eyes like the petals of a lotusSB 8.18.1
nalina-āyata-īkṣaṇam with eyes as broad as the petals of a lotusSB 8.22.13
nalina-āyata-īkṣaṇam with eyes as broad as the petals of a lotusSB 8.22.13
nalina-āyata-īkṣaṇam with eyes as broad as the petals of a lotusSB 8.22.13
nalina-īkṣaṇāya unto Him whose opening eyes are like lotusesSB 3.9.21
nalina-īkṣaṇāya unto Him whose opening eyes are like lotusesSB 3.9.21
nalina-nābha O Lord, whose navel is just like a lotus flowerCC Madhya 1.81
nalina-nābha O Lord, whose navel is just like a lotus flowerCC Madhya 1.81
CC Madhya 13.136
nalina-nābha O Lord, whose navel is just like a lotus flowerCC Madhya 13.136
nalina-nabha O Lord, whose navel is just like a lotus flowerSB 10.82.48
nalina-nabha O Lord, whose navel is just like a lotus flowerSB 10.82.48
nalina-nayana of the lotus-eyed LordCC Madhya 23.65
nalina-nayana of the lotus-eyed LordCC Madhya 23.65
nalina-yugala like two blue lotus flowersSB 6.9.41
nalina-yugala like two blue lotus flowersSB 6.9.41
nalināt from the lotus flowerSB 2.6.23
nalinī named NalinīSB 4.29.11
nalinī of small lakes filled with lotus flowersSB 4.6.21
nalinī of the name NalinīSB 4.25.48
nalinī with lotusesSB 9.18.5
nalinī-taṭa on the bank of the lake with lotus flowersSB 4.25.18
nalinī-taṭa on the bank of the lake with lotus flowersSB 4.25.18
nalinīḥ lotus flowersSB 1.6.12
nalinīm a lotus flowerSB 10.54.35
nalinīṣu in the lakesSB 4.6.19-20
nalinyaḥ lotus flowersSB 8.15.13
nalinyām through NalinīSB 9.21.30
dīpta-anala blazing fireBG 11.17
kāla-anala the fire of deathBG 11.25
anala fireSB 1.14.12
anala fireSB 2.2.28
dava-anala forest firesSB 3.30.22
anala fireSB 3.32.9
anala by the fireSB 5.3.11
anala of the fireSB 5.9.6
anala like the fire of devastationSB 6.8.23
anala-prabhān as brilliant as fireSB 6.18.68
kāla-anala-upamām appearing just like the blazing fire of devastationSB 9.4.46
anala the sacrificial firesSB 10.24.29
anala (like) the fireSB 10.59.7
anala (like) the fireSB 10.66.39
anala fireSB 10.81.21-23
anala-vat like fireSB 10.87.19
anala fireSB 11.28.26
analaḥ fireBG 7.4
analaḥ fireSB 1.19.3
analaḥ fireSB 3.8.11
analaḥ fireSB 3.25.33
analaḥ fireSB 4.13.10
analaḥ fireSB 4.16.11
analaḥ fireSB 4.21.35
dāva-analaḥ a forest fireSB 5.6.8
analaḥ fireSB 6.1.13-14
analaḥ fireSB 6.2.18
analaḥ the fireSB 7.2.43
analaḥ flamesSB 7.12.31
analaḥ a fireSB 9.6.48
analaḥ the fireSB 10.58.36
analaḥ the fireSB 10.66.40
analaḥ to the sacred fireSB 10.70.6
analaḥ the fireSB 11.3.10
analaḥ a fireSB 11.3.12
analaḥ fireSB 11.12.18
analaḥ the fire (from the wood)SB 12.5.3
analaḥ fireCC Madhya 6.164
analam fireSB 1.11.34
analam fireSB 1.19.4
analam fireSB 4.28.44
kāma-analam the blazing fire of lusty desiresSB 7.9.25
analam into the fireSB 8.9.14-15
analam a fireSB 11.3.36
analam fireSB 12.8.23
sa-analāt on fireSB 4.28.14
vaidyuta-analāt from the thunderbolt (of Indra)SB 10.31.3
analāt from the fireSB 10.88.18-19
analau and a fireSB 10.50.20
anale in the fireSB 6.19.8
viraha-anale in the fire of separationCC Madhya 2.57
tuṣa-anale in the slow fireCC Antya 20.41
analena by the fireBG 3.39
mukha-analena by the fire emanating from His mouthSB 2.2.26
analpakam greatSB 11.20.35
svaka-ańga-nalina-aṣṭake on all eight lotuslike parts of the body (face, navel, eyes, palms and feet)CC Antya 19.91
svaka-ańga-nalina-aṣṭake on all eight lotuslike parts of the body (face, navel, eyes, palms and feet)CC Antya 19.91
caraṇa-nalina-yugalam two lotus feetSB 12.6.72
nava-nalina-dalāyamāna appearing like the petals of a new lotus flowerSB 5.5.31
dava-anala forest firesSB 3.30.22
dāva-analaḥ a forest fireSB 5.6.8
dīpta-anala blazing fireBG 11.17
hema-nalīnam like a golden lotusBs 5.18
janalokaḥ the Janaloka planetary systemSB 2.5.39
kāla-anala the fire of deathBG 11.25
kāla-anala-upamām appearing just like the blazing fire of devastationSB 9.4.46
kāma-analam the blazing fire of lusty desiresSB 7.9.25
mukha-analena by the fire emanating from His mouthSB 2.2.26
nava-nalina-dalāyamāna appearing like the petals of a new lotus flowerSB 5.5.31
caraṇa-nalina-yugalam two lotus feetSB 12.6.72
svaka-ańga-nalina-aṣṭake on all eight lotuslike parts of the body (face, navel, eyes, palms and feet)CC Antya 19.91
hema-nalīnam like a golden lotusBs 5.18
sthala-nalinīkam compared to a red lotus flowerSB 5.8.25
nava-nalina-dalāyamāna appearing like the petals of a new lotus flowerSB 5.5.31
anala-prabhān as brilliant as fireSB 6.18.68
sa-analāt on fireSB 4.28.14
sthala-nalinīkam compared to a red lotus flowerSB 5.8.25
sukhīnalaḥ SukhīnalaSB 9.22.41
svaka-ańga-nalina-aṣṭake on all eight lotuslike parts of the body (face, navel, eyes, palms and feet)CC Antya 19.91
tuṣa-anale in the slow fireCC Antya 20.41
kāla-anala-upamām appearing just like the blazing fire of devastationSB 9.4.46
vaidyuta-analāt from the thunderbolt (of Indra)SB 10.31.3
anala-vat like fireSB 10.87.19
viraha-anale in the fire of separationCC Madhya 2.57
caraṇa-nalina-yugalam two lotus feetSB 12.6.72
73 results
nala noun (masculine) Amphidonax Karka (8-12 feet high) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a deified progenitor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a measure of length (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular form of constellation in which all the planets or stars are grouped in double mansions (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a species of reed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Daitya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a descendant of the latter Nala; son of Sudhanvan and father of Uktha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a divine being mentioned with Yama (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of the Nishadhas (son of Vīrasena and husband of Damayantī) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a medic. author (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-chief; son of Tvaṣṭṛ or Viśvakarman; constructs the bridge to Laṅkā for Rāmas army (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Nishadha and father of Nabha or Nabhas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Yadu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the 50th year of the cycle of Jupiter which lasts 60 years (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1823/72933
nala noun (masculine neuter) Arundo Tibialis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a species of reed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a particular tribe whose employment is making a sort of glass bracelet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a prince with the patr. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Phragmites karka Trin. ex Steud (Arundo karka Retz.)
Frequency rank 8133/72933
nalada noun (masculine neuter) Indian spikenard (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Nardostachys Jatamansi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the blossom of Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the honey or nectar of a flower (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the root of Andropogon Muricatus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8278/72933
naladā noun (feminine) Nardostachys Jatamansi name of a daughter of Raudrāśva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28583/72933
naladādi noun (masculine) [medic.] name of a varga
Frequency rank 55729/72933
nalagiri noun (masculine) name of Pradyota's elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55728/72933
nalaka noun (neuter) a bone (hollow like a reed) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular ornament for the nose (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any long bone of the body (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the tibia or the radius of the arm (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15802/72933
nalaka noun (masculine) a kind of pea reed
Frequency rank 55727/72933
nalakūbara noun (masculine) name of a son of Kubera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13580/72933
nalamīna noun (masculine) a kind of fish (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36118/72933
nalaphalī noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 55730/72933
nalasetu noun (masculine) the causeway constructed by the monkey Nala for Rāma (the modern Adam's Bridge) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19492/72933
naleśvara noun (neuter) name of a Tīrtha at the Narmadā
Frequency rank 55735/72933
nalika noun (neuter) a glass bottle
Frequency rank 36119/72933
nalikā noun (feminine) a kind of fragrant substance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a quiver (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a tube or tubular organ of the body (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Daemia Extensa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Dolichos Lablab (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Polianthes Tuberosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of crucible a kind of kaṅkuṣṭha
Frequency rank 5442/72933
nalikāmūṣā noun (feminine) a kind of crucible
Frequency rank 55731/72933
nalin adjective equipped with lotuses
Frequency rank 36117/72933
nalina noun (neuter) a lotus flower (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a water-lily Nelumbium Speciosum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the indigo plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8626/72933
nalinikā noun (feminine) a tube name of a woman
Frequency rank 14973/72933
nalināsana noun (masculine) name of Brahmā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55732/72933
nalinī noun (feminine) a kind of fragrant substance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a lotus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a myst. name of one of the nostrils (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular class of women (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an assemblage of lotus flowers or a lotus pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
having king Nala (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Nelumbium Speciosum (the plant or its stalk) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of 2 rivers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Ajamīḍha and mother of Nīla (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the fermented and intoxicating juice of the cocoa-nut (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Ganges of heaven or rather an arm of it (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4187/72933
nalinīkā noun (feminine) a kind of vegetable
Frequency rank 55733/72933
nalinīruha noun (neuter) the fibres of a lotus-stalk (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55734/72933
nalottama noun (masculine) Arundo Bengalensis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55736/72933
nalva noun (masculine) a furlong (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a measure of distance400 (or 104?) cubits (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16888/72933
nalvaṇa noun (neuter) a measure of capacity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36120/72933
nalī noun (feminine) a kind of perfume (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
red arsenic (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24338/72933
analā noun (feminine) name of a daughter of Dakṣa name of a daughter of Sundarī and the Rākṣasa Mālyavant
Frequency rank 17505/72933
anali noun (masculine) the tree Sesbana Grandiflora (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42751/72933
anala noun (masculine) (in astron.) the fiftieth year of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bile (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
digestive power (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
gastric juice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Muni (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the eight Vasus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Vasudeva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Plumbago rosea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Plumbago Zeylanica (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Semicarpus Anacardium (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the god of fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the letter r (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the number three (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the third lunar mansion or Kṛttikā (?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wind (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 967/72933
analaka noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 42752/72933
analaṅkārika adjective nicht schmückend
Frequency rank 42753/72933
analadala noun (neuter) a metal colored yellow by use of mercury or other metals
Frequency rank 42754/72933
analaprabhā noun (feminine) Cardiospermum Halicacabum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31770/72933
analapriyā noun (feminine) Agni's wife (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42755/72933
analasa adjective active (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not lazy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20530/72933
analasāda noun (masculine) dyspepsia (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42756/72933
analaṃkāra adjective
Frequency rank 31771/72933
analaṃkṛta adjective not decorated
Frequency rank 20531/72933
analpa adjective much (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not a little (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
numerous (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5962/72933
analpaka adjective
Frequency rank 42757/72933
ānala noun (neuter) name of the constellation Kṛttikā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46417/72933
aurvānala noun (masculine) submarine fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 48214/72933
kunalin noun (masculine) the plant Agati grandiflora (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49660/72933
kuberanalinī noun (feminine) name of a Tīrtha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49687/72933
gorocanalatā noun (feminine) name of a divyauṣadhī
Frequency rank 34736/72933
ghanaloha noun (neuter) iron
Frequency rank 51797/72933
janaloka noun (masculine) the 5th Loka or next above Maharloka (residence of the sons of Brahmā and other godly men) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14900/72933
nala noun (masculine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 53064/72933
tīvrānala noun (masculine) a kind of viḍa
Frequency rank 53646/72933
tumbanalī noun (feminine) a kind of alchemical apparatus
Frequency rank 53674/72933
tumbīnalī noun (feminine neuter) a kind of alchemical apparatus
Frequency rank 24125/72933
davānala noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 54281/72933
devanala noun (masculine) Arundo Bengalensis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 54936/72933
paśupāśavimocanaliṅgapūjādikathana noun (neuter) name of Liṅgapurāṇa, 1.81
Frequency rank 57610/72933
bṛhannala noun (masculine) a kind of large reed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the arm (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the name assumed by Arjuna when living in the family of king Virāṭa as a eunuch in female attire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60365/72933
bhinnaliṅga noun (neuter) incongruity of gender in a comparison (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60754/72933
mandānala noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 29565/72933
mahānala noun (masculine) Arundo Bengalensis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mercury
Frequency rank 38122/72933
yantranalī noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 62916/72933
vakranalikā noun (feminine) a kind of alchemical apparatus
Frequency rank 38983/72933
vajrānala noun (masculine) a kind of viḍa
Frequency rank 64491/72933
vaḍabānala noun (masculine) img/alchemy.bmp
Frequency rank 30034/72933
vaḍavānala noun (masculine) the submarine fire a kind of alchemical preparation a kind of viḍa
Frequency rank 13740/72933
vanalakṣmī noun (feminine) Musa Sapientum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 64590/72933
vanalatā noun (feminine) a forest-creeper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 39041/72933
vaṃśanalikāyantra noun (neuter) a kind of alchemical apparatus
Frequency rank 64973/72933
vāḍabānala noun (masculine) submarine fire (supposed to be at the south-pole) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of biḍa
Frequency rank 65065/72933
vāstumānalakṣaṇa noun (neuter) name of Garuḍapurāṇa, 1.46
Frequency rank 65304/72933
viṣānala noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 66227/72933
śvānalomāpanayana noun (neuter) name of a Tīrtha (?); Śvānalohmāpaha?
Frequency rank 68354/72933
śvānalomāpaha noun (neuter) name of a Tīrtha (?)
Frequency rank 68355/72933
somānala noun (neuter) a kind of alchemical apparatus
Frequency rank 13257/72933
 

abdhiphena

froth of the sea; cuttle fish bone, i.e. spongy and chalky internal shell of a mollusc that floats on water after it dies.

abhāva

absence, null; abhāvapratinidhi alternative; a medicinal herb that is substituted unavailable one.

ābhyantarakrimi

internal parasite.

ādhmāna

flatulence; bloated; abdominal distension; in flation; a condition in abdomen .

agnijāra

amber; ambergins; it is a dried part of the feces of whale fish available on sea shores; decomposed intestinal and uterine part of whale fish, smells good after long time and used in medicine.

agnika

several medicinal plants are known by this name: citraka, bhallātaka, ajāmoda,agnimantha et Century

ahaṃkāra

ego-construction; consciousness; personal identity.

ahipūtana

napkin rash or diaper rash; sores on the hinder part of the body; anal eruption in children.

alāsaka

1. a disease of the tongue; sublingual abscess; 2. intestinal atony; intestinal inertia; 3. lichen; 4. food poisoning.

āmalaki

Plant emblic myrobalan, Emblica officinalis

amara

1. immortal, eternal, deathless; 2. quicksilver or mercury; 3. Plant a species of pine.

anala

1. digestive power; 2. gastric juice; 3. bile; 4. fire; 5. wind.

ānala

belonging to god of fire.

anitya

non-eternal; ephemeral.

añjananāmika

stye; external hordeolum, an eye disease.

anna

food; annadveṣa aversion to food; annalepa external application of rice preparation; annamada food-mania; annaprāśana first feeding to infant.

antaḥparimārjana

(antah.parimārjana) suppressing (doṣas) internally; an approach in the treatment of diseases.

antra

gut; intestine; antrakūjana intestinal pangs; antrasūla intestinal colic; antravṛddhi inguinal hernia.

aṇutalia

penetrating oil; a medicinal preparation applied into nostrils to improve the perception of senses and in several diseases that affect the head including grey hair, facial paralysis.

ārdraka

1. Plant ginger; fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale; 2. wet, moist.

ariṣṭa

a medicinal preparation made by adding decoction (kaṣāya) of prescribed drugs in a solution of sugar or jaggery and preserving for a specified period to enable fermentation; liquor, ex: vāsāriṣṭa

arjuna

1. Plant stem bark of Terminalia arjuna; T. tomentosa; 2. an eye disease on the sclera, subconjuctival heamorrhage.

arka

1. sun; 2. purple calatropis; madar tree; Calotropis procera, C. gigantea. 3. distillate; a liquid medicinal preparation obtained by distillation of certain liquids or of drugs with volatile constituents, soaked in water using the distillation apparatus ex: ajāmodārka.

arthaśāstra

a book on polity written by Kautilya, which refers to 330 medicinal plants used in Ayurveda.

āsava

a medicinal preparation made by soaking fresh drugs, either in form of powder or adding mash (kalka) in a solution of sugar or jaggery for a specified period to enable fermentation; liquor, ex: aravindāsava.

asura

demon; asurakāya infernal body; a person with traits affluent in circumstances, dreadful, valorous, irascible, jealous of other men’s excellence, gluttonous and fond of eating alone.

atipravṛthi

excited or hyper functional activity.

aupamya

analogy, resemblance.

auṣadhi

a medicinal herb.

ayaskṛti

medicinal preparation from iron.

baddhodara,badhagudodar

intestinal obstruction; partial or complete blockage of the bowel that prevents the contents of the intestine from passing through.

bahirdṛti

external liquefication (of mercury).

bāhyadṛti

digestion-external (of mercury)

bhūrja

Plant Himalayan silver birch; Betula utilis; B. bhojapattra, bhūrjapatra traditional writing material.

bhūtonmāda

exogenous psychosis; abnormal condition of the mind due to external factors.

bījaka

Plant 1. Indian kino tree, Pterocarpus marsupium; 2. Indian laurel, Terminalia tomentosa, T. ellipta.

citrakaharītaki

confection preparation used in respiratory diseases and abdominal lumps.

cūrṇa

fine powders of dried medicinal plant parts, ex: triphalā cūrṇa.

ḍālana

pouring of smelted metal into liquids, a process in medicinal alchemy.

ḍamaruyantra,ḍamarukayantra

hour-glass apparatus used in medicinal alchemy; two small drums or earthen pots joined at mouths.

dāraṇa

lancing absess by medicinal applications.

daśarathaguru

an expert in internal medicine (kāyacikitsa) follower of Jainism.

drākṣāriṣṭa

fermented stuff made from grapes and other medicinal herbs, useful in respiratory and digestive disorders.

drākṣāsava

medicinal liquor made from grapes; weakwine made from grapes, which calms vāta and pitta.

dravya

(elementary) substance; medicinal substance or medicine; dravyaguṇa pharmacology, the science of identification, properties, actions and therapeutic uses of medicinal substances.

dugdhapheni

Plant common dandellion, Taraxacum officianale.

gajapippali

Plant dried and transversely cut pieces of female spidax of Scindapsus officinalis. The inflorescence of Balanophora fungosa, a root parasite plant, that resembles Scindapsus officinalis, is marketed as gajapippali.

gandharvakāya

connoisseur body; a person with the traits of celestial personalities like love for garlands, perfumes, fondness of songs and music and love making.

garbhadṛti

internal liquefication (of mercury); internal digestion; liquefication of conusmed substance within mercury.

gostanimūṣa

a crucible used in medicinal alchemy.

gṛdhrasi

sciatica disease; lumbago; group of symptoms including pain that is caused by general compression or irritation of one of five spinal nerve roots that give rise to sciatic nerve, or by compression or irritation of the left or right or both sciatic nerves radiating into lower limbs.

guda

anus; rectum; gudabhramśa anal prolapse; prolapse of rectum; gudavasti rectal enema.

gudavali

anal folds, folds of rectum.

gulma

abdominal lump; phantom tumour.

harītaki

inknut; pericarp of mature fruits of Terminalia chebula; myrobalan.

hintāla

Plant mangrove date palm; marshy date tree; Phoenix or Elate paludosa; queen sago, Cycas circinalis.

inguḍi

Plant 1. delil fruit, Balanites agialida, B. roxburghii; 2. tropical almond, Terminalia catappa.

jātī

Plant jasmine, leaves of Jasminum officinale, J. grandiflorum, J. aurum.

jīvaka

personal physician to Buddha, and renowned surgeon in the – 5th Century , who authored Jīvakatantra.

kaivalya

final liberation from life; Jain concept of release from physical world.

kaṅkuṣṭa

1. Plant Garcinia morella, 2. feces of the elephant calf. 3. medicinal earth.

kapālabhāti

aggressive form of prānāyāma , forcibly expelling air from lungs as the diaphragm and abdominal muscles contract.

kaphajābhiṣyanda

vernal keratoconjunctivitis or spring catarrh: a recurrent, bilateral, and selflimiting inflammation of conjunctiva, having a periodic seasonal incidence.

karṇīka

vaginal polyp.

karṇiṇi

disease in women, obstruction of vaginal discharge due to polups.

kāya

the living human body, kāyacikitsa internal medicine, kāyaseka medicated sprinkling of the body.

kedārakulyānyāya

irrigation-canal hypothesis on the nourishment of dhātus (constituents of the body).

khalekapotanyāya

field-pigeon hypothesis, grain pigeon analogy to explain the formation of dhātu.

kīkasa

vertebra or a rib, spinal column, bone.

koṣṭhānga

visceral organs, abdominal viscera.

kṣāra

1. a corrosive alkaline medicinal preparation obtained from the ash produced by burning plant-parts; 2. a kind of medicine form converted to alkali, caustic soda.

kṣupa

shrub, bush, medicinal plant; undertree.

kumbhīka

1. Plant wild guava, Careya arborea, 2. swelling of the eyelids, 3. kind of demon; 4. catamite (passive partner in anal intercourse); 5. red papule on penis.

kunḍalini

dormant energy located near anal region.

kūpasveda

a pit is made under the bed to light a fire with medicinal herbs to induce sweating.

kuraṇḍa

orchitis, enlargement of testicles including inguinal hernia.

merudanḍa

spinal cord.

nala

Plant gaint reed, Amphidonax karka.

nalada

Go to jaṭāmāmśi

nalakāsthi

tubular bones.

nalikā

Plant pergularia plant; Polianthus tuberosa; Daemia extensa; Onasoma echioides.

nārāyanataila

a medicated oil used as external application to reduce vāta symptoms. a joint and muscle toner.

nija

innate, one’s own, internal

nīlameha

indicanuria or bluish urination. excess indole may be present in the urine in patients suffering from duodenal ulcer, toxic headache et Century leading to indicanuria. It can also be caused by autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results in decreased tryptophan absorption. This is known as ‘blue diaper syndrome’.

nirvāṇa

Buddhist concept of release from physical life; final liberation.

nitya

eternal; nityayukta always busy.

oṣadhi

medicinal plant, medicine.

paisāca

demon-like, infernal.

pañcakola

combination of pippali (Piper longum), pippalimūla, cavya (Piper chaba), citraka (Plumbago resea), śunṭhi (Zingiber officinale).

pariṇāmaśūla

duodenal ulcer, peptic ulcer.

parpaṭa

Plant Indian fumitory, Fumaria parviflora, F. officinalis

pinḍikodveṣṭa

cramps in the calf; noctornal or tropical cramps.

pradara

excessive vaginal discharge, leucorrhoea.

prakṛti

1. nature, creation; 2. personality and temperament, constitution of the body, 3. natural form.

pramathya

paste or dough made by boiling a medicinal substance in water, ex: mustādi pramathya

prasārini

Plant 1. marsh mallow, khatmi, Althaea officinalis; 2. touch-me-not plant, Mimosa pudica 3. stinkvine, Paederia foetida is used in south India and arrow-leaf morning glory, Merremia tridentata is used in north India.

pratyāhāra

withdrawal of senses from external objects, fifth stage of yoga.

priyaka

deer with soft skin; a chameleon; trees Nauclea cadamba, Terminalia tomentosa.

raktapitta

blood-bile, bleeding disorder; spontaneous haemorrhage from mouth and nose; internal/innate haemorrhage; heamorrhagic disease, ex: haemophilia.

rasabandha

immobalizing mercury, a process in medicinal alchemy.

rasakaumudi

a treatise on medicinal alchemy by Jnana Chandra.

rasāmṛtam

a text on medicinal alchemy of 20th century authored by Yadavji Trikamji Acharya.

rasaśāstra:

medical mineralogy and medicinal alchemy.

rasatantra

medicinal alchemy and pharmaceutics.

rasendrakalpadruma

a treatise on medicinal alchemy by Ramakrishna Bhatta.

ṛtu

season, ṛtucarya seasonal regimen.

śakra

Plant arjun tree, Terminalia arjuna.

sanghātabalapravṛttivyādhi

(sanghāta.bala.pravṛthi.vyādhi) diseases caused by external or environmental factors.

sanjīvani

Plant a medicinal herb that revivifies; some plants which are identified as sanjīvani are Cressa critica (littoral bindweed), Selaginella bryopteris, Desmothecum fimbriatus, Tinospora cardifolia, Malaxis acuminata, Mycrosylus willichi, Actiniopteris radiata.

śaṣkuli

1. auditory canal; 2. rice gruel or barley water.

śayyāmūtra

bedwetting, nocturnal enuresis.

siddhi

final emancipation; supreme felicity; bliss.

snehana

lubrication, anointing, unction, oleation internally and externally.

śuṇṭhi

Plant dry ginger, dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale.

svarasa

fresh juice of medicinal herb, succus

svasthavṛtta

regimen for healthy person, personal and social hygiene; maintaining and promoting health.

śvetapradara

leucorrhoea, thick whitish or yellowish vaginal discharge.

tālu

palate, tālukanṭaka inflammation of uvula, tālupāka palatitis or ulceration of palate, tālupuppuṭa indolent swelling on the palate; tāluśoṣa constitutional disease of cleft palate

triphala

three myrobalans (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Embelia ribes).

udara

abdomen, acute abdomen, stomach; abdominal swelling.

udaraveṣṭa

abdominal cramp.

ulūka

owl, a solitary and nocturnal bird.

upamāna

particle of comparison, simile, one of tantrayuktis, analogy, upamāna pramāṇa means of knowledge by testimony.

utpāṭa

a disease of the external ear; swelling of the lobe due to wight.

uttaravasti

urethra injection pipe; sending medicated fluids into vagina; vaginal douche; urethral and uterine enema & bladder wash.

vardhma

hernia, internal rupture.

vāritara,vāritaratva

float on water; a test for improperly processed metal. This is one of the physical analytical parameters for bhasma, and is applied to study the lightness and fineness of prepared bhasma.

vedana

pain, vedanasthapana analgesic

vibhītaka

Plant myrobalan tree,Terminalia belerica.

vidārika

lymphnode enlargement in groin and axilla, dermatitis of the external ear, otitis media.

vikriti

1. variation; constitutional disorders; vikritivigyana pathology.

vipāka

post digestive taste, transformed flavor, final transformation.

vīrudh

Plant medicinal plant, herb that grows again after cutting; a creeper.

yonikanda

vaginal cyst or tumour.

yonivarti

vaginal suppository.

yoṣāpasmāra

(yoṣa.apasmāra) hysteria; A mental disorder characterized by emotional excitability and sometimes by amnesia or a physical deficit, such as paralysis, or a sensory deficit, without an organic cause.

yukti

rationale; reasoning; deduction from the circumstances.

yuktivyapāśraya

(yukti.vyapāśraya) depending on rationale; treating diseases using medicaments.

Wordnet Search
"nal" has 112 results.

nal

udyogin, prayatnavat, udyukta, karmodyukta, analasa, sayatna, vyavasāyin, karmin, sodyoga, karmaniṣṭha   

yaḥ kārye ramate।

mama mātā udyoginī asti।

nal

virāmacihnāṅkanam, avasānacihnāṅkanam, virāmacihnalekhanam   

lekhane mudraṇe ca yāni cihnāni virāmam sūcayanti।

vyākaraṇe virāmacihnāṅkanam āvaśyakam।

nal

pādaḥ, preṣṭhā, ṭaṅkā, ṭaṅgaḥ, ṭaṅgam, ṭaṅkaḥ, ṭaṅkam, prasṛtā, nalakinī, jaṅghā   

avayavaviśeṣaḥ- ākaṭi adhamāṅgaṃ, manuṣyādayaḥ anena saranti।

vane carataḥ mama pādaḥ bahu kleśam anvabhavat

nal

tuvarī, tuvaraḥ, kaṣāya-yāvānalaḥ, rakta-yāvānalaḥ, lohita-kustumburu-dhānyam   

sasya-viśeṣaḥ, yasya bījarūpāḥ kaṣāyāḥ yāvānalāḥ bhojane upayujyante।

asmin saṃvatsare tuvaryaḥ sasyaṃ vipulaṃ dṛśyate।

nal

tuvarī, tuvaraḥ, kaṣāya-yāvānalaḥ, rakta-yāvānalaḥ, lohita-kustumburu-dhānyam   

dhānya-viśeṣaḥ, kaṣāyo yāvānalaḥ āyurvede asya vātaśamanatva-virecakāditvādayaḥ guṇāḥ proktāḥ।

adya ahaṃ odanena saha tuvarīṃ pacāmi।

nal

uśīraḥ, abhayam, naladam, sevyam, amṛṇālam, jalāśayam, lāmajjakam, laghulayam, avadāham, iṣṭakāpatham, uṣīram, mṛṇālam, laghu, layam, avadānam, iṣṭam, kāpatham, avadāheṣṭakāpatham, indraguptam, jalavāsam, haripiriyam, vīram, vīraṇam, samagandhikam, raṇapriyam, vīrataru, śiśiram, śītamūlakam, vitānamūlakam, jalamedas, sugandhikam, sugandhimūlakam, kambhu   

mālādūrvāyāḥ sugandhitaṃ mūlam।

vāyuśītake uśīraṃ prayujyate।

nal

nalla   

nal

nalla   

nal

nalla   

nal

nalla   

nal

kamalam, padmaḥ, utpalam, kumudam, kumud, nalinam, kuvalayam, aravindam, mahotpalam, paṅkajam, paṅkeruham, sarasijam, sarasīruham, sarojam, saroruham, jalejātam, ambhojam, vāryudbhavam, ambujam, ambhāruham, puṇḍarīkam, mṛṇālī, śatapatram, sahasrapatram, kuśeśayam, indirālayam, tāmarasam, puṣkaram, sārasam, ramāpriyam, visaprasūnam, kuvalam, kuvam, kuṭapam, puṭakam, śrīparṇaḥ, śrīkaram   

jalapuṣpaviśeṣaḥ yasya guṇāḥ śītalatva-svādutva-raktapittabhramārtināśitvādayaḥ।

asmin sarasi nānāvarṇīyāni kamalāni dṛśyante। / kamalaiḥ taḍāgasya śobhā vardhate।

nal

indranīlaḥ, aśmasāraḥ, indranallaḥ, mahānallaḥ, maṇiśyāmaḥ, masāraḥ, nallaḥ, nallamaṇiḥ, nallaratnakaḥ, nallāśman, nallopalaḥ, sauriratnam, śanipriyam, śitiratnam   

ratnaviśeṣaḥ, nīlavarṇīyaṃ ratnam।

kvacit prabhālepibhiḥ indranīlaiḥ muktāmayī yaṣṭiranuviddhā vā।

nal

nalla   

nal

nalla   

nal

agniḥ, pāvakaḥ, pāvanaḥ, tejaḥ, vahniḥ, jvalanaḥ, analaḥ, kṛśānuḥ, vāyusakhā, vāyusakhaḥ, dahanaḥ, śikhī, śikhāvān, kṛṣṇavartmā, araṇiḥ, ghāsiḥ, dāvaḥ, pacanaḥ, pācanaḥ, pācakaḥ, juhuvān, vāśiḥ, arciṣmān, prabhākaraḥ, chidiraḥ, śundhyuḥ, jaganuḥ, jāgṛviḥ, apāmpitaḥ, jalapittaḥ, apittam, himārātiḥ, phutkaraḥ, śukraḥ, āśaraḥ, samidhaḥ, citrabhānuḥ, jvālājihvā, kapilaḥ, vibhāvasuḥ, tamonud, śuciḥ, śukraḥ, damunaḥ, damīnaḥ, agiraḥ, hariḥ, kaviḥ   

tejaḥpadārthaviśeṣaḥ।

parvate dṛśyamānaḥ dhūmaḥ agneḥ sūcakaḥ।

nal

kamalam, aravindam, sarasijam, salilajam, rājīvam, paṅkajam, nīrajam, pāthojam, nalam, nalinam, ambhojam, ambujanma, ambujam, śrīḥ, amburuham, ambupadmam, sujalam, ambhoruham, puṣkaram, sārasam, paṅkajam, sarasīruham, kuṭapam, pāthoruham, vārjam, tāmarasam, kuśeśayam, kañjam, kajam, śatapatram, visakusumam, sahasrapatram, mahotpalam, vāriruham, paṅkeruham   

jalajakṣupaviśeṣaḥ yasya puṣpāṇi atīva śobhanāni santi khyātaśca।

bālakaḥ krīḍāsamaye sarovarāt kamalāni lūnāti।

nal

analaṅkṛta, avibhūṣita   

yaḥ alaṅkṛtaḥ nāsti।

analaṅkṛte api sādhvīmukhaṃ śobhate।

nal

pittam, māyuḥ, palajvalaḥ, tejaḥ, tiktadhātuḥ, uṣmā, agniḥ, analaḥ, śāṇḍilīputraḥ   

śarīrasthadhātuviśeṣaḥ yaḥ pittāśaye jāyate tathā ca yaḥ pacanakriyāyāṃ sāhāyyaṃ karoti।

pittaṃ annasya pacanakriyāyāṃ sahāyakam।

nal

atīva, bahu, adhika, atiśaya, ati, analpa   

saṅkhyāmātrādīnāṃ bāhulyam।

tasya durdaśāṃ vīkṣya atīva duḥkhitaḥ aham।

nal

nalikā, nāḍī, nālī, netram, suṣiḥ   

yā svasmin vastūni sthāpayitvā anyatra nayati।

dhamanirūpā nalikā hṛdayaṃ prati raktaṃ vahati tataḥ apanayati ca।

nal

dhanalābhaḥ, dhanaprāptiḥ   

dhanasya prāpteḥ kriyā।

kauna banegā karoḍa़pati nāmni krīḍāyāṃ gajānanāya dhanalābhaḥ jātaḥ।

nal

nalla   

nal

nalla   

nal

nalla   

nal

nalla   

nal

nalla   

nal

dyumat, dyutikar, dyutimat, dyotana, dyoti, dyotamāna, ujvala, kāntimat, kiraṇamaya, utprabha, ullasa, ullasita, prakāśavat, prakāśaka, prakāśamāna, prakāśat, prakāśin, citra, tejasvat, tejasvin, tejomaya, taijasa, añjimat, atiśukra, abhirucira, abhivirājita, abhiśobhita, abhīṣumat, amanda, avabhāsita, avabhāsin, ābhāsvara, ārocana, ābhāsura, iddha, utprabha, udīrṇadīdhiti, uddyota, uddyotita, kanakatālābha, kanakaprabha, kanala, kāśī, kāśīṣṇu, ketu, taijasa, dīdi, dīdivi, dīpta, dīptimat, dyotamāna, dhauta, punāna, prakhya, prabhāvat, bṛhajjyotis, bhāskara, bhāsura, bhāsvara, bhāsvat, bhāsayat, rukmābha, rucita, rucira, rucya, ruśat, roca, rocana, rocamāna, rociṣṇu, varcasvin, vidyotamāna, virukmat, vicakṣaṇa, virājamāna, śuklabhāsvara, śundhyu, śubhāna, śubhra, śubhri, śumbhamāna, śobha, śobhamāna, sutāra, suteja, sudīpta, sudyotman, supraketa, suprabha, suruk, suvibhāta, sphurat, hiraṇyanirṇij, hiraṇyanirṇig   

yasmin dīptiḥ asti athavā yasya varṇaḥ ābhāyuktaḥ asti।

prācyadeśāt āgatena tena dūtena tat dyumat ratnaṃ rājasabhāyāṃ rājñe samarpitam।

nal

arjunaḥ, dhanañjayaḥ, pārthaḥ, śakranandanaḥ, gāṇḍivī, madhyamapāṇḍavaḥ, śvetavājī, kapidhvajaḥ, rādhābhedī, subhadreśaḥ, guḍākeśaḥ, bṛhannalaḥ, aindriḥ, phālgunaḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, kirīṭī, śvetavāhanaḥ, bībhatsuḥ, vijayaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, savyasācī, kṛṣṇaḥ, jiṣṇuḥ   

kunteḥ tṛtīyaḥ putraḥ।

arjunaḥ mahān dhanurdharaḥ āsīt।

nal

kadalī, tṛṇasārā, gucchaphalā, vāraṇavuṣā, rambhā, mocā, kāṣṭhīlā, aṃśumatphalā, vāravuṣā, suphalā, sukumārā, sakṛtphalā, hastiviṣāṇī, gucchadantikā, niḥsārā, rājeṣṭā, bālakapriyā, ūrustambhā, bhānuphalā, vanalakṣmīḥ, kadalakaḥ, mocakaḥ, rocakaḥ, locakaḥ, vāravṛṣā, vāraṇavallabhā   

phalaviśeṣaḥ tat phalam yad gurutaram madhuram tathā ca puṣṭam।

saḥ kadalīm atti।

nal

kadalī, tṛṇasārā, gucchaphalā, vāraṇavuṣā, rambhā, mocā, kāṣṭhīlā, aṃśumatphalā, vāravuṣā, suphalā, sukumārā, sakṛtphalā, hastiviṣāṇī, gucchadantikā, niḥsārā, rājeṣṭā, bālakapriyā, ūrustambhā, bhānuphalā, vanalakṣmīḥ, kadalakaḥ, mocakaḥ, rocakaḥ, locakaḥ, vāravṛṣā, vāraṇavallabhā   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ-saḥ vṛkṣaḥ yasya parṇāni dīrghāṇi tathā ca phalaṃ gurutaraṃ madhuraṃ puṣṭam asti।

tasya prāṅgaṇe kadalī asti।

nal

analam, aparyāptam   

prakāmaṃ bhojanaṃ yathā syāt tathā।

saḥ bahūni dināni yāvat analam abhukta।

nal

bṛhaddhūmranalikā   

bṛhatī dhūmranalikā।

prācīne kāle rājānaḥ bṛhaddhūmranalikāṃ pibanti sma।

nal

dhūmranalikā   

dhūmrapānasya viśeṣaprakārakam upakaraṇam।

rāmaḥ dhūmranalikāṃ sevate।

nal

karamardaḥ, karamardī, karāmbukaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, kṛṣṇapākaḥ, kṣīraphalaḥ, ḍiṇḍimaḥ, nalinadalaḥ, pākakṛṣṇaḥ, pākaphalaḥ, pāṇimardaḥ, phalakṛṣṇaḥ, phalapākaḥ, vanāmalaḥ, varālakaḥ, varāmraḥ, vārivaraḥ, vaśaḥ, vighnaḥ, suṣeṇaḥ   

kaṇṭakayuktaḥ vṛkṣaḥ yasya phalāni laghuni tathā ca amlāni santi।

tena karamardaḥ unmūlitaḥ।

nal

karamardaḥ, karamardī, karāmbukaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, kṛṣṇapākaḥ, kṣīraphalaḥ, ḍiṇḍimaḥ, nalinadalaḥ, pākakṛṣṇaḥ, pākaphalaḥ, pāṇimardaḥ, phalakṛṣṇaḥ, phalapākaḥ, vanāmalaḥ, varālakaḥ, varāmraḥ, vārivaraḥ, vaśaḥ, vighnaḥ, suṣeṇaḥ   

kaṇṭakayuktaḥ vṛkṣaḥ yasya phalāni laghūni tathā ca amlāni santi।

mātuḥ karamardasya vyañjanaṃ nirmāti।

nal

nirālasya, analasa   

ālasyahīnaḥ।

nirālasyaḥ puruṣaḥ saphalībhavati।

nal

dāvānalaḥ, dāvāgniḥ   

vane vṛkṣāṇāṃ gharṣaṇena prajvalitaḥ agniḥ।

dāvānalena sampūrṇaṃ vanaṃ bhasmīkṛtam।

nal

nalikā, nālaḥ   

suṣiravivariṇī kṛtrimā nāḍiḥ yā dravavāhanārthe upayujyate।

saḥ nalikayā nārikela-jalaṃ pibati।

nal

nimnalikhita, adholikhita, nimnokta   

yad nimne likhitam।

nimnalikhitānāṃ praśnānāṃ samādhānaṃ dadatu।

nal

nalaḥ   

rāmasya senāyāṃ vartamānaḥ vānaraḥ yena sāgare setuḥ nirmitaḥ।

nalaḥ kuśalaḥ śilpakāraḥ āsīt।

nal

jyotiṣmatī, pārāvatāṅghrī, kaṭabhī, piṇyā, pārāvatapadī, nagaṇā, sphuṭabandhanī, pūtitailā, iṅgudī, svarṇalatā, analaprabhā, jyotirlatā, supiṅgalā, dīptā, medhyā, matidā, durjarā, sarasvatī, amṛtā   

latāviśeṣaḥ-yasyāḥ bījāt tailaṃ prāpyate tathā ca yā vātakaphahāriṇī asti।

jyotiṣmateḥ bījasya tailaṃ bahu upayuktam asti।

nal

tuṣānalaḥ   

tuṣādibhiḥ prajvālitaḥ agniḥ।

prācīnakāle janāḥ prāyaścittarūpeṇa svaṃ tuṣānale prajvālayanti sma।

nal

analacūrṇam   

visphoṭakaḥ padārthaḥ yaḥ dūravedhinyādiṣu upayujyate।

sphoṭake analacūrṇam asti।

nal

nalla, na lla   

devādinām sādhanam;

pranūnam brahmaṇapatirmantram vadatyukatham

[ṛ 96.4.74]

nal

dhanalobhin, dhanalolupa   

yaḥ dhanasya lobhī asti।

rāmaḥ dhanalobhī manuṣyaḥ asti।

nal

analopalaḥ   

aśmaprakāraḥ yasya gharṣaṇāt agniḥ prajvālyate।

indrajālikena analopalāt agniṃ prajvālya grāmīṇāḥ mugdhāḥ kṛtāḥ।

nal

nalikā, nalī, muralī, picchorā, veṇuḥ, sānikā   

nalaḥ iva ākārasya kiñcit vastu।

asvāsthān paśūn veṇoḥ nalikayā auṣadhaṃ pāyayate।

nal

cārulekhanam, sulekhanam, śobhanalekhanakalā, śobhanalekhanaśilpam, cārulekhanaśilpam, śubhalekhanam   

samyak lekhanasya kalā।

pāṭhaśālāyāṃ cārulekhanasya pratiyogitāyāḥ āyojanaṃ kṛtam।

nal

nalla   

nal

mahānalvam, sahastramānam   

dūratāyāḥ māpanaṃ kartuṃ yat parimāṇaṃ tad।

sahastraṃ mānaṃ nāma ekaṃ mahānalvam।

nal

mṛṇālam, visam, viśam, padmanālam, mṛṇālī, mṛṇālinī, padmatantuḥ, visinī, nalinīruham   

padmasya nālam।

mṛṇālaṃ mṛdu tathā ca suṣiram asti।

nal

nalla----------------------------------------------------------------   

pāti rakṣatyapatyam yaḥ।

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

nal

rajanīgandhā, dviṣadā, nalikā   

puṣpaviśeṣaḥ- suvāsikapuṣpaṃ yad rātrau eva vikasati।

rātrau sati eva upavanaṃ rajanīgandhāyāḥ gandhena anuvāsitaṃ bhavati।

nal

nalla   

nal

nalaḥ   

niṣadhadeśasya rājñaḥ vīrasenasya putraḥ।

nalasya vivāhaḥ vidarbhanareśasya bhīmasenasya kanyayā saha abhavat।

nal

svāhā, agnāyī, hutabhukpriyā, dviṭhaḥ, analapriyā, vahnivadhūḥ   

agnibhāryā।

dharmagrantheṣu svāhā iti agnipatnī asti iti varṇanaṃ prāpyate।

nal

analaḥ   

bibhīṣaṇasya mantrī।

analaḥ atīva caturaḥ āsīt।

nal

analaprabhā   

kāṣṭhaviśeṣaḥ।

eṣā mūrtiḥ analaprabhayā kṛtā।

nal

analamukha   

yasya mukham agniḥ asti।

saḥ analamukhaṃ piṇḍaṃ pūjayati।

nal

analā   

prajāpateḥ dakṣasya ekā kanyā।

analā kaśyapa-ṛṣeḥ patnī āsīt।

nal

analā   

ekā rākṣasakanyā।

analā mālyavataḥ putrī āsīt।

nal

nalla   

nal

pramāṇapatram, pramāṇalekhaḥ, sādhanapatram, sādhanalekhaḥ   

mudritapatrasya ekaḥ aṃśaḥ yaḥ sūcayati yat asya dhārakaḥ viśiṣṭavastu viśiṣṭāyāṃ mātrāyāṃ prāptum adhikārī asti iti।

asmābhiḥ bhojanālaye bhojanasya kṛte prathamataḥ pañcāśat-rupyakāṇāṃ pramāṇapatrāṇi svīkṛtāni।

nal

nalikāyantram   

prācīnaṃ yantram yad vaidyake upayujyate sma।

nalikāyantreṇa jalodarasya rugṇasya udarāt jalaṃ niṣkāsayanti sma।

nal

nimnalocā   

ekā apsarāḥ।

nimnalocāyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu labhyate।

nal

nalaḥ   

ekaḥ dānavaḥ yaḥ vipracitteḥ caturthaḥ putraḥ āsīt।

nalaḥ siṃhikāyāḥ garbhāt jātaḥ।

nal

nalakūbaraḥ   

kuberasya ekaḥ putraḥ।

nāradasya śāpena nalakūbaraḥ tasya bhrātā ca arjunavṛkṣau jātau।

nal

annanalikā   

kaṇṭhanālyāḥ jaṭharaṃ yāvat prasṛtaḥ saḥ bhāgaḥ yaḥ nigalitāya bhojanāya jaṭharaṃ yāvat prāpayati।

annanalikāyāḥ dīrghatā prāyaḥ nava vartate।

nal

kopalatā, ardhacandrikā, analaprabhā, kaṭabhī, kanakaprabhā, kukundanī, kaiḍaryaḥ, gīrlatā, jyotiṣkā, jyotirlatā, tīktakā, tīkṣṇā, dīptaḥ, niphalā, paṇyā, parāpatapadī, pītatailā, piṇyā, pūtitailā, bahurasā, matidā, lagaṇā, latā, latāpuṭakī, lavaṇaḥ, vāyasādanī, śṛṅgin, śleṣmaghnī, sarasvatī, supiṅgalā, suvegā, suvarṇalatā, svarṇalatā, sumedhas, sphuṭavalkalī, sphuṭaraṅgiṇī   

ekā latā।

kopalatā oṣadhyāṃ prayujyate।

nal

nalla   

nal

parīkṣaṇanalikā   

kācasya ekā nalikā yasyāḥ ekam upāntaṃ ruddham।

parīkṣaṇanalikāyāḥ prayogaḥ rāsāyanikāyāṃ prayogaśālāyāṃ kasyāpi vāyoḥ parīkṣaṇāya bhavati।

nal

śvāsanalikā, kaṇṭhapraṇālī, śvāsamārgaḥ, prāṇamārgaḥ   

śarīre upāsthnā racitā sā nalikā yasyāḥ śvāsasya gamanāgamanaṃ bhavati।

śvāsanalikāyāṃ udbhūtāt rodhāt śvasanaṃ duṣkaraṃ bhavati।

nal

phenala, phenila, saphena, phenavat, arṇava   

phenayuktam।

samudre phenalāḥ taraṅgāḥ udbhavanti।

nal

nalabāḍīnagaram   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

hindībhāṣakāṇāṃ viruddhaṃ kṛtāyāḥ hiṃsāyāḥ vārtā nalabāḍīnagarāt āgatā।

nal

nalabāḍīmaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

nalabāḍīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ nalabāḍīnagare asti।

nal

jaṭāmāṃsī, tapasvinī, jaṭā, māṃsī, jaṭilā, lomaśā, misī, naladam, vahninī, peṣī, kṛṣṇajaṭā, jaṭī, kirātinī, jaṭilā, bhṛtajaṭā, peśī, kravyādi, piśitā, piśī, peśinī, jaṭā, hiṃsā, māṃsinī, jaṭālā, naladā, meṣī, tāmasī, cakravartinī, mātā, amṛtajaṭā, jananī, jaṭāvatī, mṛgabhakṣyā, miṃsī, misiḥ, miṣikā, miṣiḥ   

auṣadhīyavanaspateḥ sugandhitaṃ mūlam।

jaṭāmāṃsyāḥ upayogaḥ vibhinneṣu auṣadheṣu bhavati।

nal

sonalamaṇḍalam   

himācalapradeśe vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

sonalamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sonalanagare vartate।

nal

sonalanagaram   

himācalapradeśe vartamānaṃ nagaram।

sonalanagare śreṣṭhinaḥ gṛhe āpātaḥ abhavat।

nal

yauvanalakṣaṇam, tāruṇyacihnam, lāvaṇyam, stanaḥ, kucaḥ   

strīṣu yauvanasya stanarūpīyaṃ lakṣaṇaṃ cihnaṃ।

yuvatiḥ yauvanalakṣaṇena śobhate।

nal

agniḥ, vaiśvānaraḥ, vītahotraḥ, agnihotraḥ, huraṇyaretāḥ, saptārci, vibhāvasuḥ, vṛṣākapiḥ, svāhāpatiḥ, svāhāprayaḥ, svāhābhuk, agnidevaḥ, agnidevatā, dhanañjayaḥ, jātavedaḥ, kṛpīṭayoniḥ, śociṣkeśaḥ, uṣarbudhaḥ, bṛhadbhānuḥ, hutabhuk, haviraśanaḥ, hutāśaḥ, hutāśanaḥ, havirbhuk, havyavāhanaḥ, havyāśanaḥ, kravyavāhanaḥ, tanunapāt, rohitāśvaḥ, āśuśukṣaṇiḥ, āśrayāśaḥ, āśayāśaḥ, āśrayabhuk, āśrayadhvaṃsī, pāvakaḥ, pāvanaḥ, tejaḥ, vahniḥ, jvalanaḥ, analaḥ, kṛśānuḥ, vāyusakhā, vāyusakhaḥ, dahanaḥ, śikhī, śikhāvān, kṛṣṇavartmā, araṇiḥ, ghāsiḥ, dāvaḥ, pacanaḥ, pācanaḥ, pācakaḥ, juhuvān, vāśiḥ, arciṣmān, prabhākaraḥ, chidiraḥ, śundhyuḥ, jaganuḥ, jāgṛviḥ, apāmpitaḥ, jalapittaḥ, apittam, himārātiḥ, phutkaraḥ, śukraḥ, āśaraḥ, samidhaḥ, citrabhānuḥ, jvālājihvā, kapilaḥ, vibhāvasuḥ, tamonud, śuciḥ, śukraḥ, damunaḥ, damīnaḥ, agiraḥ, hariḥ, bhuvaḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ-hindudharmānusāram agneḥ devatāsvarūpam।

agneḥ patnī svāhā।

nal

kitānalipiḥ   

lipiviśeṣaḥ।

maṅgolabhāṣā kitānalipyāṃ likhyate।

nal

nalla   

nal

analaḥ   

mālināmnaḥ rākṣasasya caturṣu putreṣu anyatamaḥ।

analasya varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu asti।

nal

nalinī   

ekā paurāṇikā strī।

nalinī rājñaḥ alamīḍhasya patnī āsīt।

nal

nalikā   

astraviśeṣaḥ yaḥ idānīṃtanīyāyāḥ lohasuṣyāyāḥ iva āsīt iti kathyate।

nalikāyāḥ gulikāḥ śarāḥ vā utsṛjyante sma।

nal

nalinī, manaharaṇam   

varṇavṛttaviśeṣaḥ।

nalinyāḥ pratyekasmin caraṇe pañca sagaṇāḥ bhavanti।

nal

nalinī   

nārikelanirmitā surā।

kulyāyāḥ taṭe upaviśya dvau karmakarau nalinīṃ pibataḥ।

nal

pañjāba-neśanala-baiṅka   

ekaḥ vittakoṣaḥ।

saḥ pañjāba-neśanala-baiṅka iti vittakoṣe dhanaṃ sthāpayituṃ gatavān।

nal

mūtranalikā, mūtravāhikā   

mūtraṃ vāhayantī nalikā।

ekaḥ vaijñānikaḥ mūtranalikāyāḥ ūtyā nirmāṇaṃ dṛḍhatāpūrvakaṃ kathayati।

nal

anilaculliḥ, analaculliḥ   

yā culliḥ anilasya sahāyyena prajvalati।

anilacullyāṃ sthāpitaṃ dugdham utkvathate।

nal

indracirbhiṭī, indīvarā, yugmaphalā, dīrghavṛntā, uttamāraṇī, puṣpamañjarikā, droṇī, karambhā, nalikā   

latāviśeṣaḥ-yasyā guṇāḥ kaṭutvam śītatvam pittaśleṣmakāsadoṣavraṇakṛmināśitvam asti ।

indracirbhiṭī cakṣuhitakārī asti

nal

kaṭabhī, analaprabhā, kukundanī, pārāpatapadī, pītatailā, kanakaprabhā, gīrlatā, jyotirlatā, jyotiṣkā, tejasvinī, tejohvā, tiktakā, niphalā, paṇyā, pārāvatapadī, piṇyā, pūtitailā, bahurasā, lagaṇā, nagaṇā, latā, latāpuṭakī, lavaṇakiṃśukā, śleṣmaghnī, sārasvatī, supiṅgalā, sphuṭaraṅgiṇī, sphuṭavalkalī, sumedhā, suvarṇalatā, suvegā, svarṇalatā, dīptaḥ, lavaṇaḥ, śṛṅgī, nagnaḥ   

kṣupaviśeṣaḥ ।

kaṭabhyāḥ varṇanaṃ suśrutena kṛtam

nal

nalinadalaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

nalinadalasya ullekhaḥ pravaragranthe vartate

nal

saṃhitāsamānalakṣaṇam   

dhvaniśāstrasya granthaviśeṣaḥ ।

saṃhitāsamānalakṣaṇasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

nal

ānalaviḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

ānalaveḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

nal

ānalaviḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

ānalaveḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

nal

nalakānanaḥ   

ekaḥ janasamudāyaḥ ।

nalakānanānām ullekhaḥ mahābhārate asti

nal

nalacaritam   

ekaṃ kāvyam ।

nalacaritasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

nal

nalacaritam   

ekaṃ nāṭakam ।

nalacaritasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

nal

nalacaritram   

ekaṃ kāvyam ।

nalacaritrasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

nal

nalacaritram   

ekaṃ nāṭakam ।

nalacaritrasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

nal

nalapākaśāstram   

pākakalāyāḥ ekaḥ granthaḥ ।

nalapākaśāstrasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

nal

nalapuram   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

nalapurasya ullekhaḥ praśastyām asti

nal

nalabhūmipālanāṭakam   

ekaṃ nāṭakam ।

nalabhūmipālanāṭakasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

nal

nalayādavarāghavapāṇḍavīyam   

dve kāvyaviśeṣe ।

nalayādavarāghavapāṇḍavīyam iti nāmakayoḥ dvayoḥ kāvyayoḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

nal

nalavarṇanam   

dve kāvyaviśeṣe ।

nalavarṇanam iti nāmakayoḥ dvayoḥ kāvyayoḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

nal

nalasenaḥ   

ekaḥ rājaputraḥ ।

nalasenasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

nal

nalastotram   

eka kāvyam ।

nalastotrasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

nal

nallādīkṣitaḥ   

lekhakanāmaviśeṣaḥ ।

nallādīkṣitaḥ iti nāmakānāṃ naikeṣāṃ lekhakānām ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

nal

nallāpaṇḍitaḥ   

lekhakanāmaviśeṣaḥ ।

nallāpaṇḍitaḥ iti nāmakānāṃ naikeṣāṃ lekhakānām ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

nal

nallābudhaḥ   

lekhakanāmaviśeṣaḥ ।

nallābudhaḥ iti nāmakānāṃ naikeṣāṃ lekhakānām ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

nal

nalvaṇgonnalakāmābhaṭṭaḥ   

ekaḥ lekhakaḥ ।

nalvaṇgonnalakāmābhaṭṭasya ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

Parse Time: 2.125s Search Word: nal Input Encoding: Devanagari IAST: nal