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Results for min
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
kopanā strī2.6.4FeminineSingularbhāminī
nalinīFeminineSingularbisinī, padminīan assemblage of lotus flowers
śampā1.3.9FeminineSingularcañcalā, taḍit, hrādinī, vidyut, kṣaṇaprabhā, śatahradā, capalā, saudāminī, airāvatīlighting
śarvarīFeminineSingularrajanī, kṣapā, rātriḥ, tamī, tamasvinī, kṣaṇadā, niśīthinī, minī, vibhāvarī, triyāmā, niśāthe star spangled night
vīrut2.4.9FeminineSingulargulminī, ulapaḥ
minī3.3.119FeminineSingularprajāpatiḥ, tattvam, tapaḥ, brahma, brahmā, vipraḥ, vedāḥ
     Monier-Williams
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Results for min737 results for min
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
minf. a bodily defect, fault, blemish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minf. Name of particular verses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mindāhuti(h-) f. a particular sacrifice, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minminamfn. equals miṇmiṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minnamfn. become fat, fat (impersonal or used impersonally minnam-or meditam- ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minv(see ninv-, sinv-) = pinv- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhigāminmfn. having sexual intercourse with (in compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhimanyusvāminm. Name of a temple View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhināminm. Name of a ṛṣi- in the sixth manvantara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhisamindhto set on fire, kindle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyāgāminmfn. approaching, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyaminmfn. attacking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adharminmfn. unrighteous, wicked, impious. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhogāminmfn. going downwards, descending. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhvagāminmfn. wayfaring. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityasvāminm. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āgaminmfn. receiving a grammatical augment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āgāminmfn. coming, approaching View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āgāminmfn. (gaRa gamy-ādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āgāminmfn. impending, future etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āgāminmfn. (with auguries) accidental, changeable (opposed to sthira-,"fix") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āgāminSee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agamyāgāminmfn. practising it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agnimindha(agnim-indh/a-) m. the priest who kindles the fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agragāminmfn. preceding, taking the lead. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ahamindram. Name (also title or epithet) of a divine being, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akāminmfn. equals a-kām/a-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akṣaminmfn. intolerant, cruel, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alaṃgāminmfn. (equals anugavīna-) going after or watching (as cows) in a proper manner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ambudhakāminīf. "ocean-lover", a river, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ambudhikāminīf. a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aminmfn. (fr. 1. ama-), sick View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aminamfn. impetuous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aminaSee am-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aminatmfn. (1. mi-), not violating or transgressing, not altering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aminatf. (Ved. dual number atī-) unalterable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amuṣminind. (locative case sg. of ad/as-) in the other world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amuṣminind. (forms the base of āmuṣmika- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anāgāminmfn. not coming, not arriving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anāgāminmfn. not future, not subject to returning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anāgāminm. Name of the third among the four Buddhist orders. (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anaminmfn. not ill, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anāminmfn. unbending View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anantavikraminm. Name of a bodhisattva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ananyagāminmfn. going to no other. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapakraminmfn. not departing from View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapakraminmfn. devoted, attached to. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anāryakarminm. doing work unbecoming an ārya- or becoming only a non- ārya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anāśraminm. one who does not belong to or follow any of the four āśrama-s or religious orders to which Brahmans at different periods of life are bound to attach themselves. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antagāminmfn. going to the end, perishing. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antargatagāminmfn. gone between or into, being in, included in
antargatagāminmfn. being in the interior, internal, hidden, secret View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antargatagāminmfn. disappeared, perished View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antargatagāminmfn. slipped out of the memory, forgotten. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antaryāminm. "checking or regulating the internal feelings", the soul View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anugāminmfn. following, a companion. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anukāminmfn. desirous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyagāminmfn. going to another, adulterous. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyonyadharminmfn. possessing mutually each other's qualities, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apakraminmfn. going away, retiring. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apariṇāminmfn. unchanging. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apatanadharminmfn. not liable to fall out, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apatanadharmin(n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apathagāminmfn. going by a wrong road, pursuing bad practices, heretical. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aprasavadharminmfn. (in sāṃkhya- philosophy) not having the property of producing (one of the characteristics of puruṣa-) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apṛthagdharminmfn. having no separate qualities, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ārabyayāminīf. Arabian Nights (translated into Sanskrit by jagad-bandhu-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ariṣṭaneminm. Name of a brother of gauḍa- (= aruṇa- commentator or commentary) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ariṣṭaneminm. of a muni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ariṣṭaneminm. of the twenty-second tīrthaṃkara- (See nemi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āryasvāminm. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśraminmfn. belonging to one of the four periods of religious life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśraminmfn. belonging to a hermitage, a hermit, anchorite, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astagāminmfn. going down, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśugāminmfn. going or moving quickly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśugāminm. Name of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asvāminm. not an owner, not the owner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atikraminmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') exceeding, violating, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atithidharminmfn. entitled to hospitality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atyantagāminmfn. equals -ga- above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atyāśraminm. "superior to the (four) āśrama-s", an ascetic of the highest degree. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avagaminmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' conceiving, understanding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avakrāminmfn. running away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avanāminmfn. being bent down (as the branches of a tree) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantisvāminm. Name of a sanctuary built by avantivarman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aviśvaminva(/a-viśvam-inva-) mf(ā-)n. not all-embracing, not pervading everything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āyāminmfn. long in space or time View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āyāminmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' restraining, stopping View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirgāminmfn. going out or forth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāminmfn. (for 2.See) shining, radiant, splendid, beautiful etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāminmfn. (for 1.See) passionate, angry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāminf. an angry or passionate woman, vixen (often used as a term of endearment equals caṇḍī-, māninī-,and not always separable from 1. bhāminī-)
bhāminīf. a beautiful woman etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāminīf. Name of the daughter of a gandharva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāminīvilāsam. Name of a poem by jagannātha- paṇḍita-rāja- (the 1st chapter contains allegorical precepts, the 2nd amatory subjects, the 3rd an elegy on a wife's death, the 4th teaches that consolation is only attainable through worshipping kṛṣṇa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bharatasvāminm. Name of Scholiast or Commentator on etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bharminm. a person whose father is a Brahman and whose mother is a pulkasī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhartṛsvāminm. Name of the poet bhaṭṭi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaṭṭārasvāmin m. Name of authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaṭṭasvāmin(see bhaṭṭi-) m. Name of various scholars and authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhavanasvāminm. the lord of a house, pater familias View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhavasvāminm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhavasvāminm. of various authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhīmasvāminm. Name of a Brahman, , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhogasvāminm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhraminmfn. turning round, whirling (as the wind) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhrāminmfn. confused, perplexed (varia lectio for bhrānta-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhrāṣṭramindhamfn. heating the frying-pan, one who fries or cook Va1rtt. 6 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhṛṅgasvāminm. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūminandam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūminātham. "earth-lord" (), "earth-protector" ( ), a king, prince. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūmisvāminm. "landlord", a king, prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūsvāminm. a landlord, landholder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtasaṃkrāminmfn. dependent on beings that have existed before View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bilminmfn. having a helmet () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brāhmaṇīgāminm. the paramour of a brāhmaṇī- woman or of a brahman-'s wife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmasvāminm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmayaśaḥsvāminm. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahminmfn. belonging or relating to brahma- or brahmā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahminmfn. "possessing sacred knowledge"Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakrasvāminm. (see -bhṛt-) viṣṇu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
candragominm. Name of a grammarian (also called candra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
candrasvāminm. Name of several men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
carminmfn. (gaRa vrīhy-ādi-) idem or 'mfn. armed with a shield, shield-bearer gaRa vrīhy-ādi- and purohitādi-.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
carminmfn. covered with a hide View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
carminmfn. made of leather View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
carminm. equals rma-druma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
carminm. (equals rmaṇ-vatī-) Musa sapientum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
carminm. Name of an attendant of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
carminm. of a man Va1rtt. 2 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturāśraminmfn. passing the 4 stages of a Brahman's life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cāturāśramin(edition Calc.) for cat- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chadminmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' disguised as View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chalitasvāminm. Name of a sanctuary (called after chalitaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandānugāminmfn. complying with the wishes (of others), submissive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāttragominmfn. any one attendant on pupils View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ciliminikāSee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cyavanadharminmfn. destined to fall from any divine existence (so as to be re-born as a man) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daminmfn. () tamed, self-controlled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daminmfn. "taming" See kāma-daminī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daminn. Name of a tīrtha-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daminm. plural the Brahmans of śāka-dvīpa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daṇḍāśraminm. an ascetic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darśayāminīf. the new moon night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darvihominmfn. offering m/a- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daśagrāminm. equals ma-pati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daśaminmfn. 91-100 years old View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
deśasvāminm. lord or prince of a country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devasvāminm. "lord of the gods", Name of several Brahmans View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devasvāminm. of an astronomer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devasvāminm. of a Scholiast or Commentator on etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devatīrthasvāminm. the ascetic Name of viśveśvara-datta-mitra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhaminSee kāmaṃ-dh-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhanasvāminm. owner of money, capitalist on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmasvāminm. "lord of law and right", Name of a buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmasvāminm. of a sanctuary built by dharma- (king of kaśmīra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharminmfn. knowing or obeying the law, faithful to duty, virtuous, pious, just View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharminmfn. endowed with any characteristic mark or peculiar property (see below) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharminmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') following the laws or duties of, having the rights or attributes or peculiarities of. having anything as a characteristic mark, subject to any state or condition etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharminm. the bearer of any characteristic mark or attribute, object, thing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharminm. Name of the 14th vyāsa-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharminm. of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharminīf. a kind of perfume View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharminīf. Name of a woman (see dhārmiṇeya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhūminmfn. smoking, steaming View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhūminīf. one of the seven tongues of agni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhūminīf. Name of the wife of aja-mīḍha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhūminīf. of another woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhūminīf. (with diś-) equals dhūmitā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhūrtasvāminm. Name of a Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhyātamātropagāminmfn. appearing when merely thought of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
diddāsvāminm. Name of a temple built by diddā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dikkāminīf. () equals -kanyā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
diksvāminm. equals -pati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīptasvāminm. Name of the father of śabara-svāmin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīrghagāminmfn. going or flying far View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divyadharminmfn. "having a divine nature", virtuous, agreeable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dūragāminmfn. going far View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dūragāminm. an arrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durlabhasvāminm. Name of a temple built by dur-vardhana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dviradagāminmfn. walking like an elephant, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekadharminmfn. of the same properties or kind, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gajagāminīf. a woman of a stately elephant-like walk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gambhīrasvāminm. "the inscrutable lord", Name of a statue of nārāyaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaminmfn. intending to go (with accusative or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') Va1rtt. on ii, 1, 24 on ii, 3, 70. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minmfn. going anywhere (local adverb [ ] or accusative [ ]or prati- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minmfn. (in the following meanings only) in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' ( Va1rtt. 1) going or moving on or in or towards or in any peculiar manner etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minmfn. having sexual intercourse with (see mātṛ-g-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minmfn. reaching or extending to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minmfn. coming to one's share, due etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minmfn. attaining, obtaining View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minmfn. directed towards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minmfn. relating to (see agra--, anta--, anya--, āśu--, ṛtu--, kāma--.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gautamasvāminm. equals got- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gautaminandanam. (metrically for -n-) metron. of aśvatthāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gharminmfn. engaged in preparing the gharma- offering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghṛtaminvamf(ā-)n. melting ghee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gominm. (; gaRa aśvādi-) the owner of cattle or cows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gominm. a jackal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gominm. a layman adhering to buddha-'s faith View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gominm. equals nindya- and equals praśasta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gosvāminm. the master or possessor of a cow or of cows ; a religious mendicant (commonlygosAin see pp. 87; 135; 142;also affixed as a honorary title to proper names exempli gratia, 'for example' vopadeva-g-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gosvāminm. "lord of cows", kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotamasvāminm. mahā-vīra-'s pupil gotama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
govindasvāminm. Name of a Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāmagaminmfn. equals -ga- Va1rtt. 1 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāmagāminmfn. idem or 'mfn. equals -ga- Va1rtt. 1 ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāminmfn. surrounded by a village or community or race View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāminmfn. pertaining to a village, rustic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāminm. a villager, peasant (miṇāṃ rati- equals ma-caryā- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāminm. equals meśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāmyadharminmfn. addicted to sexual intercourse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhāśraminm. equals ma-vat-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhasvāminīf. a housewife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gulminmfn. equals lma-vat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gulminmfn. composed of different divisions (as force etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gulminmfn. growing in a clump or cluster, bushy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gulminīf. a spreading creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gurudevasvāminm. Name of a scholiast. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gurutalpagāminmfn. idem or 'mfn. one who violates his teacher's bed etc.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haiminīf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haṃsagāminīf. "walking like a swan", a graceful woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haṃsavāraṇagāminīf. a woman who walks like a swan and young elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harasvāminm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hariharasvāminm. Name of author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harināthagosvāminm. Name of author. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harisvāminm. Name of various men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haritaneminmfn. having (a chariot with) golden fellies (śiva-), R: View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harivaṃśacandragosvāminm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harivaṃśagosvāminm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastagāminmfn. equals -ga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hitaharivaṃśagosvāminm. = hari-vaṃśa-gosv- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hominmfn. offering, presenting an oblation of (only in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound';See kṣīra--, tila-h-etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hominīf. saṃjñāyām- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
iṣminmfn. going quickly, speedy, impetuous (said of the winds) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jagatsvāminm. the lord of the world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jagatsvāminm. viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jagatsvāminm. Name of an image of the sun in dvādaśādityāśrama-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaiminim. (equals mani-) Name of a celebrated sage and philosopher (he was a pupil of vyāsa- [who made over to him the ] ;and was udgātṛ- priest at janamejaya-'s snake-sacrifice, i, 2046;and was founder of the pūrva-- or karma-mīmāṃsā- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaiminibhāgavatan. Name of a modern revision of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaiminibhāratan. Name of a modern revision of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaiminikaḍāram. equals kaḍāra-jaimini-, the red jaimini- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaiminikośasūtran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaiminisūtran. Name of work , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaiminīyamfn. relating to or composed by jaimini- (a dharma-śāstra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaiminīyam. an adherent of jaimini- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaiminīyam. plural Name of a school of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaiminīyan. jaimini-'s work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaiminīyanyāyamālāvistaram. Name of a compendium of the mīmāṃsā- philosophy by mādhava-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jambūsvāminm. Name of the pupil of mahā-vīra-'s pupil sudharman-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
janminm. a creature, man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jayantasvāminm. Name of the author of a treatise on Vedic accent. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jayasvāminm. "victory-lord", śiva- (?), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jayasvāminm. Name of a scholiast on chandoga-sūtra- and āśvalāyana-brāhmaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jayasvāminvirocanam. Name of a sanctuary, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jīvaghoṣasvāminm. Name of a grammarian. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jīvantasvāminm. Name of a Jain saint View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jyeṣṭhāśraminmfn. idem or 'mfn. being in the most excellent order of life (viz. in that of a householder) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kakudminmfn. peaked, humped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kakudminm. a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kakudminm. a bullock with a hump on his shoulders View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kakudminm. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kakudminm. of a king of the ānarta-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kakudminīf. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalahaṃsagāminīf. a woman with a gait like a swan's, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kālaneminmfn. having the fellies of kāla- as a weapon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kālaneminm. equals -nemi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmadaminīf. "taming love", Name of a libidinous woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmagāminmfn. equals -gati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmakāminmfn. "wishing wishes", having various desires or wishes, following the dictates of passion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmaṃdhaminm. a brazier (equals kāraṃ-dhamin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmaṃgāminmfn. equals -gati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmaṃgāminSee kāma-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minmfn. desirous, longing after (accusative or in compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minmfn. loving, fond, impassioned, wanton View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minmfn. amorous, enamoured, in love with (accusative or with saha-or rdham-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minm. a lover, gallant, anxious husband View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minm. the ruddy goose (cakra-vāka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minm. a pigeon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minm. Ardea Sibirica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minm. a sparrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minm. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīf. a loving or affectionate woman etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīf. a timid woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīf. a woman in general View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīf. a form of devī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīf. the plant Vanda Roxburghii View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīf. the plant Curcuma aromatica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīf. a spirituous liquor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minī(f. of kāmin- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīkāntan. a metre consisting of four lines of six syllables each. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīpriyāf. a kind of spirituous liquor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīśam. the plant Hyperanthera Moringa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapardisvāminm. Name of an author. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāraṃdhaminm. a brazier, worker in mixed or white metal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāraṃdhaminm. an assayer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karasvāminm. Name of a tīrtha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kardaminīf. a marshy region gaRa puṣkarādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karkasvāminm. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karminmfn. acting, active, busy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karminmfn. performing a religious action, engaged in any work or business etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karminmfn. belonging or relating to any act View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karminm. performer of an action View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karminm. labourer, workman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karminm. Butea frondosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kartṛgāminmfn. idem or 'mfn. going towards or falling to the share of the agent commentator or commentary on ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
keśavasvāminm. Name of a grammarian, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kevalakarminmfn. performing mere works (without intelligence) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khadirasvāminm. Name of a scholiast. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khakāminīf. "liking the sky", the female of the Falco Cheela (cilla-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khakāminīf. Name of durgā- (carcikā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khelagāminmfn. idem or 'mf(ā-)n. idem or 'mfn. having a stately walk ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khikkhiminmfn. speaking indistinctly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
klaminmfn. becoming tired, languishing gaRa śamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛminm. a worm (for the sake of metre) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛminmfn. affected with worms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛṣṇānandasvāminm. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣaminmfn. () idem or 'mfn. enduring, patient ' (with locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣāminmfn. (equals sti&iencoding=&lang='>kṣāmo 'syāsti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣaṇarāminm. "loving for a moment only", a pigeon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣeminmfn. enjoying peace or security, safe, secure (exempli gratia, 'for example' ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣīrahominmfn. idem or '(r/a--) mfn. (gaRa yuktārohy-ādi-) equals -yāj/in- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣīrasvāminm. Name of a grammarian and commentator or commentary on the amara-koṣa- (according to Kashmirian tradition the same with kṣīra-, q.v) commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumārasvāminm. Name of the author of a commentator or commentary on the mīmāṃsā-bhāṣya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumārilasvāminm. idem or ' m. idem or 'm. Name of a renowned teacher of the mīmāṃsā- philosophy.' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kupathagāminmfn. going in a wrong road, wicked. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kusvāminm. a bad master View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuthuminm. Name of a teacher vArttika (see kuṭhumin-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuṭilagāminmfn. going crookedly, tortuous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lakṣmaṇasvāminm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lakṣmaṇasvāminm. of an image of lakṣmaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lepakāminīf. a moulded figure of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyamineyam. metron. fr. madhyamā- gaRa kalyāṇy-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maghasvāminm. varia lectio for makha-sv- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāsvāminm. Name of a commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvikraminm. Name of a bodhi-sattva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahīsvāminm. "earth-lord", a king. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahlaṇasvāminm. Name of a temple founded by mahlaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahodayasvāminm. Name of a temple built by mahodaya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahorminmfn. having great waves, very billowy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maithunadharminmfn. cohabiting, copulating
makhasvāminm. "lord of sacrifice", Name of an author = View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mākṣikasvāminm. Name of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mammasvāminm. Name of a temple built by mamma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
manaḥsvāminm. Name of a Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandagāminmfn. equals -gati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantharagāminmfn. slow-going View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mārtaṇḍatilakasvāminm. Name of the teacher of the sage vācaspati-. miśra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
martyadharminmfn. having the character or properties of a mortal, any human being View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mātṛgāminmfn. "going to a mother", one who has committed incest with his mother View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mattagāminīf. "having the gait of an elephant in rut", a woman with a rolling walk, a bewitching or wanton woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛducarminm. Betula Bhojpatra View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛdugāminmfn. going softly, having a soft or gentle gait View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛdugāminīf. equals -gamanā- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgagāminīf. Embelis Ribes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mudgaragominm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mukhyāśraminm. the pupil of a Brahmin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muktasvāminm. "lord of emancipation", Name of a statue erected by a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūlasvāminm. dual number the temporary and the rightful owner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nagaragāminmfn. (road) going or leading to a town View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nagarasvāminm. "town-chief", Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāgasvāminm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minmfn. having a name View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minmfn. bending, (especially) changing a dental to a cerebral (said of all vowels except a-and ā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandisvāminm. Name of a grammarian View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nārāyaṇasvāminm. Name of a poetry or poetic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
narendrasvāminm. Name of a temple built by narendrāditya-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
neminm. Dalbergia Ougeinensis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
neminm. Name of the 22nd arhat- of present ut-sarpiṇī- (see nem/i-,m.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
neminātham. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nemininadam. equals -ghoṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nīcagāminmfn. going towards low ground (said of rivers), following low courses (said of women)
nigaminmfn. familiar with or versed in the veda-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirāminmfn. waiting, lurking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirāminSee under ni-ram-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niścaladāsasvāminm. Name of author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nistriṃśadharminmfn. resembling a sword View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padmasvāminm. Name of a sacred edifice built by padma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padmavṛṣabhavikrāminm. Name of a future buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminmfn. spotted (as an elephant) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminmfn. possessing lotuses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminm. an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminīf. See next. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminīf. (of prec.) Nelumbium Speciosum, a lotus (the whole plant in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' (nīka-) mfn.; see abjinī-, nalinī-etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminīf. a multitude of lotuses or a lotus-pond etc. (see gaRa puṣkarādi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminīf. a lotus-stalk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminīf. a female elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminīf. a particular magical art View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminīf. an excellent woman, a woman belonging to the first of the 4 classes into which the sex is divided View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminīf. Name of several women View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminīkāntam. "beloved of lotuses", Name of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminīkaṇṭakam. a kind of leprosy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminīkhaṇḍan. a multitude or lake of lotuses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminīkhaṇḍan. Name of a city View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminīpattran. a lotus-leaf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminīśa(śa-) m. the sun (see -kānta-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminīṣaṇḍa(and -pura-) n. Name of a city View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padminīvallabha m. the sun (see -kānta-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pakṣilasvāminm. idem or 'm. Name of the saint vātsyāyana- ' (as identified with cāṇakya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pakṣisvāmin() m. "lord among bird", Name of garuḍa-.
pañcaminmfn. being in the fifth (month or year) of one's age View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṇḍitasvāminm. Name of authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāpakarminmfn. "wrong-doing", wicked, a villain or sinner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paragāminmfn. idem or 'mfn. being with or relating to another ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāragāminmfn. passing over, crossing, landing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāragāminn. equals para-loka-hitaṃ karma- () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parākraminmfn. showing courage or strength, exerting power. ( ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratalpagāminm. one who approaches another's wife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paribhrāminmfn. moving hither and thither in (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parikarminmfn. adorning, decorating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parikarminm. an assistant, servant, slave View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariṇāminmfn. changing, altering, subject to transformation, developing ( pariṇāmitva mi-tva- n. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariṇāminmfn. ripening, bearing fruits or consequences View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariṇāminityamfn. eternal but continually changing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parvagāminm. one who approaches his wife on festivals View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patanadharminmfn. what is likely to fall out or off ( patanadharmitva mi-tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patminmfn. wrong reading for padmin- (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalgunasvāminm. phalguna
pitṛgāminmfn. belonging or pertaining to a father View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prabhākarasvāminm. Name of the statue of the tutelary deity of prabhākara-varman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prabhavasvāminm. (with jaina-s) Name of one of the 6 śruta-kevalin-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pragāminmfn. setting out, being about to depart (varia lectio prāg-g-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāggāminmfn. going before, preceding, intending to go before View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praminnamfn. one who has begun to become fat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇāminmfn. bending, bowing before, honouring (comp.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāṇāyāminmfn. exercising the breath (in 3 ways) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasavadharminmfn. characterized by production, productive, prolific View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prathamāgāminmfn. occurring first, first mentioned View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prathiminmfn. having size or magnitude View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prathiminīf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikāminmfn. contrary to desire, disagreeable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātikāminmfn. (fr. -kāmam-; accusative m. Calcutta edition mīm-) a servant or messenger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikāminīf. a female rival View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratīpagāminmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') going against, acting in contravention to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratisamindhA1. -inddhe-, to kindle again, rekindle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiyāminiind. every night
pratyudyaminmfn. maintaining an equipoise, counterbalancing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyudyāminmfn. idem or 'mfn. maintaining an equipoise, counterbalancing ' , resisting, refractory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
preminmfn. loving, affectionate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
priyasvāminm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pṛṣṭhagāminmfn. going behind, following, devoted or faithful (Bombay edition) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pṛṣṭhānugāmin() mfn. going behind, following. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pṛthūdakasvāminm. Name of the author of a commentator or commentary on the brahma-gupta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punarāgāminmfn. coming back, returning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṇyavāgbuddhikarminmfn. pure in word and thought and deed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
purogāminmfn. going before, preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
purogāminm. a leader or a dog View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvagrāminm. Name of a family
raghusvāminm. equals -pati- Name of rāma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājagāminmfn. coming to or brought before the king (as slander) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājagāminmfn. devolving or escheating to the king (as property etc. to which there are no heirs) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājakarminmfn. working for a prince Va1rtt. 2 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājasvāminm. "lord of kind", Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājayakṣminmf(iṇī-)n. suffering from consumption, consumptive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raktagulminīf. a female suffering from it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmabrahmānandasvāminm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmānandasvāminm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmānujasvāminm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmasvāminm. Name of a statue of rāma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmasvāminm. of various authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minSee kṣaṇa-rāmin-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raṇakāminmfn. desirous of war, wishing to fight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raṇapurasvāminm. Name of a particular image of sūrya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raṇasvāminm. an image of śiva- as lord of battle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raṇḍāśraminm. one who loses his wife after the 48th year View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raśmin(in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') equals raśmi-, a rein, bridle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratnasvāminm. Name of an image erected by ratna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rātriviśleṣagāminm. "separating at night", the ruddy goose (equals cakravāka- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛgminmfn. praising, jubilant with praise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛtugāminmfn. approaching (a woman sexually) at the fit time (id est after her courses) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudraskandasvāminm. Name of a commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudrasvāminm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rukminmfn. (iṇī-)n. wearing golden ornaments, adorned with gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rukminm. Name of the eldest son of bhīṣmaka- and adversary of kṛṣṇa- (he was slain by bala-rāma-;See rukmiṇī-above ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rukminm. Name of a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rūpagosvāminm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabarasvāminm. Name of an author (see śabara-bhāṣya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdādidharminmfn. having the quality of sound etc. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saccidānandasvāminm. Name of scholars and authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadharminmfn. having the same duties (see prec.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadharminmfn. having the same properties, like, resembling (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāgaragāminmfn. equals -ga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāgaragāminīf. a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāgaragāminīf. small cardamoms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahadharminmfn. following the same duties or customs View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahagāminmfn. equals -gata- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahagāminīf. a woman who burns herself with her deceased husband View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sakṛdāgāminm. "returning only once again id est being re-born ", Name of the second of the four orders of Buddhist arya-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktisvāminm. Name of a minister of muktāpīḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
salīlagajagāminm. Name of a buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samāgaminmfn. coming together, meeting, Ind. Ant. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samāgaminmfn. future, imminent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samarasvāminm. Name of an image or idol set up by samara-varman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃgamasvāminm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃgameśvarasvāminm. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃgaminmfn. associating with (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃgrāminmfn. engaged in war View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaminmfn. tranquil, pacific, incapable of any emotion (see ; Comparative degree of f. śaminī-tarā-or śamini-tarā- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaminm. Name of a son of rājādhideva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaminm. of a son of sūra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaminm. of a son of andhaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saminm. Name of a son of rājādhideva- (varia lectio śamin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minm. (?derivation) a person born under a particular constellation (varia lectio sāvin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saminakṣ(See inakṣ-), -inakṣati-, to wish to attain, strive to reach, be desirous of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samindhA1. -inddhe-, or -indhe- (once in plural imperfect tense -aindhan-; see ; Vedic or Veda infinitive mood -/idham-and -/idhe-), to set fire to, set alight, light up, kindle, ignite, inflame (literally and figuratively) ; to take fire ; to swell, increase, exhibit, show, betray. (skill) : Passive voice -idhyate-, to be kindled, take fire, break out into flame View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samindhanam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samindhanan. the act of kindling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samindhanan. fuel, firewood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samindhanan. a means of swelling or increasing of (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saminvP. -invati-, to impart, bestow ; to put together, restore View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaṃkarasvāminm. Name of a Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkrāminmfn. passing over or being transferred to others on (see bhūta-s-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samudragāminmfn. sea-going, seafaring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samudyaminmfn. exerting one's self. strenuous, eager, zealous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃyaminmfn. who or what restrains or curbs or subdues View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃyaminmfn. one who subdues his passions, self-controlled ( saṃyamitā mi-- f.self-control ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃyaminmfn. tied up (as hair) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃyaminm. a ruler View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃyaminm. an ascetic, saint, ṛṣi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃyamināmamālikāf. Name of work (containing synonyms of names of ṛṣi-s, by śaṃkarācārya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃyaminīf. Name of the city kāśī-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃyaminīf. Name of yama-'s residence (also written saṃ-yamanī- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃyaminīpatim. Name of yama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaradyāminīf. a night in autumn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarasvatīsvāminm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaratkāminm. "desirous of autumn", a dog View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śarminmfn. possessing happiness, lucky, auspicious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śarminm. Name of a ṛṣi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvagāminmfn. equals -ga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārvagāminmfn. (perhaps wrong reading for sarva-g-) entering into the Universal Soul View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvakāminmfn. fulfilling all wishes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvakāminmfn. acting entirely according to one's wish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvakāminmfn. having all desired objects View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvāntarātaryāmin() m. the universal Soul. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvāśraminmfn. belonging to or being in every order of life, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvasvāminm. the owner or master of all View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvasvāminm. a universal monarch View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvatogāminmfn. going in all directions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvatragāminmfn. all-pervading View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvatragāminm. air, wind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvatragāminīpratipattijñānabalan. the faculty of knowing the means of going everywhere (one of the 10 faculties of a tathāgata-), . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saudāminīincorrect for preceding. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saudāminīyamf(ā-)n. (incorrect for saudāmanīya-) like saudāminīya- lightning, lightning-like View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
senāgragāminm. "going at the front of an army", a general View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīghragāmin( ) mfn. idem or '() or' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śikharasvāminīf. Name (also title or epithet) of a queen, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sīmadharasvāminm. "observing the bounds (of morality or decorum)", Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siṃhagāminīf. Name of a gandharva- maiden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siṃhasvāminm. Name of a temple erected in honour of siṃha-rāja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siṃhavikrāntagāminmfn. having a lion's gait View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śītalasvāminm. Name of an arhat- with jaina-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sitayāminīf. a bright night, moonlight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivasvāminm. Name of various authors and teachers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
skandasvāminm. Name of a Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
skandhasvāmin wrong reading for skanda-sv- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śleṣminm. bdellium View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasvāminm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavāminmfn. vomiting soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavāminm. a priest who has drunk too much soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sominmfn. having or possessing soma-, offering soma-, performer of a soma- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sominmfn. inspired by soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sominīf. (saṃjñāyām-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śraminmfn. (only ; see ) making great efforts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śraminmfn. undergoing fatigue or weariness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīdharasvāminm. (also mi-yati-) Name of a well-known scholar (the pupil of paramānanda- and author of various Commentaries) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīkayyasvāminm. Name of a particular shrine or temple View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīsvāminm. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīsvāminm. of the father of bhaṭṭi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthalagāminmfn. idem or 'mfn. equals -ga- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthalapadminīf. Hibiscus Mutabilis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudāminīf. Name of the wife of śamika- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudharminmfn. (in next;also wrong reading for -dharman-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumatisvāminm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
surakāminīf. an apsaras- (-janāḥ-,"the apsaras- people") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sureśvarasvāminm. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuṣminmfn. roaring, rushing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuṣminmfn. strong, fiery, mettlesome, vigorous, impetuous, courageous, bold etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuṣminmfn. sexually excited, ruttish (applied to bulls and elephants) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuṣminm. plural Name of a caste living in kuśa-dvīpa- (corresponding to the kṣatriya-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuṣmintama(śuṣm/in--.) mfn. most strong or mighty or fiery or bold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
susvāminm. a good lord or chief View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvāgminmfn. very eloquent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvikrāntavikraminm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvikrāntavikrāminm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svadāragāminmfn. cohabiting with one's own wife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svakāminmfn. following one's own wish, self-pleasing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svakāminmfn. self-loving, selfish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svakarminmfn. selfish , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvalominīf. Name (also title or epithet) of a female demon, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminSee . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminm. (fr. 1. sva-+ min-) an owner, proprietor, master, lord or owner of (genitive case locative case,or compound) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminm. a chief, commander (of an army) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminm. a husband, lover (dual number"husband and wife") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminm. a king, prince (in dramatic language used as a form of address equals deva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminm. a spiritual preceptor, learned Brahman or Pandit (used as a title at the end of names, especially of natives of the Carnatic) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminm. the image or temple of a god (often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound';See śrīdhara--, viṣṇu-sv-etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminm. Name of skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminm. of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminm. of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminm. of garuḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminm. of the muni- vātsyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminm. of the 11th arhat- of the past utsarpiṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminm. of various authors (also with miśra-and śāstrin-;sometimes abridged from names ending in svāmin- exempli gratia, 'for example' for kṣīra--and śabara-svāmin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminīf. See next. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminīf. a proprietress, mistress, lady (used in addressing a queen or a king's favourite wife) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminīstotran. Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminyin compound for svāminī-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminyaṣṭakan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svargagāminmfn. going to heaven View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svayambhraminmfn. self-revolving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svayaṃhominmfn. offering a sacrifice of the above kind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svayamindriyamocanan. spontaneous emission of semen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śyenagāminm. "flying like a hawk", Name of a rākṣasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taddharminmfn. obeying his laws View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taminmfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taptodakasvāminm. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilahominmfn. offering sesamum-oblations View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tiryaggāminm. " equals -gama- ", a craw-fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trailokyavikraminm. "striding through the 3 worlds", Name of a bodhi-sattva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tripathagāminīf. idem or 'f. "flowing through heaven, earth, and the lower regions", the Ganges etc.' , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tuvikūrminmfn. idem or 'mfn. powerful in working (indra-) ' , 66, 12. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uditahominmfn. sacrificing after sunrise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udvāminmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' vomiting out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udyaminmfn. undertaking, persevering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udyaminmfn. making effort, active View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unmārgagāminmfn. going on a wrong road, going wrong, erring (literally and figuratively) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upagāminmfn. coming near, approaching, arriving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasamindhA1. -inddhe-, to kindle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasamindhanan. the act of kindling on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upayāminmfn. (fr. upa-yāma- gaRa balādi- ), furnished with a ladle. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ūrdhvagāminmfn. going or tending upwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ūrminmfn. undulating, wavy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utkūlagāminmfn. passing beyond the bank View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttarāśraminm. (a Brahman) who enters into the next āśrama- (or period of religious life) commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vācaminvamfn. "word-moving", singing, reciting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāgminmfn. See below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāgminmfn. speaking well, eloquent etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāgminmfn. speaking much, loquacious, talkative, wordy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāgminm. a parrot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāgminm. Name of bṛhas-pati- or the planet Jupiter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāgminm. of a son of manasyu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vainyasvāminm. Name of a temple View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vajrasvāminm. (with jaina-s) Name of one of the seven daśapūrvin-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vakragāminm. going crookedly, fraudulent, dishonest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vallabhasvāminm. Name of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāmanasvāminm. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāmanendrasvāminm. Name of a preceptor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaminmfn. vomiting, being sick View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minmfn. (for 2.See column 3) vomiting, ejecting from the mouth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minmfn. (for 1.See this page, column 1) equals vāmācarin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīf. (with yoni-) a vulva ejecting the semen virile View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vanāśraminm. a vānaprastha- or Brahman dwelling in a forest, an anchorite. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varadharminm. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varāhadevasvāminm. Name of an author. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varāhasvāminm. Name of a mythical king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vardhamānasvāminm. Name of a jina- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vardhanasvāminm. Name of a particular temple or image View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varminmf(iṇī-)n. clad in armour, mailed etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varminm. Name of a man on Va1rtt. 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varṇāśraminmfn. possessed of caste and order View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaśagāminmfn. coming into the power (of another), becoming subject or obedient View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastudharminmfn. dependent on the nature of a thing, objective View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātagāminm. "wind-goer", a bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātagulminmfn. suffering from the above disease. ( ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātanulominmfn. forcing the wind in the right direction or downwards (as in inflating she lungs) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedakavisvāminm. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedasvāminm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedavyāsasvāminm. Name of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
veśyāgāminm. one who visits harlots, fornicator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
veśyakāminī(),
vibhraminmfn. moving hither and thither View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidharminmfn. transgressing the law (as speech) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidharminmfn. of a different kind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidhavāgāminm. one who has intercourse with a widow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyādhīśasvāminm. Name of scholar. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vihāyasāgāminmfn. able to move through the sky View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikarminmfn. acting wrongly or unlawfully View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikraminmfn. striding (said of viṣṇu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikraminmfn. displaying valour, courageous, gallant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikraminm. a lion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilāsāndragāminīf. Name of a gandharvī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilāsasvāminm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilasatsaudāminīf. a flash of lightning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimārgagāminmfn. going on a wrong road () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinayasvāminīf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipariṇāminmfn. undergoing a change of state or form, turning into (instrumental case) on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipathagāminmfn. going in a wrong way or evil course View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrasvāminm. Name of a dānava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrasvāminm. (with bhaṭṭa-) of the father of medhātithi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣakṛminyāyam. the rule of the poison-worm (denoting that what may be fatal to others, is not so to those who are bred in it) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣṇugūḍhasvāminm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣṇusvāminm. a temple or statue of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣṇusvāminm. Name of various men etc. (especially of a celebrated vaiṣṇava- teacher, predecessor of vallabhācārya- ). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣṭīminmfn. ( stīm-) making or becoming wet, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvaminvamf(-)n. all-moving, all-pervading, all-embracing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvaminvamf(-)n. all-containing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvasvāminm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vrajarājagosvāminm. Name of various authors and other men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛṣabhasvāminm. Name of a king (founder of the family of ikṣvāku- and father of draviḍa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyādhidharminmfn. subject or liable to pain, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatikraminmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') sinning against, wronging View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatikraminmfn. passing over, deviating, transgressing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāyāyāminmfn. equals āyāma-vat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyomagāminmfn. equals -ga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyominm. Name of one of the Moon's ten horses (see vyoma-mṛga-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yādavaprakāśasvāminm. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajñasvāminm. "lord of sacrifice", Name of a Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajuḥsvāminm. Name of a purohita- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yakṣminmfn. consumptive, phthisical View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yakṣminmfn. one who suffers from pulmonary consumption View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yaminmfn. restraining, curbing etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yaminmfn. one who restrains himself or has subdued his senses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minSee antar-yām/in- (for yāminī-See) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minayaNom. (fr. next) P. yati-, to appear like night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yaminīf. bringing forth twins View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīf. (fr. 1. yāma-) "consisting of watches", night etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīf. Name of a daughter of prahlāda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīf. of the wife of tārkṣa- (mother of śalabha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minī yāmīra- See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīdayita() m. "the beloved or the husband of night", the moon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīnātha() m. "the beloved or the husband of night", the moon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīpati() m. "the beloved or the husband of night", the moon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīpriyatama m. "lover of night", the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīpūrṇatilakāf. assumed Name of a princess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīramaṇam. "lover of night", the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīśa(śa-) m. equals -pati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīvirahinmfn. separated by night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
minīvirahinm. (with vihaga-) the bird cakravāka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yānasvāminm. the owner of a vehicle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yaśassvāminm. Name of a temple founded by yaśas-kara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yathākāminmfn. acting according to will or pleasure ( yathākāmitva mi-tva- n.) on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yatidharminm. Name of a son of śvaphalka-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yatīśvarasvāminm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogadharminmfn. doing homage to the Yoga View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogagāminmfn. going (through the air) by means of magical power View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogasvāminm. a master in the Yoga View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yugminmfn. (fr. yugma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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mind मिन्द् 1, 1 U. (मिन्दति, मिन्दयति-ते). See मिद् II.
minmina मिन्मिन (ल) a. One who speaks with nasal utterance; a snuffler; आवृत्य वायुः सकफो धमनीः शब्दवाहिनीः । नरान् करोत्यक्रियकान् मूकमिन्मिलगद्गदान् ॥
minna मिन्न p. p. 1 Fat; P.VII.2.16. -2 Unctuous, greasy. -3 Affectionately inclined towards (one).
minv मिन्व् 1 P. (मिन्वति) 1 To sprinkle, moisten. -2 To honour, worship.
ativarṇāśramin अतिवर्णाश्रमिन् m. One who is beyond castes and orders (यो वेदान्तमहावाक्यश्रवणेनैव केवलम् । आत्मानमीश्वरं वेद सो$ तिवर्णाश्रमी भवेत्).
adharmin अधर्मिन् a. Impious, wicked.
anāgāmin अनागामिन् m. 1 Not coming, not arriving. -2 Not future, not likely to return. -m. An epithet of the third among the 4 Buddhist orders.
anāśramin अनाश्रमिन् m. One who does not belong to, or follow, any of the 4 orders of life (गृहस्थाद्याश्रमशून्य); अनाश्रमी न तिष्ठेत्तु क्षणमेकमपि द्विजः; अनाश्रम-मे-वासः not dwelling in any Āśrama.
anugāmin अनुगामिन् a. Following. -m. A follower = अनुग.
apakramin अपक्रमिन् a. Going forth or away; not going fast.
abhigāmin अभिगामिन् a. Approaching, having intercourse with; ऋतुकालाभिगामी स्यात् स्वदारनिरतः सदा Ms.3.45; Y.2.282.
abhyamin अभ्यमिन् a. [अम्-णिनि P.III.2.157] 1 Attacking, inclined to attack. -2 Diseased, sick.
amin अमिन् a. Sick, diseased.
amina अमिन a. Ved. Inviolable (अहिंस्य); immense (?).
aminat अमिनत् a. Ved. 1 Not hurting; unhurt. -2 Unalterable; यजत्रैरमिनती तस्थतुरुक्षमाणे Rv.4.56.2.
āyāmin आयामिन् a. 1 One who restrains. -2 Long (in space or time); K.25,55; ˚यामासु Ki.11.48.
iṣmin इष्मिन् a. Speedy, impetuous, an epithet of the winds.
udyamin उद्यमिन् a. Diligent, persevering, active, making effort.
udvāmin उद्वामिन् a. Vomiting out.
upagāmin उपगामिन् a. Coming near; Ks.
ūrmin ऊर्मिन् a. Wavy, undulating.
kakudmin ककुद्मिन् a. 1 Peaked; furnished with a hump &c. m. 1 A bull with a hump on his shoulders; एवं ककुद्मिनं हत्वा _x001F_2Bhāg.1.36.15. -2 A mountain. -3 N. of Viṣṇu; and of king रैवतक. ˚कन्या-सुता N. of Revatī and wife of Balarāma; ककुद्मिकन्यावक्त्रान्तर्वासलब्धाधिवासया Śi.2.2.
karmin कर्मिन् a. 1 Working, active, busy. -2 Engaged in any work or business. -3 One who performs religious deeds with the expectation of reward or recompense; यत् कर्मिणो न प्रवेदयन्ति रागात् Muṇḍ. Up.1.2.9. कर्मिभ्यश्चा- धिको योगी तस्माद्योगी भवार्जुन Bg.6.46. -m. A mechanic, artisan; अनेन विधिराख्यात ऋत्विक्कर्षककर्मिणाम् Y.2.265.
kāmandhamin कामन्धमिन् m. Brazier.
min कामिन् a. (-नी f.) [कम्-णिनि] 1 Lustful. -2 Desirous. -3 Loving, fond. -m. 1 A lover, a lustful person (paying particular attention to ladies); त्वया चन्द्रमसा चातिसन्धीयते कामिजनसार्थः Ś.3; त्वां कामिनो मदनदूतिमुदाहरन्ति V.4.11; Amaru.2; M.3.14. -2 A luxurious husband. -3 The ruddy goose or चक्रवाक bird. -4 A sparrow. -5 An epithet of Śiva. -6 The moon. -7 A pigeon. -8 The Supreme Being. -नी 1 A loving, affectionate, or fond woman; Ms.8.112. -2 A lovely or beautiful woman; उदयति हि शशाङ्कः कामिनीगण्डपाण्डुः Mk.1.57; केषां नैषा कथय कविताकामिनी कौतुकाय P. R.1.22. -3 A woman (in general); मृगया जहार चतुरेव कामिनी R.9.69; Me.65; Ṛs.1.28. -4 A timid woman. -5 Spirituous liquor.
minīśaḥ कामिनीशः The शोभाञ्जन tree.
kārandhamin कारन्धमिन् m. 1 Brazier. -2 A mineralogist.
krudhmin क्रुध्मिन् a. Ved. Angry, wrathful, irritable; शुभ्रो वः शुष्मः क्रुध्मी मनांसि Rv.7.56.8.
kṣemin क्षेमिन् a. (-णी f.) Safe, secure, happy; क्षेमी स्यात्किमु विश्वेशे Bhāg.1.88.39.
gamin गमिन् a. Intending to go; as in ग्रामंगमी. -m. A passenger.
min गामिन् a. [गम्-णिनि] (Only at the end of comp.) 1 Going, moving, walking; वैदिशगामी M.5; मृगेन्द्रगामी R.2.3 having the gait of a lion; कुब्ज˚ Pt.2.5; अलस˚ Amaru.51. -2 Riding; द्विरद˚ R.4.4. -3 Going or reaching to, extending or applying to, relating to; ननु सखीगामी दोषः Ś.4; द्वितीयगामी न हि शब्द एष नः R.3.49. -4 Leading or going to, accruing to; चित्रकूटगामी मार्गः; कर्तृगामि क्रियाफलम्. -5 United with; सदृशभर्तृगामिनी M.5. -6 Passing over to, devolving on; Ś.6; शेषेषु पितृगामि तत् Y.2.145.
gulmin गुल्मिन् a. (-नी f.) 1 Growing in a clump or cluster; विरोप्यन्तां बहुविधाश्छायावन्तश्च गुल्मिनः Rām.7.54.11. -2 Having a diseased spleen, or a spleen affected by गुल्म. -3 Composed of different divisions (as a force &c.).
gomin गोमिन् a. Rich in herds. -m. 1 An owner of cattle; Ms.9.5. -2 A jackal. -3 A worshipper. -4 An attendant on a Buddha. -5 A vaishya (चारण); योगक्षेमं च संप्रेक्ष्य गोमिनः कारयेत्करम् Mb.12.87.35-4.
grāmin ग्रामिन् a. 1 Rustic, rural. -2 Libidinous. -m. 1 A villager, peasant. -2 The head of a village. -णी The indigo plant.
carmin चर्मिन् a. (-णी f.) [चर्म-इनि] 1 Armed with a shield. -2 Leathern. -m. 1 A soldier armed with a shield. -2 Plantain. -3 The Bhūrja tree.
chadmin छद्मिन् a. (-नी f.) [छद्मन्-इनि] 1 Fraudulent, deceitful. -2 Disguised (at the end of comp.); e. g. ब्राह्मण- छद्मिन् disguised as a Brāhmaṇa.
janmin जन्मिन् m. A creature, a living being; Pt.1.16.
jaiminiḥ जैमिनिः N. of a celebrated sage and philosopher, founder of the Mīmāṁsā school of philosophy (properly पूर्वमीमांसा); मीमांसाकृतमुन्ममाथ सहसा हस्ती मुनिं जैमिनिम् Pt. 2.23. -Comp. -भागवतम् N. of a modern revision of Bhāg. -भारतम् N. of a modern revision Mb. -सूत्रम् N. of a work.
jaiminīya जैमिनीय a. Relating to or composed by Jaimini. -m. an adherent of Jaimini. -m. (pl.) N. of a school of the Sv. -n. Jaimini's work. -Comp. -न्यायमालाविस्तरः N. of a compendium of the Mīmāṁsā philosophy of Mādhava.
damin दमिन् a. 1 Tamed, subdued. -2 Taming, subduing, overpoweing.
daśamin दशमिन् a. (-नी f.) Very old.
minī दामिनी Lightning.
dharmin धर्मिन् a. [धर्मो$स्त्यस्य-इनि] 1 Virtuous, just, pious. -2 Knowing one's duties. -3 Obeying the law. -4 Having the properties of, having the nature, peculiar properties or characteristics of anything (at the end of comp.); षट् सुता द्विजधर्मिणः Ms.1.41; कल्पवृक्षफलधर्मि काङ्क्षितम् R.11.5. -5 Following the habits of any person. m. An epithet of Viṣṇu.
dhūmin धूमिन् a. Smoking. -नी N. of one of the tongues of fire.
nigamin निगमिन् a. Knowing the Vedas.
pañcamin पञ्चमिन् a. Being in the fifth year of one's age.
padmin पद्मिन् a. [पद्म-इनि] 1 Possessing lotuses. -2 Spotted; शतं गजानामपि पद्मिनां तथा Mb.1.198.16. -m. 1 An elephant; पद्मीशनाथैः परिशीलनीया लक्ष्मीव संभाति नरेन्द्र ते सभा Sūkti.5.3. -2 An epithet of Viṣṇu.
padminī पद्मिनी 1 The lotus plant; पद्मिनी नक्तमुन्निद्रा Kāv.4.45; सुरगज इव बिभ्रत् पद्मिनीं दन्तलग्नाम् Ku.3.76; R.16.68; Me.83; M.2.13; निरास भृङ्गं कुपितेव पद्मिनी Bk.2.6. -2 An assemblage of lotus flowers. -3 A pond or lake abounding in lotuses; पुष्पैश्चान्यैः परिक्षिप्तं पद्मिन्या च सपद्मया Rām.3.1.6; क्षीणतोयानिलार्काभ्यां हतत्विडिव पद्मिनी । बभूव पाण्डवी सेना तव पुत्रस्य तेजसा ॥ Mb.7.153.2. -4 The fibrous stalk of a lotus. -5 A female elephant. -6 A woman of the first of the four classes into which writers on erotical science divide women; the रतिमञ्जरी thus defines her:-- भवति कमलनेत्रा नासिकाक्षुद्ररन्ध्रा अविरलकुच- युग्मा चारुकेशी कृशाङ्गी । मृदुवचनसुशीला गीतवाद्यानुरक्ता सकलतनु- सुवेशा पद्मिनी पद्मगन्धा ॥ -Comp. -ईशः, -कान्तः, -वल्लभः the sun. -कण्टकः a. kind of leprosy. -खण्डम्, -षण्डम् a multitude of lotuses; a place abounding in lotuses.
parākramin पराक्रमिन् a. Heroic, spirited, courageous, valiant.
parikarmin परिकर्मिन् m. An assistant, a servant, slave.
prātikāmin प्रातिकामिन् A servant or messenger.
premin प्रेमिन् a. (-णी f.) Loving, affectionate.
brahmin ब्रह्मिन् a. Relating to Brahma. -m. An epithet of Viṣṇu.
bhāmin भामिन् a. 1 Passionate, angry. -2 Shining. -3 Handsome, beautiful.
bhāminī भामिनी 1 A beautiful young woman; (कामिनी); क्षितिरिन्दुमती च भामिनी पतिमासाद्य तमग्ऱ्यपौरुषम् R.8.28. -2 A passionate woman (often used like चण्डी as a term of endearment); उपचीयत एव कापि शोभा परितो भामिनि ते मुखस्य नित्यम् Bv.2.1. -Comp. -विलासः N. of a poem by Jagannātha Paṇḍita.
bhramin भ्रमिन् a. [भ्रम्-णिनि] Turning or moving round, revolving, whirling &c.
bhrāmin भ्रामिन् a. Confused, perplexed.
bhrāṣṭramindha भ्राष्ट्रमिन्ध a. One who fries or roasts.
yakṣmin यक्ष्मिन् a. One who is affected by or suffers from consumption; यक्ष्मी च पशुपालश्च परिवेत्ता निराकृतिः Ms.3. 154; Mb.13.9.6.
yamin यमिन् a. [यम्-णिनि, यम-इनि वा] Restraining, curbing &c. -m. One who has restrained his passions; यतिर्वशिष्ठो यमिनां वरिष्ठः Bk.1.15; अहिंसासत्यमस्तेयं ब्रह्मचर्यमकल्मषम् । इति पञ्च यमा येषां सन्तीति यमिनः स्मृताः ॥ J. N. V.; दधत्यन्त- स्तत्त्वं किमपि यमिनस्तत् किल भवान् Śiva-mahimna 25.
minayati यामिनयति Den. P. To appear like night.
rukmin रुक्मिन् a. 1 Wearing golden ornaments. -2 Gilded. -m. N. of the eldest son of Bhīṣmaka and brother of Rukmiṇī.
vamin वमिन् a. Vomiting, being sick; P.III.2.157.
vāgmin वाग्मिन् a. [वाच् अस्त्यर्थे ग्मिनिः चस्य कः तस्य लोपः; cf. P. V.2.124] 1 Eloquent, oratorical. -2 Talkative. -3 Verbose, wordy. -m. 1 An orator, an eloquent man; अनिर्लोडितकार्यस्य वाग्जालं वाग्मिनो वृथा Śi.2.27,19; Ki. 14.6; Pt.3.87. -2 N. of Bṛihaspatī. -3 N. of Viṣṇu. -4 A parrot.
vikramin विक्रमिन् a. 1 Chivalrous, heroic. -2 Powerful, strong. -m. 1 A lion. -2 A hero. -3 An epithet of Viṣṇu.
vidharmin विधर्मिन् a. 1 Untrue (अनृत); मनुष्यसंभवा वाचो विधर्मिण्यः प्रतिश्रुताः Mb.3.313.6. -2 Of a different kind.
śamin शमिन् a. 1 Calm, tranquil, pacific. -2 One who has subdued his passions, self-controlled; भ्रमी कदम्बसंभिन्नः पवनः शमिनामपि Bk.7.5; Mk.1.16.
śuṣmin शुष्मिन् a. 1 Powerful, strong; प्रमथ्य चैद्यप्रमुखान् हि शुष्मिणः Bhāg.1.1.29. -2 Fiery, high-mettled (as a horse, bull or elephant); शुष्मिणो यूथपस्येव वासितामनु धावतः Bhāg.8.12.32;3.18.19. -3 Brilliant, heroic; न ह्यहं परिपश्यामि वधे कञ्चन शुष्मिणः Mb.7.9.26.
śramin श्रमिन् a. 1 Laborious, toiling, diligent. -2 Undergoing fatigue or exertions. -3 Tiring, fatiguing.
śleṣmin श्लेष्मिन् Bdellium.
saṃyamin संयमिन् a. One who curbs or restrains, controlling. -m. One who controls or subdues his passions, a sage, an ascetic; या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी Bg.2.69; R.8.11.
sadharmin सधर्मिन् a. (-णी f.) See सधर्मन्.
samindh समिन्ध् 7 Ā. 1 To kindle, light up, ignite. -2 To excite, inflame, kindle (anger &c.) -3 To glorify. -4 To exhibit (skill). -Pass. To catch or take fire.
samindhanam समिन्धनम् 1 Kindling. -2 Fuel; संधुक्ष्यतां नो$रि- समिन्धनेषु Bk.2.28. -3 A means of swelling; Mb.12.
somin सोमिन् a. (-नी f.) Performing the Soma sacrifice. -m. A performer of a Soma sacrifice.
svāmin स्वामिन् a. (-नी f.) [स्व अस्त्यर्थे मिनि दीर्घः] Possessing proprietory rights. -m. 1 A proprietor, an owner. -2 A lord, master; रघुस्वामिनः सच्चरित्रम् Vikr.18.17. -4 A sovereign, king, monarch. -5 A husband. -6 A spiritual preceptor. -7 A learned Brāhmana, an ascetic or religious man of the highest order; (in this sense usually added to proper names).-8 An epithet of Kārtikeya. -9 Of Viṣṇu. -1 Of Śiva. -11 Of the sage Vātsyāyana. -12 Of Garuḍa. -13 The sacrificer, the owner (at a याग); यो$र्थी स्वत्यागेन ऋत्विजः परिक्रीणीते, यश्च स्वं प्रदेयं त्यजति स स्वामी ŚB. on MS.6.3. 21; तस्मान्न स्वामिनः प्रतिनिधिः ibid. -14 The image or temple of a god. -Comp. -उपकारकः a horse. -कार्यम् the business of a king or master. -गुणः the virtue of a ruler. -जङ्घिन् m. N. of Paraśurāma. -जनकः the father-in-law. -पाल m. du. the owner and the keeper (of cattle); क्रयविक्रयानुशयो विवादः स्वामिपालयोः Ms.8.5. -भट्टारकः a noble lord. -भावः the state of a lord or owner, ownership. -मूल a. originating in or derived from a master or lord. -वात्सल्यम् affection for the husband or lord. -सद्भावः 1 existence of a master or owner. -2 goodness of a master or lord. -सेवा 1 the service of a master. -2 respect for a husband.
svāminī स्वामिनी A mistress, proprietress.
homin होमिन् m. [होमो$स्त्यस्य इनि] The offerer of an oblation, a sacrificer in general.
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32 results
     
avṛka a-vṛká, a. (K.) friendly, x. 15, 1 [not harming: vṛ́ka wolf]. [225]
as as be, II. P.: pr. 2. ási, i. 1, 4; ii. 12, 15; 33, 3; 3. ásti, ii. 12, 5; 33, 7. 10; vii. 71, 4; 86, 6; x. 34, 14; pl. 1. smási, vi. 54, 9; viii. 48, 9; 3. sánti, i. 85, 12; x. 90, 16; ipv. ástu, v. 11, 5; vii. 86, 82; x. 15, 2; sántu, vii. 63, 5; op. syá̄ma, iii. 59, 3; iv. 50, 6; 51, 10. 11; viii. 48, 12. 13; ipf. 3. á̄s, x. 129, 3; āsīt, x. 34, 2; 90, 6. 12. 14; 129, 14. 22. 32. 4. 52; á̄san, x. 90, 15. 16; 129, 52; pf. āsa, vii. 86, 4; x. 129, 2; á̄sur, iv. 51, 7. ápi- be or remain in (lc.); syāma pári be around, celebrate, 2. pl. stha, vii. 103, 7. prá- be pre-eminent, ipv. astu, iii. 59, 2.
asurya asur-yà, n. divine dominion, ii. 33, 9; 35, 2.
āgamiṣṭha á̄-gam-iṣṭha, a. spv. coming most gladly, x. 15, 3.
ābhu ā-bhú, a. coming into being, x. 129, 3.
āyatī ā-yat-í̄, pr. pt. f. coming, x. 127, 1. 3 [á̄ + i go].
ṛtvij ṛtv-íj, m. ministrant, i. 1, 1 [ṛtú + ij = yaj sacrificing in season].
kṣatra kṣa-trá, n. dominion, i. 160, 5 [kṣa = kṣi rule].
cakṣ cakṣ, see II. cáṣṭe [reduplicated form of kas = kāś shine: = ca-k(a)s]. [232] abhí- regard, iii. 59, 1; vii. 61, 1. prá-, cs. cakṣáya illumine, viii. 48, 6. ví- reveal, x. 34, 13.
tanvāna tanv-āná, pr. pt. Ā. performing, x. 90, 15 [tan extend].
dadhāna dádh-āna, pr. pt. Ā. committing, assuming, i. 35, 4; ii. 12, 10; = going, x. 15, 10 [dhā put].
divya div-yá, a. coming from heaven, divine, vii. 49, 1; 103, 2; x. 34, 9 [dív heaven].
doṣāvastṛ doṣā-vastṛ, m. (Tp.) illuminer of gloom, i. 1, 7 [doṣá̄ evening + vas-tṛ from vas shine].
daivya dáiv-ya, a. divine, i. 35, 5; viii. 48, 2; coming from the gods, ii. 33, 7; n. divinity, ii. 35, 8 [from devá god].
nakṣatra ná-kṣatra, n. star; day-star, vii. 86, 1 [nák night + kṣatrá dominion = ruling over night].
pathikrt pathi-kṛ́t, m. path-maker, x. 14, 15 [kṛ-t making: kṛ + determinative t]. [239]
pṛc pṛc mix, VII. pṛṇákti. sám-, Ā. pṛṅkté, mingle, vii. 103, 4.
brahman brah-mán, m. priest, iv. 50, 8. 9; Brahmin, ii. 12, 6 [bṛh swell].
brāhmaṇa brāhmaṇá, m. Brahmin, vii. 103, 1. 7. 8; 90, 12.
manas mán-as, n. mind, x. 90, 13; 129, 4; 135, 3 [Av. manō, Gk. μένος].
manojū mano-jú̄, a. swift as thought, i. 85, 4 [mánas mind + jù to speed].
mī damage, IX. miná̄ti [cp. Gk. μι-νύ-ω, Lat. mi-nu-o]. á̄- diminish, ii. 12, 5.
maujavata maujavatá, a. coming from Mūjavant, x. 34, 1.
ya Yá, rel. prn. who, which, that: N. yás, i. 35, 6; 154, 12. 3. 4; 160, 4; ii. 12, 1-7. 9-15; 33, 5. 7; iii. 59, 2. 7; iv. 50, 1. 7. 9; vi. 54, 1. 2. 4; vii. 61, 1; 63, 1. 3; vii. 71, 4; 86, 1; viii. 48, 102. 12; x. 14, 5; 34, 12; 129, 7; f. yá̄, iv. 50, 3; n. yád, i. 1, 6; ii. 35, 15; vii. 61, 2; 63, 2; 103, 5. 7; x. 15, 6; 90, 23. 12; 129, 1. 3. 4; 135, 7; with kíṃ ca whatever, v. 83, 9; A. yám, i. 1, 4; ii. 12, 5. 7. 9; 35, 11; viii. 48, 1; x. 135, 3. 4; I. yéna, i. 160, 5; ii. 12, 4; iv. 51, 4; f. yáyā, iv. 51, 6; Ab. yásmād, ii. 12, 9; G. yásya, i. 154, 2; ii. 12, 1. 74. 142; 35, 7; v. 83, 43; vii. 61, 2; x. 34, 4; f. yásyās, x. 127, 4; L. yásmin, iv. 50, 8; x. 135, 1; du. yáu, x. 14, 11; pl. N. yé, i. 35, 11; 85, 1. 4; iv. 50, 2; x. 14, 3. 10; 15, 1-4. 8-10. 132. 142; 90, 7. 8; with ké whatever, x. 90, 10; f. yá̄s, vii. 49, 1. 2. 3; n. yá̄ni, ii. 33, 13; yá̄, i. 85, 12; ii. 33, 183; iv. 50, 9; vii. 86, 5; A. m. yá̄n, x. 14, 3; 15, 132; G. f. yá̄sām, vii. 49, 3; L. f. yá̄su, iv. 51, 7; vii. 49, 44; 61, 5.
rucāna ruc-āná, rt. ao. pt. Ā. beaming, iv. 51, 9.
ruśant rúś-ant, pr. pt. gleaming, iv. 51, 9.
virāṣāh virā-ṣá̄h, a. overcoming men, i. 35, 6 [= vīra-ṣá̄h for. vīra-sá̄h].
śukra śuk-rá, a. shining, i. 160, 3; bright, ii. 33, 9; iv. 51, 9; clear, ii. 35, 4 [śuc be bright, Av. sux-ra‘flaming’].
samana sám-ana, n. festival, x. 168, 2 [coming together].
saṃprcas saṃ-pṛ́cas, ab. inf. from mingling with, ii. 35, 6 [pṛc mix].
sarvahut sarva-hút, a. (Tp.) completely offering, x. 90, 8. 9 [hu-t: hu sacrifice + determinative t].
havanaśrut havana-śrút, a. (Tp.) listening to invocations, ii. 33, 15 [hávana (from hū call) + śrú-t hearingfrom śru hear with determinative t].
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min f. bodily defect (V.1).
minvat pr. pt. √ 1. mi.
akāmin a. not in love.
akṣamin a. pitiless.
agnimindha m. fire-kindler, kind of priest, later agnídh.
atikramin a. violating (--°ree;).
anapakramin a. not leaving, faithful.
ananyagāmin a. going to no other; -guru, a. having no other father, fa therless; -kitta, a. thinking exclusively of (lc.); -ketas, a. id.; -ga, a. legitimately born; -gâni, a. having no other wife; -drishti, a. looking at nothing else; -nâtha, a. having no other protector; -nârî-kamanîya, fp. not to be desired by another woman; -nârî-sâmâ nya, a. having communion with no other wo man; -para, a. intent on nothing else; -pa râyana, a. devoted to no one else; -pûrva, a. not married to any one else before; -pûrvikâ, f. not married before; -prati kriya, a. having no other expedient; -bhâg, a. devoted to no one else; -manas, a. think ing of no one else; -mânasa, a. id.; -ruki, a. liking nothing else; -vishaya, a. relating to nothing else; -vyâpâra, a. occupied with no thing else; -sarana, a. having no other re fuge; -sâsana, a. under no one else's com mands; -samtati, a. without other offspring; -sama, a. like no one else, unequalled; -sâ dhârana, a. (î) common to no one else; -sâ mânya, a. unequalled; -½adhîna, a. depending on no other; -½apatya, a. having no other off spring; -½âsrita, pp. not transferred to another.
abhigāmin a. having sexual intercourse with (ac.).
aminat pr. pt. not injuring.
āgāmin a. coming; future.
āgamin a. taking an augment.
āyāmin a. hindering (--°ree;); long.
āśramin a. belonging to one of the religious stages.
iṣmin a. driving, stormy.
upagāmin a. approaching; ap pearing.
ṛgmin a. praising, shouting; -míya (or ríg-), a. praiseworthy; -yagusha, n. the Rik and the Yagus verses; -vidhâna, n. employment of the rik verses; T. of a work; -vedá, m. Veda of verses or hymns, Rig-veda (i. e. the rik verses with or without the ritual and speculative works connected with them).
kakudmin a. having a hump; m. buffalo with a hump; -mi-kanyâ, f. pat. of the Revatî.
karmin a. acting, working, per forming; m. man of action.
kṣemin a. safe.
gamin a. about to go (to, ac., --°ree;).
min a. going anywhere (ad., prati, or *ac.); gnly. --°ree;, going, moving, walking (in, to, like); having sexual intercourse with; reaching or extending to; devolving on; be fitting, behoving; obtaining; directed to; re lating to.
carmin a. covered with a hide; armed with a shield; m. shield-bearer.
chandānugāmin a. complaisant, obedient; -½anuvritta, n. complaisance.
chadmin a. disguised as (--°ree;).
janmin m. creature, man.
jaimini m. N. of a teacher, founder of the Pûrva-Mîmâmsâ school of philosophy: î-ya, f. relating to Gamini; m. adherent of Gaimini; n. Gaimini's work.
damin a. self-controlled; subduing (--°ree;).
dharmin a. observing the law, knowing one's duty, virtuous; having attributes; --°ree;, observing the law of or having the rights of, having the nature, peculiarities, or characteristics of.
dhūmin a. smoking: -î, f. N.
min a. having a name.
padmin a. spotted (elephant): -î, f. lotus (nelumbium speciosum: flower & plant); multitude of lotuses; lotus-pond: -khanda, n. group of lotuses.
prātikāmin m. (acting ac cording to one's desire: prati-kâmam), ser vant; messenger; -kûlika, a. (î) resisting, hostile, contrary: -tâ, f. opposition, hostility; -kûlya, n. unfriendliness, opposition; repug nant practice; disagreeableness; disagree ment with (--°ree;); -gña, n. subject under dis cussion; -daivas-ika, a. occurring daily (prati-divasam); -nidhi-ka, m. representa tive; -paksha, a. belonging to the enemy oradversary; -pakshya, n. hostility, enmity, towards (g.); -pada, a. forming the com mencement; m. N.; -pad-ika, a. express, ex plicit; n. crude base of a noun (before it re ceives the case terminations or other suffixes); -paurush-ika, a. relating to manliness or valour; -bha, a. intuitive; n. intuition; pre sence of mind; -bhat-ya, n. rivalry; -bhâv ya, n. surety, for (--°ree;); certainty, trustworthy news of (g.); -bhâs-ika, a. existing only in appearance, apparent only; -rûp-ika, a. coun terfeit, spurious; using false measure or coun terfeit coin; -lom-ya, n. inversion, inverse order; opposition, hostility; -ves-ika, m. neighbour; -vesm-ika, m. neighbour: î, f.female neighbour; -ves-ya, a. neighbouring; m. opposite neighbour; neighbour;--°ree;=neigh bouring: -ka, m. neighbour; -sâkhya, n. a grammatical treatise on the phonetic changes of words in the text of the Vedasaccording to the respective recension (prati-sâkham; there are four such treatises, one for the RV., two for the YV., and one for the AV.); -satvanam, ad. in the direction of the Sat van; -sv-ika, a. own, peculiar, not common to others; -hata, m. kind of svarita ac cent; -hartra, n. office of the Pratihartri; -hârika, m. door-keeper; -hâr-ya, n. jug glery, performance of miracles; miracle.
brahmin a. relating to Brahman.
bhrāmin a. confused.
yajuḥsvāmin m. N. of a Purohita.
yamin a. self-controlled.
minī f. (having watches), night; N.: -dayita, m. lover --, -nâtha or -pati, m. lord --, -priya-tama, -ramana, m. lover of night, moon.
rukmin a. adorned with gold (V.); m. N. of the eldest son of Bhîshmaka and adversary of Krishna.
vāgmin a. eloquent: (-mi)-tâ, f., (-mi)-tva, n. eloquence.
min a. vomiting, ejecting.
vikramin a. striding, -through (Vishnu); valiant.
śuṣmin a. roaring (Maruts, Agni; V.); strong (Soma, V.); mighty, fiery, valiant (V., E., P.).
sarvatogāmin a. going in all directions (weapon); -disam, ad. from all sides, in all directions; -bhadra, a. pleasant etc. in every way; m. an artificial stanza in which each half Pâda read backwards is identical with the other half (e.g. Kirâtâr gunîya XV, 25; Sisupâla-vadha XIX, 40); (áto)-mukha, a. (î) facing in all directions; unlimited, complete; m. kind of military array; -vritta, pp. omnipresent.
saudāminī f. incorr., but fre- quent, for saudâmanî, lightning.
svargāmin a. going or having gone to heaven; dying, dead.
svāmin m. [sva] owner, lord, master, of (g., lc., --°ree;); commander (of an army); husband; ep. of Skanda; image of a god, esp. of Siva (often --°ree;); N.: -î, f. mistress.
homina a. sacrificing (--°ree;); -îya, a. belonging to or meant for the sacrifice or oblation.
       Bloomfield Vedic
         Concordance  
Results for min286 results
     
minantā dasyor aśivasya māyāḥ RV.1.117.3c.
mināti śriyaṃ jarimā tanūnām RV.1.179.1c.
minīmasi dyavi-dyavi RV.1.25.1c; TS.3.4.11.6c; MS.4.12.6c: 197.10.
minvan sadma pura eti RV.10.20.5c.
aminaḥ sahobhiḥ # N.6.16. Fragment of uta dvibarhā etc., q.v.
aminatī tasthatur ukṣamāṇe # RV.4.56.2b.
aminatī daivyāni vratāni # RV.1.92.12c; 124.2a.
aminate guruṃ bhāraṃ na manma # RV.4.5.6b.
amuṣminn adhare gṛhe # AVP.2.4.5a. See asau yo adharād.
asmin karmaṇi vṛtrahan # PG.2.17.9b.
asmin karmaṇy upahvaye dhruvām # PG.2.17.9d.
asmin kule brahmavarcasy asāni # ApMB.2.9.10c.
asmin kṣaye pratarāṃ dīdyānaḥ # SV.1.340d. See adhi kṣami prataraṃ.
asmin kṣetre dvāv ahī # AVś.10.4.8c.
asmin gṛhe gārhapatyāya jāgṛhi # RV.10.85.27b; AVś.14.1.21b; ApMB.1.9.4b; JG.1.22b.
asmin goṣṭha upa pṛñca naḥ # AVś.9.4.23b. See āsu goṣūpa.
asmin goṣṭhe karīṣiṇīḥ (Kauś. -ṇaḥ; MS. purīṣiṇīḥ) # AVś.3.14.3b; AVP.2.13.5b; MS.4.2.10b: 33.3; Kauś.89.12b. See next.
asmin goṣṭhe vayovṛdhaḥ # Apś.7.17.1d. See prec.
asmin goṣṭhe viśvabhṛto janitrīḥ # MS.4.2.10b: 32.14. See asmin yajñe viśva-.
asmin goṣṭhe śataṃ samāḥ # Kauś.89.1d. See asmiṃl loke śataṃ.
asmin tāṃ sthāṇāv adhy ā sajāmi # AVś.14.2.48d. Cf. asmin tā.
asmin tān goṣṭhe savitā ni yachatu (AVP. ni yachāt) # AVś.2.26.1d; AVP.2.12.1d.
asmin tā sthāṇāv adhi sādayāmi # AVś.14.2.49d. Cf. asmin tāṃ.
asmin tiṣṭhatu yā rayiḥ # AVś.1.15.2e.
asmin trivṛc chrayatāṃ poṣayiṣṇu (AVP. poṣayiṣṇuḥ) # AVś.5.28.4d; AVP.2.59.2c.
asmin dvitīye savane na jahyuḥ # AVś.6.47.2b; TS.3.1.9.2b; KS.30.6b; Kś.9.14.17b; Mś.2.4.6.26b.
asmin dhehi tanūvaśin # AVś.4.4.4d. Cf. asmai dhehi tanūbalam, and tān asmin etc.
asmin dhehi puṣkalaṃ citrabhānu # AVP.4.3.4c. See asmā astu etc.
asmin na indra pṛtsutau yaśasvati # RV.10.38.1a. Cf. BṛhD.7.39.
asmin nara indriyaṃ dhattam ojaḥ # TS.1.6.12.4d. See under indreṇa ma.
asminn astu puṣkalaṃ citrabhānu # KS.37.9c.
asminn ahaṃ sahasraṃ puṣyāmi # ApMB.2.11.32a (ApG.6.15.1). See asmin sahasraṃ.
asminn ahan satpatiḥ puruhūtaḥ # RV.1.100.6c.
asminn ājau puruhūta śravāyye # RV.10.102.1c.
asminn ā vām āyāne vājinīvasū # RV.8.22.18c.
asminn āsīda barhiṣi # Aś.3.14.13e; Apś.9.16.11e.
asminn indra mahi varcāṃsi dhehi # AVś.4.22.3c; AVP.3.21.2c. See asmā etc.
asminn indra vṛjane sarvavīrāḥ # RV.1.51.15c; MS.4.14.14c: 238.10.
asminn indro ni dadhātu nṛmṇam # AVś.8.5.21a.
asminn ū ṣu savane mādayasva # RV.7.29.2c.
asmin no adya vidathe yajatrāḥ # RV.6.52.17c.
asmin no adya savane mandadhyai # RV.4.16.2b; AVś.20.77.2b.
asmin pade parame tasthivāṃsam # RV.2.35.14a; VHDh.8.52. P: asmin pade śś.13.29.13.
asmin pātre harite somapṛṣṭhe # SMB.2.5.10d.
asmin puṣyantu gopatau # RV.10.19.3b.
asmin barhiṣy ā niṣadya # AVś.18.1.59d. See asmin yajñe barhiṣy.
asmin brahmaṇy asmin karmaṇy asyāṃ purodhāyām asyāṃ pratiṣṭhāyām asyāṃ cittyām asyām ākūtyām asyām āśiṣy asyāṃ devahūtyāṃ svāhā # AVś.5.24.1--17. See next three, te naḥ pāntv asmin, te māvantv, sa māvatv, and sā māvatv.
asmin brahmaṇy asmin kṣatre 'smin karmaṇy asyām āśiṣy asyāṃ pratiṣṭhāyām asyāṃ devahūtyām # śś.4.10.3. See under prec.
asmin brahmaṇy asmin kṣatre 'syām āśiṣy asyāṃ purodhāyām asyāṃ devahūtyām # KS.38.12; 39.7. See under prec. but one.
asmin brahmann asmin kṣatre 'syām āśiṣy asyāṃ purodhāyām asmin karmann (PG. karmaṇy) asyāṃ devahūtyām # TS.3.4.5.1; 4.3.3.2; Apś.16.1.3; PG.1.5.10 (with svāhā). Ps: asmin brahmann asmin kṣatre HG.1.3.11; asmin brahman Apś.19.17.19. See under prec. but two.
asmin bhayasthe kṛṇutam u lokam # RV.2.30.6d.
asmin bhare nṛtamaṃ vājasātau # RV.3.30.22b; AVś.20.11.11b; SV.1.329b; MS.4.14.1b: 215.11; KS.21.14b; TB.2.4.4.3b; 8.1.3b.
asmin ma antarikṣe vāyuś ca vṛṣṭiś cādhipatī vāyuś ca vṛṣṭiś ca maitasyai diśaḥ pātāṃ vāyuṃ ca vṛṣṭiṃ ca sa devatānām ṛchatu yo no 'to 'bhidāsati # śś.6.3.6. Cf. ye 'ntarikṣāj juhvati, and vāyur māntari-.
asmin maṇāv ekaśataṃ vīryāṇi # AVś.19.46.5a; AVP.4.23.5a.
asmin mahaty arṇave # VS.16.55a; TS.4.5.11.1a; śB.9.1.1.30. See ye asmin mahaty, and cf. antar mahaty.
asmin me yajña upa bhūyo astu # KS.31.14a. See next.
asmin yajña upa bhūya in nu me # TB.3.7.6.7a; Apś.4.6.3a. See prec.
asmin yajña upa hvaye # RV.1.13.3b,7b; SV.2.699b.
asmin yajñe adābhyā # RV.5.75.8a.
asmin yajñe dhārayāmā namobhiḥ # RV.4.58.2b; AVP.8.13.2b; VS.17.90b; MS.1.6.2b: 87.15; KS.40.7b; TA.10.10.2b; Apś.5.17.4b; MahānU.9.13b.
asmin yajñe puruṣṭuta # RV.8.76.7c.
asmin yajñe pravidvān yunaktu suyujaḥ svāhā # AVś.5.26.3b,9b. Doubtful as to metre.
asmin yajñe barhiṣi mādayasva # RV.1.101.9d.
asmin yajñe barhiṣi vedyām # JB.1.89b. See yajñe barhiṣi vedyām.
asmin yajñe barhiṣy ā niṣadya # RV.3.35.6c; 10.14.5d; VS.26.23c; TS.1.7.13.4c; 2.6.12.6d; MS.4.14.16d: 243.1. See asmin barhiṣy.
asmin yajñe mandasānā vṛṣaṇvasū # RV.4.50.10b; AVś.20.13.1b; GB.2.4.16b.
asmin yajñe mama havyāya śarva # MS.2.9.1d: 119.4. See ā yāhi śīghraṃ, and vātājirair mama.
asmin yajñe maruto mṛḍatā naḥ # AVś.1.20.1b; TB.3.7.5.12b; Apś.2.20.6b.
asmin yajñe mahiṣaḥ svāhā # AVś.5.26.2b. Doubtful as to metre.
asmin yajñe mā vyathiṣi # Kauś.73.15e.
asmin yajñe yajamānāya mahyam # KS.31.14b; TB.3.7.6.14b; Apś.4.8.5b.
asmin yajñe yajamānāya sūrim # AVś.9.5.2b. See imaṃ yajñaṃ yajamānaṃ.
asmin yajñe vi ca pra ca prathatāṃ svāsasthaṃ devebhyaḥ # MS.4.13.2: 200.8; KS.15.13; TB.3.6.2.1. Cf. ūrṇamradasaṃ.
asmin yajñe vi cayemā bhare kṛtam # RV.1.132.1f.
asmin yajñe viśvavido ghṛtācīḥ # Apś.7.17.1b. See asmin goṣṭhe viśva-.
asmin yajñe vṛṣaṇā mādayethām # RV.4.14.4d.
asmin yajñe sajoṣasaḥ # śś.7.10.14b.
asmin yajñe supeśasam # śś.7.10.15b.
asmin yajñe suyujaḥ svāhā # AVś.5.26.7b,8b,10b,11b; AVP.9.2.1d,4b--8b. Doubtful as to metre.
asmin yajñe suhavāṃ (AVś. suhavā) johavīmi # AVś.7.47.1b; MS.4.12.6b: 195.8; KS.13.16b; TS.3.3.11.5b; Aś.1.10.8b; śś.9.28.3b; N.11.33b.
asmin yajñe svadhayā madantaḥ # VS.19.58c.
asmin yajñe svadhvare # RV.8.44.13c; SV.2.1062c.
asmin yajñe havāmahe # MS.4.10.6b: 158.6; KS.21.14b; TB.2.5.8.2b.
asmin yāme vṛṣaṇvasū # VS.11.13b; TS.4.1.2.1b; MS.2.7.2b: 75.3; KS.16.1b; śB.6.3.2.3.
asmin yonāv (MS.KS. yonā) asīṣadan # VS.12.54d; TS.4.2.4.4d; MS.2.8.1d: 106.4; KS.16.19d; śB.8.7.2.6; TB.3.11.6.1d.
asmin rāṣṭra indriyaṃ dadhāmi (and vardhayāmi) # AB.8.27.8. See next but two.
asmin rāṣṭram adadhur dakṣiṇāvat # AVP.14.2.4b.
asmin rāṣṭram adhi śraya # TS.4.2.1.4d; 5.2.1.4. See asme rāṣṭrāṇi, and mā tvad rāṣṭram.
asmin rāṣṭre śriyam āveśayāmi (SMB.2.8.6, śriyaṃ dadhe) # AB.8.27.7; SMB.2.8.6,7. See prec. but two.
asmin vayaṃ saṃkasuke (Apś. -kusuke) # AVś.12.2.13a; Apś.9.3.22a. P: asmin vayam Kauś.71.16; 86.19.
asmin vasu vasavo dhārayantu # AVś.1.9.1a; AVP.1.19.1a; Kauś.55.17. P: asmin vasu Kauś.11.19; 16.27; 52.20.
asmin vāje śatakrato # RV.1.30.6b; AVś.20.45.3b; SV.2.951b.
asmin vāstau suprajaso bhavātha # AVP.7.6.3d.
asmin saṃvatsare mariṣyasy asminn ayane 'sminn ṛtāv asmin māse 'sminn ardhamāse 'smin dvādaśarātre 'smin ṣaḍrātre 'smiṃs trirātre 'smin dvirātre 'sminn ahorātre 'sminn ahany asyāṃ rātrāv asyāṃ velāyām asmin muhūrte mariṣyasi # Svidh.3.8.3.
asmin sadhasthe adhy uttarasmin # VS.15.54c; 17.73c; 18.61c; TS.4.6.5.3c; 7.13.4c; 5.7.7.2c; MS.2.10.6c: 138.15; KS.18.4c,18c; śB.8.6.3.23; 9.2.3.35; TB.3.7.7.10c; Apś.6.1.3c.
asmin saṃdehe gahane praviṣṭaḥ # śB.14.7.2.17b; BṛhU.4.4.17b.
asmin samudre adhy uttarasmin # RV.10.98.6a.
asmin savane śacyā puruṣṭuta # RV.3.60.6b.
asmin sahasraṃ puṣyāsam (Kauś. puṣyāsma) # śB.14.9.4.23a; BṛhU.6.4.23a; Kauś.89.13a. See asminn ahaṃ.
asmin sīdantu me pitaraḥ somyāḥ # TB.3.7.4.10c; Apś.1.7.13c.
asmin su te savane astv okyam # RV.10.44.9c; AVś.20.94.9c.
asmin sunvati yajamāna āśiṣaḥ svāhākṛtāḥ samudreṣṭhā gandharvam ā tiṣṭhatānu # TS.3.5.6.3.
asmin su some 'vapānam astu te # RV.10.43.2d; AVś.20.17.2d.
asmin sthāne tiṣṭhatu modamānaḥ (MG. puṣyamāṇaḥ) # Kś.25.5.28b; AG.2.9.5b; MG.2.11.7b.
asmin sv etac chakapūta enaḥ # RV.10.132.5a.
asmin have (AVP. vāje) puruhūtaḥ purukṣuḥ (AVśṭS. -kṣu) # RV.10.128.8b; AVP.5.4.7b; AVś.5.3.8b; TS.4.7.14.3b; KS.40.10b.
asmin have suhavā suṣṭutiṃ naḥ # RV.6.52.16b.
asmin hi vaḥ savane ratnadheyam # RV.4.35.1c.
āsadyāsmin barhiṣi mādayadhvam # RV.6.52.13d; AVś.18.1.42c; 3.20d; 4.46c; VS.2.18d; 33.53d; TS.1.1.13.3d; 2.4.14.5d; MS.4.12.1d: 179.8; śB.1.8.3.25; TB.2.8.6.5d. Cf. next two.
āsadyāsmin barhiṣi mādayasva # RV.10.17.8c. Cf. prec. and next.
āsadyāsmin barhiṣi mādayethām # RV.6.68.11d; AVś.7.58.2d. Cf. prec. two.
āsminn ugrā acucyavuḥ # TS.3.3.3.2a; 4.1; Apś.12.8.3. See ā samudrā.
āsmin piśaṅgam indavaḥ # RV.9.21.5a.
āsmin rāṣṭre rājanya iṣavyaḥ śūro mahāratho jāyatām # TS.7.5.18.1; KSA.5.14; TB.3.8.13.1. Cf. JUB.1.4.2. See ā rāṣṭre.
āsmin havyā juhotana # RV.8.44.1c; VS.3.1c; 12.30c; TS.4.2.3.1c; MS.2.7.10c: 87.15; KS.7.12c; 16.10c; śB.6.8.1.6; TB.1.2.1.10c.
utāsminn alpa udake nilīnaḥ (AVP. namuktaḥ ?) # AVś.4.16.3d; AVP.5.32.3d.
ekasminn adhi puṣkare # AVP.3.15.2b.
ekasmin pātre adhy uddharainam # AVś.12.3.36d.
ekasmin yoge bhuraṇā samāne # RV.7.67.8a.
ekasmin viddhe sarve 'rupyam # AVP.8.15.7c.
kasminn aṅga ṛtam asyādhyāhitam # AVś.10.7.1b.
kasminn aṅge tapo asyādhi tiṣṭhati # AVś.10.7.1a. Designated as skambha, CūlikāU.11.
kasminn aṅge tiṣṭhati bhūmir asya # AVś.10.7.3a.
kasminn aṅge tiṣṭhaty antarikṣam # AVś.10.7.3b.
kasminn aṅge tiṣṭhaty āhitā dyauḥ # AVś.10.7.3c.
kasminn aṅge tiṣṭhaty uttaraṃ divaḥ # AVś.10.7.3d.
kasminn aṅge satyam asya pratiṣṭhitam # AVś.10.7.1d.
kasminn ā yatatho jane # RV.5.74.2c.
kasmin sāsya hutāhutiḥ # JB.1.20c; śB.11.3.1.7c.
minā saṃ ca vakṣathaḥ (AVP. neṣathaḥ) # AVś.2.30.2b; AVP.2.17.3b.
kenāsmin nihitaṃ manaḥ # AVś.10.2.19d.
jaimini-vaiśampāyana-paila-sūtra-bhāṣya-gārgya-babhru-bābhravya-maṇḍu-māṇḍavyāḥ (sc. tṛpyantu) # śG.4.10.3. Cf. sumantu-jaimini-.
tasmin kṛṇoti sukṛtasya bhakṣam # AVś.18.3.54c.
tasmin krame tasmiṃ (AVP. tasmiñ) chraye tāṃ puraṃ praimi # AVś.19.17.1b--5b,7b--10b; AVP.7.16.1--5,7--10.
tasmin kṣatram amavat tveṣam astu # RV.5.34.9d.
tasmin ghṛtastāvo mṛṣṭvā # AVś.12.2.17c.
tasmin jāgāra kaśyapaḥ # AVP.4.40.1d.
tasmin (Vaitṃś. tasmiṃs) tad eno vasavo ni dhetana # RV.10.37.12d; Tā.10.60d; Vait.23.12d; Mś.2.5.4.9d.
tasmin taṃ dhehi mā paṇau # RV.8.97.2d; AVś.20.55.3d.
tasmin dadhad vṛṣaṇaṃ śuṣmam indraḥ # RV.4.24.7d.
tasmin devā adhi viśve samotāḥ # AVś.11.5.24b.
tasmin devā amṛtā mādayantām (RV. -te) # RV.10.16.8d; AVś.18.3.53d; TA.6.1.4d.
tasmin devāḥ saṃmanaso bhavanti # AVś.11.5.1b,8d; GB.1.2.1.
tasmin devāḥ saha daivīr viśantu # AVś.12.3.32c.
tasmin dhānyaṃ ny upyate # AVP.8.18.10a.
tasminn agnau sūktavākena devāḥ # RV.10.88.7c.
tasminn antar ava dadhma enam # AVś.19.72.1b; Kauś.139.26b.
tasminn annaṃ saha devatābhiḥ # GB.1.2.7d.
tasminn apo mātariśvā dadhāti # VS.40.4d; īśāU.4d.
tasminn ahaṃ ni dadhe nāke agnim # VS.15.49c; TS.4.7.13.3c; MS.2.12.4d: 147.7; KS.18.18c; śB.8.6.3.18.
tasminn ā tasthur bhuvanāni viśvā # RV.1.164.13b. See yasminn etc., and cf. tasminn ārpitā, and tasmin ha.
tasminn ā tokaṃ tanayaṃ dadhānāḥ # RV.7.60.8c.
tasminn ātmā jagatas tasthuṣaś ca # RV.7.101.6b.
tasminn ādhīyatām ayam # KS.7.12d (bis); Apś.5.9.8d; Mś.1.5.3.8d.
tasminn ārpitā bhuvanāni viśvā # RV.1.164.14d. Cf. under tasminn ā tasthur.
tasminn ā veśayā giraḥ # RV.1.176.2a.
tasminn idaṃ saṃ ca vi caiti sarvam # VS.32.8c. See yasminn etc.
tasminn induḥ pavate viśvadānīm # AVś.18.3.54d.
tasminn indraḥ paryadatta (AVP. pary adhatta) # AVś.19.46.3c; AVP.4.23.3c.
tasminn upahūtaḥ (TB.3.5.13.3, -tā) # MS.4.13.5: 206.4; TB.3.5.8.3; 13.3; Aś.1.7.7; śś.1.12.1.
tasminn u sarpaḥ sudhitaḥ # RVKh.7.55.2c.
tasmin nṛmṇam uta kratum # RV.1.80.15c.
tasminn eṣa pitaraṃ pitāmaham # TA.6.6.1c. See sa naḥ pitaraṃ, and sa bibharti.
tasmin pāśān pratimuñcāma etān # MS.1.2.15d: 26.3; KS.30.8d,9. See yaṃ dviṣmas tasmin.
tasmin putrair jarasi saṃ śrayethām # AVś.12.3.6d.
tasmin pūte pitaro mādayantām # JG.2.1e.
tasmin brahmāṇi pūrvathā # RV.1.80.16c; N.12.34c.
tasmin ma indro rucim ā dadhātu # AVś.3.15.6c. See tasmin somo.
tasmin ma etat suhutam astu prāśitram # GB.2.1.3c; Vait.3.12c. Cf. next.
tasmin ma eṣa suhuto 'stv odanaḥ # Kauś.65.15c. Cf. prec.
tasmin māṃ dhehi pavamāna # RV.9.113.7c; ātmapraU.1c.
tasmin mimāthām abhibhūty ojaḥ # RV.4.41.4d.
tasmin yad antas tad upāsitavyam # TA.10.10.3d; MahānU.10.7d.
tasmin yad yakṣam ātmanvat # AVś.10.2.32c; 8.43c.
tasmin yaśo nihitaṃ viśvarūpam # AVś.10.8.9b; śB.14.5.2.4b,5; BṛhU.2.2.4b,5. See yasmin yaśo.
tasmin yonau prajanau prajāyeya # TB.3.11.4.2.
tasmin yo badhyate bandhe # AVP.1.112.5c.
tasmin rayir dhruvo astu dāsvān # RV.4.2.7d.
tasmin rājānam adhiviśrayemam # AVP.4.3.1d; KS.37.9d; TB.2.7.15.3d; TA.1.7.2d.
tasmin vadema sumatiṃ svasti # AVś.10.6.35c.
tasmin vayam amṛtaṃ duhānāḥ # TB.3.1.2.2c.
tasmin vayam upahūtās tava smaḥ (Mś. sma) # TB.3.7.13.2c; Mś.2.5.4.24c.
tasmin vayaṃ pṛtanāḥ saṃjayema # TB.3.1.2.5c.
tasmin vāṃ yamaḥ pitṛbhiḥ saṃvidānaḥ # AVś.12.3.8c.
tasmin viśvam idaṃ śritam # ChU.3.15.1f.
tasmin viṣaṃ saṃ nayān kilbiṣyam # AVP.8.15.3d.
tasmin veśmani jāyate # AVś.5.17.13b.
tasmin santi praśiṣas tasminn iṣṭayaḥ # RV.1.145.1c.
tasmin sarvaṃ śamalaṃ sādayāthaḥ # AVś.12.3.52d.
tasmin sarvaṃ pratiṣṭhitam # śB.14.4.3.1c; BṛhU.1.5.1c; TA.10.11.2d; MahānU.11.9d.
tasmin sarve paśavas tatra yajñāḥ # GB.1.2.7c.
tasmin sarve pratitiṣṭhanti gatvā # JB.3.338d.
tasmin sahasraśākhe ni bhagāhaṃ tvayi mṛje svāhā # TA.7.4.3; TU.1.4.3.
tasmin sākaṃ triśatā na śaṅkavaḥ # RV.1.164.48c; N.4.27. See tatrāhatās.
tasmin sāsya hutāhutiḥ # JB.1.20c; śB.11.3.1.8c.
tasmin sīdāmṛte pratitiṣṭha (Mś. vḷ. sīdāmīte pratitiṣṭhan) # TB.3.7.5.3c; Apś.2.11.1c; Mś.1.2.6.22c.
tasmin suparṇo madhukṛt kulāyī # TS.4.2.9.6a; Tā.10.40a; Apś.16.27.7.
tasmin sumnāni yajamāna ā cake # RV.3.3.3d; KB.21.2.
tasmin somo rucam ā dadhātu # HG.1.15.1c; ApMB.2.22.4c. See tasmin ma indro.
tasmin sruco adhyāsādayāmi # TB.3.7.6.8d; Apś.4.7.1d.
tasmin svapnanidarśane # ChU.5.2.9d.
tasmin ha tasthur bhuvanāni viśvā # VS.31.19d. See under tasminn ā tasthur.
tasmin hāpitvam ichante # AVś.10.8.5c.
tasmin hiraṇyaye kośe # AVś.10.2.32a.
tasmin hi santy ūtayaḥ # RV.8.46.7a.
parasmin dhāmann ṛtasya # RV.1.43.9b.
praminatī manuṣyā yugāni # RV.1.92.11c; 124.2b.
yathāsmin teja āhitam # AVś.10.3.17b.
yathāsmin parameṣṭhini # AVś.10.3.24b.
yathāsmin yajña āhitam # AVś.10.3.23b.
yathāsmin saṃbhṛte rathe # AVś.10.3.20b.
yasmin kasmiṃś ca jāyate # AVś.12.4.14d.
yasmin kṣiyanti pradiśaḥ ṣaḍ urvīḥ # AVś.13.3.1c.
yasmin te nihitaṃ viṣam # AVP.2.14.4d. See under ya eṣāṃ viṣadhānakaḥ.
yasmin devā adhi viśve niṣeduḥ # RV.1.164.39b; AVś.9.10.18b; TB.3.10.9.14b; TA.2.11.1b; 10.1.1b; MahānU.1.2b; śvetU.4.8b; NṛpU.4.2b; 5.2b; N.13.10b.
yasmin devā amṛjata # AVś.12.2.17a.
yasmin devā manmani saṃcaranti # RV.10.12.8a; AVś.18.1.36a.
yasmin devā vidathe mādayante # RV.10.12.7a; AVś.18.1.35a.
yasmin nakṣatre yama eti rājā # TB.3.1.2.11a.
yasminn agre ajāyata # AVś.12.4.24b.
yasminn agre yonyāṃ garbho antaḥ # VS.19.87b; MS.3.11.9b: 153.15; KS.38.3b; TB.2.6.4.3b.
yasminn adhi vitataḥ sūrā (KS. sūra) eti (AVP. vitata eti sūryaḥ) # AVP.4.1.5c; MS.2.13.23c: 169.1; KS.40.1c. See yatrādhi sūra.
yasminn amūrchat sa janāsa indraḥ # AVś.20.34.12d. Cf. yas taṃnāsūrukṣu.
yasminn arkaḥ śiśriye yasminn ojaḥ # AVś.4.24.5c; AVP.4.39.5c.
yasminn aśrāntā asanāma vājam # RV.10.62.11d.
yasminn aśvāsa ṛṣabhāsa ukṣaṇaḥ # RV.10.91.14a; VS.20.78a; MS.3.11.4a: 146.13; KS.38.9a; TB.1.4.2.2a; Apś.19.3.2a. P: yasminn aśvāsaḥ Kś.19.6.21.
yasminn ājā bhavati kiṃ cana priyam # RV.7.83.2b.
yasminn ājuhavur bhuvanāni viśvā # RV.10.88.9b.
yasminn ātasthur bhuvanāni viśvā # AVś.9.9.11b,14d. See under tasminn etc.
yasmin nāmā samatṛpyañ chrute 'dhi # ā.2.3.8.5a.
yasminn ārohayāmasi # AVP.1.69.4b.
yasminn āvithāvasā duroṇe # RV.10.120.7b; AVś.5.2.6b; 20.107.10b; AVP.6.1.7b.
yasminn āśīḥ pratihita idaṃ tat # AVP.4.14.1a.
yasminn idaṃ viśvaṃ bhuvanam adhi śritam # TS.4.6.2.3d. See yasmin viśvāni bhu-.
yasminn idaṃ saṃ ca vi caikam # TA.10.1.3c; MahānU.2.3c. See tasminn etc., and cf. next.
yasminn idaṃ saṃ ca vi caiti sarvam # TA.10.1.1a; MahānU.1.2a. Cf. under prec.
yasminn indraḥ pradivi vāvṛdhānaḥ # RV.2.19.1c.
yasminn indro varuṇo mitro aryamā # RV.1.40.5c; VS.34.57c; MS.1.6.2c: 88.16; KS.7.14c; KB.15.2; Apś.5.19.3c; NṛpU.2.4c.
yasminn indro vasubhir mādayāte # RV.7.47.2c.
yasminn imā bhuvanāny antaḥ # AVś.11.2.11b.
yasminn imā viśvā bhuvanāny ārpitā # AVP.1.66.2b.
yasminn ukthāni raṇyanti # RV.8.16.2a; AVś.20.44.2a.
yasminn ṛcaḥ sāma yajūṃṣi yasmin # VS.34.5a.
yasminn ekaṃ yujyate yasminn ekam # AVś.8.9.3d.
yasminn enam abhyaṣiñcanta devāḥ # TB.3.1.2.11b.
yasminn eṣāṃ sāṃmanasyaṃ babhūva # AVP.13.7.3b.
yasminn otāḥ prajā imāḥ # AVś.10.8.37b,38b.
yasmin paktiḥ pacyate santi dhānāḥ # RV.6.29.4b.
yasmin pañca pañcajanāḥ # śB.14.7.2.19a; BṛhU.4.4.19a.
yasmin purā vāvṛdhuḥ śāśaduś ca # RV.2.20.4b.
yasmin brahmābhyajayat sarvam etat # TB.3.1.2.5a.
yasmin brahmā rājani pūrva eti # RV.4.50.8d; TB.2.4.6.4d; AB.8.26.9.
yasmin bhūtaṃ ca bhavyaṃ ca # HG.1.13.19a; ApMB.2.5.22a (ApG.4.11.19). Cf. yasmai etc.
yasmin bhūmir antarikṣam # AVś.10.7.12a.
yasmin manuṣyā uta # AVś.12.2.17b.
yasmin mahīr urujrayaḥ # RV.8.70.4b; AVś.20.92.19b; SV.2.506b.
yasmin yajñe vāram akṛṇvata kṣayam # RV.1.132.3b.
yasmin yaśo nihitaṃ viśvarūpam # N.12.38b. See tasmin yaśo.
yasmin rāyaḥ śevṛdhāsaḥ # RV.3.16.2b.
yasmin rāṣṭre nirudhyate # AVś.5.17.12c--17c; AVP.9.15.8c.
yasmin vayaṃ dadhimā śaṃsam indre # RV.10.42.6a; AVś.20.89.6a.
yasmin vā bhagam ichase # AVP.3.28.4b.
yasmin vāyur adhi śritaḥ # AVP.9.25.2b.
yasmin virāṭ parameṣṭhī prajāpatiḥ # AVś.13.3.5a.
yasmin viśvā adhi śriyaḥ # RV.8.92.20a; AVś.20.110.2a; SV.2.73a.
yasmin viśvāni kāvyā # RV.8.41.6a.
yasmin viśvāni pauṃsyā # RV.1.5.9c; AVś.20.69.7c.
yasmin viśvāni bhuvanāni (MS. viśvā bhuvanādhi) tasthuḥ # RV.7.101.4a; 10.82.6d; VS.17.30d; MS.2.10.3d: 134.15. See yasminn idaṃ vi-.
yasmin viśvāś carṣaṇayaḥ # RV.8.2.33a.
yasmin vīro na riṣyati # AVś.14.2.8c; ApMB.1.6.11c.
yasmin vṛkṣe madhvadaḥ suparṇāḥ # RV.1.164.22a; AVś.9.9.21a.
yasmin vṛkṣe supalāśe # RV.10.135.1a; TA.6.5.3a; N.12.29a. P: yasmin vṛkṣe BṛhPDh.9.313. Cf. BṛhD.8.48.
yasmin vṛtraṃ vṛtratūrye tatāra # TB.3.1.2.1b.
yasmin vedā nihitā viśvarūpāḥ # AVś.4.35.6c.
yasmin vratāny ādadhuḥ # RV.8.103.1b; SV.1.47b; 2.865b.
yasmin ṣaḍ urvīḥ pañca diśo adhi śritāḥ # AVś.13.3.6a.
yasmin samudro dyaur bhūmiḥ # AVś.11.3.20a.
yasmin sarvaṃ pratiṣṭhitam # AVś.11.4.1d.
yasmin sarvāṇi bhūtāni # VS.40.7a; īśāU.7a.
yasmin sahasraṃ brāhmaṇāḥ # AB.8.23.4c.
yasmin sujātā iṣayanta sūrayaḥ # RV.2.2.11b.
yasmin sujātā subhagā mahīyate # RV.5.56.9c.
yasmin sūryā ārpitāḥ (KSṭBṭA. arp-) sapta sākam # AVś.13.3.10c; AVP.4.3.1c; KS.37.9c; TB.2.7.15.3c; TA.1.7.1c.
yasmin stabdhvā prajāpatiḥ # AVś.10.7.7a.
yādṛśmin dhāyi tam apasyayā vidat # RV.5.44.8c; N.6.15. P: yādṛśmin N.1.15.
yāsmin yajña ṛddhiḥ sā naḥ saha # Mś.7.2.1.9.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
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"min" has 295 results.
     
mintaddhita affix. affix in the sense of possession added to the word गो; exempli gratia, for example गोमिन् , confer, compare ज्योत्स्रातामिस्रा ...गोमिन्मलिनमलीमसा: P.V.2.114.
aāgamina base to which an augment is added; confer, compare एवमपि पञ्च अागमास्त्रय आगमिनः M.Bh.I.1. Āhnika 2.
minactaddhita affix. affix अामिन् in the sense of possession, applied to the word स्व; confer, compare स्वामिन्नैश्वर्ये P.V.2.126.
kṣīrasvāmina grammarian of Kashmir of the 8th century who wrote the famous commentary क्षीरतरङ्गिणी on the Amarakośa and a commentary on the Nirukta of Yāska.
gmintaddhita affix. affix in the sense of possession; confer, compare वाचो ग्मिनिः। वाग्मी । P.I.2.124.
candragominnamed also चन्द्र, a Buddhist scholar who has written an easy Sanskrit Grammar based on the Astadhyayi of Panini. He is believed to have lived in North India in the fifth century A.D. See चन्द्र.
dharmin(1)a thing possessed of properties, द्रव्यः confer, compare धर्मशब्देन धर्मी भण्यते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.3.77;cf also the common expression धर्मिग्राहकमानात् Par. Sek. on Pari. 55, 66, 79, 82: (2) the same as dharma in rare cases according to the dictum धर्मघर्मिणोरभेदोपचारः e. g. वर्णैकं देहि, पुराणैकं देहि; confer, compare Durghata Vr. on P. II. 1. 49.
min(vowels)which cause cerebralization; the ten vowels ऋ, ॠ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ए, ओ, ऐ, औ; confer, compare ऋकारादयो दश नामिनः स्वराः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 27, confer, compare also R.T. 94. See the word नति. The word भाविन् is used for नामिन् in the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya; confer, compare अकण्ठ्यो भावी Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 46; confer, compare also नामिपरो रम् Kat. I.5.12.
śabarasvāmina grammarian to whom a metrical treatise on genders named लिङ्गानुशासन is ascribedition This शवरस्वामिन् was comparatively a modern grammarian who was given the title बालयोगीश्वर. This लिङ्गानुशासन has a commentary written by हृर्षवर्धन Evidently these grammarians शबरस्वामिन् and हृर्षवर्धन are different from the famous author of the मीमांसाभाष्य and the patron of the poet Bana respectively.
harṣavardvanasvāmina fairly old grammarian who wrote an extensive metrical compendium on genders named लिङ्गानुशासन on which a commentary was written by a grammarian named शबरस्वासिन्. These grammarians were,of course, different from the reputed king इर्षवर्धन and the ; Mimamsaka शाबरस्वामिन्.
a(1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perfeminine. second.pluraland first and third person.singular.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अ प्रत्ययात् et cetera, and others (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 exempli gratia, for example अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. exempli gratia, for example भवति, तुदति et cetera, and others; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; exempli gratia, for example द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imperfeminine. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् confer, compare P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, et cetera, and others in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; (9) taddhita affix. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ et cetera, and others in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the inst. instrumental case. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
akathitanot mentioned by any other case-relation such as अपादान, संप्रदान and अधिकरण; stated with respect to the indirect object, governed by roots possessing two objects such as दुह्, याच् and others, which in the passive woice is put in the nominative case. The in-direct object is called akathita because in some cases there exists no other case-relation as, for example, in पौरवं गां याचते or भिक्षते, or माणवकं पन्थानं पृच्छति; while, in the other cases, the other case-relations (with the activity expressed by the verb) are wilfully suppressed or ignored although they exist, as for instance in गां दोग्धि पयः, अन्ववरुणद्धि गां व्रजम्; see अकथितं च P.1.4.51 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon.
akārathe letter a, (अ) inclusive of all its eighteen kinds caused by shortness, length, protraction, accentuation and nasalization in Pānini's grammar, in cases where a(अ) is not actually prescribed as a termination or an augment or a substitute. confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.73. The letter is generally given as the first letter of the alphabet ( वर्णसमाम्नाय ) in all Prātiśākhya and grammar works except in the alphabet termed Varṇopadeśa, as mentioned in the Ṛk Tantra confer, compare ए ओ ऐ औ अा ॠ लॄ ई ऊ ऋ लृ इ उ अाः । रयवलाः । ङञणनमाः । अः ೱ क ೱ पाः । हुं कुं खुं गुं घुं अं अां एवमुपदेशे et cetera, and others Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.I. 4.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
akṣarāṅgaforming a part of a syllable just as the anusvāra ( nasal utterance ) or svarabhakti (vowelpart) which forms a part of the preceding syllable. confer, compare अनुस्वारो व्यञ्जनं चाक्षराङ्गम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.22, also स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.32.
aṅThe vikaraṇa before luṅ affixes, substituted for the affix cvi ( च्वि ) in the case of the roots mentioned by Pāṇini in sūtras III.1.52-59:(2) the Vikaraṇapratyaya in Vedic Literature before the benedictive affixes prescribed by Pāṇini in Sūtra III.1.86; (3) kṛt affix in the feminine gender showing verbal activity applied to roots marked with the mute letter ष् and the roots भिद्, छिद् and others. P.III.3 104-106.exempli gratia, for example जरा, त्रपा, भिदा, छिदा et cetera, and others
(1)taddhita affix. affix a ( अ ) with the mute letter ñ ( ञ्), prescribed (i) after the words उत्स and others in various senses like progeny, dyed in, produced in, come from et cetera, and othersP. IV.1.86, (ii) after the words विद and others in the sense of grandson and other descendents.P. IV.1.104. For other cases see P. IV. I. 141, 161; IV.2.12,14 et cetera, and others IV.3.7 et cetera, and others IV.4.49. The feminine is formed by adding i ( ई ) to words ending with this affix अञ्, which have the vṛddhi vowel substituted for their initial vowel which gets the acute accent also exempli gratia, for example औत्सः, औत्सी,औदपानः, बैदः, बैदी.
aṇuthe minimum standard of the guantity of sound, which is not perceived by the senses, being equal to one-fourth of a Mātrā; confer, compare अणोस्तु तत्प्रमाणं स्यात् मात्रा तु चतुराणवात् ॥ see T.Pr. 21.3, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1.60, A.Pr. III.65. Ṛk. tantra, however, defines अणु as half-a-mātrā. confer, compare अर्धमणु ( R.T. 1.41 ).
at(1)tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar for short अ, cf तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70; अदेङ् गुणः P.I.1.2; (2) personal ending अ for इ ( इट् ) of the Ist person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada in the Potential, P III. 4. 106; (3) caseaffix in the case of युष्मद् and अस्मद् for ablative case. singular. and plural P.VII. 1.31,32: (4) tad-affix अत् (अ) prescribed after किम् in the sense of the locative case case before which किम् is changed to कु, क्व being the taddhita affix. formation; confer, compare P. V.3.12 and VII.2.105:(5) substitute अत्(शतृ) for लट् forming the present and future participles in the Parasmaipada. active voice confer, compare लटः शतृशानचौ. P.III. 2.124 and लृटः सद्वा P. III.3.14.
atikramapassing over a word in the क्रमपाठ without repeating it; passing beyond, confer, compare अतिक्रम्य परिग्रहः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X.7, which means catching a word for repetition by coming back after passing over it, e. g. इन्द्राग्नी अपात् । इन्द्राग्नी इति इन्द्राग्नी । or अनु दक्षि । दक्षि दावने | दक्षीति दक्षि ।
adhyavasāyadetermination to begin an activity with a view to get the fruit. confer, compare य एष मनुष्यः प्रेक्षापूर्वकारी स बुद्ध्या कंचिदर्थं संपश्यति, संदृष्टे प्रार्थना, प्रार्थिते अध्यवसायः,म् अध्यवसाये आरम्भः, आरम्भे निर्वृत्तिः, निर्वृत्तौ फलावाप्तिः confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.14 and I.4.32.
anaḍ(1)substitute अन् as Samāsānta at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound in the feminine for the last letter of the word ऊधस् and for that of धनुस् in all genders exempli gratia, for example कुण्डोघ्नी (by applying ई to कुण्डोधन्), शार्ङ्गधन्वा, अधिज्यधन्वा; confer, compare P V.4.131, 132; (2) substitute अन् for the last letter of the words अस्थि, दधि et cetera, and others before the affixes of the instrumental and the following cases beginning with a vowel e. g. अस्थ्ना, दध्ना, अक्ष्णा et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 1.75; (3) substitute अन् for the last letter of the word सखि, of words ending in ऋ,as also of उशनस् and others before the nominative singular. affix सु. e. g. सखा, कर्ता, उशना confer, compare P. VII.1.93, 94.
anavasthitaundetermined, indefinite; See M.Bh. quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on अनवस्थान; cf also आर्धधातुकीयाः सामान्येन भवन्ति अनवस्थितेषु प्रत्ययेषु । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; III.1.4, VII.2.10, VII.4.9. The substitutes caused by an ārdhadhātuka affix are, in fact, effected by virtue of the prospective application of the ārdhadhātuka affix before its actual application.
anitya(1)not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or paribhāṣā whose application is voluntary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obligatory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be usedition On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
anīyarkṛt affix, termed कृत्य also forming the pot. passive voice. participle. of a root; confer, compare तव्यत्तव्यानीयरः P.III.1.96. exempli gratia, for example see the forms करणीयं, हरणीयं, the mute र् showing the acute accent on the penultimate vowel,
anudāttetliterally one whose mute significatory letter is uttered with a grave accent: a term applied to a root characterized by an indicatory mute vowel accented grave, the chief feature of such a root being that it takes only the Ātmanepada affixes c. g. आस्ते, वस्ते, et cetera, and others; confer, compare अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; such a root, in forming a derivative word in the sense of habit, takes the affix युच् e. g. वर्त्तनः, वर्धन: et cetera, and others provided the root begins with a consonant; confer, compare अनुदात्तेतश्र हलादेः P. III.2.149.
anekānta(1)not forming an integral part, the same as अनवयव; confer, compare अनेकान्ताः अनवयवा इत्यर्थः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 4. (2) absence of any definite view confer, compare अनेकान्तत्वाच्च । येषां चाप्यारभ्यते तेषामप्यनेकान्तः । .. मामहान उक्थपात्रम् । ममहान इति च । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI.I.7
anaikāntikaundetermined, indefinite एतद्प्यनैकान्तिकं यदल्पप्राणस्य सर्वोच्चैस्तन्महाप्राणस्य सर्वनीचै: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on I.2.30, also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 1.37; not invariable, confer, compare अनैकान्तिकं ज्ञापकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.2.102, VIII.3.34
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
ap(1)kṛt affix अ, in the sense of verbal activity (भाव) or any verbal relation (कारक) excepting that of an agent, (कर्तृ) applied to roots ending in ऋ or उ and the roots ग्रह्,वृ,दृ et cetera, and others mentioned in P. III.3.58 and the following rules in preference to the usual affix घञ. exempli gratia, for example करः, गरः, शरः, यवः, लवः, पवः, ग्रहः, स्वनः etc, confer, compare P.III, 3.57-87 ; (2) compound-ending अप् applied to Bahuvrīhi compounds in the feminine gender ending with a Pūraṇa affix as also to Bahuvrīhi compounds ending with लोमन् preceded by अन्त् or वहिर् e. g. कल्याणीपञ्चमा रात्रयः, अन्तर्लोमः,बहिर्लोमः पटः confer, compare P. V. 4.116, 117.
apavādaa special rule which sets aside the general rule; a rule forming an exception to the general rule. exempli gratia, for example आतोनुपसर्गे कः III.2.2 which is an exception of the general rule कर्मण्यण् III.2.1; confer, compare येन नाप्राप्तो यो विधिरारभ्यते स तस्य बाधको भवति, तदपवादोयं येागो भवति; Pari. Śekh. Par 57; for details see Pari. Śekh. Pari. 57-65: cf न्यायैर्मिश्रानपवादान् प्रतीयात् । न्याया उत्सर्गाः महाविधयः । अपवादा अल्पविषयाः विधय: । तानुत्सर्गेण मिश्रानेकीकृताञ् जानीयात् । अपवादविषयं मुक्त्वा उत्सर्गाः प्रवर्तन्ते इत्यर्थः । Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 23 and commentary thereon ; (2) fault; confer, compare शास्त्रापवादात् प्रतिपत्तिभेदात् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 30 on which उव्वट remarks शास्त्राणामपवादा दोषाः सन्ति पुनरुक्तता अविस्पष्टार्थता, कष्टशब्दार्थता...
appayadīkṣitaअप्पदीक्षित A famous versatile writer of the sixteenth century A. D. (1530-1600 ), son of रङ्गराजाध्वरीन्द्र a Dravid Brāhmaṇa. He wrote more than 60 smaller or greater treatises mainly on Vedānta, Mimāṁsā, Dharma and Alaṁkāra śāstras; many of his works are yet in manuscript form. The Kaumudi-prakāśa and Tiṅantaśeṣasaṁgraha are the two prominent grammatical works written by him. Paṇdit Jagannātha spoke very despisingly of him.
apradhāna(1)non-principal, subordinate, secondary, confer, compare अप्रधानमुपसर्जन-मिति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 2.43; (2) nonessential, non-predominent, confer, compare सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने P. II. 2.19 and the instance पुत्रेण सहागतः पिता । Kāś. on II.2.19.
abāghakanot coming in the way of rules otherwise applicable; the word is used in connection with निपातन i. e. constituted or announced forms or specially formed words which are said to be अबाधक i. e. not coming in the way of forms which could be arrived at by application of the regular rules. Siradeva has laid down the Paribhāṣā अबाधकान्यपि निपातनानि भवन्ति defending the form पुरातन in spite of Pāṇini's specific mention of the word पुराण in the rule पुराणप्रोक्तेषुo IV. 3. 105.
abhaktanot-forming an integral part of another; quite independent (used in connection with augments). confer, compare किं पुनरयं पूर्वान्त आहोस्वित् परादिराहोस्विद् अभक्ताः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1. 47, 1.1.51. एवं तर्ह्यभक्तः करिष्यते M. Bh on VI.1.71, VI.1.135, and VII.2.82.
abhāṣitapuṃskathat which does not convey a masculine sense; a word which is not declined in the masculine gender; a word possessing only the feminine gender e.gखट्वा, लता et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अभाषितपुंस्काच्च P. VII. 3.48.
abhedakanot bringing about a difference; not making different; nondiscriminant; confer, compare गुणाः अभेदकाः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 109 confer, compare ननु च भो अभेदका अपि च गुणा दृश्यन्ते M. Bh on I.1.1.
abhedasaṃsargaa connection of unity, as noticed between the nominative case affix of the subject and the ending ति of a verb, which produces the sense.
abhyaṃkara(BHASKARASHASTRI Abhyankar 1785-1870 A. D. )an eminent scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who prepared a number of Sanskrit scholars in Grammar at Sātārā. He has also written a gloss on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another one on the Laghu-Śabdenduśekhara. (VASUDEVA SHASTRI Abhyakar 863-1942 A. D.) a stalwart Sanskrit Pandit, who, besides writing several learned commentaries on books in several Sanskrit Shastras, has written a commentary named 'Tattvādarśa' on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another named 'Guḍhārthaprakāśa' on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara. (KASHINATH VASUDEVA Abhyankar, 1890-) a student of Sanskrit Grammar who has written महाभाष्यप्रस्तावना-खण्ड, and जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति and compiled the परिभाषासंग्रह and the present Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar.
ambūkṛtautterance (of words) accompanied by water drops coming out of the mouth; a fault of utterance or pronunciation; मुखात् विप्रुषो निर्गमनम् . It is explained differently in the Rk. Prātiśākhya; confer, compare ओष्ठाभ्यां नद्धं अम्बूकृतम्म्वृ (Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.2.) held tight between the lips which of course, is a fault of pronunciation; confer, compareग्रस्तं निरस्तमविलम्बितं निर्हतं अम्बूकृतं ध्मात मथो विकम्पितम्. MBh. I. 1. पस्पशाह्निक.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
avasānapause, cessation, termination; confer, compare विरामोऽवसानम् । वर्णानामभावः अवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् S. K. on P.1.4.110.
avibhaktikawithout the application of a case termination.The term is used frequently in connection with such words as are found used by Pāṇini without any case-affix in his Sūtras; sometimes, such usage is explained by commentators as an archaic usage; confer, compare अविभक्तिको निर्देशः । कृप उः रः लः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I 1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 2; also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3 ; III.1.36, VII.1.3 et cetera, and others
avyayībhāvaname of a compound so called on account of the words forming the compound, being similar to indeclinables: e. g. निर्मक्षिकम् , अधिहरि, यथामति, यावज्जीवम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare अनव्ययं अव्ययं भवतीत्यव्ययीभावः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.I.5. The peculiarity of the avyayībhāva compound is that the first member of the compound plays the role of the principal word; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानोऽव्ययीभावः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.6.
as(1)case affix of the nominative and accusative plural and the ablative and genitive singular (जस् , शस्, ङसि and ङस् ) (2) taddhita affix अस् ( असि ) added to पूर्व, अधर and अवर, by P.V.3.39: (3) compoundending अस् ( असिच् ) applied to the words प्रजा and मेधा standing at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound (P.V.4.122): (4) Uṇādi affix अस् prescribed by the rule सर्वधातुभ्योऽसुन् and subsequent rules (628-678) to form words such as मनस्,सरस् et cetera, and others(5) ending syllable अस्, with or without sense, of words in connection with which special operations are given in grammar; confer, compare P.VI.4.14; confer, compare also अनिनस्मन्ग्रहणान्यर्थवता चानर्थकेन च तदन्तविधिं प्रयोजयन्ति Par.Śek. Pari. 16.
ā(1)the long form of the vowel अ called दीर्घ,consisting of two mātrās, in contrast with (l) the short अ which consists of one mātrā and the protracted आ३ which consists of three mātrās; (2) substitute अा of two mātrās when prescribed by the word दीर्घ or वृद्धि for the short vowel अ; (3) upasarga अा (अाङ्) in the sense of limit exempli gratia, for example अा कडारादेका संज्ञा (P.I.4.1.) आकुमारं यशः पाणिनेः K. on II.1.13. आ उदकान्तात् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.14.) (4) indeclinable आ in the sense of remembrance e. g. आ एवं नु मन्यसे; confer, compare ईषदर्थे क्रियायोगे मर्यादाभिविधौ च यः । एतमातं ङितं विद्याद्वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.14; (5) augment अा ( अाक् ) as seen in चराचर, वदावद et cetera, and others confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6; (6) augment अा(आट्) prefixed to roots in the tenses लुङ्, लङ् and लृङ् (7) substitute अा prescribed for the last letter of pronouns before the taddhita affix. affixes दृक्,दृश, दृक्ष and वत्, as in तादृक्दृ, तादृश et cetera, and others; (8) feminine affix आ (टाप्, डाप् or चाप् ) added to nouns ending in अा; (9) substitute आ ( आ or अात्, or डा or आल् ) for case affixes in Vedic literature उभा यन्तारौ, नाभा पृथिव्याः et cetera, and others
aākhyātaverbal form, verb; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातं सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि Nirukta of Yāska.I.1; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्यातोपसर्गनिपाताश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1. Āhnika 1 ; also A.Prāt. XII. 5, अाकार अाख्याते पदादिश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.2.37 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2, आख्यातमाख्यातेन क्रियासातत्ये Sid. Kau. on II.1.72, क्रियावाचकमाख्यातं Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1; confer, compare भारद्वाजकमाख्यातं भार्गवं नाम भाष्यते । भारद्वाजेन दृष्टत्वादाख्यातं भारद्वाजगोत्रम् V. Prāt. VIII. 52; confer, compare also Athar. Prāt.I.I.12, 18; 1.3.3,6; II.2.5 where ākhyāta means verbal form. The word also meant in ancient days the root also,as differentiated from a verb or a verbal form as is shown by the lines तन्नाम येनाभिदधाति सत्त्वं, तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातुः R.Pr.XII.5 where 'आख्यात' and 'धातु' are used as synonyms As the root form such as कृ, भृ et cetera, and others as distinct from the verbal form, is never found in actual use, it is immaterial whether the word means root or verb.In the passages quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. from the Nirukta and the Mahābhāṣya referring to the four kinds of words, the word ākhyāta could be taken to mean root (धातु) or verb (क्रियापद). The ākhyāta or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being and bccoming while nouns (नामानि) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the activities and things in this world but with every process and entity; confer, compare पूर्वापूरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे Nir.I.;अस्तिभवतिविद्यतीनामर्थः सत्ता । अनेककालस्थायिनीति कालगतपौर्वापर्येण क्रमवतीति तस्याः क्रियात्वम् । Laghumañjūṣā. When a kṛt (affix). affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a word ending with a kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of bhāva or verbal activity is treated as a noun and regularly declined;confer, compareकृदभिहितो भावे द्रव्यवद् भवति M.Bh. on II.2.19 and III. 1.67, where the words गति, व्रज्या, पाक and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words ending with kṛt (affix). affixes such as कर्तुं, कृत्वा, and others, the modern grammarians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be,in a way, looked upon as ākhyātas; confer, compare अव्ययकृतो भावे Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa.
āgarvīyaa class of roots forming a subdivision of the Curādigaṇa or the tenth conjugation beginning with पद् and ending with गर्व् which are only ātmanepadin; exempli gratia, for example पदयते, मृगयते, अर्थयते, गर्वयते.
aāṭ(1)augment अा prefixed to roots beginning with a vowel in the imperfect, aorist and conditional, which is always accented (उदात्त); confer, compare P.VI.4.72; (2) augment अा prefixed to the imperative first person terminations, exempli gratia, for example करवाणि, करवै et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.4.92: (3) augment अा to be prefixed to caseaffixes which are डित् after nouns called nadī: exempli gratia, for example कुमार्यं; cf P.VII. 3.112.
aādhārādheyabhāvaa non-differential relation (अभेदसंसर्ग) between the personal endings तिप् , तस् et cetera, and others and the noun in the nominative case which is the subject of the verbal activity;relation of a thing and its substratum: confer, compare निपातातिरिक्तनामार्थधात्वर्थयोर्भेदान्वयस्य अव्युत्पन्नत्वात्.
āna(1)kṛt affix (शानच् or चानश्) substituted for the lakāra लट् and applied to ātmanepadi roots forming the present participle; (2) kṛt (affix). affix कानच् applied to ātmanepadi roots in the sense of past time forming the perfect participle confer, compare लिटः कानज्वा P.III.2.106.
ām(1)augment आ prescribed in connection with the words चतुर् and अनडुह् before the case-affixes called सर्वनामस्थान; confer, compare चतुरनडुहोराम् उदात्तः P.VII.1.98; (2) the affix आम् added before लिट् or a perfect termination by rules कास्प्रत्ययादाम् अमन्त्रे लिटि and the following (P. III 1.35-39), as for instance, in कासांचक्रे, ऊहांचक्रे, दयांचक्रे, जागरांचकार, विभयांचकार et cetera, and others; (3) geni. plural caseaffix आम् as in दृषदाम्, शरदाम्, with न् prefixed in रामाणाम् et cetera, and others, and with स् prefixed in सर्र्वेषाम् et cetera, and others; (4) locative case singular. case-affix अाम् substituted for इ (ङि); confer, compare ङेराम् नद्याम्नीभ्यः P.VI.4.116.
āśvalāyanaprātiśākhyaan authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the Ṛksaṁhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
īdit(a root)possessed of long ई as a mute indicatory ending meant for prohibiting the addition of the augment इ to the past participle. terminations त and तवत् ; exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, दीप्तः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P VII.2.14.
uktārthaa word or expression whose sense has been already expressedition The expression उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः is frequently used in the Mahābhāṣya and the Vārttikas and cited as a Paribhāṣā or a salutary conventional maxim against repetition of words in the Paribhāṣāpāṭhas of Vyādi (Par. 51), Candragomin (Par 28) and Kātantra (Par. 46) and Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. (Par. 46) grammars.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
ut(1)Short vowel उ in Pāṇini's terminology cf, P.I.1.70, I,2.21. IV.1.44, V.1.111 ; (2) tad-affix उत् applied to पूर्व and पूर्वतर for which पर् is substituted; exempli gratia, for example परुत्. See P. V.3.22 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).
udayakīrtiauthor of a treatise giving rules for the determination of the pada or padas of roots; the treatise is named पदव्यवस्थासूत्रकारिकाटीका He was a Jain grammarian, and one of the pupils of Sādhusundara.
udāttathe acute accent defined by Pāṇini in the words उचैरुदात्त: P.I.2. 29. The word उच्चैः is explained by Patañjali in the words 'आयामो दारुण्यं अणुता स्वस्य इति उचैःकराणि शब्दस्य' where आयाम (गात्रनिग्रह restriction of the organs), दारुण्य (रूक्षता rudeness ) and स्वस्य अणुता ( कण्ठस्य संवृतता closure of the glottis) are given as specific characteristics of the acute accent. The acute is the prominent accent in a word-a simple word as also a compound word-and when a vowel in a word is possessed of the acute accent, the remaining vowels have the अनुदात्त or the grave accent. Accent is a property of vowels and consonants do not possess any independent accent. They possess the accent of the adjoining vowel connected with it. The acute accert corresponds to what is termed 'accent' in English and other languages.
uddyotathe word always refers in grammar to the famous commentary by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa written in the first decade of the 18th century A. D. om the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa. The Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.appears to be one of the earlier works of Nāgeśa. It is also called Vivaraṇa. The commentary is a scholarly one and is looked upon as a final word re : the exposition of the Mahābhāṣya. It is believed that Nāgeśa wrote 12 Uddyotas and 12 Śekharas which form some authoritative commentaries on prominent works in the different Śāstras.
upapadavibhaktia case termination added to a word on account of the presence of another word requiring the addition;confer, compare the well-known Paribhāṣā,उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 94; and M.Bh. on I.4. 96 stating the possession of greater force in the case of a kāra-kavibhakti than in the case of an upapadavibhakti.
upapadasamāsathe compound of a word, technically termed as उपपद by Pāṇini according to his definition of the word in III.1.92., with another word which is a verbal derivative; confer, compare कुम्भकारः, नगरकारः Here technically the compound of the words कुम्भ, नगर et cetera, and others which are upapadas is formed with कार,before a case-termination is added to the nominal base कार; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 75.
upasargayogaconnection with a prefix; joining of the prefix. Some scholars of grammar hold the view that the Upasarga is prefixed to the root and then the verbal form is arrived at by placing the desired terminations after the root, while others hold the opposite view: confer, compare पूर्वं धातुः साधनेनोपयुज्यते पश्चादुपसर्गेण । अन्ये तु पूर्वं धातुरुपसर्गेण युज्यते पश्चात्साधनेनेत्याहुः Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti Pari. 131, 132; cf also vol. VII. Mahābhāṣya edited by the D. E. Society, Poona, pages 371-372.
upahita(1)with, preceded by; e g. दीर्घोपहित, ह्रस्वोपहित; (2) sticking to, connected with, 'उपश्लेषित': confer, compareDurga on Nir.V.12;(3) coming to be placed near or in juxtaposition with the preceding word: confer, compare आवोन्तोपहितात् सतः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.15.
upādhicondition, limitation, determinant, qualification: exempli gratia, for example न हि उपाधेरुपाधिर्भवति, विशेषणस्य वा विशेषणम् M.Bh. on I.3.2 as also on V.1.16; confer, compare also इह यो विशेष उपाधिर्वोपादीयते द्योत्ये तस्मिंस्तेन भवितव्यम् । M.Bh. on III.1.7.
ubhayapadina root conjugated in both the Padas; a root to which both, the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada terminations are affixed; exempli gratia, for example roots वृ, भी, मुच् et cetera, and others
ekāntapart, portion. Augments or Āgamas in the Vyākaraṇa Śāstra are looked upon as forming a part of the word to which they are attached; confer, compare अथ यस्यानुबन्ध आसज्यते, किं स तस्य एकान्तो भवति आहोस्विदनेकान्तः । एकान्तस्तत्रेापलब्धेः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.9, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).9; confer, compare also एकान्ताः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari, 5.
eva(1)a particle in the sense of regulation (नियम) ; confer, compare एवकारः किमर्थः नियमार्थः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.3.58: (2) . determinant indeclinable; confer, compare एव इत्यवधारणे; confer, compare इष्टतोवधारणार्थस्तर्हि । यथैवं विज्ञायेत । अजादी गुणवचनादेवेति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.3.58.
aittvasubstitution of ऐ for ए by the rule एत ऐ prescribing the substitution of the vowel ऐ for ए in the case of the imperative first person terminations; cf P. III.4.93.
oṅa term used by ancient grammarians for the affix औ of the nominative case. and the acc. dual number The vowel ई (शी) is substituted for औ in the case of nouns of the feminine and neuter genders; confer, compare औङः शी P. VII. 1.18, 19.
k(1)taddhita affix.affix क applied to the words of the ऋश्य group in the four senses called चातुरर्थिक e. g. ऋश्यकः, अनडुत्कः, वेणुकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.IV.2.80; (2) taddhita affix. affix क applied to nouns in the sense of diminution, censure, pity et cetera, and others e. g. अश्वक्रः, उष्ट्रकः, पुत्रकः, confer, compare P.V. 3.70-87: (3) taddhita affix. affix क in the very sense of the word itself ( स्वार्थे ) exempli gratia, for example अविकः, यावकः, कालकः; confer, compare P.V.4.2833; (4) Uṇādi affix क exempli gratia, for example कर्क, वृक, राका, एक, भेक, काक, पाक, शल्क et cetera, and others by Uṇādi sūtras III. 40-48 before which the angment इट् is prohibited by P. VII.2.9; (5) kṛt affix क ( अ ) where क् is dropped by P. I. 3.8, applied, in the sense of agent, to certain roots mentioned in P.III.1.135, 136, 144, III. 2.3 to 7, III.2.77 and III.3.83 exempli gratia, for example बुध:, प्रस्थः, गृहम्, कम्बलदः, द्विपः, मूलविभुजः, सामगः, सुरापः et cetera, and others; (6) substitute क for the word किम् before a case affix, confer, compare P.VII.2.103; (7) the Samāsānta affix कप् (क) at the end of Bahuvrīhi compounds as prescribed by P.V.4.151-160.
kaṇvādia class of words forming a portion of the class of words called गर्गादि, and headed by the word कण्व, to the derivatives of which, formed by the afix यञ् by the rule गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् (P.IV.1.105) the affix अण् is added in the miscellaneous senses; exempli gratia, for example काण्वाः छात्राः; similarly गौकक्षाः, शाकलाः , अगस्तयः, कुण्डिनाः etc: confer, compare P.IV.2.111 and II. 4.70.
kartṛagent of an action, subject; name of a kāraka or instrument in general, of an action, which produces the fruit or result of an action without depending on any other instrument; confer, compare स्वतन्त्रः कर्ता P. I.4.54, explained as अगुणीभूतो यः क्रियाप्रसिद्धौ स्वातन्त्र्येण विवक्ष्यते तत्कारकं कर्तृसंज्ञं भवति in the Kāśikā on P.I. 4.54. This agent, or rather, the word standing for the agent, is put in the nominative case in the active voice (confer, compare P.I.4.54), in the instrumental case in the passive voice (cf P. II.3.18), and in the genitive case when it is connected with a noun of action or verbal derivative noun, (confer, compare P.II.3.65).
kartrabhiprāyameant for the agent of the action. The word is used in connection with the fruit or result of an action; when the result is for the agent, roots having both the Padas get the Ātmanepada terminations; confer, compare स्वरितञ्जितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P.I.3.72.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
karmavadbhāvathe activity of the agent or kartā of an action represented as object or karman of that very action, for the sake of grammatical operations: e. g. भिद्यते काष्ठं स्वयमेव;. करिष्यते कटः स्वयमेव. To show facility of a verbal activity on the object, when the agent or kartā is dispensed with, and the object is looked upon as the agent, and used also as an agent, the verbal terminations ति, त; et cetera, and others are not applied in the sense of an agent, but they are applied in the sense of an object; consequently the sign of the voice is not अ (शप्), but य (यक्) and the verbal terminations are त, आताम् et cetera, and others (तङ्) instead of ति, तस् et cetera, and others In popular language the use of an expression of this type is called Karmakartari-Prayoga. For details see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III.1.87. Only such roots as are कर्मस्थक्रियक or कर्मस्थभावक id est, that is roots whose verbal activity is noticed in the object and not in the subject can have this Karmakartari-Prayoga.
karmavyatihāraexchange of verbal activity; reciprocity of action; कर्मव्यतिहार means क्रियाव्यतिहार or क्रियाविनिमय; confer, compare कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14.; also कर्मव्यतिहारे णच् स्त्रियाम् । व्यावक्रोशी, व्यात्युक्षी Kāś. on P.III.3.43. The roots having their agents characterized by a reciprocity of action take the Ātmanepada terminations; confer, compare P. I. 3.14.
kalpanālāghavabrevity of thought: brevity of expression: minimum assumption. See the word लाघव.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātya(1)another name sometimes given to Katyāyana to whom is ascribed the composition of the Vārttikas on Pāṇini-sūtras; (2) an ancient writer Kātya quoted as a lexicographer by Kṣīrasvāmin, Hemacandra and other writers.
kānacaffix अान forming perfect partciples which are mostly seen in Vedic Literature. The affix कानच् is technically a substitute for the लिट् affix. Nouns ending in कानच् govern the accusative case of the nouns connected with them: exempli gratia, for example सोमं सुषुवाणः; confer, compare P. III.3.106 and P.II.3.69.
kāmyacaffix in the sense of 'desiring for oneself' applied to nouns to form denominative roots; exempli gratia, for example पुत्रकाम्यति; confer, compare काम्यच्च् P. III.1. 9.
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
ki(1)kṛt affix इ prescribed after धु roots with a prefix attached;exempli gratia, for exampleप्रदिः प्रधिः confer, compare P.III.3.92, 93; (2) kṛt affix इ looked upon as a perfect termination and, hence, causing reduplication and accusative case of the noun connected, found in Vedic Literature added to roots ending in अा, the root ऋ, and the roots गम्, हन् and जन्; exempli gratia, for example पपि; सोमं, जगुरिः, जग्मिः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. III.2.171: (2) a term used in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for the term संबुद्वि.
kumbhapadyādia class of words headed by कुम्भपदी in which the word पाद at the end of the compound is changed into पाद् and further changed into पद् before the feminine affix ई; exempli gratia, for example कुम्भपदी, शतपदी, द्रुपदी, पञ्चपदी et cetera, and others; cf Kāś. on P. V.4.138, 139.
kṛtliterally activity; a term used in the grammars of Pāṇini and others for affixes applied to roots to form verbal derivatives; confer, compare कृदतिङ् । धातोः ( ३ ।१।९१ ) इत्यधिकारे तिङ्कवर्जितः प्रत्ययः कृत् स्यात् । Kāś. on III.1.93, The kṛt affixes are given exhaustively by Pāṇini in Sūtras III.1.91 to III.4. I17. कृत् and तद्धित appear to be the ancient Pre-Pāṇinian terms used in the Nirukta and the Prātiśākhya works in the respective senses of root-born and noun-born words ( कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त according to Pāṇini's terminology), and not in the sense of mere affixes; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः Nirukta of Yāska.I.14: अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; तिङ्कृत्तद्धितसमासा: शब्दमयम् V.Pr. I.27; also confer, compare V.Pr. VI.4. Patañjali and later grammarians have used the word कृत् in the sense of कृदन्त; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari Śek.Pari.75. The kṛt affixes are given by Pāṇini in the senses of the different Kārakas अपादान, संप्रदान, करण, अाधकरण, कर्म and कर्तृ, stating in general terms that if no other sense is assigned to a kṛt affix it should be understood that कर्ता or the agent of the verbal activity is the sense; confer, compare कर्तरि कृत् । येष्वर्थनिर्देशो नास्ति तत्रेदमुपतिष्ठते Kāś. on III.4.67. The activity element possessed by the root lies generally dormant in the verbal derivative nouns; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति, क्रियावदपि । M.Bh.on V.4.19 and VI. 2.139
kṛtādeia class of words such as कृत, मित, मत, भूत, उक्त and others with which the words श्रेणि, एक, पूग, कुण्ड, राशि and others are compounded, provided both the words forming the compound are in the same case;.exempli gratia, for example श्रेणिकृता:, एककृताः, कुण्डभूताः et cetera, and others cf Kāś. on P.II.1.59.
ktavatukṛt affix तवत् which also is called निष्ठा. It is prescribed in the active sense of somebody who has done a thing sometime in the past. A word ending in it is equivalent to the past active participle; exempli gratia, for example भुक्तवान् ब्राह्मणः cf P.I.1.26. The feminine. affix डीप् ( ई ) is added to nouns ending in क्तवतु to form feminine bases; confer, compare P.IV.1.6.
kyaṅaffix य taking Ātmanepada terminations after it, added in the sense of similar behaviour to a substantive. The substantive to which this affix य is added, becomes a denominative root; e. g. काकः श्येनायते, कुमुदं पुष्करायते, confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1.11-12, also on P. III, 1.14-18.
kyacdenominative affix ( विकरण ) in the sense of desiring for oneself, added to nouns to form denomitive roots; exempli gratia, for example पुत्रीयति; क्यच् is also added to nouns that are upamānas or standards of comparison in the sense of (similar) behaviour: exempli gratia, for example पुत्रीयति च्छात्रम्: confer, compare Kāś. on P. III.1.8, 10. It is also added in the sense of 'doing' to the words नमस्, वरिवस् and चित्र; e. g. नमस्यति देवान्, वरिवस्यति गुरून् , चित्रीयते ; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1.19.
kyaṣaffix य added to certain nouns like लोहित and others to form denominative roots after which terminations of both the padas are placed exempli gratia, for example लोहितायति, लोहितायते; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1.13.
kriyāvacanameaning or expressing a verbal activity; a term generally applied to dhātus or roots, or even to verbs. The term is also applied to denominative affixes like क्यच् which produce a sort of verbal activity in the noun to which they are added; confer, compare क्रियावचनाः क्यजादय: M.Bh. on III.1.19.
kriyāviśeṣaṇadeterminant or modifier of a verbal activity; confer, compare क्रियाविशेषणं चेति वक्तव्यम् । सुष्टु पचति दुष्टु पचति M.Bh. on II.1.1; nouns used as Kriyāviśeṣaṇa are put in the neuter gender, and in the nominative case. or the acc. case in the singular. number; confer, compare क्रियाविशेषणानां कर्मत्वं नपुंसकलिङ्गता च Pari.Bhāśkara Pari.56.
krauḍyādia class of words headed by the word क्रौडि which do not take the feminine affix ई when they stand at the end of a compound; exempli gratia, for example कल्याणक्रौडा, सुभगा, पृथुजघना et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.1.56.
kvarapkṛt affix वर, taking the affix ई ( ङीप् ) in the feminine gender, added to the roots इ, नश्, जि et cetera, and others; इत्वरी, नश्वर:, जित्वरी, गत्वरी; confer, compare P.III. 2.163-164.
kvasukṛt affix वस्, taking the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) in the feminine gender, prescribed in the sense of perfect tense, which is mostly found in Vedic Literature and added to some roots only such as सद्, वस्, श्रु et cetera, and others in the spoken language; e. g. जक्षिवान् पपिवान् उपसेदिवान् कौत्स; पाणिनिम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.2.107-109.
kvip(1)kṛt affix zero, added to the roots सद्, सू, द्विष् and others with a preceding word as upapada or with a prefix or sometimes even without any word, as also to the root हन् preceded by the words ब्रह्मन्, भ्रूण and वृत्र, and to the root कृ preceded by सु, कर्मन् et cetera, and others, and to the roots सु, and चि under certain conditions exempli gratia, for example उपसत्, सूः, प्रसूः, पर्णध्वत्, ब्रह्महा, वृत्रहा, सोमसुत्, अग्निचित्; confer, compareP.III. 2.61, 76, 77, 87-92: 177-179; (2) the denominative affix zero applied to any substantive in the sense of behaviour अश्वति, गर्दभति et cetera, and others; confer, compare M.Bh. and Kāś, on P.III.1.11.
kvibantaa substantive ending with the kṛt affix क्विप् (zero affix) added to a root to form a noun in the sense of the verbal action (भाव). The words ending with this affix having got the sense of verbal activity in them quite suppressed, get the noun terminations सु, औ, जस् et cetera, and others and not ति, तः et cetera, and others placed after them; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद् भवति. However, at the same time, these words undergo certain operations peculiar to roots simply because the kṛt affix entirely disappears and the word formed, appears like a root; confer, compare क्विबन्ता धातुत्वं न जहति. Kaiyaṭa's Prad. on VII.1.70.
kṣīrataraṅgiṇīa kind of commentary on the Dhātupāṭha of Pāṇini written by Kṣīrasvāmin.
khalkṛt afix अ added to any root preceded by the word ईषद्, दुस् or सु, and to the roots भू and कृ preceded by an upapada word forming either the subject or the object of the roots, e. g. ईषत्करः कटो भवता, ईषदाढ्यंभवं भवता; confer, compare P. III. 3.126, 127.
khilapāṭhaa supplementary recital or enunciation which is taken along with the original enunciation or upadeśa generally in the form of the sūtras. The word is used in the Kāśikā in the sense of one of the texts forming a part of the original text which is called upadeśa; confer, compare Kāśikā उपदिश्यते अनेनेत्युपदेश: शास्त्रवाक्यानि सूत्रपाठ: खिलपाठश्च (on P.I.3.2); confer, compare also खिलपाठो धातुपाठः प्रातिपदिकपाठो वाक्यपाठश्च Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on Kāśikā I.3.2.
gaṅgādhara[GANGADHARA SHASTRI TELANG] (l)a stalwart grammarian and Sanskrit scholar of repute who was a pupil of Bālasarasvatī of Vārāṇaśī and prepared in the last century a host of Sanskrit scholars in Banaras among whom a special mention could be made of Dr. Thebaut, Dr. Venis and Dr. Gaṅgānātha Jhā. He was given by Government of India the titles Mahāmahopādhyāya and C. I.E. His surname was Mānavallī but he was often known as गङाधरशास्त्री तेलङ्ग. For details, see Mahābhāṣya, D.E. Society Ed.Poona p.p.33, 34; (2)an old scholar of Vyākarana who is believed to have written a commentary on Vikṛtavallī of Vyādi; (3) a comparatively modern scholar who is said to have written a commentary named Induprakāśa on the Śabdenduśekhara; (4) author of the Vyākaraṇadīpaprabhā, a short commentary on the Vyākaraṇa work of Cidrūpāśramin. See चिद्रूपाश्रमिन्.
gaṇapāṭhathe mention individually of the several words forming a class or gaṇa, named after the first word said to have been written by Pāṇini himself as a supplementary work to his great grammar called Aṣṭaka or Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., the Sikṣā,the Dhātupātha and the Lingānuśāsana being the other ones. Other grammarians such as शाकटायन, अापिशलि and others have their own gaṇapāthās. The gaṇapāthā is traditionally ascribed to Pāṇini; the issue is questioned, however, by modern scholars. The text of the gaṇapāṭha is metrically arranged by some scholars. The most scholarly and authoritative treatise on gaṇapāṭha is the Gaṇaratnamahodadhī of Vardhamāna.
guṇa(1)degree of a vowel; vocalic degree, the second out of the three degrees of a vowel viz. primary degree, guna degree and vrddhi degree exempli gratia, for example इ, ए and ऐ or उ, ओ and औ. अ is given as a guna of अ; but regarding अ also,three degrees can be stated अ, अ and आ. In the Pratisakhya and Nirukta ए is called गुण or even गुणागम but no definiti6n is given ; confer, compare गुणागमादेतनभावि चेतन R.Pr.XI.6;शेवम् इति विभीषितगुणः। शेवमित्यपि भवति Nir.X.17: (2) the properties of phonetic elements or letters such as श्वास,नाद et cetera, and others: confer, compareṚgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) Ch.XIII : (3) secondary, subordinate;confer, compare शेषः,अङ्गं, गुणः इति समानार्थाः Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.on Nirukta of Yāska.I.12: (4) properties residing in a substance just as whiteness, et cetera, and others in a garment which are different from the substance ( द्रव्य ). The word गुण is explained by quotations from ancient grammarians in the Maha bhasya as सत्वे निविशतेsपैति पृथग्जातिषु दृश्यते । अाघेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोSसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः ॥ अपर आह । उपैत्यन्यज्जहात्यन्यद् दृष्टो द्रव्यान्तरेष्वपि। वाचकः सर्वलिङ्गानां द्रव्यादन्यो गुणः स्मृतः ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.44;cf also शब्दस्पर्शरूपरसगन्धा गुणास्ततोन्यद् द्रव्यम् ,M.Bh.on V.1.119 (5) properties of letters like उदात्तत्व, अनुदात्तत्व, स्वरितत्व, ह्र्स्वत्व, दीर्घत्व, प्लुतत्व, अानुनासिक्य et cetera, and others; confer, compare भेदकत्वाद् गुणस्य । आनुनासिक्यं नाम गुणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.. Vart, 13: (6) determinant cf भवति बहुव्रीहौ तद्गुणसंविज्ञानमपि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.27; (7) technical term in Panini's grarnmar standing for the vowels अ, ए and ओ, confer, compare अदेङ्गुणः P.I.1.2. For the various shades of the meaning of the word गुण, see Mahabhasya on V.1.119. " गुणशब्दोयं बह्वर्थः । अस्त्येव समेष्ववयवेषु वर्तते ।...... चर्चागुणांश्च ।
guru(1)possessed of a special effort as opposed to लघु; confer, compare तद् गुरु भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1। (2) heavy, a technical term including दीर्घ (long) vowel as also a ह्रस्व (short) vowel when it is followed by a conjunct consonant, (confer, compare संयोगे गुरु । दीर्घ च। P. I. 4.11, 12) or a consonant after which the word terminates or when it (the vowel) is nasalized; confer, compare Tai. Pr. XXII. 14, confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 5.
gauṇamukhyanyāyathe maxim that the primary sense occurs to the mind earlier than the secondary sense, and hence words used in the primary sense should be always taken for grammatical operations in preference to words in a secondary sense. See the word गेोण.
gaurādia class of words to which the affix ई ( ङीष्) is added to form the feminine base; exempli gratia, for example गौरी, मत्सी, हयी, हरिणी; the class contains a large number of words exceeding 150; for details see Kasika on P.IV.1. 41; (2) a small class of eleven words, headed by the word गौर which do not have the acute accent on the last syllable in a tatpurusa compound when they are placed after the preposition उप; confer, compare P. VI.2.194.
ṅit(l)affixes with the mute letter ङ् attached to them either before or after, with a view to preventing the guna and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding इ, उ, ऋ, or लृ, as for example, the affixes चङ्, अङ् and others (2) affixes conventionally called ङित् after certain bases under certain conditions; confer, compare गाङ्कुटादिम्यो ञ्णिन्ङित् P. I. 2. 1-4; (3) roots marked with the mute letter ङ् signifying the application of the Atmanepada terminations to them: (4) substitutes marked with mute ङ् which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which they are prescribed as substitutes; (5) case affixes marked with mute letter ङ् which cause the substitution of guna to the last vowel इ or उ of words termed घि.
ṅedative case termination changed into य after bases ending in short अ and into स्मै after pronouns; confer, compare P.IV.1.2, VII, 1.13, 14.
ca(l)the letter च्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance, cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) a Bratyahara or short term standing for the palatal class of consonants च्, छ्, ज्,झ् and ञ्; cf इचशेयास्तालौ Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 66; (3) indeclinable च called Nipata by Panini; confer, compare चादयोSसत्त्वे P. I. 4.57, च possesses four senses समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 2.29. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2.29 Vart. 15 for a detailed explanation of the four senses. The indeclinable च is sometimes used in the sense of 'a determined mention' or avadharana; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 1.48 and 72. It is also used for the purpose of अनुवृत्ति or अनुकर्षण i. e. drawing a word from the previous rule to the next rule; (confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.90) with a convention that a word drawn thus, does not proceed to the next rule; confer, compare चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र Par. Sek Pari. 78; (4) a conventional term for अभ्यास (reduplicative syllable) used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; confer, compare चविकारेषु अपवादा उत्सर्गान्न बाधन्ते Kat. Pari. 75.
caṇḍapaṇḍitawriter of a Prakrta grammar.He was known also as चन्द्र and hence identified by some with Candragomin.
candraa famous Buddhist Sanskrit grammarian whose grammar existing in the Tibetan script, is now available in the Devanagar script. The work consists of six chapters or Adhyayas in which no technical terms or sanjnas like टि, घु are found. There is no section on Vedic Grammar and accents. The work is based on Panini's grammar and is believed to have been written by Candra or Candragomin in the 5th centnry A. D. Bhartrhari in his Vakyapadiya refers to him; confer, compare स नीतो बहुशाखत्वं चन्द्राचार्यादिभिः पुनः Vakyapadiya II. 489. A summary of the work is found in the Agnipurana, ch. 248-258.
caritārthawhich has got already a scope of application; the term is used by commentators in connection with a rule or a word forming a part of a rule which applies in the case of some instances and hence which cannot be said to be ब्यर्थ (superfluous) or without any utility and as a result cannot be said to be capable of allowing some conclusion to be drawn from it according to the dictum ब्यर्थं सज्ज्ञापयति confer, compare अपवादो यद्यन्यत्र चरितार्थस्तर्ह्यन्तरङ्गेण बाध्यते Par. Sek. Pari. 65.
cāndraname of a treatise on grammar written by Candra, who is believed to have been the same as Candragomin. The Grammar is based upon that of Panini, but it does not treat Vedic forms and accents. See the word चन्द्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For details see pp. 375376 Patanjali Mahabhasya. Vol. VII, D.E. Society's Edition.
cekīyitathe sign य ( यङ् of Panini ) of the frequentative or intensive. The word is mostly used in the Katantra Grammar works confer, compare धातोर्यशब्दश्चेक्रीयितं क्रियासमभिहारे, Kat. III. 2. 14. The word चेक्रीयित is used in the Mahabhasya in the sense of यङन्त where Kaiyata remarks थडः पूर्वाचार्यसंज्ञा चेकीयितमिति confer, compare प्रदीप on M.Bh. on P. IV.1.78 Vartika. The word चेकीयितान्त means यङन्त in Panini’s terminology meaning a secondary root derived from the primary root in the sense of intensity. The word चर्करीतान्त is used for the frequentative bases in which य, the sign of the frequentative, is omittedition See चर्करीत।
coradthe crude form of the word चोर with the mute consonant ट् added to signify the addition of ङीप् to form the feminine base e. g. चोरी; confer, compare P. IV. 1. 15.
jayādityaone of the famous joint authors ( जयादित्य and वामन ) of the well-known gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini, popularly called काशिकावृत्ति. As the काशिकावृत्ति is mentioned by It-sing, who has also mentioned Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya, as a grammer treatise Written some 40 years before his visit, the time of काशिकावृत्ति is fixed as the middle of the 7th century A.D. Some scholars believe that जयादित्य was the same as जयापीड a king of Kasmira and बामन was his minister. For details, see pp. 386388 of the Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII published by the D.E. Society, Poona. See काशिका.
jaśbhāvathe same as जश्त्व, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..जस् case termination अस् of the nominative case. plural: confer, compareP. IV. 1.2.
jasicase termination अस् of the nominative case. plural mentioned as जस् by Panini in IV. 1.2, but referred to as जसि by him; confer, compare P.IV.1.31 and VII.1.50.
jit(l)literally affix marked with the mute letter ज्; e. g. जस्, जसि, जुस्. the word जित् is not however found used in this sense; (2) a word supposed to be marked with the mute indicatory letter ज्.The word is used in this sense by the Varttikakara saying that such a word does not denote itself but its synonyms; confer, compare जित् पर्यायवचनस्यैव राजांद्यर्थम् P.I.1.68 Vart. 7. In the Sutra सभा राजामनुष्यपूर्वा P.II. 4. 23, the word राजन् is supposed to be जित् and hence it denotes इन्, ईश्वर et cetera, and others; but not the word राजन् itself; (3) In the Pratisakhya works जित् means the first two consonants of each class (वर्ग); exempli gratia, for example क्, ख्,च्, छ्. et cetera, and others which are the same as खय् letters in Panini's terminology; confer, compare द्वौ द्वौ प्रथमौ जित्, V. Pr.I.50;III.13.
jusverbal termination उस् substituted for the original झि of the third person. pl, in certain cases mentioned inP.III.4.108,109,110,111, and 112.
ñyaṭtaddhita affix. affix य .causing वृद्धि to the first vowel of the word to which it is added and the addition of ई ( ङीप् ) in the sense of feminine gender, added to words meaning warrior tribes of the Vahika country but not Brahmanas or Ksatriyas. exempli gratia, for example क्षौद्रक्यः, क्षौद्रक्री et cetera, and others; cf P. V. 3. 114.
ṭakkrt affix अ, not admitting गुण or वृद्धि to the preceding vowel and causing ङीप् in the feminine ( by P.IV. 1.15), added to the roots गा, पा and हन् under certain conditions; e. g. समग;, सुरापः, पतिघ्नी et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 2.8, 52, 53, 54, 55.
ṭāpfeminine affix अा added to masculine nouns ending in अ by the rule अजाद्यतष्टाप् IV. 1.4 excepting those nouns where any other affix prescribed by subsequent rules becomes applicable.
ṭhaka very common taddhita affix. affix इक, or क in case it is added to words ending in इस् , उस् , उ, ऋ, ल् and त् according to P. VII. 3. 51, causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ठक् is added to (1) रेवती and other words in the sense of descendant ( अपत्य ) e. g. रैवतिकः:, दाण्डग्राहिकः, गार्गिकः, भागवित्तिकः यामुन्दायनिकः, confer, compare P. IV. 1.146-149; (2) to the words लाक्षा,रोचना et cetera, and others in the sense of 'dyed in', e. g. लाक्षिकम्, रौचनिकम् ; confer, compare P. IV. 2.2; (3) to the words दधि and उदश्वित् in the sense of संस्कृत 'made better ', e. g. दाधिकम् , औदश्वित्कम् ( क instead of इक substituted for टक् ), confer, compare P. IV.2. 18, 19; (4) to the words अाग्रहायुणी, अश्वत्थ et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 22, 23; (5) to words expressive of inanimate objects, to the words हस्ति and धेनु, as also to the words केश and अश्व in the sense of 'multitude '; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 47, 48; (6) to the words क्रतु, उक्थ and words ending in सूत्र, वसन्त et cetera, and others, in the sense of 'students of' ( तदधीते तद्वेद ), confer, compare P. IV. 2.59, 60, 63; (7) to the words कुमुद and others as also to शर्करा as a चातुरर्थिक affix; confer, compare P. IV. 2.80, 84; (8) to the words कन्था, भवत् and वर्षा in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P. IV. 2.102, 115, IV. 3.18; (9) to the words उपजानु and others in the sense 'generally present '; confer, compare P. IV. 3. 40; (10) to the words consisting of two syllables, and the words ऋक्, ब्राह्मण et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'explanatory literary work'; confer, compare P. IV.3.72: ( 11) to words meaning 'sources of income ' in the sense of 'accruing from’; confer, compare P. IV. 3.75; (12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place in the sense of ' भक्ति ', cf P. IV. 8.96; and (13) to the words हल् and सीर in the sense of 'belonging to', confer, compare P. IV. 3.124. The taddhita affix. affix ठक् is added as a general termination, excepting in such cases where other affixes are prescribed, in specified senses like 'तेन दीव्यति, ' 'तेन खनति,' 'तेन संस्कृतम्' et cetera, and others; cf P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to words हल, सीर, कथा, विकथा, वितण्डा et cetera, and others in specified senses, confer, compare P. IV.4. 81, 102 ठक् is also added as a general taddhita affix. affix or अधिकारविहितप्रत्यय, in various specified senses, as prescribed by P. V.1.19-63,and to the words उदर, अयःशूल,दण्ड, अजिन, अङ्गुली, मण्डल, et cetera, and others and to the word एकशाला, in the prescribed senses; confer, compare P. V. 2.67,76, V. 3.108,109; while, without making any change in sense it is added to अनुगादिन् , विनय, समय, उपाय ( औपयिक being the word formed), अकस्मात्, कथंचित्; (confer, compareआकस्मिक काथंचित्क), समूह,विशेष, अत्यय and others, and to the word वाक् in the sense of 'expressed'; confer, compare P. V. 4.13, 34, 35. The feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ) is added to words ending in the affix टक् to form feminine. bases.
ṭhañtaddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) causing Vrddhi and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, applied (1) to महृाराज, प्रोष्ठपद and क्वाचिन् in the specifieditionsenses, confer, compare P. IV.2.35, 4l e. g. माहृाराजिक, प्रौष्ठपदिक et cetera, and others; (2) to words काशि, चेदि, संज्ञा and others, along with ञिठ, e. g. काशिकी, काशिका, also with ञिठ to words denoting villages in the Vahika country exempli gratia, for example शाकलिकी शाकलिका; as also to words ending in उ forming names of countries in all the Saisika senses confer, compare P. IV.2.116-120; (3) to compound words having a word showing direction as their first member, to words denoting time, as also to the words शरद्, निशा and प्रदोष in the Saisika senses; cf P. IV.3.6, 7, 1115; (4) to the words वर्षा (1n Vedic Literature), and to हेमन्त and वसन्त in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P.IV.3.1921; (5) to संवत्सर, अाग्रहायणी, words having अन्तः as the first member, to the word ग्राम preceded by परि or अनु, to multisyllabic words having their last vowel accented acute, to words denoting sacrifices, to words forming names of sages, to words ending in ऋ and to the word महाराज in the specific senses which are mentioned; confer, compare P. IV.3.50, 60, 61, 67, 68, 69, 78, 79, 97; (6) to the words गोपुच्छ, श्वगण, आक्रन्द, लवण, परश्वध, compound words having a multisyllabic words as their first member, and to the words गुड et cetera, and others in the specified senses;confer, compareP.IV.4.6,II, 38, 52, 58, 64, 103;(7) to any word as a general taddhita affix. affix (अधिकारविहित), unless any other affix has been specified in the specified senses ' तेन क्रीतम् ' ' तस्य निमित्तम्' ... ' तदर्हम्' mentioned in the section of sutras V. 1. 18. to 117; (8) to the words अय:शूल, दण्ड, अजिन, compound words having एक or गो as their first member as also to the words निष्कशत and निष्कसहस्र; confer, compare P.V.2.76, 118,119.
ṭhantaddhita affix. affix इक or क (according to P. VII.3.51), causing the addition of आ, and not ई,..for forming the feminine base, applied (1) to the word नौ and words with two syllables in the sense of 'crossing' or 'swimming' over; confer, compare P.IV.4. 7; exempli gratia, for example नाविकः नाविका, बाहुकः बाहुक्रा; (2) to the words वस्र, क्रय, and विक्रय and optionally with छ to अायुघ in the sense of maintaining (तेन जीवति) ; confer, compare P. IV. 4.13, 14; (3) to the word प्रतिपथ, words ending with अगार, to the word शत, to words showing completion ( पूरणवाचिन् ), to the words अर्ध, भाग, वस्त्र, द्रव्य, षण्मास and. श्राद्ध in specified senses; confer, compare P. IV 4.42, 70, V. 1.21, 48, 49, 51, 84, V. 2, 85, and 109; (4) to words ending in अ as also to the words headed by व्रीहि, and optionally with the affix इल्च् to तुन्द and with the affix व to केशin the sense of मतुप्(possession); cf P.V. 2. 115, 116, 117 and 109.
ḍatamactaddhita affix. affix अतम in the sense of determination or selection of one out of many, applied to the pronouns किं, यत् and तत्; e,g. कतमः confer, compare P.V.3.93,as also to एक according to Eastern Grammarians; exempli gratia, for example एकतमो भवतां देवदत्तः; confer, compare P.V.3.94.
ḍāpfeminine. affix आ added optionally to words ending in मन् and to Bahuvrihi compounds ending in अन् to show feminine gender, the words remaining as they are when the optional affix डाप् is not applied; exempli gratia, for example दामा, सीमा, सुपर्वा; confer, compare P. IV. I.l l, 12, 13.
ḍupactad affix उप added to the word कुतू in the sense of diminutive: exempli gratia, for example कुतुपः a small oil-pot ( कुतू );confer, compare V.3. 89.
ḍhataddhita affix. affix ढ (1) applied to the word सभा in the sense of 'fit for' ( तत्र साधुः ) in Vedic literature;. e. g. सभेयः; confer, compare IV. 4.106; (2) applied to the word शिला in the sense of इव; e. g. शिलेयं दधि ; confer, compare P. V. 3.102; (3) common term ( ढ ) for the affixes ढक्, ढञ् and ढ also, after the application of which the affix ङीप् (ई) is , added in the sense of feminine gender; confer, compare P. IV. 1.15.
ḍhaktaddhita affix. affix एय causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ढक् is added in the sense of अपत्य (descendant) (I) to words ending in feminine affixes, to words ending in the vowel इ, excepting इ of the taddhita affix. afix इञ्, to words of the class headed by शुभ्र, to words मण्डूक, विकर्ण, कुषीतक, भ्रू , .कुलटा and to words headed by कल्याणी which get इन substituted for its !ast vowel; exempli gratia, for example सौपर्णेयः, दात्तेयः शौभ्रेय, माण्डूकेयः, , वैकर्णेयः, कौषीतकेयः, भ्रौवेयः,.कौलटेयः, काल्याणिनेयः etc: cf Kas on P. IV.I. 1 19-127; (2) to the words पितृष्वसृ and मातृष्वसृ with the vowel ऋ elided and to the word . दुष्कुल, पितृष्वसेय:, मातृष्वसेयः, दौष्कुलेयः, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.133, 134, 142: (3) to the word कलि in the sense of Sama, to the word अग्नि in the sense of 'dedicated to a deity' ( सास्य देवता ) as also to the words नदी, मही, वाराणसी, श्रावस्ती and others in the Saisika senses; e. g. कालेयं साम, आग्नेयः, नादेयम् महियम् et cetera, and others cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.8, 33, 97: (4) to the words तूदी, धुर् , कपि, ज्ञाति, व्रीहि and शालि in the specified senses; confer, compare P. IV. 3.94, IV. 4.77, V. 1.127, V. 2.2.
ṇicaffix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् et cetera, and others e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; confer, compare P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising et cetera, and others ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; confer, compare P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, exempli gratia, for example सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, et cetera, and others: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: confer, compare णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे et cetera, and others; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
taltad, affix त (l) added in the sense of collection (समूह) to the words ग्राम, जन, बन्धु and सहाय and गज also, exempli gratia, for example ग्रामता, जनता et cetera, and others; (2) added in the sense of 'the nature of a thing' ( भाव ) along with the affix त्व optionally, as also optionally along with the affixes इमन्, ष्यञ् et cetera, and others given in P. V. 1.122 to 136; e. g. अश्वत्वम्, अश्वता; अपतित्वम्, अपतिता; पृथुत्वम्, पृथुता, प्रथिमा; शुक्लता, शुक्लत्वम्, शौक्ल्यम्, शुक्लिमा; et cetera, and others, cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.1.119 to 136. Words ending with the affix तल् are always declined in the feminine gender with the feminine. affix अा ( टाप् ) added to then; confer, compare तलन्तः (शब्दः स्त्रियाम् ), Linganusasana 17.
tārakādia class of words headed by the word तारका and containing prominently the words पुष्प, कण्टक, मुकुल, कुसुम, पल्लव, बुभुक्षा, ज्वर and many others numbering more than ninety, to which the taddhita affix इत (इतच्) is added in the sense of 'containing'. As this class, called तारकादि, is looked upon as आकृतिगण, nouns with इत added at their end, are supposed to be included in it; confer, compare P. V. 2.36.
tṛtīyāthe third case; affixes of the third case ( instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति ) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an instrument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: confer, compare P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sentence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word id est, that is हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; exempli gratia, for example पृथग्देवदत्तेन et cetera, and others स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the taddhita affix. affix after them has been elided; exempli gratia, for example पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; confer, compare P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; exempli gratia, for exampleतुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; confer, compare P. II.3.72.
tairovirāmaa kind of स्वरित, or a vowel with a circumflex accent which follows an acute-accented vowel characterized by avagraha i. e. coming at the end of the first member of a compound; exempli gratia, for example गेापताविति गॊSपतौ यज्ञपतिमिति यज्ञSपतिं. Here the vowel अ of प following upon the avagraha is called तैरोविरामस्वरित; confer, compare उदवग्रहस्तैरोविराम: Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 118,
tya(1)taddhita affix. affix त्य standing for त्यक् and त्यप् which see below; (2) a technical term for प्रत्यय ( a suffix or a termination ) in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
traltaddhita affix. affix termed Vibhakti added to pronouns excepting द्वि and others, and to the words बहु and किम् when they end with the locative case case termination: exempli gratia, for example कुत्र, तत्र, बहुत्र et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 1.10, 14.
triśikhāname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Laksminrsimha in the 18th century.
thamutaddhita affix. affix थम् in the sense of प्रकार (manner) added to the pronouns इदम्, and किम्, the words ending in थम् becoming indeclinables; e. g, इत्थम्, कथम् confer, compare P. V. 3.24, 25.
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
nadīa technical term applied in Panini's grammar to words in the feminine gender ending in ई and ऊ excepting a few like स्त्री,श्री, भ्रू and others; it is optionally applied to words ending in इ and उ, of course in the feminine. gender, before case affixes of the dative, ablative, genitive and locative singular. The term was probably in use before Panini and was taken from the feminine. word नदी which was taken as a model. Very probably there was a long list of words like नद् ( नदट्) चोर ( चोरट् ) et cetera, and others which were given as ending in ट् and to which the affix ई (ङीप्) was added for forming the feminine base;the first word नदी so formed, was taken as a model and all words in the list and similar others were called नदी; confer, compare P. I 4. 3-6.
napuṃsaka1it. a word which is neither in the masculine nor in the feminine gender; a word in the neuter gender; confer, compare R.Pr.XIII.7,Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.II. 32; III.138; confer, compare P. VI.3.75, on which the Siddhanta Kaumudi observes न स्त्री पुमान् नपुंसकम् । स्त्रीपुंसयोः पुंसकभावो निपातनात् ।
nāmadhātua denominative root; the term सुब्धातु is also used for नामधातु; confer, compare सुब्धातुर्नामधातुरभिधीयते Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. VI. 1.3. See the word धातु.
nārāyaṇa(1)name of a grammarian who wrote a commentary on the Mahabhsya-Pradipa; (2) a grammarian who is said to have written a gloss named Sabdabhusana on the Sutras of Panini as also some minor works named शब्दमञ्जरी, शब्दभेदनिरूपण, et cetera, and others
nitya(1)eternal, as applied to word or Sabda in contrast with sound or dhvani which is evanescent (कार्य ). The sound with meaning or without meaning,made by men and animals is impermanent; but the sense or idea awakened in the mind by the evanescent audible words on reaching the mind is of a permanent or eternal nature; confer, compare स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायामादुपजायते; confer, compare also व्याप्तिमत्त्वा्त्तु शब्दस्य Nir.I.1 ; (2) constant; not liable to be set aside by another; confer, compare उपबन्धस्तु देशाय नित्यम्, न रुन्धे नित्यम्। नित्यशब्दः प्राप्त्यन्तरानिषेधार्थः T.Pr.I.59, IV.14; (3) original as constrasted with one introduced anew such as an augment; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.VI.14; (4) permanently functioning, as opposed to tentatively doing so; confer, compare नित्यविरते द्विमात्रम् Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.37; (5) unchangeable, permanent, imperishable; confer, compare अयं नित्यशब्दोस्त्येव कूटस्थेष्वविचालिषु भावेषु वर्तते M.Bh. on P. VIII. 1.4; (6) always or invariably applying, as opposed to optional; the word in this sense is used in connection with rules or operations that do not optionally apply; confer, compare उपपदसमासो नित्यसमासः, षष्ठीसमासः पुनार्वेभाषा; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.2.19; (7) constant,as applied to a rule which applies if another simultaneously applying rule were to have taken effect, as well as when that other rule does not take effect; confer, compare क्वचित्कृताकृतप्रसङ्गमात्रेणापि नित्यता Par. Sek. Pari 46. The operations which are nitya according to this Paribhasa take effect in preference to others which are not 'nitya', although they may even be 'para'; confer, compare परान्नित्यं बलवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 42.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
nipātadyotakatvathe view that the nipatas and the upasargas too, as contrasted with nouns,pronouns and other indeclinables, only indicate the sense and do not denote it; this view, as grammarians say, was implied in the Mahabhasya and was prominently given in the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrhari which was followed by almost all later grammarians. See निपात.
nipātānarthakatvathe view prominently expressed by the Varttikakara that nipatas do not possess any sense, which was modified by Bhartrhari who stated that they do possess sense which, of course, is indicated and not expressedition See निपात.
nirdhāraṇa(1)selection of one or some out of many; confer, compare जातिगुणाक्रियाभिः समुदायादेकदेशस्य पृथक्करणं निर्धारणम् । मनुष्याणां मनुष्येषु वा क्षत्रियः शूरतमः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.2.10 as also on II.3.4l; (2) determined or definite sense to the exclusion of another, generally on the strength of the indeclinable एव which is expressed or understood. The word नेिर्धारण is used for अवधारण in this sense; confer, compare यत एवकारस्ततोन्यत्रावधारणम् a maxim used as a Paribhasa by some grammarians; cf; also धातोस्तन्निमित्तस्यैव । धात्ववधारणं यथा स्यात्तन्निमित्तावधारणं मा भूदिति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 1.81.
nirhrāsa(1)abridgment, diminution; confer, compareसर्ववचनं प्रकृतिनिह्लासार्थम् । निर्ह्लासः अपचयः अल्पत्वमित्यर्थः । Kaiyata on M.Bh. on IV.3.100; (2) being turned into a short (vowel); confer, compare स्पर्शान्तस्थाप्रत्ययौ निर्ह्रसेते R.Pr.IV.39.
nivṛttisthānaplaces where the substitutes गुण and वृद्धि do not apply ; weak terminations; kit or nit affixes in Panini's grammar; confer, compare अथाप्यस्तेर्निवृत्तिस्थानेष्वादिलेापो भवति । स्तः सन्तीति । Nirukta of Yāska.II. 1. The word संक्रम is also used in this sense by ancient grammarians.
nukaugment न् (l) affixed to the words अन्तर्वत् and पतिवत् before the feminine affix ङीप् e. g. अन्तर्वत्नी, पतिवत्नी, confer, compare P. IV. 1.32; (2) affixed to the root ली before the causal affix णिच् , e. g. विलीनयति, confer, compare P. VII. 3.39; (3) affixed to the reduplicative syllable of roots ending in a nasal consonant and having the penultimate अ as also of the roots जप्, जभ् , दह् , दश्, भञ्ज्, पश्, चर्, and फल् in the intensive; e. g. जङ्गम्यते, तन्तन्यते, यंयमीति, जङ्गमीति, जञ्जप्यते, दन्दह्यते, दन्दशीति. चञ्चूर्यते, पम्फु लीति confer, compare P. VII 4.85, 86, 87.
nuṭaugment न् prefixed (l) to the genitive case plural ending in अाम् after a crude base ending in a short vowel, or in ई or ऊ of feminine bases termed nadi, or in अा of the feminine affix ( टाप् डाप् or चाप्); e g. वृक्षाणाम्, अग्नीनाम् , कर्तॄणाम् , कुमारीणाम् , मालानाम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII.1.54; (2) to the affix अाम् after numerals termed षट् and the numeral चतुर् as also after the words श्री, ग्रामणी and गो in Vedic Literature, e. g. षण्णाम् , पञ्चानाम् , चतुर्णाम्, श्रीणाम्, ग्रामणीनाम्, गोनाम्; confer, compare P. VII.1.55,56, 57; (3) to the part of a root possessed of two consonants, as also of the root अश् of the fifth conjugation after the reduplicative syllable ending in अा, which is substituted for अ; exempli gratia, for example अानञ्ज, व्यानशे; confer, compare P.VII.4. 71,72; (4) to the affix मतुप् after a base ending in अन् as also to the affixes तरप् and तमप् after a base ending in न् in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example मूर्धन्वती, अक्षण्वन्तः, सुपथिन्तरः et cetera, and others;confer, compare P. VIII. 2.16, 17: (5) to the initial vowel of the second member of a compound having अ of नञ् as the first member; e. g. अनघः, confer, compare P.VI. 3.74; (6) to any vowel after न् which is preceded by a short vowel and which is at the end of a word exempli gratia, for example कुर्वन्नास्ते, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.32.
nyāsoddyotaa learned commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Mallinātha, the standard commentator of prominent Sanskrit classics.
pañcapadīa term used in the AtharvaPrātiśākhya for the strong case affixes viz. the nominative case affixes and the accusative singular. and dual affixes; confer, compare चत्वारि क्षैप्रञ्च पञ्चपद्यामन्तोदात्तादीनि यात् Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. I. 3.14. The term corresponds to the Sarvanāmasthāna of Pāņini, which is also termed सुट् ; confer, compare सुडनपुंसकस्य P. I. 1.43.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padavyavasthāsūtrakārikāa metrical work on the determination of the pada or padas of the roots attributed to Vimalakīrti.
padasaṃskārapakṣaan alternative view with वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष regarding the formation of words by the application of affixes to crude bases. According to the Padasamskāra alternative, every word is formed independently, and after formation the words are syntactically connected and used in a sentence. The sense of the sentence too, is understood after the sense of every word has been understood; confer, compare सुविचार्य पदस्यार्थं वाक्यं गृह्णन्ति सूरयः Sira. on Pari. 22. According to the other alternative viz. वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष, a whole sentence is brought before the mind and then the constituent individual words are formed exempli gratia, for example राम +सु, गम् + अ + ति । Both the views have got some advantages and some defects; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 56.
padyaforming a part of a word or pada; confer, compare उपोत्तमं नानुदात्तं न पद्यम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 29; confer, compare also पूर्वपद्यः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 30. The word is used in this sense ( पदावयव ) mostly in the Prātiśākhya works. The word is used in the sense of पादसंपन्न, made up of the feet (of verses), in the Rk Prātiśākhya in contrast with अक्षर्य, made up of syllables. In this sense the word is derived from the word पाद; confer, compare पद्याक्षर्ये स उत्थितः R. Pr, XVIII. 3.
parasmaipadaa term used in grammar with reference to the personal affixs ति, त: et cetera, and others applied to roots. The term परस्मैपद is given to the first nine afixes ति, त:, अन्ति, सि, थ:, थ, मि, व: and म:, while the term आत्मनेपद is used in connection with the next nine त, आताम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare परस्मै परोद्देशार्थफलकं पदम् Vac. Kosa. The term परस्मैपद is explained by some as representing the Active_Voice as contrasted with the Passive Voice which necessarily is characterized by the Aatmanepada affixes. The term परस्मैभाष in the sense of परस्मैपद was used by ancient grammarians and is also found in the Vaarttika अात्मनेभाषपस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI. 3.8 Vart.1 . The term परस्मैभाष as applied to roots, could be explained as परस्मै क्रियां (or क्रियाफलं) भाषन्ते इति परस्मैभाषाः and originally such roots as had their activity meant for another, used to take the परस्मैपद् affixes, while the rest which had the activity meant for self, took the अात्मनेपद affixes. Roots having activity for both, took both the terminations and were termed उभयपदिनः.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
paribhāṣāsegraha'a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his paribhasa.work named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundredition
paribhāṣenduśekharathe reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis.
pātresamitādia class of irregular compound words headed by the compound word पात्रेसमित, which are taken correct as they are. This class of words consists mostly of words forming a tatpurușa compound which cannot be explained by regular rules. The class is called आकृतिगण and hence similar irregular words are included in it: e. g. पात्रेसमिताः, गेहेशूरः कूपमण्डूकः etc confer, compare KS. on P. II.1.48.
pāriśeṣyaresidual nature; the law or rule of elimination; the remaining alternative after full consideration of all the other alternatives; confer, compare विभाषा कुरुयुगन्धराभ्याम् । पारिशेष्याद्युगन्धरार्था विभाषा Kāś. on P. IV. 2.130; confer, compare also पारिशेष्यादजन्तादेव यत् सिद्धः Sira. Pari. 37.
pāriṣadaliterally belonging to the assembly; the term पारिषद refers to the results of the discussions held at the assemblies of specially prominent scholars or learned persons ; confer, compare सर्ववेदपारिषदं हीदं शास्त्रं (ब्याकरणम्) तत्र नैकः पन्था: शक्य आस्थातुम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 1. 58; VI. 3.14.
puṃvadbhāvarestoration of the masculine form in the place of the feminine one as noticed in compound words, formed generally by the Karmadhāraya and the Bahuvrīhi compounds, where the first member is declinable in all the three genders; e. g. दीर्घजङ्घः. This restoration to the masculine form is also noticed before the taddhita affix. affixes तस्, तर, तम्, रूप्य, पा​श, त्व as also before क्यङ् and the word मानिन्. For details, see P. VI, 3.34 to 42 and commentaries thereon. See also page 334, Vol. VII of the Pātańjala Mahābhāșya D. E. Society's edition.
puṃskamasculine nature, hence masculine gender. The word is generally found as a part of the word भाषितपुंस्क​ which means a word which is declined in the masculine and the feminine gender or in the neuter and the masculine gender in the same sense. For details see M. Bh, on P. VI.3.34.
punarvacanause of the same word or expression, which, if noticed in the writing of the Sūtrakāra, is indicative of something in the mind of the Sūtrakāra; confer, compare अणः पुनर्वचनमपवादविषये अनिवृत्त्यर्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). of P III. 3. 12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).1; cf also पुनर्वचनमनित्यत्वज्ञापनार्थम् । Kāś. on P. I. 41"
puruṣottamadevaa famous grammarian believed to have been a Buddhist, who flourished in the reign of Lakșmaņasena in the latter half of the twelfth century in Bengal. Many works on grammar are ascribed to him, the prominent ones among which are the Bhāșāvŗtti and the Paribhāșāvŗtti, the Gaņavŗtti and the Jñapakasamuccaya and a commentary on the Mahābhāșya called Prāņapaņā of which only a fragment is available. Besides these works on grammar, he has written some lexicographical works of which Hārāvalī, Trikāņdaśeșa, Dvirūpakosa, and Ekaaksarakosa are the prominent ones. The Bhasavrtti has got a lucid commentary on it written by Srstidhara.
pṛthagyogakaraṇaframing a separate rule for a thing instead of mentioning it along with other things in the same context, which implies some purpose in the mind of the author such as anuvrtti in subsequent rules, option, and so on; confer, compare पृथग्योगकरणमस्य विधेरनित्यत्वज्ञापनार्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.3.7; confer, compare also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on I.3.33, I. 3. 84, I.4.58, III.1.56, IV.1.16, VII. 4.33, VIII.1.52, VIII.1.74.
paurastyavaiyākaraṇaa grammarian of the eastern school which is believed to have been started by जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि the writer of the gloss called न्यास on the Kasikavrtti. The school practically terminated with पुरुषोत्तमदेव and सीरदेव at the end of the twelfth century A.D. Such a school existed also at the time of Panini and Patanjali, a reference to which is found made in प्राचां ष्फ ताद्धतः P. IV. 1.17 and प्राचामवृद्धात्फिन् बहुलम् IV.1. 160 and प्राचामुपादेरडज्वुचौ च V.3.80 where the word is explained as प्राचामाचार्याणां by the writer of the Kasika.
prakarṣaeminence: excellence of a particular quality ; confer, compare कथं पुनरन्यस्य प्रकर्षेण अन्यस्य प्रकर्षः स्यात्: confer, compare also यद्यपि द्रव्यस्य स्वतः प्रकर्षो नास्ति तथापि गुणाक्रियास्थ: प्रक्रर्षो द्रव्य उपचर्यते , Kas on P. V. 4.1 1.
prakriyākaumudīa well-known work on Sanskrit Grammar by रामचन्द्रशेष of the 15th century, in which the subject matter of the eight chapters of Panini's grammar is arranged into several different sections forming the different topics of grammar. It is similar to, and possibly. the predecessor of, the Siddhanta Kaumudi which has a similar arrangement. The work was very popular before the Siddhinta Kaumudi was written. it has got many commentaries numbering about a dozen viz. प्रक्रियाप्रसाद, प्रक्रियाप्रकाश, प्रक्रियाप्रदीप, अमृतस्तुति, प्रक्रियाव्याकृति,निर्मलदर्पण,तत्वचन्द्र, प्रक्रियारञ्जन, प्रक्रियाविवरण and others of which the Prasada of Vitthalesa and the Prakasa of Srikrsna are the wellknown ones.
pratyayaaffix, suffix, a termination, as contrasted with प्रकृति the base; confer, compare प्रत्याय्यते अर्थः अनेन इति प्रत्ययः; confer, compare also अर्थे संप्रत्याययति स प्रत्ययः M.Bh. on III. 1.l Vart. 8; The word प्रत्यय is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'following' or 'that which follows', e. g. स्पर्शे चोषः प्रत्यये पूर्वपद्यः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 30 which is explained by Uvvata as उषः इत्ययं ( शब्दः ) पूर्वपदावयवः सन् स्पर्शे प्रत्यये परभूते इति यावत्; रेफिसंज्ञो भवति; Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.30; confer, compare प्रत्येति पश्चादागच्छति इति प्रत्ययः परः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 7; cf also V. Pr, III. 8. Pratyaya or the suffix is generally placed after the base; cf, प्रत्ययः, परश्च P. III. I. 1,2; but sometimes it is placed before the base; e. g. बहुपटुः confer, compare विभाषा सुपो बहुच् पुरस्तात्तु P. V. 3.68. The conjugational signs (शप् , श्यन् et cetera, and others), the signs of tenses and moods ( च्लि, सिच् , स्य, ताम् et cetera, and others) and the compound endings(समासान्त) are all called pratyayas according fo Panini's grammar, as they are all given in the jurisdiction(अधिकार) of the rule प्रत्ययः III.1.1, which extends upto the end of the fifth chapter ( अध्याय ). There are six main kinds of affixes given in grammar सुप्प्रत्यय, तिङ्प्रत्यय, कृत्प्रत्यय , तद्धितप्रत्यय, धातुप्रत्यय (exempli gratia, for example in the roots चिकीर्ष, कण्डूय et cetera, and others) and स्त्रीप्रत्यय. The word प्रत्यय is used in the sense of realization, in which case the root इ in the word त्यय means'knowing' according to the maxim सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्थाः; confer, compare मन्त्रार्थप्रत्ययाय Nirukta of Yāska.I.15.
pratyāhāraliterally bringing together; bringing together of several letters ( or words in a few cases, such as roots or nouns ) by mentioning the first and the last only for the sake of brevity; the term प्रत्याहार is generally used in connection with brief terms such as अण्, अक् , अच् , हल् and the like, created by Panini in his grammar by taking any particular letter and associating it with any mute final letter ( अनुबन्ध ) of the fourteen Sivasutras, with a view to include all letters beginning with the letter uttered and ending with the letter which precedes the ( mute ) letter. The practice of using such abbreviations was in existence before Panini, possibly in the grammar attributed to Indra. The term प्रत्याहार is not actually used by Panini; it is found in the Rk. Tantra; confer, compare प्रत्याहारार्थो वर्णोनुबन्धो व्यञ्जनम् R.T.I.3. The term appears to have come into use after Panini. Panini has not given any definition of the term प्रत्याहार. He has simply given the method of forming the Pratyaharas and he has profusely used them; confer, compare आदिरन्त्येन सहेता P. I. 1.71. The word कृञ् in P. III.1.40 and तृन् in P. II. 3.69 are used as Pratyaharas. For a list of the Pratyharas which are used by Panini see Kasika on the Maheswara Sutras.
prathamalit, premier, first; the word is used in connection with the personal affixes तिप् , तस्, झि ( अन्ति ) of verbal formanuscript. See the word पुरुष a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare अस्तिर्भवन्तीपरः प्रथमपुरुषः अप्रयुज्यमानोप्यस्तीति । वृक्षः प्लक्षः। Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.1 and 4. The word प्रथम is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the first consonants of the five vargas or groups of consonants; confer, compare प्रथमैर्द्वितीयास्तृतीयैश्चतुर्थाः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 110 confer, compare प्रथमतृतीयादीनामादेशादित्वादेत्वाभावः, M.Bh. on P. VI. 4.120 Vart 3, also confer, compare Katantra I. 4.1 and Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. I. 3.35. The word is also used (in the feminine gender) in the sense of the case affixes सु ( स् ), औ, जस् ( अस् ) of the nominative case. The word is also used in the sense of the premier accent उदात्त (acute); confer, compare प्रथमभाविनः उदात्तभाविनः Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 8.
prathamāthe nominative case; case affixes of the nominative case. confer, compare प्रातिपदिकार्थलिङ्गपरिमाणवचनमात्रे प्रथमा P.II. 3.46.
pradhāna(1)the principal thing as opposed to the subordinate one; something which has got an independent purpose of its own and is not meant for another; प्रधानमुपसर्जनमिति च संबन्धिशब्दावेतौ M.Bh. on P. I.2.43 V.5; confer, compare also प्रधानाप्रधानयोः प्रधाने कार्यसंप्रत्ययः Par. Sek. Pari. 97; (2) predominant of main importance; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानोव्ययीभावः et cetera, and others Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 1.6, 20, 49 II.2.6 etc; (3) primary as opposed to secondary; confer, compare गौणे कर्मणि दुह्यादेः प्रधाने नीहृकृष्वहाम् । confer, compare also प्रधानकर्मण्याख्येये लादीनाहुर्द्विकर्मणाम् । अप्रधाने दुहादीनाम् M.Bh.on I.4.51
pradhānaśiṣṭaprominently mentioned as opposed to अन्वाचयशिष्टः confer, compare कर्तुः क्यङ् सलोपश्च । प्रधानशिष्टः क्यङ् अन्वाचयशिष्टः सलोपः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1. 11; confer, compare also प्रधानान्वाचयशिष्टयोः प्रधाने संप्रत्ययः Vyadi Pari. 67.
prayatna(1)effort; the word is used in connection with the effort made for producing sound; confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.1.1.9 these efforts are described to be of two kinds बाह्य and आभ्यन्तर of which the latter are considered in determining the cognate nature of letters ( सावर्ण्य ); confer, compareअाभ्यन्तरप्रयत्नाः सवर्णसंज्ञायामाश्रीयन्ते;Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.9; (2) specific measure taken for a particular purpose such as marking a letter with a particular tone or accent or dividing a rule, or laying down a modificatory rule or the like; confer, compare सैवाननुवृत्तिः शब्देनाख्यायते प्रयत्नाधिक्येन पूर्वसूत्रेपि संबन्धार्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.22.
prayoganiyamageneral rules or principles laid down regarding the use of words in language and literature such as (l) a word recognised as correct should always be used, confer, compare एवमिहापि समानायामर्थगतौ शब्देन चापशब्देन च धर्मनियमः क्रियते शब्देनैवार्थोभिधेयो नापशब्देनेति । एवंक्रियमाणमभ्युदयकारि भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. I. Ahnika l, (2) never a base alone or an affix alone should be used, but always a base with the necessary affix should be used; confer, compare यावता समयः कृतो न केवला प्रकृतिः प्रयोक्तव्या न केवलः प्रत्ययः M. Bh, on P. I. 2.64 Vart. 8, also on P. III. 1.94 Vart. 3; (3) when the sense is already expressed by a word, a word repeating the sense should not be used; confer, compare उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः. Besides these, many minor regulations of the type of Paribhasas are laid down by grammarians. For details see Paribhashasamgraha Introduction.
prātipadikagrahaṇaexpress mention by wording of a noun-base as in दित्यदित्यादित्य , सुधातुरकङ् च et cetera, and others, and not by description as अदन्त in अत इञ् (P.IV.1.95) or in a group of words ( गण ) ; confer, compare प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम् Par. Sek. Pari. 71, which recommends the feminine form of the base for an operation, provided the base is specifically expressed and not merely describedition e. g युवतिः खलतिः युवखलतिः, चटकस्यापत्यं चाटकैरः, वह्नीनां पूरणी बहुतिथी et cetera, and others
prātipadikārthadenoted sense of a Pratipadika or a noun-base. Standard grammarians state that the denotation of a pratipadika is five-fold viz. स्वार्थ, द्रव्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या and कारक. The word स्वार्थ refers to the causal factor of denotation or प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त which is of four kinds जाति, गुण, क्रिया and संज्ञा as noticed respectively in the words गौः, शुक्लः, चलः and डित्ः. The word द्रव्य refers to the individual object which sometimes is directly denoted as in अश्वमानय, while on some occasions it is indirectly denoted through the genus or the general notion as in ब्राह्मणः पूज्य:, लिङ्ग the gender, संख्या the number and कारक the case-relation are the denotations of the case-terminations, but sometimes as they are conveyed in the absence of a case-affix as in the words पञ्च, दश, and others, they are stated as the denoted senses of the Pratipadika, while the case-affixes are said to indicate them; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युः शब्दादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
plākṣian ancient writer of a Pratisakhya work quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya.See प्लाक्षायण a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The words प्लाक्षि and प्लाक्षायण as also प्लाक्षी ( feminine ) occur in the Mahabhasya also, but not in the Ganapatha of Panini.
bahiraṅgāsiddhatvainvalidity i. e. nonoccurrence or non-application of a bahiranga rule or operation before the antaranga operation which is looked upon as stronger occurring earlier to the mind, or in the wording, as it does.
bahvādia class of words headed by बहु to which the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) is added to form the feminine base; the words ending in अ in this class take the feminine. affix अा ( टाप् ) in case ई which is optional, is not added; other words remain as they are, if ई, is not added; e. g. बह्वी, बहुः; पद्धतिः, पद्धती; गतिः, _ गती; चण्डी, चण्डा; et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.45.
buddhikarmanactivity of the mind of the type of understanding as contrasted with the activity of the sense organs; confer, compare इन्द्रियकर्म समासादनं बुद्धिकर्म व्यवसायः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.III. 3. 133 Vart. 8.
bṛhatsaṃjñāthe same as महत्संज्ञा or महती संज्ञा; a bigger terminology as contrasted with लघुसंज्ञा brief terminology such as टि, घु, भ et cetera, and others for which (latter) Panini is very particular. The bigger terms such as सर्वनाम, अात्मनेपद, परस्मैपद and others are evidently borrowed by Panini from the ancient grammarians who lived before him.
bhaktaforming a part or portion (of something in connection with which it has been prescribed as an augment) confer, compare तद्भक्तस्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यते Vyadi Pari. 17; confer, compare also अामः सुडयं भक्त: अाम्ग्रहणेन ग्राहृष्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VII. 1.33.
bhakti(1)name given to two of the five divisions of a Saman which are प्रस्तावभक्ति, उद्गीथ, प्रतिहार, उपद्रव and निधानभाक्ति; (2) the vowel portion surrounding, or placed after, the consonant र् or ल् which (consonant) is believed to be present in the vowel ऋ or ऌ respectively forming its important portion, but never separately noticed in it. The vowels ऋ and ऌ are made up of one matra each. It is contended by the grammarians that the consonants र् and ल् forming respectively the portion of ऋ and ऌ, make up halfa-matra, while the remaining half is made up of the भाक्ति of the vowel surrounding the consonant or situated after the consonant. The word which is generally used for this 'bhakti is 'ajbhakti' instead of which the word स्वरभक्ति is found in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare यत्तद्रेफात्परं भक्तेस्तेन व्यवहितत्वान्न प्राप्नेति | ...... यच्चात्र रेफात्परं भुक्तेर्न तत् क्वचिदपि व्यपवृक्तं दृश्यते | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VIII. 4.1 Vart 2; confer, compare स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गं Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 17; also confer, compare रेफात्स्वरोपहिताद् व्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णी स्वरभक्तिरुत्तरा ) Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 13.
bhartṛharia very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. confer, compare शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'.
bhāva(1)becoming; existence. The word is used many times in the sense of धात्वर्थthe sense of a root which is 'incomplete activity' or 'process of evolving'; confer, compare तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातु: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 5; confer, compare also षड् भावविकारा भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 36; पूर्वापरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेन आचष्टे व्रजतिपचतीत्युपक्रमप्रभृति अपवर्गपर्यन्तम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1 ; (2) activity as opposed to instruments ( साधन or कारक ); confer, compare भावगर्हायाम् । धात्वर्थगर्हायाम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.24; confer, compare also भावः क्रिया, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम् P. II. 3.37; (3) completed action which is shown, not by a verb, but by a verbal derivative noun; confer, compare धात्वर्थश्च धातुनैवोच्यते | यस्तस्य सिद्धता नाम धर्मस्तत्र घञादयः प्रत्यया विधीयन्ते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on 'भावे' P. III. 3.18; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.19, III. 1.67, IV. 1.3, V. 4.19; confer, compare also भावस्त्वेक: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.67; (4) the radical factor for the use of a word; प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त; confer, compare भवतोत्मादभिधानप्रत्ययौ इति भावः | शब्दस्य प्रवृत्तिनिमित्तं भावशब्देनोच्यते | अश्वत्वम् , अश्वता | Kāś, on P. 5.1.119; (5) thing, object cf सिद्धशब्दः कूटस्थेषु भावेष्वविचालिषु वर्तते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Āhnika l; (6) transformation, substitution; change into the nature of another; confer, compare तत्र प्रथमास्तृतीयभावम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 4. confer, compare also the words मूर्धन्यभाव, अभिनिधानभाव et cetera, and others {7) possession of the qualities, nature; तदर्थस्य भाव: तादर्थ्यम्: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.13; (8) relationship; confer, compare गुणप्रधानभाव, प्रकृतिविकृतिभाव et cetera, and others
bhāvapradhānadescription of a verb or verbal form in which activity plays the main part as opposed to a noun in which completed activity ( सत्व ) is predominant.
bhāṣyaa learned commentary on an original work, of recognised merit and scholarship, for which people have got a sense of sanctity in their mind; generally every Sūtra work of a branch of technical learning (or Śāstra) in Sanskrit has got a Bhāṣya written on it by a scholar of recognised merit. Out of the various Bhāṣya works of the kind given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., the Bhāṣya on the Vyākaraṇa sūtras of Pāṇini is called the Mahābhāṣya, on the nature of which possibly the following definition is based "सूत्रार्थो वर्ण्यते यत्र पदैः सूत्रानुकारिभिः| स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः ।" In books on Sanskrit Grammar the word भाष्य is used always for the Mahābhāṣya. The word भाष्य is sometimes used in the Mahābhāṣya of Patanjali (confer, compare उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये III.3.19, IV.4.67) where the word may refer to a work like लघुभाष्य which Patañjali may have written, or may have got available to him as written by somebody else, before he wrote the Mahābhāṣya.
bhṛśādia class of nouns headed by भृश to which the denominative affix य is added in the sense of 'being or becoming what they were not before;' exempli gratia, for example अभृशो भृशो भवति भृशायते; similarly ,शीघ्रायते, मन्दायते, उन्मनायते, दुर्मनायते et cetera, and othersconfer, compareKāś.III.1.I3.
bhairavamiśraone of the reputed grammarians of the latter half of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century who wrote commentaries on several prominent works on grammar. He was the son of भवदेव and his native place was Prayāga. He has written the commentary called Candrakalā on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara, Parikṣā on the Vaiyākaraṇabhũṣanasāra, Gadā called also Bhairavī or Bhairavīgadā on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and commentaries (popularly named Bhairavī) on the Śabdaratna and Lingānuśāsana. He is reported to have visited Poona, the capital of the Peśawas and received magnificent gifts for exceptional proficiency in Nyāya and Vyākaraṇa. For details see pp. 24 and 25 Vol. VII . Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya D. E. Society's Edition.
madhyepavādaa rule forming an exception to other general rules being placed between them, one or many of which are placed before and the others afterwards. Such a rule sets aside the previous rules and not the succeeding ones. The statement laying down this dictum is मध्येपवादाः पूर्वान् विधीन् बाधन्ते नोत्तरान् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa.Pari. 60, also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.VI.4.148 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahābhāṣyavyākhyāname given to each of the explanatory glosses on the Mahabhasya written by grammarians prominent of whom were Purusottamadeva, Narayana Sesa, Visnu, Nilakantha and others whose fragmentary works exist in a manuscript form. महामिश्र name of a grammarian who wrote a commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Nyasa. The commentary is known by the name Vyakaranaprakasa. महाविभाषा a rule laying down an option for several rules in a topic by being present in every rule: confer, compare महाविभाषया वाक्यमपि. विभाषा (P.II.1.11) and समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा (P. IV.1.82) are some of the rules of this kindeclinable
munitrayathe popular and honorific term for the three prominent grammarians of the Paninian system of grammar wiz. पाणिनि, कात्यायन and पतञ्जलि who were the pioneers of that system; confer, compare मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य Siddhanta-Kaumud beginning.
metreyarakṣitaa recognised scholar of Paninis' grammar who belonged to the Eastern part of India and fourished in the beginning of the twelfth century. As it appears from the name Maitreya Raksita he appears to have been a Buddhist grammarian. Subsequent writers in their works refer to him by the name Raksita alone, as also by the name Maitreya, but very rarely by the name Maitreya Raksita.He wrote many works on grammar of which the 'tantrapradipa'a learned commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Nyasa on Kasika was a reputed one, which, although available in a fragmentary manuscript form today, has been profusely quoted by prominent grammarians after him.
y(1)the consonant य् with अ added to it merely for the sake of facility in pronunciation; यकार is also used in the same sense: e. g. लिटि वयो यः: P.VI.1.38 confer, compare T.Pr.I: 17,21;(2) krt affix (यत्) prescribed as कृत्य or potential passive participle; exempli gratia, for exampleचेयम्, गेयम्, शाप्यम् , शक्यम् , गद्यम् , अजर्यम् पण्यम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare अचो यत्...अजर्यं संगतम् P.III. 1.97-105; (3) krt. affix क्यप् which is also an affix called krtya; e. gब्रह्मोद्यम् , भाव्यम्, घात्यम् , स्तुत्यम् , कल्प्यम् , खेयम् , भृत्यः:, भिद्यः, पुष्य:, कृत्यम्,also कार्यम् ; confer, compare P. III. 1.106-128:(4) krt affix ण्यत् ( which is also कृत्य ), e. g कार्यम् , हार्यम् , वाक्यम् , लाव्यम्, कुण्डपाय्यम्. et cetera, and others: cf P. III. 1.124-132: (5) taddhita affix. affix य affixed (a) in the sense of collection to पाश, वात et cetera, and others, as also to खल, गो and रथ, e. g. पाद्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV. 2. 49, 50ः (b) in the चातुरर्थिक senses to बल, कुल, तुल et cetera, and others e. g. वल्यः,.कुल्यम् efeminine. P V.2. 80, (c) as a Saisika taddhita affix. affix to ग्राम्यहः' along with the affix खञ्ज e. g. ग्राम्यः, ग्रामीणः: cf P: IV. 2.94 (d) in the sense of 'good therein' ( तत्र साधुः ) and other stated senses affixed to सभा, सोदर पूर्व, and सोम: e. g. सभ्य:, पूर्व्यः; .et cetera, and others. confer, compare P. IV. 4.105, 109, 133, 137, 138: (e) in the sense of 'deserving it' to दण्ड and other words, e. g. दण्ड्य, अर्ध्र्य, मध्य, मेध्य, et cetera, and others: cf P. V. 1.66: ( f ) in the sense of quality or action to सखि e. g. सख्यम् ; cf P. V. 1.126: (6) taddhita affix. affix यत् applied to (a) राजन् श्वशुर, कुल, मनु in the sense of offspring, (b) शूल्, उखा, वायु, ऋतु and others, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. IV. 2.17, 31, 32, 101, (c) to अर्ध, परार्ध, words in the class headed by दि्श, छन्दस and others in specific senses; cf P. IV. 3-46, 54 et cetera, and others and (d) in specific senses to specific words mentioned here and there in a number of sUtras from IV.4, 75 to V.4.25; (e) to शाखा, मुख, जघन and others in the sense of इव (similar to) exempli gratia, for example शाख्यः, मुख्य:, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 3. 103; (7) case-ending य substituted for ङे of the dative sing; e. g. रामाय confer, compare P. VII. 3.102: (8) verb-affix यक् applied to the nouns कण्डू and others to make them ( denominative ) roots; e. g. कण्डूय,सन्तूय et cetera, and others confer, compare कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् P. III. 1.27 (9) | Vikarana य ( यक् ) applied to any root before the Saarvadhaatuka personal endings to form the base for the passive voice as also the base for the 'Karmakartari' voice e g क्रियते, भूयते, confer, compare सार्वधातुके यक् P. III. 1.67 (10) Unaadi affix य ( यक् ) applied to the root हृन् to form the Vedic word अघ्न्य: cf अघ्न्यादयश्च: ( 11 ) augment य ( यक् ) added to the affix क्त्वा in Vedic Literature: e. g. दत्त्वायः confer, compare क्त्वो यक् P. VII.1.47; (12) verb affix यङ् added to a root to form its Intensive base ( which sometimes is dropped ) and the root is doubledition e. g. चेक्रीयते,चर्करीति;. confer, compare P. III. 1.22,24; (13) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) supposed to be beginning with य in the affix यइ in the sUtra धातेरेकाचो ... यङ् III. 1.22, and ending with ङ् in the sUtra लिड्याशिष्यङ्क III. 1.86, with a view to include the various verb affixes and conjugational signs.
yajādiroots headed by the root यज् which take the samhprasaarana substitute for their semivowel before terminations marked with the mute letter क्: c.g. इज्यते, इष्टिः confer, compare वचिस्वपियज्ञादीनां क्रिति P.VI.1.15. These roots are nine in number, यज् , वप् , वंद् , वस् and others which are of the first conjugation given by Paaini in his Dhaatupatha at the end of the roots of the first conjugation.
yāṭaugment या prefixed to the caseaffixes marked with the mute letter ङ् (i,e. the dative case singular. the ablative case. sing the genitive case singular. and the loc singular.) after a feminine base ending in आ; e. g. रमायै, रमाया:, रमायाम्: cf याडापः P.VII.3.113.
yuckrt affix यु changed into अन, (1) applied in the sense of 'a habituated agent' to intransitive roots in the sense of movement or utterance, to Atmanepadi roots beginning with a consonant, to the roots जु, चेकम् सृ, शुच्, कुघ्, as also to roots in the sense of decoration: exempli gratia, for example चलन:, शब्दन:: cf P.III. 2. 148-15I: (2) applied to causal roots, as also to the roots आस् श्रन्थ् and others in the sense of verbal activity when the word so formed has always the feminine gender; exempli gratia, for example कारणा, हृरणा, आसना, घट्टना,वेदना et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.3.107 and the Varttikas thereon; (3) applied to roots ending in अा and preceded by the indeclinables ईषद्, दुस् or सु in the sense of easy or difficult for obtainment and, wherever seen to any root in the Vedic language, as also to some other roots as found in actual use in the classical literature; e. g. ईषद्दानो गौर्मवता, दु्ष्पानः, सुपान: et cetera, and others सूपसदन:, दुर्योधनः, दुर्मर्षण: et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.III.8.128-130.
yoṣāa woman; the word is used in the sense of feminine as applicable to gender.
r(1)the consonant र, generally cited as रेफ; the vowel अ is added to र् for facility of utterance: confer, compare T. Pr.' I.21 ; (2) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) for र् and ल्; confer, compare उरण् रपरः, P. I. 1.51: (3) krt affix र applied to the roots नम्रः, कम्प्रः et cetera, and others in the sense of agent who is habituated to, or expert in the action expressed by the root; e. g, नम्रः, कम्प्र:; confer, compare नमिकम्पिस्म्यजसकमहिंसदीपो रः P. III. 2. 167; (4) taddhita affix. affix र as a Caturarthika affix applied to the words headed by अश्मन्: e. g. अश्मरः; confer, compare वुञ्छण् P. IV. 2. 80; (5) tad affix र in the sense of possession affixed to the words ऊष, सुषि, मुष्क, मधु, and तमस् with अ of तमस् changed to इ: e. g. ऊषरम्, सुषिरम्, मधुर:, तमिस्रा: confer, compare Kas on. P.V. 2.107 and 114: (6) taddhita affix. affix र in the sense of diminution affixed to the words कुटी, शमी and शुण्डा: exempli gratia, for example कुटीर:, शमीर, शुण्डार:: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3. 88: (7) taddhita affix. affix रक् which see below; (8) krt affix रक् which see below; (9) a term for द्विगुसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
rakṣitanamed मैत्रेयरक्षित or मैत्रेय also; a famous grammarian of the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bihar and Bengal in the ninth, tenth, eleventh and twelfth centuries, claiming मैत्रयरक्षित, पुरुषोत्तमदेव, सीरदेव and others as prominent grammar scholars among others. See the word मैत्रेयरक्षिiत.
ranu[RENOU,LOUIS]a sound Sanskrit scholar of France of the present time who has written some treatises and many articles on Sanskrit grammar out of which his works on the Terminology of Sanskrit Grammar, Kasika and Durghatavrtti reguire a special mention.
rapratyāhārakhaṇḍanaa small article showing that the short term र for the consonants र् and ल् need not be advocated as done by the learned old grammarians.The treatise was Written by Vaidyanatha Paya-gunde, the prominent pupil of Nagesabhatta.
rauḍhyādianother name given to the क्रौड्यादि class of words which are headed by क्रौडि and which take the affix ष्यङ् to form their base in the feminine; e. g. क्रौड्या लाड्या; confer, compare सिद्धं तु रौड्यादिषूपसंख्यानात् । के पुना रौढ्यादयः | ये क्रौड्यादय; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1.79.
laghuśabdenduśekharavyākhyāa commentary on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara. There are more than a dozen commentary works on the popular Laghuśabdenduśekhara called by the usual names टीका or व्याख्या the prominent among which are गदा, भैरवी and विजया. A few of them have special names e. g. चिदस्थिमाला, चन्द्रकला, ज्योत्स्त्रा, विषमी et cetera, and others
lāghavanyāyalaw of minimisation, parsimony in the use of words or parsimony in expression, followed generally by the Sūtra writers.
liṅgaviśiṣṭagrahaṇainclusion of the feminine form of a word when a word in the masculine gender is used in a rule, for certain operations such as the application of affixes and the like;confer, compare the usual dictum regarding this practice viz. the Paribhāșā प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 71. as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1. 1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5 to Vārt, 15 for places of the application of the dictum and those of its rejection.
liṅgaviśiṣṭaparibhāṣāthe dictum to include the feminine form of a word when in a rule the word is used in the masculine gender : प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 71. See लिङ्गविदिाग्रहण.
liṭan affix of the perfect tense; confer, compare परोक्षे लिट् P.III.2.115 for which the specific affixes णल्, अतुस् उस् et cetera, and others are substituted after roots which take Parasmaipada affixes. Before the lit affixes, a monosyllabic root is reduplicated while dissyllabic roots and denominative and other secondary roots, formed by adding an affix to an original root,take the affix अाम् after which all 'liț' personal endings are dropped and the forms of the roots कृ,भू and अस् with the necessary personal-endings, are placed immediately after the word ending in अाम् , but often with the intervention of a word or more in the Vedic language and rarely in the classical language; confer, compare तं पातयां प्रथममास पपात पश्चात् ; confer, compare कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि P.III.I. 35 to 42.
lṛṭa general term for the general affix ल् of the second future which is applied in the sense of future time in general, without any specific conditions, the affixes ति, त:, अन्ति being substituted for the ल् and the sign (vikaraņa) स्य being added to the root; confer, compare P.III.3.13 and III. 3. 133. The terminations अत् and अान are substituted for the affix लृट् to form future participles; exempli gratia, for example भविष्यत्, एधिष्यमाण, confer, compare लृट; सद्वा P.III.3.14.
lohitādi(1)a class of words headed by लोहित to which the affix क्यव् ( य ) is added in the sense of 'becoming', to form a denominative root-base which gets the verb-endings of both the padas; e. g. लोहितायति, लोहितायते; निद्रायति, निद्रायते; the class लोहितादि is considered as अाकृतिगण so that similar denominative verb-bases could be explained; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.1. 13; (2) a class of words headed by लेहित, to which the feminine. affix ष्फ ( अायनी ) is added after they have got the taddhita affix यञ् added to them in the sense of 'a grandchild'; e. g. लौहित्यायनी, कात्यायनी et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.18.
lyapkrt affix य substituted for the gerund termination क्त्वा when the root,to which त्वा has been applied, is preceded by a prefix with which it (the root with the affix) is comcompounded; confer, compare समासेऽनत्र्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1. 37.
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
varīfeminine form of the affix वनिप्; e. g. ऋतावरी, शर्वरी; et cetera, and others; confer, compare वनो र श्च P. IV. 1.7.
varṇaprakāśaa minor work upon letters and their nature by a grammarian named Ghanasyama.
varṇavivekacandrikāa minor grammar work on the nature of letters by a grammarian named काशिनाथ.
vākyārthathe meaning of a sentence, which comes as a whole composite idea when all the constituent words of it are heard: confer, compare पदानां सामान्ये वर्तमानानां यद्विशेषेSवस्थानं स वाक्यार्थ:, M.Bh. on P.I.2.45 Vart. 4. According to later grammarians the import or meaning of a sentence ( वाक्यार्थ ) flashes out suddenly in the mind of the hearer immediately after the sentence is completely uttered, The import is named प्रतिभा by Bhartrhari, confer, compare Vakyapadiya II.45; confer, compare also वाक्यार्थश्च प्रतिभामात्रविषय: Laghumanjusa. For details and the six kinds of vakyartha, see Vakyapadiya II.154.
vighnakṛtimpediment to an operation caused by something preceding on account of its coming in the way: a vyavaya or vyavadhana or intervention which is not admissible just as the interruption of palatals, linguals, dentals and sibilants excepting हू for the change of न् into ण् : confer, compare अव्यवेतं विग्रहे विघ्नकृद्भिः R.Pr. V.25.
vicāraविचारणा, examination, question or topic or subject for examination:confer, compare कुतः पुनरियं विचारणा l M.Bh. on P. I. 1.50 Vart. 1. विचाल immolation, destruction: confer, compare वर्णाश्रयः प्रत्ययो बर्णविचालस्यानिमित्तम् । दाक्षिः M.Bh .on, P.I.1.39 Vart. 10; confer, compare also Par. Sek. on Pari. 85.
vidheyakavākyatāforming one single statement or idea with the prescriptive statement: union with the prescriptive rule so as to form one rule with it. The term is used in connection with प्रतिषेध or prohibitive assertions which have to be explained in combination with the prescriptive sentences or vidhivakyas; confer, compare निषेधवाक्यानामपि निषेध्यविशेषाकाङ्क्षत्वाद्विध्येकवाक्यतयैवान्वयः Par. Sek. on Pari. 2, 3.
vibhaktyarthapradhānaan indeclinable, which is generally described as having the sense of a case affix as predominant in it: exempli gratia, for example तत्र, अधः, नीचैः et cetera, and others; some indeclinables have the sense of a root viz. the verb-activity as predominant: confer, compare किंचिदव्ययं विभक्त्यर्थप्रधानं किचित् क्रियाप्रधानम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.38.
vibhajyānvākhyānaa method of forming a word, or of arriving at the complete form of a word by putting all the constituent elements of the word such as the base, the affix, the augment, the modification, the . accent, et cetera, and others one after another and then arriving at the form instead of completing the formation stage by stage; e. g. in arriving at the form स्नौघ्नि the wording स्नौघ्न + अ +ई is to be considered as it stands and not स्नौघ्न + अ = स्नौघ्न and then स्नौघ्न +ई. The विभज्यान्वाख्यानपक्ष in connection with the formation of a word corresponds to the पदसंस्कारपक्ष in connection with the formation of a sentence.
viśeṣakadetermining: determinant; confer, compare अस्त्यत्र विशेषः । राजा विशेषकः प्रयुज्यते तेन विशिष्टस्यानयनं भवति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II. 2.6; confer, compare अवयवे कृतं लिङ्गं समुदायस्य विशेषकं भवति; M.Bh.on P.I.3.62 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).5.
viśeṣaṇasamāsa(1)a tatpuruṣa compo und of the type of Mayūravyartisakādi where both the words which are compounded together are adjectival; (2) a karmadhāraya compound where the second member is an adjective; a determinative compound confer, compare गमनं च यच्चिरं च गमनचिरमिति विशेषणसमासोयम् Kāś. on P.VI.2.6.
viśeṣapratipattia clear understanding, or a determined sense in a place of doubt: confer, compare व्याख्यानतो विशेषप्रतिपत्तिर्नहि संदेहादलक्षणम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 1; also M.Bh. in Āhnika 1.
viśrāntavidyādharaname of a grammar work of a general type which once occupied a prominent position and was studied as a text book of grammar, representing an independent system. The work is referred to by Hemacandra and Haribhadra. It is attributed to Vāmana who may be the same as one of the joint writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti. In that case the date of the work is the 7th century A. D.;confer, compare the popular verse परेत्र पाणिनीयज्ञाः केचित्कालपकोविदा: । एकेकं विश्रान्तविद्याः स्युरन्ये संक्षिप्तसारकाः quoted in Vol.VII p. 388 Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya D.E. Society's edition.
viśleṣaseparation of vowels that are in coalescence: showing separately the two vowels that are combined together in the Saṁhitā Text.The term is contrasted with प्रश्लेष which is the same as एकादेश in the terminology of Pāṇini.
viṣayatābeing a subject of discussion of; coming under the domain of, applicability the meaning of विषयसप्तमी which is similar to विवक्षा.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
vṛttisūtraa rule forming the basis of a vrtti, i. e. a rule on which glosses are written, as contrasted with वार्तिकसूत्र or वार्तिक a pithy Sutralike statement composed as an addition or a modification of the original Sutra; confer, compare केचित्तावदाहुर्यद् वृत्तिसूत्रे इति | संख्ययाव्ययासन्नादूराधिकसंख्यां: संख्येये ( P. II. 2.25 ) इति | M, Bh. on P. II. 2. 24,
vaiyākaraṇaśābdabodhaimport of a sentence according to the grammarians, in which verbal activity occupies a predominant place, and the residing place of the subject as also that of the verbal activity is identical in the active voice, while the object and the verbal activity have got the same place of residence in the passive voice. The other auxiliaries of activity such as the instrument, location and the like, are connected with the verbal activity. The import of the sentence चैत्रः पचति, in short, can be expressed as चैत्रकर्तृका वर्तमानकालिकां पाकक्रिया.
veṣāyika(1)pertaining to the word विषय in the sutra विषयो देशे P. IV.2. 52; the term refers to the taddhita affix. affixes prescribed in the sense of ’country' or ’district' (विषय) in P. IV. 2.52-54 as contrasted with नैवासिक affixes prescribed in the sense of 'inhabited district' by P. IV. 2.69-80 (2) one of the three senses of the locative case, viz. the sense 'substratum' of the locative case, which is not physical but which is a topical one, forming an object or aim of an , action as specified by the word 'about'; confer, compare अधिकरणं नाम त्रिप्रकारं व्यापकमौपश्लेषिकं वैषयिकमिति |
vyavaheitahaving an intervention by a dissimilar thing; separated by something coming between; confer, compare संयोगसंज्ञा व्यवहितानां मा भूत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.8. Vart, 5.
vyāptioccupation; presence comprehensive nature; cf व्याप्तिमत्वात्तु शब्दस्य Nir.I.2, where व्याप्ति refers to the permanent presence of the word in the minds of the speaker and the hearer, the word शब्द referring to the नित्यशब्द or स्फोट.
vyūha(l)resolution or determination: confer, compare अकृतव्यूहाः पाणिनीयाः । न कृतो विाशीष्ट ऊहो निश्चयः ,शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिविषये यैः इत्यर्थः Par. Sek. Pari. 56; (2) separation of the phonetic elements in a word, done especially for the recital of the Vedic texts according to metre:confer, compare व्यूहैः संपत्समीक्ष्योने क्षेप्रवणैकंभाविनाम् । व्यूहैः पृथक्करणेन Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VIII.22.
śatṛkrt affix अत् in the sense of ' the agent of the present time ', applied to any root which takes the Parasmaipada personal affixes confer, compare लट: शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे P. III. 2.126,8. The words formed with this शतृ (अत्) affix are termed present participles in the declension of which, by virtue of the indicatory vowel ऋ in शतृ, the augment नुम् is inserted after the last vowel of the base, and the root receives such modifications as are caused by a Sarvadhatuka affix, the affix शतृ being looked upon as a Sarvadhatuka affix on account of the indicatory letter श्. The word ending in this affix शतृ governs a noun forming its object, in the accusative case.
śabdavācyatvaexpression of its sense by a word which occurs to the mind of the hearer as soon as a word is heard.
śaraṇadevaa prominent grammarian of the Eastern school of Panini's system of grammar who lived in the thirteenth century and wrote works on Panini's grammar. His work named दुर्घटवृत्ति which ex. plains according to Panini's rules, the Varttikas thereon, and the Jnapakas deduced from them,the various words difficult to be explained, is much appreciated by scholars of grammar. He has quoted from a large number of classical works, and referred to many works of the Eastern grammarians who followed the Kasika school.
śārṅgaravādia class of words headed by the word शार्ङ्गरव which take the feminine affix ई ( ङीन् ) making the initial vowel of the word (to which ई of the feminine is added) an acute-accented one: e.g: शार्ङ्गरवी;confer, compare शार्ङ्गरवाद्यञो ङीन् P. IV. 1.73.
śeṣakṛṣṇaone of the prominent grammarians belonging to the Sesa family, who was the son of नरससिंहशेत्र. He wrote a gloss on the Prakriyakaumudi and two small works Prakrtacandrika and Padacandrika. Two other minor grammar works viz. the Yanlugantasiromani and Upapadamatinsutravyakhyana are ascribed to शेषकृष्ण who may be the same as शेषकृष्ण the son of नरसिंह, or another, as there were many persons who had the name Krsna in the big family.
śraddhāa technical term for nounstems ending in आ in the feminine gender used in the Katantra Grammar; confer, compare अा श्रद्धा Kat. II. 1.10.
śramaṇādia class of words headed by the word श्रमणा with which words in the masculine or the feminine gender are compounded when they stand in apposition; confer, compare कुमारी श्रमणा कुमारश्रमणा, युवा अध्यापकः युवाध्यापक: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.1.70.
śratisāmānyacommon hearing; common form of technically different wordings, such as अा of टाप्, डाप् and चाप् feminine affixes, or ई of ङिप्, ङिष्, and ङीन् feminine. affixes; confer, compare र इति श्रुतिसामान्यमुपादीयते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.VIII. 2.18: confer, compare also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VIII. 2.42 and VIII. 4.1.
śvāsaliterally breath; the voiceless breath required for uttering some letters; the term is used in the Pratisakhya and Vyakarana books in the sense of breath which is prominently required in the utterance of the hard consonants, sibilants, visarga and the Jihvamuliya and Upadhmaniya letters; the term is used in connection with these letters also; the usual term in use is, of course, श्वासानुप्रदान, the term श्वास showing the property of the breath, with which these letters are characterizedition
(l)a sibilant letter of the cerebral class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, कण्ठविवार and महाप्राण ; (2) mute indicatory letter ष्, attached to nouns as also to affixes with which nouns are formed, such as ष्वुन्, ष्कन्, ष्टरच्, ष्ट्रन् et cetera, and others showing the addition of the feminine affix ई ( ङीष् ); confer, compare षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च P. IV. 1.41 ; (3) changeable to स् when placed at the beginning of roots in the Dhatupatha except in the case of the roots formed from nouns and the roots ष्ठिव् and ष्वष्क्; (4) substitute for the last consonant of the roots ब्रश्च, भ्रस्ज्, सृज्, मृज्, यज्, राज्, भ्राज्, as also of the roots ending in छ् and श् before a consonant excepting a nasal and a semivowel, as also when the consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् et cetera, and others cf P. VIII.2.36 (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 3.39: confer, compare also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष्; e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे , वृक्षष्टकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.41.
ṣṭran(1)krt.affix त्र, signifying the acute accent of the initial vowel and the addition of ई to the base in the feminine,added to the root धा in the sense of object (कर्मन्) and to the roots दाप्, नी, शास् and others in the sense of instrument (करण); exempli gratia, for example धात्री, दात्रम्, नेत्रम्, स्तोत्रम्, पोत्रम् etc; confer, compare P. III. 2. 18l-183; (2) Unadi affix त्र as seen in the word गात्र from the root इ; cf अन्नवधकगात्रविचक्षणाजिराद्यर्थम् P. II. 4.54 Vart 12.
ṣphafeminine affix अायनी, termed also तद्वित (l) added, according to the Eastern school of grammarians, to words ending with the taddhita affix. affix यञ् ( prescribed by rules like गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् IV.1.105) e. g. गार्ग्यायणी, वात्स्यायनी as contrasted with गांर्गी or वात्सी according to the Western school of Panini; (2) added to form feminine bases of the words from लोहित to कत to which यञ् has already been added as also to the words कौरव्य and माण्डूक. e. g. लौहित्यायनी, बाभ्रव्यायणी, कात्यायनी, कौरव्यायणी, माण्डूकायनी confer, compare P. IV. 1.17-19.
ṣyaṅtaddhita affix. affix य (taking Samprasarana change i e. ई before the words पुत्र and पति and बन्धु in the Bahuvrihi compound) added, instead of the affix अण् or इञ्, in the sense of offspring, (l) to words having a long ( गुरु ) vowel for their penultimate , only in the formation of feminine bases, exempli gratia, for example कारीषगन्ध्या कौमुद्गन्ध्या, वाराह्या; कारीषगन्धीपुत्रः, कारीषगन्धीपति:, कारीषगन्धबिन्धुः ( Bah. compound): cf P.IV.1.78; (2) to words expressive of family names like पुणिक, मुखर et cetera, and others as also to the words क्रौडि, लाडि, व्याडि आपिशलि et cetera, and others and optionally to the words दैवयज्ञि and others in the formation of feminine bases; e. g. पौणिक्या, मौखर्या, क्रौड्या, व्याड्या, अापिशल्या et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. IV.1.79, 80, 81.
saṃgamacombination of things coming one after another; confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वोप्यनुदात्तसंगमः where the term is used with respect to a combination of grave syllables; confer, compare also व्यञ्जनसंगमं संयोगं विद्यात्, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVIII. 19.
saṃjñāśabdaone of the four divisions of wordsजातिशब्द, गुणशब्द्ं, क्रियाशब्द and संज्ञाशब्द; the संज्ञाशब्द is called also यदृच्छाशब्द a word forming the name of a thing by virtue of a convention; See यदृच्छाशब्द.
saṃnidhijuxtaposition; coming together phonetically very close: confer, compare पदानामविलम्बितेनोच्चारणम् Tarka Samgraha; अव्यवधानेन अन्वयप्रतियोग्युपस्थितिः Tattvacintamani 4; the same as संनिकर्ष which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
saṃnipāta(1)a contact or relation of two things. cf संनिपातो द्वयोः संबन्धः । Pari. Sek. Pari. 85; (2) coming together; cf न लक्ष्यते विकृति: संनिपाते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 2.123 Vart 5.
saṃprasāraṇaliterally extension; the process of changing a semi-vowel into a simple vowel of the same sthana or place of utterance; the substitution of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ for the semi-vowels य्, व् , र् and ल् respectively; cf इग्यणः संप्रसारणम् P. 1.1.45. The term संप्रसारण is rendered as a 'resultant vowel' or as 'an emergent vowel'. The ancient term was प्रसारण and possibly it referred to the extension of य् and व्, into their constituent parts इ +अ, उ+अ et cetera, and others the vowel अ being of a weak grade but becoming strong after the merging of the subseguent vowel into it exempli gratia, for example confer, compare सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P. III. 2.8 Vart.1. For the words taking this samprasarana change, see P. VI. 1 .13 to .19. According to some grammarians the term संप्रसारण is applied to the substituted vowels while according to others the term refers to the operation of the substitution: confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.15. The substitution of the samprasarana vowel is to be given preference in the formation of a word; , confer, compare संप्रसारणं तदाश्रयं च कार्यं बलवत् Pari. Sek. Pari. 1 19. संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्व the relative superior strength of the samprasarana change in comparison with other operations occurring simultaneotisly. The phrase न वा संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्वात् is often used in the Mahabhasya which is based upon the dictum of the superior strength of the samprasarana substitution, which is announced by the writer of the Varttikas; P. VI. 1.17 Vart, 2. , See संप्रसारण.
saṃbuddhi(1)a term used in Panini's grammar for the case-affix of the vocative singular; confer, compare एकवचनं संबुद्धिः P. II. 3, 49; the vocative is, however, not looked upon as a separate case, but the designation संबोधन is given to the nominative case, having the sense of संबोधनः (2) the word is also used in the general sense of संबोधन i. e. addressing or calling: confer, compare एकश्रुति दूरात्संबुद्धौः किमिदं पारिभाषिक्याः संबुद्धेर्ग्रहणमेकवचनं संबुद्वि: (II. 3.49) आहोस्विदन्वर्थग्रहणं संबोधनं संबुद्वि: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.33.
saṃbodhanacalling or address which is given as one of the additional senses of the nominative case affixes ( confer, compare संबोधने च P. II. 3, 47 ) in addition to those given in the rule प्रातिपदिकार्थलिङ्गपरिमाणवचनमात्रे प्रथमा P. II. 3.46: confer, compare आभिमुख्यकरणं संबोधनम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3.47.
saṃyogaconnection in general; the word is used as a technical term in the grammar of Panini, in the sense of two or more consonants coming closely together unseparated by any vowel: confer, compareहलोनन्तराः संयोगः cf P. I. 1.7; cf also अनन्तरं संयोगः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 48.
saṃhitāposition of words or parts of words in the formation ofa word quite near each other which results into the natural phonetic coalescence of the preceding and the following letters. Originally when the Vedic hymns or the running prose passages of the Yajurveda were split up into their different constituent parts namely the words or padas by the Padakaras, the word संहिता or संहितापाठ came into use as contrasted with the पदपाठ. The writers of of the Pratisakhyas have conseguently defined संहिता as पदप्रकृतिः संहिता, while Panini who further split up the padas into bases ( प्रकृति ) and affixes ( प्रत्यय ) and mentioned several augments and substitutes, the phonetic combinations, which resulted inside the word or pada, had to be explained by reason of the close vicinity of the several phonetic units forming the base, the affix, the augment, the substitute and the like, and he had to define the word संहृिता rather differently which he did in the words परः संनिकर्षः संहिता; cf P.I.4.109: confer, compare also संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः । नित्य समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते Sabdakaustubha on Maheshvara Sutra 5.1.
sakarmakaa root which, by virtue of the nature of its meaning id est, that is verbal activity, requires or expects an object which is covered by the activity; a transitive root. In the passive voice of these roots the object is expressed by the verbal termination and hence it is put in the nominative case.
sadāśivabhaṭṭa(घुले)a prominent grammarian of the latter half of the eighteenth century who was a resident of Nagpur and whose gloss on the Laghusabdendusekhara by name सदाशिवभट्टी is well known to scholars.
samāgamaconcourse, coming in close quarters; confer, compare साङ्गसमागमे R.T.224
samūhaaggregate, group or collection; one of the prominent senses in which the taddhita affix. affixes अण् and others are prescribedition These affixes are called सामूहिक; exempli gratia, for example काकम् (काकानां समूहः ) similarly भैक्षम्, राजकम्, कैदार्यम्, जनता, मायूरम्, पाश्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV. 2.37 to 51.
sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇacalled also सरस्वतीसूत्र, name of a voluminous grammar work ascribed to king Bhoja in the eleventh century. The grammar is based very closely on Panini's Astadhyayi, consisting of eight chapters or books. Although the affixes, the augments and the substitutes are much the same, the order of the Sutras is considerably changedition By the anxiety of the author to bring together, the necessary portions of the Ganapatha, the Unadiptha and the Paribhasas, which the author' has included in his eight chapters, the book instead of being easy to understand, has lost the element of brevity and become tedious for reading. Hence it is that it is not studied widely. For details see pp. 392, 393 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's edition.
sarvaprasaṅgaa presentation of all the substitutes for all the original ones indiscriminately; an application in all cases irrespective of any special consideration: confer, compare स्थानिन एकत्वनिर्देशादनेकादेशनिर्देशाच्च सर्वप्रसङ्ग: M.Bh.on P. I. 1. 50 Vart. l and 12; cf also M.Bh. on P.I.1.60, I.3.2, 3,10 etc
sarvaprātipadikaany noun-base irrespective of any discrimination; confer, compare अपर अाह सर्वप्रातिपादेकेभ्य आचारे किब्वक्तव्योश्वति गर्दभतीत्येवमर्थम् M.Bh. on P. III. 1.11 Vart, 3.
savarṇadīrdhathe lengthened form of a vowel which is substituted for two cognate vowels coming near each other; confer, compare अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः. P. VI. l. 10l.
sāṃhitikaoriginal, as belonging to the Samhitapatha of the Sutras and not introduced for some additional purpose without forming a part of the actual affix; confer, compare अाकर्षात् ष्ठल् | इह केषां चित्सांहितिकं षत्वं केषांचित्षिदर्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 4.9.
siddhāntakaumudīa critical and scholarly commentary on the Sutras of Panini, in which the several Sutras are arranged topicwise and fully explained with examples and counter examples. The work is exhaustive, yet not voluminous, difficult yet popular, and critical yet lucid. The work is next in importance to the Mahabhasya in the system of Panini, and its study prepares the way for understanding the Mahabhasya. It is prescribed for study in the courses of Vyakarana at every academy and Pathasala and is expected to be committed to memory by students who want to be thorough scholars of Vyakarana.By virtue of its methodical treatment it has thrown into the back-ground all kindred works and glosses or Vrttis on the Sutras of Panini. It is arranged into two halves, the first half dealing with seven topics ( 1 ) संज्ञापरिभाषा, ( 2 ) पञ्त्वसंधि, ( 3 ) षड्लिङ्ग, ( 4 ) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, ( 5 ) कारक, ( 6 ) समास, ( 7 ) तद्धित, and the latter half dealing with five topics, ( 1 ) दशगणी, ( 2 ) द्वादशप्राक्रिया ( 3 ) कृदन्त ( 4 ) वैदिकी and ( 5 ) स्वर. The author भट्टोजीदीक्षित has himself written a scholarly gloss on it called प्रौढमनेरमा on which, his grandson, Hari Diksita has written a learned commentary named लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got a large number of commentaries on it out of which, the commentaries प्रौढमनेरमा, बालमनोरमा, (by वासुदेवदीक्षित) तत्त्वबोधिनी and लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर are read by almost every true scholar of Vyakarana. Besides these four, there are a dozen or more commentaries some of which can be given below with their names and authors ( I ) सुबेाधिनी by जयकृष्णमौनि, ( 2 ) सुबोधिनी by रामकृष्णभट्ट ( 3 ) वृहृच्छब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेश, ( 4 ) बालमनेारमा by अनन्तपण्डित, ( 5 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरहृस्य by नीलकण्ठ, ( 6 ) रत्नार्णव, by कृष्णमिश्र ( 7 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरत्नाकर by रामकृष्ण, ( 8 ) सरला by तारानाथ,(9) सुमनोरमा by तिरुमल्ल,(10)सिद्वान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by लक्ष्मीनृसिंह, (11 )सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by विश्वेश्वरतीर्थ, (12) रत्नाकर by शिवरामेन्द्रसरस्वती and (13) प्रकाश by तोलापदीक्षित. Although the real name of the work is वैयाकरणसिद्धान्ततकौमुदी, as given by the author, still popularly the work is well known by the name सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. The work has got two abridged forms, the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi both written by Varadaraja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita.
sīradevaa prominent grammarian of the Eastern part of India who lived in the twelfth century A. D. He was a very sound scholar of Panini's grammar who wrote a few glosses on prominent works in the system. His Paribhasavrtti is a masterly independent treatise among the recognised works on the Paribhasas in which he has quoted very profusely from the works of his predecessors, such as the Kasika, Nyasa, Anunyasa and others. The reputed scholar Maitreya Raksita is more often guoted than others.
su(l)case affix ( सु ) of the nominative singular and ( सु ) of the locative plural; confer, compare P. IV. 1.2: (2) Unadi affix सु ( क्सु ) applied to the roots इष्: e.g, इक्षु: confer, compare इषः क्सुः Unadi 437. सुक् augment सुक् added according to some grammarians to any word optionally with असुक्, which is prescribed in the case of the words अश्व, वृष, क्षीर and लवण before the affix क्यच् ( य ) in the sense of desire. e. g. दधिस्यति, मधुस्यति et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 1 51 Varttika.
suc(l)taddhita affix. affix स् applied to fद्व, त्रि, चतुर् and to एक optionally, in the sense of 'repetition of the activity' e. g. द्विः करोति et cetera, and others cf Kas, on P. V. 4. 18, 19; (2) Unadi affix स्, see सु a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. सुजनपण्डित a grammarian who wrote a small treatise on genders named लिङार्थचन्द्रिका सुट् (1) short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the first five case-affixes which are called सर्वनामस्थान also, when they pertain to the masculine or the feminine gender: confer, compare सुडनपुंसकस्य I.1.43; (2)augment स् prefixed to the root कृ and to the root कॄ when preceded by certain prepositions and as seen in the words कुस्तुम्बुरु and others as also in the words अपरस्पर गोष्पद, आस्पद, अाश्चर्य, अपस्कर, विप्किर, हरिश्चन्द्र, प्रस्कण्व्, मल्कर, कास्तीर, अजास्तुन्द, कारस्कर and words in the class of words headed by पारस्कर, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VI. 1.135-57: (3) augment स् prefixed to the case-affix अाम् after a pronoun; e. g. सर्वेषाम् confer, compare P. VII. I.52;(4) augment स् prefixed to the consonant त् or थ् pertaining to लिङ् affixes, e. g. कृषीष्ट confer, compare P. III. 4.107.
sthrī(1)the sense of the feminine; confer, compare स्थ्रियाम् P. IV. ].3-8l (2) a word ending with an affix in the sense of feminity such as टापू, डाप् or चापू or ङीपू, ङीषू or ङीनू or the like; confer, compare स्त्रीभ्यो ढक् IV. 1.120 (3) a word in the sense of feminine confer, compare स्त्री पुवच्च P. I. 2.66.
strīpratyaya(1)affixes added to the masculine base of a word to show the sense of the feminine, such as आ in टापृ, डापू and चापू and ई in ङीपू, ङीषू and ङीनन्. See P. IV. 1.3 to 8l. (2) name of a section of Bhattoj's Siddhantakaumudi which gives the affixes added for the formation of a feminine base.
sthānaplace of articulation; place of the production of sound, which is one of the chief factors in the production of sound; confer, compare अनुप्रदानात् संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् | जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात्, T.Pr. XXIII. 2. Generally there are given five places of the production of sound viz. कण्ठ, तालु, मूर्धन् , दन्त and ओष्ठ, respectively for the articulation of guttural, palatal cerebral, dental and labial letters and नासिका as an additional one for the articulation of the nasal consonants ञू, मू,ङू, णू and नू For the Jihvamuliya sound (क ), जिंह्वामूल is given as a specific one. For details and minor differences of views, see Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.III, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) 1.18 to 20,Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 2-10; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 65 to 84 and M. Bh, on P. I. 1. 9. (2) place, substratum, which is generally understood as the sense of the genitive case-affix in rules which prescribe substitutes; confer, compare षष्ठी स्थोनोयागा. P. I. 1. 49.
sthāneyogāa variety of the genitive case when it is connected in sense with the Pratipadika by the relationship of स्थान or place, as contrasted with the relationships of the kind of विषयविषयिभाब, अवयवावयविभाव and others. As grammar is a Science of words,in those places where one word is mentioned for another by the use of the genitive case it should be understood that the word mentioned is to be substituted for the other;cf the rule of Panini for that purpose षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा explained by Bhattoji Diksita as अानिर्धारितसंबन्धविशेषा षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा बोध्या; confer, compare S.K. on P.I.1.49. In some grammars the sthanin and adesa are expressed in the same case, Viz. the nominative case.
svara(l)vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
svaravirāmaa pause between two vowels in one and the same word as in तितउ or पउग or in two different words coming close by the visarga or य् between the two being elided, as for instance in देवा इह.
svaritakaraṇamarking or characterizing by.a svarita accent, as is supposed to have been done by Panini when he wrote down his sutras of grammar as also the Dhatupatha, the Ganapatha and other subsidiary appendixes. Although the rules of the Astadhyayi are not recited at present with the proper accents possessed by the various vowels as given by the Sutrakara, still, by convention and traditional explanation, certain words are to be believed as possessed of certain accents. In the Dhatupatha, by oral tradition the accents of the several roots are known by the phrases अथ स्वरितेतः, अथाद्युदाताः, अथान्तेादात्ताः, अथानुदात्तेत: put therein at different places. In the sutras, a major purpose is served by the circumflex accent with which such words, as are to continue to the next or next few or next many rules, have been markedition As the oral tradition, according to which the Sutras are recited at present, has preserevd no accents, it is only the authoritative word, described as 'pratijna' of the ancient grammarians, which now is available for knowing the svarita. The same holds good in the case of nasalization ( अानुनासिक्य ) which is used as a factor for determining the indicatory nature of vowels as stated by the rule उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत्; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः S. K. on P. I.3.2.
svānga(l)one's own limb, as contrasted with that of another person ; confer, compare स्वाङ्गकर्मकाच्वेति वक्तव्यम् | स्वान्गे चेह न पारिभाषिकं गृह्यते | किं तर्हि स्वमन्गं स्वान्गम् | Kas:, on P.I. 3.28; (2) forming a part, a portion; confer, compare स्वान्गाच्चोपसर्जनादसंयोगोपधात् | किं स्वान्गं नाम । अद्रवं मूर्तिमत्स्वान्गे प्राणिस्थमविकारजम् । अतत्स्थं तत्र दृष्ठे च तस्य चेत्तत्तथा युतम्॥ अप्राणीनोपि स्वान्गम् ) M.Bh on P. IV.1.54.
hi(1)personal-ending of the second person. singular. substituted for सि in the imperative mood; confer, compare सेर्ह्यपिच्च P. III. 4.87; (2) a sign-word used in the Vajasaneyi-pratisakhya to mark the termination of the words of the Adhikarasutra V. Pr.III.5, IV.11.
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minati humilityCC Madhya 5.74
minati petitionsCC Madhya 7.33
minati prayersCC Adi 6.46
minati submissionCC Madhya 14.210
CC Madhya 3.169
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āgāmini comingSB 9.16.25
āgāmini being about to happenSB 10.50.43
tasmin akṣe in that axleSB 5.21.14
amuṣmin in the next lifeSB 4.18.3
amuṣmin in that explanationSB 5.12.4
amuṣmin thatSB 5.13.13
amuṣmin thatSB 5.13.19
amuṣmin in the next birthSB 5.13.21
amuṣmin on thatSB 5.14.27
amuṣmin loke in the next worldSB 5.26.25
amuṣmin in YouSB 8.6.9
amuṣmin for HimSB 10.55.34
amuṣmin in the nextSB 10.81.11
etasmin antare after this incidentSB 8.8.41-46
na anya-gāminā without their being deviatedBG 8.8
anyasmin in anotherSB 10.69.23
aparasmin in the effectSB 3.26.49
tasmin api in that āśrama (Pulaha-āśrama)SB 5.8.31
asmin in thisBG 1.21-22
asmin in thisBG 2.13
asmin thisBG 3.3
asmin thisBG 8.2
asmin thisBG 13.23
dehe asmin in this bodyBG 14.11
asmin thisBG 16.6
asmin hereinSB 1.1.10
asmin in thisSB 1.1.21
asmin in themSB 1.3.36
asmin thisSB 1.6.21
asmin thisSB 1.8.35
asmin on thisSB 1.11.35
asmin in the chain ofSB 1.12.15
asmin up till nowSB 1.17.8
asmin in thisSB 1.18.12
asmin thisSB 2.1.25
asmin in thisSB 2.1.38
asmin in this form ofSB 2.2.14
asmin in this worldSB 2.5.6
asmin this very lifeSB 2.7.3
asmin in thisSB 3.5.40
asmin in the matterSB 3.9.34
asmin in thisSB 3.23.23
asmin in thisSB 3.24.36
loke asmin in this worldSB 3.25.44
asmin in thisSB 3.26.72
asmin thisSB 3.27.9
asmin thisSB 3.31.15
asmin in thisSB 4.7.44
asmin thisSB 4.14.42
asmin in thisSB 4.18.3
asmin on this planet earthSB 4.18.30
asmin in thisSB 4.19.34
asmin to this bodySB 4.20.5
asmin thisSB 4.20.6
asmin in thisSB 4.23.38
asmin thisSB 4.25.40
asmin thisSB 4.27.30
asmin thisSB 4.29.5
asmin in thisSB 4.29.84
asmin in thisSB 5.8.17
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