Donate
 
   
Select your preferred input and type any Sanskrit or English word. Enclose the word in “” for an EXACT match e.g. “yoga”.
Root Search
  
"mil" has 2 results.
    
        Root Word (Pāṇini Dhātupāṭha:)Full Root MarkerSenseClassSutra
√milmilaaśleṣaṇe670
√milmilaasaṅgamane6137
  
"mil" has 1 results.
        Root WordIAST MeaningMonier Williams PageClass
√मिल्miljoining / śleṣaṇa1104/2Cl.6
     Amarakosha Search  
Results for mil
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
dhūmraḥMasculineSingulardhūmilaḥ, kṛṣṇalohitaḥpurple
dhammillaḥ2.6.98MasculineSingular
pramilā3.3.184FeminineSingularālekhyam, āścaryam
     Monier-Williams
          Search  
Results for mil75 results for mil
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
mil cl.6 P. A1. (;but see ) milati-, te- (perfect tense mimiluḥ- ; future miliṣyati- ; Aorist amelīt-, ameliṣṭa- grammar; ind.p. militvā-and -milya-, ), to meet (as friends or foes) , encounter, join, fall in with (instrumental case with or without saha-; dative case genitive case,or locative case), come together, assemble, concur etc.: Causal melayati- (or melāpayati-; see melāpaka-), to cause any one to meet any one else (genitive case), bring together, assemble View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milāSee dur-m-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
miladvyādhamfn. joined or surrounded by huntsmen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milanan. coming together, meeting, contact, union View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milatmfn. meeting, joining etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milatmfn. appearing, happening, occurring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milatmfn. (in the beginning of a compound or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') joined or connected with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milikāSee dur-m-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milīmilinm. Name of śiva- (according to to Scholiast or Commentator fr. a mantra- containing the word mili-repeated twice) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milindam. a bee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milindam. Name of a king (= Menander) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milindakam. a kind of snake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milindapraśnam. Name of a pāli- work (containing a conversation on nirvāṇa- between king milinda- and the monk nāgasena-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
militamfn. met, encountered, united etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
militamfn. happened, occurred View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
militamfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') connected or combined or mixed or furnished with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amilātaka equals a-malataka- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aryamilam. idem or ' m. idem or 'm. a shortened name for aryama-datta- ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aurmileyam. a descendant of urmilā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūmilābham. "gaining earth", dying. death View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūmilepanan. "earth-ointment", cow-dung View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūmilokam. the terrestrial world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmayāmilan. Name of a tantra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhammillam. a woman's braided and ornamented hair wound round the head ( wrong reading dhamilla-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhammillam. Name of a Brahman. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhammillacaritran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhammillakamf(ā-)n. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' a woman's braided and ornamented hair wound round the head (satr-. wrong reading dhamilla-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dramilam. Name of a country (also equals draviḍa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dramilam. of a lexicographer (varia lectio drim-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dramilam. plural his school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
drāmilam. "born in dramila-", Name of cāṇakya- (varia lectio dromiṇa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
drimilaSee dramila-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
drumilam. Name of a dānava- (prince of saubha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
drumilam. of a son of ṛṣabha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
drumilam. of a cowherd (husband of kalāvatī- and father of nārada-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durmilā f. Name of several forms of metre. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durmilikāf. Name of several forms of metre. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jyotirmilinm. equals -iṅga- (see nīlamīlika-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kardamilan. (gaRa kāśādi-), Name of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kardamilamfn. slippery, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛmilamf(ā-)n. having worms, wormy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛmilāf. a woman bearing many children View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛmilāf. Name of a town (called after kṛmi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛmilāśvam. Name of a son of bāhyāśva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛmilikāf. linen cloth dyed with red colour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛmilohakan. "lac-coloured metal", iron View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
meghamilārikāf. Name of a rāga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
omilam. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṇḍuśarmilāf. Name of draupadī- (the wife of the sons of pāṇḍu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parimilanan. ( mil-) touch, contact View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parimilitamfn. mixed or filled with, pervaded by (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parimilitamfn. met from all sides View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milam. a lover, husband View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milam. the god of love View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milam. (also laka-), Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudrayāmilan. equals -yāmala- above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣāmilaName of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃketamilitamfn. met by appointment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sammilP. A1. -milati-, te-, to meet or assemble together, be present, associate with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sammilitamfn. met together, assembled, collected View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śarmilāSee pāṇḍu-ś-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saumilikam. or n. (?) a particular substance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saumillam. Name of a poet (also written saumila-and saumalla-; see somila-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sītormilef. dual number sitā- and ūrmilā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somilam. Name of a poet (also called saumila-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somilam. of an asura- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somilakam. Name of a weaver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timilāf. Name of a musical instrument View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
urmilā equals ūrmilā- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ūrmilāf. Name of several women View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milaSee column 3. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milamfn. equals vāma- or dāmbhika- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milaSee . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣṇuyāmilan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
Results for mil21 results
     
mil मिल् 6 U. (मिलति-ते, generally मिलति; मिलित) 1 To join, be united with, accompany; रुमण्वतो मिलितः Ratn.4. -2 To come or meet together, meet, gather, assemble; ये चान्ये सुहृदः समृद्धिसमये द्रव्याभिलाषाकुलास्ते सर्वत्र मिलन्ति H.1.183; याताः किं न मिलन्ति Amaru 1; मिलित- शिलीमुख &c. Git.1; स पात्रेसमितो$न्यत्र भोजनान्मिलितो न यः Trik. -3 To be mixed or united with, come in contact with; मिलति तव तोयैर्मृगमदः G. L.7. -4 To meet or encounter (as in fighting); close, close with. -5 To come to pass, happen. -6 To embrace, clasp. -7 To concur. -8 To find, fall in with. -Caus. (मेलयति-ते) To bring together, assemble, convene.
milanam मिलनम् [मिल् ल्युट्] 1 Joining, meeting, assembling together. -2 Encountering. -3 Contact, being mixed with, coming in contact with; व्यालनिलयमिलनेन गरलमिव कलयति मलयसमीरम् Gīt.4.
milapatraḥ मिलपत्रः N. of a plant (Mar. आपटा); Gīrvāṇa.
milat मिलत् a. 1 Meeting, joining. -2 Happening, occurring. -3 Joined, connected. -Comp. -व्याध a. surrounded or joined by huntsmen; Ks.
milīmilin मिलीमिलिन् m. An epithet of Śiva.
milindaḥ मिलिन्दः A bee; परिणतमकरन्दमार्मिकास्ते जगति भवन्तु चिरायुषो मिलिन्दाः Bv.1.8,15. -Comp. -प्रश्नः N. of a Pāli work.
milindakaḥ मिलिन्दकः A kind of snake.
milita मिलित p. p. [मिल्-क्त] 1 Come together, assembled, encountered, combined. -2 Met, encountered. -3 Mixed. -4 Put together, taken in all.
amilātakam अमिलातकम् Globe-amaranth. See अमलानकम्.
ūrmilā ऊर्मिला N. of the wife of Lakṣmaṇa; पार्थिवीमुदवहद् रघूद्वहो लक्ष्मणस्तदनुजामथोर्मिलाम् R.11.54.
kṛmilā कृमिला A fruitful woman.
kṛmilikā कृमिलिका Linen cloth dyed with red colour.
timilā तिमिला N. of a musical instrument.
drāmilaḥ द्रामिलः N. of Chāṇakya.
parimilanam परिमिलनम् 1 Touch, contact; तनोर्मध्यस्यान्तः परिमिलन- मप्राप्य हरितम् Ratn.2.11; चन्दनवनोत्संगपरिमिलनबहलपरिमलः Nāg.1. -2 Combination, union.
parimilita परिमिलित a. 1 Mixed with. -2 Filled, penetrated.
milaḥ रामिलः 1 A lover; husband. -2 The god of love. -3 N. of a poet.
mila वामिल a. 1 Beautiful, handsome. -2 Proud, haughty. -3 Cunning, deceitful.
śāmilī शामिली A sacrificial ladle; (स्रुच्).
saṃmil संमिल् 6 P. To meet or come together, assemble.
saumillaḥ सौमिल्लः N. of a dramatist who preceded Kālidāsa; भासकविसौमिल्लकविमिश्रादीनाम् M.1.
     Macdonell Vedic Search  
14 results
     
adridugdha ádri-dugdha, Tp. cd. pressed out with stones, iv. 50, 3 [pp. of duh milk].
asmera á-smera, a. (K.) not smiling, ii. 35, 4.
gharma Ghar-má, m. hot milk offering, vii. 103, 9 [Av. garema, Lat. formu-s, Gk. θερμό-ς ‘warm’, Eng.warm].
tṝ tṝ cross, VI. tirá. prá- extend, increase (family), vii. 61, 4; prolong (life), 103, 10; iṣ ao., viii. 48, 4. 7. 11. ví- run counter to (acc.), x. 34, 6.
duh duh milk, II. P. dógdhi; ṣ ao. dukṣata, with two acc., i. 160, 3.
dhenu dhe-nú, f. cow, i. 160, 3; ii. 35, 7 [yielding milk: dhe = dhā suck].
navagva Náva-gv-a, m. an ancient priest, iv. 51, 4; pl. a family of ancient priests, x. 14, 6 [having nine cows: gu = gó].
payas páy-as, n. milk, moisture, i. 160, 3 [pī swell].
pīyūṣa pīyú̄ṣa, m. n. milk, ii. 35, 5 [pī swell].
bhrgu Bhṛ́g-u, m. pl. a family of ancient priests, x. 14, 6.
vasiṣṭha vás-iṣṭha, spv. a. best; m. name of a seer, vii. 86, 5; pl. a family of ancient seers, x. 15, 8 [vasshine].
vṛjana vṛj-ána, n. circle ( = family, sons), vii. 61, 4 [enclosure = vṛj].
sadrś sa-dṛ́ś, a., f.-ī, alike, iv. 51, 6 [having a similar appearance].
sudugha su-dúgha, a. (Bv.) yielding good milk, ii. 35, 7 [dúgha milking: dugh = duh].
     Macdonell Search  
Results for mil5 results
     
miladvyādha a. (having hunters thronging around=) surrounded by hunters.
milana n. meeting, encountering, contact.
milinda m. bee: -ka, m. kind of snake.
dhammilla m. braided hair tied round the heads of women (--°ree; a., f. â or -kâ).
saumila m. N. of a poet; -illa, m. id.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
     Grammar
     KV Abhyankar
"mil" has 151 results.
     
aṇṇaiyācāryaauthor of लिङ्गनिर्णयभूषण, who was a Tamil Brāhmaṇa by caste.
antarhitaseparated by a dissimilar element; confer, compare यूनि चान्तर्हित अप्राप्तिः P.IV. 1.93 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5. व्यञ्जनान्तर्हितोपि उदात्तपरः अनुदात्तः स्वरितमापद्यते T. Pr.XIV.30; confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.9.
anyasadṛśādhikaraṇaan object which is different from what is mentioned, yet similar to it confer, compare नञिवयुक्तमन्यसदृशा धिकरणे तथा ह्यर्थगति; । अब्राह्मणमानयेत्युक्ते ब्राह्मणसदृश आनीयते । नासौ लोष्टमानीय कृती भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.1.12
aviravikanyāyaa maxim mentioned by Patañjali in connection with the word आविक where the taddhita affix ठक् (इक), although prescribed after the word अवि in the sense of 'flesh of sheep' (अवेः मांसम्), is actually put always after the base अविक and never after अवि. The maxim shows the actual application of an affix to something allied to, or similar to the base, and not to the actual base as is sometimes found in popular use confer, compare द्वयोः शब्दयोः समानार्थयोरेकेन विग्रहोऽपरस्मादुत्पत्तिर्भविष्यति अविरविकन्यायेन । तद्यथा अवेर्मांसमिति विगृह्य अविकशब्दादुत्पत्तिर्भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.88; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.89; IV.2.60; IV.3.131,V.1.7,28; VI.2.11.
avivakṣita(1)not taken technically into consideration, not meant: confer, compare अविवक्षिते कर्मणि षष्ठी भवति M.Bh on II.3. 52; (2) unnecessary; superfluous; the word is especially used in connection with a word in a Sūtra which could as well be read without that word. The word अतन्त्रं is sometimes used similarly.
avyayībhāvaname of a compound so called on account of the words forming the compound, being similar to indeclinables: e. g. निर्मक्षिकम् , अधिहरि, यथामति, यावज्जीवम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare अनव्ययं अव्ययं भवतीत्यव्ययीभावः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.I.5. The peculiarity of the avyayībhāva compound is that the first member of the compound plays the role of the principal word; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानोऽव्ययीभावः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.6.
avyavadhānaabsence of intervention between two things by something dissimilar; close sequence confer, compare अतज्जातीयकं हि लोके व्यवधायकं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.7. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8; cf also येन नाव्यवधानं तन ब्यवहितेपि वचनप्रामाण्यात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.3.44, VII.3.54, VII.4.l, VII.4.93. The term अव्यवाय is used in the same sense.
aśvatthanārāyaṇaa commentator who wrote a gloss on Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. in the Tamil language.
asārūpyadissimilarity in apparent form (although the real wording in existence might be the same) e. g. टाप्, डाप् , चाप्; confer, compare नानुबन्धकृतमसारूप्यम् । Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 8.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
aādi(1)commencement, initial: confer, compare अपूर्वलक्षण आदिः M.Bh. on I.1.21, (2) of the kind of, similar; एवंप्रक्रारः.
āditpossessed of the mute indicatory letter अा signifying the nonapplication of the augment इ (इट् ) to the past-passive voice. participle. term क्त. e. g. क्ष्विण्ण from the root ञिक्ष्विदाः similarly खिन्न, भिन्न et cetera, and others confer, compare आदितश्र P.VII. 2.16.
abādha(1)similarity of one phonetic element, for instance, in the case of ऐ with आ resulting from Saṁdhi: e. g. प्रजाया अरातिं निर्ऋत्या अकः where प्रजाया and निर्ऋत्या stand for प्रजायै and निर्ऋत्यै confer, compare एकारान्तानि अाकारबाधे Āth. Pr. II.1.4; (2) Similarity of accent of words in the Saṁhitāpāṭha and Padapāṭha; (3) followed by confer, compare Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.1.14; (4) distress; confer, compare आबाधे च, P. VIII.1.10.
āmiśracompletely mixed; confer, compare आमिश्रस्यायमादेश उच्यते स नैव पूर्वग्रहणेन गृह्यते, नापि परग्रहणेन । तद्यथा । क्षीरोदकं सम्पृक्ते आमिश्रत्वानैव क्षीरग्रहणेन गृह्येते नाप्युदकग्रहणेन Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI.1.85; similarly अामिश्रत्व, आमिश्रीभूत et cetera, and others
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
iṣṭia word generally used in the statements made in the Mahā bhāṣya, similar to those of the Sūtrakāra and the Vārttikakāras, which are 'desired ones' with a view to arrive at the correct forms of words; confer, compare प्राप्तिज्ञो देवानांप्रियो न त्विाष्टिज्ञः, इष्यत एतद् रूपमिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 4.56.
iṣṭhavadbhāvapossession of the same properties for causing grammatical operations as the taddhita affix. affix इष्ठन् possesses, as for instance, the elision of the syllable beginning with the last vowel ( टिलोप ), substitution of the masculine gender. base for the feminine. base (पुंवद्भाव) et cetera, and others, before the denom affix णिच्; exempli gratia, for example एतयति in the sense of एनीं आचष्टे; similarly प्रथयति, पटयति, दवयति, confer, compare M.Bh. on. P.VI.4. 155 Vārt, 1.
uktaprescribed, taught, lit, said (already). उक्तं वा is a familiar expression in the Mahābhāṣya and the Vārttikas referring usually to something already expresseditionSometimes this expression in the Mahābhāṣya, referring to something which is not already expressed, but which could be found subsequently expressed, leads to the conclusion that the Mahābhāṣyakāra had something like a 'Laghubhāṣya' before him at the time of teaching the Mahābhāṣya. See Kielhorn's Kātyāyana and Patañjali, also Mahābhāṣya D.E. S.Ed. Vol. VII, pages 71, 72.
ukthādia class of words headed by the word उक्थ to which the taddhita affix इक (ठक् ) is applied in the sense of 'one who studies and understands'; confer, compare उक्थमधीते वेद वा औक्थिकः, similarly लौकायतिकः Kāś. on P.IV.2.60.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
uṇādisūtra,uṇādisūtrapāṭhathe text of the Sūtras which begins with the Sūtras prescribing the affix उण् after the roots कृ, वा, पा, जि, स्वद्, साध् and अश्; cf Uṅādi Sūtras 1.1. for the different versions of the text See उणादि. Similar Sūtras in Kātantra, Āpiśali, Sakaṭāyana and other systems of grammar are also called Uṇādi Sūtras.
udayaṃkarasurnamed pāṭhaka who wrote a commentary on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara named Jyotsna and a very critical work on Paribhāṣās similar to Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti; the work is incomplete.
udāttasamasimilar to Udātta although not exactly acute, which characterizes the latter half of the circumflex vowel; confer, compare उदात्तसमश्शेषः T.Pr.I.42.
udgātrādia class of words headed by the word उद्गातृ to which the taddhita affix अञ् is added in the sense of 'nature' or 'profession'; confer, compare उद्गातुर्भावः कर्म वा औद्गात्रम् । Similarly औन्नेत्रम् Kāś. on P. V. 1.129.
udgrāhaalleviation, ease, relief; name given to a Saṁdhi in the Prātiśākhya works when a visarga and a short vowel अ preceding it are changed into short अ, (e. g. यः + इन्द्र: = य इन्द्र:), as also when the vowel ए or ओ is changed into अ being followed by a dissimilar vowel; e. g. अग्ने + इन्द्रः = अग्न इन्द्रः; confer, compare R.Pr.II.10.
upadhmānīyaa letter or a phonetic element substituted for a visarga followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class. Visarga is simply letting the breath out of the mouth. Where the visarga is followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class, its pronunciation is coloured by labial utterance. This coloured utterance cannot be made independently; hence this utterance called 'उपध्मानीय' ( similar to a sound blown from the mouth ) is not put in, as an independent letter, in the वर्णसमाम्नाय attributed to महेश्वर. Patañjali, however, has referred to such dependent utterances by the term अयोगवाहवर्ण. See अयेागवाह; confer, compare xक इति जिह्वामूलीयः । जिह्वामूलेन जन्यत्वात् । xप इत्युपध्मानीयः । उपध्मानेन जन्यत्वात्. अयेगवाह is also called अर्धविसर्ग. See अर्धविसर्ग.
upamāa well-known term in Rhetorics meaning the figure of speech ' simile ' or ' comparison '. The word is often found in the Nirukta in the same sense; confer, compare अथात उपमाः | 'यत् अतत् तत्सदृशम्'इति गार्ग्यः । Nir III.13. Generally an inferior thing is compared to another that is superior in quality.
upalakṣaṇaimplication, indication: a thing indicatory of another thing. The term is very frequently found in commentary works in connection with a word which signifies something beyond it which is similar to it; the indication is generally inclusive; confer, compare Kāśikā on भीस्म्योर्हेतुभये P.I.3.68 भयग्रहणमुपलक्षणार्थं विस्मयोपि तत एव । as also मन्त्रग्रहणं तु च्छन्दस उपलक्षणार्थम् Kāś. on II.4.80. The verbal forms of लक्ष् and उपलक्ष् as also the words लक्षयितुम्, लक्षणीय, लक्षित et cetera, and others possess the sense of 'expressing the meaning not primarily, but secondarily by indication or implication'.
upasaṃkhyānamention, generally of the type of the annexation of some words to words already given, or of some limiting conditions or additions to what has been already statedition The word is often found at the end of the statements made by the Vārttikakāra on the sūtras of Pāṇini.: confer, compare P.I.1.29 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1: I.1.36 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3 et cetera, and others The words वाच्य and वक्तव्य are also similarly useditionThe word is found similarly used in the Mahābhāṣya also very frequently.
ubhayadīrghāa hiatus or a stop which occurs between two long-vowelled syllables; the term उभयदीर्घा is a conventional term in the Prātiśākhya literature. The term उभयह्रस्वा is similarly used in connection with short vowels.
uraḥprabhṛtia class of words headed by the word उरस् to which the samāsānta affix क (कप् ) is added, when these words stand at the end of Bahuvrihi compounds; confer, compare व्यूढमुरोस्य व्यूढोरस्कः similarly प्रियसर्पिष्कः, Kāś. on P.V.I.151.
ṛktantraa work consisting of five chapters containing in all 287 sūtras. It covers the same topics as the Prātiśākhya works and is looked upon as one of the Prātiśākhya works of the Sāma Veda. Its authorship is attributed to Śākaṭāyana according to Nageśa, while औदिव्राज is held as its author by some, and कात्यायन by others. It bears a remarkable similarity to Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. especially in topics concerning coalescence and changes of स् and न् to ष् and ण् respectively. It cannot be definitely said whether it preceded or followed Pāṇini's work.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
kacchādia class of words headed by कच्छ to which the taddhita affix अण् is added in the miscellaneous (शैषिक) senses, provided the word, to which the affix अण् is to be added, is the name of a country; exempli gratia, for example ऋषिकेषु जातः आर्षिकः similarly माहिषिकः, ऐक्ष्वाकः; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.2.133.
kaṇvādia class of words forming a portion of the class of words called गर्गादि, and headed by the word कण्व, to the derivatives of which, formed by the afix यञ् by the rule गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् (P.IV.1.105) the affix अण् is added in the miscellaneous senses; exempli gratia, for example काण्वाः छात्राः; similarly गौकक्षाः, शाकलाः , अगस्तयः, कुण्डिनाः etc: confer, compare P.IV.2.111 and II. 4.70.
karmasādhanaprescribed in the sense of an object; a term used in the Mahābhāṣya in the sense of affixes used in the sense of 'object' as contrasted with कर्तृसाधन or भावसाधनः e. g. the affix कि in the word विधि, explained as विधीयते इति विधिः or in the word भाव explained as भाव्यते यः स भावः; confer, compare क्रिया चैव हि भाव्यते, स्वभावसिद्धं तु द्रव्यम् M.Bh. on P. I.3.1. See similarly the words समाहार M.Bh. on II.1.51 and उपधि M.Bh. on V.1.13.
kalāpa(कलाप-व्याकरण)alternative name given to the treatise on grammar written by Sarvavarman who is believed to have lived in the days of the Sātavāhana kings. The treatise is popularly known by the namc Kātantra Vyākaraṇa. The available treatise,viz. Kalpasūtras, is much similar to the Kātantra Sūtras having a few changes and additions only here and there.It is rather risky to say that Kalāpa was an ancient system of grammar which is referred to in the Pāṇini Sūtra कलापिनोण् P. IV.3.108. For details see कातन्त्र.
kaskādia class of compound-words headed by कस्क in which the visarga occurring at the end of the first member is noticed as changed into स् against the usual rules e. g. कस्क:, कौतस्कुतः भ्रातुष्पुत्रः, सद्यस्कालः, धनुष्कपालम् and others; confer, compare P. VIII.3.48. As this कस्कादिगण is said to be अाकृतिगण, similar words can be said to be in the कस्कादिगण although they are not actually mentioned in the गणपाठ.
kātantrasūtravṛttian old Vṛtti on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Vararuci who is, of course, different from Vararuci Kātyāyana. The Vṛtti appears to have been occupying a position similar to that of Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti..
kāraan affix, given in the Prātiśākhya works and,by Kātyāyana also in his Vārttika, which is added to a letter or a phonetic element for convenience of mention; exempli gratia, for example इकारः, उकारः ; confer, compare वर्णः कारोत्तरो वर्णाख्या; वर्णकारौ निर्देशकौ Tai. Pra.I. 16: XXII.4.;confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1.37. It is also applied to syllables or words in a similar way to indicate the phonetic element of the word as apart from the sense of the word: e. g.' यत एवकारस्ततीन्यत्रावधारणम् Vyak. Paribhāṣā , confer, compare also the words वकार:, हिंकारः: (2) additional purpose served by a word such as an adhikāra word; confer, compare अधिकः कारः , पूर्वविप्रतिषेघा न पठितव्या भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.11.
kārakatattvaa treatise on the topic of Kārakas written by Cakrapāṇiśeṣa, belonging to the famous Śeṣa family of grammarians, who lived in the seventeenth century A. D.
kālanotion of time created by different contacts made by a thing with other things one after another. Time required for the utterance of a short vowel is taken as a unit of time which is called मात्रा or कालमात्रा, literally measurement of time; (2) degree of a vowel, the vowels being looked upon as possessed of three degrees ह्रस्व,दीर्घ,& प्लुत measured respectively by one, two and three mātrās; confer, compare ऊकालोSझ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P.I.2.27; (3) time notion in general, expressed in connection with an activity in three ways past (भूत), present (वर्तमान), and future (भविष्यत्) to show which the terms भूता, वर्तमाना and भविष्यन्ती were used by ancient grammarians; cf the words पूर्वकाल, उत्तरकाल; also confer, compare पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम् Kāś. on P. II. 4.21 ; (4) place of recital ( पाठदेश ) depending on the time of recital, confer, compare न परकालः पूर्वकाले पुनः (V.Pr.III. 3) a dictum similar to Pāṇini's पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1.
kṛṣṇaśeṣaa famous grammarian of the Śeṣa family who wrote a commentary named the Gūḍhabhāvavivṛti on the Prakriyā Kaumudī of Rāmacandra Śeṣa.See कृष्णपण्डित
ktakṛt affix त in various senses, called by the name निष्ठा in Pāṇini's grammar along with the affix क्तवतू confer, compare क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा P.I.1.26.The various senses in which क्त is prescribed can be noticed below : (1) the general sense of something done in the past time as past passive voice.participle e. g. कृत:, भुक्तम् et cetera, and others: cf P. III.2.102; (2) the sense of the beginning of an activity when it is used actively: e. g. प्रकृतः कटं देवदत्तः, confer, compare P.III.2.102 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (3) the sense of activity of the present tense applied to roots marked with a mute ञ् as also to roots in the sense of desire, knowledge and worship; exempli gratia, for exampleमिन्नः, क्ष्विण्ण:, धृष्ट: as also राज्ञां मतः, राज्ञामिष्टः, राज्ञां बुद्धः; confer, compare P.III.2.187, 88; (4) the sense of mere verbal activity (भाव) e. g. हसितम् , सहितम् , जल्पितम् , (used always in the neuter gender); confer, compare P.III.3. 114: (5) the sense of benediction when the word ending in क्त is used as a technical term, exempli gratia, for example देवदत्तः in the sense of देवा एनं देयासुः. The kṛt affix क्तिन् is also used similarly exempli gratia, for example सातिः भूतिः मन्ति:; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III.3.174.
kyaṅaffix य taking Ātmanepada terminations after it, added in the sense of similar behaviour to a substantive. The substantive to which this affix य is added, becomes a denominative root; e. g. काकः श्येनायते, कुमुदं पुष्करायते, confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1.11-12, also on P. III, 1.14-18.
kyacdenominative affix ( विकरण ) in the sense of desiring for oneself, added to nouns to form denomitive roots; exempli gratia, for example पुत्रीयति; क्यच् is also added to nouns that are upamānas or standards of comparison in the sense of (similar) behaviour: exempli gratia, for example पुत्रीयति च्छात्रम्: confer, compare Kāś. on P. III.1.8, 10. It is also added in the sense of 'doing' to the words नमस्, वरिवस् and चित्र; e. g. नमस्यति देवान्, वरिवस्यति गुरून् , चित्रीयते ; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1.19.
kṣipraliterally rapid, accelerated, a short name given in the a Prātiśākhya works to a Saṁdhi or euphonic combination of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ,; लृ with a following dissimilar vowel; confer, compare Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.Bhāṣya on R.Pr. III.10; confer, compare also इको यणचि P.VI.1.77. The name Kṣipra is given to this Saṁdhi possibly because the vowel, short or long, which is turned into a consonant by this saṁdhi becomes very short (id est, that is shorter than a short vowel id est, that is a semi-vowel). The word क्षैप्र is also used in this sense referring to the Kṣiprasaṁdhi.
khyunkṛt affix अन applied to the root कृ in the sense of an instrument when preceded by the words अाढ्य, सुभग, स्थूल et cetera, and others provided the whole word is similar in sense to cvi-formation ( च्व्यर्थ ), exempli gratia, for example अाढ्यं करणम् , सुभगंकरणम्; confer, compare P. III. 2.56; feminine. अाढ्यंकरणी, confer, compare नञ्स्नञीकक्ख्युंस्तरुणतलुनानामुपसंख्यानम् P.IV.1.15.Vārttika.
gati(1)literally motion; stretching out, lengthening of a syllable. The word is explained in the Prātiśakhya works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel इ or उ after it, exempli gratia, for example हाइ or हायि for हा; similarly आ-इ or अा -यि ; (2) a technical term used by Pāṇini in connection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called गति, confer, compare P.I.4.60-79. The words called gati can be compounded with the following word provided the latter is not a verb, the compound being named tatpuruṣa e.g, प्रकृतम् , ऊरीकृत्य confer, compare P.II.2.18; the word गति is used by Pāṇini in the masculine gender as seen in the Sūtra गतिरनन्तरः P.VI. 2.49 and hence explained as formed by the addition of the affix क्तिच् to गम्, the word being used as a technical term by the rule क्तिच्क्तौ च संज्ञायाम् P.III.3.174; (3) realization, understanding; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.9; सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 76; अगत्या हि परिभाषा अाश्रीयते Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva Pari. Pāṭha 119.
garīyasinvolving a special effort.The word is frequently used by the Vārttikakāra and old grammarians in connection with something, which involves greater effort and longer expression and, hence, not commendable in rules of the Shastra works where brevity is the soul of 'wit'; confer, compare पदगौरवाद्योगवेिभागो गरीयान् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 121. The word गुरु is also sometimes used in a similar sense; confer, compare तद् गुरु भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1 Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. l Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
gūḍhabhāvavṛttia commentary on Ramacandra's Prakriya Kaumudi by Krsnasesa of the famous Sesa family of grammarians. The date of this Krsnasesa is the middle of the sixteenth century. For details about Krsnasesa and the Sesa family see introduction to Prakriyakaumudi B. S. S. No. 78.
gotraliterally family. The word is used by Panini in the technical sense of a descendant except the son or a daughter; confer, compare अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम् P. IV. 1.162. The word गोत्रापत्य is also used in the same sense. The affix, which is found many times in the sense of gotra, barring the usual अण् , is यञ् ; confer, compare गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् P. IV. 1.105.
cakrapāṇi( शेष )a grammarian of the Sesa family of the latter half of the 17th century who held views against Bhattoji Diksita and wrote प्रौढमनोरमाखण्डन, कारकतत्व and कारकविचार.
carkarītaa term used by the ancient grammarians in connection with a secondary root in the sense of frequency; the term यङ्लुगन्त is used by comparatively modern grammarians in the same sense. The चर्करीत roots are treated as roots of the adadi class or second conjugation and hence the general Vikarana अ ( शप् ) is omitted after them.The word is based on the 3rd person. sing form चर्करीति from .the root कृ in the sense of frequency; exempli gratia, for example चर्करीति, चर्कर्ति, बोभवीति बोभोति; confer, compare चर्करीतं च a gana-sutra in the gana named ’adadi’ given by Panini in connection with अदिप्रभृतिभ्य; शपः Pāṇini. II.4.72; confer, compare also चर्करीतमिति यङ्लुकः प्राचां संज्ञा Bhasa Vr. on P. II. 4.72, The word चेक्रीयित is similarly used for the frequentative when the sign of the frequentative viz. य ( यङ् ) is not elidedition See चेक्रीयित.
curādia class or group of roots headed by the root चुर्, familiarly known as the tenth conjugation.
cūrṇia gloss on the Sutras of Panini referred to by Itsing and Sripatidatta, Some scholars believe that Patanjali's Mahabhasya is referred to here by the word चूर्णि, as it fully discusses all the knotty points. Others believe that चूर्णि,stands for the Vrtti of चुल्लिभाट्टि. In Jain Religious Literature there are some brief comments on the Sutras which are called चूर्णि and there possibly was a similar चूर्णि on the sutras of Panini.
jayakṛṣṇaa famous grammarian of the Mauni family who lived in Varanasi in the seventeenth century. He wrote विभक्त्यर्थनिर्णय, स्फोटचन्द्रिका, a commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi called सुबोधिनी and a commentary on the Madhya Kaumudi named विलास. He wrote a commentary on the Laghukaumudi also.
jñāpakaliterallyindirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, confer, compareM.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 et cetera, and others The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systemanuscript. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.
ḍatarāṃdia class of words headed by the word डतर which stands for डतरान्त id est, that is words ending with the affix डतर; similarly the word डतम which follows डतर stands for डतमान्त. This class डतरादि is a subdivision of the bigger class called सर्वादि. and it consists of only five words viz. डतरान्त, डतमान्त, अन्य, अन्यतर and इतरः cf P. VII.1.25 and I.1.27.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
tadantavidhia peculiar feature in the interpretation of the rules of Panini, laid down by the author of the Sutras himself by virtue of which an adjectival word, qualifying its principal word, does not denote itself, but something ending with it also; confer, compare येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य P.I.1.72.This feature is principally noticed in the case of general words or adhikaras which are put in a particular rule, but which Occur in a large number of subsequent rules; for instance, the word प्रातिपदिकात्, put in P.IV.1.1, is valid in every rule upto the end of chapter V and the words अतः, उतः, यञः et cetera, and others mean अदन्ताद् , उदन्तात् , यञन्तात् et cetera, and others Similarly the words धातोः (P.III.1.91) and अङ्गस्य (P.VI. 4.1 ) occurring in a number of subsequent rules have the adjectival words to them, which are mentioned in subsequent rules, denoting not only those words,but words ending with them. In a large number of cases this feature of तदन्तविधि is not desirable, as it, goes against arriving at the desired forms, and exceptions deduced from Panini's rules are laid down by the Varttikakara and later grammarians; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 16,23, 31 : also Mahabhasya on P.I.1.72.
tadādividhia convention similar to the तदन्तविधि of Panini,laid down by the Varttikakara laying down that in case an operation is prescribed for something followed by a single letter, that single letter should be taken to mean a word beginning with that single letter: confer, compare यस्मिन्विधिस्तदादावल्ग्रहणे P.I.1.72 Vart. 29: Par. Sek. Pari. 33.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
tadrājathe taddhita affixes अञ्,अण्,ञ्यङ, ण्य, as also इञ्, छ्, ञ्युट्, ण्य, टेण्यण् and यञ् given in the rules of Panini IV. 1.168-174 and V.3. 112-119. They are called तद्राज as they are applied to such words as mean both the country and the warrior race or clan ( क्षत्त्रिय ): confer, compare तद्राजमाचक्षाणः तद्राजः S. K. on P. IV.l.168. The peculiar feature of these tadraja affixes is that they are omitted when the word to which they have been applied is used in the plural number; e. g. ऐक्ष्वाकः, ऐक्ष्वाकौ, इक्ष्वाकवः; similarly इक्ष्वाकूणाम्; confer, compare P.II.4.62.
tadvat(1)as a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.,similarly;the words शेषं तद्वत् (the rest as a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) are frequently seen used by commentators; (2) the taddhita affix. affix वत् in the sense of possession and not in the sense of measure et cetera, and others confer, compare तद्वति तद्धिते न्यायसंहितं चेत् V.Pr.V.8.
tācchabdya(1)use of a word for that word (of which the sense has been conveyed); the expression तादर्थ्या त्ताच्छब्द्यम् is often used by grammarians just like a Paribhasa; confer, compare अस्ति तादर्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यम् । बहुव्रीह्यर्थानि पदानि बहुव्रीहिरिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.29; similarly तृतीयासमास;for तृतीयार्थानि पदानि M.Bh. on P.I.1.30 or समासार्थे शास्त्रं समासः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.43; (2) use of a word for that word of which there is the vicinity; confer, compare अथवा साहचर्यात् ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति। कालसहचरितो वर्णः। वर्णॊपि काल एव; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.27 where the letter उ is taken in the sense of time required for its utterance, the reason being that sound and time go together; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.I.2.70, IV.3.48, V.2.79; (3) use of a word for that which resides there; confer, compare तात्स्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति M.Bh. on V.4.50 Vart. 3. At all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. places, the use of one word for another is by Laksana.
tundādia very small class of words headed by the word तुन्द to which the taddhita affix इल ( इलच् ) is added in the sense of possession ( मत्वर्थ ). The affix इल is optional and the other affixes इन् , इक and मत् are also added; exempli gratia, for example तुन्दिल, तुन्दी, तुन्दिकः, तुन्दवान् ; similarly उदरिलः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.2.117.
tulyasimilar in articulation; savarna; confer, compare Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 168.
digādia class of words headed by the word दिक् to which the taddhita affix.affix य ( यत् ) is added in the sense of 'produced therein' ( तत्र भवः ), exempli gratia, for example दिशि भवं दिश्यम्, similarly वर्ग्यम्, गण्यः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.3.54.
dūsataddhita affix. affix prescribed after the word अवि in the sense of milk(दुग्ध) along with the affixes सोढ and मरीस optionally, by the Vartikakara; e. g. अविदूसम् । अविसोढम् । अविमरीसम्; confer, compare Kas, on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). IV. 2. 36.
dṛṣṭāntasimilar instance,generally quoted to explain effectively some rules or conventions laid down; confer, compare ननु चायमप्यस्ति दृष्टान्तः समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिरिति । तद्यथा गर्गाः शतं दण्ड्यन्तामिति M.Bh. on P.I. 1. 7.
devatādvandvaa compound word called द्वन्द्व whose members are names of deities; the peculiarities of this Dvandva compound are (a) that generally there are changes at the end of the first member, by virtue of which it appears similar to a word ending in the dual number, and (b) that both the words retain their original accents.exempli gratia, for example इन्द्रासोमौ, सौमापूषणा, अग्नीषोमाभ्यां, मित्रावरुणाभ्याम् ; for changes, confer, compare P. VI.3.25-31; for accent, confer, compare देवताद्वन्द्वानि चानामन्त्रितानि (द्विरुदात्तानिं) । इन्द्राबृहस्पतिभ्याम्, इन्द्राबृहस्पती इति त्रीणि Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.II.48, 49; confer, compare also देवताद्वन्द्वे च P. VI, 2.141.
deśīyartaddhita affix. affix देशीय in the sense of slightly less, or almost similar, optionally prescribed with the affixes कल्प and देश्य e. g. मृदुकल्पः, मृदुदेश्यः. मृदुदशीयः confer, compareKas, on P.V.3.67.
deśya(1)taddhita affix. affix in the sense of almost similar; see देशीयर् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; (2) (words) current in popular use or language, although not sanctioned by rules of grammar; confer, compare देश्याः सूत्रनिबन्धाः क्रियन्ते M.Bh. on P. V. 3.55: confer, compare देश्या देष्टव्याः साधुत्वेन प्रतिपाद्या:, Kaiyata on V. 3.55; probably Kaiyata had a difficulty in explaining the word देश्य in the old way meaning ' current in use', as many words called bad words, introduced from other languages were current at his time which he was reluctant to term देश्य.
nadīa technical term applied in Panini's grammar to words in the feminine gender ending in ई and ऊ excepting a few like स्त्री,श्री, भ्रू and others; it is optionally applied to words ending in इ and उ, of course in the feminine. gender, before case affixes of the dative, ablative, genitive and locative singular. The term was probably in use before Panini and was taken from the feminine. word नदी which was taken as a model. Very probably there was a long list of words like नद् ( नदट्) चोर ( चोरट् ) et cetera, and others which were given as ending in ट् and to which the affix ई (ङीप्) was added for forming the feminine base;the first word नदी so formed, was taken as a model and all words in the list and similar others were called नदी; confer, compare P. I 4. 3-6.
naddhaa fault of pronunciation when a letter, although distinctly pronounced inside the mouth, does not become audible, being held up ( बद्ध ) by the lips or the like. The fault is similar to अम्बूकृत: confer, compare ओष्ठाभ्यामम्बूकृतमाह नद्धम् R.Pr.XIV.2.
nyāyamaxim, a familiar or patent instance quoted to explain similar cases; confer, compare the words अग्नौकरवाणिन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II 2.24, अपवादन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 3.9, अविरविकन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1. 88, 89, IV. 2.60, IV.3.131, V. 1.7, 28, VI 2. 11 ; कुम्भीधान्यन्याय M.Bh. on P.I. 3.7, कूपखानकन्याय M.Bh. I. 1. Āhnika 1, दण्डिन्याय M.Bh. on P. VIII.2.83, नष्टाश्वदग्धरथन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.50 प्रधानाप्रधानन्याय M.Bh.on P.II.1.69,VI. 3. 82, प्रासादवासिन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I . 1.8, मांसकण्टकन्याय M.Bh. on P.I.2.39, लट्वानुकर्षणन्याय M.Bh. on Siva Sūtra 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, शालिपलालन्याय M.Bh on P. 1.2.39,सूत्रशाटकन्याय M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12. The word came to be used in the general sense of Paribhāsās or rules of interpretation many of which were based upon popular maxims as stated in the word लोकन्यायसिद्ध by Nāgesa. Hemacandra has used the word न्याय for Paribhāsa-vacana. The word is also used in the sense of a general rule which has got some exceptions, confer, compare न्यायैर्मिश्रानपवादान् प्रतीयात् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) which lays down the direction that 'one should interpret the rule laying down an exception along with the general rule'.
nyāyyaproper; fully justified न्यायादनपेतम् confer, compare P.IV.4.92; correct; regular; confer, compare यञञ्भ्यामुक्तत्वादर्थस्य न्याय्योत्पत्तिर्न भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.3.1 where Kaiyata however, explains the word differently. Kaiyata states that न्याय्य means a general rule; confer, compareउत्सर्गः पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्ध्या न्याय्य उच्यते Kaiyata on P. II. 3.1. By Pūrvācārya he possibly refers to the writers of the Prātiśākhyas and other similar works by ancient grammarians, where the word nyāya is used in the sense of 'a general rule '. See the word न्याय a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
nyāsa(1)literally position, placing;a word used in the sense of actual expression or wording especially in the sūtras; confer, compare the usual expression क्रियते एतन्न्यास एव in the Mahābhāșya, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.11, 1.1.47 et cetera, and others; (2) a name given by the writers or readers to works of the type of learned and scholarly commentaries on vŗitti-type-works on standard sūtras in a Śāstra; e. g. the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. is given to the learned commentaries on the Vŗtti on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśasana as also on the Paribhāşāvŗtti by Hemahamsagani. Similarly the commentary by Devanandin on Jainendra grammar and that by Prabhācandra on the Amoghāvŗtti on Śākatāyana grammar are named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. In the same way, the learned commentary on the Kāśikāvŗtti by Jinendrabuddhi, named Kāśikāvivaranapaňjikā by the author, is very widely known by the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. This commentary Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. was written in the eighth century by the Buddhist grammarian Jinendrabuddhi, who belonged to the eastern school of Pānini's Grammar. This Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. has a learned commentary written on it by Maitreya Rakșita in the twelfth century named Tantrapradipa which is very largely quoted by subsequent grammarians, but which unfortunately is available only in a fragmentary state at present. Haradatta, a well-known southern scholar of grammar has drawn considerably from Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. in his Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta., which also is well-known as a scholarly work.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
paribhāṣāprakāśāan independent treatise explaining the various Paribhasas in the system of Panini's grammar, written by Visnusesa of the famous SeSa family.
parisaṃkhyānaliterally enumeration; enunciation;mention ; the word is found generally used by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras at the end of their Varttikas. The words वक्तव्यम्, वाच्यम् , and the like, are similarly usedition
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pātresamitādia class of irregular compound words headed by the compound word पात्रेसमित, which are taken correct as they are. This class of words consists mostly of words forming a tatpurușa compound which cannot be explained by regular rules. The class is called आकृतिगण and hence similar irregular words are included in it: e. g. पात्रेसमिताः, गेहेशूरः कूपमण्डूकः etc confer, compare KS. on P. II.1.48.
pṛthvādia class of words headed by the word पृथु to which the taddhita affix इमन् ( इमनिच् ) is added optionally with the other usual affixes अण्, त्व and तल् in the sense of 'nature'; e. g. प्रथिमा, पार्थवम् , पृथुत्वम् , पृथुता; similarly म्रदिमा, मार्दवम् मृदुत्वम्, मृदुता पटिमा पाटवम् , पटुता पटुत्वम् ; confer, compare KS. om P.V.1.122.
prakāra(l)attribute, attribute which differentiates, manner, difference; differentiating description: confer, compare कंचित्प्रकारं प्राप्तः इत्थंभूत: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.3.21: (2) resemblance, similarity of one thing with another with slight deficiency: confer, compare प्रकारे गुणवचनस्य । प्रक्रारो भेदः सादृश्यं च। तदिह सादृश्यं प्रकारो गृह्यते । प्रकारे वर्तमानस्य गुणवचनशब्दस्य द्वे भवतः । पटुपटुः मृदुमृदुः । अपरिपूर्णगुण इत्यर्थः । परिपूर्णगुणेन न्यूनगुणस्य उपमाने सत्येवं प्रयुज्यते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII.1.12; (3) differentiating attribute; confer, compare प्रकारवचने थाल् V. 3.23, प्रकारवचने जातीयर् V. 3.69, स्यूलादिभ्यः प्रकारवचने कन् V. 4.3 where Kasika defines the word प्रकार as सामान्यस्य भेदको विशेषः प्रकार: Ka, on V. 3.23 and 69; (4) type, confer, compare इतिशब्दः प्रकारार्थः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on V. 2.93: confer, compare also अदिशब्दः प्रकारे Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on देवपथादिभ्यश्च P.V.3.100; cf also अादिइाब्दः प्रकारे वर्तते । देवदत्तादय आढ्याः । देवदत्तप्रकारा इत्यर्थः M.Bh. on I.3.1 Vart. 11.
prakriyākaumudīa well-known work on Sanskrit Grammar by रामचन्द्रशेष of the 15th century, in which the subject matter of the eight chapters of Panini's grammar is arranged into several different sections forming the different topics of grammar. It is similar to, and possibly. the predecessor of, the Siddhanta Kaumudi which has a similar arrangement. The work was very popular before the Siddhinta Kaumudi was written. it has got many commentaries numbering about a dozen viz. प्रक्रियाप्रसाद, प्रक्रियाप्रकाश, प्रक्रियाप्रदीप, अमृतस्तुति, प्रक्रियाव्याकृति,निर्मलदर्पण,तत्वचन्द्र, प्रक्रियारञ्जन, प्रक्रियाविवरण and others of which the Prasada of Vitthalesa and the Prakasa of Srikrsna are the wellknown ones.
prakriyākaumudīvṛtticalled also प्रक्रियाकौमुदीव्याख्या or even कृष्णपण्डिता ( वृत्ति ) written by a learned grammarian named Krsnapandita belonging to the famous Sesa family of grammarians.
pratirūpakasimilar in appearance: confer, compare उपसर्गविभक्तिस्वरप्रतिरूपकाश्च निपाता भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.24 Vart. 22, as also on P. III. 4.2; confer, compare उपसर्गप्रतिरूपका निपाताः, तिङन्तप्रतिरूपका निपाताः; cf also अस्ति च समासप्रतिरूपको रूढिशब्दः स्वतन्त्र इति Nyasa on P. I. 4.54.
prāśliṣṭaname of the circumflex accent possessed by a vowel which has resulted from the coalescence of two similar vowels, as for example in भिन्द्धीदम् । see प्रश्लिष्ट.
prauḍhamanoramākhaṇḍana(1)a grammatical work written by a grammarian named Cakrapani of the Sesa family of grammarians. The work is meant to refute the arguments of Bhattoji Diksita in his Praudhamanorama; (2) a grammar work written by the famous poet and rhetorician Jagannātha in refutation of the doctrines and explanations given in the Praudhamanorama by the stalwart Grammarian Bhattoji Diksita. The work is not a scholarly one and it has got a tone of banter. It was written by Jagannatha to show that he could also write works on Grammar and the bearded pedant Bhattoji should not be proud of his profound scholarship in Grammar. The work of Jagannatha was named मनोरमाकुचमर्दन possibly by his followers or even by himselfeminine.
bahuvrīhia compound similar in meaning to the word बहुव्रीहि ( possessed of much rice ) which, in sense shows quite a distinct object than those which are shown by the constituent members of the compound; a relative or adjective compound. There are various kinds of the Bahuvrihi compound such as समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुव्रीहि, दिग्बहुव्रीहि, सहबहुव्रीहि, नञ्बहुव्रीहि, and अनेकपदबहुव्रीहि which depend upon the specific peculiarity noticed in the various cases. Panini in his grammar has not given any definition of बहुव्रीहि, but has stated that a compound other than those already given viz. अव्ययीभाव, द्वन्द्व and तत्पुरुष, is बहुव्रीहि and cited under Bahuvrihi all cases mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf शेषो बहुव्रीहिः II. 3.23-28; also confer, compare अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.6; II. 1.20; II. 1.49.
bāhvādia class of words headed by the word बाहु to which the taddhita affix. affix इ ( इञ् ) is added in the sense of a descendant; e. g. बाहविः, पौष्करसादि:, पाञ्चिः et cetera, and others The class called बाह्वादि is looked upon as अाकृतिगण on the strength of the word च in the rule, so that similar words, not included in the class, could be explained; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.96.
bhīmādia class of words headed by the word भीम in which the Uṇādi affixes म and others, as prescribed by specific Uṇādi sūtras, are found added in the sense of the 'apādāna' case-relation; exempli gratia, for example भीमः in the sense 'बिभेति अस्मात्'. Similarly भीष्मः, भूमि:, रज: et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.4.74.
bhuktaliterally swallowed or eaten up; the term is used in connection with letters that are uttered imperfectly on account of the proximity of similar letters.
bhṛśādia class of nouns headed by भृश to which the denominative affix य is added in the sense of 'being or becoming what they were not before;' exempli gratia, for example अभृशो भृशो भवति भृशायते; similarly ,शीघ्रायते, मन्दायते, उन्मनायते, दुर्मनायते et cetera, and othersconfer, compareKāś.III.1.I3.
marīsataddhita affix. affix मरीसच् added to the word अवि in the sense of milk; exempli gratia, for example अविमरीसम्; confer, compare अवेर्दुग्धे सोढदूसमरीसचः P. V. 2.36 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5.
mugdhabodhaliterally instructions to the ignorant: a treatise on grammar similar to the Astadhyayi of Panini but much shorter, written by Bopadeva or Vopadeva an inhabitant of the greater Maharastra in the Vardha district, in the thirteenth century. After the fall of the Hindu rulers in Bengal, treatises like भाषावृत्ति and others written by eastern grammarians fell into the back-ground and their place was taken up by easier treatises written by Bopadeva and others.Many commentaries were written upon the Mugdhabodha, of which the Vidyanivsa is much known to grammarians
meghavijayaa Jain grammarian of the seventeenth century who has written a grammar work, similar to the Siddhanta Kaumudi, on the Sabdanusasana of Hemacandra. The grammar work is called हैमकौमुदी, or चन्द्रप्रभा also.
y(1)the consonant य् with अ added to it merely for the sake of facility in pronunciation; यकार is also used in the same sense: e. g. लिटि वयो यः: P.VI.1.38 confer, compare T.Pr.I: 17,21;(2) krt affix (यत्) prescribed as कृत्य or potential passive participle; exempli gratia, for exampleचेयम्, गेयम्, शाप्यम् , शक्यम् , गद्यम् , अजर्यम् पण्यम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare अचो यत्...अजर्यं संगतम् P.III. 1.97-105; (3) krt. affix क्यप् which is also an affix called krtya; e. gब्रह्मोद्यम् , भाव्यम्, घात्यम् , स्तुत्यम् , कल्प्यम् , खेयम् , भृत्यः:, भिद्यः, पुष्य:, कृत्यम्,also कार्यम् ; confer, compare P. III. 1.106-128:(4) krt affix ण्यत् ( which is also कृत्य ), e. g कार्यम् , हार्यम् , वाक्यम् , लाव्यम्, कुण्डपाय्यम्. et cetera, and others: cf P. III. 1.124-132: (5) taddhita affix. affix य affixed (a) in the sense of collection to पाश, वात et cetera, and others, as also to खल, गो and रथ, e. g. पाद्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV. 2. 49, 50ः (b) in the चातुरर्थिक senses to बल, कुल, तुल et cetera, and others e. g. वल्यः,.कुल्यम् efeminine. P V.2. 80, (c) as a Saisika taddhita affix. affix to ग्राम्यहः' along with the affix खञ्ज e. g. ग्राम्यः, ग्रामीणः: cf P: IV. 2.94 (d) in the sense of 'good therein' ( तत्र साधुः ) and other stated senses affixed to सभा, सोदर पूर्व, and सोम: e. g. सभ्य:, पूर्व्यः; .et cetera, and others. confer, compare P. IV. 4.105, 109, 133, 137, 138: (e) in the sense of 'deserving it' to दण्ड and other words, e. g. दण्ड्य, अर्ध्र्य, मध्य, मेध्य, et cetera, and others: cf P. V. 1.66: ( f ) in the sense of quality or action to सखि e. g. सख्यम् ; cf P. V. 1.126: (6) taddhita affix. affix यत् applied to (a) राजन् श्वशुर, कुल, मनु in the sense of offspring, (b) शूल्, उखा, वायु, ऋतु and others, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. IV. 2.17, 31, 32, 101, (c) to अर्ध, परार्ध, words in the class headed by दि्श, छन्दस and others in specific senses; cf P. IV. 3-46, 54 et cetera, and others and (d) in specific senses to specific words mentioned here and there in a number of sUtras from IV.4, 75 to V.4.25; (e) to शाखा, मुख, जघन and others in the sense of इव (similar to) exempli gratia, for example शाख्यः, मुख्य:, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 3. 103; (7) case-ending य substituted for ङे of the dative sing; e. g. रामाय confer, compare P. VII. 3.102: (8) verb-affix यक् applied to the nouns कण्डू and others to make them ( denominative ) roots; e. g. कण्डूय,सन्तूय et cetera, and others confer, compare कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् P. III. 1.27 (9) | Vikarana य ( यक् ) applied to any root before the Saarvadhaatuka personal endings to form the base for the passive voice as also the base for the 'Karmakartari' voice e g क्रियते, भूयते, confer, compare सार्वधातुके यक् P. III. 1.67 (10) Unaadi affix य ( यक् ) applied to the root हृन् to form the Vedic word अघ्न्य: cf अघ्न्यादयश्च: ( 11 ) augment य ( यक् ) added to the affix क्त्वा in Vedic Literature: e. g. दत्त्वायः confer, compare क्त्वो यक् P. VII.1.47; (12) verb affix यङ् added to a root to form its Intensive base ( which sometimes is dropped ) and the root is doubledition e. g. चेक्रीयते,चर्करीति;. confer, compare P. III. 1.22,24; (13) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) supposed to be beginning with य in the affix यइ in the sUtra धातेरेकाचो ... यङ् III. 1.22, and ending with ङ् in the sUtra लिड्याशिष्यङ्क III. 1.86, with a view to include the various verb affixes and conjugational signs.
yadāgama( परिभाषा )short familiar wording for the dictum or Paribhaasaa यदागमास्तद्गुणीभूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते ' Par. Sek. Pari. 11.
yam(1)one of pair a twin letter available in pronunciation before a nasal letter and similar to it, when the nasal consonant is preceded by any one of the four consonants of the five classes; a transitional sound intervening between a non-nasal and the following nasal as a counterpart of the n6n-nasal: confer, compare वर्गेष्वाद्यानां चेतुर्णो पञ्चमे पर मध्ये यमो नाम पूर्वसदृशो वर्णः प्रातिशाख्ये प्रसिद्धः S.K. on P.व्व्III. l.1; (2) name given to the seven musical notes, found in the singing of Saaman; confer, compare मन्द्रमध्यमत्राख्येषु त्रिषु वाचः स्थानेषु प्रत्येकं सत स्थरभेदा भवन्ति कुष्टप्रथमद्वितीयतृतीयचतुर्थमन्द्रातित्वार्यः यमाः ' Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 13,14.
yugapadadhikaraṇavacanatādenotation of two or more things by one single member by virtue of their being put together in a dvandva compound of two or more words; the grammarians advocate this doctrine stating that in a dvandva compound such as घटपटौ or घटपटम् , the word घट has the capacity of expressing the sense of both घट and पट, which in a sentence घटः पटश्च, it does not possess. Similarly पट also has the capacity of conveying the sense of both पट and घट. Possibly this theory is advocated by grarnmarians, on the analogy of words like पितरौ or मातरौ for मातापितरौ, द्यावा for द्यावापृथिवी and so on; confer, compare सिद्धं तु युगपदधिकरणवचने द्वन्द्ववचनात् P. II 2.29 Vart. 2. For details see Vyakaranamahabhasya on चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II. 2.29.
rājanyādiaclass of words headed by the word राजन्य to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुच् ) is added in the sense of ' the place of residence '; e. g. राजन्यकः, औदुम्वरक: ! et cetera, and others This class named राजन्यादि is ] called अाकृतिगण and similar words ! can be included in this class such as मालव,विराट् , त्रिगर्त and others from which the words मालवक: वैराटक: त्रैगर्तक: et cetera, and others can be arrived at confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.53.
rāmacandra(1)रामन्वन्द्राचार्य (son of कृष्णाचार्य) the well-known author of the Prakriyakaumudi. He belonged to the Sesa family and the latter half of the fifteenth century is assigned as his date. He is believed to have been a resident of Andhra. His work, the Prakriyakaumudi, was a popular grammar treatise for some time before Bhattoji's SiddhantaKaumudi got its hold, and it had a number of commentaries written upon it especially by his descendants and members of his family which became well-known as the Sesa family of grammarians. The Prakriyakaumudi is named कृष्णर्किकरप्राक्रिया also. (2) There was a grammarian named Ramacandra who wrote a small treatise on grammar named विदग्धबोध. (3) There was another grammarian of the same name who was a pupil of Nagesabhatta of the eighteenth century and who wrote a small commentary called वृतिसंग्रह on Panini's Astadhyayi. (4) There was also another Ramacandra who was a scholar of Vedic grammar and who wrote the commentary named ज्योत्स्ना on the Vjasaneyi-Pratisakhya.
lāghavabrevity of expression; expressing in as few words as possible; brevity of thought and conception. About brevity of expression,rules or sūtras of the ancient Sūtrakāras are noteworthy especially those of the grammarian Pāņini, whose brevity of expression is aptly extolled in the familiar expression अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणा: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 122; confer, compare also in contrast पर्यायशब्दानां लाघवगौरवचर्चा नाद्रियते Par.Śek.Pari.115.
lohitādi(1)a class of words headed by लोहित to which the affix क्यव् ( य ) is added in the sense of 'becoming', to form a denominative root-base which gets the verb-endings of both the padas; e. g. लोहितायति, लोहितायते; निद्रायति, निद्रायते; the class लोहितादि is considered as अाकृतिगण so that similar denominative verb-bases could be explained; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.1. 13; (2) a class of words headed by लेहित, to which the feminine. affix ष्फ ( अायनी ) is added after they have got the taddhita affix यञ् added to them in the sense of 'a grandchild'; e. g. लौहित्यायनी, कात्यायनी et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.18.
vati(1)taddhita affix. affix वत् in the sense of similar activity or thing; e. g. राजवद्वर्तते, मथुरावत् स्त्रुघ्ने प्राकार:; confer, compare तेन तुल्यं क्रिया चेद्वतिः | तत्र तस्येव P.V.1.115, 116; (2) taddhita affix. affix वत् in the sense of deserving;e.g, राजवत् पालनम् ; confer, compare तदर्हम् P.V.1.117; (3) taddhita affix. affix वत् applied to prefixes in Vedic Literature without any sense of its own ; e.g यदुद्वतो निवतो याति बप्सत् ; confer, compare उपसर्गाच्छन्दसि धात्वर्थे P.V. 1. 118.
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
varṇaukadeśaa part or a portion of a combined letter id est, that isसंयुक्तस्वर or संयुक्तव्यञ्जन. The diphthongs or संयुक्तस्वरs are divisible into two Svaras, for instance ऐ into अा and ए, औ into अा and ओ. Similarly double consonants like क्कू, च्च्, क्म्, क्त् et cetera, and others are also divisible. Regarding the point raised whether the individual parts can be looked upon as separate letters for undergoing or causing a grammatical operation,the decision of the grammarians is that they cannot be looked upon as separate, when they are completely mixed as the dipthongs; confer, compareनाक्यपवृक्तस्यावयवस्य तद्वधिर्यथा द्रव्येषु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 3, 4 Vart. 6.
vādiroots headed by वा and similar to वा. Really there is no class of roots headed by वा given anywhere but in the interpretation of the rule भूवादयो धातव: it is suggested that ' the roots which are similar to वा are termed roots (धातु)' could also be the interpretation of the rule: confer, compare भ्वादय इति च वादय इति M.Bh. on P. I. 3. l . Vart. ll .
vārttikakārabelieved to be Katyayana to whom the whole bulk of the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya is attributed by later grammarians. Patafijali gives the word वार्तिककार in four places only (in the Mahabhasya on P.I.1.34, III.1.44: III.2.118 and VII.1.1) out of which his statement स्यादिविधिः पुरान्तः यद्यविशेषणं भवति किं वार्तिककारः प्रातिषेधेनं करोति in explanation of the Slokavarttika स्यादिविधिः...इति हुवता कात्यायनेनेहृ, shows that Patanjali gives कात्यायन as the Varttikakara (of Varttikas in small prose statements) and the Slokavarttika is not composed by Katyayana. As assertions similar to those made by other writers are quoted with the names of their authors ( भारद्वाजीयाः, सौनागाः, कोष्ट्रियाः et cetera, and others) in the Mahabhasya, it is evident that the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya(even excluding the Slokavarttikas) did not all belong to Katyayana. For details see pp. 193-200, Vol. VII, Vyakarana Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition.
vārttikasūtrathe same as वार्तिकवचन which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Varttikas are termed Varttika sutras on account of their close similarity with the original Sutras, which in contrast are termed Vrttisutras.
vikaraṇaan affix placed between a root and the personal ending, for showing the specific tense or mood or voice to convey which, the personal ending is applied; e. g. the conjugational signs शप् , श्यन् , श्रु, श, श्नम्, उ, श्ना and यक्, आम् , as also स्य, तास् , सिप् , अाम् and च्लि with its substitutes. Although the term विकरण is used by ancient grammarians and freely used by the Mahabhsyakara in connection with the affixes, mentioned in the sutras of Panini, such as शप् , श्यन् and others, the term is not found in the Sutras of Panini. The vikaranas are different from the major kinds of the regular affixes तिङ्, कृत्य and other similar ones. The vikaranas can be called कृत्; so also, as they are mentioned in the topic (अधिकार) of affixes or Pratyayas,they hold the designation ' pratyaya '. For the use of the word विकरण see M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12, III, 1.31 and VI. 1.5. The term विकरण is found . in the Yājñavalkya Siksa in the sense of change, ( confer, compare उपधारञ्जनं कुर्यान्मनोर्विकरणे सति ) and possibly the ancient grammarians used it in that very sense as they found the root कृ modified as करु or कुरु, or चि as चिनु, or भू as भव before the regular personal endings तिप् , तस् et cetera, and others
vibhaktipratirūpakaa term applied to such words ending with kṛt affixes as appear similar to words ending with case-affixes; such words have no further case affixes put after them, and hence, they are called by the term 'avyaya'; exempli gratia, for example कर्तुम् confer, compare विभक्तिप्रतिरूपकमव्ययम् similar to उपसर्गविभक्तिस्वरप्रतिरूपकाश्च निपाताः gaṇasūtra inside the Cādigaṇa P. I.4.57.
vibhāktisvarapratirūpakasimilar in form to a word ending in a case-affix or to a vowel. Such words are looked upon, and are treated as indeclinables exempli gratia, for example शनै:, चिरेण, अस्ति, उ, ए et cetera, and others; confer, compare the usual expressions तिडन्तप्रतिरूपकमव्ययम् et cetera, and others confer, compare विभक्तिस्वरप्रतिरूपकाश्च निपाता भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VIII.3.1: confer, compare also उपसर्गविभक्तिस्वरप्रतिरूपकाश्च निपाताः । a gaṇasūtra inside the चादिगण mentioned in P.I.4.57.
viṣayatābeing a subject of discussion of; coming under the domain of, applicability the meaning of विषयसप्तमी which is similar to विवक्षा.
viṣṇupaṇḍitaa grammarian belonging to the famous Śeṣa family of grammarians, who has written a small treatise on Paribhāṣā or maxims of interpretation which he has named परिभाषाप्रक्राश.
vuñ(ID taddhita affix. affix अक causing vṛddhi to the vowel of the first syllable of that word to which it is added, as prescribed, (a) to the words denoting an offspring as also to the words उक्ष, उष्ट्र et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'a group'; e. g. अोपगवकम् , औष्ट्रकम् , कैदारकम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.IV.2.39, 40; (b) to the words राजन्य and others in the sense of 'inhabited country' ; e. g. राजन्यकः देवनायकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. IV.2.53, (c) to the words headed by अरीहण such as द्वुघण, खदिर्, मैत्रायण, काशकृत्स्न et cetera, and others in the quadruple senses; exempli gratia, for example अारीहणकम् , द्रौबणकम् , confer, compare P.IV.2.80, (d) to the word धन्व meaning a desert, to words with य् or र for their penultimate, to words ending in प्रस्थ, पुर and वह as also to words headed by धूम, नगर, अरण्य कुरु, युगन्धर et cetera, and others, under certain conditions in the miscellaneous senses; e. g. सांकाश्यकः,पाटलिपुत्रकः, माकन्दकः, आङ्गकः, वाङ्गकः, धौमकः, नागरकः, अारण्यकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.2.121-130,134,135, 136; (e) to the words शरद् , आश्वयुजी, ग्रीष्म, वसन्त, संवत्सर,अाग्रहायणी and others in the specific senses given: confer, compare P. IV. 3.27, 45, 46, 49, 50; (f) to words denoting descendence or spiritual relation, words meaning families and warrior clans, words कुलाल and others, words meaning clans, and students learning a specific Vedic branch in specific senses prescribed : e. g. आचार्यक, मातामहक, ग्लौचुकायनक, कालालक, काठक, कालापक et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.77, 99, 118, 126; (g) to the words शाकल, उष्ट्र, उमा and ऊर्णा in the specially given senses; exempli gratia, for example शाकलः, संघः, औप्ट्रकः, औमम् और्णम्, confer, compareP.IV.3.188,157,158; (h) to words with य् as the penultimate, and a long vowel preceding the last one, to words in the dvandva compound, and to the words मनोज्ञ, कल्याण and others in the sense of 'nature' or 'profession';e.g रामणीयकम् गौपालपशुपालिका, गार्गिका, काठिका etc; confer, compare P. V.1.132,133,134: (2) kṛt affix अक added to the roots निन्द् हिंस् and others, and to the roots देव् and कृश् with a prefix before,in the sense of a habituated,professional or skilled agent; exempli gratia, for example. निन्दकः, परिक्षेपकः, असूयकः, परिदेवकः, आक्रोशकः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.2. 146, 147.
vṛta word signifying the end of a particular group of words; the word frequently occurs in the Dhātupāṭha of Pāṇini but not necessarily at the end of each class or group therein; exempli gratia, for example टुओश्चि गतिवृद्धयोः । वृत् | अयं वदतिश्च उदात्तौ परस्मैभाषौ | Dhātupāṭha at the end of the First Conjugation. Similarly वृत् is used at the end of the fourth, fifth, and sixth conjugations.
vaidikīprakriyāname of that section of Bhattoji's Siddhantakaumudi which deals with Vedic peculiarities noticed by Panini in his sutras. There is a well-known commentary upon this section named सुबोधिनी written by Jayakrisna a famous grammar scholar of the Maunin family.
vyavacchinna(1)separated; detached from a specific thing by the loss of connection with it; confer, compare एवमेतास्मिन्नुभयतो व्यवाच्छिन्ने यदि स्वार्थे जहाति जहातु नाम Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 2; (2) characterized or possessed of an intervention by similar things confer, compare तद्वा अनेकेन निपातनेन व्यवच्छिन्नं न शक्यमनुवर्तयितुमिति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3.83; cf also P. VI. 4.2.
vyavaheitahaving an intervention by a dissimilar thing; separated by something coming between; confer, compare संयोगसंज्ञा व्यवहितानां मा भूत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.8. Vart, 5.
śabdasaṃcayaan anonymous elementary booklet on declension similar to Sabdarupavali. शब्दसंज्ञा a technical term given to a wording irrespective of the sense element as contrasted with अर्थसंज्ञा. See.exempli gratia, for example घु, भ or the like: confer, compare शब्दसंज्ञायां ह्यर्थासंप्रत्ययो यथान्यत्र P.I. 1.44 Vart. 2.
śabdānuśāsanaliterally science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentence. The word is used in connection with standard works on grammar which are complete and self-sufficient in all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned features. Patanjali has begun his Mahabhasya with the words अथ शब्दानुशासनम् referring possibly to the vast number of Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and hence the term शब्दानुशासन according to him means a treatise on the science of grammar made up of the rules of Panini with the explanatory and critical varttikas written by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras.The word शब्दानुशासन later on, became synonymons with Vyakarana and it was given as a title to their treatises by later grammarians, or was applied to the authoritative treatise which introduced a system of grammar, similar to that of Panini. Hemacandra's famous treatise, named सिद्धहैमचन्द्र by the author,came to be known as हैमशब्दानुशासन. Similarly the works on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्तिशाकटायन and देवनन्दिन् were called शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and जैनेन्द्र' शब्दानुशासन respectively.
śarkarādia class of words headed by शर्करा to which the taddhita affix. affix अ (अण्) is added in the sense of इव viz. similarity:cf शर्करेव शार्करम् ,कापालिकम् पौण्डरीकम् Kas on P. V. 3.107.
śākaṭāyana(1)name of an ancient reputed scholar of Grammar and Pratisakhyas who is quoted by Panini. He is despisingly referred to by Patanjali as a traitor grammarian sympathizing with the Nairuktas or etymologists in holding the view that all substantives are derivable and can be derived from roots; cf तत्र नामान्याख्यातजानीति शाकटायनो नैरुक्तसमयश्च Nir.I.12: cf also नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् M. Bh on P.III.3.1. Sakatayana is believed to have been the author of the Unadisutrapatha as also of the RkTantra Pratisakhya of the Samaveda ; (2) name of a Jain grammarian named पाल्यकीर्ति शाकटायन who lived in the ninth century during the reign of the Rastrakuta king Amoghavarsa and wrote the Sabdanusana which is much similar to the Sutrapatha of Panini and introduced a new System of Grammar. His work named the Sabdanusasana consists of four chapters which are arranged in the form of topics, which are named सिद्धि. The grammar work is called शब्दानुशासन.
śākalapratiṣedhaprohibition of the coalescence of any of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ with any dissimilar vowel following it. See शाकल.
śākhādia class of words headed by the word शाखा which have the taddhita affix य added to them in the sense of इव id est, that is similarity; exempli gratia, for example शाख्य:, मुख्यः, जघन्यः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.3.103.
śuklayajuḥprātiśākhyaname of the Pratisakhya treatise pertaining to the White Yajurveda which is also called the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. This work appears to be a later one as compared with the other PratiSakhya works and bears much similarity with some of the Sutras of Panini. It is divided into eight chapters by the author and it deals with letters, their origin and their classification, the euphonic and other changes when the Samhita text is rendered into the Pada text, and accents. The work appears to be a common work for all the different branches of the White Yajurveda, being probably based on the individually different Pratisakhya works of the different branches of the Shukla Yajurveda composed in ancient times. Katyayana is traditionally believed to be the author of the work and very likely he was the same Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini.
śeṣa(l)any other senses than what are given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare शेषे P.IV.2.92: (2) surname of a reputed family of grammarians belonging to Southern India which produced many grammarians, from the fifteenth century to the eighteenth century. Ramacandra Sesa was the first grammarian in the family who wrote the Prakriyakaumudi in the fifteenth century. His descendants developed the system of studying grammar by the study of topics as given in the Prakriya Kaumudi and wrote several works of the nature of glosses and comments.
śeṣakṛṣṇaone of the prominent grammarians belonging to the Sesa family, who was the son of नरससिंहशेत्र. He wrote a gloss on the Prakriyakaumudi and two small works Prakrtacandrika and Padacandrika. Two other minor grammar works viz. the Yanlugantasiromani and Upapadamatinsutravyakhyana are ascribed to शेषकृष्ण who may be the same as शेषकृष्ण the son of नरसिंह, or another, as there were many persons who had the name Krsna in the big family.
śeṣacakrapāṇia grammarian of the Sesa family who wrote a small treatise on case-relations named कारकतत्त्व.
ścutvathe substitution of the palatal consonants श्,च्,छ्,ज्, झ् and ञ् respectively for the similar consonants स्, त् , थ् , द् , ध् and न् of the dental class; confer, compare स्तोः श्चुना श्चु: P.VIII.4.10.
ṣyaṅtaddhita affix. affix य (taking Samprasarana change i e. ई before the words पुत्र and पति and बन्धु in the Bahuvrihi compound) added, instead of the affix अण् or इञ्, in the sense of offspring, (l) to words having a long ( गुरु ) vowel for their penultimate , only in the formation of feminine bases, exempli gratia, for example कारीषगन्ध्या कौमुद्गन्ध्या, वाराह्या; कारीषगन्धीपुत्रः, कारीषगन्धीपति:, कारीषगन्धबिन्धुः ( Bah. compound): cf P.IV.1.78; (2) to words expressive of family names like पुणिक, मुखर et cetera, and others as also to the words क्रौडि, लाडि, व्याडि आपिशलि et cetera, and others and optionally to the words दैवयज्ञि and others in the formation of feminine bases; e. g. पौणिक्या, मौखर्या, क्रौड्या, व्याड्या, अापिशल्या et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. IV.1.79, 80, 81.
samūhaaggregate, group or collection; one of the prominent senses in which the taddhita affix. affixes अण् and others are prescribedition These affixes are called सामूहिक; exempli gratia, for example काकम् (काकानां समूहः ) similarly भैक्षम्, राजकम्, कैदार्यम्, जनता, मायूरम्, पाश्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV. 2.37 to 51.
sāmyasimilarity, homogeneity: described to be of two kindsin words and in sense; confer, compare किं पुनः शब्दतः साम्ये संख्यातानुदेशो भवत्याहोस्विदर्थतः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 3. 10 Vart 3; confer, compare also स्थानकरणकालादिभि: तौल्यम् T. Pr XXIV. 5.
sup(l)locative case affix सु: (2) short term for case-affixes, as formed by the syllable सु (the nominative case. singular. affix) at the beginning and the final consonant प् of सुप्, the locative plural case-affix in the rule स्वौजसमौट्...ङ्योस्सुप् P. IV. 1.2. These case afixes are called 'vibhakti' also. These सुप् affixes are elided after an indeclinable word; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुप: P. II. 4.82; in Veda स्, शे ( ए ), या, डा, ड्या, याच् and अाल् as seen, are substituted for these case affixes, which sometimes are even dropped or assimilated with the previous vowel of the base: e. g. सन्तु पन्थाः, आर्द्रे चर्मन् et cetera, and others cf, P. VII. 1.39. These caseaffixes are as a rule, grave-accented (अनुदात्त) excepting in such cases as are mentioned in P. VI.1. 166 to 184 and 19l.
soḍhataddhita affix. affix सेाढ prescribed in the sense of ' milk ', optionally along with the affixes दूस and मरीस after the word अवि; e. g. अविसोढम् confer, compare अवेर्दुग्धे सोढदूसमरीसत्र: P. IV. 2. 36. Vart. 5.
sthānivatsimilar to the original in behaviour; confer, compare स्थानिवदादेशोनल्विधौ P.I. 1.59. See स्थानिवद्भाव.
sthānivadbhāvabehaviour of the substitute like the original in respect of holding the qualities of the original and causing grammatical operations by virtue of those qualities. By means of स्थानिवद्भाव,the substitute for a root is,for instance, looked upon as a root; similarly, a noun-base or an affix or so, is looked upon like the original and it can cause such operations or be a recipient of such operations as are due to its being a root or a noun or an affix or the like. This स्यानिवद्भाव cannot be, and is not made also, a universally applicable feature; and there are limitations or restrictions put upon it, the chief of them being अल्विधौ or in the matter of such operations as are caused by the 'property of being a single letter' (अल्विधौ). There are two views regarding this 'behaviour like the original' : (l) supposed behaviour which is only instrumental in causing operations or undergoing them which is called शास्त्रातिदेदा and (2) actual restoration to the form of the original under certain conditions only as prescribed which is called रूपातिदेश. The रूपातिदेश is actually resorted to by some grammarians in the case of the reduplication of roots; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on द्विवेचनेचि P.I.1.59 and M.Bh. on P.I.1.59.See the word रूपातिदेश also. For details see Vol. VII p.p. 241243, Vyākarana Mahabhasya D.E. Society's Edition.
sthānedvirvacanapakṣaone of the two alternative views regarding reduplication according to which two wordings or units of the same form replace the original single wording, confer, compare स्थानेद्विर्वचनपक्षे स्थानिवद्भावात्प्रकृति व्यपदेशः: Siradeva Pari. 68.The other kind of reduplication is called द्वि:प्रयोगाद्विर्वचनपक्ष which looks upon reduplication as the mere placing of an exactly similar unit or wording after the original first unit. This alternative view is accepted in the Kasika: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI.1.1.
sphoṭacandrikāa small treatise on the theory of Sphota written by Jayakrsna Mauni of the famous Maunin family. The author is known as Krsnabhatta also.
sphoṭatattvānirūpaṇaa work on the Sphota theory by the famous grammarian Krsnasesa of the Sesa family of grammarians.
svarapratirūpakaa word or Pratipadika which is exactly similar to a single vowel such as उ or अा or . ए and the like; such words are to be looked upon as Avyayas and the case-affixes after them are dropped when they are usedition confer, compare स्वरप्रतिरूपकमव्ययम्.
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
haimakaumudīan exhaustive commentary on the Sabdanusasana of Hemacandra written by a Jain grammarian Meghavijaya in the seventeenth century which is similar to the Siddhāntakaumudi of Bhattoji Diksita,
haimadhātuvyākhyāwritten by a Jain grammarian named पुण्यसुंदर which is similar to the Madhaviya Dhatuvrtti,
haimabṛhatprakriyāa work very similar to the Siddhantakaumudi written by a comparatively modern Jain scholar named Girijashankar Shastri.
     Vedabase Search  
500 results
     
milāba sabāre I shall arrange for a meeting with all of youCC Madhya 10.28
milāba sabāre I shall arrange for a meeting with all of youCC Madhya 10.28
milāha cause to meetCC Madhya 12.55
milaha meetCC Madhya 12.23
milāha āmāre arrange to meet with meCC Antya 6.33
milāha āmāre arrange to meet with meCC Antya 6.33
milāila caused to meetCC Madhya 11.212
milāilā introducedCC Antya 12.44
CC Antya 12.50
CC Antya 13.104
CC Antya 4.107
CC Antya 4.22
CC Madhya 19.65
CC Madhya 20.79
milāile when he introduced himCC Antya 10.143
milāite to introduceCC Madhya 10.38
milāñā causing to meetCC Madhya 6.195
milana combiningCC Antya 17.49
milana conjunctionCC Adi 4.38
milana meetingCC Adi 10.104
CC Adi 10.129
CC Adi 17.10
CC Adi 17.8
CC Adi 4.31
CC Antya 1.110
CC Antya 1.197
CC Antya 20.122
CC Madhya 1.104
CC Madhya 1.111
CC Madhya 1.113
CC Madhya 1.130
CC Madhya 1.131
CC Madhya 1.141
CC Madhya 1.53
CC Madhya 1.95
CC Madhya 10.127
CC Madhya 10.27
CC Madhya 11.194
CC Madhya 11.34
CC Madhya 11.39
CC Madhya 14.177
CC Madhya 16.247
CC Madhya 17.71
CC Madhya 2.51
CC Madhya 3.170
CC Madhya 3.207
CC Madhya 4.3-4
CC Madhya 6.32
CC Madhya 9.319
milana mixtureCC Adi 5.66
CC Madhya 8.305
milana kari' by the meetingCC Antya 5.150
milana kari' by the meetingCC Antya 5.150
milana lāgi' to meetCC Madhya 12.40
milana lāgi' to meetCC Madhya 12.40
milana-sthāne in the meeting placeCC Madhya 11.163
milana-sthāne in the meeting placeCC Madhya 11.163
milane being mixedCC Madhya 23.49
milane by combining togetherCC Madhya 14.178
milane by mixingCC Madhya 19.181
milane by the meetingCC Madhya 8.194
milane for meetingCC Madhya 19.38
milane in meetingCC Madhya 1.130
CC Madhya 6.27
milane in mixingCC Madhya 2.33
milane in mixing togetherCC Madhya 19.182
milane meetingCC Adi 10.131
milane the meetingCC Madhya 1.136
milaya become mixedCC Madhya 14.175
milaya joinCC Adi 5.131
milaya meetCC Madhya 10.187
milaye getsCC Madhya 5.160
milaye meetsCC Madhya 23.126
CC Madhya 3.218
CC Madhya 6.285
CC Madhya 7.152
mile getsCC Adi 13.120
mile if one gets to doCC Madhya 21.132
mile meetCC Adi 4.10
CC Adi 7.157
CC Antya 9.76
CC Madhya 13.153
mile meet togetherCC Madhya 3.205
mile meetsCC Antya 6.187
CC Madhya 8.310
mile one getsCC Madhya 12.9
mile one meetsCC Madhya 19.180
mile they meetCC Adi 4.31
milena dui-jane meets both of themCC Antya 4.52
milena dui-jane meets both of themCC Antya 4.52
milena dui-jane meets both of themCC Antya 4.52
mili I shall meetCC Madhya 12.25
mili shall meetCC Madhya 12.25
mili' added togetherCC Madhya 24.294
mili' combined togetherCC Adi 7.20-21
mili' combiningCC Antya 19.95
CC Madhya 14.69
CC Madhya 20.277
mili' combining togetherCC Adi 17.320
mili' coming togetherCC Antya 15.59
CC Antya 2.166
CC Madhya 14.188
CC Madhya 17.37
CC Madhya 9.52
CC Madhya 9.60
mili' includingCC Madhya 24.210
mili' meetingCC Antya 2.48-49
CC Antya 4.217
CC Madhya 1.100
CC Madhya 11.107
CC Madhya 11.196
CC Madhya 12.60
CC Madhya 16.210
CC Madhya 23.48
CC Madhya 7.42
CC Madhya 8.243
mili' meeting togetherCC Adi 17.119
CC Antya 3.217
CC Madhya 17.206
mili' mingling togetherCC Adi 14.23
mili' togetherCC Antya 11.8
miliba we will meetCC Adi 16.104
milibā will meetCC Madhya 1.235
CC Madhya 19.241
milibāre for meetingCC Madhya 11.106
CC Madhya 12.41
milibāre to meetCC Antya 13.81
CC Antya 4.148
CC Madhya 10.39
CC Madhya 11.5
CC Madhya 12.45
CC Madhya 14.193
CC Madhya 19.67
CC Madhya 8.31
milibāre āilā came to meetCC Antya 4.145
milibāre āilā came to meetCC Antya 4.145
milibe he will meetCC Madhya 12.56
milibe will meetCC Adi 17.332
CC Madhya 12.27
milibe would seeCC Madhya 12.14
milibe You should meetCC Madhya 7.63
miliha meetCC Madhya 12.65
milila came and met HimCC Madhya 25.234
mililā did meetCC Madhya 11.163
mililā he metCC Antya 13.94
CC Antya 19.16
mililā He metCC Madhya 1.132
CC Madhya 16.214-215
CC Madhya 19.244
milila metCC Adi 10.139
mililā metCC Adi 16.29
milila metCC Adi 7.52
mililā metCC Antya 1.15
milila metCC Antya 1.88
mililā metCC Antya 12.41
CC Antya 12.9
CC Antya 12.96
CC Antya 13.100
CC Antya 13.91
CC Antya 14.94
CC Antya 14.98
CC Antya 19.15
CC Antya 3.49
CC Antya 4.213
milila metCC Antya 6.189
mililā metCC Antya 6.209
CC Antya 6.267
milila metCC Antya 7.4
mililā metCC Antya 8.7
CC Antya 9.129
CC Madhya 1.127
CC Madhya 1.142
CC Madhya 1.183
CC Madhya 1.241
CC Madhya 1.244
CC Madhya 1.263
CC Madhya 10.188
CC Madhya 10.30
CC Madhya 10.89
CC Madhya 10.95
CC Madhya 11.126
CC Madhya 11.133
CC Madhya 11.15
CC Madhya 11.170
milila metCC Madhya 12.134
mililā metCC Madhya 12.42
CC Madhya 16.156
CC Madhya 16.223
CC Madhya 16.253
CC Madhya 16.42
CC Madhya 19.253
CC Madhya 20.67
CC Madhya 25.186
CC Madhya 25.226
milila metCC Madhya 3.151
mililā metCC Madhya 3.153-155
milila metCC Madhya 6.14
mililā metCC Madhya 8.242
CC Madhya 8.261
CC Madhya 8.55
CC Madhya 9.341
mililā met HimCC Madhya 19.45
mililā mixedCC Antya 18.93
milila visited HimCC Adi 7.47
mililā āsiyā came and joinedCC Antya 10.12
mililā āsiyā came and joinedCC Antya 10.12
mililā āsiyā came there and metCC Antya 15.57
mililā āsiyā came there and metCC Antya 15.57
mililā sabāya met them allCC Madhya 16.43
mililā sabāya met them allCC Madhya 16.43
mililā sakale met all of themCC Antya 1.25
mililā sakale met all of themCC Antya 1.25
mililā sanātane he met Sanātana GosvāmīCC Antya 13.44
mililā sanātane he met Sanātana GosvāmīCC Antya 13.44
mililāń I have met (You)CC Adi 17.147
milile being approvedCC Madhya 12.116
milimu I shall meetCC Antya 2.41
milite to meetCC Antya 12.100
CC Antya 4.148
CC Antya 4.16
CC Madhya 1.62
CC Madhya 10.24
CC Madhya 11.155
CC Madhya 11.164
CC Madhya 11.237
CC Madhya 11.59
CC Madhya 12.15
CC Madhya 12.4
CC Madhya 12.47
CC Madhya 3.150
CC Madhya 8.16
CC Madhya 8.30
CC Madhya 8.46
CC Madhya 9.357
miliyā after meetingCC Antya 2.8
CC Madhya 16.172
miliyā meetingCC Adi 17.12
CC Antya 1.65
CC Antya 4.211
CC Madhya 1.49
CC Madhya 1.64
CC Madhya 11.152
CC Madhya 12.12
CC Madhya 17.148
CC Madhya 19.3
miliyā mixingCC Antya 10.48
miliye meetCC Madhya 16.149
ācārya milite to meet Advaita ĀcāryaCC Antya 12.97
ācārye miliyā meeting Advaita ĀcāryaCC Antya 3.215
pradyumna miśra-ādi-milana meeting with Pradyumna Miśra and othersCC Madhya 1.129
ajāmila AjāmilaCC Antya 3.57
ajāmila AjāmilaCC Antya 3.65
ajāmilaḥ AjāmilaSB 6.1.21
ajāmilaḥ AjāmilaSB 6.2.24-25
ajāmilaḥ AjāmilaSB 6.2.49
ajāmilaḥ api even Ajāmila (who was considered greatly sinful)SB 6.3.23
ajāmilaḥ api even AjāmilaSB 6.3.24
ajāmilaḥ AjāmilaCC Antya 3.64
ajāmilaḥ AjāmilaCC Antya 3.187
ajāmilam AjāmilaSB 6.1.31
āmāre miliyā after meeting MeCC Madhya 15.40
ānande mililā met Him in great pleasureCC Madhya 9.348
āpane mile personally meetsCC Madhya 1.65
kṣamila aparādha Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu excused the offenseCC Madhya 15.300
ajāmilaḥ api even Ajāmila (who was considered greatly sinful)SB 6.3.23
ajāmilaḥ api even AjāmilaSB 6.3.24
ei dui artha mili' by adding these two importsCC Madhya 24.283
bhaṭṭe milāilā introduced Vallabha BhaṭṭaCC Antya 7.61
vallabha-bhaṭṭera milana the meeting of Vallabha BhaṭṭaCC Antya 7.172
vallabha bhaṭṭera milana the meeting of Vallabha Bhaṭṭa with Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 20.114
bhramilā circumambulatedCC Adi 17.139
tīrtha bhramilā traveled to the places of pilgrimageCC Madhya 5.8
bhramila He traveledCC Madhya 17.230
bhramilā traveledCC Madhya 25.264
ei cāri mili' four rogues togetherCC Madhya 18.182
cāri-jana mili' all four of themCC Madhya 25.63
dhammilla of the bunches of hairCC Madhya 8.172
dońhāre mililā he met bothCC Antya 13.43
drumilaḥ DrumilaSB 5.4.11-12
drumilaḥ DrumilaSB 11.2.20-21
śrī-drumilaḥ uvāca Śrī Drumila saidSB 11.4.2
duhe mili' the two meetingCC Madhya 25.277
dui-nāma-milane by combining the two namesCC Adi 6.30
dui-jana mili' meeting togetherCC Madhya 20.41
ei dui artha mili' by adding these two importsCC Madhya 24.283
duńhāre mililā met both of themCC Antya 4.54
dvitīya-milana the second meeting with Lord CaitanyaCC Antya 20.103
dvitīya-milana visiting for the second timeCC Antya 20.108
ei cāri mili' four rogues togetherCC Madhya 18.182
ei dui artha mili' by adding these two importsCC Madhya 24.283
ekatra milane although they came togetherCC Madhya 21.79
ha-ibe milana there will be meetingCC Madhya 19.57
ha-ila milana there was a meetingCC Antya 10.44
nā haila milana there was not a meetingCC Madhya 25.212
haridāsa-milane to meet ṭhākura HaridāsaCC Madhya 11.185
haridāsa mili' meeting Haridāsa ṭhākuraCC Madhya 15.6
haridāse mili' after meeting HaridāsaCC Antya 1.48
ha-ibe milana there will be meetingCC Madhya 19.57
ha-ila milana there was a meetingCC Antya 10.44
milena jale got down in the waterCC Antya 10.49
dui-jana mili' meeting togetherCC Madhya 20.41
cāri-jana mili' all four of themCC Madhya 25.63
janamilā took birthCC Adi 13.74
janmilā took birthCC Adi 8.41
janmila grewCC Adi 11.5
janmilā took birthCC Adi 13.21
janmilā took birthCC Adi 13.61
janmila there wasCC Adi 14.8
janmila fructifiedCC Adi 17.80
janmila there wasCC Adi 17.228
janmilā took birthCC Madhya 1.176
janmilā took birthCC Madhya 9.317
pratyaya janmila there was confidenceCC Antya 2.78
janmila aroseCC Antya 8.26
janmila took birthCC Antya 17.48
jyeṭhāre milāila arranged a meeting between the caudhurī and the elder brother of his fatherCC Antya 6.34
karāilā milana made introductionCC Antya 4.108-110
karāñā sammilana causing to meet togetherCC Antya 19.47
karaye milana they meetCC Antya 18.94
karena milane Caitanya Mahāprabhu meetsCC Antya 1.59
kariba milana I shall combineCC Madhya 24.14
karilā milana metCC Madhya 25.217
karilā milana metCC Antya 6.242
kṛṣṇa mile one meets KṛṣṇaCC Antya 4.61
kṣamila aparādha Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu excused the offenseCC Madhya 15.300
kuru-kṣetra-militaḥ who is met on the field of KurukṣetraCC Madhya 1.76
kuru-kṣetra-militaḥ who is met on the field of KurukṣetraCC Antya 1.79
kuru-kṣetra-militaḥ who is met on the field of KurukṣetraCC Antya 1.114
kuru-kṣetra-militaḥ who is met on the field of KurukṣetraCC Madhya 1.76
kuru-kṣetra-militaḥ who is met on the field of KurukṣetraCC Antya 1.79
kuru-kṣetra-militaḥ who is met on the field of KurukṣetraCC Antya 1.114
rāmānanda-milana-līlā the pastimes of the meeting with RāmānandaCC Madhya 8.312
mahāprabhure milāilā introduced him to Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 5.157
mātāre miliyā just after meeting ŚacīmātāCC Antya 3.42
rūpe milāilā introduced Rūpa GosvāmīCC Antya 1.54
prabhu-pade milāilā got to meet Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 2.90
mahāprabhure milāilā introduced him to Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 5.157
jyeṭhāre milāila arranged a meeting between the caudhurī and the elder brother of his fatherCC Antya 6.34
bhaṭṭe milāilā introduced Vallabha BhaṭṭaCC Antya 7.61
prabhure milāite to introduce to the LordCC Antya 10.143
pradyumna miśra-ādi-milana meeting with Pradyumna Miśra and othersCC Madhya 1.129
sārvabhauma-milana meeting with Sārvabhauma BhaṭṭācāryaCC Madhya 6.285
rāmānandera milana meeting with Śrīla Rāmānanda RāyaCC Madhya 8.303
rāmānanda-milana-līlā the pastimes of the meeting with RāmānandaCC Madhya 8.312
vaiṣṇava-milana meeting with all the VaiṣṇavasCC Madhya 10.189
vaiṣṇava-milana meeting with the VaiṣṇavasCC Madhya 11.124
prabhura milana meeting with Lord Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Madhya 13.188
ha-ibe milana there will be meetingCC Madhya 19.57
rūpera milana of the meeting with Rūpa GosvāmīCC Madhya 19.118
kariba milana I shall combineCC Madhya 24.14
nā haila milana there was not a meetingCC Madhya 25.212
karilā milana metCC Madhya 25.217
sarva-vaiṣṇava-milana meeting of all kinds of devoteesCC Madhya 25.250
sanātanera milana meeting with Sanātana GosvāmīCC Madhya 25.258
rūpera milana the meeting with Śrīla Rūpa GosvāmīCC Antya 1.222
karāilā milana made introductionCC Antya 4.108-110
raghunātha-milana meeting with Raghunātha dāsa GosvāmīCC Antya 6.12
karilā milana metCC Antya 6.242
raghunāthera milana the meeting of Raghunātha dāsaCC Antya 6.328
vallabha-bhaṭṭera milana the meeting of Vallabha BhaṭṭaCC Antya 7.172
ha-ila milana there was a meetingCC Antya 10.44
sabāra milana meeting everyoneCC Antya 12.42
prabhura milana meeting with Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 16.4
karaye milana they meetCC Antya 18.94
dvitīya-milana the second meeting with Lord CaitanyaCC Antya 20.103
dvitīya-milana visiting for the second timeCC Antya 20.108
vallabha bhaṭṭera milana the meeting of Vallabha Bhaṭṭa with Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 20.114
dui-nāma-milane by combining the two namesCC Adi 6.30
vaiṣṇava-milane in the meeting of all the VaiṣṇavasCC Madhya 11.123
haridāsa-milane to meet ṭhākura HaridāsaCC Madhya 11.185
rājāra milane by meeting with a kingCC Madhya 12.48
putrera milane by meeting the sonCC Madhya 12.56
ekatra milane although they came togetherCC Madhya 21.79
sāmagrī-milane by mixing with other ingredientsCC Madhya 23.47
karena milane Caitanya Mahāprabhu meetsCC Antya 1.59
prabhura milane upon meeting Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 10.46
mile they do not meetCC Adi 4.31
āpane mile personally meetsCC Madhya 1.65
mile are not availableCC Madhya 9.182
kṛṣṇa mile one meets KṛṣṇaCC Antya 4.61
nāhi mile no one could getCC Antya 12.18
yāre mile whomever he meetsCC Antya 12.101
pāńce mili' mixing together all these fiveCC Adi 7.20-21
sabe mili' meeting all togetherCC Madhya 1.126
haridāsa mili' meeting Haridāsa ṭhākuraCC Madhya 15.6
ei cāri mili' four rogues togetherCC Madhya 18.182
dui-jana mili' meeting togetherCC Madhya 20.41
ei dui artha mili' by adding these two importsCC Madhya 24.283
cāri-jana mili' all four of themCC Madhya 25.63
tāńre mili' meeting HimCC Madhya 25.197
duhe mili' the two meetingCC Madhya 25.277
sabe mili' meeting togetherCC Antya 1.14
haridāse mili' after meeting HaridāsaCC Antya 1.48
sabe mili' meeting all togetherCC Antya 1.103-104
tāńre mili' meeting himCC Antya 5.92
tāńre milibāre to see himCC Madhya 13.184
prabhure mililā met the LordCC Madhya 9.343
ānande mililā met Him in great pleasureCC Madhya 9.348
prabhuke mililā met Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Madhya 11.211
prabhure mililā met Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Madhya 16.216
prabhure mililā met the LordCC Madhya 16.255
prabhure mililā met the LordCC Madhya 19.247
prayāge mililā met Me at PrayāgaCC Madhya 20.66
tāhāre mililā met himCC Madhya 25.211
rūpere mililā met Rūpa GosvāmīCC Antya 1.53
prabhure mililā met Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 2.162
duńhāre mililā met both of themCC Antya 4.54
sanātanere mililā met Sanātana GosvāmīCC Antya 4.135
sabāre mililā met all the devoteesCC Antya 6.245
sabāre mililā met every one of themCC Antya 7.3
dońhāre mililā he met bothCC Antya 13.43
sabāre mililā he met everyoneCC Antya 13.72
prabhure mililā met Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 13.109
prabhure mililā met Lord Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 20.112
milile if he does not meetCC Madhya 12.19
milileha may not meetCC Madhya 12.33
kuru-kṣetra-militaḥ who is met on the field of KurukṣetraCC Madhya 1.76
kuru-kṣetra-militaḥ who is met on the field of KurukṣetraCC Antya 1.79
kuru-kṣetra-militaḥ who is met on the field of KurukṣetraCC Antya 1.114
prabhuke milite to see Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Madhya 16.37
tāńhāre milite to meet HimCC Madhya 19.33
tāńhāre milite to meet himCC Antya 1.81
śrī-rūpe milite to meet Śrīla Rūpa GosvāmīCC Antya 1.103-104
ācārya milite to meet Advaita ĀcāryaCC Antya 12.97
āmāre miliyā after meeting MeCC Madhya 15.40
mātāre miliyā just after meeting ŚacīmātāCC Antya 3.42
ācārye miliyā meeting Advaita ĀcāryaCC Antya 3.215
pradyumna miśra-ādi-milana meeting with Pradyumna Miśra and othersCC Madhya 1.129
mile they do not meetCC Adi 4.31
mile are not availableCC Madhya 9.182
milile if he does not meetCC Madhya 12.19
milileha may not meetCC Madhya 12.33
nā haila milana there was not a meetingCC Madhya 25.212
nāhi mile no one could getCC Antya 12.18
dui-nāma-milane by combining the two namesCC Adi 6.30
milā got downCC Antya 14.27
milena jale got down in the waterCC Antya 10.49
niramilā made very clearCC Antya 19.41
prabhu-pade milāilā got to meet Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 2.90
pāńce mili' mixing together all these fiveCC Adi 7.20-21
prabhu-pade milāilā got to meet Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 2.90
prabhuke mililā met Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Madhya 11.211
prabhuke milite to see Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Madhya 16.37
prabhura milana meeting with Lord Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Madhya 13.188
prabhura milane upon meeting Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 10.46
prabhura milana meeting with Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 16.4
prabhure mililā met the LordCC Madhya 9.343
prabhure mililā met Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Madhya 16.216
prabhure mililā met the LordCC Madhya 16.255
prabhure mililā met the LordCC Madhya 19.247
prabhure mililā met Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 2.162
prabhure milāite to introduce to the LordCC Antya 10.143
prabhure mililā met Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 13.109
prabhure mililā met Lord Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 20.112
pradyumna miśra-ādi-milana meeting with Pradyumna Miśra and othersCC Madhya 1.129
pratyaya janmila there was confidenceCC Antya 2.78
prayāge mililā met Me at PrayāgaCC Madhya 20.66
putrera milane by meeting the sonCC Madhya 12.56
raghunātha-milana meeting with Raghunātha dāsa GosvāmīCC Antya 6.12
raghunāthera milana the meeting of Raghunātha dāsaCC Antya 6.328
rājāra milane by meeting with a kingCC Madhya 12.48
rāmānanda-milana-līlā the pastimes of the meeting with RāmānandaCC Madhya 8.312
rāmānandera milana meeting with Śrīla Rāmānanda RāyaCC Madhya 8.303
rūpe milāilā introduced Rūpa GosvāmīCC Antya 1.54
śrī-rūpe milite to meet Śrīla Rūpa GosvāmīCC Antya 1.103-104
rūpera milana of the meeting with Rūpa GosvāmīCC Madhya 19.118
rūpera milana the meeting with Śrīla Rūpa GosvāmīCC Antya 1.222
rūpere mililā met Rūpa GosvāmīCC Antya 1.53
sabāra milana meeting everyoneCC Antya 12.42
sabāre mililā met all the devoteesCC Antya 6.245
sabāre mililā met every one of themCC Antya 7.3
sabāre mililā he met everyoneCC Antya 13.72
sabe mili' meeting all togetherCC Madhya 1.126
sabe mili' meeting togetherCC Antya 1.14
sabe mili' meeting all togetherCC Antya 1.103-104
sāmagrī-milane by mixing with other ingredientsCC Madhya 23.47
sammilana meetingCC Madhya 1.250
karāñā sammilana causing to meet togetherCC Antya 19.47
sammilane by the combiningCC Madhya 14.175
sanātanera milana meeting with Sanātana GosvāmīCC Madhya 25.258
sanātanere mililā met Sanātana GosvāmīCC Antya 4.135
sarva-vaiṣṇava-milana meeting of all kinds of devoteesCC Madhya 25.250
sārvabhauma-milana meeting with Sārvabhauma BhaṭṭācāryaCC Madhya 6.285
śrī-drumilaḥ uvāca Śrī Drumila saidSB 11.4.2
śrī-rūpe milite to meet Śrīla Rūpa GosvāmīCC Antya 1.103-104
tāhāre mililā met himCC Madhya 25.211
tāńhāre milite to meet HimCC Madhya 19.33
tāńhāre milite to meet himCC Antya 1.81
tāńre milibāre to see himCC Madhya 13.184
tāńre mili' meeting HimCC Madhya 25.197
tāńre mili' meeting himCC Antya 5.92
tīrtha bhramilā traveled to the places of pilgrimageCC Madhya 5.8
śrī-drumilaḥ uvāca Śrī Drumila saidSB 11.4.2
vaiṣṇava-milana meeting with all the VaiṣṇavasCC Madhya 10.189
vaiṣṇava-milane in the meeting of all the VaiṣṇavasCC Madhya 11.123
vaiṣṇava-milana meeting with the VaiṣṇavasCC Madhya 11.124
sarva-vaiṣṇava-milana meeting of all kinds of devoteesCC Madhya 25.250
vallabha-bhaṭṭera milana the meeting of Vallabha BhaṭṭaCC Antya 7.172
vallabha bhaṭṭera milana the meeting of Vallabha Bhaṭṭa with Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 20.114
yāre mile whomever he meetsCC Antya 12.101
     DCS with thanks   
Results for mil23 results
     
mil verb (class 6 ātmanepada) to combine to encounter to happen to meet to unite img/alchemy.bmp
Frequency rank 1641/72933
milana noun (neuter) coming together (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
contact (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
meeting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
union (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
img/alchemy.bmp
Frequency rank 19855/72933
mili indeclinable [rel.] a kind of bīja
Frequency rank 38277/72933
milindaka noun (masculine) a kind of snake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62239/72933
amila noun (masculine) (a fancy word?)
Frequency rank 44624/72933
amilātaka noun (masculine) the globe-amaranth
Frequency rank 44625/72933
kardamila noun (neuter) name of a place
Frequency rank 48764/72933
kimila noun (masculine) (a fancy word?)
Frequency rank 49434/72933
kṛmila noun (masculine) name of a man
Frequency rank 49977/72933
kṛmila adjective having worms (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wormy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27634/72933
carmilā noun (feminine) name of a river
Frequency rank 52169/72933
durmilāpa adjective img/alchemy.bmp
Frequency rank 54719/72933
drumila noun (masculine) name of a cowherd (husband of Kalāvati and father of Nārada) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Dānava (prince of Saubha) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of ṣabha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28491/72933
dhammilla noun (masculine) a woman's braided and ornamented hair wound round the head (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Brāhman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28526/72933
pramil verb (class 6 ātmanepada) img/alchemy.bmp
Frequency rank 37339/72933
bhūmilagnā noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 61002/72933
bhūmilatā noun (feminine) a kind of plant [zool.] a kind of earthworm
Frequency rank 24936/72933
ūrmilā noun (feminine) name of several women (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Lakṣmaṇa
Frequency rank 16064/72933
vimilā noun (feminine) a form of Devī
Frequency rank 65938/72933
śarmila noun (masculine) name of a people
Frequency rank 67305/72933
saṃmil verb (class 6 parasmaipada) img/alchemy.bmp
Frequency rank 18609/72933
surmila noun (masculine neuter) img/alchemy.bmp
Frequency rank 31079/72933
somilaka noun (masculine) name of a weaver (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13871/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
     Purchase Kindle edition

abhinyāsajvara

an acute kind of fever where all three humors participate; fever that is difficult to cure with various signs and symptoms similar to swine flu, typhoid et Century It is one of the 4 subtypes of tridoṣaja fevers.

agastya

founder of Siddha tradition of medicine, popular in Tamilnadu.

ajā

goat; ajāpancaka urine, feces, milk, curds and ghee of goat.

andhapūtanā

female demon causing diseases in children; disease similar to blindness caused by vitamin A deficiency.

bhedanīya

mild purgatives, laxatives.

carmākhya

thick, black skin similar to that of an elephant.

cukra

a type of vinegar prepared from jaggery, honey, buttermilk et Century

dāruharidra

Plant Indian barberry, false turmeric, dried stem of Berberis aristata; Coscinium fenestratum is used in Kerala as dāruharidra due to similarity in therapeutic action to Berberis species.

dugdha

milk, dugdhapāṣāṇa talk of stone; calcareous spar (a mineral).

dugdhika

Plant 1. rosy mildweed plant, Oxystelma esculentum; 2. prostrate spurge, Euphorbia prostrata. 3. thyme leaved spurge, Euphorbia thymifolia.

godugdha

cow milk.

gokṣīra

cow's milk.

hingula

cinnabar; vermillion; important mineral of mercury.

jāraṇa

roasting; oxidizing metals; amalgamation of mercury; assimilation; digestion of metals by mercury.

kākānḍola

Plant velvet bean or similar plant.

kālameha

urinary disorder with black urine, black water fever; similar to nīlameha.

kāmbalika

1. barley-water, 2. gruel, sour milk mixed with whey and vinegar.

kandara

infection on the sole due to broken thorn or similar cause.

kangu

Plant foxtail millet, Setaria italica.

kārmuka

1. Plant bamboo; bow; 2. Sagittarius; 3. kind of honey; 4. Plant white khadira tree (Acacia catechu); Elegant smilax; 5. rainbow.

kesar

Plant stigma of a flower in the crocus family, saffron.

khala

buttermilk boiled with sour vegetables and spices.

khalva

a mill or stone for grinding drugs.

kilāṭa

inspissated milk, some milk added with more buttermilk.

koṭi

1. crore, ten million; 2. excellence.

kṣaireya

food prepared with milk.

kṣīra

milk.

kṣīrapa

age of the child depending on milk from mother; drinking only milk, infant.

kula

family, community, tribe.

lodhra

Plant lodh tree, dried stem bark of Symplocos racemosa, S. hamiltonia.

madhūlika

1. Plant finger millet, ragi, Eleusine corocana; 2. astringent, 3. sweet and pungent.

madhusnuhi

Plant China root, Smilax china.

mahārasa

primary alchemical substances, mercury (pādarasa), vermillion (hingulīka), mica (abhraka), loadstone (kāntaloha), iron pyrites (vimala), pyrites (mākṣika), tourmaline (vaikrānta), conch (śankha).

mahendra

relating to Indra; the whole range of hills extending from Orissa upto Tamilnadu on the east coast.

maṇḍa

1. rice preparation (gruel); 2. cream of milk, 3. decoction; 4. frog; 5. castor oil plant.

mastu

1. whey, watery part of the curds, liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained, 2. sour cream; 3. Lens culinaris.

matsya

fish. matsyakāya pisces person; an individual with traits similar to a fish: unsteadiness, idiotism, excess desire for water and quarrelsome.

moraṭa

broken milk; mild of a cow seven days after calving.

mūṣikāparni

Plant water mass azolla; green edible leaves of Merremia emarginata; Silvinia cucullata too is similar to it.

nakula

weasel, small flesh-eating mammal; mongoose; weasel belongs to mongoose family.

navanīta

a treatise on āyurveda (4th Century ) discovered by colonel Bower, a British military officer, therefore named Bower’s manuscript; also known as Yaśomitrasamhita.

nidarśana

example, one of tantrayuktis; simili.

odana

porridge, boiled rice, grain mashed and cooked with milk or water.

palāla

Plant stalk of sorghum, millet.

pañcagavya

milk, curd, ghee, urine, dung of cow.

pañcāmṛta

equal quantities of (cow’s) milk, curd, ghee & honey, sugar.

payas

milk.

peśaṇa

pounding, crushing, hand-mill.

piśāca

ghost; piśācakāya demonical body; person with traits similar to a demon like cruelty, fond of adventures, lack of shyness, longing for women and eating food left by others.

pīyūṣa

nectar, milk of a cow during the first seven days after calving; milk pudding made from colostrum.

pradeśa

1. region, country, 2. one of tantrayuktis, determination of a statement to be made; substantiating by similar past event.

prayuta

one million

pūtana

one of the seizing planets (grahas), the condition similar to hypokalemia, lesser-than-normal potassium level in the blood leading to constipation, fatigue, muscle spasms, paralysis et Century

rasapiṣṭi

grinded mercurial; twelve parts of mercury and one part of sulphur are grounded in a mortar in sunshine, milk may also be mixed.

sādṛśya

similarity.

sāmanya

similarities, generi Century

samskāra

rites with scientific significance on reaching developmental milestones; refining; forming well, alchemical operations.

ṣaṣṭikadhānya

grain harvested in sixty days, ex. millets.

sindhūra

vermillion, red mercuric oxide

snuhi

Plant milkhedge, stem of Euphorbia neriifolia , snuhikshāra alkali preparation from snuhi.

stana

breast, stanadveṣa child rejecting breast milk.

stanya

mother’s milk, milk.

stanyapa

suckling, drinking milk from the breast.

sthālīpāka

1. barley or rice boiled in milk; 2. preparing medicine in a pan or culdron.

śyāmaka

Plant Indian barnyard millet; dark coloured grain, which reduces fat; Panicum sumatrense.

takra

buttermilk, liquid obtained by adding equal quantity of water to curd and decanting by churning; takrakūrcika inspissated buttermilk.

takradhāra

a form of śirodhāra, a treatment method which involves continuous flow of buttermilk to the centre of the forehead.

uddāla

Plant Indian barnyard millet, Echinochloa frumentacea.

upadhātu

assisting constituent. ex: breast milk.

upalā

upper and smaller mill-stone.

upamāna

particle of comparison, simile, one of tantrayuktis, analogy, upamāna pramāṇa means of knowledge by testimony.

vajradruma

Plant milk bush, pencil tree, Euphorbia tirucalli.

vamśalocana

earthy concretion of a milk-white colour formed in the hallow of a bamboo; bamboo rice. Bambusa arundinacea.

vānaspatya

trees having both fruits and flowers; tree; vānaspatyakāya arboreal person; person with traits similar to a tree: not moving from a place, devoid of lust and wealth, takes food often et Century

vidāri,vidārikanda

Plant Indian kudju, tuber of Pueraria tuberose, syn. Hedysarum tuberosum; milky yam; Ipomea mauritiana.

yavaprakhya

hard eruptions over the skin, similar to barley.

     Wordnet Search "mil" has 33 results.
     

mil

sammilita, sañcita, upacita, samupacita, samūḍha, saṅgūḍha, sambhṛta, sambhūta, ekīkṛta, ekastha, sannipatita, saṃhata, samaveta, saṅkalita   

itastata ākṛṣya ekatra kṛtam nibandhanam ।

aiṣamaḥ kumbhamahāsammelane sammilitānāṃ janānāṃ dhāvaṃ dhāvaṃ jātam।

mil

cūṇayukta, puṭayukta, veṇiyukta, kavvarayukta, dhammilayukta   

yasmin cūṇāḥ santi।

mātā cūṇayuktam prāvarakaṃ pitare dattavatī।

mil

tamilaḥ   

tamilanāḍūpradeśasya nivāsī।

naike tamilāḥ mama mitrāṇi santi।

mil

tamilanāḍuḥ   

bhāratadeśasya dakṣiṇabhāgasthaḥ pradeśaḥ।

tamilanāḍuḥ ityasya pradeśasya rājadhānī cennaī iti asti।

mil

melanam, samāgamaḥ, saṃmilanam, sammilanam, milanam   

dvau athavā adhikānāṃ puruṣāṇāṃ parasparābhimukhīkaraṇam।

adya sādhunā puruṣeṇa melanaṃ jātam।

mil

sammil, saṃgacch, samāgacch, same, sannipat   

ekasmin sthāne ekatrībhavanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

sarve bālakāḥ prāṅgaṇe sammilanti।

mil

mil, samāgam, saṅgam, upāgam, sammil, same, āsad, samāsad, abhiyā, upayā, pratigam, pratyudgam, abhigam, pratyudyā, abhiyā, pratyāyā   

parasparam abhimukhībhavanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

saḥ nagare dīrghakālānantaraṃ bāndhavān amilat।

mil

saṃyujya, ekatra bhū, saṃmil, mil   

dvayoḥ vastunoḥ saṅgamānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

prayāge gaṅgā yamunayā saha saṃyujyate।

mil

yuktam, yuktaḥ, yuktā, militam, militaḥ, militā, anvitam, anvitā, anvitaḥ   

apṛthagbhūtaṃ militam ityarthaḥ।

ayi, pravātena sarvaṃ jalaṃ dhūlyā yuktam abhavat।

mil

antarbhūta, sammilita, antargata   

keṣucana kāryādiṣu samāviṣṭaḥ।

saḥ api asmin kārye antarbhūtaḥ asti।

mil

cūṇaḥ, puṭaḥ, veṇiḥ, kavvaraḥ, dhammilaḥ   

akhaṇḍapaṭakargajādeśānāṃ viśiṣṭāntarāle ekasyoparī ekam iti puṭīkṛt-racanā;

śāṭikādhāraṇārthe anekāḥ cūṇāḥ kartavyāḥ

mil

milīmīṭaraparimāṇam   

dīrghatāmāpanasya parimāṇaṃ yad mīṭaraparimāṇasya sahasratamaḥ bhāgaḥ asti।

asya vastunaḥ dīrghatā catvāri milīmīṭaraparimāṇam asti।

mil

milīgrāmaparimāṇam   

gurutāmāpanasya parimāṇaṃ yad grāmaparimāṇasya sahasratamaḥ bhāgaḥ asti।

daśamilīgrāmaparimāṇaiḥ ekaṃ māsāparimāṇaṃ bhavati।

mil

urmilā   

rājñaḥ janakasya putrī yā lakṣmaṇasya bhāryā āsīt।

urmilā pativratā āsīt।

mil

ajāmilaḥ   

dharmagrantheṣu varṇitaḥ ekaḥ pāpī brāhmaṇaḥ।

maraṇakāle ajāmilaḥ svaputrasya nāmnā trātaḥ।

mil

drumilā   

vṛttaviśeṣaḥ।

drumilāyāḥ praticaraṇe 32 mātrāḥ bhavanti।

mil

abhisāraḥ, saṃmmilanam   

strīpuṃsayoranyatarasya anyatarārthaṃ saṅketasthalagamanam।

abhisārāya gamyamānā nāyikā bharatanāṭyaśāstre abhisārikā proktā।

mil

drumilaḥ   

ṛṣiviśeṣaḥ।

drumilasya varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu asti।

mil

drumilaḥ   

dānavaviśeṣaḥ।

drumilasya varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu asti।

mil

purumillaḥ   

vaidikaḥ ṛṣiviśeṣaḥ।

purumillasya varṇanaṃ ṛgvede asti।

mil

durmilakā   

varṇavṛttaviśeṣaḥ।

durmilakāyāḥ pratyekasmin caraṇe trayoviṃśatiḥ varṇāḥ santi।

mil

durmilaḥ   

varṇavṛttaviśeṣaḥ।

durmilasya prathame caraṇe aṣṭa sagaṇāḥ bhavanti।

mil

durmilam   

mātrikaḥ chandoviśeṣaḥ।

durmilasya pratyekasmin caraṇe dvātriṃśat mātrāḥ bhavanti।

mil

mil, samāgam, saṅgam, upāgam, sammil, same, āsad, samāsad, abhiyā, upayā, pratigam, pratyudgam, abhigam, pratyudyā, abhiyā, pratyāyā, ekatra mil, ekatra gam, ekatra āgam, samabhye, samāvṛt, adhigam   

anyakarmakaprāptyanukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

adya ahaṃ śarmāmahodayānāṃ gṛhe gatavān kintu saḥ na amilat।

mil

ṣāmilam   

ekaṃ sthānam ।

ṣāmilasya ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

mil

ṣāmilam   

ekaṃ sthānam ।

ṣāmilasya ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

mil

kardamilam   

ekaṃ sthānam ।

kardamilasya ullekhaḥ mahābhārate asti

mil

omilaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

omilasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

mil

ūrmilā   

strīnāmaviśeṣaḥ ।

ūrmilā iti nāmakānāṃ naikāsāṃ strīṇām ullekhaḥ raghuvaṃśe mahābhārate ca asti

mil

ūrmilā   

strīnāmaviśeṣaḥ ।

ūrmilā iti nāmakānāṃ naikāsāṃ strīṇām ullekhaḥ raghuvaṃśe mahābhārate ca asti

mil

timilāyāḥ ullekhaḥ hemādreḥ caturvarga-cintāmaṇau asti   

timilā ।

ekaṃ vādyam

mil

dramilaḥ   

ekaḥ deśaḥ ।

dramilasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

mil

dramilaḥ   

ekaḥ koṣakāraḥ ।

dramilasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti









Parse Time: 7.232s Search Word: mil Input Encoding: IAST: mil