Donate
   
Select your preferred input and type any Sanskrit or English word. Enclose the word in “” for an EXACT match e.g. “yoga”.
Root Search
med has 1 results
        Root Word (Pāṇini Dhātupāṭha:)Full Root MarkerSenseClassSutra
√medmedmedhāhiṃsanayoḥ1600
 
 
med has 2 results
Root WordIAST MeaningMonier Williams PageClass
√मेद्medbeing wise / medhā833/1Cl.1
√मेद्medinjuring / hiṃsana1297/3Cl.1
Amarakosha Search
Results for med
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
arghaḥ3.3.32MasculineSingularmāsam, amātyaḥ, atyupadhaḥ, medhyaḥ, sitaḥ, pāvakam
bhūḥ2.1.2-3FeminineSingularkṣmā, mahī, dhātrī, kumbhinī, ratnagarbhā, bhūmiḥ, rasā, dharā, kṣoṇī, kṣitiḥ, vasudhā, gotrā, pṛthvī, medinī, gahvarī, ilā, bhūtadhātrī, sāgarāmbarā, anantā, sthirā, dharaṇī, kāśyapī, vasumatī, vasundharā, pṛthivī, avaniḥ, vipulā, gauḥ, kṣamā, jagatī, acalā, viśvambharā, dharitrī, jyā, sarvaṃsahā, urvī, kuḥ
jagalaḥ2.10.42NeuterSingularmedakaḥ
medaḥ2.6.65NeuterSingularvasā, vapā
medFeminineSingularretentive intellect
medhiḥ2.9.15MasculineSingularkhaledāru
pūtam3.1.54MasculineSingularpavitram, medhyam
snigdhaḥ3.1.28MasculineSingularmeduraḥ
arimedaḥ2.2.50MasculineSingularviṭkhadiraḥ
aśvamedhīyaḥ2.8.45MasculineSingularyayuḥ
Monier-Williams Search
Results for med
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
medstrong form of mid-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medam. fat (equals medas-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medam. a species of plant (equals alambuṣā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medam. a particular mixed caste (the son of a vaideha- and a kārāvara- or a niṣāda- female according to to some "any person who lives by degrading occupations") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medam. Name of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medāf. a root resembling ginger (said to be one of the 8 principal medicines) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medain compound for medas-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medaāhutif. an oblation of fat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medabhilla(?) m. Name of a degraded tribe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medaḥin compound for medas-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medaḥpuccha m. the fat-tailed sheep View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medaḥpucchakam. the fat-tailed sheep View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medaḥsāramfn. one among whose dhātu-s (q.v) fat predominates View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medaḥsārāf. a species of medicinal plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medajam. "fat-produced", a kind of bdellium View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medakam. spirituous liquor used for distillation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medakṛtn. "fat-producer", the flesh View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medanan. the act of fattening View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medapāṭaName of a country, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medapāṭham. Name of a branch of the vatsa- family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medin compound for medas-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medasn. fat, marrow, lymph (as one of the 7 dhātu-s, q.v;its proper seat is said to be the abdomen) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medasn. excessive fatness, corpulence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medasn. a mystical term for the letter v- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medaśchedam. the removal of fat (from the body) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medaśirasm. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medaskṛtn. "fat-producer", the body, flesh View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medaspiṇḍam. a lump of fat gaRa kaskādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medastasind. from the fat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medastejasn. "strength of the medas-", bone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medasvat(m/edas--) mfn. possessed of fat, fat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medasvinmfn. "having medas-", fat, corpulent, robust, strong View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhstrong form of midh-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medham. the juice of meat, broth, nourishing or strengthening drink View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medham. marrow (especially of the sacrificial victim), sap, pith, essence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medham. a sacrificial animal, victim View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medham. an animal-sacrifice, offering, oblation, any sacrifice (especially in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medham. Name of the reputed author of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medham. of a son of priya-vrata- (varia lectio medhas-)
medf. See below View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhamfn. gaRa pacādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medf. mental vigour or power, intelligence, prudence, wisdom (plural products of intelligence, thoughts, opinions) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medf. Intelligence personified (especially as the wife of dharma- and daughter of dakṣa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medf. a form of dākṣāyaṇī- in kaśmīra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medf. a form of sarasvatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medf. a symbolical Name of the letter dh- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medf. equals dhana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhācakram. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhādhṛti m. Name of a ṛṣi- in the 9th manv-antara-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhajam. "sacrifice-born", Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhājananamfn. generating intelligence or wisdom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhājananan. Name of a rite (and of its appropriate sacred text) for producing mental and bodily strength in a new-born child or in a youth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhajitSee medhā-jit-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhājitm. Name of kātyāyana- (varia lectio medha-jit-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhākāmamfn. wishing intelligence to or for (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhākāramfn. causing or generating intelligence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhākṛtmfn. idem or 'mfn. causing or generating intelligence ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhākṛtm. a species of culinary plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāmṛtim. Name of a ṛṣi- in the 9th manv-antara-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhapati(m/edha-- ; medh/a- ) m. lord of sacrifice. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhārudram. Name of kālidāsa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhasn. equals medha-, a sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhasm. Name of a son of manu- svāyambhuva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhasm. of son of priya-vrata- (varia lectio medha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhasm. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') equals medhā-, intelligence, knowledge, understanding. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhasam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhasāti(medh/a--) f. the receiving or offering of the oblation, sacrificial ceremony (;others"the offering of devotion, service or worship of the gods";others "the gaining or deserving of a reward or praise") . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāsūktan. Name of a particular Vedic hymn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhātithim. Name of a kāṇva- (author of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhātithim. of the father of kaṇva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhātithim. of a son of manu- svāyambhuva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhātithim. of one of the 7 sages under manu- sāvarṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhātithim. of a son of priya-vrata- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhātithim. (also with bhaṭṭa-) of a lawyer and commentator on the mānava-dharma-śāstra- on () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhātithim. of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhātithim. a parrot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhātithiSee under medha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāvaram. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāvatmfn. possessing wisdom, intelligent, wise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāvatīf. a species of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāvatīf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāvinmfn. equals -vat- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāvinm. a learned man, teacher, Pandit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāvinm. a parrot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāvinm. an intoxicating beverage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāvinm. Name of vyāḍi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāvinm. of a Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāvinm. of a king son of su-naya- (su-tapas-) and father of nṛpaṃ-jaya- (puraṃ-jaya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāvinm. of a son of bhavya- and (n.) of a varṣa- named after him View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāvinm. Turdus Salica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāvinm. a species of jyotiṣ-matī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāvinīf. Name of the wife of brahmā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāvinvikan. N. or a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāvinvirudram. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhāvinvitāf. cleverness, judiciousness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhayumfn. eager for war (others"desirous of reward or praise"). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhiSee methi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medf. (see methī-) a particular part of a stūpa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhif. methi
medf. methi
medhībhūtamfn. methi
medhinSee gṛha-medhin-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhiramfn. (fr. medhā-) intelligent, wise (said of varuṇa-, indra-, agni- etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhiṣṭha mfn. (superl. and Comparative degree of medhā-vin-) wisest, wiser View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhīyasmfn. (superl. and Comparative degree of medhā-vin-) wisest, wiser View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyamf(ā-)n. (fr. medha-) full of sap, vigorous, fresh, mighty, strong View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyamf(ā-)n. fit for a sacrifice or oblation, free from blemish (as a victim), clean, pure, not defiling (by contact or by being eaten) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyamf(ā-)n. (fr. medhā-). wise, intelligent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyamf(ā-)n. equals medhām arhati- gaRa daṇḍādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyam. a goat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyam. Acacia Catechu View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyam. Saccharum Munja View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyam. barley View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyam. Name of the author of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyāf. Name of various plants (thought to be sacrificially pure) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyam. the gall-stone of a cow (equals recanā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyam. a particular vein View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyam. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyamandiram. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyamayamf(ī-)n. consisting of pure, matter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyatāf. () ritual purity. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyatamamfn. most pure, purest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyataramfn. more pure, purer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyātithim. Name of a ṛṣi- (a kāṇva- and author of ;3. 33; ix, 41-43) (see medh/atithi-and maidhyātitha-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyatvan. ( ) ritual purity. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medīf. gaRa gaurādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinmfn. having medas-, possessing vigour or energy (= medasāyukta- equals bala-vat-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinm. "one who is unctuous or sticks close (?)", a friend, companion, partner, ally View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinf. See next. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīf. "having fatness or fertility", the earth, land, soil, ground etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīf. a place, spot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīf. a kind of musical composition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīf. Gmelina Arborea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīf. equals medā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīf. Name of a lexicon (also -kośa-or medini-k-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīdānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīdharam. "earth-supporter", a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīdinan. a natural day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīdravam. dust View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinījam. "earth-born", the planet Mars View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīkaram. Name of the author of the medinī-kośa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīkośam. See above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīnandanam. equals -ja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīpatim. "earth-lord", a king, prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīśam. (śa-) idem or 'm. "earth-lord", a king, prince ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīśatantran. Name of a tantra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medoin compound for medas-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medobhavan. equals -ja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medobhavāf. equals -vatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medodbhavāf. a plant resembling ginger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medodharāf. a membrane in the abdomen containing the fat, the omentum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medodoṣam. excessive fatness, corpulency, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medogalam. a species of plant resembling the Mimosa Pudica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medogaṇḍam. a kind of fatty excrescence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medoghnamfn. destroying or removing fat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medogranthim. a fatty tumour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medojan. "produced by medas-", bone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medorbudan. a fatty tumour unattended with pain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medorogam. equals -doṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medorupa(m/edo--) mfn. appearing as fat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medovahan. a vessel conveying fat, a lymphatic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medovatīf. a species of plant resembling ginger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medovṛddhif. corpulence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medovṛddhif. enlargement of the scrotum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
meduramfn. fat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
meduramfn. smooth, soft, bland, unctuous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
meduramfn. thick, dense, thick like (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
meduramfn. thick with, full of (instrumental case or compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medurāf. a particular medicinal plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
meduritamfn. thickened, made dense by or with (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
meduritamfn. unctuous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medyamfn. fat, thick, consistent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ahimeda m. idem or 'm. (equals asi-meda- q.v) the plant Vachellia Farnesiana ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ahimedakam. idem or ' m. idem or 'm. (equals asi-meda- q.v) the plant Vachellia Farnesiana ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alpamedhasmfn. () of little understanding, ignorant, silly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amedaskamfn. without fat, lean
amedhasmfn. unintelligent, foolish, an idiot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amedhyamfn. not able or not allowed to sacrifice, not fit for sacrifice, impure, unholy, nefarious, foul etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amedhyamfn. (am-) ,n. faeces, excrement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amedhyāktamfn. soiled with ordure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amedhyakuṇapāśinmfn. feeding on carrion. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amedhyalepam. smearing with ordure. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amedhyaliptamfn. smeared with ordure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amedhyapratimantraṇan. conjuring of unlucky omens, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amedhyatāf. impurity, foulness, filthiness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amedhyatvan. impurity, foulness, filthiness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amedhyayuktamfn. filthy, foul. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apakrāntamedha(/ap--), mfn. sapless, pithless, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arimedam. a fetid Mimosa, Vachellia Farnesiana View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arimedam. plural Name of a people, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arimedakam. Name of an insect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arkāśvamedham. dual number ([ ]) or dh/au- ([ ]), the arka- ceremony and the aśvamedha- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arkāśvamedhavatmfn. containing the two View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arkāśvamedhinmfn. performing the two View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asimedam. the fetid Mimosa (Vachellia Farnesiana) (see ahi-māra-,etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvamedham. the horse-sacrifice (a celebrated ceremony, the antiquity of which reaches back to the Vedic period; the hymns [= ], referring to it, are however of comparatively late origin; in later times its efficacy was so exaggerated, that a hundred such sacrifices entitled the sacrificer to displace indra- from the dominion of svarga-; kings who engaged in it spent enormous sums in gifts to the Brahmans; it is said that the horse was sometimes not immolated, but kept bound during the ceremony) etc., (see arkāśvamedh/a-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvamedha(/aśva--) m. Name of a descendant of bharata- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśvamedham. a descendant of aśva-medha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvamedhadattam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvamedhajam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvamedhakam. (equals aśvamedha-ja-above) Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvamedhakāṇḍan. (aśvamedha-) Name of (treating of the aśvamedha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvamedhatvan. the state of an aśva-medha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvamedhavatmfn. receiving an aśva-medha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvamedhavatind. as with the aśva-medha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvamedhayājinm. engaged in an aśva-medha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvamedheśvaram. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvamedhikamfn. relating to the aśvamedha- (see /āśvamedhika-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvamedhikam. a horse fit for the aśva-medha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśvamedhikamfn. (fr. idem or 'm. a descendant of aśva-medha- '), belonging to a horse-sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśvamedhikamfn. (āśva-medhi-kaṃ parva-is the Name of the fourteenth book of the mahā-bhārata-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśvamedhika View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśvamedhikī feminine, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvamedhinmfn. engaged in an aśva-medha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvamedhīyam. equals -medhika- (q.v) m. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āṭīmedam. Name of a bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bakulamedf. Name of a temple View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmamedhyāf. Name of a river (see -bodhyā-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmeddhamfn. lighted or kindled with prayers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakramedinīfor -bhedinī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmedham. one who has offered 4 sacrifices (aśva--, puruṣa--, sarva--, and pitṛ-medha-) or one who knows the mantra-s required for them View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityamedajam. "produced from the marrow of daitya-s", a kind of bdellium View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityamedajāf. the earth (supposed to be produced from the marrow of madhu- and kaiṭabha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dāśāśvamedha wrong reading for daś- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daśāśvamedhan. the tīrtha- of the 10 horse-sacrifices, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daśāśvamedhan. see dāś-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daśāśvamedhikan. idem or 'n. see dāś-.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durmedhamfn. dull-witted, stupid, ignorant etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durmedhasmfn. () dull-witted, stupid, ignorant etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durmedhastvan. foolishness, stupidity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durmedhāvinmfn. equals -medha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durmedhāvinmfn. equals -medha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gārhakamedhikam. plural (scilicet dharmās-) the duties of a householder (griha[ka]-medhin-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gārhamedham. (equals gṛha-m-) a domestic sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gavāmmedham. sacrifice of cows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
girimedam. Vachellia farnesiana View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gomedam. "cow-fat", a gem brought from the himālaya- and the indu-s (being of 4 sorts, white, pale yellow, red, and dark blue) p.468 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gomedam. the tree kakkola- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gomedam. a kind of fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gomedam. Name of a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gomedam. of a dvīpa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gomedakam. n. Name of a gem (equals da-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gomedakam. a kind of poison (?, kākola-,for kakk-?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gomedakam. equals pattraka- (smearing the body with unguents ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gomedakam. the dvīpa- da- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gomedasaṃnibham. "resembling the gomeda-", dolomite View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gomedasaṃnibham. the plant dugdha-pāṣāṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gomedham. (see gavāṃ-m-) a cow-sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gomedham. Name of the attendant of the 22nd arhat- of the present avasarpiṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhamedham. a domestic sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhamedhamfn. one who performs the domestic sacrifices or is the object of them (as the marut-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhamedhamfn. connected with domestic rites or a householder's duties View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhamedham. a householder's duties View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhamedham. plural Name of particular winds causing rain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhamedhinmfn. one who performs the domestic sacrifices, religious man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhamedhinmfn. being the object of domestic rites (as the marut-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhamedhinm. the householder who performs the domestic rites, a married Brahman who has a household, a Brahman in the 2nd period of his life etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhamedhinīf. the wife of a householder ("natural intelligence"Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhamedhitāf. the state of a householder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhamedhivratan. a rite observed by a householder along with his wife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhamedhīyamfn. () relating to the dh/a- or domestic sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhamedhīyan. a domestic sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhamedhyamfn. () relating to the dh/a- or domestic sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harimedham. Name of narāyaṇa- or viṣṇu-kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harimedham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harimedhasm. Name of viṣṇu-kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harimedhasm. of the father of hari- (viṣṇu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harimedhasm. of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hatamedhasmfn. equals -citta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hayamedham. a horses sacrifice (See aśva-m-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hayamedhayājm. (Nominal verb -yāṭ-) one who performs a horses sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indramedin(/indra-) mfn. one whose friend or ally is indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
irimedam. Name of a plant equals ari-meda-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jyotirmedhātithim. the astronomer medhātithi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kairmedura varia lectio for kaumed-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaumeduram. Name of a locality gaRa takṣaśilādi- () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaumeduramfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumedhasmfn. of little intellect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāmedam. Erythrina Indica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāmedam. () or f(ā-). ( ) a species of medicinal plant. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāmedham. a great sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāmedf. "great intelligence", Name of durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandamedhasmfn. equals -dhī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
meghameduramfn. (darkness) dense with cloud View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitamedha(mit/a--) mfn. having firmly established power View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naramedham. equals -bali- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nārmedham. (fr. nṛ-m-) patronymic of śaka-pūta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nārmedhan. Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirmedhamfn. without understanding, stupid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirmedhāśramam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nṛmedham. man-sacrifice (see -yajña-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nṛmedham. (or -medhas-) Name of a man (author of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paitṛmedhikamfn. relating to a sacrifice to the pitṛ-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paitṛmedhikam. or n. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paitṛmedhikasūtran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paitṛmedhikavidhānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paitṛmedhikavidhānaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paitṛmedhikavidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramadurmedhasmfn. exceedingly stupid. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paśumedham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pauruṣamedhika(p/aur-) mfn. relating or belonging to a human sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pitṛmedham. oblation made to the pitṛ-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pitṛmedham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pitṛmedhasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pitṛmedhasūtran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praiyamedham. patronymic fr. priyamedha- (wrong reading praiyyam-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praiyamedham. Name of sindhu-kṣit- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praiyamedhan. Name of various sāman-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praiyyamedha wrong reading for praiyam- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praiyyamedhaSee above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prameditamfn. idem or 'mfn. one who has begun to become fat ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prameditamfn. one who has begun to show affection ( prameditavat -vat- mfn. idem or 'mfn. idem or 'mfn. one who has begun to become fat ' ' ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prameditamfn. being or made unctuous, unctuous, greasy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prameditaSee pra-mid-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prameditavatmfn. pramedita
prāśvamedha(pra-aśv-) m. a preliminary horse sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prayyamedha equals praiyyamedha- (wrong reading for praiyamedha- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pretamedham. a funeral sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
priyamedham. (priy/a--) Name of a ṛṣi- (a descendant of aṅgiras- and author of the hymns ) and (plural) of his descendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
priyamedham. of a descendant of aja-mīḍha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
priyamedhastutamfn. (priy/a-m-) praised by priya- (according to to equals priya-yajñair ṛṣibhiḥ stutaḥ-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
priyamedhavatind. as priya-medha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
purumedbamfn. () endowed with wisdom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
purumedbamfn. Name of a man with the patronymic āṅgirasa- (author of ). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
purumedhasmfn. () endowed with wisdom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
purumedhasmfn. Name of a man with the patronymic āṅgirasa- (author of ). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puruṣamedham. the sacrifice of a man etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puruṣamedham. Name of the supposed author of (perhaps wrong reading for puru-medha- q.v), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūtimedam. Vachellia Farnesiana View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmāśvamedham. " rāma-s's horse-sacrifice", Name of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmāśvamedhikamfn. relating to rāma-s's horse-sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rimedam. equals ari-meda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sākamedham. plural Name of the third parvan- of the cāturmāsya-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sākamedham. a particular soma- sacrifice lasting three days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śamanīcamedhram. one whose generative organ hangs down from absence of passion or impotence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sameddhṛmfn. one who kindles, kindling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sameddhṛSee sam-indh-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samedhA1. -edhate-, to prosper greatly, thrive, increase : Causal -edhayati-, to cause to prosper or succeed, make happy or fortunate, increase, swell, strengthen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samedhamfn. full of strength or vitality, vigorous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samedhanan. thriving, prospering, growth, increase View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samedhitamfn. greatly increased or augmented, swelled, increased, strengthened, made happy or fortunate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sammedam. Name of a mountain ( sammedamāhātmya -māhātmya- n.Name of work) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sammedamāhātmyan. sammeda
sarvabhūtātmamedhasmfn. sarvabhūtātman
sarvamedham. a universal sacrifice (a 10 days' soma- sacrifice) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvamedham. every sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvamedham. Name of an upaniṣad-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārvamedhikamfn. relating to the sarva-medha- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvamedhyamfn. universally or perfectly pure ( sarvamedhyatva -tva- n."universal purity") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvamedhyatvan. sarvamedhya
sarvasāmrājyamedhasahasranāmann. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāśvamedhamfn. together with a horse-sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satyamedhasmfn. having true intelligence (said of viṣṇu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saumedhan. (fr. su-medha-,or dhas-) Name of various sāman-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saumedhikamfn. possessing supernatural knowledge or wisdom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saumedhikam. a sage, seer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stabdhamedhramfn. one whose sexual organ has become stiff ( stabdhamedhratā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stabdhamedhratāf. stabdhamedhra
sukhamedhasmfn. prospering well View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumedhamf(-)n. very nourishing, loamy (as pasture land) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumedhamf(-)n. (-m/edha-), prob. equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumedhasmfn. (accusative sg. /asam-or /ām-) having a good understanding, sensible, intelligent, wise etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumedhasm. Name of a ṛṣi- under manu- cākṣuṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumedhasm. of a son of veda-mitra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumedhasm. plural a particular class of gods under the fifth manu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumedhasm. a particular class of deceased ancestors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumedhasf. Cardiospermum Halicacabum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumedhyamfn. very pure (in a ritual sense) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suramedāf. a kind of medicinal plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvarṇamedinīf. the earth represented in gold ( suvarṇamedinīdāna -dāna- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvarṇamedinīdānan. suvarṇamedinī
turagamedham. a horse-sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgamedham. equals rag- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unmedāf. ( mid-), corpulence, fatness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ūrjamedhamfn. of eminent intelligence, very wise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utkrāntamedha(/ut-krānta-) mfn. sapless, powerless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājimedham. a horse-sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varṣamedas(varṣ/a--) mfn. thick or plentiful through rain (-medhas- Paipp.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvamedinīf. Name of a lexicon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yakṛnmedasn. liver and fat gaRa gavāśvādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yakṣeśvaramedhīyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yaśomedhāsamanvitamfn. possessing fame and intelligence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuddhamedinīf. equals -bhū- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
Apte Search
Results for med32 results
medaḥ मेदः 1 Fat. -2 A particular mixed tribe; cf. Ms. 1.36; Mb.13.22.22 (com. मेदा गोमहिष्यादीनां मृतानां मांसमश्नन्तः). -3 N. of a serpent-demon. -4 N. of a plant (अलंबुषा). -दा A root resembling ginger (one of the eight principal medicines). -Comp. -कृत् n. the flesh. -जम् a species of bdellium. -भिल्लः N. of a degraded tribe.
medakaḥ मेदकः Liquor used for distillation.
medas मेदस् n. [मेद-असुन्] 1 Fat, marrow (one of the seven dhātus of the body and supposed to lie in the abdomen); Ms.3.182; मेदसा तर्पयेद् देवानथर्वाङ्गिरसः पठन् Y.1.44; पिपीलिकाभिराचीर्णमेदस्त्वङ्मांसशोणितम् Bhāg.7.3.15. -2 Corpulence, fat of the body; मेदच्छेदकृशोदरं लघु भवत्यु- त्थानयोग्यं वपुः Ś.2.5. -3 Excessive fatness, morbid corpulence. -Comp. -अर्बुदम् a fatty tumour. -कृत् m., n. flesh. -गण्डः a kind of fatty excrescence. -ग्रन्थिः a fatty tumour. -जम्, -तेजस् n. a bone. -दोषः, -रोगः excessive fatness. -धरा a membrane in the abdomen containing the fat. -पिण्डः a lump of fat. -वहम् a lymphatic. -वृद्धिः f. 1 increase of fat, corpulence. -2 enlargement of the scrotum.
medasvin मेदस्विन् a. 1 Fat, corpulent. -2 Strong, robust; मेदस्विनः सरभसोपगतानभीकान् (भङ्क्त्वा) Śi.5.64.
medh मेध् 1 U. See मेथ्.
med मेधा [मेध्-अञ्] (changed to मेधस् in Bah. comp. when preceded by सु, दुस् and the negative particle अ) 1 Retentive faculty, retentiveness (of memory); धी- र्धारणावती मेधा Ak. -2 Intellect, intelligence in general; यत् सप्तान्नानि मेधया तपसाजनयत् पिता Bṛi. Up.1.5.1; Bg. 1.34; आयुष्मन्तं सुतं सूते यशोमेधासमन्वितम् Ms.3.263; Y. 3.173. -3 A form of Sarasvathī. -4 A sacrifice. -5 Strength, power (Ved.). -Comp. -अतिथिः N. of a learned commentator on Manusmṛiti. -जननम् N. of a rite for producing mental and bodily strength. -जित् m. an epithet of Kātyāyana. -रुद्रः an epithet of Kālidāsa.
medhaḥ मेधः 1 A sacrifice, as in नरमेध, अश्वमेध, एकविंशति- मेधान्ते Mb.14.29.18. (com. मेधो युद्धयज्ञः । 'यज्ञो वै मेधः' इति श्रुतेः ।). -2 A sacrificial animal or victim. -3 An offering, oblation. -4 Ved. The juice of meat, broth. -5 Ved. Sap, pith, essence. -Comp. -जः an epithet of Viṣṇu.
medhāvat मेधावत् a. Wise, intelligent.
medhāvin मेधाविन् a. [मेधा-विनि] 1 Very intelligent, having a good memory. -2 Intelligent, wise, endowed with intellect; मेधाविनो नीतिगुणप्रयुक्तां पुरः स्फुरन्तीमिव दर्शयन्ति Pt. 1.61; मेधावी छिन्नसंशयः Bg.18.1. -m. 1 A learned man, sage, scholar. -2 A parrot. -3 An intoxicating drink. -नी An epithet of the wife of Brahmā.
medhi मेधि See मेथि.
medhira मेधिर a. Intelligent, wise.
medhya मेध्य a. [मेध्-ण्यत्, मेधाय हितं यत् वा] 1 Fit for a sacrifice; अजाश्वयोर्मुखं मेध्यम् Y.1.194; Ms.5.54. -2 Relating to a sacrifice, sacrificial; मेध्येनाश्वेनेजे; R.13. 3; उषा वा अश्वस्य मेध्यस्य शिरः Bṛi. Up.1.1.1. -3 Pure, sacred, holy; भुवं कोष्णेन कुण्डोघ्नी मध्येनावमृथादपि R.1.84; 3.31;14.81. -4 Ved. Fresh, strong, vigorous. -5 Wise, intelligent. -ध्यः 1 A goat. -2 A Khadira tree. -3 Barley (according to Medinī). -ध्या 1 N. of several plants (केतकी, शङ्खपुष्पी, रोचना, शमी &c.). -2 The gallstone of a cow (रोचना). -3 A particular vein.
medinī मेदिनी 1 The earth; न मामवति सद्वीपा रत्नसूरपि मेदिनी R.1.65; चञ्चलं वसु नितान्तमुन्नता मेदिनीमपि हरन्त्यरातयः Ki.13. 52; (मधुकैटभयोरासीन्मेदसैव परिप्लुता । तेनेयं मेदिनीनाम्ना सर्वतः परिकीर्तिता ॥). -2 Ground, land, soil. -3 Spot, place. -4 N. of a lexicon (मेदिनीकोश). -Comp. -ईशः, -पतिः a king. -जः the planet Mars. -दिनम् a natural day. -द्रवः dust. -धरः a mountain.
medram मेद्रम् = मेढ्रम् q. v.; नाभ्यधश्च भवेन्मेद्रम् Śukra.4.414.
medura मेदुर a. [मिद्-घुरच्] 1 Fat. -2 Smooth, unctuous, soft. -3 Thick, dense; पर्यन्तप्रतिरोधिमेदुरचयस्त्यानं चिता- ज्योतिषाम् Māl.5.11; thick with, full of, covered with (usually with instr. or at the end of comp.); मेघै- र्मेदुरमम्बरम् Gīt.1; मकरन्दसुन्दरगलन्मदाकिनीमेदुरम् (पदारविन्दम्) 7; श्रीगोविन्दपदाम्भोजप्रमोदभरमेदुरम् Śiva B.25.27; कुटजामोद- मेदुरः पवनः 26.69.
medurita मेदुरित a. 1 Thickened, made dense; मेघमेदुरितनीलिमा गिरिः U.1. -2 Unctuous.
medya मेद्य a. 1 Fat. -2 Dense, thick.
amedaska अमेदस्क a. Fatless, lean.
amedhas अमेधस् a. [अ-मेधा; नित्यमसिच् P.V.4.122] Foolish, stupid, an idiot.
amedhya अमेध्य a. 1 Not able or allowed to sacrifice. -2 Unfit for a sacrifice; नामेध्यं प्रक्षिपेदग्नौ Ms.4.53,56; 5.5,132. -2 Unholy, filthy, foul, dirty, impure; उच्छिष्टमपि चामेध्यं भोजनं तामसप्रियम् Bg.17.1.; Bh.3.16. -ध्यम् 1 Excrement, ordure; सुमुत्सृजेद्राजमार्गे यस्त्वमेध्यम- नापदि Ms.9.282;5.126,128;12.71. -2 An unlucky or inauspicious omen, अमेध्यं दृष्ट्वा सूर्यमुपतिष्ठेत Kāty. -Comp. -कुणपाशिन् a. feeding on carrion. -युक्त, -लिप्त a. smeared with ordure, foul, defiled, dirty; Ms.4.56. -लेपः smearing with ordure.
āśvamedhika आश्वमेधिक a. (-की f.) [अश्वमेधाय हितं ठक्] Belonging to the Horse-sacrifice. -कम् N. of the 14th Parvan of Mahābhārata.
irimedaḥ इरिमेदः = अरिमेद q. v.
unmedā उन्मेदा f. Corpulence, fatness.
gārhakamedhikaḥ गार्हकमेधिकः (in pl.) The duties of a householder; रेमे रमाभिर्निजकामसम्प्लुतो यथेतरो गार्हकमेधिकांश्चरन् Bhāg. 1.59.44.
gārhamedha गार्हमेध a. (-धी f.) [गृहमेधस्येदं अण्] Fit or proper for a householder; Bhāg.5.11.2. -धः The five Yajñas to be performed by a householder.
pramedita प्रमेदित a. 1 Unctuous, greasy. -2 Having begun to show affection.
samedh समेध् 1 Ā. To prosper greatly, thrive, increase. -Caus. 1 To make happy or fortunate. -2 To feed, supply with, strengthen; सूर्यः समेधयत्यग्निमग्निः सूर्यं च तेजसा V.5.2.
samedhanam समेधनम् Prospering, growth.
samedhita समेधित p. p. 1 Greatly increased; मधुसमृद्धिसमेधितमेधया Śi.6.2. -2 Strong. -3 United.
sākamedhīyanyāyaḥ साकमेधीयन्यायः The rule according to which an ectype (विकृति) sets aside a detail of its archetype (प्रकृतिधर्म) if it conficts with some detail (धर्म) which is expressly enjoined with reference to it. This is discussed and established by Jaimini and Śabara in MS. 5.1.19-22.
medhika सामेधिक a. One possessed of preternatural powers; असौ सिद्धः सामेधिकः Kau. A.1.11.
saumedhikaḥ सौमेधिकः A sage, seer, one possessed of supernatural wisdom.
Macdonell Vedic Search
9 results
agniṣvātta agni-ṣvāttá, cd. Tp. consumed by fire, x. 15, 11 [pp. of svād taste well].
adhvasman a-dhvasmán, a. (Bv.) undimmed, ii. 35, 14 [having no darkening].
uruśaṃsa uru-śáṃsa, a. (Bv.) far-famed. viii. 48, 4 [śáṃsa, m. praise].
jalāṣabheṣaja jálāṣa-bheṣaja, a. (Bv.) having cooling remedies, viii. 29, 5 [bheṣajá, n. remedy].
pāda pá̄d-a, m. foot, x. 90, 11; one-fourth, x. 90, 3. 4 [sec. stem formed from acc. pá̄d-am of pád foot].
bheṣaja bheṣaj-á, a. healing, ii. 33, 7, n. medicine, remedy, ii. 33, 2. 4. 12. 13 [bhiṣáj healing].
madhu mádh-u, n. honey, mead, i. 154, 4. 5; iv. 50, 3; viii. 48, 1; x. 34, 7; a. sweet, i. 85, 6 [Gk. μέθυ, Lith.medù-s, OSl. medǔ, Eng. mead].
madhya mádhya, a. middle, vii. 49, 1. 3; x. 15, 14 [Lat. mediu-s].
sumedhas su-medhás, a. (Bv.) having a good understanding, wise, viii. 48, 1.
Macdonell Search
Results for med24 results
meda m. fat; a mixed caste.
medaḥpuccha m. fat-tailed sheep.
medas n. fat; obesity.
medasvin a. fat, corpulent; stout, robust.
med f. reward (V.); mental power, intelligence, understanding, wisdom: pl. pro ducts of intelligence, thoughts; sg. often per sonified as a daughter of Daksha and wife of Dharma, and as a form of Sarasvatî: -kâma, a. desirous of understanding for any one (g.); -ganana, a. generating intelligence; n. a certain ceremony and formula supposed to be productive of physical and intellectual ex cellence in infants and youths.
medha m. juice of meat, strong draught (V.); essential or most valuable part (of a sacrificial animal; V.); sacrificial victim; animal sacrifice (very frequently --°ree;).
medhaja a. produced from the sacrifice (Vishnu).
medhas n. sacrifice.
medhasāti f. gaining or deserv ing of a reward or praise (RV.).
medhāvatī f. (possessed of understanding), N.; -vara, m. N.; -vín, a. intellectual, intelligent, acute, wise; m. N.
medhira a. intelligent, wise.
medhya a. vigorous (V.); fit for sacri fice, sacrificially pure; pure, not defiling; m. N.: -tâ, f., -tvá, n. ritual purity.
medin m. companion, associate, ally (V.).
medinī f. [having fatness or fer tility: meda, √ mid], earth; ground, soil; land, country, realm; spot, place: -ga, m. son of earth, planet Mars; -dhara, m. supporter of earth, mountain; -nandana,m. son of earth, planet Mars; -pati, m. lord of earth, king; -½îsa, m. id.
medodoṣa m. morbid corpu lence, obeseness.
medura a. fat; thick, dense, -like (--°ree;); filled or completely covered with (in. or --°ree;): i-ta, pp. thickened, made dense by (--°ree;).
medya a. fat; solid (opp. fluid).
amedhya a. unfit for sacrifice; im pure; n. impurity, excrement.
āśvamedhika a. relating to the horse-sacrifice.
paitṛmedhika a. relating to the sacrifice to the Manes; -yagñ-ika, -yagñ îya, a. id.; -shvas-eya, a. (î) descended from a father's sister; m. son of a paternal aunt.
prāśvamedha m. preliminary horse sacrifice.
praiyamedha m. pat. descendant of Priyamedha.
meḍi medí, meळि m. (V.) crackling, roaring (of fire or wind).
samedha a. vigorous (V.).
Vedic Index of
Names and Subjects
Results for med24 resultsResults for med10 results
medha Is a word of uncertain sense occurring in a Vālakhilya hymn of the Rigveda. According to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, the proper name of a sacrificer may be meant.
medhātithi (‘ having a guest at the sacrifice ’) appear to be the names of one and the same man, a descendant of Kaṇva and a famous Vedic Rṣi, to whom the authorship of various hymns is attributed in the Anukramaṇī (Index). To him Indra is said in the Rigveda to have come in the form of a ram: this myth is perpetuated in the Subrahmaṇyā formula recited by the priest while the Soma is being carried within the sacrificial enclosure, when Indra is hailed as ‘ram of Medhātithi.’ He appears also as a rival of Vatsa, whom he accused of low birth, but who convinced him of his error by undergoing a fire ordeal {cf Divya). In the Atharvaveda he is mentioned with many other sages, and occurs elsewhere also as a sage.
medhya Is the name of a man, an ancient sacrificer, in a hymn of the Rigveda. In the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra he is erroneously transmuted into Ppçadhra Medhya Mātariávan, the patron of Praskaṇva Kāṇva.
medhyātithi See Medhātithi.
aśvamedha (‘Offering a horse-sacrifice ’) is a prince men­tioned in a hymn of the Rigveda, which contains a Dānastuti (‘ Praise of Gifts ’) of Tryaruna, and to which three verses have been added in praise of Aśvamedha. See also Aśvamedha.
āśvamedha Is the patronymic of an unnamed prince, who occurs in a Dānastuti (‘ Praise of Gifts ’) in the Rigveda
nṛmedha Is the name of a protege of Agni in the Rigveda, where he also appears with Sumedhas in a hymn that Griffith with justice declares to be unintelligible. In the Taittirīya Samhitā he is an unsuccessful rival of Parucchepa, and in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana he is an Añgirasa and a seer of Sāmans (Chants).
priyamedha Is the name of a seer in the Rigveda, where his family, the Priyamedhas, are also repeatedly alluded to. It is not probable that any hymns are really Priyamedha’s own composition. See also Praiyamedha.
praiyamedha ‘Descendant of Priyamedha,’ is a patronymic of the priests who sacrificed for the Átreya Udamaya in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. They appear in the Yajurveda Samhitās as priests who ‘ knew all ’ (sacrificial lore). Three Praiya- medhas are referred to in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa. In the Gopatha Brāhmaṇa4 they are called Bharadvājas.
sumedha Occurs in an obscure hymn of the Rigveda either as an adjective (‘of good understanding’) or a proper name, perhaps identical with Npmedha or his brother.
Bloomfield Vedic
Concordance
Results for med24 resultsResults for med10 resultsResults for med130 results
medasā devā vapayā yajadhvam MS.4.14.6b: 223.1; 4.14.6a: 223.3; TB.2.8.4.4b,4a.
medasaḥ kulyā (HG. kūlyā) upa tān (AG. upainān; SMB. abhi tān) sravantu (HG.ApMB. kṣarantu) VS.35.20c; AG.2.4.13c; śG.3.13.3c; Kauś.45.14c; 84.1c; SMB.2.3.18c; HG.2.15.7c; ApMB.2.20.28c. See medaso ghṛtasya, and cf. under ājyasya kūlyā.
medasaḥ (VSK. medasa) svāhā VS.28.11; VSK.39.10 (bis); MS.4.13.5: 205.2; TB.3.6.2.2. P: medasaḥ Aś.3.4.3. See medobhyaḥ.
medaso ghṛtasya kulyā abhiniḥsravantu MG.2.9.4c. See medasaḥ kulyā.
medastaḥ pratipacata VS.21.60; 28.23,46; MS.4.13.9: 211.8; KS.19.13; TB.2.6.15.2; 3.6.15.1. See taṃ medastaḥ.
medasvatā yajamānāḥ AVś.6.114.3a; TB.2.4.4.9a.
medasvatīṃ ghṛtavatīṃ svadhāvatīm HG.2.15.2c.
medatāṃ vedatā vaso RV.10.93.11d.
medha āprīṣu haviḥ paryagnikṛtaḥ pitṛdevatyaḥ saṃjñapyamānaḥ KS.34.15.
med amṛtasya etc. see medhām ṛtasya etc.
med devī juṣamāṇā na āgāt TA.10.39.1a; MahānU.16.4a.
med vanā na kṛṇavanta ūrdhvā RV.1.88.3b.
medhākāraṃ vidathasya prasādhanam RV.10.91.8a; SV.2.334a; KS.39.13a; JB.3.88a; TB.3.11.6.3a; Apś.16.35.5a. P: medhākāram JG.1.14.
medhaṃ juṣanta vahnayaḥ RV.1.3.9c; MS.4.10.3c: 150.13.
medhāṃ sapta ṛṣayo (ApMB. saptarṣayo) daduḥ RVKh.10.151.1b; ApMB.2.4.5b. Cf. ṛṣayo bhadrāṃ.
medhāṃ sāyaṃ medhāṃ prātaḥ AVś.6.108.5a.
medhāṃ sūryasya raśmibhiḥ AVś.6.108.5c.
medhāṃ ko asminn adhyauhat AVś.10.2.17c.
medhāṃ ta indro dadātu HG.1.6.4a.
medhāṃ te aśvinau devau (HG. aśvināv ubhau) AG.1.15.2c; SMB.1.5.9c; HG.1.6.4c; ApMB.2.12.2c. See medhām aśvinau, and medhāṃ me aśvināv.
medhāṃ te devaḥ savitā AG.1.15.2a; ApMB.2.12.2a (ApG.6.15.1). See medhāṃ me etc.
medhāṃ te mitrāvaruṇau SMB.1.5.9a; GG.2.7.21. P: medhāṃ te KhG.2.2.34.
medhāṃ devīṃ manasā rejamānām RVKh.10.151.6a.
medhāṃ devī sarasvatī RVKh.10.151.2b; TA.10.40.1b; MahānU.16.5b; AG.1.15.2b; PG.2.4.8b; HG.1.6.4b; 8.4b; ApMB.2.12.2b.
medhāṃ dhātā dadātu me RVKh.10.151.1d; VS.32.15d.
medhām agniḥ prajāpatiḥ VS.32.15b.
medhām agnir dadātu me (SMB. dadhātu te) SMB.1.5.9b; ApMB.2.4.5d.
medhām abhi prayāṃsi ca RV.9.107.25d; SV.1.522d.
medhām aśvinau devau PG.2.4.8c. See under medhāṃ te aśvinau.
medhām ahaṃ prathamāṃ brahmaṇvatīm AVś.6.108.2a.
medhām āśāsata śriye SV.1.101b. See vedhām aśāsata.
medhām indraś cāgniś ca (VS. indraś ca vāyuś ca) RVKh.10.151.1c; VS.32.15c. Cf. agnir medhāṃ.
medhām ṛtasya (VārG. medhā amṛtasya !) jagrabha RV.8.6.10b; AVś.20.115.1b; SV.1.152b; 2.850b; MG.1.4.2b (bis); VārG.8.2b (bis).
medhāṃ ma indro dadātu TA.10.40.1a; MahānU.16.5a; HG.1.8.4a.
medhāṃ madhyaṃdinaṃ pari AVś.6.108.5b.
medhāṃ mahyam aṅgirasaḥ RVKh.10.151.1a; ApMB.2.4.5a (ApG.4.11.6). Designated as medhāsūkta Rvidh.4.14.1; 19.1.
medhāṃ mahyaṃ prajāpatiḥ ApMB.2.4.5c.
medhāṃ me aśvināv ubhau (RVKhṭA. aśvinau devau) RVKh.10.151.2c; TA.10.40.1c; MahānU.16.5c; HG.1.8.4c. See under medhāṃ te aśvinau.
medhāṃ me devaḥ savitā PG.2.4.8a. See medhāṃ te etc.
medhāṃ medhāvino viduḥ AVś.6.108.4b.
medhāṃ me varuṇo dadātu (RVKh. rājā) RVKh.10.151.2a; VS.32.15a.
medhāṃ me viṣṇur nyanaktv āsan AVś.18.3.11b.
medhāmanīṣe māviśatāṃ samīcī bhūtasya bhavyasyāvaruddhyai TA.4.42.5.
medhasātā vājinam ahraye dhane RV.10.147.3d.
medhasātā saniṣyavaḥ RV.7.94.6c; SV.2.152c; TS.1.7.8.2b.
medhasātā so arvatā RV.4.37.6d.
medhātither meṣa JB.2.79; ṣB.1.1.14; śB.3.3.4.18; TA.1.12.3; Lś.1.3.1.
medhāvī dikṣu manasā tapasvī TB.3.7.6.3c; Apś.4.5.3c.
medhāvī bhūyāsam ajarājariṣṇuḥ RVKh.10.151.6e.
medhāvinaṃ pitaro garbham ā dadhuḥ Kauś.89.6b.
medhāvinaṃ brahmacaryopapannam ViDh.29.10b; VāDh.2.9b; N.2.4b.
medhāvy ahaṃ sumanāḥ supratīkaḥ RVKh.10.151.9a.
medhāvy aham asāni PG.2.4.3.
medhayā prajayā dhanena AVP.1.41.1c; TS.4.2.1.2c; Kauś.72.14d.
medhāya vāsaḥpalpūlīm VS.30.12; TB.3.4.1.7.
medhāyai (sc. namaḥ) PG.2.10.9; BDh.3.9.4.
medhāyai manase 'gnaye (MS.KS. agnaye) svāhā VS.4.7; TS.1.2.2.1; 6.1.2.2; MS.1.2.2: 10.11; 3.6.4: 63.18; KS.2.2; 23.2; śB.3.1.4.7,13.
medhāyai rathakāram VS.30.6; TB.3.4.1.2.
medhe vṛṇīta martyaḥ RV.8.6.44b.
medhirāso vipaścitaḥ RV.8.43.19b.
medho rabhīyān Aś.3.4.14.
medhyaṃ sātrājito hayam śB.13.5.4.21b.
medhyāmedhyavibhāgajñe śG.2.13.5a.
medinas te vaibhīdakāḥ AVP.1.72.2a.
medinīr vacaso mama AVś.8.7.7b.
medo mṛtyor juhomi medasā mṛtyuṃ vāsaye VāDh.20.26.
medobhyaḥ svāhā VS.39.10 (bis). See medasaḥ svāhā.
medyantu te vahnayo yebhir īyase RV.2.37.3a; N.8.3a.
amīmed vatso anu gām apaśyat # RV.1.164.9c; AVś.9.9.9c.
arkāśvamedhāv ucchiṣṭe # AVś.11.7.7a.
aśvamedhasya dānāḥ # RV.5.27.5c.
aśvamedhāya sūraye # RV.5.27.4b.
aśvamedhe dhanaṃ labdhvā # śB.13.5.4.15c.
aśvamedhena taurvaśāḥ # śB.13.5.4.16b.
aśvamedhe suvīryam # RV.5.27.6b.
aśvamedhaiḥ paro 'varam (śś. parovaram) # śB.13.5.4.3b; śś.16.9.7b.
aśvamedhyam atikramya # AVP.14.7.7a.
āśvamedhasya rohitā # RV.8.68.15c.
āśvamedhe supeśasaḥ # RV.8.68.16c.
indramedī satvano ni (AVP. satvanaḥ saṃ) hvayasva # AVś.5.20.8c; AVP.9.27.7c.
ṛdhyāsmedaṃ sarasvati # AVś.6.94.3d.
kṣamedam anyad divy anyad asya # RV.1.103.1c.
gamemed indra gomataḥ # RV.8.45.10c. Cf. prec.
gṛhamedhaṃ ca vardhaya # Apś.5.26.5f.
gṛhamed riśādasaḥ # KS.21.13a.
gṛhamedhāsa (MS. -sā) ā gata # RV.7.59.10a; TS.4.3.13.5a; MS.4.10.5a: 154.12; Aś.2.18.4; śś.3.15.9.
gṛhamed gṛhapatiṃ mā kṛṇu # AVś.19.31.13b; AVP.10.5.13b.
gṛhamedhīyaṃ maruto juṣadhvam # RV.7.56.14d; TS.4.3.13.6d; MS.4.10.5d: 154.15; KS.21.13d.
jayāmedaṃ haviṣā kaśyapasya # AVP.2.73.4d.
tvakcarmamāṃsarudhiramedomajjāsnāyavo 'sthīni (MahānU. -rudhirasnāyumedosthimajjā) me śudhyantām # TA.10.54.1; Tā.10.65; MahānU.20.18. P: tvakcarmaBDh.3.8.12.
nṛmedhas tatre aṃhasaḥ # RV.10.132.7d.
purumedhaś (SV. -dhāś) cit takave naraṃ dāt (SV.JB. dhāt) # RV.9.97.52d; SV.1.541d; 2.454d; JB.3.164d.
prathamedam āgan prathamā dattetāt # AVP.5.31.4a.
priyamedhaḥ kaṇvo atrir manur viduḥ # RV.1.139.9b.
priyamedham upastutam # RV.8.5.25b.
priyamedhavad atrivat # RV.1.45.3a; N.3.17a.
priyamedhastutā harī # RV.8.6.45b; 32.30b.
priyamed ahūṣata # RV.1.45.4b; 8.8.18b; 87.3b.
priyamed ṛṣayo nādhamānāḥ # RV.10.73.11b; SV.1.319b; KS.9.19b; AB.3.19.13; TB.2.5.8.3b; TA.4.42.3b; Tā.10.73b; Apś.6.22.1b; N.4.3b.
priyamedhāsa eṣām # RV.8.69.18b; AVś.20.92.15b.
priyamedhāso arcata # RV.8.69.8b; AVś.20.92.5b; SV.1.362b.
priyamedhāso asvaran # RV.8.3.16d; AVś.20.10.2d; 59.2d; SV.2.713d.
priyamedhair abhidyubhiḥ # RV.8.4.20b.
praiyamed ayājayan # AB.8.22.4b.
brahmamedhayā madhumedhayā brahma me 'va madhumedhayā # TA.10.49.1; MahānU.17.7.
brahmamedhavā madhumedhavā brahma me 'va madhumedhavā # TA.10.50.1; MahānU.17.8.
brahmedaṃ sarvam anv ā tatāna # AVP.8.9.12c.
brahmedaṃ sarvam ātmanvat # AVP.8.9.4c.
brahmedam anyan nakṣatram # AVś.10.2.23c.
brahmedam ūrdhvaṃ tiryak ca # AVś.10.2.25c.
brahmedaṃ brahmaṇo jātam # AVP.8.9.9c.
brahmedaṃ bhārataṃ janam # RV.3.53.12d.
brahmed indrasya cākanat # RV.8.31.1c.
brahmeddhāv agnī ījāte # AVś.13.1.49c--51c.
bharāmedhmaṃ kṛṇavāmā havīṃṣi te # RV.1.94.4a; AVP.13.5.3a; SV.2.415a; SMB.2.4.3a.
mamedaṃ sarvam ātmanvat # AVP.1.40.4d; Kauś.133.3d.
mamed anu kratuṃ patiḥ # RV.10.159.2c; ApMB.1.16.2c. See next but one.
mamed api kratāv asaḥ # AVP.2.77.1c; 3.29.4c. See mamed aha kratāv, and cf.yathā mama kratāv.
mamed api kratuṃ patiḥ # AVP.2.41.2c. See prec. but one.
mamedam iṣṭaṃ na mithurbhavāti # TB.3.7.5.12b; Apś.2.20.6b.
mamed asas tvaṃ kevalaḥ # AVś.7.38.4c; AVP.3.29.5c. Cf. yathāso mama.
mamed aha kratāv asaḥ # AVś.1.34.2c. See under mamed api kratāv.
mamed aha śvaśuro nā jagāma # RV.10.28.1b.
mamed ahainaṃ kāme # AVP.3.28.2c.
mamed iha śrutaṃ havam # RV.2.41.4c; SV.2.260c; VS.7.9c; TS.1.4.5.1c; MS.1.3.7c: 32.17; KS.4.2c; śB.4.1.4.7c.
mamed u karman karuṇe 'dhi jāyā # AVś.12.3.47b.
mamed ugra śrudhī havam # RV.8.6.18c.
mamed ugrasya carkṛdhi # AVś.20.127.11c; śś.12.15.1.2c.
mamed vardhasva suṣṭutaḥ # RV.8.6.12c; AVś.20.115.3c; SV.2.852c.
mitamedhābhir ūtibhiḥ # RV.8.53 (Vāl.5).5b; SV.1.282b.
Dictionary of Sanskrit Search
"med" has 437 results
akārathe letter a, (अ) inclusive of all its eighteen kinds caused by shortness, length, protraction, accentuation and nasalization in Pānini's grammar, in cases where a(अ) is not actually prescribed as a termination or an augment or a substitute. confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.73. The letter is generally given as the first letter of the alphabet ( वर्णसमाम्नाय ) in all Prātiśākhya and grammar works except in the alphabet termed Varṇopadeśa, as mentioned in the Ṛk Tantra confer, compare ए ओ ऐ औ अा ॠ लॄ ई ऊ ऋ लृ इ उ अाः । रयवलाः । ङञणनमाः । अः ೱ क ೱ पाः । हुं कुं खुं गुं घुं अं अां एवमुपदेशे et cetera, and others Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.I. 4.
akṛtasaṃhitawords ending with a breathing or visarga which are not looked upon as placed immediately before the next word and hence which have no combination with the following vowel e. g. एष देवो अमर्त्यः R. V. 1X.8.1.
akṛtrimanon-technical: not formed or not arrived at by grammatical operations such as the application of affixes to crude bases and so on; natural; assigned only by accident. cf the gram. maxim कृत्रिमाकृतिमयोः कृत्रिमे कार्यसंप्रत्ययः which means "in cases of doubt whether an operation refers to that expressed by the technical sense or to that which is expressed by the ordinary sense of a term, the operation refers to what is expressed by the technical sense." Par. śek. Par.9 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.28.
agati(1)absence of any other recourse or alternative. confer, compare अगत्या हि खलु परिभाषाश्रीयते. Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adevaPari. vṛtti Pari.119;(2) which is not a word termed gati. confer, compare चनचिदिवगोत्रादितद्धिताम्रेडितेष्वगते: P. VII.1.57.
aṅgavṛttaan operation prescribed in the section named aṅgādhikara, comprising the fourth quarter of the sixth book and the whole of the seventh book of Pāṇini.
(1)taddhita affix. affix a ( अ ) with the mute letter ñ ( ञ्), prescribed (i) after the words उत्स and others in various senses like progeny, dyed in, produced in, come from et cetera, and othersP. IV.1.86, (ii) after the words विद and others in the sense of grandson and other descendents.P. IV.1.104. For other cases see P. IV. I. 141, 161; IV.2.12,14 et cetera, and others IV.3.7 et cetera, and others IV.4.49. The feminine is formed by adding i ( ई ) to words ending with this affix अञ्, which have the vṛddhi vowel substituted for their initial vowel which gets the acute accent also exempli gratia, for example औत्सः, औत्सी,औदपानः, बैदः, बैदी.
adyatanītech. term of ancient grammarians signifying in general the present time of the day in question, the occurrence of the immediate past or future events in which is generally expressed by the aorist (लुड्) or the simple future ( लृट् ); the other two corresponding tenses imperfect and first future (viz. लड् and लुट्) being used in connection with past and future events respectively, provided the events do not pertain to that day which is in question; confer, compare 'वा चाद्यतन्याम्' M.Bh. P.III.2.102 Vār.6, वादृतन्याम् P, VI.4.114. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (2) term for the tense showing immediate past time called लुङ् in Pāṇini's grammar e. g. मायोगे अद्यतनी । मा कार्षीत् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.III. 1.22, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III. 3.11.
adviyoniliterally not made up of two elements, and hence, produced with a single effort, an expression used for simple vowels ( समानाक्षर ) such as अ, इ, उ, ऋ, लृ and simple consonants क्, ख्, ग् et cetera, and others as distinguished from diphthongs ( सन्ध्यक्षर ) such as ए, ऐ, ओ, औ and conjunct consonants क्व, ध्र , et cetera, and others which appear to have been termed द्वियोनि confer, compare अपृक्तमेकाक्षरमद्वियोनि यत् R.Pr.XI.3.
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
anantara(1)immediate, contiguous अव्यवहित. confer, compare हलोनन्तराः संयोगः P.1. 1.7, also गतिरनन्तरः P. VI.2.49: confer, compare अनन्तरं संयोगः V. Pr.I.48. ; (2) nearest, as compared with others of the same type; confer, compare अथवा अनन्तरा या प्राप्तिः सा प्रतिषिध्यते M.Bh. on I.1.43; confer, compare Pari. Śek. अनन्तरस्य विधिर्वा भवति प्रतिषेधो वा, which means that a prescriptive or prohibitive rule applies to the nearest and not to the distant one.Par.Śek. 61,Cān. Par.30.
anantyanon-final confer, compare अनन्त्यविकारे अन्त्यसदेशस्य when a change does not concern a final letter then it concerns that which immediately precedes the final, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 95. confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI.1.13 Vārt 5.
anabhidhānainability to express the meaning desiredition The expression न वा अनभिधानात् frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya referring to such words or phrases as could be formed by rules of grammar or could be used according to rules but,are not found in current use recognized by learned persons or scholars; confer, compare तच्चानभिधानं यत्राप्तैरुक्तं तत्रैव, अन्यत्र तु यथालक्षणं भवत्येव Padamañj. on III. 2.1;also confer, compare अनभिधानाद् व्यधिकरणानां बहुव्रीहिर्न भविष्यति । यत्र त्वभिधानमस्ति तत्र वैयधिकरण्येपि भवत्येव समासः, कण्ठेकाल इति; Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on II. 2.24: for examples of अनभिधान, sec also M.Bh.अभिधानलक्षणाः कृत्तद्धितसमासाः अनभिधानान्न भविष्यन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.3.19. also on III. 2.1. V.5, IV.2.1. See Kāś. on III,1.22, III.3.158.
aniṭ(1)not admitting the augment इट् to be prefixed to it; the term is strictly to be applied to ārdhadhātuka affixes placed after such roots as have their vowel characterized by a grave accent ( अनुदात्तस्वर ); the term अनिट् being explained as अनिडादि qualifying the अार्धधातुक affix; (2) in a secondary way, it has become customary to call such roots अनिट् as do not allow the augment इट् to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. Such roots are termed अनुदात्त verily because they are possessed of an anudātta vowel. e. g. कृ, भृ, जि, गम् , हन् et cetera, and others as against भु, धू, तॄ, श्वि, वृ, वद्, फल्, चल्, et cetera, and others which have their vowel characterized by an acute (उदात्त ) accent. For a complete list of such roots see the well-known stanzas given in the Siddhāntakaumudī incidentally on अात्मनेपदेष्वनतः P. VII.1.5. ऊदॄदन्तैर्यौतिरुक्ष्णुशीङ्स्नु....निहताः स्मृताः ॥ १ ॥ शक्लृपच्मुचिरिचवच्विच् .........धातवो द्व्यधिकं शतम् ॥ as also some lists by ancient grammarians given in the Mahābhāṣya on एकाच उपदेशेनुदात्तात्. P. VII. 2.10 or in the Kāśikā on the same rule P. VII.2.10.
aniyatanot subject to any limitation confer, compare प्रत्यया नियताः, अर्था अनियताः, अर्था नियताः, प्रत्यया अनियताः M.Bh. on II. 3.50. In the casc of नियमविधि (a restrictive rule or statement ) a limitation is put on one or more of the constituent elements or factors of that rule, the limited element being called नियत, the other one being termed अनियत; also see Kāś. on II.2.30.
anīyarkṛt affix, termed कृत्य also forming the pot. passive voice. participle. of a root; confer, compare तव्यत्तव्यानीयरः P.III.1.96. exempli gratia, for example see the forms करणीयं, हरणीयं, the mute र् showing the acute accent on the penultimate vowel,
anudāttataraquite a low tone, completely grave; generally applied to the tone of that grave or anudātta vowel which is immediately followed by an acute ( उदात्त ) vowel. When the three Vedic accents were sub-divided into seven tones viz. उदात्त, उदात्ततर्, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितस्थोदात्त and एकश्रुति corresponding to the seven musical notes, the अनुदात्ततर was the name given to the lowest of them all. अनुदात्ततर was termed सन्नतर also; confer, compare उदात्तस्वरितपरस्य सन्नतरः P.I.2.40; confer, compare also M, Bh. on I.2.33.
anunāsika(a letter)uttered through the nose and mouth both, as different from anusvāra which is uttered only through the nose. confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिकःP.I.1.8, and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). thereon. The anunāsika or nasal letters are the fifth letters of the five classes ( id est, that is ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न्, म् ) as also vowels अ, इ, उ and semivowels when so pronounced, as ordinarily they are uttered through the mouth only; ( exempli gratia, for example अँ, आँ, et cetera, and others or य्यँ, व्वँ, ल्लँ et cetera, and others in सय्यँन्ता, सव्वँत्सरः, सँल्लीनः et cetera, and others) The अनुनासिक or nasalized vowels are named रङ्गवर्ण and they are said to be consisting of three mātras. confer, compare अष्टौ आद्यानवसानेsप्रगृह्यान् आचार्या आहुरनुनासिकान् स्वरान् । तात्रिमात्रे शाकला दर्शयन्ति Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.63.64; confer, compare also अप्रग्रहाः समानाक्षराणि अनुनासिकानि एकेषाम् T. Pr XV.6. Trivikrama, a commentator on the Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Sūtras, explains अनुनासिक as अनु पश्चात् नासिकास्थानं उच्चारणं एषां इत्यनुनासिकाः । पूर्वं मुखस्थानमुच्चारणं पश्चान्नासिकास्थानमुच्चारणमित्यर्थः । अनुग्रहणात्केवलनासिकास्थानोच्चारणस्य अनुस्वारस्य नेयं संज्ञा । and remarks further पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्धसंज्ञेयमन्वर्था । Com. by Tr. on Kat. I 1.13. Vowels which are uttered nasalized by Pāṇini in his works viz. सूत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ et cetera, and others are silent ones i. e. they are not actually found in use. They are put by him only for the sake of a complete utterance, their nasalized nature being made out only by means of traditional convention. e. g. एध, स्पर्ध et cetera, and others confer, compare उपदेशेSजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2; confer, compare also प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः Kāś on I.3.2.
anupradānaan effort outside the mouth in the production of sound at the different vocal organs such as कण्ठ, तालु et cetera, and others which is looked upon as an external effort or bāhyaprayatna. अनुप्रदान is one of the three main factors in the production of sound which are ( 1 ) स्थान, ( 2 ) करण or आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न and ( 3 ) अनुप्रदान or बाह्यप्रयत्न; confer, compare स्थाकरणप्रयत्नेभ्यो वर्णा जायन्ते Cān. The commentator on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.describes अनुप्रदान as the मूलकारण or उपादानकारण, the main cause in the production of articulate sound confer, compare अनुप्रदीयते अनेन वर्णः इति अनुप्रदानम्: cf also अनुप्रदीयते इत्यनुप्रदानं प्रयत्न इत्यर्थः; Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. I. Generally two main varieties of बाह्यप्रयत्न are termed अनुप्रदान which are mentioned as (i) श्वासानुप्रदान (emission of breath) and नादानुप्रदान (resonance), the other varieties of it such as विवार, संवार, घोष, अघोष, अल्पप्राण, मह्मप्राण, उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित being called merely as बाह्यप्रयत्न.
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
anuvṛttirepetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the subsequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intended interpretation. The word is of common use in books on Pāṇini's grammar. This recurrence is generally continuous like the stream of a river ( गङ्गास्रोतोवत् ); sometimes however, when it is not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवृत्ति. In rare cases it is taken backwards in a sūtra work from a subsequent rule to a previous rule when it is called अपकर्ष.
anūddeśastatement or mention immediately afterwards; the same as the word अनुदेश used by Pāṇini in I.3.10, confer, compare संख्यातानामनूद्देशो यथासंख्यम् । अनूद्देशः पश्चादुद्देशः Uvaṭa on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 143.
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
abāghakanot coming in the way of rules otherwise applicable; the word is used in connection with निपातन i. e. constituted or announced forms or specially formed words which are said to be अबाधक i. e. not coming in the way of forms which could be arrived at by application of the regular rules. Siradeva has laid down the Paribhāṣā अबाधकान्यपि निपातनानि भवन्ति defending the form पुरातन in spite of Pāṇini's specific mention of the word पुराण in the rule पुराणप्रोक्तेषुo IV. 3. 105.
abhyaṃkara(BHASKARASHASTRI Abhyankar 1785-1870 A. D. )an eminent scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who prepared a number of Sanskrit scholars in Grammar at Sātārā. He has also written a gloss on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another one on the Laghu-Śabdenduśekhara. (VASUDEVA SHASTRI Abhyakar 863-1942 A. D.) a stalwart Sanskrit Pandit, who, besides writing several learned commentaries on books in several Sanskrit Shastras, has written a commentary named 'Tattvādarśa' on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another named 'Guḍhārthaprakāśa' on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara. (KASHINATH VASUDEVA Abhyankar, 1890-) a student of Sanskrit Grammar who has written महाभाष्यप्रस्तावना-खण्ड, and जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति and compiled the परिभाषासंग्रह and the present Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar.
ambākartrīcommentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāsenduśekhara named so, as it commences with the words अम्बा कर्त्री et cetera, and others
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
alpāpekṣaam operation requiring a smaller number of causes, which merely on that account cannot be looked upon as अन्तरङ्ग. The antaraṅga operation has its causes occurring earlier than those of another operation which is termed बहिरङ्ग confer, compare बहिरङगान्तरङश्ङ्गशब्दाभ्यां बह्वपेक्षत्वाल्पापेक्षत्वयोः शब्दमर्यादयाsलाभाच्च । तथा सति असिद्धं बह्वपेक्षमल्पापेक्ष इत्येव वदेत् ॥ Par.Śek. Pari. 50.
aśvaghāsādicompounds like अश्वघास which cannot be strictly correct as चतुथींसमास, but can be षष्ठीसमास if the word तदर्थ in the rule चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः be understood in the sense of 'meant for' a particular thing which is to be formed out of it: confer, compare विकृतिः प्रकृत्येति चेदश्वघासादीनामुपसंख्यानम् M.Bh. on II.1.36.
asiddhaparibhāṣāthe same as Antaraṅga Paribhāṣā or the doctrine of the invalidity of the bahiraṅga operation. See the word असिद्ध a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For details see the Paribhāṣā 'asiddham , bahiraṅgam antaraṅge' Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 50 and the discussion thereon. Some grammarians have given the name असिद्धपरिभाषा to the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे as contrasted with अन्तरङ्गं बहुिरङ्कगाद् वलीयः which they have named as बहिरङ्गपरिभाषा.
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
āgamaaugment, accrement, a word element which is added to the primitive or basic word during the process of the formation of a complete word or pada. The āgama is an adventitious word element and hence differs from ādeśa, the substitute which wholly takes the place of the original or ( आदेशिन् ). Out of the several āgamas mentioned by Pāṇini, those that are marked with mute ट् are prefixed, those, marked with क्, are affixed, while those, marked with म्, are placed immediately after the last vowel of the word. The augments become a part and parcel of the word to which they are added, and the characteristics of which they possess;confer, compareयदागमास्तद्गुणीभूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते, also आगमानां आगमिधर्मिवैशिष्ट्यम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.11. Those grammarians, who hold the view that words are unproduced and eternal, explain the addition of an augment as only the substitution of a word with an augment in the place of a word without an augment; confer, compare आदेशास्तर्हिमे भविष्यन्ति अनागमकानां सागमकाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20; I.1.46. The term āgama is defined as अन्यत्र विद्यमानस्तु यो वर्णः श्रुयतेधिकः । आगम्यमानतुल्यत्वात्स आगम इति स्मृतः Com. on Tait. Prāt.I. 23.
ādyudāttaa word beginning with an acute-accent id est, that is which has got the first vowel accented acute: words in the vocative case and words formed with an affix marked with a mute ञ् or न् are ādyudātta; confer, compareP. VI.1.197, 198: for illustrations in detail see P.VI.1.189-216.
ānantarya(1)close proximity; absence of any intermediary element generally of the same nature: अनन्तरस्य भावः आनन्तर्यम्; confer, compare नाजानन्तर्ये वहिष्ट्वप्रक्लृप्तिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 21: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 51. This close proximity of one letter or syllable or so, with another, is actually id est, that isphonetically required and generally so found out also, but sometimes such proximity is theoretically not existing as the letter required for proximity is technically not present there by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्. In such cases, a technical absence is not looked upon as a fault. confer, compare कचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्ये शास्त्रकृतमनानन्तर्ये यथा ष्टुत्वे, क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतं यथा जश्त्वे । यत्र कुतश्चिदेवानन्तर्यं तदाश्रयिष्यामः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.3.13. (2) close connection by mention together at a common place et cetera, and others;confer, compare सर्वाद्यानन्तर्यं कार्यार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27.
aānandadattaname of a Buddhist grammarian,the author of the work named Cāndra-vyākaraṇa Paddhati.
ārdhadhātukaa term used in contrast to the term सार्वधातुक for such verbal and kṛt affixes, as are not personal endings of verbs nor marked with the mute letter श् confer, compare तिङ्शित् सार्वधातुकम् । आर्धधातुकं शेषः। P.III.4.113 and 114. The personal endings of verbs in the perfect tense and the benedictive mood are termed ārdhadhātuka, confer, compare P. III. 4.115, 116; while both the terms are promiscuously found utilised in the Vedic Literature; confer, compare P. III. 4. 117. The main utility of the ārdhadhātuka term is the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to the ārdhadhātuka affixes. The term आर्धधातुका was in use in works of the old Vaiyākaraṇas; confer, compare अथवा आर्धधातुकासु इति वक्ष्यामि कासु आर्धधातुकासु । उक्तिषु युक्तिषु रूढिषु प्रतीतिषु श्रुतिषु संज्ञासु M.Bh. on II. 4.35. It cannot be said how the term ārdhadhātuka originatedition Probably such affixes or pratyayas, like the kṛt affixes generally, as could be placed after certain roots only were called ārdhadhātuka, as contrasted with the verbal and the present participle affixes which were termed sārvadhātuka on account of their being found in use after every root.
ārdhadhātukādhikārathe topic or section in Pāṇini's grammar where operations, caused by the presence of an ārdhadhātuka affix ahead, are enumerated, beginning with the rule आर्धधातुके VI.4.46 and ending with न ल्यपि VI.4.69, Such operations are summed up in the stanza अतो लोपो चलोपश्च णिलोपश्च प्रयोजनम् । आल्लोप इत्वमेत्वं च चिण्वद्भावश्च सीयुटि; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). as also Kāś, on VI.4.46.
āśubodha(1)name of a work on grammar written by Tārānātha called Tarka-vācaspatī, a reputed Sanskrit scholar of Bengal of the 19th century A.D. who compiled the great Sanskrit Dictionary named वाचस्पत्यकेाश and wrote commentaries on many Sanskrit Shastraic and classical works. The grammar called अाशुबोध is very useful for beginners; (2) name of an elementary grammar in aphorisms written by रामकिंकरसरस्वती, which is based on the Mugdhabodha of Bopadeva.
(1)kṛt (affix). affix (इ), in the sense of verbal activity applied to any root, the word so formed being used in the feminine. gender and in connection with narration or in interrogation; exempli gratia, for example कां त्वं कारिमकार्षीः । सर्वौ कारिमकार्षम् । confer, compare Pāṇini III.3.110: (2) kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of verbal activity applied to the roots वप् and others exempli gratia, for example वापिः, वासि: et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7;(3) tad-affix इ in the sense of offspring applied to a noun ending in अ; e.g, दाक्षि: confer, compare P.IV.1. 95-7, 153.
itaretarayogamutual relationship with each other. Out of the four senses of the indeclinable च viz. समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार, the Dvandva compound is formed of words connected in the last two ways and not in the first two ways. The instances of द्वन्द्व in the sense of इतरेतरयोग are धवखदिरपलाशाः, प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ etc; confer, compare Kāś.on P. II.2.29 confer, compare also प्लक्षश्च न्यग्रोधश्चेत्युक्ते गम्यत एतत्प्लक्षोपि न्यग्रोधसहायो न्यग्रोधोपि प्लक्षसहाय इति M.Bh. on II.2.29; confer, compare also इतरेतरयोगः स यदा उद्रिक्तावयवभेदो भवति Sīradeva's ParibhāṣāvṛttiPari. 16.
itsaṃjñakaa letter which is termed इत्; See इत् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
indraname of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; confer, compare the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya edition by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.
uccaritapronounced or uttered; the phrase उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः is used in connection with the mute indicatory letters termed इत् in Pāṇini's grammar, as these letters are not actually found in use in the language and are therefore supposed to vanish immediately after their purpose has been servedition The phrase 'उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनोSनुबन्धा:' has been given as a Paribhāṣā by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.(Pari.11), in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 14), in the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa (Pari.54) and also in the Kalāpa Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 71). Patañjali has used the expression उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः in connection with ordinary letters of a word, which have existence for a moment and which also vanish immediately after they have been uttered; confer, compare उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः खल्वपि वर्णा: ...न वर्णो वर्णस्य सहायः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4. 109.
uccaritapradhvaṃsinvanishing immediately after utterance. See उच्चरित.
udayaṃkarasurnamed pāṭhaka who wrote a commentary on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara named Jyotsna and a very critical work on Paribhāṣās similar to Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti; the work is incomplete.
udayakīrtiauthor of a treatise giving rules for the determination of the pada or padas of roots; the treatise is named पदव्यवस्थासूत्रकारिकाटीका He was a Jain grammarian, and one of the pupils of Sādhusundara.
udāttathe acute accent defined by Pāṇini in the words उचैरुदात्त: P.I.2. 29. The word उच्चैः is explained by Patañjali in the words 'आयामो दारुण्यं अणुता स्वस्य इति उचैःकराणि शब्दस्य' where आयाम (गात्रनिग्रह restriction of the organs), दारुण्य (रूक्षता rudeness ) and स्वस्य अणुता ( कण्ठस्य संवृतता closure of the glottis) are given as specific characteristics of the acute accent. The acute is the prominent accent in a word-a simple word as also a compound word-and when a vowel in a word is possessed of the acute accent, the remaining vowels have the अनुदात्त or the grave accent. Accent is a property of vowels and consonants do not possess any independent accent. They possess the accent of the adjoining vowel connected with it. The acute accert corresponds to what is termed 'accent' in English and other languages.
uddhātaelevation; named also उच्चीभाव.
upapadasamāsathe compound of a word, technically termed as उपपद by Pāṇini according to his definition of the word in III.1.92., with another word which is a verbal derivative; confer, compare कुम्भकारः, नगरकारः Here technically the compound of the words कुम्भ, नगर et cetera, and others which are upapadas is formed with कार,before a case-termination is added to the nominal base कार; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 75.
upamanyu(1)the famous commentator on the grammatical verses attributed to Nandikeśvarakārikā. which are known by the name नन्दिकेश्वरकारिका and which form a kind of a commentary on the sūtras of Maheśvara; (2) a comparatively modern grammarian possibly belonging to the nineteenth century who is also named Nandikeśvarakārikā.kārikābhāṣya by Upamanyu.and who has written a commentory on the famous Kāśikāvṛtti by Jayāditya and Vāmana. Some believe that Upa-manyu was an ancient sage who wrote a nirukta or etymological work and whose pupil came to be known as औपमन्यव.
upaśleṣaimmediate contact, as for instance, of one word with another: confer, compare शब्दस्य च शब्देन कोन्योभिसंबन्धो भवितुमर्हति अन्यदत उपश्लेषात् । M.Bh. on VI. 1.72. The word उपश्लिष्ट is also found in the Mahābhāṣya in the same context.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upasarjana(1)vanishing immediately after utterance. See उच्चरित.
ūṣmasaṃdhiname of a combination or संधि where a visarga is changed into a breathing ( ऊष्मन् ). It has got two varieties named व्यापन्न where the visarga is charged into a breathing as for instance in यस्ककुभः, while it is called विक्रान्त (passed over) where it remains unchanged as for instance in यः ककुभः, य: पञ्च; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 1 1.
ṛṣicchandsthe metre of the Vedic seers. The seven metres गायत्री, उष्णिक्, अनुष्टुप्, बृहती, पङ्क्ति, त्रिष्टुप् and जगती consisting respectively of 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44 and 48 syllables are named ऋषिच्छन्दस् as contrasted with the metres दैव, प्राजापत्य and आसुर, which, when combined together, make the metres of the Vedic seers, For details see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI.1.5.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
ekādeśaa single substitute in the place of two original units; exempli gratia, for example ए in the place of अ and इ,or ओ in the place of अ and उ. The ādeśas or substitutes named पूर्वरूप and पररूप are looked upon as ekadeśas in Pāṇini's grammar although instead of them, the omission of the latter and former vowels respectively, is prescribed in some Prātiśākhya works. गुण and वृद्धि are sometimes single substitutes for single originals, while they are sometimes ekadeśas for two original vowels exempli gratia, for example तवेदम्, ब्रह्मौदनः, उपैति, प्रार्च्छति, गाम्, सीमन्तः et cetera, and others; see P.VI.1.87 to ll l, confer, compare also A.Pr.II 3.6.
pradyusactaddhita affix. affix एद्युस् applied to the pronouns पूर्व, अन्य, अन्यतर, इतर, अपर, अधर, उभय and उत्तर when the words so formed refer to a day; e. g. पूर्वेद्युः, अन्येद्युः et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.V.3.22.
aidiphthong vowel ऐ; composite form of आ and ए, also termed वृद्धि in Pāṇini's grammar.
o(1)diphthong vowel made up of the vowels अ and उ, termed as guṇa in Pāṇini's grammar and prescribed sometimes in the place of the vowel उ; ( 2 ) affix ओ applied to the root गम् or गा to form a noun; confer, compare ओकारो नामकरणः Nir.II.5.
aupamikafigurative metaphorical application or statement: confer, compare ( विराट् ) पिपीलिकमध्या इत्यौपमिकम् Nirukta of Yāska.VII. 13. औपश्लेषिक resulting from immediate contact immediately or closely connected; one of the three types of अधिकरण or location which is given as the sense of the locative case; confer, compare अधिकरणं नाम त्रिप्रकारं-व्यापकम् ओपश्लेषिकम्, वैषयिकमिति ... इको यणचि | अचि उपाश्लिष्टस्येति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI. 1.72.
k(1)the consonant क्; the first con. sonant of the consonant group as also of the guttural group; (2) substitute क् for consonants ष्, and ढ् before the consonant स्;confer, compareV.P.2.41. For the elision ( लोप ) of क् on account of its being termed इत् see P.I.3.3 and 8.
kaṇvādia class of words forming a portion of the class of words called गर्गादि, and headed by the word कण्व, to the derivatives of which, formed by the afix यञ् by the rule गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् (P.IV.1.105) the affix अण् is added in the miscellaneous senses; exempli gratia, for example काण्वाः छात्राः; similarly गौकक्षाः, शाकलाः , अगस्तयः, कुण्डिनाः etc: confer, compare P.IV.2.111 and II. 4.70.
kariṇīname of a svarabhakti i. e. behaviour like the vowel ऋ noticed in the case of the consonant र्. when it is followed by ह् e. g. बर् हिः करिणी is named करेणु also.
karmadhārayaname technically given to a compound-formation of two words in apposition i. e. used in the same case, technically called समानाधिकरण showing the same substratutm; confer, compare तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः I 2.42. The karmadhāraya compound is looked upon as a variety of the tatpuruṣa compound. There is no satisfactory explanation of the reason why such a compound is termed कर्मधारय. Śākaṭāyana defines Karmadhāraya as विशेषणं व्यभिचारि एकार्थं कर्मधारयश्च where the word विशेषण is explained as व्यावर्तक or भेदक (distinguishing attribute) showing that the word कर्म may mean भेदकक्रिया. The word कर्मधारय in that case could mean 'कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयति असौ कर्मधारयः' a compound which gives a specification of the thing in hand.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
kavikalpadrumaa treatise on roots written by Bopadeva, the son of Keśava and the pupil of Dhaneśa who lived in the time of Hemādri, the Yādava King of Devagiri in the thirteenth century. He has written a short grammar work named Mugdhabodha which has been very popular in Bengal being studied in many Tols or Pāṭhaśālās.
kātantrapañjikāa name usually given to a compendium of the type of Vivaraṇa or gloss written on the Kātantra Sūtras. The gloss written by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. on the famous commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. ( the same as the the famous Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. or another of the same name ) known as दौर्गसिंही वृत्ति is called Kātantra Pañjika or Kātantravivaraṇa. A scholar of Kātantra grammar by name Kuśala has written a Pañjika on दुर्गसिंहृ's वृत्ति which is named प्रदीप, Another scholar, Trivikrama has written a gloss named Uddyota.
kātantrapariśiṣṭacandrikāa gloss on the Kātantra-Pariśiṣṭa ascribed to a scholar named Ramadāsa-cakravartin who has written another...work also named Kātantravyākhyāsāra.
kātantrapradīpaa grammar work written by a scholar named Kuśala on the Kātantrasūtravṛtti by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.. See कातन्त्रपञ्जिका.
kātantralaghuvṛttia short gloss on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to a scholar named Chucchukabhaṭṭa.
kātantravṛttivyākhyānamed Aṣṭamaṅgalā on Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.'s Kātantravṛtti written by Rāmakiśora Cakravartin who is believed to have written a grammatical work शाब्दबोधप्रकाशिका.
kātyāyanathe well-known author of the Vārttikas on the sūtras of Pāṇini. He is also believed to be the author of the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya and many sūtra works named after him. He is believed to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्याः made by Patañjali in connection with the statement 'यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु' which is looked upon as Kātyāyana's Vārttika. Some scholars say that Vararuci was also another name given to him, in which case the Vārttikakāra Vararuci Kātyāyana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Kātantra grammar are ascribedition For details see The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pages I93-223 published by the D. E.Society, Poona.See also वार्तिकपाठ below.
kārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaalso called षट्कारक-खण्डनमण्डन which is a portion of theauthor's bigger work named त्रिलो-चनचन्द्रिका. The work is a discourse on the six kārakas written by Maṇikaṇṭha, a grammarian of the Kātantra school. He has also written another treatise named Kārakavicāra
kārmanāmikathe word is found used in Yāska's Nirukta as an adjective to the word संस्कार where it means belonging to nouns derived fromroofs (कर्मनाम)"like पाचक,कर्षक et cetera, and othersThe changes undergone by the roots in the formation of such words i. e. words showing action are termed कार्मनामिकसंस्कार; confer, compare कर्मकृतं नाम कर्मनाम। तस्मिन् भवः कार्मनामिकः Durgavṛtti on Nirukta of Yāska.I.13. कार्य(l) brought.into existence by activity (क्रियया निर्वृत्तं कार्यम् ) as oppo- sed to नित्य eternal; confer, compare एके वर्णाञ् शाश्वतिकान् न कार्यान् R.Pr. XIII.4 confer, compare also ननु च यस्यापि कार्याः ( शब्दाः ) तस्यापि पूजार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 17;(2) which should be done, used in connection with a grammatical operation: confer, compare कार्य एत्वे सयमीकारमाहुः ।| अभैष्म इत्येतस्य स्थाने अभयीष्मेति । R.Pr. XIV.16; confer, compare also विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I.4.2; (3) a grammatical opera- tion as for instance in the phrases द्विकार्ययोगे, त्रिकार्ययोगे et cetera, and others; confer, compare also गौणमुख्ययोर्मुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्ययः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 15;(4) object of a transitive verb: confer, compare शेषः कार्ये Śāk.
kāśikāvṛttisāraa commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti named अमृतसूति by Vāraṇāvateśa-śāstrin.
kiṃśulakādia class of words headed by the word किंशुलक, which get their final vowel lengthened when the word गिरि is placed after them as a second member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e. g. किंशुलकागिरिः, अञ्जनागिरिः; confer, compare Kāś. on P. VI.3.117.
kiśarādi,kisarādia class of words headed by किसर meaning some kind of scent, which get the taddhita affix इक (ष्टन्) applied to them when the word so formed means 'a dealer of that thing;' exempli gratia, for example किशारिकः, किशारिकी cf; Kāś. on P. IV.4.53.
kumāra(1)Kārtikeya who is believed to havegiven inspiration to the Katantra-sūtrakāra to write the Kātantra-sūtras; (2) named Viṣṇumitra who wrote a commentary on the ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य,
kulālādia class of words headed by the word कुलाल to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुञ्) is applied in the sense of 'made by', provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e g.कौलालकम् , वारुडकम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.3.118.
kṛtsvarathe same as कृदुत्तरपदप्रकृतिस्वर, the retention of its accent by the second member of a tatpuruṣa compound, if the first member is a word termed Gati or Kāraka, by the rule गतिकारकोपपदात् कृत् P.VI.2. 139; confer, compare अव्ययस्वरस्य कृत्स्वरः M.Bh. on VI.2.52; confer, compareविभक्तीषत्स्वरात्कृत्स्वरः M.Bh. VI.2.52 Vārt, 6.
kṛdvṛttia short treatise by a grammarian named मोक्षेश्वर who lived in the fifteenth century. The work deals with verbal derivatives.
kṛllukthe elision of a kṛt affix: the word is found used along with the words प्रकृतिप्रत्यापत्तिः, and प्रकृतिवत् कारकं भवति in the Vārttika अाख्यानात्कृतस्तदाचष्टे इतेि कृल्लुक् प्रकृतिप्रत्यापत्तिः प्रकृतिवच्च कारकम् by means of which the phrase कंसं घातयति is formed for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे.
kṛṣṇamitraa scholar of grammar and nyāya of the 17th century A.D. who wrote many commentary works some of which are (l) a commentary called Ratnārṇava on the Siddhānta-Kaumudī, (2) a commentary named Kalpalata on Bhaṭṭoji's Prauḍhamanoramā, (3) a commentary named Bhāvadīpa on Bhaṭṭoji's Śabdakaustubha of Bhaṭṭojī Dīkṣita., (4) a commentary on Nagojibhaṭṭa's Laghumañjūṣā of Nāgeśa.by name Kuñcikā and (5) a commentary on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa.
kṛṣṇamauninSon of Govardhana and surnamed Maunī, who wrote a commentary named सुबोधिनी on the Siddhānta-Kaumudī at the end of the 17th century A.D.
kṛṣṇalīlāśukamuniauthor of a commentary named Puruṣakāra on Bhoja's Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa.
kṛṣṇaśeṣaa famous grammarian of the Śeṣa family who wrote a commentary named the Gūḍhabhāvavivṛti on the Prakriyā Kaumudī of Rāmacandra Śeṣa.See कृष्णपण्डित
keśavawriter of a commentary named प्रकाश on the Śikṣā of Pāṇini. He lived in the 17th century.
keśavadattawriter of the commentary named दुर्धटोद्धाट on the grammar संक्षिप्तसार written by Goyicandra,
kaiyaṭaname of the renowned commentator on the Mahābhāṣya, who lived in the 11th century. He was a resident of Kashmir and his father's name was Jaiyaṭa. The commentary on the Mahābhāṣya was named महाभाष्यप्रदीप by him, which is believed by later grammarians to have really acted as प्रदीप or light, as without it, the Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali would have remained unlit, that is unintelligible, at several places. Later grammarians attached to प्रदीप almost the same importance as they did to the Mahābhāṣya and the expression तदुक्तं भावकैयटयोः has been often used by commentators. Many commentary works were written on the Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.out of which Nageśa's Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.is the most popular. The word कैयट came to be used for the word महाभाष्यप्रदीप which was the work of Kaiyaṭa. For details see Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII. pp. 389-390.
koṭarādia class of words headed by the word कोटर which get their final vowel lengthened when the word वन is placed after them as a seconditional member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; exempli gratia, for example कोटरावणम्, मिश्रकावणम्. confer, compare Kāś. on P.VI.3.117.
kramadīśvaraauthor of a grammar named संक्षिप्तसार who lived at the end of the 13th century.
kvibantaa substantive ending with the kṛt affix क्विप् (zero affix) added to a root to form a noun in the sense of the verbal action (भाव). The words ending with this affix having got the sense of verbal activity in them quite suppressed, get the noun terminations सु, औ, जस् et cetera, and others and not ति, तः et cetera, and others placed after them; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद् भवति. However, at the same time, these words undergo certain operations peculiar to roots simply because the kṛt affix entirely disappears and the word formed, appears like a root; confer, compare क्विबन्ता धातुत्वं न जहति. Kaiyaṭa's Prad. on VII.1.70.
kṣitīśacandra(चक्रवर्तिन्)or K. C. CHATTERJI a scholar of Sanskrit grammar who has written a work on technical terms in Sanskrit, who has edited several grammar works and is at present editing the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa and conducting the Sanskrit journal named Mañjūṣa at Calcutta.
gaṅgādhara[GANGADHARA SHASTRI TELANG] (l)a stalwart grammarian and Sanskrit scholar of repute who was a pupil of Bālasarasvatī of Vārāṇaśī and prepared in the last century a host of Sanskrit scholars in Banaras among whom a special mention could be made of Dr. Thebaut, Dr. Venis and Dr. Gaṅgānātha Jhā. He was given by Government of India the titles Mahāmahopādhyāya and C. I.E. His surname was Mānavallī but he was often known as गङाधरशास्त्री तेलङ्ग. For details, see Mahābhāṣya, D.E. Society Ed.Poona p.p.33, 34; (2)an old scholar of Vyākarana who is believed to have written a commentary on Vikṛtavallī of Vyādi; (3) a comparatively modern scholar who is said to have written a commentary named Induprakāśa on the Śabdenduśekhara; (4) author of the Vyākaraṇadīpaprabhā, a short commentary on the Vyākaraṇa work of Cidrūpāśramin. See चिद्रूपाश्रमिन्.
gaṇapāṭhathe mention individually of the several words forming a class or gaṇa, named after the first word said to have been written by Pāṇini himself as a supplementary work to his great grammar called Aṣṭaka or Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., the Sikṣā,the Dhātupātha and the Lingānuśāsana being the other ones. Other grammarians such as शाकटायन, अापिशलि and others have their own gaṇapāthās. The gaṇapāthā is traditionally ascribed to Pāṇini; the issue is questioned, however, by modern scholars. The text of the gaṇapāṭha is metrically arranged by some scholars. The most scholarly and authoritative treatise on gaṇapāṭha is the Gaṇaratnamahodadhī of Vardhamāna.
gati(1)literally motion; stretching out, lengthening of a syllable. The word is explained in the Prātiśakhya works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel इ or उ after it, exempli gratia, for example हाइ or हायि for हा; similarly आ-इ or अा -यि ; (2) a technical term used by Pāṇini in connection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called गति, confer, compare P.I.4.60-79. The words called gati can be compounded with the following word provided the latter is not a verb, the compound being named tatpuruṣa e.g, प्रकृतम् , ऊरीकृत्य confer, compare P.II.2.18; the word गति is used by Pāṇini in the masculine gender as seen in the Sūtra गतिरनन्तरः P.VI. 2.49 and hence explained as formed by the addition of the affix क्तिच् to गम्, the word being used as a technical term by the rule क्तिच्क्तौ च संज्ञायाम् P.III.3.174; (3) realization, understanding; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.9; सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 76; अगत्या हि परिभाषा अाश्रीयते Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva Pari. Pāṭha 119.
gamyādia class of words headed by the word गमी which are formed by the application of unādi affixes in the sense of future time; e. g. गमी ग्रामम्, अागामी, प्रस्थायी et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 3. 3.
guṇakīrtia Jain writer of the thirteenth century who wrote a commentary named कातन्त्रवृत्तिटिप्पणी on दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति.
guṇībhūtasubordinate, literally which has become subordinated, which has become submerged, and therefore has formed an integral part of another; e. g. an augment ( अागम ) with respect to the word to which it has been added;confer, compareयदागमास्तद्गुणी भूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.20 Vart. 5; Par. Sek. Pari. 11.
gonardīyaliterally inhabitant of Gonarda which was the name of a district. in the province of Oudh in the days of the Mahabhasyakara according to some scholars. Others believe that Gonarda was the name of the district named Gonda at present The expression गोनर्दीय अाह occurs four times in the Mahabhasya where it refers to a scholar of grammar in Patafijali's time; cf M.Bh. on I. 1.21 ; I. 1.29; III. I.92; VII. 2.101. As Kaiyata paraphrases the words गेानर्दीयस्त्वाह as भाष्यकारस्त्वाह, scholars say that गेीनर्दीय was the name taken by the Mahabhasyakara himself who was a resident of Gonarda. Hari Diksita, however, holds that गोनर्दीय was the term used for the author of the . Varttikas; confer, compare Brhacchabdaratna.
gopāla( देव )known more by the nickname of मन्नुदेव or मन्तुदेव who lived in the eighteenth century and wrote several commentary works on well-known grammatical treatises such as the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara, Laghusabdendusekhara, Paribhasendusekhara et cetera, and others He is believed to have written a treatise on Ganasutras also; (2) a grammarian different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. मन्नुदेव who has written an explanatory work on the Pratisakhyas;.(3) a scholar of grammar, different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. who is believed to have written a gloss named Visamarthadipika on the Sarasvata Vyakarana at the end of the sixteenth century.
goṣadādia class of words to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुन् ) is added in the sense of possession provided the word so formed refers to a chapter ( अध्याय ) or a section ( अनुवाक ) c. दैवासुरः, वैमुक्तः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.62.
ghantaddhita affix. affix अ applied to the words शुक्र, तुग्र, पात्र, and to multisyllabic words in specified senses, causing the acute accent on the first vowel of the word so formed; confer, compareIV.2.26, IV.4. 115, V.1.68, V.3.79, 80.
ghi(1)a tech. term applied to noun bases or Prātipadikas ending in इ and उ excepting the words सखि and पति and those which are termed नदी; confer, compare P. I. 4.79; (2) a conventional term for लधु ( a short vowel) found used in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ghisaṃjña(noun bases or Pratipadikas)called or termed घि. See घि.
ṅicase-ending of the locative case, changed into (a) अाम् after bases termed Nadi, feminine. bases ending in अा and the word नी, (b) into औ after bases ending in इ and उ, and (c) into स्मिन् after bases of pronouns;confer, compare P.IV. 1. 2, VII. 3. 116, 117, 118, 119 and VII. 1. 15, 16.
ṅit(l)affixes with the mute letter ङ् attached to them either before or after, with a view to preventing the guna and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding इ, उ, ऋ, or लृ, as for example, the affixes चङ्, अङ् and others (2) affixes conventionally called ङित् after certain bases under certain conditions; confer, compare गाङ्कुटादिम्यो ञ्णिन्ङित् P. I. 2. 1-4; (3) roots marked with the mute letter ङ् signifying the application of the Atmanepada terminations to them: (4) substitutes marked with mute ङ् which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which they are prescribed as substitutes; (5) case affixes marked with mute letter ङ् which cause the substitution of guna to the last vowel इ or उ of words termed घि.
cakoraa grammarian who .wrote a commentary on the 'Sabdalingarthacandrika of Sujanapandita. चक्कनशर्मा a grammarian who is said to have written a work named Dhatusamgraha.
cakrakaa kind of fault in the application of operations, resulting in confusion; a fault in which one returns to the same place not immediately as in Anavastha but after several steps; confer, compare पुनर्ऋच्छिभावः पुनराट् इति चक्रकमव्यवस्था प्राप्नोति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.60 Vart 5.
caṅgadāsaa grammarian who has written a work on the topic of the five vrttis. The work is named चङ्गवृति.
caturthaa term used by ancient grammarians for the fourth consonants which are sonant aspirates, termed झष् by Panini; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 2. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 18, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1 54. Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 176.
candrakīrtia Jain grammarian of the twelfth century A.D. who has written a commentary named Subodhini on the Sarasvata Vyakaraha.
candragominnamed also चन्द्र, a Buddhist scholar who has written an easy Sanskrit Grammar based on the Astadhyayi of Panini. He is believed to have lived in North India in the fifth century A.D. See चन्द्र.
caritakriyahaving kriya or verbactivity hidden in it. The term is used by Bhartrhari in connection with a solitary noun-word or a substantive having the force of a sentence, and hence which can be termed a sentence on account of the verbal activity dormant in it. exempli gratia, for example पिण्डीम्; confer, compare वाक्यं तदपि मन्यन्ते यत्पदं वरितक्रियम् Vakyapad.II. 326, and चरिता गर्भीकृता आख्यातक्रिया यस्य तद्गर्भीकृतक्रियापदं नामपदं वाक्यं प्रयुञ्जते ! Com. on Vakyapadya II.326.
carkarītaa term used by the ancient grammarians in connection with a secondary root in the sense of frequency; the term यङ्लुगन्त is used by comparatively modern grammarians in the same sense. The चर्करीत roots are treated as roots of the adadi class or second conjugation and hence the general Vikarana अ ( शप् ) is omitted after them.The word is based on the 3rd person. sing form चर्करीति from .the root कृ in the sense of frequency; exempli gratia, for example चर्करीति, चर्कर्ति, बोभवीति बोभोति; confer, compare चर्करीतं च a gana-sutra in the gana named ’adadi’ given by Panini in connection with अदिप्रभृतिभ्य; शपः Pāṇini. II.4.72; confer, compare also चर्करीतमिति यङ्लुकः प्राचां संज्ञा Bhasa Vr. on P. II. 4.72, The word चेक्रीयित is similarly used for the frequentative when the sign of the frequentative viz. य ( यङ् ) is not elidedition See चेक्रीयित.
cāṅgusūtraa treatise on the grammar Written by चाडगुदास in the Sutra form,which was named वैयाकरणजीवातु by him.
cādia class of words headed by च which are termed निपात by Panini e gच,वा,ह, एवम् नूनम्, चेत्, माङ् et cetera, and others; confer, compare चादयोSसत्वे. P. I.4.57. For the meaning of the word असत्त्व see p.370 Vyakaranamahabhasya. Vol. VII. published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
cārāyaṇaan ancient grammarian referred to by Patanjali in the Mahabhasya as a scholar who had a line of pupils named after him; confer, compare कम्बलचारायणीयाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.73
ciccandrikāname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Vishnu Shastri Bhat, in reply to the treatise named दूषकरदोद्भेदः See विष्णुशास्त्रिन्. For details see pp. 39, 40 of Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
cidrūpāśrayanamed also चिद्रूपाश्रम who wrote a learned commentary named विषमी on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesabhatta
chastaddhita affix. affix ईय added to the word भवत् in the general शैषिक senses, e. g. भवदीयः; cf P. IV.2.115. The mute letter स् has been attached to the affix छस् So that the base भवत् before it could be termed pada (confer, compare सिति च P, I.4.16) and as a result have the consonant त् changed into द् by P. VIII.2.39.
jagaddharaa poet and grammarian of Kasmira of the fourteenth century who wrote a commentary named बालबोधिनी on the Katantra Sutras.
jagannātha(1)the well-known poet and scholar of Vyakarana and Alam kara who wrote many excellent poetical works. He lived in the sixteenth century. He was a pupil of कृष्णशेष and he severely criticised the views of Appaya Diksita and Bhattoji Diksita. He wrote a sort of refutation of Bhattoji's commentary Praudha-Manorama on the Siddhānta Kaumudi, which he named प्रौढमनेारमाखण्डन but which is popularly termed मनोरमाकुचमर्दन. His famous work is the Rasagangadhara on Alankrasastra; (2) writer of a commentary on the Rk-Pratisakhya by name Varnakramalaksana; (3) writer of Sarapradipika, a commentary on the Sarasvata Vyakarana.
jayakṛṣṇaa famous grammarian of the Mauni family who lived in Varanasi in the seventeenth century. He wrote विभक्त्यर्थनिर्णय, स्फोटचन्द्रिका, a commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi called सुबोधिनी and a commentary on the Madhya Kaumudi named विलास. He wrote a commentary on the Laghukaumudi also.
jayantaauthor of तत्वचन्द्र a commentary on पाणिनिसूत्रवृत्ति written by Vitthala; (2) writer of a commentary named Vadighatamudgara on the Sarasvataprakriya.
jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya(1)a famous Bengalee scholar of Vyakarana and Nyaya who has written a small treatise dealing with syntax. The treatise is named कारकवाद.
jayānandaa Jain grammarian of the fourteenth century who wrote a commentary named उद्धार on the लिङ्गानुशासन of Hemacandra
jāgrahitetivādaa short disguisition on the correctness of the word जाग्रहीता, written by a grammarian named Cakrin; confer, compare भट्टोजिदीक्षितग्राहग्रस्तं माधवदिग्गजम्। अमूमुचत् सत्यवर्यश्चक्री चक्रिप्रसादभाक्, colophon.
jumaranandina grammarian of the fourteenth century A. D. who ' revised and rewrote the.grammar संक्षिप्तसार and the commentary named रसवती on it, which were composed by क्रमदीश्वर in the thirteenth century. The work of जुमरनन्दिन् is known as जौमारव्याकरण.
jñāpakaliterallyindirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, confer, compareM.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 et cetera, and others The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systemanuscript. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.
ñyataddhita affix य signifying the substitution of vrddhi as also the acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition It is added (1) to words headed by प्रगदिन् in the four senses termed वंतुरर्थ exempli gratia, for exampleप्रागृद्यम्, शारद्यम् et cetera, and others;confer, compareP.IV. 2.80; (2).to the word गम्भीर and अव्ययीभाव compounds in the sense of present there', exempli gratia, for example गाम्भीर्यम् , पारिमुख्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.3.58, 59 (3) to the word विदूर exempli gratia, for example वैदुर्य; confer, compare P. IV.3.84;.(4) to the words headed by शण्डिक in the sense of 'domicile of', exempli gratia, for example शाण्डिक्यः ; confer, compare P. IV.3.92; (5) to the words छन्दोग, औक्थिक, नट et cetera, and others in the sense of duty (धर्म) or scripture (अाम्नाय) e. g. छान्दोग्यम् , औविथक्यम् नाट्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.129; (6) to the word गृहपति in the sense of ’associated with'; exempli gratia, for example गार्हपत्यः (अग्निः);confer, compareP.IV.4.90;(7) to the words ऋषभ and उपानह् ; confer, compare P. V.1.14; .(8) to the words अनन्त, आवसथ et cetera, and others,confer, compare P. V.4.23; (9) to the word अतिथि; confer, compare P.V.4.26; and (10) to the words in the sense of पूग(wandering tribes for earning money), as also to the words meaning व्रात (kinds of tribes) as also to words ending with the affix च्फञ् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.V.3. 112, 113.
ṭhaka very common taddhita affix. affix इक, or क in case it is added to words ending in इस् , उस् , उ, ऋ, ल् and त् according to P. VII. 3. 51, causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ठक् is added to (1) रेवती and other words in the sense of descendant ( अपत्य ) e. g. रैवतिकः:, दाण्डग्राहिकः, गार्गिकः, भागवित्तिकः यामुन्दायनिकः, confer, compare P. IV. 1.146-149; (2) to the words लाक्षा,रोचना et cetera, and others in the sense of 'dyed in', e. g. लाक्षिकम्, रौचनिकम् ; confer, compare P. IV. 2.2; (3) to the words दधि and उदश्वित् in the sense of संस्कृत 'made better ', e. g. दाधिकम् , औदश्वित्कम् ( क instead of इक substituted for टक् ), confer, compare P. IV.2. 18, 19; (4) to the words अाग्रहायुणी, अश्वत्थ et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 22, 23; (5) to words expressive of inanimate objects, to the words हस्ति and धेनु, as also to the words केश and अश्व in the sense of 'multitude '; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 47, 48; (6) to the words क्रतु, उक्थ and words ending in सूत्र, वसन्त et cetera, and others, in the sense of 'students of' ( तदधीते तद्वेद ), confer, compare P. IV. 2.59, 60, 63; (7) to the words कुमुद and others as also to शर्करा as a चातुरर्थिक affix; confer, compare P. IV. 2.80, 84; (8) to the words कन्था, भवत् and वर्षा in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P. IV. 2.102, 115, IV. 3.18; (9) to the words उपजानु and others in the sense 'generally present '; confer, compare P. IV. 3. 40; (10) to the words consisting of two syllables, and the words ऋक्, ब्राह्मण et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'explanatory literary work'; confer, compare P. IV.3.72: ( 11) to words meaning 'sources of income ' in the sense of 'accruing from’; confer, compare P. IV. 3.75; (12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place in the sense of ' भक्ति ', cf P. IV. 8.96; and (13) to the words हल् and सीर in the sense of 'belonging to', confer, compare P. IV. 3.124. The taddhita affix. affix ठक् is added as a general termination, excepting in such cases where other affixes are prescribed, in specified senses like 'तेन दीव्यति, ' 'तेन खनति,' 'तेन संस्कृतम्' et cetera, and others; cf P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to words हल, सीर, कथा, विकथा, वितण्डा et cetera, and others in specified senses, confer, compare P. IV.4. 81, 102 ठक् is also added as a general taddhita affix. affix or अधिकारविहितप्रत्यय, in various specified senses, as prescribed by P. V.1.19-63,and to the words उदर, अयःशूल,दण्ड, अजिन, अङ्गुली, मण्डल, et cetera, and others and to the word एकशाला, in the prescribed senses; confer, compare P. V. 2.67,76, V. 3.108,109; while, without making any change in sense it is added to अनुगादिन् , विनय, समय, उपाय ( औपयिक being the word formed), अकस्मात्, कथंचित्; (confer, compareआकस्मिक काथंचित्क), समूह,विशेष, अत्यय and others, and to the word वाक् in the sense of 'expressed'; confer, compare P. V. 4.13, 34, 35. The feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ) is added to words ending in the affix टक् to form feminine. bases.
ḍatitaddhita affix. affix अति affixed to the word किम् to show number or measurement; exempli gratia, for example कति ब्राह्मणाः, confer, compare P.V.2.41. The words ending with the affix डति are termed संख्या and षट् for purposes of declension et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.I.1.23,25
ḍāctaddhita affix. affix आ applied to dissyllabic words, used as imitation of sounds, or used as onomatopoetic, when connected with the root कृ or भू or अम्. The word to which डाच् is applied becomes generally doubled; c. g पटपटाकरोति, पटपटाभवति पटपटास्यात्; confer, compare P.V.4.57. The affix डाच् is also applied to द्वितीय, तृतीय, to compound words formed of a numeral and the word गुण, as also to the words सपत्र, निष्पत्र, सुख, प्रिच etc when these words are connected with the root कृ;exempli gratia, for example द्वितीयाकरोति,तृतीया करोति, द्विगुणाकरोति, सपत्राकरोति, सुखाकरोति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.V.4. 58 to 67.
ḍhakañtaddhita affix. affix एयक applied (1) to the word कुल optionally along with यत् and ख, when it is not a member of a compound;.e. g. कौलेयकः, कुल्यः, कुलीनः; confer, compare P.'IV. 1. 140; (2) to the words कत्त्रि and others in the Saisika senses as also to the words कुल, कुक्षि and ग्रीवा, if the words formed with the affix added, respectively mean dog, sword and ornament : e. g. कात्त्रेयकः कौलेयक: (श्वा), कौक्षेयकः (असिः), ग्रैवेयकः (अलंकारः): confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV 2.95,96.
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
ṇvul(1)a very general krt affix अक, causing vrddhi and acute accent to the vowel preceding the affix, applied to a root optionally with तृ (i. e. तृच् ) in the sense of an agent e. g कारकः हारकः also कर्ता, हर्ता ; Cf P. III. 1.33; (2) krt. affix अक applied optionally with the affix तुम् to a root when it refers to an action for which another action is mentioned by the principal verb; e. g. भोजको व्रजति or भोक्तुं व्रजति; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्; P. III. 3.10; (3) krt affix अक, necessarily accompanied by the feminine. affix अा added to it, applied to a root if the sense given by the word so formed is the name of a disease or a proper noun or a narration or a query ; e. g. प्रवाहिका, प्रच्छर्दिका, शालभञ्जिका, तालभञ्जिका, कारिक, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.108, 109, 110.
takṣaśilādia class of words headed by तक्षशिला to which the taddhita affix अ ( अञ् ) is added in the sense of 'a native place or a domicile'. The word so formed has the acute accent on its first vowel; e. g. ताक्षशिलः वात्सोद्वरणः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.93.
taṅ(1)a short term used for the nine personal endings of the Atmanepada viz. त,अाताम्...महिङ् which are themselves termed Atmanepada; confer, compare तङानौ अात्मनेपदम् P. 1.4. 100 (2) the personal-ending त of the 2nd person. plural (substituted for थ by III.4 101) looked upon as तङ् sometimes, when it is lengthened in the Vedic Literature: confer, compare तङिति थादेशस्य ङित्त्वपक्षे ग्रहणम् । भरता जातवेदसम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 3. 133.
tattvavimarśinīname of a commentary on the Kasikavrtti by a grammarian named Nandikeśvarakārikā.kārikābhāṣya by Upamanyu.in the beginning of the nineteenth century A. D.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
tantrapradīpaname of the learned commentary_written by मैत्रेयरक्षित, a famous Buddhist grammarian of the 12th century A. D. on the काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका ( न्यास ) of Jinendrabuddhi। The work is available at Present only in a manuscript form, and that too in fragments. Many later scholars have copiously quoted from this work. The name of the work viz. तन्त्रप्रदीप is rarely mentioned; but the name of the author is mentioned as रक्षित, मैत्रेय or even मैत्रेयरक्षित. Ther are two commentaries on the तन्त्रप्रदीप named उद्द्योतनप्रभा and आलोक,
tamaptaddhita affix. affix तम added without a change of sense, i. e. in the sense of the base itself to noun bases possessing the sense of excellence, as also to verbal forms showing excellence: e. g. आढ्यतमः, दर्शनीयतमः, श्रेष्ठतमः, पचतितमाम् confer, compare Kas on P. V. 3.55-56. The affix तमप् is termed घ also; confer, compare P. I. 1.22.
tālavyaliterally produced from तालु the part below the tongue; the vowel इ, चवर्ग, य and श् are called तालव्य, palatal letters; confer, compare इचशेयास्तालौ V.Pr. I. 66. These letters are formed upon the palate by the middle part of the tongue; confer, compare R.Pr. 1.42, R.Pr. II.36.
tiṅ(1)a brief term (प्रत्याहार) for the 18 personal endings. Out of these eighteen personal endings, which are common for all tenses and moods, the first nine तिप्, तस् et cetera, and others all called Parasmaipada, while the other nine त, अाताम् et cetera, and others are named Atmanepada and तङ् also; confer, compare तङानावात्मनेपदम्; (2) a verbal form called also अाख्यातक; confer, compare तिङ् खलु अाख्यातका भवान्ति । पचति पठति । V.Pr.I.27.
tirumallaa southern writer of the commentary named सुमनोरमा on the Siddhānta Kaumudi of Bhattoji Diksita.
tiṣṭhadguprabhṛticompound words headed by the word तिष्ठद्गु which are termed as avyayibhava compounds and treated as indeclinables; exempli gratia, for example तिष्ठद्गु, वहद्गु असंप्रति, प्राह्णम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II. 1.17.
tṛctaddhita affix. affix तृ, taking the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ), (1) added to a root optionally with अक ( ण्वुल् ) in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity, the word so formed having the last vowel acute; exempli gratia, for example कर्ता कारक:; हर्ता हारकः; confer, compare P. III I.133; (2) prescribed in the sense of 'deserving one' optionally along with the pot. passive voice. participle. affixes; exempli gratia, for example भवान् खलु कन्यया वोढा, भवान् कन्यां वहेत्, भवता खलु कन्या वोढव्या, वाह्या, वहनीया वा; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.169
tṛn(1)krt affix तृ with the acute accent on the first vowel of the word formed by its application, applied to any root in the sense of 'an agent' provided the agent is habituated to do a thing, or has his nature to do it, or does it well; exempli gratia, for example वदिता जनापवादान् , मुण्डयितारः श्राविष्ठायना -भवन्ति वधूमूढाम् , कर्ता कटम्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.2.135; words ending with तृन् govern the noun connected with them in the accusative case; (2) the term तृन् , used as a short term ( प्रत्याहार ) standing for krt affixes beginning with those prescribed by the rule लटः शतृशानचौ (P.III.2.124) and ending with the affix तृन् (in P.III.3.69); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.69.
traltaddhita affix. affix termed Vibhakti added to pronouns excepting द्वि and others, and to the words बहु and किम् when they end with the locative case case termination: exempli gratia, for example कुत्र, तत्र, बहुत्र et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 1.10, 14.
trilaॊcanaa scholar of grammar who has written a small work named अव्ययशब्दवृत्ति on the uses of indeclinables.
tryambakaa grammarian of the nineteenth century, who resided at Wai in Satara District and wrote a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara which is named त्र्यम्बकी after the writer.
thīma(THIEME, PAUL)a sound scholar of the present day, well versed in Sanskrit Grammar and Vedic Literature, who has written a critical treatise named "Panini and the Veda."
dntyaproduced at the teeth, dental; formed at the teeth by the tip of the tongue; exempli gratia, for example the letters लृ ल् ,स् and तवर्ग; confer, compare लृलसिता दन्ते V.Pr.I.69. According to Panini's grammar लॄ(long) does not exist. According to Taittirya Prtisakhya र् is partly dental and partly lingual; cf T.Pr.II.41, while व् is partly dental and partly labial; confer, compare T.Pr. II.43; confer, compare दन्त्या जिह्वाग्रकरणाः V. Pr.I. 76; confer, compare लुग्वा दुहदिहलिहगुहामात्मनेपदे दन्त्ये P. VII. 3.73.
dayāpālaa.Jain writer who wrote a treatise named रूपसिद्धि.
darpaṇaname of a commentary on Kondabhatta's Vaiyakaranabhusanasara, written by a grammarian named Harivallabha.
taddhita affix. affix named 'vibhakti' applied to the words सर्व, एक, अन्य, किं, यत्,तत् and इदम् in the locative case; exempli gratia, for example सर्वदा, एकदा, कदा: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.15,19,20,21.
dānavijayaa Jain grammarian, who wrote a small grammar treatise named शब्दभूषण.
taddhita affix. affix named 'vibhakti' applied to the words सर्व, एक, अन्य, किं, यत्,तत् and इदम् in the locative case; exempli gratia, for example सर्वदा, एकदा, कदा: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.15,19,20,21.
dānavijayaa Jain grammarian, who wrote a small grammar treatise named शब्दभूषण.
durgasiṃhathe famous commentator of the Katantra sutras, whose Vrtti on the sutras is the most popular one. It is called , कातन्त्रसूत्रवृत्ति or कातन्तवृत्ति or दौर्गसिंहीवृत्ति , also. A work on Paribhasas named परिभाषावृति, in which Paribhasas are explained and established as based on the Katantra Vyakarana sutras, is attributed to Durgasimha. It is doubtful whether this commentator Durgasimha is the same as Durgacarya, the famous commentator of Yaska's Nirukta. There is a legend that Durgasimha was the brother of Vikramaditya, the founder of the Vikrama Era. Besides the gloss on the Katantra sutras, some grammar works such as a gloss on the unadi sutras, a gloss ( वृत्ति ) on Kalapa-Vyakarana Sutras, a commentary on Karakas named षट्कारकरत्न, Namalinganusasana and Paribhasavrtti are ascribed to Durgasimha. Some scholars believe that the term अमरसिंह was only a title given to Durgasimha for his profound scholarship, and it was Durgasimha who was the author of the well-known work Amarakosa.
durgādāsaa grammarian who wrote (a) a gloss on Bopadeva's Mugdhabodha, (b) a gloss named घातुदीपिका on Kavikalpadruma and (c) Sabdarnavakos
durdhaṭoddhāraname.of a commentary by Kesavadatta-Sarman on the grammar work named संक्षिप्तसार.
durvalācāryaa grammarian who wrote a treatise on grammar दुर्वलीयव्याकरण, named after him. Besides this treatise, he has written commentaries on Nagesa's Laghumanjusa and Paribhasendusekhara.
devaśarmana grammarian who has written a disquisition on the philosophy of Vyakarana in verse, and added a commentary of his own on it which he has named as समन्वयप्रदीपसंकेत.
devendraa Jain grammarian of the 13th century who has written a commentary named लघुन्यास on the शब्दानुशासन of Hemacandra. He has written many works on the Jain Agamas, of which a commentary on the Uttaradhyanasutra can be specially mentionedition He is called देवेन्द्रसूरि also.
dvanddhaname of a compound, formed of two or more words used in the same case, showing their collection together; confer, compare चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II.2.29. Out of the four meanings of the indeclinable च, viz. समुच्चय अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार, the dvandva compound is sanctioned in the last two senses only called इतरेतरद्वन्द्व (as in प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ et cetera, and others) and समाहारद्वन्द्व (as in वाक्त्वचम् et cetera, and others) respectively For details see Mahabhasya on II.2.29. The dvandva compound takes place only when the speaker intends mentioning the several objects together id est, that is when there is, in short, सहविवक्षा orयुगपदधिकरणवचनता; confer, compare अनुस्यूतेव मेदाभ्यां एका प्रख्योपजायते । यस्यां सहविवक्षां तामाहुर्द्वन्द्वैकशेषयोः । Sr. Pr. II. The gender of a word in the द्वन्द्वसमास is that of the last word in the case of the इतरेतरद्वन्द्व, while it is the neuter gender in the case of the समाहारद्वन्द्व.
dvi:spṛṣṭaa word used many times synonymously with दु:स्पृष्ट; the letters ळ्, ळ् ह्, and upadhmaniya(xप्) are termed द्विःस्पृष्ट or दुःस्पृष्ट.
dhanajitname of the author of a short metrical treatise on roots named धातुक्रल्पलतिका.
dharaṇīdharaa grammarian of the sixteenth century at the court of Udayasimha who wrote a commentary on the sutras of Panini which was named वैयाकरणसर्वस्व as also a commentary on the Siksa of Panini.
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
dhātukalpalatikāa short treatise on the roots of the different conjugations written by a grammarian named Dhananjaya.
dhātupāṭha(1)name given in general to the several collections of roots given generally with their meanings by grammarians belonging to the various different schools of grammar. These collections are given as necessary appendices named खिल to their grammars by the well known grammarians of Sanskrit such as Panini, Sakatayana, and others; (2) a small treatise on roots written by Bhimasena of the 14th century.
dhātupārāyaṇaa grammatical treatise dealing with roots written as a supplementary work by Jumaranandin to his grammar work called Rasavati,which itself was a thoroughly revised and enlarged edition of the रसवती a commentary written by Kramadisvara on his own grammar named संक्षिप्तसार.Jumaranandin is believed to have been a Jain writer who lived in the fifteenth century A.D.
ghātuprakāśaa work dealing with roots Written as a supplementary work by Balarama-Pancanana to his own grammar named PrabodhaPrakasa.
dhātumālāa work on roots in verseform attributed to a grammarian named Isvarakanta.
dhāturatnākaraa work dealing with roots believed to have been written by Narayana who was given the title वन्द्य. He lived in the seventeenth century; a work named सारावलि व्याक्ररण is also believed to have been written by him.
dhātvartheliterally meaning of a root, the verbal activity, named क्रिया or भावः . confer, compare धात्वर्थः क्रिया; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2. 84, III.2.115. The verbal activity is described generally to be made up of a series of continuous subordinate activities carried on by the different karakas or agents and instruments of verbal activity helping the process of the main activity. When the process of the verbal activity is complete, the completed activity is looked upon as a substantive or dravya and a word denoting it, such as पाक,or याग does not get conjugational affixes, but it is regularly declined like a noun.Just as स्वार्थ, द्रब्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या, and कारक are given as प्रातिपदिकार्थ, in the same manner क्रिया, काल, पुरुष, वचन or संख्या, and कारक are given as धात्वर्थ, as they are shown by a verbal form, although strictly speaking verbal activity (क्रियorभाव) alone is the sense of a root, as stated in the Mahbhasya. For details see Vaiyak.Bh.Sara, where it is said that fruit ( फल) and effort ( ब्यापार ) are expressed by a root, confer, compare फलव्यापारयोर्धातुः. The five senses given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are in fact conveyed not by a root, but by a verb or अाख्यात or तिडन्त.
dhruva(1)fixed,stationary, as contrasted with moving (ध्रुव) which is termed अपादान and hence put in the ablative case; cf ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् P. I. 4.24; (2) repeated sound ( नाद ) of a third or a fourth consonant of the class consonants when it occurs at the end of the first word of a split up compound word; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. II and XI. 24.
nadīa technical term applied in Panini's grammar to words in the feminine gender ending in ई and ऊ excepting a few like स्त्री,श्री, भ्रू and others; it is optionally applied to words ending in इ and उ, of course in the feminine. gender, before case affixes of the dative, ablative, genitive and locative singular. The term was probably in use before Panini and was taken from the feminine. word नदी which was taken as a model. Very probably there was a long list of words like नद् ( नदट्) चोर ( चोरट् ) et cetera, and others which were given as ending in ट् and to which the affix ई (ङीप्) was added for forming the feminine base;the first word नदी so formed, was taken as a model and all words in the list and similar others were called नदी; confer, compare P. I 4. 3-6.
nandikeśvaraan ancient grammarian who has written a short work in verses on grammar in general, which is named नन्दकेश्वरकारिकासूत्र. There is a scholarly commentary upon it written by उपमन्यु.
nandikeśvarakārikāa short treatise of 28 stanzas, attributed to an ancient grammarian नन्दिकेश्वर, which gives a philosophical interpretation of the fourteen sutras attributed to God Siva. The authorship of the treatise is assigned traditionally to the Divine Bull of God Siva. See नन्दिकेश्वर. The treatise is also named नन्दिकेश्वरकारिकासूत्र.
nārāyaṇa(1)name of a grammarian who wrote a commentary on the Mahabhsya-Pradipa; (2) a grammarian who is said to have written a gloss named Sabdabhusana on the Sutras of Panini as also some minor works named शब्दमञ्जरी, शब्दभेदनिरूपण, et cetera, and others
nārāyaṇavandyaa grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote a treatise on grammar named Saravali, and a treatise on roots named Dhatuparayana.
nipātāvyayopasargavṛttiashort treatise explaining and illustrating the use of indeclinables, written by a grammarian named तिलक who probably lived in Kasmira.
niruktabhāṣyaa gloss on Yaska's Nirukta written by a modern scholar of grammar named Ugracarya in the eighteenth century A. D.
niṣṭhitaalso निःष्ठित completed, accomplished; used in connection with a grammatically formed word by applying affixes to the bases; confer, compare अङ्गवृत्ते पुनर्वृत्तावविधिर्निष्ठितस्य Siradeva Pari. 94, where Siradeva has explained the word निष्ठित as प्रयोगार्ह-अङ्ग.
nihitaseparated with the intervention of a consonant. The word is used in connection with the detached first part of a compound word not followed immediately by a vowel; confer, compare अनिहतं अव्यवहितम् Uvvata on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V. 30.
nīlakaṇṭhadīkṣitaa famous grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote an independent work on the Paribhasas in Vyakarana named Paribhasavrtti. This Vrtti is referred to in the Paribhsendusekhara by Nagesabhatta and the views expressed in it are severely criticised in the commentary गदा.
nuṭaugment न् prefixed (l) to the genitive case plural ending in अाम् after a crude base ending in a short vowel, or in ई or ऊ of feminine bases termed nadi, or in अा of the feminine affix ( टाप् डाप् or चाप्); e g. वृक्षाणाम्, अग्नीनाम् , कर्तॄणाम् , कुमारीणाम् , मालानाम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII.1.54; (2) to the affix अाम् after numerals termed षट् and the numeral चतुर् as also after the words श्री, ग्रामणी and गो in Vedic Literature, e. g. षण्णाम् , पञ्चानाम् , चतुर्णाम्, श्रीणाम्, ग्रामणीनाम्, गोनाम्; confer, compare P. VII.1.55,56, 57; (3) to the part of a root possessed of two consonants, as also of the root अश् of the fifth conjugation after the reduplicative syllable ending in अा, which is substituted for अ; exempli gratia, for example अानञ्ज, व्यानशे; confer, compare P.VII.4. 71,72; (4) to the affix मतुप् after a base ending in अन् as also to the affixes तरप् and तमप् after a base ending in न् in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example मूर्धन्वती, अक्षण्वन्तः, सुपथिन्तरः et cetera, and others;confer, compare P. VIII. 2.16, 17: (5) to the initial vowel of the second member of a compound having अ of नञ् as the first member; e. g. अनघः, confer, compare P.VI. 3.74; (6) to any vowel after न् which is preceded by a short vowel and which is at the end of a word exempli gratia, for example कुर्वन्नास्ते, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.32.
numaugment न् inserted after the last vowel (1) of a root given in the Dhātupātha as ending with mute इ; exempli gratia, for example निन्दति, क्रन्दति, चिन्तयति, जिन्वति et cetera, and others; confer, compare P VII.1.58; (2) of roots मुच् and others before the conjugational sign अ ( श ); e. g. मुञ्चति, लुम्पति; confer, compare P. VII.1.59; (3) of the roots मस्ज्, नश्, रध्, जभ् and लभ् under certain specified conditions, exempli gratia, for exampleमङ्क्त्वा, नंष्टा, रन्धयति, जम्भयति, लम्भयति, आलम्भ्यः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VII. 1.60-69; (4) of declinable bases marked with the mute indicatory letter उ, ऋ or ऌ as also of the declinable wording अञ्च् from the root अञ्च् and युज्, exempli gratia, for exampleभवान्, श्रेयान् , प्राङ्, युङ्, confer, compare Kās. on P. VII.1. 70, 71; (5) of the declinable base in the neuter gender, ending with a vowel or with any consonant excepting a semivowel or a nasal, before a case-ending termed Sarvanāmasthāna; exempli gratia, for example यशांसि, वनानि, जतूनि et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kās. on VII.1.72; (6) of the declinable base in the neuter gender, ending with इ, उ,ऋ or ऌ before a case-ending beginning with a vowel; exempli gratia, for example मधुने, शुचिने et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kās, on P. VII.1.73; (7) of the affix शतृ ( अत् of the present tense. participle.) under certain conditions याती यान्ती; पचन्ती, सीव्यन्ती, confer, compare I .VII.78-8 : (8) of the word अनडुह् before the nominative case. and vocative case. singular. affix सु;exempli gratia, for example अनड्वान् , हे अनड्वन्, confer, compare P. VII.1. 82; (9) of the words दृक्, स्ववस् and स्वतवस् before the nominative case. and vocative case.singular.affix सु in Vedic Literature, e. g. यादृङ्, स्ववान् , स्वतवान् , confer, compare P.VII.1.83.
nyaṅkvādia class of words headed by the word न्यङ्कु, which are formed by means of the substitution of a guttural consonant in the place of a consonant of any other class belonging to the root from which these words are formed; exempli gratia, for example न्यङ्कुः मद्गुः, भृगुः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kās, on P.VII.3. 53.
nyāyaratnamañjūṣāa work dealing with Vyākarana Paribhāsas or maxims as found in Hemacandra's system of grammar, written bv Hemahamsaganin, a pupil of Ratnasekhara, in 1451. The author has written a commentary also on the work, named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa..
nyāsa(1)literally position, placing;a word used in the sense of actual expression or wording especially in the sūtras; confer, compare the usual expression क्रियते एतन्न्यास एव in the Mahābhāșya, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.11, 1.1.47 et cetera, and others; (2) a name given by the writers or readers to works of the type of learned and scholarly commentaries on vŗitti-type-works on standard sūtras in a Śāstra; e. g. the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. is given to the learned commentaries on the Vŗtti on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśasana as also on the Paribhāşāvŗtti by Hemahamsagani. Similarly the commentary by Devanandin on Jainendra grammar and that by Prabhācandra on the Amoghāvŗtti on Śākatāyana grammar are named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. In the same way, the learned commentary on the Kāśikāvŗtti by Jinendrabuddhi, named Kāśikāvivaranapaňjikā by the author, is very widely known by the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. This commentary Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. was written in the eighth century by the Buddhist grammarian Jinendrabuddhi, who belonged to the eastern school of Pānini's Grammar. This Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. has a learned commentary written on it by Maitreya Rakșita in the twelfth century named Tantrapradipa which is very largely quoted by subsequent grammarians, but which unfortunately is available only in a fragmentary state at present. Haradatta, a well-known southern scholar of grammar has drawn considerably from Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. in his Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta., which also is well-known as a scholarly work.
pañcapadīa term used in the AtharvaPrātiśākhya for the strong case affixes viz. the nominative case affixes and the accusative singular. and dual affixes; confer, compare चत्वारि क्षैप्रञ्च पञ्चपद्यामन्तोदात्तादीनि यात् Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. I. 3.14. The term corresponds to the Sarvanāmasthāna of Pāņini, which is also termed सुट् ; confer, compare सुडनपुंसकस्य P. I. 1.43.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padakāṇḍa(1)a term used in connection with the first section of the Vākyapadīya named ब्रह्मकाण्ड also, which deals with padas, as contrasted with the second section which deals with Vākyas; (2) a section of the Așțadhyāyī of Pāņini, which gives rules about changes and modifications applicable to the pada, or the formed word, as contrasted with the base (अङ्ग) and the suffixes. The section is called पदाधिकार which begins with the rule पदस्य P.VIII.1.16. and ends with the rule इडाया वा VIII. 3. 54.
padasaṃskārapakṣaan alternative view with वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष regarding the formation of words by the application of affixes to crude bases. According to the Padasamskāra alternative, every word is formed independently, and after formation the words are syntactically connected and used in a sentence. The sense of the sentence too, is understood after the sense of every word has been understood; confer, compare सुविचार्य पदस्यार्थं वाक्यं गृह्णन्ति सूरयः Sira. on Pari. 22. According to the other alternative viz. वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष, a whole sentence is brought before the mind and then the constituent individual words are formed exempli gratia, for example राम +सु, गम् + अ + ति । Both the views have got some advantages and some defects; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 56.
padādhikārathe topic concerning padas id est, that is words which are regularly formed, as contrasted with words in formation. Several grammatical operations, such as accents or euphonic combinations, are specifically prescribed together by Pāņini at places which are said to be in the Padādhikāra formed by sūtras VIII.1.16 to VIII.3.54.
padārthameaning of a word, signification of a word; that which corresponds to the meaning of a word; sense of a word. Grammarians look upon both-the generic notion and the individual object as Padārtha or meaning of a word, and support their view by quoting the sūtras of Pāņini जात्याख्यायामेकस्मिन् बहुवचनमन्यतरस्याम् I. 2.58 and सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ I. 2.64; confer, compare किं पुनराकृतिः पदार्थ अाहोस्विद् द्रव्यम् । उभयमित्याह । कथं ज्ञायते । उभयथा ह्याचार्येण सूत्राणि प्रणीतानि । अाकृतिं पदार्थे मत्वा जात्याख्यायामित्युच्यते | द्रव्यं पदार्थे मत्वा सरूपाणामित्येकशेष अारभ्यते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in I. 1. first Āhnika. In rules of grammar the meaning of a word is generally the vocal element or the wording, as the science of grammar deals with words and their formation; confer, compare स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा, P. I. 1. 68. The possession of vocal element as the sense is technically termed शब्दपदार्थकता as opposed to अर्थपदार्थकता; confer, compare सोसौ गोशब्दः स्वस्मात्पदार्थात् प्रच्युतो यासौ अर्थपदार्थकता तस्याः शब्दपदार्थकः संपद्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.44 V. 3. The word पदार्थ means also the categories or the predicaments in connection with the different Śāstrās or lores as for instance, the 25 categories in the Sāmkhyaśāstra or 7 in the Vaiśeșika system or 16 in the NyayaŚāstra. The Vyākaranaśāstra, in this way to state, has only one category the Akhandavākyasphota or the radical meaning given by the sentence in one strok
parasmaipadaa term used in grammar with reference to the personal affixs ति, त: et cetera, and others applied to roots. The term परस्मैपद is given to the first nine afixes ति, त:, अन्ति, सि, थ:, थ, मि, व: and म:, while the term आत्मनेपद is used in connection with the next nine त, आताम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare परस्मै परोद्देशार्थफलकं पदम् Vac. Kosa. The term परस्मैपद is explained by some as representing the Active_Voice as contrasted with the Passive Voice which necessarily is characterized by the Aatmanepada affixes. The term परस्मैभाष in the sense of परस्मैपद was used by ancient grammarians and is also found in the Vaarttika अात्मनेभाषपस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI. 3.8 Vart.1 . The term परस्मैभाष as applied to roots, could be explained as परस्मै क्रियां (or क्रियाफलं) भाषन्ते इति परस्मैभाषाः and originally such roots as had their activity meant for another, used to take the परस्मैपद् affixes, while the rest which had the activity meant for self, took the अात्मनेपद affixes. Roots having activity for both, took both the terminations and were termed उभयपदिनः.
parigrahaalso परिग्रहण. (1) acceptance, inclusion; confer, compare किं प्रयोजनम् | प्रत्ययार्थे परिग्रहार्थम् M.Bh. on P.III.26.1 ; (2) repetition of a Samhita word in the Pada recital, technically named वेष्टक also; repetition of a word with इति interposed; e. g. सुप्राव्या इति सुप्रऽ अव्या: Rg Veda II.13.9, अलला भवन्तीरित्यललाSभवन्तीः Rg. IV.18.6; confer, compare परिग्रहेत्वनार्षान्तात् तेन वैकाक्षरीक्तात् | परेषां न्यास-माचारं व्यालिस्तौ चेत्स्वरौ परौ; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 14. confer, compare also, R.Pr.XI.32,36,42.
pariniṣṭhitacompletely formed; with the formation completely achieved; स्वार्थे परिपूर्णम्; confer, compare परिनिष्ठितस्य पदान्तरसंबन्धे हुि गौर्वाहीक इत्यादौ गौणत्वप्रतीतिर्न तु प्रातिपदिकसंस्कारवेलायाम् Par. Sek. on Pari. 15.
paribhāṣāsegraha'a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his paribhasa.work named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundredition
paribhāṣenduśekharathe reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
pāṇinisūtravṛttia gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiin his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known.
puṃvadbhāvarestoration of the masculine form in the place of the feminine one as noticed in compound words, formed generally by the Karmadhāraya and the Bahuvrīhi compounds, where the first member is declinable in all the three genders; e. g. दीर्घजङ्घः. This restoration to the masculine form is also noticed before the taddhita affix. affixes तस्, तर, तम्, रूप्य, पा​श, त्व as also before क्यङ् and the word मानिन्. For details, see P. VI, 3.34 to 42 and commentaries thereon. See also page 334, Vol. VII of the Pātańjala Mahābhāșya D. E. Society's edition.
puṇḍarīkākṣaa grammarian of the fourteenth century who wrote a commentary named कातन्त्रपरिशिष्टटीका on the कातन्त्रव्याकरण.
puṇyanandanaa famous grammarian, who wrote a grammar work, named रूपमाला.
pedubhaṭṭaa grammarian.who has written a treatise named औणादिकपदार्णव on the Unadi sutras.
prakriyākaumudīvṛtticalled also प्रक्रियाकौमुदीव्याख्या or even कृष्णपण्डिता ( वृत्ति ) written by a learned grammarian named Krsnapandita belonging to the famous Sesa family of grammarians.
prakriyākaumudīsāraa commentary on Ramacandra's Prakriyakaumud by a grammarian named Kasinatha
pratiṣedhaprohibition, negation, prohibition of a rule or operation; generaliy प्रतिषेध or प्रसज्यप्रतिषेध is laid down by the use of the negative particle ( नञ् ) connected with a verbal activity, and not with a noun in a compound in which case the negation is named पर्युदास; confer, compare प्रसज्ज्यप्रतिषेधो यः क्रियया सह यत्र नञ् । पयुदासः स विज्ञेयः थत्रोत्तरपदेन नञ् ।
pratyayadhātua term applied to secondary roots which are formed by adding affixes like णिच् , सन् , यङ् et cetera, and others to primary roots or by the addition of affixes like क्विप्, क्यच् , कायच् et cetera, and others to nouns; e. g. कामय, ह्यारय, चिकीर्ष, जिहीर्ष, जेघ्रीय,चेकीय, गङ्गीय, राजाय, पुत्रकाम्य et cetera, and others; confer, compare सनाद्यन्ता धातवः P.1II.. 1.32; cf also प्रत्ययधातु । गोपायति, धूपायति, ऋतीयते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 1.162 Vart.3.
pratyāsattiimmediate proximity; close contact; the same as प्रत्यासङ्ग which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare हेतुमण्णिचो विधिः प्रतिषेधोपि प्रत्यासत्तेस्तस्यैव न्याय्यः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I 3.88. confer, compare also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VII.1.95.
pratyāhārasūtravicāraa short treatise explaining the pratyharas अण् , अट्, अश् et cetera, and others in the grammar of Panini; one such work is written by a southern grammarian named तिमण्णा.
prabhācandraa Jain grammarian who wrote a learned commentary named Nyasa on the Amoghavrtti of Amoghavarsa.
prayogaratnamālāname of a recognised treatise on grammar written by पुरुषोत्तमविद्यावागीश of Bengal in the fourteenth century. The treatise explains many words which, although current in language and literature, cannot be easily formed by rules of grammar. The author has tried to form them by applying rules of grammar given in the grammatical systems of Panini and Katantra. The alphabet given in this treatise is according to the system of the Tantra Sastra which shows a scholarship of the author in that branch The grammar was studied much in Bengal and Assam.
pravartakopādhyāyaa grammarian who wrote an explanatory gloss named कैयटप्रकाशिका on the महाभाष्यप्रदीप written by Kaiyatabhatta.
prātipadikaliterallyavailable in every word. The term प्रातिपादिक can be explained as प्रतिपदं गृह्णाति तत् प्रातिपदिकम् cf P.IV. 4. 39. The term प्रातिपदिक, although mentioned in the Brahmana works, is not found in the Pratisakhya works probably because those works were concerned with formed words which had been actually in use. The regular division of a word into the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix ( प्रत्यय ) is available, first in the grammar of Panini, who has given two kinds of bases, the noun-base and the verb-base. The noun-base is named Pratipadika by him while the verb-base is named Dhatu. The definition of Pratipadika is given by him as a word which is possessed of sense, but which is neither a root nor a suffix; confer, compare अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् . P.I. 2.45. Although his definition includes, the krdanta words,the taddhitanta words and the compound words, still, Panini has mentioned them separately in the rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I. 2.45 to distinguish them as secondary noun-bases as compared with the primary noun-bases which are mentioned in the rule अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्, Thus,Panini implies four kinds of Pratipadikas मूलभूत, कृदन्त, तद्धितान्त and समास, The Varttikakara appears to have given nine kinds-गुणवचन, सर्वनाम, अव्यय, तद्धितान्त, कृदन्त, समास, जाति, संख्या and संज्ञा. See Varttikas 39 to 44 on P. I. 4. 1. Later on, Bhojaraja in his SringaraPrakasa has quoted the definition अर्थवदधातु given by Panini, and has given six subdivisions.: confer, compare नामाव्ययानुकरणकृत्तद्धितसमासाः प्रातिपदिकानि Sr. Prak. I. page 6. For the sense conveyed by a Pratipadika or nounbase, see प्रातिपदिकार्थ.
prepsudesiderative adjective; a word formed by adding the affix उ in the sense of ' an agent ' to a desiderative root by the rule सनाशंसभिक्ष उः P.III.2.168. The term प्रेप्सु was used for such nouns by ancient grammarians.
prauḍhamanoramākhaṇḍana(1)a grammatical work written by a grammarian named Cakrapani of the Sesa family of grammarians. The work is meant to refute the arguments of Bhattoji Diksita in his Praudhamanorama; (2) a grammar work written by the famous poet and rhetorician Jagannātha in refutation of the doctrines and explanations given in the Praudhamanorama by the stalwart Grammarian Bhattoji Diksita. The work is not a scholarly one and it has got a tone of banter. It was written by Jagannatha to show that he could also write works on Grammar and the bearded pedant Bhattoji should not be proud of his profound scholarship in Grammar. The work of Jagannatha was named मनोरमाकुचमर्दन possibly by his followers or even by himselfeminine.
plutaprotracted, name given to vowels in the protracted grade. The vowels in this grade which are termed protracted vowels are possessed of three matras and in writing they are marked with the figure 3 placed after them. In pronunciation they take a longer time than the long or दीर्घ vowels; confer, compare ऊकालोज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P. I.2.27. The word is derived from प्लु (प्रु also) I Atmane to go, and explained as प्लवते इति, The word प्लवते is often found for प्लुतो भवति in the Pratisakhya works; cf also मात्रा ह्रस्वरतावदवग्रहान्तरं, द्वे दीर्धस्तिस्रः प्लुत उच्यते स्वरः । अधः स्विदासी३दुपरि स्विदासी३द् अर्थे प्लुतिर्भीरिव विन्दती३त्रिः ll Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.16.
balarāmawriter of a gloss named धातुप्रकाश on the Dhatupatha of Panini.
bālaṃbhaṭṭa( बाळंभट्ट )surnamed Payagunda or Payagunde, who has written a commentary on the commentary Mitaksara on the याज्ञवल्क्यस्मृति. Some scholars say that he was also a great grammarian and identical with वैद्यनाथ पायगुंडे who has written the commentary काशिका or गदा on the Paribhasendusekhara, the Cidasthimala on the Laghusabdendusekhara and commentaries on the Vaiyakaranabhusana,Sabdakaustubha and Bhasyapradipoddyota. Other scholars believe that Balambhatta was the son of Vaidyanatha and that he wrote only the commentary on Mitaksara called Balambhatti after him. (2) There was also a comparatively modern grammarian of Tanjore who has written small grammar works बालबोधिनी and बालरञ्जनी.
belavalakara[ SHRIPAD KRISHNA BELVALKAR ]a well-known Sanskrit scholar of the present day who has been the General Editor of the Mahabharata published by the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona. He has written a book on grammar reviewing very briefly the various systems of Sanskrit grammar, which is named "Systems of Sanskrit Grammar".
bopadevaa great Sanskrit scholar and grammarian belonging to Devagiri in the greater Maharastra who was supported by Hemadri of Devagiri. He resided at सार्थग्राम on the river Varada in the first half of the thirteenth century. He wrote a short treatise on Sanskrit Grammar, which has a number of peculiar abbreviations for the usual well-known grammatical termanuscript. His grammar had a wide spread in Bengal and it is today a very common text on Grammar Bengal. On this account some scholars believe that he lived in Bengal. He was the son of Kesava and pupil of Dhanesa. He is also the author, of the well-known work कविकल्पद्रुम on which he has written a commentary named कामधेनु or काव्यकामधेनु.
brahmarāśithe sacred Sanskrit alphabet given in the fourteen sutras of Mahesvara, named Aksarasamamnaya which is called ब्रह्मराशि as it contains the basic letters of शब्द which is Brahma according to Grammarians; confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्यसमाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 2 end; confer, compare also एते पञ्चषष्टिवर्णा ब्रह्मराशिरात्मवाचः V. Pr.VIII. 25.
bha(1)the letter or sound भ् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; (2) a technical term in the Grammar of Panini given to a noun base before such case and taddhita affixes as begin with any vowel or with the consonant य्. The utility of this designation of भ to the base is (l) to prevent the substitutes which are enjoined for the final vowel or consonant of a pada (a word ending with a case-affix or a base before case and taddhita affix. affixes beginning with any consonant excepting य् ) just as the substitution of Visarga, anusvara, the first or third consonant, and others given in P. VIII. 4.37 and the following. For the various changes and operations for a base termed भ see P. VI. 4.129 to 175.
bhaṭṭojīsurnamed Diksita; a stalwart grammarian of the Panini system who flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century and wrote many independent books and commentaries such as the Siddhantakaumudi, the Praudhamanorama, the Vaiyakaranasiddhantakarika, the Sabdakaustubha and others. The most reputed work out of these, however, is the Siddhantakaumudi which is very popular even today and which has almost set aside other works of its kind such as the Prakriyakaumudi and others. Bhattoji was a Telagu Brahmana, as generally believed, and although he belonged to the South, he made Varanasi his home where he prepared a school of learned Grammarians. Although he carried on his work silently in Varanasi, he was envied by the reputed rhetorician of his time Pandita Jagannātha, who criticised his work ( Bhattojis work ) named Manorama very severely. See प्रौढमनोरमा a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got many commentaries of which the Tattvabodhini written by Bhattoji's pupil Jnanendrasarasvati is appreciated much by learned grammarians.
bhāgavata hariśāstrīa modern scholar of grammar who has written a commentary named Vakyarthacandrika on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesa; he lived in the first half of the eighteenth century.
bhāṣyasūtrathe brief pithy statements in the Mahābhāṣya of the type of the Sūtras or the Vārttikas. These assertions or statements are named 'ișṭi' also.
bhāskaraśāstrīsurnamed Abhyankar (1785-1870) a great grammarian in the line of the pupils of Nāgeśa who was educated at Poona and lived at Sātārā. He taught many pupils, a large number of whom helped the spread of Vyākaraṇa studies even in distant places of the country, such as Vārāṇasi and others. For details see Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona. pp. 27-29, D. E. Society's Edition.
bhīmabhaṭṭawriter of the commentary, named भैमी after him, on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa.
bhairavamiśraone of the reputed grammarians of the latter half of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century who wrote commentaries on several prominent works on grammar. He was the son of भवदेव and his native place was Prayāga. He has written the commentary called Candrakalā on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara, Parikṣā on the Vaiyākaraṇabhũṣanasāra, Gadā called also Bhairavī or Bhairavīgadā on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and commentaries (popularly named Bhairavī) on the Śabdaratna and Lingānuśāsana. He is reported to have visited Poona, the capital of the Peśawas and received magnificent gifts for exceptional proficiency in Nyāya and Vyākaraṇa. For details see pp. 24 and 25 Vol. VII . Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya D. E. Society's Edition.
bholānāthaa grammarian who has written a commentary named Saṁdarbhāmṛta on Bopadeva's Mugdhabodha.
matuptaddhita affix. affix मत् changed in some cases to वत् (cf मादुपधायाश्च मतोर्वोऽयवादिभ्यः P. VIII. 2.9), applied to any noun or substantive in the sense of 'who possesses that,' or 'which contains it,' or in the sense of possession as popularly expressedition The affix is called possessive affix also, and is very commonly found in use; e. g. गोमान्, वृक्षवान् , यवमान् , et cetera, and others confer, compare तदस्यास्त्यस्मिन्निति मतुप् P. V. 2.94. The very general sense of 'possession' is limited to certain kinds of possession by the Vārttikakāra in the following stanza; भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेतिशायने | संसर्गेऽस्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: confer, compare Kāś. on P. V. 2.94. There are other taddhita affix. affixes prescribed in the same sense as मतुप्, such as the affixes लच् (V. 2.96-98), इलच् (99, 100, 105, 117), श and न (100), ण (101), विनि (102, 121, 122), इनि (102, 115, 116, 128, 129-137), अण् (103, 104), उरच् (106), र (107), म (108), व ( 109, 110), ईरन् and ईरच् (111), वलच् (112, 113), ठन् (115, 116), ठञ् (118, 119), यप् (120), युस् (123, 138, 140), ग्मिनि (124), आलच् and आटच् (125), अच् (127), and ब, भ, यु, ति, तु, त and यस् each one applied to specifically stated words. मतुप् is also specially prescribed after the words headed by रस (confer, compare रसादिभ्यश्च P. V. 2.95) in supersession of some of the other affixes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. which would take place in such cases, if मतुप् were not prescribed by the rule रसादिभ्यश्च. The portion of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. prescribing the possessive affixes is named मतुबधिकार (P. V. 2.92 to 140).
matonmajjāname of a commentary on Koṇḍabhaṭṭa's Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa written by a grammarian named वनमालिन्.
mantudevaknown also as मन्नुदेव, a famous grammarian of the eighteenth century who has written a commentary named दर्पणा on the Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra of Koṇḍabhaṭṭa and a commentary named दोषोद्धरण on Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
mallināthaa reputed commentator on many classical poetic and dramatic works, who flourished in the fourteenth century. He was a scholar of Grammar and is believed to have written a commentary on the Śabdenduśekhara and another named न्यासोद्योत on the न्यास of जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि.
masipersonal ending formed by adding इ to मस् of the 1st person (उत्तमपुरुष) plural in Vedic Literature दीपयामसि, भजयामसि, confer, compare Kāś. on इदन्तो मसि P.VII.1.46.
mahānyāsaname of a commentary on the Kāśikāvivaranapanjikā (popularly named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.), mentioned by Ujjvaladatta in his Unādisūtravṛtti.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahābhāṣyapradīpaa very scholarly commentary on Patanjali's MahabhaSya written by Kaiyatabhatta in the eleventh century, The commentary has so nicely explained every difficult and obscure point in the Mahabhasya, and has so thoroughly explained each sentence that the remark of later grammarians that the torch of the Mahabhasya has been kept burning by the Pradipa appears quite apt and justifiedition Kaiyata's commentary has thrown much additional light on the original arguments and statements in the Mahabhasya. There is a learned commentary on the Pradipa written by Nagesabhatta which is named vivarana by the author but which is well known by the name 'Uddyota' among students and teachers of Vyakarana. For details see pp. 389, 390 Vol VII, Patanjala Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition.
maheśanandina Jain Grammarian who has written a work on the karaka topic of grammar, named षट्कारक.
mumthe augment म् inserted immediately after the final vowel of the word for which it is prescribed: confer, compare अरुर्द्विषदजन्तस्य मुम् P.VI.3.67; confer, compare also P.III.2.26, V. 4.7 and VI.3.69-72.
yaḍantaa secondary root formed by adding the affix यङ् in the sense of repetition and intensity, to roots having one syllable and beginning with a consonant: confer, compare धातोरेकाचो हृलादे: क्रियासमभिहारे यङ् P. III. 1.22, 23,24. See य (12) a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
yaḍlugantaa secondary root formed by adding the affix यङ् to roots specified in P. III. 1.22,23,24, which affix is sometimes dropped: confer, compare यङोचि च ; P. II. 4. 74. The yanluganta roots take the parasmaipada personal endings and not the atmanepada ones which are applied to yananta roots.
yañ(1)short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) formed by the letter य of हृयवरट् and the mute letter ञ्ज of इभञ् including serni-vowels and the third and the fourth consonants excepting घ् , ढ् and ध् of the five consonant groups: confer, compare अतो दीर्घो याञि P. VII. 3. 10l ; (2) taddhita affix. affix added (a) in the sense of गोत्र (grand-children and their descendants) to words of the गर्ग class and some other words under specific conditions, exempli gratia, for example गार्ग्यः: वात्स्य:, काप्यः et cetera, and others, confer, compare गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् and the following P.IV. 1. 105-108: (b) in the sense of collection to केदार, गणिका, केश and अश्व, confer, compare P.IV.2.40 and the Varttika.thereon and IV. 2.48; (c) in the Saiska senses to the word द्वीप, confer, compare P.IV.3.10: (d) to the word कंसीय e. g. कांस्यम् confer, compare P.IV.3.168, and (e) to the words अभिजित्, विदभृत् and others when they have the taddhita affix. affix अण् added to them : exempli gratia, for example अाभजित्य: confer, compare P. V. 3. 118.
yathālakṣaṇaṃas formed according to rules. The phrase यथालक्षणमप्रयुक्ते is very often found in the Mahaabhaasya as a general guiding remark that noun-forms or wordforms which are not found in use in the language of the people or in literature should be understood as they are derived by observing all the rules that are applicable.
yathāvatas it is in the original Samahitpaatha without any change of accent, et cetera, and others when cited in the यद्वत lifeminine. a word formed from यत्: a Padapaatha: the word अव्ययवत् (not allowing any change or reduction) is given by Uvvata in explanation of यथावत्: confer, compare दृश्यते पदं यथावत् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI.31.
yadvṛttalit a word formed from यत्; a word which contains the pronoun यत् in it which prevents sarvaanudatta for a verb which follows; confer, compare यदस्मिन्वर्तते यद्वृत्तम् M.. Bh. on P. VIII.1.66; cf also. यद्वृत्तोपपदाच्च Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI. 14, where Uvvata explains यद्वत्तasयदो वृत्तं यद्वृत्तं सर्वविभक्त्यन्तं सर्वप्रत्ययान्तं च गृह्यन्ते । V.'Pr. VI. 14 commentary
yaśa:kavia grammarian, the author of a treatise named Bhasanusasana. यश:सागर a Jain grammarian, the author of a work named Samasasobha.
yuckrt affix यु changed into अन, (1) applied in the sense of 'a habituated agent' to intransitive roots in the sense of movement or utterance, to Atmanepadi roots beginning with a consonant, to the roots जु, चेकम् सृ, शुच्, कुघ्, as also to roots in the sense of decoration: exempli gratia, for example चलन:, शब्दन:: cf P.III. 2. 148-15I: (2) applied to causal roots, as also to the roots आस् श्रन्थ् and others in the sense of verbal activity when the word so formed has always the feminine gender; exempli gratia, for example कारणा, हृरणा, आसना, घट्टना,वेदना et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.3.107 and the Varttikas thereon; (3) applied to roots ending in अा and preceded by the indeclinables ईषद्, दुस् or सु in the sense of easy or difficult for obtainment and, wherever seen to any root in the Vedic language, as also to some other roots as found in actual use in the classical literature; e. g. ईषद्दानो गौर्मवता, दु्ष्पानः, सुपान: et cetera, and others सूपसदन:, दुर्योधनः, दुर्मर्षण: et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.III.8.128-130.
rakṣitanamed मैत्रेयरक्षित or मैत्रेय also; a famous grammarian of the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bihar and Bengal in the ninth, tenth, eleventh and twelfth centuries, claiming मैत्रयरक्षित, पुरुषोत्तमदेव, सीरदेव and others as prominent grammar scholars among others. See the word मैत्रेयरक्षिiत.
radhunāthaa grammarian of the seventeenth century, who was a pupil of Bhattoji Diksita and who wrote a small gloss ( लधुभाष्य ) on the topic named ' पञ्चसंधि ' of the Siddhantakaumudfeminine.
raṅganāthaa grammarian,son of नारायणयज्वा, who wrote a commentary named मकरन्द on Haradatta's Padamanjari.
ratnapāṇia grammarian of the eighteenth century who wrote a short treatise on the Karaka relations named षट्कारकविवरण.
ratneśaa grammarian who wrote a grammar work named लक्षणसंग्रहृ,
ramānāthaśarmaa grammarian of the Katantra school who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a commentary named Manorama on the Katantradhatuvrtti and Sabdasadhyaprayoga.
rājanyādiaclass of words headed by the word राजन्य to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुच् ) is added in the sense of ' the place of residence '; e. g. राजन्यकः, औदुम्वरक: ! et cetera, and others This class named राजन्यादि is ] called अाकृतिगण and similar words ! can be included in this class such as मालव,विराट् , त्रिगर्त and others from which the words मालवक: वैराटक: त्रैगर्तक: et cetera, and others can be arrived at confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.53.
rājārāmaśāstrī( कार्लेकर )a reputed scholar of Sanskrit grammar who resided at Varanasi and established a school of Sanskrit Grammarians there in the nineteenth century. He wrote a treatise on grammar named शब्दव्युत्पत्तिकौमुदी.
rāghavallabhatitled तर्कपञ्चानन, who wrote a commentary named सुबोधिनी on the Mugdhabodha Vyakarana.
rāmakiṃkasarasvatīa grammarian who wrote a small grammar treatise named अायुबोधव्याकरण which is different from the well-known अाशुबोध of तारानाथतर्कवाचस्पति.
rāmacandra(1)रामन्वन्द्राचार्य (son of कृष्णाचार्य) the well-known author of the Prakriyakaumudi. He belonged to the Sesa family and the latter half of the fifteenth century is assigned as his date. He is believed to have been a resident of Andhra. His work, the Prakriyakaumudi, was a popular grammar treatise for some time before Bhattoji's SiddhantaKaumudi got its hold, and it had a number of commentaries written upon it especially by his descendants and members of his family which became well-known as the Sesa family of grammarians. The Prakriyakaumudi is named कृष्णर्किकरप्राक्रिया also. (2) There was a grammarian named Ramacandra who wrote a small treatise on grammar named विदग्धबोध. (3) There was another grammarian of the same name who was a pupil of Nagesabhatta of the eighteenth century and who wrote a small commentary called वृतिसंग्रह on Panini's Astadhyayi. (4) There was also another Ramacandra who was a scholar of Vedic grammar and who wrote the commentary named ज्योत्स्ना on the Vjasaneyi-Pratisakhya.
rāmacandrabhaṭṭa tāreone of the senior pupils of Nagesabhatta who was a teacher of Vaidyanatha Payagunde. He wrote a small gloss on the Astadhyayi which is named पाणिनिसूत्रवृत्ति He lived in the first half of the eighteenth century and taught several pupils at Varnasi.
rāmacandrasarasvatīpupil of वासुदेवेन्द्रसरस्वती of the sixteenth century who has written a gloss named विवरण on the Mahabhasyapradipa of Kaiyata.
rāmatarkavāgīśaa learned grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय and भट्टाचार्य, He was an advocate of the Mugdhabodha School and wrote commentaries on (1) the Mugdhabodha, (2) the Kavikalpadruma, (3) the Amarakosa and (4) the Unadi sutras. He also wrote a short gloss on case-relations, his treatise on the subject being named कारकटिप्पणी,
rāmabhadra dīkṣitason of यज्ञराम दीक्षित, a grammarian of Tanjore of the seventeenth century who wrote a commentary on the Paribhasavrtti of Siradeva named परिभाषावृत्तिव्याख्या. He has also written the ' life of Patanjali' ( पतञ्जलिचरित ) and many miscellaneous works, such as उणादिमणिदीपिका and others.
rāmasiṃhṛvarmāpossibly the same king of Sringaberapura who patronised Nagesabhatta. He is said to have written some Small comments on " the Ramayana and a small grammar work named धातुरत्नमञ्जरी.
rāmāśramaa grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote a commentary named Siddhantacandrika on the Sarasvata Vyakarana.
rāmeśvaraa grammarian who wrote a small compendium on grammar named शुद्धाशुबोध.
rūpamālā(1)an elementary work on Sanskrit grammar composed by Vimalasarasvatī, in which the Sūtras of Pāņini are arranged in different topics many of which are called माला, such as अजन्तमाला, हलन्तमाला, छान्दसमाला, अव्ययमाला and so on.(2) the name रूपमाला is also found given to a work giving collections of formed words written by Puņyanandana.
rekhātermed also 'लेखा '; one of the subdivisions of the krama-pāțha.
rauḍhīyaa term jocularly used with the word घृत preceding it,for students of a famous scholar named धृतरौढि; confer, compare ओदनपाणिनीया: घृतरौर्ढायाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. 1.1.73.
rhil(1)a taddhita affix. affix termed also विभक्ति which is applied to the word इदभ् in the sense of the locative case, the word इदम् being changed into एत; e. g. एतर्हि; confer, compare इदमो र्हिल् P. V. 3.16 and एतेतौ रथो: P. V. 3.4. (2) taddhita affix. affix applied in Veda to तत् and other pronouns: exempli gratia, for exampleतर्हि, कर्हि, यर्हि, confer, compare P. V. 3.20, 21.
lakṣaṇasaṃgrahaa work on grammar written by a grammarian named रत्नेश.
lakṣmaṇasūria grammarian who has written a booklet on the six dialects, which is named षड्भाषाचन्द्रिका.
laghukaumudīknown as लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी also, an abridged work based upon the Siddhāntakaumudi of Bhațțojī Dīkşita, written by Bhațțojī's pupil Varadarāja. The work is very valuable and helpful to beginners in grammar. It has got the same topics as the Siddhāntakaumudī, but arranged differently. The work, named सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी is the same as लघुसिध्दान्तकौमुदी. Possibly सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी was the original name given by the author.
laghuparibhāṣāvṛttian independent work on Paribhāşās written by Puruşottamadeva in the twelfth century A. D. called लघुपरिभाषावृत्ति in contrast with the बृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति of सीरदेव. The Vŗtti is named ' Lalitā ' also, by the author.
laghuśabdenduśekharaname of a commentary on Bhațțojī's Siddhāntakaumudī written by Nāgeśa Bhațța, the stalwart Grammarian of the eighteenth century. The work is named लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर which differentiates it from the author's another work बृहच्छब्देन्दुशेखर of which the former is an abridgment. As the study of the Laghuśabdenduśekhara is very common and as the Bŗhatśabdenduśekhara is seldom studied, it is always the Laghuśabdenduśekhara that is understood by the simple and popular name Śekhara.
liṭan affix of the perfect tense; confer, compare परोक्षे लिट् P.III.2.115 for which the specific affixes णल्, अतुस् उस् et cetera, and others are substituted after roots which take Parasmaipada affixes. Before the lit affixes, a monosyllabic root is reduplicated while dissyllabic roots and denominative and other secondary roots, formed by adding an affix to an original root,take the affix अाम् after which all 'liț' personal endings are dropped and the forms of the roots कृ,भू and अस् with the necessary personal-endings, are placed immediately after the word ending in अाम् , but often with the intervention of a word or more in the Vedic language and rarely in the classical language; confer, compare तं पातयां प्रथममास पपात पश्चात् ; confer, compare कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि P.III.I. 35 to 42.
litan affix marked with the mute letter ल् such as ल्युट्, तातिल्, तल्, तसिल्, विधल्, भक्तल् et cetera, and others where the mute ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel of the base which immediately precedes the affix; e. g. चिकीर्षक:;in which the vowel ई is acute; confer, compare लिति VI.1.193.
litsvarathe acute accent for the vowel immediately preceding the affix caused by that affix being marked with the mute consonant ल्. See लित् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare अनुदात्तत्वं क्रियतां लित्स्वर इति किमत्र कर्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 4.33.
luṅan affix applied to a root, showing action of immediate past time as contrasted with affixes called लिट् or लङ्. The affix लुङ् is found used, however, in the sense of the past time in general, and irrespective of time in Vedic Literature; confer, compare छन्दसि लुङ्लङ्लिटः P. III. 4.6. The conjugational affixes ति, त:, et cetera, and others are substituted for लुङ् as for the lakāras of other tenses and moods and the distinguishing sign or विकरण is added to a root before the affix called लुङ्; confer, compare च्लि लुङि and the following P. III. 1.43 et cetera, and others
vaṅgasenaa grammarian who wrote a grammatical work on verbs named अाख्यातप्रकरण.
vanamālina grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote a commentary named मतोन्मजा on Kondabhatta's vaiyakaranabhusana and a grammar work named सिद्धान्ततत्वविवेक.
varadarājaa scholar of grammar and a pupil of Bhattoji Diksita who flourished in the end of the seventeenth century and wrote abridgments of the Siddhanta-kaumudi for beginners in grammar named लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी and मध्यसिद्धान्तकौमुदी as also धातुकारिकावली and गीर्वाणपदमञ्जरी. The work under the name सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी, which is the shortest abridgment, is, in fact, the लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी itselfeminine. It is possible that the auother first prepared the सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी and then, he himself or a pupil of his, put additional necessary matter and prepared the Laghusiddhanta-kaumudi.
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
varganame given to the different classes of consonants which are headed by an unaspirate surd; e. g. कवर्ग, चवर्ग, टवर्ग, तवर्ग and पवर्ग. The several consonants in each group or class, are, in their serial order, named वगेप्रथम, वर्गद्वितीय et cetera, and others On the analogy of these five classes, the semivowels are called by the name यवर्ग and sibilants, are called by the name शवर्ग,
varṇaprakāśaa minor work upon letters and their nature by a grammarian named Ghanasyama.
varṇavivekacandrikāa minor grammar work on the nature of letters by a grammarian named काशिनाथ.
varṇikuberanāthaor वर्णिकुवेरानन्द an old writer on grammar who has written a work named शब्दविवरण on the meanings of words. The work forms a part of his bigger work दानभागवत. Both the works are incomplete. The शब्दविवरण is based mostly upon ancient grammar works of Patanjali Vararuci, Varttikakara, Sarvavarman, Bhartrhari and others.
vardhamāna(1)a long vowel;(2)name of a famous ]ain grammarian, disciple of Govindasuri, who lived in the beginning of the twelfth century A.D.and wrote a metrical work on ganas or groups of words in grammar, named गणरत्नमहोदधि, and also a commentary on it. The work consists of 8 chapters and has got some commentaries besides the well-known one by the author himselfeminine. He also wrote two other works on grammar कातन्त्रविस्तर and क्रियागुप्तक as also a few religious books.
vallabhanamed हरिवल्लभ also,who wrote a commentary on Nagesa's Sabdendusekhara.
vākyapadīname of a work on the denotation of words in verse-form with a comentary of his own written by a grammarian named गङ्गादास. The name वाक्यपदी is confounded with वाक्यपदीय of Bhartrhari through mistake.
vākyārthathe meaning of a sentence, which comes as a whole composite idea when all the constituent words of it are heard: confer, compare पदानां सामान्ये वर्तमानानां यद्विशेषेSवस्थानं स वाक्यार्थ:, M.Bh. on P.I.2.45 Vart. 4. According to later grammarians the import or meaning of a sentence ( वाक्यार्थ ) flashes out suddenly in the mind of the hearer immediately after the sentence is completely uttered, The import is named प्रतिभा by Bhartrhari, confer, compare Vakyapadiya II.45; confer, compare also वाक्यार्थश्च प्रतिभामात्रविषय: Laghumanjusa. For details and the six kinds of vakyartha, see Vakyapadiya II.154.
vādiroots headed by वा and similar to वा. Really there is no class of roots headed by वा given anywhere but in the interpretation of the rule भूवादयो धातव: it is suggested that ' the roots which are similar to वा are termed roots (धातु)' could also be the interpretation of the rule: confer, compare भ्वादय इति च वादय इति M.Bh. on P. I. 3. l . Vart. ll .
vāraṇāvateśaa grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote a gloss named अमृतस्त्रुति on the Prakriya-kaumudi.
vārarucaa work attributed to वररुचि: confer, compare वाररुचे काव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P. IV.3.101 cf also वाररुनो ग्रन्थ: S.K.on P.IV.3. 101 This work possibly was not a grammar work and its author also was not the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. See वरुरुचि a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The name वाररुचव्याकरण was given possibly to Katyayana's Prakrit Grammar, the author of which was वररुचि surnamed Katyayana. For details see p.395 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's Edition.
vārttikaa statement which is as much authoritative as the original statement to which it is given as an addition for purposes of correction, completion or explanation. The word is defined by old writers in an often-guoted verseउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तनां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते | तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिण:|This definition fully applies to the varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. The word is explained by Kaiyata as वृत्तौ साधु वार्त्तिकम् which gives strength to the supposition that there were glosses on the Sutras of Panini of which the Varttikas formed a faithful pithy summary of the topics discussedition The word varttika is used in the Mahabhasya at two places only हन्तेः पूर्वविप्रविषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापित: M.Bh. on P.III. 4.37 and अपर आह् यद्वार्त्तिक इति M.Bh. on P. II.2.24 Vart. 18. In अपर अहृ यद्वार्त्तिक इति the word is contrasted with the word वृत्तिसूत्र which means the original Sutra (of Panini ) which has been actuaIly quoted, viz. संख्ययाव्ययासन्नाo II.2. 25. Nagesa gives ' सूत्रे अनुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिक्रत्वम् as the definition of a Varttika which refers only to two out of the three features of the Varttikas stated a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. If the word उक्त has been omitted with a purpose by Nagesa, the definition may well-nigh lead to support the view that the genuine Varttikapatha of Katyayana consisted of a smaller number of Varttikas which along with a large number of Varttikas of other writers are quoted in the Mahabhasya, without specific names of writers, For details see pages 193-223 Vol. VII Patanjala Mahabhasya, D.E, Society's Edition.
vārttikasūtrathe same as वार्तिकवचन which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Varttikas are termed Varttika sutras on account of their close similarity with the original Sutras, which in contrast are termed Vrttisutras.
vāsudeva( शास्त्री)surnamed Abhyankar, who lived from 1863 to l942 and did vigorous and active work of teaching pupils and writing essays, articles, commentary works and original works on various Shastras with the same scholarship, zeal and acumen for fifty years in Poona. He wrote गूढार्थप्रकाश a commentary on the LaghuSabdendusekhara and तत्त्वादर्श a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara in 1889. His edition of the Patanjala Mahabhasya with full translation and notes in Marathi can be called his magnum opus. See अभ्यंकर.
vigrahalit, separation of the two parts of a thing; the term is generally applied to the separation of the constituent words of a compound word: it is described to be of two kinds : ( a ) शास्त्रीयविग्रहृ or technical separation; e. g. राजपुरुष्: into राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु and ( 2 ) लौकिकविग्रहं or common or popular separation ; e. g. राजपुरूष: into राज्ञ: पुरुष:. It is also divided into two kinds according to the nature of the constituent words (a) स्वपदाविग्रह separation by means of the constituent words, exempli gratia, for example राजहितम् into राज्ञे हृितम्;(b) अस्वपदविग्रह, e. g. राजार्थम् into राज्ञे इदम् ;or exempli gratia, for example सुमुखीं into शोभनं मुखं अस्याः confer, compare M.Bh. on P.V.4.7. The compounds whose separation into constituent words cannot be shown by those words (viz. the constituent words) are popularly termed nityasamsa. The term नित्यसमास is explained as नित्यः समासो नित्यसमासः | यस्य विग्रहो नास्ति । M.Bh. on P.II.2.19 Vart. 4. The upapadasamsa is described as नित्यसमास. Sometimes especially in some Dvandva compounds each of the two separated words is capable of giving individually the senses of both the words exempli gratia, for example the words द्यावा and क्षामा of the compound द्यावाक्षामा. The word विग्रह is found used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the separate use of a word as contrasted with the use in a compound; cf अच्छेति विग्रहे प्लुतं भवति R.Pr.VII.1. विग्रहृ is defined as वृत्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः in the Siddhantakaumudi.
viṭhṭhalaor विठ्ठलेश grandson of रामचन्द्रशेष the author of the प्राक्रियाकौमुदी. He was aTelagu Brahmana of Andhra who lived in the beginning of the sixteenth century and wrote a commentary named प्रसाद on the Prakriya-Kaumudi and two small works अव्ययार्थनिरूपण and पाणिनिसूत्रवृत्ति.
vidvatprabodhinīname of a commentary on the Sarasvata-prakriya by a grammarian named Rama.
vibhaktyarthaprakāśaa work on syntax of words written by a grammarian named Kamalākarabhaṭṭa.
vimalamatian old grammarian who is believed to have written a gloss named भागवृत्ति on Pāṇini's Sūtras to which the grammarians Purusottamadeva, Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiand others of the twelfth century refer. Some scholars say that भागवृत्ति was written by भर्तृहरि; but it is not feasible, as there is a reference to Māghakāvya in भागवृति. In books on grammar,. especially of the Eastern School in the 11th and the 12th century, there are several quotations from the Bhāgavṛtti. See भागवृत्ति.
vimalasarasvatīa grammarian who wrote a small grammar work named रूपमाला
vimuktādia class of words headed by the word विमुक्त to which the taddhita affix अ ( अण् ) is added in the sense of 'possessed of', provided the word so formed, denotes a chapter or a lesson of a sacred work; confer, compareविमुक्तशब्दोस्मिन्नस्ति वैमुक्तकोध्यायः अनुवाको वा | दैवासुरः । Kāś. on P. V. 2.61.
vivṛtaname given to an internal effort (as contrasted with the external effort named विवार ) when the tip, middle, or root of the tongue which is instrumental in producing a sound, is kept apart from the place or sthāna of the Pro duction of the sound; confer, compare तत्रोत्पत्तेः प्राग्यदा जिह्वाग्रोपाग्रमध्यमूलानि तत्तद्वर्णोत्पत्तिस्थानानां ताल्वादीनां दूरतः वर्तन्ते तदा विवृतता Tattvabodhini on S. K. on P.I.1.9.
viṣamapadavyākhyāor विषमी (1) a critical commentary on Nāgeśa's Laghuśabdenduśekhara written by Rāghavendrācārya Gajendragadkar of Satara who lived in the first half of the nineteenth century and who has also written a gloss named त्रिपथगा on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara; (2) name of a commentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Cidrūpāśraya: (3) name of a commentary on Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.
viṣṇupaṇḍitaa grammarian belonging to the famous Śeṣa family of grammarians, who has written a small treatise on Paribhāṣā or maxims of interpretation which he has named परिभाषाप्रक्राश.
viṣṇumiśraa scholar of the Supadma system of grammar who has written a commentary named मकरन्द on the सुपद्मव्याकरण and also a commentary on the सुपद्मसमाससंग्रह.
vun(1)kṛt affix अक added to the roots प्रु, सृ, and लू in the sense of 'a skilled agent' and to any root in the sense of 'an agent who is blessed'; exempli gratia, for example प्रवकः, सरकः, लवकः, जीवकः ( meaning जीवतात् ) नन्दकः, ( meaning नन्दतात् ); confer, compare P. III. 1. 149, 150; (2) taddhita affix. affix अक added to(a) the words क्रम and others in the sense of 'a student of'; e.g, क्रमक:, पदकः शिक्षकः मीमांसकः; confer, compare P.IV.2.61; (b) the words पूर्वाह्न, अपराह्ण et cetera, and others as also the words पथिन् and अमावास्या in the sense of 'produced in': exempli gratia, for example पूर्वाह्नक,पन्थक, अमावास्यकः confer, compare P. IV.3. 28, 29, 30; (c) the words कलापि, अश्वत्य, यव and बुस in the sense of 'debt paid at the time of', the words वासुदेव and अर्जुन in the sense of 'devoted to',and the dvandva compounds when the words so formed mean either 'enmity' or 'nuptial ties';exempli gratia, for example कलापकम् (ऋणम्),यवकम् (ऋणम्) वासुदेवकः, अर्जुनकः, काकोलूकिका, कुत्सकुशिकिका; confer, compareP.IV.3.48, 98,125: (d) the words गोषद, इषेत्व et cetera, and others in the sense of 'containing' or 'possessing', and the word पथिन् in the sense of 'expert' exempli gratia, for example इषेत्वकः, पथक:; confer, compareP.V.2.62, 63; and (e) the words पाद and शत preceded by a numeral, in the sense of वीप्सा, as also in the senses of दण्ड (fine) and व्यवसर्ग when those words are preceded by a numeral; exempli gratia, for example द्विपदिकां ( ददाति ), द्विशतिकां ( ददाति ), द्विपदिकां दाडितः confer, compare Kāś. on P. V.4.l and 2.
vṛttidīpikāa treatise on the different ways in which the meaning is conveyed by words according to the conventions of grammarians,written by a grammarian Krisnabhatta surnamed Mauni.
vaidikīprakriyāname of that section of Bhattoji's Siddhantakaumudi which deals with Vedic peculiarities noticed by Panini in his sutras. There is a well-known commentary upon this section named सुबोधिनी written by Jayakrisna a famous grammar scholar of the Maunin family.
vaidikaprakriyāṭīkā(1)a commentary on the sutras of Panini dealing with the Vedic words and their peculiarities written by a grammarian named Murari; (2) a commentary on the section of Bhattoji's Siddhantakaumudi named वैदिकीप्रक्रिया written by Jayakrsna Maunin and named Subodhini.
vaidyanāthaVaidyanatha Payagunde, a famous grammarian of the eighteenth century, who was one of the chief pupils of Nagesa and who prepared a line of pupils at Varanasi. He has written learned commentaries on standard works on grammar, the principal ones being the Prabha on the Sabdakaustubha, the Bhavaprakasika on the Brhaccabdendusekhara, the Cidasthimala on the LaghuSabdendusekhara, the Kasika or Gada on the Paribhasendusekhara and an independent short treatise named Rapratyaya-khandana
vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇaa well-known work on the grammatical interpretation of words written by Kondabhatta as an explanatory work (व्याख्यान) on the small work in verse consisting of only 72 Karikas written by his uncle Bhattoji Diksita. The treatise is also named Brihadvaiyakaranabhusana. A smaller work consisting of the same subjectmatter but omitting discussions, is written by the author for facilitating the understanding of students to which he has given the name Vaiyakarahabhusanasara. This latter work has got three commentary works written on it named Kasika, Kanti and Matonmajja and one more scholarly one Sankari, recently written by Shankar Shastri Marulkar.
vaiyākaraṇaśābdamālāवैयाकरणशब्दरत्नमाला a treatise on the use of words written as a helpful guide to Sanskrit writers, by a grammarian named Somayajin in 1848 A.D.
vaiyākaraṇasarvasvaa small treatise on grammar written by a scholar of grammar named Kasinatha who has also written a few more small works वर्णविवेकचन्द्रिका, वृत्तिचन्द्रिका,धातुमञ्जरी etc
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaumudīṭīkāor सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या a general name given to the large number of commentaries written by members of the line of pupils, and pupils of pupils of Bhattoji. The well-known among the commentaries are प्रौढमनोरमा by the author himself, तत्त्वबोधिनी by ज्ञानेन्द्रसरस्वती, सुबोधिनी by जयकृष्णभट्ट मौनी बालमनोरमा by वासुदेवदीक्षित, and crowning all, the लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेशभट्ट. The प्रौढमनोरमा has got a learned commentary written by हरिदीक्षित called लघुशब्दरत्न or शब्दरत्न, which also has on it commentaries named भावप्रक्राश by बाळंभट्ट and शब्दरत्नदीप by कल्याणमल्ल. The Laghusabdendusekhara has got commentaries reaching about ten in number.
vyaṅkaṭasubbāśāsrīa grammarian who has written a grammar treatise named भाषामञ्जरीव्याकरण.
vyantaddhita affix. affix य causing the acute accent for the first vowel of the word, added to the word भ्रातृ when the sense of the word so formed, is ’enemy'; see यत् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.: confer, compare P.IV 1.145.
vyākaraṇādhyayanaprayojanathe purpose of the study of Grammar which is beautifully summed up and discussed in the first Ahnika by Patanjali in his Mahabhasya.
byāḍiname of an ancient grammarian with a sound scholarship in Vedic phonetics, accentuation,derivation of words and their interpretation. He is believed to have been a relative and contemporary of Panini and to have written a very scholarly vast volume on Sanskrit grammar named *Samgraha which is believed to have consisted of a lac of verses; confer, compare संग्रहो व्याडिकृतो लक्षसंख्ये ग्रन्थ: NageSa's Uddyota; confer, compare also इह पुरा पाणिनीये अस्मिन्व्याकरणे ब्याड्युपरचितं लक्षग्रन्थपरिमाणं निबन्धनमासीत् Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Tika. The work is not available at present. References to Vyadi or to his work are found in the Pratisakhya works, the Mahabhasya, the Varttikas, the Vakyapadiya and many subsequent treatises. A work on the Vyakarana Paribhasas, believed to have been written by Vyadi, is available by the name परिभाषासूचन which from its style and other peculiarities seems to have been written after the Varttikas, but before the Mahabhasya. Vyadi is well-known to have been the oldest exponent of the doctrine that words denote an individual object and not the genus. For details see pp. 136-8, Vol. 7 Vyakarana Mahabhasya DE. Society's Edition.
vyutpattiderivation of a word from a root which formed a special feature of the Nairukta school of Vedic scholars in ancient times; the word निर्वचन is used in the same sense: confer, compare सति संभवे व्युत्पत्तिरन्यथा कर्तव्या रूढेरनियमात् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 2.93.
śaṃkaraśāstrī( मारुलकर )a modern scholar of grammar who lived in Poona and did the work of teaching and writing commentaries. He has written a commentary mamed शांकरी on the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara of Kondabhatta.
śakyawhich forms the object pointed out by means of the potentiality to the hearer by the word (id est, that is शब्द) which directly communicates the sense, in which case it is termed वाचक as contrasted with भेदक or द्योतक when the sense,which is of the type of संबन्ध is conveyed rather indirectly. This nice division into वाचकता and भेदकता was introduced clearly by भर्तृहरि: confer, compare Vakyapadtya Kanda 2.
śatṛkrt affix अत् in the sense of ' the agent of the present time ', applied to any root which takes the Parasmaipada personal affixes confer, compare लट: शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे P. III. 2.126,8. The words formed with this शतृ (अत्) affix are termed present participles in the declension of which, by virtue of the indicatory vowel ऋ in शतृ, the augment नुम् is inserted after the last vowel of the base, and the root receives such modifications as are caused by a Sarvadhatuka affix, the affix शतृ being looked upon as a Sarvadhatuka affix on account of the indicatory letter श्. The word ending in this affix शतृ governs a noun forming its object, in the accusative case.
śapa vikarana affix ( conjugational sign ) applied to roots of the first conjugation and in general to all secondary roots i. e. roots formed from nouns and from other roots before personal-endings which are Sarvadhatuka and which possess the sense of agent, provided there is no other vikarana affix prescribed: e. g. भवति, एधते, कारयति, हारयति, बुभूपति, पुत्रीयति, पुत्रकाम्यति, कामयते, गेीपांयति, कण्ङ्कयति, पटयति, दिनन्ति (यामिन्य:) et cetera, and others confer, compare कर्तरि शप् , P. III.1 .68. This affix शप् is dropped after roots of the second conjugation (अदादि } and those of the third conjugation ( जुहोत्यादि) and in Vedic Literature wherever observed; confer, compare P.II.4.72, 73, 75, 76.
śabarasvāmina grammarian to whom a metrical treatise on genders named लिङ्गानुशासन is ascribedition This शवरस्वामिन् was comparatively a modern grammarian who was given the title बालयोगीश्वर. This लिङ्गानुशासन has a commentary written by हृर्षवर्धन Evidently these grammarians शबरस्वामिन् and हृर्षवर्धन are different from the famous author of the मीमांसाभाष्य and the patron of the poet Bana respectively.
śabdaliterally "sound" in general; confer, compare शब्दं कुरु शब्दं मा कार्षीः | ध्वनिं कुर्वनेवमुच्यते | M.Bh. in Ahnika I; confer, compare also शब्दः प्रकृतिः सर्ववर्णानाम् | वर्णपृक्तः: शब्दो वाच उत्पत्तिः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII.1, XXIII.3.In grammar the word शब्द is applied to such words only as possess sense; confer, compare प्रतीतपदार्थको लोके ध्वनि: शब्द: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika 1: confer, comparealso येनोच्चरितेन अर्थः प्रतीयते स शब्दः Sringara Prakasa I; confer, compare also अथ शब्दानुशासनम् M.Bh. Ahnika 1. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya, शब्द् is said to be constituted of air as far as its nature is concerned, but it is taken to mean in the Pratisakhya and grammar works in a restricted sense as letters possessed of sense, The vajasaneyiPratisakhya gives four kinds of words तिडू, कृत्, तद्धित and समास while नाम, आख्यात, निपात and उपसर्ग are described to be the four kinds in the Nirukta. As शब्द in grammar, is restricted to a phonetic unit possessed of sense, it can be applied to crude bases, affixes, as also to words that are completely formed with case-endings or personal affixes. In fact, taking it to be applicable to all such kinds, some grammarians have given tweive subdivisions of शब्द, vizप्रक्रुति, प्रत्यय,उपत्कार, उपपद, प्रातिपदिक, विभक्ति, उपसर्जन, समास, पद, वाक्य, प्रकरण and प्रबन्ध; confer, compare Sringara Prakasa I.
śabdakaustubhaguṇaa short gloss on Bhatoji's Sabdakaustubha written by a grammarian named इन्द्रदत्तोपाध्याय
śabdkaustubhavyākhyāa commentary on Bhattoji's Sabdakaustubha, named विषमपदव्याख्या a name probably given to a commentary written by Nagesa.
śabdatattvaliterally the essence of a word; the ultimate sense conveyed by the word which is termed स्फोट by the Vaiyakaranas. Philosophically this Sabdatattva or Sphota is the philosophical Brahman of the Vedantins, which is named as Sabdabrahma or Nadabrahma by the Vaiykaranas,and which appears as the Phenomenal world of the basis of its own powers such as time factor and the like; confer, compare अनादिनिधनं ब्रह्म शब्दतत्वं यदक्षरम् ! विवर्ततेर्थभावेन प्रक्रिया जगतो यतः ॥ vakyapadiya, I.1: cf। also Vakyapadiya II.31.
śābdabodhaprakriyāa grammar treatise on the denotation and relation of words written by a grammarian ramed Ramakrsna.
śabdaratnaname of a scholarly gloss written by Haridiksita on the Manorama, a commentary by Bhattoji Diksita on his own Siddhantakaumudi. The proper name of the commentary is लघुशब्दरत्न of which शब्दरत्न is an abridged form.The commentary लघुशब्दरत्न is generally studied along with the Manorama by students.There is a bigger work named बृहच्छब्दरत्न written by Hari Diksita, of which the लधुशद्वरत्न is an abridgment.
śabdaratnadīpaa commentary on the Laghusabdaratna written by a grammarian named Kalyanamalla.
śabdarūpāvalia very brief treatise on declension giving the forms of the seven cases of a few choice-words. The work is studied as the first elementary work and is very common without the name of any specific author.There are different works named शब्दरूपावलि giving declensions of different words which are all anonymous, although from the dates of manuscripts mentioned, they appear to be more than five or six hundred years old.
śabdavivaraṇaa grammar work on the meaning of words and how it is conveyed, written by a grammarian named वर्णिकुबेरानन्द The work forms a part of his bigger work दानभागवत. See वर्णिकुबेरानन्द,
śabdavyutpattiderivation of a word by tracing it to the root from which it is formedition
śabdavyutpattikaumudīa small treatise on the derivation of words written by a grammarian named RajaramaSastrin.
śabdasattvaprakāśaa work on grammar said to have been written by a grammarian named इन्द्रदत्त.
śabdsādhyaprayogaa grammar work on the formation of words written by a grammarian named रमानाथशर्मा.
śabdasudhāname of a grammar work by a grammarian named अनन्तभट्ट.
śabdānuśāsanaliterally science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentence. The word is used in connection with standard works on grammar which are complete and self-sufficient in all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned features. Patanjali has begun his Mahabhasya with the words अथ शब्दानुशासनम् referring possibly to the vast number of Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and hence the term शब्दानुशासन according to him means a treatise on the science of grammar made up of the rules of Panini with the explanatory and critical varttikas written by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras.The word शब्दानुशासन later on, became synonymons with Vyakarana and it was given as a title to their treatises by later grammarians, or was applied to the authoritative treatise which introduced a system of grammar, similar to that of Panini. Hemacandra's famous treatise, named सिद्धहैमचन्द्र by the author,came to be known as हैमशब्दानुशासन. Similarly the works on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्तिशाकटायन and देवनन्दिन् were called शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and जैनेन्द्र' शब्दानुशासन respectively.
śabdāmṛtaa work, explanatory of the Sutras of Panini, written by a grammarian named विप्रराजेन्द्र.
śaraṇadevaa prominent grammarian of the Eastern school of Panini's system of grammar who lived in the thirteenth century and wrote works on Panini's grammar. His work named दुर्घटवृत्ति which ex. plains according to Panini's rules, the Varttikas thereon, and the Jnapakas deduced from them,the various words difficult to be explained, is much appreciated by scholars of grammar. He has quoted from a large number of classical works, and referred to many works of the Eastern grammarians who followed the Kasika school.
śarvavarmāa reputed grammarian who is believed to have been a contemporary of the poet Gunadhya in the court of Satavahana. He wrote the Grammar rules which are named the Katantra Sutras which are mostly based on the Sutras of Panini. In the grammar treatise named 'the Katantra Sutra' written by Sarvavarman the Vedic section and all the intricacies and difficult elements are carefully and scrupulously omitted by him, with a view to making his grammar useful for beginners and students of average intelligence.
śākaṭāyana(1)name of an ancient reputed scholar of Grammar and Pratisakhyas who is quoted by Panini. He is despisingly referred to by Patanjali as a traitor grammarian sympathizing with the Nairuktas or etymologists in holding the view that all substantives are derivable and can be derived from roots; cf तत्र नामान्याख्यातजानीति शाकटायनो नैरुक्तसमयश्च Nir.I.12: cf also नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् M. Bh on P.III.3.1. Sakatayana is believed to have been the author of the Unadisutrapatha as also of the RkTantra Pratisakhya of the Samaveda ; (2) name of a Jain grammarian named पाल्यकीर्ति शाकटायन who lived in the ninth century during the reign of the Rastrakuta king Amoghavarsa and wrote the Sabdanusana which is much similar to the Sutrapatha of Panini and introduced a new System of Grammar. His work named the Sabdanusasana consists of four chapters which are arranged in the form of topics, which are named सिद्धि. The grammar work is called शब्दानुशासन.
śākinataddhita affix. affix (originally a word formed from शाकी by affixing न as given in Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.V.2.100), applied to the word इक्षु in the sense of a field producing it; e. g. इक्षुशाकिनम्.; confer, compare भवने क्षेत्रे इक्ष्वादिभ्यः शाकटशाकिनौ Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.29.
śikṣāgeneral name given to a work on Phonetics. Although there are many such works which are all called शिक्षा, the work, which is often referred to, by the word, is the Siksa named पाणिनीयशिक्षा, about the authorship of which, however, there is a doubt whether it was the work of Panini or of somebody belonging to his school. The Siksa works are helpful, no doubt, for the study of grammar, but no topic belonging to Siksa is given by Panini which apparently means that these works do not come under the subject or province of Grammar. The reason why the Siksa topics are not given by Panini, is worth consideration. These Siksa works are not specifically related to a particular Veda and it cannot be said whether they preceded or succeeded the Pratisakhya works.
śitpossessed of, or characterized by, the indicatory letter श्; the krt affixes which are marked with the indicatory श् are termed Sarvadhatuka affixes (confer, compare P.III.4.113), while, the Adesas or substitutes, marked with the indicatory श्, are substituted for the whole of the Sthanin or the original and not for its final letter according to the rule अलोन्त्यस्य P. I.1.52; e. g. शि is substituted,not for the final स् of जस् and शस् but for the whole जस् and the whole शस्; confer, compare P.I.1.55.
śivabhaṭṭaa grammarian, who wrote a commentary named कुङ्कुमविकास on the Padamanjari of Haradatta. He was the grandson of Nilakantha Diksita who was also a grammarian and who wrote an independent work on the Paribhasas, named the Paribhasavrtti.
śivarāmendra( सरस्वती )a grammarian who wrote (1) a gloss on the sutras of Panini, (2) a commentary named सिद्धान्तरत्नाकर on the Siddhantakaumudi, and (3) a commentary on the Mahabhasya named Mahabhasyaprakasa.
śivasūtraname given to the fourteen small sutras giving the alphabet which Panini took as the basis of his grammar. The Sivasutras have got a well-known explanation in Verse, named नन्दिकेश्वरकारिका on which there is a commentary of the type of Bhasya by उपमन्यु. The origin of the Sivasutra given by the writer of the Karika is summed up in the stanza नृत्तावसाने नटराजराजो ननाद ढक्कां नवपञ्चवारम् । उद्धर्तुकामः सनकादिसिद्धानेतद् विमर्शे शिवसूत्रजालम् | Nand. 1.
śuddhāśubodhasūtrārthavyākaraṇaa gloss on the Asubodha-grammar, written by a grammarian named Ramesvara.
śūrasiṃhaname of a grammarian who wrote a gloss named दीपिका on the Sarasvata Vyakarana.
śeṣacakrapāṇia grammarian of the Sesa family who wrote a small treatise on case-relations named कारकतत्त्व.
śaiśirīyarecital of the Rgveda in the school named after SiSira, a pupil of Sakalya.
śaunakaprātiśākhyaa popular name of the well-known Pratisakhya of the Rgveda, named ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य as well as ऋग्वेदप्रातिशाख्य.
śaunakādia class of words headed by the word शौनक to which the taddhita affix इन् ( णिनि ) is added in the sense of 'instructed by', provided the word so formed is a portion of what is looked upon as a part of the sacred Vedic Literature; confer, compare शौनकेन प्रोक्तमधीयते शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिन: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV. 3.106.
śrīkaṇoktaa grammarian who has written a small treatise on corrupt words or ungrammatical words, which is named अपशब्दखण्डन.
śrīdharaa grammarian of the last century who has written a commentary named श्रीधरी after him, on the Paribhasendusekhara.
śrīmaṇikaṇṭhaa famous grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय, प्रगल्भतर्कसिंह and भट्टाचार्य and who has written a systematic work on caserelations named कारकखण्डनमण्डन; the work is also known by the name षट्कारकखण्डनमण्डन.
śrīmānaśarmāa famous grammarian of Eastern India who has written a short scholarly gloss named Vijaya on Nagesa's Paribhasendusekhara. For details refer to Paribhasasamgraha.
śrutakevalina term of a very great honour given to such Jain monks as have almost attained perfection; the term is used in connection with Palyakirti Sakatayana, the Jain grammarian शाकटायन, whose works शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and its presentation in a topical form named शाकटायनप्रक्रिया are studied at the present day in some parts of India. See शाकटायन a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
śluvadbhāvatreatment as before the elision named श्लु, i. e. reduplication of the preceding root. This श्लुवद्भाव is prescribed in the case of the roots भी, ह्री, भृ and हु; confer, compare भीह्रीभृहुवां श्लुवच्च P. III. 1. 39.
ślokavārtikaVarttika or supplementary rule to Panini's rules laid down by scholars of grammar immediately after Panini, composed in verse form. These Slokavarttikas are quoted in the Mahabhasya at various places and supposed to have been current in the explanations of Panini's Astadhyayi in the days of Patanjali. The word is often used by later commentators.
(l)a sibilant letter of the cerebral class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, कण्ठविवार and महाप्राण ; (2) mute indicatory letter ष्, attached to nouns as also to affixes with which nouns are formed, such as ष्वुन्, ष्कन्, ष्टरच्, ष्ट्रन् et cetera, and others showing the addition of the feminine affix ई ( ङीष् ); confer, compare षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च P. IV. 1.41 ; (3) changeable to स् when placed at the beginning of roots in the Dhatupatha except in the case of the roots formed from nouns and the roots ष्ठिव् and ष्वष्क्; (4) substitute for the last consonant of the roots ब्रश्च, भ्रस्ज्, सृज्, मृज्, यज्, राज्, भ्राज्, as also of the roots ending in छ् and श् before a consonant excepting a nasal and a semivowel, as also when the consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् et cetera, and others cf P. VIII.2.36 (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 3.39: confer, compare also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष्; e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे , वृक्षष्टकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.41.
ṣaṭkārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaknown also as कारकखण्डनमण्डन a grammar-work on the six case-relations written by a scholar of grammar named श्रीमणिकण्ठ.
ṣaṭkārakalakṣaṇaa small work in verses on the six case-relations ascribed to Amarasimha, but very likely the author was Amaracandra a Jain grammarian of the fifteenth century. The work is also named षट्कारकविवरण.
ṣaṣṭhīsamāsaa compound word formed by one noun with another in the genitive case; see षष्ठीतत्पुरुष a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.-
ṣphafeminine affix अायनी, termed also तद्वित (l) added, according to the Eastern school of grammarians, to words ending with the taddhita affix. affix यञ् ( prescribed by rules like गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् IV.1.105) e. g. गार्ग्यायणी, वात्स्यायनी as contrasted with गांर्गी or वात्सी according to the Western school of Panini; (2) added to form feminine bases of the words from लोहित to कत to which यञ् has already been added as also to the words कौरव्य and माण्डूक. e. g. लौहित्यायनी, बाभ्रव्यायणी, कात्यायनी, कौरव्यायणी, माण्डूकायनी confer, compare P. IV. 1.17-19.
saṃdarbhāmṛtaname of a commentary on the Mugdhabodha Vyakarana of Bopadeva, written by a grammarian, named Bholanatha.
saṃdhyaa diphthong: see below the word संधिः cf अत्थनामनी संध्यम् . संध्यक्षर diphthong, a vowel resulting from a combination of two vowels, but which is to be looked upon as one single vowel by reason of only a single effort being required for its pronunciation; the letters ए, ऐ, ओ and औ are termed as संध्यक्षर as contrasted with समानाक्षर, confer, compare अष्टौ समानाक्षराण्यादितस्ततश्चत्वारि संध्यक्षराण्युत्तराणि Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 10; confer, compare also Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 13, Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 111 ; confer, compare also संध्यक्षराणामिदुतौ ह्रस्वादेशे Kat. Pari. 43
saṃyogāntalopathe elision of the final of the conjunct consonants when they are at the end of a word provided they are not formed of र् as the first member and any consonant except स् as the second member: e.gगोमान्, ऊर्क् et cetera, and others; confer, compare संयोगान्तस्य लोपः,रात्सस्य P.VIII.2.23,24.
saṃvādacintāmaṇiname of a small treatise on roots and their meanings written by : a grammarian named इन्द्रदत्तोपाध्याय who has also written a commentary on the Sabdakaustubha called कौस्तुभगुण and सिद्धान्तकौमुदीगूढफक्किकाप्रकाश,
saṃskṛtamañjarīa short handbook on declension and case-relations written by a grammarian named Sadhusundara, who lived in the beginning of the eighteenth century.
saṃspṛṣṭaliterally formed by combination or compact; the term is used in the PratiSakhyas for diphthongs which are combinations, in fact, of two vowels which are completely mixed being produced with a single effort. The diphthongs and ऋ also, are called संस्पृष्टवर्ण.
saṃsvādaa peculiar phonetic element described along with another one named निगार both of which have got no definite place of utterance in the mouth; confer, compare अविशेषस्थानौ संस्वादानगारौ । पकारनकारयकारा: वा संस्वादे । हकारमकारना. सिक्या वा निगारे I commentary on R.T.11.
sadeśaliterally belonging to the same place; the word is used in the sense of immediately near or quite in proximity; confer, compare अनन्त्यविकारे अन्त्यसदेशस्य Pari.Sek. Pari.108.
sapādasaptādhyāyīa term used in connection with Panini's first seven books and a quarter of the eighth, as contrasted with the term Tripadi, which is used for the last three quarters of the eighth book. The rules or operations given in the Tripadi, are stated to be asiddha or invalid for purposes of the application of the rules in the previous portion, viz. the Sapadasaptadhyayi, and hence in the formation of' words all the rules given in the first seven chapters and a quarter, are applied first and then a way is prepared for the rules of the last three quarters. It is a striking thing that the rules in the Tripadi mostly concern the padas or formed words, the province, in fact, of the Pratisakhya treatises, and hence they should, as a matter of fact, be applicable to words after their formation and evidently to accomplish this object, Panini has laid down the convention of the invalidity in question by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII. 2,1.
saptasvaralit, the seven accents; the term refers to the seven accents formed of the subdivisions of the three main Vedic accents उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित viz उदात्त, उदात्ततर, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितोदात्त,and एकश्रुति: cf त एते तन्त्रे तरनिर्देशे सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति ( उदात: । उदात्ततरः । अनुदात्तः ! अनुदात्ततरः । स्वरित: । स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः । एकश्रुतिः सप्तम: ॥ M. Bh on P. I. 2. 33. It is possible that these seven accents which were turned into the seven notes of the chantings of the samans developed into the seven musical notes which have traditionally come down to the present day known as सा रे ग म प ध नी; confer, compare उदात्ते निषादगान्धारौ अनुदात्ते ऋषभधैवतौ । स्वरितप्रभवा ह्येते षड्जमध्यमपञ्चमाः। Pāṇini. Siksa. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions the seven accents differently; confer, compare उदात्तादयः परे सप्त । यथा-अभिनिहितक्षैप्र-प्राशश्लिष्ट-तैरोव्यञ्जन-तैरोविराम-पादवृत्तताथाभाव्याः Uvvata on V.Pr.I.l l4.
samavāya(I)combination as contrasted with व्यवाय disjunction or separation; (2) the enumeration of the letters of the alphabet in a particular order so as to facilitate their combination, technically termed प्रत्याहार; confer, compare वृतिसमवायार्थ उपदेशः । का पुनर्वृत्तिः l शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः । अथ कः समवायः । वर्णानामानुपूर्व्येण संनिवेशः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika l Vart. 15. confer, compare also समवायो वर्णगत: क्रमविशेषः । Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on the Bhasya mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; (3) contact; cf रक्तै रागः समवाये स्वराणाम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.24.
samāsavāda(l)a short treatise on compounds by गोविन्दचक्रवर्तिन् ; (2) a small compendium on compounds written by a grammarian named सार्वभौम.
samāsāntasecondary suffixes which are prescribed at the end of compounds in specific cases and which are looked upon as taddhita affixes; exempli gratia, for examplethe Samasanta डच् ( अ ), causing elision of the last syllable of the compound word, is added to compounds called संख्याबहुव्रीहि; exempli gratia, for example उपदशाः,पञ्चषाः et cetera, and others P.V.4.73. Samasanta अ is added to compounds ending with ऋच्,पुर्, अप्, and धुर,and अच् to words ending with सामन् , लोमन् , अक्षन् , चतुर् पुंस् , अनडुह्, मनस् , वर्चस्, तमस् , श्रेयस् , रहस्, उरस्, गो, तावत्, अध्वन् , etc :under specific conditions; cf P.V.4.68 to 86. अच् ( अ ) is added at the end of the tatpurusa compounds to the words अङ्गुलि, and रात्रि, under specific conditions; confer, compare P.V.4.86, 87: टच् ( अ ) is added at the end of tatpurusa compounds ending in राजन् , अहन् , सखि , गो, and उरस् and under specific conditions to those ending in तक्षन् , श्वन् , सक्थि, नौ, खारी, and अज्जलि as also to words ending in अस् and अन् in the neuter gender in Vedic Literature, and to the word ब्रह्मन् under specific conditions: confer, compare P.V. 4.91 to 105: टच् is added at the end of समाहारद्वन्द्व compounds ending in च् , छ् , ज्, झ्,ञ्, , द्, ष् and ह्, and at the end of अव्ययीभाव compounds ending with the words शरद् , विपाश् , अनस् , and मनस् et cetera, and others as also at the end of words ending in अन् or with any of the class consonants except nasals, confer, compare P.V.4.106-ll2; षच् ( अ ) is added to Bahuvrihi compounds ending with सक्थि and अक्षि as limbs of the body, as also with अङ्गुलि, while ष , अप् and अच् are added to specified words under special conditions; the Samasanta affix असिच् ( अस् ) is added at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound ending in प्रजा, and मेधा, the Samasanta affix इच् is added at the end of the peculiar Bahuvrihi compound formed of दण्ड, मुसल et cetera, and others when they are repeated and when they show a fight with the instruments of fight exchanged; confer, compare P. V.4.113128. Besides these affixes, a general समासान्त affix कप् is added necessarily or optionally as specified in P.V. 4.151-159.
samāhāracollection, collective notion which is one of the four senses of the indeclinable च. The collective notion by nature being single, the dvandva compound formed of words showing such a collection takes the neuter gender and singular number affixes confer, compareयदा तिरोहितावयवविवक्षा संहति: प्रधानं तदा समाहार: Siradeva Pari. 16: confer, compare also P. II.2.29 and II. 1. 51.
sarvamaṅgalāa commentary on Nagesa's Paribhasendusekhara written by a grammarian of the nineteenth century named शेषशर्मन् or मनीषिशेषशर्मन्. The work is incomplete.
sāṃgrahasūtrikaa student of संग्रहसूत्र; the word occurs in the Mahabhasya along with वार्तिकसूत्रिक, and it may therefore mean a student of the stupendous work named the Samgraha of व्याडि which is believed to have consisted of small numerous sutralike assertions, with an exhaustive gloss thereon. See संग्रह.
sādhusundaraa scholar of grammar who was a pupil of साधुकीर्तिप्रवर and who wrote a short work on grammar named उक्तिरत्नाकर.
sārasvataname of a grammar work which was once very popular on account of its brevity, believed to have been written in the sutra form by an ancient grammarian named Narendra who is said to have composed 700 sutras under the inspiration of Sarasvati.The exposition of these Sutras by a reputed grammarian named Anubhutisvarupacarya who possibly flourished in the thirteenth century A. D., is known by the name सारस्वतप्रक्रिया which has remained as a text book on grammar to the present day in some parts of India. This प्रक्रिया is popularly known as सारस्वतव्याकरण. The technical terms in this grammar are the current popular ones.
sārasvatabhāṣyaa critical gloss on the Sarasvata grammar by a grammarian named Kasinatha.
sārasvatasāraa work giving a short substance of the Sarasvata Vyakarana with a commentary named Mitaksara on the same by Harideva.
sārasvatasiddhāntacandrikāa work on the Sarasvata Vyakarana by a grammarian named Ramasrama.
sārvabhaumaa grammarian of the eighteenth century who wrote a very brief critical work on compounds named समासवाद.
siddha(1)established; the term is used in the sense of नित्य or eternal in the Varttika सिद्धे शब्दार्थसंबन्धे where, as Patanjali has observed, the word सिद्ध meaning नित्य has been purposely put in to mark an auspicious beginning of the शब्दानुशासनशास्त्र which commences with that Varttika; confer, compare माङ्गलिक आचार्यो महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थे सिद्धशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्क्ते M.Bh.on Ahnika 1; (2) established, proved, formed; the word is many times used in this sense in the Mahabhasya, as also in the Varttikas especially when a reply is to be given to an objection; confer, compare P.I. 1.3 Vart. 17, I.1. 4. Vart. 6: I. I. 5, Vart.5,I.1.9 Vart. 2 et cetera, and others
siddhāntakaumudīa critical and scholarly commentary on the Sutras of Panini, in which the several Sutras are arranged topicwise and fully explained with examples and counter examples. The work is exhaustive, yet not voluminous, difficult yet popular, and critical yet lucid. The work is next in importance to the Mahabhasya in the system of Panini, and its study prepares the way for understanding the Mahabhasya. It is prescribed for study in the courses of Vyakarana at every academy and Pathasala and is expected to be committed to memory by students who want to be thorough scholars of Vyakarana.By virtue of its methodical treatment it has thrown into the back-ground all kindred works and glosses or Vrttis on the Sutras of Panini. It is arranged into two halves, the first half dealing with seven topics ( 1 ) संज्ञापरिभाषा, ( 2 ) पञ्त्वसंधि, ( 3 ) षड्लिङ्ग, ( 4 ) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, ( 5 ) कारक, ( 6 ) समास, ( 7 ) तद्धित, and the latter half dealing with five topics, ( 1 ) दशगणी, ( 2 ) द्वादशप्राक्रिया ( 3 ) कृदन्त ( 4 ) वैदिकी and ( 5 ) स्वर. The author भट्टोजीदीक्षित has himself written a scholarly gloss on it called प्रौढमनेरमा on which, his grandson, Hari Diksita has written a learned commentary named लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got a large number of commentaries on it out of which, the commentaries प्रौढमनेरमा, बालमनोरमा, (by वासुदेवदीक्षित) तत्त्वबोधिनी and लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर are read by almost every true scholar of Vyakarana. Besides these four, there are a dozen or more commentaries some of which can be given below with their names and authors ( I ) सुबेाधिनी by जयकृष्णमौनि, ( 2 ) सुबोधिनी by रामकृष्णभट्ट ( 3 ) वृहृच्छब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेश, ( 4 ) बालमनेारमा by अनन्तपण्डित, ( 5 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरहृस्य by नीलकण्ठ, ( 6 ) रत्नार्णव, by कृष्णमिश्र ( 7 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरत्नाकर by रामकृष्ण, ( 8 ) सरला by तारानाथ,(9) सुमनोरमा by तिरुमल्ल,(10)सिद्वान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by लक्ष्मीनृसिंह, (11 )सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by विश्वेश्वरतीर्थ, (12) रत्नाकर by शिवरामेन्द्रसरस्वती and (13) प्रकाश by तोलापदीक्षित. Although the real name of the work is वैयाकरणसिद्धान्ततकौमुदी, as given by the author, still popularly the work is well known by the name सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. The work has got two abridged forms, the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi both written by Varadaraja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita.
siddhāntakaumudīgūḍhaphakkikāprakāśaa small gloss on Bhattoji's Siddhantakaumudi, explaining its difficult lines and passages, written by a grammarian named इन्द्रदत्तोपाध्याय.
siddhāntakaumudīvādārthaan explanatory work, discussing the difficult sentences and passages of the Siddhantakaumudi, written by a grammarian named Ramakrisna. सिद्धान्तरत्न a gloss on the Sarasvatisutra written by a grammarian natmed Jinacandra. सिद्धान्तरत्नाङ्कुर name of a commentary on the Katantraparisista by Sivaramacakravartin.
suc(l)taddhita affix. affix स् applied to fद्व, त्रि, चतुर् and to एक optionally, in the sense of 'repetition of the activity' e. g. द्विः करोति et cetera, and others cf Kas, on P. V. 4. 18, 19; (2) Unadi affix स्, see सु a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. सुजनपण्डित a grammarian who wrote a small treatise on genders named लिङार्थचन्द्रिका सुट् (1) short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the first five case-affixes which are called सर्वनामस्थान also, when they pertain to the masculine or the feminine gender: confer, compare सुडनपुंसकस्य I.1.43; (2)augment स् prefixed to the root कृ and to the root कॄ when preceded by certain prepositions and as seen in the words कुस्तुम्बुरु and others as also in the words अपरस्पर गोष्पद, आस्पद, अाश्चर्य, अपस्कर, विप्किर, हरिश्चन्द्र, प्रस्कण्व्, मल्कर, कास्तीर, अजास्तुन्द, कारस्कर and words in the class of words headed by पारस्कर, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VI. 1.135-57: (3) augment स् prefixed to the case-affix अाम् after a pronoun; e. g. सर्वेषाम् confer, compare P. VII. I.52;(4) augment स् prefixed to the consonant त् or थ् pertaining to लिङ् affixes, e. g. कृषीष्ट confer, compare P. III. 4.107.
sup(l)locative case affix सु: (2) short term for case-affixes, as formed by the syllable सु (the nominative case. singular. affix) at the beginning and the final consonant प् of सुप्, the locative plural case-affix in the rule स्वौजसमौट्...ङ्योस्सुप् P. IV. 1.2. These case afixes are called 'vibhakti' also. These सुप् affixes are elided after an indeclinable word; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुप: P. II. 4.82; in Veda स्, शे ( ए ), या, डा, ड्या, याच् and अाल् as seen, are substituted for these case affixes, which sometimes are even dropped or assimilated with the previous vowel of the base: e. g. सन्तु पन्थाः, आर्द्रे चर्मन् et cetera, and others cf, P. VII. 1.39. These caseaffixes are as a rule, grave-accented (अनुदात्त) excepting in such cases as are mentioned in P. VI.1. 166 to 184 and 19l.
supadmavyākaraṇaan independent work on grammar written by a scholar of grammar named पद्मनाभ, who fourished in Mithila in the fifteenth century A. D.
supadmavyākaraṇaṭīkāa commentary written by a scholar of grammar named विष्णुमिश्र on the Supadmavyakarana, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
supadmasamāsasaṃgrahaa treatise written by a grammarian named रूपनारायण, on the सुपद्मव्याकरण, which see below.
supadmasamāsasaṃgrahaṭīkāa commentary by a grammarian named विष्णुमिश्र, on the सुपद्मसमाससंग्रह which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
supsupsamāsaa popular name given to a compound formed of two nouns, which cannot be ordinarily explained by the rules of grammar laid down in definite terms by Panini in II.1.5I to II. 2.29. The so called irregular compounds are explained as formed in accordance with the rule सह सुपा II. 1.4 wherein the word पद presents it self by अनुवृत्ति from सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत् स्वरे II. . 2, the rule सह सुपा as a result being explained as सुप् सुपा सह समस्यते. As these compounds cannot be put under the topics of अव्ययीभाव, तत्पुरुष and others mentioned by Panini in II. 1.5 to II. 2.29 they are called सुप्सुप्समास or केवलसमास.
subantaname given to a word formed with the addition of a case-affix and hence capable of being used in a sentence by virtue of its being called a पद by the rule सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् The ancient grammarians gave four kinds of words or padas viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात which Panini has brought under two heads सुबन्त including नाम, उपसर्ग and निपात and तिङन्त standing for आख्यातः confer, compare सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् P. I. 4. 14.
subdhātua root formed from a noun or a subanta by the addition of any of the following affixesक्यच् ( by P. III. 1.8, 10 and l9), काम्यच् (by P.III.1.9), क्यङ् (by P. III.1.1 1, 12 and 14-18), क्यष् (by P.III.1.13),णिङ् (by P III.1.20), णिच् (by P.III.1.21 and 25) and यक् (by P.III.1.27)and also by क्विप् or zero affix by P. III. b.l l Varttika 3. All these formations ending with the affixes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are termed roots by the rule सनाद्यन्ता धातव: (P.III. 1. | 32) and are regularly conjugated in all the ten tenses and moods with the general conjugational sign शप् added to them in the conjugational tenses, and स्य, तास् and others in the other tenses and moods, and have verbal derivatives also formed by the addition of suitable krt affixes.
seṭkaसेट् together with the augment 'iț' prescribed in general for being prefixed to an Ardhadhatuka affix beginning with any consonant except य्. The word is also used in the sense of a root which allows the augment इट् ( इ ) to be prefixed to valadi Ardhadhatuka affixes placed after it, in contrast with such roots which do not allow it and hence which are termed अनिट्.
setusaṃgrahaname of a commentary on Bopadeva's Mugdhabodha Grammar written by a grammarian named Gangadhara.
soma,somacāryaname of the writer of a gloss named त्रिभाष्यरत्न on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya.
somadevaa Jain Grammarian, the writer of a gloss on the commentary Jainendra Vyakarana named शब्दार्णवचन्द्रिका by the author, who was a resident of thc Deccan and lived in a village named Arjurika ( called आजर्रे to-day ) near Kolhapur in the twelfth century.
sphīṭasiddhi(1)name of a short treatise on the nature of Sphota, written by a grammarian named Bharata MiSra; (2) name of a short disquisition on Sphota by MandanamiSra.
ṭāyanaस्फोan ancient grammarian referred to by Panini in the rule अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य P.VI.1.123, Great grammarians like Haradatta observe that this स्फोटायन was the first advocate of the Sphota theory and hence he was nicknamed स्फोटायन; confer, compare स्फोटः अयनं परायणं यस्य स स्फोटायन: स्फोटप्रतिपादनपरो वैयाकरणाचार्यः | Padamajari on P. VI.1.123.
svara(l)vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
svaravivṛtti( 1 )the same as स्वरविराम which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; ( 2 ) a short treatise on Vedic accents written by a modern Vedic scholar and grammrian named Indradattopadhyaya.
svādyutpattithe addition of case-affixes which requires the designation प्रातिपदिक for the preceding base by the rule अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रतिपादिकम् or' कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च ' P.I. 2.45,46. The addition of a case-affix entitles the.word,made up of the base and the case-affix,to be termed a Pada which is fit for use in language;confer, compare अपदं न प्रयुञ्जीत; confer, compare निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा वक्तव्या। किं पुनरत्र पदसंज्ञया प्रार्थ्यते। प्रातिपदिकादिति स्वाद्युत्पति:, सुबन्तं पदमिति पदसंज्ञा, पदस्य पदादिति निघातो यथा स्यात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.45 Virt.12.
hṛradattaname of a reputed grammarian of Southern India who wrote a very learned and scholarly commentary, named पदमञ्जरी, on the Kasikavrtti which is held by grammarians as the standard vrtti or gloss on the Sutras of Panini,and studied especially in the schools of the southern grammarians. Haradatta was a Dravida Brahmana, residing in a village on the Bank of Kaveri. His scholarship in Grammar was very sound and he is believed to have commented on many grammarworks.The only fault of the scholar was a very keen sense of egotism which is found in his work, although it can certainly be said that the egotism was not ill-placed and could be justified: confer, compare एवं प्रकटितोस्माभिर्भाष्ये परिचय: पर:। तस्य निःशेषतो मन्ये प्रतिपत्तापि दुर्लभः॥ also प्रक्रियातर्कगहने प्रविष्टो हृष्टमानसः हरदत्तहरिः स्वैरं विहरन् ! केन वार्यते | Padamajari, on P. I-13, 4. The credit of popularising Panini's system of grammar in Southern India goes to Haradatta to a considerable extent.
harikṛṣṇaa scholar of grammar who wrote a short treatise on the nature and function of prepositions named उपसर्गवाद.
haritādia class of words headed by the word इरित to which the taddhita affix फक् ( अायन ) is added in the sense of a descendant after the affix अ ( अञ् ) has already been added to them by P. IV. 1. 104, the word so formed possessing the sense of the great grandchild (युवापत्य) of the individuals denoted by इरित and others; e. g. हारितायनः; confer, compare इह् तु गोत्राधिकारेपि सामर्थ्याद् यूनि प्रत्ययोभिघीयते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, IV.1.100
hareidīkṣitaa reputed grammarian of the Siddhantakaumudi school of Panini who lived in the end of the seventeenth century. He was the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita and the preceptor of Nagesabhtta. His commentary named लधुशब्दरत्न, but popularly called शब्दरत्न on Bhattoji Diksita's Praudhamanorama, is widely studied by pupils along with the Praudhamanorama in the Vyakaranapathasalas. There is a work existing in a manuscript form but recentlv taken for printing, mamed 'Brhatsabdaratna ' which has been written by Haridiksita, although some scholars beiieve that it was written by Nagesa who ascribed it to his preceptor. For details see लधुशब्दरत्न.
harināthadvivedīa grammarian of the nineteenth century who has written a commentary named अकाण्डताण्डव on Nagesa's Paribhasendusekhara.
harirāma( इरिराम केशव काळे )a modern grammarian who has written a commentary named Ksika on Kondabhatta's Vaiyakaranabhusanasara. He lived in the second half of the eighteenth century and the commentary Kasika was written by him in 1797, He is said to have been a pupil of the great grammarian BhairavamiSra.
harivallabhaa grammarian who has written commentaries named दर्पणा on the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara of Kondabhatta, and Laghubhusanakanti on the Sabdakaustubha of Bhattoji Diksita.
harṣavardvanasvāmina fairly old grammarian who wrote an extensive metrical compendium on genders named लिङ्गानुशासन on which a commentary was written by a grammarian named शबरस्वासिन्. These grammarians were,of course, different from the reputed king इर्षवर्धन and the ; Mimamsaka शाबरस्वामिन्.
hṛdayahāriṇīname of a commentary written by a grammrian named दण्डनाथ on the Sarasvatikanthabharana of Bhojarja.
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
haimadhātuvyākhyāwritten by a Jain grammarian named पुण्यसुंदर which is similar to the Madhaviya Dhatuvrtti,
haimabṛhatprakriyāa work very similar to the Siddhantakaumudi written by a comparatively modern Jain scholar named Girijashankar Shastri.
haimaliṅānuśāsanavyākhyāa commentary named उद्धार also, written by Jayananda on the हैमलिङ्गानुशासन.
hyastanīimperfect tense; a term used by ancient grammarians for the affixes of the immediate past tense, but not comprising the present day, corresponding to the term लङ् of Panini. The term is found in the Katantra and Haimacandra grammars; confer, compare Kat. III. 1.23, 27; confer, compare Hema. III. 3.9.
Vedabase Search
Results for med286 results
medaḥ fatSB 11.26.21
SB 2.10.31
medaḥ marrowSB 5.26.22
medaḥ of fatMM 21
medaḥ whose fatSB 7.3.15-16
medasā by the fleshSB 4.17.25
medasaḥ and marrowSB 4.10.24
medaśirāḥ MedaśirāSB 12.1.21-26
med intelligenceBG 10.34
med MedhāSB 4.1.49-52
medha sacrificeSB 4.20.2
medha sacrificesSB 4.19.1
medhā-tithi MedhātithiSB 5.1.25
medhā-tithi MedhātithiSB 5.1.25
medhā-tithiḥ MedhātithiSB 5.20.25
medhā-tithiḥ MedhātithiSB 5.20.25
medhasaḥ of one who has such a brainSB 3.10.18
medhasaḥ whose intelligenceSB 10.66.7
SB 3.21.14
medhasaḥ whose wisdomSB 10.84.14
medhasam one who has sufficient intelligenceSB 1.19.31
medhase whose intelligenceSB 10.86.35
medhase whose wisdomSB 10.84.22
medhasya of sacrificesSB 2.6.4
medhātithiḥ a son named MedhātithiSB 9.20.7
medhāvī intelligentBG 18.10
medhāvī MedhāvīSB 9.22.42
medhāvini O intelligent oneCC Antya 1.154
medhinaḥ who performs sacrificesSB 10.84.37
medhya pureSB 3.1.19
SB 3.28.3
medhya-aśvān horses fit for sacrificeSB 9.20.23
medhya-aśvān horses fit for sacrificeSB 9.20.23
medhyaḥ fit for being sacrificedSB 9.7.11
medhyaḥ fit for sacrificeSB 9.7.12
medhyaḥ suitable for offering in sacrificeSB 9.7.10
medhyaiḥ fit for sacrificesSB 9.20.23
medhyaiḥ pureSB 11.18.2
medhyam meant for offering in the sacrificeSB 4.17.4
medhyam pure (obtained by hunting)SB 9.6.6
medhyam suitable for offeringSB 10.38.39
medhyān fit for sacrificeSB 4.26.6
medhyān fit to be offered in sacrificeSB 10.58.16
medhyān game animalsSB 4.26.10
medhyān offerable in sacrificeSB 10.69.35
medhyān which are fit to be offeredSB 10.36.26
medhyāya fit for offering oblationsSB 8.8.2
medinī the earthSB 10.62.2
medinī this worldCC Antya 11.97
medinīm the earthSB 12.1.35
medinīm the surface of the worldSB 9.17.7
medinīm the worldSB 9.1.38-39
priyamedha-ādayaḥ headed by PriyamedhaSB 9.21.21
aśvamedha-rājasūya-ādīnām of great sacrifices like the Aśvamedha yajña and Rājasūya yajñaSB 5.17.9
āgnīdhra-idhmajihva-yajñabāhu-hiraṇyaretaḥ-ghṛtapṛṣṭha-medhātithi-vītihotra-saṃjñān named Āgnīḍhra, Idhmajihva, Yajñabāhu, Hiraṇyaretā, Ghṛtapṛṣṭha, Medhātithi and VītihotraSB 5.1.33
akuṇṭha-medhase unto one whose brain activity is never checkedSB 4.24.42
akuṇṭha-medhase whose memory and knowledge are never disturbed by anxietySB 9.11.7
akuṇṭha-medhase whose intelligence is never restrictedSB 10.23.50
akuṇṭha-medhase whose power is never impededSB 12.6.35
alpa-medhasām of those of small intelligenceBG 7.23
alpa-medhasaḥ less intelligentSB 1.3.21
alpa-medhasaḥ of one who is unintelligentSB 10.49.22
amedhya abominable thingsSB 10.79.2
amedhya by something impureSB 11.21.13
amedhya untouchableCC Madhya 9.55
amedhya karkaśa āvarte in the untouchable, harsh whirlpoolCC Madhya 25.279
amedhya randhana cooking the flesh of a cowCC Antya 3.162
amedhya stool and urineCC Antya 4.186
amedhya stool and urineCC Antya 4.187
amedhyam untouchableBG 17.10
amedhye abominableSB 11.26.19-20
aśva-medhān horse sacrificesSB 1.16.3
aśva-medhena by the aśvamedha sacrificeSB 4.19.11
aśva-medheṣu his performances of the horse sacrificeSB 10.88.6
aśva-medham a sacrifice offering a horseCC Adi 17.164
aśvamedha-rājasūya-ādīnām of great sacrifices like the Aśvamedha yajña and Rājasūya yajñaSB 5.17.9
aśvamedha horse sacrificesCC Adi 3.79
aśvamedhaiḥ yajña in which a horse is sacrificedSB 1.8.6
aśvamedhaiḥ by horse sacrificesSB 3.3.18
aśvamedhaiḥ by aśvamedha sacrificesSB 8.18.20
aśvamedhaiḥ by the performance of aśvamedha sacrificesSB 9.2.35-36
aśvamedhaiḥ by performing the horse sacrifice yajñasSB 9.4.22
aśvamedhaiḥ by performing aśvamedha-yajñasSB 9.8.7
aśvamedhajaḥ AśvamedhajaSB 9.22.39
aśvamedham aśvamedha sacrificeSB 4.13.25
aśvamedhān sacrifices known as aśvamedhaSB 4.16.24
aśvamedhānām of Aśvamedha sacrificesSB 1.12.25
aśvamedhe through the aśvamedha-yajñaSB 6.13.19-20
aśvamedhena by the horse sacrifice ceremonySB 1.12.32
aśvamedhena by the aśvamedha sacrificeSB 6.13.8-9
ātma-medhasā well versed in spiritual knowledgeSB 4.22.41
ātma-medhasā considering like one's selfSB 4.31.2
ātma-medhasā by my own intelligenceSB 9.5.20
amedhya karkaśa āvarte in the untouchable, harsh whirlpoolCC Madhya 25.279
brahma-tejaḥ-samedhitam now empowered with brahma-tejas, extraordinary spiritual powerSB 8.15.29
śraddhā, maitrī, dayā, śāntiḥ, tuṣṭiḥ, puṣṭiḥ, kriyā, unnatiḥ, buddhiḥ, medhā, titikṣā, hrīḥ, mūrtiḥ names of thirteen daughters of DakṣaSB 4.1.49-52
daśāśvamedhe to Daśāśvamedha-ghāṭaCC Madhya 19.114
śraddhā, maitrī, dayā, śāntiḥ, tuṣṭiḥ, puṣṭiḥ, kriyā, unnatiḥ, buddhiḥ, medhā, titikṣā, hrīḥ, mūrtiḥ names of thirteen daughters of DakṣaSB 4.1.49-52
durmed unintelligentBG 18.35
durmed the foolish-mindedSB 10.44.33
durmedhaiḥ by the less intellectualSB 1.4.24
durmedhān dull-wittedSB 1.4.17-18
durmedhān of less intelligenceSB 12.6.47
uru-gārha-medha rituals related to material household lifeSB 5.11.2
gārhaka-medhikān the duties of household lifeSB 10.59.43
āgnīdhra-idhmajihva-yajñabāhu-hiraṇyaretaḥ-ghṛtapṛṣṭha-medhātithi-vītihotra-saṃjñān named Āgnīḍhra, Idhmajihva, Yajñabāhu, Hiraṇyaretā, Ghṛtapṛṣṭha, Medhātithi and VītihotraSB 5.1.33
gṛha-medhinām of the householdersSB 1.4.8
gṛha-medhinām of the householdersSB 1.19.39
gṛha-medhinām of persons too materially engrossedSB 2.1.2
gṛha-medhaḥ attached to family lifeSB 2.6.20
gṛha-medha in married lifeSB 3.21.15
gṛha-medhiṣu in the householdSB 3.22.11
gṛha-medhīyān of the householdersSB 3.32.1
gṛha-medhinām of the materialistic householdersSB 3.32.4
gṛha-medhinaḥ persons living at homeSB 4.13.43
gṛha-medhinaḥ persons who are attached to family lifeSB 4.22.10
gṛha-medhinīm one who keeps her husband in material lifeSB 4.26.13
gṛha-medhīyam of household responsibilitiesSB 4.28.20
gṛha-medhinām of the householdersSB 5.4.8
gṛha-medhi-saukhyam happiness within this material worldSB 5.11.3
gṛha-medhinām although situated with a wife and childrenSB 6.5.42
gṛha-medhinām who are interested in householder lifeSB 7.5.51
gṛha-medhīya of household lifeSB 7.5.54
gṛha-med a person interested only in family lifeSB 7.14.10
gṛha-medhīyaḥ although attached to household lifeSB 7.15.74
gṛha-medhini O my wife, who are attached to household lifeSB 8.16.5
gṛha-medhīyam especially of persons situated in household lifeSB 9.10.54
gṛha-medhinaḥ the householdersSB 10.23.28
gṛha-medhinām who are attached to household ritual dutiesSB 10.41.13
gṛha-medhinām for worldly householdersSB 10.60.31
gṛha-medhīyān of a pious householderSB 10.60.59
gṛha-medhinām for householdersSB 10.69.41
gṛha-medhinam from the religious householderSB 10.72.17
gṛha-medhinām of those in the household order of lifeSB 10.90.29
gṛha-medhinam the materialistic householderSB 11.7.72
gṛha-medhinām of those dedicated to material family lifeSB 11.8.16
gṛha-medhīyaiḥ suitable for family lifeSB 11.17.55
gṛhamedheṣu in household lifeSB 3.3.22
gṛhamedhi-sukham all types of material happiness based on attachment to family, society, friendship, etc.SB 7.9.45
gṛhamedhibhiḥ by persons in household lifeSB 8.19.15
gṛhamedhin O my husband, who are attached to household lifeSB 8.16.11
gṛhamedhinām especially for the householdersSB 8.20.2
gṛhamedhīyaiḥ by persons engaged in material welfareSB 1.8.51
hari-medhasaḥ who destroys the material existence of the devoteeSB 3.13.48
hari-medhasaḥ of Lord HariSB 3.32.18
hari-medhase whose brain works only for the deliverance of the conditioned soulSB 4.30.24
hari-medhasaḥ whose intelligence is always absorbed in thoughts of Hari, the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 9.13.9
hari-medhasā by the Supreme Lord, whose intelligence takes away the misery of material lifeSB 11.29.45
harimedhasaḥ begotten by HarimedhāSB 8.1.30
haya-medhayāṭ great performer of horse sacrificesSB 1.18.46
haya-medhānām sacrifices known as aśvamedhaSB 8.15.34
hayamedha of the aśvamedha sacrificeSB 8.18.23
hayamedha-śatasya of one hundred aśvamedha sacrificesSB 9.23.33
hayamedhena by the horse sacrificeSB 6.13.6
hayamedhena by the sacrifice known as aśvamedhaSB 6.13.7
hayamedhena with an aśvamedha sacrificeSB 6.13.18
āgnīdhra-idhmajihva-yajñabāhu-hiraṇyaretaḥ-ghṛtapṛṣṭha-medhātithi-vītihotra-saṃjñān named Āgnīḍhra, Idhmajihva, Yajñabāhu, Hiraṇyaretā, Ghṛtapṛṣṭha, Medhātithi and VītihotraSB 5.1.33
śraddhā, maitrī, dayā, śāntiḥ, tuṣṭiḥ, puṣṭiḥ, kriyā, unnatiḥ, buddhiḥ, medhā, titikṣā, hrīḥ, mūrtiḥ names of thirteen daughters of DakṣaSB 4.1.49-52
āgnīdhra-idhmajihva-yajñabāhu-hiraṇyaretaḥ-ghṛtapṛṣṭha-medhātithi-vītihotra-saṃjñān named Āgnīḍhra, Idhmajihva, Yajñabāhu, Hiraṇyaretā, Ghṛtapṛṣṭha, Medhātithi and VītihotraSB 5.1.33
amedhya karkaśa āvarte in the untouchable, harsh whirlpoolCC Madhya 25.279
śraddhā, maitrī, dayā, śāntiḥ, tuṣṭiḥ, puṣṭiḥ, kriyā, unnatiḥ, buddhiḥ, medhā, titikṣā, hrīḥ, mūrtiḥ names of thirteen daughters of DakṣaSB 4.1.49-52
ku-medhasaḥ wicked-mindedSB 3.20.33
ku-medhasam who are unintelligentSB 10.58.11
śraddhā, maitrī, dayā, śāntiḥ, tuṣṭiḥ, puṣṭiḥ, kriyā, unnatiḥ, buddhiḥ, medhā, titikṣā, hrīḥ, mūrtiḥ names of thirteen daughters of DakṣaSB 4.1.49-52
gṛha-medha in married lifeSB 3.21.15
śraddhā, maitrī, dayā, śāntiḥ, tuṣṭiḥ, puṣṭiḥ, kriyā, unnatiḥ, buddhiḥ, medhā, titikṣā, hrīḥ, mūrtiḥ names of thirteen daughters of DakṣaSB 4.1.49-52
uru-gārha-medha rituals related to material household lifeSB 5.11.2
pitṛ-medha-vidhānena by the funeral ceremony performed by the son after the death of his father or some family memberSB 9.10.29
su-med intelligentCC Adi 3.78
su-med sharply intelligentCC Madhya 11.99
su-med greatly intelligentCC Antya 20.9
gṛha-medhaḥ attached to family lifeSB 2.6.20
śānta-medham the still sacrificial animalsSB 4.7.33
aśva-medham a sacrifice offering a horseCC Adi 17.164
aśva-medhān horse sacrificesSB 1.16.3
haya-medhānām sacrifices known as aśvamedhaSB 8.15.34
ātma-medhasā well versed in spiritual knowledgeSB 4.22.41
ātma-medhasā considering like one's selfSB 4.31.2
ātma-medhasā by my own intelligenceSB 9.5.20
su-medhasā and intelligentSB 11.7.31
hari-medhasā by the Supreme Lord, whose intelligence takes away the misery of material lifeSB 11.29.45
alpa-medhasaḥ less intelligentSB 1.3.21
hari-medhasaḥ who destroys the material existence of the devoteeSB 3.13.48
ku-medhasaḥ wicked-mindedSB 3.20.33
hari-medhasaḥ of Lord HariSB 3.32.18
hari-medhasaḥ whose intelligence is always absorbed in thoughts of Hari, the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 9.13.9
alpa-medhasaḥ of one who is unintelligentSB 10.49.22
su-medhasaḥ intelligent personsSB 11.5.32
su-medhasaḥ intelligent personsCC Adi 3.52
su-medhasaḥ those who are intelligentCC Madhya 6.103
su-medhasaḥ intelligent personsCC Madhya 11.100
su-medhasaḥ intelligent personsCC Madhya 20.342
su-medhasaḥ intelligent personsCC Antya 20.10
alpa-medhasām of those of small intelligenceBG 7.23
ku-medhasam who are unintelligentSB 10.58.11
turaga-medhaṣāṭ he will be known as Turaga-medhaṣāṭ (a performer of many horse sacrifices)SB 9.22.37
akuṇṭha-medhase unto one whose brain activity is never checkedSB 4.24.42
hari-medhase whose brain works only for the deliverance of the conditioned soulSB 4.30.24
akuṇṭha-medhase whose memory and knowledge are never disturbed by anxietySB 9.11.7
akuṇṭha-medhase whose intelligence is never restrictedSB 10.23.50
akuṇṭha-medhase whose power is never impededSB 12.6.35
āgnīdhra-idhmajihva-yajñabāhu-hiraṇyaretaḥ-ghṛtapṛṣṭha-medhātithi-vītihotra-saṃjñān named Āgnīḍhra, Idhmajihva, Yajñabāhu, Hiraṇyaretā, Ghṛtapṛṣṭha, Medhātithi and VītihotraSB 5.1.33
haya-medhayāṭ great performer of horse sacrificesSB 1.18.46
aśva-medhena by the aśvamedha sacrificeSB 4.19.11
puruṣa-medhena by sacrifice of a manSB 5.26.31
puruṣa-medhena by sacrificing a man in the yajñaSB 9.7.21
aśva-medheṣu his performances of the horse sacrificeSB 10.88.6
gṛha-medhi-saukhyam happiness within this material worldSB 5.11.3
gṛha-med a person interested only in family lifeSB 7.14.10
gārhaka-medhikān the duties of household lifeSB 10.59.43
gṛha-medhinaḥ persons living at homeSB 4.13.43
gṛha-medhinaḥ persons who are attached to family lifeSB 4.22.10
gṛha-medhinaḥ the householdersSB 10.23.28
gṛha-medhinām of the householdersSB 1.4.8
gṛha-medhinām of the householdersSB 1.19.39
gṛha-medhinām of persons too materially engrossedSB 2.1.2
gṛha-medhinām of the materialistic householdersSB 3.32.4
gṛha-medhinām of the householdersSB 5.4.8
gṛha-medhinām although situated with a wife and childrenSB 6.5.42
gṛha-medhinām who are interested in householder lifeSB 7.5.51
gṛha-medhinām who are attached to household ritual dutiesSB 10.41.13
gṛha-medhinām for worldly householdersSB 10.60.31
gṛha-medhinām for householdersSB 10.69.41
gṛha-medhinam from the religious householderSB 10.72.17
gṛha-medhinām of those in the household order of lifeSB 10.90.29
gṛha-medhinam the materialistic householderSB 11.7.72
gṛha-medhinām of those dedicated to material family lifeSB 11.8.16
gṛha-medhini O my wife, who are attached to household lifeSB 8.16.5
gṛha-medhinīm one who keeps her husband in material lifeSB 4.26.13
gṛha-medhiṣu in the householdSB 3.22.11
gṛha-medhīya of household lifeSB 7.5.54
gṛha-medhīyaḥ although attached to household lifeSB 7.15.74
gṛha-medhīyaiḥ suitable for family lifeSB 11.17.55
gṛha-medhīyam of household responsibilitiesSB 4.28.20
gṛha-medhīyam especially of persons situated in household lifeSB 9.10.54
gṛha-medhīyān of the householdersSB 3.32.1
gṛha-medhīyān of a pious householderSB 10.60.59
śraddhā, maitrī, dayā, śāntiḥ, tuṣṭiḥ, puṣṭiḥ, kriyā, unnatiḥ, buddhiḥ, medhā, titikṣā, hrīḥ, mūrtiḥ names of thirteen daughters of DakṣaSB 4.1.49-52
pitṛ-medha-vidhānena by the funeral ceremony performed by the son after the death of his father or some family memberSB 9.10.29
priyamedha-ādayaḥ headed by PriyamedhaSB 9.21.21
puruṣa-medhena by sacrifice of a manSB 5.26.31
puruṣa-medhena by sacrificing a man in the yajñaSB 9.7.21
śraddhā, maitrī, dayā, śāntiḥ, tuṣṭiḥ, puṣṭiḥ, kriyā, unnatiḥ, buddhiḥ, medhā, titikṣā, hrīḥ, mūrtiḥ names of thirteen daughters of DakṣaSB 4.1.49-52
aśvamedha-rājasūya-ādīnām of great sacrifices like the Aśvamedha yajña and Rājasūya yajñaSB 5.17.9
amedhya randhana cooking the flesh of a cowCC Antya 3.162
samedhamānena expandingSB 10.37.7
samedhate it increasesSB 11.12.18
samedheta would flourishSB 3.21.55
samedhitaḥ greatly increasedSB 4.27.9
samedhitāḥ sufficiently agitatedSB 8.7.13
samedhitāḥ have flourishedSB 8.11.44
samedhitāḥ flourishedSB 10.8.17
samedhitāḥ flourishedSB 10.26.20
samedhitām made prosperous by the activities (brahminical culture and Vedic government)SB 7.2.10
brahma-tejaḥ-samedhitam now empowered with brahma-tejas, extraordinary spiritual powerSB 8.15.29
samedhitam made prosperousSB 10.48.17
samedhitān we who were brought up by youSB 1.13.8
āgnīdhra-idhmajihva-yajñabāhu-hiraṇyaretaḥ-ghṛtapṛṣṭha-medhātithi-vītihotra-saṃjñān named Āgnīḍhra, Idhmajihva, Yajñabāhu, Hiraṇyaretā, Ghṛtapṛṣṭha, Medhātithi and VītihotraSB 5.1.33
śānta-medham the still sacrificial animalsSB 4.7.33
śraddhā, maitrī, dayā, śāntiḥ, tuṣṭiḥ, puṣṭiḥ, kriyā, unnatiḥ, buddhiḥ, medhā, titikṣā, hrīḥ, mūrtiḥ names of thirteen daughters of DakṣaSB 4.1.49-52
hayamedha-śatasya of one hundred aśvamedha sacrificesSB 9.23.33
gṛha-medhi-saukhyam happiness within this material worldSB 5.11.3
śraddhā, maitrī, dayā, śāntiḥ, tuṣṭiḥ, puṣṭiḥ, kriyā, unnatiḥ, buddhiḥ, medhā, titikṣā, hrīḥ, mūrtiḥ names of thirteen daughters of DakṣaSB 4.1.49-52
su-medhasaḥ intelligent personsSB 11.5.32
su-medhasā and intelligentSB 11.7.31
su-medhasaḥ intelligent personsCC Adi 3.52
su-med intelligentCC Adi 3.78
su-medhasaḥ those who are intelligentCC Madhya 6.103
su-med sharply intelligentCC Madhya 11.99
su-medhasaḥ intelligent personsCC Madhya 11.100
su-medhasaḥ intelligent personsCC Madhya 20.342
su-med greatly intelligentCC Antya 20.9
su-medhasaḥ intelligent personsCC Antya 20.10
gṛhamedhi-sukham all types of material happiness based on attachment to family, society, friendship, etc.SB 7.9.45
sumedhasaḥ who are all very intelligentSB 9.4.3
brahma-tejaḥ-samedhitam now empowered with brahma-tejas, extraordinary spiritual powerSB 8.15.29
śraddhā, maitrī, dayā, śāntiḥ, tuṣṭiḥ, puṣṭiḥ, kriyā, unnatiḥ, buddhiḥ, medhā, titikṣā, hrīḥ, mūrtiḥ names of thirteen daughters of DakṣaSB 4.1.49-52
turaga-medhaṣāṭ he will be known as Turaga-medhaṣāṭ (a performer of many horse sacrifices)SB 9.22.37
śraddhā, maitrī, dayā, śāntiḥ, tuṣṭiḥ, puṣṭiḥ, kriyā, unnatiḥ, buddhiḥ, medhā, titikṣā, hrīḥ, mūrtiḥ names of thirteen daughters of DakṣaSB 4.1.49-52
śraddhā, maitrī, dayā, śāntiḥ, tuṣṭiḥ, puṣṭiḥ, kriyā, unnatiḥ, buddhiḥ, medhā, titikṣā, hrīḥ, mūrtiḥ names of thirteen daughters of DakṣaSB 4.1.49-52
uru-gārha-medha rituals related to material household lifeSB 5.11.2
vājimedhaiḥ by horse sacrificesSB 1.12.34
vājimedhena by the aśvamedha sacrificeSB 6.13.21
pitṛ-medha-vidhānena by the funeral ceremony performed by the son after the death of his father or some family memberSB 9.10.29
āgnīdhra-idhmajihva-yajñabāhu-hiraṇyaretaḥ-ghṛtapṛṣṭha-medhātithi-vītihotra-saṃjñān named Āgnīḍhra, Idhmajihva, Yajñabāhu, Hiraṇyaretā, Ghṛtapṛṣṭha, Medhātithi and VītihotraSB 5.1.33
āgnīdhra-idhmajihva-yajñabāhu-hiraṇyaretaḥ-ghṛtapṛṣṭha-medhātithi-vītihotra-saṃjñān named Āgnīḍhra, Idhmajihva, Yajñabāhu, Hiraṇyaretā, Ghṛtapṛṣṭha, Medhātithi and VītihotraSB 5.1.33
Results for med115 results
med verb (class 4 ātmanepada) to become fat
Frequency rank 62566/72933
meda noun (masculine) a particular mixed caste (the son of a Vaideha and a Kārāvara or a Nishāda female) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a species of plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a serpent-demon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18332/72933
medaka noun (masculine) spirituous liquor used for distillation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16021/72933
medas noun (neuter) a mystical term for the letter v (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corpulence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
excessive fatness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lymph (as one of the 7 Dhātus) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
marrow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1067/72933
medaska noun (neuter) [medic.] medas
Frequency rank 29737/72933
medasvin adjective corpulent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
robust (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
strong (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16022/72933
medaḥpuccha noun (masculine) the fat-tailed sheep (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62567/72933
medaḥpucchaka noun (masculine) the fat-tailed sheep (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62568/72933
medaḥsambhava noun (neuter) bone
Frequency rank 62569/72933
medaḥsamudbhavā noun (feminine) a root resembling ginger
Frequency rank 38391/72933
medaḥsārā noun (feminine) a species of medicinal plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62570/72933
medha noun (masculine) a sacrificial animal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an animal-sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any sacrifice (esp. ifc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
broth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
essence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
marrow (esp. of the sacrificial victim) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
nourishing or strengthening drink (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
oblation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
offering (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pith (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sap (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the juice of meat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
victim (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12629/72933
medhas noun (masculine) intelligence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
knowledge (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Manu Svāyambhuva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
understanding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10750/72933
medhasa noun (masculine) name of a man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62576/72933
medhi noun (masculine) [agr.] ?
Frequency rank 18333/72933
medhya noun (masculine) Acacia Catechu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a goat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
barley (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an author (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Saccharum Munja (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 25095/72933
medhya noun (neuter) cumin seed
Frequency rank 62582/72933
medhya adjective medhām arhati (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
clean (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fit for a sacrifice or oblation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
free from blemish (as a victim) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fresh (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
full of sap (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
intelligent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mighty (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not defiling (by contact or by being eaten) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
strong (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
vigorous (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2692/72933
medhyatama adjective most pure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purest (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62583/72933
medhyatara adjective more pure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29739/72933
medhyā noun (feminine) a particular vein (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a she goat Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various plants (thought to be sacrificially pure) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the gall-stone of a cow; gorocanā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
gorocanā
Frequency rank 11395/72933
med noun (feminine) dhana (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a form of Dākṣāyaṇī in Kaśmīra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a form of Sarasvatī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a symbolical name of the letter dh (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Intelligence personified; esp. as the wife of Dharma and daughter of Dakṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
intelligence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mental vigour or power (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prudence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wisdom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2375/72933
medhāhva noun (neuter) abhra
Frequency rank 62581/72933
medhākṛt noun (masculine) a species of culinary plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62577/72933
medhātithi noun (masculine) a parrot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Kāṇva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a lawyer and commentator on the Mānavadharmaśāstra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Manu Svāyambhuva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the 7 sages under Manu Sāvarṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of Kaṇva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9675/72933
medhāvant adjective intelligent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
possessing wisdom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62579/72933
medhāvika noun (masculine) name of a Tīrtha
Frequency rank 62580/72933
medhāvin adjective
Frequency rank 3575/72933
medhāvin noun (masculine) a learned man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a parrot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an intoxicating beverage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Brāhman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king son of Sunaya (Sutapas) and father of Nṛpaṃjaya (Puraṃ-jaya) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Bhavya and of a Varsha named after him (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Vyāḍi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Pandit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
teacher (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9043/72933
medhāvinī noun (feminine) a species of Jyotishmatī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Brahmā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Turdus Salica (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 38393/72933
medhāyuṣkāmīya noun (neuter) name of Suśr, Cik. 28
Frequency rank 62578/72933
medinī noun (feminine) a kind of musical composition (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a place (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Gmelina Arborea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ground (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
land (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a lexicon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
soil (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the earth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2063/72933
medinīka noun (masculine) the earth
Frequency rank 62571/72933
medinīpati noun (masculine) a king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prince (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19869/72933
medinīyantra noun (neuter) a kind of alchemical apparatus
Frequency rank 29738/72933
medobhavā noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 38392/72933
medodharā noun (feminine) a membrane in the abdomen containing the fat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the omentum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[medic.] one of the 7 kalās
Frequency rank 62575/72933
medodravā noun (feminine) Name einer Pflanze
Frequency rank 62574/72933
medoja noun (neuter) bone (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62573/72933
medura adjective bland (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dense (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
full of (instr. or comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
smooth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
soft (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
thick (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
thick like (comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
thick with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unctuous (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14378/72933
medurā noun (feminine) a particular medicinal plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62572/72933
medya adjective consistent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
thick (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13122/72933
medā noun (feminine) Asparagus racemosus Willd. (Surapāla (1988), 449) a root resembling ginger (said to be one of the 8 principal medicines) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Leptadenia reticulata Wight et Arn. (Surapāla (1988), 448) Litsea glutinosa C.B. Robinson (Surapāla (1988), 449) Polygonatum cirrhifolium Royle (Surapāla (1988), 449) Polygonatum multiflorum All. (Surapāla (1988), 449) Polygonatum verticillatum All. (Surapāla (1988), 449)
Frequency rank 4741/72933
amedaska adjective lean (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
without fat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 44666/72933
amedura adjective fatless
Frequency rank 44667/72933
amed noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 44668/72933
amedhas adjective an idiot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
foolish (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unintelligent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18884/72933
amedhya adjective foul (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
impure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
nefarious (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not able or not allowed to sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not fit for sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unholy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9763/72933
amedhya noun (neuter) excrement (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
faeces (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5898/72933
amedhyatva noun (neuter) filthiness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
foulness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
impurity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 44669/72933
amedhyasthāna noun (neuter) ein Punkt im Körper (am Anus??)
Frequency rank 44670/72933
arimeda noun (masculine) a fetid Mimosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Vachellia Farnesiana (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Aegle marmelos Correa
Frequency rank 11177/72933
arimedaka noun (masculine) Acacia farnesiana Willd. Mimosa farnesiana Roxb. name of an insect (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Vachellia farnesiana W. & A.
Frequency rank 15456/72933
alpamedhas adjective ignorant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
silly (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23207/72933
aśvamedha noun (masculine) name of a descendant of Bharata (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the horse-sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1516/72933
aśvamedhin adjective engaged in an Aśvamedha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26802/72933
aśvamedhadatta noun (masculine) name of a man
Frequency rank 45681/72933
aśvamedhika adjective relating to the Aśvamedha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 32804/72933
ahimeda noun (masculine) the plant Vachellia Farnesiana (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46119/72933
ahimedaka noun (masculine) the plant Vachellia Farnesiana (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46120/72933
āśvamedhika adjective belonging to a horse-sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33213/72933
irimeda noun (masculine) name of a plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20893/72933
kumedhas adjective of little intellect (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49722/72933
kṛṣṇamedā noun (feminine) Helleborus niger
Frequency rank 50031/72933
khanīmedā noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 50828/72933
gandhamedinī noun (feminine) Vanda Roxburghii
Frequency rank 51086/72933
gṛhamedha noun (masculine) a domestic sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a householder's duties (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of particular winds causing rain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27863/72933
gṛhamedhin adjective being the object of domestic rites (as the Maruts) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one who performs the domestic sacrifices (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
religious man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51481/72933
gṛhamedhin noun (masculine) a Brāhman in the 2nd period of his life (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a married Brāhman who has a household (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the householder who performs the domestic rites (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7185/72933
gṛhamedhinī noun (feminine) the wife of a householder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51482/72933
gṛhamedhīya noun (neuter) a domestic sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51483/72933
gṛhamedhīya adjective relating to the domestic sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34687/72933
gomeda noun (masculine neuter) a gem brought from the Himālaya and the Indus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of fish (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cinnamon stone name of a Dvīpa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the tree kakkola (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
zircon (Ray, Mira (1991), 134) sapphire
Frequency rank 5258/72933
gomedaka noun (masculine neuter) pattraka (smearing the body with unguents) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of poison (?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the Varṣaparvatas the Dvīpa Gomeda (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a gem (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
zircon (Somadeva (1999), 198)
Frequency rank 7951/72933
gomedakarasāyana noun (neuter) a kind of alchemical preparation
Frequency rank 51590/72933
gomedasaṃnibha noun (masculine) dugdhapāṣāṇa
Frequency rank 51591/72933
gomedha noun (masculine) a cow-sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the attendant of the 22nd Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34728/72933
turagamedha noun (masculine) aśvamedha
Frequency rank 53684/72933
turaṃgamedha noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 35440/72933
daśāśvamedha noun (neuter) name of a Tīrtha at the Narmadā
Frequency rank 16847/72933
daśāśvamedhaka noun (neuter) name of a Tīrtha
Frequency rank 54298/72933
daśāśvamedhatīrthamāhātmyavarṇana noun (neuter) name of Skandapurāṇa, Revākhaṇḍa, 180
Frequency rank 54299/72933
daśāśvamedhika noun (neuter) name of a Tīrtha
Frequency rank 14196/72933
durmedhas noun (masculine) name of a Marut
Frequency rank 54721/72933
durmedhas adjective dull-witted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ignorant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stupid (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10108/72933
durmedha adjective dull-witted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ignorant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stupid (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14950/72933
durmedhāvin adjective stupid
Frequency rank 54722/72933
daityamedaja noun (masculine) a kind of bdellium (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55007/72933
nirmedhyā noun (feminine) a kind of perfume
Frequency rank 56283/72933
pitṛmedha noun (masculine) name of a work (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36902/72933
pūtyarimeda noun (masculine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 58546/72933
bṛhanmedhan noun (masculine) name of a son of Vapuṣmat
Frequency rank 60367/72933
mahāmeda noun (masculine feminine) a species of medicinal plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9906/72933
lavaṇamedas noun (neuter) lavaṇakṣāra
Frequency rank 64103/72933
vājimedha noun (masculine) a horse-sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7608/72933
vimedaska adjective fatless
Frequency rank 65950/72933
śitameda noun (masculine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 67584/72933
śrīmedapāṭa noun (masculine) name of a place (?)
Frequency rank 68223/72933
samedaska adjective
Frequency rank 69229/72933
samedh verb (class 1 ātmanepada) to increase to prosper greatly to strengthen to thrive
Frequency rank 17348/72933
samedha adjective full of strength or vitality (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
vigorous (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 69230/72933
samedhay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to increase
Frequency rank 69231/72933
sarvamedha noun (masculine) a universal sacrifice (a 10 days" Soma sacrifice) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
every sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Upanishad (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20247/72933
medhika adjective
Frequency rank 70355/72933
sumed noun (feminine) name of a daughter of Cyavana and wife of Naidhruva
Frequency rank 71063/72933
sumedha noun (masculine) name of a mountain
Frequency rank 71064/72933
sumedhas adjective having a good understanding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
intelligent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sensible (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15340/72933
sumedhas noun (masculine) a particular class of deceased ancestors (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular class of gods under the fifth Manu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a ṣi under Manu Cākṣuṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Vedamitra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41008/72933
sumedha adjective loamy (as pasture land) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
very nourishing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41009/72933
suramedā noun (feminine) a kind of medicinal plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71134/72933
suvarṇamedinīdāna noun (neuter) name of Liṅgapurāṇa, 2.32
Frequency rank 71223/72933
svacchamedhas noun (masculine) a class of gods under Manu Raivata
Frequency rank 72069/72933
hatamedhas adjective
Frequency rank 72297/72933
hayamedha noun (masculine) a horses sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7499/72933
harimedhas noun (masculine) name of a man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of Hari (Viṣṇu) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu-Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16316/72933
 

abhakta

empty stomach, abhaktaauṣadha medication intake on empty stomach.

abhāva

absence, null; abhāvapratinidhi alternative; a medicinal herb that is substituted unavailable one.

abhayāriṣṭa

ayurvedic medicine in fermented liquid form containing the extract of Chebulic myrobalan (harītaki) used to harmonize the digestive functions.

abhiprokṣaṅa

sponging over the body with water or medicated liquids.

adhobhakta

intake of medicine after meals.

agastya

founder of Siddha tradition of medicine, popular in Tamilnadu.

agnijāra

amber; ambergins; it is a dried part of the feces of whale fish available on sea shores; decomposed intestinal and uterine part of whale fish, smells good after long time and used in medicine.

agnika

several medicinal plants are known by this name: citraka, bhallātaka, ajāmoda,agnimantha et Century

ahimāra

Go to arimeda.

ajāmodārka

medicine made in distillation process using ajāmoda; it is indicated in diseases ofdigestive system.

akāla

untimely; ill-timed; inappropriate.

ākṣepa

convulsions; It is a medical condition where the body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.

amarakośa

a thesaurus in Sanskrit with many medical terms, written by Amarasimha, a Jain or Buddhist monk. It contains three parts. The second part, bhūvargādi khanḍa describes several herbs and medically important substances and their features.

āmavāta

rheumatism, non-specific older term for medical conditions which affect connective tissue and the joints; arthritis caused by undigested stuff.

anabhiṣyandi

a medicine or food that does not cause obstruction to channels.

antarābhakta

medicine taken after the digestion of food or between two meals.

anupāna

adjunct; a substance administered either along with or just after the principal medicine to enhance its therapeutic action.

aṇutalia

penetrating oil; a medicinal preparation applied into nostrils to improve the perception of senses and in several diseases that affect the head including grey hair, facial paralysis.

arimeda

Plant cassie flower tree, white bark acacia; dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea; A fornesiana; syn. distiller’s acacia, needle bush.

ariṣṭa

a medicinal preparation made by adding decoction (kaṣāya) of prescribed drugs in a solution of sugar or jaggery and preserving for a specified period to enable fermentation; liquor, ex: vāsāriṣṭa

arka

1. sun; 2. purple calatropis; madar tree; Calotropis procera, C. gigantea. 3. distillate; a liquid medicinal preparation obtained by distillation of certain liquids or of drugs with volatile constituents, soaked in water using the distillation apparatus ex: ajāmodārka.

arkaprakāśa

a text containing different medicines in distillery form.

arthaśāstra

a book on polity written by Kautilya, which refers to 330 medicinal plants used in Ayurveda.

āsava

a medicinal preparation made by soaking fresh drugs, either in form of powder or adding mash (kalka) in a solution of sugar or jaggery for a specified period to enable fermentation; liquor, ex: aravindāsava.

aṣṭāngahṛdaya

very popular and important medical compendium authored by Vagbhata, 5th Century of Sindh region.

aṣṭāngahṛdayanighanṭu

a medical thesaurus.

aṣṭāngsangraha

an eloborate medical compendium authord by Vagbhata, 5th Century synthesizing both Carakasamhita and Suśrutasamhita.

aṣṭavarga

Plant combination of jīvaka (Melaxis mucifera), ṛṣabhaka (Melaxis acuminta), meda, mahāmeda (Polygonum verticillatum), kākoli (Roscoea purpuera), kṣīrakākoli (Fritillaria roylei), riddhi (Hebenaria intermedia), vṛddhi (Hebenaria edegwothi).

āsthāpanavasti

medicated enema; decoction enema.

aśvamedha

Great Horse Sacrifice; a vedic ritual that could only be conducted by a king for the acquisition of power and glory, the sovereignty over neighbouring provinces, and general prosperity of the kingdom.

āsya

mouth; āsyapāka inflamed mouth; ulcers in the mouth.

auṣadha

1. medicine or herb; 2. remedy; 3. Plant dry zinger.

auṣadhi

a medicinal herb.

avagāhasveda

sitz-bath; a tub is filled with hot water and prescribed medicated substances are added in which the patient sits with a blanket around to protect warmth.

avapīdana

1. act of pressing down; 2. sternutatory; nasal medicine; insufflations of drugs in thin paste form through the nasal passages.

ayaskṛti

medicinal preparation from iron.

āyurveda

the classical Indian system of medicine.

āyurvedasamgraha

a text on human medicine written by Siddhanti Subrahmanyasastry in the 19th Century

bālatantra

peadiatrics; a branch dealing with medical care of infants and children.

bhaiṣajya

drug or medicine.

bhaiṣajyakalpana

formulation of medicines; pharmaceutical practices of ayurveda.

bhiṣak,bhiṣaj

medical doctor; physician.

bījapūra

Plant seed-filled; wild lemon, citron, fresh fruit of Citrus medika

bṛṃhaṇa

restorative; to make heavy; bṛṃhaṇavasti administration of oily medicine through rectum.

candanāditaila

medicated oil made from sandalwood and other herbs as coolant and to restore vitality to skin.

candrika

Go to medhika, candrasūra, sarpagandha

catuṣpāda

four legged; the band of physician, nurse, medicine and patient.

cikitsākalika

the bud of medicine, a medical textbook authored by Triśaṭācārya of 14th Century

cikitsa

medical treatment.

cūrṇa

fine powders of dried medicinal plant parts, ex: triphalā cūrṇa.

ḍālana

pouring of smelted metal into liquids, a process in medicinal alchemy.

ḍamaruyantra,ḍamarukayantra

hour-glass apparatus used in medicinal alchemy; two small drums or earthen pots joined at mouths.

dāraṇa

lancing absess by medicinal applications.

daśarathaguru

an expert in internal medicine (kāyacikitsa) follower of Jainism.

dhanvantarisāranidhi

a medical work authored by Tukkoji in Tanjavur (18th Century ).

dhanvantrivilāsa

a medical treatise authored by Tukkoji in Tanjavur (18th Century ).

dhāra

stream, current; one of the Keraliya therapies; medicalted liquid is dropped over forehead drop by drop.

dhātu

1. metal; 2. root words (linguistic elements) of Sanskrit language. 3. tissues – rasa (chyle, lymph, etc), rakta (blood), mamsa (muscle), medas (adipose tissue), asthi (cartilage and bone), majja (bone marrow), and śukra (reproductive elements).

dhūma

smoke; dhūmadarsi smoky vision; dhūmapāna medicated smoking; dhūmavarti tubular smoking stuff; cigarette.

dhyāna

meditation; mindfulness; attention.

dhyeya

to be pondered or imagined; to be meditated on.

ḍimba

an egg; recently formed embryo.

drākṣāriṣṭa

fermented stuff made from grapes and other medicinal herbs, useful in respiratory and digestive disorders.

drākṣāsava

medicinal liquor made from grapes; weakwine made from grapes, which calms vāta and pitta.

dravya

(elementary) substance; medicinal substance or medicine; dravyaguṇa pharmacology, the science of identification, properties, actions and therapeutic uses of medicinal substances.

elādivaṭi

medicine used in cough and asthma.

gajāyurveda

elephant-medicine (branch of veterinary science).

garbhadṛti

internal liquefication (of mercury); internal digestion; liquefication of conusmed substance within mercury.

ghana

heavy; decoction of vegetable medicines solidified by evaporation at a low temperature to obtain solid material.

ghṛta

ghee (calrified butter); a pharmaceutical preparation in which ghee is boiled with prescribed decoctions (kaṣāya) and mash (kalka) of drugs according to formula; medicated ghee.

gomeda

1. cow-fat; 2. kind of fish; 3. cinnamon stone.

gostanimūṣa

a crucible used in medicinal alchemy.

grāsāntare

medicine taken between two boluses of food.

grāse

medicine taken with a bolus of food.

hayāyurveda

ayurvedic veterinary medicine to treat diseases of horses; equestrian medicine.

hemagarbhapoṭaliras

(hema.garbha.poṭali.ras) a herbo-mineral medicine to treat chronic diseases and used as rejuvenator.

idli

steamed rice cake served as breakfast, first mentioned as iddari in Yogaratnākara.

irimeda

Go to arimeda

jambūka

jackal; small to medium sized wolf; jackal and wolf belong to same genus but to different species.

jātyādighrita

medicated ghee with jasmine as main ingredient for wound healing.

jvaravivaraṇa

a text written by Narasimha pandita in the 19th Century about human medicine.

kabala

mouthwash; gargle; bolus; kind of fish; kabalagraha hold mouthful; medicine to treat the diseases that affect head and sensory organs.

kākanāsikā

1. tiger’s claw, devil’s claw, 2. seeds of Martynia annua; 3. red blossomed trivrt, Leea hirta.

kalyāṇakārika

medical compendium compiled by Ugraditya (7th Century ) in south India, an adherent of Jainism.

kānḍīra

1. armed with arrows; 2. Plant bitter melon; see apāmārga; manjiṣṭa.

kanīnaka

inner canthus of the eye, medial canthus.

kaṅkuṣṭa

1. Plant Garcinia morella, 2. feces of the elephant calf. 3. medicinal earth.

karāla

1. illformed teeth, gaping and projecting; 2. musk deer.

karma

1. properties and action of a medicine; 2. activities in the human body; 3. work.

karṇa

ear, karṇanāda tinnitus, karṇapāka otitis externa diffusa, karṇapippali cysts, polyps in the ear; karṇapūrana fill medicated oil in the ear, karṇarog ear disease, karṇaśodha edema; sūla earache, otalgia, karṇavedhi, karṇavyadha ear-boring.

kāsamarda

remedy against cough.

kāya

the living human body, kāyacikitsa internal medicine, kāyaseka medicated sprinkling of the body.

kriyāśarīra

medical physiology in ayurveda.

kroṣṭukaśīrṣa

inflammed knee, disease of knee.

kṣāra

1. a corrosive alkaline medicinal preparation obtained from the ash produced by burning plant-parts; 2. a kind of medicine form converted to alkali, caustic soda.

kṣupa

shrub, bush, medicinal plant; undertree.

kukkuṭāṇḍatvakbhasma

(kukkuṭa.anḍa.tvak.bhasma) ash of the hen’s egg shell, used as medicine in many diseases, ex: svetapradara or leucorrhoea.

kūpasveda

a pit is made under the bed to light a fire with medicinal herbs to induce sweating.

mahābhaiṣajya

great medicine i.e. food.

mahāmeda

Plant root & rhizome of Polygonatum cirrhifolium, P. verticillatum

mahānārāyanataila

medicated oil to reduce muscular spasm and arthritis.

mātuluṅga

Plant sweet lime; species of citron tree, Citrus medica.

meda

Plant Polygonum verticillatum, syn. Convallaria verticillata.

meda,medas

fat, adipose tissue.

medaka

thick precipitate of spirituous liquid, liquor used for distillation.

medasaka

Plant Indian laurel, Litsea chinensis, L. glutinosa, L. sebifera.

medha

intellect, intelligence.

medhaka

alcoholic beverage made from rice; rice ferment.

medhya

1. good for the intelligence, brain tonic; 2. Plant blue flag, Iris versicolor, I. nepalensis.

medohara

lipostatic, lypolyti Century

medovahasrotas

adipose tissue system.

medovarti

pancreas.

medovṛddhi

obesity.

nāgārjuna

alchemist, surgeon, logician and philosopher. Apparently there were more than one Nāgārjuna in the history of ayurveda and Buddhism. Andhra Nāgārjuna was born in Vedali village near Śrīparvatam and famed as ayurveda Nāgārjuna.

nārāyanataila

a medicated oil used as external application to reduce vāta symptoms. a joint and muscle toner.

nāvana

medication applied through nose, sternutatory.

navanīta

a treatise on āyurveda (4th Century ) discovered by colonel Bower, a British military officer, therefore named Bower’s manuscript; also known as Yaśomitrasamhita.

navaratna

nine precious stones, diamond or adamantine (vajra), pearl (mauktika), ruby (māṇikya), sapphire (nilam), emerald (marakatam), garnet (gomedikam), ruby (padmarāgam), cat’s eye, beryl (vaiḍhūrya), coral (pravāla).

nidānapañcaka

aetiological pentad or five clinical barometers. Mādhavanidāna describes them as prodromal symptoms (pūrvarūpa), manifested symptoms (rūpa), pathogenesis (samprāpti), allaying by suitable remedies or predilection (upaśaya) and eight kinds of physical examination (aṣṭavidhaparīkṣa).

nighaṇṭu

ayurvedic thesaurus, medical lexicon.

nimbu,nimbuka

Plant lemon, Citrus limon; Pogostemon parviflorus and Marjorana hortensis are also considered; Citrus medica.

niruha

medicated enema; niruhavasti decoction enema; cleansing enema with decoctions used for lower gut, a purifying process.

niśāmalakicūrṇa

medicine containing turmeric and goosberry powders.

niṣṭhāpāka

(during the process of digestion) the tastes are subject to a process governed by the rule that sweet, acid and pungent substances do not change their taste, whereas the salt taste is transformed into sweet one, and the bitter and astringent taste into a pungent one.

oṣadhi

medicinal plant, medicine.

oṣadhika

remedy, poultice.

pañcasakāracūrṇa

(panca.sakāra.cūrṇa) medicine to treat chronic constipation.

phala

fruits; phalaghṛta medicine used in the diseases of uterus; phalaśāka vegetables, ex: brinjal.

phalavarti

enemating wick, medicted suppository.

prabhākaravaṭi

a herbo-mineral medicine to treat heart dieseases and more.

pradeha

unctuous paste, thick and viscid ointment, hot ointment; juices made semisolid by cooking; pradehasveda poultice or cataplasm, soft moist mass, heated and medicated, applied on the skin to treat pain.

prāgbhakta

intake of medicine before food.

prakṣālana

washing; flushing of wound with water or watery medicine.

pramathya

paste or dough made by boiling a medicinal substance in water, ex: mustādi pramathya

prāṇācārya

physician, medical doctor.

pratimarśa

kind of powder used as sternulatory; application of medicated oil in the nostrils.

pratiṣedha

medical treatment, prevention, warding off.

puṣyānugacūrṇa

a polyherbal medicine used in leucorrhoea and other female genital diseases.

pūtikarṇa

chronic suppurative otitis media; a disease of the middle ear.

rājanighanṭu

a medical lexicon compiled by Naraharipanḍita of Kashmir in the early 17th Century This work is also known as Abhidhana cūḍāmani.

rasabandha

immobalizing mercury, a process in medicinal alchemy.

rasakaumudi

a treatise on medicinal alchemy by Jnana Chandra.

rasakriya

application of fluid remedies or fomentations.

rasāmṛtam

a text on medicinal alchemy of 20th century authored by Yadavji Trikamji Acharya.

rasaśāstra:

medical mineralogy and medicinal alchemy.

rasatantra

medicinal alchemy and pharmaceutics.

rasāyana

nourishment of the seven dhatus; promotive therapy; a medicine supposed to prevent the ageing process and prolong life, rejuvenating therapy, alchemy, ayurvedic venation therapy, alchemical elixir.

rasendrakalpadruma

a treatise on medicinal alchemy by Ramakrishna Bhatta.

ratnaprabhāvaṭi

medicine made from mineral substances like diamond et Century and used in chronic diseases: tuberculosis, heart diseases et Century

rekhapurṇatva

filling lines and wrinkles on palm; a test for improperly processed metal. This test is performed to test the microfineness of bhasma/cinder.

rohiṇika

inflamed throat; women with red face.

sābhakta

medicine prepared with food for consumption.

sakalavaidyasamhita

a text on human medicine authored by Veeraraja in the 18th Century AD.

sāmudga

medicine to be taken before and after meal.

sanjīvani

Plant a medicinal herb that revivifies; some plants which are identified as sanjīvani are Cressa critica (littoral bindweed), Selaginella bryopteris, Desmothecum fimbriatus, Tinospora cardifolia, Malaxis acuminata, Mycrosylus willichi, Actiniopteris radiata.

śankhavaṭi

ayurvedic medicine used in gastritis.

sanyāsa

1. renunciation, 2. coma; 3. putting sealed pot containing mercury and other medicines on the furnace.

siddhasāra

7th century work on medicine by Ravigupta.

siddhasāranighanṭu

medical thesaurus compiled by Ravigupta in 7th Century part of Siddhasāra.

śirodhāra

continuous pouring of medicated oil over the forehead, oleation of the head.

śirolepa

application of medicated paste on forehead.

sirovasti

a therapeutic procedure for the head, head pouch, pouring medicated oils over the head.

śītāphala

Plant custard apple, sugar apple, Annona squasosa; śīta (causing cold) fruit is native to america reached India in medieval times.

sitophalādicūrṇa

ayurvedic medicine used in upper respiratory tract diseases like commoncold.

snāyuka

dracunculiasis; Dracunculus medinensis, a parasitical worm eruption on the skin of the extremities.

sneha

unctuous, oil, oily, snehavarga ghṛta, taila, vasa, majja; edible fats and oils; unctuous group, snehakalpa medicated ghṛta, snehaphala sesame seed, sneha picu unctous tampon, pāna intake of unctous substance.

sthālīpāka

1. barley or rice boiled in milk; 2. preparing medicine in a pan or culdron.

sudarṣanacūrna

ayurvedic medicine used in fevers.

śukrala

prurient or lascivious; food or medicine that increases the quantity and quality of semen.

suniṣanna

Plant 1. small water clover, Marselia minute, M. quadrifolia; 2. rohida tree, Blepheris persica; 3. plumed cockscomb, Celosia argentea.

suṣumna

medial channel in yogic science.

svarasa

fresh juice of medicinal herb, succus

svarṇa

gold, svarṇabhasma ash prepared from gold, svarṇaparpaṭi golden crust, it is a hebo-mineral medicine to treat tuberculosis and used as aphrodisiac; svarṇavanga mosiac gold, used in sterility.

taila

1. oil; 2. sesame oil; 3. medicated preparation in which taila is boiled with prescribed decoctions (kaṣāya) and mash (kalka) of drugs according to formula, ex: bhṛṇgarāja taila

tailamūrccha

modulation of medicated oil.

tapas

austerity, meditation, penance.

upāya

remedy.

utkārika

pan-cake; poultice or cataplasm; a soft moist, warm and medicated stuff kept on cloth and spread over aching part of the body.

uttaravasti

urethra injection pipe; sending medicated fluids into vagina; vaginal douche; urethral and uterine enema & bladder wash.

vaidya

physician, medical doctor.

vaidyajīvanadīpika

a text written by Agaram Puttaswamy in the 19th Century on human medicine and it is a translation of Vaidyajīvana of Lolambarāja.

vaidyakanda

a text on human medicine written by Brahmakavi in the 18th Century

vaidyāmṛta

a text on medicine written by Sridharadeva in the 16th Century

vaidyasāngatya

a text on human medicine by Salva in the 16th Century

vaidyasārasamgraha

1. a text written by Channaraja in the 16th Century about human medicine; 2. an text written by Nanjaraja in the 18th Century about human medicine; 3. another text written by Hosapandita Bheemarao in the 19th Century

vamśalocana

earthy concretion of a milk-white colour formed in the hallow of a bamboo; bamboo rice. Bambusa arundinacea.

vanda

1. parasitic plant; 2. medicant; 3. Plant Dendrophthoe falcate; Saccolabium papolosum.

veśavāra

1.ginger (sunṭhi), pepper (marīca), long pepper (pippali), coriander (dhānyaka),black cumin (ajāji), pomegranate (dāḍima), piper chaba (pippalimūlam) together are known as veśavāra; 2. boneless meat minced, steamed and added with spices, ghee et Century

vibandha

1. constipation, 2. circular bandage, 3. obstruction, 4. remedy for promoting obstruction.

vidārika

lymphnode enlargement in groin and axilla, dermatitis of the external ear, otitis media.

vipāka

post digestive taste, transformed flavor, final transformation.

vīrudh

Plant medicinal plant, herb that grows again after cutting; a creeper.

viṣagarbhataila

medicated oil with sesame base to help in muscuto-skeletal diseases.

vṛddhi

1. hydrocele; 2. Plant Habenaria intermedia (tuberous terrestrial orchid); 3. Ochyrorchis intermedia.

vṛkṣāyurveda

plant medicine.

vrudhi

1. growth (testicle), (gut), 2. Plant Habenaria intermedia, syn. H. arietina.

vyabhicāri

an aetiological factor that cannot immediately cause a disease.

vyavahārāyurveda

medical jurisprudence.

yoṣādivaṭi

medicine used in cough and other respiratory diseases. It contains trikaṭu or three hot substances.

yavāniṣāḍava

medicine in powdered form made from Trachyspermum ammi and others, used in the diseases of digestive system.

yuktivyapāśraya

(yukti.vyapāśraya) depending on rationale; treating diseases using medicaments.

Wordnet Search
"med" has 79 results.

med

nipuṇa, pravīṇa, abhijña, vijña, niṣṇāta, śikṣita, vaijñānika, kṛtamukha, kṛtin, kuśala, saṅkhyāvat, matimat, kuśagrīyamati, kṛṣṭi, vidura, budha, dakṣa, nediṣṭha, kṛtadhī, sudhin, vidvas, kṛtakarman, vicakṣaṇa, vidagdha, catura, prauḍha, boddhṛ, viśārada, sumedhas, sumati, tīkṣṇa, prekṣāvat, vibudha, vidan, vijñānika, kuśalin   

yaḥ prakarṣeṇa kāryakṣamaḥ asti।

arjunaḥ dhanurvidyāyāṃ nipuṇaḥ āsīt।

med

sthūla, pīvara, pīna, medura, guru, sthūlakāya, sthūladeha, bhārin, āpyāyita, paripīvara, piśitavasāmaya, pīva, pīvas, pīviṣṭha, pīvorūpa, pyāta, pyāna, medasvat, vapodara, sthūlasthūla, sphira   

yasya kāye adhikaḥ medaḥ astiḥ।

sūmo nāma mallayuddhasya mallāḥ sthūlāḥ।

med

uśīraḥ, abhayam, naladam, sevyam, amṛṇālam, jalāśayam, lāmajjakam, laghulayam, avadāham, iṣṭakāpatham, uṣīram, mṛṇālam, laghu, layam, avadānam, iṣṭam, kāpatham, avadāheṣṭakāpatham, indraguptam, jalavāsam, haripiriyam, vīram, vīraṇam, samagandhikam, raṇapriyam, vīrataru, śiśiram, śītamūlakam, vitānamūlakam, jalamedas, sugandhikam, sugandhimūlakam, kambhu   

mālādūrvāyāḥ sugandhitaṃ mūlam।

vāyuśītake uśīraṃ prayujyate।

med

medapucchaḥ   

meṣaprakāraḥ yasya pucchaṃ medayuktam asti।

meṣapālaḥ kṛṣīkṣetre medapucchasya pārśve dhāvati।

med

dhīmān, buddhimān, matimān, medhāvī, manīṣī, subuddhiḥ, medhiraḥ   

yasya prajñā medhā ca vartate।

buddhimatāṃ saṅgatyā tvamapi buddhimān bhaviṣyasi।

med

gṛhasthaḥ, jyeṣṭhāśramī, gṛhamedhī, snātakaḥ, gṛhī, gṛhapatiḥ, satrī, gṛhayāyyaḥ, gṛhādhipaḥ, kuṭumbī, gṛhāyanikaḥ   

yaḥ gṛheṣu dāreṣu abhiramate।

saḥ gṛhasthaḥ sukhī bhavati yaḥ kuṭumbena saha jīvati।

med

aśuddha, aśuci, apavitra, amedhya, apūta, aśuddhi, aśaucin, anirmala, samala, malavān, malina, apuṇya, apavana   

yad śuddhaṃ nāsti।

etad ghṛtam aśuddham asti।

med

buddhimat, dhīmat, matimat, medhāvin, manasvin, subuddhi, kuśalabuddhi, śuddhadhī, kṛtadhī, subodha, medhira, sajñāna, abhijña   

yasya buddhiḥ vartate।

buddhimate vitaṇḍā na rocate।

med

pavitra, medhya, pūta, pāvana, pavana, śuci, śaucopeta   

dharmeṇa śuddhaḥ।

kāśī iti pavitraṃ sthānam asti।

med

ajaḥ, vastaḥ, chagalakaḥ, stubhaḥ, chagaḥ, chagalaḥ, chāgalaḥ, tabhaḥ, stabhaḥ, śubhaḥ, laghukāmaḥ, krayasadaḥ, varkaraḥ, parṇabhojanaḥ, lambakarṇaḥ, menādaḥ, vukkaḥ, alpāyuḥ, śivāpriyaḥ, avukaḥ, medhyaḥ, paśuḥ, payasvalaḥ   

paśuviśeṣaḥ, yaḥ apraśastaḥ, kharatulyanādaḥ, pradīptapucchaḥ kunakhaḥ vivarṇaḥ nikṛttakarṇaḥ dvipamastakaśca।

ajaḥ parvataṃ gacchati।

med

ajā, chāgī, payasvinī, bhīruḥ, medhyā, galestanī, chāgikā, majjā, sarvabhakṣyā, galastanī, culumpā, sajjā, mukhaviluṇṭhikā   

paśuviśeṣaḥ, yā apraśastā kharatulyanādā pradīptapucchā kunakhā vivarṇā nikṛttakarṇā dvipamastakā tathā ca yasyāḥ dugdhaṃ pānārthaṃm upayujyate ।

ajāyāḥ dugdhaṃ śītalaṃ madhuraṃ ca।

med

pṛthvī, dharatī, dharā, bhū, vasundharā, dharaṇī, dharitrī, avanī, urvī, ratnagarbhā, vasudhā, kṣitiḥ, mahiḥ, mahī, acalakīlā, acalā, bhūmaṇḍalaḥ, pṛthivīmaṇḍalam, viśvambharā, prathī, viśvadhāriṇī, medinī, viśvadhenā   

sauramālāyāṃ sūryaṃ paritaḥ bhramamāṇaḥ sūryāt tṛtīyaḥ martyādyadhiṣṭhānabhūtaḥ grahagolaḥ।

candraḥ pṛthveḥ upagrahaḥ asti।

med

dhanam, vittam, vibhavaḥ, arthaḥ, vaibhavam, sampattiḥ, draviṇam, dravyam, rāḥ, riktham, ṛktham, hiraṇyam, dyumnam, svāpateyam, bhogyam, ghasu, svāpateyam, vasu, dyumnam, kāñcanam, lakṣmīḥ, sampat, vṛddhiḥ, śrīḥ, vyavahāryam, raiḥ, bhogaḥ, svam, rekṇaḥ, vedaḥ, varivaḥ, śvātram, ratnam, rayiḥ, kṣatram, bhagaḥ, mīlum, gayaḥ, dyumnaḥ, indriyam, vasu, rāyaḥ, rādhaḥ, bhojanam, tanā, nṛmṇam, bandhuḥ, medhāḥ, yaśaḥ, brahma, śraṃvaḥ, vṛtram, vṛtam   

suvarṇarupyakādayaḥ।

sādhu kāryārthe eva dhanasya viyogaḥ karaṇīyaḥ।

med

śukaḥ, kīraḥ, vakracañcuḥ, vakratuṇḍaḥ, raktatuṇḍaḥ, cimiḥ, ciriḥ, raktapādaḥ, kumāraḥ, kiṅkirātaḥ, phalāśanaḥ, phalādanaḥ, dāḍimapriyaḥ, medhāvī, hariḥ   

khagaviśeṣaḥ- yaḥ haritavarṇīyaḥ khagaḥ manuṣyavācaḥ anukaraṇaṃ karoti tathā ca naikeṣu gṛheṣu dṛśyate।

pañjare śukaḥ rāma rāma iti vadati।

med

gomedhaḥ   

yajñaprakāraḥ gomāṃsasya havanena kṛtaḥ yajñaḥ।

prācīnakālīnāḥ rājānaḥ gomedhaṃ kurvanti sma।

med

gomedaḥ, gomedakaḥ   

navaratnāntargataṃ ratnam।

tena rāhuśāntyarthe gomedaḥ dhṛtaḥ।

med

saṃvivṛdh, vivṛdh, pravṛdh, adhyedh, adhivṛdh, abhivṛdh, ṛdh, edh, puṣ, prakḷp, mahīya, ruh, samedh, uttu, udṛ   

pūrvāpekṣayā śreṣṭhatarāvasthāprāpyanukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

ahani ahani tasya karmayogaḥ saṃvivardhate।

med

nirmajja, amedaska   

yasmin medasya abhāvaḥ asti।

kecit janāḥ medaṃ nyūnīkartuṃ nirmajjaṃ bhojanaṃ kurvanti।

med

medayukta   

medena yuktaḥ।

ārogyārthe medayuktaṃ bhojanaṃ karomi।

med

yavaḥ, yavakaḥ, tīkṣṇaśūkaḥ, praveṭaḥ, śitaśūkaḥ, medhyaḥ, divyaḥ, akṣataḥ, kañcukī, dhānyarājaḥ, turagapriyaḥ, śaktuḥ, maheṣṭaḥ, pavitradhānyam   

sasya-viśeṣaḥ, yasya bījasya guṇāḥ kaṣāyatva-madhuratva-pramehapittakaphāpahārakatvādayaḥ।

śyāmaḥ bhūmau yavaṃ ropayati।

med

medhyavānaraḥ   

viṣuvṛtte āphrikākhaṇḍasthe vane vartamānaḥ vānaraḥ।

medhyavānaraḥ caturaḥ asti।

med

yajñaḥ, yāgaḥ, medhaḥ, kratuḥ, adhvaraḥ, makhaḥ, ijyā, savaḥ, iṣṭiḥ, yajñakarma, yajanam, yājanam, āhavaḥ, savanam, havaḥ, abhiṣavaḥ, homaḥ, havanam, yājñikyam, iṣṭam, vitānam, manyuḥ, mahaḥ, saptatantuḥ, dīkṣā   

vaidikaḥ vidhiviśeṣaḥ yasmin devatām uddiśya vaidikaiḥ mantraiḥ saha haviḥ pradīyate। vaidikakāle yajñāḥ mahattvapūrṇāḥ āsan। /

aphalākāṅkṣibhir yajño vidhidṛṣṭo ya ijyate। yaṣṭavyam eveti manaḥ samādhāya sa sātvikaḥ॥ [bha.gī. 17।11]

med

yavaḥ, śitaśrūkaḥ, sit