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"las" has 3 results.
    
        Root Word (Pāṇini Dhātupāṭha:)Full Root MarkerSenseClassSutra
√laslasaaśilpayoge10171
√laslasaaśilpopayoge10171
√laslasaaśleṣaṇakrīḍanayoḥ1458
  
"las" has 3 results.
        Root WordIAST MeaningMonier Williams PageClass
√लस्lasin embracing / śleṣaṇa1104/2Cl.1
√लस्lasplaying / krīḍana321/3Cl.1
√लस्lasin exercising or practising any art / śilpa-yoga1073/3, 856/2Cl.10
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     Monier-Williams
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607 results for las
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
las cl.1 P., () lasati- (only parasmE-pada lasat-, lasamāna-,and perfect tense lalāsa-; grammar also Aorist alasīt-; future, lasitā-, lasiṣyati-), to shine, flash, glitter etc. ; to appear, come to light, arise ; to sound, resound (confer, compare ras-) ; to play, sport, frolic ; to embrace : Causal , or cl.10. (), lāsayati- (Aorist alīlasat-; Passive voice lāsyate-), to dance ; to cause to teach to dance ; to exercise an art (confer, compare laś-) [ confer, compare Latin lascivus,lascivire.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasmfn. shining, glittering (See a-las-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasamfn. shining, playing, moving hither and thither (see a-las/a-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasamfn. having the smell of bell-metal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasam. fever in a camel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasam. smell of bell-metal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasāf. saffron, turmeric View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasan. red sandalwood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasadaṃśumfn. (p. lasat-+ a-) having flashing or glancing rays (as the sun) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasakamfn. equals lāsaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasakam. a kind of tree
lasakam. a tendon, muscle (see lasīkā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasakan. a particular drug View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasikāf. spittle, saliva View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasīkāf. watery humour in the body, lymph, serum etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasīkāf. the juice of the sugar-cane View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasīkāf. a tendon, muscle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasitamfn. played, sported etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasopharañjam. or n. (?) Name of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laspūjanīf. a large needle (here in the beginning of a compound ni-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lastamfn. embraced, grasped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lastamfn. skilled, skilful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasta lastaka- etc. See above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lastakam. the middle of a bow (the part grasped) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lastakagraham. seizing the middle of a bow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lastakinm. a bow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhūtalasparśatāf. not touching the ground, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyullasatmfn. ( las-), gleaming, flashing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agratalasaṃcāram. a partic, posture in dancing, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ajāgalastanam. nipple or fleshy protuberance on the neck of goats, an emblem of any useless or worthless object or person. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akālasahamfn. unable to bide one's time. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākhaṇḍalasūnum. " indra-'s son", arjuna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alasmfn. ( las-), not shining View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alasamf(ā-)n. inactive, without energy, lazy, idle, indolent, tired, faint View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alasamf(ā-)n. etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alasam. a sore or ulcer between the toes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alasam. (equals a-lasaka-below) tympanitis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alasam. Name of a small poisonous animal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alasam. Name of a plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alasāf. the climbing plant Vitis Pedata Wall View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ālasamfn. equals a-lasa-, idle : ([or fr. lasa-with 4. ā-in the sense of diminution ]) a little active View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ālasamfn. (fr. a-lasa- gaRa vidādi- ), a descendant of a-lasa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alasagamanamf(ā-)n. going lazily View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alasakam. tympanitis, flatulence (intumescence of the abdomen, with constipation and wind) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alasālāf. ? View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alasatāf. idleness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alasatvan. idleness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alasayaNom. yati-, to slacken, relax (trans.), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ālasāyanam. (gaRa haritādi- ), a descendant of alasa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alasekṣaṇamf(ā-)n. having languishing or tired looks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alasibhūto become tired View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ālasyan. idleness, sloth, want of energy etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ālasyamfn. idle, slothful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ālasyavatmfn. idle, lazy, slothful, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alikulasaṃkulāf. "fond of or full of swarms of bees", the plant Rosa Glandulifera View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amalasaṃyutamfn. "not defiled by any spot", endowed with purity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amlasāram. the lime View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
analasamfn. not lazy, active. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
analasādam. dyspepsia. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
analasakham. "fire's friend", the wind, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anilasakha ([ ]) m. "the friend of wind"Name of fire. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anilasārathi([ ]) m. "the friend of wind"Name of fire. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṅkollasāram. "essence of aṅkolla-", a poison prepared from the plant aṅkolla-, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antaḥsalilasthamfn. (standing in water, ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atalasparśa mfn. whose bottom cannot be reached, bottomless. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atalaspṛśmfn. whose bottom cannot be reached, bottomless. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avataptenakulasthitan. an ichneumon's standing on hot ground (metaphorically said of a person's inconstancy) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayukpalasam. idem or 'm. "having odd (id est :seven see sapta-parṇa-) leaves ", the plant Alstonia Scholaris ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bādhūlasmṛtif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirmaṇḍalasthamf(ā-)n. standing outside a circle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balābalasūtrabṛhadvṛttif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasakhim. equals -mitra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasakhim. the friend of a fool ( bālasakhitva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasakhitvan. bālasakhi
lasaṃdhyāf. early twilight, dawn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasaṃdhyābhamfn. "dawn-like", of a purple colour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasaṃjīvanan. Name of chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balasamuham. assemblage of forces, army View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasarasvatīm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasarasvatīyan. (with or scilicet kāvya-) Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasārayantran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasātmyan. "suitable for children", milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balasenam. Name of a warrior View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balasenāf. a strong army, an army, host View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasiṃham. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balasthamfn. "being in strength or power", strong, powerful, vigorous (see balāvastha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balastham. "being or belonging to an army", a warrior, soldier View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balasthalam. Name of a son of parijātra- (varia lectio balaḥ sthalaḥ-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasthānan. condition of a child, childhood, youth, inexperience View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balasthitif. "army-station", a camp, encampment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balasthitif. a royal residence, royal camp or quarters View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balasūdanamfn. destroying armies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balasūdanam. "destroyer of bala-", Name of indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasuhṛdm. equals -mitra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasūrya n. lapis lazuli View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasūryakan. lapis lazuli View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ballālasenadevam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhallālasaṃgraham. Name of bhallāla-'s work. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhartṛdarśanalālasamfn. longing to see a husband View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhramaṇavilasitan. Name of a metre (see bhramara-v-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhramaravilasitamfn. hovered round by bees View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhramaravilasitan. the hovering or sporting of bees View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhramaravilasitan. Name of a metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūgolasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūgolasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūpālasāhim. (s-= $) Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūpālastotran. Name of a hymn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtalasthamfn. standing or being on the face of the earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtalasthānam. a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bidalasaṃhitamfn. composed or made up of halves View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bilasamfn. gaRa triṇādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bilasvargam. "subterranean heaven", the lower regions, hell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
billasūf. a mother of ten children View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bilvamaṅgalastotran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmajālasutran. Name of a sūtra- (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
calasn. wood-sorrel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
calasaṃdhim. loose articulation of the bones, diarthrosis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
calasvabhāvamf(ā-)n. equals -prakṛti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
candragolastham. plural "dwelling in the lunar sphere", the manes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
candravimalasūryaprabhāsaśrīm. "whose beauty is spotless like the moon and brilliant as the sun", Name of a buddha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caṭulālasamfn. desirous of flattery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturṛddhipādacaraṇatalasupratiṣṭhitamfn. well-established on the soles of the feet of the supernatural power (Buddha) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dalasāriṇīf. Colocasia antiquorum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dalasāyasīf. white basil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dalasnasāf. the fibre of a leaf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dalasūcim. "leaf-needle", a thorn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daṇḍakālasakam. a kind of dysentery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daṇḍālasikāf. equals ḍakālasaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darśanalālasamfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' desirous of beholding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dayālasa(dayā- l-), mfn. disinclined to pity, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devalasmṛtif. devala-'s law-book View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devāribalasūdanam. "destroyer of the army of the asura-", Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhavalasmṛtif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ḍholasamudrikāf. "coming from or growing in ḍhola-samudra- (- ḍhora-s-) ", Leea macrophylla View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dikpālastutif. (in dramatic language) praise of the guardians of the world (a kind of introductory ceremony). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durvilasitan. a wayward or rude or naughty trick, ill-mannered act View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvādaśāṅgulasāriṇīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gajaturaṃgavilasitan. Name of a metre (see ṛṣabha-gaja-v-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gajavilasitāf. Name of a metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
galastanīf. (equals le-st-) "having (small fleshy protuberances, resembling) nipples depending from the throat", a she-goat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
glas (= gras-) cl.1 A1. sate-, to eat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
glastamfn. equals grasta-, eaten View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gokulastham. plural Name of a vaiṣṇava- sect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopālasahasranāmabhūṣaṇāf. "decorated with the thousand names of kṛṣṇa-", Name of work
gopālasāhim. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopālasarasvatīf. Name of a pupil of śiva-rāma- and teacher of govindānanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasaptasatakan. Name of an anthology (containing 700 Prakrit stanzas). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
halasīram. (prob.) a ploughshare (others,"a furrow") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimallasenam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
himaśailasutāf. idem or 'f. "daughter of himālaya-", Name of pārvatī- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hlas (see hras-) cl.1 P. hlasati-, to sound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
holasiṃham. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
horilasiṃham. Name of a man (perhaps equals prec.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasambhavam. "water-born" equals -vetasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasaṃdham. Name of a son of dhṛta-rāṣṭra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasaṃniveśam. a receptacle of water. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasamparkam. mixture with water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasaṃsargam. mixing with water, dilution View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasamudram. the sea of fresh water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasarasan. Name of? View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasarasan. (saras-)? View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasarpiṇīf. "water-glider", a leech View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasātind. (with sam-- pad-,to be turned) into water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasekam. sprinkling with water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasiktamfn. water-sprinkled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasnānan. a water-bath View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasrāvam. a kind of eye-disease View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalastambham. solidification of water (magical faculty). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalastambhanan. idem or 'm. solidification of water (magical faculty).' , GarP. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasthamfn. standing or situated in water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasthāf. a kind of grass View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalastham. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasthānan. a reservoir, pond, lake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasūcim. the Gangetic porpoise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasūcim. a crow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasūcim. equals -vyatha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasūcim. a leech View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasūcim. equals -kubjaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasūkaram. "water-hog", a crocodile View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasūkaram. a hog View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasūryam. the sun reflected in water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasūryakam. the sun reflected in water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaṭilasthalan. Name of a locality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalasa varia lectio for kalaśa- above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasadṛśamfn. "conformable to time", seasonable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasadṛśamfn. death-like. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasāhvayam. (scilicet niraya-,a hell) named after kāla- (equals kāla-sūtra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasamanvitamfn. "possessed by death", dead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasamāyuktamfn. idem or 'mfn. "possessed by death", dead ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasaṃgraham. period of time, term View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasaṃhitāf. Name of an astronomical work (written in jaina- Prakrit, by kālakācārya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasaṃkarṣāf. a girl nine years old who personates durgā- at a festival in honour of this goddess. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasaṃkarṣinmfn. shortening time (as a mantra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasaṃkhyāf. fixing or calculating the time View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasampannamfn. effected by time View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasampannamfn. dated, bearing a date.
lasaṃrodham. remaining for a long time (in the possession of any one) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasaṃvaram. Name (also title or epithet) of viṣṇu-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasāramfn. having a black centre or pupil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasāram. the black antelope View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasāram. a sort of sandalwood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasāram. Name of a Prakrit poetry or poetic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasarpam. the black and most venomous variety of the Cobra, Coluber nāga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalasi varia lectio for kalaśi- above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasiṃham. Name of a Prakrit poetry or poetic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laskandham. the plant Diospyros embryopteris View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laskandham. the Jamala tree (bearing dark blossoms, Xanthochymus pictorius) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laskandham. Ficus glomerata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laskandham. a kind of Acacia (Catechu) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laskandham. another plant (equals jīvaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laskandhinm. Ficus glomerata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasūkarikāf. Name of a woman
lasūktan. Name of a hymn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasūryam. the sun at the end of the world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasūtran. the thread of time or death View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasūtramn. one of the twenty-one hells View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasūtrakan. Name of the hell kāla-sūtra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalasvanamfn. having a charming voice (as a bird) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalasvaran. a low musical sound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasvarūpamfn. having the very form of death (applied to any terrific object). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kālīkulasarvasvan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kamalasaṃbhavam. Name of brahmā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kamalasaptamīvratan. idem or 'n. Name of a particular religious observance ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapālasaṃdhim. a treaty of peace on equal terms (= ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapālasphoṭam. "splitting the skull", Name of a rakṣas- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapilasaṃhitāf. Name of an upa-purāṇa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapilasāṃkhyapravacanan. Name of work (equals sāṃkhya-pravacana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapilasāṃkhyapravacanabhāṣyan. Name of a commentary on the above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapiṣṭhalasaṃhitāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karatalasthamfn. resting in the palm of the hand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kavikamalasadmanm. "lotus-seat of poets"Name of brahmā- (see kamala-) as the supporter of poets View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
keralasiddhāntam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalasaṃsargam. associating with bad company View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasaṃsparśam. Name of the plant Diospyros glutinosa (commonly called Gava, a plant the fruit of which yields a substance like turpentine used to cover the bottom of boats) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kīrtipratāpabalasahitamfn. attended with or possessed of fame and majesty and power. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kokilasmṛtif. Name of a similar treatise. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
komalasvabhāvamfn. tender-natured. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣudratulasīf. a variety of Ocimum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulasamfn. ( so-) ruining a family commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulasambhavamfn. idem or 'mfn. born in a noble family ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulasaṃgatam. (= - mitra-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulasaṃkhyāf. ranking or being reckoned as a family, family respectability View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulasaṃnidhim. the presence of a number of persons or of witnesses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulasaṃtatif. propagation of a family, descendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulasamudbhavamfn. born in a noble family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulasāran. Name of a tantra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulasattran. a family sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulasaurabhan. Name of a plant (equals maruvaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulasevakam. an excellent attendant or servant
kulaśīlasamanvitamfn. idem or 'mfn. endowed with a noble character or disposition ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulastambha(?) m. Name (also title or epithet) of chief, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulasthitif. custom observed in a family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulasthitif. antiquity or prosperity of a family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulastrīf. a woman of good family, respectable or virtuous woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulasundarīf. Name of a deity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulasūtran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumārilasvāminm. idem or ' m. idem or 'm. Name of a renowned teacher of the mīmāṃsā- philosophy.' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuntalasvātikarṇam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuśalasāgaram. Name of a scribe (pupil of lāvaṇya-ratna-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuṭilasvabhāvamfn. idem or 'mfn. idem or 'mfn. crooked-minded, deceitful ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuvalasaktum. plural Jujuba fruits and barley grains View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lāgharakolasam. a particular form of jaundice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laghupulastyam. the shorter pulastya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lakṣatulasīvratodyāpanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lakṣatulasyudyāpanavidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasamf(ā-)n. (fr. Intensive of las-) eagerly longing for, ardently desirous of, delighting or absorbed in, devoted or totally given up to (locative case or compound) etc. ( lālasatā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasam. and f(ā-). longing or ardent desire, fond attachment or devotion to (locative case) ( also "regret, sorrow;asking, soliciting;the longing of a pregnant woman;dalliance") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasāf. a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasakamf(ikā-)n. equals lālasa- (in Prakrit) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasatāf. lālasa
lasīkan. sauce, gravy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasiṃham. Name of an astronomer (see lalla-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madālasamfn. lazy from drunkenness, languid, indolent, slothful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madālasāf. Name of the daughter of the gandharva- viśvā-vasu- (carried off by the daitya- pātāla-ketu-, and subsequently the wife of kuvalayāśva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madālasāf. Name of the daughter of the rākṣasa- bhramara-ketu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madālasāf. Name of a poetess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madālasacampūf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madālasākhyāyikāf. Name of work (or kh-?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madālasanāṭakan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madālasāpariṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madyalālasam. Mimusops Elengi View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahābalasūtran. Name of a Buddhist sūtra- work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahākālasahasranāmann. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahākālasaṃhitāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahākālasaṃhitākūṭamn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahākālastotran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahālasā(l-) f. "very lazy", Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāpṛṣṭhagalaskandhamfn. wrong reading for mahā-vṛkṣa-g- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvailastha(mah/ā--) mfn. (perhaps) abiding in a very remote hiding-place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvṛkṣagalaskandhamfn. one whose neck and shoulders resemble corresponding parts of a great tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maithilasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasīf. idem or 'f. (in music) a particular rāgiṇī- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasīf. a species of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasikāf. (in music) a particular rāgiṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
malasrutif. evacuation of the feces View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṇḍūkagatilālasamfn. maṇḍūkagati
maṅgalasamālambhanan. an auspicious unguent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṅgalasāmann. an auspicious sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṅgalasaṃstavamfn. felicitating, containing felicitations R View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṅgalasnānan. any solemn ablution View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṅgalastavam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṅgalastotran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṅgalasūcakamfn. auguring good luck View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṅgalasūtran. "lucky thread", the marriage-thread (tied by the bridegroom round the bride's neck, and worn as long as the husband lives) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṅgalasvaram. a sea-shell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maraṇālasan. Name of a particular yoga--posture (in which only one leg is stretched out; see vahitra-karṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mātulasutāpariṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgajalasnānan. bathing in the waters of a mirage (a term for any impossibility) , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛṇālasūtran. () a lotus-fibre as a necklace View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛtyulāṅgulastotran. Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mudgalasmṛtif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muditamadālasam. or n. (?) Name of a drams. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasamfn. fr. mūla- gaRa tṛṇādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasādhanan. a chief instrument, principal expedient View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasaṅgham. Name of a society or sect (especially of one of the groups of the jaina-siddhānta-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasarvāstivāda m. plural Name of a Buddhist school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasarvāstivādinm. plural Name of a Buddhist school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasasyan. an esculent root View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasrotasn. the fountain-head of a river, principal current View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lastambhanirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasthalan. Name of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasthānan. foundation, base View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasthānan. principal place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasthānan. the air, atmosphere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasthānan. a god View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasthānan. Mooltan etc.
lasthānatīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasthānīf. Name of gaurī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasthāyinmfn. existing from the beginning (said of śiva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasūtran. an initial sūtra- commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasūtran. a principal sūtra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasūtran. (with jaina-s) a particular class of works, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasvāminm. dual number the temporary and the rightful owner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naitalasadmann. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nalasenam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nalasetum. " nala- bridge", the causeway constructed by the monkey nala- for rāma- from the continent to laṅkā- (the modern Adam's Bridge) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nalastotran. Name of a poem. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
netrajalasravam. a flood of tears View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nidrālasamf(ā-)n. slothful from drowsiness, fast asleep View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nidrālasya(drāl-) n. sleepiness, long sleeping View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nīlāgalasālāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nīlālikulasaṃkulam. "full of swarms of blue bees", Rosa Glandulifera View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasaṃdhānabhāṇḍan. a vat for the mixing id est preparing of indigo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasaṃdhyāf. equals -giri-karṇikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasāram. a kind of tree (equals nīlāsana-or tinduka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasarasvatīf. Name of a goddess (equals tārā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasarasvatīmanum. Name of an incantation or magic. formula View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasarasvatīpaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasaroruhan. a blue water-lily View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasaroruhākṣīf. a lotus-eyed or beautiful woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasindhukam. Vitex Negundo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laskandā f. the dark go-karṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laskandhā f. the dark go-karṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laspandāf. the dark go-karṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasvarūpan. a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirālasyamfn. not slothful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirdoṣakulasārāvalif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirvāṇayogapaṭalastotran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pailasūtrabhāṣyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pakṣilasvāminm. idem or 'm. Name of the saint vātsyāyana- ' (as identified with cāṇakya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
palasa wrong reading for panasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
palastijamadagnim. plural the grey-haired jamad-agni-s (prob. a branch of this family of ṛṣi-s) () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṃsukūlasīvanan. "the sewing together of rags f-om a dust-heap"Name of the place where gautama- buddha- assumed his ascetic's dress (Calcutta edition pāṇḍu-s-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcāśatsahasrīmahākālasaṃhitāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṇḍudukūlasīvanan. "sewing of the white winding-sheet", Name of a place (where gautama- buddha- made a white-winding-sheet) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṇḍukambalasaṃvritamfn. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṇḍuraṅgaviṭṭhalastotran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parilas(only pr. p. -lasat-), to shine all around View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parimalasamāf. Name of commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pātañjalasūtrabhāṣyavyakhyāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pātañjalasūtravṛttibhāṣyacchāyāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patidarśanalālasamf(ā-)n. longing to see one's husband View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patilālasamf(ā-)n. longing for a husband View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paulasf. patronymic of śūrpa-ṇakhā- (the sister of rāvaṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paulastyamfn. relating to or descended from pulasti- or pulastya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paulastyam. patronymic of kubera- or rāvaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paulastyam. of vibhīṣaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paulastyam. (plural) the brothers of dur-yodhana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paulastyam. (plural) a race of rākṣasa-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paulastyam. the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paulastyam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paulastyam. ( paulastyasmṛti -smṛti- f.Name of work) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paulastyam. wrong reading for paurastya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paulastyasmṛtif. paulastya
peralasthalamāhātmyan. Name of chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasamfn. (fr. phala-) gaRa tṛṇādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasam. the bread-fruit or jaka- tree (equals panasa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasādhanan. effecting any result on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasādhanan. a means of effecting any result View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasahasran. a thousand fruits View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasahasran. dual number two thousand fruit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasambaddham. "fruit-endowed", the tree Ficus Glomerata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasambhārāf. "having abundance of fruit", the tree Ficus Oppositifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasambhava mfn. produced in or by fruit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasambhūmfn. produced in or by fruit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasāṃkaryakhaṇḍanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasampadf. abundance of fruit, good result, success, prosperity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasaṃsthamfn. bearing fruit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasaṃyogam. the being connected with a reward View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasaṃyuktamfn. connected with a reward View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasatīṇam. or n. (?) Name of country (Palestine?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasiddhif. realising an object, success, a prosperous issue on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasneham. "having oil in its fruit", a walnut tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalastanavatīf. (a female) having fruits for breasts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasthamfn. useful (confer, compare - saṃstha-), ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalasthānan. the stage in which fruits or results are enjoyed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phullasūtran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchilasāram. the gum of Bombax Heptaphyllum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṅgalasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṅgalasāravikāśinīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṅgalasūtran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracalasiṃham. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravilasP. -lasati-, to shine forth brightly ; to appear in full strength or vigour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravilasenaor pravilla-sena- m. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prollas(pra-ud-las-;only P. pr. p. prollasat-), to shine brightly, glitter ; to sound, be heard ; to move to and fro View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pulasamfn. gaRa tṛṇādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pulastimfn. (perhaps fr. pulas-for puras-;but according to fr. pula-and3. as-) wearing the hair straight or smooth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pulastim. Name of a man gaRa gargādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pulastyam. Name of an ancient ṛṣi- (one of the mind-born sons of brahmā-;also enumerated among the prajā-pati-s and seven sages, and described as a lawgiver) etc. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pulastyam. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pulastyasiddhāntam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pulastyasmṛtif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pulastyāṣṭakan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvaśailasaṃghārāmam. Name of a Buddhist monastery. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putralālasamfn. devotedly fond of a son, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūyālasam. a particular disease of the place of junction (saṃdhi-) of the eye View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūyālasam. suppuration at the joints, white swelling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāhulasūf. "father of rāhula-", Name of gautama- Buddh View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ramalasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ramalasiktāf. (?) Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raṅganāthamaṅgalastotran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasālasāf. any tubular vessel of the body (especially one conveying the fluids), vein, artery etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛṣabhagajavilasitan. Name of a metre. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudhiralālasamfn. blood-thirsty, sanguinary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sabalasiṃham. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śādvalasthalīf. a grassy spot, grass-plot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasrakalasābhiṣekaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śailasambhavan. "rock-produced", bitumen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śailasambhūtan. red chalk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śailasaṃdhim. a valley View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śailasāramfn. hard as a rock View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śailasarvajñam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śailasetum. a stone embankment, stone bridge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śailasutāf. equals -kanyā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śailasutāf. a kind of plant (equals mahā-jyotiṣmatī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śailasutācaraṇarāgayonimfn. produced by the colour of pārvati-'s feet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śailasutākāntam. "husband of pārvati-", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śailasutāpatim. equals -sutākānta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākalasaṃhitāf. the śākala- saṃhitā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sakalasiddhif. the success of all ( sakalasiddhida -da- mfn."granting success to all") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sakalasiddhimfn. possessing all perfection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sakalasiddhidamfn. sakalasiddhi
śākalasmṛtif. Name of a law-book (also called śākalya-smṛti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasamfn. having languor, languid, tired, indolent, lazy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
salasalamfn. going, moving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālasaṃkāśamfn. resembling the Sal tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālasāram. a tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālasāram. Asa Foetida View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālaskandha m. the trunk of the Sal tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālastambham. the trunk of the Sal tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
salilasarakam. n. a bowl of water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
salilastambhinmfn. stopping water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
salilasthalacaram. "living in water and on land", an amphibious animal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃsarpaddhvajinīvimardavilasaddhūlīmayamf(ī-)n. filled with dust rising from the tramp of a marching army View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samullas(-ud-las-) P. -lasati-, to shine forth, gleam, glitter ; to break forth, appear ; to sound, resound : Causal -lāsayati-, to cause to jump or sport, exhilarate, make glad View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samullasitamfn. shining forth, gleaming, brilliant, beautiful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samullasitamfn. sportive, sporting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sanatkumārapulastyasaṃvādam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sapatnabalasūdanamfn. destroying a rival's power View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saralaskandhasaṃghaṭṭajanmanmfn. arising from the friction of pine-branches View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saralasyandam. equals -drava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śārdūlasamavikramamfn. having prowess equal to a tiger, as bold as a tiger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvalālasam. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvamaṇḍalasādhanīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatasaṃvatsarakālasūcikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sevāphalastotran. Name of a hymn by vallabhācārya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sevāphalastotravivṛtif. Name of Comm. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīlasamādānamfn. observance of virtue or morality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīlasaṃgham. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīlasampannamfn. equals -śālin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siṃhalasthamfn. being or dwelling in Ceylon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siṃhalasthāf. a species of pepper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śītalasaptamīf. equals -śītala-s- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śītalasparśamfn. cold to the touch View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śītalasvāminm. Name of an arhat- with jaina-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilasamādhimfn. having the attention drawn off or relaxed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śokalālasamfn. entirely given up to sorrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīnivāsabrahmatantraparakālasvāmyaṣṭottaraśatan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutaśīlasampannamfn. () idem or 'mfn. learned and virtuous varia lectio ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthalasambhavauṣadhif. plural plants growing on dry land View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthalasīmanm. equals sthaṇḍila- m. (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthalasīmanm. a land-mark, boundary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthalasthamfn. standing on dry ground View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthaṇḍilasaṃveśanan. equals -śayyā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthaṇḍilasitakan. an altar (equals vedi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlasāyakam. a kind of large reed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlasiktan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlaskandham. "having a thick stem", Artocarpus Locucha View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlasthūlamf(ā-)n. excessively thick or fat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlasūkṣmamfn. large and small View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlasūkṣmamfn. mighty and subtle (as God who sustains the universe and an atom) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlasūkṣmaprakaraṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlasūkṣmaprapañcam. the gross and the subtle world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlasūkṣmaśarīran. the gross and subtle body View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlasūraṇaSee -śūraṇa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuklasūtran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukulastrīf. a woman of good family, a respectable woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sulasam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūlasthamfn. fixed on a stake, impaled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svayaṃvyaktasthalastotran. Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tailasādhanan. Name of a perfume View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tailaspandāf. Cucurbita Pepo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tailaspandāf. Clitoria ternatea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tailaspandāf. kākolī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tailasphaṭikam. Name of a gem View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
talasampātam. equals -tāla- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
talasārakan. a horse's food-receptacle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
talasāraṇan. idem or 'n. a horse's food-receptacle ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
talasārikam. idem or 'n. idem or 'n. a horse's food-receptacle ' ' or equals uraḥ-paṭṭikā- (Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
talasthamfn. remaining beneath View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
talasthitamfn. idem or 'mfn. remaining beneath ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasvanam. equals -vādya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tathāśīlasamācāramfn. of such a character and behaviour, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tejobalasamāyuktamfn. endowed with spirit and strength View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilasambaddhamfn. equals -miśra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilasnāyinmfn. washing one's self with sesamum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilasneham. equals -taila- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilasṛṣṭafood prepared with sesamum (labhṛṣṭa-,"fried sesamum-seeds" Calcutta edition) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trillasenaanother man's N., . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasadṛśasukumārapāṇitāf. the having hands soft as cotton (one of the 80 minor marks of a buddha-), . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tulasāriṇīf. a quiver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasecanan. "cotton-moistening", spinning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tulasimetrically for - View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tulasīf. holy basil (small shrub venerated by vaiṣṇava-s;commonly Tulsi) and (produced from the ocean when churned) (produced from the hair of the goddess tulasī-, .) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tulasīdveṣāf. a kind of basil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tulasikāf. equals -, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tulasīpattran. " tulasī- leaf", a very small gift View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tulasīvivāham. the marriage of viṣṇu-'s image with the tulasī- (festival on the 12th day in the 1st half of month kārttika-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tulasīvṛndāvanan. a square pedestal (before a Hindu house-door) planted with tulasī-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ujjīvitamadālasa Name (also title or epithet) of a drama. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ullas(ud-las-) P. A1. -lasati-, -te-, to shine forth, beam, radiate, be brilliant etc. ; to come forth, become visible or perceptible, appear etc. ; to resound ; to sport, play, dance, be wanton or joyful ; to jump, shake, tremble, be agitated etc.: Causal -lāsayati-, to cause to shine or radiate, make brilliant ; to cause to come forth or appear, cause to resound ; to divert, delight ; to cause to dance or jump, agitate, cause to move View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ullasamfn. bright, shining View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ullasamfn. sporting, merry, happy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ullasamfn. going out, issuing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ullasatmfn. (pres.p.) shining forth, beaming View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ullasatmfn. coming forth etc. (See above) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ullasatāf. splendour, brilliancy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ullasatāf. mirth, happiness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ullasatāf. going out, issuing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ullasatphalam. poppy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ullasitamfn. shining, bright, brilliant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ullasitamfn. coming forth, rising, appearing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ullasitamfn. ejected, brought out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ullasitamfn. drawn, unsheathed (as a sword) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ullasitamfn. merry, happy, joyful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ullasitamfn. moving, trembling. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ulūkhalasutamfn. pressed out or pounded in a mortar (as the soma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utpalasārivāf. the plant Ichnocarpus Frutescens View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vailasthaSee mak/ā-vaila-stha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vailasthānan. a place like a hole, lurking-place, covert View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vailasthānan. a burying-place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vailasthānakamfn. situated in a hole or lurking-place or covert View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vailasthānakan. a pit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
valasūdanaetc. See under bala-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
valkalasaṃvītamfn. clothed in a bark dress View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vapurmalasamācitamfn. having the body covered with dirt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātūlasūtran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
veṅkaṭācalasūrim. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
veṅkaṭeśvaramaṅgalastotran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
veśakulastrīf. a common woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vetālasādhanan. winning or securing (the favour of) a vetāla- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vetālasiddhif. the supernatural power of a vetāla-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vetālastotran. Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vihvalasālasāṅgamf(ī-)n. one whose body is exhausted and languid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilasP. -lasati-, to gleam, flash, glitter (only pr. p. -lasat- q.v,and perfect tense -lalāsa- ) ; to shine forth, appear, arise, become visible ; to sound forth, echo (See vi-lasan-) ; to play, sport, dally, be amused or delighted ; to vibrate, coruscate (See vi-lasat-): Causal -lācayati-, to cause to dance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilasanin compound for vi-lasat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilasanan. gleaming, flashing (of lightning) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilasanan. play, sport View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilasatmf(antī-)n. flashing, shining, glittering etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilasatmarīcimfn. having rays of light gleaming or playing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilasatmeghaśabdam. the echoing sound of clouds (id est thunder) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilasatpatākamfn. having a gleaming or waving flag View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilasatsaudāminīf. a flash of lightning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilasitamfn. gleaming, glittering, shining forth, appearing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilasitamfn. played, sported (n. also impersonal or used impersonally) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilasitamfn. moving to and fro View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilasitan. flashing, quivering (of lightning) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilasitan. appearing, manifestation (vidyā-, v-manifestation of knowledge) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilasitan. sport play, pastime, dalliance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilasitan. any action or gesture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimalasambhavam. Name of a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimalasvabhāvam. Name of a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipulaskandham. "broad-shouldered", Name of arjuna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipulasravāf. equals sravā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viralasasyayutamfn. scantily furnished with grain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśālakulasambhavamfn. sprung from an illustrious race View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṭṭhalasahasranāmann. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṭṭhalastavarājam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṭṭhalasūnum. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vrīlasamfn. ashamed, modest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛthākulasamācāramfn. one whose family and practices (or"family-practice") are idle or low View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāsatulasīm. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yakṣiṇīvetālasādhanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yāmalasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yamalasūf. bringing forth twins View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yaśomaṅgalastotran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yugalasahasranāmann. Name of stotra-s containing 1000 names of kṛṣṇa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
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las लस् I. 1 P. (लसति, लसित) 1 To shine, glitter, flash; मुक्ताहारेण लसता हसतीव स्तनद्वयम् K. P.1; करवाणि चरणद्वयं सरसलसदलक्तकरागम् Gīt.1; Amaru.19; बालेन नक्तंसमयेन मुक्तं रौप्यं लसड्डिम्बमिवेन्दुबिम्बम् N.22.53 (v. l.). -2 To appear, arise, come to light. -3 To embrace. -4 To play, frolic about, skip about, dance. -4 To sound, resound. -Caus. (लासयति-ते) 1 To cause to shine, grace, adorn. -2 To cause to dance. -3 To exercise an art.
lasā लसा [लसति लस्-अच्] 1 Saffron. -2 Turmeric.
lasadaṃśu लसदंशु a. Having flashing rays (as the sun); मध्यमोपलनिभे लसदंशौ Ki.9.2.
lasakaḥ लसकः = लासक q. v.
lasikā लसिका Spittle, saliva.
lasīkā लसीका 1 Saliva. -2 Pus, matter. -3 The juice of the sugar-cane. -4 Lymph. -5 A tendon, muscle.
lasita लसित p. p. [लस्-क्त] Played, sported, appeared, manifested, skipping about &c.; see लस्.
lasj लस्ज् 1 Ā. (लज्जते, लज्जित) 1 To be ashamed, feel shame (oft. with instr. or inf.); स्त्रीजनं प्रहरन् कथं न लज्जसे Ratn.2; Bk.15.33. -2 To blush. -Caus. (लज्जयति-ते) To put to shame; नर्तकीरभिनयातिलङ्घिनीः पार्श्ववर्तिषु गुरूष्व- लज्जयत् R.19.14.
lasta लस्त a. 1 Embraced, clasped. -2 Skilful, skilled.
lastakaḥ लस्तकः The middle of a bow, that part which is grasped.
lastakin लस्तकिन् m. A bow.
lasuṣa लसुष a. [लस्-उषच् Un.4.79] Shining.
analasa अनलस a. 1 Not lazy, active, diligent, watchful, अनलसो$नलसोमसमद्युतिः R.9.15. -2 Unable, incompetent.
ālasa आलस a. (-सी f.) [आलसति ईषत् व्याप्रियते अच्] Idle, lazy, slothful.
ālasya आलस्य a. Idle, slothful, apathetic. -स्यम् [अलसस्य भावः, ष्यञ्] 1 Idleness, sloth, want of energy; प्रमादालस्य- निद्राभिः Bg.14.8. शक्तस्य चाप्यनुत्साहः कर्मस्वालस्यमुच्यते Suśr.; आलस्यं हि मनुष्याणां शरीरस्थो महारिपुः Bh.2.86. आलस्य 'want of energy' is regarded as one of the 33 subordinate feelings (व्यभिचारि भाव; for example:- न तथा भूषयत्यङ्गं न तथा भाषते सखीम् । जृम्भते मुहुरासीना बाला गर्भभरालसा S. D.183.
ullas उल्लस् 1 P. 1 To jump up, sport, play, wave, flutter; उल्लसितासितपताकासहस्रम् K.96; Śi.5.47,53. -2 To flash, shine, glitter, sparkle; उल्लसत्काञ्चनकुण्डलाग्रम् Śi.3.5, 33;5.55;16.61;2.56; (fig.) to brighten or cheer up; K.189. -3 To rise, appear forth; अर्कोपलोल्लसितवह्नि- भिरह्नि तप्ताः Śi.4.58,6.51,16.51; यदुल्लसितविस्मयाः Māl. 9.38. -4 To be reflected; ... उल्लसन्त्यः विदधति दशनानां सीत्कृताविष्कृतानामभिनवरविभासः पद्मरागानुकारम् Śi.11.54. -5 To blow, open, be expanded. -Caus. 1 To cause to jump up or play. -2 To brighten, illuminate, grace; क्रोधोल्ला- सितशोणितारुणगदस्योच्छिन्दतः कौरवानद्यैकं दिवसं ममासि न गुरुर्नाहं विधेयस्तवः ॥ Ve.1.12; U.4. -3 To divert, delight; -4 To shake, move K.22; जिह्वाशतान्युल्लसयन्त्यजस्रम् Ki.16.37.
ullasa उल्लस a. 1 Bright, shining. -2 Merry, happy. -3 Going out, issuing, appearing; ˚ता splendour, brilliancy; mirth, happiness, issuing &c.
ullasat उल्लसत् a. Shining forth. -Comp. -फलः poppy.
ullasanam उल्लसनम् 1 Happiness, joy. -2 Horripilation.
ullasita उल्लसित p. p. 1 Shining, brilliant, splendid. -2 Happy, delighted. -3 Drawn up, uplifted, brandishing (as a sword.) ददृशुरुल्लसितासिलतासिताः Śi.6.51. -4 Gleaming, fluttering. ˚हरिणकेतनः रथः V.1.
glas ग्लस् 1 Ā. (ग्लसते, ग्लस्त) To eat, devour.
tulasāriṇī तुलसारिणी A quiver.
tulasi तुलसि (Metrically for तुलसी), -तुलसिका See तुलसी; वाचश्च नस्तुलसिवद्यदि ते$ङ्घ्रिशोभाः Bhāg.3.15.49; तुलसिका- दूर्वाङ्कुरैरपि... परितुष्यसि 5.3.6.
tulasī तुलसी [तुलां सादृश्यं स्यति, सो-क गौरा˚ ङीप् शंकध्वा. Tv.] The holy basil held in veneration by the Hindus, especially by the worshippers of Visnu. -Comp. -पत्रम् (lit.) a Tulasī leaf; (fig.) a very small gift. -विवाहः the marriage of an image of Bālakriṣṇa with the holy basil, performed on the 12th day of the bright half of Kārtika. -वृन्दावनः, -नम् a square pedestal in which the sacred basil is planted.
palasa पलस = पनस q. v.
pulastiḥ पुलस्तिः स्त्यः N. of a sage, one of the mind-born sons of Brahmā; Ms.1.35.
paulastyaḥ पौलस्त्यः 1 An epithet of Rāvaṇa; पौलस्त्यः कथमन्य- दारहरणे दोषं न विज्ञातवान् Pt.2.4; R.4.8;1.5;12.72. -2 Of Kubera. -3 Of Bibhīṣaṇa. -4 The moon.
paulas पौलस्ती An epithet of Śūrpaṇakhā.
phalasaḥ फलसः (शः) The bread-fruit tree.
lasī मालसी 1 N. of a plant (केशपुष्ट). -2 N. of a Rāgiṇī.
rasālasā रसालसा 1 A tubular vessel of the body. -2 A vein. -3 A nerve.
lāgharakolasaḥ लाघरकोलसः A particular form of jaundice.
lasa लालस a. Ardently longing for, eagerly desirous of, hankering after; प्रणामलालसाः K.14; ईशानसंदर्शनलाल- सानाम् Ku.7.56; Śi.4.6. -2 Taking pleasure in, devoted to, fond of, absorbed in; विलासलालसम् Gīt.1; रुदती शोकलालसा Rām.2.21.2; Mb.1.2.229; मृगया˚ &c. -सः = लालसा q. v. below.
lasā लालसा [लस् स्पृहायां यङ् लुक् भावे अ] 1 Longing or ardent desire, extreme desire, eagerness. -2 Asking, solicitation, entreaty. -3 Regret, sorrow. -4 The longing of a pregnant woman (दोहद).
lasīkam लालसीकम् Sauce.
vilas विलस् 1 P. 1 To shine, flash, glitter; वियति च विललास तद्वदिन्दुर्विलसति चन्द्रमसो न यद्वदन्यः Bk.1.69; Me. 49; R.13.76. -2 To appear, arise, become manifest; प्रेम विलसति महत्तदहो Śi.15.14;9.87. -3 To sport, amuse oneself, play, frolic about sportively; कापि चपला मधुरिपुणा विलसति युवतिरधिकगुणा &Gimacr;t.7; or हरिरिह मुग्धवधू- निकरे विलासिनि विलसति केलिपरे Gīt.1; पर्यङ्के तया सह विललास H.1. -4 To sound, echo, reverberate. -5 To act upon, work upon, show oneself; (खेदः) त्वयि विलसति तुल्यं वल्लभालोकनेन Māl.3.8. -6 To move about, dart, shoot upwards.
vilasat विलसत् pres. p. (-न्ती f.) 1 Glittering, shining, bright. -2 Flashing, darting. -3 Waving. -4 Sportive, playful; see विलस् above.
vilasanam विलसनम् 1 Glittering, flashing, gleaming. -2 Sporting, dallying.
vilasita विलसित p. p. 1 Glittering, shining, gleaming. -2 Appeared, manifested; तया विलसितेष्वेषु गुणेषु गुणवनिव Bhāg.1.2.31. -3 Sportive, wanton. -तम् 1 Glittering, gleaming. -2 A gleam, flash; रोधोभुवां मुहुरमुत्र हिरण्मयीनां भासस्तडिद्विलसितानि विडम्बयन्ति Ki.5.46; Me.83; V.4. -3 Appearance, manifestation; as in अज्ञानविलसितम् &c. -4 Sport, play; dalliance, amorous or wanton gesture (fig. also); अतिपिशुनानि चैकान्तनिष्ठुरस्य दैवहतकस्य विलसितानि K. -5 Action or gesture in general. -6 Effect, fruit, result; सुकृतविलसितानां स्थानमूर्जस्वलानाम् Māl.2.9.
samullas समुल्लस् 1 P. 1 To shine forth, gleam. -2 To break forth, appear; यावन्मिलदलिमालः को$पि ससालः समुल्लसति Bv. 1.7. -3 To sport, be wanton, dally.
lasa सालस a. 1 Languid, tired. -2 Indolent, lazy.
hlas ह्लस् 1 P. (ह्लसति) To sound.
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abhikṣipant abhi-kṣipánt, pr. pt. lashing, v. 83, 3.
inv i-nv go, I. P. ínvati [secondary root from i go according to class v.: i-nu]. sam- bring, i. 160, 5.
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lasa a. lively (only --°ree; in a-lasa, dull).
lasikā f. saliva, spittle.
akālasaha a. unable to hold out long.
ajagalastana m. dew-lap on the neck of the goat.
analasakha m. wind.
analasa a. not idle, diligent.
anālasya n. assiduity.
abālasattva a. not having the nature of a boy.
abhūtalasparśa a. not touch ing the earth: -tâ, f. abst. n.
alasa a. dull, slack; weary; feeble, indolent; -gamana, a. of indolent gait; -½îk shana, a. dim-eyed.
ālasya n. idleness, sloth, indolence: -nibandhana, a. due to indolence; -vakana, n. argument of sloth.
ullasita ul-las-ita, ullāsita pp. √ las.
pulastya m. N. of an ancient Rishi, mentioned as one of the spiritual sons of Brahman, as one of the Pragâpatis, and as one of the seven Rishis; N. of a star.
pulasti a. wearing the hair of the head smooth.
paulastya a. relating to or descended from Pulasti or Pulastya; m. pat. descendant of Pulasti or Pulastya, ep. of Kubera and of Râvana; moon.
lasa intv. a. ardently desiring, eager for, delighting or absorbed in, devoted to (lc., --°ree;); m., â, f. ardent longing, devotion to (lc.).
śithilasamādhi a. having the attention relaxed, distraught.
śītalasparśa a. cold to the touch.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
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"las" has 452 results.
     
lasāmānyatime in general; unspecified time; confer, compare वर्तमाने लडुक्तः कालसामान्ये न प्राप्नोति Kāś. on P.III.3.142.
jihvāmūlasthāna(l)having the root of the tongue as the place of its production;the phonetic element or letter called जिह्वामूलीय; (2) name given to that phonetic element into which a visarga is changed when followed by क् or ख्; cf X क इति जिह्वामूलीयः V.Pr.VIII.19. The जिह्वामूलीय letter is called जिह्व्य also; see Nyasa on I. 1.9. The Rk. Pratisakhya looks upon ऋ, लृ, जिह्वामूलीय, and the guttural letters as जिह्वामूलस्थान.
lasārvadhātukaa personal ending substituted for ल् which in certain cases gets the grave accent in, spite of the general rule that affixes ( which include personal endings ) are acute; confer, compare तास्यनुदात्तेन्डिद्दुपदेशाल्लसार्वधातुकमह्न्विङोः P. VI. 1. 186.
vimalasarasvatīa grammarian who wrote a small grammar work named रूपमाला
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
aṃśugaṇaalso अंश्वादिगण a class of words headed by अंशु which have their last vowel accented acute when they stand at the end of a tatpuruṣa, correspond with the word प्रति as the first member. confer, compare P. VI.2.193.
ak(1)condensed expression (प्रत्याहार ) representing the letters अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ in Pāṇini's Grammar confer, compare P. VI.1.12, 101; VII.4.2. (2) sign (विकरण) of the benedictive in Vedic Literature in the case of the root दृश् c. g. पितरं च दृशेयं P.III.l.86 V 2; ( 3 ) remnant of the termnination अकच् P. V. 3. 71 ; ( 4 ) substitute (अादेश) अकङ् for the last vowel of the word मुधातृ ( P.IV.1.97 ) e. g. सोघातकिः.
akaṅsubstitute ( अादेश ) for the last letter of the word मुधातृ prescribed along with the taddhita affix. affix इञ् by P. IV.1.97. exempli gratia, for example सौघातकिः
akacaffix prescribed before the last syllable of pronouns and indeclinables without any specific sense for it (P.V.3.71) e. g. सर्वकः, उच्चकैः et cetera, and others
akṣadyūtādigaṇaa class of words headed by अक्षद्यूत which take the taddhita affix. affix hak ( इक) in the sense of 'resulting from' e. g. अाक्षद्यूतिकं वैरम्, जानुप्रहृतिक्रम्, गातागार्तकम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P IV.4.19.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
agnipadādigaṇaa class of words headed by the word अग्निपद to which the taddhita affix. affix अण् is added in the senses of 'given there' or 'done there' e. g. अग्निपदम्. confer, compare अण्प्रकरणे अग्निपदादिभ्य उपसंख्यानम् P. V.1.97 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1.
aghoṣaunvoiced, merely breathed; a term applied to the surd consonants, ś, ṣ s, and visarga which are uttered by mere breathing and which do not produce any sonant effect. confer, compare T. Pr.I.12; R.Pr.I.11. The term jit ( जित् ) is used for these letters as also for the first two consonants of a class in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya confer, compare द्वौ द्वौ प्रथमौ जित्; ऊष्माणश्च हवर्जम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.50.51.
aṅgulyādigaṇaclass of words headed by अङ्गुलि to which the taddhita affix. afix ठक् ( इक् ) is added in the sense of comparison ( इवार्थे ); e. g. अङ्गुलीव अाड्गुलिक: confer, compare Kāś. on P. V.3.108.
ajādigaṇaclass of words headed by अज to which the feminine.affix अा is added, sometimes inspite of the affix ई being applicable by other rules such as जातेरस्त्रीविषयात्o P. IV. 1.63 and other rules in the section. e. अजा, एडका, त्रिफला, उष्णिहा, जेष्ठा, दंष्ट्रा. cf P. IV.1.4.
ājirādigaṇaclass of words headed by the word अजिर which do not allow lengthening of the final vowel by P. VI.3.119. although they form technical terms e. g. अजिरवती, पुलिनवती et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś on P. VI.3.119.
adādiname given to the class of roots belonging to the second conjugation, as the roots therein begin with the root अद्. The word अदिप्रभृति is also used in the same sense; confer, compare अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः p.II. 4.72: confer, comparealso अदाद्यनदाद्योरनदादेरेव given by Hemacandra as a Paribhāṣā corresponding to the maxim लुग्विकरणालुग्विकरणयोरलुग्विकरणस्य Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. Pari.61.
adṛṣṭanot seen properly; doubtful; indistinct;said with respect to a letter which is not distinctly deciphered in the Saṁhitāpātha: exempli gratia, for example तन्नः ( R. Saṁh. I. 107. 3 ): the last letter त् of तत् is deciphered in the Pada-pātha which is given as तत्न: confer, compare अदृष्टवर्णे प्रथमे चोदकः स्यात् प्रदर्शकः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 15.
adhyātmādiname of a class of words headed by the word अध्यात्मन् to which the taddhita affix. affix ठञ् is added in the sense of 'तत्र भवः' id est, that is found therein, or existing therein. e. g. आध्यात्मिकम्, आधिदैविकम्, et cetera, and otherscf M.Bh. on IV.3.60.
anaḍ(1)substitute अन् as Samāsānta at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound in the feminine for the last letter of the word ऊधस् and for that of धनुस् in all genders exempli gratia, for example कुण्डोघ्नी (by applying ई to कुण्डोधन्), शार्ङ्गधन्वा, अधिज्यधन्वा; confer, compare P V.4.131, 132; (2) substitute अन् for the last letter of the words अस्थि, दधि et cetera, and others before the affixes of the instrumental and the following cases beginning with a vowel e. g. अस्थ्ना, दध्ना, अक्ष्णा et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 1.75; (3) substitute अन् for the last letter of the word सखि, of words ending in ऋ,as also of उशनस् and others before the nominative singular. affix सु. e. g. सखा, कर्ता, उशना confer, compare P. VII.1.93, 94.
anunāsika(a letter)uttered through the nose and mouth both, as different from anusvāra which is uttered only through the nose. confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिकःP.I.1.8, and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). thereon. The anunāsika or nasal letters are the fifth letters of the five classes ( id est, that is ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न्, म् ) as also vowels अ, इ, उ and semivowels when so pronounced, as ordinarily they are uttered through the mouth only; ( exempli gratia, for example अँ, आँ, et cetera, and others or य्यँ, व्वँ, ल्लँ et cetera, and others in सय्यँन्ता, सव्वँत्सरः, सँल्लीनः et cetera, and others) The अनुनासिक or nasalized vowels are named रङ्गवर्ण and they are said to be consisting of three mātras. confer, compare अष्टौ आद्यानवसानेsप्रगृह्यान् आचार्या आहुरनुनासिकान् स्वरान् । तात्रिमात्रे शाकला दर्शयन्ति Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.63.64; confer, compare also अप्रग्रहाः समानाक्षराणि अनुनासिकानि एकेषाम् T. Pr XV.6. Trivikrama, a commentator on the Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Sūtras, explains अनुनासिक as अनु पश्चात् नासिकास्थानं उच्चारणं एषां इत्यनुनासिकाः । पूर्वं मुखस्थानमुच्चारणं पश्चान्नासिकास्थानमुच्चारणमित्यर्थः । अनुग्रहणात्केवलनासिकास्थानोच्चारणस्य अनुस्वारस्य नेयं संज्ञा । and remarks further पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्धसंज्ञेयमन्वर्था । Com. by Tr. on Kat. I 1.13. Vowels which are uttered nasalized by Pāṇini in his works viz. सूत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ et cetera, and others are silent ones i. e. they are not actually found in use. They are put by him only for the sake of a complete utterance, their nasalized nature being made out only by means of traditional convention. e. g. एध, स्पर्ध et cetera, and others confer, compare उपदेशेSजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2; confer, compare also प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः Kāś on I.3.2.
anumnot allowing the addition of the augment नुम् (id est, that is letter न् ) after the last vowel; The term is used, in connection with the present participle. affix, by Pāṇini in his rule शतुरनुमो नद्यजादी VI.1.173.
anuṣaṅga(1)literally attaching, affixing: augment, अनुषज्यते असौ अनुषङ्गः; (2) a term for the nasal letter attached to the following consonant which is the last, used by ancient grammarians; confer, compare अव्यात्पूर्वे मस्जेरनुषङ्गसंयेगादिलोपार्थम् confer, compare P.I.1.47 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 and M.Bh. thereon; confer, compare थफान्तानां चानुषङ्गिणाम् Kat. IV. 1.13. The term अनुषङ्ग is defined in the kātantra grammar as व्यञ्जनान्नः अनुषङ्ग. The term is applied to the nasal consonant न् preceding the last letter of a noun base or a root base; penultimate nasal of a root or noun base: Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.1.12.
antafinal, phonetically last element remaining, of course, after the mute significatory letters have been droppedition confer, compare अनुत्तरलक्षणोन्तः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.21 Vārt, 6.
antodāttaa word with its last vowel accented acute. Roots, crude : noun bases and compound words generally have their last vowel accented acute; confer, compare फिषः (प्रातिपदिकस्य ) अन्त उदात्तः स्यात् Phiṭ Sūtra 1-1; धातोः (P. VI.1.162} अन्त उदात्तः स्यात्; समासस्य ( P.VI.1.223) अन्त उदात्तः स्यात् ।
anvakṣarasaṃdhia combination of letters according to the order of the letters in the Alphabet; a samdhi or euphonic combination of a vowel and a consonant, called अन्वक्षर-अनुलोमसंधि where a vowel precedes a consonant; and अन्वक्षरप्रतिलोमसंधि where a consonant precedes a vowel, the consonant in that case being changed into the third of its class; एष स्य स च स्वराश्च पूर्वे भवति व्यञ्जनमुत्तरं यदेभ्यः। तेन्वक्षरसेधयेानुलोमाः प्रतिलोमाश्च विपर्यये त एव ।। R Pr. II.8.9 e. g. एष देवः, स देवः and others are instances of अन्वक्षरानुलोमसंधि where विसर्ग after the vowel is dropped; while हलव्यवाड् अग्निः is an instance of अन्वक्षरप्रतिलोमसंधि where the consonant ट् precedes the vowel अ.
abhinidhānaliterally that which is placed near or before; the first of the doubled class consonants; a mute or sparṣa consonant arising from doubling and inserted before a mute; confer, compare अघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथमः अभिनिधानः स्पर्शपरात्तस्य सस्थानः ( Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 9. ) explained by त्रिभाष्यरत्न as स्पर्शपरादघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथम आगमस्तस्य स्पर्शस्य समानस्थानः अभिनिधानो भवति । अभिनिधीयते इत्यभिनिधानः आरोपणीयः इत्यर्थः । यथा यः क्कामयेत अश्मन्नूर्जम् । यः प्पाप्मना । The Ṛk. prātiśākhya explains the term अभिनिधान somewhat differently; confer, compare अभिनिधानं कृतसंहितानां स्पर्शन्ति:स्थानामपवाद्य रेफम् । संघारणं संवरणं श्रुतेश्च स्पर्शोदयानामपि चावसाने Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 5, explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शपराणां स्पर्शानां रेफं वर्जयित्वा अन्तःस्थानां च वर्णानां कृतसंहितानां च सतां संधारणं वर्णश्रुतेश्च संवरणं भवति । तदेतद् अभिनिधानं नाम । यथा उष मा षड् द्वा द्वा । ऋ. सं ८।६८।१४ इह षड् इत्यत्र अभिनिधानम् ॥ अभिनिघान possibly according to उव्वट here means the first of the doubled letter which, although the second letter is attached to it, is separately uttered with a slight pause after it. अभिनिधान means, in short, something like 'suppression.' The Ṛk. Tantra takes a still wider view and explains अभिनिधान as the first of a doubled consonant, cf ; अभिनिधानः । क्रमजं च पूर्वान्ततस्वरं भवति । Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 21.
arśaādia class of words which take the taddhita affix अच्(अ) in the sense of the affix मतुप् i. e.in the sense of possession; cf अर्शति अस्य विद्यन्ते अर्शसः । उरस:। आकृतिगणश्चायम् यत्राभिन्नरूपेण शब्देन तद्वतोभिधानं तत् सर्वमिह द्रष्टव्यम् Kāś. on P. V.2.127.
ala प्रत्याहार or a short term signifying any letter in the alphabet of Pāṇini which consists of 9 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 class-consonants, and 4 sibilants.
alontyavidhian operation, which, on the strength of its being enjoined by means of the genitive case, applies to the last letter of the wording put in the genitive; confer, compare नानर्थकेलोन्त्यविधिरनभ्यासविकारे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.65, confer, compare अलोन्त्यस्य । षष्ठीनिर्दिष्टोन्त्यस्यादेशः स्यात् S.K. on P. I.1.52.
avaśaṃgamaname of a Samdhi when a class consonant, followed by any consonant is not changed, but retained as it is; confer, compare स्पर्शाः पूर्वे व्यञ्जनान्युत्तराणि अास्थापितानां अवशंगमं तत् R.Pr.IV. l; eg. अारैक् पन्थाम् Ṛgveda, Ṛk. Saṁh=Ṛgveda-saṁhita. I.113.16, वषट् ते (Ṛgveda, Ṛk. Saṁh=Ṛgveda-saṁhita.VII.99.7) अजानन् पुत्रः (R. V. X.85.14).
(1)Pratyāhāra or a brief term standing for all vowels, semivowels, and the fifth, fourth and third of the class-consonants; all letters excepting the surds and sibilants; (2) substitute अ for the word इदम् before affixes of cases beginning with the instrumental, and for एतद् before the taddhita affix. affixes त्र and तस्; see P.II.4.32 and 33; (3) substitute अ for the genitive case singular. case-affix ङस् after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद्; see P.VII.1.27.
aśmādia class of words headed by the word अश्मन् to which the taddhita affix र is applied in the four senses specified in P.IV.2.67 to 70; exempli gratia, for example अश्मरः, ऊषरम् , नगरम् , पामरः गह्वरम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.2.80.
aśvapatyādia class of words headed by अश्वपति to which the taddhita affix अण् (अ) is added in the senses mentioned in rules before the rule तेन दीव्यति० P.IV.4.2, which are technically called the Prāgdīvyatiya senses. e g. अश्वपतम्, गाणपतम्. गार्हपतम् et cetera, and others
aśvādi(1)a class of words headed by the word अश्व to which the affix फञ्(अायन) is added in the sense of गोत्र (grandchildren et cetera, and others); exempli gratia, for exampleआश्वायनः जातायनः, औत्सायनः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.1. 110; (2) a class of words headed by the word अश्व to which the taddhita affix यत् is added in the sense of a cause of the type of a meeting or an accidental circumstance; exempli gratia, for example आश्विकम् अाश्मिकम् confer, compare P. V.1.39.
asuḍsubstitute अस् for the last letter of the word पुंस् before the सर्वनामस्थान affixes i. e. before the first five case affixes,exempli gratia, for example पुमान् पुमांसौ et cetera, and others; confer, compare पुंसोsसुङ् P.VII.1.89
ā(1)the long form of the vowel अ called दीर्घ,consisting of two mātrās, in contrast with (l) the short अ which consists of one mātrā and the protracted आ३ which consists of three mātrās; (2) substitute अा of two mātrās when prescribed by the word दीर्घ or वृद्धि for the short vowel अ; (3) upasarga अा (अाङ्) in the sense of limit exempli gratia, for example अा कडारादेका संज्ञा (P.I.4.1.) आकुमारं यशः पाणिनेः K. on II.1.13. आ उदकान्तात् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.14.) (4) indeclinable आ in the sense of remembrance e. g. आ एवं नु मन्यसे; confer, compare ईषदर्थे क्रियायोगे मर्यादाभिविधौ च यः । एतमातं ङितं विद्याद्वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.14; (5) augment अा ( अाक् ) as seen in चराचर, वदावद et cetera, and others confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6; (6) augment अा(आट्) prefixed to roots in the tenses लुङ्, लङ् and लृङ् (7) substitute अा prescribed for the last letter of pronouns before the taddhita affix. affixes दृक्,दृश, दृक्ष and वत्, as in तादृक्दृ, तादृश et cetera, and others; (8) feminine affix आ (टाप्, डाप् or चाप् ) added to nouns ending in अा; (9) substitute आ ( आ or अात्, or डा or आल् ) for case affixes in Vedic literature उभा यन्तारौ, नाभा पृथिव्याः et cetera, and others
ākarṣādia class of words headed by the word आकर्ष to which the taddhita affix कन् (क) is applied in the sense of clever or expert; e. g. आकर्षकः, त्सरुकः, शकुनिकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. अाकर्षादिभ्यः कन् P.V.2.64.
ākusmīyaa group of 43 roots of the चुरादि class of roots beginning with the root चित् and ending with कुस्म् which are Ātmanepadin only.
aākṛtigaṇaa class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operation; confer, compare श्रेण्यादयः कृतादिभिः । श्रेण्यादयः पठ्यन्ते कृतादिराकृतिगणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.59. Haradatta defines the word as प्रयोगदर्शनेन आकृतिग्राह्यो गणः अाकृतिगण:। अत्र अादिशब्दः प्रकारे । अाकृतिगणेपि उदाहरणरूपेण कतिपयान् पठति कृत मत इत्यादि Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on II.I.59 ; confer, compare Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.of Kaiyaṭa also on II.1. 59.Some of the gaṇas mentioned by Pāṇini are ākṛtigaṇas, exempli gratia, for example अर्शआदिगण, मूलविभुजादिगण, स्नात्व्यादिगण, शिवादिगण, पचादिगण, and others.
āgamaaugment, accrement, a word element which is added to the primitive or basic word during the process of the formation of a complete word or pada. The āgama is an adventitious word element and hence differs from ādeśa, the substitute which wholly takes the place of the original or ( आदेशिन् ). Out of the several āgamas mentioned by Pāṇini, those that are marked with mute ट् are prefixed, those, marked with क्, are affixed, while those, marked with म्, are placed immediately after the last vowel of the word. The augments become a part and parcel of the word to which they are added, and the characteristics of which they possess;confer, compareयदागमास्तद्गुणीभूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते, also आगमानां आगमिधर्मिवैशिष्ट्यम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.11. Those grammarians, who hold the view that words are unproduced and eternal, explain the addition of an augment as only the substitution of a word with an augment in the place of a word without an augment; confer, compare आदेशास्तर्हिमे भविष्यन्ति अनागमकानां सागमकाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20; I.1.46. The term āgama is defined as अन्यत्र विद्यमानस्तु यो वर्णः श्रुयतेधिकः । आगम्यमानतुल्यत्वात्स आगम इति स्मृतः Com. on Tait. Prāt.I. 23.
āgarvīyaa class of roots forming a subdivision of the Curādigaṇa or the tenth conjugation beginning with पद् and ending with गर्व् which are only ātmanepadin; exempli gratia, for example पदयते, मृगयते, अर्थयते, गर्वयते.
ācitādia class of words headed by the word अाचित which do not have their final vowel accented acute by P. VI.2.146 when they are preceded by the prepositions प्र, परा et cetera, and others although they are used as proper nouns. exempli gratia, for example आचितम्,निरुक्तम्, प्रश्लिष्टम्; confer, compare Kāśikā on P. VI.2.146.
ādādikabelonging to the second conjugation or class of roots which begins with the root अद्; confer, compare दैवादिकस्यैव ग्रहणं भविष्यति नादादिकस्य Pur.Pari. 67.
aānaṅsubstitute आन् in the place of the last letter (ऋ) of the first member of dvandva compounds of words meaning deities or of words showing blood-relationship which end with the vowel ऋ; exempli gratia, for example होतापोतारौ, मातापितरो confer, compare P.VI.3.25, 26.
ānunāsikyanasalization; utterance through the nose, an additional property possessed by vowels and the fifth letters of the 5 classes (ङ्, ञ्, ण् ,न्, म्) confer, compare आनुनासिक्यं तेषामधिको गुणः M.Bh. on I.1.9.
āmreḍita(1)iterative: a repeated word, defined as द्विरुक्तं पदम् confer, compare द्विरुक्तमात्रेडितं पदम् exempli gratia, for example यज्ञायज्ञा वो अग्नये Vāj. Prāt. I. 146; (2). the second or latter portion, of a repeated word according to Pāṇini; c. तस्य (द्विरुक्तस्य) परमाम्रेडितम् P. VIII.1.2. The Āmreḍita word gets the grave accent and has its last vowel protracted when it implies censure; confer, compare P.VIII.1.3 and VIII. 2.95.Haradatta has tried to explain how the term आम्रेडित means the first member; confer, compare ननु अाम्रेडितशब्दे । निघण्टुषु प्रसिद्धः अाम्रेडितं द्विस्त्रिरुक्तमिति । सत्यमर्थे प्रसिद्धः इह तु शब्दे परिभाष्यते । महासंज्ञाकरणं पूर्वाचार्यानुरोधेन Padamañj. on VIII.1.2.
aāritaddhita affix. affix applied to the word पूर्वतर when the whole word refers to a year, exempli gratia, for exampleपरारि in the last year; confer, compare B.V.3.22 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
āśubodha(1)name of a work on grammar written by Tārānātha called Tarka-vācaspatī, a reputed Sanskrit scholar of Bengal of the 19th century A.D. who compiled the great Sanskrit Dictionary named वाचस्पत्यकेाश and wrote commentaries on many Sanskrit Shastraic and classical works. The grammar called अाशुबोध is very useful for beginners; (2) name of an elementary grammar in aphorisms written by रामकिंकरसरस्वती, which is based on the Mugdhabodha of Bopadeva.
āśvalāyanaprātiśākhyaan authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the Ṛksaṁhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa.
āhitāgnyādia class of compound words headed by the word आहिताग्नि in which the past passive voice. participle. is optionally placed first. exempli gratia, for exampleआहिताग्निः अग्नयाहितः; जातपुत्रः पुत्रजातः The class आहिताम्न्यादि is stated to be आकृतिगण, confer, compare Kāś.on P.II.2.37.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
itaretarayogamutual relationship with each other. Out of the four senses of the indeclinable च viz. समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार, the Dvandva compound is formed of words connected in the last two ways and not in the first two ways. The instances of द्वन्द्व in the sense of इतरेतरयोग are धवखदिरपलाशाः, प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ etc; confer, compare Kāś.on P. II.2.29 confer, compare also प्लक्षश्च न्यग्रोधश्चेत्युक्ते गम्यत एतत्प्लक्षोपि न्यग्रोधसहायो न्यग्रोधोपि प्लक्षसहाय इति M.Bh. on II.2.29; confer, compare also इतरेतरयोगः स यदा उद्रिक्तावयवभेदो भवति Sīradeva's ParibhāṣāvṛttiPari. 16.
itrakṛt affix, added to the roots ऋ, लू, धू et cetera, and others in the sense of instrument confer, compare अर्तिलूधूसूखनसहचर इत्रः P.III. 2.184-6. e. g. अरित्रम् , लवित्रम् खनित्रम् et cetera, and others The words ending in इत्र have got the acute accent on the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.2.144.
iditpossessed of the mute indicatory letter इ; e. g the roots नदि, विदि and the like, in whose case the augment नुम् ( न् ) is affixed to the last vowel; cf इदितो नुम् धातोः P. VII.1.58.
inaṅsubstitute इन् for the last vowel of the words कल्याणी, सुभगा, दुर्भगा and others before the affix ढ i. e. एय prescribed after these words in the sense of offspring e. g. काल्यााणिनेयः, सौभागिनेयः, कौलटिनेयः et cetera, and others confer, compareकल्याण्यादीनामिनङ् P. IV.I.126, 127.
imaugment इ added to the base तृणह, after the last vowel, e. g. तृणोढि; confer, compare तृणह इम् P.VII.3.92.
iyaṅsubstitute for the last इ before a vowel generally in the case of monosyllabic roots ending in इ and the word स्त्री; exempli gratia, for example चिक्षियुः, नियौ नियः, स्त्रियौ स्त्रियः; confer, compare अचि क्षुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ P.VI. 4.77-80.
iṣṭādia class of words headed by the word इष्ट to which the taddhita affix इन् ( इनि ) is added in the sense of अनेन i. e. 'by him' i. e. by the agent of the activity denoted by the past passive voice. participles इष्ट and others; confer, compare इष्टी, यज्ञे, पूर्ती श्राद्धे et cetera, and others Kāś, on P.V.2.88.
iṣṭhavadbhāvapossession of the same properties for causing grammatical operations as the taddhita affix. affix इष्ठन् possesses, as for instance, the elision of the syllable beginning with the last vowel ( टिलोप ), substitution of the masculine gender. base for the feminine. base (पुंवद्भाव) et cetera, and others, before the denom affix णिच्; exempli gratia, for example एतयति in the sense of एनीं आचष्टे; similarly प्रथयति, पटयति, दवयति, confer, compare M.Bh. on. P.VI.4. 155 Vārt, 1.
u(1)labial vowel standing for the long ऊ and protracted ऊ3 in Pāṇini's grammar unless the consonant त् is affixed to it, उत् standing for the short उ only: (2) Vikaraṇa affix उ of the 8th conjugation ( तनादिगण ) and the roots धिन्व् and कृण्व्;confer, compareP.III. 1.79-80; (3) substitute (उ) for the vowel अ of कृ,exempli gratia, for example कुरुतः, कृर्वन्ति before weak Sārvadhātuka affixes, confer, compareP.VI 4.110; (4) kṛt (affix). affix उ added to bases ending in सन् and the roots आशंस्, भिक्ष्, विद्, इष् as also to bases ending in क्यच् in the Vedic Literature,exempli gratia, for example चिकीर्षुः भिक्षुः, बिन्दुः,इच्छुः,सुम्नयु; confer, compare P. III. 2.168-170; (5) Uṅādi affix उ ( उण् ) e.g, कारुः, वायुः, साधुः, et cetera, and others; confer, compare Uṅādi I.1; (6) mute vowel उ added to the first letters of a class of consonants in Pāṇini's grammar to show the whole class of the five letters; exempli gratia, for example कु, चु, टु, तु, पु which stand for the Guttural, the palatal the lingual, the dental and the labial classes respectively; confer, compare also ष्टुना ष्टुः P.VIII.4.41(7) उ added to न् showing the consonant न् as nasalized n; cf, नुः V.Pr. III.133.
ukthādia class of words headed by the word उक्थ to which the taddhita affix इक (ठक् ) is applied in the sense of 'one who studies and understands'; confer, compare उक्थमधीते वेद वा औक्थिकः, similarly लौकायतिकः Kāś. on P.IV.2.60.
uñchādia class of words headed by the word उञ्छ which have their final vowel accented acute (उदात्त) ; confer, compare उञ्छः म्लेच्छा, जल्पः । एते घञन्ता इति ञित्स्वरः प्राप्तः । Kāś. on P. VI.1.160.
uṇādiprātipadikaword form or crude base, ending with an affix of the uṇ class, which is looked upon as practically underived, the affixes un and others not being looked upon as standard affixes applied with regular meanings attached to them and capable of causing operations to the preceding base as prescribed by rules of grammar; confer, compare उणादयोS व्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि । व्युत्पन्नानीति शाकटायनरीत्या । पाणिनेस्त्वव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष एवेति शब्देन्दुशेखरे निरूपितम्. Pari. Śek. on Paribhāṣa 22.
utkarādia class of words headed by the word उत्कर, to which the taddhita affix छ is added in the four senses, the affix being popularly known as चातुरर्थिक; confer, compare उत्करीयम्, शफरीयम् et cetera, and others; Kāś. on P.V.2.90.
uttama(1)the best,the highest,the last: (2) the last letter of the consonantclasses, the nasal; cf, A.Pr.II.4.14; R.Pr.IV.3; confer, compare also अनुत्तम meaning non-nasal; (3) the उत्तमपुरुष or the premier or the first person constituting the affixes मि, वस् and मस् and their substitutes, confer, compare P.I.4.107.
utsaṅgādia class of words headed by the word उत्सङ्ग, to which the taddhita affix इक् ( ठ ) is added in the sense of तेन हरति (takes away by means of): confer, compare हरतिर्देशान्तरप्रापणे वर्तते । उत्सङ्गेन हरति औत्सङ्गिकः । अौडुपिकः । Kāś. on P IV.4.15.
utsādia class of words headed by the word उत्स to which the taddhita affix अञ्, instead of the usual affixes अण् and others, is added in the sense of an offspring: confer, compare औत्स:, औदपानः et cetera, and others Kāś, on P.IV.1.86.
udgātrādia class of words headed by the word उद्गातृ to which the taddhita affix अञ् is added in the sense of 'nature' or 'profession'; confer, compare उद्गातुर्भावः कर्म वा औद्गात्रम् । Similarly औन्नेत्रम् Kāś. on P. V. 1.129.
upakādia class of words headed by the word उपक after which the taddhita affix, added in the sense of गोत्र ( grand-children et cetera, and others ) is optionally elided, provided the word is to be used in the plural number; confer, compare उपकलमकाः भ्रष्टककपिष्ठलाः also उपकाः, औपकायनाः; लमकाः, लामकायना ; भ्रष्टकाः भ्राष्टकयः । Kāś. on P. II.4.69.
upadhāpenultimate letter, as defined in the rule अलोन्त्यात्पूर्वं उपघा P. I. 1.65, exempli gratia, for example see ह्रस्वोपध, दीर्घोपध, लघूपध, अकारोपध et cetera, and others; literally उपधीयते निधीयते सा that which is placed near the last letter.
upadhmānīyaa letter or a phonetic element substituted for a visarga followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class. Visarga is simply letting the breath out of the mouth. Where the visarga is followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class, its pronunciation is coloured by labial utterance. This coloured utterance cannot be made independently; hence this utterance called 'उपध्मानीय' ( similar to a sound blown from the mouth ) is not put in, as an independent letter, in the वर्णसमाम्नाय attributed to महेश्वर. Patañjali, however, has referred to such dependent utterances by the term अयोगवाहवर्ण. See अयेागवाह; confer, compare xक इति जिह्वामूलीयः । जिह्वामूलेन जन्यत्वात् । xप इत्युपध्मानीयः । उपध्मानेन जन्यत्वात्. अयेगवाह is also called अर्धविसर्ग. See अर्धविसर्ग.
upāntaliterally near the last; penultimate. The word is generally found used in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa.
upottamaliterallyone near or before the last; the term is generally used in connection with words having two or more syllables, where it means the vowel before the last (vowel); confer, compare उपोत्तमं रिति P. VI.1.217 and योपधाद्गुरूपोत्तमाद्वुञ् P.V.1.132 where the writer of the Kāśikā explains it as त्रिप्रभृतीनामन्त्यमुत्तमं तस्य समीपमुपोत्तमम् । giving रमणीय and वसनीय as examples where the long ई is upottama; confer, compare also T.Pr. XI.3. and Nir.I.19 where the word refers to the third out of the four feet of the verse.
umthe augment उ, affixed to the last vowel of वच् by P.VII.4.20; exempli gratia, for example अवोचत्
uractad-affix उर, with udātta accent on the last vowel, affixed to the word दन्त when it refers to protuberant teeth; confer, compare P.V.2.66; exempli gratia, for example दन्तुरः ।
uraḥprabhṛtia class of words headed by the word उरस् to which the samāsānta affix क (कप् ) is added, when these words stand at the end of Bahuvrihi compounds; confer, compare व्यूढमुरोस्य व्यूढोरस्कः similarly प्रियसर्पिष्कः, Kāś. on P.V.I.151.
ūryādia class of words headed by the words ऊरी उररी et cetera, and others ending in the taddhita affix च्वि, which are given the designation गति provided they are related to a verbal activity, and as a result, which can be compounded with kṛdanta words ending in त्वा, तुम्, et cetera, and others cf ऊरीकृत्य, ऊरीकृतम् et cetera, and others: Kāś on P, I.4.61.
ṛkprātiśākhyaone of the Prātiśākhya works belonging to the Aśvalāyana Śākha of the Ṛg Veda. The work available at present, appears to be not a very old one,possibly written a century or so after Pāṇini's time. It is possible that the work, which is available, is based upon a few ancient Prātiśākhya works which are lost. Its authorship is attributed to Śaunaka.The work is a metrical one and consists of three books or Adhyāyas, each Adhyāya being made up of six Paṭalas or chapters. It is written, just as the other Prātiśākhya works, with a view to give directions for the proper recitation of the Veda. It has got a scholarly commentary written by Uvaṭa and another one by Kumāra who is also called Viṣṇumitra. See अाश्वलायनप्रातिशाख्य.
ṛgayanādia class of words headed by ऋगयन to which the taddhita affix अण् (अ) is affixed in the sense of 'produced therein' ( तत्र भवः), or 'explanatory of' ( तस्य व्याख्यानः); confer, compare ऋगयने भव:, ऋगयनस्य व्याख्यानो वा अार्गयनः पादव्याख्यानः, औपनिषदः, शैक्ष: et cetera, and others Kāś. on P.IV. 3.73.
ṛgvirāmaverse-pause equal to 3 mātrākālas or three mātrā units. confer, compare ऋग्विरामः पदविरामो विवृत्तिविरामस्समानपदविवृत्तिविरामः त्रिमात्रो द्विमात्र एकमात्रोर्धमात्र आनुपूर्व्येण Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 13. According to Ṛk. Tantra it consists of two mātrās.
ṛśyādia class of words headed by the word ऋश्य to which the taddhita affix क is added in the four senses prescribed in the rules IV. 2.67-70; e. g. ऋश्यकः, न्यग्रोधकः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.2.80.
ekavṛttisingle vṛtti or gloss on the Vedic as well as classical portions of grammar. Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva has used this term in his Bhāṣāvṛtti to contrast his Vṛtti (भाषावृत्ति) with the Kāśikāvṛtti and the Bhāgavṛtti which deal with both the portions; confer, compareअनार्ष इत्येकवृत्तावुपयुक्तम् Bhāṣāvṛtti on I.1.16, confer, comparealso Bhāṣāvṛtti on III. 4.99, IV.3.22 and VI.3.20.एकवृत्ति is possibly used by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva in the sense of मुख्यवृत्ति or साधारणवृत्ति i. e. the common chief gloss on both the portions.
aiṣukāryādia class of words headed by the word एषुकारि to which the taddhita affix भक्त is added in the sense of 'place of residence'; exempli gratia, for example एषुकारिभक्तम्, चान्द्रायणभक्तम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.2.54.
oṣṭhayaliterally produced upon the lip: a letter ofthe labial class;letters उ,ऊ, ओ, औ, प्, फ्, ब्, भ्, म् and व् are given as ओष्ठय letters in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. See the word ओष्ठ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For the utterance of the letter व् tips of the teeth. are also employed; hence the letter व् is said to have दन्तौष्ठ as its स्थान.. ओस् the case affix ओस् of the genitive case and the loc, dual number
aauṇādikaan afix mentioned in the class of affixes called उणादि in treatises of Pāṇini and other grammarians; confer, compare नमुचि । मुचेरौणादिकः केिप्रत्ययः Kāś.on P.VI.3.75; फिडफिड्डौ अौणादिकौ प्रत्ययौ M.Bh. on Māheśvarasūtras. 2. See the word उणादि a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
yamaa letter called यम which is uttered partly through the nose. A class consonant excepting the fifth, when followed by the fifth viz. ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न or म् , gets doubled in the Vedic recital, when the second of the doubled consonant which is coloured by the following nasal consonant is called यम. This यम letter is not independent. It necessarily depends upon the following nasal consonant and hence it is called अयोगवाह. The nasalization is shown in script as xx followed by the consonant; e. g. पलिक्क्नी, अगूग्रे, et cetera, and others The pronunciation of this yama or twin letter is seen in the Vedic recital only; confer, compare पलिक्कनी ... कखगघेभ्य; परे तत्सदृशा एव यमाः S. K. on P. VIII. 2.1. confer, compare कु खु गु घु इति यमाः विंशतिसंख्याका भवन्ति Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII.24.
karkyādia class of words headed by the word कर्की, the word प्रस्थ after which in a compound, does not have the acute accent on its first vowel. e. g. कर्कीप्रस्थः; confer, compare P.VI.2.87.
kacchādia class of words headed by कच्छ to which the taddhita affix अण् is added in the miscellaneous (शैषिक) senses, provided the word, to which the affix अण् is to be added, is the name of a country; exempli gratia, for example ऋषिकेषु जातः आर्षिकः similarly माहिषिकः, ऐक्ष्वाकः; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.2.133.
kaḍārādia class of words headed by the word कडार which, although adjectival,are optionally placed first in the Karmadhāraya compound, exempli gratia, for example कडारजैमिनिः जैमिनिकडारः; confer, compare Kāś. on II.2.38.
karṇādi(1)a class of words headed by कर्ण to which the taddhita affix अायन ( फिञ् ) is applied in the four senses given in P.IV.2.67-70; exempli gratia, for example कार्णायनिः वासिष्ठायनिः et cetera, and others; cf Kāś. on P.IV.2.80; (2) a class of words headed by कर्ण to which the taddhita affix जाह (जाहच्) is added in the sense of a 'root' exempli gratia, for example कर्णजाहम् ; confer, compare Kāś. on P.V.2.24.
kaṇvādia class of words forming a portion of the class of words called गर्गादि, and headed by the word कण्व, to the derivatives of which, formed by the afix यञ् by the rule गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् (P.IV.1.105) the affix अण् is added in the miscellaneous senses; exempli gratia, for example काण्वाः छात्राः; similarly गौकक्षाः, शाकलाः , अगस्तयः, कुण्डिनाः etc: confer, compare P.IV.2.111 and II. 4.70.
katryādia class of words headed by the word कत्रि to which the taddhita affix. affix एयक (ढकञ्) is applied in the miscellaneous senses; exempli gratia, for example कात्रेयकः, ग्रामेयकः, कौलेयकः (from कुल्या); confer, compare P. IV.2.75.
kathādia class of words headed by कथा the word कथा to which the affix इक (ठक्) is added in the sense of 'good therein' (तत्र साधुः); exempli gratia, for example काथिकः, वैतण्डिकः, गाणिकः, अायुर्वेदिकः confer, compare P.IV.4.102.
kambojādia class of words headed by the word कम्बोज, the affix अञ् placed after which is elided, provided the words कम्बोज and others are names of countries; exempli gratia, for example कम्बोजः चोलः, केरलः, शकः, यवनः et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV.1.175.
kalyāṇyādia class of words headed by the word कल्याणी to which the taddhita affix एय (ढक्) is added, in the sense of 'offspring' and, side by side, the ending इन् (इनड्) is substituted for the last letter of those words; e. g. काल्याणिनेयः, सौभागिनेयः confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV. 1.126.
kavargathe class of guttural consonants consisting of the five consonants क्, ख्, ग्, घ् ङ्
kaskādia class of compound-words headed by कस्क in which the visarga occurring at the end of the first member is noticed as changed into स् against the usual rules e. g. कस्क:, कौतस्कुतः भ्रातुष्पुत्रः, सद्यस्कालः, धनुष्कपालम् and others; confer, compare P. VIII.3.48. As this कस्कादिगण is said to be अाकृतिगण, similar words can be said to be in the कस्कादिगण although they are not actually mentioned in the गणपाठ.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantraparibhāṣāpāṭhaname given to a text consisting of Paribhāṣāsūtras, believed to have been written by the Sūtrakāra himself as a supplementary portion to the main grammar. Many such lists of Paribhāṣāsūtras are available, mostly in manuscript form, containing more than a hundred Sūtras divided into two main groups-the Paribhāṣā sūtras and the Balābalasūtras. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
kārtakaujapādia class of words headed by the word कार्तकौजप, which are all dvandva compounds, and which have their first member retaining its own accent; e. g. कार्तकौजपौ, आवन्त्यश्मकाः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P.VI.2.37.
kāśādia class of words headed by the word काश to which the taddhita affix इल is affixed in the four senses stated in P.IV.2.67-70 exempli gratia, for example काशिलम्, कर्दमिलम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.2.80.
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
kāśyādia class of words headed by the words काशि, चेदि and others to which the taddhita affixes ठञ् and ञिठ are added in the miscellaneous senses; exempli gratia, for example काशिकी, काशिका; वैदिकी, वैदिका et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on P. IV. 2.116. The feminine. afix ई is applied when the affix ठञ् is added to the word काशि; confer, compare P. IV. 1.15.
kāṣṭhādia class of words headed by the word काष्ठ after which a word standing as a second member in a compound gets the grave accent for it,e. g. काष्ठाध्यापकः, परमाध्यापक et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII.1.67.
kiṃśulakādia class of words headed by the word किंशुलक, which get their final vowel lengthened when the word गिरि is placed after them as a second member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e. g. किंशुलकागिरिः, अञ्जनागिरिः; confer, compare Kāś. on P. VI.3.117.
kirādia class of roots headed by the root कॄ, viz. the five roots कॄ, गॄ, दृ, धृ and प्रच्छ् after which the desiderative sign, id est, that is the affix सन्, gets the augment इ (इट्); exempli gratia, for example चिकरिषति, पिप्रच्छिषति: confer, compare Kāś. on P.VII.2.75.
kiśarādi,kisarādia class of words headed by किसर meaning some kind of scent, which get the taddhita affix इक (ष्टन्) applied to them when the word so formed means 'a dealer of that thing;' exempli gratia, for example किशारिकः, किशारिकी cf; Kāś. on P. IV.4.53.
ku(1)guttural class of consonants, ie the consonants क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ् The vowel उ added to क्, signifies the class of क्. e. g. चजोः कु घिण्यतो, VII.3.52, कुहोश्चुः VII.4.62, चोः कुः VIII.2.30, किन्प्रत्ययस्य कुः; VIII.2.62; confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P.I.1.69; (2) substitute कु for किम् confer, compare P.VII.2. 104.
kuñjādia class of words headed by कुञ्ज to which the taddhita affix अायन (च्फञ्) is applied in the sense of गोत्र i. e. grandchildren etc e. g. कौञ्जायनाः confer, compare Kāś, on P.IV.1.9.
kutvasubstitution of the consonants of the क् class or guttural consonants
kumudādiclass of words (१) consisting of कुमुद, शर्करा, न्यग्रोध et cetera, and others to which the taddhita affix ठक् is applied in the four senses given in P.IV.2.67-70; exempli gratia, for example कुमुदिकम्,शर्करिकम् etc(2) consisting of कुमुद गोमय, रथकार etc to which the taddhita affix इक ( ठक् ) is applied in the senses referred to in (I): exempli gratia, for example कौमुदिकम् , राथकारिकम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś, on P.IV.2.80.
kumbhapadyādia class of words headed by कुम्भपदी in which the word पाद at the end of the compound is changed into पाद् and further changed into पद् before the feminine affix ई; exempli gratia, for example कुम्भपदी, शतपदी, द्रुपदी, पञ्चपदी et cetera, and others; cf Kāś. on P. V.4.138, 139.
kurvādia class of words headed by the word कुरु to which the taddhita affix य ( ण्य ) is added in the sense of अपत्य or descendant; exempli gratia, for example कौरव्यः गार्ग्यः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś, on P.IV.1.51.
kulālādia class of words headed by the word कुलाल to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुञ्) is applied in the sense of 'made by', provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e g.कौलालकम् , वारुडकम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.3.118.
kuvyavāyaintervention by a letter of the guttural class;confer, compare कुव्यवाये हादेशेषु प्रतिषेधो वक्तव्यः । प्रयोजनं वृत्रघ्नः, स्रुघ्नः प्राघानीति, P.VIII.4.2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4,5.
kṛtādeia class of words such as कृत, मित, मत, भूत, उक्त and others with which the words श्रेणि, एक, पूग, कुण्ड, राशि and others are compounded, provided both the words forming the compound are in the same case;.exempli gratia, for example श्रेणिकृता:, एककृताः, कुण्डभूताः et cetera, and others cf Kāś. on P.II.1.59.
kṛtārthalit which has got its purpose served: a term used in connection with a rule that has been possible to be applied (without clash with another rule) in the case of certain instances, although it comes into conflict in the case of other istances confer, compare तत्र कृतार्थत्वाद् दिकशब्दपक्षे परेण ठञ्जतौ स्याताम् Kāś. P.IV. 3.5. The word चरितार्थ is used almost in the same sense.
kṛśāśvādia class of words headed by the word कृशाश्वं to which the taddhita affix ईय (छण् ) is applied in the four senses given in P.IV.2. 67-70, exempli gratia, for example कार्शीश्वीयः, आरिष्टीयः confer, compare Kāś, on P.IV.2.80.
koṭarādia class of words headed by the word कोटर which get their final vowel lengthened when the word वन is placed after them as a seconditional member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; exempli gratia, for example कोटरावणम्, मिश्रकावणम्. confer, compare Kāś. on P.VI.3.117.
kratvādia class of words headed by the word क्रतु, which have their first vowel accented acute in a Bahuvrīhi dompound, provided the first member of the compound is the word सु; exempli gratia, for example सुक्रतुः, सुप्रपूर्तिः et cetera, and others; confer, compare confer, compare Kāś. on P. VI.2.118.
kramapāṭharecital of the Vedic Saṁhitā by means of separate groups of two words, repeating each word except the first of the Vedic verseline; see क्रम a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The various rules and exceptions are given in detail in Paṭalas ten and eleven of the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. The Vedic Saṁhitā or Saṁhitāpāṭha is supposed to be the original one and the Padapāṭha prepared later on, with a view to preserving the Vedic text without any change or modification of a letter, or accent; confer, compare न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and VIII. 2.16, where Patañjali clearly says that grammar-rules are not to follow the Padapāṭha, but, the writer of the Padapāṭha is to follow the rules already laid down. The Jaṭāpāṭha, the Ghanapāṭha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapāṭha as they are not mentioned in the Prātiśākhya works.
kramādia class of words headed by the word क्रम to which the taddhita affix अक (वुञ् ) is added in the sense of 'one who studies and understands'; e. g. क्रमकः, पदकः, मीमांसकः, शिक्षकः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on IV. 2.61.
kraiyādikaa root belonging to the class of roots which are headed by क्री and which are popularly known as roots of the ninth conjugation; confer, compare यथा तु वार्तिकं तथा कैयादिकस्याप्यत्र ग्रहणमिष्यते Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.48.
kroḍādia class of words headed by the word क्रोड to which the taddhita affix य ( ष्यङ् ) is added in the sense of a female descendant; exempli gratia, for example क्रौड्या, आपिशल्या, गौकक्ष्या et cetera, and others ; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.1.80.
krauḍyādia class of words headed by the word क्रौडि which do not take the feminine affix ई when they stand at the end of a compound; exempli gratia, for example कल्याणक्रौडा, सुभगा, पृथुजघना et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.1.56.
krayādigaṇaa class of roots headed by the root क्री ( डुक्रीञ् ) to which the conjugational sign ना ( श्ना ) is added; roots of the ninth conjugation.
kṣubhnādia class of wordings such as क्षुभ्ना, तृप्नु and the like in which the consonant न् is not changed into ण् although the consonant न् is preceded by ऋ, ॠ, र् or ष् and intervened by letters which are admissible; e. g. क्षुभ्नाति, तृप्नोति, नृनमनः et cetera, and others cf Kāś. on P. VIII. 4.39. This class ( क्षुभ्नादिगण ) is styled as आकृतिगण.
khsecond consonant of the guttural class of consonants possessed of श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष and विवार qualities.
khaṇḍikādia class of words headed by the word खण्डिका to which the affix अञ् is added in the sense of collection; e. g. खाण्डिकम्, वाडवम्, भैक्षुकम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P. IV.2.45.
khaythe pratyāhāra खयू standing for the first and second consonants of the five classes; confer, compare शर्पूर्वाः खयः P.VII.4.6; also confer, compare P. VIII.3.6, VIII.4.54.
kharthe pratyāhāra खर् standing for hard consonants viz. the first and second letters of the five classes and the sibilants, before which, स् at the end of a word becomes विसर्ग, and soft consonants i. e. the third and fourth consonants of the five classes become hard; confer, compare खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीय; P. VIII.3.15, and खरि च P. VIII.4.55
gthird letter of the guttural class of consonants, possessed of the properties घोष, संवृत, नाद and अल्पप्राण; some grammarians look upon the word क्ङित् (P.I.1.5) as made up of क् , ग् and ङ् and say that the Guna and Vṛddhi substitutes do not take place in the vowels इ, उ, ऋ, and लृ if an affix or so, marked by the mute letter ग् follows.
gaṅgādhara[GANGADHARA SHASTRI TELANG] (l)a stalwart grammarian and Sanskrit scholar of repute who was a pupil of Bālasarasvatī of Vārāṇaśī and prepared in the last century a host of Sanskrit scholars in Banaras among whom a special mention could be made of Dr. Thebaut, Dr. Venis and Dr. Gaṅgānātha Jhā. He was given by Government of India the titles Mahāmahopādhyāya and C. I.E. His surname was Mānavallī but he was often known as गङाधरशास्त्री तेलङ्ग. For details, see Mahābhāṣya, D.E. Society Ed.Poona p.p.33, 34; (2)an old scholar of Vyākarana who is believed to have written a commentary on Vikṛtavallī of Vyādi; (3) a comparatively modern scholar who is said to have written a commentary named Induprakāśa on the Śabdenduśekhara; (4) author of the Vyākaraṇadīpaprabhā, a short commentary on the Vyākaraṇa work of Cidrūpāśramin. See चिद्रूपाश्रमिन्.
gaṇaa class of words, as found in the sūtras of Pāṇini by the mention of the first word followed by the word इति; exempli gratia, for example स्वरादि, सर्वादि, ऊर्यादि, भ्वादि, अदादि, गर्गादि et cetera, and others The ten gaṇas or classes of roots given by Pāṇini in his dhātupātha are given the name Daśagaṇī by later grammarians.
gaṇapāṭhathe mention individually of the several words forming a class or gaṇa, named after the first word said to have been written by Pāṇini himself as a supplementary work to his great grammar called Aṣṭaka or Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., the Sikṣā,the Dhātupātha and the Lingānuśāsana being the other ones. Other grammarians such as शाकटायन, अापिशलि and others have their own gaṇapāthās. The gaṇapāthā is traditionally ascribed to Pāṇini; the issue is questioned, however, by modern scholars. The text of the gaṇapāṭha is metrically arranged by some scholars. The most scholarly and authoritative treatise on gaṇapāṭha is the Gaṇaratnamahodadhī of Vardhamāna.
gamyādia class of words headed by the word गमी which are formed by the application of unādi affixes in the sense of future time; e. g. गमी ग्रामम्, अागामी, प्रस्थायी et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 3. 3.
gargādigaṇaa class of words headed by गर्ग to which the affix यञ्, ( य ) causing Vṛddhi to the first vowel of the word, is added in the sense of a descendant barring the son or daughter; confer, compare गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् P. IV. 1.105 and the instances गार्ग्यः, वात्स्यः, वैयाघ्रपद्यः, पौलस्यः confer, compare Kāś. on P. IV. 1. 105.
gavādia class of words headed by the word गो to which the affix यत् is affixed in the senses mentioned in rules from P. V. 1, 5. to V. 1. 36; e. g. गव्यम् , हविष्यम् युग्यम् , मेध्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.1,2.
gahādia class of words headed by the word गह to which the taddhita affix ईय (छ) is added in the Saisika or miscellaneous senses; e. g. गहीयम् , अन्तस्थीयम्; this class called 'gahiya' is looked upon as अाकृतिगण, and hence the words वैणुकीयम् वैत्रकीयम् and the like could be explained as correct; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.138.
guḍādia class of words headed by the word गुड to which the taddhita affix इक ( ठञ् ) is added in the sense of 'good therein'; exempli gratia, for example गौडिकः इक्षुः, कौल्माषिको मुद्गः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on p. IV. 4.103.
guṇādia class of words headed by the word गुण, which, when preceded by the word बहु in a Bahuvrihi compound, do not have their last vowel acute; e. g. बहुगुणा रज्जुः; बह्वक्षरं पदम् , et cetera, and others This class of गुणादि words is considered as आकृतिगण; confer, compare Kas, on P. VI. 2.176.
gṛṣṭyādia class of words headed by the word गृष्टि to which the taddhita affix एय (ढञ्) is affixed in the sense off 'an offspring' ( अपत्य): e g. गार्ष्टेयः, हालेयः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.1.136.
gopavanādia class of eight words headed by the word गोपवन, the taddhita affix in the sense of गोत्र ( i. e. a descendant excepting a son or a daughter) such as the affix यञ् or अञू after which, is not elided in the plural number; c. g. गौपवना:, शौग्रवा: et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 4.67.
goṣadādia class of words to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुन् ) is added in the sense of possession provided the word so formed refers to a chapter ( अध्याय ) or a section ( अनुवाक ) c. दैवासुरः, वैमुक्तः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.62.
gaurādia class of words to which the affix ई ( ङीष्) is added to form the feminine base; exempli gratia, for example गौरी, मत्सी, हयी, हरिणी; the class contains a large number of words exceeding 150; for details see Kasika on P.IV.1. 41; (2) a small class of eleven words, headed by the word गौर which do not have the acute accent on the last syllable in a tatpurusa compound when they are placed after the preposition उप; confer, compare P. VI.2.194.
grahādia class of roots headed by the root ग्रह् to which the affix इन् (णिनि), causing vrddhi to the preceding vowel of the root, is added in the sense of an agent: exempli gratia, for example ग्राही, उत्साही, स्थायी, मन्त्री et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III. 1.134.
gh(1)fourth consonant of the guttural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदानत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2)the consonant घ at the beginning of a taddhita affix. affix which is always changed into इय्; confer, compare P. VII. 1. 9; (3) substitute for ह् at the end of roots beginning with द्, as also of the root नह् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.VIII.2.32,33,34; (4) substitute for the consonant व् of मतुव् placed after the pronouns किम् and इदम् which again is changed into इय् by VII.1.9: exempli gratia, for example कियान्, इयान्: confer, compare P.V. 2.40.
(1)fifth letter of the guttural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदान, अल्पप्राणत्व and अानुनासिक्य; (2) the consonant ङ् getting the letter ,क as an augment added to it, if standing at the end of a word and followed by a sibilant, e. g. प्राङ्कूशेते confer, compare ङ्णो: कुक् टुक् शरि P. VIII. 3.28; (3) the consonant ङ् which, standing at the end of a word and preceded by a short vowel, causes the vowel following it to get the augment ङ् prefixed to it; e. g, प्रत्यङ्ङास्ते confer, compare ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण् नित्यम् P. VIII.3.32.
ṅa(1)fifth consonant of the guttural class of consonants which is a nasal ( अनुनासिक ) consonant; the vowel अ being added at the end for facility of pronunciation; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.21; (2) a conventional term used for all the nasal consonants in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ṅit(l)affixes with the mute letter ङ् attached to them either before or after, with a view to preventing the guna and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding इ, उ, ऋ, or लृ, as for example, the affixes चङ्, अङ् and others (2) affixes conventionally called ङित् after certain bases under certain conditions; confer, compare गाङ्कुटादिम्यो ञ्णिन्ङित् P. I. 2. 1-4; (3) roots marked with the mute letter ङ् signifying the application of the Atmanepada terminations to them: (4) substitutes marked with mute ङ् which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which they are prescribed as substitutes; (5) case affixes marked with mute letter ङ् which cause the substitution of guna to the last vowel इ or उ of words termed घि.
ḍīṃnfeminine. affix ई added to words in the class headed by शार्ङ्गरव: confer, compare P. IV. 1. 73. Words ending with this affix ङीन् have their first vowel accented acute.
ṅīṣfeminine. afix ई, which is udatta, applied to words in the class of words headed by गौर, as also to noun bases ending in affixes marked with.mute ष्, as also to words mentioned in the class headed by बहुः confer, compare P.IV.1.41-46.It is also added in the sense of 'wife of' to any word denoting a male person; confer, compare P. IV. 1. 48, and together with the augment आनुक् (आन्) to the words इन्द्र, वरुण etc exempli gratia, for example इन्द्राणी, वरुणानि, यवनानि meaning 'the script of the Yavanas' confer, compare P. IV. 1.49. It is also added words ending in क्रीत and words ending in क्त and also to words expressive of ' limbs of body ' under certain conditions; confer, compare P.IV.1. 50-59 and IV. 1.61-65.
cfirst consonant of palatal class of consonants, possessed of the properties, श्वास, अघोष, अल्पप्राण and कण्ठविवृतत्व. च् at the beginning of an affix is mute e. g. च्फञ्, confer, compare चुट् P. I. 3.7; words, having the mute letter च् (dropped), have their last vowel accented acute e. g. भङ्गुरम् । भासुरम् । confer, compare चित: VI. 1.163.
ca(l)the letter च्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance, cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) a Bratyahara or short term standing for the palatal class of consonants च्, छ्, ज्,झ् and ञ्; cf इचशेयास्तालौ Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 66; (3) indeclinable च called Nipata by Panini; confer, compare चादयोSसत्त्वे P. I. 4.57, च possesses four senses समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 2.29. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2.29 Vart. 15 for a detailed explanation of the four senses. The indeclinable च is sometimes used in the sense of 'a determined mention' or avadharana; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 1.48 and 72. It is also used for the purpose of अनुवृत्ति or अनुकर्षण i. e. drawing a word from the previous rule to the next rule; (confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.90) with a convention that a word drawn thus, does not proceed to the next rule; confer, compare चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र Par. Sek Pari. 78; (4) a conventional term for अभ्यास (reduplicative syllable) used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; confer, compare चविकारेषु अपवादा उत्सर्गान्न बाधन्ते Kat. Pari. 75.
caya short term (Pratyahara) for the first letters ( क् , च् , ट् त्, and प्र) of the five classes. Sometimes as opined by पौष्करसादि, second letters are substituted for these if a sibilant follows them, e. g,अफ्सराः, वध्सरः । confer, compare चयो द्वितीयाः शरि पौप्करसांदरिति वाच्यम् confer, compare S.K. on ङूणोः कुक्टुक् शरि P. VIII.3.28.
carkarītaa term used by the ancient grammarians in connection with a secondary root in the sense of frequency; the term यङ्लुगन्त is used by comparatively modern grammarians in the same sense. The चर्करीत roots are treated as roots of the adadi class or second conjugation and hence the general Vikarana अ ( शप् ) is omitted after them.The word is based on the 3rd person. sing form चर्करीति from .the root कृ in the sense of frequency; exempli gratia, for example चर्करीति, चर्कर्ति, बोभवीति बोभोति; confer, compare चर्करीतं च a gana-sutra in the gana named ’adadi’ given by Panini in connection with अदिप्रभृतिभ्य; शपः Pāṇini. II.4.72; confer, compare also चर्करीतमिति यङ्लुकः प्राचां संज्ञा Bhasa Vr. on P. II. 4.72, The word चेक्रीयित is similarly used for the frequentative when the sign of the frequentative viz. य ( यङ् ) is not elidedition See चेक्रीयित.
cavargathe group of consonants of the palatal class,.wiz.च् , छ् , ज् , झ् , and ञ्. The word च is used in the same sense in the Pratisakhya works.See the word च.
cāturvarṇyādiwords mentioned in the class headed by चातुर्वर्ण्य where the taddhita affix. affix ष्यञ् is applied although the words चतुर्वर्ण, चतुर्वेद and others are not गुणवचन words to which ष्यञ् is regularly applied by P. V-1-124. confer, compare ब्राह्मणादिषु चातुर्वर्ण्यादीनामुपसंख्यानम् P. V. I. 124 Vart. 1.
cādia class of words headed by च which are termed निपात by Panini e gच,वा,ह, एवम् नूनम्, चेत्, माङ् et cetera, and others; confer, compare चादयोSसत्वे. P. I.4.57. For the meaning of the word असत्त्व see p.370 Vyakaranamahabhasya. Vol. VII. published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
citaffixes or substitutes or bases marked with the mute letter च् signifying the acute accent for the last vowel; e. g. अथुच्, धुरच्, कुण्डिनच् et cetera, and others cf P. VI. 1. 163, 164.
citkaraṇamarking with the mute letter च्, signifying the acute accent of the last vowel; confer, compare चापि चित्करणसामर्थ्यादन्तोदात्तत्वं भविष्यति: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.3 Vart, 16.
curādia class or group of roots headed by the root चुर्, familiarly known as the tenth conjugation.
chthe second consonant of the palatal class of consonants ( चवर्ग ), which is possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, मह्याप्राण and कण्ठविवृतकारित्व. छ् , placed at the beginning of affixes, is mute; while ईय् is substituted for छ् standing at the beginning of taddhita affixes; confer, compare P. I. 3.7 and VII. 1.2. छ् at the end of roots has got ष्, substituted for it: confer, compare P. VIII. 2.36.
chataddhita affix. affix ईय, added ( 1 ) to the words स्वसृ, भ्रातृ and to words ending with the taddhita affix. affix फिञ्: confer, compare P. IV. 1.143,144 and 149; (2) to the dvandva compound of words meaning constellations,to the words अपोनप्तृ, अपांनप्तृ, महेन्द्र, द्यावापृथिवी, शुनासीर et cetera, and others as also to शर्करा, उत्कर , नड et cetera, and others in certain specified senses, confer, compare P. IV. 2.6, 28, 29, 32, 48, 84, 90 &91 ;(3) to words beginning with the vowel called Vrddhi (आ,ऐ or औ),to words ending with गर्त, to words of the गह class, and to युष्मद् and अस्मद् in the शैषिक senses, confer, compare P. IV. 3.114, 137-45 and IV. 3.1 ; (4) to the words जिह्वामूल, अङ्गुलि, as also to words ending in वर्ग in the sense of 'present there '; confer, compare P.IV.3.62-64; (5) to the words शिशुक्रन्द, यमसम, dvandva compounds, इन्द्रजनन and others in the sense of 'a book composed in respect of', confer, compare P.IV. 3.88; (6)to words meaning warrior tribes, to words रैवतिक etc, as also अायुध, and अग्र, in some specified senses: cf P.IV. 3.91, 131, IV. 4.14, 117; (7) to all words barring those given as exceptions in the general senses mentioned in the second. V.I.1-37; (8) to the words पुत्र, कडङ्कर, दक्षिण, words ending in वत्सर, अनुप्रवचन et cetera, and others होत्रा, अभ्यमित्र and कुशाग्र in specified senses; confer, compare P. V. 1. 40, 69,70,91,92, 111,112,135, V. 2.17, V.3.105; (9) to compound words in the sense of इव; e. g. काकतालीयम् , अजाकृपाणीयम् et cetera, and others confer, compare V. 3. 106;and (10) to words ending in जति and स्थान in specified senses; confer, compare P. V.4, 9,10.
jthird consonant of the palatal class of consonants, possessed of the properties नाद, घोष, अल्पप्राण and कण्ठसंवृत्तकारित्व. ज् at the beginning of affixes is mute in Panini's grammar.
jaśa short term ( प्रत्याहार ) signifying the soft inaspirate class consonants ज्,ब्,ग्,ड् and द्.
jaśtvasubstitution of a जश् consonant prescribed by Panini for any consonant excepting a semi-vowel or a nasal, if followed by any fourth or third consonant out of the class consonants, or if it is at the end of a pada; confer, compare P.VIII. 2.39, VIII.4. 53.
jātigenus; class;universal;the notion of generality which is present in the several individual objects of the same kindeclinable The biggest or widest notion of the universal or genus is सत्ता which, according to the grammarians, exists in every object or substance, and hence, it is the denotation or denoted sense of every substantive or Pratipadika, although on many an occasion vyakti or an individual object is required for daily affairs and is actually referred to in ordinary talks. In the Mahabhasya a learned discussion is held regarding whether जाति is the denotation or व्यक्ति is the denotation. The word जाति is defined in the Mahabhasya as follows:आकृतिग्रहणा जातिर्लिङ्गानां च न सर्वभाक् । सकृदाख्यातनिर्गाह्या गोत्रं च चरणैः सह ॥ अपर आह । ग्रादुभीवविनाशाभ्यां सत्त्वस्य युगपद्गुणैः । असर्वलिङ्गां बह्वर्थो तां जातिं कवयो विदुः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV. 1.63. For details see Bhartphari's Vakyapadiya.
jātisvarathe acute accent for the last vowel of a word ending with क्त of the past passive participle. denoting a genus; confer, compare P. VI. 2.170.
jit(l)literally affix marked with the mute letter ज्; e. g. जस्, जसि, जुस्. the word जित् is not however found used in this sense; (2) a word supposed to be marked with the mute indicatory letter ज्.The word is used in this sense by the Varttikakara saying that such a word does not denote itself but its synonyms; confer, compare जित् पर्यायवचनस्यैव राजांद्यर्थम् P.I.1.68 Vart. 7. In the Sutra सभा राजामनुष्यपूर्वा P.II. 4. 23, the word राजन् is supposed to be जित् and hence it denotes इन्, ईश्वर et cetera, and others; but not the word राजन् itself; (3) In the Pratisakhya works जित् means the first two consonants of each class (वर्ग); exempli gratia, for example क्, ख्,च्, छ्. et cetera, and others which are the same as खय् letters in Panini's terminology; confer, compare द्वौ द्वौ प्रथमौ जित्, V. Pr.I.50;III.13.
juhotyādigaṇathe class of roots headed by हु after which the vikarana Sap is elided and the root is reduplicated in the four conjugational tenses; third conjugation of roots.
jvalitistanding for ज्वलादि, name of a class of 30 roots headed by the root ज्वल दीप्तौ and given as चल कम्पने, जल घातने etc; cf: ज्वलितिकसन्तेभ्यो णः P. III. 1.140.
jhfourth consonant of the palatal class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, and महाप्राणत्व; झ् at the beginning of an affix in Panini Sutras is mute; e. g. the affixes झि, झ et cetera, and others; cf चुटूं P. I. 3.7.
jhacwording of the affix झ (see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) suggested by the Varttikakara to have the last vowel of अन्त acute, by चितः (P.VI.1.163) the property चित्व being transferred from the original झ to अन्त; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. तथा च झचश्चित्करणमर्थवद् भवति on P.VII.1.3.
jhaya short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the fourth, third, second and first consonants of the five classes, after which ह् is changed into the cognate of the preceding consonant while श्, is changed into छ् optionally; confer, compare P. VIII. 4.62, 63.
jhaśshort term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the fourth and the third of the class consonants; confer, compare P, VIII. 4.53, 54.
jhaṣshort term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the fourth ( झ, भ, घ, ढ and ध) of the class consonants; confer, compare P.VIII. 2.37, 40.
ñ(1)the nasal (fifth consonant) of the palatal class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, कण्टसंवृतत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्य; (2) mute letter, characterized by which an affix signifies वृद्धि for the preceding vowel; ञ् of a taddhita affix, however, signifies वृद्धि for the first vowel of the word to which the affix is added; (3) a mute letter added to a root at the end to signify that the root takes verb-endings of both the padas.
the first consonant of the lingual class ( टवर्ग ) possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When prefixed or affixed to an affix as an indicatory letter, it signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ); confer, compare P. IV. 1.15, When added to the conjugational affixes ( लकार ) it shows that in the Atmanepada the vowel of the last syllable is changed to ए. confer, compare P. III. 4.79. When added to an augment ( अागम ), it shows that the augment marked with it is to be prefixed and not to be affixed; e. g. नुट्, तुट् et cetera, and others; cf P. I. 1.46.
ṭa(1)the consonant ट्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance; confer, compare अकारो व्यञ्जनानाम्, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) short term, (प्रत्याहार) standing for टवगे or the lingual class of consonants, found used mostly in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare RT. 13, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 64, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 27: (3) taddhita affix. affix ( अ ) added to the word फल्गुनी in the sense ' तत्र जातः' e. g. फल्गुनी, confer, compare P. IV. 3.34, Vart. 2; (4) krt affix ( अ ) added to the root चर्, सृ and कृ under certain conditions; e. g. कुरुचर:, अग्रेसुर:, यशस्करी ( विद्या ) दिवाकरः, वेिभकरः कर्मकरः et cetera, and others confer, compare P. III. 2.16-23.
ṭavargathe class of lingual consonants; the same as टु in Panini.
ṭu(1)mute syllable टु prefixed to roots to signify the addition of the affix अथुच् in the sense of verbal activity; e. g. वेपथुः, श्वयथु:, confer, compare P.III. 3.89; (2) the class of lingual consonants ट्, ठ्, ड्, ढ् and ण्; cf चुटू P. I. 3.7.
ṭayultaddhita affix. affix added in the same way as टयु a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., making only a difference in the accent. When the affix टयुल् is added, the acute accent is given to the last vowel of the word preceding the affix.
ṭhthe second consonant of the lingual class possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्टत्व and महाप्राणत्व. For the syllable ठ at the beginning of taddhita affixes, the syllable इक is substituted; if however the affix (beginning with ठ ) follows upon a word ending in इस्, उस्, उ, ऋ, लृ and त् then क is added instead of इक; e. g. धानुष्क:, औदश्वित्कः et cetera, and others; confer, compare टस्येकः, इसुसुक्तान्तात् कः, P. VII. 3.50, 51. Some scholars say that इक् and क् are substituted for ठ् by the sutras quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare KS. on VII. 3.50.
ṭhañtaddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) causing Vrddhi and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, applied (1) to महृाराज, प्रोष्ठपद and क्वाचिन् in the specifieditionsenses, confer, compare P. IV.2.35, 4l e. g. माहृाराजिक, प्रौष्ठपदिक et cetera, and others; (2) to words काशि, चेदि, संज्ञा and others, along with ञिठ, e. g. काशिकी, काशिका, also with ञिठ to words denoting villages in the Vahika country exempli gratia, for example शाकलिकी शाकलिका; as also to words ending in उ forming names of countries in all the Saisika senses confer, compare P. IV.2.116-120; (3) to compound words having a word showing direction as their first member, to words denoting time, as also to the words शरद्, निशा and प्रदोष in the Saisika senses; cf P. IV.3.6, 7, 1115; (4) to the words वर्षा (1n Vedic Literature), and to हेमन्त and वसन्त in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P.IV.3.1921; (5) to संवत्सर, अाग्रहायणी, words having अन्तः as the first member, to the word ग्राम preceded by परि or अनु, to multisyllabic words having their last vowel accented acute, to words denoting sacrifices, to words forming names of sages, to words ending in ऋ and to the word महाराज in the specific senses which are mentioned; confer, compare P. IV.3.50, 60, 61, 67, 68, 69, 78, 79, 97; (6) to the words गोपुच्छ, श्वगण, आक्रन्द, लवण, परश्वध, compound words having a multisyllabic words as their first member, and to the words गुड et cetera, and others in the specified senses;confer, compareP.IV.4.6,II, 38, 52, 58, 64, 103;(7) to any word as a general taddhita affix. affix (अधिकारविहित), unless any other affix has been specified in the specified senses ' तेन क्रीतम् ' ' तस्य निमित्तम्' ... ' तदर्हम्' mentioned in the section of sutras V. 1. 18. to 117; (8) to the words अय:शूल, दण्ड, अजिन, compound words having एक or गो as their first member as also to the words निष्कशत and निष्कसहस्र; confer, compare P.V.2.76, 118,119.
(1)third letter of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, and अल्पप्राण; (2) mute letter applied to affixes by Panini to show the elision of the टि part (confer, compare P. 1. 1.64.) of the preceding word viz. the penultimate vowel and the consonant or consonants following it; cf, टेः ; ( लोप: डिति प्रत्यये परे ) VI.4.143. The syllable ति of विंशति is also elided before an affix markwith the mute letter ड्.
ḍatarāṃdia class of words headed by the word डतर which stands for डतरान्त id est, that is words ending with the affix डतर; similarly the word डतम which follows डतर stands for डतमान्त. This class डतरादि is a subdivision of the bigger class called सर्वादि. and it consists of only five words viz. डतरान्त, डतमान्त, अन्य, अन्यतर and इतरः cf P. VII.1.25 and I.1.27.
ḍit(l)possessed of the mute letter ड् added for the purpose of the elision of डि (last vowel and the consonant or consonants after it) of the preceding word. See ड.
(1)fourth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व and महृाप्राणत्व; (2) the consonant ढ् which is elided when followed by ढ् and the preceding vowel is lengthened; e. g. गाढा, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.13 and VI. 3.111 ; (3) substitute ढ् for ह् at the end of a पद, or, if followed by any consonant excepting a semivowel or a nasal excepting in the cases of roots beginning with द् or the roots द्रुह्, मुह् et cetera, and others as also वह् and अाह् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.31, 32, 33, 34; (4) ढ् at the beginning of a taddhita affix. affix which has got एय् substituted for it; confer, compare गाङ्गेय:, वैनतेयः ; confer, compare P. V. 3.102.
ḍhaktaddhita affix. affix एय causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ढक् is added in the sense of अपत्य (descendant) (I) to words ending in feminine affixes, to words ending in the vowel इ, excepting इ of the taddhita affix. afix इञ्, to words of the class headed by शुभ्र, to words मण्डूक, विकर्ण, कुषीतक, भ्रू , .कुलटा and to words headed by कल्याणी which get इन substituted for its !ast vowel; exempli gratia, for example सौपर्णेयः, दात्तेयः शौभ्रेय, माण्डूकेयः, , वैकर्णेयः, कौषीतकेयः, भ्रौवेयः,.कौलटेयः, काल्याणिनेयः etc: cf Kas on P. IV.I. 1 19-127; (2) to the words पितृष्वसृ and मातृष्वसृ with the vowel ऋ elided and to the word . दुष्कुल, पितृष्वसेय:, मातृष्वसेयः, दौष्कुलेयः, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.133, 134, 142: (3) to the word कलि in the sense of Sama, to the word अग्नि in the sense of 'dedicated to a deity' ( सास्य देवता ) as also to the words नदी, मही, वाराणसी, श्रावस्ती and others in the Saisika senses; e. g. कालेयं साम, आग्नेयः, नादेयम् महियम् et cetera, and others cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.8, 33, 97: (4) to the words तूदी, धुर् , कपि, ज्ञाति, व्रीहि and शालि in the specified senses; confer, compare P. IV. 3.94, IV. 4.77, V. 1.127, V. 2.2.
ḍhañtaddhita affix. affix एय causing Vrddhi substituted for the first vowel of the base and the addition of the feminine. affix ङीप् (इ), applied (1) to words meaning quadrupeds and words in the class of words headed by गृष्टि in the sense of अपत्य; e. g. कामण्डलेयः, गार्ष्टेयः, हालेय:, बालेयः etc; confer, compare P. IV.1.135,136; (2) to the word क्षीर, words of the class headed by सखि, the words कोश, दृति, कुक्षि, कलशि, अस्ति, अहि,ग्रीवा,वर्मती,एणी,पथि,अतिथि,वसति,स्वपति, पुरुष, छदि्स, उपधि, बलि, परिखा, and वस्ति in the various senses mentioned in connection with these words; exempli gratia, for exampleक्षेरेयः, .साखेयम् कौशेयम् दात्र्ऱेयम् , कौक्षेयम् etc, cf Kas'. on P. IV. 2. 20, 80, IV. 3. 42, 56, 57, 94, 159, IV.4.1 04, V.1.10,13,17, V.3.101.
(1)fifth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties, नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्यः (2) the mute letter ण् indicating the substitution of vrddhi ( confer, compare P. VII. 2. 115-117) when attached to affixes; (3) the consonant ण् at the beginning of roots which is changed into न्; the roots, having ण् at the beginning changeable to न्, being called णोपदेशः (4) ण् as a substitute for न् following the letters ऋ, ॠ, र्, and ष् directly, or with the intervention of consonants of the guttural and labial classes, but occurring in the same word, Such a substitution of ण् for न् is called णत्व; confer, compare P.VIII.4. I-39. For णत्व in Vedic Literature; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)V.20-28, T.Pr.VII.1-12. V.Pr.III.84-88;(5) the consonant ण् added as an augment to a vowel at the beginning of a word when it follows the consonant ण् at the end of the previous word; confer, compare P. VIII. 3. 32. In the Vedic Pratisakhyas this augment ण् is added to the preceding ण् and looked upon as a part of the previous word.
ṇopadeśaa root mentioned in the Dhatupatha by Panini as beginning with ण् which subsequently is changed to न् ( by P. VI. 1.65) in all the forms derived from the root; e. g. the roots णम, णी and others. In the case of these roots the initial न् is again changed into ण् after a prefix like प्र or परा having the letter र् in it and having a vowel or a consonant of the guttural or labial class intervening between the letter र् and the letter न्; e. g. प्रणमति, प्रणयकः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.14.
tthe first consonant of the dental class of consonants which has got the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When used as a mute letter by Panini, त् signifies the Svarita accent of the vowel of that affix or so, which is marked with it: e. g. कार्यम्, हार्यम्, पयस्यम् confer, compare P. VI.1.185. When appied to a vowel at its end, त् signifies the vowel of that grade only, possessed by such of its varieties which require the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with त् , e. g. अात् stands for अा with any of the three accents as also pure or nasalised; अात् does not include अं or अ 3 confer, compare तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70. The use of the indicatory mute त् for the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. purpose is seen also in the Pratis akhya works; confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 114 Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 234.
takṣaśilādia class of words headed by तक्षशिला to which the taddhita affix अ ( अञ् ) is added in the sense of 'a native place or a domicile'. The word so formed has the acute accent on its first vowel; e. g. ताक्षशिलः वात्सोद्वरणः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.93.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
tanādia class of roots headed by the root तन्, which is popularly caIIed as the eighth conjugation to which the conjugational sign उ is added: exempli gratia, for example तनोतेि, करोति, कुरुते confer, compare P. II. 4.79: III. 1.79.
tanotyādia class of words which is the same as तनादि: confer, compare P. VI. 4.37. See तनादेि.
tavargathe class of dental consonants viz. त्, थ्, द्, ध् and न; confer, compare विभक्तौ तवर्गप्रतिषेधोऽतद्धिते P.I 3,4 Vart. 1.
tavyatkrtya affix तव्य applied to a root to form the pot. passive voice. participle.; the affix तव्यत् has the circumflex accent on the last syllable; exempli gratia, for example कर्तव्यम् confer, compare Kas on P. III. 1 . 96.
tasilādia class of taddhita affixes headed by the affix तस् ( तसिल् ) as given by Panini in his sutras from पञ्चम्यास्तसिल् P. V. 3. 7. upto संख्यायाः क्रियाभ्यावृत्तिगणने कृत्वसुच् V.3.17; confer, compare P. VI.3.35. The words ending with the affixes from तसिल् in P.V.3.7 upto पाशप् in P.V.3.47 (excluding पाशप्) become indeclinables; confer, compare Kas on P.I.1.38.
tānādikaa root of the tanadi class of roots (8th conjugation).
tārakādia class of words headed by the word तारका and containing prominently the words पुष्प, कण्टक, मुकुल, कुसुम, पल्लव, बुभुक्षा, ज्वर and many others numbering more than ninety, to which the taddhita affix इत (इतच्) is added in the sense of 'containing'. As this class, called तारकादि, is looked upon as आकृतिगण, nouns with इत added at their end, are supposed to be included in it; confer, compare P. V. 2.36.
tālādia small class of eight words to which the affix अ ( अण् ) is added in the sense of 'a product' or 'a part' exempli gratia, for example तालं धनुः, बार्हिणम्, et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kas, on P.IV.3.152.
tikakitavādia class of compound words headed by the dvandva compound तिककितव in which the taddhita affixes added to the constituent members of the compound are dropped when the dvandva compound is to be used in the plural number; तैकायनयश्च कैतवायनयश्च तिककितवाः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 4.68.
tikādia class of words headed by the words तिक, केितव, संज्ञा and others to which the taddhita affix अायनि (फिञ्) causing the substitution of vrddhi is added in the sense of 'a descendant'; exempli gratia, for example तैकायनि:, कैतवायनि:; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.1.154.
tudādia class of roots headed by the root तुद् which take the conjugational sign अ ( श ) and which are popularly called roots of the sixth conjugation, confer, compare P. III.1.77.
tundādia very small class of words headed by the word तुन्द to which the taddhita affix इल ( इलच् ) is added in the sense of possession ( मत्वर्थ ). The affix इल is optional and the other affixes इन् , इक and मत् are also added; exempli gratia, for example तुन्दिल, तुन्दी, तुन्दिकः, तुन्दवान् ; similarly उदरिलः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.2.117.
tṛ(1)substitute prescribed for the last vowel of the word अर्वन् so as to make it declinable like words marked with the mute letter ऋ; (2) common term for the krt affixes तृन् and तृच् prescribed in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity; the taddhita affix. affixes ईयस्, and इष्ठ are seen placed after words ending in तृ in Vedic Literature before which the affix तृ is elided; exempli gratia, for example करिष्ठः, दोहीयसी; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.59.
tṛctaddhita affix. affix तृ, taking the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ), (1) added to a root optionally with अक ( ण्वुल् ) in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity, the word so formed having the last vowel acute; exempli gratia, for example कर्ता कारक:; हर्ता हारकः; confer, compare P. III I.133; (2) prescribed in the sense of 'deserving one' optionally along with the pot. passive voice. participle. affixes; exempli gratia, for example भवान् खलु कन्यया वोढा, भवान् कन्यां वहेत्, भवता खलु कन्या वोढव्या, वाह्या, वहनीया वा; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.169
tṛṇādia class of words to which the taddhita affix श is added in the four senses given in P. IV. 2.67 to 70; e. g. तृणशः, नडशः, पर्णशः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.80.
tṛtīyathe third consonants out of the class consonants; वर्गतृतीय; viz. ग्, ज्, ड्, द् and ब्; confer, compare यथा तृतीयास्तथा पञ्चमा अानुनासिक्यवर्जम् M.Bh. on P. I. 1.9.
taudādikaa root belonging to the तुदादि class of roots ( sixth conjugation ) which take the vikarana अ ( श ) causing no guna or vrddhi substitute for the vowel of the root.
taulvalyādia class of words headed by the word तौल्वलि, the taddhita affix in the sense of युवन् ( grandchild ) placed after which is not elided by P. II. 4. 60; exempli gratia, for example तौल्वलिः पिता, तौल्वलायनः पुत्रः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II. 4.61.
tyadādia term used for the class of pronouns headed by त्यद् which are eight viz. त्यद्,तद्, यद्, एतद्, अदस्, इदम्, एक and द्वि; confer, compare P.I.1.74, I.2.72, III. 2. 60, VII. 2. 102.
tripādīterm usually used in connection with the last three Padas (ch. VIII. 2, VIII. 3 and VIII. 4) of Panini’s Ashtadhyayi, the rules in which are not valid by convention to rules in the first seven chapters and a quarter, as also a later rule in which (the Tripadi) is not valid to an earlier one; confer, compare पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1; (2) name of a critical treatise on Panini's grammar ("The Tripadi") written by Dr. H. E. Buiskool recently.
traipādikaa rule or an operation prescribed by Panini in the last three quarters of his Astadhyayi. See त्रिपादी a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
th()second consonant of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2) augment थ् ( थुक् ) added to the words षष् , कति, कतिपय and चतुर् before the Purana affix डट्. e. g. षण्णां पूरण: षष्ठ:, कतिथः, चतुर्थः; confer, compare Kas, on P. V. 2.51 ; (3) substitute for the consonant ह् of आह् before any consonant except a nasal, and a semivowel as also for the consonant स् of स्था preceded by the preposition उद्: confer, compare P, VIII. 2.35, VIII. 4.61.
dthird consonant of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणता;(2) consonant द् substituted for the final letter of nouns ending with the affix वस् as also for the final letter of स्रंस्, ध्वंस् and अनडुह् provided the final letter is at the end of a pada; exempli gratia, for example विद्वद्भयाम् et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, VIII. 2.72; (3) consonant द् substituted for the final स् of roots excepting the root.अस्, before the personal ending तिप् of the third person. singular.; e. g. अचकाद् भवान् ; confer, compare P. VIII. 3.93.
daṇḍādia class of words headed by the word दण्ड to which the taddhita affix य, is added in the sense of 'deserving', confer, compare दण्डमर्हति दण्ड्यः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 1.66
dadhipayaādia class of compound words headed by the word दधिपयस् which are not compounded as समाहारद्वन्द्व which ends in the neuter gender and singular number; exempli gratia, for example दधिपयसी, शिववैश्रवणौ, श्रद्धातपसी et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II. 4.14.
daśagaṇī(1)a section of grammatical treatises dealing with the ten conjugations of roots. e.g the first section of the second part ( उत्तरार्ध ) of the Siddhanta Kaumudi; (2) name of the dhatupatha of Panini which gives ten classes of roots; confer, compare भूवादयो दशगणीपरिपठिता गृह्यन्ते Nyasa on I.3.1.
daśadhuṣkaraṇathe ten classes or conjugations of roots; धुष् was a term for धातु (root) in some ancient grammar works.
daśagaṇī(1)a section of grammatical treatises dealing with the ten conjugations of roots. e.g the first section of the second part ( उत्तरार्ध ) of the Siddhanta Kaumudi; (2) name of the dhatupatha of Panini which gives ten classes of roots; confer, compare भूवादयो दशगणीपरिपठिता गृह्यन्ते Nyasa on I.3.1.
daśadhuṣkaraṇathe ten classes or conjugations of roots; धुष् was a term for धातु (root) in some ancient grammar works.
dāmanyādia class of words headed by the word दामनि to which the taddhita affix छ is added without any change of sense: exempli gratia, for exampleदामनीयः, औलपीयः confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V, 3.116.
dāsībhārādia class of words headed by the word दासीभार which,although they are tatpurusa compounds, retain the accents of the first member of the compound: confer, compare P. VI.2.42.
digādia class of words headed by the word दिक् to which the taddhita affix.affix य ( यत् ) is added in the sense of 'produced therein' ( तत्र भवः ), exempli gratia, for example दिशि भवं दिश्यम्, similarly वर्ग्यम्, गण्यः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.3.54.
divādia class of roots of the fourth conjugation, headed by the root दिव् ( दीव्यति ), called also दीव्यत्यादि confer, compare P. I. 2.27.
dṛḍhādia class of words headed by दृढ to which the taddhita affix. affix य ( ष्यञ् ) or इमन् ( इमनिच् ) is added in the sense of nature ( भाव ); त्व and तल् ( ता ) can, of course, be added optionally exempli gratia, for example दार्ढ्यम्, द्रढिमा दृढत्वम्, दृढता.See also लावण्य शैत्य, औष्ण्य, जाड्य, पाण्डित्य, मौर्ख्य et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 1. 123.
dṛṣṭaseen in use in Vedic Literature, or Classical Literature, or in the talk of cultured people; said in connection with words which a grammarian tries to explain; confer, compare दृष्टानुविधिश्छन्दसि भवति' Vyadi Pari. Patha 68.
devapathādia class of words headed by the word देवपथ, the affix कन् applied to which in the sense of a statue, or applied for the formation of a proper noun, is dropped देवपथः, हंसपथ:, शिवः, विष्णुः et cetera, and others; confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.100.
dyutādia class of roots headed by the root द्युत् , the aorist sign च्लि after which gets ( अ ) अङ् substituted for it: exempli gratia, for example अद्युतत् , अश्वितत्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.1.55. and I.3.91. द्युस् taddhita affix. affix द्युस् applied to the word उभय in the sense of a day; exempli gratia, for example उभयद्युः confer, compare P. V. 3.22 Vart. 7.
dravyābhidhānadenotation of द्रव्य or individual object as the sense of words as opposed to आकृत्यभिधान i, e. denotation of the general form possessed by objects of the same class; of द्रव्याभिधानं व्याडिः P. I.2.64 Vart. 45. See द्रव्य.
dvanddhaname of a compound, formed of two or more words used in the same case, showing their collection together; confer, compare चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II.2.29. Out of the four meanings of the indeclinable च, viz. समुच्चय अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार, the dvandva compound is sanctioned in the last two senses only called इतरेतरद्वन्द्व (as in प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ et cetera, and others) and समाहारद्वन्द्व (as in वाक्त्वचम् et cetera, and others) respectively For details see Mahabhasya on II.2.29. The dvandva compound takes place only when the speaker intends mentioning the several objects together id est, that is when there is, in short, सहविवक्षा orयुगपदधिकरणवचनता; confer, compare अनुस्यूतेव मेदाभ्यां एका प्रख्योपजायते । यस्यां सहविवक्षां तामाहुर्द्वन्द्वैकशेषयोः । Sr. Pr. II. The gender of a word in the द्वन्द्वसमास is that of the last word in the case of the इतरेतरद्वन्द्व, while it is the neuter gender in the case of the समाहारद्वन्द्व.
dvārādia class of words headed by the word द्वार् which get the augment ऐच् (id est, that is ऐ or औ ) placed before the letter य or व in them, instead of the substitution of vrddhi, when a taddhita affix marked with the mute letter ञ्,ण्, or क् is added to them; e. g. दौवारिकः सौवस्तिकः, शौवम्, शौवनम् et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, VII .3,4.
dvidaṇḍyādia class of words, which are headed by the word द्विदण्डि and which are all bahuvrihi compounds, to which the affix इ is found added as a Samasanta affix e. gद्विदण्डिः, सपदि et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.1. varia lectio, another reading, 4.128.
dvyādia class of pronouns headed by the pronoun द्वि to which the taddhita affixes called विभक्ति, as prescribed by the rules of Panini in the rule पञ्चम्यास्तसिल् and the following ones, are not addedition confer, compare P. V. 3. 2.
gh(1)fourth letter of the dental class(तवर्ग) possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, कण्ठसंवृतत्व and महाप्रण ; (2) substitute ध् , for the ह् of नह् before a ' jhal ' consonant or at the end of a word e. g. नद्धम्, उपानत्, confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 34; (3) substitute ध् for the letters त् and थ् placed after a fourth letter, e. g लब्धुम्, दोग्धा et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 40.
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
dhūmādia class of words headed by the word धूम to which the taddhita affix.affix अक ( वुञ् ) is added in the miscellaneous(शैषिक ) senses; e. g. धौमकः खाण्डकः et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.2.127.
dhruva(1)fixed,stationary, as contrasted with moving (ध्रुव) which is termed अपादान and hence put in the ablative case; cf ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् P. I. 4.24; (2) repeated sound ( नाद ) of a third or a fourth consonant of the class consonants when it occurs at the end of the first word of a split up compound word; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. II and XI. 24.
dhvePersonal-ending of the second. person. Pl. Atmanepada in the present and perfect tenses. न् fifth consonant of the dental class of consonants which is possessed of the properties घोष, नादानुप्रदान, अल्पप्राणत्व, संवृतकण्ठत्व and अानुनासिक्य. In Panini's grammar the nasal consonant न् (a)is added as an augment prescribed\ \नुट् or नुम् which originally is seen as न्, but afterwards changed into अनुस्वार or परसवर्ण as required, as for example in पयांसि, यशांसि, निन्दति, वन्दति et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII. 1.58-73, VII. 1.7983; VIII. 3.24; (b) is changed into ण् when it directly follows upon ऋ, ॠ, र् or ष् or even intervened by a vowel, a semivowel except ल् , a guttural consonant, a labial consonant or an anusvara; confer, compare P. VIII. 4.1.1-31. (c) is substituted for the final म् of a root, e. g. प्रशान्, प्रतान् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.64, 65.
naḍādi(1)a class of words headed by the word नड to which the taddhita affix.affix आयन ( फक् ) is added in the sense of गोत्र ( grandchild and further descendants); e. g, नाडायनः, चारायणः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.1. 99; (2) a class of words headed by नड to which the affix ईय (छ) is added, together with the augment क placed after the word and before the affix, in the four senses prescribed in P. IV.2. 67-70; exempli gratia, for example नडकीयम् , प्लक्षकीयम् ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2. 91.
nadyādia class of words headed by नदी, मही and other feminine. nouns to which the taddhita affix एय (ढक्) is added in the miscellaneous (शैषिक ) senses; exempli gratia, for example नादेयम्, माहेयम्, वाराणसेयम्, श्रावस्तेयम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.2.97.
nandyādiname giver to the class of roots beginning with the root नन्द्, which includes the roots वाश्, मद् , दूष्, वृध् , शुभ् and others as given in the Ganapatha.These roots have the affix ल्यु id est, that is अन added to them in the sense of agent. exempli gratia, for example नन्दनः, वाशनः, मदनः, वर्धनः, शोभनः, रमणः, दर्पणः, जनार्दनः, यवनः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.1.134.
niṅsubstitute नि for the last letter of the word जाया at the end of a bahuvrihi compound; confer, compare युवजानिः, वृद्धजानिः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 4.134.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
nirudakādia class of compound words headed by the word निरुदक which have their last vowel accented acute; e. g निरुदकम्, निरुपलम्, निर्मक्षिकम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 2. 184.
niṣkādia class of words headed by the word निष्क to which the affix इक ( ठक् ) is added, provided these words are not members of a compound; e. g. नैष्किकम् , पादिकम् , माषिकम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.1.20.
numaugment न् inserted after the last vowel (1) of a root given in the Dhātupātha as ending with mute इ; exempli gratia, for example निन्दति, क्रन्दति, चिन्तयति, जिन्वति et cetera, and others; confer, compare P VII.1.58; (2) of roots मुच् and others before the conjugational sign अ ( श ); e. g. मुञ्चति, लुम्पति; confer, compare P. VII.1.59; (3) of the roots मस्ज्, नश्, रध्, जभ् and लभ् under certain specified conditions, exempli gratia, for exampleमङ्क्त्वा, नंष्टा, रन्धयति, जम्भयति, लम्भयति, आलम्भ्यः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VII. 1.60-69; (4) of declinable bases marked with the mute indicatory letter उ, ऋ or ऌ as also of the declinable wording अञ्च् from the root अञ्च् and युज्, exempli gratia, for exampleभवान्, श्रेयान् , प्राङ्, युङ्, confer, compare Kās. on P. VII.1. 70, 71; (5) of the declinable base in the neuter gender, ending with a vowel or with any consonant excepting a semivowel or a nasal, before a case-ending termed Sarvanāmasthāna; exempli gratia, for example यशांसि, वनानि, जतूनि et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kās. on VII.1.72; (6) of the declinable base in the neuter gender, ending with इ, उ,ऋ or ऌ before a case-ending beginning with a vowel; exempli gratia, for example मधुने, शुचिने et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kās, on P. VII.1.73; (7) of the affix शतृ ( अत् of the present tense. participle.) under certain conditions याती यान्ती; पचन्ती, सीव्यन्ती, confer, compare I .VII.78-8 : (8) of the word अनडुह् before the nominative case. and vocative case. singular. affix सु;exempli gratia, for example अनड्वान् , हे अनड्वन्, confer, compare P. VII.1. 82; (9) of the words दृक्, स्ववस् and स्वतवस् before the nominative case. and vocative case.singular.affix सु in Vedic Literature, e. g. यादृङ्, स्ववान् , स्वतवान् , confer, compare P.VII.1.83.
numāgamaaugment न् inserted after the last vowel of a root or a noun-base in specified cases. See नुम्. नृचक्ष-ं name of the second Yama letter.
nyaṅkvādia class of words headed by the word न्यङ्कु, which are formed by means of the substitution of a guttural consonant in the place of a consonant of any other class belonging to the root from which these words are formed; exempli gratia, for example न्यङ्कुः मद्गुः, भृगुः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kās, on P.VII.3. 53.
nyāsoddyotaa learned commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Mallinātha, the standard commentator of prominent Sanskrit classics.
p(1)first consonant of the labial class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, and कण्ठविवृतत्व; ( 2 ) प् applied as a mute letter to a suffix, making the suffix accented grave (अनुदात्त).
pa,pakārathe consonant प्, the vowel अ and the affix कार being added for facility of understanding and pronunciation; cf T.Pr. I. 17, 21 ; प is also used as a short term for consonants of the fifth class (पवर्ग); confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.1.27; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 64 and Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 13.
pakṣādia class of words headed by the word पक्ष to which the taddhita affix अायन ( फक् ) causing vŗddhi is added in the four senses given in P. IV. 2.67-70; e. g. पाक्षायण:, अाश्मायनः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on P. IV. 2.80.
pacādia class of roots headed by the root पच् to which the kŗt. affix अ ( अच् ) is added in the sense of 'an agent'; e. g. श्वपचः, चोरः, देवः et cetera, and others The class पचादि is described as अाकृतिगण and it is usual with commentators to make a remark पचाद्यच् when a kŗt affix अ is seen after a root without causing the vŗddhi substitute to the preceding vowel or to the penultimate vowel अ. confer, compare अज्विधिः सर्वधातुभ्यः पठ्यन्ते च पचादय: । अण्बाधनार्थमेव स्यात् सिध्यन्ति श्वपचादघ: Kāś. on P. III. 1.134.
pañcamathe fifth consonant of the five classes of consonants; the nasal consonant, called also वर्गपञ्चम; confer, compare यथा तृतीयास्तथा पञ्चमा आनुनासिक्यवर्जम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.9 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
pañcālapadavṛttithe usage or the method of the Pañcālas; the eastern method of euphonic combinations, viz. the retention of the vowel अ after the preceding vowel ओ which is substituted for the Visarga; e. g. यो अस्मै; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 12; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI. 19. This vowel अ which is retained, is pronounced like a short ओ or अर्धओकार by the followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāņāyaniya branches of the Sāmavedins; confer, compare commentary on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI. 19 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padādi(1)beginning of a word, the first letter of a word; confer, compare सात्पदाद्योः P. VIII.3.111; confer, compare also स्वरितो वानुदात्ते पदादौ P. VIII.2.6. Patañjali, for the sake of argument has only once explained पदादि as पदादादिः confer, compare M.Bh.on I. 1. 63 Vāŗt. 6; (2) a class of words headed by the word पद् which is substituted for पद in all cases except the nominative case. and the acc. singular and dual; this class, called पदादि, contains the substitutes पद् , दत्, नस् et cetera, and others respectively for पाद दन्त, नासिका et cetera, and others confer, compare Kās on P. VI. 1.63; (3) the words in the class, called पदादि, constiting of the words पद्, दत्, नस्, मस् हृत् and निश् only, which have the case affix after them accented acute; confer, compare P. VI. 1.171.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
parpādia class of words headed by the word पर्प to which the taddhita affix. affix इक (ष्ठन्) is added in the sense of ’moving by' or eating along with' ( तेन चरति ); exempli gratia, for example पर्पिकः, पर्पिकी; अश्विकः, अश्विकी et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kaas. on P. IV.4.10.
parśvādia class of words headed by the word पर्शु to which the taddhita affix. affix अ ( अण् ) is added without any change of sense provided the words पर्शु and others, to which the affix अ is to be added mean fighting clans; e. g. पार्शव , आसुरः, राक्षसः, दाशार्हः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kaas. on V. 3.117.
paladyādia class of words headed by the word पलदी to which the taddhita affix. affix अण् is applied in the miscellaneous ( शैषिक) senses; e gपालदः, पारिषदः, रौमकः; पाटच्चरः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kaas, on P. IV. 2.110.
palāśādia class of words headed by the word पलाश to which the affix अ (अञ् ) is added in the sense of 'a product of' or 'a part of;' e. g. पालाशः, खादिरः, वैकङ्कतः et cetera, and others cf Kaas. on P. IV. 3.141.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
pātresamitādia class of irregular compound words headed by the compound word पात्रेसमित, which are taken correct as they are. This class of words consists mostly of words forming a tatpurușa compound which cannot be explained by regular rules. The class is called आकृतिगण and hence similar irregular words are included in it: e. g. पात्रेसमिताः, गेहेशूरः कूपमण्डूकः etc confer, compare KS. on P. II.1.48.
pāmādia class of words headed by the word पामन् to which the taddhita affix. affix न is added optionally with मतुप् in the sense of ’possession', exempli gratia, for example पामनः, पामवान् ; वामनः, वामवान् et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kāś. on V.2.100.
pāśādia class of words headed by the word पाश to which the taddhita affix य is added in the sense of collection; exempli gratia, for example पाश्या, तृण्या, वात्या etc, confer, compare Kāś. on P. IV. 2.49.
picchādia class of words headed by the word पिच्छ to which the taddhita affix इल ( इलच् ) is added optionally with मत् ( मतुप् ), in the sense of 'possessed of'; exempli gratia, for exampleपिच्छिलः पिच्छवान्, उरसिलः उरस्वान् et cetera, and others: cf Kāś. om V. 2. 100.
pīlvādia class of words headed by the word पीलु to which the taddhita affix कुण ( कुणप्) is added in the sense of 'decoction' ( पाक ). e. g. पीलुकुण:; confer, compare Kāś. on P. V.2.24.
purohitādia class of words headed by the word पुरोहित to which the taddhita affix यक् is added in the sense of 'duly' or 'nature': e.g . पौरोहित्यम् , राज्यम् , बाल्यम् , मान्द्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare KaS. on P. V. !. 128.
puṣādia class of roots headed by the root पुष् of the fourth conjugation whose peculiarity is the substitution of the aorist sign अ ( अङ्) for च्लि ; exempli gratia, for example अपुषत्, अशुषत्, अनुषत् et cetera, and others ofeminine. पुषादिद्युताद्यलृदितः परस्मैपदेषु P. III. 1.55.
puṣkarādia class of words headed by the word पुष्कर, to which the taddhita affix इन् ( इनि ) is added provided the word ending with the affix forms the name of a district. e. g. पुष्करिणी, पद्मिनी et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.135.
pūrvatrāsiddhavacanathe dictum of Panini about rules in his second, third and fourth quarters (Padas) of the eighth Adhyaya being invalid to (viz. not seen by) all the previous rules in the first seven chapters and the first quarter of the eighth as laid down by him in the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. The rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् is taken also as a governing rule id est, that is अधिकार laying down that in the last three quarters also of his grammar, a subsequent rule is invalid to the preceding rule. The purpose of this dictum is to prohibit the application of the rules in the last three quarters as also that of a subsequent rule in the last three quarters, before all such preceding rules, as are applicable in the formation of a word, have been given effect to; confer, compare एवमिहापि पर्वेत्रासिद्धवचनं अादेशलक्षणप्रतिषेधार्थमुत्सर्गलक्षणभावार्थं च M.Bh. on P. VIII.2.1 Vart. 8.
pūrvatrāsiddhīyaan operation prescribed in the province of the rule पूर्वेत्रासिद्धम् id est, that is in the last three quarters of the eighth book of Panini's grammar.
pṛthvādia class of words headed by the word पृथु to which the taddhita affix इमन् ( इमनिच् ) is added optionally with the other usual affixes अण्, त्व and तल् in the sense of 'nature'; e. g. प्रथिमा, पार्थवम् , पृथुत्वम् , पृथुता; similarly म्रदिमा, मार्दवम् मृदुत्वम्, मृदुता पटिमा पाटवम् , पटुता पटुत्वम् ; confer, compare KS. om P.V.1.122.
pailādia class of words headed by the word पैल, the taddhita affix. affix in the sense of युवन् applied to which (words) is elided; exempli gratia, for example पैलः पिता, पैलः पुत्रः ; for details see Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.4. 59.
pragadyādia class of words headed by the word प्रगदिन् to which the taddhita affix. affix य ( ञ्य ) is added in the four senses prescribed in P. IV.2.67-70; exempli gratia, for example प्रागद्यम् , शारद्यम् कौविदार्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare KaS. on P.IV.2.80
prajñādia class of words headed by the word प्रज्ञ to which the taddhita affix. affix अ (अण् ) is added without any change of sense: exempli gratia, for example प्राज्ञः, वाणिजः etc:; confer, compare प्रज्ञ एय प्राज्ञः । प्राज्ञी स्त्री । यस्यास्तु प्रज्ञा विद्यते सा प्राज्ञा भवति | Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 4. 38.
pratijanādia class of words headed by the word प्रतिजन to which the taddhita affix. affix ईन ( खञ् ) is added in the sense of 'good at’ ( तत्र साधुः ); confer, compare प्रतिजने साधुः प्रातिजनीनः, जने जने साधुरित्यर्थः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.4.99.
pratyāhāraliterally bringing together; bringing together of several letters ( or words in a few cases, such as roots or nouns ) by mentioning the first and the last only for the sake of brevity; the term प्रत्याहार is generally used in connection with brief terms such as अण्, अक् , अच् , हल् and the like, created by Panini in his grammar by taking any particular letter and associating it with any mute final letter ( अनुबन्ध ) of the fourteen Sivasutras, with a view to include all letters beginning with the letter uttered and ending with the letter which precedes the ( mute ) letter. The practice of using such abbreviations was in existence before Panini, possibly in the grammar attributed to Indra. The term प्रत्याहार is not actually used by Panini; it is found in the Rk. Tantra; confer, compare प्रत्याहारार्थो वर्णोनुबन्धो व्यञ्जनम् R.T.I.3. The term appears to have come into use after Panini. Panini has not given any definition of the term प्रत्याहार. He has simply given the method of forming the Pratyaharas and he has profusely used them; confer, compare आदिरन्त्येन सहेता P. I. 1.71. The word कृञ् in P. III.1.40 and तृन् in P. II. 3.69 are used as Pratyaharas. For a list of the Pratyharas which are used by Panini see Kasika on the Maheswara Sutras.
prayogaviṣayasphere or domain of the use of words; the whole Vedic and classical recognized literature: cf महान् हि शब्दस्य प्रयोगविषयः । सप्तद्वीपा वसुमती त्रयो लोकाः चत्वारो वेदाः साङ्गाः सरहस्याः बहुधा विाभन्नाः, एकशतमध्वर्युशाखाः, सहस्रवर्त्मा सामवेदः, एकविंशतिधा बाह् वृच्यम् , नवधाथर्वणो वेदो वाकोवाक्यामितिहासः पुराणं वैद्यकमित्येतावाञ्शब्दस्य प्रयोगविषयः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1. Vrt. 5
pravṛddhādia class of compound words headed by the word प्रवृद्ध in which the second word, which is a past passive voice. part, has its last vowel accented acute; confer, compare प्रवृद्धं यानम्, प्रयुक्ताः सक्तवः, खट्वारूढः । आकृतिगणश्च प्रवृद्धादिर्द्रष्टव्यः । तेन पुनरुत्स्यूतं वासो देयमित्यादि सिद्धं भवति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on. on P.VI.2. 147.
prātipadikasvarathe general accent of the Pratipadika viz. the acute ( उदात्त ) for the last vowel as given by the Phit sutra फिषः ( प्रातिपदिकस्य ) अन्त उदात्तः; confer, compare also प्रातिपदिकस्वरस्यावकाशः । अाम्रः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.91 Vart. 7.
priyādia class of words headed by the word प्रिया which do not allow their previous word in a bahuvrihi compound to take the masculine base by the rule स्त्रियाः पुंवत्.. P. VI. 3.84: e. g. कल्याणीप्रियः For details, see Kas, on P. VI. 3.34.
prekṣādia class of words to which the taddhita affix. affix इन् is added in the four senses given in P. IV. 2.67-70; e. g. प्रेक्षी, घ्रुवकी; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV . 2.80.
prauḍhamanoramāpopularly called मनोरमा also; the famous commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi of Bhattoji Diksita written by the author himself to explain fully in a scholarly manner the popular grammar written by him; , the word प्रौढमनेारमा is used in contrast with बालमनोरमा another commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi by Vasudevadiksita. On account of the difficult nature of it, it is usual to read the प्रौढमनेारमा upto the end of the Karaka-prakarana only in the Sanskrit PathaSalas before the study of the Sabdendusekhara and the Paribhsendusekhara is undertaken.
prauḍhamanoramāṭīkāa commentary on Bhattoji DikSita's Praudhamanorama written by Bhattoji's grandson Hari Diksita. The commentary is called लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न which is an abridgment of the author's work बृहच्छब्दरत्न. The Laghusabdaratna is widely studied along with the Praudhamanorama in the Pathasalas.
plakṣādia class of words headed by the word प्लक्ष to which the taddhita affix. affix अण् is added in the sense of 'a fruit' exempli gratia, for example प्लाक्षम्,ऐङ्गुदम् confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.3.164
pvādia class of roots headed by the root पू which get their vowel shortened in the four conjugational tenses as also before the present tense.participle. affix; exempli gratia, for example पुनाति पुनानः, लुनाति, लुनन् et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VII.3.80.
phaṇādia class of seven roots headed by the root फण्, which belong to the first conjugation and which have optionally their vowel अ changed into ए and the reduplicative syllable ( अभ्यास) dropped, in the forms of the perfect tense before the affix इथ and weak affixes; e. g. फेणतु:, फेणु:, फेणिथ फफणतुः, पफणुः, पफणिथ et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VI.4.:125.
bthird letter of the labial class which is soft and inaspirate.
balādi(1)a class of words headed by the word बल, to which the taddhita affix. affix य is added in the four senses given by Panini in IV.2.67-70. e. g. बल्यः कुल्यम्, तुल्यम् , वन्यम् et cetera, and others cf Kas, on P.IV.2.80; (2) a class of words headed by बल which take the possessive taddhita affix. affix मत् optionally with the regular affix इन् ; e. g. बलवान् , बली; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.136.
bahuvrīhiprakṛtisvarathe accent peculiar to, or specifically mentioned in the case of the Bahuvrihi compound viz. the retention of its own accents by the first member, in spite of the general rule that a compound word has the last vowel accented acute id est, that is उदात्त. confer, compare बहुव्रीहौ प्रकृत्या पूर्वपदम्. P. VI. 2.1. The expression बहुव्रीहिस्वर in this very sense is used in the Mahabhasya confer, compare बहुव्रीहिस्वरं शास्ति समासान्तविधेः सुकृत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 2.1.
bahvādia class of words headed by बहु to which the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) is added to form the feminine base; the words ending in अ in this class take the feminine. affix अा ( टाप् ) in case ई which is optional, is not added; other words remain as they are, if ई, is not added; e. g. बह्वी, बहुः; पद्धतिः, पद्धती; गतिः, _ गती; चण्डी, चण्डा; et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.45.
bāhvādia class of words headed by the word बाहु to which the taddhita affix. affix इ ( इञ् ) is added in the sense of a descendant; e. g. बाहविः, पौष्करसादि:, पाञ्चिः et cetera, and others The class called बाह्वादि is looked upon as अाकृतिगण on the strength of the word च in the rule, so that similar words, not included in the class, could be explained; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.96.
bidādia class of words headed by the word बिद to which the affix अ (अञ्) is added in the sense of a grandchild and further descendants; exempli gratia, for example बैदः, और्वः, काश्यप:, कौशिकः et cetera, and others The words in this class are mostly names of sages. In the case of such words as are not names of sages, the affix अ is added in the sense of the offspring and not any descendant. exempli gratia, for example पौत्रः, दौहित्रः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.104.
bilvakādia class of words headed by the word बिल्वक the affix ईय ( छ ) placed after which is elided when another taddhita affix. affix such as अण् or the like is placed after them; confer, compare बिल्वा यस्यां सन्ति बिल्वकी तस्यां भवा: बैल्वकाः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VI.4.153.
bilvādia class of words headed by the word बिल्व, to which the taddhita affix. affix अ (अण् ) is added sense of 'a product' or 'a part'; exempli gratia, for example बैल्व: मौद्गः, वैणव: et cetera, and others; cf Kas on P. IV. 3.136.
buiskūla[ BUISKOOL H. E. )A European grammarian who has written an essay on the last three Padas of Panini's Astadhyayi (त्रिपादी) under the title 'The Tripadi'.
bṛhacchabdaratnaa learned commentary on the commentary मनोरमा of भट्टोजीदीक्षित; the commentary was written by हरिदीक्षित the grandson of Bhattoji. The work is called बृहच्छब्दरत्न in contrast with the लघुशब्दरत्न of the same author (हरिदीक्षित) which is generally studied at the Pathasalas all over the country. The work बृहच्छब्दरत्न is only in a Manuscript form at present. Some scholars believe that it was written by Nagesabhatta, who ascribed it to his preceptor Hari Diksita, but the belief is not correct as proved by a reference in the Laghusabdaratna, where the author himself remarks that he himself has written the बृहच्छब्दरत्न, and internal evidences show that लबुशब्दरत्न is sometimes a word-forword summary of the बृहच्छब्दरत्न. confer, compareविस्तरस्तु अस्मत्कृते बृहच्छब्दरत्ने मदन्तेवासिवृतलधुशब्देन्दुशेखरे च द्रष्टव्यः Laghusabdaratna. For details see Bhandarkar Ins. Journal Vol. 32 pp.258-60.
brāhmaṇādia class of words headed by the word ब्राह्मण to which the taddhita affix. affix य ( ष्यञ् ) is added in the sense of 'nature' or 'duty'; e. g. ब्राह्मण्यं ( ब्राह्मणस्य भावः कर्म बां ); cf ब्राह्मणादिराकृतिगणः अादिशव्दः प्रकारवचन: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.1.24.
bhfourth letter of the labial class which is possessed of the properties कण्ठसंवृतता, नादानुप्रदान, घोष, and महाप्राणत्व.
bhargādia class of words headed by भर्ग which are generally names of countries, the taddhita affixes अण् and others added to which are not elided; e. g. भार्गीं, कैकेयी, काश्मीरी; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on IV. 1.178.
bhastrādia class of words headed by the word भस्त्रा to which the taddhita affix. affix इक ( ष्ठन् ) is added in the sense of 'carrying by' ; e. g. भस्त्रिक, भस्त्रिकी confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.4.16.
bhikṣādia class of words headed by the word भिक्षा to which the tad, affix अ ( अण् ) is added in the sense of collection;exempli gratia, for example भैक्षम्,यौवतम्, पादातम्: confer, compare Kāś. on P. IV.2.38.
bhidādia class of roots headed by the root भिद् to which the kṛt affix अ (always in the feminine. gender as अा ) is added in the sense of verbal activity: exempli gratia, for example भिदा, गुह्या, श्रद्धा, मेघा et cetera, and others cf Kāś. on P. III. 3.104.
bhisaffix of the instrumental plural before which the base is looked upon as a Pada and sometimes split up in the Padapāṭha, especially when the preceding word has got no change for its last letter or syllable.
bhīmādia class of words headed by the word भीम in which the Uṇādi affixes म and others, as prescribed by specific Uṇādi sūtras, are found added in the sense of the 'apādāna' case-relation; exempli gratia, for example भीमः in the sense 'बिभेति अस्मात्'. Similarly भीष्मः, भूमि:, रज: et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.4.74.
bhṛśādia class of nouns headed by भृश to which the denominative affix य is added in the sense of 'being or becoming what they were not before;' exempli gratia, for example अभृशो भृशो भवति भृशायते; similarly ,शीघ्रायते, मन्दायते, उन्मनायते, दुर्मनायते et cetera, and othersconfer, compareKāś.III.1.I3.
bhauvādikabelonging to the class of roots headed by भू; a root of the first conjugation; confer, compare अक्षू व्याप्तौ भौवादिक: Kāś. on P. III. 1.75.
bhvādigaṇathe class of roots headed by भू ; the first conjugation of roots.
m(1)fifth letter of the labial class of consonants which is possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, कण्ठसंवृतत्व, अल्पप्राणत्व and अानुनासिक्य ; (2) substitute म् ( मश् ) for अम् of the 1st. person. singular. in Vedic literature; exempli gratia, for example वधीं वृत्रम्| confer, compare अमो मश् P. VII, 1.40;
madhvādia class of words headed by the word मधु to which the taddhita affix मत् (मतुप्) is added as a Cāturarthika affix; exempli gratia, for example मधुमान् , विसमान् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV. 2.86.
manojñādia class of words headed by the word मनोज्ञ, to which the taddhita affix अक (वुञ्) is added in the sense of 'nature' or 'duty'; exempli gratia, for example मनोज्ञकम्, काल्याणकम्, अाढयकम् et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. V. 1.133.
mayabbreviated term or pratyāhāra for all the consonants of the five classes or Vargas excepting the consonant ञ्; confer, compare मय उञो वो वा P.VIII.3.33.
mayataddhita affix. affix मयट् (1) in the sense of proceeding therefrom (तत आगत: P. IV.3.92) added to words showing cause or meaning human being; exempli gratia, for example सममयम्, देवदत्तमयम्: (2) in the sense of product (विकार) or part (अवयव) added optionally with अण् to any word, exempli gratia, for example अश्ममयम् , आश्मनम् मूर्वामयम् मौर्वम्, and necessarily to words beginning with आ, ऐ and औ, words of the class headed by the word शर and the words गो, पिष्ट, व्रीहि, तिल and some others: confer, compare P. IV. 3. 143-150; (3) in the sense of proportion, added to a numeral; e. g. द्विमयमुदश्विद्यवानाम्; confer, compare P. V. 2.47; (4) in the sense of "made up of' added to the thing of which there is a large quantity; exempli gratia, for example अन्नमयम्, अपूपमयम् cf; तत्प्रकृतवचने मयट् P.V.4.21,22.
mayūravyaṃsakādia class of compounds of the type of मयूरव्यंसक which are somewhat irregular formations and hence mentioned as they are found in use. The compounds are called simple tatpuruṣa compounds; exempli gratia, for example मयूरव्यंसक: हस्तेगृह्य, एहिपचम्, उच्चावचम्, खादतमोदता et cetera, and others; confer, compare मयूरव्यंसकादयश्च P.II.1.72.
mallināthaa reputed commentator on many classical poetic and dramatic works, who flourished in the fourteenth century. He was a scholar of Grammar and is believed to have written a commentary on the Śabdenduśekhara and another named न्यासोद्योत on the न्यास of जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि.
mahāprāṇaliterally hard breathing, aspirate characteristic (बाह्यप्रयत्न) of consonants possessed by the second and fourth consonants of the five classes, and the sibilants श्, ष् and स् which letters are also called महाप्राण on that account.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahiṅpersonal ending of the Atmanepada first person (उत्तमपुरुष) plural;confer, compare तिप्तस्झि ... वहिमहिङ् P. III.4.78. महिष्यादि a class of words headed by the word महिषी to which the taddhita affix. affix अ (अण्) is added in the sense Of 'proper for' ( धर्म्यम् ); exempli gratia, for example माहिषम् पौरोहितम् , हौत्रम्: confer, compare Kas,on P.IV.4.48.
mātrā(1)measure, quantity ; cf भवति हि तत्र या च यावती च अर्थमात्रा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.45 and II.1.1 ; (2) mora, prosodial unit of one instant id est, that is the length of time required to pronounce a short vowel: confer, compare भूयसी मात्रा इवर्णोवर्णयोः, अल्पीयसी अवर्णस्य, M.Bh. on I.1.48 Vart. 4: confer, compare मात्रा ह्रस्वस्ता वदवग्रहान्तरं, द्वे दीर्धः,तिस्रः प्लुत उच्यते स्वरः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)I.16: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.34, T.Pr.I.37, V.Pr.I.59, R.T.28 also cf अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणाः Par. Sek. Pari. 132. The instant is taken to be equal to the throbbing of the eye, or a flash of lightning, or a note of a wood-cock.
mit(1)characterized by the mute letter म्; augments So characterized such as नुम् , अम् and the like, are inserted after the last vowel of a word to which they are to be added; confer, compare मिदचोन्त्यात् परः P. I. 1.47; (2) a technical term applied to the fifty-five roots which are headed by the root घट् and which belong to the first corjugation, to the roots ज्वळ et cetera, and others, as also to the roots जन्, जू, क्नूस्, रञ्ज् and roots ending in अम्. These roots are not really characterized by the mute letter म्, but they are given the designation मित्. The use of the designation मित् is (a) the shortening of the penultimate vowel which : has been lengthened by Vrddhi , before the causal sign णि and (b) ; the optional lengthening of the ; penultimate vowel before the affix ) चिण् and णमुल्, For a complete list ] of 'mit' roots see Dhaatupaatha.
mukhyaviśeṣyathe principal word in a sentence which comes last in the technical expression of the import or शाब्दबोध. It is described as primary and not subordinated to any other thing ( अन्याविशेषणीभूत). This मुख्यविशेष्य is, in a way,the crucial point in the various theories of import; exempli gratia, for example according to the grammarians the verbal activity is the principal word while,according to the Mimaamsakas the bhaavanaa is the principal word.and according to the Naiyayikas it is the subject that is the principal word.
mṛdu(1)soft in utterance ; the term is used in the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya for the क्षैप्र, प्रश्लिष्ट, तैरोव्यञ्जन, and पादवृत्त varieties of the circumflex accent (स्वरित) out of which the पादवृत्त is the softest ( मृदुतम ) and consequently always called मृदु, while the others are called मृदु only with respect to the preceding one in the order given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; viz.अभिनिहत, क्षैप्र et cetera, and othersconfer, compareसर्वतीक्ष्णोभिनिहत:प्राश्लिष्टस्तदनन्तरम् । ततो मृदुतरौ स्वरौ जात्यक्षेप्रावुभौ स्मृतौ | ततो मृदुतर: स्वारस्तैरोव्यञ्जन उच्यते | पादवृत्तो मृदुतमस्त्वेतत्स्वारबलाबलम् Uvvata on V.Pr. I. !25; (2) soft, as opposed to hard; the term is used in connection with the first,third and fifth consonants of the five classes.
y(1)a consonant of the palatal class, called semivowel or अन्तःस्थ( spelt as अन्तस्थ also ), possessed of the properties संवृतत्व, नाद, घोष and अनुनासिकत्व in addition; (2) a substitute for म् when that म् is followed by ह् which is followed by य्. e. g.किंय्ह्य: confer, compare यवलपरे यवला वा. P. VIII.3. 26 Vart.l ; (3) य् looked upon as possessed of a very little effort in production i. e. which appears as almost dropped but not completely dropped when its elision is prescribed at the end of a word. e. gभोय् अच्युत; confer, compare व्योर्लधुप्रयत्नतर: शाकटायनस्य P. VIII. 3.18.
y(1)the consonant य् with अ added to it merely for the sake of facility in pronunciation; यकार is also used in the same sense: e. g. लिटि वयो यः: P.VI.1.38 confer, compare T.Pr.I: 17,21;(2) krt affix (यत्) prescribed as कृत्य or potential passive participle; exempli gratia, for exampleचेयम्, गेयम्, शाप्यम् , शक्यम् , गद्यम् , अजर्यम् पण्यम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare अचो यत्...अजर्यं संगतम् P.III. 1.97-105; (3) krt. affix क्यप् which is also an affix called krtya; e. gब्रह्मोद्यम् , भाव्यम्, घात्यम् , स्तुत्यम् , कल्प्यम् , खेयम् , भृत्यः:, भिद्यः, पुष्य:, कृत्यम्,also कार्यम् ; confer, compare P. III. 1.106-128:(4) krt affix ण्यत् ( which is also कृत्य ), e. g कार्यम् , हार्यम् , वाक्यम् , लाव्यम्, कुण्डपाय्यम्. et cetera, and others: cf P. III. 1.124-132: (5) taddhita affix. affix य affixed (a) in the sense of collection to पाश, वात et cetera, and others, as also to खल, गो and रथ, e. g. पाद्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV. 2. 49, 50ः (b) in the चातुरर्थिक senses to बल, कुल, तुल et cetera, and others e. g. वल्यः,.कुल्यम् efeminine. P V.2. 80, (c) as a Saisika taddhita affix. affix to ग्राम्यहः' along with the affix खञ्ज e. g. ग्राम्यः, ग्रामीणः: cf P: IV. 2.94 (d) in the sense of 'good therein' ( तत्र साधुः ) and other stated senses affixed to सभा, सोदर पूर्व, and सोम: e. g. सभ्य:, पूर्व्यः; .et cetera, and others. confer, compare P. IV. 4.105, 109, 133, 137, 138: (e) in the sense of 'deserving it' to दण्ड and other words, e. g. दण्ड्य, अर्ध्र्य, मध्य, मेध्य, et cetera, and others: cf P. V. 1.66: ( f ) in the sense of quality or action to सखि e. g. सख्यम् ; cf P. V. 1.126: (6) taddhita affix. affix यत् applied to (a) राजन् श्वशुर, कुल, मनु in the sense of offspring, (b) शूल्, उखा, वायु, ऋतु and others, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. IV. 2.17, 31, 32, 101, (c) to अर्ध, परार्ध, words in the class headed by दि्श, छन्दस and others in specific senses; cf P. IV. 3-46, 54 et cetera, and others and (d) in specific senses to specific words mentioned here and there in a number of sUtras from IV.4, 75 to V.4.25; (e) to शाखा, मुख, जघन and others in the sense of इव (similar to) exempli gratia, for example शाख्यः, मुख्य:, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 3. 103; (7) case-ending य substituted for ङे of the dative sing; e. g. रामाय confer, compare P. VII. 3.102: (8) verb-affix यक् applied to the nouns कण्डू and others to make them ( denominative ) roots; e. g. कण्डूय,सन्तूय et cetera, and others confer, compare कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् P. III. 1.27 (9) | Vikarana य ( यक् ) applied to any root before the Saarvadhaatuka personal endings to form the base for the passive voice as also the base for the 'Karmakartari' voice e g क्रियते, भूयते, confer, compare सार्वधातुके यक् P. III. 1.67 (10) Unaadi affix य ( यक् ) applied to the root हृन् to form the Vedic word अघ्न्य: cf अघ्न्यादयश्च: ( 11 ) augment य ( यक् ) added to the affix क्त्वा in Vedic Literature: e. g. दत्त्वायः confer, compare क्त्वो यक् P. VII.1.47; (12) verb affix यङ् added to a root to form its Intensive base ( which sometimes is dropped ) and the root is doubledition e. g. चेक्रीयते,चर्करीति;. confer, compare P. III. 1.22,24; (13) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) supposed to be beginning with य in the affix यइ in the sUtra धातेरेकाचो ... यङ् III. 1.22, and ending with ङ् in the sUtra लिड्याशिष्यङ्क III. 1.86, with a view to include the various verb affixes and conjugational signs.
yañ(1)short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) formed by the letter य of हृयवरट् and the mute letter ञ्ज of इभञ् including serni-vowels and the third and the fourth consonants excepting घ् , ढ् and ध् of the five consonant groups: confer, compare अतो दीर्घो याञि P. VII. 3. 10l ; (2) taddhita affix. affix added (a) in the sense of गोत्र (grand-children and their descendants) to words of the गर्ग class and some other words under specific conditions, exempli gratia, for example गार्ग्यः: वात्स्य:, काप्यः et cetera, and others, confer, compare गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् and the following P.IV. 1. 105-108: (b) in the sense of collection to केदार, गणिका, केश and अश्व, confer, compare P.IV.2.40 and the Varttika.thereon and IV. 2.48; (c) in the Saiska senses to the word द्वीप, confer, compare P.IV.3.10: (d) to the word कंसीय e. g. कांस्यम् confer, compare P.IV.3.168, and (e) to the words अभिजित्, विदभृत् and others when they have the taddhita affix. affix अण् added to them : exempli gratia, for example अाभजित्य: confer, compare P. V. 3. 118.
yama short term (प्रतयाहार) for the consonants which begin with य् (in हयवरट्) and end (in ञमङ्णनम्)before the mute म् i.e all semivowels, and fifth constants of the of the five classes; c.feminine.हलो यमां यमि लोप:Paan VIII.4.64
yam(1)one of pair a twin letter available in pronunciation before a nasal letter and similar to it, when the nasal consonant is preceded by any one of the four consonants of the five classes; a transitional sound intervening between a non-nasal and the following nasal as a counterpart of the n6n-nasal: confer, compare वर्गेष्वाद्यानां चेतुर्णो पञ्चमे पर मध्ये यमो नाम पूर्वसदृशो वर्णः प्रातिशाख्ये प्रसिद्धः S.K. on P.व्व्III. l.1; (2) name given to the seven musical notes, found in the singing of Saaman; confer, compare मन्द्रमध्यमत्राख्येषु त्रिषु वाचः स्थानेषु प्रत्येकं सत स्थरभेदा भवन्ति कुष्टप्रथमद्वितीयतृतीयचतुर्थमन्द्रातित्वार्यः यमाः ' Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 13,14.
yara short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) for any consonant except ह् standing at the end of a word is optionally changed to the nasal consonant of its class if followed by a nasal letter; confer, compare यरोनुनासिकेनुनासिकेा वा P. VIII.4.45: and (2) is doubled if preceded by र् or ह् as also if preceded by a vowel but not followed by a vowel; exempli gratia, for example अर्क्कः, दद्धयत्र: confer, compare अन्वॊ रहाभ्यां द्वे; अनचिच P. VIII.4.46,47.
yavamadhyaliterally having the centre bulging out like the Yava grain; name given to a variety of the Gayatri which has 7 letters in the first and third (last) feet and 10 letters in the second id est, that is the middle foot; the name is also given to a Mahabrhati having the first and the last feet consisting of 8 letters and the middle one consisting of 12 syllables: cf R.Pr.XVI.18 and 48.
yavargathe class of the consonants headed by य् id est, that is the semi-vowels य, व्, र and लू
yavādia class of words headed by the word यव, the taddhita affix मत् after which does not get the consonant मृ changed into व् although the affix मत् be added to a word ending in म् or अ, or having म् or अ as the penultimate letter; e. g. यवमान् , ऊर्मिमान् , भूमिमान् et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VIII.2.9. This यवादिगण is looked upon as आकृतिगण
yājakādeia class of words headed by the words याजक, पूजक, परिचारक and others with which a word in the genitive case is compounded, in spite of the prohibition of compounds with such words, laid down by the rule कर्तरि च P. II. 2.16; exempli gratia, for exampleब्राह्मणयाजकः. ब्राह्मणपूजक: et cetera, and others: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.2.9. These words, याजक and others standing as the second members of compounds have their last vowel accented acute;confer, compareP.VI . 2.151.
yāvādia class of words headed by the word याव to which the taddhita affix क ( कन् ) is added without any specific sense assigned to it; exempli gratia, for example यावकः: मणिक: et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.4.29.
yuktārohyādia class of compound words headed by the word युक्तारोही which have their initial vowel accented acute in spite of the general dictum that a compound word except a Bahuvrihi compound word, has its last vowel accented acute: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V I. 2.81.
yugma(1)lit, pair; the word is used for the second and fourth consonants ख्, घ्, छ्, झ् et cetera, and others of the five classes which, in a way are combinations of two consonants; confer, compare युग्माः सोष्माण: Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 16; cf also युग्मौ सोष्माणौ where the word सोष्मन् is explained as उष्म। वायुस्तेन सह वर्तन्त इति सोष्माण: | खघ छझ टढ थध फभ: confer, comparealso युग्मयोद्वितीयचतुर्थयोः; (2) even, as opposed to odd, referring to the vowels ओ and औ which are even in the enumeration ए ओ ऐ अौ. The consonants called युग्म viz. ख, घ and others which are defined as युग्म are also the even consonants in their classes.
yuckrt affix यु changed into अन, (1) applied in the sense of 'a habituated agent' to intransitive roots in the sense of movement or utterance, to Atmanepadi roots beginning with a consonant, to the roots जु, चेकम् सृ, शुच्, कुघ्, as also to roots in the sense of decoration: exempli gratia, for example चलन:, शब्दन:: cf P.III. 2. 148-15I: (2) applied to causal roots, as also to the roots आस् श्रन्थ् and others in the sense of verbal activity when the word so formed has always the feminine gender; exempli gratia, for example कारणा, हृरणा, आसना, घट्टना,वेदना et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.3.107 and the Varttikas thereon; (3) applied to roots ending in अा and preceded by the indeclinables ईषद्, दुस् or सु in the sense of easy or difficult for obtainment and, wherever seen to any root in the Vedic language, as also to some other roots as found in actual use in the classical literature; e. g. ईषद्दानो गौर्मवता, दु्ष्पानः, सुपान: et cetera, and others सूपसदन:, दुर्योधनः, दुर्मर्षण: et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.III.8.128-130.
yuvādia class of words headed by the word युवन् which have the taddhita affix अ ( अण् ) added to them in the sense of 'duty' or 'nature': exempli gratia, for example यौवनम् स्थाविरम्, हौत्रम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.1.130.
yogavibhāgadivision of a rule which has been traditionally given as one single rule, into two for explaining the formation of certain words, which otherwise are likely to be stamped as ungrammatical formations. The writer of the Varttikas and the author of the Mahabhasya have very frequently taken recourse to this method of योगविभाग; confer, compare P.I.1.3 Vart. 8, I.1.17 Vart.1,I.1.61, Vart. 3; I. 4.59 Vart. 1, II. 4. 2. Vart.2, III.1.67 Vart. 5, III.4.2. Vart. 6, VI.I. I Vart. 5, VI.1.33 Vart.1 et cetera, and others Although this Yogavibhaga is not a happy method of removing difficulties and has to be followed as a last recourse, the Varttikakara has suggested it very often, and sometimes a sutra which is divided by the Varttikakara into two,has been recognised as a couple of sutras in the Sutrapatha which has come down to us at present.
yaudheyādia class of nine words headed by the word यौधेय, a taddhita affix applied to which is not to be elided even though the word be used in the plural number
r(1)second letter of the यण् class ( semi-vowels ) which has got the properties नादभागित्व, घोषवत्त्व,' संवृतत्व and अल्पप्राणता i. e. it is a sonant, inaspirate consonant. Regarding its स्थान or place of production, there is a difference of opinion : generally the consonant र् is looked upon as a cerebral or lingual letter (मूर्धन्य); cf ऋटुरषाणां मूर्धा, S.K.also Pāṇini. Siksa; but it is called by some as दन्त्य or दन्तमूलीय: cf रेफस्तु दस्त्ये दन्तमूले वा RT. 8, by others as दन्तमूलीय and and by still others as वर्स्त्य gingival. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya it is described as दन्तमूलीय: cf रो दन्तमूल I. 68, while in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya it is said to be produced by the touch of the middle part of the tip of the tongue just a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the root of the teeth;confer, compare रेफे जिह्वाग्रमध्येन प्रत्यग्दन्तमूलेभ्यः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 41; (2) substitute र् (रेफ ) for the final letter of the word अहन्, as also for the final of अम्रस्, ऊधस्, अवस् and भुवस् optionally with रु, which ( रु) is dropped before vowels, and changed to ओ before अ and soft consonants, while it is changed into visarga before hard consonants and surds.exempli gratia, for example अम्नरेव, अम्र एवः ऊधरेव, ऊधएव: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII, 2-70: (3) the consonants र् (technically) called र् in Panini's grammar ) which is substituted for the consonant स् and for the consonant न् of the word अहन् when the consonant स् or न् stands at the end of a word. This substitute रु, unlike the substitute र् is liable to be changed into visarga, or the consonant य्, or the vowel उ by P. VIII.3.15, 17, VI.1.113, 114.
rajatādia class of words headed by the word रजत to which the taddhita affix अ ( अञ् ) is added in the sense of ' a product ' or 'a part '; exempli gratia, for example राजतम् , लौहम् , औदुम्बरम् et cetera, and others ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.154.
radhādia class of eight roots headed by the root रध् which allow the addition of the augment इ ( इट् ) optionally to the ardhadhatuka affix beginning with any consonant except य्, placed , after them; exempli gratia, for example रघिता रद्धा, त्रता , तर्त्पा तर्पिता et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VII.2.35 and VII.2.45.
rasādia class of words headed by the word रस which have the taddhita affix.affix मतुप् added to them in the sense of possession in preference to other affixes like इन्: exempli gratia, for example. रसवान् , रूपवान् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 2.95.
rājadantādia class of compound words headed by राजदन्त in which the order of words or the constituent members is fixedition There are about 50 words in the class; some of them are tatpurusa compounds such as राजदन्त or अग्रेवण in which the subordinate word which ought to have been placed first is placed second There are some karmadharaya.compounds in which one particular word is always placed first and not any one of the two: exempli gratia, for example लिप्तवासितम्, सिक्तसंमृष्टम् et cetera, and others There are some dvandva compounds such as उलुखलमुसलम् , चित्रास्वाती, भार्यापती et cetera, and others in which a definite order of words is laid down. For details see Kasika on राजदन्तादिषु परम् P. II. 2.31.
rājanyādiaclass of words headed by the word राजन्य to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुच् ) is added in the sense of ' the place of residence '; e. g. राजन्यकः, औदुम्वरक: ! et cetera, and others This class named राजन्यादि is ] called अाकृतिगण and similar words ! can be included in this class such as मालव,विराट् , त्रिगर्त and others from which the words मालवक: वैराटक: त्रैगर्तक: et cetera, and others can be arrived at confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.53.
rughādia class of roots headed by the root रुध् which take श्नम् ( न् ) as the conjugational sign inserted after the final vowel, e. g. रुणद्धि ( where रुध् becomes रुणध् ). These roots are popularly called roots of the 8th conjugation.
rūpamālā(1)an elementary work on Sanskrit grammar composed by Vimalasarasvatī, in which the Sūtras of Pāņini are arranged in different topics many of which are called माला, such as अजन्तमाला, हलन्तमाला, छान्दसमाला, अव्ययमाला and so on.(2) the name रूपमाला is also found given to a work giving collections of formed words written by Puņyanandana.
revatyādia class of words headed by the word रेवती to which the affix ठक् is added in the sense of 'an offspring ': e. g. रैवतिकः, आश्वपालिक:, द्वारपालिक: et cetera, and othersconfer, compareKāś. on P. IV.1.146.
raivatikādia class of words headed by रैवतिक to which the taddhita affix ईय ( छ ) is added in the sense of 'belonging to'; e. g. रैवतिकीय:, औदवाहीयः, बैजवापीय: et cetera, and others confer, compare Kaś. on P. IV. 3.131.
rauḍhyādianother name given to the क्रौड्यादि class of words which are headed by क्रौडि and which take the affix ष्यङ् to form their base in the feminine; e. g. क्रौड्या लाड्या; confer, compare सिद्धं तु रौड्यादिषूपसंख्यानात् । के पुना रौढ्यादयः | ये क्रौड्यादय; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1.79.
raudhādikaa root belonging to the class of roots headed by रुध् which take the conjugational sign न् (श्नम्). See रुधादि a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
l(1)a consonant of the dental class which is a semi-vowel ( यण् ) with liquid contact in the mouth, and which is inaspirate ( अल्पप्राण ),voiced ( घोष ) and both nasalised and unnasalised; (2) name in general ( लकार ) given to the personal endings applied to roots in the ten tenses and moods which take different substitutes ति, त:, अन्ति et cetera, and others and have various modifications and augments in the different tenses and moods; (3) substituted as a semi-vowel ( यण् ) for the vowel ऌ followed by any other vowel in the euphonic combinations; (4)applied at the beginning of nontaddhita affixes as a mute letter indicating the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare लिति; P. VI. 1.193; ( 5 ) substituted for त्, थ्, द्, घ् or न् before ल्, confer, compare P.VIII.4. 60; (6) substituted under certain conditions for the consonant र् (a) of the root कृप्, (b) of prefixes प्र and परा before the root अय्, (c) of the root गॄ in frequentative forms and optionally before affixes beginning with a vowel, and (d ) of the word परि before घ and अङ्क; confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 18 to 22. _ ल (1) consonant ल्; see ल् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.' (2) a general term usually used by ancient grammarians to signifyलोप (elision or disappearance) of a letter or a syllable or a word; confer, compare सर्वसादेर्द्विगोश्च ल: | सवार्तिक:, द्वितन्त्र: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.2.60; (3) taddhita affix. affix ल added to the word क्लिन्न when चिल् and पिल् are substituted for the word क्लिन्न; e.g, चिल्लः, पिल्ल: confer, compare P. V. 2.33 Vārt 2.
liṭan affix of the perfect tense; confer, compare परोक्षे लिट् P.III.2.115 for which the specific affixes णल्, अतुस् उस् et cetera, and others are substituted after roots which take Parasmaipada affixes. Before the lit affixes, a monosyllabic root is reduplicated while dissyllabic roots and denominative and other secondary roots, formed by adding an affix to an original root,take the affix अाम् after which all 'liț' personal endings are dropped and the forms of the roots कृ,भू and अस् with the necessary personal-endings, are placed immediately after the word ending in अाम् , but often with the intervention of a word or more in the Vedic language and rarely in the classical language; confer, compare तं पातयां प्रथममास पपात पश्चात् ; confer, compare कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि P.III.I. 35 to 42.
lībiś[ LIEBICH, BRUNO ]a European grammarian belonging to Breslau who lived in the last quarter of the nineteenth and the first quarter of the twentieth century. He made a critical study of Sanskrit grammar and edited | the Cāndra Vyākaraņa and the Kșīratarańgiņī.
lomādiclass of words headed by the word लोमन् to which the taddhita affix. affix, श, in the sense 'possessed of' is added optionally along with the usual affix मत् ( मतुप् ); exempli gratia, for example लोमश:, लोमवान्, रोमश: रोमवान् बभ्रुशः, हरिश:, कपिश: et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.2.100.
lohitādi(1)a class of words headed by लोहित to which the affix क्यव् ( य ) is added in the sense of 'becoming', to form a denominative root-base which gets the verb-endings of both the padas; e. g. लोहितायति, लोहितायते; निद्रायति, निद्रायते; the class लोहितादि is considered as अाकृतिगण so that similar denominative verb-bases could be explained; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.1. 13; (2) a class of words headed by लेहित, to which the feminine. affix ष्फ ( अायनी ) is added after they have got the taddhita affix यञ् added to them in the sense of 'a grandchild'; e. g. लौहित्यायनी, कात्यायनी et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.18.
lvādia class of roots, headed by the root लू, the past. passive voice.participle. affix त placed after which becomes changed into न; exempli gratia, for example लून:, लूनवान्; जीन:, जीनवान्; et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VII. 2.44.
v(1)fourth letter of the class of consonants headed by य्, which are looked upon as semi-vowels; व् is a dental, soft, non-aspirate consonant pronounced as ब् in some provinces and written also sometimes like ब्, especially when it stands at the beginning of a word; (2) substitute for उ which is followed by a vowel excepting उ; e. g, मधु+अरि: = मध्वरि:; confer, compare इको यणचि P. VI. I. 77; (3) the consonant व्, which is sometimes uttered with very little effort when it is at the end of a word and followed by a vowel or a semivowel, or a fifth, fourth or third consonant or the consonant ह्. In such cases it is called लघूच्चारण; confer, compare यस्योच्चारणे जिह्वाग्रोपाग्रमध्यमूलानां शैथिल्यं जायते स लघूच्चारण: S. K. on P.VIII.3. 18;(4) solitary remnant of the affixes क्विप्,क्विन्, ण्वि and the like, when the other letters which are mute are dropped and the affix क्वप् or the like becomes a zero affix. This व् also is finally dropped; confer, compare वेरपृक्तस्य P. VI.1.67.
vaṃśādia class of words headed by the word वंश, the word भार placed after which gets the taddhita affixes added to it, as prescribed in the senses 'takes it', 'carries it' or 'produces it'; exempli gratia, for example वांशभारिकः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 1.50. The taddhita affix. affixes as prescribed in the senses mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are added to the words वंश et cetera, and others and not to भार according to some commentators; exempli gratia, for exampleवांशिकः, कौटजिकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 1.50.
vacana(1)literally statement; an authoritative statement made by the authors of the Sutras and the Varttikas as also of the Mahabhasya; confer, compare अस्ति ह्यन्यदेतस्य वचने प्रयोजनम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 1 Vart. 1 The word is also used predicatively in the sense of वक्तव्यम् by the Varttikakara; confer, compare ऌति ऌ वावचनम् , ऋति ऋ वावचनम् ; (2) number, such as एकवचन, द्विवचन, बहुवचन et cetera, and others; confer, compare वचनमेकत्वद्वित्वबहुत्वानि Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.I.2.51 ; cf लुपि युक्तिवद् व्यक्तिवचने | लुकि अभिधेयवल्लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति। लवणः सूपः। लवणा यवागू:। M.Bh.on P.I. 2.57; (3) expressive word; confer, compare गुणवचनब्राह्मणादिभ्यः कर्मणि च P. V.1.124 where the Kasika explains the word गुणवचन as गुणमुक्तवन्तो गुणवचनाः; confer, compare also the terms गुणवचन, जातिवचन, क्रियावचन et cetera, and others as classes of words; confer, compare also अभिज्ञावचने लृट् P.III.2.112; (4) that which is uttered; confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिक:। मुखसहिता नासिका मुखनासिका । तया य उच्चार्यते असौ वर्ण: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.1.8.
vanaspatyādia class of compound words headed by वनस्पति which retain the original accent of the members of the compound, as for example, in the compound word वनस्पति both the words वन and पति have got their initial vowel अ accented acute; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.VI.2.140.
varaṇādia class of words headed by वरण which have the taddhita affix elided, if it is added to them in the four senses mentioned in P.IV.2.67-70 confer, compare वरणानामदूरभवं नगरं वरणाः | कटुकबदर्या अदूरभवो ग्रामः कटुकबदरी ! confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.2.82.
varāhādia class of words headed by वराह which have the taddhita affix क ( कक् ) added to them in the four senses mentioned in P. IV. 2.67-70 exempli gratia, for example वाराहकम्, पालाशकम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.80.
varganame given to the different classes of consonants which are headed by an unaspirate surd; e. g. कवर्ग, चवर्ग, टवर्ग, तवर्ग and पवर्ग. The several consonants in each group or class, are, in their serial order, named वगेप्रथम, वर्गद्वितीय et cetera, and others On the analogy of these five classes, the semivowels are called by the name यवर्ग and sibilants, are called by the name शवर्ग,
vargyādia class of words headed by the word वर्ग्य which have their initial vowel accented acute when they stand as second members of a tatpurusa compound other than the karmadharaya type of it; e. g. वासुदेववर्ग्य:, अर्जुनपक्ष्यः; cf Kas: on P, VI. 2,131. '
varṇasamāmnāyaa collection of letters or alphabet given traditionally. Although the Sanskrit alphabet has got everywhere the same cardinal letters id est, that is vowels अ, इ et cetera, and others, consonants क्, ख् etc : semivowels य्, र्, ल्, व, sibilants श् ष् स् ह् and a few additional phonetic units such as अनुस्वार, विसर्ग and others, still their number and order differ in the different traditional enumerations. Panini has not mentioned them actually but the fourteen Siva Sutras, on which he has based his work, mention only 9 vowels and 34 consonants, the long vowels being looked upon as varieties of the short ones. The Siksa of Panini mentions 63 or 64 letters, adding the letter ळ ( दुःस्पृष्ट ); confer, compare त्रिषष्टि: चतुःषष्टिर्वा वर्णाः शम्भुमते मताः Panini Siksa. St.3. The Rk Pratisakhya adds four (Visarga, Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya and Anusvara ) to the forty three given in the Siva Sutras and mentions 47. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya mentions 52 letters viz. 16 vowels, 25class consonants, 4 semivowels,six sibilants (श्, ष् , स्, ह् , क्, प् , ) and anusvara. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions 65 letters 3 varieties of अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ, two varieties of ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, 25 class-consonants, four semivowels, four sibilants, and जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय, अनुस्वार, विसर्जनीय, नासिक्य and four यम letters; confer, compare एते पञ्चषष्टिवर्णा ब्रह्मराशिरात्मवाचः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 25. The Rk Tantra gives 57 letters viz. 14 vowels, 25 class consonants, 4 semivowels, 4 sibilants, Visarga,.Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya, Anunasika, 4_yamas and two Anusvaras. The Rk Tantra gives two different serial orders, the Uddesa (common) and the Upadesa (traditional). The common order or Uddesa gives the 14 vowels beginning with अ, then the 25 class consonants, then the four semivowels, the four sibilants and lastly the eight ayogavahas, viz. the visarjanya and others. The traditional order gives the diphthongs first, then long vowels ( अा, ऋ, लॄ, ई and ऊ ) then short vowels (ऋ, लृ, इ, उ, and lastly अ ), then semivowels, then the five fifth consonants, the five fourths, the five thirds, the five seconds, the five firsts, then the four sibilants and then the eight ayogavaha letters and two Ausvaras instead of one anuswara. Panini appears to have followed the traditional order with a few changes that are necessary for the technigue of his work.
vaśshort term ( प्रत्याहार ) for conso. nants from व in हयवरट् to the mute श्, in जवगडदश् id est, that is all semi-vowels excepting य् , and the fifth, the fourth and the third class consonants; confer, compare नेड् वशि कृति confer, compareP.VII.2.8.
vasantādia class of words headed by the word वसन्त, which are mostly names of seasons, to which the affix इक (ठक्) is added in the sense of 'that which one studies or knows'; confer, compareवसन्तसहचरितोयं ग्रन्थो वसन्तस्तमधीते वासन्तिकः 1 वार्षिक: Kas on P. IV. 2.63.
vākinādia class of words headed by the word वाकिन to which the taddhita affix आयनि( फिञ् ) is added in the sense of an 'offspring' when along with the taddhita affix. affix अायनि,the augment क् ( कुक् ) is added to the base ( वाकिन or the like ); e. g. वाकिनकायनिः ; confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.158.
vākyārthathe meaning of a sentence, which comes as a whole composite idea when all the constituent words of it are heard: confer, compare पदानां सामान्ये वर्तमानानां यद्विशेषेSवस्थानं स वाक्यार्थ:, M.Bh. on P.I.2.45 Vart. 4. According to later grammarians the import or meaning of a sentence ( वाक्यार्थ ) flashes out suddenly in the mind of the hearer immediately after the sentence is completely uttered, The import is named प्रतिभा by Bhartrhari, confer, compare Vakyapadiya II.45; confer, compare also वाक्यार्थश्च प्रतिभामात्रविषय: Laghumanjusa. For details and the six kinds of vakyartha, see Vakyapadiya II.154.
vādiroots headed by वा and similar to वा. Really there is no class of roots headed by वा given anywhere but in the interpretation of the rule भूवादयो धातव: it is suggested that ' the roots which are similar to वा are termed roots (धातु)' could also be the interpretation of the rule: confer, compare भ्वादय इति च वादय इति M.Bh. on P. I. 3. l . Vart. ll .
vāyuair or प्राण, which is believed to spring up from the root of the navel and become a cause (even a material cause according to some scholars) of sound of four kinds produced at four different places, the last kind being audible to us; confer, compare प्राणे वाणिनभिव्यज्य वर्णेष्वेवोपलीयते Vakyapadiya I.116;confer, compare also R.Pr.XIII. 13, V.Pr. I.7-9; T.Pr.II.2: Siksa of Panini st. 6.
vickrt affix वि (which also becomes nil or zero) applied to a root in the sense of an agent, as observed in Vedic and classical use, as also to the root यज् with उप and roots ending in अा generally in Vedic Literature but sometimes in popu1ar language; confer, compare विजुपे छन्दसि । आतो मनिन्कनिबवनिपश्च। अन्येभ्योपि दृश्यन्ते | कीलालपाः, शुभ्ंयाः et cetera, and others Kas on P. III. 2.73, 74, 75.
vinayādia class of words headed by विनय to which the taddhita affix इक ( ठक् ) is applied without any change of sense:confer, compareविनय एव वैनयिक: शमयिकः । औपयिकः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.4.34.
vimuktādia class of words headed by the word विमुक्त to which the taddhita affix अ ( अण् ) is added in the sense of 'possessed of', provided the word so formed, denotes a chapter or a lesson of a sacred work; confer, compareविमुक्तशब्दोस्मिन्नस्ति वैमुक्तकोध्यायः अनुवाको वा | दैवासुरः । Kāś. on P. V. 2.61.
vimokṣaliberation of the last letter (especially a class consonant) of a word from phonetic modifications by coalescence with the initial letter of the following word, or liberation of modification of a consonant or vowel standing at the end of a verse or sometimes even in the middle of a verse: exempli gratia, for example तत् नो मित्रः,सम् यौमि, संमधुमतीर्मधुमतीभिः पृच्यन्ताम् शुक्रं दुदुह्रे अह्नय; confer, compare V. Pr.I.90,91.
vivṛtakaṇṭhaproduced by fully extending the chords of the throat. The first and the second classconsonants are described as विवृतकण्ठ; confer, compare तत्र वर्गाणां प्रथमद्वितीया विवृतकण्ठाः श्वासानुप्रदाना अघोषाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.9. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
vispaṣṭādia class of words headed by the word विस्पष्ट which retain their own accents in a compound when they are the first members of a compound, provided that any word of quality is the second member e. g. विस्पष्टकटुकम् | व्यक्तलवणम् where the words विस्पष्ट and व्यक्त are used in the sense of clear, referring to the different tastes; confer, compare Kāś. On P. VI. 2.24.
vuñ(ID taddhita affix. affix अक causing vṛddhi to the vowel of the first syllable of that word to which it is added, as prescribed, (a) to the words denoting an offspring as also to the words उक्ष, उष्ट्र et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'a group'; e. g. अोपगवकम् , औष्ट्रकम् , कैदारकम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.IV.2.39, 40; (b) to the words राजन्य and others in the sense of 'inhabited country' ; e. g. राजन्यकः देवनायकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. IV.2.53, (c) to the words headed by अरीहण such as द्वुघण, खदिर्, मैत्रायण, काशकृत्स्न et cetera, and others in the quadruple senses; exempli gratia, for example अारीहणकम् , द्रौबणकम् , confer, compare P.IV.2.80, (d) to the word धन्व meaning a desert, to words with य् or र for their penultimate, to words ending in प्रस्थ, पुर and वह as also to words headed by धूम, नगर, अरण्य कुरु, युगन्धर et cetera, and others, under certain conditions in the miscellaneous senses; e. g. सांकाश्यकः,पाटलिपुत्रकः, माकन्दकः, आङ्गकः, वाङ्गकः, धौमकः, नागरकः, अारण्यकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.2.121-130,134,135, 136; (e) to the words शरद् , आश्वयुजी, ग्रीष्म, वसन्त, संवत्सर,अाग्रहायणी and others in the specific senses given: confer, compare P. IV. 3.27, 45, 46, 49, 50; (f) to words denoting descendence or spiritual relation, words meaning families and warrior clans, words कुलाल and others, words meaning clans, and students learning a specific Vedic branch in specific senses prescribed : e. g. आचार्यक, मातामहक, ग्लौचुकायनक, कालालक, काठक, कालापक et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.77, 99, 118, 126; (g) to the words शाकल, उष्ट्र, उमा and ऊर्णा in the specially given senses; exempli gratia, for example शाकलः, संघः, औप्ट्रकः, औमम् और्णम्, confer, compareP.IV.3.188,157,158; (h) to words with य् as the penultimate, and a long vowel preceding the last one, to words in the dvandva compound, and to the words मनोज्ञ, कल्याण and others in the sense of 'nature' or 'profession';e.g रामणीयकम् गौपालपशुपालिका, गार्गिका, काठिका etc; confer, compare P. V.1.132,133,134: (2) kṛt affix अक added to the roots निन्द् हिंस् and others, and to the roots देव् and कृश् with a prefix before,in the sense of a habituated,professional or skilled agent; exempli gratia, for example. निन्दकः, परिक्षेपकः, असूयकः, परिदेवकः, आक्रोशकः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.2. 146, 147.
vṛta word signifying the end of a particular group of words; the word frequently occurs in the Dhātupāṭha of Pāṇini but not necessarily at the end of each class or group therein; exempli gratia, for example टुओश्चि गतिवृद्धयोः । वृत् | अयं वदतिश्च उदात्तौ परस्मैभाषौ | Dhātupāṭha at the end of the First Conjugation. Similarly वृत् is used at the end of the fourth, fifth, and sixth conjugations.
vṛtādia class of roots headed by the root वृत् which take optionally the Parasmaipada affixes when the vikaraṇa स्य of the future tense and the conditional mood, or the desiderative vikaraṇa सन् is added to them; exempli gratia, for example वर्त्स्यति,वर्तिष्यते; अवर्त्स्यत्, अवर्तिष्यत्,; विवृत्सति, विवर्तिषते confer, compare Kāś. on P.I.3.92; confer, comparealso P.VII.2.59.
vṛttisamuddeśaname given to the last of the fourteen sections of the third chapter of Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya ( viz. the संकीर्णकाण्ड ) in which the taddhita affixes and their interpretations are discussedition
vṛṣādia class of words headed by the word वृष which have their initial vowel accented acute; confer, compare Kas, on P. VI.1.203.
vetanādia class of words headed by वेतन which have the taddhita affix इक (ठक्) added to them in the sense of "earning a livelihood' exempli gratia, for example वेतनिक: | धानुष्क:; दाण्डिक:; confer, compare वेतनेन जीवति वैतनिकः कर्मकर: Kas on P. IV. 4.12.
vyapadeśivadbhāvatreatment of a secon dary thing as the principal one, e g. a person or a thing, without any second or any others, looked upon as the first or the last; confer, compare व्यपदेशिवदेकस्मिन् कार्ये भवतीति वक्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.21. Vart. 2. The remark or expression व्यपदेशिवद्भावेन भविष्यति is found often given in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1 Vart 14; I.1.9, I.1.51 I,1.72: I.2.48 et cetera, and others For details see Par. Sek. Pari. 30,
vyāghrādia class of words headed by व्याघ्र which, as standards of comparison, are compounded with words showing objects of comparison provided the common property is not mentioned: exempli gratia, for example पुरुषव्याघ्र:, नृसिंहः et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. onP.II. 1.56.
vyuṣṭādia class of words headed by the word व्युष्ट to which the taddhita affix अ (अण् ) is added in the sense of the place where something is given or prepared ; confer, compare व्युष्टे दीयते कार्ये वा वैयुष्टम् । नैत्यम्: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.1.97.
vrīhyādia class of words headed by व्रीहि to which the taddhita affixes इन् and ठन् are applied in the sense of possession along with the usual affix मत् ( मतुप् ) ; e. g. व्रीही, व्रीह्रिक व्रीहिमान् । मायी, मायिकः मायावान् : confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 2. 116.
ś(1)a sibilant letter of the palatal class, possessed of the properties, श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष and कण्ठविवृतत्व; (2) the initial indicatory ( इत् ) letter श् of a non-taddhita affix in Panini's grammar, which is dropped; (3) substitute for च्छ् when followed by an affix beginning with a nasal consonant; e.g प्रश्न:, confer, compare P.VI.4.19;(4) substitute for स् when followed by श् or any palatal letter;exempli gratia, for example वृक्षश्छादयति वृक्षश्शेते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P. VIII. 4.40.
śakandhukaname of a class of words in whose case the last vowel of the first word does not coalesce with the first vowel of the next word; e. g. शक अन्धुक ईश । अक्षपा असि | वपा इव त्मना | सुपथा अकृण्वन् [ confer, compare शकन्धुकादीनाम् R.T.87 which is explained by the commentator as शकन्धुकादीनां च न संनिकृष्यत.
śakandhvādiname of a class of words in which an irregular coalescence of the vowels of the kind of the latter vowel in the place of the former and latter both is observed; exempli gratia, for example शकन्धु:, कुलटा, सीमन्त:,मनीषा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare कन्ध्वादिषु च (पररूपं वाच्यम् ) P.VI.1. 94 Vart. 4.
śīṇḍakādia class of words headeditionby the word शण्डिक which have the taddhita affix य ( त्र्य ) added to them in the sense of "domicile' or 'native place': exempli gratia, for example शाण्डिक्य:, सार्वसेन्यः, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3. 92.
śatṛkrt affix अत् in the sense of ' the agent of the present time ', applied to any root which takes the Parasmaipada personal affixes confer, compare लट: शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे P. III. 2.126,8. The words formed with this शतृ (अत्) affix are termed present participles in the declension of which, by virtue of the indicatory vowel ऋ in शतृ, the augment नुम् is inserted after the last vowel of the base, and the root receives such modifications as are caused by a Sarvadhatuka affix, the affix शतृ being looked upon as a Sarvadhatuka affix on account of the indicatory letter श्. The word ending in this affix शतृ governs a noun forming its object, in the accusative case.
śabdopadeśascientific and authoritative citation or statement of a word as contrasted with अपशब्दोपदेशः; confer, compare किं शब्दोपदेश: कर्तव्यः आहोस्विदपशब्दोपदेशः आहोस्विदुभयोपदेश इति ।Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika l. शमादि a class of eight roots headed by शम् which get their vowel lengthened before the conjugational sign य (श्यन्) as also before the krt. affix इन् ( घिनुण् ) in the sense of 'habituated to': exempli gratia, for example शाम्यति, शमी, भ्राम्यति, भ्रमी et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.VII.3.74 and P. III.2.141.
śaraṇadevaa prominent grammarian of the Eastern school of Panini's system of grammar who lived in the thirteenth century and wrote works on Panini's grammar. His work named दुर्घटवृत्ति which ex. plains according to Panini's rules, the Varttikas thereon, and the Jnapakas deduced from them,the various words difficult to be explained, is much appreciated by scholars of grammar. He has quoted from a large number of classical works, and referred to many works of the Eastern grammarians who followed the Kasika school.
śarādia class of words headed by the word शर which have the taddhita affix. affix मय (मयट्) added to them in the sense of 'product' or 'portion': exempli gratia, for example शरमयम् , दर्भमयम् , मृण्मयम्; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.144;(2) a class of words headed by शर which get their final vowel lengthened before the taddhita affix.affix मत् when the whole word forms a proper noun: exempli gratia, for example शरावती, वंशावती, हनूमान् ; confer, compare P.VI.3.119.
śarkarādia class of words headed by शर्करा to which the taddhita affix. affix अ (अण्) is added in the sense of इव viz. similarity:cf शर्करेव शार्करम् ,कापालिकम् पौण्डरीकम् Kas on P. V. 3.107.
śavargaclass of letters beginning with श् i.e the consonants श् , ष् , स् and ह् .
śākapārthivādia class of irregular samanadhikarana , Samasas, or Karmadharaya compound formations, where according to the sense conveyed by the compound word, a word after the first word or so, has to be taken as omitted; confer, compare समानाधिकरणाधिकारे शाकपार्थिवादीनामुपसंख्यानमुत्तरपदलेपश्च वक्तव्यः । शाकभेाजी पार्थिवः शाकपार्थिवः । कुतपवासाः सौश्रुतः कुतपसौश्रुतः । यष्टिप्रधानो मौद्गल्य; यष्टिमौद्गल्यः। M.Bh. on P.II.1.69 Vart. 8.
śākhādia class of words headed by the word शाखा which have the taddhita affix य added to them in the sense of इव id est, that is similarity; exempli gratia, for example शाख्य:, मुख्यः, जघन्यः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.3.103.
śānānkrt affix (आन) substituted for the Atmampada affixes instead of शानच्, prescribed after the roots पू and यज्; the application of शानन् for शानच् is for the acute accent on the initial vowel of the root;exempli gratia, for example पवमानः with the acute accent on the initial vowel as contrasted with विद्यमान; with the acute accent on the last vowel; confer, compare P. III. 2.128.
śārṅgaravādia class of words headed by the word शार्ङ्गरव which take the feminine affix ई ( ङीन् ) making the initial vowel of the word (to which ई of the feminine is added) an acute-accented one: e.g: शार्ङ्गरवी;confer, compare शार्ङ्गरवाद्यञो ङीन् P. IV. 1.73.
śivādia big class of about ninety words headed by the word शिव which have the taddhita affix. affix अ ( अण् ) added to them in the sense of a descendant ( अपत्य ) in spite of other affixes such as इञ् , ण्यत् and others prescribed by other rules, which sometimes do not take place, or do so optionally; exempli gratia, for example शैवः: ताक्ष्ण:, ताक्षण्यः; गाङ्ग: गाङ्गेय:, गङ्गायनि:; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.112. This class is looked upon as आकृतिगण and a word is supposed to be . included in this class, when the ; affix अ is noticed in spite of some other affix being applicable by some other rule.
śuklayajuḥprātiśākhyaname of the Pratisakhya treatise pertaining to the White Yajurveda which is also called the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. This work appears to be a later one as compared with the other PratiSakhya works and bears much similarity with some of the Sutras of Panini. It is divided into eight chapters by the author and it deals with letters, their origin and their classification, the euphonic and other changes when the Samhita text is rendered into the Pada text, and accents. The work appears to be a common work for all the different branches of the White Yajurveda, being probably based on the individually different Pratisakhya works of the different branches of the Shukla Yajurveda composed in ancient times. Katyayana is traditionally believed to be the author of the work and very likely he was the same Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini.
śuṇḍikādia class of words headed by शुण्डिका to which the taddhita affix अ ( अण् ) is added in the sense of 'who has come from'; exempli gratia, for example शौण्डिक:, कार्कणः: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.76.
śubhrādia class of words headed by the word शुभ्र to which the taddhita affix एय ( ढक् ) is added in the sense of a descendant in spite of other affixes being prescribed by some other rules which sometimes are added optionally with this एय; exempli gratia, for example शौभ्रेय:, वैधवेय: रौहिणेयः. This class is looked upon as अाकृतिगण and hence if this affix एय is seen applied although not prescribed actually as in the word गाङ्गेय, the word is supposed to have been included in this class; confer, compare P. IV. I.123.
śaityāyanaan ancient Grammarian and Vedic scholar who is quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya for recommending a sharp and distinct nasalisation of the anusvara and the fifth class-consonants; confer, compare तत्रितरमानुनासिक्यमनुस्वारोत्तमेषु इति शैत्यायन: Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVII. 1.
śauṇḍādia class of words headed by the word शौण्ड which are compounded with a noun in the locative case to form a locative tatpurusa compound; e. g. अक्षशौण्डः, अक्षधूर्तः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.1.40.
śaunakādia class of words headed by the word शौनक to which the taddhita affix इन् ( णिनि ) is added in the sense of 'instructed by', provided the word so formed is a portion of what is looked upon as a part of the sacred Vedic Literature; confer, compare शौनकेन प्रोक्तमधीयते शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिन: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV. 3.106.
ścutvathe substitution of the palatal consonants श्,च्,छ्,ज्, झ् and ञ् respectively for the similar consonants स्, त् , थ् , द् , ध् and न् of the dental class; confer, compare स्तोः श्चुना श्चु: P.VIII.4.10.
śtip'the syllable ति applied to the Vikarana-ending form of a root to denote a root for a grammatical operation. The specific mention of a root with श्तिप् added, shows that the root of the particular class or conjugation shown, is to be taken and not the same root belonging to any other conjuga-tion; confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे; exempli gratia, for example अस्यतिवक्तिख्यातिभ्योऽङ् P.III. 1. 52. Although operations prescribed for a primary root are applicable to a frequentative root when the frequentative sign य has been omitted, operations prescribed for a root which is stated in a rule with ति ( श्तिप् ) added to it, do not take place in the frequentative roots;confer, compare श्तिपा शपानुबन्धेन ... पञ्चैतानि न यङ्लुकि.
śnama vikarana or conjugational sign of the agama type to be inserted after the last vowel of the roots of the seventh conjugation ( रुधादि ): exempli gratia, for example रुणद्धि, भिनत्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare रुधादिभ्यः श्नम् P.III.1.78.
śramaṇādia class of words headed by the word श्रमणा with which words in the masculine or the feminine gender are compounded when they stand in apposition; confer, compare कुमारी श्रमणा कुमारश्रमणा, युवा अध्यापकः युवाध्यापक: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.1.70.
śrīdharaa grammarian of the last century who has written a commentary named श्रीधरी after him, on the Paribhasendusekhara.
śreṇyādia class of words headed by the word श्रेणि, which are compounded with words like कृत if they stand in apposition, provided the word so compounded has got the sense of the affix च्वि i. e. having become what was not before: confer, compare अश्रेणयः श्रेणय: कृताः श्रेणिकृता:, एककृता: Kas, on P. II. 1. 59.
(l)a sibilant letter of the cerebral class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, कण्ठविवार and महाप्राण ; (2) mute indicatory letter ष्, attached to nouns as also to affixes with which nouns are formed, such as ष्वुन्, ष्कन्, ष्टरच्, ष्ट्रन् et cetera, and others showing the addition of the feminine affix ई ( ङीष् ); confer, compare षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च P. IV. 1.41 ; (3) changeable to स् when placed at the beginning of roots in the Dhatupatha except in the case of the roots formed from nouns and the roots ष्ठिव् and ष्वष्क्; (4) substitute for the last consonant of the roots ब्रश्च, भ्रस्ज्, सृज्, मृज्, यज्, राज्, भ्राज्, as also of the roots ending in छ् and श् before a consonant excepting a nasal and a semivowel, as also when the consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् et cetera, and others cf P. VIII.2.36 (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 3.39: confer, compare also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष्; e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे , वृक्षष्टकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.41.
ṣaṭkārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaknown also as कारकखण्डनमण्डन a grammar-work on consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् et cetera, and others cf P. VIII.2.36 (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 3.39: confer, compare also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष्; e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे , वृक्षष्टकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.41.
s(l)a sibilant letter of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, कण्ठविवार and महाप्राण ; ( 2 ) substitute for visarjaniya if followed by a hard consonant excepting a sibilant confer, compare P. VIII. 3. 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 46, 47, 48-54,
saṃvāraone of the external efforts in the production of a sound when the gullet is a little bit contracted as at the time of the utterance of the third, fourth and the fifth of the class-consonants; confer, compare कण्ठबिलस्य संकोचः संवार: Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on P. I. 1.9.
sapādasaptādhyāyīa term used in connection with Panini's first seven books and a quarter of the eighth, as contrasted with the term Tripadi, which is used for the last three quarters of the eighth book. The rules or operations given in the Tripadi, are stated to be asiddha or invalid for purposes of the application of the rules in the previous portion, viz. the Sapadasaptadhyayi, and hence in the formation of' words all the rules given in the first seven chapters and a quarter, are applied first and then a way is prepared for the rules of the last three quarters. It is a striking thing that the rules in the Tripadi mostly concern the padas or formed words, the province, in fact, of the Pratisakhya treatises, and hence they should, as a matter of fact, be applicable to words after their formation and evidently to accomplish this object, Panini has laid down the convention of the invalidity in question by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII. 2,1.
samāsaplacing together of two or more words so as to express a composite sense ; compound composition confer, compare पृथगर्थानामेकार्थीभावः समासः। Although the word समास in its derivative sense is applicable to any wording which has a composite sense (वृत्ति), still it is by convention applied to the समासवृत्ति only by virtue of the Adhikarasutra प्राक् कडारात् समास: which enumerates in its province the compound words only. The Mahabhasyakara has mentioned only four principal kinds of these compounds and defined them; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थ प्रधानोव्ययीभावः। उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः। अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः । उभयपदार्थप्रधानो द्वन्द्वः । M.Bh. on P.II.1.6; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.II.1.20, II.1.49,II.2.6, II.4.26, V.1.9. Later grammarians have given many subdivisions of these compounds as for example द्विगु, कर्मधारय and तत्पुरुष (with द्वितीयातत्पुरुष, तृतीयातत्पुरुष et cetera, and othersas also अवयवतत्पुरुष, उपपदतत्पुरुष and so on) समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुवीहि, समाहारद्वन्द्व, इतरेतरद्वन्द्व and so on. समासचक्र a short anonymous treatise on compounds which is very popular and useful for beginners. The work is attributed to वररुचि and called also as समासपटल. The work is studied and committed to memory by beginners of Sanskrit ] studies in the PathaSalas of the old type.
samāsāntasecondary suffixes which are prescribed at the end of compounds in specific cases and which are looked upon as taddhita affixes; exempli gratia, for examplethe Samasanta डच् ( अ ), causing elision of the last syllable of the compound word, is added to compounds called संख्याबहुव्रीहि; exempli gratia, for example उपदशाः,पञ्चषाः et cetera, and others P.V.4.73. Samasanta अ is added to compounds ending with ऋच्,पुर्, अप्, and धुर,and अच् to words ending with सामन् , लोमन् , अक्षन् , चतुर् पुंस् , अनडुह्, मनस् , वर्चस्, तमस् , श्रेयस् , रहस्, उरस्, गो, तावत्, अध्वन् , etc :under specific conditions; cf P.V.4.68 to 86. अच् ( अ ) is added at the end of the tatpurusa compounds to the words अङ्गुलि, and रात्रि, under specific conditions; confer, compare P.V.4.86, 87: टच् ( अ ) is added at the end of tatpurusa compounds ending in राजन् , अहन् , सखि , गो, and उरस् and under specific conditions to those ending in तक्षन् , श्वन् , सक्थि, नौ, खारी, and अज्जलि as also to words ending in अस् and अन् in the neuter gender in Vedic Literature, and to the word ब्रह्मन् under specific conditions: confer, compare P.V. 4.91 to 105: टच् is added at the end of समाहारद्वन्द्व compounds ending in च् , छ् , ज्, झ्,ञ्, , द्, ष् and ह्, and at the end of अव्ययीभाव compounds ending with the words शरद् , विपाश् , अनस् , and मनस् et cetera, and others as also at the end of words ending in अन् or with any of the class consonants except nasals, confer, compare P.V.4.106-ll2; षच् ( अ ) is added to Bahuvrihi compounds ending with सक्थि and अक्षि as limbs of the body, as also with अङ्गुलि, while ष , अप् and अच् are added to specified words under special conditions; the Samasanta affix असिच् ( अस् ) is added at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound ending in प्रजा, and मेधा, the Samasanta affix इच् is added at the end of the peculiar Bahuvrihi compound formed of दण्ड, मुसल et cetera, and others when they are repeated and when they show a fight with the instruments of fight exchanged; confer, compare P. V.4.113128. Besides these affixes, a general समासान्त affix कप् is added necessarily or optionally as specified in P.V. 4.151-159.
sarvanāmanpronoun: literally standing for any noun. There is no definition as such given, of the word pronoun, but the words, called pronouns, are enumerated in Panini's grammar one after another in the class or group headed by सर्व ( सर्व, विश्व, उभ, उभय, words ending in the affixes डतर and डतम, अन्य et cetera, and others)which appear to be pronouns primarily. Some words such as पूर्व, पर, अवर, दक्षिण, उत्तर, अपर, अधर, स्व, अन्तर etc are treated as pronouns under certain conditions. In any case, attention has to be paid to the literal sense of the term सर्वनामन् which is an ancient term and none of these words when standing as a proper noun, is to be treated as a pronoun: confer, compare सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि P. I.1. 27, confer, compare also संज्ञोपसर्जनीभूतास्तु न सर्वादयः: M.Bh. on P. I. 1. 27 Vart. 2; ( 2 ) The word सर्वनामन् means also a common term, a general term; confer, compare एकश्रुतिः स्वरसर्वनाम, यथा नपुंसकं लिङ्गसर्वनाम Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 4.174 Vart 4.
sarvādiliterally a group or a class of words beginning with the word सर्व as the first word in the list; the term is used in general as a synonymous term with Sarvanaman; confer, compare संज्ञोपसर्जनीभूतास्तु न सर्वादयः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.I.1.27. सर्वादेश a substitute for the entire wording instead of the final letter as prescribed by the rule अलेान्त्यस्य P.I.1.52; confer, compare अनेकाल्शीत्सर्वस्य P.I.1.55.
savacanawith the notion of number included in the sense of the base itself; see सलिङ्ग. सवर्ग belonging to the same class of letters; confer, compare उता सवर्गः | उकारेण लक्षित आदिः सहृ वर्गेण ग्राह्यः | चो कु: | Candra I. I. 2.
savarṇacognate, homophonic: a letter belonging to the same technical category of letters possessing an identical place of utterance and internal effort confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. 1, 1. 9. For example, the eighteen varieties of अ, due to its short, long and protracted nature as also due to its accents and nasalization, are savarna to each other. The vowels ऋ and लृ are prescribed to be considered as Savarna although their place of utterance differs. The consonants in each class of consonants are savarna to one another, but by the utterance of one, another cannot be taken except when the vowel उ has been applied to the first. Thus कु stands for क्, ख्, ग्, घ् and ङ्. confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. 1, I. 9 and अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्यय: P. I. 1. 69.
savarṇagrahaṇataking or including the cognate letters; a convention of grammarians to understand by the utterance of a vowel like अ, इ or उ all the 18 types of it which are looked upon as cognate ( सवर्ण ), as also to understand all the five consonants of a class by the utterance of the first consonant with उ added to it: e. g. कु denoting all the five consonants क्, खू, ग्, घ् and ङ्; confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्यय: P.I. 1.69.
sākackatogether with the affix अकच् which is inserted in a pronoun after its last vowel; confer, compare साकच्काद्वा सावौत्त्वप्रतिषेधो वक्तव्यः | असकौ असुकः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VII. 2.107: confer, comparealso किम कः। साकच्कस्याप्ययमादेशः | Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VII. 2.108.
siddhakāṇḍathe chapter or portion of Panini's grammar which is valid to the rules inside that portion, as also to the rules enumerated after it. The word is used in connection with the first seven chapters and a quarter of the eighth chapter of Panini's Astadhyayi, as contrasted with the last three guarters called त्रिपादी, the rules in which are not valid to any rule in the preceding portion, called by the name सपासप्ताध्यायी or सपादी as also to any preceding rule in the Tripadi itSelf confer, compare पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P, VIII.2.1. सिद्धनन्दिन् an ancient Jain sage who is believed to have written an original work on grammar.
suc(l)taddhita affix. affix स् applied to fद्व, त्रि, चतुर् and to एक optionally, in the sense of 'repetition of the activity' e. g. द्विः करोति et cetera, and others cf Kas, on P. V. 4. 18, 19; (2) Unadi affix स्, see सु a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. सुजनपण्डित a grammarian who wrote a small treatise on genders named लिङार्थचन्द्रिका सुट् (1) short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the first five case-affixes which are called सर्वनामस्थान also, when they pertain to the masculine or the feminine gender: confer, compare सुडनपुंसकस्य I.1.43; (2)augment स् prefixed to the root कृ and to the root कॄ when preceded by certain prepositions and as seen in the words कुस्तुम्बुरु and others as also in the words अपरस्पर गोष्पद, आस्पद, अाश्चर्य, अपस्कर, विप्किर, हरिश्चन्द्र, प्रस्कण्व्, मल्कर, कास्तीर, अजास्तुन्द, कारस्कर and words in the class of words headed by पारस्कर, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VI. 1.135-57: (3) augment स् prefixed to the case-affix अाम् after a pronoun; e. g. सर्वेषाम् confer, compare P. VII. I.52;(4) augment स् prefixed to the consonant त् or थ् pertaining to लिङ् affixes, e. g. कृषीष्ट confer, compare P. III. 4.107.
soṣmanaccompanied by a rush of breath. The word is taken to apply to the second and fourth consonants which are produced by the rush of unintonated breath through the open mouth like steam through a pipe the second and fourth class consonants; confer, compare युग्माः सोष्माण: Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 16.
stua term used for the sibilant स् and dental class consonants for thc substitution of the sibilant श् and palatal consonants in respective order confer, compare स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः P. VIII. 4.40.
sparśaa contact consonant: a term used in connection with the consonants of the five classes, verily because the karana or the tip of the tongue touches the place of utterance in the mouth in their pronunciation; confer, compare कादयो भावसानाः स्पर्शाः S.K. Samjnaprakarana on P. VIII. 2.1; confer, compare also अाद्या: स्पर्शाः पञ्च ते पञ्चवर्गाः R.Pr. I.78: confer, compare also T.Pr.I.7.
sva(1)personal-ending of the second person singular. Atmanepada in the imperative mood; cf थास: से | सवाभ्यां वामौ | P.III.4.80, 91 ; (2) a term used in the sense of स्ववर्गीय (belonging to the same class or category) in the Pratisakhya works; cf स्पर्श: स्वे R.T.25; confer, compare also कान्त् स्वे Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 1. 55;confer, comparealso R, Pr.IV.1 ; and VI.1 ;(3) cognate, the same as सवर्ण defined by Panini in तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. P.I.1.9; the term is found used in the Jain grammar works of Jainendra, Sakatayana and Hemacanda cf ]ain. I.1.2 SikI. 1.2; Hema. I.1.17.
the last of the spirant consonants, | which is a glottal, voiced letter called also ऊष्म or spirant of a partial contact, i. e. possessed of the properties कण्ठय, नादानुप्रदान, ऊष्म and ईषत्स्पृष्टत्व. This letter has been given twice in the Paninian alphabet, viz. the Mahesvara Sutras, and the Bhasyakara has given the purpose of it, viz. the technical utility of being included among soft consonants along with semi-vowels, nasals and the fifth, the fourth, and the third class-consonants (हश् अश् et cetera, and others),as also among the hard consonants along with the fourth and the third class-letters and spirants ( झ्लू, ). The second letter हू in हल् appears, however, to have only a technical utility,as the purpose of its place there among spirants is served by the jihvamuliya and the Upadhmaniya letters which are,in fact, the velar and the labial spirants respectively, besides the other three शू, षू and सू .The Rk Pratisakhya calls ह as a chest sound. For details, see Mahabhasya on the Siva Sutra हयवरट् Varttikas 1, 2 and 3.
ha(1)representation of the consonant हू with अ added for facility of pronunciation; (2) a technical term for the internal effort between विवृत and संवृत, which causes घोष in the consonants; confer, compare संवृतविवृतयोर्मध्ये मध्यमप्रक्रारे यः शब्दः क्रियते स हकारसंज्ञो भवति। संज्ञायाः प्रयेाजनं ' हकारो हचतुर्थेषु ' इति ( तै. प्रा.श ९)Tribhasyaratna on T.Pr. II.6; (3) name of an external effort causing घोष: confer, compare सांप्रतिके प्रकृतिस्थे कण्ठे सति हृकारो नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नः क्रियते | तेन च व्यञ्जनेषु घोषो जायते। Vaidikabharana on T.Pr. II.6; (4) name of a kind of external effort of the type of अनुप्रदान found in the utterance of the consonant ( ह् ) and the fourth class-consonants; confer, compare हकारौ हृचतुर्थेषु T.Pr.II.9.
haritādia class of words headed by the word इरित to which the taddhita affix फक् ( अायन ) is added in the sense of a descendant after the affix अ ( अञ् ) has already been added to them by P. IV. 1. 104, the word so formed possessing the sense of the great grandchild (युवापत्य) of the individuals denoted by इरित and others; e. g. हारितायनः; confer, compare इह् तु गोत्राधिकारेपि सामर्थ्याद् यूनि प्रत्ययोभिघीयते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, IV.1.100
hareidīkṣitaa reputed grammarian of the Siddhantakaumudi school of Panini who lived in the end of the seventeenth century. He was the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita and the preceptor of Nagesabhtta. His commentary named लधुशब्दरत्न, but popularly called शब्दरत्न on Bhattoji Diksita's Praudhamanorama, is widely studied by pupils along with the Praudhamanorama in the Vyakaranapathasalas. There is a work existing in a manuscript form but recentlv taken for printing, mamed 'Brhatsabdaratna ' which has been written by Haridiksita, although some scholars beiieve that it was written by Nagesa who ascribed it to his preceptor. For details see लधुशब्दरत्न.
hala short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for consonants, made up of the first letter ह् in हयवरट् and the last letter ल् in हृल्. The term is universally used for the word व्यञ्जन in Panini's grammar; confer, compare हलोनन्तराः संयोगः P.I. 1.7. हलन्ताच्च I. 2.10 et cetera, and others
halsvaraprāptia possibility of the application of an accent to the consonant by the literal interpretation of rules prescribing an accent for the first or the last letter of a word, to prevent which a ruling is laid down that a consonant is not to be accented; confer, compare हल्स्वरप्राप्तौ व्यञ्जनमविद्यमानवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 80.
haśa short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for semivowels, ह्, and the fifths, the fourths and the thirds of the classconsonants; confer, compareइशि च P. VI.1.114.
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
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lasad glowingSB 10.90.10
lasat beautifiedBs 5.31
lasat brilliantCC Antya 15.63
SB 11.27.38-41
SB 2.9.13
SB 4.9.54
lasat effulgently glowingSB 10.47.1-2
lasat floating withSB 1.19.6
lasat glitteringSB 2.3.21
SB 4.24.47-48
SB 6.1.34-36
lasat hangingSB 1.11.19
SB 2.2.9
lasat moving all overSB 10.13.5
lasat resplendentSB 10.14.1
lasat shiningCC Adi 2.2
CC Madhya 23.87-91
SB 3.23.33
SB 3.28.14
SB 6.4.35-39
SB 8.12.18
SB 8.2.14-19
SB 8.6.3-7
lasat splendidSB 3.21.20
lasat-kāñcana-nūpuram His legs are decorated with golden ankle bellsSB 4.8.49
lasat-kāñcana-nūpuram His legs are decorated with golden ankle bellsSB 4.8.49
lasat-kāñcana-nūpuram His legs are decorated with golden ankle bellsSB 4.8.49
lasat-pīta-paṭe decorated with yellow garmentsSB 1.9.30
lasat-pīta-paṭe decorated with yellow garmentsSB 1.9.30
lasat-pīta-paṭe decorated with yellow garmentsSB 1.9.30
adharma-śīlasya of one who is engaged in irreligionSB 3.5.3
tulasī-ādi-gaṇe the plants and creepers, headed by the tulasī plantCC Antya 15.39
tulasī-āharaṇa collecting tulasī leavesCC Madhya 24.333
ailasya of PurūravāSB 9.15.1
ailasya of Mahārāja AilaSB 12.12.25-26
akhilasya of the entire universeSB 3.28.23
alasa-gatiḥ stepping very slowlySB 8.9.16-17
alasa lazyCC Adi 2.117
alasaḥ lazyBG 18.28
ālasya indolenceBG 14.8
ālasya lazinessBG 18.39
ālasyam slothMM 10
vividha-kusuma-kisalaya-tulasikā-ambubhiḥ with varieties of flowers, twigs and tulasī leaves, as well as with waterSB 5.7.11
tulasikā-āmodam fragrant with the aroma of tulasī flowersSB 11.30.41
ananta-balasya for Him whose strength is immeasurableSB 10.16.7
hema-ańgada-lasat-bāhuḥ decorated with golden bangles on his armsSB 8.15.8-9
ṣolasa-ańgera of sixteen knotsCC Adi 10.116
ṣolasa-ańgera of sixteen knotsCC Adi 11.16
marīciḥ, atri, ańgirasau, pulastyaḥ, pulahaḥ, kratuḥ, bhṛguḥ, vasiṣṭhaḥ, dakṣaḥ names of sons of BrahmāSB 3.12.22
pulastya-pulaha-āśramam to the āśrama conducted by such great sages as Pulastya and PulahaSB 5.8.30
asya khalasya of this envious demonSB 10.12.28
ati-svapna-śīlasya of one who dreams too much in sleepCC Antya 8.67-68
marīciḥ, atri, ańgirasau, pulastyaḥ, pulahaḥ, kratuḥ, bhṛguḥ, vasiṣṭhaḥ, dakṣaḥ names of sons of BrahmāSB 3.12.22
pulastyaḥ kaśyapaḥ atriḥ ca Pulastya, Kaśyapa and AtriSB 10.84.2-5
hema-ańgada-lasat-bāhuḥ decorated with golden bangles on his armsSB 8.15.8-9
balasthalaḥ BalasthalaSB 9.12.2
lasya of the boySB 1.5.29
māyā-balasya of the omnipotentSB 2.7.41
lasya while the boySB 4.9.26
lasya of the boySB 6.14.50-51
lasya a childSB 7.2.7-8
lasya of a childSB 7.6.29-30
lasya of a little childSB 7.9.19
lasya of the childSB 10.6.19
lasya of the childSB 10.6.21
lasya of a small boy like KṛṣṇaSB 10.11.5
lasya KṛṣṇaSB 10.11.55
balasya of Lord BalarāmaSB 10.15.34
ananta-balasya for Him whose strength is immeasurableSB 10.16.7
balasya of the armySB 10.42.26-27
lasya of the childSB 10.55.6
balasya of Lord BalarāmaSB 10.65.33
balasya upari on top of Lord BalarāmaSB 10.67.23
balasya of Lord BalarāmaSB 10.79.33
māyā-balasya who has multi-energiesCC Madhya 21.13
marīciḥ, atri, ańgirasau, pulastyaḥ, pulahaḥ, kratuḥ, bhṛguḥ, vasiṣṭhaḥ, dakṣaḥ names of sons of BrahmāSB 3.12.22
bhū-golasya of the planetary system known as BhūgolakaSB 5.20.38
bhū-maṇḍalasya of the entire planet earthSB 9.19.23
brāhmaṇa-kulasya to the brāhmaṇas of the universeSB 5.22.15
bṛhadbalasya of BṛhadbalaSB 9.12.9
pulastyaḥ kaśyapaḥ atriḥ ca Pulastya, Kaśyapa and AtriSB 10.84.2-5
ku-cailasya who was poorly dressedSB 10.80.7
calasi You goSB 10.31.11
na calasi you do not moveSB 10.90.22
marīciḥ, atri, ańgirasau, pulastyaḥ, pulahaḥ, kratuḥ, bhṛguḥ, vasiṣṭhaḥ, dakṣaḥ names of sons of BrahmāSB 3.12.22
tulasi-dāma the garland of tulasī leavesSB 10.23.29
tulasī-nava-dāmabhiḥ with garlands of fresh tulasī leavesSB 10.13.49
dharma-pālasya of Yamarāja, the maintainer of religious principlesSB 6.1.34-36
dharma-śīlasya who were strictly attached to religious principlesSB 10.1.2
duḥśīlasya having a bad characterSB 11.23.8
eka-kalasa one big full jugCC Antya 12.107
tulasīra gandhe the aroma of tulasī leavesCC Madhya 17.141
tulasī-ādi-gaṇe the plants and creepers, headed by the tulasī plantCC Antya 15.39
alasa-gatiḥ stepping very slowlySB 8.9.16-17
gokulasya of this place, GokulaSB 10.11.23
bhū-golasya of the planetary system known as BhūgolakaSB 5.20.38
gopālasya of the cowherdSB 10.54.22
gṛhīta-kalasaḥ the Lord, who bore the container of nectarSB 8.9.21
ullasita hañā with great jubilationCC Antya 3.109
hema-ańgada-lasat-bāhuḥ decorated with golden bangles on his armsSB 8.15.8-9
ilvalasya of IlvalaSB 10.78.38
tulasī-jala tulasī and waterCC Adi 3.105-106
jala-tulasīra sama equal to water and tulasīCC Adi 3.105-106
jala-tulasī Ganges water and tulasī leavesCC Adi 6.94
jala-tulasī Ganges water and tulasī leavesCC Antya 3.224
jala-tulasīra sevāya by worshiping with water and tulasīCC Antya 6.302
jalasya of waterCC Adi 3.104
tulasī-jale by tulasī leaves and Ganges waterCC Adi 6.34
kalasa-pāṇiḥ holding a waterpot in Her handSB 8.9.16-17
kalasa containerCC Madhya 12.53
eka-kalasa one big full jugCC Antya 12.107
taila-kalasa the jugful of oilCC Antya 12.119
gṛhīta-kalasaḥ the Lord, who bore the container of nectarSB 8.9.21
kalasam a jarSB 8.8.33
kalasam the container of nectarSB 8.8.35
kalasam the jugSB 8.8.35
kalasān the jug containing nectarSB 8.8.39-40
kalase jugSB 8.8.36
lasūtra-saṃjñake named KālasūtraSB 5.26.14
lasya of the supreme law of the AlmightySB 1.8.4
lasya of eternal timeSB 1.14.3
lasya of eternal timeSB 2.8.13
lasya of timeSB 2.10.47
lasya of the eternal timeSB 3.11.17
lasya of timeSB 3.29.4
lasya of timeSB 3.32.37
lasya of formidable TimeSB 4.27.19
lasya of timeSB 5.24.24
lasya of timeSB 7.7.16
lasya time having passedSB 9.3.11
lasya of timeSB 10.71.8
lasya of the force of timeSB 11.6.14
lasya of timeSB 12.3.17
lasya of timeSB 12.4.38
lasya because of timeSB 12.8.43
lasya of timeSB 12.12.10
kamalasya like a lotus flowerSB 5.16.7
kapilasya of Lord KapilaSB 2.7.3
kapilasya of Lord KapilaSB 3.33.1
kapilasya of KapilaSB 3.33.36
kapilasya Kapila, the son of DevahūtiSB 8.1.6
kapilasya Lord KapilaSB 12.12.13
tulasī-parikramā kara circumambulate the tulasī plantCC Madhya 24.261
pulastyaḥ kaśyapaḥ atriḥ ca Pulastya, Kaśyapa and AtriSB 10.84.2-5
kevalasya who is pure spiritSB 12.11.2-3
asya khalasya of this envious demonSB 10.12.28
vividha-kusuma-kisalaya-tulasikā-ambubhiḥ with varieties of flowers, twigs and tulasī leaves, as well as with waterSB 5.7.11
marīciḥ, atri, ańgirasau, pulastyaḥ, pulahaḥ, kratuḥ, bhṛguḥ, vasiṣṭhaḥ, dakṣaḥ names of sons of BrahmāSB 3.12.22
ku-cailasya who was poorly dressedSB 10.80.7
kulasya for the familyBG 1.41
yadu-kulasya of the dynasty of King YaduSB 1.15.32
brāhmaṇa-kulasya to the brāhmaṇas of the universeSB 5.22.15
kulasya dynasty (of the descendants of Yadu)SB 10.48.24
yadu-kulasya the Yadu dynastySB 11.1.4
kulasya of the dynastySB 11.6.31
kulasya of the familySB 11.6.34
sva-kulasya of His own familySB 12.12.42-43
vividha-kusuma-kisalaya-tulasikā-ambubhiḥ with varieties of flowers, twigs and tulasī leaves, as well as with waterSB 5.7.11
lasa eagernessSB 10.61.5
lasa desiresCC Adi 8.83
lasā ardent desireCC Madhya 23.30
lasa lustCC Antya 6.225
lasa attachmentCC Antya 8.49
lasa greedCC Antya 17.58
lasāḥ having so desiredSB 1.11.3
viṣaya-lālasaḥ having his happiness in sense objectsSB 4.7.44
lasaḥ being desirousSB 4.20.27
lasaḥ being inspired bySB 4.26.4
uttama-śloka-lālasaḥ who was so fond of serving the Supreme Personality of Godhead, known as UttamaślokaSB 5.14.43
lasāḥ anxiousSB 10.16.13-15
lasāḥ hankeringSB 10.32.1
lasāḥ who were hankeringSB 10.47.22
lasaḥ who had great eagernessSB 11.2.1
uttamaḥ-śloka-lālasaḥ being captivated by the transcendental qualities, pastimes and association of the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Madhya 23.25
uttama-śloka-lālasaḥ being captivated by the transcendental qualities, pastimes and association of the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Antya 6.137
lasam so desiringSB 4.24.66
lasam ardently affectionateSB 10.49.16
lasam hankeringSB 10.51.49
lasayoḥ who were eagerly longing forSB 3.23.46
lase because of greedCC Antya 6.227
lasena with hankeringSB 10.85.19
hema-ańgada-lasat-bāhuḥ decorated with golden bangles on his armsSB 8.15.8-9
lasya who has pastimesCC Madhya 20.180
loka-pālasya of the great demigod KuveraSB 10.10.20-22
tulasīra mālā a garland made of tulasī leavesCC Antya 13.123
ullasita mana the mind became very pleasedCC Madhya 18.160
bhū-maṇḍalasya of the entire planet earthSB 9.19.23
ullasita-mane in great happinessCC Antya 5.69
tulasī-mañjarī buds of the tulasī plantCC Adi 3.108
tulasī-mañjarī flowers of tulasīCC Madhya 3.56
tulasī-mañjarī the flowers of tulasīCC Madhya 3.103
tulasī-mañjarī flowers of tulasīCC Madhya 15.9
tulasī-mañjarī flowers of tulasīCC Madhya 15.220
tulasī-mañjarī flowers of the tulasī treeCC Madhya 15.227
tulasī-mañjarī the flowers of tulasīCC Madhya 15.254
tulasī-mañjarī flowers of the tulasī treeCC Antya 6.296
tulasī-mañjarī flowers of tulasīCC Antya 12.126
marīciḥ, atri, ańgirasau, pulastyaḥ, pulahaḥ, kratuḥ, bhṛguḥ, vasiṣṭhaḥ, dakṣaḥ names of sons of BrahmāSB 3.12.22
māyā-balasya of the omnipotentSB 2.7.41
māyā-balasya who has multi-energiesCC Madhya 21.13
na calasi you do not moveSB 10.90.22
tulasī namaskari' after offering obeisances to the tulasī plantCC Antya 3.110
tulasī-nava-dāmabhiḥ with garlands of fresh tulasī leavesSB 10.13.49
tulasī-paḍichā Tulasī, the superintendent of the templeCC Madhya 12.154-155
paḍichā-pātra tulasī Paḍichāpātra Tulasī, the temple superintendentCC Madhya 15.20
paḍichā-tulasī the temple superintendent named TulasīCC Madhya 15.27
tulasī paḍichā the temple servant known as TulasīCC Madhya 25.233
dharma-pālasya of Yamarāja, the maintainer of religious principlesSB 6.1.34-36
loka-pālasya of the great demigod KuveraSB 10.10.20-22
kalasa-pāṇiḥ holding a waterpot in Her handSB 8.9.16-17
tulasī-parikramā kara circumambulate the tulasī plantCC Madhya 24.261
parimalasya whose fragranceCC Madhya 20.180
paḍichā-pātra tulasī Paḍichāpātra Tulasī, the temple superintendentCC Madhya 15.20
phalasya of the fruitSB 11.28.42
pravilasat spreading overSB 8.8.41-46
pulastya-pulaha-āśramam to the āśrama conducted by such great sages as Pulastya and PulahaSB 5.8.30
marīciḥ, atri, ańgirasau, pulastyaḥ, pulahaḥ, kratuḥ, bhṛguḥ, vasiṣṭhaḥ, dakṣaḥ names of sons of BrahmāSB 3.12.22
pulastya-pulaha-āśramam to the āśrama conducted by such great sages as Pulastya and PulahaSB 5.8.30
marīciḥ, atri, ańgirasau, pulastyaḥ, pulahaḥ, kratuḥ, bhṛguḥ, vasiṣṭhaḥ, dakṣaḥ names of sons of BrahmāSB 3.12.22
pulastyaḥ the sage PulastyaSB 3.12.24
pulastyaḥ the sage PulastyaSB 4.1.36
pulastyaḥ PulastyaSB 4.29.42-44
pulastyaḥ kaśyapaḥ atriḥ ca Pulastya, Kaśyapa and AtriSB 10.84.2-5
pulastyaḥ tumburuḥ Pulastya and TumburuSB 12.11.33
pulastyāya unto PulastyaSB 3.24.22-23
pulastyena by the sage PulastyaSB 3.8.9
puṣpa-tulasī flowers and tulasīCC Madhya 15.10
rabhasa-vilasita expanded by the forceSB 5.9.18
salilasya of the reservoir of watersSB 2.8.5
salilasya of the waterSB 3.18.8
jala-tulasīra sama equal to water and tulasīCC Adi 3.105-106
śamalasya who was sinfulSB 10.16.32
lasūtra-saṃjñake named KālasūtraSB 5.26.14
tulasī-sevana just supply water to the root of Tulasī-devīCC Madhya 24.261
tulasī sevana worship of the tulasī plantCC Antya 3.137
jala-tulasīra sevāya by worshiping with water and tulasīCC Antya 6.302
svapna-śīlasya of one who sleepsBG 6.16
adharma-śīlasya of one who is engaged in irreligionSB 3.5.3
dharma-śīlasya who were strictly attached to religious principlesSB 10.1.2
ati-svapna-śīlasya of one who dreams too much in sleepCC Antya 8.67-68
śiśupālasya for ŚiśupālaSB 10.78.1-2
uttama-śloka-lālasaḥ who was so fond of serving the Supreme Personality of Godhead, known as UttamaślokaSB 5.14.43
uttamaḥ-śloka-lālasaḥ being captivated by the transcendental qualities, pastimes and association of the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Madhya 23.25
uttama-śloka-lālasaḥ being captivated by the transcendental qualities, pastimes and association of the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Antya 6.137
ṣolasa-ańgera of sixteen knotsCC Adi 10.116
ṣolasa-ańgera of sixteen knotsCC Adi 11.16
śrī-tulasī tulasī leavesSB 1.19.6
śrīmat-tulasyāḥ of the tulasī leavesSB 9.4.18-20
subalasya of King SubalaSB 1.13.30
sva-kulasya of His own familySB 12.12.42-43
svapna-śīlasya of one who sleepsBG 6.16
ati-svapna-śīlasya of one who dreams too much in sleepCC Antya 8.67-68
taila-kalasa the jugful of oilCC Antya 12.119
tamālasya of a tamāla treeCC Antya 1.146
śrī-tulasī tulasī leavesSB 1.19.6
tulasī the tulasī leavesSB 3.15.43
tulasi-vat like the tulasī leavesSB 3.15.49
tulasī of tulasī leavesSB 3.16.20
tulasī-nava-dāmabhiḥ with garlands of fresh tulasī leavesSB 10.13.49
tulasi-dāma the garland of tulasī leavesSB 10.23.29
tulasi O tulasī plantSB 10.30.7
tulasī of the tulasī flowersSB 10.35.8-11
tulasī tulasī leavesSB 10.86.41
tulasī of tulasīCC Adi 3.104
tulasī-jala tulasī and waterCC Adi 3.105-106
tulasī-mañjarī buds of the tulasī plantCC Adi 3.108
tulasī-jale by tulasī leaves and Ganges waterCC Adi 6.34
jala-tulasī Ganges water and tulasī leavesCC Adi 6.94
tulasī tulasī leavesCC Adi 13.70
tulasī-mañjarī flowers of tulasīCC Madhya 3.56
tulasī-mañjarī the flowers of tulasīCC Madhya 3.103
tulasī tulasī leavesCC Madhya 4.59
tulasī tulasī leavesCC Madhya 4.63
tulasī-paḍichā Tulasī, the superintendent of the templeCC Madhya 12.154-155
tulasī-mañjarī flowers of tulasīCC Madhya 15.9
puṣpa-tulasī flowers and tulasīCC Madhya 15.10
paḍichā-pātra tulasī Paḍichāpātra Tulasī, the temple superintendentCC Madhya 15.20
paḍichā-tulasī the temple superintendent named TulasīCC Madhya 15.27
tulasī-mañjarī flowers of tulasīCC Madhya 15.220
tulasī-mañjarī flowers of the tulasī treeCC Madhya 15.227
tulasī-mañjarī the flowers of tulasīCC Madhya 15.254
tulasī of tulasī leavesCC Madhya 17.142
tulasī tulasī leavesCC Madhya 22.125
tulasī of tulasī leavesCC Madhya 24.45
tulasī the tulasī leavesCC Madhya 24.115
tulasī a tulasī plantCC Madhya 24.260
tulasī-parikramā kara circumambulate the tulasī plantCC Madhya 24.261
tulasī-sevana just supply water to the root of Tulasī-devīCC Madhya 24.261
tulasī-āharaṇa collecting tulasī leavesCC Madhya 24.333
tulasī of tulasī leavesCC Madhya 25.158
tulasī paḍichā the temple servant known as TulasīCC Madhya 25.233
tulasī the tulasī plantCC Antya 3.100
tulasī namaskari' after offering obeisances to the tulasī plantCC Antya 3.110
tulasī sevana worship of the tulasī plantCC Antya 3.137
tulasī the tulasī plantCC Antya 3.141
jala-tulasī Ganges water and tulasī leavesCC Antya 3.224
tulasī the tulasī plantCC Antya 3.231
tulasī the tulasī plantCC Antya 3.234
tulasī-mañjarī flowers of the tulasī treeCC Antya 6.296
tulasī-mañjarī flowers of tulasīCC Antya 12.126
tulasi O tulasī plantCC Antya 15.33
tulasī-ādi-gaṇe the plants and creepers, headed by the tulasī plantCC Antya 15.39
tulasi O tulasīCC Antya 15.40
tulasībhiḥ with tulasīSB 3.15.22
tulasikā tulasiSB 3.15.19
tulasikā tulasī leavesSB 5.3.6
vividha-kusuma-kisalaya-tulasikā-ambubhiḥ with varieties of flowers, twigs and tulasī leaves, as well as with waterSB 5.7.11
tulasikā of the tulasī blossomsSB 5.25.7
tulasikā swarming around the tulasī mañjarīs (which are ornamenting His garland)SB 10.30.12
tulasikā-āmodam fragrant with the aroma of tulasī flowersSB 11.30.41
tulasikā because of the garland of tulasī flowersCC Antya 15.51
tulasīke unto the tulasī plantCC Antya 3.128
tulasīm the tulasī flowersMM 20
jala-tulasīra sama equal to water and tulasīCC Adi 3.105-106
tulasīra gandhe the aroma of tulasī leavesCC Madhya 17.141
jala-tulasīra sevāya by worshiping with water and tulasīCC Antya 6.302
tulasīra mālā a garland made of tulasī leavesCC Antya 13.123
tulasīre unto the tulasī plantCC Antya 3.122
tulasīre unto the tulasī plantCC Antya 3.234
tulas with a wreath of tulasī leavesSB 3.21.20
tulas by the tulasī leavesSB 4.8.55
tulas together with Tulasī-devīSB 10.29.37
tulasyāḥ leaves of the tulasi treeSB 2.3.23
śrīmat-tulasyāḥ of the tulasī leavesSB 9.4.18-20
tulasyāḥ the tulasī flowers upon whichSB 10.35.18-19
tulasyāḥ of tulasī leavesCC Madhya 22.137-139
pulastyaḥ tumburuḥ Pulastya and TumburuSB 12.11.33
ullasan spreadingSB 1.17.43-44
ullasantyām shiningCC Madhya 8.211
ullasat all glowingSB 1.3.4
ullasat beautifully decoratedSB 1.9.24
ullasat glowingSB 2.2.12
ullasat brilliantSB 3.28.16
ullasat dancingSB 3.28.30
ullasat glitteringSB 4.24.49
ullasat brilliantly exhibitingSB 8.10.54
ullasat shiningSB 8.12.20
ullasat dazzlingSB 8.18.2
ullasat dazzlingSB 8.18.2
ullasat very attractiveSB 10.6.4
ullasat beautifiedSB 10.50.50-53
ullasat bright and happySB 10.60.9
ullasita jubilantCC Adi 17.224
ullasita being inspiredCC Madhya 14.194
ullasita mana the mind became very pleasedCC Madhya 18.160
ullasita hañā with great jubilationCC Antya 3.109
ullasita-mane in great happinessCC Antya 5.69
balasya upari on top of Lord BalarāmaSB 10.67.23
uttama-śloka-lālasaḥ who was so fond of serving the Supreme Personality of Godhead, known as UttamaślokaSB 5.14.43
uttama-śloka-lālasaḥ being captivated by the transcendental qualities, pastimes and association of the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Antya 6.137
uttamaḥ-śloka-lālasaḥ being captivated by the transcendental qualities, pastimes and association of the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Madhya 23.25
marīciḥ, atri, ańgirasau, pulastyaḥ, pulahaḥ, kratuḥ, bhṛguḥ, vasiṣṭhaḥ, dakṣaḥ names of sons of BrahmāSB 3.12.22
tulasi-vat like the tulasī leavesSB 3.15.49
vilasadbhyām glittering lotus feetSB 4.8.50
vilasat enjoying pleasureSB 1.9.34
vilasat shiningSB 3.20.29
vilasat shiningSB 3.23.9
vilasat brilliantSB 3.28.21
vilasat shiningSB 4.26.23
vilasat dazzlingSB 4.30.6
vilasat appearingSB 4.30.23
vilasat beautifulSB 5.3.3
vilasat glowingSB 10.39.49-50
vilasat wavingSB 10.71.31-32
vilasat shiningSB 11.14.36-42
vilasati enjoysCC Madhya 1.84
vilasati manifestsCC Antya 1.169
vilasaye enjoys pastimesCC Adi 5.23
vilase They enjoyCC Adi 4.56
vilasiba I shall enjoyCC Madhya 13.158
vilasita bewilderedSB 5.4.4
rabhasa-vilasita expanded by the forceSB 5.9.18
vilasita manifestedSB 5.18.16
vilasita gleamingSB 5.25.5
vilasiteṣu although in the functionSB 1.2.31
viphalasya which is fruitlessSB 11.4.11
viṣaya-lālasaḥ having his happiness in sense objectsSB 4.7.44
vividha-kusuma-kisalaya-tulasikā-ambubhiḥ with varieties of flowers, twigs and tulasī leaves, as well as with waterSB 5.7.11
yadu-kulasya of the dynasty of King YaduSB 1.15.32
yadu-kulasya the Yadu dynastySB 11.1.4
     DCS with thanks   
140 results
     
las verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to appear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to arise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to come to light (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to embrace (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to flash (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to frolic (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to glitter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to play (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to resound (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to shine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to sound (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to sport (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9051/72933
lasatphala noun (masculine) poppy
Frequency rank 64125/72933
lasikā noun (feminine) a tendon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
muscle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
saliva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spittle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29981/72933
lasīkā noun (feminine) a tendon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lymph (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
muscle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
serum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the juice of the sugar-cane (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
watery humour in the body (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9925/72933
acalasasya noun (masculine) (?) name of a mineral substance
Frequency rank 41827/72933
ajāgalastana noun (masculine) an emblem of any useless or worthless object or person (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
nipple or fleshy protuberance on the neck of goats (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41897/72933
analasa adjective active (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not lazy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20530/72933
analasāda noun (masculine) dyspepsia (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42756/72933
anālasa adjective
Frequency rank 42889/72933
anālasya noun (neuter) activity
Frequency rank 20549/72933
anālasya adjective eager not lazy
Frequency rank 42890/72933
anilasakha noun (masculine) name of fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31865/72933
anilasāda noun (masculine) Trägheit des Windes
Frequency rank 42999/72933
anilasārathi noun (masculine) fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Agni
Frequency rank 26323/72933
anilasuta noun (masculine) name of Hanuman
Frequency rank 31866/72933
anulālasa adjective desirous
Frequency rank 43290/72933
abhyullas verb (class 1 parasmaipada)
Frequency rank 44523/72933
amalasāra noun (masculine) śukapiccha; a kind of sulfur
Frequency rank 15450/72933
amalasāraka noun (masculine) śukapiccha
Frequency rank 44594/72933
amṛtalālasā noun (feminine) [rel.] name of a Śakti of Śiva
Frequency rank 44646/72933
amlasarā noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 44742/72933
amlasāra noun (masculine neuter) Citrus medica Linn. Cukravedhaka Phoenix paludosa Rumex Vesicarius
Frequency rank 17580/72933
amlasāraka noun (masculine) Kāñjika (sour gruel)
Frequency rank 44743/72933
alasa noun (masculine) a sore or ulcer between the toes (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a small poisonous animal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tympanitis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[medic.] a kind of kuṣṭha [medic.] a kind of pāṇḍuroga [medic.] name of a disease of the teeth/mouth
Frequency rank 11921/72933
alasa adjective faint (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
idle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
inactive (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
indolent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lazy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tired (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
without energy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[medic.] name of a disease of the tonge
Frequency rank 4493/72933
alasaka noun (masculine neuter) flatulence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tympanitis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10286/72933
alasāndra noun (masculine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 32588/72933
alasībhū verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to become tired [medic.] to show the symptoms of alasaka
Frequency rank 26661/72933
alikulasaṅkula noun (masculine) Rosa Moschata
Frequency rank 45030/72933
āmalasāraka noun (masculine) a kind of mineral (?)
Frequency rank 23381/72933
ālasya noun (neuter) idleness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sloth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
want of energy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3352/72933
ālasyaka noun (neuter) [medic.] ālasya
Frequency rank 46663/72933
utpalasāriṇī noun (feminine) a kind of plant (?)
Frequency rank 33396/72933
utpalasārivā noun (feminine) the plant Ichnocarpus Frutescens (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33397/72933
upalasāṭhī noun (feminine) dried cowdung
Frequency rank 20956/72933
upalasāri noun (neuter) dried cowdung
Frequency rank 33537/72933
ullas verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to appear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be brilliant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be wanton or joyful (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to beam (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to become visible or perceptible (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to come forth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to dance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to jump (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to play (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to radiate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to resound (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to shake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to shine forth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to sport (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to tremble (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10604/72933
ullasa adjective bright (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
going out (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
happy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
issuing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
merry (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
shining (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sporting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27239/72933
kamalasaptamī noun (feminine) a kind of Vrata on a Saptamī
Frequency rank 27391/72933
kamalasaṃbhava noun (masculine) name of Brahmā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27392/72933
kalasī noun (feminine) Name einer Pflanze
Frequency rank 27431/72933
kalasa noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 11579/72933
lasarpis noun (neuter) [rel.] name of a Tīrtha
Frequency rank 34040/72933
lasaṃkarṣaṇī noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 49309/72933
lasaṃrodha noun (masculine) remaining for a long time (in the possession of any one) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49310/72933
lasāra noun (masculine neuter) a sort of sandalwood (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Prākṛt poet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the black antelope (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
yellow sandal
Frequency rank 49311/72933
laskandha noun (masculine) a kind of Acacia (Catechu) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Diospyros embryopteris (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ficus glomerata (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Jamāla tree (bearing dark blossoms) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14821/72933
lasūtra noun (masculine neuter) one of the twenty-one hells (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17787/72933
lasūtraka noun (neuter) name of the hell Kālasūtra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34041/72933
lasthālī noun (feminine) Bignonia suaveolens
Frequency rank 49312/72933
lasūrya noun (masculine) the sun at the end of the world (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19153/72933
kulasaṃnidhi noun (masculine) the presence of a number of persons or of witnesses (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49797/72933
kulastrī noun (feminine) a woman of good family (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
respectable or virtuous woman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19176/72933
kṛṣṇatulasī noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 50011/72933
kṣīrālasaka noun (masculine) [medic.] name of a disease
Frequency rank 50621/72933
kṣudratulasī noun (feminine) a variety of Ocimum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50648/72933
garalasthitaloha noun (neuter) a kind of metal
Frequency rank 51142/72933
galastana noun (masculine) goitre
Frequency rank 51210/72933
galastanī noun (feminine) a she-goat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51211/72933
caṭakavilasita noun (neuter) [erotics]
Frequency rank 34841/72933
jalasambhava noun (masculine neuter)
Frequency rank 35147/72933
jalasarpa noun (masculine) a kind of bird
Frequency rank 52802/72933
jalasaṃtrāsa noun (masculine) [medic.] eine Art Tollwut
Frequency rank 52803/72933
jalasaṃdha noun (masculine) name of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7190/72933
jalasāghativāsaka noun (masculine) a kind of bird
Frequency rank 52804/72933
jalasārya noun (masculine) a kind of bird
Frequency rank 52805/72933
jalastambha noun (masculine) solidification of water (magical faculty) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 52806/72933
jalastambhana noun (neuter) solidification of water (magical faculty) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 52807/72933
jalasthā noun (feminine)