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WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
vaijayantaḥMasculineSingularthe palace of indra
kṛṣṇaḥMasculineSingularśyāmaḥ, kālaḥ, śyāmalaḥ, mecakaḥ, nīlaḥ, asitaḥblack or dark blue
kumudvatī1.10.38FeminineSingularkumudinīa place abounding in water-lillies
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Results for lac158 results for lac
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
lach (see lakṣ-and lāñch-) cl.1 P. lacchati-, to mark View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lachimāf. Name of a woman (equals lakṣmī- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākhaṇḍalacāpam. n. " indra-'s bow", the rainbow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amlacūḍam. a kind of sorrel. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amlacukrikāf. a kind of sorrel. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antarjalacaramfn. going in the water. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avyālaceṣṭitamfn. not acting like a snake, not decritful, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahalacakṣusm. Odina Pinisata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahulacchadam. a red-flowering Hyperanthera View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balacakran. "circle of power", dominion, sovereignty ( balacakravartin -vartin- m.a powerful sovereign) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balacakran. an army, host View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balacakravartinm. balacakra
lacandram. the young or waxing moon (also dra-mas-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacandran. a cavity of a particular shape (made in a wall) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacandrikāf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacarita n. "childish doings", Name of works or chs. of works treating of the youthful adventures of a deity, (especially) of chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacaritanāmann. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacaritvan. "childish doings", Name of works or chs. of works treating of the youthful adventures of a deity, (especially) of chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacaryam. "behaving like a child", Name of skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacaryāf. the behaviour of a child View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacāturbhadrikāf. a particular mixture for children View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacikitsāf. "treatment of child", Name of several medicine works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacūtam. a young mango tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhālacandram. "having the moon on his forehead"Name of gaṇeśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhālacandrācāryam. Name of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
calacañcum. "moving its beak", the Greek partridge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
calacittamf(ā-)n. fickle-minded
calacittamf(ā-)n. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
calacittam. Name of a man, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
calacittan. fickleness of mind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
calacittatāf. idem or 'n. fickleness of mind ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
calacittatāf. frivolity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
candrakālānalacakran. idem or 'n. a kind of diagram' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
celacīrāf. a piece torn off from a garment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ḍālacandram. Name (also title or epithet) of a king, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhammillacaritran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhavalacandram. Name of the patron of nārāyaṇa- (the author of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolācalacittavṛtti() mfn. one whose mind is agitated like a swing. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
duḥśīlacittamfn. bad-hearted, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
galacarmann. the gullet, throat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gallacāturīf. a small round pillow to put underneath the cheek View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopālacakravartinm. Name of a scholiast View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopālacampūf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalacakran. Name of a mythic region View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalacañcalam. "water-moving", Name of a fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalacandram. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalacaram. "water-goer", an aquatic animal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalacaram. a fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalacarajīvam. plural varia lectio for lajājīva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalacarājīvam. "living by fish", a fisherman, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalacārinmfn. living in or near water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalacārinm. an aquatic animal, fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalacatvaran. a square tank View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jvalaccharīramfn. having a radiant body, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalaca(?for kalaka-), m. an arithmetician, calculator (= gaṇaka-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacakran. the wheel of time (time represented as a wheel which always turns round) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacakran. a given revolution of time, cycle [according to the jaina-s, the wheel of time has twelve ara-s or spokes and turns round once in 2000000000000000 sāgara-s of years; see ava-sarpiṇī-and ut-s-] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacakran. the wheel of fortune (sometimes regarded as a weapon) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacakran. Name of a tantra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacakram. Name of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacakrajātakan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacakraprakāśam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacaryāf. seasonable occupation, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacoditamfn. summoned by Death View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacoditakarmanmfn. acting under the influence of fate. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalacurim. Name of a royal family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalacūrim. idem or '(= cedi-- saṃvat-), a year of the kalacuri- (or cedi-) era (beginning on September 5, D. 348).' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalacurisaṃvatsara(= cedi-- saṃvat-), a year of the kalacuri- (or cedi-) era (beginning on September 5, D. 348). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kambalacārāyaṇīyam. plural a nickname of a school of the cārāyaṇa-s on , on (see odana-pāṇinīya-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaśmalacetasmfn. debased or dejected in mind. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaulālacakran. a potter's wheel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
komalacchadam. "tender-leaved", Name of a plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulacandram. Name of the author of a commentator or commentary on the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulacandram. of the author of the durgā-vākya-prabodha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacaramfn. frequenting the banks of rivers, grazing there etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulacūḍāmaṇim. Name of a tantra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulacyutamfn. expelled from a family. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulālacakran. a potter's disk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuśalacampūf. Name (also title or epithet) of poem View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacandram. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lāṅgalacakran. a particular plough-shaped diagram View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lāṅgūlacālanan. wagging or waving the tail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lolacakṣusmfn. having a rolling eye View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lolacakṣusmfn. looking wantonly upon (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacakrakan. the hip-joint View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṇḍalacihnan. the sign or mark of a circle
maṅgalacaṇḍīf. Name of durga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṅgalacaṇḍikā f. Name of durga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṅgalacchāyam. Ficus Infectoria View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛtyukālacihnan. plural Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacchedam. cutting away the root, cutting up by the root View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacchinnamf(ā-)n. cut away with the root, id est gone, lost (as hope) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nalacampūf. Name of an artificial poem (half prose half verse) = damayantī-kathā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nalacarita n. Name of a poem and a drama. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nalacaritran. Name of a poem and a drama. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
narasiṃhabhūpālacaritran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacandram. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacarmanm. Grewia Asiatica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacchadam. "dark-leaved", the date tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacchadam. "blue-winged", Name of garuḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacchavīf. a kind of bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacchavinm. a kind of bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacolakavatmfn. wearing a blue jacket View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcālacaṇḍam. Name of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṭalacakṣusmfn. having cataract in the eye, sāṃkhya-s. Scholiast or Commentator (wrong reading for paṭ/aia-c-?). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalacamasam. a cup containing pounded figs (with young leaves and sour milk instead of soma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalacamasam. (others"ground bark of the Indian fig-tree with sour milk") . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phālacamasan. (?) a particular part of the ploughshare View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalacandrikāf. Name of several works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalacārakam. "fruit-distribution", a particular official in Buddhist monasteries View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalacchadanan. a house built of wooden boards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalacorakam. a kind of perfume View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchilacchadāf. Basella Cordifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṅgalacchandaḥsūtran. Name of piṅgala-'s work on metrics View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṅgalacchandovṛttif. Name of Comm. on this work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṅgalacchandovyākhyān. Name of Comm. on this work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piśācakālacakrayuddhavaṇanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pralambojjvalacārughoṇamfn. having a prominent and bright and handsome nose View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmabālacaritran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ramalacintāmaṇim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabalacetanamfn. disturbed in mind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacandram. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śalalacañcum. or n. the quill of porcupine (used for writing)
salilacaram. "water-goer", an aquatic animal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
salilacaraketanam. "fish-bannered", the god of love View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
salilasthalacaram. "living in water and on land", an amphibious animal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śārdūlacarmann. a tiger's skin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śītalacchadam. a white leaf View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śītalacchadamfn. having white leaves View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śītalacchadam. Michelia Champaka View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrāvaṇaśuklacaturthīf. the fourth and third day in the light half of śrāvaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīpālacaritan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthalacaramfn. equals -ga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthalacārinmfn. idem or 'mfn. idem or 'mfn. equals -ga- ' ' ( sthalacāritā ri-- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthalacāritāf. sthalacārin
sthalacyutamfn. fallen or removed from any place or position View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlacañcu(prob.) f. a kind of culinary plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlacāpa wrong reading for tūla-c- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlacūḍamfn. having big tufts of hair (said of the kirāta-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
subalacandram. (with ācārya-) Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūryakālānalacakran. a kind of astrological diagram for indicating good and bad fortune View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śyāmalacūḍāf. a kind of shrub (equals guñjā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tailacaurikāf. "stealing oil", a cock-roach View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacaram. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilacaturthīf. the 4th day of the dark half of māgha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilacitrapattrakam. Name of a bulbous plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilacūrṇan. ground sesamum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trimallacandram. Name of a prince. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lacāpam. idem or 'n. "cotton-bow", a bow-like instrument used for cleaning cotton ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utpalacakṣusmfn. "lotus-eyed", fine-eyed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
valkalacīrinm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vihvalacetana() mfn. distressed in mind, low-spirited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vihvalacetas() mfn. distressed in mind, low-spirited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimalacandram. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipulacchāyamfn. having ample shade, shady, umbrageous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyākulacetas() mfn. agitated or perplexed in mind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyākulacitta() mfn. agitated or perplexed in mind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yamalacchadam. Bauhinia Variegata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
Results for lac1 result
     
lach लछ् 1 P. (लच्छति) To mark, see; cf. लक्ष्.
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avasāna ava-sá̄na, n. resting place, x. 14, 9 [unbinding, giving rest: áva + sā = si tie].
asita ás-ita, (pp.) a. black, iv. 51, 9.
āhita á̄-hita, pp. placed in (lc.), viii. 29, 4; x. 14, 16; with sám placed upon (lc.), x. 135, 4 [dhā put].
okas Ók-as, n. abode, iv. 50, 8 [wonted place: uc be wont].
kṛṣṇa kṛṣ-ṇá, a. black, i. 35, 2. 4. 9; x. 127, 7; f. í̄, vii. 71, 1.
tan tan extend = perform, VIII. tanóti; ipf. átanvata, x. 90, 6 [cp. Gk. τάνυμαι ‘stretch’, Lat. tendo‘stretch’]. abhí- extend over: red. pf. sb., i. 160, 5. [234]. áva- slacken (Ā.), ii. 33, 14. á̄- extend to (acc.), i. 35, 7. ánu á̄- extend over, viii. 48, 13.
triṣadhastha tri-ṣadhasthá, a. (Bv.) occupying three seats, iv. 50, 1; n. threefold abode, v. 11, 2 [sadhá-stha, n.gathering-place]. [235]
dha 1. dhá put, III. dádhāti, v. 83, 1; supply with (inst.), ii. 35, 12; bestow, ipv. dhehí, x. 14, 11; dhattá, i. 85, 12; ii. 12, 5; x. 15, 7; dadhāta, x. 15, 4. [237] 7; dadhātana, x. 15, 11; dhattá̄m, iv. 51, 11; dadhantu, vii. 63, 6; perform, ipf. dhatta, i. 85, 9; bestow, s ao. sb. dhāsathas, i. 160, 5; establish,pf. dadhé, x. 129, 7; ds. desire to bestow, didhiṣanti, ii. 35, 5; support, dídhiṣāmi, ii. 35, 12 [Gk. τἰθημι]. ádhi- put on (acc.): pf. dadhire, i. 85, 2; ao. ádhita, x. 127, 1. á̄- deposit, root ao. sb. dhās, v. 83, 7. ní- deposit, root ao. dhātam, vii. 71, 5; ps. ao. ádhāyi, viii. 48, 10. pári- put around, vi. 54, 10. prá- put from (ab.) into (lc.), vii. 61, 3. ví- impose: pf. dadhur, iv. 51, 6; divide, ipf. ádadhur, x. 90, 11. purás- place at the head, appoint Purohita: pf. dadhire, iv. 50, 1.
niṣka niṣká, m. necklace, ii. 33, 10.
niṣkṛta niṣ-kṛtá, n. appointed place, x. 34, 5 [pp. arranged: nís out + kṛ make].
purutrā puru-trá̄, adv. in many places, x. 127, 1; in many ways, vii. 103, 6.
purohita puró-hita, pp. placed in front, m. domestic priest, i. 1, 1; v. 11, 2 [purás + hitá, pp. of dhā put].
pravāteja pravāte-já, a. born in a windy place, x. 34, 1 [pra-vātá + ja = jan].
barhiṣya barhiṣ-yà, a. placed on the sacrificial grass, x. 15, 5 [barhís].
retodhā reto-dhá̄, m. impregnator, x. 129, 5 [ré-tas seed + dhā placing].
loka lok-á, m. place, x. 14, 9; world, x. 90, 14 [bright space = rok-á light; cp. Gk. λευκό-ς ‘white’, Lat.lux, lūc-is].
sadhastha sadhá-stha, n. gathering place, i. 154, 1. 3.
samānatas samāná-tas, adv. from the same place, iv. 51, 8.
suprapāṇa su-prapāṇá, a. (Bv.) giving good drink; n. good drinking place, v. 83, 8.
hita hi-tá, pp. placed, v. 11, 6 [later form of dhita from dhā put; Gk. θετό-ς set].
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"lac" has 280 results.
     
lactaddhita affix. affix ल applied optionally with the affix मतुप् to words ending in अा and meaning a detachable or undetachable part of an animal, ; as also to words mentioned in the group headed by the word सिध्म,as also to words वत्स and अस showing affection and strength respectively ; e. g. चूडाल:, सिध्मल:, वत्सल:, et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. V. 2. 96-98.
ālactad-affix (आल्) applied to the word वाच् in the sense of 'talkative' exempli gratia, for example वाचालः; confer, compare P.V.2.124.
ilac(1)taddhita affix. affix इल (इलच्) in the sense of pity; e. g. देवियः, यज्ञिलः confer, compare P.IV.2.79. The taddhita affix.affix घन् is also affixed in the same sense. See ईय. (2) taddhita affix. affix इल (इलच्) in the sense of possession, prescribed after the words फेन, लोमन् कपि, सिकता, शर्करा, तुन्द, उदर, घट, यव et cetera, and others; exempli gratia, for example फेनिल, लोमिल, कपिल, सिकतिल तुन्दिल et cetera, and others confer, compare P.V.2.99, 100, 105, 117.
ḍulactaddhita affix. affix उल in the sense of 'brother' applied to the word मातृ; exempli gratia, for example मातुलः; confer, compare P. IV. 2.36 Vart 1.
ḍbavalactaddhita affix.affix वल, in the four senses, added to the words नड and शाद; e. g. नड्वलम्, शाद्वलम्; confer, compare P. IV. 2.88.
tailactaddhita affix. affix तैल applied in the sense of oil to a word meaning the substance from which oil is extracted: e. g. तिलतैलं सर्षपतैलम् ; confer, compare विकारे सेनहने तैलच्, Kas on P. V. 2. 29.
śālactaddhita affix. affix शाल applied to the prefix वि in the sense of the base itself ( स्वार्थे ). See शङ्कटच्.
akṛtnot established; said of a grammatical operation which has not taken place e. g. अकृतसंधिकार्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 2.100, W. 3.84, also कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि नित्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI.4.62.
akṛtakāridoing or accomplishing what is not done or accomplished; the expression is used in connection with grammatical operations like ह्रस्वकरण or दीर्घकरण only in cases where it is necessary i, e. where already there is no hrasva or drgha confer, compare अकृतकारि खल्वपि शास्त्रमग्निवत् । तद्यथा । अग्निर्यददग्धं तद्दहति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 1.127. the rules of Grammar, like fire, are applied to places where they produce a change.
akṛtasaṃhitawords ending with a breathing or visarga which are not looked upon as placed immediately before the next word and hence which have no combination with the following vowel e. g. एष देवो अमर्त्यः R. V. 1X.8.1.
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
ativyāptithe same as अतिप्रसङ्ग, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Extensive application with respect to a rule which applies to places where it should not apply. See Par. Śekh on Pari. 28, Pari. 85; also Padamañj. on Kāś. II.I.32.
adravyavācinnot expressive of any substance which forms a place of residence (of qualities and actions); confer, compare तथा व्याकरणे विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरणवाचि ( P. II.4.13 ); इत्यद्रव्यवाचीति गम्यते । M.Bh. on II.1.1.
adhikaraṇa(1)support: a grammatical relation of the nature of a location : place of verbal activity. confer, compare अाधारोsधिकरणम् P.I.4.45; (2) one of the six or seven Kārakas or functionaries of verbal activity shown by the locative case. cf सप्तम्यधिकरणे च P.II.4.36;(3)substance, 'dravya' confer, compare अनधिकरणवाचि अद्रव्यवाचि इति गम्यते M.Bh. on II.1.1.
adhyai,adhyainkṛt affixes substituted in the place of तुम् of the infinitive in Vedic Literature (P. III.4.9.), e. g. पिबध्यैः when अध्यैन् is substituted, the initial vowel of the word becomes उदात्त. e. g. कर्मण्युपाचारध्यै ।
anabhinirvṛttathat which is not applied; literally(an operation or vidhi) which has not taken place or which has not been effective; confer, compare प्रसक्तस्य अनभिनिर्वृत्तस्य प्रतिषेधेन निवृत्तिः शक्या कर्तुं नानभिनिर्वृत्तस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.5; IV. 1.37. Cfeminine. also न चानभिनिर्वृत्ते बहिरङ्गे अन्तरङ्गं प्राप्नोति । तत्र निमित्तमेव बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गस्य M.Bh. on VI.4.22: VIII.3.15.
anādiṣṭanot replaced as a substitute; e. g. यः अनादिष्टादचः पूर्यस्तस्य निधिं प्रति स्थानिवद्भावः M.Bh. on I.1.57 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, III.2.3 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2, and VI.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).10.
anānupūrvyasaṃhitāthat saṁhitā text which has an order of words in it, which is different from what obtains in the Pada-pāṭha, and which appears appropriate according to the sense intended in the passage. There are three places of such combinations of words which are not according to the succcession of words in the Pada-pāṭha, quoted in the R.Pr. शुनश्चिच्छेपं निदितं सहस्रात् Rk. Saṁ. V.2.7, नरा वा शंसं पूषणमगोह्यम् Rk. Saṁ. X. 64.3; नरा च शंसं दैव्यम् Rk. Saṁh. IX. 86. 42. confer, compare एता अनानुपूर्व्यसंहिताः । न ह्येतेषां त्रयाणां पदानुपूर्व्येण संहितास्ति Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.78.
aniṭ(1)not admitting the augment इट् to be prefixed to it; the term is strictly to be applied to ārdhadhātuka affixes placed after such roots as have their vowel characterized by a grave accent ( अनुदात्तस्वर ); the term अनिट् being explained as अनिडादि qualifying the अार्धधातुक affix; (2) in a secondary way, it has become customary to call such roots अनिट् as do not allow the augment इट् to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. Such roots are termed अनुदात्त verily because they are possessed of an anudātta vowel. e. g. कृ, भृ, जि, गम् , हन् et cetera, and others as against भु, धू, तॄ, श्वि, वृ, वद्, फल्, चल्, et cetera, and others which have their vowel characterized by an acute (उदात्त ) accent. For a complete list of such roots see the well-known stanzas given in the Siddhāntakaumudī incidentally on अात्मनेपदेष्वनतः P. VII.1.5. ऊदॄदन्तैर्यौतिरुक्ष्णुशीङ्स्नु....निहताः स्मृताः ॥ १ ॥ शक्लृपच्मुचिरिचवच्विच् .........धातवो द्व्यधिकं शतम् ॥ as also some lists by ancient grammarians given in the Mahābhāṣya on एकाच उपदेशेनुदात्तात्. P. VII. 2.10 or in the Kāśikā on the same rule P. VII.2.10.
aniṭkārikā(1)name given to Stanzas giving a complete list of such roots as do not allow the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. For such Kārikās see Sid. Kaum. on VII.1.5 as also Kāśikā on VII. 2.10; ( 2 ) a short treatise enumerating in 11 verses the roots which do not admit the augment इट् before the ārdhadhatuka affixes. The work is anonymous, and not printed so far, possibly composed by a Jain writer. The work possibly belongs to the Kātantra system and has got short glosses called व्याख्यान, अवचूरि, विवरण, टीका, टिप्पणी and the like which are all anonymous.
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.id est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
antaratamavery close or very cognate being characterized (l) by the same place of utterance, or (2) by possessing the same sense, or (3) by possessing the same qualities, or (4) by possessing the same dimension ; cf स्थानेन्तरतमः P.I. I.50 and Kāś. thereon अान्तर्यं स्थानार्थगुणुप्रमाणतः स्थानतः दण्डाग्रम् , अर्थतः वतण्डी चासौ युवतिश्च वातण्ड्ययुवतिः । गुणतः पाकः, त्यागः, रागः । प्रमाणतः अमुष्मै अमूभ्याम् ॥
apakarṣa(1)deterioration of the place or instrument of the production of sound resulting in the fault called निरस्त; confer, compare स्थानकरणयेारपकर्षेण निरस्तं नाम दोष उत्पद्यते, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.2; (2) drawing back a word or words from a succeeding rule of grammar to the preceding one; confer, compare "वक्ष्यति तस्यायं पुरस्तादपकर्षः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.2.8. (3) inferiority (in the case of qualities) न च द्रव्यस्य प्रकर्षापकर्षौ स्तः ।
apavṛktathat which has already happened or taken place; confer, compare न्याय्या त्वेषा भूतकालता । कुतः । आद्यपवर्गात् । आदि रत्रापवृक्तः । एष च नाम न्याय्यो भूतकालो यत्र किंचिदपवृक्तं दृश्यते M.Bh. on III.2.102
apitnot marked with the mute letter प्, A Sārvadhātuka affix not marked with mute प् is looked upon as marked with ड् and hence it prevents the guṇa or vṛddhi substitution for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate vowel if it be अ. e. g. कुरुतः तनुतः, कुर्वन्ति where no guṇa takes place for the vowel उ confer, compare सार्वधातुकमपित्. P.I.2.4.
abhinidhānaliterally that which is placed near or before; the first of the doubled class consonants; a mute or sparṣa consonant arising from doubling and inserted before a mute; confer, compare अघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथमः अभिनिधानः स्पर्शपरात्तस्य सस्थानः ( Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 9. ) explained by त्रिभाष्यरत्न as स्पर्शपरादघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथम आगमस्तस्य स्पर्शस्य समानस्थानः अभिनिधानो भवति । अभिनिधीयते इत्यभिनिधानः आरोपणीयः इत्यर्थः । यथा यः क्कामयेत अश्मन्नूर्जम् । यः प्पाप्मना । The Ṛk. prātiśākhya explains the term अभिनिधान somewhat differently; confer, compare अभिनिधानं कृतसंहितानां स्पर्शन्ति:स्थानामपवाद्य रेफम् । संघारणं संवरणं श्रुतेश्च स्पर्शोदयानामपि चावसाने Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 5, explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शपराणां स्पर्शानां रेफं वर्जयित्वा अन्तःस्थानां च वर्णानां कृतसंहितानां च सतां संधारणं वर्णश्रुतेश्च संवरणं भवति । तदेतद् अभिनिधानं नाम । यथा उष मा षड् द्वा द्वा । ऋ. सं ८।६८।१४ इह षड् इत्यत्र अभिनिधानम् ॥ अभिनिघान possibly according to उव्वट here means the first of the doubled letter which, although the second letter is attached to it, is separately uttered with a slight pause after it. अभिनिधान means, in short, something like 'suppression.' The Ṛk. Tantra takes a still wider view and explains अभिनिधान as the first of a doubled consonant, cf ; अभिनिधानः । क्रमजं च पूर्वान्ततस्वरं भवति । Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 21.
abhyastarepeated, redoubled word or wording or part of a word. The term अभ्यस्त is applied to the whole doubled expression in Pāṇini's grammar, confer, compare उभे अभ्यस्तम् P. VI.1.6; (2) the six roots with जक्ष् placed at the head viz. जक्ष् , जागृ, दरिद्रा , चकास्, शास्, दीधी and वेवी which in fact are reduplicated forms of घस् , गृ, द्रा, कास् , शस् , धी and वी.
alpāctarahaving a smaller number of vowels in it; such a word is generally placed first in a Dvandva compound; cf अल्पाच्तरम्, P.II.2.34. अल्पाच्तरे पूर्वं भवति प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ अपाच्तर is the same as अल्पाच्क used in the प्रक्रियाकौमुदी or अल्पस्वरतर in Kātantra (Kāt, II.5.12).
avagraha(1)separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; exempli gratia, for example पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originatedition The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. (Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; confer, compare also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।(Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.36); also confer, compare यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ exempli gratia, for example शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; confer, compare समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.
avilambitaname of a fault in pronouncing a word where there is the absence of a proper connection of the breath with the place of utterance; 'अविलम्बितः वर्णान्तरासंभिन्नः' Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on M.Bh I.1.1. There is the word अवलम्बित which is also used in the same sense; confer, compare ग्रस्तं निरस्तमवलम्बितं निर्हतम् ० M. Bh on I.1.1.
asamarthasamāsaa compound of two words, which ordinarily is inadmissible, one of the two words being more closely connected with a third word, but which takes place on the authority of usage, there being no obstacle in the way of understanding the sense to be conveyed; e. g. देवदत्तस्य गुरुकुलम् । देवदत्तस्य दासभार्या । असूर्यंपश्यानि मुखानि, अश्राद्धभोजी ब्राह्मणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.1.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
āgamaaugment, accrement, a word element which is added to the primitive or basic word during the process of the formation of a complete word or pada. The āgama is an adventitious word element and hence differs from ādeśa, the substitute which wholly takes the place of the original or ( आदेशिन् ). Out of the several āgamas mentioned by Pāṇini, those that are marked with mute ट् are prefixed, those, marked with क्, are affixed, while those, marked with म्, are placed immediately after the last vowel of the word. The augments become a part and parcel of the word to which they are added, and the characteristics of which they possess;confer, compareयदागमास्तद्गुणीभूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते, also आगमानां आगमिधर्मिवैशिष्ट्यम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.11. Those grammarians, who hold the view that words are unproduced and eternal, explain the addition of an augment as only the substitution of a word with an augment in the place of a word without an augment; confer, compare आदेशास्तर्हिमे भविष्यन्ति अनागमकानां सागमकाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20; I.1.46. The term āgama is defined as अन्यत्र विद्यमानस्तु यो वर्णः श्रुयतेधिकः । आगम्यमानतुल्यत्वात्स आगम इति स्मृतः Com. on Tait. Prāt.I. 23.
ādheyaa thing placed in another or depending upon another, as opposed to ādhāra or the container; confer, compare आधेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.1.44.
aānaṅsubstitute आन् in the place of the last letter (ऋ) of the first member of dvandva compounds of words meaning deities or of words showing blood-relationship which end with the vowel ऋ; exempli gratia, for example होतापोतारौ, मातापितरो confer, compare P.VI.3.25, 26.
ānantarya(1)close proximity; absence of any intermediary element generally of the same nature: अनन्तरस्य भावः आनन्तर्यम्; confer, compare नाजानन्तर्ये वहिष्ट्वप्रक्लृप्तिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 21: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 51. This close proximity of one letter or syllable or so, with another, is actually id est, that isphonetically required and generally so found out also, but sometimes such proximity is theoretically not existing as the letter required for proximity is technically not present there by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्. In such cases, a technical absence is not looked upon as a fault. confer, compare कचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्ये शास्त्रकृतमनानन्तर्ये यथा ष्टुत्वे, क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतं यथा जश्त्वे । यत्र कुतश्चिदेवानन्तर्यं तदाश्रयिष्यामः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.3.13. (2) close connection by mention together at a common place et cetera, and others;confer, compare सर्वाद्यानन्तर्यं कार्यार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27.
āpuṭaugment ( आप् ) suggested in the place of आपुक् by Patañjali to be prefixed to the affix णिच् confer, compare M Bh on III.1.25.
aāmutaddhita affix. affix (अाम्) added to the affixes घ id est, that is तर and तम which are placed after indeclinables; exempli gratia, for example किंतराम्, पचतितराम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.V.4.11.
ārdhadhātukaa term used in contrast to the term सार्वधातुक for such verbal and kṛt affixes, as are not personal endings of verbs nor marked with the mute letter श् confer, compare तिङ्शित् सार्वधातुकम् । आर्धधातुकं शेषः। P.III.4.113 and 114. The personal endings of verbs in the perfect tense and the benedictive mood are termed ārdhadhātuka, confer, compare P. III. 4.115, 116; while both the terms are promiscuously found utilised in the Vedic Literature; confer, compare P. III. 4. 117. The main utility of the ārdhadhātuka term is the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to the ārdhadhātuka affixes. The term आर्धधातुका was in use in works of the old Vaiyākaraṇas; confer, compare अथवा आर्धधातुकासु इति वक्ष्यामि कासु आर्धधातुकासु । उक्तिषु युक्तिषु रूढिषु प्रतीतिषु श्रुतिषु संज्ञासु M.Bh. on II. 4.35. It cannot be said how the term ārdhadhātuka originatedition Probably such affixes or pratyayas, like the kṛt affixes generally, as could be placed after certain roots only were called ārdhadhātuka, as contrasted with the verbal and the present participle affixes which were termed sārvadhātuka on account of their being found in use after every root.
āśraya(1)relation of dependence; confer, compare अाश्रयात्सिद्धत्वं भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; (2) substratum, place of residence; confer, compare गुणवचनानां शब्दानामाश्रयतो लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति । शुद्धं वस्त्रम् । शुक्ला शाटी । शुक्लः कम्बलः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.2.29.
aāsthāpita(1)placed after, following, which follow: confer, compare आस्थथितानामनन्तरोव्रतानाम् Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV.1. (2) properly placed at the end exempli gratia, for example सिष्यद् इति सिष्यदे.
āsya(1)place of articulation, the mouth, confer, compare अत्यन्त्यनेन वर्णान् इति अास्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.9; (2) found in the place of articulation; e g. the effort made for the utterance of words confer, compareआस्ये भवमास्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.9, also स्पृष्टादिप्रयत्नपञ्चकमास्यम् Laghuvṛtti on Śāk. I.1.6.
āhitāgnyādia class of compound words headed by the word आहिताग्नि in which the past passive voice. participle. is optionally placed first. exempli gratia, for exampleआहिताग्निः अग्नयाहितः; जातपुत्रः पुत्रजातः The class आहिताम्न्यादि is stated to be आकृतिगण, confer, compare Kāś.on P.II.2.37.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
isnucalternative affix mentioned in the Mahābhāṣya in the place of इष्णुच्; cf Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on III. 2.57. See इष्णुच् .
utpadto be produced, to be placed after to be annexed; (causal) to produce, to get annexed, to add; confer, compare धेनुरनञि कमुत्पादयति Āpiśali's Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). quoted in M; Bh. on P.IV.2.45.
uddeśadescription; mention of qualities; confer, compare गुणैः प्रापणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on I. 3.2: the word is used in contrast with उपदेश or direct mention; confer, compare कः पुनुरुद्देशोपदेशयोर्विशेषः । प्रत्यक्षमाख्यानमुपदेशो गुणैः प्रापणमुद्देशः । प्रत्यक्षं तावदाख्यानमुपदेशः तद्यथा । अगोज्ञाय कश्चिद्गां सक्थनि कर्णे वा गृहीत्वोपदिशति । अयं गौरिति । स प्रत्यक्षमाख्यातमाह । उपदिष्टो मे गौरिति । गुणैः प्रापणमुद्देशः । तद्यथा । कश्चित्कंचिदाह । देवदत्तं मे भवानुद्दिशतु इति । स इहस्थः पाटलिपुत्रस्थं देवदत्तमुद्दिशति । अङ्गदी कुण्डली किरीटी...ईदृशो देवदत्त इति । स गुणैः प्राप्यमाणमाह । उद्दिष्टो मे दवदत्त इति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.2; (2) spot, place, passage of occurrence: उद्देश उपदेशदेशः; confer, compare यथोद्देशं संज्ञापरिभाषम् Pari.Śek. Pari. 2.
uddeśyavidheyabhāvarelationship between the subject and the predicate where generally the subject is placed first in a sentence; confer, compare उद्देश्यवचनं पूर्वं विधेयत्वं ततः परम् । confer, compare also तादात्म्यसंसर्गकस्थले विशेष्यत्वमेव उद्देश्यं विशेषणत्वमेव विधेयम् Padavākyaratnākara.
upagrahaa term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मनेपदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेशव्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.
upadhāpenultimate letter, as defined in the rule अलोन्त्यात्पूर्वं उपघा P. I. 1.65, exempli gratia, for example see ह्रस्वोपध, दीर्घोपध, लघूपध, अकारोपध et cetera, and others; literally उपधीयते निधीयते सा that which is placed near the last letter.
upapadaliterallya word placed near; an adjoining word. In Pāṇini's grammar, the term उपपद is applied to such words as are put in the locative case by Pāṇini in his rules prescribing kṛt affixes in rules from 1 II. 1, 90 to III. 4 end; confer, compare तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम् P.III.1.92; exempli gratia, for example कर्मणि in कर्मण्यण् P. III.2.1. The word is also used in the sense of an adjoining word connected in sense. e. g. युष्मद्युपपदे as also प्रहासे च मन्योपपदे P.I.4.105,106; confer, compare also क्रियार्थायां क्रियायामुपपदे धातोर्भविष्यति काले तुमुन्ण्वुलौ भवतः Kāś. on P.III.3.10; confer, compare also इतरेतरान्योन्योपपदाच्च P.I.3.10, मिथ्योपपदात् कृञोभ्यासे P.I.3.71, as also उपपदमतिङ् P.II.2.19; and गतिकारकोपपदात्कृत् P. VI.2.139. Kaiyaṭa on P.III.1. 92 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 explains the word उपपद as उपोच्चारि or उपोच्चारितं पदं उपपदम्. The word उपपद is found used in the Prātiśākhya literature where it means a word standing near and effecting some change: confer, compare च वा ह अह एव एतानि चप्रभृतीनि यान्युपपदानि उक्तानि आख्यातस्य विकारीणिo Uvaṭa on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI. 23.
upabdimatthe fourth out of the seven stages or places in the production of articulate speech, upāṁśu being the first stage; confer, compare सशब्दमुपद्भिमत् Tait. Pr. 23.9 explained by the commentator as: सशब्दं परश्राव्यशब्दसहितम् । यत्र प्रयुज्यमानः शब्दः परैरक्षरव्यञ्जनववेकवर्जे श्रूयते तदुपद्विमत्संज्ञं भवति ।
upasargayogaconnection with a prefix; joining of the prefix. Some scholars of grammar hold the view that the Upasarga is prefixed to the root and then the verbal form is arrived at by placing the desired terminations after the root, while others hold the opposite view: confer, compare पूर्वं धातुः साधनेनोपयुज्यते पश्चादुपसर्गेण । अन्ये तु पूर्वं धातुरुपसर्गेण युज्यते पश्चात्साधनेनेत्याहुः Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti Pari. 131, 132; cf also vol. VII. Mahābhāṣya edited by the D. E. Society, Poona, pages 371-372.
upasthitaa word used father technically in the sense of the word इति which is used in the Krama and other recitals when Vedic reciters show separately the two words compounded together by uttering the compound word first, then the word इति and then the two compound words, exempli gratia, for example सुश्लोक ३ इति सु-श्लोक। विभावसो इति विभा-वसो. The Kāśikā defines the word उपस्थित as समुदायादवच्छिद्य पदं येन स्वरूपे अवस्थाप्यते तद् उपस्थितम् । इतिशब्दः । Kāś.on VI.1.129. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya explains the word rather differently, but in the same context.The word after which इति is placed is called upasthita exempli gratia, for example the word बाहू in बाहू इति or विभावसौ in विभावसो इति as contrasted with स्थित id est, that is the word without इति exempli gratia, for example बाहू or विभावसो, as also contrasted with स्थितोपस्थित id est, that is the whole word विभावसो इति विभाsवसो which is also called संहित or मिलित; (2) occurring, present; cf कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् . यत्र कार्यं तत्रोपस्थितं द्रष्टव्यम् । Par.Śek. Pari.3.
upahita(1)with, preceded by; e g. दीर्घोपहित, ह्रस्वोपहित; (2) sticking to, connected with, 'उपश्लेषित': confer, compareDurga on Nir.V.12;(3) coming to be placed near or in juxtaposition with the preceding word: confer, compare आवोन्तोपहितात् सतः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.15.
upāṃśuliterally inaudible. The word is explained in the technical sense as the first place or stage in the utterance of speech where it is perfectly inaudible although produced; confer, compare उपांशु इति प्रथमं वाचः स्थानम् Com. on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII, 5.
ubhayatrain both the ways literally in both the places; confer, compare उभयत्र च P. I. 1. 44 V rt. 22. The word उभयत्रविभाषा is used in grammar referring to the option ( विभाषा) which is प्राप्त as also अप्राप्त; confer, compareM.Bh.on P.1.1.26 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).22.
ediphthong vowel ए made up of अ and इ, and hence having कण्ठतालुस्थान as its place of origin. It has no short form according to Pāṇini. In cases where a short vowel as a substitute is prescribed for it in grammar, the vowel इ is looked upon as its short form. Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya has observed that followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāṇāyanīya branches of the Sāmaveda have short ए ( ऍ ) in their Sāmaveda recital and has given सुजाते अश्वसूनृते, अध्वर्यो अद्रिभिः सुतम् as illustrations; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1-48; as also the article on.
ekadeśavikṛtanyāyathe maxim that ' a thing is called or taken as that very thing although it is lacking in a part,'stated briefly as एकदेशविकृतमनन्यवत् Pari. Śek. Pari. 37. The maxim is given in all the different schools of grammar: confer, compare Śak Pari. 17: Cāndra Pari. 15, Kat. Par. Vr. l, Jain. Par.Vr.l l, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.Pari.7 et cetera, and others
ekahalmadhya(a vowel)placed between two single consonants; e.g the vowel अ in पच्, रम्, रण्, et cetera, and others
ekādeśaa single substitute in the place of two original units; exempli gratia, for example ए in the place of अ and इ,or ओ in the place of अ and उ. The ādeśas or substitutes named पूर्वरूप and पररूप are looked upon as ekadeśas in Pāṇini's grammar although instead of them, the omission of the latter and former vowels respectively, is prescribed in some Prātiśākhya works. गुण and वृद्धि are sometimes single substitutes for single originals, while they are sometimes ekadeśas for two original vowels exempli gratia, for example तवेदम्, ब्रह्मौदनः, उपैति, प्रार्च्छति, गाम्, सीमन्तः et cetera, and others; see P.VI.1.87 to ll l, confer, compare also A.Pr.II 3.6.
aiṣukāryādia class of words headed by the word एषुकारि to which the taddhita affix भक्त is added in the sense of 'place of residence'; exempli gratia, for example एषुकारिभक्तम्, चान्द्रायणभक्तम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.2.54.
o(1)diphthong vowel made up of the vowels अ and उ, termed as guṇa in Pāṇini's grammar and prescribed sometimes in the place of the vowel उ; ( 2 ) affix ओ applied to the root गम् or गा to form a noun; confer, compare ओकारो नामकरणः Nir.II.5.
oṣṭhaIit. lip; the place of origin ( स्थान ) of the labial letters called उपध्मानीय वर्ण i.e the vowels उ, ऊ, the consonants प्, फ्, ब्, भ्, म् and the उपध्मानीय letter; confer, compare ऊपूपध्मानीयानामेाष्ठौ Sid. Kau. on तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.I.1.9, also उवोपोपध्मा ओष्ठे V. Pr . I.70.
ᳵjihvāmūlīyaa phonetical element or unit called Jihvāmūlīya, produced at the root of the tongue, which is optionally substituted in the place of the Visarga (left 0ut breath) directly preceding the utterance of the letter क् or ख् and hence shown as ᳵ क्. See अ ᳵ क् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 2.
kaḍārādia class of words headed by the word कडार which, although adjectival,are optionally placed first in the Karmadhāraya compound, exempli gratia, for example कडारजैमिनिः जैमिनिकडारः; confer, compare Kāś. on II.2.38.
kaṇṭhaglottis: cavity in the throat holding vocal cords; the place of the production of the sounds अ, अI and ह; confer, compare अहविसर्जनीयाः कण्ठे V, Pr.I. 71; cf, also कण्ठ्योsकारः प्रथमपञ्चमौ च R.Pr.I.18.
kambojādia class of words headed by the word कम्बोज, the affix अञ् placed after which is elided, provided the words कम्बोज and others are names of countries; exempli gratia, for example कम्बोजः चोलः, केरलः, शकः, यवनः et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV.1.175.
karaṇa(1)lit instrument; the term signifies the most efficient means for accomplishing an act; confer, compare क्रियासिद्धी यत् प्रकृष्टोपकारकं विवक्षितं तत्साधकतमं कारकं करणसंज्ञं भवति, Kāś. on साधकतमं करणम् P.I.4.42, e. g. दात्रेण in दात्रेण लुनाति; (2) effort inside the mouth (अाभ्यन्तर-प्रयत्न ) to produce sound; e. g. touching of the particular place ( स्थान ) inside the mouth for uttering consonants; confer, compare स्पृष्टं स्पर्शानां करणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P, I.1.10 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (3) disposition of the organ which produces the sound; confer, compare श्वासनादोभयानां विशेषः करणमित्युच्यते । एतच्च पाणिनिसंमताभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न इति भाति । Com. on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII.3;confer, compare also स्थानकरणानुप्रदानानि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.32: confer, compare also अनुप्रदानात्संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् । जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 2. where karaṇa is described to be of five kinds अनुप्रदान (id est, that is नाद or resonance), संसर्ग (contact), स्थान, करणविन्यय and परिमाण; confer, compareअकारस्य तावत् अनुप्रदानं नादः, संसर्गः कण्ठे, स्थानं हनू, करणविन्ययः ओष्ठौ, परिमाणं मात्राकालः । अनुप्रदानादिभिः पञ्चभिः करणैर्वर्णानां वैशेष्यं जायते Com. on Tai. Pr. XXIII.2. The Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya mentions two karaṇas संवृत and विवृत; confer, compare द्वे करणे संवृतविवृताख्ये वायोर्भवतः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 11; (4) use of a word exempli gratia, for example इतिकरणं, वत्करणम्; confer, compare किमुपस्थितं नाम । अनार्षं इतिकरणः M.Bh.on. P.VI.1.129.
kalaa fault of pronunciation consequent upon directing the tongue to a place in the mouth which is not the proper one, for the utterance of a vowel; a vowel so pronounced; confer, compare संवृतः कलो ध्मात: ... रोमश इति confer, comparealso निवृत्तकलादिकामवर्णस्य प्रत्यापत्तिं वक्ष्यामि M.Bh. Āhnika 1.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kāryātideśalooking upon the substitute as the very original for the sake of operations that are caused by the presence of the original;the word is used in contrast with रूपातिदेश where actually the original is restored in the place of the substitute on certain conditions. For details see Mahābhāṣya on द्विर्वचनेचि P. 1.1.59.
kālanotion of time created by different contacts made by a thing with other things one after another. Time required for the utterance of a short vowel is taken as a unit of time which is called मात्रा or कालमात्रा, literally measurement of time; (2) degree of a vowel, the vowels being looked upon as possessed of three degrees ह्रस्व,दीर्घ,& प्लुत measured respectively by one, two and three mātrās; confer, compare ऊकालोSझ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P.I.2.27; (3) time notion in general, expressed in connection with an activity in three ways past (भूत), present (वर्तमान), and future (भविष्यत्) to show which the terms भूता, वर्तमाना and भविष्यन्ती were used by ancient grammarians; cf the words पूर्वकाल, उत्तरकाल; also confer, compare पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम् Kāś. on P. II. 4.21 ; (4) place of recital ( पाठदेश ) depending on the time of recital, confer, compare न परकालः पूर्वकाले पुनः (V.Pr.III. 3) a dictum similar to Pāṇini's पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1.
kāladuṣṭaa word not sanctioned by rules of grammar. The word probably refers to the corruption taking place in connection with the use of a word on account of lapse of time: confer, compare कालदुष्टा अपशब्दाः Durgh. Vr. on II.2.6.
kiṃśulakādia class of words headed by the word किंशुलक, which get their final vowel lengthened when the word गिरि is placed after them as a second member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e. g. किंशुलकागिरिः, अञ्जनागिरिः; confer, compare Kāś. on P. VI.3.117.
kaiyaṭaname of the renowned commentator on the Mahābhāṣya, who lived in the 11th century. He was a resident of Kashmir and his father's name was Jaiyaṭa. The commentary on the Mahābhāṣya was named महाभाष्यप्रदीप by him, which is believed by later grammarians to have really acted as प्रदीप or light, as without it, the Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali would have remained unlit, that is unintelligible, at several places. Later grammarians attached to प्रदीप almost the same importance as they did to the Mahābhāṣya and the expression तदुक्तं भावकैयटयोः has been often used by commentators. Many commentary works were written on the Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.out of which Nageśa's Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.is the most popular. The word कैयट came to be used for the word महाभाष्यप्रदीप which was the work of Kaiyaṭa. For details see Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII. pp. 389-390.
koṭarādia class of words headed by the word कोटर which get their final vowel lengthened when the word वन is placed after them as a seconditional member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; exempli gratia, for example कोटरावणम्, मिश्रकावणम्. confer, compare Kāś. on P.VI.3.117.
kyaṣaffix य added to certain nouns like लोहित and others to form denominative roots after which terminations of both the padas are placed exempli gratia, for example लोहितायति, लोहितायते; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1.13.
krama(1)serial order or succession as contrasted with यौगपद्य or simultaneity. The difference between क्रम and यौगपद्य is given by भर्तृहरि in the line क्रमे विभिद्यते रूपं यौगपद्ये न भिद्यते Vāk. Pad. II. 470. In order to form a word by the application of several rules of grammar, a particular order is generally followed in accordance with the general principle laid down in the Paribhāṣā पूर्वपरनित्यान्तरङ्गापवादानामुत्तरोत्तरं बलीयः, as also according to what is stated in the sūtras असिद्धवदत्राभात्, पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् et cetera, and others (2) succession, or being placed after, specifically with reference to indeclinables like एव, च et cetera, and others which are placed after a noun with which they are connectedition When an indecinable is not so connected, it is called भिन्नक्रम; confer, compare परिपन्थं च तिष्ठति (P.IV. 4.36), चकारो भिन्नक्रमः प्रत्ययार्थं समुच्चिनोति, Kāś. on P. IV. 4.36; also ईडजनोर्ध्वे च । चशब्दो भिन्नक्रमः
kvibantaa substantive ending with the kṛt affix क्विप् (zero affix) added to a root to form a noun in the sense of the verbal action (भाव). The words ending with this affix having got the sense of verbal activity in them quite suppressed, get the noun terminations सु, औ, जस् et cetera, and others and not ति, तः et cetera, and others placed after them; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद् भवति. However, at the same time, these words undergo certain operations peculiar to roots simply because the kṛt affix entirely disappears and the word formed, appears like a root; confer, compare क्विबन्ता धातुत्वं न जहति. Kaiyaṭa's Prad. on VII.1.70.
gthird letter of the guttural class of consonants, possessed of the properties घोष, संवृत, नाद and अल्पप्राण; some grammarians look upon the word क्ङित् (P.I.1.5) as made up of क् , ग् and ङ् and say that the Guna and Vṛddhi substitutes do not take place in the vowels इ, उ, ऋ, and लृ if an affix or so, marked by the mute letter ग् follows.
garbhavatliterally just like a foetus. The word is used in connection with affixes that are placed like a foetus in the midst of a word in spite of the rule that affixes are to be placed after; confer, compare परश्च P. III. 1. 2. The affixes अकच् , टाप् et cetera, and others are of this kind; confer, compare गर्भवट्टाबादयो भवन्ति । यथा मध्ये गर्भस्तथा टाबादयः स्त्रीप्रत्ययाः प्रातिपदिकस्वाद्योर्मध्ये भवन्ति Sīradeva's ParibhāṣāvṛttiPar. Vṛ. Pari. 91.
golḍsṭyūkaraa well known German scholar who made a sound study of Paini's Sanskrit Vyakarana and wrote a very informative treatise entitled 'Panini, his place in Sanskrit Literature.' He lived in the latter half of the 19th century.
goṣṭhaca taddhita affix.affix applied to words like गो and others in the sense of 'a place'; confer, compare गेष्ठजादयः स्थानादिषु पशुनाम। पशुनामादिभ्य उपसंख्यानम् | गवां स्थानं गोगोष्ठम्, अश्वगोष्ठम्: महिषीगोष्ठम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.1. varia lectio, another reading,2.29 It is very likely that words like गोष्ठ, दघ्न and others were treated as pratyayas by Panini and katyayana who followed Panini, because they were found always associated with a noun preceding them and never independently.
gaurādia class of words to which the affix ई ( ङीष्) is added to form the feminine base; exempli gratia, for example गौरी, मत्सी, हयी, हरिणी; the class contains a large number of words exceeding 150; for details see Kasika on P.IV.1. 41; (2) a small class of eleven words, headed by the word गौर which do not have the acute accent on the last syllable in a tatpurusa compound when they are placed after the preposition उप; confer, compare P. VI.2.194.
gh(1)fourth consonant of the guttural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदानत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2)the consonant घ at the beginning of a taddhita affix. affix which is always changed into इय्; confer, compare P. VII. 1. 9; (3) substitute for ह् at the end of roots beginning with द्, as also of the root नह् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.VIII.2.32,33,34; (4) substitute for the consonant व् of मतुव् placed after the pronouns किम् and इदम् which again is changed into इय् by VII.1.9: exempli gratia, for example कियान्, इयान्: confer, compare P.V. 2.40.
ghitaffixes having the mute letter घ्, as for instance, घञ् घ, घच् et cetera, and otherswhich cause the substitution of a guttural in the place of the palatal letter च् or ज् before it: exempli gratia, for example त्याग: राग: confer, compare P.VII.3.52.
ṅit(l)affixes with the mute letter ङ् attached to them either before or after, with a view to preventing the guna and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding इ, उ, ऋ, or लृ, as for example, the affixes चङ्, अङ् and others (2) affixes conventionally called ङित् after certain bases under certain conditions; confer, compare गाङ्कुटादिम्यो ञ्णिन्ङित् P. I. 2. 1-4; (3) roots marked with the mute letter ङ् signifying the application of the Atmanepada terminations to them: (4) substitutes marked with mute ङ् which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which they are prescribed as substitutes; (5) case affixes marked with mute letter ङ् which cause the substitution of guna to the last vowel इ or उ of words termed घि.
cakrakaa kind of fault in the application of operations, resulting in confusion; a fault in which one returns to the same place not immediately as in Anavastha but after several steps; confer, compare पुनर्ऋच्छिभावः पुनराट् इति चक्रकमव्यवस्था प्राप्नोति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.60 Vart 5.
ciṇsubstitute इ causing vrddhi, in the place of the aorist vikarana affix च्लि, prescribed in the case of all roots in the passive voice and in the case of the roots पद्, दीप्, जन् et cetera, and others in the active voice before the affix त of the third person. singular. in the Atmanepada, which in its turn is elided by P. VI. 4. 104. cf P. III. 1.60-66.
cvitaddhita affix. affix ( of which nothing remains ) to signify the taking place of something which was not so before; after the word ending in च्वि the forms of the root कृ, भू or असू have to be placed; e. g. शुक्लीकरोति; confer, compare P. V. 4. 50
chthe second consonant of the palatal class of consonants ( चवर्ग ), which is possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, मह्याप्राण and कण्ठविवृतकारित्व. छ् , placed at the beginning of affixes, is mute; while ईय् is substituted for छ् standing at the beginning of taddhita affixes; confer, compare P. I. 3.7 and VII. 1.2. छ् at the end of roots has got ष्, substituted for it: confer, compare P. VIII. 2.36.
jātabahiraṅgāsiddhatvainvalidity of a Bahiranga operation that has already taken place by virtue of the Antaranga-paribhasa-असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्ङ्गेthat which is ' bahiranga' is regarded as not having taken effect when that which is 'antarahga' is to take effect. For details see Par. Sek. Paribhasa 50.
jātābhīyāsiddhatvainvalidity of a grammatical operation prescribed by a rule in the अाभीय section (P. VI. 4.22 upto the end of the fourth pada ) which, although it has taken place, is to be looked upon as not having taken place when any other operation in the same section is to take effect. See आभीयासिद्व.
jihvāmūlasthāna(l)having the root of the tongue as the place of its production;the phonetic element or letter called जिह्वामूलीय; (2) name given to that phonetic element into which a visarga is changed when followed by क् or ख्; cf X क इति जिह्वामूलीयः V.Pr.VIII.19. The जिह्वामूलीय letter is called जिह्व्य also; see Nyasa on I. 1.9. The Rk. Pratisakhya looks upon ऋ, लृ, जिह्वामूलीय, and the guttural letters as जिह्वामूलस्थान.
jñāpakaliterallyindirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, confer, compareM.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 et cetera, and others The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systemanuscript. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.
ṭhaka very common taddhita affix. affix इक, or क in case it is added to words ending in इस् , उस् , उ, ऋ, ल् and त् according to P. VII. 3. 51, causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ठक् is added to (1) रेवती and other words in the sense of descendant ( अपत्य ) e. g. रैवतिकः:, दाण्डग्राहिकः, गार्गिकः, भागवित्तिकः यामुन्दायनिकः, confer, compare P. IV. 1.146-149; (2) to the words लाक्षा,रोचना et cetera, and others in the sense of 'dyed in', e. g. लाक्षिकम्, रौचनिकम् ; confer, compare P. IV. 2.2; (3) to the words दधि and उदश्वित् in the sense of संस्कृत 'made better ', e. g. दाधिकम् , औदश्वित्कम् ( क instead of इक substituted for टक् ), confer, compare P. IV.2. 18, 19; (4) to the words अाग्रहायुणी, अश्वत्थ et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 22, 23; (5) to words expressive of inanimate objects, to the words हस्ति and धेनु, as also to the words केश and अश्व in the sense of 'multitude '; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 47, 48; (6) to the words क्रतु, उक्थ and words ending in सूत्र, वसन्त et cetera, and others, in the sense of 'students of' ( तदधीते तद्वेद ), confer, compare P. IV. 2.59, 60, 63; (7) to the words कुमुद and others as also to शर्करा as a चातुरर्थिक affix; confer, compare P. IV. 2.80, 84; (8) to the words कन्था, भवत् and वर्षा in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P. IV. 2.102, 115, IV. 3.18; (9) to the words उपजानु and others in the sense 'generally present '; confer, compare P. IV. 3. 40; (10) to the words consisting of two syllables, and the words ऋक्, ब्राह्मण et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'explanatory literary work'; confer, compare P. IV.3.72: ( 11) to words meaning 'sources of income ' in the sense of 'accruing from’; confer, compare P. IV. 3.75; (12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place in the sense of ' भक्ति ', cf P. IV. 8.96; and (13) to the words हल् and सीर in the sense of 'belonging to', confer, compare P. IV. 3.124. The taddhita affix. affix ठक् is added as a general termination, excepting in such cases where other affixes are prescribed, in specified senses like 'तेन दीव्यति, ' 'तेन खनति,' 'तेन संस्कृतम्' et cetera, and others; cf P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to words हल, सीर, कथा, विकथा, वितण्डा et cetera, and others in specified senses, confer, compare P. IV.4. 81, 102 ठक् is also added as a general taddhita affix. affix or अधिकारविहितप्रत्यय, in various specified senses, as prescribed by P. V.1.19-63,and to the words उदर, अयःशूल,दण्ड, अजिन, अङ्गुली, मण्डल, et cetera, and others and to the word एकशाला, in the prescribed senses; confer, compare P. V. 2.67,76, V. 3.108,109; while, without making any change in sense it is added to अनुगादिन् , विनय, समय, उपाय ( औपयिक being the word formed), अकस्मात्, कथंचित्; (confer, compareआकस्मिक काथंचित्क), समूह,विशेष, अत्यय and others, and to the word वाक् in the sense of 'expressed'; confer, compare P. V. 4.13, 34, 35. The feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ) is added to words ending in the affix टक् to form feminine. bases.
ṇastaddhita affix. affix अस् applied to the word पर्शू in the sense of collection. The original Varttika is पर्श्वाः सण् P. IV. 2. 43 Vart. 3. Some scholars read णस् in the place of सण् in the Varttika which is read as पर्श्वा णम् वक्तव्यः by them.
ṇicaffix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् et cetera, and others e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; confer, compare P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising et cetera, and others ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; confer, compare P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, exempli gratia, for example सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, et cetera, and others: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: confer, compare णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे et cetera, and others; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
takārathe consonant त्, the vowel अ and the word कार being placed after it for facility in understanding; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 17, 21.
takṣaśilādia class of words headed by तक्षशिला to which the taddhita affix अ ( अञ् ) is added in the sense of 'a native place or a domicile'. The word so formed has the acute accent on its first vowel; e. g. ताक्षशिलः वात्सोद्वरणः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.93.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
tācchabdya(1)use of a word for that word (of which the sense has been conveyed); the expression तादर्थ्या त्ताच्छब्द्यम् is often used by grammarians just like a Paribhasa; confer, compare अस्ति तादर्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यम् । बहुव्रीह्यर्थानि पदानि बहुव्रीहिरिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.29; similarly तृतीयासमास;for तृतीयार्थानि पदानि M.Bh. on P.I.1.30 or समासार्थे शास्त्रं समासः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.43; (2) use of a word for that word of which there is the vicinity; confer, compare अथवा साहचर्यात् ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति। कालसहचरितो वर्णः। वर्णॊपि काल एव; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.27 where the letter उ is taken in the sense of time required for its utterance, the reason being that sound and time go together; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.I.2.70, IV.3.48, V.2.79; (3) use of a word for that which resides there; confer, compare तात्स्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति M.Bh. on V.4.50 Vart. 3. At all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. places, the use of one word for another is by Laksana.
tāthābhāvyaname given to the grave (अनुदात्त) vowel which is अवग्रह id est, that is which occurs at the end of the first member of a compound and which is placed between two acute vowels id est, that is is preceded by and followed by an acute vowel; exempli gratia, for example तनूSनप्त्रे, तनूSनपत्: confer, compare उदाद्यन्तो न्यवग्रहस्ताथाभाव्यः । V.Pr.I.120. The tathabhavya vowel is recited as a kampa ( कम्प ) ; confer, compare तथा चोक्तमौज्जिहायनकैर्माध्यन्दिनमतानुसारिभिः'अवग्रहो यदा नीच उच्चयॊर्मध्यतः क्वचित् । ताथाभाव्यो भवेत्कम्पस्तनूनप्त्रे निदर्शनम्'. Some Vedic scholars hold the view that the ताथाभाव्य vowel is not a grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel, but it is a kind of स्वरित or circumflex vowel. Strictly according to Panini "an anudatta following upon an udatta becomes Svarita": confer, compare P.VIII.4.66, V.Pr. IV. 1.138: cf also R.Pr.III. 16.
tāra(1)elevated, high; a place for the production of words; confer, compare T.Pr. XVII. 11; (2) recital in a high tone which is recommended in the evening time; confer, compare तारं तु विद्यात्सवने तृतीये, शिरोगतं तत्र सदा प्रयोज्यम् commentary on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 12.
tṛ(1)substitute prescribed for the last vowel of the word अर्वन् so as to make it declinable like words marked with the mute letter ऋ; (2) common term for the krt affixes तृन् and तृच् prescribed in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity; the taddhita affix. affixes ईयस्, and इष्ठ are seen placed after words ending in तृ in Vedic Literature before which the affix तृ is elided; exempli gratia, for example करिष्ठः, दोहीयसी; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.59.
tṛtīyāthe third case; affixes of the third case ( instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति ) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an instrument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: confer, compare P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sentence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word id est, that is हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; exempli gratia, for example पृथग्देवदत्तेन et cetera, and others स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the taddhita affix. affix after them has been elided; exempli gratia, for example पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; confer, compare P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; exempli gratia, for exampleतुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; confer, compare P. II.3.72.
taulvalyādia class of words headed by the word तौल्वलि, the taddhita affix in the sense of युवन् ( grandchild ) placed after which is not elided by P. II. 4. 60; exempli gratia, for example तौल्वलिः पिता, तौल्वलायनः पुत्रः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II. 4.61.
dantaplace where the utterance of dental letters originates;confer, compare ऌतुलसानां दन्ताः S. K. on P. I. 1.9.
dūṣakaradodbhedaname of a commentary, on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesa, believed to have been written by Gopalacārya Karhadkar, a grammarian of the 19th century and attributed to Bhimacarya. This commentary, which was written to criticize the commentary written by Visnusastri Bhat, was again criticized in reply by Visnusastri Bhat in his Ciccandrika ( चिच्चन्द्रिका ). See विष्णुशास्त्री भट.
dṛṣṭānuvidhitaking place of an operation, or application of a rule of grammar in accordance with the words seen in use. See दृष्ट.
deśaliterally place; (l) original place of articulation: confer, compare अदेशे वा वचनं व्यञ्जनस्य, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 5; (2) place of origin; उच्चारणस्थान: (3) place of inferential establishment of a Paribhasa et cetera, and others परिभाषादेशः उद्देशः Par. Sek. paribhāṣā. 2,3; (4) passage of the Samhita text, confer, compare.Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 59.
dvanddhaname of a compound, formed of two or more words used in the same case, showing their collection together; confer, compare चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II.2.29. Out of the four meanings of the indeclinable च, viz. समुच्चय अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार, the dvandva compound is sanctioned in the last two senses only called इतरेतरद्वन्द्व (as in प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ et cetera, and others) and समाहारद्वन्द्व (as in वाक्त्वचम् et cetera, and others) respectively For details see Mahabhasya on II.2.29. The dvandva compound takes place only when the speaker intends mentioning the several objects together id est, that is when there is, in short, सहविवक्षा orयुगपदधिकरणवचनता; confer, compare अनुस्यूतेव मेदाभ्यां एका प्रख्योपजायते । यस्यां सहविवक्षां तामाहुर्द्वन्द्वैकशेषयोः । Sr. Pr. II. The gender of a word in the द्वन्द्वसमास is that of the last word in the case of the इतरेतरद्वन्द्व, while it is the neuter gender in the case of the समाहारद्वन्द्व.
dvārādia class of words headed by the word द्वार् which get the augment ऐच् (id est, that is ऐ or औ ) placed before the letter य or व in them, instead of the substitution of vrddhi, when a taddhita affix marked with the mute letter ञ्,ण्, or क् is added to them; e. g. दौवारिकः सौवस्तिकः, शौवम्, शौवनम् et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, VII .3,4.
kāryayogasimultaneous occurrence of two grammatical operations resulting into a conflict and creating a doubt as to which of the two should take place first; confer, compareद्विकार्ययोगो हि विप्रतिषेधः M.Bh. on P.I.1.3 Vart. 6; I.1.12; et cetera, and others The term विप्रतिषेध occurring in the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I.4.2 is evidently defined in this way by the word द्विकार्ययोग in the Mahabhsya.
dviguname of a compound with a numeral as the first member. The compound is looked upon as a subdivision of the Tatpurusa comPoundThe dvigu compound, having collection as its general sense, is declined in the neuter gender and singular number; when it ends in अ the feminine. affix ङी is added generally, e. g. पञ्चपात्रम्, त्रिभुवनम्, पञ्चमूली. The Dvigu comPound also takes place when a karmadharaya compound, having a word denoting a direction or a numeral as its first member, (a) has a taddhita affix. affix added to it exempli gratia, for example पञ्चकपाळः (पुरोडाशः), or (b) has got a word placed after it in a compound e. g. पशञ्चगवधनः or (c) has a collective sense exempli gratia, for example पञ्चपूली; confer, compare तद्वितार्थोत्तरपदसमाहारे च ( P. II.1.51 ) also, cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. and S. K. om P.II.1.51,52.
gh(1)fourth letter of the dental class(तवर्ग) possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, कण्ठसंवृतत्व and महाप्रण ; (2) substitute ध् , for the ह् of नह् before a ' jhal ' consonant or at the end of a word e. g. नद्धम्, उपानत्, confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 34; (3) substitute ध् for the letters त् and थ् placed after a fourth letter, e. g लब्धुम्, दोग्धा et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 40.
dhamuñtaddhita affix. affix optionally substituted in the place of the taddhita affix. affix धा after the words द्वि and त्रि; e. g. द्विधा, द्वौधम्, त्रिधा, त्रैधम्; confer, compare P. V. 3.45.
naḍādi(1)a class of words headed by the word नड to which the taddhita affix.affix आयन ( फक् ) is added in the sense of गोत्र ( grandchild and further descendants); e. g, नाडायनः, चारायणः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.1. 99; (2) a class of words headed by नड to which the affix ईय (छ) is added, together with the augment क placed after the word and before the affix, in the four senses prescribed in P. IV.2. 67-70; exempli gratia, for example नडकीयम् , प्लक्षकीयम् ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2. 91.
nāsikāsthānaa place in the nose where a nasal letter such as ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न् or म् and anusvara get a tinge of nasalization while passing through it. The yama letters e.g the nasal क्, ख् ,ग् , घ् get nasalization in the utterance of the words पलिक्किनः, चख्ख्नतुः, अग्ग्निः, घ्घ्नन्ति; confer, compare यमो नाम वर्णः प्रातिशाख्ये प्रसिद्धः S.K. on P. VIII. 2. 1. confer, compare also यमानुस्वारनासिक्यानां नासिके Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 74, Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 12.
nigāraa kind of sound which apparently is made up of a combination of three phonetic elements ह्, म् and नासिक्य. It is a peculiar sound through both the mouth and the nose, although no specific place of production is assigned to it; cf अविशेषस्थानौ संस्वांदनिगारौ। हकारमकारनासिक्या वा निगारे R.T.11.
nimittinan affix or an augment or a substitute taking place on account of certain formal causes or nimittas; confer, compare निर्ज्ञातार्थो निमित्तमनिर्ज्ञातार्थो निमित्ती, इह च प्रत्ययोऽनिर्ज्ञातः प्रकृत्युपपदोपाधयो निर्ज्ञाताः M. BSh. on III. l . l Vart. 2.
nirastaa fault of pronunciation when a vowel is harshly pronounced and hence is not properly audible; confer, compare निरस्तं निष्ठुरम् Pradipa on M.Bh. I. 1. Ahn. 1. The fault occurs when the place and the means of utterance are pressed and drawn in;confer, compare निरस्तं स्थानकरणापकर्षे Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 2.
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
nirdiśyamānaparibhāṣāa short form for the maxim निर्दिश्यमानस्यादेशा भवन्ति which means 'substitutes take the place of that or its part which has been actually stated or enunciated in the rule (of grammar)' Par. Sek. Pari. 12. For details see Par. Sek. Pari. 12.
nivṛttisthānaplaces where the substitutes गुण and वृद्धि do not apply ; weak terminations; kit or nit affixes in Panini's grammar; confer, compare अथाप्यस्तेर्निवृत्तिस्थानेष्वादिलेापो भवति । स्तः सन्तीति । Nirukta of Yāska.II. 1. The word संक्रम is also used in this sense by ancient grammarians.
naivāsikataddhita affix. affixes अण् and others added in the sense of 'तस्य निवासः' (P. IV. 2. 69), as in words like शैब meaning the place of residence of the Sibis.
nyaṅkvādia class of words headed by the word न्यङ्कु, which are formed by means of the substitution of a guttural consonant in the place of a consonant of any other class belonging to the root from which these words are formed; exempli gratia, for example न्यङ्कुः मद्गुः, भृगुः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kās, on P.VII.3. 53.
nyāsa(1)literally position, placing;a word used in the sense of actual expression or wording especially in the sūtras; confer, compare the usual expression क्रियते एतन्न्यास एव in the Mahābhāșya, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.11, 1.1.47 et cetera, and others; (2) a name given by the writers or readers to works of the type of learned and scholarly commentaries on vŗitti-type-works on standard sūtras in a Śāstra; e. g. the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. is given to the learned commentaries on the Vŗtti on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśasana as also on the Paribhāşāvŗtti by Hemahamsagani. Similarly the commentary by Devanandin on Jainendra grammar and that by Prabhācandra on the Amoghāvŗtti on Śākatāyana grammar are named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. In the same way, the learned commentary on the Kāśikāvŗtti by Jinendrabuddhi, named Kāśikāvivaranapaňjikā by the author, is very widely known by the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. This commentary Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. was written in the eighth century by the Buddhist grammarian Jinendrabuddhi, who belonged to the eastern school of Pānini's Grammar. This Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. has a learned commentary written on it by Maitreya Rakșita in the twelfth century named Tantrapradipa which is very largely quoted by subsequent grammarians, but which unfortunately is available only in a fragmentary state at present. Haradatta, a well-known southern scholar of grammar has drawn considerably from Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. in his Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta., which also is well-known as a scholarly work.
paṇḍitawriter of Citprabhā, a commentary on the Paribhāșenduśekhara. A commentary on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara is also ascribed to him. He was a Gauda Brāhmaņa whose native place was Kurukșetra. He lived in the beginning of the nineteenth century.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padādhikārathe topic concerning padas id est, that is words which are regularly formed, as contrasted with words in formation. Several grammatical operations, such as accents or euphonic combinations, are specifically prescribed together by Pāņini at places which are said to be in the Padādhikāra formed by sūtras VIII.1.16 to VIII.3.54.
padāntainal letter of a word; confer, compare P. VI.1.76, 109; VII.3.3, 9; VIII. 4.35,37, 42, 59. At one place, Patañjali for purposes of argument has explained the word as final in a word; confer, compareनैवं विज्ञायते पदस्यान्तः पदान्तः पदान्तादिति । कथं तर्हि । पदे अन्तः पदान्तः पदान्तादिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII. 4.35.
paranipātaliterallyplacing after; the placing of a word in a compound after another as contrasted with पूर्वनिपात . A subordinate word is generally placed first in a compound, confer, compare उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्; in some exceptional cases however, this general rule is not observed as in the cases of राजदन्त and the like, where the subordinate word is placed after the principal word, and which cases, hence, are taken as cases of परनिपात. The words पूर्व and पर are relative, and hence, the cases of परनिपात with respect to the subordinate word ( उपसर्जन ) such as राजद्न्त, प्राप्तजीविक et cetera, and others can be called cases of पूर्वनिपात with respect to the principal word ( प्रधान ) confer, compare परश्शता: राजदन्तादित्वात्परनिपात: Kaas. on P. II.1.39.
paravipratiṣedhathe conflict between two rules (by occurrence together) when the latter prevails over the former and takes place by. Virtue of the dictum विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I. 4.2; confer, compare कथं ये परविप्रतिषेधाः M.Bh. on I.4.2.
paribhāṣenduśekharathe reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
pīḍanacompression; a fault in the pronunciation of vowels and consonants caused by the compression or contraction of the place of utterance: confer, compare विहारसंहारयोर्व्यासपीडने स्थानकरणयोर्विस्तारे व्यासो नाम दोष:, संहारे संकोचने पीडनं नाम । Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 2; confer, compare also व्यञ्जनानामतिप्रयत्नेनोच्चारणं पीडनं Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 5.
puṃvadbhāvarestoration of the masculine form in the place of the feminine one as noticed in compound words, formed generally by the Karmadhāraya and the Bahuvrīhi compounds, where the first member is declinable in all the three genders; e. g. दीर्घजङ्घः. This restoration to the masculine form is also noticed before the taddhita affix. affixes तस्, तर, तम्, रूप्य, पा​श, त्व as also before क्यङ् and the word मानिन्. For details, see P. VI, 3.34 to 42 and commentaries thereon. See also page 334, Vol. VII of the Pātańjala Mahābhāșya D. E. Society's edition.
pūrvanipātaplacing first (in a compound); priority of a word in a compound, as in the case of an adjectival word, For special instructions in grammar about priority see P. II.2.30 to 38.
pūrvapakṣaliterally the view placed first for consideration which generally is the view of the objector and is generally refuted by the author's view called उत्तरपक्ष or सिद्धान्त.
pūrvarūpasubstitution of the former letter in the place of the two viz. the former and the latter, as a result of the coalescence of the two cf अमि पूर्वः and the following rules P. VI. 1.107-110.
pūrvasavarṇadīrdhasubstitution of the long form of the previous vowel in the place of two vowels as a result of their coalescence, prescribed by Paanini in VI. l.102 .
prakrama(l)the place of articulation, the place of the production of sound, such as throat, chest, palate and the like; confer, compare प्रक्रम्यन्ते अस्मिन्वर्णा इति प्रक्रमः स्थानमुच्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Pradipa on सिद्धं तु समानप्रक्रमवचनात् P.I.2.30 Vart.2; (2) recital of Veda, described as क्रमपाठ confer, compare उभयथा च प्रक्रमे दोषो भवति M.Bh.on P. VIII. 4.28 confer, compare also "अष्टसु प्रक्रमेषु दोषो भवति"quoted in the Mahabhasya on P.VI. 1.172; (3) regularity in the position of words, regular order of words.
pratisaṃskaraṇaediting with improvement, with an attempt to restore the correct version or the original text in the place of the corrupt one sometimes suitable additions and improvements are also made; e. g. चरकप्रतिसंस्करण attributed to Patanjali.
pratyayaaffix, suffix, a termination, as contrasted with प्रकृति the base; confer, compare प्रत्याय्यते अर्थः अनेन इति प्रत्ययः; confer, compare also अर्थे संप्रत्याययति स प्रत्ययः M.Bh. on III. 1.l Vart. 8; The word प्रत्यय is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'following' or 'that which follows', e. g. स्पर्शे चोषः प्रत्यये पूर्वपद्यः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 30 which is explained by Uvvata as उषः इत्ययं ( शब्दः ) पूर्वपदावयवः सन् स्पर्शे प्रत्यये परभूते इति यावत्; रेफिसंज्ञो भवति; Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.30; confer, compare प्रत्येति पश्चादागच्छति इति प्रत्ययः परः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 7; cf also V. Pr, III. 8. Pratyaya or the suffix is generally placed after the base; cf, प्रत्ययः, परश्च P. III. I. 1,2; but sometimes it is placed before the base; e. g. बहुपटुः confer, compare विभाषा सुपो बहुच् पुरस्तात्तु P. V. 3.68. The conjugational signs (शप् , श्यन् et cetera, and others), the signs of tenses and moods ( च्लि, सिच् , स्य, ताम् et cetera, and others) and the compound endings(समासान्त) are all called pratyayas according fo Panini's grammar, as they are all given in the jurisdiction(अधिकार) of the rule प्रत्ययः III.1.1, which extends upto the end of the fifth chapter ( अध्याय ). There are six main kinds of affixes given in grammar सुप्प्रत्यय, तिङ्प्रत्यय, कृत्प्रत्यय , तद्धितप्रत्यय, धातुप्रत्यय (exempli gratia, for example in the roots चिकीर्ष, कण्डूय et cetera, and others) and स्त्रीप्रत्यय. The word प्रत्यय is used in the sense of realization, in which case the root इ in the word त्यय means'knowing' according to the maxim सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्थाः; confer, compare मन्त्रार्थप्रत्ययाय Nirukta of Yāska.I.15.
pratyayalakṣaṇaan operation caused by an affix which takes place even though the affix is elided: exempli gratia, for example the term षद is applied to अग्निचित्, सोमसुत् et cetera, and others on account of the words ending with a case affix although the affix of the nominative case. singular. has been elided; confer, compare प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्. P.I.1. 62 and Kas, thereon.
pradeśaliterally district; sphere of application, place of the application of a rule. The word is frequently used in this sense in the Kasika Vritti; confer, compare प्रत्ययप्रदेशाः प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणमित्येवमादयः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.1.1 . confer, compare also अनुदात्तप्रदेशाः अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ इत्यादयः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 2.30. The word प्रदेश is also used in the sense of the place of use or utility; confer, compare संज्ञाशास्त्रस्य तु कार्यकालपक्षे न पृथग्वाक्यार्थबोधः किं तु प्रदेशवाक्येन सहैव । ... कार्यज्ञानं च प्रदेशदेश एव Par. Sek. Pari. 3.
prayojyathat which is employed or incited or urged; the word which is the subject in the primitive construction and becomes an object in the causal construction, and as a result, which is put in the accusative case being प्रयोज्यकर्म. As, however, the प्रयोज्यकर्म originally occupies the place of the subject in the primitive construction, the term प्रयोज्यकर्ता ( प्रयोज्यश्चासौ कर्ता च ) is often used in connection with it, as contrasted with the term प्रयोजककर्ता which is used with respect to the subject in the causal construction; confer, compare इह च भेदिका देवदत्तस्य यज्ञदत्तस्य काष्ठानामिति प्रयोज्ये कर्तरि षष्ठी न प्राप्नोति । M.Bh. on P. III. 1.26 Vart. l ; confer, compare also Kaiy. on P. I. 2.65.
prasaṅgaapplicability; possibility of being applied; the word is used with respect to a grammatical rule or operation which is on the point of being applied or taking place; the word प्राति is also used in the same sense; confer, compare को हि शब्दस्य प्रसङ्गः यत्र गम्यते चार्थो न च प्रयुज्यते M.Bh.on P.I.1.60 confer, compare also द्वौ प्रसङ्गौ अन्यार्थां एकस्मिन् स विप्रतिषेधः,Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4. 2; also confer, compare प्रसङ्गे सति सदृशतम आदेशः स्यात् S.K. on स्थानेन्तरतमः P. I.1.50.
prākbefore a particular thing in place, or in recital, or in mention. The word is used generally to show the limit upto which a particular topic extends; confer, compare तसिलादयः प्राक् पाशपः; cf also प्राक् कडारात्समासः P. I. 4.l : confer, compare also अथ आख्याः समाम्नायाधिकाः प्राग्रिफितात् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 33.
prācyāvaiyākaraṇaan eastern grammarian; the term प्राच्य (eastern) being a relative term, the east is to be taken with respect to the place in the context. The word प्राचां occurs many times in Panini's Sutras and the term प्राक् may refer to countries east of the river शरावती or सरस्वती in the Punjab. See प्राग्देश a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. प्राचां is understood by some commentators as referring to time, in which case, the word may refer to ancient grammarians आपिशलि, शाकटायन, इन्द्र and others who lived before Panini; confer, compare प्राचीनवैयाकरणतन्त्रे वाचनिकानि ...Par. Sek. Pari. 1. The word प्राचीन is, of course, mostly used in the sense of ancient, rather than the word प्राच्. For specific peculiarities of the eastern grammarians see pp. 148-149 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's Edition.
prātiśrutkaplaces of echo or reverberation viz.chest and others, of sound which gets its origin at the navel but becomes reverberated at chest, throat, top of the month, mouth and nose; confer, compare तस्य ( उत्पत्त्याश्रयस्य शब्दस्य ) प्रातिश्रुत्कानि भवन्ति उरः कण्ठः शिरो मुखं नासिके इति, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 3.
prāthamyafirst preference; first place; priority; confer, compare कुतः पुनः प्राथम्यं किं शब्दतः आहोस्विदर्थतः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3. 1. Vart. 11.
plutaprotracted, name given to vowels in the protracted grade. The vowels in this grade which are termed protracted vowels are possessed of three matras and in writing they are marked with the figure 3 placed after them. In pronunciation they take a longer time than the long or दीर्घ vowels; confer, compare ऊकालोज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P. I.2.27. The word is derived from प्लु (प्रु also) I Atmane to go, and explained as प्लवते इति, The word प्लवते is often found for प्लुतो भवति in the Pratisakhya works; cf also मात्रा ह्रस्वरतावदवग्रहान्तरं, द्वे दीर्धस्तिस्रः प्लुत उच्यते स्वरः । अधः स्विदासी३दुपरि स्विदासी३द् अर्थे प्लुतिर्भीरिव विन्दती३त्रिः ll Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.16.
bahiraṅgaa rule or operation which is बहिरङ्ग (literally external); the word बहिरङ्ग is used in grammar in connection with a rule or operation, the cause ( निमित्त )of which occurs later in place or time than the cause of the other which is called अन्तरङ्ग. For the various kinds of बहिरङ्गत्व see the word अन्तरङ्ग where the kinds of अन्तरङ्गत्व are given.
bilvakādia class of words headed by the word बिल्वक the affix ईय ( छ ) placed after which is elided when another taddhita affix. affix such as अण् or the like is placed after them; confer, compare बिल्वा यस्यां सन्ति बिल्वकी तस्यां भवा: बैल्वकाः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VI.4.153.
bhaktaltaddhita affix. affix भक्त applied to the words भौरिकि and others in the sense of 'a place of residence;' confer, compare P. IV. 2.54.
bhakti(1)name given to two of the five divisions of a Saman which are प्रस्तावभक्ति, उद्गीथ, प्रतिहार, उपद्रव and निधानभाक्ति; (2) the vowel portion surrounding, or placed after, the consonant र् or ल् which (consonant) is believed to be present in the vowel ऋ or ऌ respectively forming its important portion, but never separately noticed in it. The vowels ऋ and ऌ are made up of one matra each. It is contended by the grammarians that the consonants र् and ल् forming respectively the portion of ऋ and ऌ, make up halfa-matra, while the remaining half is made up of the भाक्ति of the vowel surrounding the consonant or situated after the consonant. The word which is generally used for this 'bhakti is 'ajbhakti' instead of which the word स्वरभक्ति is found in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare यत्तद्रेफात्परं भक्तेस्तेन व्यवहितत्वान्न प्राप्नेति | ...... यच्चात्र रेफात्परं भुक्तेर्न तत् क्वचिदपि व्यपवृक्तं दृश्यते | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VIII. 4.1 Vart 2; confer, compare स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गं Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 17; also confer, compare रेफात्स्वरोपहिताद् व्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णी स्वरभक्तिरुत्तरा ) Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 13.
bhartṛharia very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. confer, compare शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'.
bhāvabhedthe different activities such as igniting a hearth, placing a rice-pot on it, pouring water in it et cetera, and others, which form the different parts of the main activity viz. cooking; confer, compare उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3.19, III. 4.67.
bhāvyamānalit, which is to be produced; which is prescribed by a rule, like an affix; hence, an affix or an augment or a substitute prescribed by a rule as contrasted with the conditions or the original wording for which something is substituted, or after which an affix is placed, or to which an addition is made, or which is deleted; confer, compare भाव्यमानेन सवर्णानांग्रहृणं न Par. Sek. Pari, 19; also confer, compare M.Bh. on P.I. 1.50, I.1. 69,VI.1.85, VI.4.160.
bhāskaraśāstrīsurnamed Abhyankar (1785-1870) a great grammarian in the line of the pupils of Nāgeśa who was educated at Poona and lived at Sātārā. He taught many pupils, a large number of whom helped the spread of Vyākaraṇa studies even in distant places of the country, such as Vārāṇasi and others. For details see Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona. pp. 27-29, D. E. Society's Edition.
bhūmādithe limited senses भूमन् (plurality) and others in which भतुप् and other possessive taddhita affixes should take place, and not in the general sense of the 'presence at one place' as also 'the possession by some one individual;' confer, compare भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेतिशायने । संसर्गेस्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 2.94.
bhairavamiśraone of the reputed grammarians of the latter half of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century who wrote commentaries on several prominent works on grammar. He was the son of भवदेव and his native place was Prayāga. He has written the commentary called Candrakalā on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara, Parikṣā on the Vaiyākaraṇabhũṣanasāra, Gadā called also Bhairavī or Bhairavīgadā on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and commentaries (popularly named Bhairavī) on the Śabdaratna and Lingānuśāsana. He is reported to have visited Poona, the capital of the Peśawas and received magnificent gifts for exceptional proficiency in Nyāya and Vyākaraṇa. For details see pp. 24 and 25 Vol. VII . Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya D. E. Society's Edition.
bhrūmadhyaliterallycentre of the brows, or eyebrows which is described as the place of air ( which produces utterance or speech) at the time of the evening soma-pressing or sacrifice: confer, compare प्रात:सवनमाध्यन्दिनसवनतृतीयसवनक्रमेण उर:कण्ठभ्रूमध्यानि त्रीणि स्थानानि वायोर्भर्वान्त Vāj. Prāt. I. 30; confer, compare also भ्रुवोर्मध्ये प्राणमावेश्य सम्यक्.
matuptaddhita affix. affix मत् changed in some cases to वत् (cf मादुपधायाश्च मतोर्वोऽयवादिभ्यः P. VIII. 2.9), applied to any noun or substantive in the sense of 'who possesses that,' or 'which contains it,' or in the sense of possession as popularly expressedition The affix is called possessive affix also, and is very commonly found in use; e. g. गोमान्, वृक्षवान् , यवमान् , et cetera, and others confer, compare तदस्यास्त्यस्मिन्निति मतुप् P. V. 2.94. The very general sense of 'possession' is limited to certain kinds of possession by the Vārttikakāra in the following stanza; भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेतिशायने | संसर्गेऽस्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: confer, compare Kāś. on P. V. 2.94. There are other taddhita affix. affixes prescribed in the same sense as मतुप्, such as the affixes लच् (V. 2.96-98), इलच् (99, 100, 105, 117), श and न (100), ण (101), विनि (102, 121, 122), इनि (102, 115, 116, 128, 129-137), अण् (103, 104), उरच् (106), र (107), म (108), व ( 109, 110), ईरन् and ईरच् (111), वलच् (112, 113), ठन् (115, 116), ठञ् (118, 119), यप् (120), युस् (123, 138, 140), ग्मिनि (124), आलच् and आटच् (125), अच् (127), and ब, भ, यु, ति, तु, त and यस् each one applied to specifically stated words. मतुप् is also specially prescribed after the words headed by रस (confer, compare रसादिभ्यश्च P. V. 2.95) in supersession of some of the other affixes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. which would take place in such cases, if मतुप् were not prescribed by the rule रसादिभ्यश्च. The portion of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. prescribing the possessive affixes is named मतुबधिकार (P. V. 2.92 to 140).
matublopaelision of the affix मतुप् specially prescribed after words of quality, or words meaning quality, such as शुक्ल, कृष्ण which originally mean the white colour, the black colour et cetera, and others e. g. शुक्लः पट: confer, compare गुणवचनेभ्यो मतुपो लुक् P. V. 2.94 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
madhyapatitaliterally fallen in the middle; the word is used generally in the sense of an augment which is inserted in the middle of a word. Sometimes an affix too, like अकच् or a conjugational sign like श्रम्, is placed in the middle of a word. Such a middling augment is technically ignored and a word together with it is taken as the original word for grammatical operations; exempli gratia, for example उच्चकै:, नीचकै: et cetera, and others cf तन्मध्यपतितस्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यते Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 89.
madhyepavādaa rule forming an exception to other general rules being placed between them, one or many of which are placed before and the others afterwards. Such a rule sets aside the previous rules and not the succeeding ones. The statement laying down this dictum is मध्येपवादाः पूर्वान् विधीन् बाधन्ते नोत्तरान् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa.Pari. 60, also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.VI.4.148 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5.
mandraone of the three places of the origination of articulate speech which is described as situated in the throat; confer, compare त्रीणि मन्द्रं मध्यममुत्तमं च | तेषु मन्द्रमुरसि वर्तते Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 17; confer, compare also मन्द्रमध्यमताराणि स्थानानि भवन्ति | T.Pr.XXII.11.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mukhaaperture of the mouth; the main place of the utterance of a letter.
mugdhabodhaliterally instructions to the ignorant: a treatise on grammar similar to the Astadhyayi of Panini but much shorter, written by Bopadeva or Vopadeva an inhabitant of the greater Maharastra in the Vardha district, in the thirteenth century. After the fall of the Hindu rulers in Bengal, treatises like भाषावृत्ति and others written by eastern grammarians fell into the back-ground and their place was taken up by easier treatises written by Bopadeva and others.Many commentaries were written upon the Mugdhabodha, of which the Vidyanivsa is much known to grammarians
mūrdhanthe top of the orifice of the mouth; the place of utterance ( स्थान ) of the letters ऋ, ॠ, ट् ,ठ् ,ड् ढ् and ण्, र् and ष्; confer, compare ऋटुरषाणां मूर्धा S. K. on P. I. 1.9; cf also षटौ मूर्धनि V.Pr.I.67,R.T.6,R.Pr.I.19,and T.Pr. II.37 where र् appears excludedition
mṛrghanyaletters pronounced at the place called मूर्धन्: cerebral or lingual letters,the letters ऋ, ॠ,ट्, ठ् ,ड् ,ढ्, ण्|.
mūla(1)the root of the teeth given as the place of origin for the letter र् in the Rk Tantra : confer, compare रेफस्तु दन्त्यो दन्तमूले वा. Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 8; (2) the main instrutment of the utterance of letters known as मूलकरण or अनुप्रदान.
makḍonel[MACDONELL,ARTHUR ANTHONY ]a deep scholar of Vedic Gram. and Literature who has written an exhaustive Vedic Grammar; in treatment, at places he differs from Panini and follows a different method, but the manner of thinking and argument is on original lines.
yathodeśa( परिभाषा)a short phrase or term for the Paribhaasaa or guiding statement यथोद्देशं संज्ञापरिभाषम् 'technical terms and Paribhaasaas are to be interpreted at the place where they are stated, and not at the place or places of their application or utility'.
yaskādiwords headed by the word यस्क, the affixes in the sense of ’a descendant' placed after which are elided and the words are to be used in the plural number in the masculine gender; e. g. यस्का:; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.4.63.
yoniplace of origin: confer, compare तप: श्रुतं च योनिश्च एतद् ब्राह्मणकारणम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. V.1.115: confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.IV.1. 48 Vart. 9; confer, compare also ओष्ठयोनिरोष्ठय:.
r(1)second letter of the यण् class ( semi-vowels ) which has got the properties नादभागित्व, घोषवत्त्व,' संवृतत्व and अल्पप्राणता i. e. it is a sonant, inaspirate consonant. Regarding its स्थान or place of production, there is a difference of opinion : generally the consonant र् is looked upon as a cerebral or lingual letter (मूर्धन्य); cf ऋटुरषाणां मूर्धा, S.K.also Pāṇini. Siksa; but it is called by some as दन्त्य or दन्तमूलीय: cf रेफस्तु दस्त्ये दन्तमूले वा RT. 8, by others as दन्तमूलीय and and by still others as वर्स्त्य gingival. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya it is described as दन्तमूलीय: cf रो दन्तमूल I. 68, while in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya it is said to be produced by the touch of the middle part of the tip of the tongue just a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the root of the teeth;confer, compare रेफे जिह्वाग्रमध्येन प्रत्यग्दन्तमूलेभ्यः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 41; (2) substitute र् (रेफ ) for the final letter of the word अहन्, as also for the final of अम्रस्, ऊधस्, अवस् and भुवस् optionally with रु, which ( रु) is dropped before vowels, and changed to ओ before अ and soft consonants, while it is changed into visarga before hard consonants and surds.exempli gratia, for example अम्नरेव, अम्र एवः ऊधरेव, ऊधएव: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII, 2-70: (3) the consonants र् (technically) called र् in Panini's grammar ) which is substituted for the consonant स् and for the consonant न् of the word अहन् when the consonant स् or न् stands at the end of a word. This substitute रु, unlike the substitute र् is liable to be changed into visarga, or the consonant य्, or the vowel उ by P. VIII.3.15, 17, VI.1.113, 114.
rañtaddhita affix. affix र causing vrddhi, applied to the word अग्नीध् in the sense of Sarana id est, that is a room or a place; exempli gratia, for example अाग्नीघ्रम् confer, compare अग्नीध: शरणे रञ् भं च P. IV.3.120 Vart, 9.
radhādia class of eight roots headed by the root रध् which allow the addition of the augment इ ( इट् ) optionally to the ardhadhatuka affix beginning with any consonant except य्, placed , after them; exempli gratia, for example रघिता रद्धा, त्रता , तर्त्पा तर्पिता et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VII.2.35 and VII.2.45.
ramaugment र inserted after the vowel अ of the root भ्रस्ज्, when the letterर् which is already present in भ्ररुज् (before अ) and the penultimate स् are dropped; the result is that the word भर्ज्, in short, becomes substituted in the place of भ्रस्ज्: confer, compare भ्रस्जो रोपधयो रमन्यतरस्याम्P.VI. 4.47, and भ्रस्जो रोपधयोर्लोप अागमो रम् विधीयते as Bharadvajiya Varttika thereon
rājadantādia class of compound words headed by राजदन्त in which the order of words or the constituent members is fixedition There are about 50 words in the class; some of them are tatpurusa compounds such as राजदन्त or अग्रेवण in which the subordinate word which ought to have been placed first is placed second There are some karmadharaya.compounds in which one particular word is always placed first and not any one of the two: exempli gratia, for example लिप्तवासितम्, सिक्तसंमृष्टम् et cetera, and others There are some dvandva compounds such as उलुखलमुसलम् , चित्रास्वाती, भार्यापती et cetera, and others in which a definite order of words is laid down. For details see Kasika on राजदन्तादिषु परम् P. II. 2.31.
rājanyādiaclass of words headed by the word राजन्य to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुच् ) is added in the sense of ' the place of residence '; e. g. राजन्यकः, औदुम्वरक: ! et cetera, and others This class named राजन्यादि is ] called अाकृतिगण and similar words ! can be included in this class such as मालव,विराट् , त्रिगर्त and others from which the words मालवक: वैराटक: त्रैगर्तक: et cetera, and others can be arrived at confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.53.
rūpātideśathe actual replacement of the original in the place of the substitute by virtue of the rule स्थानिवदादेशोनल्विधौ P. I. 1. 56; one of the two kinds of स्थानिवद्भाव wherein the word-form of the original ( स्थानी ) is put in the place of the substitute (आदेश); the other kind of स्थानिवद्भाव being called कार्यातिदेश by means of which grammatical operations caused by the original ( स्थानी ) take place although the substitute (आदेश) has been actually put in the place of the original. About the interpretation of the rule द्विर्वचनेचि P. I.1.59, the grammarians accept the view of रूपातिदेश; confer, compare रूपातिदेशश्चायं नियतकालस्तेन कृते द्विर्वचने पुन: आदेशरूपमेवावतिष्ठते | पपतुः पपुः | अातो लोप इटि च इत्याकारलोपे कृते तस्य स्थानिवद्भावात् एकाचो द्बे० इति द्विर्वचनं भवति Kāś on P.I.1.59; confer, compare also रूपातिदेशश्चायम् | द्विर्वचनेचि इत्यत्रास्य भाष्ये पाठात् | Pari. Bhaskara Pari. 97. For details see Mahābhāșya on P.VII.1.95 96.
liṅgaviśiṣṭagrahaṇainclusion of the feminine form of a word when a word in the masculine gender is used in a rule, for certain operations such as the application of affixes and the like;confer, compare the usual dictum regarding this practice viz. the Paribhāșā प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 71. as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1. 1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5 to Vārt, 15 for places of the application of the dictum and those of its rejection.
liṭan affix of the perfect tense; confer, compare परोक्षे लिट् P.III.2.115 for which the specific affixes णल्, अतुस् उस् et cetera, and others are substituted after roots which take Parasmaipada affixes. Before the lit affixes, a monosyllabic root is reduplicated while dissyllabic roots and denominative and other secondary roots, formed by adding an affix to an original root,take the affix अाम् after which all 'liț' personal endings are dropped and the forms of the roots कृ,भू and अस् with the necessary personal-endings, are placed immediately after the word ending in अाम् , but often with the intervention of a word or more in the Vedic language and rarely in the classical language; confer, compare तं पातयां प्रथममास पपात पश्चात् ; confer, compare कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि P.III.I. 35 to 42.
luṭgeneral name for affixes of the first future which are added to roots when the future time is not the present day, but the next and the succeeding ones; confer, compare अनद्यतने लुट् P. III. 3.15. The affixes ति, त: et cetera, and others replace the affix लुट् in accordance with the number and person in view; confer, compare तिप्तस्झिसिप् .... P. III. 4 78.
lupdisappearance ( लुप्यते इति लुप् ); a term used by Pāņini with reference to the disappearance of an affix or its part under specified conditions by the express mention of the word लुप्. Although after the disappearance of an affix no operation for the base before, can take place as conditioned by the affix, i. e. although there is no प्रत्ययलक्षण, still, when the disappearanee is mentioned as लुप्, the base gets the gender and number of that original form of it which existed before the affix, which has disappeared, was applied; confer, compare कुरव: दश:, चञ्चेव पुरुष: चञ्चा; confer, compare लुपि युक्तवद् व्यक्तिवचने. P. I. 2.51 and Kāśikā thereon.
leṭa general term for the affixes of the Vedic subjunctive, the usual personal-endings ति, तस् et cetera, and others being substituted for लेट् as in the case of other tenses and moods. The augments अट् and आट् are sometimes prefixed to the लेट् affix and the sign ( विकरण ) स् ( सिप् ) is sometimes added to the roots. The forms of लेट् are to be arrived at as they are found actually used in Vedic language, even by placing personal-endings of a person or number different from what is actually requiredition
lopadisappearance of a word or part of a word enjoined in grammar for arriving at the required forms of a word; confer, compare अदर्शनं लोपः P. I.1.52: confer, compare अदर्शनमश्रवणमनुच्चारणमनुपलब्धिरभावो वर्णविनाश इत्यनर्थान्तरम् । एतैः शब्दैर्योर्थोभिधीयते तस्य लोप इतीयं संज्ञा भवति Kāś. on P.I.1. 52. This disappearance in the case of an affix is tantamount to its notional presence or imaginary presence, as operations caused by it do take place although the word element has disappeared; confer, compare प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् । प्रत्यये लुप्तेपि तद्धेतुकं कार्ये भवति Kāś. on P. I.1.62.
lopabalīyastvathe superior strength or superiority of elision as a grammatical operation in contrast with other operations, by virtue of which the elision, which is prescribed, takes place first and then other operations get a scope for their application; confer, compare सर्वविधिभ्यो लोपविधिर्बलीयान् Par.Śek. Pari. 93.
lvādia class of roots, headed by the root लू, the past. passive voice.participle. affix त placed after which becomes changed into न; exempli gratia, for example लून:, लूनवान्; जीन:, जीनवान्; et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VII. 2.44.
vaṃśādia class of words headed by the word वंश, the word भार placed after which gets the taddhita affixes added to it, as prescribed in the senses 'takes it', 'carries it' or 'produces it'; exempli gratia, for example वांशभारिकः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 1.50. The taddhita affix. affixes as prescribed in the senses mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are added to the words वंश et cetera, and others and not to भार according to some commentators; exempli gratia, for exampleवांशिकः, कौटजिकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 1.50.
vaktavyathat which ought to be stated or prescribed; the word is frequently found used by the Varttikakāra when he suggests any addition to, or modification in Panini's rules. Sometimes,the word is added by the author of the Mahabhasya in the explanation of a Varttika after stating what is lacking in the Varttika.
vaktramouth, or orifice of the mouth which, in general is the place of utterance for all letters, but especially for the vowel अ; confer, compare सर्वमुखस्थानमवर्णस्य केचिदिच्छन्ति I
varṇaviparyayachanging the place of letters; confer, compare सिंहो वर्णविपर्ययात् Vart 20.
vākyaparisamāpticompletion of the idea to be expressed in a sentence or in a group of sentences by the wording actually given, leaving nothing to be understood as contrasted with वाक्यापरिसमाप्ति used in the Mahabhasya: confer, compare वाक्यापरिसमाप्तेर्वा P.I.1.10 vart. 4 and the Mahabhasya thereon. There are two ways in which such a completion takes place,singly and collectively; cf प्रत्येकं वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः: illustrated by the usual example देवदत्तयज्ञदत्तविष्णुमित्रा भोज्यन्ताम् where Patanjali remarks प्रत्येकं ( प्रत्यवयवं) भुजिः परिसमाप्यते; cf also समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः where Patajali remarks गर्गा: शतं दण्ड्यन्ताम् | अर्थिनश्च राजानो हिरण्येन भवन्ति न च प्रत्येकं दण्डयन्ति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P.I.1.1Vart.12: cf also M.Bh. on P.I.1.7, I.2.39, II.2.l et cetera, and others वाक्यप्रकाश a work on the interpretation of sentences written with a commentary upon it by उदयधर्ममुनि of North Gujarat who lived in the seventeenth century A.D.
vājasaneyeiprātiśākhyathe Pratisakhya work belonging to the Vajasaneyi branch of the White Yajurveda, which is the only Pratisakhya existing to-day representing all the branches of the Sukla Yajurveda. Its authorship is attributed to Katyayana, and on account of its striking resemblance with Panini's sutras at various places, its author Katyayana is likely to be the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. It is quite reasonable to expect that the subject matter in this Pratisakhya is based on that in the ancient Prtisakhya works of the same White school of the Yajurveda.The work has a lucid commentary called Bhasya written by Uvvata.
vāṇīspeech; utterance; the same as वाच् which is believed to be of four kinds as cited by the grammarians and explained by Bhartrhari; the four kinds are based upon the four places of origin, the three first places belonging to the inarticulate speech and the fourth belonging to the articulate one: cfचत्वारि वाक्परिमिता पदानि तानि विदुर्ब्राह्मण य मनीषिणः | गुहा त्रीणि निहिता नेङ्गयन्तिं तुरीयं वाचेी मनुष्या वदन्ति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I Ahnika l and the Pradipa and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon.
vāyuair or प्राण, which is believed to spring up from the root of the navel and become a cause (even a material cause according to some scholars) of sound of four kinds produced at four different places, the last kind being audible to us; confer, compare प्राणे वाणिनभिव्यज्य वर्णेष्वेवोपलीयते Vakyapadiya I.116;confer, compare also R.Pr.XIII. 13, V.Pr. I.7-9; T.Pr.II.2: Siksa of Panini st. 6.
vārttikaa statement which is as much authoritative as the original statement to which it is given as an addition for purposes of correction, completion or explanation. The word is defined by old writers in an often-guoted verseउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तनां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते | तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिण:|This definition fully applies to the varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. The word is explained by Kaiyata as वृत्तौ साधु वार्त्तिकम् which gives strength to the supposition that there were glosses on the Sutras of Panini of which the Varttikas formed a faithful pithy summary of the topics discussedition The word varttika is used in the Mahabhasya at two places only हन्तेः पूर्वविप्रविषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापित: M.Bh. on P.III. 4.37 and अपर आह् यद्वार्त्तिक इति M.Bh. on P. II.2.24 Vart. 18. In अपर अहृ यद्वार्त्तिक इति the word is contrasted with the word वृत्तिसूत्र which means the original Sutra (of Panini ) which has been actuaIly quoted, viz. संख्ययाव्ययासन्नाo II.2. 25. Nagesa gives ' सूत्रे अनुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिक्रत्वम् as the definition of a Varttika which refers only to two out of the three features of the Varttikas stated a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. If the word उक्त has been omitted with a purpose by Nagesa, the definition may well-nigh lead to support the view that the genuine Varttikapatha of Katyayana consisted of a smaller number of Varttikas which along with a large number of Varttikas of other writers are quoted in the Mahabhasya, without specific names of writers, For details see pages 193-223 Vol. VII Patanjala Mahabhasya, D.E, Society's Edition.
vārttikakārabelieved to be Katyayana to whom the whole bulk of the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya is attributed by later grammarians. Patafijali gives the word वार्तिककार in four places only (in the Mahabhasya on P.I.1.34, III.1.44: III.2.118 and VII.1.1) out of which his statement स्यादिविधिः पुरान्तः यद्यविशेषणं भवति किं वार्तिककारः प्रातिषेधेनं करोति in explanation of the Slokavarttika स्यादिविधिः...इति हुवता कात्यायनेनेहृ, shows that Patanjali gives कात्यायन as the Varttikakara (of Varttikas in small prose statements) and the Slokavarttika is not composed by Katyayana. As assertions similar to those made by other writers are quoted with the names of their authors ( भारद्वाजीयाः, सौनागाः, कोष्ट्रियाः et cetera, and others) in the Mahabhasya, it is evident that the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya(even excluding the Slokavarttikas) did not all belong to Katyayana. For details see pp. 193-200, Vol. VII, Vyakarana Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition.
vikaraṇaan affix placed between a root and the personal ending, for showing the specific tense or mood or voice to convey which, the personal ending is applied; e. g. the conjugational signs शप् , श्यन् , श्रु, श, श्नम्, उ, श्ना and यक्, आम् , as also स्य, तास् , सिप् , अाम् and च्लि with its substitutes. Although the term विकरण is used by ancient grammarians and freely used by the Mahabhsyakara in connection with the affixes, mentioned in the sutras of Panini, such as शप् , श्यन् and others, the term is not found in the Sutras of Panini. The vikaranas are different from the major kinds of the regular affixes तिङ्, कृत्य and other similar ones. The vikaranas can be called कृत्; so also, as they are mentioned in the topic (अधिकार) of affixes or Pratyayas,they hold the designation ' pratyaya '. For the use of the word विकरण see M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12, III, 1.31 and VI. 1.5. The term विकरण is found . in the Yājñavalkya Siksa in the sense of change, ( confer, compare उपधारञ्जनं कुर्यान्मनोर्विकरणे सति ) and possibly the ancient grammarians used it in that very sense as they found the root कृ modified as करु or कुरु, or चि as चिनु, or भू as भव before the regular personal endings तिप् , तस् et cetera, and others
vikrama(1)name given to a grave vowel placed between two circumflex vowels, or between a circumflex and an acute, or between an acute and a circumflex; confer, compare स्वरितयोर्मध्ये यत्र नीचं स्यात्, उदात्तयोर्वा अन्यतरतो वा उदात्तस्वरितयोः स विक्रम: T.Pr. XIX.I ; (2) name given to a grave vowel between a pracaya vowel and an acute or a circumflex vowel: confer, compare प्रचयपूर्वश्च कौण्डिन्यस्य T.Pr.XIX.2: (8) repetition of a word or पद as in the Krama recital of the Veda words; (4) name given to a visarjaniya which has remained intact, as for instance in यः प्रणतो निमिषतः ; confer, compare R.Pr. I.5; VI.1 ; the word विक्रम is sometimes used in the sense of visarjaniya in general: cf also अनिङ्गयन् विक्रममेषु कुर्यात् R.Pr. XIII.11.
vikliṣṭaa fault in the utterance of a letter when there does not take place the necessary contact with the proper place of the utterance of a word; confer, compare हन्वोः प्रकर्षेणे सर्वतश्चलने विक्लिष्टं नाम दोषो भवति | विक्लिष्टं नाम असंयुक्तम् R.Pr.XIV.3.
vinyayathe same as विन्यास; placing or employment of the instrument of sound to touch the various places or sthanas where sound is produced;confer, compare अनुप्रदानात्संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् । जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाञ्च पञ्चमात् ॥ Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII.2.
vibhaktibalīyastvathe relative superior strength possessed by the कारकविभक्ति which takes place in supersession of the उपपदविभक्ति when both become applicable at one and the same time; exempli gratia, for example मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य and not मुनित्रयाय नमस्कृत्य: confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 94.
vivṛtaname given to an internal effort (as contrasted with the external effort named विवार ) when the tip, middle, or root of the tongue which is instrumental in producing a sound, is kept apart from the place or sthāna of the Pro duction of the sound; confer, compare तत्रोत्पत्तेः प्राग्यदा जिह्वाग्रोपाग्रमध्यमूलानि तत्तद्वर्णोत्पत्तिस्थानानां ताल्वादीनां दूरतः वर्तन्ते तदा विवृतता Tattvabodhini on S. K. on P.I.1.9.
vivṛtti(1)separation of the two vowels which were euphonically combined into one; the hiatus or position of two vowels near each other; confer, compare विवृत्तिः स्वरयोरसंधिः; (2) the interval between two vowels placed near each other; confer, compare स्वरयोरनन्तरयोरन्तरं विवृत्तिः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.119; confer, compare also संहितायां यत्स्वरयोरन्तरं तद्विवृत्तिसंज्ञं स्यात् Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.I. This interval is one mātrā according to the Taittirīya Prātiśākhya, while it is only half-a-mātrā according to the Ṛktantra and the Ṛk-Prātiśākhya; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 13; Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 3५. See विराम.
viśeṣapratipattia clear understanding, or a determined sense in a place of doubt: confer, compare व्याख्यानतो विशेषप्रतिपत्तिर्नहि संदेहादलक्षणम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 1; also M.Bh. in Āhnika 1.
vṛttiparigaṇanaa definite enumeration of words used in a specific sense (as contrasted with वार्तिपरिगणन) which means a definite enumeration of the senses in which an operation, such as a compound-formation or so,takes place; confer, compare अथैतस्मिन्सति अनभिधाने यदि वृतिपरिगणनं क्रियते, वर्तिपरिगणनमपि कर्तव्यम् ; cf Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.24 Vart. 16.
veṭa term applied to roots which optionally admit the application of the augment इ (इट्) to the Ardhadhatuka affixes placed after them, e. g. roots having got the indicatory vowel ऊ added to them as also the roots स्वृ, सू, धू and the roots headed by रध् as also some specifically mentioned roots under certain conditions; cf P. VIl. 2.44-51.
vaiyākaraṇaśābdabodhaimport of a sentence according to the grammarians, in which verbal activity occupies a predominant place, and the residing place of the subject as also that of the verbal activity is identical in the active voice, while the object and the verbal activity have got the same place of residence in the passive voice. The other auxiliaries of activity such as the instrument, location and the like, are connected with the verbal activity. The import of the sentence चैत्रः पचति, in short, can be expressed as चैत्रकर्तृका वर्तमानकालिकां पाकक्रिया.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudīan extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita.
vyartha(l)useless, serving no purpose, superfluous; the word is usually used in the sense of useless or futile in connection with a rule or its part, which serves no purpose, its purpose or object being served otherwise; such words or rules have never been condemned as futile by commentators, but an attempt is made invariably by them to deduce something from the futile wording and show its necessity; confer, compare व्यर्थे सज्ज्ञापयति a remark which is often found in the commentary literature; confer, compare अन्यथा अन्तरङ्गत्वाद्दीर्घे कृत एव प्रत्ययप्राप्त्या तद्यर्थता स्पष्टैव । Par. Sek. Pari. 56; (2) possessed of various senses such as the words अक्षा: माषा: et cetera, and others: confer, compare व्यर्थेषु च मुक्तसंशयम् । M.Bh.on P.I.2.64 Vart. 52. The word व्यर्थ possibly stands for विविधार्थ in such cases. It appears that the word व्यर्थ in the sense of futile was rarely used by ancient grammarians; the word अनर्थक appears to have been used in its placcusative case. See Mahabhasya in which the word व्यर्थ does not occur in this sense while the word अनर्थक occurs at several places.
vyākhyāna(1)explanation of a rule, or a line, or a verse by analysing the rule and giving examples and counter-examples; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऎजिति | किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत्समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति | M.Bh. Ahnika l Vart.11 ; (2)authoritative decision given in places of doubt by ancient scholars; confer, compare याख्थानतो विशेषप्रतिपत्ति: न हि संदेहादलक्षणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika .1; Par.Sek.Pari.1.
byāḍiname of an ancient grammarian with a sound scholarship in Vedic phonetics, accentuation,derivation of words and their interpretation. He is believed to have been a relative and contemporary of Panini and to have written a very scholarly vast volume on Sanskrit grammar named *Samgraha which is believed to have consisted of a lac of verses; confer, compare संग्रहो व्याडिकृतो लक्षसंख्ये ग्रन्थ: NageSa's Uddyota; confer, compare also इह पुरा पाणिनीये अस्मिन्व्याकरणे ब्याड्युपरचितं लक्षग्रन्थपरिमाणं निबन्धनमासीत् Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Tika. The work is not available at present. References to Vyadi or to his work are found in the Pratisakhya works, the Mahabhasya, the Varttikas, the Vakyapadiya and many subsequent treatises. A work on the Vyakarana Paribhasas, believed to have been written by Vyadi, is available by the name परिभाषासूचन which from its style and other peculiarities seems to have been written after the Varttikas, but before the Mahabhasya. Vyadi is well-known to have been the oldest exponent of the doctrine that words denote an individual object and not the genus. For details see pp. 136-8, Vol. 7 Vyakarana Mahabhasya DE. Society's Edition.
vyāptinyāyathe general method of taking a comprehensive sense instead of a restricted one in places of doubt; confer, compare व्याप्तिन्यायाद्वा Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 2. 168.
vyāsa(1)showing separately; separate expression as contrasted with समास; (2) fault of pronunciation of the type of unnecessarily extending the place of origin as also the instrument of the production of sound; confer, compare स्थानकरणयोर्विस्तारे व्यासो सो नाम दोषो जायते Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 2.
vyuṣṭādia class of words headed by the word व्युष्ट to which the taddhita affix अ (अण् ) is added in the sense of the place where something is given or prepared ; confer, compare व्युष्टे दीयते कार्ये वा वैयुष्टम् । नैत्यम्: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.1.97.
śakandhvādiname of a class of words in which an irregular coalescence of the vowels of the kind of the latter vowel in the place of the former and latter both is observed; exempli gratia, for example शकन्धु:, कुलटा, सीमन्त:,मनीषा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare कन्ध्वादिषु च (पररूपं वाच्यम् ) P.VI.1. 94 Vart. 4.
śīṇḍakādia class of words headeditionby the word शण्डिक which have the taddhita affix य ( त्र्य ) added to them in the sense of "domicile' or 'native place': exempli gratia, for example शाण्डिक्य:, सार्वसेन्यः, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3. 92.
śālāturīyaname of the great grammarian Panini given to him on account of his being an inhabitant of शलातुर् an old name of the modern Lahore or a name of a place near Lahore; confer, compare P IV.3.14
śāstrātideśasupposition of the original in the place of the substitute merely for the sake of the application of a grammatical rule as contrasted with रूपातिदेश, the actual restoration of the original form; confer, compare किं पुनरयं शास्त्रातिदेशः । तृचो यच्छास्त्रं तदतिदिश्यते । आहोस्विद्रूपातिदेशः तृचो यद्रूपं तदतिदिश्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VII.1.95.
śivādia big class of about ninety words headed by the word शिव which have the taddhita affix. affix अ ( अण् ) added to them in the sense of a descendant ( अपत्य ) in spite of other affixes such as इञ् , ण्यत् and others prescribed by other rules, which sometimes do not take place, or do so optionally; exempli gratia, for example शैवः: ताक्ष्ण:, ताक्षण्यः; गाङ्ग: गाङ्गेय:, गङ्गायनि:; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.112. This class is looked upon as आकृतिगण and a word is supposed to be . included in this class, when the ; affix अ is noticed in spite of some other affix being applicable by some other rule.
śtip'the syllable ति applied to the Vikarana-ending form of a root to denote a root for a grammatical operation. The specific mention of a root with श्तिप् added, shows that the root of the particular class or conjugation shown, is to be taken and not the same root belonging to any other conjuga-tion; confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे; exempli gratia, for example अस्यतिवक्तिख्यातिभ्योऽङ् P.III. 1. 52. Although operations prescribed for a primary root are applicable to a frequentative root when the frequentative sign य has been omitted, operations prescribed for a root which is stated in a rule with ति ( श्तिप् ) added to it, do not take place in the frequentative roots;confer, compare श्तिपा शपानुबन्धेन ... पञ्चैतानि न यङ्लुकि.
śnua vikarana or a conjugational sign to be placed after the roots headed by सु (id est, that is roots of the fifth conjugation) as also after the root श्रु when श्रु is to be changed into शृ, and the roots अक्ष् and तक्ष्; exempli gratia, for example सुनोति, सुनुते; confer, compare स्वादिभ्यः श्नुः P.III. l.73. It is also added optionally with श्ना to the roots स्तम्भ्, स्तुम्भ् et cetera, and others See श्ना.
ślokavārtikaVarttika or supplementary rule to Panini's rules laid down by scholars of grammar immediately after Panini, composed in verse form. These Slokavarttikas are quoted in the Mahabhasya at various places and supposed to have been current in the explanations of Panini's Astadhyayi in the days of Patanjali. The word is often used by later commentators.
(l)a sibilant letter of the cerebral class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, कण्ठविवार and महाप्राण ; (2) mute indicatory letter ष्, attached to nouns as also to affixes with which nouns are formed, such as ष्वुन्, ष्कन्, ष्टरच्, ष्ट्रन् et cetera, and others showing the addition of the feminine affix ई ( ङीष् ); confer, compare षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च P. IV. 1.41 ; (3) changeable to स् when placed at the beginning of roots in the Dhatupatha except in the case of the roots formed from nouns and the roots ष्ठिव् and ष्वष्क्; (4) substitute for the last consonant of the roots ब्रश्च, भ्रस्ज्, सृज्, मृज्, यज्, राज्, भ्राज्, as also of the roots ending in छ् and श् before a consonant excepting a nasal and a semivowel, as also when the consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् et cetera, and others cf P. VIII.2.36 (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 3.39: confer, compare also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष्; e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे , वृक्षष्टकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.41.
ṣaṭkārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaknown also as कारकखण्डनमण्डन a grammar-work on consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् et cetera, and others cf P. VIII.2.36 (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 3.39: confer, compare also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष्; e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे , वृक्षष्टकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.41.
ṣaṣṭhīnirdiṣṭaa word put in the genitive case; a substitute given as connected with a genitive case which replaces the whole word which is put in the genitive case unless the substitute consists of a single letter or is characterized by the mute letter ङ्, confer, compare षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा । अलोन्त्यस्य | अनेकाल्शित्सर्वेस्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. I. 1.49 to 55.
sa(1)short term for समास used by ancient grammarians ; the term is found used in the Jainendra Vyakarana also ; confer, compare ति्त्रक्कारकाणां प्राक् सुवुप्तत्तेः कृद्भिः सविधि: Jain.. Pari. 100; confer, compare also राजाsसे ; ( 2 ) Unadi affix स placed after the roots वॄ, तॄ, वद् , हन् and others; confer, compareUnadiSutras 342-349; (3) taddhita affix. affix स in the quadruple senses (चातुरर्थिक) applied to the words तृण and others. exempli gratia, for example तृणसः; confer, compare P. IV.2.80; (4) taddhita affix. affix स applied to the word मृद् when praise is intended e. g. मृत्सा, मृत्स्नाः; also confer, compare P. V. 4.41; (5) substitute for the preposition सम् before the words हित and तत; confer, compare समो हितततयोर्वा लोपः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI.1.144 Vart. I.
saṃkhyāpūrvawith a numeral word placed first or at the beginning; a term used for defining the Dvigu compound cf संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P. II. 1.52.
saṃnidhāpanaputting together too close, so that the two phonetic elements which are so placed, coalesce together and result into a third, or one of the two merges into another.
saṃnipātaparibhāṣāthe maxim or canvention that an operation which is based upon, or is caused or occasioned by, a relationship between two things cannot break their relation : in short, such an operation as results in breaking the relationship between two things on which it is based, cannot take placcusative case. This dictum is many times followed in grammar in Preventing the application of such rules as are likely to spoil the formation of the correct word; many times, however, this dictum has to be ignored; For details see Pari. Sek. Pari. 86; also| Mahabhasya on P. I. 1.39.
saṃniviṣṭaplaced together in a particular order at a particular place; confer, compare क्व संनिविष्टानां प्रत्याहार: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.40 Vart. 3; III. 2.127 Vart, 6.
saṃpadyakartṛthe agent of the activity or of the event which is to take place: cf अभूततद्भावे संपद्यकर्तरि च्विः । संपद्यते: कर्ता संपद्यकती Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 4.50.
saṃprasāraṇaliterally extension; the process of changing a semi-vowel into a simple vowel of the same sthana or place of utterance; the substitution of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ for the semi-vowels य्, व् , र् and ल् respectively; cf इग्यणः संप्रसारणम् P. 1.1.45. The term संप्रसारण is rendered as a 'resultant vowel' or as 'an emergent vowel'. The ancient term was प्रसारण and possibly it referred to the extension of य् and व्, into their constituent parts इ +अ, उ+अ et cetera, and others the vowel अ being of a weak grade but becoming strong after the merging of the subseguent vowel into it exempli gratia, for example confer, compare सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P. III. 2.8 Vart.1. For the words taking this samprasarana change, see P. VI. 1 .13 to .19. According to some grammarians the term संप्रसारण is applied to the substituted vowels while according to others the term refers to the operation of the substitution: confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.15. The substitution of the samprasarana vowel is to be given preference in the formation of a word; , confer, compare संप्रसारणं तदाश्रयं च कार्यं बलवत् Pari. Sek. Pari. 1 19. संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्व the relative superior strength of the samprasarana change in comparison with other operations occurring simultaneotisly. The phrase न वा संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्वात् is often used in the Mahabhasya which is based upon the dictum of the superior strength of the samprasarana substitution, which is announced by the writer of the Varttikas; P. VI. 1.17 Vart, 2. , See संप्रसारण.
saṃsargeliterally contact, connection; (1) contact of the air passing up through the gullet and striking the several places which produce the sound, which is of three kinds, hard, middling and soft; confer, compare संसर्गो वायुस्थानसंसर्गः अभिवातात्मकः स त्रिविधः । अयःपिण्डवद्दारुपिण्डवदूर्णापिण्डवदिति । तदुवतमापिशलशिक्षायाम् । स्पर्शयमवर्णकरो वायुः अय:पिण्डवत्स्थानमापीडयति | अन्तस्थावर्णकरो दांरुपिण्डवत् | ऊष्मस्थस्वरवर्णकर ऊर्णापिण्डवत् commentary on. T, Pr. XXIII. 1 ; ,(2) syntactical connection between words themselves which exists between pairs of words as between nouns and adjectives as also between verbs and the karakas, which is necessary for understanding the meaning of a sentence. Some Mimamsakas and Logicians hold that samsarga itself is the meaning of a sentence. The syntactical relation between two words is described to be of two kinds अभेद-संसर्ग of the type of आधाराधेयभाव and भेदसंसर्ग of the type of विषयविषयिभाव, समवाय, जन्यजनकभाव and the like.
saṃskāra(1)preparation such as (a)that of a word by placing the affix after the base and accomplishing all the necessary changes, or (b) that of a sentence by placing all words connected mutually by syntax and then explaining their formation; these two views are respectively called the पदसंस्कारपक्ष and the वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष; (2) grammatical formation; confer, compare स्वरसंस्कारयोश्छन्दसि नियम: । संस्कारो लोपागमवर्णविकारप्रकृतिभावलक्षण: Uvvata on V.Pr. I.1; confer, compare also तद्यत्र स्वरसंस्कारौ प्रादेशिकेन गुणेन अन्वितौ स्याताम् et cetera, and others Nir.I.
saṃsvādaa peculiar phonetic element described along with another one named निगार both of which have got no definite place of utterance in the mouth; confer, compare अविशेषस्थानौ संस्वादानगारौ । पकारनकारयकारा: वा संस्वादे । हकारमकारना. सिक्या वा निगारे I commentary on R.T.11.
saṃhāraunnecessary contraction of the place (स्थान)as also of the instrument ( करण ), which results into a fault of utterance called पीडन; confer, compare विहारसंहायोर्व्यासपींडने Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XIV.2.
satiśiṣṭaprescribed subsequently; occurring after the preceding has taken place; confer, compare सति शिष्टोपि विकरणस्वरः सार्वधातुकस्वरं न बाधते; although the words सति and शिष्टः are separate still it is habitual to take them combined in an adjectival sense and make the word सतिशिष्ट an adjective to the word स्वर as in the dictum सतिशिष्टस्वरबलीयस्त्वं च P. VI. 1. 158 Vart. 9.
sadeśaliterally belonging to the same place; the word is used in the sense of immediately near or quite in proximity; confer, compare अनन्त्यविकारे अन्त्यसदेशस्य Pari.Sek. Pari.108.
sapūrvatogether with a word that is put before, and not with any suffix like बहुच् placed before; confer, compare सपूर्वायाः प्रथमाया विभाषा. P.VIII. 1 26; सपूर्वाच्च P. V. 2.87.
samāveśaplacing together at one place, simultaneous application,generally with a view that the two or more things so placed, should always go together although in a few instances they may not go together: confer, compare तदधीते तद्वेद । नैतयोरावश्यकः समावेशः । भवतेि हि कश्चित्सं पाठं पठति न च वेत्ति | कश्चिच्च वेत्ति न च सं पाठं पठति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.2.59;confer, compare also व्याकरणेपि कर्तव्यं हर्तव्यमित्यत्र प्रत्ययकृत्कृत्यसंज्ञानां समावेशो भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4.1.
samāsaplacing together of two or more words so as to express a composite sense ; compound composition confer, compare पृथगर्थानामेकार्थीभावः समासः। Although the word समास in its derivative sense is applicable to any wording which has a composite sense (वृत्ति), still it is by convention applied to the समासवृत्ति only by virtue of the Adhikarasutra प्राक् कडारात् समास: which enumerates in its province the compound words only. The Mahabhasyakara has mentioned only four principal kinds of these compounds and defined them; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थ प्रधानोव्ययीभावः। उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः। अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः । उभयपदार्थप्रधानो द्वन्द्वः । M.Bh. on P.II.1.6; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.II.1.20, II.1.49,II.2.6, II.4.26, V.1.9. Later grammarians have given many subdivisions of these compounds as for example द्विगु, कर्मधारय and तत्पुरुष (with द्वितीयातत्पुरुष, तृतीयातत्पुरुष et cetera, and othersas also अवयवतत्पुरुष, उपपदतत्पुरुष and so on) समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुवीहि, समाहारद्वन्द्व, इतरेतरद्वन्द्व and so on. समासचक्र a short anonymous treatise on compounds which is very popular and useful for beginners. The work is attributed to वररुचि and called also as समासपटल. The work is studied and committed to memory by beginners of Sanskrit ] studies in the PathaSalas of the old type.
samuccayaaccumulation which is one of the four senses of the indeclinable च and which means the anticipation of an allied another by the express mention of one, in which sense the Dvandva compound prescribed by the rule चार्थे द्वन्द्वः does not take place; confer, compare समुच्चय: | प्लक्षश्च इत्युक्ते गम्यत एतन्न्यग्रोधश्चेति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.29 Vart. 15.
sarvatraliterally at all places, on all occasions; the word is used in connection with an essential application of a rule and not optionally in some cases; confer, compare सर्वत्र लोहितादिकतन्तेभ्यः। पूर्वेण नित्ये प्राप्ते विकल्पार्थं वचनम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.18: confer, compare also प्रत्यये भाषायां नित्यवचनम् P. VIII.4.45 Vart. 1, सर्वत्र शाकल्यस्य VIII. 4.51. et cetera, and others
sarvathāat all costs, in any case, in all places; confer, compare सर्वथावरकालैव Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.69 Vart 4: confer, compare also तथा तेषां घोषिण: सर्वथेाष्मभि: XII.2.
sarvamukhasthānathe whole orifice of the mouth as a place of utterance, as for example for the vowel अ: confer, compare सर्वमुखस्थानमवर्णमक इच्छन्ति I M.Bh. on P. I. 1.9 Vart. 2.
savarṇacognate, homophonic: a letter belonging to the same technical category of letters possessing an identical place of utterance and internal effort confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. 1, 1. 9. For example, the eighteen varieties of अ, due to its short, long and protracted nature as also due to its accents and nasalization, are savarna to each other. The vowels ऋ and लृ are prescribed to be considered as Savarna although their place of utterance differs. The consonants in each class of consonants are savarna to one another, but by the utterance of one, another cannot be taken except when the vowel उ has been applied to the first. Thus कु stands for क्, ख्, ग्, घ् and ङ्. confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. 1, I. 9 and अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्यय: P. I. 1. 69.
sasaṃkhyapossessed of the same number एकवचन, द्विवचन or बहुवचन: confer, compare कृत्स्न: पदार्थाभिधीयेत सद्रव्यः सलिङ्गः ससंख्य: । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2. 24 Vart. 8. सस्थान having got an identical place of utterance; the word is much used in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare सस्थानेन घोषिणां घोर्षिणैव Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 5.
sasthānataramore sasthana i. e. nearer among those that have the same sthana or place of production; confer, compare ननु च एङ: सस्थानतरौ अर्धकाराघौकारौ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.48 Vart. 3.
sāṃnyāsikaliterally placed as a deposit, id est, that is without any special purpose for the time being: the word is used in connection with a word in a rule which apparently is superfluous; confer, compare तदेतन्नित्यग्रहणं सांन्यासिकं तिष्ठतु तावत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VII. 1.81 ; cf also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 2.107, VI. 1.8; VII. 2.86.
sāgamakapossessed of the augment; confer, compare अनागमकानां सागमका अादेशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.20 Vart. 5, also on P. I. 1.46; cf also the verse सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः । एकदेशविकारे हि नित्यत्वं नोपपद्यते । quoted in the Mahabhasya to support the view that augments are not inserted, but a word with an augment replaces a word without that augment; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.20 Vart 5.
sṛkkanthe place of the articulation or production of the sound व्.
seṭkaसेट् together with the augment 'iț' prescribed in general for being prefixed to an Ardhadhatuka affix beginning with any consonant except य्. The word is also used in the sense of a root which allows the augment इट् ( इ ) to be prefixed to valadi Ardhadhatuka affixes placed after it, in contrast with such roots which do not allow it and hence which are termed अनिट्.
sthānaplace of articulation; place of the production of sound, which is one of the chief factors in the production of sound; confer, compare अनुप्रदानात् संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् | जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात्, T.Pr. XXIII. 2. Generally there are given five places of the production of sound viz. कण्ठ, तालु, मूर्धन् , दन्त and ओष्ठ, respectively for the articulation of guttural, palatal cerebral, dental and labial letters and नासिका as an additional one for the articulation of the nasal consonants ञू, मू,ङू, णू and नू For the Jihvamuliya sound (क ), जिंह्वामूल is given as a specific one. For details and minor differences of views, see Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.III, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) 1.18 to 20,Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 2-10; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 65 to 84 and M. Bh, on P. I. 1. 9. (2) place, substratum, which is generally understood as the sense of the genitive case-affix in rules which prescribe substitutes; confer, compare षष्ठी स्थोनोयागा. P. I. 1. 49.
sthānaṣaṣṭhīone of the several kinds of the genitive case when it means a place or substratum, see the word स्थान.
sthānedvirvacanapakṣaone of the two alternative views regarding reduplication according to which two wordings or units of the same form replace the original single wording, confer, compare स्थानेद्विर्वचनपक्षे स्थानिवद्भावात्प्रकृति व्यपदेशः: Siradeva Pari. 68.The other kind of reduplication is called द्वि:प्रयोगाद्विर्वचनपक्ष which looks upon reduplication as the mere placing of an exactly similar unit or wording after the original first unit. This alternative view is accepted in the Kasika: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI.1.1.
sthāneyogāa variety of the genitive case when it is connected in sense with the Pratipadika by the relationship of स्थान or place, as contrasted with the relationships of the kind of विषयविषयिभाब, अवयवावयविभाव and others. As grammar is a Science of words,in those places where one word is mentioned for another by the use of the genitive case it should be understood that the word mentioned is to be substituted for the other;cf the rule of Panini for that purpose षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा explained by Bhattoji Diksita as अानिर्धारितसंबन्धविशेषा षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा बोध्या; confer, compare S.K. on P.I.1.49. In some grammars the sthanin and adesa are expressed in the same case, Viz. the nominative case.
sparśaa contact consonant: a term used in connection with the consonants of the five classes, verily because the karana or the tip of the tongue touches the place of utterance in the mouth in their pronunciation; confer, compare कादयो भावसानाः स्पर्शाः S.K. Samjnaprakarana on P. VIII. 2.1; confer, compare also अाद्या: स्पर्शाः पञ्च ते पञ्चवर्गाः R.Pr. I.78: confer, compare also T.Pr.I.7.
spṛṣṭaname of one of the four internal efforts when the instrument ( करण) of articulation fully touches the sthana or the place of the production of sound in the mouth. See the word स्पर्श a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.: तत्र स्पृष्टं| प्रयतनं स्पर्शानाम् S.K. on P. VI1I.2.1 ; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.I.1.9.
smātcase-ending स्मात् substituted for the ablative singular. case-affix ङसि placed after pronouns; confer, compare ङसिङयोः स्मात्स्मिनौ P. VII. 1. 15, 16.
sya(1)case-ending स्य substituted for the genitive singular case-affix after bases ending in अ; confer, compare टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः P. VII.1.12: (2) Vikarana affix स्य placed before the personal endings of लृट् and लृङ् (the second future tense and the conditional mood); cf स्यतासी लृलुटो: P. III.1.33.
svaritakaraṇamarking or characterizing by.a svarita accent, as is supposed to have been done by Panini when he wrote down his sutras of grammar as also the Dhatupatha, the Ganapatha and other subsidiary appendixes. Although the rules of the Astadhyayi are not recited at present with the proper accents possessed by the various vowels as given by the Sutrakara, still, by convention and traditional explanation, certain words are to be believed as possessed of certain accents. In the Dhatupatha, by oral tradition the accents of the several roots are known by the phrases अथ स्वरितेतः, अथाद्युदाताः, अथान्तेादात्ताः, अथानुदात्तेत: put therein at different places. In the sutras, a major purpose is served by the circumflex accent with which such words, as are to continue to the next or next few or next many rules, have been markedition As the oral tradition, according to which the Sutras are recited at present, has preserevd no accents, it is only the authoritative word, described as 'pratijna' of the ancient grammarians, which now is available for knowing the svarita. The same holds good in the case of nasalization ( अानुनासिक्य ) which is used as a factor for determining the indicatory nature of vowels as stated by the rule उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत्; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः S. K. on P. I.3.2.
the last of the spirant consonants, | which is a glottal, voiced letter called also ऊष्म or spirant of a partial contact, i. e. possessed of the properties कण्ठय, नादानुप्रदान, ऊष्म and ईषत्स्पृष्टत्व. This letter has been given twice in the Paninian alphabet, viz. the Mahesvara Sutras, and the Bhasyakara has given the purpose of it, viz. the technical utility of being included among soft consonants along with semi-vowels, nasals and the fifth, the fourth, and the third class-consonants (हश् अश् et cetera, and others),as also among the hard consonants along with the fourth and the third class-letters and spirants ( झ्लू, ). The second letter हू in हल् appears, however, to have only a technical utility,as the purpose of its place there among spirants is served by the jihvamuliya and the Upadhmaniya letters which are,in fact, the velar and the labial spirants respectively, besides the other three शू, षू and सू .The Rk Pratisakhya calls ह as a chest sound. For details, see Mahabhasya on the Siva Sutra हयवरट् Varttikas 1, 2 and 3.
hanuinside of the chin, mentioned as a स्थान or place which is touched by the tongue when a peculiar sound described as something like किट्-किट् is produced; cf क्रिट्किडाकरो हन्वां तिष्ठति R.T.10.
hṛradattaname of a reputed grammarian of Southern India who wrote a very learned and scholarly commentary, named पदमञ्जरी, on the Kasikavrtti which is held by grammarians as the standard vrtti or gloss on the Sutras of Panini,and studied especially in the schools of the southern grammarians. Haradatta was a Dravida Brahmana, residing in a village on the Bank of Kaveri. His scholarship in Grammar was very sound and he is believed to have commented on many grammarworks.The only fault of the scholar was a very keen sense of egotism which is found in his work, although it can certainly be said that the egotism was not ill-placed and could be justified: confer, compare एवं प्रकटितोस्माभिर्भाष्ये परिचय: पर:। तस्य निःशेषतो मन्ये प्रतिपत्तापि दुर्लभः॥ also प्रक्रियातर्कगहने प्रविष्टो हृष्टमानसः हरदत्तहरिः स्वैरं विहरन् ! केन वार्यते | Padamajari, on P. I-13, 4. The credit of popularising Panini's system of grammar in Southern India goes to Haradatta to a considerable extent.
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
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acaraṅā

1. itch and pain in vagina due to lack of hygiene; 2. improper conduct .

airāvata

1. Plant orange tree, Citrus reticulata; 2. a species of fern; 3. Artocarpus lacucha, monkey jack tree; 4. Mythological white elephant carrying the god Indra.

alaji

1. diabetic boil; 2. lacrimal abscess; stye or hordeolum; 3. inflammatory swelling.

alakta

lac, lacca; the scarlet resinous secretion of a number of species of insects used as haemostat.

ananta

Plant black variety of Hemidesmis indicus, Indian sarsaparilla.

aṅga

limb, organ; aṅgagaurava heaviness in the body; aṅgadāha burning sensation over the body; aṅgaharṣa pleasant feeling; aṅgalāghava alacrity; aṅgamarda body ache; chaffing of the limbs, aṅgaśoṣana inanition aṅgastambha body stiffness.

añjana

eye salves, galena; 1. the act of applying an ointment or pigment; embellishing; black pigment or collyrium applied to the eyelashes or the rim of the eyelid; 2. stibnite (black antimony); 3. fine semisolids of drugs to be applied with an instrument (netra śalāka)

aparā

placenta, womb.

aparāsaṅga

retention of placenta.

arajaska

amenorrhoea, lack of menstruation.

avakṛta

a wide laceration due to accident.

avakṣipta

dislocation of joint with downward displacement.

avamantha

multiple pustules causing laceration; swellings caused by boils or contusions.

avapāṭika

laceration of the prepuce (foreskin of penis), paraphymosis.

bhūśirīṣa

Plant black siris, Albizia odoratissima.

caitya

1.hall or temple or place of worship of Buddhists and Jains and containing a monument; 2. funeral pile or mound.

candraka

eye in a peacock’s plume; finger-nail; moon, black pepper.

carmākhya

thick, black skin similar to that of an elephant.

eṇa

Indian antelope; black antelope.

gavedhu

Plant job’s tears, Coix lachrymal; wild wheat; a grain grown in east Asia.

ghṛṣṭa

small laceration due to accident.

golāngūla

black kind of monkey.

hetvābhāsa

fallacy; fallacious semblance of argument; mere appearance of a reason.

hṛvera,hṛbera

Plant andropogon grass; black vetiver; roots of Colius vettiveroides.

jambu

Plant black plum, Indian blackberry, Java plum or jambul; Syzygium cumini; Eugenia jambolana.

jyotiṣmati

Plant climbing staff tree, black oil plant, intellect tree, bittersweet; Celastrus paniculata.

kajjali

black mercurial; black sulphide of mercury; sulphur added to mercury and triturated without adding any liquid till it becomes fine black powder.

kākaṇa

1. small coin; 2. black patches with red edges on the skin, one of the mahākuṣṭas.

kalabha

1. Plant black datura plant; 2. young elephant.

kālaka

1. water snake; 2. dark blue, black.

kālameha

urinary disorder with black urine, black water fever; similar to nīlameha.

kālamukha

black-faced, dark-faced; Indian langur.

karamarda

Plant blacke cherry, Carissa carandas.

khadira

Plant cutch tree, black catechu, dried heart-wood of Acacia catechu.

kṛṣṇa

1. black; 2. black poisonous leech.

kṛṣnābhraka

black mica, biotite.

kṛṣnājina

hide of a deer used as a seat; skin of black antelope

kṛṣnamanḍala

black of the eye, cornea and iris.

kṛṣnaśāriba

Plant black creper, Ichnocarpus frutescens.

kṣavaka

Plant black mustard; prickly chaff flower; a kind of pot-herb.

kṣīravardhaka

lactogeni Century

kṣīravardhini

galactogogue, lactogogue.

kukundara

1. upper part of the waist, cavities of the loins; 2. lethal point (marma) in loins; 3. Plant kakronda, blumea, Blumea lacera.

laghupañcamūla

(laghu.panca.mūla) five small roots: śāliparṇi, priśnaparni, brihati, gokṣūra, kanṭakāri. Eranḍa is also taken in the place of gokṣūra.

lākṣa

lac, the scarlet resinous secretion of a number of species of insects, ex: laccifer.

lākṣāvṛkṣa

Plant lac tree, Ceylon oak, Schleichera oleosa.

loṇika

Plant wild purslane, chicken weed; Portulaca quadrifida, P. oleracea.

madhulikā

Plant black mustard.

mahānimba

Plant Persian lilac, dried stembark of Melia azedarachta.

malla

black antimony or stibnite.

marīca

black pepper, Piper nigrum.

māṣa

1. a weight measurement equivalent to 1 gram; 2. black gram, Vigna mungo.

māṣa,rājamāṣa

Plant black grams, beans, Phaseolus mungo, P. radiatus, syn. Vigna mungo.

masi,maṣi

1. ink; 2. black powder used to paint the eyes.

nidānadīpika

a commentay on Mādhavanidāna by Divi Gopalacharyulu (19th & 20th Century ) in Telugu.

niṣkrāmanasamskāra

taking the infant at the age of four months to visiting places like temple.

pādu

place, foot.

pañcavalkala

Plant nyagrodha (Ficus indica), udumbara (F. hispida), asvatha (F. religiosa), plakṣa (F. lacor), pārīśa (Thespesia populnea).

parpaṭi

crust, hardened exterior, black sulfide of mercury prepared into a thick film (kajjali) and adding different ingredients one after the other in triturition in a khalva, ex: pancāmṛta parpati.

piśāca

ghost; piśācakāya demonical body; person with traits similar to a demon like cruelty, fond of adventures, lack of shyness, longing for women and eating food left by others.

pītika

1. Plant salacia, Salacia reticulata; 2. yellow jasmine; 3. turmeric; 4. saffron.

plakṣa

Plant Indian tulip tree, Thespesia populnea; white fruited wavy leaf fig, Ficus infectora, F. lacor, F. arnottiana, F. glabella, F. tsiela.

plīha

spleen, the place from where the blood flows.

prasrastha

flaccidity, laxity, relaxation; prolapse of uterus.

pūyālasa

an eye disease with pus and foul smelling, lacrimal abscess, acute dacrocystitis.

rājika

a weight measurement of 6 marīci; black mustard.

rasapaṅka

mercurial mud; black sulfide of mercury or kajjali ground with liquids.

ṛṣyajihva

a skin disease with rough, black painful patches resembling the tongue of the bear.

sandhiviṣleṣat

lack of grip in joints.

saptacchada

Plant Indian devil tree (Alstonia scholaris), ditabark, blackboard tree.

sauvarcalalavaṇa

black salt

śibikā

palanquin; bier i.e. a stand on which a corpse is placed to lie to be carried to the burial ground.

siddhisthāna

place of felicity; part of Carakasamhita contributed by Driḍhabala.

sidhma

one of eighteen varieties of kuṣṭa, pityriasis versicolor, black patches.

sithilānga

flaccidity, flaccid limbs.

somarāj

Plant bitter black cumin, Centratherum anthelmiticum

sṛvavṛṣa

Plant governor’s plum, Flacourtia indica.

svādhiṣṭānacakra

circle having good standing place, one of the 6 mystical circles.

ṣyāmadanta

black tooth.

tamāla

1. sectarial mark on the forehead, 2. Plant a sort of black khadira tree, Crataeva roxburghii; 3. garcinia, Xanthochymus pictorius; 4. Cinnamomum tamala.

ṭanka

1. a measurement; 2. black wood apple.

tilaka,tilakālaka

non-elevated mole; black pin heads on the skin.

tinduka

Plant 1. Malabar ebony, black and white ebony, Diospyros malabarica. 2. Indian persimon,Diospyros exsculpta.

tiryakṣiptam

dislocation of joint with oblique displacement.

tumburu

Plant 1. black and white ebony, Diospyros malabarica; 2. Hercules’ club, Zanthoxylum armatum.

utpala

1. Plant Indian blue or black water lily, Nymphaea stellata, Nelumbo nucifera; 2. fleshless, emaciated; utpalakanda tuber of Nymphea stellata.

utpalaśāriva

Plant black creeper plant, Ichnocarpus frutenscens, a substitute for Hemidesmus indicus.

vānaspatya

trees having both fruits and flowers; tree; vānaspatyakāya arboreal person; person with traits similar to a tree: not moving from a place, devoid of lust and wealth, takes food often et Century

varṣābhu

Plant hoase purslane, Trianthema portulacastrum, T. monogyna, T. obcordata.

veśavāra

1.ginger (sunṭhi), pepper (marīca), long pepper (pippali), coriander (dhānyaka),black cumin (ajāji), pomegranate (dāḍima), piper chaba (pippalimūlam) together are known as veśavāra; 2. boneless meat minced, steamed and added with spices, ghee et Century

viḍanga

false black pepper, dried mature fruits of Embelia ribes.

vilekhana

scratching, lacerating.

vivartita

dislocation of joint with lateral displacement.

vṛkka

kidney; in some places vṛkka is also used for heart; vṛkkaroga a disease of kidney, first described by Govindadas 18th Century AD.

yakṛt

1. liver 2. spleen; yakṛt is used to denote both liver and spleen in several places, however, often yakṛt is used in physiological and plīha in pathological situations.

     Wordnet Search "lac" has 58 results.
     

lac

kāñcanāraḥ, kovidāraḥ, camarikaḥ, kuddālaḥ, yugapatrakam, kaṇakārakaḥ, kāntapuṣpaḥ, karakaḥ, kāntāraḥ, yamalacchadaḥ, kāñcanālaḥ, tāmrapuṣpaḥ, kudāraḥ, raktakāñcanaḥ, vidālaḥ, kuṇḍalī, raktapuṣpaḥ, campaḥ, yugapatraḥ, kanakāntakaḥ, kanakārakaḥ, karbudāraḥ, gaṇḍāriḥ, girijaḥ, camarikaḥ, tāmrapuṣpakaḥ, mahāpuṣpaḥ, yugmaparṇaḥ, yugmapatraḥ, varalabdhaḥ, vidalaḥ, śoṇapuṣpakaḥ, satkāñcanāraḥ, siṃhāsyaḥ, hayavāhanasaṅkaraḥ, hayavāhanaśaṅkaraḥ, suvarṇāraḥ, svalpakesarī, āsphotaḥ, kaṣāyaḥ   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ yasya puṣpāṇi śobhanīyāni santi।

udyānapālaḥ kāñcanārasya śākhāṃ adhogṛhītvā puṣpāṇi vicinoti।

lac

kāñcanāraḥ, kovidāraḥ, camarikaḥ, kuddālaḥ, yugapatrakam, kaṇakārakaḥ, kāntapuṣpaḥ, karakaḥ, kāntāraḥ, yamalacchadaḥ, kāñcanālaḥ, tāmrapuṣpaḥ, kudāraḥ, raktakāñcanaḥ, vidālaḥ   

kāñcanāravṛkṣasya puṣpam।

udyānapālaḥ kāñcanārasya mālāṃ viracayati।

lac

nailamaṇḍala, nīlamaṇḍalīya, nailacarma, nailavarṇa, pāvanombuja   

nīlamaṇḍalasya phalasya varṇīyaḥ।

mīrā nailamaṇḍalā śāṭī dhārayati।

lac

jālikaḥ, dhīvaraḥ, dāseraḥ, mainālaḥ, ānāyī, śākunī, choṭī, dāserakaḥ, mātsikaḥ, mātsyikaḥ, jalacarājīvaḥ, dhīvan   

matsyabandhanaṃ kurvāṇā ekā jātiḥ।

grāme naike jālikāḥ matsyabandhanam eva kurvanti।

lac

jalajīvaḥ, jalacaraḥ   

saḥ jīvaḥ yaḥ jale vasati।

kamalādayaḥ jalajīvāḥ santi।

lac

relacīṭikā   

relayānena yātrāyai krītā cīṭikā।

yadi relacīṭikāṃ vinā relayātrā kriyate tarhi daṇḍaḥ dātavyaḥ।

lac

campakaḥ, cāmpeyaḥ, hemapuṣpakaḥ, svarṇapuṣpaḥ, śītalachadaḥ, subhagaḥ, bhṛṅgamohī, śītalaḥ, bhramarātithiḥ, surabhiḥ, dīpapuṣpaḥ, sthiragandhaḥ, atigandhakaḥ, sthirapuṣpaḥ, hemapuṣpaḥ, pītapuṣpaḥ, hemāhvaḥ, sukumāraḥ, vanadīpaḥ, kaṣāyaḥ   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ saḥ vṛkṣaḥ yasya puṣpāṇi pītavarṇīyāni sugandhitāni ca santi।

tasya prāṅgaṇe campakaḥ kundam ityādīni santi।

lac

gaṇeśaḥ, gajānanaḥ, gaṇapatiḥ, lambodaraḥ, vakratuṇḍaḥ, vināyakaḥ, ākhuvāhanaḥ, ekadantaḥ, gajamukhaḥ, gajavadanaḥ, gaṇanāthaḥ, herambaḥ, bhālacandraḥ, vighnarājaḥ, dvaimāturaḥ, gaṇādhipaḥ, vighneśaḥ, parśupāṇiḥ, ākhugaḥ, śūrpakarṇaḥ, gaṇaḥ   

hindūnāṃ ekā pradhānā tathā ca agrapūjyā devatā yasya śarīraṃ manuṣyasya mastakaṃ tu gajasya asti।

gaṇeśasya vāhanaṃ mūṣakaḥ asti।

lac

lacaram   

sāmājikasevāṃ śikṣayitāḥ vālakāḥ।

grīṣme relasthānakeṣu bālacarāḥ jalaṃ yacchanti।

lac

lacikitsakaḥ, bālacikitsakā   

saḥ cikitsakaḥ yaḥ bālakānāṃ vyādheḥ cikitsāṃ karoti।

vijayā śāha mahodayā khyātā bālacikitsakā asti।

lac

sthalacaraḥ   

saḥ jīvaḥ yaḥ sthale nivasati।

go iti sthalacaraḥ paśuḥ asti।

lac

kulālacakram   

kulālasya cakram।

kumbhakāreṇa pātranirmāṇārthe kulālacakraṃ vegena pracālitam।

lac

sthalacara   

yaḥ sthale nivasati।

manuṣyaḥ sthalacaraḥ prāṇī asti।

lac

analacūrṇam   

visphoṭakaḥ padārthaḥ yaḥ dūravedhinyādiṣu upayujyate।

sphoṭake analacūrṇam asti।

lac

viśālā, pūtikā, vṛścikapatrikā, picchilacchadā, balipodakī   

varṣākālikā latā yasyāḥ parṇaiḥ śākam apūpañca nirmīyate।

adya mātā viśālāyāḥ apūpaṃ nirmāti।

lac

calaccitram   

manorañjanasya ekaṃ sādhanaṃ yasya kathārūpeṇa darśanaṃ bhavati tathā ca cañcalānāṃ citrāṇāṃ kāraṇāt yasmin nirantaratāyāḥ pratītiḥ bhavati।

mohinī avakāśe calaccitraṃ paśyati।

lac

dhīvaraḥ, dhīvā, śākunikaḥ, śākunī, kaivartaḥ, kaivartakaḥ, kevartaḥ, jālikaḥ, ānāyī, abdhijīvī, kupinī, choṭī, jalacarājīvaḥ, timighātī, dāśaḥ, dāsaḥ, dāśeraḥ, dāseraḥ, dāśerakaḥ, dāserakaḥ, puñjiṣṭhaḥ, matsyaghātī, matsyajīvā, matsyajīvī, matsyabandhaḥ, matsyahā, matsyopajīvī, mātsikaḥ, mātsyikaḥ, mīnaghātī, mīnāriḥ, mainālaḥ, vāryupajīvī, śākulikaḥ, śāpharikaḥ, salilopajīvī   

yaḥ matsyān jāle baddhvā krīṇāti।

vārdalāt dhīvarāḥ samudre matsyabandhanārthe na gatāḥ।

lac

jalacālita   

jalena pracālitam।

jalapeṣaṇam iti ekaṃ jalacālitaṃ yantram asti।

lac

jalacara   

yaḥ jale nivasati।

matsyaḥ jalacaraḥ jīvaḥ asti।

lac

ullālachandaḥ   

ekamātrikam ardhasamayuktam chandaḥ।

prācīnānāṃ kavīnām ullālachandasā yuktā racanāḥ rasapūrṇāḥ santi।

lac

tailacitra, tailaraṅga-citram   

citraviśeṣaḥ, tailaraṅgaiḥ sthūlapaṭādiṣu varṇitaṃ citram;

rājñā ravivarmaṇā kṛtāni tailacitrāṇi mhaisuranagarasthe rājabhavane rājante

lac

lacchāsākhaḥ   

ekā saṅkarā rāgiṇī।

saṅgītajñaḥ lacchāsākhaṃ gāyati।

lac

lacakraḥ   

rāmasya senāyām ekaḥ vānaraḥ;

kālacakrasya varṇanam purāṇe asti

lac

silacaranagaram   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

kacaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ silacaranagare asti।

lac

nīlamaṇḍalaḥ, nīlacarmā, nīlavarṇaḥ, pavanombujaḥ   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ yasya phalāni kalāyāt kānicit bṛhanti santi।

nīlamaṇḍalasya phalāni raktavarṇīyāni santi।

lac

sūryaḥ, sūraḥ, aryamā, ādityaḥ, dvādaśātmā, divākaraḥ, bhāskaraḥ, ahaskaraḥ, vradhraḥ, prabhākaraḥ, vibhākaraḥ, bhāsvān, vivasvān, saptāśvaḥ, haridaśvaḥ, uṣṇaraśmiḥ, vivarttanaḥ, arkaḥ, mārttaṇḍaḥ, mihiraḥ, aruṇaḥ, vṛṣā, dyumaṇiḥ, taraṇiḥ, mitraḥ, citrabhānuḥ, virocan, vibhāvasuḥ, grahapatiḥ, tviṣāmpatiḥ, ahaḥpatiḥ, bhānuḥ, haṃsaḥ, sahastrāṃśuḥ, tapanaḥ, savitā, raviḥ, śūraḥ, bhagaḥ, vṛdhnaḥ, padminīvallabhaḥ, hariḥ, dinamaṇiḥ, caṇḍāṃśuḥ, saptasaptiḥ, aṃśumālī, kāśyapeyaḥ, khagaḥ, bhānumān, lokalocanaḥ, padmabandhuḥ, jyotiṣmān, avyathaḥ, tāpanaḥ, citrarathaḥ, khamaṇiḥ, divāmaṇiḥ, gabhastihastaḥ, heliḥ, pataṃgaḥ, arcciḥ, dinapraṇīḥ, vedodayaḥ, kālakṛtaḥ, graharājaḥ, tamonudaḥ, rasādhāraḥ, pratidivā, jyotiḥpīthaḥ, inaḥ, karmmasākṣī, jagaccakṣuḥ, trayītapaḥ, pradyotanaḥ, khadyotaḥ, lokabāndhavaḥ, padminīkāntaḥ, aṃśuhastaḥ, padmapāṇiḥ, hiraṇyaretāḥ, pītaḥ, adriḥ, agaḥ, harivāhanaḥ, ambarīṣaḥ, dhāmanidhiḥ, himārātiḥ, gopatiḥ, kuñjāraḥ, plavagaḥ, sūnuḥ, tamopahaḥ, gabhastiḥ, savitraḥ, pūṣā, viśvapā, divasakaraḥ, dinakṛt, dinapatiḥ, dyupatiḥ, divāmaṇiḥ, nabhomaṇiḥ, khamaṇiḥ, viyanmaṇiḥ, timiraripuḥ, dhvāntārātiḥ, tamonudaḥ, tamopahaḥ, bhākoṣaḥ, tejaḥpuñjaḥ, bhānemiḥ, khakholkaḥ, khadyotanaḥ, virocanaḥ, nabhaścakṣūḥ, lokacakṣūḥ, jagatsākṣī, graharājaḥ, tapatāmpatiḥ, sahastrakiraṇaḥ, kiraṇamālī, marīcimālī, aṃśudharaḥ, kiraṇaḥ, aṃśubharttā, aṃśuvāṇaḥ, caṇḍakiraṇaḥ, dharmāṃśuḥ, tīkṣṇāṃśuḥ, kharāṃśuḥ, caṇḍaraśmiḥ, caṇḍamarīciḥ, caṇḍadīdhitiḥ, aśītamarīciḥ, aśītakaraḥ, śubharaśmiḥ, pratibhāvān, vibhāvān, vibhāvasuḥ, pacataḥ, pacelimaḥ, śuṣṇaḥ, gaganādhvagaḥ, gaṇadhvajaḥ, khacaraḥ, gaganavihārī, padmagarbhaḥ, padmāsanaḥ, sadāgatiḥ, haridaśvaḥ, maṇimān, jīviteśaḥ, murottamaḥ, kāśyapī, mṛtāṇḍaḥ, dvādaśātmakaḥ, kāmaḥ, kālacakraḥ, kauśikaḥ, citrarathaḥ, śīghragaḥ, saptasaptiḥ   

hindūnāṃ dharmagrantheṣu varṇitā ekā devatā।

vedeṣu sūryasya pūjāyāḥ vāraṃvāraṃ vidhānam asti।

lac

raṅgaḥ, calaccitramandiram   

tad bhavanam yatra citrapaṭāni nāṭakāni vā darśayanti।

raṅgasya bahiḥ bahuḥ saṃnnayaḥ asti।

lac

salilasthalacaraḥ   

prāṇiviśeṣaḥ yaḥ jale sthale ca nivasituṃ śaknoti।

maṇḍūkaḥ salilasthalacaraḥ asti।

lac

lacakram   

aśokamañjaryāḥ bhedaviśeṣaḥ।

nīlacakre triṃśat varṇāḥ bhavanti।

lac

lacakram, śrīcakram   

jagannāthamandirasya śikhare sthitaṃ cakram।

nīlacakram aṣṭābhiḥ dhātubhiḥ vinirmitam।

lac

calacitrakāraḥ   

yaḥ calaccitraṃ nirmāti।

kuśalaḥ abhinetā āmīrakhānaḥ calacitrakāraḥ api asti।

lac

anilaculliḥ, analaculliḥ   

yā culliḥ anilasya sahāyyena prajvalati।

anilacullyāṃ sthāpitaṃ dugdham utkvathate।

lac

vimalacandraḥ   

ekaḥrājā ।

bauddhasāhitye vimalacandraḥ varṇyate

lac

lacakraḥ   

ekaṃ tantram ।

kālacakraḥ iti tantraṃ bauddhasāhitye vartate

lac

kulacandraḥ   

ekaḥ ṭīkākāra: ।

kulacandreṇa kātantravyākaraṇe ṭīkā racitā

lac

kulacandraḥ   

ekaḥ lekhakaḥ ।

kulacandreṇa durgā-vākya-prabodha-granthaḥ racitaḥ

lac

lacandrikā   

ekā strī ।

daśakumāra-carite bālacandrikā nāma strī nirdiṣṭā āsīt

lac

kulacandraḥ   

ekaḥ ṭīkākāra: ।

kulacandreṇa kātantravyākaraṇe ṭīkā racitā

lac

kulacandraḥ   

ekaḥ lekhakaḥ ।

kulacandreṇa durgā-vākya-prabodha-granthaḥ racitaḥ

lac

lacandrikā   

ekā strī ।

daśakumāra-carite bālacandrikā nāma strī nirdiṣṭā āsīt

lac

lakṣmī, lakhamā, laṣamā, lakhimā, lachimā   

ekā strī ।

candrasiṃhasya patnī lakṣmī āsīt

lac

lacakraḥ   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

bhāgadā iti nagaraṃ kālacakre varṇitaḥ

lac

lacandraḥ   

ekaḥ rājakumāraḥ ।

sālacandrasya ullekhaḥ bauddhasāhitye asti

lac

gopālacakravartī   

ekaḥ bhāṣyakāraḥ ।

gopālacakravartinaḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

lac

kalacuriḥ   

ekaṃ rājakulam ।

kalacureḥ ullekhaḥ bālarāmāyaṇe asti

lac

tilacitrapattrakaḥ   

ekaḥ kṣupaḥ ।

tilacitrapattrakasya ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

lac

trimallacandraḥ   

ekaḥ rājaputraḥ ।

trimallacandrasya ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

lac

pañcālacaṇḍaḥ   

ekaḥ śikṣakaḥ ।

pañcālacaṇḍasya ullekhaḥ aitareya-āraṇyake asti

lac

lacandraḥ   

ekaḥ rājaputraḥ ।

nīlacandrasya ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

lac

jalacakram   

ekaṃ sthānam ।

jalacakrasya ullekhaḥ vīracarite asti

lac

jalacandraḥ   

ekaḥ kaviḥ ।

jalacandrasya ullekhaḥ sadukti-karṇāmṛte asti

lac

tilacitrapattrakaḥ   

ekaḥ kṣupaḥ ।

tilacitrapattrakasya ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

lac

trimallacandraḥ   

ekaḥ rājaputraḥ ।

trimallacandrasya ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

lac

nalacaritam   

ekaṃ kāvyam ।

nalacaritasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

lac

nalacaritam   

ekaṃ nāṭakam ।

nalacaritasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

lac

nalacaritram   

ekaṃ kāvyam ।

nalacaritrasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

lac

nalacaritram   

ekaṃ nāṭakam ।

nalacaritrasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

lac

lacaraḥ   

ekaḥ janasamudāyaḥ ।

tālacarāṇām ullekhaḥ mahābhārate asti









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