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Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
kinārilipif. a kind of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kināṭan. the inner part of a tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kindhinm. a horse (varia lectio for kilkin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kindubilvaName of the place where jaya-deva- was born and where his family resided (vv.ll. kinduvilla-, kenduvilla-,and tinduvilla-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiśaṅkinmfn. doubting, suspecting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiviśaṅkinmfn. afraid of (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
acyutajallakinm. Name of a commentator of the amara-koṣa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alīkinmfn. "possessed of alīka- ", (gaRa sukhādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alīkinmfn. disagreeable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alīkinmfn. false, deceiving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ālokinmfn. seeing, beholding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ālokinmfn. contemplating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anāśakinm. "not eating", an ascetic, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anekākinmfn. not alone, accompanied by View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anīkinīf. an army, a host, forces View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anīkinīf. a certain force View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anīkinīf. three camū-s or one-tenth of an akṣauhiṇī- (or of a complete army; 2187 elephants and as many cars, 6561 horses, and 10935 foot) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anīkinīf. a lotus. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṅkinmfn. possessing a hook etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṅkinm. a small drum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṅkinīf. a number of marks, (gaRa khalādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anutsekinmfn. not arrogant or puffed up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anvayavyatirekinmfn. (in philosophy) affirmative and negative. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apākinmfn. unripe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apākinmfn. undigested. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apatānakinmfn. affected with spasmodic contraction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apavitraḍākinīf. a disgusting female imp, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arkinmfn. radiant with light View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arkinmfn. praising
arocakinmfn. suffering from want of appetite or indigestion , (in rhetoric) having a fastidious or cultivated taste. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asaṃskṛtālakinmfn. having unadorned curls View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśaṅkinmfn. fearing etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśaṅkinmfn. suspecting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśaṅkinmfn. imagining to be, thinking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśaṅkinmfn. doubting, hesitating. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṣṭakinmfn. one who performs an aṣṭakā-, (gaRa vrīhy-ādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvakinīf. the nakṣatra- aśvinī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atirekinmfn. surpassing. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atisārakin mfn. afflicted with purging or dysentery. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atīsārakin mfn. afflicted with purging or dysentery. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avakinmfn. filled with avakā- plants commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avākinmfn. ( vac-), not speaking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avalokinmfn. looking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avalokinmfn. looking at, beholding (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avarokinmfn. shining, brilliant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avivekinmfn. not separated, undistinguished, uniform, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avivekinmfn. undiscriminating, ignorant commentator or commentary on etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avivekinmfn. (said of a country) destitute of men that can discriminate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avyatirekinmfn. unerring. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balākinmfn. abounding in cranes (see gaRa vrīhy-ādi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balākinm. Name of a son of dhṛta-rāṣṭra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bālavivekinīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāndhakineyam. (fr. bandhakī-) the son of an unmarried woman, a bastard (gaRa kalyāṇy-ādi-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bandhukinmfn. gaRa prekṣādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāndhukineyam. metron. fr. bandhukī- gaRa kalyāṇy-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhālukinm. (also written vālukin-) Name of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bukinmfn. gaRa prekṣādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakravākinmfn. filled with cakra-vāka-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
candrakinm. equals ka-vat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
catuṣkinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' having a set of 4 (of anything) (see 12706) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cikinamfn. flat-nosed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cikinamfn. flat (the chin) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cikinan. flat-nosedness (see cikka-, cipiṭa-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cirapākinm. "ripening late", Feronia elephantum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
colakinm. a cuirassier View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
colakinm. "sheathed", a bamboo shoot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
colakinm. the orange tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
colakinm. the wrist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
culukinm. a porpoise, sea-hog (also ulupin-, culumpin-, cullakī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ḍākinīf. (of ka- ) a female imp attending kālī- (feeding on human flesh) (ḍāginī-, ) (see śāk-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ḍākinīf. Name of a locality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ḍākinītvan. the condition of a female imp View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daśānīkinīf. "ten-arrayed", a complete army View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhruvakin mfn. See gaRa prekṣādi- and picchādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhuvakin mfn. See gaRa prekṣādi- and picchādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhvajapatākinmfn. furnished with banners and trees View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinapākinmfn. being digested within a day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekākinmfn. () alone, solitary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekinmfn. simple, consisting of one View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
evaṃtarkinmfn. concluding, reasoning thus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gañjākinīf. the points of hemp View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
garbhapākinm. rice ripening (during the latter period of the sky's pregnancy id est) in sixty days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kinīf. a particular female demon (see ḍākinī-and śākinī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
halakinmfn. (fr. prec.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hevākinmfn. devoted to, absorbed in, engrossed by (compound; hevākitā ki-- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hikkinmfn. suffering from hiccup, hiccupping View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ikṣuśākinan. a field of sugar-cane View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jālakinīf. an ewe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jallakinSee acyuta--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jīvāśaṅkinmfn. believing any one to be alive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kācanakinm. a writing, manuscript View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaiṣkindhamfn. coming from kiṣkindhā- gaRa sindhv-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kākaśekikinmfn. timid as a crow, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kākatālukinmfn. having the palate of a crow, contemptible commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kinīf. the fourth part of a paṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kinīf. a quarter of a māna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kinīf. the seed Abrus precatorius View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kinīf. the shell Cypraea moneta View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kinīf. a kind of svarabhakti-, māṇḍūkī- śikṣā- ix, 13 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kinīf. Name of a goddess. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kakkindam. a lizard, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalaṅkinmfn. idem or 'mfn. spotted, soiled, stained, disgraced, defamed ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalkinmfn. foul, turbid, having sediment, dirty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalkinmfn. wicked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalkinm. equals kalki- above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalmalīkinmfn. () flaming, burning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kañcukinmfn. furnished with armour or mail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kañcukinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') covered with, wrapped up in View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kañcukinm. an attendant or overseer of the women's apartments, a chamberlain etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kañcukinm. a libidinous man, a debauchee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kañcukinm. a snake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kañcukinm. Name of several plants (Agallochum, barley, Cicer Arietinum, Lipeocercis Serrata) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāñcukinmfn. equals kañcukin-, clad in armour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṇṭakinmfn. thorny, prickly etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṇṭakinmfn. vexatious, annoying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṇṭakinm. Name of several plants (viz. Acacia Catechu;Vanguiera Spinosa;Ruellia Longifolia;Zizyphus Jujuba;bamboo) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṇṭakinm. a fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṇṭakinīf. Solanum Jacquini View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṇṭakinīf. a kind of date-palm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṇṭakinīf. red amaranth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṇṭakinīf. Name of a mother in the retinue of skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karkinm. idem or 'm. the sign Cancer.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārmukinmfn. armed with a bow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karṇikinm. an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṭakinm. a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṭupākinmfn. idem or 'mfn. producing acrid humors in digestion ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kauśikinm. plural the pupils of kauśika- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kauṣītakinm. "the pupils of ka- ", Name of a school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kautukinmfn. full of curiosity or admiration or interest in anything, vehemently desirous, eager (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kautukinmfn. festive, gay, jocose View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kekinm. (gaRa vrīhy-ādi-) idem or 'm. idem or 'm. a peacock ' gaRa vrīhy-ādi-.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kevalavyatirekinmfn. pertaining only to separateness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kikinm. a blue jay View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kilkinm. (equals kindhin-) a horse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiñjalkinmfn. having filaments View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiṅkiṇīkinmfn. decorated with small bells View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiṣkinSee śva-kiṣk/in-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiṣkindham. Name of a mountain (in the south of India, in oḍra-, containing a cave, the residence of the monkey-prince vālin- who was slain by rāma-;the territory which is said to be in the northern part of Mysore, near the sources of the pampā- river, was transferred after the conquest by rāma- to su-grīva-, brother of vālin- and rightful king) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiṣkindham. plural ,"Name of a people" See -gandika- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiṣkindhāf. (gaṇa-s pāraskarādi-and sindhv-ādi-), Name of the cave contained in the mountain kiṣkindha- (the city of vālin- and sugrīva-)
kiṣkindhāf. Name of the mountain kiṣkindha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiṣkindhādhipam. "the ruler of kiṣkindha-", Name of vālin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiṣkindhagandikan. (varia lectio ndhika-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiṣkindhakam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiṣkindhākāṇḍan. Name of the fourth book of the rāmāyaṇa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiṣkindhyam. incorrect reading for ndha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiṣkindhyāf. likewise for ndhā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kośātakinm. trade, business View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kośātakinm. a trader, merchant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kośātakinm. submarine fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛkinm. Name of a mythical king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛṣṇaśalkinm. "black-twigged", Cyprinus Rohita View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣipakinmfn. fr. - gaRa prekṣādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣiprapākinm. "ripening quickly", Hibiscus populneoides View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣīrakañcukinm. (equals kṣīrīśa- q.v) Lipeocercis serrata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣudravārtākinīf. equals -kaṇṭakī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumbhīkinmfn. similar to a seed of the kumbhīka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kūrcakinmfn. stuffed, puffy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kutukinmfn. idem or 'mfn. curious, inquisitive ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laghupākinmfn. easily digested View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kinīf. Name of a tantra- goddess (see ḍākinī-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lastakinm. a bow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokālokinmfn. looking through the worlds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokinmfn. possessing a world, possessing the best world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokinm. plural the inhabitants of the universe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lomakinm. a bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyavivekinmfn. of mediocre discernment, sāṃkhya-s. Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahākaṇṭakinīf. "having large thorns", Cactus Indicus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāpātakinmfn. guilty of a great crime View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
malapaṅkinmfn. covered with dust and mire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māṃsaśoṇitapaṅkinmfn. (a river) miry with flesh and blood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandākinīf. (fr. manda-+ 2. añc-) "going or streaming slowly", Name of an arm of the Ganges (flowing down through the valley of kedāra-nātha- in the himālaya-s) and of other rivers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandākinīf. (especially) the heavenly Ganges etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandākinīf. another river in heaven View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandākinīf. Name of a metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandākinīf. (in astronomy) Name of a particular conjunction. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandavivekinmfn. having little judgement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mārgāvalokinmfn. "looking towards the road", waiting for any one anxiously View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maśakinm. "swarming with mosquitoes", Ficus Glomerata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maudākinm. (prob.) Name of a mountain (varia lectio modakin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maudākinm. of a son of bhavya- and (n.) a varṣa- ruled by him (varia lectio maudaki-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
modākin varia lectio for maudākin-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūlakaśākinamfn. equals mūla-ś- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūlaśākinan. a field planted with (edible) root Va1rtt. 3 , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
munipiṣṭakinmf(ī-)n. one who lives every day on 8 wild-rice cakes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakin kis- etc. See under 2. n/a-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kinm. "having (id est dwelling in) heaven", a god View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kinātha() () m. "chief of the gods", Name of indra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kināyaka() m. "chief of the gods", Name of indra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nalakinīf. a leg View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nalakinīf. the knee-cap or -pan View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nālakinif. a multitude of lotus flowers, a lotus lake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nālīkinīf. a multitude of lotus flowers, a lotus lake gaRa puṣkarādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandakinm. nandaka View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nārakikinmfn. hellish, being in or condemned to hell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nārakikinm. equals prec. m. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nīcakinm. the head of an ox View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣkinmfn. equals niṣka-grīva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityaśaṅkinm. "always afraid", a deer, antelope, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityodakin() mfn. always furnished with water. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padmakinm. Betula Bhojpatra View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pādukinmfn. having shoes, shoed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kinmfn. becoming mature, ripening, being digested (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound'; see a--, katu--, garbha--etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kinmfn. promoting digestion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcaḍākinīf. Name of a female attendant on devī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcamahāpātakinmfn. guilty of the 5 great sins (See mahā-pātaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṇḍukinmfn. jaundiced View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṅkinmfn. muddy in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' covered with anything as with mud (see mala--). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paripākinmfn. ripening, digesting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paripākinīf. Ipomoea Turpethum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariśaṅkinmfn. fearing, apprehending View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariśaṅkinmfn. afraid on account of (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patākinmfn. having or bearing a flag, adorned with flags etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patākinmfn. (with nau-) furnished with sails (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patākinm. an ensign or standard-bearer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patākinm. a flag View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patākinm. a chariot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patākinm. a figure used in divination View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patākinm. Name of a warrior on the side of the kuru-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patākinm. Name of a particular divinity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pātakinmfn. guilty of a crime, wicked, sinful, a sinner ( pātakitva ki-tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patākinīf. an army (see dhvajinī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pauruṣāsakinm. plural the school of puruṣāsaka- gaRa śaunakādi- ( varia lectio ṣāṃsakin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pecakinm. an elephant (varia lectio picakin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalakinmfn. having a board or a shield View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalakinmfn. varia lectio for halakin- gaRa prekṣādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalakinm. a wooden bench (varia lectio phalaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalakinm. a kind of fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalakin(prob. n.) sandal-wood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalakinīf. a plank View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalapākinm. Thespesia Populneoides View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalepākinm. Hibiscus Populneoides View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phallakinm. a kind of fish (equals phalakin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piḍakinmfn. having boils or pustules View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pinākinm. "armed with the bow or spear pināka-", Name of rudra-- śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pinākinm. of one of the 11 rudra-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pinākinīf. Name of 2 fivers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pinākinīmāhātmyan. Name of chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piśācakinm. Name of kubera- (vaiśravaṇa-) on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracalakin wrong reading for calākin-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracalākinm. a peacock View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracalākinm. a snake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasekinmfn. discharging a fluid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasekinmfn. suffering from morbid flow of saliva View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravalākinm. a peacock View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravalākinm. a snake (prob. wrong reading for pra-calākin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pukinmfn. gaRa prekṣādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pulakinmfn. equals kita- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pulakinm. Nauclea Cordifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pulākinm. a tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṇḍarīkinīf. Name of a town in videha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṭakinīf. (fr. puṭaka- gaRa puṣkarādi-) a lotus or group of lotuses, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṭakinīpattran. a lotus-leaf (in Prakrit) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājakineyam. metron. fr. rajakī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raurukinm. plural (fr. ruruka-) the school of ruruka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raurukinn. plural the yajus- handed down by this school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rocakinmfn. having desire or appetite, taking delight in (locative case) (see a-roc-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
romāñcakinm. Name of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākaśākinan. a bed or field of vegetable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākinmfn. (once ś/ākim-) helpful or powerful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākinm. Name of a man gaRa kurv-ādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākinamfn. (for 2.See column 3) mighty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākinan. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound';for 1See column 2) a field (see iksku--,"a field of sugar-cane", mūla--, śāka-ś-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākinīf. (inī-) a kind of female demon attendant on durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākinīf. (see under śākin-) a field or land planted with vegetables or potherbs View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākinikāf. a kind of female demon (equals śākinī-under śākin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śalākinmfn. furnished with awns (as barley) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śalākinmfn. furnished with ribs (śrīmac-chata-ś-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālākinm. (prob. wrong reading for śalākin-) a surgeon, barber View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālākinm. a spearman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śalkinm. "having scales", a fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālūkinīf. equals śālūkikā- gaRa puṣkarādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālūkinīf. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālūkinīf. of a village View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālvakinīf. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samālokinmfn. looking into, one who has considered or studied (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkhādakhādakinmfn. toothed, fanged (in reproach) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃlokinmfn. being in view of others, observed by others View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samparkinmfn. (see ) mixed, blended View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samparkinmfn. connected or united with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃvartakinm. Name of bala-deva- (see above) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaṅkinmfn. afraid of. fearing (compound) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaṅkinmfn. timid, suspicious, distrustful as (compound exempli gratia, 'for example' kāka-s-,"distrustful as a crow") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaṅkinmfn. assuming, supposing, suspecting, imagining View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaṅkinmfn. full of apprehension or danger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvābhiśaṅkinmfn. mistrusting all ( sarvābhiśaṅkitva ki-tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvalokinmfn. containing the whole world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sātyakinm. (m. Calcutta edition) equals prec. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaunakinm. plural the pupils or followers of śaunaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śītapākinīf. equals kākolī-, mahāsamaṅgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślokinmfn. sounding, noisy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślokinmfn. having a good reputation or fair fame View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīmacchataśalākinmfn. (fr. śrīmat-+ śata-+ ś-) furnished with a hundred beautiful ribs (as an umbrella) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīvatsakinm. a horse having a curl of hair on his breast (resembling that of viṣṇu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīvṛkṣakṣakinmfn. marked with a curl or lock of hair (as a horse see śrī-vatsakin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stambhakinm. a kind of musical instrument covered with leather View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlaśākinīf. a kind of vegetable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūkinmfn. awned, bearded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śukladhvajapatākinmfn. having a white banner and flag (śiva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
supākinīf. a species of Curcuma
supratīkinīf. the female of the elephant su-pratīka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūryadhvajapatākinmfn. having the sun on his standard and flag (said of śiva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūtakinmfn. rendered impure by child-birth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svādupākinmfn. equals -pāka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāduvivekinmfn. distinguishing dainties (from other food) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvakiṣkinmfn. (said of demons; according to to some "having the tail of a dog") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svargamandākinīf. the celestial Ganges View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvāsahikkkinmfn. śvāsahikkā
taḍākinifor taṭāk.- (C) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāmrapākinm. Thespesia populneoides View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tarikinm. a ferry-man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tarkinmfn. skilled in speculation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taṭākinīf. a large pond View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāṭaṅkinmfn. decorated with ka-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilakinmfn. marked with the tilaka-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilodakinmfn. drinking ka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindukinīf. the senna plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tokinīf. equals ka-vatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tumbukinmfn. (in music) puffing the cheeks in singing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tumbukinm. a kind of drum. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turakinmfn. Turkish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udrekinmfn. excessive, violent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udrekinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') abounding in, giving preponderance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upapātakinmfn. one who has committed an upa-pātaka- or minor offence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ūrdhvatilakinmfn. having the above mark. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utkaṇṭakinmfn. idem or 'mfn. one whose (thorn-like) short hairs are erected (through joy or emotion) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utsekinmfn. See an-utsekin-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utsekinmfn. arrogant, proud, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kinam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kinakāyani m. patronymic fr. vākina- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kinīf. Name of a tantra- deity (see ḍākinī-, rākiṇī-, lākinī-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kinim. patronymic fr. vākina- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vālukinm. Name of a preceptor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārakinm. (only ) an opposer, obstructor, enemy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārakinm. a piebald horse or one with good marks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārakinm. a hermit who lives on leaves View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārakinm. the sea, ocean. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varṣapalkinm. Spondias Mangifera View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttākaśākinamfn. a field producing the egg-plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttākinmf. equals vārttāka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāstukaśākinamfn. a field producing Chenopodium View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātakinmfn. suffering from wind-disease, rheumatic, gouty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaṭakinīf. (fr. prec.) Name of a particular night of full moon (when it is customary to eat vaṭaka- cakes) Va1rtt. 1 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vayākinmfn. having little branches or tendrils, ramifying (said of the soma- plant) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikasitakumudendīvarālokinmfn. looking like the expanded white and blue lotus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilokinmfn. looking at, looking, seeing, beholding, perceiving, noticing, becoming aware of (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīṇāgaṇakinm. a music-master, the leader of a musical band View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipākinmfn. ripening, maturing bearing fruits or having consequences, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipākinmfn. difficult to be digested (in a-vip-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
virokinmfn. shining, radiant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣakaṇṭakinīf. a kind of plant (equals bandhya-karkoṭakī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśaṅkinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') supposing, presuming, surmising View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśaṅkinmfn. apprehending, fearing, afraid of. afraid that (compound or Potential with iti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivekinmfn. discriminating, distinguishing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivekinmfn. separated, kept asunder (in a-viv-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivekinmfn. examining, investigating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivekinmfn. discriminative, judicious, prudent, discreet, wise etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivekinm. Name of a king (son of deva-sena-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛṣasṛkkinm. a wasp (see viṣa-śṛṅgin-and -sṛkkan-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatirekinmfn. distinguishing, excluding, excepting, negative View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatirekinmfn. different, reverse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yāmakinīf. = yāmi-2 below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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kināṭam किनाटम् The inner bark of a tree; किनाटं स्नाव तस्थिरम् Bṛi. Up.3.9.28.
kindhin किन्धिन् m. A horse.
kinnara किन्नर See under किम्. 1 किम् ind. Used for कु only at the beginning of comp. to convey the senses of 'badness', 'deterioration', 'defect', 'blame' or 'censure'; e. g. किंसखा a bad friend; किन्नरः a bad or deformed man &c.; see comp. below. -Comp. -ज a. born somewhere (not in a noble family) मन्ये किंजमहं घ्नन्तं त्वामक्षत्रियजे रणे Bk.6.133. -दासः a bad slave, or servant. -नरः a bad or deformed man; a mythical being with a human figure and the head of a horse (अश्वमुख); चयोदाहरणं बाह्वोर्गापयामास किन्नरान् R.4.78; उद्गास्य- तामिच्छति किन्नराणां तानप्रदायित्वमिवोपगन्तुम् Ku.1.8. ˚ईशः, ˚ईश्वरः 1 an epithet of Kubera. -2 a kind of musical instrument. (-री f.) 1 a female Kinnara; Me.58. -2 a kind of lute. -पुरुषः 'a low or despicable man', a mythical being with a human head and the form of a horse; Ku.1.14; किंपुरुषाणां हनुमान् Bhāg.11.16.29. ˚ईश्वरः an epithet of Kubera. -प्रभुः a bad master or king; हितान्न यः संशृणुते स किंप्रभुः Ki.1.5. -राजन् a. having a bad king. (-m.) a bad king. -विवक्षा Slandering; Rām.5. -सखि m. (nom. sing. किंसखा) a bad friend; स किंसखा साधु न शास्ति यो$धिपम् Ki.1.5. 2 किम् pron. a. (nom. sing. कः m., का f., किम् n.) 1 Who, what, which used interrogatively); प्रजासु कः केन पथा प्रयातीत्यशेषतो वेदितुमस्ति शक्तिः Ś.6.26; करुणाविमुखेन मृत्युना हरता त्वां वद किं न मे हृतम् R.8.67; का खल्वनेन प्रार्थ्यमानात्मना विकत्थते V.2; कः को$त्र भोः. कः कौ के कं कौ कान् हसति च हसतो हसन्ति हरणाक्ष्यः Udb. The pronoun is often used to imply 'power or authority to do a thing'; i. e. के आवां परित्रातुं दुष्यन्तमाक्रन्द Ś.1; 'who are we &c.', i. e. what power have we &c.; नृपसद्मनि नाम के वयम् Bh.3.27; who are we, i. e. what position have we &c. Sometimes किम् means 'long' as applied to time especially in combination with खलु or अपि or इव; का खलु वेला पत्रभवत्याः प्राप्तायाः Ve.1; 'what a time' i. e. a long time has elapsed, &c.; so को$पि कालस्तस्या आगत्य गतायाः Ratn 3; or क इव कालः Māl.3. -2 The neuter (किम्) is frequently used with instr. of nouns in the sense of 'what is the use of'; किं स्वामिचेष्टानिरूपणेन H.1; लोभश्चेदगुणेन किम् &c. Bh.2.55; किं तया दृष्ट्या Ś.3; किं कुलेनोपदिष्टेन शीलमेवात्र कारणम् Mk.9.7. अपि, चित्, चन, चिदपि or स्वित् are often added to किम् to give it an indefinite sense; विवेश कश्चिज्जटिलस्तपोवनम् Ku.5.3. a certain ascetic; दमघोषसुतेन कश्चन प्रतिशिष्टः प्रतिभानवानथ Śi.16.1; कश्चित्कान्ताविरहगुरुणा स्वाधिकारात्प्रमत्तः Me.1. &c.; का$पि तत एवागतवती Māl.1; a certain lady; कस्या$पि को$पिति निवेदितं च 1.33; किमपि, किमपि ... जल्पतोरक्रमेण U.1.27; कस्मिंश्चिदपि महाभागधेयजन्मनि मन्मथ- विकारमुपलक्षितवानस्मि Māl.1; किमपि, किंचित् 'a little', वस्तु- सिद्धिर्विचारेण न किंचित् कर्मकोटिभिः Vivekachūdamaṇi; 'somewhat' Y.2.116; U.6.35. किमपि also means 'indeseribable'; see अपि. इव is sometimes added to किम् in the sense of 'possibly', 'I should like to know'; (mostly adding force and elegance to the period); विना सीतादेव्या किमिव हि न दुःखं रघुपतेः U.6.3; किमिच हि मधुराणां मण्डनं नाकृतीनाम् Ś.1.2; see इव also. -ind. 1 A particle of interrogation; जातिमात्रेण किं कश्चिद्धन्यते पूज्यते क्वचित् H.1.55 'is any one killed or worshipped' &c.; ततः किम् what then. -2 A particle meaning 'why', 'wherefore'; किमकारणमेव दर्शनं बिलपन्त्यै रतये न दीयते Ku.4.7. -3 Whether (its correlatives in the sense of 'or' being किं, उत, उताहो, आहोस्वित्, वा, किंवा, अथवा; see these words). -Comp. -अपि ind. 1 to some extent, somewhat, to a considerable extent. -2 inexpressibly, indescribably (as to quality, quantity, nature &c.). -3 very much, by far; किमपि कमनीयं वपुरिदम् Ś.3; किमपि भीषणम्, किमपि करालम् &c. -अर्थ a. having what motive or aim; किमर्थोयं यत्नः. -अर्थम् ind. why, wherefore. -आख्य a. having what name; किमाख्यस्य राजर्षेः सा पत्नी. Ś.7. -इति ind. why, indeed, why to be sure, for what purpose (emphasizing the question); तत्किमित्युदासते भरताः Māl.1; किमित्यपास्याभरणानि यौवने धृतं त्वया वार्धकशोभि वल्कलम् Ku.5.44. -उ, -उत 1 whether-or (showing doubt or uncertainty); किमु विष- विसर्पः किमु मदः U.1.35; Amaru.12. -2 why (indeed) कं च ते परमं कामं करोमि किमु हर्षितः Rām.1.18.52. प्रियसुहृ- त्सार्थः किमु त्यज्यते. -3 how much more, how much less; यौवनं धनसंपत्तिः प्रभुत्वमविवेकिता । एकैकम यनर्थाय किमु यत्र चतुष्टयम् ॥ .II Pr.11; सर्वाविनयानामेकैकमप्येषामायतनं किमुत समवायः K.13; R.14.35; Ku.7.65. -कथिका f. A doubt or hesitation; यत्र कर्मणि क्रियमाणे किंकथिका न भवति तत्कर्तव्यम् । यत्र तु हृदयं न तुष्यति तद्वर्जनीयम् ॥ Medhātithi's gloss on Ms.4.161. -करः a servant, slave; अवेहि मां किंकरमष्टमूर्तेः R.2.35. (-रा) a female servant. (-री) the wife of a servant. -कर्तव्यता, -कार्यता any situation in which one asks oneself what should be done; यथा किंकार्यतामूढा वयस्यास्तस्य जज्ञिरे Ks.1.11. किंकर्तव्यतामूढः 'being at a loss or perplexed what to do'. -कारण a. having what reason or cause, -किल ind. what a pity (expressing displeasure or dissatisfaction न संभावयामि न मर्षयामि तत्रभवान् किंकिल वृषलं याजयिष्यति Kāshika on P.III.3.146. -कृते ind. what for ? कामस्य किंकृते पुष्पकार्मुकारोपणग्रहः Ks.71.79. -क्षण a. one who says 'what is a moment', a lazy fellow who does not value moments; H.2.89. -गोत्र a. belonging to what family; किंगोत्रो नु सोम्यासि Ch. Up.4.4.4. -च ind. moreover, and again, further. -चन ind. to a certain degree, a little; -चित् ind. to a certain degree, somewhat, a little; किंचिदुत्क्रान्तशैशवौ R.15.33, 2.46,12.21. ˚ज्ञ a. 'knowing little', a smatterer. ˚कर a. doing something useful. ˚कालः sometime, a little time. ˚प्राण a. having a little life. ˚मात्र a. only a little. -छन्दस् a. conversant with which Veda. -स्तनुः a species of spider. -तर्हि ind. how then, but, however. -तु ind. but, yet, however, nevertheless; अवैमि चैनामनघेति किंतु लोकापवादो बलवान्मतो मे R.14.43,1.65. -तुघ्नः one of the eleven periods called Karaṇa. -दवः an inferior god, demi-god; किंदेवाः किन्नराः नागाः किम्पुरुषादयः Bhāg.11.14.6. -देवत a. having what deity. -नामधेय, -नामन् a. having what name. -निमित्त a. having what cause or reason, for what purpose. -निमित्तम् ind. why, wherefore, -नु ind. 1 whether; किं नु मे मरणं श्रेयो परित्यागो जनस्य वा Nala.1.1. -2 much more, much less; अपि त्रैलोक्यराज्यस्य हेतोः किं नु महीकृते Bg.1.35. -3 what indeed; किं नु मे राज्येनार्थः -4 but, however; किं नु चित्तं मनुष्याणामनित्यमिति मे मतम् Rām.2.4.27. -नु खलु ind. 1 how possibly, how is it that, why indeed, why to be sure; किं नु खलु गीतार्थमाकर्ण्य इष्टजनविरहा- दृते$पि बलवदुत्कण्ठितो$स्मि Ś.5. -2 may it be that; किं नु खलु यथा वयमस्यामेवमियमप्यस्मान् प्रति स्यात् Ś.1. -पच, -पचान a. miserly, niggardly. -पराक्रम a. of what power or energy. -पाक a. not mature, ignorant, stupid. -कः a. medical plant, Strychnos nux vomica (Mar. कुचला); न लुब्धो बुध्यते दोषान्किंपाकमिव भक्षयन् Rām.2.66.6. -पुनर् ind. how much more, how much less; स्वयं रोपितेषु तरुषूत्पद्यते स्नेहः किं पुनरङ्गसंभवेष्वपत्येषु K.291; Me.3.17; Ve.3. -पुरुषः an inferior man, Bhāg.11.14.6. -प्रकारम् ind. in what manner. -प्रभाव a. possessing what power. -भूत a. of what sort of nature. -रूप a. of what form or shape. -वदन्ति, -न्ती f. rumour, report; स किंवदन्तीं वदतां पुरोगः (पप्रच्छ) R.14.31. मत्संबन्धात्कश्मला किंवदन्ती U.1.42; U.1.4. -वराटकः an extravagant man. -वा ind. 1 a particle of interrogation; किं वा शकुन्तलेत्यस्य मातुराख्या Ś.7. -2 or (corr. of किं 'whether'); राजपुत्रि सुप्ता किं वा जागर्षि Pt.1; तत्किं मारयामि किं वा विषं प्रयच्छामि किं वा पशुधर्मेण व्यापादयामि ibid.; Ś. Til.7. -विद a. knowing what. -व्यापार a. following what occupation. -शील a. of what habits, -स्वित् ind. whether, how; अद्रेः शृङ्गं हरति पवनः किंस्विदित्युन्मुखीभिः Me.14.
aṅkin अङ्किन् m. n. [अङ्कः आलिङ्गनस्थानत्वेन अस्यास्ति, अङ्क-इनि] A sort of drum or tabor (अङ्केनालिङ्ग्य वादनीयो मृदङ्गादि- वाद्यभेदः क्रीडाविशिष्टश्च). -नी [अङ्कानां समूहः; खलादि˚ इनि ङीप्] 1 A number of marks or signs. -2 A woman having marks (of branding &c.).
anīkinī अनीकिनी [अनीक्रानां सङ्घः; अनीकं युद्धं प्रयोजनतया अस्त्यस्याः इति वा, अनीक-इनि] 1 An army, host, forces. -2 Three chamūs or one-tenth of a complete army (अक्षौहिणी); 1935 foot, 6561 horse, 2187 elephants and as many chariots. चमूस्तु पृतनास्तिस्रस्तिस्रश्चम्बस्त्वनीकिनी । अनीकिनी दशगुणा प्राहुरक्षौहिणीं बुधाः ॥ Mb.1.2.22. -3 A lotus.
anutsekin अनुत्सेकिन् a. Not puffed up, not proud or arrogant; भाग्येषु ˚नी भव Ś.4.18.
anekākin अनेकाकिन् a. Not alone, accompanied by.
apatānakin अपतानकिन् a. Affected with spasmodic contraction.
arocakin अरोचकिन् a. Suffering from loss of appetite or indigestion.
arkin अर्किन् a. Ved. 1 Shining, bright; इयं या नीच्यर्किणी Rv.8.11.13. -2 Praising; बृहदिन्द्रमर्केभिरर्किणः Rv.1.7.1. -3 Praised or worshipped.
ālokin आलोकिन् a. Seeing, beholding.
āśaṅkin आशङ्किन् a. 1 Doubting, fearing; रघोरभिभवाशङ्कि R.4.21; attended with fears; तस्मादम्बुपतेरिवावनिपतेः सेवा सदाशङ्किनी Pt.1.284.
utsekin उत्सेकिन् a. 1 Overflowing, excessive; उत्सेकिना मदबलेन विगाह्यमानम् Mu.26. -2 Proud, haughty, puffed up; भाग्येष्वनुत्सेकिनी Ś.4.18.
udrekin उद्रेकिन् a. Abounding in, increasing.
upapātakin उपपातकिन् a. One who has committed an उपपातक. उपपातकिनस्त्वेवमेभिर्नानाविधैर्व्रतैः Ms.11.17,117.
ekākin एकाकिन् a. Alone, solitary. एकाकी यतचित्तात्मा धुरमेका- किना न्यस्तां वृषभेण बलीयसा Rām.6.128.3.
kañcukin कञ्चुकिन् a. Furnished with armour or mail. m. 1 An attendant on the women's apartments, a chamberlain; (an important character in dramas); अन्तः- पुरचरो वृद्धो विप्रो गुणगणान्वितः । सर्वकार्यार्थकुशलः कञ्चुकीत्यभिधीयते ॥ (he must be a Brāhmaṇa, very old, &c.; cf. V.3. and Ś.5.3). -2 A libidinous man, debauchee. -3 A serpent. -4 A door-keeper. -5 Barley. -Comp. -वरः The head कञ्चुकिन् आकर्ण्य कञ्चुकिवरस्य वचः क्षितीशः । Bil. Ch.53.
kaṭakin कटकिन् m. A mountain.
kaṇṭakin कण्टकिन् a. (-नी f.) 1 Thorny, prickly; कण्टकिनो वनान्ताः Vikr.1.116. -2 Vexatious, troublesome. -m. A fish. -m., f. N. of several plants:-- खदिर, मदन, गोक्षुर, वंश, बदर. -Comp. -ज a. 1 produced from a fish. -2 produced by the Mimosa tree. -फलः the bread-fruit tree (पनस). (-ला) मधुखर्जुरी plant.
karṇikin कर्णिकिन् m. An elephant.
kalkin कल्किन् a. 1 Foul, turbid, dirty. -2 Wicked. -m. see कल्कि above.
kinī काकिनी 1 A small coin (equal to twenty cowries), quarter of a Paṇa q. v. -2 A part of a measure. -3 cowrie; यः काकिनीमप्यपथप्रपन्नां समुद्धरेन्निष्कसहस्रतुल्याम् H.3.123. न हि काकिन्यां नष्टायां तदन्वेषणं कार्षापणेन क्रियते । ŚB. on Ms.4.3.39.
kācanakin काचनकिन् m. A manuscript, writing.
kośātakin कोशातकिन् m. 1 Trade, business. -2 A trader, merchant. -3 Submarine fire.
kautukin कौतुकिन् a. Festive, gay; विजहार तदुद्यानवनभूमिषु कौतुकी Ks.54.52.
candrakin चन्द्रकिन् m. A peacock, Śi.3.49; निशमयन्नपि चन्द्र- किणां मृदुप्रसरणान् सरणान् ऋतुमन्वभूत् Rām. Ch.4.53.
cikina चिकिन a. Flat-nosed.
culukin चुलुकिन् m. A porpoise.
colakin चोलकिन् m. 1 A soldier armed with a breast-plate. -2 The orange tree. -3 The wrist. -5 The shoot of a bamboo.
jālakin जालकिन् m. A cloud.
jālakinī जालकिनी A ewe.
ḍākinī डाकिनी A kind of female imp, a female goblin; Bhāg.1.63.1. डांकृतिः ḍāṅkṛtiḥ डात्कृतिः ḍātkṛtiḥ डांकृतिः डात्कृतिः f. The clang of a bell, ding-dong &c.; howling; Māl.5.19.
taṭākinī तटाकिनी A large pond; Mb.3.
tarkin तर्किन् a. [तर्क्-णिनि] 1 Guessing. -2 Reasoning, versed in speculation; Ms.12.111. -m. A logician, reasoner.
turakin तुरकिन् a. Turkish.
tarikin तरिकिन् m. A ferry-man. तरित्रम् taritram तरित्री taritrī तरिणी tariṇī तरित्रम् तरित्री तरिणी A boat, ship.
nandakin नन्दकिन् m. An epithet of Viṣṇu.
nalakinī नलकिनी 1 The knee-pan. -2 The leg.
kin नाकिन् m. A god; Śi.1.45; इत्येवमुक्तः स नरेन्द्रनाकी Rām.7.77.21. -a. Dwelling in heaven.
nālīkinī नालीकिनी 1 A multitude or assemblage of lotusflowers. -2 A lotus-pond.
nīcakin नीचकिन् m. 1 The top of anything. -2 The head of an ox. -3 The owner of a good cow.
paṅkin पङ्किन् a. Muddy, filled with mud, soiled.
patākin पताकिन् a. Having or carrying a banner, adorned with flags. -m. 1 An ensign, standard-bearer. -2 A flag. -3 A scheme or figure for casting a nativity. -4 A chariot; क्षितिरेणुकेतुवसनाः पताकिनः Śi.13.4. -नी An army; (न प्रसेहे) रथवर्त्मरजो$प्यस्य कुत एव पताकिनीम् R.4.82; Ki.14.27.
padmakin पद्मकिन् m. 1 An elephant. -2 The Bhūrja. or birch tree.
pariśaṅkin परिशङ्किन् a. Fearing, apprehensive.
kin पाकिन् a. (At the end of comp.) 1 Becoming ripe, ripening. -2 Being digested.
pāṇḍukin पाण्डुकिन् a. Suffering from jaundice.
pātakin पातकिन् a. Sinful, guilty.
pinākin पिनाकिन् m. An epithet of Śiva; Ku.5.77; मृगानु- सारिणं साक्षात् पश्यामीव पिनाकिनम् Ś.1.6.
piśācakin पिशाचकिन् m. An epithet of Kubera, the god of wealth.
puṭakinī पुटकिनी 1 A lotus. -2 A group of lotuses.
pulakin पुलकिन् a. (-नी f.) Having the hairs of the body erect &c. -m. A species of Kadamba tree.
pulākin पुलाकिन् m. A tree.
pecakin पेचकिन् m., पेचिलः An elephant.
pracalākin प्रचलाकिन् m. A peacock; U.2.29; प्रचलाकिकलापिनौ Trikāṇḍaśeṣa.
pravalākin प्रवलाकिन् m. 1 A peacock. -2 A snake.
prasekin प्रसेकिन् m. A kind of disease; मांसपिण्डवदुद्गताः प्रसेकिनो$- न्तःपूयवेदनावन्तो$श्वा$पानवदुद्धृतौष्ठाः Suśr.
phalakin फलकिन् a. 1 Boarded. -2 Armed with a shield. -m. 1 A wooden bench. -2 Sandal-wood (n. also). -3 (also फलिः and फल्लकिन्) A kind of small fish (Mystus Kapirat); L. D. B.
balākin बलाकिन् a. Abounding in cranes; कालिकेव निबिडा बलाकिनी R.11.15; Ku.7.39.
bāndhakineyaḥ बान्धकिनेयः A bastard.
mandākinī मन्दाकिनी [मन्दमकति अक्-णिनि] 1 The river Ganges; मन्दाकिनी भाति नगोपकण्ठे मुक्तावली कण्ठगतेव भूमेः R.13.48; Ku.1.29. -2 The river of heaven, celestial Ganges (मन्दाकिनी वियद्गङ्गा); मन्दाकिन्याः सलिलशिशिरैः सेव्यमाना मरुद्भिः Me.69.
maśakin मशकिन् m. The Udumbara tree.
lastakin लस्तकिन् m. A bow.
lomakin लोमकिन् m. A bird.
valākin वलाकिन् See बलाकिन्.
vātakin वातकिन् a. (-नी f.) Gouty; जिन त्वदाज्ञामवमन्यते यः स वातकी नाथ पिशाचकी वा Mahāvīrswāmistotra; धुवञ्शिरो जरावातकी N.18.12.
vārakin वारकिन् m. 1 An opposer, enemy. -2 The ocean. -3 A kind of horse, one with good marks. -4 An ascetic living on leaves.
vivekin विवेकिन् a. 1 Discriminating, discreet, judicious; दम्भो भवति विवेकी Pt.1.418. -2 Separated. -m. 1 A judge, discriminator. -2 A philosopher.
vyatirekin व्यतिरेकिन् a. 1 Different. -2 Surpassing, excelling; कालाग्निव्यतिरेकिणां भगवताम् Mv.1.46. -3 Excluding, excepting. -4 Showing negation or non-existence; as in व्यति- रेकिलिङ्गम्; see व्यतिरेक (6) above.
śaṅkin शङ्किन् a. 1 Doubting, suspecting, fearing, believing (at the end of comp.); त्वदुपावर्तनशङ्कि मे मनः R.8.53; अतिस्नेहः पापशङ्की Ś.4. -2 Full of danger; तस्मादम्बुपते- रिवावनिपतेः सेवा सदा शङ्किनी Subhāṣ.
śākinam शाकिनम् A field; as in शाकशाकिनम्.
śākinī शाकिनी [शाकमस्त्यस्या इनि] 1 A field of vegetables. -2 A kind of female being attendant on Durgā (supposed to be a demon or fairy).
śālākin शालाकिन् m. 1 A lancer, spear-man. -2 A surgeon. -3 A barber.
śokin शोकिन् a. Sorrowful, dejected, sad.
saṃvartakin संवर्तकिन् m. N. of Balarāma. संवर्तिः saṃvartiḥ संवर्तिका saṃvartikā संवर्तिः संवर्तिका 1 The new leaf of a water-lily; स्मरेन्धने वक्षसि तेन दत्ता संवर्तिका शैवलवल्लिचित्रा N.8.76; cf. कमलिनीसंवर्तिका, अम्भोजसंवर्तिका A. R.2.4,5; राजीवसंवर्तिका A. R.2.7. -2 The petal near the filament. -3 The flame of a lamp &c.; (दीपादेः शिखा).
sṛkkin सृक्किन् n. The corner of the mouth; सृक्कणी परि- लेलिहन् Pt.1. सृङ्का sṛṅkā सृङ्का f. 1 A tinkling string of jewels; तवैव नाम्ना भवितायमग्निः सृङ्कां च मामनेकरूपां गृहाण Kaṭh.1.16. -2 A way, path; नैतां सृङ्कां वित्तमयीमवाप्तो यस्यां मज्जन्ति वहवो मनुष्याः 2.3.
stambhakin स्तम्भकिन् m. A kind of musical instrument covered with leather.
hevākin हेवाकिन् a. Ardently desirous of, eager for, (in comp.); जायन्ते महतामहो निरुपमप्रस्थानहेवाकिनां निःसामान्यमहत्त्व- योगपिशुना वार्ता विपत्तावपि Kalhaṇa.
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acit á-cit, a. (K.) unthinking, thoughtless, vii. 86, 7.
animiṣam á-nimiṣ-am, (acc.) adv. unwinkingly, vii. 61, 3 [ni-míṣ, f. wink].
animiṣā á-nimiṣ-ā, (inst.) adv. with unwinking eye, iii. 59, 1 [ni-mís, f wink].
anuvenant anu-vénant, pr. pt. seeking the friendship of (acc.), x. 135, 2.
amanyamāna á-manya-māna, pr. pt. Ā. not thinking = unexpecting, ii. 12, 10 [man think].
avapaśyant ava-páśyant, pr. pt. looking down on (acc.), vii. 49, 3.
idh idh kindle, VII. Ā. inddhé. sám- kindle, 3. pl. indhate, ii. 35, 11; pf. īdhiré, v. 11, 2.
idhma ídh-má, m. fuel, x. 90, 6 [idh kindle].
upāra upārá, m. offence, vii. 86, 6 [upa + ara from ṛ go: striking upon, offence]. [228]
kavi kav-í, m. sage, v. 11, 3; vii. 86, 3; x. 129, 4 [Av. kavi ‘king’].
kṛṇvant kṛṇv-ánt, pr. pt. making = offering, vii. 103, 8; x. 168, 1 [kṛ make].
carman cár-man, n. skin, hide, i. 85, 5; vii. 63, 1.
jana ján-a, m. mankind, ii. 35, 15; iii. 59, 9; iv. 51, 1; v. 11, 1; pl. men, people, i. 35, 5; ii. 12, 1-14; iii. 59, 1. 8; iv. 51, 11; vii. 49, 3; 61, 5; 63, 2. 4; x. 14, 1 [jan generate; cp. Lat. gen-us, Gk. γέν-ος, Eng.kin].
drti dṛ́-ti, m. water-skin, v. 83, 7; vii. 103, 2 [dṛ split; cp. Gk. δέρω, Eng. tear].
nādhamāna ná̄dh-amāna, pr. pt. Ā. seeking aid, suppliant, ii. 12, 6; 33, 6.
pacant pác-ant, pr. pt. cooking, ii. 12, 14. 15 [pac cook, Lat. coquo for pequo, OSl. 3. s. pečetŭ].
pathikrt pathi-kṛ́t, m. path-maker, x. 14, 15 [kṛ-t making: kṛ + determinative t]. [239]
punarhan punar-hán, a. striking back, x. 34, 7.
pṛchamāna pṛchá-māna, pr. pt. Ā. asking oneself, x. 34, 6 [prach ask].
pratibudhyamāna prati-búdhyamāna, pr. pt. awaking towards (acc.), iv. 51, 10.
bandhu bándh-u, a. akin, i. 154, 5; m. bond, x. 129, 4 [bandh bind].
budhāna budh-āná, ao. pt. Ā. waking, iv. 51, 8.
bruvāṇa bruv-āṇá, pr. pt. speaking, iii. 59, 1 [brū speak].
mathita math-itá, pp. kindled by friction, viii. 48, 6.
marmṛjyamāna marmṛjyá-māna, pr. pt. int. making bright, ii. 35, 4 [mṛj wipe].
yojana yój-ana, n. league, i. 35, 8 [yoking from yuj yoke].
rājan rá̄j-an, m. king, i. 85, 8; iii. 59, 4; iv. 50, 7. 9; vii. 49, 3. 4; 86, 5; viii. 48, 7. 8; x. 14, 1. 4. 7. 11. 15; 34, 8. 12; 168, 2 [rāj rule, Lat. regō-].
vadant vád-ant, pr. pt. speaking, vii. 103, 3. 6. 7. [247]
visrasas vi-srásas, ab. inf. from breaking, viii. 48, 5 [vi + sras fall].
vyathamāna vyátha-māna, pr. pt. Ā. quaking, ii. 12, 2.
śiva śivá, a. kind, x. 34, 2.
śravasyu śravas-yú, a. fame-seeking, i. 85, 8.
śvityañc śvity-áñc, a. whitish, ii. 33, 8 [śviti (akin to śvetá, Go. hweits, Eng. white) + añc].
sajanya sájan-ya, a. belonging to his own people, iv. 50, 9 [sa-jana, kinsman].
sabhā sabhá̄, f. assembly hall, x. 34, 6 [OG. sippa ‘kinship’, AS. sib].
samidh sam-ídh, f. faggot, x. 90, 15 [sám + idh kindle].
samrāj sam-rá̄j, m. sovereign king, viii. 29, 9.
sudugha su-dúgha, a. (Bv.) yielding good milk, ii. 35, 7 [dúgha milking: dugh = duh].
suprapāṇa su-prapāṇá, a. (Bv.) giving good drink; n. good drinking place, v. 83, 8.
sumnāyu sumnā-yú, a. kindly, vii. 71, 3.
havispā havis-pá̄, a. drinking the oblation, x. 15, 10 [havís + pā].
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kin a primary suffix i (gr.).
kindubilva kindu-bilva, ˚villa N. of a race or of the birthplace of Gayadeva.
atarkin a. inconsiderate, hasty.
arkin a. radiant; singing songs of praise.
arocakin a. lacking appetite; fastidious; pretentious; sensitive.
ālokin a. looking at, contempla ting (--°ree;).
ekākin a. alone, solitary: (i)-kesarin, m. N. of a Bhilla.
kākiṇī kâkinî, ˚nī f. cowrie, small coin=1/4 pana.
kārmukin a. wearing a bow.
kiṣkindha m. N. of a mountain; â, f. N. of a cave.
kekin m. peacock.
ḍākinī f. kind of female demon (in the retinue of Kâlî) that feeds on human flesh: -tva, n. character of a Dâkinî.
tarkin a. supposing, surmising, skilled in speculation.
kin m. (possessing heaven), god.
patākin a. bearing a flag; m. ensign-bearer; flag; car: -î, f. army.
puṭakinī f. lotus; group of lo tuses.
balākin a. attended by or abounding in cranes; N. of a son of Dhritarâshtra.
mandākinī f. [having a slow stream, manda½ak-a: √ añk] N. of a branch of the Ganges and of the celestial Ganges.
mārgāvalokin a. scanning the road, anxiously expectant.
yāmakinī f. female servant on guard or watch.
śākinī f. kind of female demon: -tva, n. condition of a Sâkinî.
hevākin a. devoted to, absorbed in (--°ree;): (-i)-tâ, f. devotion to.
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kināṭaṃ snāva tat sthiram śB.14.6.9.32b; BṛhU.3.9.32b.
ekākinā sarathaṃ yāsi vidvān # AVś.19.56.1c; AVP.3.8.1c.
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"kin" has 220 results.
     
ākinictaddhita affix. affeminine. अाकिन् affixed to the word एक in the sense of 'single,' 'alone'; confer, compare एकादाकिनिच्चासहाये P.V.3.52.
kinakṛt affix इ prescribed along with कि. See कि a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The affix किन् causes the acute accent on the first vowel of the word ending with it, while the affix ki ( इ ) has itself the acute accent on its vowel इ.
kinādia class of words headed by the word वाकिन to which the taddhita affix आयनि( फिञ् ) is added in the sense of an 'offspring' when along with the taddhita affix. affix अायनि,the augment क् ( कुक् ) is added to the base ( वाकिन or the like ); e. g. वाकिनकायनिः ; confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.158.
śākinataddhita affix. affix (originally a word formed from शाकी by affixing न as given in Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.V.2.100), applied to the word इक्षु in the sense of a field producing it; e. g. इक्षुशाकिनम्.; confer, compare भवने क्षेत्रे इक्ष्वादिभ्यः शाकटशाकिनौ Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.29.
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
akārathe letter a, (अ) inclusive of all its eighteen kinds caused by shortness, length, protraction, accentuation and nasalization in Pānini's grammar, in cases where a(अ) is not actually prescribed as a termination or an augment or a substitute. confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.73. The letter is generally given as the first letter of the alphabet ( वर्णसमाम्नाय ) in all Prātiśākhya and grammar works except in the alphabet termed Varṇopadeśa, as mentioned in the Ṛk Tantra confer, compare ए ओ ऐ औ अा ॠ लॄ ई ऊ ऋ लृ इ उ अाः । रयवलाः । ङञणनमाः । अः ೱ क ೱ पाः । हुं कुं खुं गुं घुं अं अां एवमुपदेशे et cetera, and others Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.I. 4.
akṛtavyūhashort expression for the grammatical maxim अकृतव्यूहाः पाणिनीयाः which means "the followers of Pāṇini do not insist on the taking effect of a rule when its cause or causes disappear." See Par. śek. Par. 56.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
atatkālanot taking that much time only which is shown by the letter (vowel) uttered, but twice or thrice, as required by its long or protracted utterance ; the expression is used in connection with vowels in Pāṇini's alphabet, which, when used in Pāṇini's rules, except when prescribed or followed by the letter त्, includes their long, protracted and nasalized utterances: confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः I.1.69.
adantaending with the short vowel अ; confer, compare P. VIII.4.7: a term applied to nouns of that kind, and roots of the tenth conjugation which are given with the letter अ at their end which is not looked upon as mute (इत्) c.g. कथ,गण. et cetera, and others Mark also the root पिच described by पतञ्जलि as अदन्त confer, compare पिबिरदन्तः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56., Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 4.43.
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
anavakāśahaving no occasion or scope of application; used in connection with a rule the whole of whose province of application is covered by a general rule, and hence which becomes technically useless, unless it is allowed to set aside the general rule: confer, compare अनवकाशा हि विधयो बाधका भवन्तिrules which have no opportunity of taking effect( without setting aside other rules ) supersede those rules; M.Bh. on V.4.154, also Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on Pari. 64.
anavakāśatvaabsence of any opportunity of taking effect, scopelessness considered in the case of a particular rule, as a criterion for setting aside that general rule which deprives it of that opportunity confer, compare अनवकाशत्वं निरवकाशत्वं वा बाधकत्वे बीजम्. This अनवकाशत्व is slightly different from अपवादत्व or particular mention which is defined usually by the words सामान्यविधिरुत्सर्गः । विशेषविधिरपवादः ।
anukarṣaṇadragging (from the preceding rule) to the following rule taking the previous rule or a part of it as understood in the following rule or rules in order; the same as अनुवृत्ति; confer, compare अनुकर्षणार्थश्चकारः Kāś. on II. 4.18, III.2.26, VII. 1.48: cf also the Paribhāṣā; चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र -that which is attracted from a preceding rule by the particle च is not valid in the rule that follows; Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 78.
anulomasaṃdhicombination according to the alphabetical order; a kind of euphonic alteration ( संधि ) where the vowel comes first. e.gहव्यवाट् + अग्निः where ट् is changed to द्; एषः देवः= एष देवः confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 8. (Sce अनुलोम ).
aprāptavikalpasame as अप्राप्तविभाषा one of the three kinds of optional application of a rule; confer, compare त्रिसंशयास्तु भवन्ति प्राप्ते अप्राप्ते उभयत्र चेति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 20; optional application of a rule prescribing an operation; eg; ऊर्णोतेर्विभाषा अनुपसर्गाद्वा I.3.43. हृक्रोरन्यतरस्याम् । अभिवादयति गुरुं माणवकेन पिता । अप्राप्तविकल्पत्वातृतीयैव Kāś. on I.1.53. विभाषा सपूर्वस्य । स्थूलपतिः स्थूलपत्नी । अप्राप्तविभाषेयमयरुसंयोगत्वात् ।
abhighātadepression or sinking of the voice as required for the utterance of a circumflex vowel.
abhiprāya(1)अभिप्रायसंधि a kind of euphonic combination where the nasal letter न् is dropped and the preceding vowel ( अ ) is nasalised e. g, दधन्याँ यः । स्ववाँ यातु : (2) view, purpose, intention; confer, compare तद् व्यक्तमाचार्यस्याभिप्रायो गम्येत, इदं न भवतीति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27; confer, compare also स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P.1.3.72.
abhivyādānaabsorption of a vowel when two long vowels of the same kind come together exempli gratia, for example ता आपः = तापः, अवसा आ = अवसा, the resultant vowel being pronounced specially long consisting of some more mātrā, which is evidently, a fault of pronunciation. confer, compare आदानं आरम्भः; विपुलं विशालं वा आदानं व्यादानम् । अभिव्याप्तं अभिभूतं व्यादानं अभिव्यादानम् Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 27.
abhedakanot bringing about a difference; not making different; nondiscriminant; confer, compare गुणाः अभेदकाः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 109 confer, compare ननु च भो अभेदका अपि च गुणा दृश्यन्ते M. Bh on I.1.1.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
ardhakaa fault in the utterance of a vowel of the kind of abridgment of a long utterance. अर्धह्रस्वम् explained as ह्रस्वस्यार्धम्-half the utterance of the short vowel; confer, compare तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P. I.2.32. confer, compare also तस्यादिरुच्चैस्तरामुदात्तादनन्तरं यावदर्द्धे ह्रस्वस्य Tai. Pr. I.44.
ardhamātrikataking for its utterance the time measured by the utterance of half a mātrā or mora; a consonant, as it requires for its utterance that time which is measured by half a mātrā (mātrā being the time required for the utterance of short अ); confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.16, T. Pr.I.37, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.59.
aākhyātaverbal form, verb; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातं सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि Nirukta of Yāska.I.1; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्यातोपसर्गनिपाताश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1. Āhnika 1 ; also A.Prāt. XII. 5, अाकार अाख्याते पदादिश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.2.37 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2, आख्यातमाख्यातेन क्रियासातत्ये Sid. Kau. on II.1.72, क्रियावाचकमाख्यातं Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1; confer, compare भारद्वाजकमाख्यातं भार्गवं नाम भाष्यते । भारद्वाजेन दृष्टत्वादाख्यातं भारद्वाजगोत्रम् V. Prāt. VIII. 52; confer, compare also Athar. Prāt.I.I.12, 18; 1.3.3,6; II.2.5 where ākhyāta means verbal form. The word also meant in ancient days the root also,as differentiated from a verb or a verbal form as is shown by the lines तन्नाम येनाभिदधाति सत्त्वं, तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातुः R.Pr.XII.5 where 'आख्यात' and 'धातु' are used as synonyms As the root form such as कृ, भृ et cetera, and others as distinct from the verbal form, is never found in actual use, it is immaterial whether the word means root or verb.In the passages quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. from the Nirukta and the Mahābhāṣya referring to the four kinds of words, the word ākhyāta could be taken to mean root (धातु) or verb (क्रियापद). The ākhyāta or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being and bccoming while nouns (नामानि) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the activities and things in this world but with every process and entity; confer, compare पूर्वापूरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे Nir.I.;अस्तिभवतिविद्यतीनामर्थः सत्ता । अनेककालस्थायिनीति कालगतपौर्वापर्येण क्रमवतीति तस्याः क्रियात्वम् । Laghumañjūṣā. When a kṛt (affix). affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a word ending with a kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of bhāva or verbal activity is treated as a noun and regularly declined;confer, compareकृदभिहितो भावे द्रव्यवद् भवति M.Bh. on II.2.19 and III. 1.67, where the words गति, व्रज्या, पाक and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words ending with kṛt (affix). affixes such as कर्तुं, कृत्वा, and others, the modern grammarians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be,in a way, looked upon as ākhyātas; confer, compare अव्ययकृतो भावे Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa.
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
aādi(1)commencement, initial: confer, compare अपूर्वलक्षण आदिः M.Bh. on I.1.21, (2) of the kind of, similar; एवंप्रक्रारः.
ādhārareceptacle or abode of an action;confer, compareअाध्रियन्ते अस्मिन् क्रियाः इत्याधारः Kāś. on P.I.4.45 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.3.121; the Prakriyā Kaumudī mentions four kinds of ādhāras: confer, compare औपश्लेषिकः सामीपिको विषयो व्याप्त इत्याघारश्चतुर्धा Prak. Kau. on II.3.36.
aāntaryaproximity; close affinity ; close relationship. There are four kinds of such proximity as far as words in grammar are concerned; Re: the organs of speech (स्थानतः)as in दण्डाग्रम्, regarding the meaning(अर्थतः)as in वातण्ड्ययुवतिः, regarding the quality (गुण) as in पाकः रागः, and regarding the prosodial value (प्रमाण) as in अमुष्मै, अमूभ्याम्; confer, compare अनेकविधं अान्तर्यं स्थानार्थगुणप्रमाणकृतम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.13. confer, compare also Kāś. on I.1.50.
aābhyantaraprayatnainternal effort made in producing a sound, as contrasted with the external One called बाह्यप्रयत्न. There are four kinds of internal efforts described in the Kāsikāvrtti.; confer, compare चत्वार आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्नाः सवर्णसंज्ञायामाश्रीयन्ते स्पृष्टता, ईषत्स्पृष्टता, संवृतता, विवृतता चेति । Kās. on P. 1.1.9. See also यत्नो द्विधा । आभ्यन्तरो बाह्यश्च et cetera, and others Si. Kau. on I.1.9.
īṣadasamāptistage of the quality of a thing or of an undertaking which is almost complete,to show which,the tad-affixes कल्प, देश्य and देशीय are applied to a word:exempli gratia, for example पटुकल्पः,पटुदेश्यः; पटुदेशीयः, पचतिकल्पम्, जल्पतिकल्पम्, confer, compare P, V.3.67.
uddeśyareferred to; pointed out, subject, as contrasted with the predicate मानान्तरप्राप्तमुद्देश्यम् ; confer, compare उद्दश्यप्रतिनिर्दिश्यमानयोरैक्यमापद्यत् सर्वनाम पर्यायेण तत्तल्लिङभाक् । तद्यथा | शैत्यं हि यत्सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य, शैत्यं हि य यत्तत्प्रकृतिर्जलस्य वा । उद्देश्य in grammar refers to the subjectpart of a sentence as opposed to the predicate-participle. In the sentence वृद्धिरादैच् the case is strikingly an opposite one and the explanation given by Patañjali is very interesting;confer, compare तदेतदेकं मङ्गलार्थं आचार्यस्य मृष्यताम् । माङ्गलिक अाचार्यः महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थं वृद्धिशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्कते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.1.
upacāra(1)taking a secondary sense; implication; literally moving for a sense which is near about; the same as लक्षणा. The word आचार is explained as उपचार, employment or current usage, by Patañjali; confer, compare आचारात् । आचार्याणामुपचारात् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; ( 2 ) substitution of the letter सं for विसर्ग : confer, compare प्रत्ययग्रहणोपचारेषु च, P.IV.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7.
upamanyu(1)the famous commentator on the grammatical verses attributed to Nandikeśvarakārikā. which are known by the name नन्दिकेश्वरकारिका and which form a kind of a commentary on the sūtras of Maheśvara; (2) a comparatively modern grammarian possibly belonging to the nineteenth century who is also named Nandikeśvarakārikā.kārikābhāṣya by Upamanyu.and who has written a commentory on the famous Kāśikāvṛtti by Jayāditya and Vāmana. Some believe that Upa-manyu was an ancient sage who wrote a nirukta or etymological work and whose pupil came to be known as औपमन्यव.
upahita(1)with, preceded by; e g. दीर्घोपहित, ह्रस्वोपहित; (2) sticking to, connected with, 'उपश्लेषित': confer, compareDurga on Nir.V.12;(3) coming to be placed near or in juxtaposition with the preceding word: confer, compare आवोन्तोपहितात् सतः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.15.
ubhayatobhāṣaliterally speaking or showing both the padas or voices; possessed of both the padas viz. the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada. The word is found commonly used in the Dhātupaṭha of Pāṇini.
ubhayavatpossessed of both the kinds of properties; confer, compare य इदानीमुभयवान् स तृतीयामाख्यां लभते स्वरित इति M.Bh. on P.I.2.81 ; confer, compare also उभयवान् स्वरितः V. Pr.I.110.
ekadeśavikṛtanyāyathe maxim that ' a thing is called or taken as that very thing although it is lacking in a part,'stated briefly as एकदेशविकृतमनन्यवत् Pari. Śek. Pari. 37. The maxim is given in all the different schools of grammar: confer, compare Śak Pari. 17: Cāndra Pari. 15, Kat. Par. Vr. l, Jain. Par.Vr.l l, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.Pari.7 et cetera, and others
ekavākyaan expression giving one idea, either a single or a composite one. A positive statement and its negation, so also, a general rule and its exception are looked upon as making a single sentence on account of their mutual expectancy even though they be sometimes detached from each other confer, compare विदेशस्थमपि सदेकवाक्यं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.4.67; confer, compare also निषेधवाक्यानामपि निषेध्यविशेषाकाङ्क्षत्वाद्विध्येकवाक्यतयैव अन्वयः । तत्रैकवाक्यता पर्युदासन्यायेन । संज्ञाशास्त्रस्य तु कार्यकालपक्षे न पृथग्वाक्यार्थबोधः । Par. Śek on Pari. 3. Such sentences are, in fact, two sentences, but, to avoid the fault of गौरव, caused by वाक्यभेद, grammarians hold them to be composite single sentences.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
ekārathe letter ए; looked upon as a diphthong ( संध्यक्षर ) made up of the letters अ and इ. The combination of the two constituent parts is so complete as cannot allow any of the two parts to be independently working for saṁdhi or any other operation with its adjoining letter; cf नाव्यपवृत्तस्य अवयवे तद्विधिर्यथा द्रव्येषु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Śivasūtra 3 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9.
etāvattvalimitation of the kind; 'such and such' (words et cetera, and others); confer, compare Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya.I.
karaṇa(1)lit instrument; the term signifies the most efficient means for accomplishing an act; confer, compare क्रियासिद्धी यत् प्रकृष्टोपकारकं विवक्षितं तत्साधकतमं कारकं करणसंज्ञं भवति, Kāś. on साधकतमं करणम् P.I.4.42, e. g. दात्रेण in दात्रेण लुनाति; (2) effort inside the mouth (अाभ्यन्तर-प्रयत्न ) to produce sound; e. g. touching of the particular place ( स्थान ) inside the mouth for uttering consonants; confer, compare स्पृष्टं स्पर्शानां करणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P, I.1.10 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (3) disposition of the organ which produces the sound; confer, compare श्वासनादोभयानां विशेषः करणमित्युच्यते । एतच्च पाणिनिसंमताभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न इति भाति । Com. on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII.3;confer, compare also स्थानकरणानुप्रदानानि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.32: confer, compare also अनुप्रदानात्संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् । जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 2. where karaṇa is described to be of five kinds अनुप्रदान (id est, that is नाद or resonance), संसर्ग (contact), स्थान, करणविन्यय and परिमाण; confer, compareअकारस्य तावत् अनुप्रदानं नादः, संसर्गः कण्ठे, स्थानं हनू, करणविन्ययः ओष्ठौ, परिमाणं मात्राकालः । अनुप्रदानादिभिः पञ्चभिः करणैर्वर्णानां वैशेष्यं जायते Com. on Tai. Pr. XXIII.2. The Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya mentions two karaṇas संवृत and विवृत; confer, compare द्वे करणे संवृतविवृताख्ये वायोर्भवतः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 11; (4) use of a word exempli gratia, for example इतिकरणं, वत्करणम्; confer, compare किमुपस्थितं नाम । अनार्षं इतिकरणः M.Bh.on. P.VI.1.129.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
karviṇīA kind of svarabhakti. See करविणी.
kalāpa(कलाप-व्याकरण)alternative name given to the treatise on grammar written by Sarvavarman who is believed to have lived in the days of the Sātavāhana kings. The treatise is popularly known by the namc Kātantra Vyākaraṇa. The available treatise,viz. Kalpasūtras, is much similar to the Kātantra Sūtras having a few changes and additions only here and there.It is rather risky to say that Kalāpa was an ancient system of grammar which is referred to in the Pāṇini Sūtra कलापिनोण् P. IV.3.108. For details see कातन्त्र.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kāryātideśalooking upon the substitute as the very original for the sake of operations that are caused by the presence of the original;the word is used in contrast with रूपातिदेश where actually the original is restored in the place of the substitute on certain conditions. For details see Mahābhāṣya on द्विर्वचनेचि P. 1.1.59.
kāladuṣṭaa word not sanctioned by rules of grammar. The word probably refers to the corruption taking place in connection with the use of a word on account of lapse of time: confer, compare कालदुष्टा अपशब्दाः Durgh. Vr. on II.2.6.
kitkaraṇamarking with the mute letter क्, or looking upon as marked with mute क् for purposes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; ( see कित् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. ). The word is often used in the Mahābhāṣya; see M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, 5, 46; I.2.5, et cetera, and others
kiśarādi,kisarādia class of words headed by किसर meaning some kind of scent, which get the taddhita affix इक (ष्टन्) applied to them when the word so formed means 'a dealer of that thing;' exempli gratia, for example किशारिकः, किशारिकी cf; Kāś. on P. IV.4.53.
kurviṇīa kind of svarabhakti; see कर्विणी.
kyaṅaffix य taking Ātmanepada terminations after it, added in the sense of similar behaviour to a substantive. The substantive to which this affix य is added, becomes a denominative root; e. g. काकः श्येनायते, कुमुदं पुष्करायते, confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1.11-12, also on P. III, 1.14-18.
kvarapkṛt affix वर, taking the affix ई ( ङीप् ) in the feminine gender, added to the roots इ, नश्, जि et cetera, and others; इत्वरी, नश्वर:, जित्वरी, गत्वरी; confer, compare P.III. 2.163-164.
kvasukṛt affix वस्, taking the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) in the feminine gender, prescribed in the sense of perfect tense, which is mostly found in Vedic Literature and added to some roots only such as सद्, वस्, श्रु et cetera, and others in the spoken language; e. g. जक्षिवान् पपिवान् उपसेदिवान् कौत्स; पाणिनिम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.2.107-109.
kṣīrataraṅgiṇīa kind of commentary on the Dhātupāṭha of Pāṇini written by Kṣīrasvāmin.
garbhavatliterally just like a foetus. The word is used in connection with affixes that are placed like a foetus in the midst of a word in spite of the rule that affixes are to be placed after; confer, compare परश्च P. III. 1. 2. The affixes अकच् , टाप् et cetera, and others are of this kind; confer, compare गर्भवट्टाबादयो भवन्ति । यथा मध्ये गर्भस्तथा टाबादयः स्त्रीप्रत्ययाः प्रातिपदिकस्वाद्योर्मध्ये भवन्ति Sīradeva's ParibhāṣāvṛttiPar. Vṛ. Pari. 91.
cakrakaa kind of fault in the application of operations, resulting in confusion; a fault in which one returns to the same place not immediately as in Anavastha but after several steps; confer, compare पुनर्ऋच्छिभावः पुनराट् इति चक्रकमव्यवस्था प्राप्नोति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.60 Vart 5.
citkaraṇamarking with the mute letter च्, signifying the acute accent of the last vowel; confer, compare चापि चित्करणसामर्थ्यादन्तोदात्तत्वं भविष्यति: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.3 Vart, 16.
codaka(1)an objector; the word is common in the Commentary Literature where likely objections to a particular statement are raised, without specific reference to any individual objector, and replies are given, simply with a view to making matters clear; (2) repetition of a word with इति interposed: confer, compare चेदकः परिग्रहः इत्यनर्थान्तरम्. See अदृष्टवर्ण and परिग्रह.
cvitaddhita affix. affix ( of which nothing remains ) to signify the taking place of something which was not so before; after the word ending in च्वि the forms of the root कृ, भू or असू have to be placed; e. g. शुक्लीकरोति; confer, compare P. V. 4. 50
jaṭāa kind of Vedic recital wherein each word is repeated six times. जटा is called one of the 8 kinds ( अष्टविकृति) of the Kramapatha, which in its turn is based on the Padapatha; confer, compare जटा माला शिखा रेखा ध्वजो दण्डो रथो घनः। अष्टौ बिकृतय: प्रोक्ताः क्रमपूर्वा मनीषिभिः । जटा is defined as अनुलोमविलोमाभ्यां त्रिवारं हि पठेत् क्रमम् । विलोमे पदवत्संधिः अनुलोमे यथाक्रमम् । The recital of ओषधयः संवदन्ते संवदन्ते सोमेन can be illustrated as ओषधयः सं, समोषधयः, ओषधयः सं, सं वदन्ते, वदन्ते सं, सेवदन्ते, वदन्ते सोमेन,सोमेन वदन्ते , वदन्ते सोमेन ।
jayādityaone of the famous joint authors ( जयादित्य and वामन ) of the well-known gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini, popularly called काशिकावृत्ति. As the काशिकावृत्ति is mentioned by It-sing, who has also mentioned Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya, as a grammer treatise Written some 40 years before his visit, the time of काशिकावृत्ति is fixed as the middle of the 7th century A.D. Some scholars believe that जयादित्य was the same as जयापीड a king of Kasmira and बामन was his minister. For details, see pp. 386388 of the Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII published by the D.E. Society, Poona. See काशिका.
jahatsvārthā( वृत्ति )a composite expression where the constituent members give up their individual sense. In compound words such as राजपुरुष in the sentence राजपुरुषमानय the word राजन् gives up its sense in as much as he, the king,is not brought; पुरुष also gives up its sense as every man is not brought. It is of course to be noted that although the sense is given up by cach word, it is not completely given up: cf जहदप्यसेो स्वार्थ नात्यन्ताय जहाति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 2. For detailed explanation see Mahabhasya on P. II. I. I. Vart. 2.
jātigenus; class;universal;the notion of generality which is present in the several individual objects of the same kindeclinable The biggest or widest notion of the universal or genus is सत्ता which, according to the grammarians, exists in every object or substance, and hence, it is the denotation or denoted sense of every substantive or Pratipadika, although on many an occasion vyakti or an individual object is required for daily affairs and is actually referred to in ordinary talks. In the Mahabhasya a learned discussion is held regarding whether जाति is the denotation or व्यक्ति is the denotation. The word जाति is defined in the Mahabhasya as follows:आकृतिग्रहणा जातिर्लिङ्गानां च न सर्वभाक् । सकृदाख्यातनिर्गाह्या गोत्रं च चरणैः सह ॥ अपर आह । ग्रादुभीवविनाशाभ्यां सत्त्वस्य युगपद्गुणैः । असर्वलिङ्गां बह्वर्थो तां जातिं कवयो विदुः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV. 1.63. For details see Bhartphari's Vakyapadiya.
jukaugment ज् added to the root वा before the causal sign णिच् when the root means shaking;confer, compareवो विधूनने जुक् P. VII. 3.38.
jhita term, meaning 'having झ् as इत्' used by the Varttikakra in connection with those words in the rules of Panini which themselves as well as words referring to their special kinds, are liable to undergo the prescribed operation; confer, compare झित् तस्य च तद्विशेषाणां च मत्स्याद्यर्थम्। पक्षिमत्स्यमृगान् हन्ति। मात्त्प्यिक;। तद्विशेषाणाम्। शाफरिकः शाकुलिकः । M.Bh.on P.I. 1. 68 Vart. 8.
ñit(1)an afix marked with the mute letter ञ्; causing the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, but, causing vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is added in case the affix is a taddhita affix. affix: confer, compare P.VII.2, 115, 116, 117; (2) a root marked with the consonant ञ् , taking verb-endings of both the Parasmaipada and the Atmanepada kinds; exempli gratia, for example करोति, कुरुते, बिभर्ति, बिभृते, क्रीणाति, क्रीणीते elc.; confer, compare स्वरितञितः कत्राभिप्राये, क्रियाफले P.I.3.72.
ñyataddhita affix य signifying the substitution of vrddhi as also the acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition It is added (1) to words headed by प्रगदिन् in the four senses termed वंतुरर्थ exempli gratia, for exampleप्रागृद्यम्, शारद्यम् et cetera, and others;confer, compareP.IV. 2.80; (2).to the word गम्भीर and अव्ययीभाव compounds in the sense of present there', exempli gratia, for example गाम्भीर्यम् , पारिमुख्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.3.58, 59 (3) to the word विदूर exempli gratia, for example वैदुर्य; confer, compare P. IV.3.84;.(4) to the words headed by शण्डिक in the sense of 'domicile of', exempli gratia, for example शाण्डिक्यः ; confer, compare P. IV.3.92; (5) to the words छन्दोग, औक्थिक, नट et cetera, and others in the sense of duty (धर्म) or scripture (अाम्नाय) e. g. छान्दोग्यम् , औविथक्यम् नाट्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.129; (6) to the word गृहपति in the sense of ’associated with'; exempli gratia, for example गार्हपत्यः (अग्निः);confer, compareP.IV.4.90;(7) to the words ऋषभ and उपानह् ; confer, compare P. V.1.14; .(8) to the words अनन्त, आवसथ et cetera, and others,confer, compare P. V.4.23; (9) to the word अतिथि; confer, compare P.V.4.26; and (10) to the words in the sense of पूग(wandering tribes for earning money), as also to the words meaning व्रात (kinds of tribes) as also to words ending with the affix च्फञ् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.V.3. 112, 113.
ṭyutaddhita affix. affix अन to which the augment त्, is prefixed, making the affix तन, applicable to the words सायं, चिरं, प्राह्वे, प्रगे ,and indeclinable words in the Saisika or miscellaneous senses; e. g. सायंतन:, चिरंतनः दिवातनम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.23, 24.
ṭayultaddhita affix. affix added in the same way as टयु a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., making only a difference in the accent. When the affix टयुल् is added, the acute accent is given to the last vowel of the word preceding the affix.
ṭhaka very common taddhita affix. affix इक, or क in case it is added to words ending in इस् , उस् , उ, ऋ, ल् and त् according to P. VII. 3. 51, causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ठक् is added to (1) रेवती and other words in the sense of descendant ( अपत्य ) e. g. रैवतिकः:, दाण्डग्राहिकः, गार्गिकः, भागवित्तिकः यामुन्दायनिकः, confer, compare P. IV. 1.146-149; (2) to the words लाक्षा,रोचना et cetera, and others in the sense of 'dyed in', e. g. लाक्षिकम्, रौचनिकम् ; confer, compare P. IV. 2.2; (3) to the words दधि and उदश्वित् in the sense of संस्कृत 'made better ', e. g. दाधिकम् , औदश्वित्कम् ( क instead of इक substituted for टक् ), confer, compare P. IV.2. 18, 19; (4) to the words अाग्रहायुणी, अश्वत्थ et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 22, 23; (5) to words expressive of inanimate objects, to the words हस्ति and धेनु, as also to the words केश and अश्व in the sense of 'multitude '; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 47, 48; (6) to the words क्रतु, उक्थ and words ending in सूत्र, वसन्त et cetera, and others, in the sense of 'students of' ( तदधीते तद्वेद ), confer, compare P. IV. 2.59, 60, 63; (7) to the words कुमुद and others as also to शर्करा as a चातुरर्थिक affix; confer, compare P. IV. 2.80, 84; (8) to the words कन्था, भवत् and वर्षा in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P. IV. 2.102, 115, IV. 3.18; (9) to the words उपजानु and others in the sense 'generally present '; confer, compare P. IV. 3. 40; (10) to the words consisting of two syllables, and the words ऋक्, ब्राह्मण et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'explanatory literary work'; confer, compare P. IV.3.72: ( 11) to words meaning 'sources of income ' in the sense of 'accruing from’; confer, compare P. IV. 3.75; (12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place in the sense of ' भक्ति ', cf P. IV. 8.96; and (13) to the words हल् and सीर in the sense of 'belonging to', confer, compare P. IV. 3.124. The taddhita affix. affix ठक् is added as a general termination, excepting in such cases where other affixes are prescribed, in specified senses like 'तेन दीव्यति, ' 'तेन खनति,' 'तेन संस्कृतम्' et cetera, and others; cf P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to words हल, सीर, कथा, विकथा, वितण्डा et cetera, and others in specified senses, confer, compare P. IV.4. 81, 102 ठक् is also added as a general taddhita affix. affix or अधिकारविहितप्रत्यय, in various specified senses, as prescribed by P. V.1.19-63,and to the words उदर, अयःशूल,दण्ड, अजिन, अङ्गुली, मण्डल, et cetera, and others and to the word एकशाला, in the prescribed senses; confer, compare P. V. 2.67,76, V. 3.108,109; while, without making any change in sense it is added to अनुगादिन् , विनय, समय, उपाय ( औपयिक being the word formed), अकस्मात्, कथंचित्; (confer, compareआकस्मिक काथंचित्क), समूह,विशेष, अत्यय and others, and to the word वाक् in the sense of 'expressed'; confer, compare P. V. 4.13, 34, 35. The feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ) is added to words ending in the affix टक् to form feminine. bases.
ṇicaffix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् et cetera, and others e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; confer, compare P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising et cetera, and others ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; confer, compare P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, exempli gratia, for example सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, et cetera, and others: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: confer, compare णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे et cetera, and others; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
tadguṇasaṃvijñānaliterally connection with what is denoted by the constituent members; the word refers to a kind of Bahuvrihi compound where the object denoted by the compound includes also what is denoted by the constituent members of the compound; e g. the compound word सर्वादि in the rule सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि includes the word सर्व among the words विश्व, उभय and others, which alone form the अन्यपदार्थ or the external thing and not merely the external object as mentioned in Panini's rule अनेकमन्यमपदार्थे (P.II. 2. 24): confer, compare भवति बहुर्वीहौ तद्गुणसंविज्ञानमपि । तद्यथा । चित्रवाससमानय। लोहितोष्णीषा ऋत्विजः प्रचरन्ति । तद्गुण आनीयते तद्गुणाश्च प्रचरन्ति M.Bh. on I.1.27. For details confer, compare Mahabhasya on P.1.1.27 as also Par. Sek. Pari. 77.
tāthābhāvyaname given to the grave (अनुदात्त) vowel which is अवग्रह id est, that is which occurs at the end of the first member of a compound and which is placed between two acute vowels id est, that is is preceded by and followed by an acute vowel; exempli gratia, for example तनूSनप्त्रे, तनूSनपत्: confer, compare उदाद्यन्तो न्यवग्रहस्ताथाभाव्यः । V.Pr.I.120. The tathabhavya vowel is recited as a kampa ( कम्प ) ; confer, compare तथा चोक्तमौज्जिहायनकैर्माध्यन्दिनमतानुसारिभिः'अवग्रहो यदा नीच उच्चयॊर्मध्यतः क्वचित् । ताथाभाव्यो भवेत्कम्पस्तनूनप्त्रे निदर्शनम्'. Some Vedic scholars hold the view that the ताथाभाव्य vowel is not a grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel, but it is a kind of स्वरित or circumflex vowel. Strictly according to Panini "an anudatta following upon an udatta becomes Svarita": confer, compare P.VIII.4.66, V.Pr. IV. 1.138: cf also R.Pr.III. 16.
tīkṣṇautterance with a sharp tone characterizing the pronunciation of the Abhinihita kind of circumflex vowel as opposed to the utterance which is called मृदु when the circumflex, called पादवृत्त, is pronounced; confer, compare सर्वतीक्ष्णोऽभिनिहितः प्रश्लिष्टस्तदनन्तरम्, ततो मृदुतरौ स्वारौ जात्यक्षैप्रावुभौ स्मृतौ । ततो मृदुतरः स्वारस्तैरोव्यञ्जन उच्यते । पादवृत्तो मृदुतमस्त्वेतत्स्वारबलाबलम् Uvvata on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 125.
tṛctaddhita affix. affix तृ, taking the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ), (1) added to a root optionally with अक ( ण्वुल् ) in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity, the word so formed having the last vowel acute; exempli gratia, for example कर्ता कारक:; हर्ता हारकः; confer, compare P. III I.133; (2) prescribed in the sense of 'deserving one' optionally along with the pot. passive voice. participle. affixes; exempli gratia, for example भवान् खलु कन्यया वोढा, भवान् कन्यां वहेत्, भवता खलु कन्या वोढव्या, वाह्या, वहनीया वा; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.169
tairovirāmaa kind of स्वरित, or a vowel with a circumflex accent which follows an acute-accented vowel characterized by avagraha i. e. coming at the end of the first member of a compound; exempli gratia, for example गेापताविति गॊSपतौ यज्ञपतिमिति यज्ञSपतिं. Here the vowel अ of प following upon the avagraha is called तैरोविरामस्वरित; confer, compare उदवग्रहस्तैरोविराम: Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 118,
tairovyañjanaa kind of svarita or circumflex-accented vowel which follows an acute-accented vowel, with the intervention of a consonant between the acute accented vowel and the circumflex vowel which (vowel) originally was grave. e. g. इडे, रन्ते, हव्ये, काम्ये; here the vowel ए is तैरोव्यञ्जनस्वरित; confer, compare स्वरो व्यञ्जनयुतस्तैरोव्यञ्जनः, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 117.
dṛṣṭānuvidhitaking place of an operation, or application of a rule of grammar in accordance with the words seen in use. See दृष्ट.
droṇikāa kind of the position of the tongue at the time of pronouncing the letter ष्.
dvisandhia kind of विवृत्ति or interval of time in the pronunciation of two consecutive vowels, which as a result of two euphonic changes has a vowel preceded by a vowel and followed also by a vowel: e. g. अभूदुभा उ अंशवे, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 44.
dhātaddhita affix.affix (l) applied to a numeral in the sense of a kind ( प्रकार ) or a division of time, exempli gratia, for exampleएकधा, द्विधा, त्रिधा et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.V.3.42, 43; (2) applied to बहु to show divisions of a short time;exempli gratia, for example बहुधा दिवसस्य भुङ्क्क्ते and बहुधा मासस्य भुङ्क्ते;confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.4.20.
dhātuvṛttia general term applied to a treatise discussing roots, but specifically used in connection with the scholarly commentary written by Madhavacārya, the reputed scholar and politician at the court of the Vijayanagara kings in the fourteenth century, on the Dhatupatha ot Panini. The work is generally referred to as माधवीया-धातुवृति to distinguish it from ordinary commentary works called also धातुवृत्ति written by grammarians like Wijayananda and others.
dhātvartheliterally meaning of a root, the verbal activity, named क्रिया or भावः . confer, compare धात्वर्थः क्रिया; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2. 84, III.2.115. The verbal activity is described generally to be made up of a series of continuous subordinate activities carried on by the different karakas or agents and instruments of verbal activity helping the process of the main activity. When the process of the verbal activity is complete, the completed activity is looked upon as a substantive or dravya and a word denoting it, such as पाक,or याग does not get conjugational affixes, but it is regularly declined like a noun.Just as स्वार्थ, द्रब्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या, and कारक are given as प्रातिपदिकार्थ, in the same manner क्रिया, काल, पुरुष, वचन or संख्या, and कारक are given as धात्वर्थ, as they are shown by a verbal form, although strictly speaking verbal activity (क्रियorभाव) alone is the sense of a root, as stated in the Mahbhasya. For details see Vaiyak.Bh.Sara, where it is said that fruit ( फल) and effort ( ब्यापार ) are expressed by a root, confer, compare फलव्यापारयोर्धातुः. The five senses given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are in fact conveyed not by a root, but by a verb or अाख्यात or तिडन्त.
dhṛta or dhṛtapracayaa kind of original grave vowel turned into a circumflex one which is called प्रचय unless followed by another acute or circumflex vowel. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya has mentioned seven varieties of this 'pracaya' out of which धृतप्रचय or धृत is one. For details see Bhasya on धृतः प्रचयः कौण्डिन्यस्य, T.Pr.XVIII.3.
nāgeśathe most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundredition He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D. E. Society, Poona.
nigāraa kind of sound which apparently is made up of a combination of three phonetic elements ह्, म् and नासिक्य. It is a peculiar sound through both the mouth and the nose, although no specific place of production is assigned to it; cf अविशेषस्थानौ संस्वांदनिगारौ। हकारमकारनासिक्या वा निगारे R.T.11.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
nimittinan affix or an augment or a substitute taking place on account of certain formal causes or nimittas; confer, compare निर्ज्ञातार्थो निमित्तमनिर्ज्ञातार्थो निमित्ती, इह च प्रत्ययोऽनिर्ज्ञातः प्रकृत्युपपदोपाधयो निर्ज्ञाताः M. BSh. on III. l . l Vart. 2.
niyama(1)restriction; regulation; binding; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in connection with a restriction laid down with reference to the application of a grammatical rule generally on the strength of that rule, or a part of it, liable to become superfluous if the restriction has not been laid down; confer, compare M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on I. 3.63, VI. 4.11; confer, compare also the frequently quoted dictum अनियमे नियमकारिणी परिभाषा; (2) limitation as contrasted with विकल्प or कामचार; confer, compare अनेकप्राप्तावेकस्य नियमो भवति शेषेष्वनियम; पटुमृदुशुक्लाः पटुशुक्लमृदव इति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2. 34 Vart. 2; (3) a regulating rule; a restrictive rule, corresponding to the Parisamkhya statement of the Mimamsakas, e. g. the rule अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; the grammarians generally take a rule as a positive injunction avoiding a restrictive sense as far as possible; confer, compare the dictum विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान्. Par. Sek. Pari. 100; the commentators have given various kinds of restrictions,. such as प्रयोगनियम,अभिधेयनियम,अर्थनियम, प्रत्ययनियम, प्रकृतिनियम, संज्ञानियम et cetera, and otherset cetera, and others; (4) grave accent or anudatta; confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वं नियतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 9; see नियत (2).
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
nirvartyaone of the many kinds of karman or object governed by a transitive verb or root, which has got the nature of being produced or brought into existence or into a new shape; confer, compare त्रिविधं कर्म निर्वर्त्य विकार्य प्राप्यं चेति । निर्वर्त्य तावत् कुम्भकारः नगरकारः। The word निर्वर्त्य is explained as यदसज्जन्यते यद्वा प्रकाश्यते तन्निर्वर्त्यम् । कर्तव्यः कटः । उच्चार्यः शब्दः Sr. Prakasa; confer, compare also Vakyapadiya III.7.78; confer, compare also इह हि तण्डुलानोदनं पचतीति द्व्यर्थः पचिः । तण्डुलान्पचन्नोदनं निर्वर्तयति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.49. For details see the word कर्मन्; also see M.Bh. on I.4.49.
nyaṅkusāriṇīa kind of बृहती metre in which the second foot has twelve syllables, while the rest have eight syllables each; confer, compare द्वितीये न्यङ्कुसारिणी R.Pr.XVI.32.
p(1)first consonant of the labial class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, and कण्ठविवृतत्व; ( 2 ) प् applied as a mute letter to a suffix, making the suffix accented grave (अनुदात्त).
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padapāṭhathe recital of the Veda text pronouncing or showing each word separately as detached from the adjoining word. It is believed that the Veda texts were recited originally as running texts by the inspired sages, and as such, they were preserved by people by oral tradition. Later on after several centuries, their individually distinct words were shown by grammarians who were called Padakāras. The पदपाठ later on had many modifications or artificial recitations such as क्रम, जटा, घन et cetera, and others in which each word was repeated twice or more times, being uttered connectedly with the preceding or the following word, or with both. These artificial recitations were of eight kinds, which came to be known by the term अष्टविकृतयः.
parasmaibhāṣaliterally speaking the activity or क्रिया for another; a term of ancient grammarians for roots taking the first nine personal affixes only viz. ति, तः... मसू. The term परस्मैपदिन् was substituted for परस्मैभाष later on,more commonly. See परस्मैपद a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The term परस्मैभाष along with अात्मनेभाष is found almost invariably used in the Dhaatupaatha attributed to Paanini; confer, compare भू सत्तायाम् | उदात्त: परस्मैभाषः | एघादय उदात्त अनुदात्तेत अात्मनभाषा: Dhatupatha.
paripannaa kind of Samdhi or coalescence characterized by the change of the consonant म् into an anusvara, as by मोनुस्वारः P. VIII. 3.23, before a sibilant or before रेफ; confer, compare रेफोष्मणोरुदययोर्मकारः अनुस्वारं तत् परिपन्नमाहुः R.Pr.IV.5; confer, compare also सम्राट्शब्द: परिसंपन्नापवाद: R.Pr.IV.7.
parimāṇaa word used by Panini in तदस्य परिमाणम् V.1.19 and explained by Patanjali as सर्वतो मानम् .Samkhya ( number ) is also said to be a parimana. Parimana is of two kindsनियत or definite as in the case of Khaari, drona etc; and अनियत, as in the case of Gana, Samgha, PUga, Sartha, Sena et cetera, and others The term परिमाण, in connection with the utterance of letters, is used in the sense of मात्राकाल or one mora.
pākavatīa word used in the Siksa works for a kind of pause or hiatus.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
pāṇinīyaśikṣāṭīkāname of a commentary on the Śikşā of Pāņini by धरणीधर as ordered by king उत्पलसिंह.
pitkaraṇamarking an affix with the mute consonant प् for several grammatical purposes; see पित्; cfपित्करणानर्थक्यं चानच्कत्वात् P. III. I. 33 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).5. See पित्.
pūrvavipratiṣedhaconflict of two rules where the preceding rule supersedes the latter rule, as the arrival at the correct form requires it. Generally the dictum is that a subsequent rule should supersede the preceding one; cf विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; but sometimes the previous rule has to supersede the subsequent one in spite of the dictum विप्रतिषेधे परम्. The author of the Mahabhasya has brought these cases of the पूर्वविप्रतिषेध, which are, in fact, numerous, under the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् by taking the word पर in the sense of इष्ट 'what is desired '?; confer, compare इष्टवाची परशब्दः । विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवतीति l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.3; I.2, 5: I. 4.2: II.1.69, IV.1.85et cetera, and others confer, comparealso पूर्वविप्रतिषेधो नाम अयं र्विप्रतिषेधे परमित्यत्र परशब्दस्य इष्टवाचित्वाल्लब्धः सूत्रार्थः परिभाषारुपेण पाठ्यते Puru. Pari 108; for details see page 217 Vol. VII Mahabhasya D. E. Society's edition.
pūrvasthānikaa variety of antarangatva mentioned by Nagesa in the Paribhasendusekhara, where an operation, affecting a part of a word which precedes that portion of the word which is affected by the other operation, is looked upon as antaranga; e. g. the टिलोप in स्रजिष्ठ ( स्रग्विन् + इष्ठ ) is looked upon as अन्तरङ्ग with respect to the elision of विन् which is बहिरङ्ग. This kind of antarangatva is, of course, not admitted by Nagesa although mentioned by him; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 50,
prakṛti(1)material cause: confer, compare. तदर्थे विकृते: प्रकृतौ । प्रकृतिरुपादानकारणं तस्यैव उत्तरमवस्थान्तरं विकृतिः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.V.1.12; (2) original, as opposed to modified' ( विकृति ); the original base of a word which is used in language by the addition of affixes. There are mentioned three kinds of such original words in grammar, roots ( धातु ), noun bases ( प्रातिपदिक ) and affixes (प्रत्यय). प्रकृति is defined as शास्त्रप्रक्रियक्रियाव्यवहारे प्रकृतिप्रत्ययविभागकल्पनय शब्दार्थभावनायां प्रत्ययात् प्रथममुपादानकारणामिव या उपादीयते तां प्रकृतिरिति व्यापदिशन्ति' in the Sringaraprakasa; confer, compare अपशब्दो ह्यस्य प्रकृति: । न चापशब्द: प्रकृतिः , न ह्यपशब्दा उपदिश्यन्ते न चानुपदिष्टा प्रकृतिरस्ति । M.Bh. on Siva Sutra 2; confer, compare also कृत्प्रकृतिर्धातु: M.Bh. on P. VI. 2. 139 Vart. 2; पदप्रकृति: संहिता । पदप्रक्तीनि सर्वचरणानां पार्षदानि Nirukta of Yāska.I.17.
pratilomaliterally regressive; a kind of Sandhi or euphonic combination, in which the consonant precedes and the vowel comes after it; e. g. हव्यवाडग्निः; confer, compare प्रतिलोमसंधिषु व्यञ्जनानि पूर्वाणि स्वरा उत्तरे; Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 4.
pratividhānacounteraction; solving a difficulty by taking the necessary action; confer, compare अयमिदानीं स प्रतिविधानकालः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VII. 4.60 Vart. 4; confer, compare also तत्र प्रातविधानं द्विर्वचननिमित्ते अचीत्युच्यते, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 1.2; confer, compare also the usual expression प्रतिविधेयं दोषेषु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.39, I. 3.10, 4.1.l etc,
pratyayaaffix, suffix, a termination, as contrasted with प्रकृति the base; confer, compare प्रत्याय्यते अर्थः अनेन इति प्रत्ययः; confer, compare also अर्थे संप्रत्याययति स प्रत्ययः M.Bh. on III. 1.l Vart. 8; The word प्रत्यय is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'following' or 'that which follows', e. g. स्पर्शे चोषः प्रत्यये पूर्वपद्यः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 30 which is explained by Uvvata as उषः इत्ययं ( शब्दः ) पूर्वपदावयवः सन् स्पर्शे प्रत्यये परभूते इति यावत्; रेफिसंज्ञो भवति; Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.30; confer, compare प्रत्येति पश्चादागच्छति इति प्रत्ययः परः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 7; cf also V. Pr, III. 8. Pratyaya or the suffix is generally placed after the base; cf, प्रत्ययः, परश्च P. III. I. 1,2; but sometimes it is placed before the base; e. g. बहुपटुः confer, compare विभाषा सुपो बहुच् पुरस्तात्तु P. V. 3.68. The conjugational signs (शप् , श्यन् et cetera, and others), the signs of tenses and moods ( च्लि, सिच् , स्य, ताम् et cetera, and others) and the compound endings(समासान्त) are all called pratyayas according fo Panini's grammar, as they are all given in the jurisdiction(अधिकार) of the rule प्रत्ययः III.1.1, which extends upto the end of the fifth chapter ( अध्याय ). There are six main kinds of affixes given in grammar सुप्प्रत्यय, तिङ्प्रत्यय, कृत्प्रत्यय , तद्धितप्रत्यय, धातुप्रत्यय (exempli gratia, for example in the roots चिकीर्ष, कण्डूय et cetera, and others) and स्त्रीप्रत्यय. The word प्रत्यय is used in the sense of realization, in which case the root इ in the word त्यय means'knowing' according to the maxim सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्थाः; confer, compare मन्त्रार्थप्रत्ययाय Nirukta of Yāska.I.15.
pratyayānta( प्रकृति )a base ending in an affix, a secondary base as opposed to the original base, which is described to be of six kinds. सुप्प्रत्ययान्ता (प्रकृतिः) as in अहंयुः, सायंतनम् et cetera, and others; तिङ्प्रत्ययान्ता as in पचतितराम् , आस्तिकः, पचतभृज्जता et cetera, and others; कृत्प्रत्ययान्ता as in कृत्रिमम् सांराविणम् et cetera, and others; तद्धितप्रत्ययान्ता as in गार्ग्यायणः, तत्रत्यः et cetera, and others; धातुसंज्ञाप्रत्ययान्ता as in चिकीर्षा, कण्डूया et cetera, and others; स्त्रीप्रत्ययान्ता as in गङ्गेयः, गौरेयः, काद्रवेयः et cetera, and others
pratyādānaliterally taking again; uttering a word already utttered in the Krama and other recitations of the Vedas; confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिकम्य प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयो: । प्रत्यादाय पुनर्गृहीत्वा Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X-1.
pratyāhāraliterally bringing together; bringing together of several letters ( or words in a few cases, such as roots or nouns ) by mentioning the first and the last only for the sake of brevity; the term प्रत्याहार is generally used in connection with brief terms such as अण्, अक् , अच् , हल् and the like, created by Panini in his grammar by taking any particular letter and associating it with any mute final letter ( अनुबन्ध ) of the fourteen Sivasutras, with a view to include all letters beginning with the letter uttered and ending with the letter which precedes the ( mute ) letter. The practice of using such abbreviations was in existence before Panini, possibly in the grammar attributed to Indra. The term प्रत्याहार is not actually used by Panini; it is found in the Rk. Tantra; confer, compare प्रत्याहारार्थो वर्णोनुबन्धो व्यञ्जनम् R.T.I.3. The term appears to have come into use after Panini. Panini has not given any definition of the term प्रत्याहार. He has simply given the method of forming the Pratyaharas and he has profusely used them; confer, compare आदिरन्त्येन सहेता P. I. 1.71. The word कृञ् in P. III.1.40 and तृन् in P. II. 3.69 are used as Pratyaharas. For a list of the Pratyharas which are used by Panini see Kasika on the Maheswara Sutras.
prayatna(1)effort; the word is used in connection with the effort made for producing sound; confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.1.1.9 these efforts are described to be of two kinds बाह्य and आभ्यन्तर of which the latter are considered in determining the cognate nature of letters ( सावर्ण्य ); confer, compareअाभ्यन्तरप्रयत्नाः सवर्णसंज्ञायामाश्रीयन्ते;Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.9; (2) specific measure taken for a particular purpose such as marking a letter with a particular tone or accent or dividing a rule, or laying down a modificatory rule or the like; confer, compare सैवाननुवृत्तिः शब्देनाख्यायते प्रयत्नाधिक्येन पूर्वसूत्रेपि संबन्धार्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.22.
prayojanaobject, motive or purpose in undertaking a particular thing; the word is used although rarely, in the sense of a cause also; confer, compare इमान्यस्य प्रयोजनानि अध्येयं व्याकरणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1. For the advantages of the study of Vyakarana, see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1. See also Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII pp.226,227, D.E. Society's edition.
pravṛtti(l)application or presentation of a rule as opposed to निवृत्ति; cf क्वचित्प्रवृत्तिः क्वचिदप्रवृत्तिः कचिद्विभाषा क्वचिदन्येदेवः (2) working; function; confer, compare नान्तरेण साधन क्रियायाः प्रवृत्तिर्भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.3.7.
prasaṃghānaliterally linking up; joining; repeating a word in the Kramapatha and joining it with the following word: e. g. the second words ईळे पुरोहितम् et cetera, and others in अग्निं ईळे । ईळे पुरोहितम् । पुरोहितं यज्ञस्य ।
prasaṅgaapplicability; possibility of being applied; the word is used with respect to a grammatical rule or operation which is on the point of being applied or taking place; the word प्राति is also used in the same sense; confer, compare को हि शब्दस्य प्रसङ्गः यत्र गम्यते चार्थो न च प्रयुज्यते M.Bh.on P.I.1.60 confer, compare also द्वौ प्रसङ्गौ अन्यार्थां एकस्मिन् स विप्रतिषेधः,Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4. 2; also confer, compare प्रसङ्गे सति सदृशतम आदेशः स्यात् S.K. on स्थानेन्तरतमः P. I.1.50.
prātipadikaliterallyavailable in every word. The term प्रातिपादिक can be explained as प्रतिपदं गृह्णाति तत् प्रातिपदिकम् cf P.IV. 4. 39. The term प्रातिपदिक, although mentioned in the Brahmana works, is not found in the Pratisakhya works probably because those works were concerned with formed words which had been actually in use. The regular division of a word into the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix ( प्रत्यय ) is available, first in the grammar of Panini, who has given two kinds of bases, the noun-base and the verb-base. The noun-base is named Pratipadika by him while the verb-base is named Dhatu. The definition of Pratipadika is given by him as a word which is possessed of sense, but which is neither a root nor a suffix; confer, compare अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् . P.I. 2.45. Although his definition includes, the krdanta words,the taddhitanta words and the compound words, still, Panini has mentioned them separately in the rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I. 2.45 to distinguish them as secondary noun-bases as compared with the primary noun-bases which are mentioned in the rule अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्, Thus,Panini implies four kinds of Pratipadikas मूलभूत, कृदन्त, तद्धितान्त and समास, The Varttikakara appears to have given nine kinds-गुणवचन, सर्वनाम, अव्यय, तद्धितान्त, कृदन्त, समास, जाति, संख्या and संज्ञा. See Varttikas 39 to 44 on P. I. 4. 1. Later on, Bhojaraja in his SringaraPrakasa has quoted the definition अर्थवदधातु given by Panini, and has given six subdivisions.: confer, compare नामाव्ययानुकरणकृत्तद्धितसमासाः प्रातिपदिकानि Sr. Prak. I. page 6. For the sense conveyed by a Pratipadika or nounbase, see प्रातिपदिकार्थ.
prātipadikārthadenoted sense of a Pratipadika or a noun-base. Standard grammarians state that the denotation of a pratipadika is five-fold viz. स्वार्थ, द्रव्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या and कारक. The word स्वार्थ refers to the causal factor of denotation or प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त which is of four kinds जाति, गुण, क्रिया and संज्ञा as noticed respectively in the words गौः, शुक्लः, चलः and डित्ः. The word द्रव्य refers to the individual object which sometimes is directly denoted as in अश्वमानय, while on some occasions it is indirectly denoted through the genus or the general notion as in ब्राह्मणः पूज्य:, लिङ्ग the gender, संख्या the number and कारक the case-relation are the denotations of the case-terminations, but sometimes as they are conveyed in the absence of a case-affix as in the words पञ्च, दश, and others, they are stated as the denoted senses of the Pratipadika, while the case-affixes are said to indicate them; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युः शब्दादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya.
prāthamakalpikaof the first type or kind; primary, as opposed to secondary; confer, compare अयं खल्वपि बहुव्रीहिरस्त्येव प्राथमकल्पिकां यस्मिनैकपद्यमैकस्वर्यमेकविभक्तिकत्वं च, M.Bh. on P. I. I. 29, I. 1. 30; I. 2. 42; cf also अथवेह कौचित् प्राथमकल्पिकौ प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ कौचित् क्रियया वा गुणेन वा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P. II. 2. 29 Vart. 15.
bahiraṅgaa rule or operation which is बहिरङ्ग (literally external); the word बहिरङ्ग is used in grammar in connection with a rule or operation, the cause ( निमित्त )of which occurs later in place or time than the cause of the other which is called अन्तरङ्ग. For the various kinds of बहिरङ्गत्व see the word अन्तरङ्ग where the kinds of अन्तरङ्गत्व are given.
bahuvrīhia compound similar in meaning to the word बहुव्रीहि ( possessed of much rice ) which, in sense shows quite a distinct object than those which are shown by the constituent members of the compound; a relative or adjective compound. There are various kinds of the Bahuvrihi compound such as समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुव्रीहि, दिग्बहुव्रीहि, सहबहुव्रीहि, नञ्बहुव्रीहि, and अनेकपदबहुव्रीहि which depend upon the specific peculiarity noticed in the various cases. Panini in his grammar has not given any definition of बहुव्रीहि, but has stated that a compound other than those already given viz. अव्ययीभाव, द्वन्द्व and तत्पुरुष, is बहुव्रीहि and cited under Bahuvrihi all cases mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf शेषो बहुव्रीहिः II. 3.23-28; also confer, compare अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.6; II. 1.20; II. 1.49.
bahvapekṣaliterally depending on many; the word is used in the sense of depending on many causal factors ( निमित्तानि ) and given as the definition of a kind of बहिरङ्ग by some grammarians; confer, compare अल्पापेक्षमन्तरङ्गं बह्वपेक्षं बहिरङ्गम् . This kind of अन्तरङ्गबहिरङ्गत्व, cited by Kaiyata is, however, disapproved by Nagesabhatta; confer, compare बहुिरङ्गान्तरङ्गाशब्दाभ्यां बह्वपेक्षत्वाल्पापेक्षत्वयोः शब्दमर्यादया अलाभाच्च । तथा सति असिद्धं बह्वपेक्षमल्पापेक्षे इत्येव वदेत् । Par. Sek. on Pari. 50.
bāhya(प्रयत्न)external effort; the term is used many times in connection with the external effort in the production of articulate sound, as different from the internal effort अाभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न. The external effort is described to be consisting of 11 kinds; confer, compare बाह्यप्रयत्नस्त्वेकादशधा । विवारः संवारः श्वासो नादो घोषोSघोषोSल्पप्राणो महाप्राण उदात्तोनुदात्तः स्वरितश्चेति S.K.on P. I.1.9.
bhakṣyaniyamarestriction regarding edibles of a particular kindeclinable The word is quoted to illustrate the नियमविधि or restrictive rule in grammar. Although the restriction in the instance पञ्च पञ्चनखा भक्ष्याः is of the kind of परिसंख्या and called परिसंख्या, and not नियम, by the Mimamsakas, the grammarians call it a niyamavidhi. There is no परिसंख्याविधि according to grammarians; they cite only two kinds of vidhi viz. simple vidhi or apurva vidhi and niyamavidhi.
bhaṭṭojīsurnamed Diksita; a stalwart grammarian of the Panini system who flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century and wrote many independent books and commentaries such as the Siddhantakaumudi, the Praudhamanorama, the Vaiyakaranasiddhantakarika, the Sabdakaustubha and others. The most reputed work out of these, however, is the Siddhantakaumudi which is very popular even today and which has almost set aside other works of its kind such as the Prakriyakaumudi and others. Bhattoji was a Telagu Brahmana, as generally believed, and although he belonged to the South, he made Varanasi his home where he prepared a school of learned Grammarians. Although he carried on his work silently in Varanasi, he was envied by the reputed rhetorician of his time Pandita Jagannātha, who criticised his work ( Bhattojis work ) named Manorama very severely. See प्रौढमनोरमा a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got many commentaries of which the Tattvabodhini written by Bhattoji's pupil Jnanendrasarasvati is appreciated much by learned grammarians.
bhartṛharia very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. confer, compare शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'.
bhāvabhedthe different activities such as igniting a hearth, placing a rice-pot on it, pouring water in it et cetera, and others, which form the different parts of the main activity viz. cooking; confer, compare उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3.19, III. 4.67.
bhāvavikārakinds of verbal activity which are described to be six in number viz. production, existence, transformation, growth, decay and destruction. These six modes of existence first mentioned by Vāŗșyayani and quoted by Yāska are explained philosophically by Bhartŗhari as a mere appearance of the Śabdabrahman or Sattā when one of its own powers, the time factor ( कालशक्ति ) is superimposed upon it, and as a result of that superimposition, it (id est, that is the Śabdabrahman) appears as a process; confer, compare षड् भावाविकारा भवन्ति इति वार्ष्यायणि: | जायते अस्ति विपरिणमते वर्धते अपक्षीयते विनश्यति इति । Nir.I.2; confer, compare also Vākyapadiya III.30.
bhāṣāvṛttia short gloss on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini in the l2th century by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva, a reputed scholar belonging to the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bengal and Behar in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, The gloss is very useful for beginners and it has given a clear explanation of the different sūtras without going into difficult niceties and discussions. The treatise does not comment upon Vedic portions or rules referring to Vedic Language because, as the legend goes, king Lakṣmaṇa Sena, for whom the gloss was written, was not qualified to understand Vedic Language; confer, compare वैदिकभाषानर्हत्वात् Com. on Bhāṣāvṛtti by Sṛṣṭidhara. There is a popular evaluation of the Bhāṣāvṛtti given by the author himself in the stanza "काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत्सिद्धान्तं बोद्धुमस्ति धीः ! तदा विचिन्त्यतां भ्रातर्भाषावृत्तिरियं मम " at the end of his treatise; for details see पुरुषोत्तमदेव.
bhāṣyaa learned commentary on an original work, of recognised merit and scholarship, for which people have got a sense of sanctity in their mind; generally every Sūtra work of a branch of technical learning (or Śāstra) in Sanskrit has got a Bhāṣya written on it by a scholar of recognised merit. Out of the various Bhāṣya works of the kind given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., the Bhāṣya on the Vyākaraṇa sūtras of Pāṇini is called the Mahābhāṣya, on the nature of which possibly the following definition is based "सूत्रार्थो वर्ण्यते यत्र पदैः सूत्रानुकारिभिः| स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः ।" In books on Sanskrit Grammar the word भाष्य is used always for the Mahābhāṣya. The word भाष्य is sometimes used in the Mahābhāṣya of Patanjali (confer, compare उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये III.3.19, IV.4.67) where the word may refer to a work like लघुभाष्य which Patañjali may have written, or may have got available to him as written by somebody else, before he wrote the Mahābhāṣya.
bhedaka(1)literallydistinguishing; differentiating; cf भेदकत्वात्स्वरस्य | भेदका उदात्तादय: | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 13; (2) adjective; confer, compare भेदकं विशेषणं भेद्यं विशेष्यम् Kāś. on P. II: 1.57; (3) variety; kind; confer, compare सामान्यस्य विशेषो भेदकः प्रकार: Kāś. on P.V. 3.23; (4) indicating, suggesting, as contrasted with वाचक; confer, compare संबन्धस्य तु भेदक: Vākyapadīya.
bhojathe well-known king of Dhārā who was very famous for his charities and love of learning. He flourished in the eleventh century A.D. He is said to have got written or himself written several treatises on various śāstras. The work Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa which is based on the Astādhyāyi of Pāṇini, but which has included in it the Vārttikas and Paribhāṣās also, has become in a way a Vyākaraṇa or a general work in grammar and can be styled as Bhoja-Vyākaraṇa.
matuptaddhita affix. affix मत् changed in some cases to वत् (cf मादुपधायाश्च मतोर्वोऽयवादिभ्यः P. VIII. 2.9), applied to any noun or substantive in the sense of 'who possesses that,' or 'which contains it,' or in the sense of possession as popularly expressedition The affix is called possessive affix also, and is very commonly found in use; e. g. गोमान्, वृक्षवान् , यवमान् , et cetera, and others confer, compare तदस्यास्त्यस्मिन्निति मतुप् P. V. 2.94. The very general sense of 'possession' is limited to certain kinds of possession by the Vārttikakāra in the following stanza; भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेतिशायने | संसर्गेऽस्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: confer, compare Kāś. on P. V. 2.94. There are other taddhita affix. affixes prescribed in the same sense as मतुप्, such as the affixes लच् (V. 2.96-98), इलच् (99, 100, 105, 117), श and न (100), ण (101), विनि (102, 121, 122), इनि (102, 115, 116, 128, 129-137), अण् (103, 104), उरच् (106), र (107), म (108), व ( 109, 110), ईरन् and ईरच् (111), वलच् (112, 113), ठन् (115, 116), ठञ् (118, 119), यप् (120), युस् (123, 138, 140), ग्मिनि (124), आलच् and आटच् (125), अच् (127), and ब, भ, यु, ति, तु, त and यस् each one applied to specifically stated words. मतुप् is also specially prescribed after the words headed by रस (confer, compare रसादिभ्यश्च P. V. 2.95) in supersession of some of the other affixes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. which would take place in such cases, if मतुप् were not prescribed by the rule रसादिभ्यश्च. The portion of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. prescribing the possessive affixes is named मतुबधिकार (P. V. 2.92 to 140).
mahābhāṣyapradīpavivaraṇa(1)original name of the learned commentary on the 'Pradipa' of Kaiyata written by Nagesabhatta, a stalwart and epoch-making grammarian of the 18th century. The commentary is known popularly by the name 'Uddyota' or Pradipoddyota; (2) name of the commentary on Kaiyata's Pradipa by Nityaananda Parvatiya. The commentary is also known by the name दीपप्रभा.
mahābhāṣyavyākhyāname given to each of the explanatory glosses on the Mahabhasya written by grammarians prominent of whom were Purusottamadeva, Narayana Sesa, Visnu, Nilakantha and others whose fragmentary works exist in a manuscript form. महामिश्र name of a grammarian who wrote a commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Nyasa. The commentary is known by the name Vyakaranaprakasa. महाविभाषा a rule laying down an option for several rules in a topic by being present in every rule: confer, compare महाविभाषया वाक्यमपि. विभाषा (P.II.1.11) and समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा (P. IV.1.82) are some of the rules of this kindeclinable
mādhavathe well-known epoch-making scholar of the 14th century who has written a number of treatises in various Saastras. His धातुवृम्त्ति is a well-known work in grammar
mālāa variety of the utterance of the Veda-Samhita ( वेदपाठ): a kind of Krama-Patha, one of the eight artificial recitations.
miśraroots taking personal endings of both the Padas; Ubhayapadin roots: this term मिश्र is given in Bopadeva's grammar.
makḍonel[MACDONELL,ARTHUR ANTHONY ]a deep scholar of Vedic Gram. and Literature who has written an exhaustive Vedic Grammar; in treatment, at places he differs from Panini and follows a different method, but the manner of thinking and argument is on original lines.
yatna(1)effort in the utterance of a letter: the word which is generally used for such an effort is प्रयत्न. This effort is described to be oftwo kinds अाभ्यन्तर internal id est, that is below the root of the tongue and बाह्य a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the root of the tongue id est, that is inside the mouth; confer, compare यत्नं द्विधा | अाभ्यन्तरो बाह्यश्च | S. K. on P. I. 1.9; (2) specific effort, by adding a word to a rule for drawing some inference, with a view to removing some technical difficulty: cf तेन पये धावतीत्यादौ यत्नान्तरमास्थेयम् Kaas. on P. VIII. 2. 25. The phrase कर्तव्योत्र यत्न: often occurs in the Mahaabhaasya.
yaugikabased on derivation; etymological; one of the kinds of words रूढ, यौगिक, योगरूढ and यौगिकरूढ; confer, compare सैन्धवशब्दो लवणे उभयलिङ्ग:। यौगिकस्याभिधेयवल्लिङ्गम् l Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.4.31.
rathaname of one of the eight kinds of recitals of the Veda Samhita by dividing it into the component words ( पद ) and reciting the component words by repeating them, in their regular order and reverse order too.
rāmasiṃhṛvarmāpossibly the same king of Sringaberapura who patronised Nagesabhatta. He is said to have written some Small comments on " the Ramayana and a small grammar work named धातुरत्नमञ्जरी.
rūḍhiconvention; usage; custom. The word रूढि is given along with योग ( derivation ) as the basis of the use of words which are described to be of four kinds; see रूढ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. confer, compare नैगमरूढिभवं हि सुसाधु P. III 3. 1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1.
rūpaptaddhita affix. affix in the sense of 'praise' which is, in fact, possessed by the word to which the affix रूपप् is added, without making any change in the sense of the word, the affix being called 'स्वार्थे' i. e. an affix in the sense of the base or प्रकृति confer, compareस्वार्थिकाः प्रत्ययाः प्रकृत्यर्थविशेषस्य द्योतका भवन्ति | प्रशस्तो वैयाकरणो वैयाकरणरूपः | याज्ञिकरूप: । प्रकृत्यर्थस्य वैशिष्ट्ये प्रशंसा भवति | वृषलरूपोयं य: पलाण्डुना सुरां पिबति | चोररूप: | Kāś. on P. V. 3.66.
rūpātideśathe actual replacement of the original in the place of the substitute by virtue of the rule स्थानिवदादेशोनल्विधौ P. I. 1. 56; one of the two kinds of स्थानिवद्भाव wherein the word-form of the original ( स्थानी ) is put in the place of the substitute (आदेश); the other kind of स्थानिवद्भाव being called कार्यातिदेश by means of which grammatical operations caused by the original ( स्थानी ) take place although the substitute (आदेश) has been actually put in the place of the original. About the interpretation of the rule द्विर्वचनेचि P. I.1.59, the grammarians accept the view of रूपातिदेश; confer, compare रूपातिदेशश्चायं नियतकालस्तेन कृते द्विर्वचने पुन: आदेशरूपमेवावतिष्ठते | पपतुः पपुः | अातो लोप इटि च इत्याकारलोपे कृते तस्य स्थानिवद्भावात् एकाचो द्बे० इति द्विर्वचनं भवति Kāś on P.I.1.59; confer, compare also रूपातिदेशश्चायम् | द्विर्वचनेचि इत्यत्रास्य भाष्ये पाठात् | Pari. Bhaskara Pari. 97. For details see Mahābhāșya on P.VII.1.95 96.
liṅgānuśāsanaṭīkāname of a commentary on Pāņini's लिङ्गानुशासन; some commentaries of this kind are the लिङ्गार्थचन्द्रिका by सुजनपण्डित,लिङ्गार्थचन्द्रिकाप्रकाश by चकोर, लिङ्गानुशासनटीका by दुर्गोत्तम and लिङ्गानुशासनटीका by तारानाथ.
luptathat which has been elided or dropped during the process of the formation of words. As elision or लोप is looked upon as a kind of substitutē, in short a zerosubstitutē, the convention of the substitute being looked upon as the original one, viz.the sthānivadbhāva, applies to it.
lokaa term used in the Mahābhāșya in contrast with the term वेद, signifying common people speaking the language correctly; the term लोक is also used in contrast with the term शास्त्र or its technique; confer, compare यथा लोके or लोकतः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.VII. 1. 9, I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; also confer, compare न यथा लोके तथा व्याकरणे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7.
vaktavyathat which ought to be stated or prescribed; the word is frequently found used by the Varttikakāra when he suggests any addition to, or modification in Panini's rules. Sometimes,the word is added by the author of the Mahabhasya in the explanation of a Varttika after stating what is lacking in the Varttika.
vākyārthathe meaning of a sentence, which comes as a whole composite idea when all the constituent words of it are heard: confer, compare पदानां सामान्ये वर्तमानानां यद्विशेषेSवस्थानं स वाक्यार्थ:, M.Bh. on P.I.2.45 Vart. 4. According to later grammarians the import or meaning of a sentence ( वाक्यार्थ ) flashes out suddenly in the mind of the hearer immediately after the sentence is completely uttered, The import is named प्रतिभा by Bhartrhari, confer, compare Vakyapadiya II.45; confer, compare also वाक्यार्थश्च प्रतिभामात्रविषय: Laghumanjusa. For details and the six kinds of vakyartha, see Vakyapadiya II.154.
vājapyāyanaan ancient grammarian who holds the view that words denote always the jati i.e they always convey the generic sense and that the individual object or the case is understood in connection with the statement or the word,as a natural course,when the purpose is not served by taking the generic sense; confer, compare अाकृत्यभिधानाद्वा एकं शब्दं विभक्तौ वाजप्यायन अाचार्यो न्याय्यं मन्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.2.64 Vart. 35.
vājasaneyeiprātiśākhyathe Pratisakhya work belonging to the Vajasaneyi branch of the White Yajurveda, which is the only Pratisakhya existing to-day representing all the branches of the Sukla Yajurveda. Its authorship is attributed to Katyayana, and on account of its striking resemblance with Panini's sutras at various places, its author Katyayana is likely to be the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. It is quite reasonable to expect that the subject matter in this Pratisakhya is based on that in the ancient Prtisakhya works of the same White school of the Yajurveda.The work has a lucid commentary called Bhasya written by Uvvata.
vāṇīspeech; utterance; the same as वाच् which is believed to be of four kinds as cited by the grammarians and explained by Bhartrhari; the four kinds are based upon the four places of origin, the three first places belonging to the inarticulate speech and the fourth belonging to the articulate one: cfचत्वारि वाक्परिमिता पदानि तानि विदुर्ब्राह्मण य मनीषिणः | गुहा त्रीणि निहिता नेङ्गयन्तिं तुरीयं वाचेी मनुष्या वदन्ति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I Ahnika l and the Pradipa and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon.
vāyuair or प्राण, which is believed to spring up from the root of the navel and become a cause (even a material cause according to some scholars) of sound of four kinds produced at four different places, the last kind being audible to us; confer, compare प्राणे वाणिनभिव्यज्य वर्णेष्वेवोपलीयते Vakyapadiya I.116;confer, compare also R.Pr.XIII. 13, V.Pr. I.7-9; T.Pr.II.2: Siksa of Panini st. 6.
vārtikapāṭhathe text of the Varttikas as traditionally handed over in the oral recital or in manuscripts As observed a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.(see वार्त्तिक),although a large number of Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya are ascribed to Katyayana, the genuine Varttikapatha giving such Varttikas only, as were definitely composed by him, has not been preserved and Nagesa has actually gone to the length of making a statement like " वार्तिकपाठ: भ्रष्टः" ; confer, compare . Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on P.I.l.I2 Varttika 6.
vikampitaa fault in the pronunciation of vowels, the utterance being attended with a kind of tremor; confer, compare ग्रस्तं निरस्त...विकम्पितम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). at the end of Ahnika 1.
vikaraṇaan affix placed between a root and the personal ending, for showing the specific tense or mood or voice to convey which, the personal ending is applied; e. g. the conjugational signs शप् , श्यन् , श्रु, श, श्नम्, उ, श्ना and यक्, आम् , as also स्य, तास् , सिप् , अाम् and च्लि with its substitutes. Although the term विकरण is used by ancient grammarians and freely used by the Mahabhsyakara in connection with the affixes, mentioned in the sutras of Panini, such as शप् , श्यन् and others, the term is not found in the Sutras of Panini. The vikaranas are different from the major kinds of the regular affixes तिङ्, कृत्य and other similar ones. The vikaranas can be called कृत्; so also, as they are mentioned in the topic (अधिकार) of affixes or Pratyayas,they hold the designation ' pratyaya '. For the use of the word विकरण see M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12, III, 1.31 and VI. 1.5. The term विकरण is found . in the Yājñavalkya Siksa in the sense of change, ( confer, compare उपधारञ्जनं कुर्यान्मनोर्विकरणे सति ) and possibly the ancient grammarians used it in that very sense as they found the root कृ modified as करु or कुरु, or चि as चिनु, or भू as भव before the regular personal endings तिप् , तस् et cetera, and others
vigrahalit, separation of the two parts of a thing; the term is generally applied to the separation of the constituent words of a compound word: it is described to be of two kinds : ( a ) शास्त्रीयविग्रहृ or technical separation; e. g. राजपुरुष्: into राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु and ( 2 ) लौकिकविग्रहं or common or popular separation ; e. g. राजपुरूष: into राज्ञ: पुरुष:. It is also divided into two kinds according to the nature of the constituent words (a) स्वपदाविग्रह separation by means of the constituent words, exempli gratia, for example राजहितम् into राज्ञे हृितम्;(b) अस्वपदविग्रह, e. g. राजार्थम् into राज्ञे इदम् ;or exempli gratia, for example सुमुखीं into शोभनं मुखं अस्याः confer, compare M.Bh. on P.V.4.7. The compounds whose separation into constituent words cannot be shown by those words (viz. the constituent words) are popularly termed nityasamsa. The term नित्यसमास is explained as नित्यः समासो नित्यसमासः | यस्य विग्रहो नास्ति । M.Bh. on P.II.2.19 Vart. 4. The upapadasamsa is described as नित्यसमास. Sometimes especially in some Dvandva compounds each of the two separated words is capable of giving individually the senses of both the words exempli gratia, for example the words द्यावा and क्षामा of the compound द्यावाक्षामा. The word विग्रह is found used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the separate use of a word as contrasted with the use in a compound; cf अच्छेति विग्रहे प्लुतं भवति R.Pr.VII.1. विग्रहृ is defined as वृत्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः in the Siddhantakaumudi.
vicitraof various or wonderful kinds beyond our ken or comprehension confer, compare विचित्रास्तद्धितवृत्तय: M.Bh. on P.II. 4.32 Vart. 7; VI. 1. 99 Vart. 2.
viccheda(1)breach or break (in the Samhitapatha); utterance of words separately by breaking their coalescence: confer, compare पदविच्छेद: असंहितः V. Pr.I.156; (2) doubling of a consonant technically called यम ; confer, compare अन्त:पदे अपञ्चमः पञ्चमेषु विच्छेदम् V.Pr. IV.163.
vidhibalīyastvathe superior strength of an injunctive rule; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in speaking about the relative strength of rules; cf the term लेापाविधिबलीयस्त्व. M.Bh. on P.VII.2.3.
vibhāga(1)lit, division, splitting; the splitting of a sentence into its constituent parts viz. the words; , the splitting of a word into its constituent parts viz. the base, the affix, the augments and the like: (2) understanding or taking a thing separately from a group of two or more; confer, compareअवश्यं खल्वपि विभज्योपपदग्रहणं कर्तव्यं यो हि बहूनां विभागस्तदर्थम् ! सांकाश्यकेभ्यश्च पाटलिपुत्रकेभ्यश्च माथुरा अभिरूपतराः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.V.3.57: (3) splitting of a Saṁhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada text: confer, compare अथादावुत्तरे विभागे ह्रस्वं व्यञ्जनपरः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.III.l, where विभाग is explained as पदविभाग by the commentator confer, compare also R.Pr.XVII.15; (4) the capacity of the Kārakas (to show the sense) confer, compare कारकशक्तिः विभागः Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on Kāś.I.2.44.
vibhāṣāoptionally, alternatively; the word is explained by Pāṇini as नवा in the rule न वेति विभाषा (P.I.1.44)in consonance with its derivation from the root भाष् with वि; confer, compare नेति प्रतिषेधे वेति विकल्पस्तयोः प्रतिषेधविकल्पयोर्विभाषेत्ति संज्ञा भवति । विभाषाप्रदेशेषु प्रतिषेधविकल्पावुपतिष्ठते | तत्र प्रतिषेधेन समीकृते विषये प्रश्चाद्विकल्पः प्रवर्तते. The option (विभाषा) is further divided into three kind प्राप्ते विभाषा, अप्राप्ते विभाषा and उभयत्र विभाषा. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P. I.1.44.
vibhāṣita(1)stated or enjoined optionally; cf मेध्यः पशुर्विभाषितः । आलब्धव्यो नालब्धव्य इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 15; cf also मन्ये धातुर्विभाषितः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.III.1.27 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4: (2) roots taking personal affixes of both the Padas.
virāmaan ancient term used in the Prātiśākhya works for a stop or : pause in general at the end of a word, or at the end of the first member of a compound, which is shown split up in the Padapāṭha, or inside a word, or at the end of a word, or at the end of a vowel when it is followed by another vowel. The duration of this virāma is different in different circumstances; but sometimes under the same circumstances, it is described differently in the different Prātiśākhyas. Generally,there is no pause between two consonants as also between a vowel and a consonant preceding or following it.The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya has given four kinds of विराम (a) ऋग्विराम,pause at the end of a foot or a verse of duration equal to three mātrās or moras, (b) पदविराम pause between two words of duration equal to two matras; e. g. इषे त्वा ऊर्जे त्वा, (c) pause between two words the preceding one of which ends in a vowel and the following begins with a vowel, the vowels being not euphonically combined; this pause has a duration of one matra e,g. स इधान:, त एनम् , (d) pause between two vowels inside a word which is a rare occurrence; this has a duration of half a mātrā;e.gप्रउगम्, तितउः; confer, compare ऋग्विरामः पदविरामो विवृत्तिविरामः समानपदविवृत्तिविरामस्त्रिमात्रो द्विमात्र एकमात्रोर्धमात्र इत्यानुपूर्व्येण Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 13. The word विवृत्ति is explained as स्वरयोरसंधिः. The vivṛttivirāma is further divided into वत्सानुसति which has the preceding vowel short and the succeeding long, वत्सानुसारिणी which has the preceding vowel a long one and the succeeding vowel a short one, पाकवती which has both the vowels short, and पिपीलिका which has got both , the vowels long. This fourfold division is given in the Śikṣā where their duration is given as one mātrā, one mātrā, three-fourths of a mātrā and one-fourth of a mātrā respectively. The duration between the two words of a compound word when split up in the पदपाठ is also equal to one mātrā; confer, compare R.Pr.I.16. The word विराम occurs in Pāṇini's rule विरामोs वसानम् P.I. 4.110 where commentators have explained it as absence; confer, compare वर्णानामभावोवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् S.K.on P. I.4.110: confer, compare also विरतिर्विरामः । विरम्यते अनेन इति वा विरामः Kāś. on P.I.4.110. According to Kāśikā even in the Saṁhitā text, there is a duration of half a mātrā between the various phonetic elements, even between two consonants or between a vowel and a consonant, which, however, is quite imperceptible; confer, compare परो यः संनिकर्षो वर्णानां अर्धमात्राकालव्यवधानं स संहितासंज्ञो भवति Kāś. on P. I.4.109 confer, compare also विरामे मात्रा R.T.35; confer, compare also R.Pr.I.16 and 17. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P.I.4.109 and I.4.110.
vilambitaa kind of tone where the interval between the utterance of two letters as also the time required for the utterance of a letter is comparatively longer than in the other two kinds, viz. द्रुत and मध्य; confer, compare ये हि द्रुतायां वृत्तौ वर्णाः त्रिभागाधिकास्ते मध्यमायाम्,ये मध्यमायां वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते विलम्बितायाम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.70: confer, compare also द्रुतविलम्बितयोश्चानुपदेशात् P. I.1.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 11.
vilambitā vṛttiretarding or slow manner of speech in which the letters are uttered quite distinctly; this kind of speech is followed by the preceptor while teaching Veda to his pupils; confer, compare अभ्यासार्थे द्रुतां वृत्ति प्रयोगार्थे तु मध्यमाम् । शिष्याणामुपदेशार्थे कुर्याद् वृत्तिं विलम्बिताम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 19. confer, compare also Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 24. See विलम्बित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
vṛttipakṣathe alternative method of speaking by the use of compound words as contrasted with simple words; both the methods are observed in use among the people: cf इह द्वौ पक्षौ वृत्तिपक्षश्चावृत्तिपक्षश्च। स्वभावतश्चैतद् भवति वाक्यं च समासश्च । M.Bh.on P.II.1.l,II.1.51, III.1.7,IV.1. 82.
vyavadhāyakacausing an intervention; intervener which is required to be of a different kind; cf अतज्जातीयकं व्यवधायकं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.7. Wart 8.
vyāptinyāyathe general method of taking a comprehensive sense instead of a restricted one in places of doubt; confer, compare व्याप्तिन्यायाद्वा Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 2. 168.
vyāpyaliterally that which is occupied; the word refers to a kind of an object where the object is occupied by the verbal activity of the transitive root; the word अाप्य is also used in this sense: confer, compare कर्म निर्वर्त्ये विकार्यं प्राप्यं च ग्रस्य प्रकृत्युच्छेदो गुणान्तरं वोत्पद्यते तद्विकार्यम् SrinagaraPrakasa 2, The term is used as a technical term instead of the term कर्म in the Hemacandra, Candra and other systems of grammar: confer, compare Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II.2.3;Candra I.1.23.
śakandhvādiname of a class of words in which an irregular coalescence of the vowels of the kind of the latter vowel in the place of the former and latter both is observed; exempli gratia, for example शकन्धु:, कुलटा, सीमन्त:,मनीषा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare कन्ध्वादिषु च (पररूपं वाच्यम् ) P.VI.1. 94 Vart. 4.
śaktipotentiality of expressing the sense which is possessed by words permanently with them: denotative potentiality or denotation; this potentiality shows the senses,which are permanently possessed by the words, to the hearer and is described to be of one kind by ancient grammarian as contrasted with the two (अभिघा and लक्षणा) mentioned by the modern ones. It is described to be of two kinds-(a) स्मारिका शक्ति or recalling capacity which combines चैत्रत्व with पाक, and अनुभाविका शक्ति which is responsible for the actual meaning of a sentence. For details see Vakyapadiya III.
śabdaliterally "sound" in general; confer, compare शब्दं कुरु शब्दं मा कार्षीः | ध्वनिं कुर्वनेवमुच्यते | M.Bh. in Ahnika I; confer, compare also शब्दः प्रकृतिः सर्ववर्णानाम् | वर्णपृक्तः: शब्दो वाच उत्पत्तिः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII.1, XXIII.3.In grammar the word शब्द is applied to such words only as possess sense; confer, compare प्रतीतपदार्थको लोके ध्वनि: शब्द: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika 1: confer, comparealso येनोच्चरितेन अर्थः प्रतीयते स शब्दः Sringara Prakasa I; confer, compare also अथ शब्दानुशासनम् M.Bh. Ahnika 1. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya, शब्द् is said to be constituted of air as far as its nature is concerned, but it is taken to mean in the Pratisakhya and grammar works in a restricted sense as letters possessed of sense, The vajasaneyiPratisakhya gives four kinds of words तिडू, कृत्, तद्धित and समास while नाम, आख्यात, निपात and उपसर्ग are described to be the four kinds in the Nirukta. As शब्द in grammar, is restricted to a phonetic unit possessed of sense, it can be applied to crude bases, affixes, as also to words that are completely formed with case-endings or personal affixes. In fact, taking it to be applicable to all such kinds, some grammarians have given tweive subdivisions of शब्द, vizप्रक्रुति, प्रत्यय,उपत्कार, उपपद, प्रातिपदिक, विभक्ति, उपसर्जन, समास, पद, वाक्य, प्रकरण and प्रबन्ध; confer, compare Sringara Prakasa I.
śabdaśāstrathe sciene of words.The term is generally applied to grammar, although strictly speaking the Mimamsa Sastra is also a science of words.
śabdasiddhi(1)formation of a complete word fit for use by adding proper suffixes to the crude base and . making the necessary modifications confer, compare नैव व्याकरणादृते शब्दसिद्धिः | ( 2 ) name of a commentary by महादेव on the Katantra sutravrtti by Durgasimha.
śabdārthasaṃbandhathe connection between a word and its sense which is a permanently established one. According to grammarians,words, their sense and their connection, all the three, are established for ever: confer, compare सिद्धे शव्दार्थसंबन्ध P. I.1. . Varttika 1,and the Bhasya thereon सिद्ध शब्द: अर्थः संबन्धश्चेति | Later grammarians have described twelve kinds of शब्दार्थसंबन्ध viz. अभिधा,विवक्षा, तात्पर्य, प्रविभाग, व्यपेक्ष, सामर्थ्य अन्वय, एकार्थीभाव, दोषहान, गुणोपादान, अलंकारयेाग and रसावियोग: confer, compare Sringaraprakasa.I.
śarvavarmāa reputed grammarian who is believed to have been a contemporary of the poet Gunadhya in the court of Satavahana. He wrote the Grammar rules which are named the Katantra Sutras which are mostly based on the Sutras of Panini. In the grammar treatise named 'the Katantra Sutra' written by Sarvavarman the Vedic section and all the intricacies and difficult elements are carefully and scrupulously omitted by him, with a view to making his grammar useful for beginners and students of average intelligence.
śākaṭāyana(1)name of an ancient reputed scholar of Grammar and Pratisakhyas who is quoted by Panini. He is despisingly referred to by Patanjali as a traitor grammarian sympathizing with the Nairuktas or etymologists in holding the view that all substantives are derivable and can be derived from roots; cf तत्र नामान्याख्यातजानीति शाकटायनो नैरुक्तसमयश्च Nir.I.12: cf also नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् M. Bh on P.III.3.1. Sakatayana is believed to have been the author of the Unadisutrapatha as also of the RkTantra Pratisakhya of the Samaveda ; (2) name of a Jain grammarian named पाल्यकीर्ति शाकटायन who lived in the ninth century during the reign of the Rastrakuta king Amoghavarsa and wrote the Sabdanusana which is much similar to the Sutrapatha of Panini and introduced a new System of Grammar. His work named the Sabdanusasana consists of four chapters which are arranged in the form of topics, which are named सिद्धि. The grammar work is called शब्दानुशासन.
śārṅgaravādia class of words headed by the word शार्ङ्गरव which take the feminine affix ई ( ङीन् ) making the initial vowel of the word (to which ई of the feminine is added) an acute-accented one: e.g: शार्ङ्गरवी;confer, compare शार्ङ्गरवाद्यञो ङीन् P. IV. 1.73.
ṣaṭkārakanirūpaṇaa work dealing with the six kinds of instruments of the verbal activity ( karakas ) written by Trilokanatha.
ṣaṣṭhīthe sixth case; the genitive case. This case is generally an ordinary case or विभक्ति as contrasted with कारकविभक्ति. A noun in the genitive case shows a relation in general, with another noun connected with it in a sentence. Commentators have mentioned many kinds of relations denoted by the genitive case and the phrase एकशतं षष्ठ्यर्थाः (the genitive case hassenses a hundred and one in all),. is frequently used by grammarians confer, compare षष्ठी शेषे P. II. 3.50; confer, compare also बहवो हि षष्ठ्यर्थाः स्वस्वाम्यनन्तरसमीपसमूहविकारावयवाद्यास्तत्र यावन्त: शब्दे संभवन्ति तेषु सर्वेषु प्राप्तेषु नियमः क्रियते षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा इति । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.49. The genitive case is used in the sense of any karaka when that karaka ; is not to be considered as a karaka; confer, compare कारकत्वेन अविवक्षिते शेषे षष्ठी भविष्यति. A noun standing as a subject or object of an activity is put in the genitive case when that activity is expressed by a verbal derivative , and not by a verb itself; confer, compare कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति P. II. 3 .65. For the senses and use of the genitive case, confer, compare P. II. 3.50 to 73.
ṣaṣṭhītatpuruṣaa tatpurusa compound with the first member (rarely the second member as in the case of अवयवतत्पुरुष ) in the genitive case. The compound is very common as prescribed in the case of a word in the genitive case with any other word connected with it; e. g. राजपुरुषः, गुरुपत्नी et cetera, and others; the other tatpurusa compounds viz. द्वितीयातत्पुरुष, तृतीयातत्पुरुष and others prescribed in connection with specific words or kinds of words. The word षष्ठीसमास is also used in this sense.
ṣyaṅtaddhita affix. affix य (taking Samprasarana change i e. ई before the words पुत्र and पति and बन्धु in the Bahuvrihi compound) added, instead of the affix अण् or इञ्, in the sense of offspring, (l) to words having a long ( गुरु ) vowel for their penultimate , only in the formation of feminine bases, exempli gratia, for example कारीषगन्ध्या कौमुद्गन्ध्या, वाराह्या; कारीषगन्धीपुत्रः, कारीषगन्धीपति:, कारीषगन्धबिन्धुः ( Bah. compound): cf P.IV.1.78; (2) to words expressive of family names like पुणिक, मुखर et cetera, and others as also to the words क्रौडि, लाडि, व्याडि आपिशलि et cetera, and others and optionally to the words दैवयज्ञि and others in the formation of feminine bases; e. g. पौणिक्या, मौखर्या, क्रौड्या, व्याड्या, अापिशल्या et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. IV.1.79, 80, 81.
saṃdehanivṛttyarthalit, meant for the removal of doubt; the word is used in connection with a word or an expression or an addition of a mute letter, as seen in the expression of the sutrakara for the purpose of leaving no kind of doubt regarding the wording or its meaning confer, compare तत्र अवश्यं संदेहनिवृत्त्यर्थं विशेषार्थिना विशेषोनुप्रयोक्तव्यः M.Bh. on P.II. 2.24 Vart. 6.
saṃdhieuphonic combination; phonetic combination of two vowels or two consonants or one vowel and one consonant resulting from their close utterance; many kinds of such combinations and varieties are given in the Pratisakhya works. In the Siddhantakaumudi, Bhattoji Diksita has given five kinds of such Sandhis at the beginning of his work; confer, compare पदान्तपदाद्योः संधिः । यः कश्चिद्वैदिकशास्त्रसंधिरुच्यते स पदान्तपदाद्योर्वेदितव्यः।ते संधयश्चत्वारो भवन्ति । स्वरयोः व्यञ्जनयो: स्वरव्यञ्जनयोश्च Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 3.
saṃnipātaparibhāṣāthe maxim or canvention that an operation which is based upon, or is caused or occasioned by, a relationship between two things cannot break their relation : in short, such an operation as results in breaking the relationship between two things on which it is based, cannot take placcusative case. This dictum is many times followed in grammar in Preventing the application of such rules as are likely to spoil the formation of the correct word; many times, however, this dictum has to be ignored; For details see Pari. Sek. Pari. 86; also| Mahabhasya on P. I. 1.39.
saṃprasāraṇaliterally extension; the process of changing a semi-vowel into a simple vowel of the same sthana or place of utterance; the substitution of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ for the semi-vowels य्, व् , र् and ल् respectively; cf इग्यणः संप्रसारणम् P. 1.1.45. The term संप्रसारण is rendered as a 'resultant vowel' or as 'an emergent vowel'. The ancient term was प्रसारण and possibly it referred to the extension of य् and व्, into their constituent parts इ +अ, उ+अ et cetera, and others the vowel अ being of a weak grade but becoming strong after the merging of the subseguent vowel into it exempli gratia, for example confer, compare सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P. III. 2.8 Vart.1. For the words taking this samprasarana change, see P. VI. 1 .13 to .19. According to some grammarians the term संप्रसारण is applied to the substituted vowels while according to others the term refers to the operation of the substitution: confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.15. The substitution of the samprasarana vowel is to be given preference in the formation of a word; , confer, compare संप्रसारणं तदाश्रयं च कार्यं बलवत् Pari. Sek. Pari. 1 19. संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्व the relative superior strength of the samprasarana change in comparison with other operations occurring simultaneotisly. The phrase न वा संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्वात् is often used in the Mahabhasya which is based upon the dictum of the superior strength of the samprasarana substitution, which is announced by the writer of the Varttikas; P. VI. 1.17 Vart, 2. , See संप्रसारण.
saṃsargeliterally contact, connection; (1) contact of the air passing up through the gullet and striking the several places which produce the sound, which is of three kinds, hard, middling and soft; confer, compare संसर्गो वायुस्थानसंसर्गः अभिवातात्मकः स त्रिविधः । अयःपिण्डवद्दारुपिण्डवदूर्णापिण्डवदिति । तदुवतमापिशलशिक्षायाम् । स्पर्शयमवर्णकरो वायुः अय:पिण्डवत्स्थानमापीडयति | अन्तस्थावर्णकरो दांरुपिण्डवत् | ऊष्मस्थस्वरवर्णकर ऊर्णापिण्डवत् commentary on. T, Pr. XXIII. 1 ; ,(2) syntactical connection between words themselves which exists between pairs of words as between nouns and adjectives as also between verbs and the karakas, which is necessary for understanding the meaning of a sentence. Some Mimamsakas and Logicians hold that samsarga itself is the meaning of a sentence. The syntactical relation between two words is described to be of two kinds अभेद-संसर्ग of the type of आधाराधेयभाव and भेदसंसर्ग of the type of विषयविषयिभाव, समवाय, जन्यजनकभाव and the like.
sapādasaptādhyāyīa term used in connection with Panini's first seven books and a quarter of the eighth, as contrasted with the term Tripadi, which is used for the last three quarters of the eighth book. The rules or operations given in the Tripadi, are stated to be asiddha or invalid for purposes of the application of the rules in the previous portion, viz. the Sapadasaptadhyayi, and hence in the formation of' words all the rules given in the first seven chapters and a quarter, are applied first and then a way is prepared for the rules of the last three quarters. It is a striking thing that the rules in the Tripadi mostly concern the padas or formed words, the province, in fact, of the Pratisakhya treatises, and hence they should, as a matter of fact, be applicable to words after their formation and evidently to accomplish this object, Panini has laid down the convention of the invalidity in question by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII. 2,1.
samāsaplacing together of two or more words so as to express a composite sense ; compound composition confer, compare पृथगर्थानामेकार्थीभावः समासः। Although the word समास in its derivative sense is applicable to any wording which has a composite sense (वृत्ति), still it is by convention applied to the समासवृत्ति only by virtue of the Adhikarasutra प्राक् कडारात् समास: which enumerates in its province the compound words only. The Mahabhasyakara has mentioned only four principal kinds of these compounds and defined them; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थ प्रधानोव्ययीभावः। उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः। अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः । उभयपदार्थप्रधानो द्वन्द्वः । M.Bh. on P.II.1.6; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.II.1.20, II.1.49,II.2.6, II.4.26, V.1.9. Later grammarians have given many subdivisions of these compounds as for example द्विगु, कर्मधारय and तत्पुरुष (with द्वितीयातत्पुरुष, तृतीयातत्पुरुष et cetera, and othersas also अवयवतत्पुरुष, उपपदतत्पुरुष and so on) समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुवीहि, समाहारद्वन्द्व, इतरेतरद्वन्द्व and so on. समासचक्र a short anonymous treatise on compounds which is very popular and useful for beginners. The work is attributed to वररुचि and called also as समासपटल. The work is studied and committed to memory by beginners of Sanskrit ] studies in the PathaSalas of the old type.
sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇacalled also सरस्वतीसूत्र, name of a voluminous grammar work ascribed to king Bhoja in the eleventh century. The grammar is based very closely on Panini's Astadhyayi, consisting of eight chapters or books. Although the affixes, the augments and the substitutes are much the same, the order of the Sutras is considerably changedition By the anxiety of the author to bring together, the necessary portions of the Ganapatha, the Unadiptha and the Paribhasas, which the author' has included in his eight chapters, the book instead of being easy to understand, has lost the element of brevity and become tedious for reading. Hence it is that it is not studied widely. For details see pp. 392, 393 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's edition.
savarṇagrahaṇataking or including the cognate letters; a convention of grammarians to understand by the utterance of a vowel like अ, इ or उ all the 18 types of it which are looked upon as cognate ( सवर्ण ), as also to understand all the five consonants of a class by the utterance of the first consonant with उ added to it: e. g. कु denoting all the five consonants क्, खू, ग्, घ् and ङ्; confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्यय: P.I. 1.69.
savighaof the same kind; having the same accent. सविभाक्तक with the suitable case-affixadded; confer, compare प्रयाजाः सविभक्तिकाः कार्याः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika 1.
sāpekṣawith an expectancy in sense; although in grammar expectancy is at the root of, and forms a sort of a connecting link for, the various kinds of relations which exist between the different words of a sentence which has to give a composite sense, yet, if a word outside a compound is connected with a word inside a compound, especially with a second or further member, the sense becomes ambiguous; and expectancy in such cases is looked upon as a fault; e. g. अप्रविष्टविषयो हि रक्षसाम् Raghu XI. When, however, in spite of the fault of expectancy the sense is clear, the compound is admissible; confer, compare यदि सविशेषणानां वृत्तिर्न वृत्तस्य वा विशेषणं न प्रयुज्यते इत्युच्यते देवदत्तस्य गुरुकुलम् देवदत्तस्य गुरुपुत्रः,अत्र वृत्तिर्न प्राप्नोति। अगुरुकुलपुत्रादीनामिति वक्तव्यम् I Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P II.1.1 ; confer, compare also the expression सापेक्षत्वेपि गमकत्वात्समास: often used by commentators.
sāmānyāpekṣarefering only to a general thing indicated, and not to any specific instances. The word is used in connection with a Jnapana or indication drawn from the wording of a rule, which is taken to apply in general to kindred things and rarely to specific things; confer, compare इदं च सामान्यापेक्षं ज्ञापकं भावतिङोपि पूर्वमुत्पत्तेः । Pari. sek. on Pari. 50.
sāmyasimilarity, homogeneity: described to be of two kindsin words and in sense; confer, compare किं पुनः शब्दतः साम्ये संख्यातानुदेशो भवत्याहोस्विदर्थतः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 3. 10 Vart 3; confer, compare also स्थानकरणकालादिभि: तौल्यम् T. Pr XXIV. 5.
siddhāntakaumudīa critical and scholarly commentary on the Sutras of Panini, in which the several Sutras are arranged topicwise and fully explained with examples and counter examples. The work is exhaustive, yet not voluminous, difficult yet popular, and critical yet lucid. The work is next in importance to the Mahabhasya in the system of Panini, and its study prepares the way for understanding the Mahabhasya. It is prescribed for study in the courses of Vyakarana at every academy and Pathasala and is expected to be committed to memory by students who want to be thorough scholars of Vyakarana.By virtue of its methodical treatment it has thrown into the back-ground all kindred works and glosses or Vrttis on the Sutras of Panini. It is arranged into two halves, the first half dealing with seven topics ( 1 ) संज्ञापरिभाषा, ( 2 ) पञ्त्वसंधि, ( 3 ) षड्लिङ्ग, ( 4 ) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, ( 5 ) कारक, ( 6 ) समास, ( 7 ) तद्धित, and the latter half dealing with five topics, ( 1 ) दशगणी, ( 2 ) द्वादशप्राक्रिया ( 3 ) कृदन्त ( 4 ) वैदिकी and ( 5 ) स्वर. The author भट्टोजीदीक्षित has himself written a scholarly gloss on it called प्रौढमनेरमा on which, his grandson, Hari Diksita has written a learned commentary named लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got a large number of commentaries on it out of which, the commentaries प्रौढमनेरमा, बालमनोरमा, (by वासुदेवदीक्षित) तत्त्वबोधिनी and लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर are read by almost every true scholar of Vyakarana. Besides these four, there are a dozen or more commentaries some of which can be given below with their names and authors ( I ) सुबेाधिनी by जयकृष्णमौनि, ( 2 ) सुबोधिनी by रामकृष्णभट्ट ( 3 ) वृहृच्छब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेश, ( 4 ) बालमनेारमा by अनन्तपण्डित, ( 5 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरहृस्य by नीलकण्ठ, ( 6 ) रत्नार्णव, by कृष्णमिश्र ( 7 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरत्नाकर by रामकृष्ण, ( 8 ) सरला by तारानाथ,(9) सुमनोरमा by तिरुमल्ल,(10)सिद्वान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by लक्ष्मीनृसिंह, (11 )सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by विश्वेश्वरतीर्थ, (12) रत्नाकर by शिवरामेन्द्रसरस्वती and (13) प्रकाश by तोलापदीक्षित. Although the real name of the work is वैयाकरणसिद्धान्ततकौमुदी, as given by the author, still popularly the work is well known by the name सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. The work has got two abridged forms, the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi both written by Varadaraja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita.
subantaname given to a word formed with the addition of a case-affix and hence capable of being used in a sentence by virtue of its being called a पद by the rule सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् The ancient grammarians gave four kinds of words or padas viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात which Panini has brought under two heads सुबन्त including नाम, उपसर्ग and निपात and तिङन्त standing for आख्यातः confer, compare सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् P. I. 4. 14.
sūtraa short pithy assertion laying down something in a scientific treatise; aphorism; the word is sometimes used in a collective sense in the singular, referring to the whole collection of Sutras or rules; confer, compare व्याकरणस्य सूत्रम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Ahnika I. The term is defined as अाल्पाक्षरमसंदिग्धं सारवद्विश्वतोमुखम् | अस्तोभमनवद्यं च सूत्रं सूत्रविदो विदुः. There are given generally six kinds of Sutras viz. संज्ञासूत्र, परिभाषासूत्र,विधिसूत्र, नियमसूत्र, प्रतिषेधसूत्र and अधिकारसूत्र; confer, compare also संज्ञा च परिभाषा च विधिर्नियम एव च प्रतिषेधोधिकारश्च षड्विधम् सूत्रलक्षणम् | Com. on Kat. I. 1.2.
sthānaṣaṣṭhīone of the several kinds of the genitive case when it means a place or substratum, see the word स्थान.
sthānedvirvacanapakṣaone of the two alternative views regarding reduplication according to which two wordings or units of the same form replace the original single wording, confer, compare स्थानेद्विर्वचनपक्षे स्थानिवद्भावात्प्रकृति व्यपदेशः: Siradeva Pari. 68.The other kind of reduplication is called द्वि:प्रयोगाद्विर्वचनपक्ष which looks upon reduplication as the mere placing of an exactly similar unit or wording after the original first unit. This alternative view is accepted in the Kasika: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI.1.1.
sthāneyogāa variety of the genitive case when it is connected in sense with the Pratipadika by the relationship of स्थान or place, as contrasted with the relationships of the kind of विषयविषयिभाब, अवयवावयविभाव and others. As grammar is a Science of words,in those places where one word is mentioned for another by the use of the genitive case it should be understood that the word mentioned is to be substituted for the other;cf the rule of Panini for that purpose षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा explained by Bhattoji Diksita as अानिर्धारितसंबन्धविशेषा षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा बोध्या; confer, compare S.K. on P.I.1.49. In some grammars the sthanin and adesa are expressed in the same case, Viz. the nominative case.
sthānyādeśābhāvathe relation between the original and the substitute which is described as of two kinds (1) supposed and actual; confer, compareअानुमानिकस्थान्यादेशभावकल्पनेपि श्रौतस्थान्योदशभावस्य न त्याग: Pari.Sek. Pari.
sphoṭaname given to the radical Sabda which communicates the meaning to the hearers as different from ध्वनि or the sound in ordinary experience.The Vaiyakaranas,who followed Panini and who were headed by Bhartihari entered into discussions regarding the philosophy of Grammar, and introduced by way of deduction from Panini's grammar, an important theory that शब्द which communicates the meaning is different from the sound which is produced and heard and which is merely instrumental in the manifestation of an internal voice which is called Sphota.स्फुटयतेनेन अर्थः: इति स्फोटः or स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायमादुपजायते Vakyapadiya; confer, compare also अभिव्यक्तवादको मध्यमावस्थ आन्तर: शब्द: Kaiyata's Pradipa. For, details see Vakyapadiya I and Sabdakaustubha Ahnika 1. It is doubtful whether this Sphota theory was. advocated before Panini. The word स्फोटायन has been put by Panini in the rule अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य only incidentally and, in fact, nothing can be definitely deduced from it although Haradatta says that स्फोटायन was the originator of the स्फोटवाद. The word स्फोट is not actually found in the Pratisakhya works. However, commentators on the Pratisakhya works have introduced it in their explanations of the texts which describe वर्णोत्पत्ति or production of sound; confer, compare commentary on R.Pr.XIII.4, T.Pr. II.1. Grammarians have given various kinds of sphota; confer, compare स्फोटो द्विधा | व्यक्तिस्फोटो जातिस्फोटश्च। व्यक्तिस्पोटः सखण्ड अखण्डश्च । सखण्ड। वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। अखण्ड: पदवाक्यभेदेन द्विधा ! एवं पञ्च व्यक्तिस्फोटाः| जातिस्फोट: वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। इत्येवमष्टौ स्फोटः तत्र अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट एव मुख्य इति नव्याः । वाक्य जातिस्फोट इति तु प्राञ्चः॥; confer, compare also पदप्रकृतिः संहिता इति प्रातिशाख्यमत्र मानम् । पदानां प्रकृतिरिति षष्ठीतत्पुरुषे अखण्डवाक्यस्फोटपक्षः । बहुव्रीहौ सखण्डबाक्यस्फोट:||
sphoṭana(1)manifestation of the sense of a word by the external sound or dhvani; the same as sphota; (2) separate or distinct pronunciation of a consonant in a way by breaking it from the cor.junct consonants; confer, compare स्फोटनं नाम पिण्डीभूतस्य संयोगस्य पृथगुश्चरणम् स दोषो वा न वा | V. Pr.IV.165.
svatantrapadopasthitipakṣaan alternative view regarding the explanation of the rule 'इको गुणवृद्धी' P. I. 1. 3 by taking an additional word गुणवृद्धी supplied in the sutra. For full explanation see Sabdakaustubha on P. I. 1. 3.
svara(l)vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
svaritakaraṇamarking or characterizing by.a svarita accent, as is supposed to have been done by Panini when he wrote down his sutras of grammar as also the Dhatupatha, the Ganapatha and other subsidiary appendixes. Although the rules of the Astadhyayi are not recited at present with the proper accents possessed by the various vowels as given by the Sutrakara, still, by convention and traditional explanation, certain words are to be believed as possessed of certain accents. In the Dhatupatha, by oral tradition the accents of the several roots are known by the phrases अथ स्वरितेतः, अथाद्युदाताः, अथान्तेादात्ताः, अथानुदात्तेत: put therein at different places. In the sutras, a major purpose is served by the circumflex accent with which such words, as are to continue to the next or next few or next many rules, have been markedition As the oral tradition, according to which the Sutras are recited at present, has preserevd no accents, it is only the authoritative word, described as 'pratijna' of the ancient grammarians, which now is available for knowing the svarita. The same holds good in the case of nasalization ( अानुनासिक्य ) which is used as a factor for determining the indicatory nature of vowels as stated by the rule उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत्; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः S. K. on P. I.3.2.
ha(1)representation of the consonant हू with अ added for facility of pronunciation; (2) a technical term for the internal effort between विवृत and संवृत, which causes घोष in the consonants; confer, compare संवृतविवृतयोर्मध्ये मध्यमप्रक्रारे यः शब्दः क्रियते स हकारसंज्ञो भवति। संज्ञायाः प्रयेाजनं ' हकारो हचतुर्थेषु ' इति ( तै. प्रा.श ९)Tribhasyaratna on T.Pr. II.6; (3) name of an external effort causing घोष: confer, compare सांप्रतिके प्रकृतिस्थे कण्ठे सति हृकारो नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नः क्रियते | तेन च व्यञ्जनेषु घोषो जायते। Vaidikabharana on T.Pr. II.6; (4) name of a kind of external effort of the type of अनुप्रदान found in the utterance of the consonant ( ह् ) and the fourth class-consonants; confer, compare हकारौ हृचतुर्थेषु T.Pr.II.9.
haṃstapadāname given to a kind of svarabhakti,when the consonant. र, followed by ष्, is read as र + ष्+ ह् इकार See ह् as also ह.
hariṇiname of a kind of svarabhakti when r ( र् ) followed by s ( श् ) and s ( स् ) is read as र + इ +श् and र + इ +स् respectively.
harṣavardvanasvāmina fairly old grammarian who wrote an extensive metrical compendium on genders named लिङ्गानुशासन on which a commentary was written by a grammarian named शबरस्वासिन्. These grammarians were,of course, different from the reputed king इर्षवर्धन and the ; Mimamsaka शाबरस्वामिन्.
hāritāname given to a kind of Svarabhakti when the consonant ल् is followed by श् and the conjunct consonant ल्श् is read as लूलृश् or ल् इ श् ; confer, compare बनस्पते शतवल्शा विरोह Tait. Samh. 1.
hrasvashort, a term used in connection with the short vowels taking a unit of time measured by one matra for their utterance; confer, compare ऊकालोज्ङ्ररस्वदीर्घप्लुत: P. I. 2.27.
     Vedabase Search  
109 results
     
kindevāḥ a different human speciesSB 11.14.5-7
kinilā you have purchasedCC Antya 7.162
kinkarāḥ servantsSB 10.62.2
kinnara inhabitant of the Kinnara planetSB 4.30.6
kinnara inhabitants of the Kinnara planetsSB 4.20.35-36
kinnara minor demigods who can change their form at willSB 11.2.23
kinnara superhuman beingsSB 3.10.28-29
kinnara the inhabitants of KinnaralokaCC Antya 2.10
kinnara the inhabitants of the Kinnara planetSB 2.10.37-40
kinnara-apsarasaḥ the Kinnaras and ApsarāsSB 11.31.2-3
kinnara-apsarasaḥ the Kinnaras and ApsarāsSB 11.31.2-3
kinnara-cāraṇaiḥ and by Kinnaras and CāraṇasSB 10.78.13-15
kinnara-cāraṇaiḥ and by Kinnaras and CāraṇasSB 10.78.13-15
kinnara-gaṇāḥ the inhabitants of the Kinnara planetSB 7.8.55
kinnara-gaṇāḥ the inhabitants of the Kinnara planetSB 7.8.55
kinnara-gandharvāḥ the Kinnaras and Gandharvas, inhabitants of various planets in the heavenly planetary systemSB 10.3.6
kinnara-gandharvāḥ the Kinnaras and Gandharvas, inhabitants of various planets in the heavenly planetary systemSB 10.3.6
kinnara-gandharvaiḥ by Kinnaras and GandharvasSB 4.6.9
kinnara-gandharvaiḥ by Kinnaras and GandharvasSB 4.6.9
kinnarāḥ and the residents of KinnaralokaSB 8.20.20
kinnarāḥ half-humansSB 11.14.5-7
kinnarāḥ the inhabitants of KinnaralokaSB 8.18.9-10
kinnarāḥ the KinnarasSB 4.1.54-55
kinnaraiḥ and by the KinnarasSB 4.12.1
kinnaraiḥ by the KinnarasSB 6.7.2-8
kinnaraiḥ the KinnarasSB 8.2.5
kinnarān the KinnarasSB 3.20.45
kintu butBs 5.39
Bs 5.54
CC Adi 1.76
CC Adi 12.32
CC Adi 13.67
CC Adi 2.28
CC Adi 4.194
CC Adi 4.6
CC Adi 4.9
CC Adi 5.155
CC Antya 11.38
CC Antya 5.148
CC Antya 5.44
CC Antya 9.137
CC Antya 9.142
CC Madhya 11.9
CC Madhya 12.77
CC Madhya 13.80
CC Madhya 15.170
CC Madhya 17.9
CC Madhya 18.108
CC Madhya 18.87
CC Madhya 19.158
CC Madhya 20.9
CC Madhya 6.192
CC Madhya 7.146
CC Madhya 7.35
NoI 7
SB 10.58.42
SB 5.3.8
SB 5.6.2
SB 5.9.11
SB 6.3.6
kintu howeverSB 10.15.22
kintu neverthelessCC Madhya 8.83
kintu onlySB 10.57.38-39
kintu ratherNBS 62
kintu stillCC Madhya 12.31
CC Madhya 17.172
kintu thusSB 10.14.13
abhiviśańkinām being particularly afraidSB 7.13.32
ālokinībhiḥ by the gopīs, who were enjoying the pleasure of seeingSB 10.8.31
apsaraḥ-kinnara-uragaiḥ and by the Apsarās, Kinnaras and UragasSB 10.4.9
avivekinaḥ for the undiscriminatingSB 11.28.12
ḍākinyaḥ yātudhānyaḥ ca kuṣmāṇḍāḥ witches and devils, enemies of childrenSB 10.6.24
khaga-kinnara-cāraṇāḥ the celestial birds, the Kinnaras and the CāraṇasSB 10.74.13-15
ḍākinī-śāńkhinī ghosts and witchesCC Adi 13.117
ḍākinīḥ female demons who attend Goddess KālīSB 10.63.10-11
ḍākinyaḥ yātudhānyaḥ ca kuṣmāṇḍāḥ witches and devils, enemies of childrenSB 10.6.24
deva-gandharva-kinnara the demigods, the Gandharvas and the KinnarasCC Antya 9.8
deva-gandharva-kinnara the demigods, the Gandharvas and the KinnarasCC Antya 9.8
mandākinī iti called MandākinīSB 10.70.44
khaga-kinnara-cāraṇāḥ the celestial birds, the Kinnaras and the CāraṇasSB 10.74.13-15
veci' kini' purchasing and sellingCC Antya 9.20
apsaraḥ-kinnara-uragaiḥ and by the Apsarās, Kinnaras and UragasSB 10.4.9
khaga-kinnara-cāraṇāḥ the celestial birds, the Kinnaras and the CāraṇasSB 10.74.13-15
deva-gandharva-kinnara the demigods, the Gandharvas and the KinnarasCC Antya 9.8
saha-kinnarāḥ along with the KinnarasSB 7.8.37-39
śrī-kinnarāḥ ūcuḥ the inhabitants of the Kinnara planet saidSB 7.8.55
vidyādhara-kinnarāḥ the Vidyādharas and KinnarasSB 11.6.2-4
ḍākinyaḥ yātudhānyaḥ ca kuṣmāṇḍāḥ witches and devils, enemies of childrenSB 10.6.24
mahā-pātakinaḥ those who commit the worst kinds of sinsSB 12.10.25
mandākinī MandākinīSB 5.19.17-18
mandākinī iti called MandākinīSB 10.70.44
mandākinyām on the River MandākinīSB 10.10.2-3
kinām of the demigodsSB 7.8.36
pariśańkinī being apprehensive of troubleSB 3.17.2
pātakinaḥ committed sinful activitiesSB 6.2.9-10
pātakinaḥ sinfulSB 10.78.27
mahā-pātakinaḥ those who commit the worst kinds of sinsSB 12.10.25
pātakinam the sinful AjāmilaSB 6.3.9
pātakinām of sinful menSB 7.5.27
saha-kinnarāḥ along with the KinnarasSB 7.8.37-39
ḍākinī-śāńkhinī ghosts and witchesCC Adi 13.117
śrī-kinnarāḥ ūcuḥ the inhabitants of the Kinnara planet saidSB 7.8.55
stavakinī like a bouquet of flowersCC Madhya 14.180
śvāphalkinā by AkrūraSB 11.12.10
śrī-kinnarāḥ ūcuḥ the inhabitants of the Kinnara planet saidSB 7.8.55
apsaraḥ-kinnara-uragaiḥ and by the Apsarās, Kinnaras and UragasSB 10.4.9
veci' kini' purchasing and sellingCC Antya 9.20
vidyādhara-kinnarāḥ the Vidyādharas and KinnarasSB 11.6.2-4
ḍākinyaḥ yātudhānyaḥ ca kuṣmāṇḍāḥ witches and devils, enemies of childrenSB 10.6.24
     DCS with thanks   
Results for kin130 results
     
kin indeclinable
Frequency rank 49428/72933
akaṇṭakin adjective not thorny
Frequency rank 41504/72933
atipātakin adjective committing a atipātaka
Frequency rank 22860/72933
atirekin adjective surpassing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42189/72933
atiśaṅkin adjective
Frequency rank 18743/72933
atīsārakin adjective afflicted with purging or dysentery (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42291/72933
anavaśaṅkin adjective
Frequency rank 42788/72933
anīkinī noun (feminine) a certain force (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a host (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a lotus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an army (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
forces (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
three Camūs or one-tenth of an Akṣauhiṇī (or of a complete army) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7263/72933
anupātakin adjective committing an anupātaka
Frequency rank 26346/72933
anvayavyatirekin adjective affirmative and negative (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 32069/72933
apatānakin adjective affected with spasmodic contraction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26432/72933
apākin adjective undigested (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unripe (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26456/72933
abhiśaṅkin adjective doubting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
suspecting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23129/72933
arocakin adjective suffering from want of appetite or indigestion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[rhetoric] having a fastidious or cultivated taste (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16474/72933
avalokin adjective beholding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
looking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
looking at (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17604/72933
avākin adjective not speaking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 32674/72933
avipākin adjective
Frequency rank 32705/72933
avivekin adjective (said of a country) destitute of men that can discriminate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ignorant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not separated (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
undiscriminating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
undistinguished (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
uniform (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9124/72933
asecakin adjective
Frequency rank 45985/72933
ālokin adjective beholding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
contemplating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
seeing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33180/72933
āśaṅkin adjective doubting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fearing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hesitating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
imagining to be (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
suspecting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
thinking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23403/72933
udakin adjective furnished with water
Frequency rank 47239/72933
udrekin adjective abounding in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
excessive (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
giving preponderance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
violent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 47382/72933
upapātakin adjective one who has committed an Upa-pātaka or minor offence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15564/72933
ekin adjective consisting of one (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
simple (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 47944/72933
ekākin adjective alone (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
solitary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4718/72933
kañcukin adjective covered with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
furnished with armour or mail (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wrapped up in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23587/72933
kañcukin noun (masculine) an attendant or overseer of the women's apartments (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
barley chamberlain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
debauchee (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
libidinous man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of several plants (Agallochum, barley, Cicer Arietinum, Lipeocercis Serrata) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
snake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the chick-pea
Frequency rank 10317/72933
kaṭuvārttākinī noun (feminine) kāsaghnī
Frequency rank 48329/72933
kaṇṭakin noun (masculine) a bamboo fish (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of several plants (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Zizyphus Jujuba
Frequency rank 16634/72933
kaṇṭakin adjective annoying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prickly (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
thorny (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
vexatious (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11572/72933
kaṇṭakinī noun (feminine) a kind of date-palm (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mother in the retinue of Skanda (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
red amaranth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Solanum Jaquini (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16635/72933
karkin noun (masculine) the sign Cancer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27409/72933
karkaṭakinī noun (feminine) a species of Curcuma
Frequency rank 33857/72933
kalaṅkin adjective defamed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spotted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 48816/72933
kalkin noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 17771/72933
kalkinī noun (feminine) [rel.] name of a Śakti of Śiva
Frequency rank 48883/72933
kinī noun (feminine) a class of women a kind of Svarabhakti (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a quarter of a Māna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a goddess (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the fourth part of a Paṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the seed Abrus precatorius (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the shell Cypraea moneta (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8953/72933
kārmukin adjective armed with a bow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34014/72933
kiṅkiṇīkin adjective decorated with small bells (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34068/72933
kiṣkindhā noun (feminine) name of the cave contained in the mountain Kishkindha (the city of Vālin and Sugrīva) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the mountain Kishkindha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5980/72933
kiṣkindha noun (masculine) "name of a people" (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (in the south of India) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21087/72933
kiṣkindhaka noun (masculine) name of a people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49456/72933
kiṣkindhākāṇḍavarṇana noun (neuter) name of Agnipurāṇa, 8
Frequency rank 49457/72933
kiṣkindhādhipa noun (masculine) name of Vālin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49458/72933
kiṣkindhyā noun (feminine) the mountain Kiṣkindha
Frequency rank 49459/72933
kutukin adjective inquisitive (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49637/72933
kumbhīkinī noun (feminine) a kind of eye disease
Frequency rank 34142/72933
kekin noun (masculine) a peacock (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17811/72933
kevalavyatirekin adjective pertaining only to separateness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34254/72933
kautukin adjective eager (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
festive (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
full of curiosity or admiration or interest in anything (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
gay (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
jocose (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
vehemently desirous (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23788/72933
kūrcakin adjective puffy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stuffed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50426/72933
kṣīrakañcukin noun (masculine) Lipeocercis serrata Linn. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34423/72933
kṣudravārtākinī noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 50666/72933
gañjākinī noun (feminine) the points of hemp (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Cannabis sativa L.
Frequency rank 27781/72933
catuṣkin adjective ifc. having a set of 4 (of anything)
Frequency rank 52011/72933
candrakin noun (masculine) a peacock (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 52045/72933
cirapākin noun (masculine) Feronia elephantum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34990/72933
culukin noun (masculine) a porpoise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a sea-hog (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 52424/72933
ḍākinī noun (feminine) a female imp attending Kālī (feeding on human flesh) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a locality (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10093/72933
taṭākinī noun (feminine) a large pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53223/72933
tarkin adjective skilled in speculation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53359/72933
tindukinī noun (feminine) the senna plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53545/72933
tilodakin adjective drinking tilodaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35408/72933
drekin noun (masculine) a kind of plant (or: writing error for udrekin)
Frequency rank 55157/72933
dhūmāvalokin adjective mercury in the best refined stage which engenders khecaratā
Frequency rank 36054/72933
kin noun (masculine) a god (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55786/72933
nārakin adjective going to hell
Frequency rank 28613/72933
nirātaṅkin adjective fearless
Frequency rank 56117/72933
paṅkin adjective ifc. covered with anything as with mud (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
muddy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24468/72933
pañcakolakin adjective consisting of the pañcakola
Frequency rank 56878/72933
patākin noun (masculine) a chariot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a figure used in divination (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a flag (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an ensign or standard-bearer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a warrior on the side of the Kurus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28834/72933
patākin adjective adorned with flags (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
furnished with sails (?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
having or bearing a flag (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8140/72933
patākinī noun (feminine) an army (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a particular divinity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36592/72933
pariśaṅkin adjective afraid on account of (comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
apprehending (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fearing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57420/72933
kin adjective becoming mature (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
being digested (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
promoting digestion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ripening (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6241/72933
pāṇḍukin adjective jaundiced (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57683/72933
pātakin adjective guilty of a crime (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sinful (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wicked (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13624/72933
piḍakin adjective having pustules
Frequency rank 57963/72933
pinākin noun (masculine) name of one of the 11 Rudras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Rudra-Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3268/72933
pulakin noun (masculine) Nauclea Cordifolia (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 58246/72933
pracalākin noun (masculine) a peacock (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a snake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 58639/72933
prapākin adjective
Frequency rank 37307/72933
prasekin adjective discharging a fluid (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
suffering from morbid flow of saliva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18209/72933
phalakin noun (masculine) a kind of fish (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a wooden bench (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sandal-wood (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59871/72933
bandhakin noun (masculine) [rel.] name of Śiva
Frequency rank 59981/72933
balākin adjective abounding in cranes (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60044/72933
balākin noun (masculine) name of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29361/72933
bāhyakin noun (masculine) a kind of venomous insect (kīṭa)
Frequency rank 60221/72933
bindukinī noun (feminine) name of a plant
Frequency rank 37654/72933
bhālukin noun (masculine) name of a teacher (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60696/72933
mandākinī noun (feminine) (in astron.) name of a particular conjunction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
another river in heaven (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an arm of the Ganges (flowing down through the valley of Kedāranātha in the Himālayas) and of other rivers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the heavenly Ganges (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5855/72933
maśakin noun (masculine) Ficus Glomerata (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 61616/72933
mahāpātakin adjective guilty of a great crime (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8167/72933
mṛdukaṇṭakinī noun (feminine) name of a plant
Frequency rank 62484/72933
rājaśākinī noun (feminine) a species of vegetable
Frequency rank 38728/72933
rājaśākinikā noun (feminine) a species of vegetable
Frequency rank 63581/72933
kinī noun (feminine) name of a Tantra goddess (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 64127/72933
lokin adjective possessing a world (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
possessing the best world (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19973/72933
varṣapākin noun (masculine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 64786/72933
vārtākinī noun (feminine) name of a plant
Frequency rank 39238/72933
vālukin adjective
Frequency rank 39241/72933
vālmīkin noun (masculine) vālmīki
Frequency rank 65270/72933
vāsukinī noun (feminine) name of a queen
Frequency rank 65298/72933
viṭaṅkin adjective
Frequency rank 65526/72933
vipākin adjective difficult to be digested (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
maturing bearing fruits or having consequences (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ripening (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 22253/72933
vilokin adjective becoming aware of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
beholding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
looking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
looking at (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noticing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
perceiving (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
seeing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 30260/72933
vivekin adjective discreet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
discriminating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
discriminative (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
distinguishing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
examining (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
investigating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
judicious (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
kept asunder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prudent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
separated (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10499/72933
viṣakaṇṭakinī noun (feminine) a kind of plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 39549/72933
vyatirekin adjective different (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
distinguishing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
excepting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
excluding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
negative (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
reverse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 30389/72933
śaṅkin adjective afraid of. fearing (comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
assuming (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
distrustful as (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
full of apprehension or danger (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
imagining (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
supposing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
suspecting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
suspicious (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
timid (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12682/72933
śalākin adjective furnished with awns (as barley) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
furnished with ribs (śrīmac-chata-śū) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 67312/72933
śalkin noun (masculine) a fish (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 25570/72933
śaśāṅkin noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 67339/72933
śākinī noun (feminine) a field or land planted with vegetables or potherbs (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of plant (?)
Frequency rank 25577/72933
śākinī noun (feminine) a kind of female demon attendant on Durgā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 67396/72933
śālūkinī noun (feminine) name of a Tīrtha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a village (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18526/72933
śītapākinī noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 67755/72933
śonakin noun (masculine) a kind of soma (?)
Frequency rank 68054/72933
śleṣmātakin adjective
Frequency rank 68319/72933
śvetavārttākinī noun (feminine) Name einer Pflanze
Frequency rank 68427/72933
samālokin adjective looking into (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one who has considered or studied (comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 69057/72933
kinī noun (feminine) name of a Tantra goddess
Frequency rank 70217/72933
sātyakin noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 70260/72933
supākinī noun (feminine) a species of Curcuma (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 70944/72933
stavakin adjective praising (?)
Frequency rank 71679/72933
svāphalkin adjective
Frequency rank 72256/72933
kinī noun (feminine) name of a Tantra goddess
Frequency rank 72495/72933
hikkin adjective hiccupping (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
suffering from hiccup (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 22765/72933
hevākin adjective absorbed in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
devoted to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
engrossed by (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72727/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
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abhinyāsajvara

an acute kind of fever where all three humors participate; fever that is difficult to cure with various signs and symptoms similar to swine flu, typhoid et Century It is one of the 4 subtypes of tridoṣaja fevers.

abhiṣyanda

conjunctivitis, oozing and enlargement of eyes; 2. any item that increases kapha, that promotes thick secretions blocking the passages. Go to kaphaja abhiṣyanda.

abhivṛṣṭa

drinking water mixed with rain water .

ācūṣana

sucking out .

adhaḥpuṣpi

Plant downward looking flower, Indian borage, Trichodesma indicum .

ādityapāka

sun-cooking; heating by sunlight.

ahipūtana

napkin rash or diaper rash; sores on the hinder part of the body; anal eruption in children.

ajagallika

1. goat’s cheek; 2. seborrhic eruptions over skin; an infantile disease.

ajina

hide, tanned skin of animals.

aklinnavartma

an eye disease in which eyelids sticking together, dry eyelids.

ākṣepa

convulsions; It is a medical condition where the body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.

āluka

1. kind of ebony; 2. white yam, edible underground root with more starch.

ambu

1. water; 2. kind of grass; ambuprasāda Plant kataka tree, Strychnos potatorum, useful in cleaning the water.

annadravaśūla

gastric ulcer; kind of coli Century

antarmukha

1. turned inwards; 2. kind of scissors used in surgery; 3. interior of mouth.

anuvellita

a kind of suturing in surgical practices.

apaci

scrofula; chronic lymphedenopathy; various types of suppurating skin ulcers.

apakarṣaṇa

1. distraction; taking away; forcing away; abolishing; 2. elimination of waste substances from inside the human body.

āsava

a medicinal preparation made by soaking fresh drugs, either in form of powder or adding mash (kalka) in a solution of sugar or jaggery for a specified period to enable fermentation; liquor, ex: aravindāsava.

aśvamedha

Great Horse Sacrifice; a vedic ritual that could only be conducted by a king for the acquisition of power and glory, the sovereignty over neighbouring provinces, and general prosperity of the kingdom.

avabhāsini

shining down (skin); outermost layer of skin.

avadarana

breaking, shattering.

avapāṭika

laceration of the prepuce (foreskin of penis), paraphymosis.

avika

relating to or coming from sheep, ex: wool, sheepskin, meat et Century

badarāyana

teacher and founder of Vedāntadarśana, one of the six philosophical streams of thinking

barbarā

1. Plant a species of basil; 2. kind of fly.

bhallātaka

Plant marking nut; fruit of Semecarpus anacardium.

bhallātakādimodaka

a solid preparation made from marking nut, myrobalan fruit, jaggery and sesame oil; indicated in hemorrhoids caused by choler (pitta).

bhallūka

1. kind of shell; 2. Plant broken bones plant, Bignonia indica, Oroxylum indicum.

bhrājakapitta

glow-choler; one of the five pittas located in skin, that ascribes glow to the skin and helps digest oils applied on.

bhūtṛṇa

Plant kind of fragrant grass, earth grass, broad leaved turpentine grass; Cymbopogon citratus.

bījaka

Plant 1. Indian kino tree, Pterocarpus marsupium; 2. Indian laurel, Terminalia tomentosa, T. ellipta.

bījasāra

Plant Indian kino tree, dried stembark of Pterocarpus marsupium

buddhirvaiśeṣika

kind of ālocakapitta located in mind; first described by Bhela.

cakṣurvaiśeṣika

observer-choler, kind of ālocakapitta located in the eyes.

candanāditaila

medicated oil made from sandalwood and other herbs as coolant and to restore vitality to skin.

candrasūryadarśana

(candra.sūrya.darśana) a rite, taking the infant out of home to show nature particularly sun and moon.

candrika

1. moonlight; 2. baldness; 3. cardamoms; 4. jasmine; 5. a kind of fish.

caraka

redactor of Agniveśa samhita; he was the court physician of the king Kanishka of Kushan dynasty, who reigned in the 1st and 2nd Century

carmadala

wart; exfoliative dermatosis; cracked skin.

carmākhya

thick, black skin similar to that of an elephant.

carmakīla

corn; outgrowth of skin.

carmavraṇa

herpes, skin infection caused by a virus.

caturbīja

Plant aggregate of four kinds of aromatic seeds; methi (funegreek), candrasūra (garden cress), kālājāji (small fennel), yavāni (Bishop’s weed)

cilicima

a kind of fish.

cintya

thinking, cerebration.

ciriṭīka

a kind of bird.

cūṣaṇa

sucking.

dadru

1. skinrash; 2. ring worm infestation on skin; 3. lepromatous leprosy.

dehavedha

breaking through the human body; transformation of human body into immortal one.

dhanvantari

king of Kāśi, teacher-surgeon of Śuśruta; god of āyurveda.

dhūma

smoke; dhūmadarsi smoky vision; dhūmapāna medicated smoking; dhūmavarti tubular smoking stuff; cigarette.

ekakuṣṭa

skin disease characterized by well defined reddish plaques adhered with loose silver coloured scales; psoriasis.

gandhakarasāyana

herbo-mineral preparation used in the treatment of skin diseases.

gandhanāma

1. one of the minor diseases, pustules over skin; 2. single big pustule in the axilla; 3. variety of basil with red blossoms.

gandharvakāya

connoisseur body; a person with the traits of celestial personalities like love for garlands, perfumes, fondness of songs and music and love making.

gardabhaka

resembling an ass; a skin disease.

gavedhuka

1. a kind of serpent; 2. Plant country mallow, Sida alba.

golāngūla

black kind of monkey.

gomeda

1. cow-fat; 2. kind of fish; 3. cinnamon stone.

gosarpa

kind of lizard; Lacerta godica.

gundra

Plant kind of cyperus; lesser Indian reed, grass used for making mats, Typha australis; T. angustata.

halāhala,hālāhala

1. a kind of deadly poison, produced at the churning of ocean by gods nd demons; 2. a kind of lizard or snake; 3. Plant a poisonous plant, whose seeds resemble a cow’s tear.

hareṇu,hareṇuka

1. Plant a kind of pea or pulse; Pisum speciosum; 2. copper coloured deer; Murraya paniculata.

hārīta

kind of pigeon.

indravriddha

big pustule amid small pustules over the skin.

itkaṭa

Plant a kind of reed/grass; Sesbania bispinosa.

jihvāpa

drinking with tongue, ex: dog, cat, tiger.

jīvajīva

a kind of pheasant.

kabala

mouthwash; gargle; bolus; kind of fish; kabalagraha hold mouthful; medicine to treat the diseases that affect head and sensory organs.

kādamba

duck; a kind of goose with dark-grey wings.

kākaṇa

1. small coin; 2. black patches with red edges on the skin, one of the mahākuṣṭas.

kākānḍaka

a kind of spider.

kakuyaṣṭika

a kind of bird.

kālājāji

Plant a kind of cumin seeds.

kālapucchaka

1. a kind of sparrow; 2. animals living in marshes.

kampavāta

tremors, Parkinson’s disease.

kapotābha

1. colour of lead-grey, pigeon coloured; 2. a kind of rat.

kārmuka

1. Plant bamboo; bow; 2. Sagittarius; 3. kind of honey; 4. Plant white khadira tree (Acacia catechu); Elegant smilax; 5. rainbow.

kasamarda

Plant Cassia occidentalis; negro coffee, stinking weed.

kelūṭa

Plant kind of potherb; Ficus recemosa.

khadirāriṣṭa

alcoholic preparation used in skin diseases.

kharpara

kind of mineral substance.

kilāsa

discolouration of the skin, vitiligo, leucoderma.

kiṭibha

psoriasis; a chronic skin condition that causes skin cells to grow too quickly resulting in thick, white, silvery, or red patches of skin.

kohalī

a kind of spirituous liquor.

koṣṭhi,koṣṭhikā

kind of vessel; pan.

koṭha

impetigo, skin disease, urticaria.

krakaca

1. saw; 2. kind of fever.

krakara

kind of partridge, a bird.

kṛkara

1. kind of partridge bird, 2. one of five vital breaths; 3. kind of pepper; 3. fragrant oleander tree.

kṛṣnājina

hide of a deer used as a seat; skin of black antelope

kṣāra

1. a corrosive alkaline medicinal preparation obtained from the ash produced by burning plant-parts; 2. a kind of medicine form converted to alkali, caustic soda.

kṣāradvaya

natron, a kind of soda ash (sarjika) and alkali prepared from the ashes of burnt green barley (yava).

kṣavaka

Plant black mustard; prickly chaff flower; a kind of pot-herb.

kṣīrapa

age of the child depending on milk from mother; drinking only milk, infant.

kṣudrakuṣṭa

group of minor skin diseases.

kūcīka

1. an animal; 2. small brush; 3. eel, a kind of fish.

kulaka

1. green snake; 2. anthill; 3. kind of ebony; 4. sort of gourd; 5. Strychnos nuxvomica; 6. paṭola.

kulīnaka

kind of wild kidney-bean.

kulmāṣa

sour gruel; half-ripe barley; an inferior kind of grain.

kumbhīka

1. Plant wild guava, Careya arborea, 2. swelling of the eyelids, 3. kind of demon; 4. catamite (passive partner in anal intercourse); 5. red papule on penis.

kurubāhu

a kind of bird.

kuruvinda

1. ruby; 2. a fragrant grass; 3. Plant kind of barley; 4. cinnabar.

kuṣṭha

obstinate diseases of skin including leprosy.

kuṭheraka

Plant red ceder; kind of sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum.

kuvindaka

1. weaver, who produces cloth; 2. a kind of measure.

laḍḍuka

kind of sweetmeat

ladūṣak

a kind of bird.

lālana

1. caressing, fondling; 2. a venomous animal resembling a mouse; 3. a kind of rat.

lohita

blood; lohitakṣaya a condition resulting in amenorrhoea; lohitanayana a kind of fish.

lohitā

reddish, second layer of skin, stratum corneum.

lohitākṣa

1. reddish eye; 2. lethal points at axilla and groin; 3. a kind of snake; 4. Indian cuckoo.

lūta

1. spider, 2. ant; 3. kind of skin disease near eye.

lūtāmaya

skin disease spreading across.

madhūlaka

1. sweet; 2. mountain. 3. species of honey; 4. kind of citron.

mādhvi,mādhvika

mead, a kind of intoxicating drink, alcoholic beverage made from grapes.

mahākuṣṭha

group of major skin diseases (seven).

māṃsadhara

seventh and innermost layer of skin, hypodermis.

maṇḍalin

1. encircling; 2.a kind of snake; 3. chameleon; 4. Indian fig-tree.

maṣaka

raised big mole on the skin.

mātra

unit of time needed for blinking of eyes; dose of a drug.

nidānapañcaka

aetiological pentad or five clinical barometers. Mādhavanidāna describes them as prodromal symptoms (pūrvarūpa), manifested symptoms (rūpa), pathogenesis (samprāpti), allaying by suitable remedies or predilection (upaśaya) and eight kinds of physical examination (aṣṭavidhaparīkṣa).

nimi

king of Videha and an expert in śālākyatantra and a desciple of Dhanvantari.

nimi

twinking, closing or winking of eyes.

niruddhamaṇi

phimosis, a condition in males where the foreskin cannot be fully retracted over the glans penis.

nirviṣa

1. non-venomous; 2. a kind of snake sans poison; 3. Plant jadwar, Delphinium denudatum.

niṣkrāmanasamskāra

taking the infant at the age of four months to visiting places like temple.

nyaccha

naevus, mole on skin, coloured patch on the skin.

pādadāri

chilblain, an inflammation of the fingers, toes, or ears, caused by prolonged exposure to mo isture and cold, affecting soles and feet also due to over walking; chaffed soles.

padma

1. lotus-hued; 2. cloves; 3. elephant; 4. kind of coitus; 5. resin of guggul plant.

padminīkaṇṭaka

acne, papilloma of skin.

pāka

cooking, inflammation, maturation, digestion, inflammatory maturation.

pakva

cooking, digestion.

pānājīrṇa

alcoholism, indigestion from drinking.

pānḍavika

1. white pigeon; 2. a kind of sparrow.

pārāvata

1. bird pigeon; 2. Plant phalsa tree, Grevia asiatica; 3. a kind of snake.

paripāna

soaking.

parisarpa

erysipelas, a skin disease, multiple spreading pustules.

parivartika

contraction of the prepuse (foreskin of penis), phimosis.

pārvati

1. mountain stream; 2. rock; 3. kind of pepper.

paśu

animal, beast; paśukāya bestial body; person with traits of beast like bad thinking, sluggish activity, dreams of copulation and denying everything.

phenaka

1. ground rice boiled in water; kind of pastry. 2. samudraphena.

picu

1. swab, tampon arranged around the head to treat it with oil; 2. a kind of skin disease, picumarda neem tree, Azadirachta indica

pingala

1. twining tubular vessel on the right side of the body, 2. a kind of leech used for blood letting; 3. brown, reddish brown colour.

piṣṭi

making powder without application of heat.

pradeha

unctuous paste, thick and viscid ointment, hot ointment; juices made semisolid by cooking; pradehasveda poultice or cataplasm, soft moist mass, heated and medicated, applied on the skin to treat pain.

prasupti

area which has no sensation, anesthetic patches on the skin.

pratimarśa

kind of powder used as sternulatory; application of medicated oil in the nostrils.

priyaka

deer with soft skin; a chameleon; trees Nauclea cadamba, Terminalia tomentosa.

puṇḍarīka

1. Plant fragrant mango, 2. kind of serpent, 3. kind of rice, 4. lotus flower, 5. sugarcane; 6.an obstinate skin disease, one of mahākuṣṭas.

puṣkar

1. blue lotus,; 2. water; 3. Indian crane, Ardea sibirica; 4. a kind of disease; 5. a snake.

puṣpanetra

flower tube; a kind of catheter; a disease affecting the female reproductive system.

rājakṣavaka

Plant kind of mustard, Brassica juncea.

rājayakṣma

kingly consumption, tuberculosis.

rājimat,rājīmatha

a kind of snake possessing stripes.

rājīva

1. kind of striped deer, 2. Indian crane, 3. elephant, 4. blue lotus-flower, 5. species of fish

rakasa

a kind of skin disease, dermatitis.

raktakāṣṭha

Plant Caesalpinia sappan, contusions, red spots under the skin.

rasāla

1. curds mixed with sugar and spices; 2. mango tree; 3. sugar cane; 4. kind of grass.

rasamāṇikya

1. ruby-like-chemical, 2. mercury based preparation used in skin diseases.

rāśi

volume, quantity, collection, mass rāśipuruṣa aggregation of ingredients making the human body.

rohiṇi

1. sixth layer of skin, dermis; 2. diphtheria, inflammation of throat; 3. women with red face. 4. star Aldebaran in the constellation Taurus.

ṛṣyajihva

a skin disease with rough, black painful patches resembling the tongue of the bear.

ruru

dog; antelope; barking deer.

ṣadvidhopakrama

six kinds of applications : rūkṣaṇa, snehana, svedana, sthambhana, langhana and bṛhaṇa.

śākuni

one of the nine seizing planets (graha), impetigo, a skin disease.

śallaki

Plant Indian frankincense, Indian olibanum tree, exudates of Boswellia serrata.

śāluka

Plant esculent root of different kinds of lotus.

śamī

Plant 1. white cutch tree, Acacia polycantha; 2. Prosopis spicigera or Mimosa suma used in kindling fire.

samsarjana

conciliating, postoperative management, graduated readministration of diet to rekindle digestive fire.

samvahana

walking, carrying, bearing.

samvāhana

walking; built.

śānḍāki

a kind of animal meat dried in sun.

sārika

a talking bird; myna.

sarkarārbuda

kind of tumour; vericocele, angioma.

saugandhika

1. sweet-scented; fragrant; 2. sulphur; 3. person with sexual impotence; 4. white or blue water-lily; 5. a king of fragrant grass; 6. an Ocimum species.

sauvīrāṇjana

a collyrium, kind of antimony or lotion or wash for eyes.

śilīndhra

1. mushroom, 2. kind of fish.

simhāsana

lion’s seet, king’s seat, throne.

snāyuka

dracunculiasis; Dracunculus medinensis, a parasitical worm eruption on the skin of the extremities.

sparśanendriya

skin as sensory organ.

sphuṭana

bursting, opening, expanding; cracking of the joints.

stanyapa

suckling, drinking milk from the breast.

sthambhana

styptic, arresting, checking, restrain, to bind, retain.

suśruta

disciple of Dhanvatari, who was the king of Kāśi. He authored Śuśruta samhita, an important treatise on surgery.

śveta

1. white; 2. third layer of skin, stratum luciderm.

tāmra

1. copper; 2. fourth layer of skin, stratum granulosum.

tavakṣīri

Plant 1. east Indian arrow root, a kind of turmeric, Curcuma angustifolia; 2. bamboo manna, Bambusa arundinacea.

tilaka,tilakālaka

non-elevated mole; black pin heads on the skin.

tvacya

a skin friendly.

tvak

skin; bark; cinnamon bark, dried inner bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

udarda

urticaria, hives or skin rash.

uddālaka

1. a kind of honey; 2. Plant seeds of Vigna catiang; 3. Plant Assyrian plum, Cordia myxa.

udgharṣaṇa

striking, beating, rubbing up, scratching.

udīcya

1. northern region, country to the north and west of river sarasvati, 2. kind of perfume; 2. uśīra.

uḍumbara

1. a skin disease with coppery spots; 2. copper; 3. penis, 4. eunuch, 5. a kind of worm supposed to be generated in blood and producing leprosy; nodular leprosy.

udyuga

uncontrollable shaking.

ukhala

a kind of grass.

ullekhana

1. vomiting, emesis, 2. making lines.

upanāha

hot poultice, plaster, unguent, stye, inflammation of the ciliary glands in the eye, upanāhasveda perspiration caused by a kind of poultice.

valī

wrinkles in skin.

vanaspati

1. trees having fruits without apparent flowers; 2. king of the wood, Bignonia species

varṇya

complexion-promoting, skin-friendly.

vārtaka

quail, a kind of bird; button quail.

vasuka

1. Plant various plants: Calatropis gingantea, Agati grandiflora, Adhatoda vasika, Borreria articularis, Indigofera enneaphylla, Osmanthus fragrans and Chenopodium; Spermacoce hispida; 2. a kind of salt.

vātarakta

gout and arthritis; a kind of arthritis that occurs when uric acid builds up in blood and causes joint inflammation.

vedini

fifth layer of skin, one fifth of vrīhi in thickness, reticular layer; visarpa, kuṣṭa are manifested from here.

vepana

tremor, shaking, quivering.

vepathu

trembling, quivering, Parkinson’s disease.

vetāla

ghost, spririt, a kind of demon.

vicāra,vicārana

discretion, consideration, deep thinking.

vipācana

cooking.

vipādika

1. scaly lesions on palms and soles, cracking of feet, 2. sour tumour on the foot, 3. one of the vāta diseases.

visarpa

erysipelas, a skin disease; herpes.

viśliṣṭa

subluxation; a kind of joint dislocation; partial dislocation.

visphāraka

a kind of dangerous fever.

visphoṭa

blister, eruptions on the skin; small pox.

vicarcika

eczema, dermatitis, inflammation of the skin.

vivṛta

big pustule over the skin.

yamadamṣṭra

(yama.damṣṭra) 1. Yama’s tooth; 2. kind of poison; 3. last eight days of Aṣvini and whole of Kārtīka months considered as a period of general sickness.

yatana

making effort or exertion.

yavaprakhya

hard eruptions over the skin, similar to barley.

yūṣa

1. water in which pulses of various kinds are boiled; broth; soup of pulses; 2. Plant Indian mulberry tree, Morinda citrifolia, M. tinctoria, M. tomentosa.

     Wordnet Search "kin" has 47 results.
     

kin

aparāddha, aparādhin, sāparādha, kṛtāparādha, prāptāparādha, pāpin, pāpavat, pāpakarman, sapāpa, doṣin, sadoṣa, pātakin, duṣkṛtin, enasvin, kṛtainas, kṛtāgas   

yena aparādhaḥ kṛtaḥ।

aparāddho daṇḍanīyaḥ eva।

kin

pādaḥ, preṣṭhā, ṭaṅkā, ṭaṅgaḥ, ṭaṅgam, ṭaṅkaḥ, ṭaṅkam, prasṛtā, nalakinī, jaṅghā   

avayavaviśeṣaḥ- ākaṭi adhamāṅgaṃ, manuṣyādayaḥ anena saranti।

vane carataḥ mama pādaḥ bahu kleśam anvabhavat

kin

śaṅkita, śaṅkin, śaṅkānvita, kṛtabhaya   

śaṅkayā yuktaḥ।

saḥ asmin kāryaviṣaye śaṅkitaḥ asti।

kin

kaṇṭakita, kaṇṭakin, sakaṇṭaka, bahukaṇṭaka, pracurakaṇṭaka   

kaṇṭakaiḥ yuktaḥ।

bilvaḥ kaṇṭakitaḥ vṛkṣaḥ asti।

kin

vivādin, vādānuvādin, vitarkin, sāṃvādika, visaṃvādin   

yad viṣaye vivādaḥ suśakaḥ।

aham visaṃvādini viṣaye kimapi kartuṃ necchāmi।

kin

śaṅkāśīla, śaṅkābuddhi, saṃśayaśīla, saṃśayabuddhi, sandigdhacitta, sandigdhamati, saṃśayālu, śaṅkin, aviśvāsī, kutarkaśīla, kutarkasvabhāva, apratyayī, kuhakacakita   

yaḥ na viśvasīti।

saḥ śaṅkāśīlaḥ ataḥ tasya udbodhanena kim।

kin

tārkika, nyāyin, vādika, tarkin   

yaḥ tarkaṃ karoti।

tārkikaḥ tarkaṃ karoti।

kin

vivekin   

viveko'syāstīti।

dṛṣṭādṛṣṭāṃstathā bhogān vāñchamānā vivekinaḥ dānāni ca prayacchanti pūrṇadharmāśca kurvate।

kin

tārākīrṇa, tārākin, tārākita, tārāmaya, nakṣatramaya, nakṣatrākīrṇa, tārākīrṇa, nakṣatrīya, nakṣatramaya, nakṣatrākīrṇa, nakṣatravat, nakṣatravyāpta, bahunakṣatravyāpta, bahunakṣatra, pracuratāra   

yad nakṣatraiḥ vyāptam।

cintane lagnaḥ śyāmaḥ tārākīrṇam ākāśaṃ paśyati।

kin

kalaṅkin, doṣavat, dūṣita, sadoṣa, kaluṣita   

kalaṅkayuktaḥ।

mohanaḥ kalaṅkitaḥ asti।

kin

pāpin, aghin, adhama, anācārin, patita, pātakin, nīca, pāpakarman, pāpātman, adharmin, pāpācārin, avara   

yaḥ pāpaṃ karoti।

dhārmikagranthānusāreṇa yadā pṛthivyāṃ pāpaṃ vardhate tadā prabhuḥ avatāraṃ gṛhītvā pāpīnāṃ saṃharati।

kin

avivekin, vivekahīna, avicārin   

yasya yogyāyogyayoḥ jñānaṃ nāsti।

avivekī kaṃsaḥ bhagavantaṃ kṛṣṇaṃ hantuṃ naikavāraṃ prāyatata paraṃ na saphalībhūtaḥ।

kin

gaṅgā, mandākinī, jāhnavī, puṇyā, alakanandā, viṣṇupadī, jahnutanayā, suranimnagā, bhāgīrathī, tripathagā, tistrotāḥ, bhīṣmasūḥ, arghyatīrtham, tīrtharījaḥ, tridaśadīrghikā, kumārasūḥ, saridvarā, siddhāpagā, svarāpagā, svargyāpagā, khāpagā, ṛṣikulyā, haimavratī, sarvāpī, haraśekharā, surāpagā, dharmadravī, sudhā, jahnukanyā, gāndinī, rudraśekharā, nandinī, sitasindhuḥ, adhvagā, ugraśekharā, siddhasindhuḥ, svargasarīdvarā, samudrasubhagā, svarnadī, suradīrghikā, suranadī, svardhunī, jyeṣṭhā, jahnusutā, bhīṣmajananī, śubhrā, śailendrajā, bhavāyanā, mahānadī, śailaputrī, sitā, bhuvanapāvanī, śailaputrī   

bhāratadeśasthāḥ pradhānā nadī yā hindudharmānusāreṇa mokṣadāyinī asti iti manyante।

dharmagranthāḥ kathayanti rājñā bhagīrathena svargāt gaṅgā ānītā।

kin

kardamita, kārdamika, paṅkin   

paṅkena paripūrṇaḥ।

varṣākāle kardamitena mārgeṇa gamanaṃ kāṭhinyapūrṇam asti।

kin

mandākinī, ākāśagaṅgā, svarganadī, nabhonadī, divyasaritā, suranadī, viyadgaṅgā, svarnadī, suradīrghikā, svarṇapadmā, sureśvarī   

svarge vartamānā gaṅgāyāḥ dhārā।

pūrvajān trātuṃ bhagīrathena tapasyāṃ kṛtvā mandākinī pṛthivyām ānītā।

kin

māyinī, putanā, ḍākinī   

mṛtastriyaḥ ātmanaḥ sā avasthā yā gatyābhāvāt aniṣṭāni kāryāṇi karoti।

vijñānayuge'pi naike janāḥ māyinīṃ viśvasanti।

kin

ajñānin, avivekin, mugdha, bāliśa, aprājña, avijñātṛ, avijña, mūḍha, alpajña, ajña   

yaḥ ajñānena paripūrṇaḥ।

ajñānī puruṣaḥ eva saṃsāraḥ duḥkhamayaḥ asti iti manyate।

kin

hiṇḍiraḥ, vārtākī, vaṅganam, hiṅgulī, siṃhī, bhaṇṭākī, duṣpradharṣiṇī, vārtā, vātīṅgaṇaḥ, vārtākaḥ, śākabilvaḥ, rājakuṣmāṇḍaḥ, vṛntākaḥ, vaṅgaṇaḥ, aṅgaṇaḥ, kaṇṭavṛntākī, kaṇṭāluḥ, kaṇṭapatrikā, nidrāluḥ, māṃsaphalakaḥ, mahoṭikā, citraphalā, kaṇcakinī, mahatī, kaṭphalā, miśravarṇaphalā, nīlaphalā, raktaphalā, śākaśreṣṭhā, vṛttaphalā, nṛpapriyaphalā   

vanaspativiśeṣaḥ yasyāḥ phalāni śākarūpeṇa upayujyante।

kṛṣakaḥ kṛṣikṣetre hiṇḍiraṃ ropayati।

kin

vārtākī, vaṅganam, hiṅgulī, siṃhī, bhaṇṭākī, duṣpradharṣiṇī, vārtā, vātīṅgaṇaḥ, vārtākaḥ, śākabilvaḥ, rājakuṣmāṇḍaḥ, vṛntākaḥ, vaṅgaṇaḥ, aṅgaṇaḥ, kaṇṭavṛntākī, kaṇṭāluḥ, kaṇṭapatrikā, nidrāluḥ, māṃsaphalakaḥ, mahoṭikā, citraphalā, kaṇcakinī, mahatī, kaṭphalā, miśravarṇaphalā, nīlaphalā, raktaphalā, śākaśreṣṭhā, vṛttaphalā, nṛpapriyaphalam   

phalaviśeṣaḥ yaḥ śākārthe upayujyate।

mātā śākārthe vārtākīm utkṛntati।

kin

mahāpātakin   

yaḥ mahāpātakaṃ karoti।

manoḥ matānusāreṇa mahāpātakī puruṣaḥ narake gacchati।

kin

kuberaḥ, yakṣarāṭ, yakṣendraḥ, yakṣeśvaraḥ, tryambakasakhā, guhyakeśvaraḥ, manuṣyadharmā, dhanadaḥ, dhanādhipaḥ, kinnareśaḥ, vaiśravaṇaḥ, paulastyaḥ, naravāhanaḥ, ekapiṅgaḥ, aiḍaviḍaḥ, śrīdaḥ, puṇyajaneśvaraḥ   

yakṣānāṃ rājā yaḥ indrasya kośādhyakṣaḥ asti।

kuberaḥ rāvaṇasya bhrātā āsīt।

kin

kinnaraḥ, kimpuruṣaḥ, mayuḥ, turaṅgavadanaḥ, aśvamukhaḥ, gītamodī, hariṇanartakaḥ   

devayoniḥ yasya mukham aśvasadṛśam।

kinnaraḥ nṛtyagāyanena devatān rañjayati।

kin

kinnarajātiḥ   

sā jātiḥ yā gāyanaṃ vādanaṃ ca karoti।

mohanaḥ kinnarajātiviṣaye adhikaṃ jñātum icchati।

kin

kutarkin   

yaḥ kutarkaṃ karoti।

kutarkī puruṣaḥ kutarkameva karoti।

kin

śaṅkin, śaṅkita, viśaṅkita, nityaśaṅkita, pariśaṅkita, saviśaṅka, sābhiśaṅka   

saḥ puruṣaḥ yaḥ kamapi na viśvasīti।

mānasī śaṅkinaḥ patyuḥ trastā asti।

kin

mandākinī   

gaṅgāyāḥ ekā sāhāyikā nadī।

mandākinī himālayāt udbhūtā laghvī nadī asti।

kin

anīkinī   

akṣauhiṇīdaśamāṃśeyaḥ sainyasaṃkhyāviśeṣaḥ।

anīkinyāṃ 6561 aśvāḥ 2187 hastinaḥ 10935 padātayaḥ 2187 rathāḥ ca samudāyena 21870 bhavanti।

kin

laghukinnarī   

prācīnaḥ vādyaprakāraḥ।

laghukinnarī tantrīvādyam asti।

kin

pāpī, pātakī, pātakarmī, mlecchaḥ, enasvī, pāpakartā, pāpācārī, pāpātmā, pāpinī, pātakinī, pātakarmiṇī, mlecchā, enasvinī, pāpakartrī, pāpācāriṇī, pāpātmanī   

yaḥ pāpaṃ karoti athavā yaḥ pāpaṃ kṛtavān।

pāpināṃ jīvane aśāṃtiḥ vartate।

kin

śālvakinī   

ekā paurāṇikī nadī।

śālvakinyāḥ varṇanaṃ rāmāyaṇe vartate।

kin

śālūkinītīrtham   

ekaṃ paurāṇikaṃ tīrtham।

śālūkinītīrthasya varṇanaṃ mahābhārate prāpyate।

kin

ṭaॉmī-eṭakinsa-āmram   

āmrāṇām ekaḥ prakāraḥ।

ṭaॉmī-eṭakinsa-āmram ekaḥ amerikādeśīyā jātiḥ asti।

kin

ṭaॉmī-eṭakinsa-āmraḥ   

ṭaॉmī-eṭakinsa iti nāmakānām āmrāṇāṃ vṛkṣaḥ।

prathamaḥ ṭaॉmī-eṭakinsa-āmraḥ phloriḍādeśe vardhitaḥ।

kin

saśmaśru, śmaśrudhara, śmaśruṇa, śmaśruvat, kūrcana, śmaśrula, śūkin   

śmaśruyuktaḥ।

bālakaḥ saśmaśroḥ puruṣasya śmaśruṃ karṣati।

kin

supratīkinī   

supratīkanāmakasya mahāgajasya patnī।

supratīkinyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu vartate।

kin

kinnaurajilhāpradeśaḥ   

himācala pradeśa-prānte ekaḥ jilhāpradeśaḥ;

kinnaura-jilhāpradeśasya mukhyālayaḥ kinnaura-nagaryām vartate

kin

kinnauranagaram   

bhāratadeśasya himācalapradeśe vartamānaṃ nagaram।

abdulena kinnauranagare āpaṇaḥ udghāṭitaḥ।

kin

kaśerukin   

yasya kaśerukadaṇḍaḥ asti।

manuṣyaḥ kaśerukī prāṇī asti।

kin

ekākin, ekala, ekaka   

janānāṃ sāhāyyena rahitaḥ।

saḥ sabhāyām api ekākī āsīt।

kin

api, api tu, tathāpi, param, tu, kim, kintu, ca, nanu, vā, atha vā, punaḥ   

evambhūto'pi।

jvaraḥ san api saḥ vṛthā eva itastataḥ aṭati।

kin

mandākinī   

varṇavṛttaviśeṣaḥ।

mandākinyāḥ pratyekasmin caraṇe krameṇa dvau nagaṇau dvau ragaṇau ca bhavataḥ।

kin

kiṣkindhākāṇḍam   

rāmāyaṇasya caturthaṃ kāṇḍam।

kiṣkindhākāṇḍe vālivadhasya varṇanaṃ kṛtam asti।

kin

pārkinsanavyādhiḥ   

kendrīyatantrikātantrasya ekaḥ vikāraḥ yasmin kampanaṃ tathā ca durbalaḥ peśīyaḥ samanvayaḥ bhavati।

pārkinsanavyādheḥ unnatāvasthāyāṃ manobhramaḥ bhavati।

kin

gardabhī, sitakaṇṭakārikā, śvetā, kṣetradūtī, lakṣmaṇā, sitasiṃhī, sitakṣudrā, kṣudravārtākinī, sitā, siktā, kaṭuvārtākinī, kṣetrajā, kapaṭeśvarī, niḥsnehaphalā, vāmā, sitakaṇṭhā, mahauṣadhī, candrikā, cāndrī, priyaṅkarī, nākulī, durlabhā, rāsnā śvetakaṇṭakārī   

ekā latā asyā guṇāḥ rucyatvaṃ kaṭutvaṃ kaphavātanāśitvaṃ cakṣuṣyatvaṃ dīpanatvaṃ rasaniyāmakatvaṃ ca ।

gardabhyāḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

kin

ḍākinī   

ekaṃ sthānam ।

ḍākinyāḥ ullekhaḥ śivapurāṇe vartate

kin

mandākinī   

vṛttaviśeṣaḥ ।

mandākinyāḥ ullekhaḥ chandomañjaryāṃ vartate

kin

kinī   

ekā devatā ।

kākinyaḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate









Parse Time: 1.436s Search Word: kin Input Encoding: IAST: kin