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     Grammar Search "japa" has 3 results.
     
japā: feminine nominative singular stem: japā
japa: masculine vocative singular stem: japa
japa: second person singular present imperative class 1 parasmaipadajap
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103 results for japa
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
japamfn. "muttering, whispering" See karṇe--, ku-- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japam. (;oxyt. gaRa uñchādi-) muttering prayers, repeating in a murmuring tone passages from scripture or charms or names of a deity, etc., muttered prayer or spell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japahomam. sg. and plural muttering prayers as a religious offering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japahomam. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japahomam. (maka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japahomam. dual number a muttered prayer and an offering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japamālāf. a rosary used for counting muttered prayers. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japanan. muttering prayers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japanīyamfn. to be muttered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japaparāyaṇamfn. devoted to muttering prayers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japaf. the state of one who mutters prayers (japatām- genitive case plural of japat- Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japayajñam. muttering prayers as a religious sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ajapam. a goat-herd. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ajapam. ( jap-), one who does not repeat prayers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ajapam. a reciter of heterodox works View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ajapam. See 1. aj/a-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ajapada mfn. goat-footed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ajapatham. "goat's road", probably = aja-vīthī- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ājapathikamfn. fr. aja-patha- (q.v) commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ājapathikaetc. See āja-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhakṣajapam. the prayer muttered while drinking soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhojapatim. the king of the bhoja-s, king bhoja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhojapatim. Name of kaṃsa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhojapatim. equals -rāja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūrjapattra() m. the birch tree. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japallavam. or n. (?) Name of commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmajapam. a particular formula of prayer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devajapam. Name of a vidyā-dhara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhvajapaṭam. "banner-cloth", a flag View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhvajapatākinmfn. furnished with banners and trees View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
drumakiṃnararājaparipricchāf. "the questioning of druma- etc.", Name of a Buddhist work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvārajapasūktan. plural Name of particular hymns. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvijapatim. "chief of twice-born", the moon (as produced first from atri-'s eye and again from the ocean of milk) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gajapatim. a lord or keeper of elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gajapatim. a title given to kings (exempli gratia, 'for example' to an old king in the south of jambu-dvīpa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gajapatim. a stately elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hotṛjapam. murmured recitation of the hotṛ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hotṛsaṃsthājapam. Name of a liturgical treatise. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karṇajapam. "ear-whisperer", an informer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karṇejapam. an ear-whisperer, tale-bearer, informer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārtakaujapau Nominal verb dual number m. which begins a gaṇa- of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaujapam. patronymic fr. kuja-pa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khajapan. ghee or clarified butter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kujapam. "whose protector is Mars", Name of the ancestor of kaujapa-. -2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahājapam. a particular personification View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahārudrajapavidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
manujapatim. "lord of men", a prince, king ( etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
moharājaparājayam. Name of a drama. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛtyuṃjayajapam. muttering the verse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛtyuṃjayajapam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāgarājapaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nijapakṣam. one's own party or adherents View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityajapavidhānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṅkajapattranetram. having eyes like lotus-leaves View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramarahasyajapasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātarjapam. morning prayer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
purastājjapam. a prayer murmured before View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japadan. the rank of a king, royalty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japaddhatif. a main road, principal street View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japalāṇḍum. a kind of onion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japarivartam. change of king or government View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japarṇīf. Paederia Foetida View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japatham. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) the king's highway, a main road, public road or street View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japathāyaNom. A1. yate-, to represent or be like a main road View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japati(r/āja--) m. a lord of kings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japatnīf. a king's wife, royal consort, queen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japaṭolam. Trichosanthes Dioeca (also laka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japaṭolīf. a kind of plant (equals madhura-paṭolī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japaṭṭam. a kind of precious stone or diamond of inferior quality (said to be brought from virāṭa-- deśa- in the north-west of India) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japaṭṭam. a royal fillet or tiara View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japaṭṭikāf. (prob.) intercourse with king (equals -pāṭikā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japaṭṭikāf. the bird cātaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japauruṣikamf(ī-)n. being in a king's service View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japauruṣyan. the state of a royal servant, the being View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japauruṣyan. a king's minister gaRa anuśatikādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudrajapam. Name of a prayer or hymn addressed to rudra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudrajapakalpamfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudrajapanan. the recitation of the rudra-japa- in a low tone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudrajapapañcādhyāyam. plural Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudrajapavidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudrasūktajapam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāgaranāgarājaparipṛcchāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sajapamfn. together with the tūṣṇīṃ-japa- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sajapam. a particular class of ascetics View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃhitājapam. the recitation of a saṃhitā- (of the veda-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃsthājapam. a closing prayer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhakṣajapam. somabhakṣa
śūdrajapavidhānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śukladhvajapatākinmfn. having a white banner and flag (śiva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūryadhvajapatākinmfn. having the sun on his standard and flag (said of śiva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tejapattraSee jaḥ-p-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tūṣṇīṃjapam. a prayer muttered silently View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tyajapa(ty/a--) m. that (id est a lower kind of) muttering (opposed to mahājap/a-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japastya(v/āja--) mfn. possessing or bestowing a house full of wealth or treasure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japati(v/āja--) m. the lord of booty or reward (said of agni-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
japatnī(v/āja--) f. the queen of booty or treasure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vanajapattrākṣamf(ī-)n. () lotus-(leaf-)eyed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varadarājapañcāśatf. varadarāja
varuṇajapam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijañjapamfn. (fr. Intensive of jap-) whispering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vrajapaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vrājapati(or vrāj/a-p-) m. the lord of a troop or host View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yantrarājapaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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japa जप a. [जप्-कर्तरि अच्] Muttering, whispering. -पः 1 Muttering prayers, repeating prayers &c. in an under-tone. -2 Repeating passages of the Veda or names of deities &c.; Ms.3.74; Y.1.22. -3 A muttered prayer. -4 Counting silently the beads of a rosary &c. -Comp. -परायण a. engaged in muttering prayers. -माला a rosary of beads. -यज्ञः, -होमः muttering prayers as a sacrifice; विधियज्ञाज्जपयज्ञो विशिष्टो दशभिर्गुणैः Ms.2.85; Y.1.11; Ms.1.111.
japanam जपनम् [जप्-भावे ल्युट्] The muttering of prayers; संन्यास एव वेदान्ते वर्तते जपनं प्रति । वेदवादाश्च निर्वृत्ताः शान्ता ब्रह्मण्य- वस्थिताः Mb.12.196.7.
japat जपत् m. An ascetic; प्रणतो विनयाद्वीरो वसिष्ठं जपतां वरम् Rām.1.52.1.
ajapa अजपः [अस्पष्टं जपति निन्दार्थे नञ्, जप्-अच्] A Brāhmaṇa who does not (properly) repeat his prayers (कुपाठक); अजपा ब्राह्मणास्तात शूद्रा जपपरायणाः । भविष्यन्ति कलौ Mb.; one who reads heretical works. -पा [प्रयत्नेन न जप्या अप्रयत्नो- च्चारितत्वात्; कर्मणि अच्] N. of a Mantra called हंस, which consists of a number of inhalations an exhalations (श्वासप्रश्वासयोः बहिर्गमनागमनाभ्याम् अक्षरनिष्पादनरूपो जपः स च हंसः सो$हम् इत्याकार एव उच्छ्वासैरेव निश्वासैर्हंस इत्यक्षरद्वयम् । तस्मात्प्राणश्च हंसाख्य आत्माकारेण सस्थितः ॥)
karṇejapa कर्णेजपः [कर्णे-जप्-अच् अलुक् समासः; cf. P.III.2.13.] A secret tale-bearer, An informer (Mar. कानाशीं लागणारा); पुरा कर्णेजपीभूय पुनः पुनरुपेयुषा Śiva. B.23.37. कर्णेजपैराहितराज्यलोभा Bk.3.7.
khajapam खजपम् Clarified butter, ghee.
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japa a. whispering; m. muttering (prayers etc.); murmured prayer.
japamālā f. rosary; -yagña, m. sacrifice of muttered prayer; -homa, m. sg. & pl. offering of muttered prayer: du. mut tered prayer and an offering.
japana n. muttering of prayers; -anîya, fp. to be muttered.
ajapa aga-pa, ˚pāla m. goat-herd.
prātarjapa m. morning prayer; -nâdin, m. (crowing early), cock; -dugdhá, (pp.) n. morning milk; -doha, m. id.; morn ing milking; -yagña, m. morning sacrifice; -y&asharp;van, a. going out early; -yuktá, a. yoked early (car); -yúg, a. yoking early; yoked early; -vastri, a. shining early; -huta, n., -homa, m. early sacrifice.
japaṭṭa m. kind of gem, dia mond of inferior quality; -patnî, f. consort of a king; -patha, m. royal road, highway; -paddhati, f. id.; -pitri, m. royal father; -putrá, 1. m. king's son, prince; Râjput (a mixed caste, offspring of Vaisya and Am bashthâ or Kshatriya and Karanî); son of the moon, planet Mercury: î, f. king's daugh ter, female Râjput; (r&asharp;ga)-putra, 2. a. hav ing kings as sons (RV.1); -putraka, m. king's son, prince: ikâ, f. princess; -putra-loka, m. assemblage of princes; -pums, m. royal servant or official; -pura, n. Kingstown, N. of a town; -purî, f. N. of a town; -pu rusha, m. king's man, royal servant or offi cial; -pûrusha, m. metr.=-purusha; -pau rushika, a. being in the service of a king; -prakriti, f. king's minister; -priyâ, f. mis tress of a king; mistress of the moon; -presh ya, m. king's servant; n. royal service; -bandin, m. N.; -bândhava, m. relation of a king: î, f. female relation of a king; -bîg in, a. of royal descent; -bhakti-puras krita, pp. distinguished by devotion to their king; -bhata, m. royal mercenary, soldier; -bhaya, n. fear of a king; danger from a king; -bhavana, n. royal palace; -bhâryâ, f. king's spouse; -bhrita, m. soldier; -bhri tya, m. king's servant; -bhauta, m. fool of a king; -bhratrí, m. king's brother; -mani, m. kind ofjewel; -mandira, n. royal palace; -mahishî, f. chief consort of a king; king's wife; -mâtri, f. king's mother, queen mother.
japati m. lord of booty, etc.; (v&asharp;ga)-patnî, f. queen of treasure (V.); -pé ya, m. n. draught of battle or strength, a kind of Soma sacrifice; -prasûta, pp. urged on by strength (RV.).
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aja This is the ordinary name for goat in the Rigveda and the later literature. The goat is also called Basta, Chāga, Chagala. Goats and sheep (ajāvayah) are very frequently mentioned together. The female goat is spoken of as pro­ducing two or three kids, and goat’s milk is well known. The goat as representative of Pūsan plays an important part in the ritual of burial. The occupation of a goatherd (ajapāla) was a recognized one, being distinguished from that of a cow­herd and of a shepherd.
kula As an uncompounded word, Kula does not occur before the period of the Brāhmanas. It denotes the*home ’ or ‘ house of the family,’ and by metonymy the family itself, as connected with the home. The Kula-pā (lit. ‘ house protector ’), or chief of the family, is mentioned in the Rigveda as inferior to and attendant on the Vrājapati in war, the latter being perhaps the leader of the village contingent of the clan. In the Atharvaveda a girl is ironically called Kulapā, because she is left without a husband in the world, and has only Yama (the god of death) for a spouse. The use of the term Kula points clearly to a system of individual families, each no doubt consisting of several members under the headship of the father or eldest brother, whose Kula the dwelling is. As distinct from Gotra, Kula seems to mean the family in the narrower sense of the members who still live in one house, the undivided family. Cf Grha, Grāma, Jana, Viś.
dharma Are the regular words, the latter in the Rigveda, and both later, for ‘ law ’ or ‘ custom.’ But there is very little evidence in the early literature as to the administra­tion of justice or the code of law followed. On the other hand, the Dharma Sūtras contain full particulars.Criminal Law.—The crimes recognized in Vedic literature vary greatly in importance, while there is no distinction adopted in principle between real crimes and what now are regarded as fanciful bodily defects or infringements of merely conventional practices. The crimes enumerated include the slaying of an embryo (
nakṣatra Is a word of obscure origin and derivation. The Indian interpreters already show a great divergence of opinion as to its primary meaning. The śatapatha Brāhmana re­solves it into na-ksatra (‘ no power ’), explaining it by a legend. The Nirukta refers it to the root naks, ‘obtain/ following the Taittirīya Brāhmana. Aufrecht and Weber derived it from nakta-tra, ‘ guardian of night/ and more recently the derivation from nak-ksatra, ‘ having rule over night/ seems to be gaining acceptance. The generic meaning of the word therefore seems to be ‘star/ The Naksatras as Stars in the Rigveda and Later.—The sense of star ’ appears to be adequate for all or nearly all the passages in which Naksatra occurs in the Rigveda. The same sense occurs in the later Samhitās also : the sun and the Naksatras are mentioned together, or the sun, the moon, and the Naksatras, or the moon and the Naksatras, or the Naksatras alone; but there is no necessity to attribute to the word the sense of lunar mansion ’ in these passages. On the other hand, the names of at least three of the Naksatras in the later sense occur in the Rigveda. Tisya, however, does not seem to be mentioned as a lunar mansion. With Aghās (plur.) and Arjunī (dual) the case is different: it seems probable that they are the later lunar mansions called Maghās (plur.) and Phālgunī (dual). The names appear to have been deliberately changed in the Rigveda, and it must be remembered that the hymn in which they occur, the wedding hymn of Sūryā, has no claim to great age. Ludwig and Zimmer have seen other references to the Naksatras as 27 in the Rigveda, but these seem most improbable. Nor do the adjectives revatī (£ rich ’) and punarvasīi (‘ bringing wealth again’) in another hymn appear to refer to the Naksatras. The Naksatras as Lunar Mansions.—In several passages of the later Samhitās the connexion of the moon and the Naksatras is conceived of as a marriage union. Thus in the Kāthaka and Taittirīya Samhitās it is expressly stated that Soma was wedded to the mansions, but dwelt only with Rohinī; the others being angry, he had ultimately to undertake to live with them all equally. Weber hence deduced that the Naksatras were regarded as of equal extent, but this is to press the texts unduly, except in the sense of approximate equality. The number of the mansions is not stated as 27 in the story told in the two Samhitās: the Taittīriya has, and the Kāthaka no number; but 27 appears as their number in the list which is found in the Taittirīya Samhitā and elsewhere. The number 28 is much less well attested: in one passage of the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is practically marked as a new comer, though in a later book, in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and in the Atharvaveda list,27 it has found acceptance. It is perfectly possible that 28 is the earlier number, and that Abhijit dropped out because it was faint, or too far north, or because 27 was a more mystic (3x3x3) number: it is significant that the Chinese Sieou and the Arabic Manāzil are 28 in number.28 Weber, however, believes that 27 is the older number in India. The meaning of the number is easily explained when it is remembered that a periodic month occupies something between 27 and 28 days, more nearly the former number. Such a month is in fact recognized in the Lātyāyana and Nidāna Sūtras as consisting of 27 days, 12 months making a year of 324 days, a Naksatra year, or with an intercalary month, a year of 351 days. The Nidāna Sūtra makes an attempt to introduce the Naksatra reckoning into the civil or solar (sāvana) year of 360 days, for it holds that the sun spends 13J• days in each Naksatra (13^x27 = 360). But the month of 27 or 28 days plays no part in the chronological calculations of the Veda. The Names of the Naksatras.—In addition to the two mentioned in the Rigveda, the earlier Atharvaveda gives the names of Jyesthaghnī (the later Jyesthā) and Vicrtau, which are mentioned as in close connexion, and of Revatīs (plural) and Kyttikās. With reference to possible times for the ceremony of the Agnyādhāna, or Maying of the sacred fires/ the Kāthaka Samhitā, the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and the Taittirīya Brāhmana mention the Naksatras called Krttikās, Rohinī, Phalgunyas, Hasta; the latter Brāhmana adds Punar- vasū, and in an additional remark excludes Pūrve Phālgunī in favour of Uttare Phālgunī. The śatapatha Brāhmana adds Mrgaśīrsa and Citrā as possibilities. On the other hand, Punarvasū is recommended by all authorities as suitable for the Punarādheya, 'relaying of the sacred fires,’ which takes place if the first fire has failed to effect the aim of its existence, the prosperity of the sacrificer. The Kāthaka Samhitā, however, allows Anurādhās also. In the ceremony of the Agnicayana, or 'piling of the fire- altar,’ the bricks are assumed to be equal in number to the Naksatras. The bricks number 756, and they are equated to 27 Naksatras multiplied by 27 secondary Naksatras, reckoned as 720 (instead of 729), with the addition of 36 days, the length of an intercalary month. Nothing can be usefully derived from this piece of priestly nonsense. But in connexion with this ceremony the Yajurveda Samhitās enumerate the 27, The Taittirīya Brāhmana has a list of the Naksatras which agrees generally with the list of the Samhitās. It runs as follows: Kyttikās, Rohinī, Invakās, Bāhū (dual), Tisya, Aśleṣās, Maghās, Pūrve Phālgunī, Uttare Phālgunī, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Rohinī, Mūlabarhanī, Pūrvā Asādhās', Uttarā Asādhās, Sronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Pūrve Prosthapadās, Uttare Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Apabharanīs. In a later book, however, the list grows to 28, and the full moon is inserted after number 14, and the new moon after number, as an attempt to bring the Naksatra (lunar) month into accordance with the Sāvana (solar) month of 30 days. The names in this second list are as in the Samhitās with the following exceptions. The seven stars of the Krttikās are named as Ambā, Dulā, Nitatnī, Abhrayantī, Meghayantī, Varsayantī, Cupunīkā, names found also in the Taittirīya and Kāthaka Samhitās. Beside Mrgaśīrsa, Invakās are also mentioned. Then come Ardrā, Punarvasū, Tisya, Aśresās, Maghās (beside which Anaghās, Agadās, and Arun- dhatīs are also mentioned), Phalgunyas (but elsewhere in the dual, Phalgunyau), Phalgunyas, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Jyesthā, Mūla, Asādhās, Asā(jhās, Abhijit, śronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Prosthapadās, Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas, but also Apabharanīs. Abhijit, which occurs also in an earlier part of the Brāhmana, is perhaps interpolated. But Weber’s argument that Abhijit is out of place in this list because Brāhmana is here mentioned as the 28th Naksatra, loses some force from the fact (of course unknown to him) that the list in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā contains 28 Naksatras, including Abhijit, and adds Brāhmana at the end as another. In another passage the Taittirīya Brāhmana divides the Naksatras into two sets, the Deva Naksatras and the Yama Naksatras, being 1-14 and 15-27 (with the omission of Abhijit) respectively. This division corresponds with one in the third book of the Brāhmana60 where the days of the light half of the month and those of the dark half are equated with the Naksatras. The Brāhmana treats the former series as south, the latter as north; but this has no relation to facts, and can only be regarded as a ritual absurdity. The late nineteenth book of the Atharvaveda contains a list of the Naksatras, including Abhijit. The names here (masc.), Viśākhe, Anurādhā, Jyesthā, Mūla, Pūrvā Asādhās, Uttarā Asādhās, Abhijit, śravana, śravisthās, śatabhisaj, Dvayā Prosthapadā, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas. The Position of the Naksatras.—There is nothing definite in Vedic literature regarding the position of most of the Naksatras, but the later astronomy precisely locates all of them, and its statements agree on the whole satisfactorily with what is said in the earlier texts, though Weber was inclined to doubt this. The determinations adopted below are due to Whitney in his notes on the Sūrya Siddhānta. 1.Krttikās are unquestionably η Tauri, etc., the Pleiades. The names of the seven stars forming this constellation, and given above from Yajurveda texts, include three --------abhrayantī, forming clouds meghayantī, ‘making cloudy’; varsayantī, ‘causing rain’—which clearly refer to the rainy Pleiades. The word krttikā possibly means ‘web/ from the root krt, spin.’ 2. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy,’ is the name of the conspicuously reddish star, a Tauri or Aldebaran, and denotes the group of the Hyades, <* θ y 8 e Tauri. Its identification seems absolutely assured by the legend of Prajāpati in the Aitareya Brāhmana. He is there represented as pursuing his daughter with incestuous intention, and as having been shot with an arrow (Isu Trikāndā, ‘ the belt of Orion ’) by the huntsman ’ (Mrgavyādha, Sirius ’). Prajāpati is clearly Orion (Mrgaśiras being the name of the little group of stars in Orion’s head). 3.Mrgaśīrsa or Mrgaśiras, also called Invakā or Invagā, seems to be the faint stars λ, φ,1 φ2 Orionis. They are called Andhakā, * blind,’ in the śāntikalpa of the Atharvaveda, probably because of their dimness. 4.Ardrā, ‘ moist,’ is the name of the brilliant star, α Orionis. But the names by which it is styled, in the plural as Árdrās in the śāñkhāyana Grhya Sūtra and the Naksatrakalpa, and in the dual as Bāhú, in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, point to a constellation of two or more stars, and it may be noted that the corresponding Chinese Sieou includes the seven brilliant stars composing the shoulders, the belt, and the knees of Orion. 5. Punarvasu, the two that give wealth again,’ denotes the two stars, a and β Geminorum, on the heads of Castor and Pollux. The name is no doubt connected with the beneficent character of the Aśvins, who correspond to the Dioscuri. 6.Tisya or Pusya includes the somewhat faint group in the body of the Crab, 7, δ, and θ Cancri. The singular is rather curious, as primarily one star would seem to have been meant, and none of the group is at all prominent. 7. Aśresās or Aślesās, which in some texts is certainly to be read Aśresās or Aślesas, denotes δ, e, η, p, σ, and perhaps also ζ, Hydrse. The word means ‘embracer,’ a name which admirably fits the constellation. 8. Maghās, the ‘bounties,’ are the Sickle, or α, γ, ζ, μ, e Leonis. The variants Anaghā, the ‘ sinless one,’ etc.,clearly refer to the auspicious influence of the constellation. 9. 10. Phālgunī, Phalgunyau, Phalgū, Phalg-unīs, Phal- gunyas, is really a double constellation, divided into Pūrve, ‘ former,’ and Uttare, ‘latter.’ The former is δ and θ Leonis, the latter β and Leonis. According to Weber, the word denotes, like Arjunī, the variant of the Rigveda, a ‘ bright- coloured ’ constellation. 11. Hasta, ‘hand,’ is made up of the five conspicuous stars (δ> Ί, e, a, β) in Corvus, a number which the word itself suggests. According to Geldner, the ‘ five bulls ’ of the Rigveda are this constellation. 12. Citrā, ‘bright,’ is the beautiful star, a Virginis. It is mentioned in a legend of Indra in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, and in that of the ‘ two divine dogs ’ (divyau śvānau) in the śatapatha Brāhmana. 13. Svāti or Nistyā is later clearly the brilliant star Arcturus or a Bootis, its place in the north being assured by the notice in the śāntikalpa, where it is said to be ‘ ever traversing the northern way ’ (nityam uttara-mārgagam). The Taittirīya Brāhmana, however, constructs an asterismal Prajāpati, giving him Citrā (α Virginis) for head, Hasta (Corvus) for hand, the Viśākhe (α and β Librae) for thighs, and the Anurādhās (β, δ, and 7r Scorpionis) for standing place, with Nistyā for heart. But Arcturus, being 30° out, spoils this figure, while, on the other hand, the Arabic and Chinese systems have respectively, instead of Arcturus, Virginis and κ Virginis, which would well fit into the Prajāpati figure. But in spite of the force of this argument of Weber’s, Whitney is not certain that Nistyā here must mean a star in Virgo, pointing out that the name Nistyā, ‘outcast,’ suggests the separation of this Naksatra from the others in question. 14.Viśākhe is the couple of stars a and β Librae. This mansion is later called Rādhā according to the Amarakośa, and it is curious that in the Atharvaveda the expression rādho Viśākhe, the Viśākhe are prosperity,’ should occur. But probably Rādhā is merely an invention due to the name of the next Naksatra, Anurādhā, wrongly conceived as meaning that which is after or follows Rādhā.’ 15. Anūrādhās or Anurādhā, propitious,’ is β, δ, and tγ (perhaps also p) Scorpionis. 16. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy ’; Jyesthaghnī, * slaying the eldest ’; or Jyesthā, ‘eldest,’ is the name of the constellation σ, α, and τ Scorpionis, of which the central star, a, is the brilliant reddish Antares (or Cor Scorpionis). 17.Vicrtau, ‘ the two releasers ’; Mūla, ‘ root or Mūla- barhanī, ‘ uprooting,’ denote primarily λ and v at the extremity of the tail of the Scorpion, but including also the nine or eleven stars from e to v. 18.19. Asādhās (‘ unconquered ’), distinguished as Pūrvās, ‘ former,’ and Uttarās, ‘ latter,’ are really two constellations, of which the former is composed of γ, δ, e, and η Sagittarii, or of 8 and e only, and the latter of θ, σ, t, and ξ Sagittarii, or of two, σ and ζ, only. It is probable that originally only four stars forming a square were meant as included in the whole constellation —viz., σ and f, with 8 and e. 20. Abhijit is the brilliant star a Lyrse with its two companions e and ζ. Its location in 6o° north latitude is completely discordant with the position of the corresponding Arabian and Chinese asterisms. This fact is considered by Oldenberg to support the view that it was a later addition to the system; its occurrence, however, as early as the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, which he does not note, somewhat invalidates that view. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is said to be ‘over Asādhās, under śronā,’ which Weber held to refer to its position in space, inferring thence that its Vedic position corresponded to that of the Arab Manāzil and the Chinese Sieou—viz., a, β Capricorni. But Whitney argues effectively that the words ‘ over ’ and ‘ under ’ really refer to the place of Abhijit in the list, ‘ after ’ Asādhās and ‘ before ’ Sronā. 21. Sronā, ‘lame,’ or Sravana, ‘ ear,’ denotes the bright star a Aquilai with β below and 7 above it. Weber very need- lessly thinks that the name Sravana suggested two ears and the head between. It is quite out of correspondence with the Manāzil and the Sieou, and is clearly an Indian invention. 22. śravisthās, ‘ most famous,’ or later Dhanisthās, ‘most wealthy,’ is the diamond-shaped group, α, β, δ, and 7, in the Dolphin, perhaps also ζ in the same constellation. Like the preceding Naksatra, it is out of harmony with the Manāzil and Sieou. 23. Satabhisaj or śatabhisa, ‘having a hundred physicians,’ seems to be λ Aquarii with the others around it vaguely conceived as numbering a hundred. 24. 25. Prostha-padās (fem. plur.), ‘ feet of a stool,’ or later Bhadra-padās,100 ‘auspicious feet,’ a double asterism forming a square, the former (pūrva) consisting of a and β Pegasi, the latter (uttara) of γ Pegasi and a Andromedse. 26. Revatī, ‘ wealthy,’ denotes a large number of stars (later 32), of which ζ Piscium, close upon the ecliptic where it was crossed by the equator of about 570 a.d., is given as the southernmost. 27. Aśva-yujau, ‘the two horse-harnessers,’ denotes the stars β and ζ Arietis. Aśvinyau101 and Aśvinī102 are later names. 28. Apabharanīs, Bharanīs, or Bharanyas, ‘ the bearers,’ is the name of the small triangle in the northern part of the Ram known as Musca or 35, 39, and 41 Arietis. The Naksatras and the Months.—In the Brāhmanas the Naksatra names are regularly used to denote dates. This is done in two ways. The name, if not already a feminine, may be turned into a feminine and compounded with pūrna-māsa, ‘the full moon,’ as in Tisyā-pūrnamāsa, ‘the full moon in the Naksatra Tisya.’103 Much more often, however, it is turned into a derivative adjective, used with paurnamāsī, ‘the full moon (night)/ or with amāvāsyā, ‘the new moon (night)/ as in Phālgunī paurnamāsl, ‘the full-moon night in the Naksatra Phālgunī’;104 or, as is usual in the Sūtras, the Naksatra adjective alone is used to denote the full-moon night. The month itself is called by a name derived105 from that of a Naksatra, but only Phālguna,106 Caitra,107 Vaiśākha,108 Taisya,109 Māgha110 occur in the Brāhmanas, the complete list later being Phālguna, Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyaistha, Asādha, Srāvana, Prausthapada, Aśvayuja, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrsa, Taisya, Māgha. Strictly speaking, these should be lunar months, but the use of a lunar year was clearly very restricted: we have seen that as early as the Taittirīya Brāhmana there was a tendency to equate lunar months with the twelve months of thirty days which made up the solar year (see Māsa). The Naksatras and Chronology.—(i) An endeavour has been made to ascertain from the names of the months the period at which the systematic employment of those names was intro¬duced. Sir William Jones111 refers to this possibility, and Bentley, by the gratuitous assumption that śrāvana always marked the summer solstice, concluded that the names of the months did not date before b.c. Ii8I. Weber112 considered that there was a possibility of fixing a date by this means, but Whitney113 has convincingly shown that it is an impossible feat, and Thibaut114 concurs in this view. Twelve became fixed as the number of the months because of the desire, evident in the Brāhmanas, somehow or other to harmonize lunar with solar time; but the selection of twelve Naksatras out of twenty-seven as connected with the night of full moon can have no chronological significance, because full moon at no period occurred in those twelve only, but has at all periods occurred in every one of the twenty-seven at regularly recurrent intervals. (2) All the lists of the Naksatras begin with Krttikās. It is only fair to suppose that there was some special reason for this fact. Now the later list of the Naksatras begins with Aśvinī, and it was unquestionably rearranged because at the time of its adoption the vernal equinox coincided with the star ζ Piscium on the border of Revatī and Aśvinī, say in the course of the sixth century A.D. Weber has therefore accepted the view that the Krttikās were chosen for a similar reason, and the date at which that Naksatra coincided with the vernal equinox has been estimated at some period in the third millennium B.C. A very grave objection to this view is its assumption that the sun, and not the moon, was then regarded as connected with the Naksatras; and both Thibaut and Oldenberg have pronounced decidedly against the idea of connecting the equinox with the Krttikās. Jacobi has contended that in the Rigveda the commencement of the rains and the summer solstice mark the beginning of the new year and the end of the old, and that further the new year began with the summer solstice in Phālgunī.121 He has also referred to the distinction of the two sets of Deva and Yama Naksatras in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as supporting his view of the connexion of the sun and the Naksatras. But this view is far from satisfactory: the Rigveda passages cannot yield the sense required except by translating the word dvādaśa123 as 4 the twelfth (month) * instead of consisting of twelve parts,’ that is, ‘year/ the accepted interpretation; and the division of the Naksatras is not at all satisfactorily explained by a supposed connexion with the sun. It may further be mentioned that even if the Naksatra of Krttikās be deemed to have been chosen because of its coincidence with the vernal equinox, both Whitney and Thibaut are pre¬pared to regard it as no more than a careless variant of the date given by the Jyotisa, which puts the winter solstice in Māgha. (3) The winter solstice in Māgha is assured by a Brāhmana text, for the Kausītaki Brāhmana12® expressly places it in the new moon of Māgha (māghasyāmāυāsyāyām). It is not very important whether we take this with the commentators as the new moon in the middle of a month commencing with the day after full moon in Taisa, or, which is much more likely, as the new moon beginning the month and preceding full moon in Māgha. The datum gives a certain possibility of fixing an epoch in the following way. If the end of Revatī marked the vernal equinox at one period, then the precession of the equinoxes would enable us to calculate at what point of time the vernal equinox was in a position corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha, when the solstitial colure cut the ecliptic at the beginning of Sravisthās. This would be, on the strict theory, in the third quarter of Bharanī, 6f asterisms removed from Sravisthās, and the difference between that and the beginning of Aśvinī = if asterisms = 23 (27 asterisms being = 360°). Taking, the starting-point at 499 a.d., the assured period of Varāha Mihira, Jones arrived at the date B.C. 1181 for the vernal equinox corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha—that is, on the basis of ι° = 72 years as the precession. Pratt arrived at precisely the same date, taking the same rate of precession and adopting as his basis the ascertained position in the Siddhantas of the junction star of Maghā, a Leonis or Regulus. Davis and Colebrooke arrived at a different date, B.C. 1391, by taking as the basis of their calculation the junction star of Citrā, which happens to be of uncertain position, varying as much as 30 in the different textbooks. But though the twelfth century has received a certain currency as the epoch of the observation in the Jyotisa, it is of very doubtful value. As Whitney points out, it is impossible to say that the earlier asterisms coincided in position with the later asterisms of 13J0 extent each. They were not chosen as equal divisions, but as groups of stars which stood in conjunction with the moon; and the result of subsequently making them strictly equal divisions was to throw the principal stars of the later groups altogether out of their asterisms. Nor can we say that the star ζ Piscium early formed the eastern boundary of Revatī; it may possibly not even have been in that asterism at all, for it is far remote from the Chinese and Arabic asterisms corresponding to Revatī. Added to all this, and to the uncertainty of the starting-point— 582 a.d., 560 a.d., or 491 a.d. being variants —is the fact that the place of the equinox is not a matter accurately determin¬able by mere observation, and that the Hindu astronomers of the Vedic period cannot be deemed to have been very accurate observers, since they made no precise determination of the number of days of the year, which even in the Jyotisa they do not determine more precisely than as 366 days, and even the Sūrya Siddhānta136 does not know the precession of the equinoxes. It is therefore only fair to allow a thousand years for possible errors,137 and the only probable conclusion to be drawn from the datum of the Kausītaki Brāhmana is that it was recording an observation which must have been made some centuries B.C., in itself a result quite in harmony with the probable date of the Brāhmana literature,138 say B.C. 800-600. (4) Another chronological argument has been derived from the fact that there is a considerable amount of evidence for Phālguna having been regarded as the beginning of the year, since the full moon in Phālgunī is often described as the ‘ mouth (mukham) of the year.’139 Jacobi140 considers that this was due to the fact that the year was reckoned from the winter solstice, which would coincide with the month of Phālguna about B.C. 4000. Oldenberg and Thibaut, on the other hand, maintain that the choice of Phālguna as the ‘ mouth ’ of the year was due to its being the first month of spring. This view is favoured by the fact that there is distinct evidence of the correspondence of Phālguna and the beginning of spring : as we have seen above in the Kausītaki Brāhmana, the new moon in Māgha is placed at the winter solstice, which puts the full moon of Phālgunī at a month and a half after the winter solstice, or in the first week of February, a date not in itself improbable for about B.C. 800, and corresponding with the February 7 of the veris initium in the Roman Calendar. This fact accords with the only natural division of the year into three periods of four months, as the rainy season lasts from June 7-10 to October 7-10, and it is certain that the second set of four months dates from the beginning of the rains (see Cāturmāsya). Tilak, on the other hand, holds that the winter solstice coincided with Māghī full moon at the time of the Taittirīya Samhitā (b.c. 2350), and had coincided with Phālgunī and Caitrī in early periods—viz., B.C. 4000-2500, and B.C. 6000¬4000. (5) The passages of the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, which treat the full moon in Phālguna as the beginning of the year, give as an alternative the full moon in Caitra. Probably the latter month was chosen so as to secure that the initial day should fall well within the season of spring, and was not, as Jacobi believes, a relic of a period when the winter solstice corresponded with Caitra. Another alternative is the Ekāstakā, interpreted by the commentators as the eighth day after the full moon in Maghās, a time which might, as being the last quarter of the waning half of the old year, well be considered as representing the end of the year. A fourth alternative is the fourth day before full moon; the full moon meant must be that of Caitra, as Álekhana quoted by Ápastamba held, not of Māgha, as Asmarathya, Laugāksi and the Mīmāmsists believed, and as Tilak believes. (6) Others, again, according to the Grhya ritual, began the year with the month Mārgaśīrsa, as is shown by its other name Agrahāyana (‘ belonging to the commencement of the year ’). Jacobi and Tilak think that this one denoted the autumn equinox in Mrgaśiras, corresponding to the winter solstice in Phālgunī. But, as Thibaut shows clearly, it was selected as the beginning of a year that was taken to commence with autumn, just as some took the spring to commence with Caitra instead of Phālguna. (7) Jacobi has also argued, with the support of Buhler, from the terms given for the beginning of Vedic study in the Grhya Sūtras, on the principle that study commenced with the rains (as in the Buddhist vassā) which mark the summer solstice. He concludes that if Bhādrapada appears as the date of commencing study in some texts, it was fixed thus because at one time Prosthapadās (the early name of Bhadra- padās) coincided with the summer solstice, this having been the case when the winter solstice was in Phālguna. But Whitney155 has pointed out that this argument is utterly illegitimate; we cannot say that there was any necessary connexion between the rains and learning—a month like Srāvana might be preferred because of its connexion with the word Sravana, 4 ear ’—and in view of the precession of the equinoxes, we must assume that Bhādrapada was kept because of its traditional coincidence with the beginning of the rains after it had ceased actually so to coincide. the other astronomical phenomena; the discovery of a series of 27 lunar mansions by them would therefore be rather surprising. On the other hand, the nature of such an operation is not very complicated ; it consists merely in selecting a star or a star group with which the moon is in conjunction. It is thus impossible a priori to deny that the Vedic Indians could have invented for themselves a lunar Zodiac. But the question is complicated by the fact that there exist two similar sets of 28 stars or star groups in Arabia and in China, the Manāzil and the Sieou. The use of the Manāzil in Arabia is consistent and effective ; the calendar is regulated by them, and the position of the asterisms corresponds best with the positions required for a lunar Zodiac. The Indians might therefore have borrowed the system from Arabia, but that is a mere possibility, because the evidence for the existence of the Manāzil is long posterior to that for the existence of the Naksatras, while again the Mazzaroth or Mazzaloth of the Old Testament may really be the lunar mansions. That the Arabian system is borrowed from India, as Burgess held, is, on the other hand, not at all probable. Biot, the eminent Chinese scholar, in a series of papers published by him between. 1839 and 1861, attempted to prove the derivation of the Naksatra from the Chinese Sieou. The latter he did not regard as being in origin lunar mansions at all. He thought that they were equatorial stars used, as in modern astronomy, as a standard to which planets or other stars observed in the neighbourhood can be referred; they were, as regards twenty-four of them, selected about B.C. 2357 on account of their proximity to the equator, and of their having the same right ascension as certain circumpolar stars which had attracted the attention of Chinese observers. Four more were added in B.C. IIOO in order to mark the equinoxes and solstices of the period. He held that the list of stars commenced with Mao (= Krttikās), which was at the vernal equinox in B.C. 2357. Weber, in an elaborate essay of i860, disputed this theory, and endeavoured to show that the Chinese literary evidence for the Sieou was late, dating not even from before the third century B.C. The last point does not appear to be correct, but his objections against the basis of Biot’s theory were rein¬forced by Whitney, who insisted that Biot’s supposition of the Sieou’s not having been ultimately derived from a system of lunar mansions, was untenable. This is admitted by the latest defender of the hypothesis of borrowing from China, Lśopold de Saussure, , but his arguments in favour of a Chinese origin for the Indian lunar mansions have been refuted by Oldenberg, who has also pointed out that the series does not begin with Mao ( = Krttikās). There remains only the possibility that a common source for all the three sets—Naksatra, Manāzil, and Sieou—may be found in Babylonia. Hommel has endeavoured to show that recent research has established in Babylonia the existence of a lunar zodiac of twenty-four members headed by the Pleiades ( = Krttikās); but Thibaut’s researches are not favourable to this claim. On the other hand, Weber, Whitney, Zimmer, and Oldenberg all incline to the view that in Babylonia is to be found the origin of the system, and this must for the present be regarded as the most probable view, for there are other traces of Babylonian influence in Vedic literature, such as the legend of the flood, perhaps the Adityas, and possibly the word Manā.
pataṅga prājāpatya (‘Descendant of Prajāpati ’) is credited by the Anukramanī (Index) with the authorship of a hymn of the Rigveda in which Patañga means the ‘sun-bird.’ He is also mentioned in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana.
pati Under these words denoting primarily, as the evidence collected in the St. Petersburg Dictionary shows, ‘ lord ’ and ‘ lady,’ and so * husband ’ and * wife,’ it is convenient to consider the marital relations of the Vedic community. Child Marriage.—Marriage in the early Vedic texts appears essentially as a union of two persons of full development. This is shown by the numerous references to unmarried girls who grow old in the house of their fathers (amā-jur), and who adorn themselves in desire of marriage, as well as to the paraphernalia of spells and potions used in the Atharvavedic tradition to compel the love of man or woman respectively, while even the Rigveda itself seems to present us with a spell by which a lover seeks to send all the household to sleep when he visits his beloved. Child wives first occur regularly in the Sūtra period, though it is still uncertain to what extent the rule of marriage before puberty there obtained. The marriage ritual also quite clearly presumes that the marriage is a real and not a nominal one: an essential feature is the taking of the bride to her husband’s home, and the ensuing cohabitation. Limitations on Marriage.—It is difficult to say with certainty within what limits marriage was allowed. The dialogue of Yama and Yam! in the Rigveda seems clearly to point to a prohibition of the marriage of brother and sister. It can hardly be said, as Weber thinks, to point to a practice that was once in use and later became antiquated. In the Gobhila Grhya Sūtra and the Dharma Sūtras are found prohibitions against marriage in the Gotra (‘ family ’) or within six degrees on the mother’s or father’s side, but in the śatapatha Brāh-mana marriage is allowed in the third or fourth generation, the former being allowed, according to Harisvamin, by the Kanvas, and the second by the Saurāstras, while the Dāksi- nātyas allowed marriage with the daughter of the mother’s brother or the son of the father’s sister, but presumably not with the daughter of the mother’s sister or the son of the father’s brother. The prohibition of marriage within the Gotra cannot then have existed, though naturally marriages outside the Gotra were frequent. Similarity of caste was also not an essential to marriage, as hypergamy was permitted even by the Dharma Sūtras, so that a Brāhmana could marry wives of any lower caste, a Ksatriya wives of the two lowest castes as well as of his own caste, a Vaiśya a Sūdrā as well as a Vaiśyā, although the Sūdrā marriages were later disapproved in toto. Instances of such intermarriage are common in the Epic, and are viewed as normal in the Brhaddevatā. It was considered proper that the younger brothers and sisters should not anticipate their elders by marrying before them. The later Samhitās and Brāhmanas present a series of names expressive of such anticipation, censuring as sinful those who bear them. These terms are the pari-vividāna, or perhaps agre-dadhus, the man who, though a younger brother, marries before his elder brother, the latter being then called the parivitta; the agre-didhisu, the man who weds a younger daughter while her elder sister is still unmarried; and the Didhisū-pati, who is the husband of the latter. The passages do not explicitly say that the exact order of birth must always be followed, but the mention of the terms shows that the order was often broken. Widow Remarriage. The remarriage of a widow was apparently permitted. This seems originally to have taken the form of the marriage of the widow to the brother or other nearest kinsman of the dead man in order to produce children. At any rate, the ceremony is apparently alluded to in a funeral hymn of the Rigveda ; for the alternative explanation, which sees in the verse a reference to the ritual of the Purusamedha (‘human sacrifice’), although accepted by Hillebrandt and Delbruck, is not at all probable, while the ordinary view is supported by the Sūtra evidence. Moreover, another passage of the Rigveda clearly refers to the marriage of the widow and the husband’s brother {devr), which constitutes what the Indians later knew as Niyoga. This custom was probably not followed except in cases where no son was already born. This custom was hardly remarriage in the strict sense, since the brother might—so far as appears—be already married himself. In the Atharvaveda, a verse refers to a charm which would secure the reunion, in the next world, of a wife and her second husband. Though, as Delbruck thinks, this very possibly refers to a case in which the first husband was still alive, but was impotent or had lost caste (patita), still it is certain that the later Dharma Sūtras began to recognize ordinary remarriage in case of the death of the first husband Pischel finds some evidence in the Rigveda to the effect that a woman could remarry if her husband disappeared and could not be found or heard of. Polygamy. A Vedic Indian could have more than one wife. This is proved clearly by many passages in the Rigveda; Manu, according to the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, had ten wives ; and the Satapatha Brāhmana explains polygamy by a characteristic legend. Moreover, the king regularly has four wives attributed to him, the Mahisī, the Parivrktī, the Vāvātā, and the Pālāgalī. The Mahisī appears to be the chief wife, being the first, one married according to the śata¬patha Brāhmana. The Parivrktī, ‘ the neglected,’ is explained by Weber and Pischel as one that has had no son. The Vāvātā is ‘the favourite,’ while the Pālāgalī is, according to Weber, the daughter of the last of the court officials. The names are curious, and not very intelligible, but the evidence points to the wife first wedded alone being a wife in the fullest sense. This view is supported by the fact emphasized by Delbruck, that in the sacrifice the Patnī is usually mentioned in the singular, apparent exceptions being due to some mythological reason. Zimmer is of opinion that polygamy is dying out in the Rigvedic period, monogamy being developed from pologamy; Weber, however, thinks that polygamy is secondary, a view that is supported by more recent anthropology. Polyandry.—On the other hand, polyandry is not Vedic. There is no passage containing any clear reference to such a custom. The most that can be said is that in the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda verses are occasionally found in which husbands are mentioned in relation to a single wife. It is difficult to be certain of the correct explanation of each separate instance of this mode of expression; but even if Weber’s view, that the plural is here used majestatis causa, is not accepted, Delbruck’s explanation by mythology is probably right. In other passages the plural is simply generic. Marital Relations.—Despite polygamy, however, there is ample evidence that the marriage tie was not, as Weber has suggested, lightly regarded as far as the fidelity of the wife was concerned. There is, however, little trace of the husband’s being expected to be faithful as a matter of morality. Several passages, indeed, forbid, with reference to ritual abstinence, intercourse with the strī of another. This may imply that adultery on the husband’s part was otherwise regarded as venial. But as the word strī includes all the ‘womenfolk,’ daughters and slaves, as well as wife, the conclusion can hardly be drawn that intercourse with another man’s ‘wife’ was normally regarded with indifference. The curious ritual of the Varunapraghāsās, in which the wife of the sacrificer is questioned as to her lovers, is shown by Delbruck to be a part of a rite meant to expiate unchastity on the part of a wife, not as a normal question for a sacrificer to put to his own wife. Again, Yājñavalkya’s doctrine in the Satapatha Brāhmana, which seems to assert that no one cares if a wife is unchaste (parah-pumsā) or not, really means that no one cares if the wife is away from the men who are sacrificing, as the wives of the gods are apart from them during the particular rite in question. Monogamy is also evidently approved, so that some higher idea of morality was in course of formation. On the other hand, no Vedic text gives us the rule well known to other Indo-Germanic peoples that the adulterer taken in the act can be killed with impunity, though the later legal literature has traces of this rule. There is also abundant evidence that the standard of ordinary sexual morality was not high. Hetairai. In the Rigveda there are many references to illegitimate love and to the abandonment of the offspring of such unions,ββ especially in the case of a protege of Indra, often mentioned as the parāvrkta or parāvrj. The ‘son of a maiden ’ (kumārī-putra) is already spoken of in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. Such a person appears with a metronymic in the Upanisad period: this custom may be the origin of metro- nymics such as those which make up a great part of the lists of teachers (Vamśas) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. The Vājasaneyi Samhitā refers to illicit unions of śūdra and Arya, both male and female, besides giving in its list of victims at the Purusamedha, or ‘human sacrifice,’ several whose designations apparently mean ‘ courtesan (atītvarī) and ‘ procuress of abortion ’ (
prajāvant prājāpatya ‘Descendant of Prajāpati,’ is,according to the Aitareya Brāhmana, the author of a hymn of the Rigveda.
pratipraśna occurs in the śatapatha Brāhmana applied to Prajāpati as the decider of doubts; it may have been a technical term for an ‘arbitrator’ (cf, Madhyamaśī and Dharma).
prājāpatya Descendant of Prajāpati,’ is only a patronymic of mythical persons like Arum Suparneya (descendant of Suparṇā’) in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, or of Prajāvant in the Aitareya Brāhmana.
mṛgavyādha ‘The hunter,’ is the name of Sirius in the legend of Prajāpati’s daughter in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. Prajāpati (Orion) pursues his daughter (Rohiṇī), and is shot by the archer Sirius. The transference of the legend of Prajāpati to the sky is no doubt secondary, caused by the obvious similarity of the constellation in question to the idea of an archer.
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         Concordance  
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japantaṃ mā mā pratijāpīḥ (JG. -jāpsīḥ) SMB.2.4.6; JG.1.2.
ajījapata bṛhaspatiṃ vājam # VS.9.12; śB.5.1.5.11.
ajījapata (TSṭB. ajījipata) vanaspatayaḥ # TS.1.7.8.4; MS.1.11.3: 163.10; 1.11.7: 169.6; KS.14.1,7; TB.1.3.6.9; Mś.7.1.3.11.
ajījapatendraṃ vājam # VS.9.12; śB.5.1.5.12. Cf. indraṃ vājaṃ vi mucyadhvam, and indrāya vācaṃ etc.
     Vedabase Search  
53 results
     
japa chantCC Adi 7.72
japa chantingCC Adi 16.96
CC Madhya 21.119
CC Madhya 6.258
japa chanting or reciting mantrasSB 7.9.46
japa chanting softlyCC Madhya 22.123
japa murmuringCC Madhya 24.337
japa private chanting of mantrasSB 10.47.24
japa while chanting mantras to oneselfSB 11.17.24
japa japa please repeatedly chantMM 31
japa japa please repeatedly chantMM 31
japa-yajñaḥ chantingBG 10.25
japa-yajñaḥ chantingBG 10.25
japa-yajñena by chanting mantrasSB 4.30.3
japa-yajñena by chanting mantrasSB 4.30.3
japa chantingSB 7.14.25
japa chanting the holy names of the LordSB 11.17.34-35
SB 11.19.33-35
japa offering silent prayersSB 11.19.4
japa pronunciation of mantrasCC Madhya 19.75
japaḥ ca the chanting mantra in this connectionSB 4.8.53
japaḥ ca the chanting mantra in this connectionSB 4.8.53
japan by murmuringSB 4.24.74
japan murmuringSB 7.12.2
japan recitingSB 10.39.41
japan silently chanting or murmuring the proper mantrasSB 11.17.26
japantaḥ chantingSB 4.24.79
japantaḥ chanting or murmuringSB 6.5.26
japantaḥ recitingSB 4.25.2
japantaḥ ca chanting alsoSB 4.24.15
japantaḥ ca chanting alsoSB 4.24.15
japantam quietly chantingSB 10.69.25
japantyaḥ chantingSB 10.22.4
japata while chantingSB 4.24.69
japati chantsMM 40
japati uttersSB 4.7.29
ajapan whisperedSB 10.56.16
anujapati chantsSB 5.18.29
gajapati-sańge with the KingCC Madhya 11.15
gajapati rājā the King of OrissaCC Madhya 11.236
gajapati the King of OrissaCC Madhya 12.4
gajapati the KingCC Madhya 12.52
gajapatira of King PratāparudraCC Madhya 11.59
gajapatira of the King of OrissaCC Madhya 12.13
siddha-mantra-japa chanting of a perfect mantraCC Antya 16.143
siddha-mantra-japa chanting of a perfect mantraCC Antya 16.143
japatha-prānte at the side of the common roadCC Madhya 11.162
japatha-prānte on the side of the common roadCC Madhya 11.163
gajapati rājā the King of OrissaCC Madhya 11.236
japatha-prānte at the side of the common roadCC Madhya 11.162
japatha-prānte on the side of the common roadCC Madhya 11.163
gajapati-sańge with the KingCC Madhya 11.15
siddha-mantra-japa chanting of a perfect mantraCC Antya 16.143
     DCS with thanks   
22 results
     
japa noun (masculine) muttered prayer or spell (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
muttering prayers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
repeating in a murmuring tone passages from scripture or charms or names of a deity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[gramm.] root jap
Frequency rank 1479/72933
japana noun (neuter) muttering prayers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21318/72933
ajapant adjective
Frequency rank 31459/72933
ajapa noun (masculine) a goat-herd (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31460/72933
ajapa noun (masculine) a reciter of heterodox works (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one who does not repeat prayers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 22840/72933
upajapa noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 47491/72933
karṇejapa noun (masculine) an earwhisperer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
informer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tale-bearer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33873/72933
kaujapa noun (masculine) a descendant of Kujapa
Frequency rank 50244/72933
gajapati noun (masculine) a lord or keeper of elephants (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a stately elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a title given to kings (e.g. to an old king in the south of Jambudvīpa) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50957/72933
tejapattra noun (neuter) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 53785/72933
durgājapapūjābalimantranirūpaṇa noun (neuter) name of Garuḍapurāṇa, 1.38
Frequency rank 54661/72933
nirjapa adjective without japa
Frequency rank 56192/72933
brahmajapa noun (masculine) a particular formula of prayer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37718/72933
bhūrjapattra noun (masculine) the birch tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37929/72933
bhūrjapatraka noun (masculine) Betula Bhojpatra
Frequency rank 61077/72933
japaṭṭa noun (masculine neuter) a kind of precios stone or diamond of inferior quality a royal fillet or tiara cumbaka kāntaloha
Frequency rank 63552/72933
japathāy verb (denominative ātmanepada) to be a rājapatha
Frequency rank 63553/72933
japadmā noun (feminine) a kind of siddhauṣadhī
Frequency rank 63554/72933
japarṇī noun (feminine) Paederia foetida
Frequency rank 63555/72933
japalāṇḍu noun (masculine) a kind of onion
Frequency rank 63556/72933
vijapa adjective without japa
Frequency rank 39301/72933
sajapa noun (masculine) a particular class of ascetics (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40316/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
     Purchase Kindle edition

bhūrja

Plant Himalayan silver birch; Betula utilis; B. bhojapattra, bhūrjapatra traditional writing material.

japāpuṣpa

Plant China rose; Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.

jāpatri

Plant mace, outer coating of nutmeg.

tejapatra

Plant Indian bay leaf, Cinnamomum tamala.

     Wordnet Search "japa" has 40 results.
     

japa

dhvajaḥ, patākā, dhvajapaṭaḥ, dhvajāṃśukaḥ, ketanam, ketuḥ, ketuvasanaḥ, vaijayantikā, vaijayantī, jayantaḥ, kadalī, kadalikā, ucchalaḥ   

daṇḍasya ādhāreṇa samutthitā nānāvarṇīyā viśiṣṭavarṇīyā vā paṭṭikā yayā kasyāpi sattā ko'pi utsavaḥ saṅketaḥ vā sūcyate।

bhāratadeśasya dhvajaḥ cakrāṅkitaḥ asti।

japa

candraḥ, kalānāthaḥ, kalādharaḥ, himāṃśuḥ, candramāḥ, kumudabāndhavaḥ, vidhuḥ, sudhāṃśuḥ, śubhrāṃśuḥ, oṣadhīśaḥ, niśāpatiḥ, abjaḥ, jaivātṛkaḥ, glauḥ, mṛgāṅkaḥ, dvijarājaḥ, śaśadharaḥ, nakṣatreśaḥ, kṣapākaraḥ, doṣākaraḥ, niśīthinīnāthaḥ, śarvarīśaḥ, eṇāṅkaḥ, śītaraśmiḥ, samudranavanītaḥ, sārasaḥ, śvetavāhanaḥ, nakṣatranāmiḥ, uḍupaḥ, sudhāsūtiḥ, tithipraṇīḥ, amatiḥ, candiraḥ, citrāṭīraḥ, pakṣadharaḥ, rohiṇīśaḥ, atrinetrajaḥ, pakṣajaḥ, sindhujanmā, daśāśvaḥ, māḥ, tārāpīḍaḥ, niśāmaṇiḥ, mṛgalāñchanaḥ, darśavipat, chāyāmṛgadharaḥ, grahanemiḥ, dākṣāyaṇīpati, lakṣmīsahajaḥ, sudhākaraḥ, sudhādhāraḥ, śītabhānuḥ, tamoharaḥ, tuśārakiraṇaḥ, pariḥ, himadyutiḥ, dvijapatiḥ, viśvapsā, amṛtadīdhitiḥ, hariṇāṅkaḥ, rohiṇīpatiḥ, sindhunandanaḥ, tamonut, eṇatilakaḥ, kumudeśaḥ, kṣīrodanandanaḥ, kāntaḥ, kalāvān, yāminījatiḥ, sijraḥ, mṛgapipluḥ, sudhānidhiḥ, tuṅgī, pakṣajanmā, abdhīnavanītakaḥ, pīyūṣamahāḥ, śītamarīciḥ, śītalaḥ, trinetracūḍāmaṇiḥ, atrinetrabhūḥ, sudhāṅgaḥ, parijñāḥ, sudhāṅgaḥ, valakṣaguḥ, tuṅgīpatiḥ, yajvanāmpatiḥ, parvvadhiḥ, kleduḥ, jayantaḥ, tapasaḥ, khacamasaḥ, vikasaḥ, daśavājī, śvetavājī, amṛtasūḥ, kaumudīpatiḥ, kumudinīpatiḥ, bhūpatiḥ, dakṣajāpatiḥ, oṣadhīpatiḥ, kalābhṛt, śaśabhṛt, eṇabhṛt, chāyābhṛt, atridṛgjaḥ, niśāratnam, niśākaraḥ, amṛtaḥ, śvetadyutiḥ, hariḥ   

khagolīyapiṇḍaḥ yaḥ pṛthvīṃ paribhramati।

adhunā mānavaḥ candrasya pṛṣṭhabhāgaṃ gatvā saṃśodhanaṃ karoti।

japa

brahmā, ātmabhūḥ, surajyeṣṭhaḥ, parameṣṭhī, pitāmahaḥ, hiraṇyagarbhaḥ, lokeśaḥ, svayaṃbhūḥ, caturānanaḥ, dhātā, abjayoniḥ, druhiṇaḥ, brahmadevaḥ, viriñciḥ, kamalāsanaḥ, paṅkajāsanaḥ, sraṣṭā, prajāpatiḥ, vedhāḥ, vidhātā, viścasṛṭ, vidhiḥ, nābhijanmā, aṇḍajaḥ, pūrvaḥ, nidhanaḥ, kamalodbhavaḥ, sadānandaḥ, rajomūrtiḥ, satyakaḥ, haṃsavāhanaḥ, hariḥ, pūrṇānandaḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ yaḥ sṛṣṭeḥ janakaḥ asti।

nāradaḥ brahmaṇaḥ putraḥ asti।

japa

nṛpaḥ, nṛpatiḥ, rājā, bhūpatiḥ, bhūpaḥ, bhūpālaḥ, mahīpatiḥ, pārthivaḥ, pārthaḥ, pṛthivīpatiḥ, pṛthivīpālaḥ, bhūmipaḥ, bhūmipatiḥ, mahīkṣit, mahīpaḥ, mahīpālaḥ, kṣitipaḥ, kṣitipatiḥ, kṣitipālaḥ, pṛthivīkṣit, nareśvaraḥ, narādhipaḥ, nareśaḥ, narendraḥ, prajeśvaraḥ, prajāpaḥ, prajāpatiḥ, jagatīpatiḥ, avanīśvaraḥ, jagatīpālaḥ, jagatpatiḥ, avanīpatiḥ, avanīpālaḥ, avanīśaḥ, kṣitīkṣaḥ, kṣitīśvaraḥ, pṛthivīśakaḥ, bhūmibhṛt, kṣitibhṛt, bhūbhṛt, kṣmābhṛt, kṣmāpaḥ, vasudhādhipaḥ, adhipaḥ, adhipatiḥ, nāyakādhipaḥ, mahībhuk, jagatībhuk, kṣmābhuk, bhūbhuk, svāmī, prabhuḥ, bhagavān, chatrapaḥ, chatrapatiḥ, rājyabhāk, lokapālaḥ, lokeśaḥ, lokeśvaraḥ, lokanāthaḥ, naradevaḥ, rāṭ, irāvān   

rāṣṭrasya jāteḥ vā pradhānaśāsakaḥ।

tretāyuge śrīrāmaḥ ayodhyāyāḥ nṛpaḥ āsīt।

japa

viśvakarmā, tvaṣṭā, sudhanvā, rūpapati, rūpakṛt, indradrohī, kāruḥ, takṣakaḥ, bhaumanaḥ, prajāpatiḥ, rūpakartā, matīśvaraḥ   

śilpaśāstrasya āviṣkartā tathā ca prathamaḥ ācāryaḥ।

viśvakarmā devatānāṃ śilpī āsīt।

japa

prājāpatyavivāhaḥ   

hindūdharmānusāreṇa saḥ vivāhaḥ yasmin pitā dharmapālanaṃ karotu iti sūcayitvā kanyāṃ varāya dadāti।

adhunā prājāpatyavivāhaḥ pracalitaḥ nāsti।

japa

maṅgalagrahaḥ, maṅgalaḥ, ajapatiḥ, koṇaḥ, ailaḥ, bhaumaḥ, ajapatiḥ, aṅgārakaḥ, lohitāṅgaḥ, raktāṅgaḥ, mahīsutaḥ, āvaneyaḥ, bhūmijaḥ, hemnaḥ, kujaḥ, pṛthvījaḥ, viśvambharāputraḥ   

sūryāt caturthaḥ grahaḥ।

śāstrajñāḥ maṅgalagrahaṃ jñātumicchanti।

japa

karṇajāpaḥ   

tat kathanaṃ yad karṇe japyate।

ubhau tau karṇajāpaṃ kurutaḥ।

japa

ghṛtam, abhighāraḥ, āgneyam, khajapa   

tad snehamayaṃ dravyaṃ yad dugdhād yaḥ dadhi prāpyate taṃ vahninā ūṣṇīkṛtya prāpyate।

saḥ pratidinaṃ ghṛtena aktāḥ polikāḥ khādanti।

japa

rājamārgaḥ, rājapathaḥ   

janānāṃ kṛte vinirmītaḥ dṛḍhaḥ dīrghaḥ ca mārgaḥ।

eṣaḥ rājamārgaḥ gujarāthapradeśāt ārabhya mumbaīnagarīṃ yāvat gacchati।

japa

japa   

kasyāḥ api devatāyāḥ mantrasya nāmnaḥ vāraṃvāraṃ kṛtam uccāraṇam।

saḥ pratidinaṃ prātaḥ japaṃ karoti।

japa

japamālā, karamālā, akṣamālā, akṣasūtram, japasūtram, smaraṇī   

japārthe upayujyamānā mālā।

rādheśyāmaḥ sarvatra japamālayā saha gacchati।

japa

japānavāsī   

japānadeśasya nivāsī।

naike japānavāsinaḥ mama mitrāṇi santi।

japa

vācāṭaḥ, jalpākaḥ, karṇejapa   

yaḥ parivadati।

vācāṭānāṃ kāraṇāt kadācit paraspareṣu vaimatyam utpadyate।

japa

bhūrja, bhūrjapatram   

bhūrjavṛkṣasya patram; paṇḍitaḥ bhūrje tārakamantraṃ likhati। /

bhūrjagatokṣaravinyāsaḥ [ku1.7]

japa

bhurjapatram   

vṛkṣasya tvak yā pavitrā asti iti manyate tathā ca prācīne kāle yā lekhanārthe upayujyate sma।

hindūnāṃ naikeṣu dharmānuṣṭhāneṣu bhurjapatram upayujyate।

japa

japarivāraḥ, rājakulam, rājavaṃśaḥ, nṛpānvayaḥ, rājaparijanaḥ   

rājaparigato janāḥ;

ajaḥ rājaparivāre ajāyata

japa

arājapatrita   

yaḥ śāsanasya rājapatre ghoṣitaḥ nāsti।

tasya pitā ekasmin vittakośe arājapatritaḥ adhikārī asti।

japa

karṇejapa, paiśunika   

yaḥ duṣpravādaṃ karoti।

karṇejapaḥ puruṣaḥ nityaṃ pravādaṃ karoti।

japa

bhāratīya-janatā-pakṣaḥ, bhājapā   

ekaṃ bhāratīyaṃ rājanaitikadalam।

bhāratīya-janatā-pakṣasya śāsanakāle aṭalamahodayaḥ pradhānamantrī āsīt।

japa

japānaḥ   

āśiyākhaṇḍe pūrvadiśi vartamānaḥ ekaḥ deśaḥ।

japānaḥ vikasitaḥ deśaḥ asti।

japa

jāpānavāsin   

yaḥ jāpānadeśe nivasati।

jāpānavāsīnaḥ bahu kāryaṃ kurvanti।

japa

arkapriyā, arkavallabhā, varā, raktajapā, raktapiṇḍakaḥ, raktapuṣpī, hemapuṣpikā, prātikā, tāmravarṇā, vikrāntā   

madhyamākārakaḥ vṛkṣaḥyasya puṣpāṇi raktāni santi।

mālī upavane arkapriyā ropayati।

japa

japatritaḥ   

rājapatre nirdaṣṭaḥ adhikārī;

rājapatritāḥ śāsakīyāḥ adhikāriṇaḥ pramāṇapatrāṇāṃ chāyākṛtiṣu svākṣāṃkanaṃ kartum arhāḥ santi

japa

dhvajapaṭaḥ   

dhvajasya paṭaḥ।

tena raktaḥ dhvajapaṭaḥ krītaḥ।

japa

ajapatiḥ   

uttamaḥ ajaḥ।

adya ajapateḥ baliṃ yacchati।

japa

ajapā   

na japyate na uccāryate asau, apitu śvāsapraśvāsayoḥ gamanāgamanābhyāṃ sampādyate।

manasi eva dhyānaṃ kriyate ajapāyāḥ।

japa

akṣasūtram, japamālā   

śatānāṃ bījānāṃ mālāviśeṣaḥ yasyāḥ prayogaṃ yavanāḥ japāya kurvanti।

phakīrasya haste akṣasūtram āsīt।

japa

gajapatimaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

gañjāmamaṇḍalaṃ vibhajya gajapatimaṇḍalaṃ nirmitam।

japa

somaḥ, candraḥ, śaśāṅkaḥ, induḥ, mayaṅkaḥ, kalānidhiḥ, kalānāthaḥ, kalādharaḥ, himāṃśuḥ, candramāḥ, kumudabāndhavaḥ, vidhuḥ, sudhāṃśuḥ, śubhrāṃśuḥ, oṣadhīśaḥ, niśāpatiḥ, abjaḥ, jaivātṛkaḥ, somaḥ, glauḥ, mṛgāṅkaḥ, dvijarājaḥ, śaśadharaḥ, nakṣatreśaḥ, kṣapākaraḥ, doṣākaraḥ, niśīthinīnāthaḥ, śarvarīśaḥ, eṇāṅkaḥ, śītaraśmiḥ, samudranavanītaḥ, sārasaḥ, śvetavāhanaḥ, nakṣatranāmiḥ, uḍupaḥ, sudhāsūtiḥ, tithipraṇīḥ, amatiḥ, candiraḥ, citrāṭīraḥ, pakṣadharaḥ, rohiṇīśaḥ, atrinetrajaḥ, pakṣajaḥ, sindhujanmā, daśāśvaḥ, māḥ, tārāpīḍaḥ, niśāmaṇiḥ, mṛgalāñchanaḥ, darśavipat, chāyāmṛgadharaḥ, grahanemiḥ, dākṣāyaṇīpati, lakṣmīsahajaḥ, sudhākaraḥ, sudhādhāraḥ, śītabhānuḥ, tamoharaḥ, tuśārakiraṇaḥ, pariḥ, himadyutiḥ, dvijapatiḥ, viśvapsā, amṛtadīdhitiḥ, hariṇāṅkaḥ, rohiṇīpatiḥ, sindhunandanaḥ, tamonut, eṇatilakaḥ, kumudeśaḥ, kṣīrodanandanaḥ, kāntaḥ, kalāvān, yāminījatiḥ, sijraḥ, mṛgapipluḥ, sudhānidhiḥ, tuṅgī, pakṣajanmā, abdhīnavanītakaḥ, pīyūṣamahāḥ, śītamarīciḥ, śītalaḥ, trinetracūḍāmaṇiḥ, atrinetrabhūḥ, sudhāṅgaḥ, parijñāḥ, sudhāṅgaḥ, valakṣaguḥ, tuṅgīpatiḥ, yajvanāmpatiḥ, parvvadhiḥ, kleduḥ, jayantaḥ, tapasaḥ, khacamasaḥ, vikasaḥ, daśavājī, śvetavājī, amṛtasūḥ, kaumudīpatiḥ, kumudinīpatiḥ, bhūpatiḥ, dakṣajāpatiḥ, oṣadhīpatiḥ, kalābhṛt, śaśabhṛt, eṇabhṛt, chāyābhṛt, atridṛgjaḥ, niśāratnam, niśākaraḥ, amṛtaḥ, śvetadyutiḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ;

patitaṃ somamālokya brahmā lokapitāmahaḥ[śa.ka]

japa

pākistānamuslimalīganavājapakṣaḥ   

pākistānadeśasya rājanaitikaḥ pakṣaḥ।

pākistānamuslimalīganavājapakṣaḥ pākistānadeśasya mukhyaḥ vipakṣaḥ asti।

japa

gīgāharṭjaparimāṇam   

tad parimāṇaṃ yena vidyuta-cumbakīya-taraṅgān mīyate।

etat saṃsādhanaṃ 1:6 gīgāharṭjaparimāṇasya asti।

japa

japatram   

rājñā preṣitam ājñāpatram।

rājñā sarvebhyaḥ gaṇanāyakebhyaḥ rājapatraṃ preṣitam।

japa

prajāpatidattaḥ   

ekaḥ manuṣyaḥ ।

patañjalinā prajāpatidattaḥ samullikhitaḥ

japa

prajāpatiśarmā   

ekaḥ manuṣyaḥ ।

kośakāraiḥ prajāpatiśarmā varṇitaḥ

japa

prajāpālaḥ   

ekaḥ rājā ।

varāha-purāṇe prajāpālasya varṇanaṃ asti

japa

prājāpatī   

atharvavede pañcama-kāṇḍe ekaḥ vibhāgaviśeṣaḥ ।

kauśika-sūtre prājāpatī varṇitā prāpyate

japa

sañjapālaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

saṃjapālasya ullekhaḥ rājataraṅgiṇyām asti

japa

sahajapālaḥ   

puruṣanāmaviśeṣaḥ ।

sahajapālaḥ iti nāmakānāṃ naikeṣāṃ puruṣāṇām ullekhaḥ rājataraṅgiṇyām asti

japa

hotṛsaṃsthājapa   

ekaḥ granthaḥ ।

hotṛsaṃsthājapasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

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