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WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
amaraḥ1.1.7-9MasculineSingularnirjaraḥ, vibudhaḥ, sumanasaḥ, āditeyaḥ, aditinandanaḥ, asvapnaḥ, gīrvāṇaḥ, daivatam, devaḥ, suraḥ, tridiveśaḥ, diviṣad, ādityaḥ, amartyaḥ, dānavāriḥ, devatā, tridaśaḥ, suparvā, divaukāḥ, lekhaḥ, ṛbhuḥ, amṛtāndhāḥ, vṛndārakaḥimmortal
asuraḥ1.1.12MasculineSingularditisutaḥ, indrāriḥ, daityaḥ, suradviṣ, śukraśiṣyaḥ, danujaḥ, pūrvadevaḥ, dānavaḥ, daiteyaḥgiant
citā2.8.119FeminineSingularcityā, ‍citiḥ
śāśvataḥ3.1.71MasculineSingularsanātanaḥ, dhruvaḥ, nityaḥ, sadātanaḥ
satatam1.1.66NeuterSingularanavaratam, aśrāntam, ajasram, santatam, aviratam, aniśam, nityam, anāratameternal or continually
śukraḥMasculineSingularbhārgavaḥ, kaviḥ, daityaguruḥ, kāvyaḥ, uśanāḥvenus
sūraḥ1.3.28-30MasculineSingularsahasrāṃśuḥ, raviḥ, chāyānāthaḥ, jagaccakṣuḥ, pradyotanaḥ, lokabāndhavaḥ, aryamā, dhāmanidhiḥ, divākaraḥ, braghnaḥ, bhāsvān, haridaśvaḥ, arkaḥ, aruṇaḥ, taraṇiḥ, virocanaḥ, tviṣāṃpatiḥ, haṃsaḥ, savitā, tejasāṃrāśiḥ, karmasākṣī, trayītanuḥ, khadyotaḥ, sūryaḥ, bhagaḥ, dvādaśātmā, abjinīpatiḥ, ahaskaraḥ, vibhākaraḥ, saptāśvaḥ, vikartanaḥ, mihiraḥ, dyumaṇiḥ, citrabhānuḥ, grahapatiḥ, bhānuḥ, tapanaḥ, padmākṣaḥ, tamisrahā, lokabandhuḥ, dinamaṇiḥ, inaḥ, ādityaḥ, aṃśumālī, bhāskaraḥ, prabhākaraḥ, vivasvān, uṣṇaraśmiḥ, mārtaṇḍaḥ, pūṣā, mitraḥ, vibhāvasuḥ, aharpatiḥ(53)the sun
tālaparṇīFeminineSingulardaityā, gandhakuṭī, murā, gandhinī
valajaḥ3.3.37NeuterSingularnityam, svakam
viṣṇuḥ1.1.18-21MasculineSingularadhokṣajaḥ, vidhuḥ, yajñapuruṣaḥ, viśvarūpaḥ, vaikuṇṭhaḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, svabhūḥ, govindaḥ, acyutaḥ, janārdanaḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ, madhuripuḥ, devakīnandanaḥ, puruṣottamaḥ, kaṃsārātiḥ, kaiṭabhajit, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, jalaśāyī, muramardanaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, dāmodaraḥ, mādhavaḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, viśvaksenaḥ, indrāvarajaḥ, padmanābhaḥ, trivikramaḥ, śrīpatiḥ, balidhvaṃsī, viśvambharaḥ, śrīvatsalāñchanaḥ, narakāntakaḥ, mukundaḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, viṣṭaraśravāḥ, keśavaḥ, daityāriḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, śārṅgī, upendraḥ, caturbhujaḥ, vāsudevaḥ, śauriḥ, vanamālī(45)vishnu, the god
caityamNeuterSingularāyatanam
adhityakā2.3.7FeminineSingular
sauhityam2.9.57NeuterSingulartarpaṇam, tṛptiḥ
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634 results for ity
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
ityamfn. to be gone to or towards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ityāf. going, stepping View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ityamfn. a litter, palanquin commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ityādimfn. having such (thing or things) at the beginning, thus beginning, and so forth, et caetera View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ityaheind. on this or that day, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ityakam. a door-keeper, chamberlain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ityālikhitamfn. so scratched or marked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ityantamfn. ending thus commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ityarthamfn. having such a sense or meaning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ityarthamind. for this purpose View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ityetannāmakamfn. having those names (as aforesaid)
ityevamādiind. and so forth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ityuktan. "so said", information, report. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ityunmṛśyamfn. to be touched in this manner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ābhijityamfn. a descendant of abhi-jit- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhityajto abandon (edition Bomb.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhityakāf. (fr. adhi-tya-,a derivation of adhi-; see ), land on the upper part of a mountain, table land View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādidaityam. Name of hiraṇyakaśipu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityamfn. () belonging to or coming from aditi- etc.
ādityam. "son of aditi-" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityam. plural Name of seven deities of the heavenly sphere (the chief is varuṇa-,to whom the N. āditya- is especially applicable;the succeeding five are mitra-, aryaman-, bhaga-, dakṣa-, aṃśa-;that of the seventh is probably sūrya- or savitṛ-;as a class of deities they are distinct from the viśve devāḥ- ;sometimes their number is supposed to be eight ;and in the period of the brāhmaṇa-s twelve, as representing the sun in the twelve months of the year ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityam. Name of a god in general, especially of sūrya- (the sun) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityam. Name of viṣṇu- in his vāmana- or dwarf avatāra- (as son of kaśyapa- and aditi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityam. the plant Calotropis Gigantea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityam. dual number (au-) Name of a constellation, the seventh lunar mansion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityāf. (?) the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityan. equals au- (see punar-vasu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityan. Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityamfn. () relating or belonging to or coming from the āditya-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityamfn. relating to the god of the sun. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityabandhum. "the sun's friend", Name of śākyamuni-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityabhaktāf. equals -parṇikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityacandraum. dual number sun and moon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityācāryam. Name of an author. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityadarśanan. "showing the sun"(to a child of four months), one of the rites called saṃskāra- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityadāsam. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityadevam. idem or 'm. Name of a man.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityadevata(ādity/a--) mfn. one whose (special) deity is the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityadhāman(ty/a-), mfn. having a place among the āditya-s, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityagarbham. Name of a bodhisattva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityagatamfn. being in the sun, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityagatif. course of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityagraham. a particular ladle-full of soma- in the evening-oblation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityahṛdayan. Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityajūta(ādity/a--), (fr. -) mfn. urged by the āditya-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityajyotis(ādity/a--) mfn. having the light of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityakāntāf. Polanisia Icosandra (a creeping plant with gold-coloured flowers, growing near the water) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityakeśavam. Name of an image of viṣṇu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityaketum. Name of a son of dhṛta-rāṣṭra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityakīlakam. a particular phenomenon in the sky, , Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityalokam. plural the sun's worlds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityamaṇḍalan. the disc or orb of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityanāmann. Name of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityānuvartinmfn. following the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityapākamfn. boiled in the sun. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityaparṇikāf. ([ ]) Polanisia Icosandra. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityaparṇinm. ([ ]) Polanisia Icosandra. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityaparṇinīf. ([ ]) Polanisia Icosandra. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityapātran. a vessel for drawing off the āditya-grah/a- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityapattram. Calotropis Gigantea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityaprabham. "having the splendour of the sun", Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityapurāṇan. Name of an upapurāṇa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityapuṣpikāf. equals -pattra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityarāmam. Name (also title or epithet) of a king, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityaśaktim. Name (also title or epithet) of a chief, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityasaṃvatsaram. a solar year. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityaśayanan. the sun's sleep View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityaśayanavratan. a particular vow or religious observance. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityasenam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityasthālīf. a receptacle from which the āditya-grah/a- is drawn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityastotran. Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityasūktan. a particular hymn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityasūnum. "the sun's son", Name of sugrīva- (the monkey king), of yama-, of manu-, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityasvāminm. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityatejasm. or f. Polanisia Icosandra View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityatīrthan. Name of a tīrtha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityatvan. the state of being the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityavallabhāf. equals -parṇikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityavanimfn. winning (the favour of) the āditya-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityavāram. Sunday, n. 1 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityavardhanam. Name (also title or epithet) of a Kanouj king, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityavarmanm. "having the sun (the āditya-s?) as protector", Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityavarṇamfn. having the sun's colour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityavarṇam. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityavatind. like the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityavat(ādity/a--) mfn. surrounded by the āditya-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityavidhim. Name (also title or epithet) of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityavratan. "a vow or rite relating to the sun" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityavratan. Name of a sāman-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityavratikamfn. performing the above rite on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityayaśasm. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agnicityāf. ([ ]) arranging to preparing the sacred or sacrificial fire-place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ājijityāf. victory in a running-match View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anabhyāsamityamfn. improper to be approached commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anaucityan. unfitness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aniścitya ind.p. not having ascertained. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anityamfn. not everlasting, transient, occasional, incidental View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anityamfn. irregular, unusual View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anityamfn. unstable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anityamfn. uncertain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anityabhāvam. transitoriness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anityadatrimam. a son surrendered by his parents to another for temporary or preliminary adoption. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anityadatta m. a son surrendered by his parents to another for temporary or preliminary adoption. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anityadattaka m. a son surrendered by his parents to another for temporary or preliminary adoption. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anityakarmann. an occasional act of worship, sacrifice for a special purpose. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anityakriyāf. an occasional act of worship, sacrifice for a special purpose. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anityamind. occasionally. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anityapratyavekṣāf. consciousness that all is passing away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anityasamam. sophism, consisting in generalizing what is exceptional (as perishableness). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anityasamaprakaraṇan. a section in the nyāya- discussing that sophism. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anityasamāsam. a compound, the sense of which may be equally expressed by resolving it into its constituent parts. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anityatāf. transient or limited existence. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anityatvan. transient or limited existence. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apamityaSee apa-me-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apamityan. debt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apāmityan. (see apa-m/itya-), equivalent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpamityakamfn. (fr. apa-mitya-[ ], ind.p. of apa--), received by barter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpamityakan. property etc. obtained by barter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparityajyamfn. = (or varia lectio for) a-- parityājya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apoditya(mfn.) n. impersonal or used impersonally to be completely gone away from (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
araṇyanityamfn. used to dwell in a forest, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aruṇādityam. one of the twelve shapes of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśāditya(aśāditya-) m. Name of a commentator. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśritya ind.p. having sought or obtained an asylum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśrityahaving recourse to, employing, practising, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atisauhityan. excessive satiety exempli gratia, 'for example' being spoiled, stuffed with food, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atityadsurpassing that View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātmanityamfn. constantly in the heart, greatly endeared to one's self ([ equals sva-vaśa- commentator or commentary ]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātmaparityāgam. self-sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atyādityamfn. surpassing the sun. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aucityan. fitness, suitableness, decorum etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aucityan. the state of being used to, habituation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aucityālaṃkāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aurjityan. (fr. ūrjita-), strength, vigour commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avijitya ind.p. not having conquered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avityajamn. quicksilver
bālādityam. the newly risen sun, morning sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bālādityam. Name of princes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bālādityavratan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāḍitya idem or 'm. patronymic fr. bhaḍita- (see gaRa aśvādi-).' gaRa gargādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāṇḍitya(gaRa gargādi-) m. patronymic fr. bhaṇḍita-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmadaityam. a Brahman changed into a daitya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmādityam. Name of an author (also called brahmārka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caikitsityam. patronymic fr. cikitsita- gaRa gargādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caikityam. patronymic fr. cikita- gaRa gargādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caityam. (fr. 5. cit-or 2. citi-) the individual soul View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caityamfn. relating to a funeral pile or mound (citā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caityam. n. a funeral monument or stūpa- (q.v) or pyramidal column containing the ashes of deceased persons, sacred tree (especially a religious fig-tree) growing on a mound, hall or temple or place of worship (especially with and and generally containing a monument), a sanctuary near a village etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caityam. a Jain or image View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caityam. equals tyaka-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caityadrum. a religious fig-tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caityadrum. a large tree in a village View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caityadrumam. equals -taru- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caityakam. one of the 5 mountains surrounding the town giri-vraja-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caityamukham. "having an opening like that of a sanctuary ", a hermit's water-pot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caityapālam. the guardian of a a caitya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caityaśailam. plural Name of a Buddhist school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caityaśailam. see caitika-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caityasthānan. a place made sacred by a monument or a sanctuary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caityatarum. a tree (especially religious fig-tree) standing on a sacred spot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caityavṛkṣam. equals -taru- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caityavṛkṣam. a religious fig-tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caityayajñam. a sacrificial ceremony performed at a monument View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caṇḍādityatīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
candrādityam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
catuścityamfn. supported by 4 stratums View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citācaityacihnan. idem or 'n. "funeral pile mark", a sepulchre ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cityamfn. to be arranged in order View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cityamfn. to be piled up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cityamfn. (with or without agni-,the fire) constructed upon a foundation (of bricks etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cityamfn. (fr. 1. -c/iti-) coming from the funeral pile or from the place of cremation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cityan. equals -cūḍaka- (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cityāf. "piling up", building (an altar. etc.) See agni-city/ā-, maṭha-- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cityan. "a layer, stratum" See catuścitya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cityan. a funeral pile View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cityaSee 1. ci-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cityagnim. plural the bricks used for the sacrificial fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cityayūpam. a post on the place of cremation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cityupaniṣadf. Name of an View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityam. a son of diti-, a demon etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityamf(ā-)n. belonging to the daitya-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityāf. Name of plants (equals caṇḍauhadhi-and murā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityamf(ā-)n. spirituous liquor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityadānavamardanam. "crusher of daitya-s and dānava-s", Name of indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityadevam. "god of the daitya-s", varuṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityadevam. Wind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityadvīpam. "refuge of the daitya-s (?)", Name of a son of garuḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityagurum. "preceptor of the daitya-s", Name of śukra-, the planet Venus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityahanm. " daitya--slayer", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityahanm. of indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityahantṛm. "id.", Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityāhorātram. a day and night of the daitya-s (= a year of man) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityamātṛf. "mother of the daitya-s", diti- (plural ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityamedajam. "produced from the marrow of daitya-s", a kind of bdellium View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityamedajāf. the earth (supposed to be produced from the marrow of madhu- and kaiṭabha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityanāśanam. " daitya-s-destroyer", Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityanirūdanam. "id.", Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityaniṣūdanam. "id", Name of indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityāntakam. " daitya-s. destroyer" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityapa m.," daitya-s-prince", Name of bali- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityapatim.," daitya-s-prince", Name of bali-
daityapūjyam. equals -guru- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityapurodhasm. equals -guru- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityapurohitam. equals -guru- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityārim. "foe of the daitya-s", a god (especially viṣṇu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityāripaṇḍitam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityartvij(yai-it-) m. equals -guru- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityasenāf. Name of a daughter of prajā-pati- and sister of deva-senā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityāyaNom. A1. yate-, to represent a daitya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityayugan. an age of the daitya-s (= 4 ages. of man) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityejyam. equals tya-guru- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityendram. " daitya-s-prince", Name of pātāla--ketu View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityendrapūjyam. equals tyejya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantidaityam. Name of a daitya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daurjīvitya(d/aur--) n. a miserable existence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devīnityapūjāvidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmādityam. "sun of justice", Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmakrityan. fulfilment of duty, virtue, any moral or religious observance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmanityamfn. constant in duty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhaurādityatīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhyānanitya() mfn. engaged in meditation, thoughtful. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dityam. a son of diti- (wrong reading for daitya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dityauhīf. See above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dityavahm. (in strong cases vāh- Nominal verb vāṭ-; instrumental case dityauhā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dityavahf. tyauhī- ( ) a two-year-old steer or cow (Prob. from ditya- equals dvitīya-+ vah- see turya-vah-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
draupadāditya varia lectio for drup- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
drupadādityam. a form of the Sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvādaśāditya(in compound) the 12 āditya-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvādaśādityastavam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvādaśādityastyāsramam. Name of a hermitage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvādaśādityatīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gādityafr. gadita- gaRa pragady-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gajadaityabhidm. "conqueror of the daitya- (or asura-) gaja-", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṅgādityam. (d-) a form of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
garuḍādityam. a form of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopādityam. Name of a king of Kashmir View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopādityam. Name of a poetry or poetic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāmacaityan. the sacred tree of a village View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indrādityam. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jayādityam. Name of a king (vāmana-'s fellow-author of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhampānrityan. a kind of dance. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jityamfn. conquerable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jityam. equals hali- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jityāf. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' "victory" See āji-- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jityam. vāja-jitya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jitya j/itvan-, vara- See ji-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jīvādityam. the living sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapaṭadaityam. Name of a daitya-, or one who pretends to be a daitya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapaṭadaityavadham. Name of a section of the gaṇeśa-purāṇa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karmādityam. Name of a king. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kauśikādityan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
keśacaityan. Name of a caitya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
keśavādityam. a form of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khakholkādityam. a form of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khālityan. idem or 'n. (fr. khalat/i-), morbid baldness ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khāṇḍityamfn. idem or 'mfn. fr. khaṇḍita- gaRa sutaṃgamādi-.' gaRa pragady-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
koṇādityan. (perhaps) equals koṇārka-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kramādityam. Name of king skanda-gupta-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛtanityakriyamfn. one who has duly performed his daily religious observances. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣaitrajityan. (fr. kṣetra-jit-), acquisition of land, victorious battle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣemādityam. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣity(by saṃdhi- for kṣiti-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣityadhipam. "lord of the earth", a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣityaditif. "the aditi- of the earth", Name of devakī- (mother of kṛṣṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣityutkaram. a heap of mould, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kullādityam. Name (also title or epithet) of chief, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuvalayādityam. Name of a prince (equals pīḍa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lakṣmaṇādityam. (with rājaputra-) Name of a poet and pupil of kṣemendra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lalitacaityam. Name of a caitya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lalitādityam. Name of a king of kaśmīra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lalitādityapuran. Name of a town founded by him View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lālityan. (fr. lalita-) grace, beauty, charm, amorous or languid gestures View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lauhityam. (fr. idem or 'm. rock-crystal ') a kind of rice (see lohitya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lauhityam. patron. (also plural) (see gaRa gargādi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lauhityam. Name of a river, the brahma-putra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lauhityam. of a sea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lauhityam. of a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lauhityan. (prob.) of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lauhityan. red colour, redness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lauhityabhaṭṭagopālam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lauhityāyanīf. (feminine form of the patronymic lauhitya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lohityam. a kind of rice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lohityam. Name of a man (varia lectio, lauh-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lohityam. of the brahma-putra- river (varia lectio for lauh-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lohityam. of a village View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lohityam. of the blood sea near kuśa-dvīpa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lohityāf. Name of a celestial female (with jana-mātā-; varia lectio lohityā- yana-m-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lohityāf. of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madanādityam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyādityam. the midday sun (-gate' hani-,"when the day has reached the mid-sun" id est at noon) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyasthityardham. or n. (in astronomy) the mean half duration. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahādaityam. "the great daitya-", Name of a daitya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahādaityam. of the grandfather of the second candra-gupta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahendrādityam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māhityam. patronymic fr. mahita- gaRa gargādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
malamūtraparityāgam. evacuation of feces and urine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māṇiyādityam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māntrityam. patronymic fr. mantrita- gaRa gargādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
manukulādityam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mayūkhādityam. a form of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mityan. what is to be measured or fixed, (prob.) price View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muñjādityam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naicityam. a prince of the nicita-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naiścityam. determination, certainty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naiścityam. a fixed ceremony or festival (as a birth, investiture, marriage etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naiśityan. sharpness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naityamfn. (fr. nitya-) continually done or to be done, regularly repeated gaRa vyuṣṭādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naityan. eternity, perpetuity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naityakamfn. to be always or regularly done (not occasionally; see naimittika-), constantly repeated, invariable, obligatory etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naityakan. the food regularly offered to an idol View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naityaśabdikamfn. Va1rtt. 1 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naityikamfn. equals tyaka- mfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatratārārājādityam. a particular samādhi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāpityam. idem or 'm. the son or offspring of a barber ' , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāpityan. the trade or business of a barber View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
narendrādityam. Name of 2 kings of kaśmīra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navaucityavicāracarcāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nemādityam. Name of trivikrama-bhaṭṭa-'s father View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nimbādityam. Name of the founder of a vaiṣṇava- sect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niścityaind. having ascertained or decided, feeling assured or convinced or resolute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niśrityaind. going to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityamf(ā-)n. (fr. ni-; see ni-ja-) innate, native View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityamf(ā-)n. one's own (opp. to araṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityamf(ā-)n. continual, perpetual, eternal etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityamfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' constantly dwelling or engaged in, intent upon, devoted or used to (see tapo-n-, dharma-n-, dhyāna-n-, śastra-n-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityamf(ā-)n. ordinary, usual, invariable, fixed, necessary, obligatory (opp. to kāmya-, naimittika-etc.) etc. (with samāsa- m.a compound the meaning of which is not expressed by its members when not compounded ;with svarita- m. equals jātya-,the independent svarita- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityam. the sea, ocean View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityāf. a plough-share View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityāf. Name of durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityāf. of a śakti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityāf. of the goddess manasā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityan. constant and indispensable rite or act View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityabhaktikamfn. regularly fed by another, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityabhāvam. eternity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityabuddhimfn. considering anything (locative case) as constant or eternal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityācāram. constant good conduct View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityācārapradīpam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityācāravidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityadāind. always, perpetually, constantly (see gaRa svarādi-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityadānan. daily alms-giving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityadānādipaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityadhṛtmfn. constantly bearing or maintaining View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityadhṛtmfn. observing daily duties (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityadhṛtamfn. constantly maintained or kept up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityagatimfn. moving continually View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityagatim. wind, or the god of wind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityāgnihotran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityahomaperpetual sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityahomādiprakīrṇakan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityahomādividhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityahomaprāyaścittan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityahomavidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityahotṛ(n/i-) mfn. always sacrificing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityajapavidhānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityajātamfn. constantly born View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityajvaram. uninterrupted fever View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityakālamind. always, at all times View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityakarmalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityakarmann. a constant act or duty (as observance of the 5 great acts of worship), any daily and necessary rite View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityakarmann. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityakarmānuṣṭhānakramam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityakarmapaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityakarmaprakāśikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityakarmavidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityakriyāf. idem or 'n. a regular and necessary act or ceremony ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityakriyāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityakṛtyan. a regular and necessary act or ceremony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityalīlāsthāpanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityamind. always, constantly, regularly, by all means etc. (na nityam-,never; nityam an-ādāta-,never a receiver ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityamayamf(ī-)n. formed or consisting of anything eternal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityamuktamfn. emancipated for ever ( nityamuktatva -tva- n.), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityamuktatvan. nityamukta
nityānadhyāyam. invariable suspension of repetition of the veda-s (as on the day of full moon etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityanaimittikan. (with or scilicet karman-) any regularly recurring occasional act or ceremony or any rite constantly performed to accomplish some object (as śrāddha-s at fixed lunar periods) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityānandam. "eternal happiness", Name of several authors (also -nātha-, -mano'bhirāma-, -rāma-, -śarman-, nucara-and śrama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityānandarasam. "essence of eternal joy", Name of a particular medicine preparation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityānandarasodadhim. "ocean of the essence etc.", God View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityānandayugalāṣṭakan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityanartamfn. constantly dancing (śiva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityanātham. Name of an author (also -siddha-)
nityānityamfn. eternal and perishable, permanent and temporary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityānnadānamāhātmyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityānubaddhamfn. always approached or resorted to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityānubaddhāf. (with devatā-) tutelary deity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityānugṛhītamfn. constantly maintained or kept (fire) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityānusaṃdhānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityānuṣṭhānapūjāpaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityapādam. equals -nātha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityaparīkṣaṇan. constant investigation or inspection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityaparivṛtam. Name of a buddha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityapralayam. the constant dissolution of living beings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityapramuditamfn. always delighted or satisfied View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityaprayogaratnākaram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityapūjāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityapūjāyantran. a kind of amulet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityapuṣṭamf(ā-)n. always well-supplied View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityārādhanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityārādhanakramam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityārādhanavidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityāritra(n/i-) mf(ā-)n. having its own oars (as a ship), moving by itself. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityārthasāmānyapañcapaṭhīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityartu(for -ṛtu-) mfn. regularly recurring at the seasons, annual View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityasamam. the assertion that all things remain the same View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityasamāsam. See above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityasaṃhṛṣṭamfn. always exulting or triumphant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityasaṃhṛṣṭamfn. always rivalling one another (see saṃghṛṣṭa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityasaṃnyāsinm. always an ascetic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityaśaṅkinm. "always afraid", a deer, antelope, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityaśaṅkitamfn. perpetually alarmed, always suspicious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityaśasind. always, constantly, eternally View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityaśatrughnamfn. killing one's constant enemies (id est passions), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityaśayamfn. always sleeping or reclining View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityasevakamfn. always serving others View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityasiddhamfn. "ever perfect", a jaina- predicate of the soul View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityasnāyinmfn. constantly bathing or making ablutions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityaśrāddhan. a daily or constant śrāddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityaśrīmfn. of lasting beauty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityasthamfn. always abiding in (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityastotra(n/i-) mfn. receiving perpetual praise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityasvādhyāyinmfn. always engaged in the study of the veda- ( nityasvādhyāyitā yi-- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityasvādhyāyitāf. nityasvādhyāyin
nityatāf. perpetuity, continuance, continual repetition of (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityatāf. necessity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityātantran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityatarpaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityatvan. idem or 'f. necessity ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityavaikuṇṭham. Name of a particular residence of viṣṇu- in heaven View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityavarṣadevam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityavatsamf(ā-)n. (ty/a--) always possessing a calf View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityavatsāf. a particular form of sāma- supplication View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityavatsan. Name of several sāman-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityavidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityavitrastam. "always scared", Name of an antelope View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityavratan. a perpetual observance (lasting for life) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityavyayamfn. always expending View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityavyayāf. ever laying out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityayātrāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityayauvanamfn. always young View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityayauvanāf. Name of draupadī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityayauvanan. perpetual youth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityayujmfn. having the mind always fixed upon one object View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityayuktamfn. always busy or intent upon (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityāyuktam. "always active", Name of a bodhisattva- (see tyody-below) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityodaka() () mfn. always furnished with water. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityodakin() mfn. always furnished with water. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityoditamfn. risen by itself (as knowledge) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityoditam. a particular medicine preparation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityoditam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityodyuktam. "always energetic", Name of a bodhi-sattva- (see nityāy-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityotkṣiptahastam. "who always raises his hand", Name of a bodhi-sattva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityotsavam. (in the beginning of a compound) constant or regular festivals View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityotsavam. Name of work (also nityotsavavidhi -vidhi-,m.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityotsavavidhim. nityotsava
pādmanityapūjāvidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pālityan. (fr. palita-) greyness (of age), hoariness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pālityamfn. gaRa saṃkāśādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcabhūtaparityaktamfn. deserted by the 5 elements (as a dead body) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṇḍityan. (fr. paṇḍita-) scholarship, erudition, learning, cleverness, skill, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṇḍityadarpaṇam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārimityan. (-mita-) the being confined, limitation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariṇāminityamfn. eternal but continually changing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityāgam. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) the act of leaving, abandoning, deserting, quitting, giving up, neglecting, renouncing etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityāgam. separation from (sakāśāt-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityāgam. (plural) liberality, a sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityāgam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityāginmfn. leaving, quitting, forsaking, renouncing (mostly in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityajP. -tyajati- (te- ; ind.p. -tyajya-), to leave, quit, abandon, give up, reject, disregard, not heed etc. ; (with deham-) to forsake the body id est die ; (with prāṇān-,or jīvitam-) to resign the breath, give up the ghost ; (with nāvam-) to disembark : Passive voice -tyajyate-, to be deprived or bereft of (instrumental case) etc.: Causal -tyājayati-, to deprive or rob a person of (2 accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityajmfn. idem or 'mfn. one who leaves or abandons, a forsaker ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityajanan. abandoning, giving away, distributing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityājanan. causing to abandon or give up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityajyaind. having left or abandoned etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityajyaind. leaving a space, at a distance from (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityajyaind. with she exception of, excepting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityājyamfn. to be left or abandoned or deserted etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityājyamfn. to be given up or renounced View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityājyamfn. to be omitted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityaktamfn. left, quitted etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityaktamfn. let go, let fly (as an arrow) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityaktamfn. deprived of, wanting (instrumental case or compound) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityaktan. anything to spare View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityaktamind. without (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parityaktṛmfn. one who leaves or abandons, a forsaker View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pātityan. (fr. patita-) loss of position or caste, degradation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paurohityamfn. belonging to the family of a purohita- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paurohityan. the office of a recited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracuranityadhanāgamamfn. receiving many and constant supplies of money View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāditya(pra-ād-) m. Name of two princes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prajñāditya(jñād-) m. "sun of wisdom", N. applied to a very clever man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakāśādityam. Name of author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prākṛtasāhityaratnākaram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāṇaparityāgam. abandonment of life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratāpādityam. Name of several princes ( pratāpādityatā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratāpādityatāf. pratāpāditya
pratyādityam. a mock sun, parhelion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyāditya(in the beginning of a compound) towards the sun (exempli gratia, 'for example' p-guda-,one whose hinder parts are towards the sun ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāhityan. (fr. rahita- in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') destituteness, non-possession, the being destitute of or free from or without View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raityamfn. made of brass, brazen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājādityam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājīmanmatīparityāgam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raṇādityam. Name of various men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rauhityāyanim. patronymic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdanityatāf. the eternity of sound (also -tva- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdānityatārahasyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdanityatāvicāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāgnicityamfn. connected with the piling of the sacred fire. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahacaityavatmfn. together with sanctuaries View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasracityam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityan. (fr. sahita-) association, connection, society, combination, union with (instrumental case or compound; sāhityena yena- ind."in combination with, together with") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityan. agreement, harmony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityan. literary or rhetorical composition, rhetoric, poetry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityabodham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityacandrikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityacintāmaṇim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityacūḍāmanim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityadarpaṇam. "mirror of composition", Name of a treatise on literary or rhetorical composition by viśvanātha-kavi-rāja- (15th century A.D.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityadīpikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityahṛdayadarpaṇam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityakalpadrumam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityakalpapallavīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityakaṇṭhoddhāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityakaumudīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityakauthūhalan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityamīmāṃsāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityamuktāmaṇim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityaratnākaram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityaratnamālāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityasāmrājyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityasaraṇīvyākhyāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityaśārṅgadharam. (prob.) = śārṅgadharapaddhati-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityasarvasvan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityaśāstran. a treatise on rhetoric or composition (or any work explaining the figures of rhetoric or giving rules for literary or poetical composition) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityasūcīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityasudhāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityasudhāsamudram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityasūkṣmasaraṇif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityataraṃgiṇīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityavicāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityavidhyādharam. Name of cāritra-vardhana- muni- (author of a commentator or commentary on the naiṣadha-caritra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhityenaind. sāhitya
śaityan. (fr. śīta-) coldness, frigidity, cold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaityamayamf(ī-)n. consisting in coldness, causing frost ( śaityamayatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaityamayatvan. śaityamaya
śaityāyanam. Name of a grammarian View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śakādityam. "sun of the śaka-s", Name of king śāli-vāhana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śakrādityam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samabhityajP. -tyajati-, to give up entirely, wholly renounce or resign View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samabhityaktamfn. wholly given up, renounced, risked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samabhityaktajīvitamfn. one who has quite renounced his life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmbādityam. a particular form of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śambhunityāf. Name of a Tantric work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃgamādityam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃgrāmajityan. (fr. saṃ-grāma-jit-) victory in battle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmityamfn. (fr. sam-iti-) relating to an assembly or council View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkhyāparityaktamfn. "deserted by numeration", innumerable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃnihityan. (fr. saṃ-nihita-) close vicinity, anything near at hand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samparityajP. -tyajati-, to abandon, desert, leave View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samparityaktamfn. abandoned, given up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samparityaktajīvitamfn. (a battle) in which expectation of life is abandoned View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃśityam. patronymic fr. saṃ-śita- (See saṃ-śo-) gaRa gargādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvadevasādhāraṇanityapūjāvidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvasaṅgaparityāgam. abandonment of all worldly affections or connections View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śastranityamfn. one who is continually under arms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauhityan. (fr. su-hita-) satiety, satisfaction etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauhityan. amiableness, loveliness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauhityan. fulness, completion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sausthityan. (fr. su-sthita-) an auspicious situation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāvadhānasāhityan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śilāditya(d-) m. Name of a king (see śīlāditya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīlādityam. "sun of virtue", Name of various kings (especially of a son of vikramāditya-, also called pratāpa-śīla-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śityin compound for śiti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śityaṃsamfn. white-shouldered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śityoṣṭhamfn. white-lipped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivādityam. (with miśra-) Name of an author (also called nyāyācārya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivādityamaṇidīpikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivādityamaṇidīpikākhaṇḍanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivādityaprakāśikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣoḍaśanityatantran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somādityam. Name of a man, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somādityam. of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śriyāditya(śriyād-) m. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
staimityan. (fr. stimita-) fixedness, rigidity, immobility, numbness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
staimityaSee . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthityin compound for sthiti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthityatikrāntif. transgression of the bounds of morality or virtue View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sugandhādityam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suparṇacityamfn. equals -c/it- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūrādityam. Name of a son of guṇāditya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svādityamfn. any one befriended by the āditya-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svādityan. the favour or protection of the āditya-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvaityam. patronymic of sṛñjaya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvaityan. whiteness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvaityan. white leprosy, vitiligo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svayaṃguṇaparityāgam. spontaneous abandonment of"the thread"and of"virtue" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvityamfn. white, white-coloured View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvityam. (see śvaitya-) Name of a man () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvityañcmf(tīc/ī-)n. whitish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śyāmānityapūjāpaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taimityan. fr. timita-, dulness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taponityamfn. devoting one's self incessantly to religious austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taponityam. Name of a man (with the patronymic pauruśiṣṭi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taruṇādityam. the newly-risen sun, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagadaityam. "horse-titan", keśin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ucchritya ind.p. having erected or raised View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udayādityam. Name of several men. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaniḥśritya ind.p. having gone out to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upapattiparityaktamfn. destitute of argument or proof. unproved, unreasonable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaicitya wrong reading for prec. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vairohityam. patronymic fr. vairohita- gaRa gargādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājajityā() f. a victorious course or contest. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājidaityam. Name of an asura- (also called keśin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vajrādityam. Name of a king of kāśmīra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vālukācaityakrīḍāf. "playing at heaps of sand", a kind of child's game View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vananityam. Name of a son of raudrāśva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vicicityamfn. to be sifted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijayādityam. Name of various kings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikramādityam. See below View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikramādityam. "valour-sun", Name of a celebrated Hindu king (of ujjayinī- and supposed founder of the [ mālava--] vikrama- era[ see saṃvat-],which begins 58 B.C. [but subtract 57-56 from anexpiredyear of the vikrama- era to convert it into A.D.];he is said to have driven out the śaka-s and to have reigned over almost the whole of Northern India;he is represented as a great patron of literature;nine celebrated men are said to have flourished at his court [see nava-ratna-],and innumerable legends are related of him all teeming with exaggerations;according to some he fell in a battle with his rival śāli-vāhana-, king of the south country or Deccan, and the legendary date given for his death is kali-yuga- 3044 [which really is the epoch-year of the vikrama- era];there are, however, other kings called vikramāditya-, and the name has been applied to king bhoja- and even to śāli-vāhana-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikramādityam. of a poet ( vikramādityakośa -kośa- m.Name of a dictionary; vikramādityacaritra -caritra- n.Name of a poem equals vikrama-c-; vikramādityarāja -rāja- m.Name of a king) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikramādityacaritran. vikramāditya
vikramādityakośam. vikramāditya
vikramādityarājam. vikramāditya
vimalādityam. a particular form of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinayādityam. Name of jayāpīḍa-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinayādityam. Name of a king of the race of the cālukya-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinayādityapuran.Name of a town built by jayāpīḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣamādityam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vityajaSee a-vityaja-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhādityam. a particular form of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāvrityaSee vyā-vṛt-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yamādityam. a particular form of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yathaucityam( ) () ind. in a suitable manner, according to propriety, fitly, suitably, duly. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yathaucityāt() ind. in a suitable manner, according to propriety, fitly, suitably, duly. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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itya इत्य a. To be gone towards or approached; इत्यः शिष्येण गुरुवत्. -त्या 1 Going; way. अन्यमस्मदिच्छ सा त$- इत्या Vāj.12.62. -2 A litter, palanquin.
atisauhityam अतिसौहित्यम् Stuffing oneself with food; न ˚त्यमाचरेत् Ms.4.62.
atyāditya अत्यादित्य a. Surpassing the (lustre of the) sun; अत्यादित्यं हुतवहमुखे संभृतं तद्धि तेजः Me.43.
adhityakā अधित्यका [अधि-त्यकन् P.V.2.34; पर्वतस्य आरूढस्थल- मधित्यका Sk.] A table-land, highland; स्थाणुं तपस्यन्तमधि- त्यकायां Ku.3.17; अधित्यकायामिव धातुमय्याम् R.2.29.
anitya अनित्य a. 1 Not eternal or everlasting, transient, non-eternal, perishable (नश्वर) (opp. नित्य); गन्धवती पृथ्वी सा द्विविधा नित्या$नित्या च T. S.9 (अनित्या = कार्यरूपा); See नित्य; यदि नित्यमनित्येन निर्मलं मलवाहिना । यशः कायेन लभ्येत तन्न लब्धं भवेन्तु किम् ॥ H.1.45. रजस्वलमनित्यं च भूतावासमिमं त्यजेत् Ms.6.77; धर्मो$नित्यः सुखदुःखे$प्यनित्ये जीवो$नित्यो हेतुरस्या- प्यनित्यः Mb. -2 Occasional, temporary, casual; not peremptory or obligatory as a rule &c., special. -3 Unusual, extraordinary; वर्णे चानित्ये P.V.4.31 (लोहितकः कोपेन, अन्यथा तु श्वेतवर्ण इति भावः); आनाय्यो$नित्ये III.1.127 (स हि गार्हपत्यादानीयते$नित्यश्च सततमप्रज्वलनात् Sk.) See VI.1. 147. -4 Unsteady, fickle, not permanent; अनित्यं यौवनं रूपम् H.4.68; ˚हृदया हि ताः Rām. -5 Uncertain, doubtful; अनित्यो विजयो यस्माद् दृश्यते युध्यमानयोः Ms.7.199; विजयस्य ह्यनित्यत्वात् Pt.3.22. -6 (in grammar) A rule or operation which is not invariable or compulsory; optional. -त्यम् adv. Occasionally, not permanently, incidentally, casually; अनित्यं हि स्थितो यस्मात् Ms.3.12. -Comp. -कर्मन्, -क्रिया an occasional act, such as a sacrifice for a special purpose, a voluntary and occasional act. -दत्तः, -दत्तकः, -दत्रिमः a son given by his parents to another temporarily (for temporary or preliminary adoption). -प्रत्यवेक्षा (with Buddhists) the consciousness that everything is perishable and is passing away. -भावः transitoriness, transient state, limited nature or existence; so अनित्यतावम् frailty, instability. -समः a sophism or fallacious reasoning which generalizes what it is exceptional (as अनित्यत्वम्). -समासः a compound which it is not obligatory to form in every case (the sense of which may be equally expressed by resolving it into its constituent members.).
anaucityam अनौचित्यम् Unfitness, impropriety; अनौचित्यादृते नान्य- द्रसभङ्गस्य कारणम् K.P.7.
apamitya अपमित्य Ved. To be thrown away. -त्यम्, -त्यकम् Debt. Av.6.117.1.
abhiśvaitya अभिश्वैत्य a. (अभितः श्वैत्यं शुद्धचारित्र्यादिर्यस्य) One whose conduct is chaste.
āditya आदित्य a. [अदितेरपत्यं ण्य P.IV.1.85.] 1 Solar, belonging to, or born in, the solar line; आदित्यैर्यदि विग्रहो नृपतिभिर्धन्यं ममैतत्ततो U.6.18. -2 Devoted to, or originating from, Aditi; आदित्यं चरुं निर्वपेत् Yaj. Ts.2.2.6.1. -3 Belonging to, or sprung from, the Ādityas. -त्यः 1 A son of Aditi; a god, divinity in general. (The number of Ādityas appears to have been originally seven, of whom Varuṇa is the head, and the name Āditya was restricted to them (देवा आदित्या ये सप्त Rv.9.114.3.). In the time of the Brāhmaṇas, however, the number of Ādityas rose to 12, representing the sun in the 12 months of the year; धाता मित्रो$र्यमा रुद्रो वरुणः सूर्य एव च । भगो विवस्वान् पूषा च सविता दशमः स्मृतः ॥ एकादशस्तथा त्वष्टा विष्णुर्द्वादश उच्यते ।); आदित्यानामहं विष्णुः Bg.1.21; Ku. 2.24. (These 12 suns are supposed to shine only at the destruction of the universe; cf. Ve.3.8; दग्धुं विश्वं दहनकिरणैर्नोदिता द्वादशार्काः). -2 The sun; Vāj.4.21. -3 A name of Viṣṇu in his fifth or dwarf-incarnation; स्वयंभूः शंभुरादित्यः V. Sah. -4 N. of the Arka plant (Mar. रुई). -त्यौ (dual) N. of a constellation, the seventh lunar mansion (पुनर्वसु). -Comp. -केतुः 1 N. of a son of Dhṛitarāṣtra. -2 The charioteer of the sun. -चन्द्रौ (dual) the sun and the moon. -दर्शनम् 'Showing the sun' (to a child of 4 months), one of the संस्काराs. -पत्र्यः N. of a plant. (-त्र्यम्) the leaf of the Arka tree. -पर्णिनी a creeping plant with gold-coloured flowers, growing near the bank of water. -पुराणम् N. of an Upapurāṇa. -पुष्पिका red swallow wort (Mar. शिरदोडी). -बन्धुः N. of Śākyamuni. -भक्ता [आदित्ये भक्ता] N. of a plant. see अर्कभक्ता. -मण्डलम् the disc or orb of the sun. -व्रतम् 1 worship of the sun; a व्रत or rite. -2 N. of a Sāman. -सूनुः 'the son of the sun', N. of Sugrīva, Yama, Saturn, Manu and Karṇa &c.
āpamityaka आपमित्यक a. [अपमित्य परिवर्त्य निर्वृत्तम् कक्] Received by barter or exchange. -कम् Property or anything obtained by barter or for a consideration.
aucityam औचित्यम् औचिती [उचित-ष्यञ् यलोपे ङीष्] 1 Aptness, fitness, propriety, suitableness. -2 Congruity or fitness, as one of the several circumstances which determine the exact meaning of a word in a sentence (such as संयोग, वियोग &c.); सामर्थ्यमौचिती देशः कालो व्यक्तिः स्वरादयः S. D.2; in the example पातु वो दयितामुखम् there is औचिती or fitness in taking मुख to mean सांमुख्यम् (meeting) instead of आननम्. -3 Habituation. -Comp. -अलङ्कारः N. of a work.
aurjityam और्जित्यम् [ऊर्जित-ष्यञ्] Greatness; कैलासोद्धारसार- त्रिभुवनविजयौर्जित्यनिष्णातदोष्णः Mv.2.16. और्ण aurṇa और्णक aurṇaka और्णिक aurṇika और्ण और्णक और्णिक a. (-र्णी, -की f.) [ऊर्णा-अञ्, घुञ् वा] Woollen. राङ्कवाणि तथौर्णानि ...... । Śiva. B.3.21. -Comp. -स्थानिकः An officer in charge of woollen articles; EI,XXIII,P.159.
citya चित्य a. 1 To be arranged in order or built up. -2 Constructed upon a foundation (as fire). -त्यम् 1 The place at which a corpse is burnt. -2 A monument. -त्या 1 A funeral pile. -2 Piling up, building (as an altar).
citya चित्य a. Belonging to the funeral pyre; चित्यमाल्याङ्ग- रागश्च आयसाभरणो$भवत् Rām.1.58.11; m. funeral fire. f. 1 A pyre. -2 A piece of ground prepared for sacrifice; सचित्यो राजसिंहस्य संचितः कुशलैर्द्विजैः Rām.1.14.29.
caitya चैत्य a. Relating to a pile. -त्यः The individual soul. -त्यम् 1 The ant-hill; नागहेतोः सुपर्णेन चैत्यमुन्मथितं यथा Rām.4.19.24. -2 A pile of stones forming a landmark. -3 A monument, tomb-stone. -4 A sacrificial shed; देवस्थानेषु चैत्येषु नागानामालयेषु च Mb.3.19.67; कच्चिच्चैत्यशतैर्जुष्टः Rām.2.1.43; प्रासादगोपुरसभाचैत्यदेव- गृहादिषु Bhāg.9.11.27. -5 A place of religious worship, altar, sanctuary. -6 A temple. -7 A reflection. -8 A religious fig-tree or any tree growing by the side of streets; चैत्ययूपाङ्किता भूमिर्यस्येयं सवनाकरा Mb.1.1.229; Me.23 (रथ्यावृक्ष Malli.) -Comp. -अग्निः sacred fire, Pañch.1.6. -तरुः, -द्रुमः, -वृक्षः a fig-tree standing on a sacred spot. -पालः the guardian of a sanctuary. -मुखः a hermit's water-pot.
jitya जित्य a. Conquerable. -त्या 1 Victory. -2 Acquisition, gain. -3 A ploughshare. -त्यः A harrow.
jityaḥ जित्यः An instrument for levelling or smoothing ploughed ground (Mar. कुळव).
taimityam तैमित्यम् Dulness.
dityaḥ दित्यः A demon.
daityaḥ दैत्यः [दितेरपत्यं-ण्य] See दैतेय. -Comp. -अरिः 1 a god. -2 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -देवः 1 an epithet of Varuṇa. -2 wind. -पतिः an epithet of Hiraṇyakaśipu, Prahlāda or Bali; यथा हि ते दैत्यपतौ प्रसादः Bhāg.1.63.45. q. v. -युगम् an age of the demons consisting of 12 divine years.
daityā दैत्या 1 A drug. -2 Spirituous liquor.
daityāya दैत्याय (दैत्यायते) To represent a Daitya; दैत्यायित्वा जहारान्यामेका कृष्णार्भभावनाम् Bhāg.1.3.16.
daurjīvityam दौर्जीवित्यम् A wretched or miserable life.
nāpityam नापित्यम् The trade of a barber. -त्यः The son of a barber.
nitya नित्य a. [नियमेन नियतं वा भवं नि-त्य-प्; cf. P.IV.2.14. Vārt.] 1 (a.) Continual, perpetual, constant, everlasting, eternal, uninterrupted; यथा त्वमसि दुर्धर्षो धर्मनित्यः प्रजाहितः Rām.7.37.8; यदि नित्यमनित्येन लभ्यते H.1.48; नित्यज्योत्स्नाः प्रतिहततमोवृत्तिरम्याः प्रदोषाः Me. (regarded by Malli. as an interpolation); Ms.2.26. (b) Imperishable, indestructible; पृथिवी द्विविधा नित्या$नित्या च Tarka K. -2 Invariable, regular, fixed, not optional, regularly prescribed (opp. काम्य). -3 Necessary, obligatory, essential. -4 Ordinary, usual (opp. नौमित्तिक). -5 (At the end of comp.) Constantly dwelling in, perpetually engaged in or busy with; जाह्नवीतीर˚, अरण्य˚, आदान˚, ध्यान˚ &c. -त्यः The ocean. -स्या 1 An epithet of the goddess Durgā. -2 A plough-share. -त्यम् An indispensable or inevitable act. -त्यम् ind. Daily, constantly, always, ever, perpetually, enternally. -Comp. -अनध्यायः invariable suspension of Vedic studies; नित्यानध्याय एव स्याद् ग्रामेषु नगरेषु च Ms.4.17. -अनित्य a. eternal and perishable. -अनुबद्ध a. always approached or resorted to. -अनुवादः a bare statement of fact; स्याज्जुह्वप्रतिषेधान्नित्यानुवादः MS.4.1.45. -अभियुक्त a. One who is completely absorbed in yogic practices. -ऋतु a. regularly recurring at the seasons. -कर्मन् n., -कृत्यम्, क्रिया any daily and necessary rite, a constant act or duty, as the five daily Yajñas. -कालम् ind. always, at all times; ब्राह्मेण विप्रस्तीर्थेन नित्यकालमुपस्पृशेत् Ms.2.58,73. -गतिः air, wind. -जात a. constantly born; अथ चैनं नित्यजातं नित्यं वा मन्यसे मृतम् Bg.2.26. -दानम् daily alms-giving. -नियमः an invariable rule. -नैमित्तिकम् an occasional act regularly recurring, or any ceremony constantly performed to accomplish a particular object, e. g. (a पर्वश्राद्ध). -पुष्ट a. always well-supplied. -प्रलयः 1 the constant dissolution of living beings. -2 sleep. -बुद्धिः a. considering anything as constant or eternal. -भावः eternity. -मुक्तः the Supreme Spirit. -युक्त a. always busy or intent upon. -युज् a. having the mind always fixed upon one object; दृग्भिर्हृदीकृतमलं परिरभ्य सर्वास्तद्भावमापुरपि नित्ययुजां दुरापम् Bhāg.1.82.4. -यौवना (ever youthful) an epithet of Draupadī. -व्रतम् a perpetual observance (lasting for life). -शङ्कित a. perpetually alarmed, ever suspicious. -समः the assertion that all things remain the same; Sarva. S. -समासः 'a necessary compound', a compund the meaning of which cannot be expressed by its constituent members used separately (the separate ideas having merged in one); e. g. जमदग्नि, जयद्रथ &c.; इवेन नित्यसमासः &c.
nityatā नित्यता त्वम् 1 Invariableness, constancy, continuance, eternity, perpetuity. -2 Necessity. -3 Perseverance.
nityadā नित्यदा ind. Perpetually, always, constantly, eternally; स नित्यदोद्विग्नधिया तमीश्वरम् (ददर्श) Bhāg.1.44.38.
nityaśas नित्यशस् ind. Constantly, always, eternally; अनन्य- चेताः सततं यो मां स्मरति नित्यशः Bg.8.14; Ms.2.96;4.15.
naityam नैत्यम् Eternity, perpetuity.
naityaka नैत्यक a. (-की f.), -नैत्यिक a. (-की f.) 1 Regularly recurring, constantly repeated. -2 To be performed regularly (and not on particular occasions); नैत्यके नास्त्यनध्यायः Ms.2.16. -3 Indispensable, constant, obligatory. -कम् The food regularly offered to an idol (नैवेद्य); यक्षिण्या नैत्यकं तत्र प्राश्नीत पुरुषः शुचिः Mb.3.84.15.
naiścityam नैश्चित्यम् 1 Determination, certainty. -2 A fixed ceremony or festival (such as a birth, marriage &c.).
parityaj परित्यज् 1 P. 1 To leave, quit, abandon. -2 To resign, give up, discard, renounce; प्रारब्धमुत्तमगुणा न परित्यजन्ति Mu.2.17. -3 To except; तृणमप्यपरित्यज्य सतृणम् Sk. -4 To leave over, leave as a remainder. -5 To neglect, disregard. -6 To forsake (the body), die. -7 To disembark (with नावम्). -Caus. Te deprive a person of, rob any one of.
parityakta परित्यक्त p. p. 1 Left, quitted, abandoned. -2 Deprived or bereft of (with instr.). -3 Let go, discharged (as an arrow). -4 Wanting. -क्तम् n. Anything to spare. -ind. Without.
parityajanam परित्यजनम् Abandoning, giving up, leaving.
parityāgaḥ परित्यागः 1 Leaving, quitting, abandonment, desertion, repudiation (as a wife &c.); अपरित्यागमयाचतात्मनः- R.8.12; कृतसीतापरित्यागः 15.1. -2 Giving up, renouncing, discarding, renunciation, abdication &c.; स्वनाम- परित्यागं करोमि Pt.1. 'I shall forego my name'; प्रापणात् सर्वकामानां परित्यागो विशिष्यते Ms.2.95. -3 Neglect, omission; मोहात्तस्य (कर्मणः) परित्यागस्तामसः परिकीर्तितः Bg.18.7. -4 Giving away, liberality. -5 Loss, privation. -6 A sacrifice. -7 Separation from.
parityāgin परित्यागिन् a. Renouncing (a Saṁnyāsin); गच्छत्येव परित्यागी वानप्रस्थश्च गच्छति Mb.12.268.13.
parityājya परित्याज्य a. 1 To be abandoned, left. -2 To be omitted.
pāṇḍityam पाण्डित्यम् 1 Scholarship, profound learning, erudition; तदेव गमकं पाण्डित्यवैदग्ध्ययोः Māl.1.7. -2 Cleverness, skill, dexterity, sharpness; नखानां पाण्डित्यं प्रकटयतु कस्मिन् मृगपतिः Bv.1.2; परोपदेशे पाण्डित्यं सर्वेषां सुकरं नृणाम्. -3 Prudence; न स्वल्पस्य कृते भूरि नाशयेन्मतिमान्नरः । एतदेव हि पाण्डित्यं यत् स्वल्पाद् भूरिरक्षणम् ॥ Pt.1.19.
pātityam पातित्यम् Loss of caste or position; एतत् पातित्यदान्नो जघनमतिघनादेनसो माननीयम् Viṣṇupād Stotra, 21.
pārimityam पारिमित्यम् Limit, limited extent or number.
pālityam पालित्यम् Greyness of hair caused by old age, hoariness.
paurohityam पौरोहित्यम् The office of a family-priest; नरकाय मतिस्ते चेत् पौरोहित्यं समाचर Pt.2.63.
rāhityam राहित्यम् Being without any thing, destitution; destituteness.
lālityam लालित्यम् [ललितस्य भावः घञ्] 1 Loveliness, charm, beauty, grace, sweetness; दण्डिनः पदलालित्यम् Udb.; लीला- मन्दिरद्वारकदलीलालित्येन Dk.1.5. -2 Amorous gestures.
lohityaḥ लोहित्यः 1 A kind of rice. -2 N. of the river Brahmaputra; see लौहित्य.
lauhityaḥ लौहित्यः [लोहितस्य भावः ष्यञ् स्वार्थे ष्यञ् वा] N. of a river, the Brahmaputra; चकम्पे तीर्णलौहित्ये तस्मिन् प्राग्- ज्योतिषेश्वरः R.4.81 (where Malli. says :- तीर्णा लौहित्या नाम नदी येन but quotes no authority). -त्यम् Redness.
śaityam शैत्यम् [शीत-ष्यञ्] Cold, coldness, frigidity; शैत्यं हि यत् सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य R.5.54; Ku.1.36.
śvitya श्वित्य श्वित्न्य a. White.
śvaityam श्वैत्यम् 1 Whiteness. -2 White leprosy. श्वैत्रम् śvaitram श्वैत्र्यम् śvaitryam श्वैत्रम् श्वैत्र्यम् White leprosy; वस्रापहारकः श्वैत्र्यम् Ms.11.51.
sāhityam साहित्यम् 1 Association, fellowship, combination, society. -2 Literary or rhetorical composition; साहित्य- संगीतकलाविहीनः साक्षात् पशुः पुच्छविषाणहीनः Bh.2.12. -3 The science of rhetoric, art of poetry; साहित्यपाथोनिधिमन्थनोत्थं कर्णामृतं रक्षत हे कवीन्द्राः Vikr.1.11; साहित्यदर्पणम् &c. -4 A collection of materials for the production or performance of anything (a doubtful sense). -5 Agreement, harmony. -Comp. -शास्त्रम् see साहित्य (3).
saityam सैत्यम् Whiteness; तमालनीलानि तमांसि कामं पीत्वापि सैत्यं न जहाति चन्द्रः Rām. ch.6.62.
sauhityam सौहित्यम् 1 Satiety, satisfaction; 'पर्याप्तमुपसंपन्नं पूर्तिः सौहित्यमुच्यते' इति हलायुधः; Śi.5.62; न सौहित्यं विना पानं विना प्राणं न विग्रहः Śiva B.15.42. -2 Fulness, completion; सौहित्यात् पृथवः क्वथन्ति रुधिरोत्सेकाश्चमत्कारिणः Mv.5.33. -3 Kindness, friendliness.
staimityam स्तैमित्यम् 1 Fixedness, rigidity, immobility. -2 Numbness.
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acitra a-citrá, n. darkness, obscurity, iv. 51, 3.
anta ánta, m. end, iv. 50, 1; edge, proximity: lc. ánte near, x. 34, 16.
abhimātin abhimāt-ín, m. adversary, i. 85, 3 [abhímāti, f. hostility].
amrta a-mṛ́ta, a. immortal; m. immortal being, i. 35, 2; vii. 63, 5; viii. 48, 32; n. what is immortal, i. 35, 6; x. 90, 3; immortality, x. 129, 2 [not dead, mṛtá, pp. of mṛ die; cp. Gk. ἄμβροτος ‘immortal’].
amṛtatva amṛta-tvá, n. immortality, x. 90, 2.
arapas a-rapás, a. (Bv.) unscathed, ii. 33, 6; x. 15, 4 [rápas, n. infirmity, injury].
arāti á-rāti, f. hostility, ii. 35, 6; iv. 50, 11; viii. 48, 3; x. 34, 14 [non-giving, niggardliness, enmity].
aryaman Arya-mán, m. name of one of the Ādityas, vii. 63, 6.
āditya Ādityá, m. son of Aditi, iii. 59, 2. 3. 5.
āyus á̄y-us, n. span of life, vii. 103, 10; viii. 48, 4. 7. 10. 11; x. 14, 14 [activity: i go].
caratha cará-tha, n. motion, activity, iv. 51, 5 [car fare].
daivya dáiv-ya, a. divine, i. 35, 5; viii. 48, 2; coming from the gods, ii. 33, 7; n. divinity, ii. 35, 8 [from devá god].
puṣṭi puṣ-ṭí, f. earnings, ii. 12, 5; prosperity, viii. 48, 6.
pūṣan Pūṣ-án, m. a solar deity, vi. 54, 1-6. 8-10 prosperer [puṣ thrive].
poṣa póṣ-a, m. prosperity, i. 1, 3 [puṣ thrive].
varivas vár-i-vas, n. wide space, vii. 63, 6; prosperity, iv. 50, 9 [breadth, freedom: vṛ cover].
viśvaśambhū viśvá-śambhū, a. beneficial to all, i. 160, 1. 4 [śám prosperity + bhū being for, conducing to].
viṣṇu Víṣ-ṇu, m. a solar deity, i. 85, 7; 154, 1. 2. 3. 5; x. 15, 3 [viṣ be active].
śam śám, n. healing, ii. 33, 13; comfort, v. 11, 5; viii. 48, 4; health, x. 15, 4; prosperity, viii. 86, 82.
śvityañc śvity-áñc, a. whitish, ii. 33, 8 [śviti (akin to śvetá, Go. hweits, Eng. white) + añc].
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ityādi a. beginning thus=and so on; n. this and the like, and so on, &c.
ityai V. d. inf. of √ i.
ityartha iti̮artha, ˚ka a. having the above mentioned meaning.
ityartham ad. for this purpose.
ityetannāmaka a. having the names just mentioned.
atyāditya a. surpassing the sun; -½ânanda, m. excessive joy; -½âpanna, pp. very unfortunate; -½âyata, pp. very long, very tall; -½âyus, a. very old; -½ârûdha, pp. hvg. reached a great height;-½ârûdhi, f. ascending too high; -½âroha, m. mounting too high, arrogance; -½ârti, f. violent pain; -½ârya, a. too honourable.
adhityakā f. table-land.
anityātman a. whose soul is unsubdued.
anityam ad. not continually, now & then.
anitya a. transient; temporary; uncertain; inconstant; -tâ, f., -tva, n. tran sitoriness, uncertainty, instability.
anaucitya n. unusualness; -aud dhatya, n. lack of arrogance; lowness of water; -aushadha, n. no remedy; a. incurable.
āditya a. belonging to the Âdi tyas; divine; relating to the sun; -kandra, m. du. sun and moon; -prabha, m. N. of a king; -mandalá, n. sun's orb; -vat, ad. like the sun; -varna, a. sun-coloured; -varman, -sena, m. Ns. of kings.
āditya a. belonging to or descended from Aditi; m. son of Aditi; sun: pl. a class of gods; n. N. of a lunar mansion.
kuvalayāditya m. N. of a king; -½ânanda, m. T. of a rhetorical work; -½âpîda, m. N. of a Daitya changed into an elephant; N. of a king; -½avalî, f. N. of a queen.
khālatya khâlatya, khālitya n. bald ness.
citya a. that is piled or built up; m. (sc. agni) fire placed on a layer or pile; â, f. piling, building up (of an altar).
dityavah m. (nm. -vât) two-year-old bull; dityauh&isharp;, f. two-year-old cow.
daitya m. descendant of Diti, Asura or demon, esp. Râhu: -dânava-mardana, m. Crusher of the Daityas and Dânavas (Indra); -nishûdana, m. ep. of Vishnu; -pa, -pati, m. ep. of Bali.
nityasevaka a. constantly serving; -snâyin, a. constantly performing ablu tions; (nítya)-hotri, m. constant sacrificer.
nityaśas ad. constantly.
nityayukta pp. ever occupied in, constantly applied or attentive to (lc.); -yug, a. ever concentrated; -vyaya, a. always expending; -vrata, n. life-long observance; -sa&ndot;kita, pp. perpetually alarmed, constantly suspicious.
nityakarman n. necessary duty or rite; -kâlam, ad. always, invariably; -kritya, n., -kriyâ, f. regular ceremony, daily routine; -gati, a. constantly moving; m. wind; -gâta, pp. being constantly born; -tâ, f., -tva, n. perpetuity, eternity; necessity; perseverance in, devotion to (--°ree;); -dâ, ad. perpetually; -parîkshana, n. constant inspection; -bhâva, m. eternity.
nitya a. inward, innate; own (V.); constant, perpetual, eternal; always abiding in, devoted to (--°ree;); regular, essential, neces sary: °ree;-or -m, ad. constantly, perpetually, always; invariably; na nityam, not always; never; -samâsa, m. necessary or fast com pound, i. e. one that cannot be resolved with out destroying the meaning; -svarita, m. necessary, i. e. independent svarita.
nityānugṛhīta pp. constantly tended (fire); -½udaka, -½udakin, a. always supplied with water; -½udita, pp. spontaneously arisen (knowledge).
naityaka a. to be performed regularly, obligatory (opp. naimittika); ika, a. id.
naiśitya n. sharpness.
pāṇḍitya n. scholarship, learning, erudition, wisdom; cleverness; skill, talent.
pātitya n. loss of rank or caste.
madanāditya m. N.; -½anta- ka, m. destroyer of Kâma, ep. of Siva; -½ari, m. foe of Kâma, ep. of Siva; -½avastha, a. enamoured, in love: â, f. being in love; -½âsaya, m. sexual desire.
madhyāditya m. noontide sun: -gate&zip;hani, at midday; â-varsha, n. middle of the rainy season; -½ahna, m. midday: -kâ la, m., -velâ, f., -samaya, m. noontide.
rāhitya n. destituteness, non-pos session of (--°ree;).
lālitya n. [fr. lalita] loveliness, grace, charm.
lauhitya m. pat. (fr. lohita), N. of a river, Brahmaputra; n. redness.
sāhitya n. [sahita] association, with (in., --°ree;); agreement; rhetorical com position, art of poetry: in. in combination, together: -darpana, n. Mirror of Poetry, T. of a work (15th century).
sauhitya n. [suhita] satiety, satis faction; friendliness, kindness.
staimitya n. [stimita] numbness, immobility, sluggishness.
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ity ajināḥ TB.3.9.14.4; Apś.20.6.14.
ity adadāḥ (śB. -dāt) śB.13.1.5.6; 4.2.8,11,14; TB.3.9.14.3; Apś.20.6.5; Mś.9.2.2.7.
ity apacaḥ (Mś. -cathāḥ) TB.3.9.14.3; Apś.20.6.5; Mś.9.2.2.7.
ity amuṃ saṃgrāmam ahan (Mś. ajayathāḥ; śB. ajayat) śś.13.1.5.6; 4.3.5; TB.3.9.14.4; Apś.20.6.14; Mś.9.2.2.7.
ity ayajathāḥ (śB. ayajata) śB.13.1.5.6; 4.2.8,11,14; TB.3.9.14.3; Apś.20.6.5; Mś.9.2.2.7.
ity ayaṃ brahmaṇo dūtaḥ (ApMB. brahmaṇas putraḥ) HG.2.3.7b; ApMB.2.13.12b.
ity ayudhyathāḥ (śB. -yata) śB.13.1.5.6; 4.3.5; TB.3.9.14.4; Apś.20.6.14; Mś.9.2.2.7.
ity avocan daśatayasya naṃśe RV.1.122.12b.
ity āhur brāhmaṇīḥ prajāḥ ApMB.2.11.13b; HG.2.1.3b. See imā mānuṣīḥ.
ity etāṃ vyāhṛtiṃ japan GB.1.5.24d.
ityā ca me gatiś ca me (VS. me yajñena kalpantām) VS.18.15; MS.2.11.5: 142.10; KS.18.10. See itiś.
ityahe kraye śB.9.5.1.8.
ityahe sutyām āgacha maghavan ṣB.1.1.25. P: ityahe sutyām śB.3.3.4.19.
ityāṃ te mayi dadhe KBU.2.15.
ityāṃ me tvayi dadhāni KBU.2.15.
acityā citim ā pṛṇa # TB.3.10.4.2.
athāditya vrate vayaṃ tava # ArS.1.4c; SMB.1.7.10c. See athā (and adhā) vayam āditya.
adityā ahaṃ devayajyayā pratiṣṭhāṃ gameyam # KS.5.1; 32.1.
adityā ahaṃ devayajyayā pra prajayā ca paśubhiś ca janiṣīya # Apś.4.10.1. Cf. devānāṃ patnīnām.
adityā uṣṇīṣam asi # MS.4.9.7: 127.8; TA.4.8.2; 5.7.2; KA.2.119; Apś.15.9.5; Mś.4.3.5. Cf. adityai (adityā) rāsnāsi and indrāṇyā uṣṇī-.
adityāḥ (VS. adityai) pañcamī # VS.25.4; MS.3.15.4: 178.12.
adityāḥ (VSṭS.KSA. adityai) pājasyam # VS.25.8; TS.5.7.16.1; MS.3.15.7: 179.11; KSA.13.6.
adityāḥ putraṃ nāthakāma upa yāmi bhītaḥ # AVś.13.2.37b.
adityāḥ putrā ādityāḥ # AVP.11.2.3c.
adityā dvādaśī # KSA.13.12. See adityai etc.
adityā (VS. adityai) bhasat # VS.25.8; MS.3.15.7: 179.11.
adityā (VSṭS.śB. adityai; VSK. aditer) bhāgo 'si # VS.14.25; VSK.15.8.4; TS.4.3.9.1; 5.3.4.3; MS.2.8.5: 109.13; KS.17.4; 21.1; śB.8.4.2.9; Mś.6.2.1.24.
adityā yat tanvaḥ saṃbabhūva # AVś.3.22.1b; AVP.3.18.1b.
adityā rāsnāsi # see adityai etc.
adityā va upasthe sādayāmi # MS.1.1.5: 3.7; 4.1.5: 7.13; Mś.1.2.1.42. See under adityās tvopasthe etc.
adityās tvag asi # VS.1.14,19; 4.30; TS.1.1.5.1; 6.1; MS.1.1.6: 3.11 (bis); 1.1.7 (bis): 4.2,3; 4.1.6: 8.1; 4.1.7: 9.4; KS.1.5,6; 2.6,7; 3.1; 24.6; 26.2; 31.4,5; śB.1.1.4.5; 2.1.14; 3.3.4.1; TB.3.2.5.5; 6.1; Apś.1.19.4; Mś.1.2.2.5,7; 2.1.4.20; 2.4.34. P: adityās tvak Kś.2.4.3; 7.9.6.
adityās tvā pṛṣṭhe sādayāmi # VS.14.5; MS.1.1.2: 2.4; 2.8.1: 107.5; 4.1.2: 4.3; KS.17.1; 20.10; śB.8.2.1.10; Mś.1.1.1.50; VārG.11.16.
adityās tvā mūrdhann ājigharmi devayajane pṛthivyāḥ # VS.4.22; śB.3.3.1.4. P: adityās tvā Kś.7.6.18. See pṛthivyās tvā etc.
adityās tvopasthe sādayāmi # TS.1.1.4.2; MS.4.1.13: 18.5; TB.3.2.4.7; Apś.1.5.2; 18.5. See adityā va, and pṛthivyās tvā nābhau sādayāmy.
adityāḥ (VS.śB.Kś. adityai) sada (MS. sadā) āsīda # VS.4.30; TS.1.2.8.1; 10.1; 3.4.2; 6.1.11.2; 3.2.4; MS.1.2.6: 15.6; 1.2.13: 22.12; 3.7.8: 86.5; 3.9.1: 113.11. śB.3.3.4.1; Apś.10.27.10; Mś.2.1.4.21; 2.2.4.35. P: adityai sadaḥ Kś.7.9.7. See next.
adityāḥ sadane sīda # KS.2.6,7; 3.1; 24.6; 26.2. See prec.
adityāḥ sado 'si # TS.1.2.8.1; 10.1; 3.4.2; 6.1.11.2; 3.2.4; Apś.10.27.10.
adityāḥ skambho 'si # MS.1.1.7: 4.4; 4.1.7: 9.7; Mś.1.2.2.27. Cf. diva skambhanir.
adityai trayo rohitaitāḥ # TS.5.6.18.1; KSA.9.8.
adityai tvā # KS.30.5 (bis).
adityai tvā caturūdhnyai # KS.30.4 (quater); Mś.7.2.6.7 (bis). The reading of Mś. is corrupt.
adityai dvādaśī # TS.5.7.22.1. See adityā etc.
adityai pañcamī # see adityāḥ etc.
adityai pājasyam # see adityāḥ etc.
adityai bhasat # see adityā etc.
adityai bhāgo 'si # see adityā etc.
adityai mahyai svāhā # VS.22.20; TS.7.3.15.1; MS.3.12.5: 162.1; KSA.3.5; śB.13.1.8.4; TB.3.8.11.2.
adityai (MS.KSṃś. adityā) rāsnāsi # VS.1.30; 11.59; 38.1,3; TS.1.1.2.2; 4.1.5.4; MS.1.1.2: 2.2; 1.1.3: 2.7; 2.7.6: 81.3; 3.1.7: 8.19; 4.1.2: 3.14; 4.9.7: 127.5; KS.1.2; 16.5; 19.6; 31.1; śB.1.3.1.15; 6.5.2.13; 14.2.1.6,8; TB.3.2.2.7; TA.4.8.1; 5.7.1; Apś.1.4.10,12; 12.7; 15.9.3; 16.5.1; Mś.1.1.1.41; 1.1.3.17; --4.3.9; 6.1.2.9. P: adityai rāsnā Kś.2.7.1; 16.3.30; 26.5.3. Cf. adityā uṣṇīṣam.
adityai viṣṇupatnyai carum (KS. caruḥ) # VS.29.60; TS.7.5.14.1; MS.3.15.10: 180.14; KSA.5.10.
adityai vyundanam asi # VS.2.2; śB.1.3.3.4. P: adityai vyundanam Kś.2.7.20.
adityai ṣoḍaśākṣarāya chandase svāhā # MS.1.11.10: 173.10. Cf. under aditiḥ ṣoḍaśākṣarayā etc.
adityai sada etc. # see adityāḥ etc.
adityai sumṛḍīkāyai (VSK. sumṛlīkāyai) svāhā # VS.22.20; VSK.24.26--28; TS.7.3.15.1; MS.3.12.5: 162.2; KSA.3.5; śB.13.1.8.4; TB.3.8.11.2.
adityai svāhā # VS.22.20; TS.7.3.15.1; MS.3.12.5: 162.1; KSA.3.5; śB.13.1.8.4; TB.3.1.4.5; 6.6; 8.11.2. See aditaye svāhā.
adityai haṃsasāciḥ # TS.5.5.20.1; KSA.7.10.
antarāditye manasā carantam # TA.3.11.6b.
anvityā divā (MS. dive) divaṃ jinva # VS.15.6; MS.2.8.8: 112.5; śB.8.5.3.3. See prec.
apacityāvijānatā # AVP.12.10.4d.
apamitya dhānyaṃ yaj jaghasāham # AVś.6.117.2c.
apamityam apratīttaṃ yad asmi # AVś.6.117.1a. P: apamityam apratīttam GB.2.4.8; Vait.24.15; Kauś.67.19; 133.1. See yat kusīdam etc., and yāny apāmityāny.
apamityam ivābhṛtam # AVP.1.48.3c.
apāmityam (Aś. erroneously, apām ittham) iva saṃbhara # MS.1.10.2c: 142.9; KS.9.5e; Aś.2.18.13c.
apaity asyāḥ praticakṣyeva # RV.1.124.8b.
abhijityai svāhā # TB.3.1.4.3,13,14; 5.1,2,4,5,6,14.
ācityam agniṃ vy aśnuhi # AVP.14.7.6d.
āditya ūrdhva uccaran # AVP.8.20.1c.
āditya eṣām astraṃ vi nāśayatu # AVś.11.10.16e.
ādityaḥ parvatebhyaḥ # RV.1.191.9c; AVś.6.52.1c.
ādityaḥ paśur āsīt tenāyajanta (KSA. -yajata) sa etaṃ lokam ajayad yasminn ādityaḥ sa te lokas taṃ jeṣyasi yady avajighrasi (KSA. jeṣyasy athāvajighra) # TS.5.7.26.1; KSA.5.4. See sūryaḥ paśur etc.
ādityaḥ pratipaśyati # Mś.11.1.5d.
ādityaṃ viṣṇuṃ sūryam # AVś.3.20.4c; AVP.3.34.6c; SV.1.91c; VSK.10.5.5c; KS.14.2c. See ādityān etc.
ādityaṃ śarma marutām aśīmahi # RV.10.36.4c.
āditya kuṇapaṃ bahu # AVś.11.10.4b.
ādityagrahasāvitrau # Aś.5.5.21c; Vait.20.4c.
ādityaṃ garbhaṃ payasā sam aṅgdhi (VS. aṅdhi; TS.KS. -añjan) # VS.13.41a; TS.4.2.10.1a; MS.2.7.17a: 101.17; KS.16.17a; śB.7.5.2.17. P: ādityaṃ garbham Kś.17.5.17; Mś.6.1.7.27; Apś.16.27.7; BṛhPDh.9.5.8; PG.1.13 (crit. notes; see Speijer, Jātakarma, p. 18).
āditya cakṣur ā datsva # AVś.5.21.10a.
ādityajūta edhate # RV.8.46.5b.
ādityaṃ jyotiṣāṃ jyotir uttamam # TB.3.7.4.3c; Apś.4.1.8c.
ādityadevato 'śvatthaḥ # GG.4.7.24a.
āditya nāvam ārukṣaḥ (SMB. ārokṣam) # AVś.17.1.25a; SMB.2.5.14a. P: āditya nāvam GG.4.6.12; KhG.4.1.25. See imāṃ su nāvam, imāṃ nāvam, sunāvam ā ruheyam, and sūrya nāvam.
ādityaṃ tarpayāmi # BDh.2.5.9.9.
āditya prāyaścitte tvaṃ devānāṃ prāyaścittir asi # ApMB.1.10.5 (ApG.3.8.10); HG.1.24.1. P: āditya prāyaścitte HG.1.24.1 (bis). See sūrya prāyaścitte.
ādityam eva te parivadanti sarve # AVś.10.8.17c; TA.2.15.1c.
ādityarathavegena # RVKh.1.191.2a.
ādityavadgaṇasya soma deva te matividas tṛtīyasya savanasya jagatīchandasa indrapītasya narāśaṃsapītasya pitṛpītasya madhumata upahūtasyopahūto bhakṣayāmi (Mś. savanasya jagacchandaso 'gnihuta indrapītasya) # TS.3.2.5.3; Mś.2.5.1.33. P: ādityavadgaṇasya (followed by fragments ... narāśaṃsapītasya ... indrapītasya ...) Apś.12.24.7,9. Cf. under tasya ta.
ādityavarṇaṃ tamasaḥ parastāt (TA.3.12.7b, tamasas tu pāre) # VS.31.18b; TA.3.12.7b; 13.1b; śvetU.3.8b; Bhagavadgītā 8.9.
ādityavarṇe tapaso 'dhi jātaḥ # RVKh.5.87.6a. P: ādityavarṇe Rvidh.2.19.3.
āditya vratapate vrataṃ cariṣyāmi (vrataṃ cariṣyāmi is implied in all texts but JG.) # TB.3.7.4.7; TA.4.41.4; Apś.4.3.2; HG.1.7.8; JG.1.12. See sūrya vratapate vrataṃ cariṣyāmi.
āditya vratapate vratam acāriṣam # TA.4.41.6. See āditya vratapate vratam acāriṣam.
ādity cakṣuṣe # Svidh.3.8.2.
ādity caturthe # VS.39.6.
ādity ca divā prājapatiś ca # Kauś.73.2b.
ādity ca dyauś ca saṃnate te me saṃnamatām adaḥ # VS.26.1. Cf. dive sam, divy ādityāya, sūryāya sam anamat, and sūryāya sam anaman.
ādity ca me sāvitraś ca me # TS.4.7.7.2. Cf. ādityāś ca mā, and sāvitraś ca me.
ādityaḥ śāntiḥ # TA.4.42.5.
ādityaḥ śukra udagāt purastāt # MS.4.14.14a: 239.15; MG.1.19.3. Cf. under ādityo deva.
ādityas te vasubhir ādadhātu # HG.1.7.11d. See ādityais te.
ādityas te vājin yuṅ # TS.7.5.19.2; KSA.5.15.
ādityasya nṛcakṣasaḥ # AVś.13.2.1c.
ādityasya mā saṃkāśaḥ (sc. avatām) # Vait.11.16. ūha of nakṣatrāṇāṃ mā etc.
ādityasya vratam upakṣiyantaḥ (TB. upakṣyantaḥ) # RV.3.59.3c; MS.4.10.2c: 146.16; TB.2.8.7.5c.
ādityasyāvṛtam anvāvarte # śś.1.6.5; 4.12.10; śG.2.3.2; KBU.2.9.
ādityaḥ satyam om (TB. om iti) # TB.2.4.6.7d; Aś.5.13.14d.
ādityaḥ sarvāgniḥ pṛthivyāṃ vāyur antarikṣe sūryo divi candramā dikṣu nakṣatrāṇi svaloke # TA.1.20.1.
ādityaḥ sāmavedasya # GB.1.5.25c.
ādityaḥ supathā karat # RV.1.25.12b.
ādityā aṅgirasaḥ svargam # AVP.5.14.8c.
ādityā adbhutainasaḥ # RV.8.67.7c.
ādityā apa durmatiḥ # RV.8.67.15b.
ādityā ava hi khyata # RV.8.47.11a; śG.1.4.2.
ādityā asti mṛḍata # RV.8.18.19b.
ādityā ājyaiḥ # MS.1.9.2: 132.2; KS.9.10. Cf. ādityā dakṣiṇābhiḥ.
ādityā iṣavaḥ # AVś.3.27.1; AVP.3.24.1.
ādityā ūtibhir vayam # RV.8.67.16b.
ādityā ṛjunā pathā # RV.1.41.5b.
ādityā ekaṃ vasavo dvitīyam # AVP.1.101.2c.
ādityā (sc. etad vaḥ tṛtīyaṃ savanam etc.) # Kś.25.13.27. Cf. Kś.25.13.26.
ādityā enam aṅgirasaḥ sacantām # AVś.12.3.43d.
ādityā enām anv āyan # AVP.12.10.10c.
ādityāḥ # see ādityā (etad vaḥ etc.).
ādityāḥ kāma prayatāṃ vaṣaṭkṛtim # TB.2.8.2.2c.
ādityāḥ kāmaṃ pitumantam asme # TB.2.8.2.1d.
ādityāḥ kāma haviṣo juṣāṇāḥ # TB.2.8.2.3d.
ādityāḥ kṛtrimā śaruḥ # RV.8.67.20b.
ādityāḥ pañcadaśam # KS.14.4 (ter).
ādityāḥ pañcadaśākṣarayā pañcadaśaṃ māsam udajayan # MS.1.11.10 (bis): 172.7,21. Cf. ādityebhyaḥ pa-.
ādityāḥ pañcadaśākṣarām # MS.1.11.10: 171.18.
ādityāḥ pañcadaśākṣareṇa pañcadaśaṃ stomam udajayan (VS. udajayaṃs tam uj jeṣam) # VS.9.34; TS.1.7.11.2.
ādityāḥ paścād gopsyanti # AVś.10.9.8c.
ādityāṃś ca tarpayāmi # BDh.2.5.9.3.
ādityāṅgiraso yajuḥ # AVP.12.11.1b.
ādityā ca yaśasvinī # MG.2.13.6b.
ādityāñ chmaśrubhiḥ (VS. ādityāṃ śma-; MS. ādityāñ śma-) # VS.25.1; TS.5.7.12.1; MS.3.15.1: 177.9; KSA.13.2.
ādityāñ jinva # TS.4.4.1.2; KS.17.7; 37.17; PB.1.9.11; Vait.22.17.
ādityā dakṣiṇābhiḥ # TA.3.8.2. Cf. ādityā ājyaiḥ.
ādityā dānunas patī # RV.1.136.3e; 2.41.6b; SV.2.262b; N.2.13.
ādityā devatā # VS.14.20; TS.4.3.7.2; MS.2.8.3: 108.17; KS.17.3; Apś.13.11.1.
ādityān aditiṃ devīm # TA.1.1.3c; 21.2c.
ādityānāṃ vasūnāṃ rudriyāṇām # RV.10.48.11a.
ādityānāṃ vo devānāṃ devatābhir gṛhṇāmi # KS.39.1; Apś.16.33.1.
ādityānāṃ śarmaṇi sthā bhuraṇyasi # RV.10.35.9c.
ādityānāṃ svasāraṃ rudramātaram # VārG.11.21b.
ādityānāṃ jagatī # TA.3.9.1. See jagaty ādityānam.
ādityānāṃ tṛtīyā # VS.25.6; TS.5.7.17.1; MS.3.15.6: 179.7; KSA.13.7.
ādityānāṃ tvā devānāṃ vratapate (omitted in KS.) vratenādadhāmi (KS. -dadhe) # KS.7.13 (ter); TB.1.1.4.8; Apś.5.11.7. Cf. under aṅgirasāṃ tvā.
ādityānāṃ nibodhata # TA.1.3.4b.
ādityānām aneha it # RV.8.31.12c.
ādityānām apūrvyaṃ savīmani # RV.8.18.1c.
ādityānām ayanaṃ gārhapatyaḥ # AVś.18.4.8b.
ādityānām araṃkṛte # RV.8.67.3c.
ādityānām avasā nūtanena # RV.7.51.1a; TS.2.1.11.6a; MS.4.14.14a: 238.12; Aś.3.8.1; 5.7.13; Mś.11.7.3.2. Ps: ādityānām avasā TB.2.8.1.6; śś.8.1.4; ādityānām Lś.2.8.1. Designated as ādityadaivatam (sc. sūktam) Rvidh.2.26.3.
ādityānām ahve cāru nāma # RV.3.56.4b.
ādityānām ādityānāṃ sthāne svatejasā bhāni # TA.1.15.1.
ādityānām utāvasi # RV.8.47.5d.
ādityānāṃ patvānv (PB. patmānv) ihi (KSA. ehi) # VS.22.19; TS.7.1.12.1; MS.3.12.4: 161.11; KSA.1.3; PB.1.7.2; śB.13.1.6.2; TB.3.8.9.3; Mś.9.2.1.30; ApMB.2.21.30 (ApG.8.22.16).
ādityānāṃ prasitir (MS.KA. prasṛtir) hetir ugrā # MS.4.9.12c: 133.9; TB.3.7.13.4c; TA.4.20.3c; KA.1.198.13c.
ādityānāṃ bhāgo 'si # VS.14.25; TS.4.3.9.2; 5.3.4.3; MS.2.8.5: 109.15; KS.17.4; 21.1; śB.8.4.2.8.
ādityānāṃ marutāṃ śardha ugram # RV.10.103.9b; AVś.19.13.10b; AVP.7.4.10b; SV.2.1207b; VS.17.41b; TS.4.6.4.3b; MS.2.10.4b: 136.8; KS.18.5b.
ādityān kāmam avase huvema # TB.2.8.2.2a.
ādityān devān yajñenāpiprem # Apś.4.12.3.
ādityān dyāvāpṛthivī apaḥ svaḥ # RV.7.44.1d; 10.36.1d.
ādityān maruto diśaḥ # AVś.10.9.10b.
ādityān mārutaṃ gaṇam # RV.1.14.3c; 6.16.24b; VS.33.45c.
ādityān yāciṣāmahe # RV.8.67.1b; TS.2.1.11.5b; MS.4.12.1b: 177.5.
ādityān yāmy aditiṃ duvoyu # RV.6.51.4d.
ādityān viṣṇuṃ sūryam # RV.10.141.3c; VS.9.26; TS.1.7.10.3c; MS.1.11.4c: 164.13; śB.5.2.2.8c. See ādityaṃ viṣṇuṃ.
ādityān sarvān brūmaḥ # AVP.15.13.6c. See viśvān ādityān.
ādityā bhāgaṃ vaḥ kariṣyāmy amum āmuṣyāyaṇam avagamayata # MS.2.2.1: 14.8; Mś.5.1.8.4. Cf. TS.2.3.1.1.
ādityā manavaḥ smasi # RV.8.18.22b.
ādityā mā viśve avantu devāḥ # ā.5.1.1.12a.
ādityā mā svaravo vardhayantu # AVś.18.3.12b.
ādityā yajataṃ bṛhat # RV.5.67.1b.
ādityāya namaḥ # GopālU.2. Cf. ādityāya svāhā.
ādityā yan mumocati # RV.8.18.12b; 67.18b.
ādityāya vidmahe # MahānU.3.10a. See bhāskarāya, and tad bhāskarāya.
ādityāya svāhā # Kauś.99.2; 135.9. Cf. ādityāya namaḥ.
ādityāyāgniṃ gṛhṇāmi rātryā ahaḥ # Apś.6.5.6.
ādityā ye yudho viduḥ # AVP.2.25.1b.
ādityā rakṣitāraḥ # see ādityās te goptāraḥ.
ādityā rāya īśate # RV.8.47.4d.
ādityā rudrā aśvinobhā # AVś.5.3.9c. See under imaṃ yajñam aśvinobhā.
ādityā rudrā uparispṛśo naḥ (AVP. mām; KS. -spṛśaṃ mā) # AVś.5.3.10c; AVP.5.4.14c; KS.40.14c. See vasavo rudrā ādityā uparispṛśaṃ mā.
ādityā rudrā vasava undantu sacetasaḥ # AVś.6.68.1c. Cf. āpa undantu jīvase.
ādityā rudrā vasavaḥ # AVś.11.6.13a; AVP.10.3.6a; 15.14.6a; ViDh.73.12. The quotation in ViDh. represents probably the pratīka of one of the following mantras.
ādityā rudrā vasavas tvelate (AB. tveḍate; GB. tenute) # AVś.20.135.9a; AB.6.35.15a; GB.2.6.14a; JB.2.117a; śś.12.19.2a.
ādityā rudrā vasavaḥ sudānavaḥ # RV.10.66.12c.
ādityā rudrā vasavaḥ sunīthāḥ # RV.3.8.8a.
ādityā rudrā vasavo juṣanta (AVś.AVP. juṣantām) # RV.7.35.14a; AVś.19.11.4a; AVP.12.17.4a.
ādityā rudrā vasavo me sadasyāḥ # TS.7.3.13.1c; KSA.3.3c.
ādityā rudrās tan mayi # Kauś.42.17c. Cf. next.
ādityā viśve tad devāḥ # TS.1.5.3.2c; MS.1.7.1c: 108.6; KS.8.14c. Cf. prec.
ādityā viśve marutaś ca viśve # RV.7.51.3a.
ādityā viṣṇur marutaḥ svar bṛhat # RV.10.65.1c.
ādityāś ca mā indraś ca me # MS.2.11.5: 142.16. Cf. under ādityaś ca me.
ādityāś ca yemire # AVP.9.12.7b.
ādityāḥ śarma yachata # AVP.2.70.5b.
ādityāsa utāmatim # RV.8.18.11b.
ādityāsa ṛtaṃ yate # RV.1.41.4b.
ādityāsaḥ kavayaḥ paprathānāḥ # RV.3.54.10d.
ādityāsaḥ pathibhir devayānaiḥ # TB.2.8.2.1b.
ādityāsaḥ purā hathāt # RV.8.67.5b; N.6.27b.
ādityāsaḥ śucayo dhārapūtāḥ # RV.2.27.2c.
ādityāsas te akrā na vāvṛdhuḥ # RV.10.77.2d.
ādityāsaḥ sajoṣasaḥ # AVP.9.12.9b.
ādityāsaḥ sadantu naḥ # RV.8.27.6d.
ādityāsaḥ saparyata # Kauś.73.15d.
ādityāsaḥ sumahasaḥ (SV. samahasaḥ) kṛṇotana # RV.8.18.18c; SV.1.395c.
ādityāsi # VS.4.21; TS.1.2.5.1; MS.1.2.4: 13.8; KS.2.5; śB.3.3.1.2.
ādityāso atiṣkade # RV.8.67.19b.
ādityāso ati sridhaḥ # RV.10.126.5a; AVP.5.39.5a.
ādityāso aditayaḥ syāma # RV.7.52.1a; KS.11.12a. Designated as ādityadaivatam (sc. sūktam) Rvidh.2.26.3.
ādityāso aditir mādayantām # RV.7.51.2a; AB.3.29.2; Aś.5.17.3. P: ādityāso aditiḥ śś.8.1.6.
ādityāso apākṛtim # RV.8.47.2b.
ādityāso arādhvam # RV.8.47.7d.
ādityāso bhavatā mṛḍayantaḥ (VSK. mṛlayantaḥ) # RV.1.107.1b; VS.8.4b; 33.68b; VSK.8.1.3b; 32.68b; TS.1.4.22.1b; 2.1.11.4b; MS.1.3.26b: 39.7; KS.4.10b; śB.4.3.5.15b.
ādityāso mumocata # RV.8.67.14b.
ādityāso yathā viduḥ # RV.8.67.2c.
ādityāso yad īmahe ati dviṣaḥ # AVP.5.39.4d. See yad īmahe etc.
ādityāso yuyotanā no aṃhasaḥ # RV.8.18.10c; SV.1.397c.
ādityāso varuṇenānuśiṣṭāḥ # AVś.19.56.4d; AVP.3.8.4d.
ādityāso vi saṃhitam # RV.8.67.21b.
ādityāso sadantu naḥ # RV.8.27.6d. Error for ādityāsaḥ etc. (Aufrecht's edition).
ādityās tad aṅgirasaś cinvantu # TB.3.11.6.1c. See viśve devā aṅgirasaś.
ādityās tasmān no (TB. mā) yūyam # AVś.6.114.1c; TB.2.4.4.8c. See next.
ādityās tasmān (TBṭA. tasmān mā) muñcata # MS.4.14.17c: 244.5; TB.3.7.12.1c; TA.2.3.1c. See prec.
ādityās te goptāraḥ (KS. ādityā rakṣitāraḥ) # TS.4.4.5.2; KS.40.5. Cf. viśve te devā goptāraḥ.
ādityās te citim āpūrayantu # KS.40.5d; Apś.16.34.4d. See viśve te devāś citim.
ādityās te devā adhipatayaḥ # VS.15.12; TS.4.4.2.2; MS.2.8.9: 113.15; KS.17.8; śB.8.6.1.7.
ādityās tvā kṛṇvantu (KS. kurvantu) jāgatena chandasāṅgirasvat (MS. -vad ukhe) # VS.11.58; TS.4.1.5.4; MS.2.7.6: 80.17; KS.16.5; śB.6.5.2.5. P: ādityās tvā Kś.16.3.28; Mś.6.1.2.8.
ādityās tvāchṛndantu jāgatena chandasāṅgirasvat (MS. -vad ukhe) # VS.11.65; TS.4.1.6.3; MS.2.7.6: 82.4; KS.16.6; śB.6.5.4.17.
ādityās tvā jāgatena chandasā (sc. nirvapantu) # Kauś.68.2.
ādityās tvā jāgatena chandasā punantu (JB. tvā punantu jāgatena chandasā suprajāvaniṃ rāyas poṣavanim) # PB.6.6.7; JB.1.73. P: ādityās tvā Lś.1.10.17.
ādityās tvā jāgatena chandasā bhakṣayantu # AG.1.24.17. Cf. ādityās tvā varuṇa-.
ādityās tvā jāgatena chandasārohantu # ā.5.1.4.14; śś.17.16.3; Lś.3.12.8. See next.
ādityās tvā jāgatena chandasā saptadaśena stomena vairūpeṇa sāmnārohantu # AB.8.12.4. See prec.
ādityās tvā jāgatena chandasā saṃmṛjantu # PB.1.2.7. See ādityās tvā saṃmṛjantu.
ādityās tvāñjantu jāgatena chandasā # VS.23.8; TS.7.4.20.1; MS.3.12.19: 165.14; KSA.4.9; śB.13.2.6.6; TB.3.9.4.7. Ps: ādityās tvāñjantu Mś.9.2.3.23; ādityāḥ Apś.20.15.12.
ādityās tvā dhūpayantu jāgatena chandasāṅgirasvat (MS. dhūpayantv aṅgirasvat) # VS.11.60; TS.4.1.6.1; MS.2.7.6: 81.7; KS.16.5; śB.6.5.3.10.
ādityās tvā parigṛhṇantu jāgatena chandasā (KS. chandasāṅgirasvat) # TS.1.1.9.3; MS.1.1.10: 6.6; KS.1.9. Ps: ādityās tvā parigṛhṇantu jāgatena chandasā KS.25.5; ādityās tvā Mś.1.2.4.15; ādityāḥ Apś.2.2.3.
ādityās tvā paścād abhiṣiñcantu jāgatena chandasā # TB.2.7.15.5.
ādityās tvā punantu # see ādityās tvā jāgatena chandasā pu-.
ādityās tvā prabṛhantu jāgatena chandasā # TS.3.3.3.1. Cf. ādityebhyas tvā pra-.
ādityās tvā prohantu jāgatena chandasā # JB.1.78.
ādityās tvā varuṇarājāno bhakṣayantu # śś.4.21.10. Cf. ādityās tvā jāgatena chandasā bha-.
ādityās tvā viśvair devaiḥ paścāt (Mś. purastāt) pāntu # TS.5.5.9.4; Mś.6.2.4.1.
ādityās tvā (sc. saṃmṛjantu) # Mś.2.3.4.20.
ādityās tvā saṃmṛjantu jāgatena chandasā # JB.1.81. See ādityās tvā jāgatena chandasā saṃmṛjantu.
ādityās tvāstṛṇan # MS.1.4.3: 51.1.
ādityās tvā harantu jāgatena chandasā # MS.1.2.8: 17.14.
ādityās tvocchrayantu # KS.35.7.
ādityāḥ sarve tvā neṣan # AVP.1.50.2c.
ādityā ha jaritar aṅgirobhyo dakṣiṇām (JB.śś. 'śvaṃ dakṣiṇām) anayan # AVś.20.135.6; AB.6.35.5; GB.2.6.14 (bis); JB.2.116ab; Aś.8.3.25; śś.12.19.1. P: ādityā ha jaritaḥ Vait.32.28. Seems to be pādas a, b, of a stanza. AVś.20.135.6--10 are designated as devanītham AB.6.34.1 ff.; as ādityāṅgirasyaḥ (sc. ṛcaḥ) KB.30.6; śś.12.19.5.
āditye ca nṛcakṣasi # AVś.10.3.18b.
āditye candravarṇānām # TA.1.12.1c.
ādityena nāmnā śaṃbhaviṣṭhāḥ # RV.10.77.8b.
ādityena sahīyasā # RVKh.1.50.1b.
ādityebhir aditiṃ viśvajanyām # RV.7.10.4c.
ādityebhir devebhir devatayā jāgatena tvā chandasā yunajmi # TS.7.1.18.1; KSA.1.9.
ādityebhir vasubhir aṅgirobhiḥ # RV.7.44.4d; AVś.2.12.4b; AVP.2.5.4b.
ādityebhir vasubhiḥ saṃvidānaḥ # AVP.5.37.6b.
ādityebhiś ca rājabhiḥ # RV.1.20.5c; KB.26.13.
ādityebhyaḥ # śś.8.1.3. Cf. next but one.
ādityebhyaḥ pañcadaśākṣarāya chandase svāhā # MS.1.11.10: 173.9. Cf. ādityāḥ pa-.
ādityebhyaḥ preṣya (Mś. omits preṣya) priyebhyaḥ priyadhāmabhyaḥ priyavratebhyo mahasvasarasya (Mś. mahaḥ sva-) patibhya uror antarikṣasyādhyakṣebhyaḥ (Mś. adds preṣya) # śB.4.3.5.20; Mś.2.5.1.9; Apś.13.10.1. Short form: ādityebhyaḥ preṣya Kś.10.4.13 (comm.); Apś.13.10.1. Cf. prec. but one.
ādityebhyas tvā # VS.2.16; 8.1--4; TS.1.1.13.1; 4.22.1; 4.4.1.2; 6.2; MS.1.3.26 (bis): 39.3,6; 2.8.13: 117.6; KS.4.10 (ter); 17.7; 22.5; 37.17; PB.1.9.11; śB.1.8.3.8; 4.3.5.6,10,12,15; TB.3.3.9.2; Vait.22.17; Kś.9.9.20; Apś.3.5.7.
ādityebhyas tvā pravṛhāmi jāgatena chandasā # MS.1.3.36: 42.11. Cf. ādityās tvā pra-.
ādityebhyaḥ svāhā # VS.22.28; MS.1.7.1: 110.6; 1.7.5: 114.9; 3.12.7: 162.17; KS.8.14; 9.3.
ādityebhyo aṅgirobhyo madhv idam # AVś.12.3.44a. P: ādityebhyo aṅgirobhyaḥ Kauś.62.18.
ādityebhyo namaḥ # KSA.11.3.
ādityebhyo 'nubrūhi (Mś. ādityebhyaḥ) priyebhyaḥ priyadhāmabhyaḥ priyavratebhyo mahasvasarasya (Mś. mahaḥ sva-) patibhya uror antarikṣasyādhyakṣebhyaḥ (Mś. -bhyo 'nubrūhi) # Kś.10.4.12,13; Apś.13.10.1; Mś.2.5.1.8. Short form: ādityebhyo 'nubrūhi śB.4.3.5.20; Apś.13.10.1.
ādityebhyo nyaṅkūn # VS.24.27; MS.3.14.9: 174.3.
ādityeṣu pra varuṇe dhṛtavrate # RV.8.27.3c.
ādityeṣu marutsu yā # AVP.2.18.5b.
ādityaitaṃ te brahmacāriṇaṃ pari dadāmi # śG.2.3.1. Cf. sūryaiṣa.
ādityair aktaṃ vasubhiḥ sajoṣāḥ # VS.20.39d; MS.3.11.1d: 140.3; KS.38.6d; TB.2.6.8.2d.
ādityair indraḥ sagaṇo marudbhiḥ # RV.10.157.3a; AVś.20.63.2a; 124.5a; SV.2.462a; VS.25.46a; JB.3.171; TA.1.27.1a; Apś.21.22.1a.
ādityair indraḥ saha cīkḷpāti (SV.JBṭA.Apśṃś. sīṣadhātu; VS. sīṣadhāti) # RV.10.157.2b; AVś.20.63.1d; 124.4d; SV.2.461b; VS.25.46b; JB.3.171; TA.1.27.1b; Mś.7.2.6.6d; Apś.21.22.1d.
ādityai rudrair vasubhir na ā gahi # RV.10.150.1c.
ādityai rudrair vasubhiḥ sacābhuvā # RV.2.31.1b; 8.35.1b. Fragment: vasubhiḥ sacābhuvā N.5.5.
ādityair eka udyataḥ # AVś.8.8.12d.
ādityair no aditiḥ śarma yaṃsat # RV.1.107.2d; 4.54.6d.
ādityair no aditiḥ śarma yachatu # RV.10.66.3b. See ādityais te etc.
ādityair no aditiḥ śṛṇotu # RV.3.54.20c.
ādityair no bṛhaspatiḥ # Kauś.128.4a.
ādityair no bhāratī vaṣṭu yajñam # VS.29.8a; TS.5.1.11.3a; MS.3.16.2a: 184.12; KSA.6.2a.
ādityair no varuṇaḥ śarma yaṃsat (TS. varuṇaḥ saṃśiśātu) # TS.2.1.11.2d; MS.4.12.2d: 180.2; KS.10.12d; Aś.2.11.12d; śś.3.6.2d.
ādityair yātam aśvinā # RV.8.35.13d--15d.
ādityair vā yad vasubhir marutvān # RV.10.98.1c.
ādityais te aditiḥ śarma yachatu # AVP.15.5.4d. See ādityair no etc.
ādityais te vasubhir ā dadhātu # ApMB.2.4.4d. See ādityas te etc.
ādityo jāyatām # AB.8.28.13.
ādityo dīkṣito dyaur dīkṣā sā mā dīkṣā dīkṣayatu (JB. dīkṣeta) tayā dīkṣayā dīkṣe # JB.2.65; Apś.10.10.6. See yayādityo dīkṣayā dīkṣitas, and yayā dīkṣayādityo.
ādityo deva udagāt purastāt # MS.4.14.14a: 239.7. See aja ekapād udagāt, and cf. ādityaḥ śukra.
ādityo dyām adhyarukṣad vipaścit # Vait.14.1d.
ādityo 'dhvaryuḥ sa me 'dhvaryuḥ # Apś.10.3.1; Mś.2.1.1.4. See ādityo me 'dhvaryuḥ, and cf. ādityo me daiva.
ādityo navahotā sa tejasvī # TA.3.7.4.
ādityo 'nukhyātā # TS.3.3.8.5; TB.3.7.5.4; Apś.4.9.6; ApDh.2.3.6.2. See under asāv ādityo 'nukhyātā.
ādityo me daiva udgātā tvaṃ mānuṣaḥ # śś.5.1.5. Cf. under ādityo 'dhvaryuḥ.
ādityo me 'dhvaryuḥ sa me devayajanaṃ dadātu # ṣB.2.10. Short form: ādityo me 'dhvaryuḥ ṣB.2.10; Apś.10.1.14; AG.1.23.10. See under ādityo 'dhvaryuḥ.
ādityo me 'dhvaryuḥ sa mopahvayatām # ṣB.2.5. See under ādityo 'dhvaryuḥ.
ādityo viśvā bhuvanāni sarvā # MS.4.14.14b: 239.11.
ādityo viṣṇur ākrame # AVP.9.12.7d.
ādityo 'si divi śritaḥ, candramasaḥ pratiṣṭhā, tvayīdam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartā viśvasya janayitā # TB.3.11.1.11.
ādityo 'si vṛṣṇo aśvasya retaḥ # KS.37.13,14.
utādityā jāgṛta yūyam asmin # AVś.1.30.1b; AVP.1.14.1b.
utādityā divyā pārthivasya # RV.5.69.4b.
ṛtasyartenādityāḥ # AVś.6.114.2a; TB.2.4.4.8a.
ṛtenādityā mahi vo mahitvam # RV.2.27.8c; TS.2.1.11.5c; MS.4.14.14c: 239.3; KS.11.12c.
ṛtenādityās tiṣṭhanti # RV.10.85.1c; AVś.14.1.1c; ApMB.1.6.1c.
kityā śataparvaṇā # AVP.5.9.2a.
cityagnibhyaḥ praṇīyamānebhyo 'nu brūhi # Apś.16.21.3. P: cityagnibhyaḥ Mś.6.1.6.14 (15). See citibhyaḥ.
cityā citim ā pṛṇa # TB.3.10.4.2.
tasyādityasya prasavaṃ manāmahe # MS.4.14.14c (bis): 239.10,14.
turīyāditya (VSK. turyā-) savanaṃ (RV. havanaṃ) ta indriyam # RV.8.52 (Vāl.4).7c; VS.8.3c; VSK.8.1.2c; TS.1.4.22.1c; MS.1.3.26c: 39.5; KS.4.10c; śB.4.3.5.12.
turyāditya etc. # see turīyāditya.
tenādityā adhi vocatā naḥ # RV.2.27.6c.
dityavāṭ ca dityauhī ca # MS.2.11.6: 143.15. See next.
dityavāṭ ca me dityauhī ca me # VS.18.26; TS.4.7.10.1; KS.18.12. See prec.
dityavāḍ gaur vayo dadhuḥ # VS.21.13d; MS.3.11.11b: 158.1; KS.38.10d; TB.2.6.18.1d. Cf. dityavāhaṃ.
dityavāḍ vayaḥ # VS.14.10; TS.4.3.3.1; 5.1; MS.2.7.20: 105.5; 2.8.2: 107.19; KS.17.2; 39.7; śB.8.2.4.12.
dityavāhaṃ gāṃ vayo dadhat # VS.28.25e; TB.2.6.17.2f. Cf. dityavāḍ gaur.
dityavāho jagatyai # VS.24.12; MS.3.13.17: 172.1; Mś.9.2.3.18.
nityaṃ rekṇo amartya # RV.8.4.18b.
nityaṃ na sūnuṃ tanayaṃ dadhānāḥ # RV.10.39.14d.
nityaṃ na sūnuṃ pitror upasthe # RV.1.185.2c; MS.4.14.7c: 224.12; TB.2.8.4.8c.
nityaṃ na sūnuṃ madhu bibhrata upa # RV.1.166.2a.
nityapuṣṭāṃ karīṣiṇīm # RVKh.5.87.9b; TA.10.1.10b; MG.2.13.6b; MahānU.4.8b.
nityam āditya raśmibhiḥ # AVP.4.16.7c.
nityaṃ mṛjanti vājinaṃ ghṛtena # RV.5.1.7d.
nity cākanyāt svapatir damūnāḥ # RV.10.31.4a.
nityastotro vanaspatiḥ # RV.9.12.7a; SV.2.552a.
nityasya rāyaḥ patayaḥ syāma # RV.4.41.10b; 7.4.7b; N.3.2b.
nityaḥ sūno sahaso jātavedaḥ # RV.3.25.5b.
nityahotāraṃ tvā kave # MS.1.1.12a: 7.14. P: nityahotāraṃ tvā Mś.1.2.6.10. Cf. vītihotraṃ.
nityād rāyo amaṃhata # RV.8.56 (Vāl.8).2c.
nityāritrāṃ padvatīṃ rāsy agne # RV.1.140.12b.
nityāsa īṃ pretāro arakṣan # RV.1.148.5d.
nityās te 'nucarās tava # TA.1.12.3d.
nitye cin nu yaṃ sadane jaghṛbhre # RV.1.148.3a.
nitye toke dīdivāṃsaṃ sve dame # RV.2.2.11d.
praketenādityebhya ādityān jinva # VS.15.6. See prec. and next.
pratiṣṭhityai tvā # KSA.5.9 (bis).
prādityaṃ divyaṃ rukmam amukthāḥ # AVP.14.8.8d. See prati tvaṃ divyās.
mātādityānāṃ duhitā vasūnām # AVś.9.1.4a; Kauś.92.14a. See mātā rudrāṇāṃ.
yatrādityā madhu bhakṣayanti # AVś.18.4.3d.
yatrādityā virājatha # RV.1.188.4c.
yatrādityāś ca rudrāś ca # AVś.10.7.22a.
yathādityā aṃśum (KS. yathādityam ādityā) āpyāyayanti # AVP.1.102.4a; MS.4.9.27a: 140.3; 4.12.2a: 181.7; KS.10.12a. P: yathādityāḥ Mś.5.1.10.18. See yathā devā aṃśum, yaṃ devā aṃśum, and yam ādityā aṃśum.
yathādityā vasubhiḥ saṃbabhūvuḥ # AVś.6.74.3a; TS.2.1.11.3a.
yathādityo 'kṣito 'nupadasta evaṃ mahyaṃ prapitāmahāyākṣito 'nupadasta (HG. -taḥ) svadhā bhava (HG. bhavatām) # ApMB.2.19.16; HG.2.13.1. Cf. dyaur darvir.
yayādityo dīkṣayā dīkṣitas tayā tvā dīkṣayā dīkṣayāmi # TB.3.7.7.5; Apś.10.11.1. See under ādityo dīkṣito.
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"ity" has 357 results.
     
anitya(1)not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or paribhāṣā whose application is voluntary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obligatory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be usedition On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
jayādityaone of the famous joint authors ( जयादित्य and वामन ) of the well-known gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini, popularly called काशिकावृत्ति. As the काशिकावृत्ति is mentioned by It-sing, who has also mentioned Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya, as a grammer treatise Written some 40 years before his visit, the time of काशिकावृत्ति is fixed as the middle of the 7th century A.D. Some scholars believe that जयादित्य was the same as जयापीड a king of Kasmira and बामन was his minister. For details, see pp. 386388 of the Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII published by the D.E. Society, Poona. See काशिका.
nitya(1)eternal, as applied to word or Sabda in contrast with sound or dhvani which is evanescent (कार्य ). The sound with meaning or without meaning,made by men and animals is impermanent; but the sense or idea awakened in the mind by the evanescent audible words on reaching the mind is of a permanent or eternal nature; confer, compare स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायामादुपजायते; confer, compare also व्याप्तिमत्त्वा्त्तु शब्दस्य Nir.I.1 ; (2) constant; not liable to be set aside by another; confer, compare उपबन्धस्तु देशाय नित्यम्, न रुन्धे नित्यम्। नित्यशब्दः प्राप्त्यन्तरानिषेधार्थः T.Pr.I.59, IV.14; (3) original as constrasted with one introduced anew such as an augment; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.VI.14; (4) permanently functioning, as opposed to tentatively doing so; confer, compare नित्यविरते द्विमात्रम् Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.37; (5) unchangeable, permanent, imperishable; confer, compare अयं नित्यशब्दोस्त्येव कूटस्थेष्वविचालिषु भावेषु वर्तते M.Bh. on P. VIII. 1.4; (6) always or invariably applying, as opposed to optional; the word in this sense is used in connection with rules or operations that do not optionally apply; confer, compare उपपदसमासो नित्यसमासः, षष्ठीसमासः पुनार्वेभाषा; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.2.19; (7) constant,as applied to a rule which applies if another simultaneously applying rule were to have taken effect, as well as when that other rule does not take effect; confer, compare क्वचित्कृताकृतप्रसङ्गमात्रेणापि नित्यता Par. Sek. Pari 46. The operations which are nitya according to this Paribhasa take effect in preference to others which are not 'nitya', although they may even be 'para'; confer, compare परान्नित्यं बलवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 42.
nityabalīyastvapossession of greater force; the word is used in connection with rules that are called नित्य. See नित्य (7).
nityasamāsaan invariably effective compound; the term is explained as अस्वपदविग्रहो नित्यसमासः i. e. a compound whose dissolution cannot be shown by its component words as such; e. g. the dissolution of कुम्भकारः cannot be shown as कुम्भं कारः, but it must be shown as कुम्भं करोति स: । The upapadasamasa, the gatisamsa and the dative tatpurusa with the word अर्थ are examples of नित्यसमास.
nityānandaparvatīyaa scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who wrote glosses on the Mahabhasyapradipa, on the Laghusabdendusekhara and on the Paribhasendusekhara. He was a resident of Benares where he coached many pupils in Sanskrit Grammar. He lived in the first half of the nineteenth century.
śabdanityatvathe doctrine of the Vaiyakaranas as also of the Mimamsakas that word is permanent, as contrasted with that of tha Naiyayikas who advocate the impermanence of words,
śaityāyanaan ancient Grammarian and Vedic scholar who is quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya for recommending a sharp and distinct nasalisation of the anusvara and the fifth class-consonants; confer, compare तत्रितरमानुनासिक्यमनुस्वारोत्तमेषु इति शैत्यायन: Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVII. 1.
a(1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perfeminine. second.pluraland first and third person.singular.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अ प्रत्ययात् et cetera, and others (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 exempli gratia, for example अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. exempli gratia, for example भवति, तुदति et cetera, and others; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; exempli gratia, for example द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imperfeminine. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् confer, compare P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, et cetera, and others in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; (9) taddhita affix. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ et cetera, and others in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the inst. instrumental case. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.
akathitanot mentioned by any other case-relation such as अपादान, संप्रदान and अधिकरण; stated with respect to the indirect object, governed by roots possessing two objects such as दुह्, याच् and others, which in the passive woice is put in the nominative case. The in-direct object is called akathita because in some cases there exists no other case-relation as, for example, in पौरवं गां याचते or भिक्षते, or माणवकं पन्थानं पृच्छति; while, in the other cases, the other case-relations (with the activity expressed by the verb) are wilfully suppressed or ignored although they exist, as for instance in गां दोग्धि पयः, अन्ववरुणद्धि गां व्रजम्; see अकथितं च P.1.4.51 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon.
akartṛa case-relation excepting that of the subject to the verbal activity. confer, compare अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम् P. III.3.I9.
akarmakaintransitive, without any object, (said with regard to roots which cannot possess an object or whose object is suppressed or ignored). The reasons for suppression are briefly given in the well-known stanza ; धातोरर्थान्तरे वृत्तेर्धात्वर्थेनोपसंग्रहात् । प्रसिद्धेरविवक्षातः कर्मणोऽकर्मिकाक्रिया ॥ In the case of intransitive roots, the verbal activity and its fruit are centred in one and the same individual viz. the agent or कर्ता confer, compare फलव्यापारयोरेकनिष्ठतायामकर्मकः Vāk. Pad.
akārakanot causing any verbal activity; different from the kārakas or instruments of action such as the agent, the object, the instrument, the recipient (संप्रदान), the separated (अपादान) and the location, (अधिकरण) confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.23, 29 and 5l and on II.3.1.
akriyājanot a result of a verbal activity; the expression is used in connection with qualities ( on a substance) as opposed to the activities found in it. confer, compare अाधेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोs सत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV. 1.44.
agamakatvanon-communicativeness, inability to communicate adequately the intended meaning. confer, compare सविशेषणानां वृत्तिस्तर्हि कस्मान्न भवति । अगमकत्वात् M. Bh on II.1.1: confer, compare also अगमक: निर्देशः अनिर्देशः।
aṅThe vikaraṇa before luṅ affixes, substituted for the affix cvi ( च्वि ) in the case of the roots mentioned by Pāṇini in sūtras III.1.52-59:(2) the Vikaraṇapratyaya in Vedic Literature before the benedictive affixes prescribed by Pāṇini in Sūtra III.1.86; (3) kṛt affix in the feminine gender showing verbal activity applied to roots marked with the mute letter ष् and the roots भिद्, छिद् and others. P.III.3 104-106.exempli gratia, for example जरा, त्रपा, भिदा, छिदा et cetera, and others
aṇuthe minimum standard of the guantity of sound, which is not perceived by the senses, being equal to one-fourth of a Mātrā; confer, compare अणोस्तु तत्प्रमाणं स्यात् मात्रा तु चतुराणवात् ॥ see T.Pr. 21.3, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1.60, A.Pr. III.65. Ṛk. tantra, however, defines अणु as half-a-mātrā. confer, compare अर्धमणु ( R.T. 1.41 ).
atipattiabsence of any possibility ; Sec क्रियातिपत्ति. confer, compare P. III.3.139 Cān. 1.3.107.
atyantagaticomplete contact of the verbal activity ( क्रिया ); confer, compareP. V.4.4.
athuckṛt (affix). affix अथु with उ accented, applied to roots marked by Pāṇini with the mute syllable टु in the sense of verbal activity: c. g. वेपथुः श्वयथुः, cf ट्वितोथुच् P.III.3.89.
adhika(1)additional or surplus activity which a rule in grammar sometimes shows; अधिकः कारः or अधिकं कार्यम्; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.11, Kāś. on III.2.124, Bh. Vṛ. on III.4.72; ( 2 ) surplus subject matter e. g. अथाख्याः समाम्नायाधिकाः प्राग्रिफितात् (V.Pr. I.33.)
adhikaraṇa(1)support: a grammatical relation of the nature of a location : place of verbal activity. confer, compare अाधारोsधिकरणम् P.I.4.45; (2) one of the six or seven Kārakas or functionaries of verbal activity shown by the locative case. cf सप्तम्यधिकरणे च P.II.4.36;(3)substance, 'dravya' confer, compare अनधिकरणवाचि अद्रव्यवाचि इति गम्यते M.Bh. on II.1.1.
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
adhyavasāyadetermination to begin an activity with a view to get the fruit. confer, compare य एष मनुष्यः प्रेक्षापूर्वकारी स बुद्ध्या कंचिदर्थं संपश्यति, संदृष्टे प्रार्थना, प्रार्थिते अध्यवसायः,म् अध्यवसाये आरम्भः, आरम्भे निर्वृत्तिः, निर्वृत्तौ फलावाप्तिः confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.14 and I.4.32.
anatyantagatiabsence of the verbal activity in all ways or respects incomplete activity; exempli gratia, for example छिन्नकम् not completely cut, confer, compare अनत्यन्तगतौ क्तात् P. V.4.4.
anabhidhānainability to express the meaning desiredition The expression न वा अनभिधानात् frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya referring to such words or phrases as could be formed by rules of grammar or could be used according to rules but,are not found in current use recognized by learned persons or scholars; confer, compare तच्चानभिधानं यत्राप्तैरुक्तं तत्रैव, अन्यत्र तु यथालक्षणं भवत्येव Padamañj. on III. 2.1;also confer, compare अनभिधानाद् व्यधिकरणानां बहुव्रीहिर्न भविष्यति । यत्र त्वभिधानमस्ति तत्र वैयधिकरण्येपि भवत्येव समासः, कण्ठेकाल इति; Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on II. 2.24: for examples of अनभिधान, sec also M.Bh.अभिधानलक्षणाः कृत्तद्धितसमासाः अनभिधानान्न भविष्यन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.3.19. also on III. 2.1. V.5, IV.2.1. See Kāś. on III,1.22, III.3.158.
anabhihitanot conveyed or expressed by another id est, that is by any one of the four factors viz.verbal affix, kṛt affix,taddhita affix and compound. The rule अनभिहिते (P. II.3.I) and the following rules lay down the different case affixes in the sense of the different Kārakas or auxiliaries of the verbal activity, provided they are not shown or indicated in any one of the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned four ways; e. g. see the acc. case in कटं करोति, the inst, case in दात्रेण लुनाति, the dative case case in देवदत्ताय गां ददाति, the ablative case. case in ग्रामादा गच्छति, or the locative casecase in स्थाल्यां पचति.
anavakāśahaving no occasion or scope of application; used in connection with a rule the whole of whose province of application is covered by a general rule, and hence which becomes technically useless, unless it is allowed to set aside the general rule: confer, compare अनवकाशा हि विधयो बाधका भवन्तिrules which have no opportunity of taking effect( without setting aside other rules ) supersede those rules; M.Bh. on V.4.154, also Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on Pari. 64.
anavakāśatvaabsence of any opportunity of taking effect, scopelessness considered in the case of a particular rule, as a criterion for setting aside that general rule which deprives it of that opportunity confer, compare अनवकाशत्वं निरवकाशत्वं वा बाधकत्वे बीजम्. This अनवकाशत्व is slightly different from अपवादत्व or particular mention which is defined usually by the words सामान्यविधिरुत्सर्गः । विशेषविधिरपवादः ।
anavayavaliterally having no parts; impartite; without any concern with the individual component parts; application in totality; confer, compare सिद्धं तु धर्मोपदेशने अनवयवविज्ञानाद्यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु P. VI. 1.84 Vārt 5 and the Bhāṣya thereon; अस्मिञ् शास्त्रे अनवयवेन शास्त्रार्थसंप्रत्ययः स्यात् । a rule in grammar applies to all cases where its application is possible; it cannot be said to have its purpose served by applying to a few cases only.
anāntaryaabsence of proximity, absence of cognateness; confer, compare इह तर्हि खट्वर्श्यो मालर्श्य इति दीर्घवचनादकारो न, अनान्तर्यादेकारौकारौ न । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Māheśvarasūtras.s 3-4.
anupapattidiscord, absence of validity, incorrect interpretation; confer, compareप्रथमानुपपत्तिस्तु M.Bh on I.4.9.
anupapadyamānāimpossibility of being explained; confer, compare तत्र सिद्धायां अनुपपद्यमानायां इतरथा उपपादयिषेत्, Nir II.2.
anuvidhioperation in conformity with what is found. The expression छन्दसि दृष्टानुविधिः is often found in the Mahābhāṣya: confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.5, I.1.6, I.1.21, III.1.9, III.1.13, VI.1.6, VI.1.77, VI.1.79, VI. 4.128,VI.4.141, VIII.2.108.
ap(1)kṛt affix अ, in the sense of verbal activity (भाव) or any verbal relation (कारक) excepting that of an agent, (कर्तृ) applied to roots ending in ऋ or उ and the roots ग्रह्,वृ,दृ et cetera, and others mentioned in P. III.3.58 and the following rules in preference to the usual affix घञ. exempli gratia, for example करः, गरः, शरः, यवः, लवः, पवः, ग्रहः, स्वनः etc, confer, compare P.III, 3.57-87 ; (2) compound-ending अप् applied to Bahuvrīhi compounds in the feminine gender ending with a Pūraṇa affix as also to Bahuvrīhi compounds ending with लोमन् preceded by अन्त् or वहिर् e. g. कल्याणीपञ्चमा रात्रयः, अन्तर्लोमः,बहिर्लोमः पटः confer, compare P. V. 4.116, 117.
apakarṣa(1)deterioration of the place or instrument of the production of sound resulting in the fault called निरस्त; confer, compare स्थानकरणयेारपकर्षेण निरस्तं नाम दोष उत्पद्यते, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.2; (2) drawing back a word or words from a succeeding rule of grammar to the preceding one; confer, compare "वक्ष्यति तस्यायं पुरस्तादपकर्षः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.2.8. (3) inferiority (in the case of qualities) न च द्रव्यस्य प्रकर्षापकर्षौ स्तः ।
apāṇinīyanot in conformity with the rules of Pāṇini's grammar; confer, compare सिध्यत्वेवमपाणिनीयं तु भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. I.1.
aprātipatti(1)impossibility to obtain the correct form; (2) absence or want of apprehension, cf शब्दानां चाप्रतिपत्तिः प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1, I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8.
abhinirvṛtidevelopment of an activity; manifestation; confer, compare द्रव्येषु कर्मचोदनायां द्वयोरेकस्याभनिर्वृत्तिर्भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI.1.84.
abhedasaṃsargaa connection of unity, as noticed between the nominative case affix of the subject and the ending ति of a verb, which produces the sense.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
avakāśaoccasion; possibility of application; confer, compare इको गुणवृद्धी इत्यस्यावकाशः। चयनं चायकः लवनं लावकः इति । इहोभयं प्राप्नोति | मेद्यति । मार्ष्टीति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6.
avicālinimmutable. The term is used frequently in the Mahābhāṣya, in connection with letters of the alphabet which are considered 'nitya' by Grammarians; confer, compare नित्येषु च शब्देषु कूटस्थैरविचालिभिर्वर्णैर्भवितव्यमनपायोपजानविकारिभिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Āhn 2: cf also नित्यपर्यायवाची सिद्धशब्दः । यत्कूटस्थेष्वविचालिषु भावेषु वर्तते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.
avyayībhāvaname of a compound so called on account of the words forming the compound, being similar to indeclinables: e. g. निर्मक्षिकम् , अधिहरि, यथामति, यावज्जीवम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare अनव्ययं अव्ययं भवतीत्यव्ययीभावः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.I.5. The peculiarity of the avyayībhāva compound is that the first member of the compound plays the role of the principal word; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानोऽव्ययीभावः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.6.
aśaktiincapacity to pronounce words correctly; confer, compare अशक्त्या कयाचिद् ब्राह्मण्या ऋतक इति प्रयोक्तव्ये लृतक इति प्रयुक्तम् M.Bh. on Śiva-sūtra 2.
asaṃbhavaImpossibility of occurrence (used in connection with an operation); cf नावश्यं द्विकार्ययोग एव विप्रतिषेधः । किं तर्हि । असंभवेपि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (2) impossibility of a statement, mention, act et cetera, and others confer, compare असंभवः खल्वपि अर्थादेशनस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.1.
asattva(1)absence of सत्त्व or entity; (2) other than a substance i. e. property, attribute, et cetera, and others confer, compare प्रादयः असत्त्ववचना निपातसंज्ञा भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 4.59; confer, compare also सोऽसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.44. confer, compare also चादयोऽ सत्त्वे P.I.4.57.
asamarthasamāsaa compound of two words, which ordinarily is inadmissible, one of the two words being more closely connected with a third word, but which takes place on the authority of usage, there being no obstacle in the way of understanding the sense to be conveyed; e. g. देवदत्तस्य गुरुकुलम् । देवदत्तस्य दासभार्या । असूर्यंपश्यानि मुखानि, अश्राद्धभोजी ब्राह्मणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.1.
asārūpyadissimilarity in apparent form (although the real wording in existence might be the same) e. g. टाप्, डाप् , चाप्; confer, compare नानुबन्धकृतमसारूप्यम् । Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 8.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
asiddhatvainvalidity of a rule or operation on account of the various considerations sketched a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. See असिद्ध.
asiddhaparibhāṣāthe same as Antaraṅga Paribhāṣā or the doctrine of the invalidity of the bahiraṅga operation. See the word असिद्ध a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For details see the Paribhāṣā 'asiddham , bahiraṅgam antaraṅge' Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 50 and the discussion thereon. Some grammarians have given the name असिद्धपरिभाषा to the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे as contrasted with अन्तरङ्गं बहुिरङ्कगाद् वलीयः which they have named as बहिरङ्गपरिभाषा.
aākhyātaverbal form, verb; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातं सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि Nirukta of Yāska.I.1; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्यातोपसर्गनिपाताश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1. Āhnika 1 ; also A.Prāt. XII. 5, अाकार अाख्याते पदादिश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.2.37 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2, आख्यातमाख्यातेन क्रियासातत्ये Sid. Kau. on II.1.72, क्रियावाचकमाख्यातं Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1; confer, compare भारद्वाजकमाख्यातं भार्गवं नाम भाष्यते । भारद्वाजेन दृष्टत्वादाख्यातं भारद्वाजगोत्रम् V. Prāt. VIII. 52; confer, compare also Athar. Prāt.I.I.12, 18; 1.3.3,6; II.2.5 where ākhyāta means verbal form. The word also meant in ancient days the root also,as differentiated from a verb or a verbal form as is shown by the lines तन्नाम येनाभिदधाति सत्त्वं, तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातुः R.Pr.XII.5 where 'आख्यात' and 'धातु' are used as synonyms As the root form such as कृ, भृ et cetera, and others as distinct from the verbal form, is never found in actual use, it is immaterial whether the word means root or verb.In the passages quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. from the Nirukta and the Mahābhāṣya referring to the four kinds of words, the word ākhyāta could be taken to mean root (धातु) or verb (क्रियापद). The ākhyāta or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being and bccoming while nouns (नामानि) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the activities and things in this world but with every process and entity; confer, compare पूर्वापूरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे Nir.I.;अस्तिभवतिविद्यतीनामर्थः सत्ता । अनेककालस्थायिनीति कालगतपौर्वापर्येण क्रमवतीति तस्याः क्रियात्वम् । Laghumañjūṣā. When a kṛt (affix). affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a word ending with a kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of bhāva or verbal activity is treated as a noun and regularly declined;confer, compareकृदभिहितो भावे द्रव्यवद् भवति M.Bh. on II.2.19 and III. 1.67, where the words गति, व्रज्या, पाक and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words ending with kṛt (affix). affixes such as कर्तुं, कृत्वा, and others, the modern grammarians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be,in a way, looked upon as ākhyātas; confer, compare अव्ययकृतो भावे Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa.
aākhyātavivekaa work dealing with verbs and their activity by KṛṣṇaShāstrī Āraḍe a great Naiyāyika of the 18th century.
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
ācāryadeśīyaa partisan of the preceptor Pāṇini or the Sūtrakāra who is looked upon as having approxmately the same authority as the Sūtrakāra; confer, compare अाचार्यदेशीय अाहन वक्तव्य इति l Kaiyaṭa on I.4.105, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
ātmanepadaa technical term for the affixes called तड् (त, आताम् et cetera, and others) and the affix अान ( शानच् , चानश्, कानच् ), called so possibly because, the fruit of the activity is such as generally goes to the agent (आत्मने) when these affixes are usedition Contrast this term (Ātmanepada) with the term Parasmaipada when the fruit is meant for another. For an explanation of the terms see P. VI.3.7 and 8.
aādhārādheyabhāvaa non-differential relation (अभेदसंसर्ग) between the personal endings तिप् , तस् et cetera, and others and the noun in the nominative case which is the subject of the verbal activity;relation of a thing and its substratum: confer, compare निपातातिरिक्तनामार्थधात्वर्थयोर्भेदान्वयस्य अव्युत्पन्नत्वात्.
ādhikyasuperfluity, superiority, notion of surplus; cf यदत्राधिक्यं वाक्यार्थः सः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.3.46, II.3. 50.
ānantarya(1)close proximity; absence of any intermediary element generally of the same nature: अनन्तरस्य भावः आनन्तर्यम्; confer, compare नाजानन्तर्ये वहिष्ट्वप्रक्लृप्तिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 21: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 51. This close proximity of one letter or syllable or so, with another, is actually id est, that isphonetically required and generally so found out also, but sometimes such proximity is theoretically not existing as the letter required for proximity is technically not present there by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्. In such cases, a technical absence is not looked upon as a fault. confer, compare कचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्ये शास्त्रकृतमनानन्तर्ये यथा ष्टुत्वे, क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतं यथा जश्त्वे । यत्र कुतश्चिदेवानन्तर्यं तदाश्रयिष्यामः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.3.13. (2) close connection by mention together at a common place et cetera, and others;confer, compare सर्वाद्यानन्तर्यं कार्यार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27.
ānarthakyaabsence of any utility; superfluity; absence of any object or purpose; confer, compare स्थानिवद्वचनानर्थक्यं शास्त्रासिद्धत्वात् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.VI.1.86 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5 confer, compare also P.VI.1.158 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; VI.1.161 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, VI.1.166 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, VI.1.167 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
aāntaratamyaclosest affinity; confer, compare अष्टन्जनादिपथिमथ्यात्वेषु आन्तरतम्यादनुनासिकप्रसङ्गः M.Bh. on VII.2.84, as also अान्तरतम्याच्च सिद्धम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.1. 96 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6.
aāntaryaproximity; close affinity ; close relationship. There are four kinds of such proximity as far as words in grammar are concerned; Re: the organs of speech (स्थानतः)as in दण्डाग्रम्, regarding the meaning(अर्थतः)as in वातण्ड्ययुवतिः, regarding the quality (गुण) as in पाकः रागः, and regarding the prosodial value (प्रमाण) as in अमुष्मै, अमूभ्याम्; confer, compare अनेकविधं अान्तर्यं स्थानार्थगुणप्रमाणकृतम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.13. confer, compare also Kāś. on I.1.50.
aāpyato be obtained by an activity: (the same as vyāpya). The term is used in connection with the object of a verb which is to be obtained by the verbal activity. The word अाप्य is found used in the sense of Karman or object in the grammars of Jainendra, Śākaṭāyana, Cāndra and Hemacandra; confer, compare Cāndra II I. 43; Jainendra I. 2.119; Śāk.IV.3.120: Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III.3.31. Hence, the term साप्य is used for a transitive root in these grammars.
abādha(1)similarity of one phonetic element, for instance, in the case of ऐ with आ resulting from Saṁdhi: e. g. प्रजाया अरातिं निर्ऋत्या अकः where प्रजाया and निर्ऋत्या stand for प्रजायै and निर्ऋत्यै confer, compare एकारान्तानि अाकारबाधे Āth. Pr. II.1.4; (2) Similarity of accent of words in the Saṁhitāpāṭha and Padapāṭha; (3) followed by confer, compare Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.1.14; (4) distress; confer, compare आबाधे च, P. VIII.1.10.
ābhīyāsiddhatvainvalidity or supposed invisibility of one rule with respect to another, in the section called अाभीयप्रकरण. See अाभाच्छास्त्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
aāmantritakārakaa word connected with the verbal activity possessed by अामन्त्रित exempli gratia, for example कुण्डेन in कुण्डेनाटन्; confer, compare अामन्त्रिते या धातुवाच्या क्रिया तस्याः कारकम् Kaiyaṭa on P.II.1.2.
ārdhadhātukaa term used in contrast to the term सार्वधातुक for such verbal and kṛt affixes, as are not personal endings of verbs nor marked with the mute letter श् confer, compare तिङ्शित् सार्वधातुकम् । आर्धधातुकं शेषः। P.III.4.113 and 114. The personal endings of verbs in the perfect tense and the benedictive mood are termed ārdhadhātuka, confer, compare P. III. 4.115, 116; while both the terms are promiscuously found utilised in the Vedic Literature; confer, compare P. III. 4. 117. The main utility of the ārdhadhātuka term is the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to the ārdhadhātuka affixes. The term आर्धधातुका was in use in works of the old Vaiyākaraṇas; confer, compare अथवा आर्धधातुकासु इति वक्ष्यामि कासु आर्धधातुकासु । उक्तिषु युक्तिषु रूढिषु प्रतीतिषु श्रुतिषु संज्ञासु M.Bh. on II. 4.35. It cannot be said how the term ārdhadhātuka originatedition Probably such affixes or pratyayas, like the kṛt affixes generally, as could be placed after certain roots only were called ārdhadhātuka, as contrasted with the verbal and the present participle affixes which were termed sārvadhātuka on account of their being found in use after every root.
aāsatticlose proximity of a word with another; confer, compare णौ इत्यस्य आसत्तिवशात् कृतं एव संबन्धः । Pari. Bhaskar Pari. 97.
ik(1)short wording (प्रत्याहार) for the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ; confer, compare इको यणचि P.VI.1.77; एच इग्घ्रस्वादेशे P.I.1.48; इको गुणवृद्धी P.I.1.3 इग्यणः संप्रसारणम् P. I.1.45, इकोऽसवर्णे शाकल्यस्य ह्रस्वश्च P.VI. 1.127, इको ह्रस्वोऽङ्यो गालवस्य P.VI.3. 61; (2) kṛt (affix). affix इक्(इ) applied to the root form to cite a root e. g. वदि, जनि et cetera, and others confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे P. III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; (3) kṛt (affix). affix इक् applied to the roots कृञ् and others in the sense of verbal activity exempli gratia, for example कृषिः, किरिः, गिरिः confer, compare इक् कृष्यादिभ्यः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).8.
(1)kṛt (affix). affix (इ), in the sense of verbal activity applied to any root, the word so formed being used in the feminine. gender and in connection with narration or in interrogation; exempli gratia, for example कां त्वं कारिमकार्षीः । सर्वौ कारिमकार्षम् । confer, compare Pāṇini III.3.110: (2) kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of verbal activity applied to the roots वप् and others exempli gratia, for example वापिः, वासि: et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7;(3) tad-affix इ in the sense of offspring applied to a noun ending in अ; e.g, दाक्षि: confer, compare P.IV.1. 95-7, 153.
(1)short wording or pratyāhāra for all vowels except अ and the consonants ह् ,य् ,व् , र्, ल् confer, compare इणः षः P.VIII.3.39,also P.VIII.3.57,78 (2) kṛt (affix). affix इ applied to roots such as अज् अत् et cetera, and others in the sense of verbal activity.e.g आजिः,अतिः, आदि; confer, compareइणजादिभ्यः P. III.3,108, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).6.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
imanor इमनिच् taddhita affix. affix इमन् applied to the words पृथु, मृदु, महत्, लघु, गुरु, words showing colour and words such as दृढ, परिवृढ, भृश, शीत, उष्ण et cetera, and others in the sense of 'quality' or 'attribute': cf Pāṇ. V. 1.122, 123. For changes in the base before the affix इमन् see P. VI.4.154-163.
imapkṛt (affix). affix इम applied to words showing भाव or verbal activity; exempli gratia, for example पाकिमम्, त्यागिमम्;confer, compare भावप्रत्ययान्तादिमब्वक्तव्यः Kāś. on P.IV.4.20.
iyatad affix ( घन् ) in the sense of 'pity'; e. g. देवियः, यज्ञियः; confer, compare P.IV. 2.79.
ilac(1)taddhita affix. affix इल (इलच्) in the sense of pity; e. g. देवियः, यज्ञिलः confer, compare P.IV.2.79. The taddhita affix.affix घन् is also affixed in the same sense. See ईय. (2) taddhita affix. affix इल (इलच्) in the sense of possession, prescribed after the words फेन, लोमन् कपि, सिकता, शर्करा, तुन्द, उदर, घट, यव et cetera, and others; exempli gratia, for example फेनिल, लोमिल, कपिल, सिकतिल तुन्दिल et cetera, and others confer, compare P.V.2.99, 100, 105, 117.
iṣṭādia class of words headed by the word इष्ट to which the taddhita affix इन् ( इनि ) is added in the sense of अनेन i. e. 'by him' i. e. by the agent of the activity denoted by the past passive voice. participles इष्ट and others; confer, compare इष्टी, यज्ञे, पूर्ती श्राद्धे et cetera, and others Kāś, on P.V.2.88.
iṣṭhathe superlative taddhita affix. affix इष्ठन् in the sense of अतिशायन or अतिशय ( excellence ). The commentators, however, say that the taddhita affixes तम and इष्ठ,like all the taddhita affixes showing case-relations, are applied without any specific sense of themselves, the affixes showing the sense of the base itself ( स्वार्थे ); e. g गुरुतमः, गरिष्ठः; पटुतमः, पठिष्ठः; पचतितमाम्, कर्तृतमः, करिष्ठः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.V.3.55-64 The affixes ईयस् and इष्ठ are applied only to such substantives which denote quality; confer, compare P.V.3.58.
īyastad-affix ईयसुन् , showing superiority or excellence of one individual over another in respect of a quality, added to a substantive expresive of quality; when the substantive ends in the affix तृ, that affix तृ is removed: exempli gratia, for example पटीयान्, लघीयान्, गरीयान्, दोहीयसी (धेनुः) confer, compareP.V.3.57-64.
īṣacchvāsaan external effort ( बाह्य-प्रयत्न) in the production of sound charactorized by the emission of breath, when the cavity made by the cords of the throat is kept wide apart, as found in the utterance of the consonants श्, ष् and स.
īṣadasamāptistage of the quality of a thing or of an undertaking which is almost complete,to show which,the tad-affixes कल्प, देश्य and देशीय are applied to a word:exempli gratia, for example पटुकल्पः,पटुदेश्यः; पटुदेशीयः, पचतिकल्पम्, जल्पतिकल्पम्, confer, compare P, V.3.67.
uccāraṇapronunciation, enunciation (in the Śāstra). The phrase उच्चारणसामर्थ्यात् is often found used in the Mahābhāṣya and elsewhere in connection with the words of Pāṇini, everyone of which is believed to , have a purpose or use in the Śāstra, which purpose, if not clearly manifest, is assigned to it on the strength (सामर्थ्य) of its utterance; confer, compare उच्चारणसामर्थ्यादत्र ( हिन्येाः ) उत्वं न भविष्यति M.Bh. on III.4.89 V.2; confer, compare also M.Bh. on IV.4.59, VI.4.163, VII.1.12,50, VII.2.84, In a few cases, a letter is found used by Pāṇini which cannot be assigned any purpose but which has been put there for facility of the use of other letters. Such letters are said to be उच्चारणार्थ; confer, compare जग्धि: । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:। नानुबन्धः । Kāś. on II.4.36.च्लि लुडि. । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:; चकारः स्वरार्थः । Kāś, on III.1. 43. The expressions मुखसुखार्थः and श्रवणार्थः in the Mahābhāṣya mean the same as उच्चारणार्थः.
uddyotanaprabhāname of a commentary on the 'Tantrapradipa' of Maitreya Rakṣita,which latter is a commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. which itself is a commentary on Jayāditya's Kāśikā.
upagītaa fault in the pronunciation of letters, noticed sometimes in the utterance of a letter adjoining such a letter as is coloured with a musical tone on account of the proximity of the adjacent letter which is uttered in a musical note and which therefore is called 'प्रगीत'; confer, compare प्रगीतः सामवदुच्चारितः । उपगीतः समीपवर्णान्तरगीत्यानुरक्तः Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on M.Bh. I. Āhnika 1.
upajīvyaa term used by later grammarians in connection with such a rule on which another rule depends confer, compare उपजीव्यादन्तरङ्गाच्व प्रधानं प्रबलम् Pari. Śekh. on Pari. 97, as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on हेतुमति च P. III.1.26. The relationship known as उपजीव्योपजीवकभाव occurs several times in grammar which states the inferiority of the dependent as noticed in the world.
upamanyu(1)the famous commentator on the grammatical verses attributed to Nandikeśvarakārikā. which are known by the name नन्दिकेश्वरकारिका and which form a kind of a commentary on the sūtras of Maheśvara; (2) a comparatively modern grammarian possibly belonging to the nineteenth century who is also named Nandikeśvarakārikā.kārikābhāṣya by Upamanyu.and who has written a commentory on the famous Kāśikāvṛtti by Jayāditya and Vāmana. Some believe that Upa-manyu was an ancient sage who wrote a nirukta or etymological work and whose pupil came to be known as औपमन्यव.
upamāa well-known term in Rhetorics meaning the figure of speech ' simile ' or ' comparison '. The word is often found in the Nirukta in the same sense; confer, compare अथात उपमाः | 'यत् अतत् तत्सदृशम्'इति गार्ग्यः । Nir III.13. Generally an inferior thing is compared to another that is superior in quality.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
ūryādia class of words headed by the words ऊरी उररी et cetera, and others ending in the taddhita affix च्वि, which are given the designation गति provided they are related to a verbal activity, and as a result, which can be compounded with kṛdanta words ending in त्वा, तुम्, et cetera, and others cf ऊरीकृत्य, ऊरीकृतम् et cetera, and others: Kāś on P, I.4.61.
ṛktantraa work consisting of five chapters containing in all 287 sūtras. It covers the same topics as the Prātiśākhya works and is looked upon as one of the Prātiśākhya works of the Sāma Veda. Its authorship is attributed to Śākaṭāyana according to Nageśa, while औदिव्राज is held as its author by some, and कात्यायन by others. It bears a remarkable similarity to Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. especially in topics concerning coalescence and changes of स् and न् to ष् and ण् respectively. It cannot be definitely said whether it preceded or followed Pāṇini's work.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
aikaśrutyapossession of the same tone or accent; uniformity of tone or accent. See the word एकश्रुति a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; also see P. I.2.39 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1,2; VIII. 1.55 Vārt, 1.
k(1)taddhita affix.affix क applied to the words of the ऋश्य group in the four senses called चातुरर्थिक e. g. ऋश्यकः, अनडुत्कः, वेणुकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.IV.2.80; (2) taddhita affix. affix क applied to nouns in the sense of diminution, censure, pity et cetera, and others e. g. अश्वक्रः, उष्ट्रकः, पुत्रकः, confer, compare P.V. 3.70-87: (3) taddhita affix. affix क in the very sense of the word itself ( स्वार्थे ) exempli gratia, for example अविकः, यावकः, कालकः; confer, compare P.V.4.2833; (4) Uṇādi affix क exempli gratia, for example कर्क, वृक, राका, एक, भेक, काक, पाक, शल्क et cetera, and others by Uṇādi sūtras III. 40-48 before which the angment इट् is prohibited by P. VII.2.9; (5) kṛt affix क ( अ ) where क् is dropped by P. I. 3.8, applied, in the sense of agent, to certain roots mentioned in P.III.1.135, 136, 144, III. 2.3 to 7, III.2.77 and III.3.83 exempli gratia, for example बुध:, प्रस्थः, गृहम्, कम्बलदः, द्विपः, मूलविभुजः, सामगः, सुरापः et cetera, and others; (6) substitute क for the word किम् before a case affix, confer, compare P.VII.2.103; (7) the Samāsānta affix कप् (क) at the end of Bahuvrīhi compounds as prescribed by P.V.4.151-160.
kaṇṭhaglottis: cavity in the throat holding vocal cords; the place of the production of the sounds अ, अI and ह; confer, compare अहविसर्जनीयाः कण्ठे V, Pr.I. 71; cf, also कण्ठ्योsकारः प्रथमपञ्चमौ च R.Pr.I.18.
kartṛsādhana(an affix)appplied in the sense of the agent of an activity; भवतीति भावः । कतृसाधनश्चायं प्रत्ययः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7.
kartṛsthakriya(a root)whose activity is found functioning in the subject;confer, compare यत्र क्रियाकृतविशेषदर्शनं कर्तरि Kaiyata on P.III.1.87 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3. Such roots, although transitive do not have any Karmakartari construction by the rule कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III. 1.87. as exempli gratia, for example ग्रामं गच्छति देवदत्तः has no कर्मकर्तरि construction; confer, compare कर्मस्थभावकानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां वा कर्ता कर्मवद् भवतीति वक्तव्यम् । कर्तृस्थभावकानां कर्तृस्थक्रियाणां वा कर्ता कर्मवन्मा भूदिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.87. Vārt, 3.
karmakartṛobject of the transitive verb which functions as the subject when there is a marked facility of action: exempli gratia, for exampleओदन is karmakartariobject, functioning as subject, in पच्यते ओदनः स्वयमेव. The word कर्मकर्तृ is used also for the कर्मकर्तरि प्रयोग where the object, on which the verb-activity is found, is turned into a subject and the verb which is transitive is turned into intransitive as a result.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
kamenāmanliterally noun showing action, participle. कर्मप्रवचनीय a technical term used in connection with a preposition which showed a verbal activity formerly, although for the present time it does not show it; the word is used as a technical term in grammar in connection with prefixes or उपसर्गs which are not used along.with a root, but without it confer, compare कर्म प्रोक्तवन्तः कर्मप्रवचनीयाः इति M.Bh. on P.I.4.83; exempli gratia, for example शाकल्यस्य संहितामनु प्रावर्षत्, अन्वर्जुनं योद्धारः, अा कुमारं यशः पाणिनेः; confer, compare Kāś. on P.I.4.83 to 98.
karmavadbhāvathe activity of the agent or kartā of an action represented as object or karman of that very action, for the sake of grammatical operations: e. g. भिद्यते काष्ठं स्वयमेव;. करिष्यते कटः स्वयमेव. To show facility of a verbal activity on the object, when the agent or kartā is dispensed with, and the object is looked upon as the agent, and used also as an agent, the verbal terminations ति, त; et cetera, and others are not applied in the sense of an agent, but they are applied in the sense of an object; consequently the sign of the voice is not अ (शप्), but य (यक्) and the verbal terminations are त, आताम् et cetera, and others (तङ्) instead of ति, तस् et cetera, and others In popular language the use of an expression of this type is called Karmakartari-Prayoga. For details see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III.1.87. Only such roots as are कर्मस्थक्रियक or कर्मस्थभावक id est, that is roots whose verbal activity is noticed in the object and not in the subject can have this Karmakartari-Prayoga.
karmavyatihāraexchange of verbal activity; reciprocity of action; कर्मव्यतिहार means क्रियाव्यतिहार or क्रियाविनिमय; confer, compare कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14.; also कर्मव्यतिहारे णच् स्त्रियाम् । व्यावक्रोशी, व्यात्युक्षी Kāś. on P.III.3.43. The roots having their agents characterized by a reciprocity of action take the Ātmanepada terminations; confer, compare P. I. 3.14.
karmasthakriya(roots)having their verbal activity situated in the object; exempli gratia, for example the root अव + रुध् in अवरुणद्धि गाम् or the root कृ in करोति कटम्; confer, compare कर्मस्थभावकानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां च P. III.1.87 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
karmādiliterally karman and others; a term often used in the Mahābhāṣya for kārakas or words connected with a verbal activity which have the object or karmakāraka mentioned first; सुपां कर्मादयोप्यर्थाः संख्या चैव तथा तिङाम् M.Bh, on I.4.21.
karmāpadiṣṭaoperations prescribed specifically for objects i. e. prescribed in the case of objects which are described to be functioning as the subject to show facility of the verbal action: e. g. the vikaraṇa यक् or the affix च्णि; confer, compare कर्मापदिष्टाविधय: कर्मस्थभावकानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां वा भवन्ति । कर्तृस्थभावकाश्च दीपादयः M.Bh.on I.1.44.
karṣaṇaextension; protraction, defined as kālaviprakarṣa by commentators; a peculiarity in the recital as noticed in the pronunciation of ट् when followed by च् , or ड् when followed by ज् exempli gratia, for example षट्चै; षड्जात. confer, compare Nār. Śik. I.7.19.
kalpanālāghavabrevity of thought: brevity of expression: minimum assumption. See the word लाघव.
kārakaliterally doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारकशब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्थान्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: confer, compare also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and कर्तृ to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
kārakavibhakticase affix governed by a verb or verbal derivative as contrasted with उपपदविभक्ति a case affix governed by a noun, not possessing any verbal activity. See the word कारक a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., See also the word उपपदविभक्ति.
kārmanāmikathe word is found used in Yāska's Nirukta as an adjective to the word संस्कार where it means belonging to nouns derived fromroofs (कर्मनाम)"like पाचक,कर्षक et cetera, and othersThe changes undergone by the roots in the formation of such words i. e. words showing action are termed कार्मनामिकसंस्कार; confer, compare कर्मकृतं नाम कर्मनाम। तस्मिन् भवः कार्मनामिकः Durgavṛtti on Nirukta of Yāska.I.13. कार्य(l) brought.into existence by activity (क्रियया निर्वृत्तं कार्यम् ) as oppo- sed to नित्य eternal; confer, compare एके वर्णाञ् शाश्वतिकान् न कार्यान् R.Pr. XIII.4 confer, compare also ननु च यस्यापि कार्याः ( शब्दाः ) तस्यापि पूजार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 17;(2) which should be done, used in connection with a grammatical operation: confer, compare कार्य एत्वे सयमीकारमाहुः ।| अभैष्म इत्येतस्य स्थाने अभयीष्मेति । R.Pr. XIV.16; confer, compare also विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I.4.2; (3) a grammatical opera- tion as for instance in the phrases द्विकार्ययोगे, त्रिकार्ययोगे et cetera, and others; confer, compare also गौणमुख्ययोर्मुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्ययः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 15;(4) object of a transitive verb: confer, compare शेषः कार्ये Śāk.
kālanotion of time created by different contacts made by a thing with other things one after another. Time required for the utterance of a short vowel is taken as a unit of time which is called मात्रा or कालमात्रा, literally measurement of time; (2) degree of a vowel, the vowels being looked upon as possessed of three degrees ह्रस्व,दीर्घ,& प्लुत measured respectively by one, two and three mātrās; confer, compare ऊकालोSझ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P.I.2.27; (3) time notion in general, expressed in connection with an activity in three ways past (भूत), present (वर्तमान), and future (भविष्यत्) to show which the terms भूता, वर्तमाना and भविष्यन्ती were used by ancient grammarians; cf the words पूर्वकाल, उत्तरकाल; also confer, compare पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम् Kāś. on P. II. 4.21 ; (4) place of recital ( पाठदेश ) depending on the time of recital, confer, compare न परकालः पूर्वकाले पुनः (V.Pr.III. 3) a dictum similar to Pāṇini's पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1.
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikāalso called Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa., the well-known commentary written by Jinendrabuddhi on the Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. See Kāśikā a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
kṛñ(1)root कृ in the general sense of activity; (2) pratyāhāra or short form for the three roots कृ, भू and अस्, confer, compare कृञ् चानुप्रयुज्यते लिटि P.II.1.40.
kṛtliterally activity; a term used in the grammars of Pāṇini and others for affixes applied to roots to form verbal derivatives; confer, compare कृदतिङ् । धातोः ( ३ ।१।९१ ) इत्यधिकारे तिङ्कवर्जितः प्रत्ययः कृत् स्यात् । Kāś. on III.1.93, The kṛt affixes are given exhaustively by Pāṇini in Sūtras III.1.91 to III.4. I17. कृत् and तद्धित appear to be the ancient Pre-Pāṇinian terms used in the Nirukta and the Prātiśākhya works in the respective senses of root-born and noun-born words ( कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त according to Pāṇini's terminology), and not in the sense of mere affixes; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः Nirukta of Yāska.I.14: अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; तिङ्कृत्तद्धितसमासा: शब्दमयम् V.Pr. I.27; also confer, compare V.Pr. VI.4. Patañjali and later grammarians have used the word कृत् in the sense of कृदन्त; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari Śek.Pari.75. The kṛt affixes are given by Pāṇini in the senses of the different Kārakas अपादान, संप्रदान, करण, अाधकरण, कर्म and कर्तृ, stating in general terms that if no other sense is assigned to a kṛt affix it should be understood that कर्ता or the agent of the verbal activity is the sense; confer, compare कर्तरि कृत् । येष्वर्थनिर्देशो नास्ति तत्रेदमुपतिष्ठते Kāś. on III.4.67. The activity element possessed by the root lies generally dormant in the verbal derivative nouns; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति, क्रियावदपि । M.Bh.on V.4.19 and VI. 2.139
kaimarthakyaiit. position of questioning the utility; absence of any apparent utility: confer, compare कैमर्थक्यान्नियमो भवति विधेयं नास्तीति कृत्वा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 4.3, III.1.46; III.2.127, III. 3.19; VI.4.49, VII.2.26, and VIII.4.32.
ktakṛt affix त in various senses, called by the name निष्ठा in Pāṇini's grammar along with the affix क्तवतू confer, compare क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा P.I.1.26.The various senses in which क्त is prescribed can be noticed below : (1) the general sense of something done in the past time as past passive voice.participle e. g. कृत:, भुक्तम् et cetera, and others: cf P. III.2.102; (2) the sense of the beginning of an activity when it is used actively: e. g. प्रकृतः कटं देवदत्तः, confer, compare P.III.2.102 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (3) the sense of activity of the present tense applied to roots marked with a mute ञ् as also to roots in the sense of desire, knowledge and worship; exempli gratia, for exampleमिन्नः, क्ष्विण्ण:, धृष्ट: as also राज्ञां मतः, राज्ञामिष्टः, राज्ञां बुद्धः; confer, compare P.III.2.187, 88; (4) the sense of mere verbal activity (भाव) e. g. हसितम् , सहितम् , जल्पितम् , (used always in the neuter gender); confer, compare P.III.3. 114: (5) the sense of benediction when the word ending in क्त is used as a technical term, exempli gratia, for example देवदत्तः in the sense of देवा एनं देयासुः. The kṛt affix क्तिन् is also used similarly exempli gratia, for example सातिः भूतिः मन्ति:; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III.3.174.
ktvākṛt (affix). affix त्वा added to roots (1) in the sense of prohibition conveyed by the word अलं or खलु preceding the root, exempli gratia, for example अलं कृत्वा, खलु कृत्वा; confer, compare P. III.4.18; (2) in the sense of exchange in the case of the root मा, e. g. अपमित्य याचते; confer, compare P. III.4.19; (3) to show an activity of the past time along with a verb or noun of action showing comparatively a later time, provided the agent of the former and the latter activities is the same; exempli gratia, for example भुक्त्वा व्रजति, स्नात्वा पीत्वा भुक्त्वा व्रजति; confer, compare P. III.4. 21. This kṛt affix is always added to roots when they are without any prefix; when there is a prefix the indeclinable, ending in त्वा, is always compounded with the prefix and त्वा is changed into य (ल्यप्), exempli gratia, for example प्रकृत्य, प्रहृत्य; confer, compare समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1.37. The substitution of य is at will in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कृष्णं वासो यजमानं परिधापयित्वा ( instead of परिधाप्य ), confer, compare P. VII.1.38, while sometimes, य is added after त्वा as an augment e. g. दत्वाय सविता धियः confer, compare P. VII.l.47, as also sometimes त्वी or त्वीनम् is substituted for त्वा e. g. इष्ट्वीनं देवान्, स्नात्वी मलादिव, confer, compare P. VII.1.48, 49.
kyapkṛt afix य applied to the roots व्रज् and यज् in the sense of 'verbal activity' and to the roots अजू with सम्, षद् with नि et cetera, and others to form proper nouns e. g. व्रज्या, इज्या, समज्या, निषद्या et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. III. 3.98 and 99; (2) kṛtya affix य in the sense of 'should be done' applied to the roots वद्, भू and हन् (when preceded by certain words put as upapada), as also to roots with penultimate ऋ and the roots मृज्, इ, स्तु and others; e. g. ब्रह्मोद्यम् , ब्रह्मभूयम् , इत्यम् , स्तुत्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1. 106,121.
krama(1)serial order or succession as contrasted with यौगपद्य or simultaneity. The difference between क्रम and यौगपद्य is given by भर्तृहरि in the line क्रमे विभिद्यते रूपं यौगपद्ये न भिद्यते Vāk. Pad. II. 470. In order to form a word by the application of several rules of grammar, a particular order is generally followed in accordance with the general principle laid down in the Paribhāṣā पूर्वपरनित्यान्तरङ्गापवादानामुत्तरोत्तरं बलीयः, as also according to what is stated in the sūtras असिद्धवदत्राभात्, पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् et cetera, and others (2) succession, or being placed after, specifically with reference to indeclinables like एव, च et cetera, and others which are placed after a noun with which they are connectedition When an indecinable is not so connected, it is called भिन्नक्रम; confer, compare परिपन्थं च तिष्ठति (P.IV. 4.36), चकारो भिन्नक्रमः प्रत्ययार्थं समुच्चिनोति, Kāś. on P. IV. 4.36; also ईडजनोर्ध्वे च । चशब्दो भिन्नक्रमः
kriyāaction, verbal activity; confer, compare क्रियावचनो धातु: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.1 ; confer, compare also क्रियावाचकमाख्यातम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8. quoted by Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.in his Bhāṣya on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50; confer, compare also उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I.4.59, लक्षणहेत्वेाः क्रियायाः P.III. 2.126; confer, compare also यत्तर्हि तदिङ्गितं चेष्टितं निमिषितं स शब्दः । नेत्याह क्रिया नाम सा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1. The word भाव many times is used in the same sense as kriyā or verbal activity in the sūtras of Pāṇini. confer, compare P.I.2.21 ; I.3.13; III. 1. 66.etc; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति a statement made frequently by the Mahābhāṣyakāra. Some scholars draw a nice distinction between क्रिया and भाव, क्रिया meaning dynamic activity and भाव meaning static activity: confer, compare अपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यो धात्वर्थो भावः । सपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यस्तु क्रिया Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.87. Philosophically क्रिया is defined as सत्ता appearing in temporal sequence in various things. When सत्ता does not so appear it is called सत्त्व.
kriyāphalaintended fruit of a verbal activity; confer, compare स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P.I.3.72.
kriyāyogaassociation with a verbal activity; cf उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P.I.4.59.
kriyāvacanameaning or expressing a verbal activity; a term generally applied to dhātus or roots, or even to verbs. The term is also applied to denominative affixes like क्यच् which produce a sort of verbal activity in the noun to which they are added; confer, compare क्रियावचनाः क्यजादय: M.Bh. on III.1.19.
kriyāviśeṣaṇadeterminant or modifier of a verbal activity; confer, compare क्रियाविशेषणं चेति वक्तव्यम् । सुष्टु पचति दुष्टु पचति M.Bh. on II.1.1; nouns used as Kriyāviśeṣaṇa are put in the neuter gender, and in the nominative case. or the acc. case in the singular. number; confer, compare क्रियाविशेषणानां कर्मत्वं नपुंसकलिङ्गता च Pari.Bhāśkara Pari.56.
kriyāsamabhihārarepetition or intensity of a verbal activity; confer, compare समभिहारः पौनः पुन्यं भृशार्थो वा, Kāś. on P.I.4.2.
kvibantaa substantive ending with the kṛt affix क्विप् (zero affix) added to a root to form a noun in the sense of the verbal action (भाव). The words ending with this affix having got the sense of verbal activity in them quite suppressed, get the noun terminations सु, औ, जस् et cetera, and others and not ति, तः et cetera, and others placed after them; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद् भवति. However, at the same time, these words undergo certain operations peculiar to roots simply because the kṛt affix entirely disappears and the word formed, appears like a root; confer, compare क्विबन्ता धातुत्वं न जहति. Kaiyaṭa's Prad. on VII.1.70.
kṣapaṇakaa Jain grammarian quoted in the well-known stanza धन्वन्तरिः क्षपणकोमरसिंहशङ्कु which enumerates the seven gems of the court of Vikramāditya, on the strength of which some scholars believe that he was a famous grammarian of the first century B.C.
garīyasinvolving a special effort.The word is frequently used by the Vārttikakāra and old grammarians in connection with something, which involves greater effort and longer expression and, hence, not commendable in rules of the Shastra works where brevity is the soul of 'wit'; confer, compare पदगौरवाद्योगवेिभागो गरीयान् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 121. The word गुरु is also sometimes used in a similar sense; confer, compare तद् गुरु भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1 Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. l Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
garīyastvagreater effort or prolixity of expression which is looked upon as a fault in connection with grammar-works of the sūtra type where every care is taken to make the expression as brief as possible; confer, compare अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणाः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 122. The word गौरव is often used for गरीयस्त्व.
guṇavacanaliterally expressing quality; words expressing quality such as शुक्ल, नील, et cetera, and others; confer, compare गुणवचनब्राह्मणादिभ्यः कर्मणि च P.V. 1.124. See page 369 Vyākarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D.E. Society edition, Poona.
guṇinpossessed of a quality ; cf इह कदाचिद् गुणो गुणिविशेपको भवति । तद्यथा पट: शुक्ल इति । कदाचिच्च गुणिना गुणो व्यपदिश्यते। पटस्य शुक्ल इति। Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.21.
gurulaghutāconsideration of prolixity and brevity of expression; confer, compare तत्राप्ययं नावश्यं गुरुलघुतामेवोपलक्षायितुमर्हति . Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.
gauravagreatness of effort; prolixity as opposed to लाघव; confer, compare पर्यायशब्दानां लाघवगौरवचर्चा नाद्रियते Par.Sek.Par.115; confer, compare also पदगौरवाद्योगविभागो गरीयान् Par. Sek. Pari. 121.
gha(l)consonant घ्, अ being added at the end for facility of pronunciation; confer, compareTai. Pr.I.21; (2) technical term for the taddhita affix. affixes तरप् and तमप्, confer, compare P.I.1.22, causing the shortening of ई at the end of bases before it, under certain conditions, confer, compare P. VI. 3.43-45, and liable to be changed into तराम् and तमाम् after किम्, verbs ending in ए, and indeclinables; confer, compare P.V.4.11; (3) taddhita affix. affix घ ( इय) in the sense of 'a descendant' applied to क्षत्र, and in the sense of 'having that as a deity' applied to अपोनप्तृ अपांनप्तृ and also to महेन्द्र and to the words राष्ट्र et cetera, and others, exempli gratia, for example क्षत्रियः, अपोनाप्त्रिय:, अपांनप्त्रियः, महेन्द्रियम्,राष्ट्रियः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV.1.138, IV.2.27, 29, 93; (4) taddhita affix. affix घ, applied to अग्र, समुद्र and अभ्र in the sense of 'present there', to सहस्र in the sense of 'possession', to, नक्षत्र without any change of sense, and to यज्ञ and ऋत्विज् in the sense of 'deserving'; confer, compare P.IV.4.117,118,135, 136,141, V.1.71 ; (5) krt affix अ when the word to which it has been applied becomes a proper noun id est, that isa noun in a specific sense or a technical term; confer, compare III.3. 118, 119,125.
ṅa(1)fifth consonant of the guttural class of consonants which is a nasal ( अनुनासिक ) consonant; the vowel अ being added at the end for facility of pronunciation; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.21; (2) a conventional term used for all the nasal consonants in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ṅvanipkrt affix वन् in the sense of an agent referring to an activity of past time, added to the roots सु and यज्; e. g. सुत्वा, सुत्वानौ;यज्वा यज्वानौ CF. P.III 2.103.
ca(l)the letter च्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance, cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) a Bratyahara or short term standing for the palatal class of consonants च्, छ्, ज्,झ् and ञ्; cf इचशेयास्तालौ Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 66; (3) indeclinable च called Nipata by Panini; confer, compare चादयोSसत्त्वे P. I. 4.57, च possesses four senses समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 2.29. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2.29 Vart. 15 for a detailed explanation of the four senses. The indeclinable च is sometimes used in the sense of 'a determined mention' or avadharana; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 1.48 and 72. It is also used for the purpose of अनुवृत्ति or अनुकर्षण i. e. drawing a word from the previous rule to the next rule; (confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.90) with a convention that a word drawn thus, does not proceed to the next rule; confer, compare चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र Par. Sek Pari. 78; (4) a conventional term for अभ्यास (reduplicative syllable) used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; confer, compare चविकारेषु अपवादा उत्सर्गान्न बाधन्ते Kat. Pari. 75.
cakārathe consonant च् , the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance and कार as an affix to show that only the consonant च् is meant there; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 16, 2l.
caritakriyahaving kriya or verbactivity hidden in it. The term is used by Bhartrhari in connection with a solitary noun-word or a substantive having the force of a sentence, and hence which can be termed a sentence on account of the verbal activity dormant in it. exempli gratia, for example पिण्डीम्; confer, compare वाक्यं तदपि मन्यन्ते यत्पदं वरितक्रियम् Vakyapad.II. 326, and चरिता गर्भीकृता आख्यातक्रिया यस्य तद्गर्भीकृतक्रियापदं नामपदं वाक्यं प्रयुञ्जते ! Com. on Vakyapadya II.326.
caritārthawhich has got already a scope of application; the term is used by commentators in connection with a rule or a word forming a part of a rule which applies in the case of some instances and hence which cannot be said to be ब्यर्थ (superfluous) or without any utility and as a result cannot be said to be capable of allowing some conclusion to be drawn from it according to the dictum ब्यर्थं सज्ज्ञापयति confer, compare अपवादो यद्यन्यत्र चरितार्थस्तर्ह्यन्तरङ्गेण बाध्यते Par. Sek. Pari. 65.
cekīyitathe sign य ( यङ् of Panini ) of the frequentative or intensive. The word is mostly used in the Katantra Grammar works confer, compare धातोर्यशब्दश्चेक्रीयितं क्रियासमभिहारे, Kat. III. 2. 14. The word चेक्रीयित is used in the Mahabhasya in the sense of यङन्त where Kaiyata remarks थडः पूर्वाचार्यसंज्ञा चेकीयितमिति confer, compare प्रदीप on M.Bh. on P. IV.1.78 Vartika. The word चेकीयितान्त means यङन्त in Panini’s terminology meaning a secondary root derived from the primary root in the sense of intensity. The word चर्करीतान्त is used for the frequentative bases in which य, the sign of the frequentative, is omittedition See चर्करीत।
jathe consonant ज् with अ added to it for facility of pronunciation; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I..21. See ज्.
jātabahiraṅgāsiddhatvainvalidity of a Bahiranga operation that has already taken place by virtue of the Antaranga-paribhasa-असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्ङ्गेthat which is ' bahiranga' is regarded as not having taken effect when that which is 'antarahga' is to take effect. For details see Par. Sek. Paribhasa 50.
jātābhīyāsiddhatvainvalidity of a grammatical operation prescribed by a rule in the अाभीय section (P. VI. 4.22 upto the end of the fourth pada ) which, although it has taken place, is to be looked upon as not having taken place when any other operation in the same section is to take effect. See आभीयासिद्व.
jātigenus; class;universal;the notion of generality which is present in the several individual objects of the same kindeclinable The biggest or widest notion of the universal or genus is सत्ता which, according to the grammarians, exists in every object or substance, and hence, it is the denotation or denoted sense of every substantive or Pratipadika, although on many an occasion vyakti or an individual object is required for daily affairs and is actually referred to in ordinary talks. In the Mahabhasya a learned discussion is held regarding whether जाति is the denotation or व्यक्ति is the denotation. The word जाति is defined in the Mahabhasya as follows:आकृतिग्रहणा जातिर्लिङ्गानां च न सर्वभाक् । सकृदाख्यातनिर्गाह्या गोत्रं च चरणैः सह ॥ अपर आह । ग्रादुभीवविनाशाभ्यां सत्त्वस्य युगपद्गुणैः । असर्वलिङ्गां बह्वर्थो तां जातिं कवयो विदुः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV. 1.63. For details see Bhartphari's Vakyapadiya.
jinendrabuddhia reputed Buddhist Grammarian of the eighth century who wrote a scholarly commentary on the Kasikavrtti ofJayaditya and Vamana. The commentary is called न्यास or काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका and the writer is referred to as न्यासकार in many later grammar works Some scholars identify him with पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् the writer of the जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण, but this is not possible as पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् was a Jain Grammarian who flourished much earlier.
ṭa(1)the consonant ट्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance; confer, compare अकारो व्यञ्जनानाम्, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) short term, (प्रत्याहार) standing for टवगे or the lingual class of consonants, found used mostly in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare RT. 13, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 64, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 27: (3) taddhita affix. affix ( अ ) added to the word फल्गुनी in the sense ' तत्र जातः' e. g. फल्गुनी, confer, compare P. IV. 3.34, Vart. 2; (4) krt affix ( अ ) added to the root चर्, सृ and कृ under certain conditions; e. g. कुरुचर:, अग्रेसुर:, यशस्करी ( विद्या ) दिवाकरः, वेिभकरः कर्मकरः et cetera, and others confer, compare P. III. 2.16-23.
ṭakārathe consonant ट्, कार being added for facility of utterance; confer, compare वर्णात्कारः P. III. 3.108 Vart. 3; confer, compare also V. Pr, I.17.
ṭu(1)mute syllable टु prefixed to roots to signify the addition of the affix अथुच् in the sense of verbal activity; e. g. वेपथुः, श्वयथु:, confer, compare P.III. 3.89; (2) the class of lingual consonants ट्, ठ्, ड्, ढ् and ण्; cf चुटू P. I. 3.7.
ṭyaṇtaddhita affix. affix य, causing वृद्धि for the initial vowel and the addition of the feminine. affix ई, applied to the word सोम in the sense of 'having that as a deity,' e. g. सौम्यं हविः, सौमी ऋक्: confer, compare P.IV. 2.30.
dvithaving दु as इत्: roots, that have टु as इत् or mute, take the affix अथुच् in the sense of verbal activity. See टु.
ṭha(l)taddhita affix. affix ठ; see ठ् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. for the substitution of इक and क for ठ. ठ stands as a common term for ठक् , ठन् , ठञ्, and ठच् as also for ष्ठल्,ष्ठन् , and प्ठच्;(2) the consonant ठ, the vowel अ being added for facitity of pronunciation, confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.21.
ḍhaktaddhita affix. affix एय causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ढक् is added in the sense of अपत्य (descendant) (I) to words ending in feminine affixes, to words ending in the vowel इ, excepting इ of the taddhita affix. afix इञ्, to words of the class headed by शुभ्र, to words मण्डूक, विकर्ण, कुषीतक, भ्रू , .कुलटा and to words headed by कल्याणी which get इन substituted for its !ast vowel; exempli gratia, for example सौपर्णेयः, दात्तेयः शौभ्रेय, माण्डूकेयः, , वैकर्णेयः, कौषीतकेयः, भ्रौवेयः,.कौलटेयः, काल्याणिनेयः etc: cf Kas on P. IV.I. 1 19-127; (2) to the words पितृष्वसृ and मातृष्वसृ with the vowel ऋ elided and to the word . दुष्कुल, पितृष्वसेय:, मातृष्वसेयः, दौष्कुलेयः, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.133, 134, 142: (3) to the word कलि in the sense of Sama, to the word अग्नि in the sense of 'dedicated to a deity' ( सास्य देवता ) as also to the words नदी, मही, वाराणसी, श्रावस्ती and others in the Saisika senses; e. g. कालेयं साम, आग्नेयः, नादेयम् महियम् et cetera, and others cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.8, 33, 97: (4) to the words तूदी, धुर् , कपि, ज्ञाति, व्रीहि and शालि in the specified senses; confer, compare P. IV. 3.94, IV. 4.77, V. 1.127, V. 2.2.
ṇa(1)krt affix अ, added optionally to the roots headed by ज्वल् and ending with कस् in the first conjugation (see ज्वलिति a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) in the sense of agent, and necessarily to the root श्यै, roots ending with अा and the roots व्यध्, आस्रु, संस्रु, इ with अति, सो with अव, हृ with अव, लिह्, श्लिष् and श्वस्, to the roots दु and नी without any prefix and optionally to ग्रह्: e. g. ज्वालः or ज्वलः, अवश्यायः, दायः, धायः, व्याधः, अास्त्रावः, संस्त्रवः, अत्यायः, अवसायः, अवहार:, लेहः, श्लेष:, श्वास:, दावः, नाय:, ग्रहः or ग्राहः: ; in the case of the root ग्रह् the affix ण is applied by ब्यवस्थितविभाषा, the word ग्रहः meaning a planet and the word ग्राहः meaning a crocodile; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.140-143; (2) krt affix अ in the sense of verbal activity ( भाव ) applied along with the affix अप् to the root अद् with नि; exempli gratia, for exampleन्यादः निघसः; confer, compare P. III.3.60; (3) krt affix ण prescribed by the Varttikakara after the roots तन्, शील्. काम, भक्ष् and चर् with आ; confer, compare P.III.1.140 Vart 1, and III. 2.l Vart. 7; (4) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added along with टक् also, to a word referring to a female descendant (गेीत्रस्त्री) if the resultant word indicates censure ; e. g. गार्भ्यः गार्गिकः confer, compare P. IV.1.147, 150; (5) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added also with the affix फिञ्, to the word फाण्टाहृति: (6) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of 'a game' added to a word meaning 'an instrument in the game'; exempli gratia, for example दाण्डा, मौष्टा: confer, compare P. IV.2.57: {7) taddhita affix. affix अ added to the word छत्त्र and others in the sense of 'habituated to' exempli gratia, for example छात्र:, शैक्षः, पौरोहः चौर:: confer, compare P.IV. 4.62: (8) taddhita affix. affix अ added to the words अन्न, भक्त, सर्व, पथिन् , यथाकथाच, प्रज्ञा, श्रद्धा, अर्चा, वृत्तिं and अरण्य in the senses specified with respect to each ; exempli gratia, for example आन्नः (मनुष्यः) भाक्तः ( शालिः ), सार्वे ( सर्वस्मै हितम् ), पान्थः, याथाकथाचं (कार्यम्), प्राज्ञः or प्रज्ञावान् , श्राद्धः or श्रद्धावान् , अार्चः or अर्चावान् , घार्त्तः or वृत्तिमान् and अारण्याः ( सुमनसः ); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV. 4.85, 100, V.1.10, 76, 98, V.2.101 and IV.2.104 Varttika.
ṇicaffix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् et cetera, and others e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; confer, compare P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising et cetera, and others ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; confer, compare P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, exempli gratia, for example सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, et cetera, and others: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: confer, compare णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे et cetera, and others; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
ṇyatkrtya affix य which causes vrddhi and which has the circurmflex accent (1) applied to a root ending with ऋ or any consonant to form the pot. passive voice.participle: e. g. कार्यम्, हार्यम् , वाक्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare Kas on P. IV. 1.124; (2) applied to a root ending in उ if a necessity of the activity is to be indicated, e. g. अवश्यलाव्यम् , अवश्यपान्यम् confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.125; (3) taddhita affix. affix य applied to the word षण्मास्र optionally with यप् and ठञ् affixes: e. g. षाण्मास्यः, षण्मास्यः, षाण्मासिकः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 1.84.
takārathe consonant त्, the vowel अ and the word कार being placed after it for facility in understanding; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 17, 21.
tavai(1)krt affix तवै for the infinitive affix तुम् in Vedic Literature. The affix तवै has a peculiarity of accent, namely that the word ending in तवै has got both the initial and ending vowels accented acute (उदात्त); exempli gratia, for example सोममिन्द्राय पातवै, हर्षसे दातवा उ; confer, compare P.III.4.9; and VI. 1.200; (2) krtya affix in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example परिघातवै for परिघातव्यम्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 4.14.
tācchabdya(1)use of a word for that word (of which the sense has been conveyed); the expression तादर्थ्या त्ताच्छब्द्यम् is often used by grammarians just like a Paribhasa; confer, compare अस्ति तादर्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यम् । बहुव्रीह्यर्थानि पदानि बहुव्रीहिरिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.29; similarly तृतीयासमास;for तृतीयार्थानि पदानि M.Bh. on P.I.1.30 or समासार्थे शास्त्रं समासः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.43; (2) use of a word for that word of which there is the vicinity; confer, compare अथवा साहचर्यात् ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति। कालसहचरितो वर्णः। वर्णॊपि काल एव; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.27 where the letter उ is taken in the sense of time required for its utterance, the reason being that sound and time go together; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.I.2.70, IV.3.48, V.2.79; (3) use of a word for that which resides there; confer, compare तात्स्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति M.Bh. on V.4.50 Vart. 3. At all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. places, the use of one word for another is by Laksana.
tiltaddhita affix. affix ति added in Vedic Literature to the word वृक when superior quality is meant, exempli gratia, for example वृकतिः confer, compare P. V. 4.41.
tīvrataraextreme sharpness of the nasalization at the time of pronouncing the anusvara and the fifth letters recommended by Saityayana.e. g. अग्नीररप्सुषदः, वञ्चते परिवञ्चते. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVII. 1.
tukaugment त् added (1) to the root चि in the form चित्य, the pot. passive voice. participle. of चि confer, compare P. III. 1.132; (2) to the short vowel at the end of a root before a krt affix marked with the mute letter प् exempli gratia, for example अग्निचित्, प्रहृत्य confer, compare P. VI. 1.71 ; (3) to a short vowel before छ् if there be close proximity ( संहिता ) between the two e. g. इच्छति, गच्छति; confer, compare P. VI. 1.73; (4) to the indeclinables अा and मा as also to a long vowel before छ, e. g. आच्छादयति, विचाच्छाद्यते: confer, compare P. VI. 1.74, 75; (5) to a long vowel optionally, if it is at the end of a word, e. g. लक्ष्मीच्छाया, लक्ष्मीछाया, confer, compare P. VI. 1.76; (7) to the letter न् at the end of a word before श्, exempli gratia, for example भवाञ्च्छेते, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.31.
tṛ(1)substitute prescribed for the last vowel of the word अर्वन् so as to make it declinable like words marked with the mute letter ऋ; (2) common term for the krt affixes तृन् and तृच् prescribed in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity; the taddhita affix. affixes ईयस्, and इष्ठ are seen placed after words ending in तृ in Vedic Literature before which the affix तृ is elided; exempli gratia, for example करिष्ठः, दोहीयसी; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.59.
tṛctaddhita affix. affix तृ, taking the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ), (1) added to a root optionally with अक ( ण्वुल् ) in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity, the word so formed having the last vowel acute; exempli gratia, for example कर्ता कारक:; हर्ता हारकः; confer, compare P. III I.133; (2) prescribed in the sense of 'deserving one' optionally along with the pot. passive voice. participle. affixes; exempli gratia, for example भवान् खलु कन्यया वोढा, भवान् कन्यां वहेत्, भवता खलु कन्या वोढव्या, वाह्या, वहनीया वा; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.169
tṛtīyāthe third case; affixes of the third case ( instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति ) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an instrument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: confer, compare P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sentence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word id est, that is हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; exempli gratia, for example पृथग्देवदत्तेन et cetera, and others स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the taddhita affix. affix after them has been elided; exempli gratia, for example पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; confer, compare P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; exempli gratia, for exampleतुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; confer, compare P. II.3.72.
d(1)the consonant द्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance or use; (2) a technical term used in the Jainendra Vyakarana for the term आत्मनेपद in the grammar of Panini.
durgasiṃhathe famous commentator of the Katantra sutras, whose Vrtti on the sutras is the most popular one. It is called , कातन्त्रसूत्रवृत्ति or कातन्तवृत्ति or दौर्गसिंहीवृत्ति , also. A work on Paribhasas named परिभाषावृति, in which Paribhasas are explained and established as based on the Katantra Vyakarana sutras, is attributed to Durgasimha. It is doubtful whether this commentator Durgasimha is the same as Durgacarya, the famous commentator of Yaska's Nirukta. There is a legend that Durgasimha was the brother of Vikramaditya, the founder of the Vikrama Era. Besides the gloss on the Katantra sutras, some grammar works such as a gloss on the unadi sutras, a gloss ( वृत्ति ) on Kalapa-Vyakarana Sutras, a commentary on Karakas named षट्कारकरत्न, Namalinganusasana and Paribhasavrtti are ascribed to Durgasimha. Some scholars believe that the term अमरसिंह was only a title given to Durgasimha for his profound scholarship, and it was Durgasimha who was the author of the well-known work Amarakosa.
daivaname of a system of grammar or a work on grammar the peculiarity of which is the omission of the एकशेष topic; confer, compare अनेकशेषं दैवं स्यात्
dravyasubstance, as opposed to गुण property and क्रिया action which exist on dravya. The word सत्त्व is used by Yaska, Panini and other grammarians in a very general sense as something in completed formation or existence as opposed to 'bhava' or kriya or verbal activity, and the word द्रव्य is used by old grammarians as Synonymous with सत्त्व; confer, compare चादयोSसत्वे। चादयो निपातसंज्ञा भवन्ति न चेत्सत्वे वर्तन्ते, confer, compare Kas on P. I. 4.57; confer, compare S.K. also on P. I.4.57. (2)The word द्रव्य is also found used in the sense of an individual object, as opposed to the genus or generic notion ( अाकृति ); confer, compare द्रव्याभिधानं व्याडिः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64. Vart. 45.(3)The word द्रव्य is found used in the sense of Sadhana or means in Tait. Prati. confer, compare तत्र शब्दद्रव्याण्युदाहरिष्यामः । शब्दरूपाणि साधनानि वर्णयिष्यामः Tai, Pr. XXII. 8.
drutaliterally rapid; the vice of rapidity in utterance;a fault of speech especially in connection with the utterance of vowels in Vedic recital when on account of haste the utterance of letters becomes indistinct. confer, compare संदृष्टमेणीकृतमर्धकं द्रुतं विकीर्णमेताः स्वरद्रोषभावनाः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1 vart. 18.
drutāone of the three Vrttis or styles of utterance mentioned in the Pratisakhya works and quoted in the Mahabhasya; confer, compareतित्रो वृत्तीरुपदिशन्ति वाचो विलम्बितां मध्यमां च दुतां च । अभ्यासार्थे दुतां वृत्तिं प्रयोगार्थे तु मध्यमाम् । शिष्याणामुपदेशार्थे कुर्याद् वृत्ति विलम्बिताम् । Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 18, 19; confer, compare ये हि द्रुतायां वृत्तौ वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते मध्यमायां, ये मध्यमायां वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते विलाम्बितायाम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.70, Vart. 4. The utterance of a letter takes ,1/3 rd time more in the मध्यमवृत्ति than in the द्रुतवृत्ति, while in the विलम्बितवृत्ति it takes 1/3 rd more than in the मध्यमवृत्ति. In short, the utterance of the same letter takes in the three vrttis, Druta, Vilambita and Madhyama the quantity of time in the proportion of 9:12:16 respectively.
dvikarmakaa term used in connection with roots governing two objects or two words in the accusative case, exempli gratia, for example दुह् in, गां दोग्धि पयः; the term कर्म according to the strict definition of the term कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म or अाप्यं कर्म applies to one of the two, which is called the प्रधानकर्म or the direct object, the other one, which, in fact, is related to the verbal activity by relation of any other karaka or instrument is taken as karmakaraka and hence put in the accusative case. For details see Mahabhasya and Kasika on P.I.4.51. Some roots in their causal formation govern two objects out of which one object is the actual one while the other is the subject of the primitive root. exempli gratia, for example गमयति माणवकं ग्रामम्; बोधयति माणवकं धर्मम्; cf Kas on P.I.4.52. See for details Mahabhasya on P. I. 4.52.
dvitīyāthe second case; the accusative case, mainly prescribed for a word which is related as a karmakaraka to the activity in the sentence; cf P. II. 3.2 to 5,
dvitvadoubling, reduplication prescribed for (I) a root in the perfect tense excepting the cases where the affix अाम् is added to the root before the personal ending: exempli gratia, for example बभूव, चकार, ऊर्णुनाव et cetera, and others cf P. VI. 1.1,2; (2) a root before the vikarana affixes सन्, यङ्, श्लु and चङ् e. g. बुभूषति, चेक्रीयते, चर्करीति, जुहोति, अचीकरत् et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VI. 1.9l l ; (3) a word ending in अम् . ( णमुल् ) in the sense of repetition, e. g. स्मारं स्मारं वक्ष्ये, भोजं भोजं व्रजति confer, compare आभीक्ष्ण्ये द्वे भवतः P. VIII. 1.12 Vart. 7; (4) any word (a) in the sense of constant or frequent action, (b) in the sense of repetition, (c) showing reproach, or scorn, or quality in the sense of its incomplete possess-, ion, or (d) in the vocative case at the beginning of a sentence in some specified senses; reduplication is also prescribed for the prepositions परि, प्र, सम्, उप, उद्, उपरि, अधि, अघस् in some specified senses confer, compare P. VIII. 1.1 to 15. A letter excepting हृ and र्, is also repeated, if so desired, when (a) it occurs after the letter ह् or र् , which is preceded by a vowel e g. अर्क्कः अर्द्धम् et cetera, and others cf VIII. 4.46; or when (b) it is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant e. g. दद्ध्यत्र, म्द्धवत्र confer, compare P. VIII. 4.47. For details see Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VIII. 4.46-52. The word द्वित्व is sometimes used in the sense of the dual number; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.2.51. The words द्वित्व, द्विर्वचन and द्विरुक्त are generally used as synonymanuscript. Panini generally uses the word द्वे. For द्वित्व in Vedic Literature confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1.4; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 1-8 V, Pr. IV. 101-118.
dharmadefined as ऋषिसंप्रदाय, the traditional practices laid down by the sages for posterity; confer, compareकेवलमृषिसंप्रदायो धर्म इति कृत्वा याज्ञिक्राः शास्त्रेण अनुविदधते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika I ; cf also धर्मशास्त्रं in एवं च कृत्वा धर्मशास्त्रं प्रवृत्तम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64, as also धर्मसूत्रकाराः in नैवेश्वर आज्ञापयति नापि धर्मसूत्रकाराः पठन्ति अपवादैरुत्सर्गा बाध्यन्तामिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. l.47; (2) religious merit, confer, compare धर्मोपदेशनमिदं शास्त्रमस्मिन्ननवयवेन शास्त्रार्थः संप्रतीयते , Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. I. 84, cf also ज्ञाने घमै इति चेत्तथाSधर्मः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika l ; ' 3) property possessed by a thing or a letter or a word. e. g. वर्णधर्म; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 2.29; cf also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1, 55, II. 3.33, VIII. 1. 4. confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 8, 13 XIV. 1 et cetera, and others: ( 4 ) the characteristic of being in a substance; in the phrase अयं घटः the dharma viz.घटत्व is predicated of this (इदम्) or, in other words the designation pot ( घटसंज्ञा ) is the predication; the explanation in short, can be given as घटत्ववान् इदंपदार्थः or घटाभिन्नः इदंपदार्थ:
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
dhātvartheliterally meaning of a root, the verbal activity, named क्रिया or भावः . confer, compare धात्वर्थः क्रिया; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2. 84, III.2.115. The verbal activity is described generally to be made up of a series of continuous subordinate activities carried on by the different karakas or agents and instruments of verbal activity helping the process of the main activity. When the process of the verbal activity is complete, the completed activity is looked upon as a substantive or dravya and a word denoting it, such as पाक,or याग does not get conjugational affixes, but it is regularly declined like a noun.Just as स्वार्थ, द्रब्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या, and कारक are given as प्रातिपदिकार्थ, in the same manner क्रिया, काल, पुरुष, वचन or संख्या, and कारक are given as धात्वर्थ, as they are shown by a verbal form, although strictly speaking verbal activity (क्रियorभाव) alone is the sense of a root, as stated in the Mahbhasya. For details see Vaiyak.Bh.Sara, where it is said that fruit ( फल) and effort ( ब्यापार ) are expressed by a root, confer, compare फलव्यापारयोर्धातुः. The five senses given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are in fact conveyed not by a root, but by a verb or अाख्यात or तिडन्त.
na(1)the consonant न् (see न् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) with the vowel added to it for facility of utterance, confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21 ; (2) taddhita affix. affix न added to words headed by पामन् in the sense of possession; exempli gratia, for example पामनः, हेमनः et cetera, and others, cf P. V. 2.100; (3) taddhita affix. affix न as found in the word ज्योत्स्ना derived from ज्योतिष्, cf P. V. 2.114; (4) unadi affix न as found in the word स्योनः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI.4.19; (5) the krt affix नङ् as also नन् prescribed after the roots यज्, याच्, यत्, विच्छ्, प्रच्छ्, रक्ष् and स्वप् , e g. यज्ञ:, याञ्चा, प्रश्नः et cetera, and others, cf P. III. 3.90, 91; (6) the negative particle न given by Panini as नञ् and referred to in the same way, which (id est, that is न.) when compounded with a following word is changed into अ or अन् or retained in rare cases as for instance in नभ्राट्, नासत्यौ, नक्षत्रम् et cetera, and others cf P. VI.3.73-75;(7) taddhita affix.affix न (नञ्) applied to the words स्त्री and पुंस् in senses given from P. IV. 1.92 to V. 2.1 e. g. स्त्रैणं, पौंस्नम् confer, compare IV. 1.87.
nakārathe consonant न to which the vowel अ and the affix कार are added for facility of utterance; e. g. तथा नकार उदये नकारे Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV.; confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 17, 21.
naṅkrt affix न applied to the roots यज्, याच्, यत् and others in the sense of verbal activity; e. g. यज्ञ; याञ्चा, यत्नः et cetera, and others confer, compare P. III. 3.90, 91. See न (5)
nañsvarabalīyastvathe superiority, or strength of the accent caused by नञ्समास which sets aside the accent caused by the case affix; confer, compare विभक्तिस्वरान्नञ्स्वरो बलीयान् P. VI. 2.158 Vart. 13,
nankrt affix न applied to the root स्वप् to show verbal activity ; exempli gratia, for example स्वप्न; confer, compareP.III.3.91.
nirūḍhalakṣaṇāpotentiality of implicaion which gives the meaning of a word which is based upon implication; e. g. रथो गच्छति.
nirvartaka(1)productive, as opposed to expressive; confer, compare किं पुनरिदं निर्वर्तकम् । अन्तरतमा अनेन निर्वर्त्यन्ते । अहोस्वित्प्रतिपादकम् । अन्येन निर्वृत्तानामनेन प्रतिपत्तिः । M.Bh. on P.I.1.50 Vart. 1; (2) productive of activity; confer, compare साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवतीति वक्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.23.
nirvṛttiproduction of the effect; production of the activity by the agents or instruments of activity called Karakas; confer, compare साधनं हि क्रियां निर्वर्तयति तामुपसर्गो विशिनष्टि M.Bh. on II. 2.19 Vart. 2.
pa,pakārathe consonant प्, the vowel अ and the affix कार being added for facility of understanding and pronunciation; cf T.Pr. I. 17, 21 ; प is also used as a short term for consonants of the fifth class (पवर्ग); confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.1.27; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 64 and Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 13.
padavāda or padavādipakṣaview that words are real and have an existence and individuality of their own. The view is advocated by the followers of both the Mīmāmsā schools and the logicians who believe that words have a real existence. Grammarians admit the view for practical purposes, while they advocate that the अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट alone is the real sense. confer, compare Vākyapadīya II.90 and the foll.
paratvaposteriority; mention afterwards; the word is frequently used in works on grammar in connection with a rule which is mentioned in the treatise after another rule; the posterior rule is looked upon as stronger than the prior one, and is given priority in application when the two rules come in conflict although technically they are equally strong: confer, compare परत्वादल्लोप: ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.4 Vaart 7; 'परत्वाच्छीभाव: I. 1.11 et cetera, and others
parasmaipadaa term used in grammar with reference to the personal affixs ति, त: et cetera, and others applied to roots. The term परस्मैपद is given to the first nine afixes ति, त:, अन्ति, सि, थ:, थ, मि, व: and म:, while the term आत्मनेपद is used in connection with the next nine त, आताम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare परस्मै परोद्देशार्थफलकं पदम् Vac. Kosa. The term परस्मैपद is explained by some as representing the Active_Voice as contrasted with the Passive Voice which necessarily is characterized by the Aatmanepada affixes. The term परस्मैभाष in the sense of परस्मैपद was used by ancient grammarians and is also found in the Vaarttika अात्मनेभाषपस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI. 3.8 Vart.1 . The term परस्मैभाष as applied to roots, could be explained as परस्मै क्रियां (or क्रियाफलं) भाषन्ते इति परस्मैभाषाः and originally such roots as had their activity meant for another, used to take the परस्मैपद् affixes, while the rest which had the activity meant for self, took the अात्मनेपद affixes. Roots having activity for both, took both the terminations and were termed उभयपदिनः.
parasmaibhāṣaliterally speaking the activity or क्रिया for another; a term of ancient grammarians for roots taking the first nine personal affixes only viz. ति, तः... मसू. The term परस्मैपदिन् was substituted for परस्मैभाष later on,more commonly. See परस्मैपद a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The term परस्मैभाष along with अात्मनेभाष is found almost invariably used in the Dhaatupaatha attributed to Paanini; confer, compare भू सत्तायाम् | उदात्त: परस्मैभाषः | एघादय उदात्त अनुदात्तेत अात्मनभाषा: Dhatupatha.
paryudāsa(1)exclusion; negation with a view to exclude; one of the two senses ( प्रसज्यप्रतिषेध and पर्युदास ) of the negative particle नञ्, generally found in cases when the particle नञ् is compounded with a noun, and not used independently with a verbal form or a verbal activity ; e. g. अब्राह्मणः; अनचि च ; confer, compare अनपुंसकात् । नायं प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधो नपुंसकस्य नेति । किं तर्हि । पर्युदासोयं यदन्यन्नपुंसकादिति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.43: cf also प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधः स्यात् क्रियया सह यत्र नञ् । पयुदास: स विज्ञेयो यत्रोत्तरपदेन नञ् ॥ (2) removal in general, not by the use of a negative particle: confer, compare पाठात्पर्युदासः कर्तव्यः । शुद्धानां पठितानां संज्ञाः कर्तव्या । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.27 Vaart. 3.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtravṛttia gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiin his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known.
pāraskarādigaṇaor पारस्करप्रभृति, words headed by the word पारस्कर which have got some irregularity, especially the insertion of स् between the constituent words. For details see पारस्करप्रभृतीनि च संज्ञायाम् P. VI. 1.153 and the commentary thereon.
pārārthyaliterally serving the purpose of another like the Paribhāşā and the Adhikāra rules in Grammar which have got no utility as fair as they themselves are concerned, but which are of use in the interpretation of other rules; confer, compare अधिकारशब्देन पारार्थ्यात् परिभाषाप्युच्यते. Par. Sek. Pari. 2, 3.
punaḥprasaṅgavijñānaoccurrence or possibility of the application of a preceding grammatical rule or operation a second time again, after once it has been set aside by a subsequent opposing rule or rules in conflict; confer, compare पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्धम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 39; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 4.2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7; confer, comparealso Puru. Pari. 40.
puṣādia class of roots headed by the root पुष् of the fourth conjugation whose peculiarity is the substitution of the aorist sign अ ( अङ्) for च्लि ; exempli gratia, for example अपुषत्, अशुषत्, अनुषत् et cetera, and others ofeminine. पुषादिद्युताद्यलृदितः परस्मैपदेषु P. III. 1.55.
pūrvanipātaplacing first (in a compound); priority of a word in a compound, as in the case of an adjectival word, For special instructions in grammar about priority see P. II.2.30 to 38.
pṛṣodarādia group of words, with irregularity in the coalescence of the two constituent members, collected together by Panini and mentioned together with the word पृषोदर at the head; confer, compare पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् P.VI. 3. 109; confer, compare also येषु लोपागमवर्णविकारः शास्त्रेण न विहिताः, दृश्यन्ते च तानि, यथोपदिष्टानि साधूनि भवन्ति । पृषोदरम् , बलाहकः, जीमूतः, पिशाचः, वृसी, मयूरः,पयोपवसनानाम्, दूढ्यः et cetera, and others Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VI. 3.109.
prakarṣaeminence: excellence of a particular quality ; confer, compare कथं पुनरन्यस्य प्रकर्षेण अन्यस्य प्रकर्षः स्यात्: confer, compare also यद्यपि द्रव्यस्य स्वतः प्रकर्षो नास्ति तथापि गुणाक्रियास्थ: प्रक्रर्षो द्रव्य उपचर्यते , Kas on P. V. 4.1 1.
prakalpakriyaa word in which a verbal activity has to be conjectured, as for example, the words गौः, अश्वः et cetera, and others Words which are not actually derived by rules of grammar are called प्रकल्पक्रिय as contrasted with प्रत्यक्षक्रिय.
prakāra(l)attribute, attribute which differentiates, manner, difference; differentiating description: confer, compare कंचित्प्रकारं प्राप्तः इत्थंभूत: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.3.21: (2) resemblance, similarity of one thing with another with slight deficiency: confer, compare प्रकारे गुणवचनस्य । प्रक्रारो भेदः सादृश्यं च। तदिह सादृश्यं प्रकारो गृह्यते । प्रकारे वर्तमानस्य गुणवचनशब्दस्य द्वे भवतः । पटुपटुः मृदुमृदुः । अपरिपूर्णगुण इत्यर्थः । परिपूर्णगुणेन न्यूनगुणस्य उपमाने सत्येवं प्रयुज्यते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII.1.12; (3) differentiating attribute; confer, compare प्रकारवचने थाल् V. 3.23, प्रकारवचने जातीयर् V. 3.69, स्यूलादिभ्यः प्रकारवचने कन् V. 4.3 where Kasika defines the word प्रकार as सामान्यस्य भेदको विशेषः प्रकार: Ka, on V. 3.23 and 69; (4) type, confer, compare इतिशब्दः प्रकारार्थः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on V. 2.93: confer, compare also अदिशब्दः प्रकारे Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on देवपथादिभ्यश्च P.V.3.100; cf also अादिइाब्दः प्रकारे वर्तते । देवदत्तादय आढ्याः । देवदत्तप्रकारा इत्यर्थः M.Bh. on I.3.1 Vart. 11.
prakṛta(1)in context, in question; the word is frequently used in connection with words in the preceding rules which are drawn on to the following rules by anuvrtti or continuation; confer, compare प्रकृतं गुणवृद्धिग्रहणमनुवर्तते, M.Bh. on I.1.3 Vart. 2: (2) found or available in a large quantity; confer, compare तत्प्रकृतवचने मयट् । प्राचुर्येण प्रस्तुतं प्रकृतम् । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 4.21.
prakrama(l)the place of articulation, the place of the production of sound, such as throat, chest, palate and the like; confer, compare प्रक्रम्यन्ते अस्मिन्वर्णा इति प्रक्रमः स्थानमुच्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Pradipa on सिद्धं तु समानप्रक्रमवचनात् P.I.2.30 Vart.2; (2) recital of Veda, described as क्रमपाठ confer, compare उभयथा च प्रक्रमे दोषो भवति M.Bh.on P. VIII. 4.28 confer, compare also "अष्टसु प्रक्रमेषु दोषो भवति"quoted in the Mahabhasya on P.VI. 1.172; (3) regularity in the position of words, regular order of words.
pracaya(1)a specific feature or quality ( धर्म ) of the grave (अनुदात्त) accent when a vowel, accented grave, is preceded by a स्वरित (circumflex . vowel) and is followed upon by another grave-accented vowel. These grave vowels in succession, id est, that is the grave vowels which are not followed by an acute or a circumflex vowel are uttered neither distinctly circumflex nor distinctly grave; cf also R. Pr, III.II-14. They are uttered like the acute, but slightly so; e. g. the vowels after मे and before ति in इमं मे गङ्गे' यमुने सरस्वति; confer, compare स्वरितात्संहितायामनुदात्तानां प्रचय उदात्तश्रुतिः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXI.10, 11 also confer, compare P.I.2.39, where the term एकश्रुति is used for the word प्रचय; (2) the connection of one word with many words; exempli gratia, for example राज्ञो गोश्चाश्वश्च पुरुषश्च where राज्ञः is connected with गौ, अश्व and पुरुष; confer, compare प्रचये समासप्रतिषेधो: वक्तव्य: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.1 Vart, 6.
pratipattilāghavafacility of understanding: confer, compare प्रतिपत्तिलाघवार्थं ज्ञाजनोर्जा इति दीर्घान्तादेशविधानम् Sira. Pari. 91.
pratiṣedhaprohibition, negation, prohibition of a rule or operation; generaliy प्रतिषेध or प्रसज्यप्रतिषेध is laid down by the use of the negative particle ( नञ् ) connected with a verbal activity, and not with a noun in a compound in which case the negation is named पर्युदास; confer, compare प्रसज्ज्यप्रतिषेधो यः क्रियया सह यत्र नञ् । पयुदासः स विज्ञेयः थत्रोत्तरपदेन नञ् ।
pratiṣedhabalīyastvathe priority of consideration given to rules laying down a prohibition, for instance, the prohibition of guna or vrddhi by the rule ङ्किति च P. I. 1.5 after giving due consideration to which, the injunctions i. e the guna and vidhi rules are to be applied; confer, compare निषेधाश्च बलीयांसः Par. Sek. Pari. 112; confer, compare also. एवमप्युभयोः सावकाशयोः प्रतिषेधबलीयस्त्वात्प्रतिषेधः प्राप्नोति, M.Bh. P. on III. 1.30.
pratyakṣakriyaa word in which the verbal activity is actually noticed, as for instance, verbs and krt formations; the term is used as an antonym of प्रकल्पक्रिय.
pratyāsattiimmediate proximity; close contact; the same as प्रत्यासङ्ग which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare हेतुमण्णिचो विधिः प्रतिषेधोपि प्रत्यासत्तेस्तस्यैव न्याय्यः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I 3.88. confer, compare also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VII.1.95.
pratyāhāraliterally bringing together; bringing together of several letters ( or words in a few cases, such as roots or nouns ) by mentioning the first and the last only for the sake of brevity; the term प्रत्याहार is generally used in connection with brief terms such as अण्, अक् , अच् , हल् and the like, created by Panini in his grammar by taking any particular letter and associating it with any mute final letter ( अनुबन्ध ) of the fourteen Sivasutras, with a view to include all letters beginning with the letter uttered and ending with the letter which precedes the ( mute ) letter. The practice of using such abbreviations was in existence before Panini, possibly in the grammar attributed to Indra. The term प्रत्याहार is not actually used by Panini; it is found in the Rk. Tantra; confer, compare प्रत्याहारार्थो वर्णोनुबन्धो व्यञ्जनम् R.T.I.3. The term appears to have come into use after Panini. Panini has not given any definition of the term प्रत्याहार. He has simply given the method of forming the Pratyaharas and he has profusely used them; confer, compare आदिरन्त्येन सहेता P. I. 1.71. The word कृञ् in P. III.1.40 and तृन् in P. II. 3.69 are used as Pratyaharas. For a list of the Pratyharas which are used by Panini see Kasika on the Maheswara Sutras.
pradeśaliterally district; sphere of application, place of the application of a rule. The word is frequently used in this sense in the Kasika Vritti; confer, compare प्रत्ययप्रदेशाः प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणमित्येवमादयः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.1.1 . confer, compare also अनुदात्तप्रदेशाः अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ इत्यादयः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 2.30. The word प्रदेश is also used in the sense of the place of use or utility; confer, compare संज्ञाशास्त्रस्य तु कार्यकालपक्षे न पृथग्वाक्यार्थबोधः किं तु प्रदेशवाक्येन सहैव । ... कार्यज्ञानं च प्रदेशदेश एव Par. Sek. Pari. 3.
pramāṇa(1)authority; authoritative proof; confer, compare लोकः अवश्यं शब्देषु प्रमाणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 2.64 Vart. 29; (2) measurement, measure; confer, compare प्रमाणे द्वयसज्दघ्नत्र्मात्रचः P. V. 2.37; प्रमाणत; अकारो गुणः प्राप्तः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.50.
pravādaa grammatical explanation; detailed explanation by citing the gender, number, krt affix, taddhita affix.affix and the like: confer, compare लिङ्गसंख्यातद्धितकृतरूपभेदाः प्रवादाः । पाण्यादिशब्दानां प्रवादेषु प्रथमो (original) नकारो णत्वमाप्नोति स च प्राकृतः । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIII. 9. The word is explained as a change in the form of a word, as for instance, by the substitution of स् for विसर्ग where विसर्ग is, in fact, expected; confer, compare कबन्धं पृथु इत्येतेषां पदानां प्रवादा रूपभेदा उदये परत्रावस्थिताः दिव इत्येतस्य उपचारं जनयन्ति । यथा दिवस्कबन्धम् , दिवस्पृथुः Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 22; confer, compare also प्रवादाः षडितः परे, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IX. 18. In the Nirukta, the word is used in the sense of 'distinct mention'; confer, compare एवमन्यासामपि देवतानामादित्यप्रवादाः स्तुतयो भवन्ति ( deities are mentioned under the name of Aditya) Nir II.13; cf also वैश्वानरीयाः प्रवादाः Nir, VII. 23.
prasaṅgaapplicability; possibility of being applied; the word is used with respect to a grammatical rule or operation which is on the point of being applied or taking place; the word प्राति is also used in the same sense; confer, compare को हि शब्दस्य प्रसङ्गः यत्र गम्यते चार्थो न च प्रयुज्यते M.Bh.on P.I.1.60 confer, compare also द्वौ प्रसङ्गौ अन्यार्थां एकस्मिन् स विप्रतिषेधः,Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4. 2; also confer, compare प्रसङ्गे सति सदृशतम आदेशः स्यात् S.K. on स्थानेन्तरतमः P. I.1.50.
prasajyapratiṣedhaprohibition of the possible application of a rule, generally laid down by the use of the negative particle न, together with, or connected with, a verbal activity: e.g न लुमताङ्गस्य P.I.1.63, नामि P.VI. 4.3, न माङ्योगे VI.4.74 et cetera, and others etc: confer, compare प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधोSयं क्रियया सह यत्र नञ्; confer, comparealso प्रसज्यायं क्रियागुणौ ततः पश्चान्निवृतिं करोति M.Bh. on P.II.2.6. In some cases the negative particle in a compound has also to be taken as stating a negation by प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधः;confer, compare M.Bh. on सुडनपुंसकस्य P.1.1.43, सार्वधातुकमपित् I.4.2, चादयोsसत्त्वे I. 4. 57.
prāthamyafirst preference; first place; priority; confer, compare कुतः पुनः प्राथम्यं किं शब्दतः आहोस्विदर्थतः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3. 1. Vart. 11.
prāmāṇikaauthoritative; those that talk with authority; confer, compare प्रामाणिकमतमेतत्, a phrase often used by commentators.
prāmāṇyaauthority; confer, compare यथोत्तरं मुनीनां प्रामाण्यम् S. K. on न वहुव्रीहौ P. I. 1.29; confer, compare also the usual expression वचनप्रामाण्यात् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VII. 2.7.
pha(l)the letter or sound फ्,the vowel अ being added for facility of pronunciation ;(2) the affix फ for which अायन is always substituted as given by Panini in P.VII.1.2.
phala(1)fruit or benefit of an action which goes to the agent; confer, compare फलव्यापारयोर्धातुः Vaiyakarana-bhusana. A root which is given as Ubhayapadin in Panini's Grammar takes the Atmanepada affixes when the fruit of the activity is meant for the agent, while otherwise it takes the Parasmaipada affixes; (2) The word फल also means the result of a grammatical operation or grammatical injunction.
baor बकार the letter ब्, the vowel अ as also the word कार being added for facility of utterance; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.17.21, The letter ब् is sometimes used for व् especially when it stands at the beginning of a word, for which scholars use the expression वबयेारभेद:
balīyastvarelative superiority in strength possessed by rules of grammar or by operations based on rules of grammar. This Superiority is decided generally on any one or more of the four recognised criteria such as परत्व, नित्यत्व, अन्तरङ्गत्व and अपवादत्व. The phrase अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् very frequently occurs in the varttikas and in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare M.Bh. on P. III. 1.67, VI.i.17, 85 Vart. 15, VI. 4.62 and VII.1.1.
bahiraṅgāsiddhatvainvalidity i. e. nonoccurrence or non-application of a bahiranga rule or operation before the antaranga operation which is looked upon as stronger occurring earlier to the mind, or in the wording, as it does.
bahuvrīhia compound similar in meaning to the word बहुव्रीहि ( possessed of much rice ) which, in sense shows quite a distinct object than those which are shown by the constituent members of the compound; a relative or adjective compound. There are various kinds of the Bahuvrihi compound such as समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुव्रीहि, दिग्बहुव्रीहि, सहबहुव्रीहि, नञ्बहुव्रीहि, and अनेकपदबहुव्रीहि which depend upon the specific peculiarity noticed in the various cases. Panini in his grammar has not given any definition of बहुव्रीहि, but has stated that a compound other than those already given viz. अव्ययीभाव, द्वन्द्व and तत्पुरुष, is बहुव्रीहि and cited under Bahuvrihi all cases mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf शेषो बहुव्रीहिः II. 3.23-28; also confer, compare अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.6; II. 1.20; II. 1.49.
bahvarthaliterally the meaning of the word बहु. There are many senses of the word बहु out of which 'plurality' is the sense usually seen. The word also means 'collection;' confer, compare ग्रामशब्दोयं बह्वर्थः । अस्त्येव शालांसमुदाये वर्तते । तद्यथा । ग्रामो दग्ध इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.8, 21.
bāhulakathe application of a grammatical rule as a necessity to arrive at some forms in literature especially in the Vedic Literature as also in the works of standard writers, which cannot be explained easily by the regular application of the stated rules; confer, compare सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिदनराणां कालहलच्स्वरकर्तृयङां च । व्यत्ययमिच्छति शास्त्रकृदेषां सोपि च सिध्यति बाहुलकेन M.Bh. on P. III. 1.85; also confer, compare बाहुलकं प्रकृतेस्तनुदृष्टेः प्रायसमुच्चयनादपि तेषाम् । कार्यसशेषविधेश्च तदुक्तं नैगमरूढिभवं हि सुसाधु M.Bh. on P. III.3.1. In many sutras, Panini has put the word बहुलम् to arrive at such forms; e.g see P.II.1.32,57; II.3.62. II.4.39,73,76,84 et cetera, and others
buddhikarmanactivity of the mind of the type of understanding as contrasted with the activity of the sense organs; confer, compare इन्द्रियकर्म समासादनं बुद्धिकर्म व्यवसायः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.III. 3. 133 Vart. 8.
bha(1)the letter or sound भ् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; (2) a technical term in the Grammar of Panini given to a noun base before such case and taddhita affixes as begin with any vowel or with the consonant य्. The utility of this designation of भ to the base is (l) to prevent the substitutes which are enjoined for the final vowel or consonant of a pada (a word ending with a case-affix or a base before case and taddhita affix. affixes beginning with any consonant excepting य् ) just as the substitution of Visarga, anusvara, the first or third consonant, and others given in P. VIII. 4.37 and the following. For the various changes and operations for a base termed भ see P. VI. 4.129 to 175.
bhakārathe consonant भ् with the vowel अ and the affix कार added for facility of utterance: confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 17,21.
bhatvathe nature or quality of being called भ which causes many grammatical operations which are given together by Panini in VI. 4.129 to 179. See the word भ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
bhartṛharia very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. confer, compare शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'.
bhāva(1)becoming; existence. The word is used many times in the sense of धात्वर्थthe sense of a root which is 'incomplete activity' or 'process of evolving'; confer, compare तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातु: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 5; confer, compare also षड् भावविकारा भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 36; पूर्वापरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेन आचष्टे व्रजतिपचतीत्युपक्रमप्रभृति अपवर्गपर्यन्तम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1 ; (2) activity as opposed to instruments ( साधन or कारक ); confer, compare भावगर्हायाम् । धात्वर्थगर्हायाम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.24; confer, compare also भावः क्रिया, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम् P. II. 3.37; (3) completed action which is shown, not by a verb, but by a verbal derivative noun; confer, compare धात्वर्थश्च धातुनैवोच्यते | यस्तस्य सिद्धता नाम धर्मस्तत्र घञादयः प्रत्यया विधीयन्ते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on 'भावे' P. III. 3.18; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.19, III. 1.67, IV. 1.3, V. 4.19; confer, compare also भावस्त्वेक: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.67; (4) the radical factor for the use of a word; प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त; confer, compare भवतोत्मादभिधानप्रत्ययौ इति भावः | शब्दस्य प्रवृत्तिनिमित्तं भावशब्देनोच्यते | अश्वत्वम् , अश्वता | Kāś, on P. 5.1.119; (5) thing, object cf सिद्धशब्दः कूटस्थेषु भावेष्वविचालिषु वर्तते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Āhnika l; (6) transformation, substitution; change into the nature of another; confer, compare तत्र प्रथमास्तृतीयभावम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 4. confer, compare also the words मूर्धन्यभाव, अभिनिधानभाव et cetera, and others {7) possession of the qualities, nature; तदर्थस्य भाव: तादर्थ्यम्: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.13; (8) relationship; confer, compare गुणप्रधानभाव, प्रकृतिविकृतिभाव et cetera, and others
bhāvakartṛkahaving for its subject a verbal derivative in the sense of the भाव or the root activity. The word भाववचन is explained as भावकर्तृक in the Kāṡikāvŗtti. e. g. the word रोग: in चौरस्य रुजति रोगः Kāṡ. on P. II. 3.54: confer, compare भाववचनानां भावकर्तृकाणां Kāṡ. on P II. 3.54.
bhāvanāeffort, activity.
bhāvapratyayaan affix in the sense of quality such as त्व, ता et cetera, and others; confer, compare न ह्यन्तरेण भावप्रत्ययं गुणप्रधानो भवति निर्देश: .
bhāvapradhānadescription of a verb or verbal form in which activity plays the main part as opposed to a noun in which completed activity ( सत्व ) is predominant.
bhāvabhedthe different activities such as igniting a hearth, placing a rice-pot on it, pouring water in it et cetera, and others, which form the different parts of the main activity viz. cooking; confer, compare उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3.19, III. 4.67.
bhāvavacana(1)expressive of भाव or the completed verbal activity; exempli gratia, for example the word भाव itself, as also कृती, राग, and others; (2) having for their subject a verbal derivative in the form of the verbal activity. See भावकर्तृक.
bhāvavikārakinds of verbal activity which are described to be six in number viz. production, existence, transformation, growth, decay and destruction. These six modes of existence first mentioned by Vāŗșyayani and quoted by Yāska are explained philosophically by Bhartŗhari as a mere appearance of the Śabdabrahman or Sattā when one of its own powers, the time factor ( कालशक्ति ) is superimposed upon it, and as a result of that superimposition, it (id est, that is the Śabdabrahman) appears as a process; confer, compare षड् भावाविकारा भवन्ति इति वार्ष्यायणि: | जायते अस्ति विपरिणमते वर्धते अपक्षीयते विनश्यति इति । Nir.I.2; confer, compare also Vākyapadiya III.30.
bhāvasādhana(l)a word in the sense of भाव or completed verbal activity अस्ति भावसाधनो विधिशब्दः | विधानं विधिरिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.57; (2) an affix applied for the formation of a word in the sense of verbal activity; confer, compare प्रयतनं प्रयत्नः | प्रपूर्वाद्यततेर्भावसाधनो नङ् प्रत्ययः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.9.
bhāveprayeāgaimpersonal form of a sentence when there is no activity mentioned on the part of the agent nor resulting upon the object, but there is a mere mention of verb-activity.
bhāṣitapuṃskaa word or a noun-base which has the same sense in the masculine gender as in the neuter gender: generally words of quality or adjectives like शुचि, मधु et cetera, and others fall in this category;cf तृतीयादिषु भाषितपुंस्कं पुंवद्गालवस्य P. VII. 1. 74; confer, compare also भाषितः पुमान् यस्मिन्नर्थे प्रवृत्तिानिमित्ते स भाषितपुंस्कशब्देनोच्यते । तद्योगादभिधेयमपि यन्नपुसकं तदपि भाषितपुंस्कम् | तस्य प्रतिपादकं यच्छब्दरूपं तदपि भाषितपुंस्कम् | Kāś. on VII.1.74.
bhāṣyaa learned commentary on an original work, of recognised merit and scholarship, for which people have got a sense of sanctity in their mind; generally every Sūtra work of a branch of technical learning (or Śāstra) in Sanskrit has got a Bhāṣya written on it by a scholar of recognised merit. Out of the various Bhāṣya works of the kind given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., the Bhāṣya on the Vyākaraṇa sūtras of Pāṇini is called the Mahābhāṣya, on the nature of which possibly the following definition is based "सूत्रार्थो वर्ण्यते यत्र पदैः सूत्रानुकारिभिः| स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः ।" In books on Sanskrit Grammar the word भाष्य is used always for the Mahābhāṣya. The word भाष्य is sometimes used in the Mahābhāṣya of Patanjali (confer, compare उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये III.3.19, IV.4.67) where the word may refer to a work like लघुभाष्य which Patañjali may have written, or may have got available to him as written by somebody else, before he wrote the Mahābhāṣya.
bhidādia class of roots headed by the root भिद् to which the kṛt affix अ (always in the feminine. gender as अा ) is added in the sense of verbal activity: exempli gratia, for example भिदा, गुह्या, श्रद्धा, मेघा et cetera, and others cf Kāś. on P. III. 3.104.
bhuktaliterally swallowed or eaten up; the term is used in connection with letters that are uttered imperfectly on account of the proximity of similar letters.
bhūmanplurality of the individuals referred to; confer, compare बहोर्नञ्वदुत्तरपदभूम्नि P. VI.2.175.
bhūmādithe limited senses भूमन् (plurality) and others in which भतुप् and other possessive taddhita affixes should take place, and not in the general sense of the 'presence at one place' as also 'the possession by some one individual;' confer, compare भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेतिशायने । संसर्गेस्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 2.94.
ma(1)the consonant म् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.2.1 ; (2) The substitute म for मस् of the 1st person. plural in the perfect tense confer, compare P परस्मैपदानां ... णल्वमाः III. 4.82 and in the present tense also in the case of the root विद्; (3) taddhita affix. affix म added to the word मध्य in the Śaiṣika senses,and to the words द्यु and द्रु in the sense of possession; confer, compare P.IV.3.8,V.2. 108.
makārathe consonant म् with the vowel अ and the affix कार added for facility of use and pronunciation; confer, compare T.Pr.I.17 and 21.
matublopaelision of the affix मतुप् specially prescribed after words of quality, or words meaning quality, such as शुक्ल, कृष्ण which originally mean the white colour, the black colour et cetera, and others e. g. शुक्लः पट: confer, compare गुणवचनेभ्यो मतुपो लुक् P. V. 2.94 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
mayataddhita affix. affix मयट् (1) in the sense of proceeding therefrom (तत आगत: P. IV.3.92) added to words showing cause or meaning human being; exempli gratia, for example सममयम्, देवदत्तमयम्: (2) in the sense of product (विकार) or part (अवयव) added optionally with अण् to any word, exempli gratia, for example अश्ममयम् , आश्मनम् मूर्वामयम् मौर्वम्, and necessarily to words beginning with आ, ऐ and औ, words of the class headed by the word शर and the words गो, पिष्ट, व्रीहि, तिल and some others: confer, compare P. IV. 3. 143-150; (3) in the sense of proportion, added to a numeral; e. g. द्विमयमुदश्विद्यवानाम्; confer, compare P. V. 2.47; (4) in the sense of "made up of' added to the thing of which there is a large quantity; exempli gratia, for example अन्नमयम्, अपूपमयम् cf; तत्प्रकृतवचने मयट् P.V.4.21,22.
mahābhāṣyapradīpavivaraṇa(1)original name of the learned commentary on the 'Pradipa' of Kaiyata written by Nagesabhatta, a stalwart and epoch-making grammarian of the 18th century. The commentary is known popularly by the name 'Uddyota' or Pradipoddyota; (2) name of the commentary on Kaiyata's Pradipa by Nityaananda Parvatiya. The commentary is also known by the name दीपप्रभा.
mahāsaṃjñāa long term, as contrasted with the very short terms टि, घु, भ, इत् and others introduced by Panini in his grammar for the sake of brevity. These long terms such as सर्वनाम, अब्यय,परस्मैपद, अात्मनेपद, and many others were widely in use at the time of Panini and hence he could not but pick them up in his grammar in spite of his strenuous attempts at brevity. The commentators, however, find out a motive for his doing this viz. that appropriate words only could be understood by those terms and not others; confer, compareमहासंज्ञाकरणेन तदनुगुणानामेव अत्र संनिवेशात् । S.K. on सर्वादीने सर्वनामानि P. I.1.27.
mātrā(1)measure, quantity ; cf भवति हि तत्र या च यावती च अर्थमात्रा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.45 and II.1.1 ; (2) mora, prosodial unit of one instant id est, that is the length of time required to pronounce a short vowel: confer, compare भूयसी मात्रा इवर्णोवर्णयोः, अल्पीयसी अवर्णस्य, M.Bh. on I.1.48 Vart. 4: confer, compare मात्रा ह्रस्वस्ता वदवग्रहान्तरं, द्वे दीर्धः,तिस्रः प्लुत उच्यते स्वरः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)I.16: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.34, T.Pr.I.37, V.Pr.I.59, R.T.28 also cf अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणाः Par. Sek. Pari. 132. The instant is taken to be equal to the throbbing of the eye, or a flash of lightning, or a note of a wood-cock.
mukhyaviśeṣyathe principal word in a sentence which comes last in the technical expression of the import or शाब्दबोध. It is described as primary and not subordinated to any other thing ( अन्याविशेषणीभूत). This मुख्यविशेष्य is, in a way,the crucial point in the various theories of import; exempli gratia, for example according to the grammarians the verbal activity is the principal word while,according to the Mimaamsakas the bhaavanaa is the principal word.and according to the Naiyayikas it is the subject that is the principal word.
y(1)the consonant य् with अ added to it merely for the sake of facility in pronunciation; यकार is also used in the same sense: e. g. लिटि वयो यः: P.VI.1.38 confer, compare T.Pr.I: 17,21;(2) krt affix (यत्) prescribed as कृत्य or potential passive participle; exempli gratia, for exampleचेयम्, गेयम्, शाप्यम् , शक्यम् , गद्यम् , अजर्यम् पण्यम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare अचो यत्...अजर्यं संगतम् P.III. 1.97-105; (3) krt. affix क्यप् which is also an affix called krtya; e. gब्रह्मोद्यम् , भाव्यम्, घात्यम् , स्तुत्यम् , कल्प्यम् , खेयम् , भृत्यः:, भिद्यः, पुष्य:, कृत्यम्,also कार्यम् ; confer, compare P. III. 1.106-128:(4) krt affix ण्यत् ( which is also कृत्य ), e. g कार्यम् , हार्यम् , वाक्यम् , लाव्यम्, कुण्डपाय्यम्. et cetera, and others: cf P. III. 1.124-132: (5) taddhita affix. affix य affixed (a) in the sense of collection to पाश, वात et cetera, and others, as also to खल, गो and रथ, e. g. पाद्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV. 2. 49, 50ः (b) in the चातुरर्थिक senses to बल, कुल, तुल et cetera, and others e. g. वल्यः,.कुल्यम् efeminine. P V.2. 80, (c) as a Saisika taddhita affix. affix to ग्राम्यहः' along with the affix खञ्ज e. g. ग्राम्यः, ग्रामीणः: cf P: IV. 2.94 (d) in the sense of 'good therein' ( तत्र साधुः ) and other stated senses affixed to सभा, सोदर पूर्व, and सोम: e. g. सभ्य:, पूर्व्यः; .et cetera, and others. confer, compare P. IV. 4.105, 109, 133, 137, 138: (e) in the sense of 'deserving it' to दण्ड and other words, e. g. दण्ड्य, अर्ध्र्य, मध्य, मेध्य, et cetera, and others: cf P. V. 1.66: ( f ) in the sense of quality or action to सखि e. g. सख्यम् ; cf P. V. 1.126: (6) taddhita affix. affix यत् applied to (a) राजन् श्वशुर, कुल, मनु in the sense of offspring, (b) शूल्, उखा, वायु, ऋतु and others, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. IV. 2.17, 31, 32, 101, (c) to अर्ध, परार्ध, words in the class headed by दि्श, छन्दस and others in specific senses; cf P. IV. 3-46, 54 et cetera, and others and (d) in specific senses to specific words mentioned here and there in a number of sUtras from IV.4, 75 to V.4.25; (e) to शाखा, मुख, जघन and others in the sense of इव (similar to) exempli gratia, for example शाख्यः, मुख्य:, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 3. 103; (7) case-ending य substituted for ङे of the dative sing; e. g. रामाय confer, compare P. VII. 3.102: (8) verb-affix यक् applied to the nouns कण्डू and others to make them ( denominative ) roots; e. g. कण्डूय,सन्तूय et cetera, and others confer, compare कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् P. III. 1.27 (9) | Vikarana य ( यक् ) applied to any root before the Saarvadhaatuka personal endings to form the base for the passive voice as also the base for the 'Karmakartari' voice e g क्रियते, भूयते, confer, compare सार्वधातुके यक् P. III. 1.67 (10) Unaadi affix य ( यक् ) applied to the root हृन् to form the Vedic word अघ्न्य: cf अघ्न्यादयश्च: ( 11 ) augment य ( यक् ) added to the affix क्त्वा in Vedic Literature: e. g. दत्त्वायः confer, compare क्त्वो यक् P. VII.1.47; (12) verb affix यङ् added to a root to form its Intensive base ( which sometimes is dropped ) and the root is doubledition e. g. चेक्रीयते,चर्करीति;. confer, compare P. III. 1.22,24; (13) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) supposed to be beginning with य in the affix यइ in the sUtra धातेरेकाचो ... यङ् III. 1.22, and ending with ङ् in the sUtra लिड्याशिष्यङ्क III. 1.86, with a view to include the various verb affixes and conjugational signs.
yaḍantaa secondary root formed by adding the affix यङ् in the sense of repetition and intensity, to roots having one syllable and beginning with a consonant: confer, compare धातोरेकाचो हृलादे: क्रियासमभिहारे यङ् P. III. 1.22, 23,24. See य (12) a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
yathodeśa( परिभाषा)a short phrase or term for the Paribhaasaa or guiding statement यथोद्देशं संज्ञापरिभाषम् 'technical terms and Paribhaasaas are to be interpreted at the place where they are stated, and not at the place or places of their application or utility'.
yadṛcchāśabdliterally a chance-word: Samjna-sabda or proper noun which is given accidentally without any found used attention to derivation or authority confer, compare अयं , तर्हि यदृच्छाशब्दोsपरिहार्यः। लृफिङ्: लृफिङ्ङ् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on Siva Stra2.
yalopadropping of the consonant य् which prevents the validity of a changed letter ( स्थानिवद्भाव ); confer, compare न पदान्तद्विर्वचनवरेयलोप......विधिषु P.I.1.58.
yugapatprasaṅgasimultaneous possibility of the application of two rules or operations, when in grammar no option re : their application is admissible as it is admissible according to Mimamsa rules re : two operations enjoined by Vedic behests. In Grammar, only one of such rules applies, the priority of application being based upon the criteria of परत्व, नित्यत्व, अन्तरङ्गत्व and अपवादत्व: confer, compare शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधो नाम भवति यत्रोभयोर्युगप्रसङ्ग: | M.Bh. on VI. 1.158 Vart, 12.
yugapadadhikaraṇavacanatādenotation of two or more things by one single member by virtue of their being put together in a dvandva compound of two or more words; the grammarians advocate this doctrine stating that in a dvandva compound such as घटपटौ or घटपटम् , the word घट has the capacity of expressing the sense of both घट and पट, which in a sentence घटः पटश्च, it does not possess. Similarly पट also has the capacity of conveying the sense of both पट and घट. Possibly this theory is advocated by grarnmarians, on the analogy of words like पितरौ or मातरौ for मातापितरौ, द्यावा for द्यावापृथिवी and so on; confer, compare सिद्धं तु युगपदधिकरणवचने द्वन्द्ववचनात् P. II 2.29 Vart. 2. For details see Vyakaranamahabhasya on चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II. 2.29.
yuckrt affix यु changed into अन, (1) applied in the sense of 'a habituated agent' to intransitive roots in the sense of movement or utterance, to Atmanepadi roots beginning with a consonant, to the roots जु, चेकम् सृ, शुच्, कुघ्, as also to roots in the sense of decoration: exempli gratia, for example चलन:, शब्दन:: cf P.III. 2. 148-15I: (2) applied to causal roots, as also to the roots आस् श्रन्थ् and others in the sense of verbal activity when the word so formed has always the feminine gender; exempli gratia, for example कारणा, हृरणा, आसना, घट्टना,वेदना et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.3.107 and the Varttikas thereon; (3) applied to roots ending in अा and preceded by the indeclinables ईषद्, दुस् or सु in the sense of easy or difficult for obtainment and, wherever seen to any root in the Vedic language, as also to some other roots as found in actual use in the classical literature; e. g. ईषद्दानो गौर्मवता, दु्ष्पानः, सुपान: et cetera, and others सूपसदन:, दुर्योधनः, दुर्मर्षण: et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.III.8.128-130.
yogyatācompatibility of sense; confer, compare असत्यपि च गेहनने तस्य योग्यतया गेाघ्न इत्यभिधीयते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.4.73.
yaugapadyasimultaneity of occurrence; simultaneous possibility of the application of two rules which evidently cannot apply simultaneously, but scope has to be given to one of the two, the priority being decided on the criteria of परत्व, नित्यत्व, अन्तरङ्गत्व and अपवादत्व;confer, compare न चास्ति यौगपदद्येन संभव: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.57; cf also M.Bh. on I. 4.1 , I. 4.2, II. 1.3 et cetera, and others
r(1)the consonant र, generally cited as रेफ; the vowel अ is added to र् for facility of utterance: confer, compare T. Pr.' I.21 ; (2) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) for र् and ल्; confer, compare उरण् रपरः, P. I. 1.51: (3) krt affix र applied to the roots नम्रः, कम्प्रः et cetera, and others in the sense of agent who is habituated to, or expert in the action expressed by the root; e. g, नम्रः, कम्प्र:; confer, compare नमिकम्पिस्म्यजसकमहिंसदीपो रः P. III. 2. 167; (4) taddhita affix. affix र as a Caturarthika affix applied to the words headed by अश्मन्: e. g. अश्मरः; confer, compare वुञ्छण् P. IV. 2. 80; (5) tad affix र in the sense of possession affixed to the words ऊष, सुषि, मुष्क, मधु, and तमस् with अ of तमस् changed to इ: e. g. ऊषरम्, सुषिरम्, मधुर:, तमिस्रा: confer, compare Kas on. P.V. 2.107 and 114: (6) taddhita affix. affix र in the sense of diminution affixed to the words कुटी, शमी and शुण्डा: exempli gratia, for example कुटीर:, शमीर, शुण्डार:: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3. 88: (7) taddhita affix. affix रक् which see below; (8) krt affix रक् which see below; (9) a term for द्विगुसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
lakṣaṇāimplication; potentiality of implication; this potentiality of words viz. लक्षणा is not recognised by grammarians as a potentiality different from the अभिधाशक्ति or the power of denotation. Later grammarians, however, like the Ālamkārikas, have used the word in the sense of potentiality of implication as different from that of denotation; confer, compare अन्त्यशब्द लक्षणा न च Paribhāşenduśekhara.
laghu(1)a term used in the sense of light or short as contrasted with गुरु meaning heavy or long, which is applied to vowels like अ, इ et cetera, and others confer, compare ह्रस्वं लघु P.I. 4. 10; (2) brevity; brief expression;confer, compare लघ्वर्थे हि संज्ञाकरणम् M.Bh. on P.I.2,27 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6 also संज्ञा हि नाम यतो न लघीय:; (3) small, as qualifying an effort in writing or explaining something as also in utterance; confer, compare व्यॊर्लघुप्रयत्नतरः शाकटायनस्य P.VIII.3.18.
laghunyāsa(1)short writing, brief putting in, brief expression; confer, compare सोयमेवं लघुना न्यासेन सिद्धे et cetera, and others; (2) the word is given as a name to a grammatical work, written by देवेन्द्रसूरि on the शब्दानुशासन of Hemacandra, possibly in contrast with the बृहन्न्यास written by Hemacandra himself or with Kāśikāvivaranapańjikā popularly called न्यास written by Jinendrabuddhi on the Kāśikāvŗti of Jayāditya and Vāmana. See न्यास.
lāghavabrevity of expression; expressing in as few words as possible; brevity of thought and conception. About brevity of expression,rules or sūtras of the ancient Sūtrakāras are noteworthy especially those of the grammarian Pāņini, whose brevity of expression is aptly extolled in the familiar expression अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणा: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 122; confer, compare also in contrast पर्यायशब्दानां लाघवगौरवचर्चा नाद्रियते Par.Śek.Pari.115.
lopabalīyastvathe superior strength or superiority of elision as a grammatical operation in contrast with other operations, by virtue of which the elision, which is prescribed, takes place first and then other operations get a scope for their application; confer, compare सर्वविधिभ्यो लोपविधिर्बलीयान् Par.Śek. Pari. 93.
lyuṭkrt affix अन in the sense of verbal activity as also in the sense of an 'abode' or 'an instrument'; confer, compare P. III.3.113,115, 116, 1 17.
vakārathe consonant व् with the vowel अ and कार being added for facility of utterance; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 17, 21, also वर्णात्कारः P. III.3.108, Vart. 3.
vati(1)taddhita affix. affix वत् in the sense of similar activity or thing; e. g. राजवद्वर्तते, मथुरावत् स्त्रुघ्ने प्राकार:; confer, compare तेन तुल्यं क्रिया चेद्वतिः | तत्र तस्येव P.V.1.115, 116; (2) taddhita affix. affix वत् in the sense of deserving;e.g, राजवत् पालनम् ; confer, compare तदर्हम् P.V.1.117; (3) taddhita affix. affix वत् applied to prefixes in Vedic Literature without any sense of its own ; e.g यदुद्वतो निवतो याति बप्सत् ; confer, compare उपसर्गाच्छन्दसि धात्वर्थे P.V. 1. 118.
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
vākyapadīyaa celebrated work on meanings of words and sentences written by the famous grammarian Bhartrhari ( called also Hari ) of the seventh century. The work is looked upon as a final authority regarding the grammatical treatment of words and sentences,for their interpretation and often quoted by later grammarians. It consists of three chapters the Padakanda or Brahmakanda, the Vakyakanda and the Samkirnakanda, and has got an excellent commentary written by Punyaraja and Helaraja.
vārttikasūtrathe same as वार्तिकवचन which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Varttikas are termed Varttika sutras on account of their close similarity with the original Sutras, which in contrast are termed Vrttisutras.
vārṣyāyaṇian ancient grammarian quoted in the Mahabhasya and the Nirukta in connection with the six-fold division of bhava or verbal activity; confer, compare षड् भावविकारा भवन्तीति वाप्यार्यणि: l जायते अस्ति विपरिणमते वर्धते अपक्षीयते विनश्यतीति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.
vigrahalit, separation of the two parts of a thing; the term is generally applied to the separation of the constituent words of a compound word: it is described to be of two kinds : ( a ) शास्त्रीयविग्रहृ or technical separation; e. g. राजपुरुष्: into राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु and ( 2 ) लौकिकविग्रहं or common or popular separation ; e. g. राजपुरूष: into राज्ञ: पुरुष:. It is also divided into two kinds according to the nature of the constituent words (a) स्वपदाविग्रह separation by means of the constituent words, exempli gratia, for example राजहितम् into राज्ञे हृितम्;(b) अस्वपदविग्रह, e. g. राजार्थम् into राज्ञे इदम् ;or exempli gratia, for example सुमुखीं into शोभनं मुखं अस्याः confer, compare M.Bh. on P.V.4.7. The compounds whose separation into constituent words cannot be shown by those words (viz. the constituent words) are popularly termed nityasamsa. The term नित्यसमास is explained as नित्यः समासो नित्यसमासः | यस्य विग्रहो नास्ति । M.Bh. on P.II.2.19 Vart. 4. The upapadasamsa is described as नित्यसमास. Sometimes especially in some Dvandva compounds each of the two separated words is capable of giving individually the senses of both the words exempli gratia, for example the words द्यावा and क्षामा of the compound द्यावाक्षामा. The word विग्रह is found used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the separate use of a word as contrasted with the use in a compound; cf अच्छेति विग्रहे प्लुतं भवति R.Pr.VII.1. विग्रहृ is defined as वृत्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः in the Siddhantakaumudi.
vidhācharacteristic feature of an activity; confer, compare संख्याया विधार्थे धा Í। विधा प्रकारः सर्वक्रियाविषय एव गृह्यते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.3.42.
vidhāna(1)prescription, statement; cf लोपे हि ( प्रत्ययलक्षण-) विधानम् P.I. I. 62 Vart. 3; confer, compare also तत्र वृद्धिविधानम्. P. VI. 1.85 Vart. 16; (2) instrument or cause of an activity; confer, compare विधिविधानावधिभाजां त्रयाणां संनिधाने तदन्तविधेिर्भवति Siradeva Pari. 13.
vipratiṣedhaconfict, opposition; opposition or conflict between two rules of equal strength, which become applicable simultaneously when Pāṇini's dictum विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् applies and the rule mentioned later on, or subsequently, in the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is allowed to apply: confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I.4.2: confer, compare also यत्र द्वौ प्रसङ्गौ अन्यार्थौ एकस्मिन्युगपत् प्राप्नुतः स तुल्यबलविरोधी विप्रतिषेध: Kāś. on P.I. 4.2: confer, compare also विप्रतिषेध उत्तरं बलवदलोपे Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.159. The dictum of the application of the subsequent rule is adopted only if the conflicting rules are of equal strength; hence, rules which are either nitya, antaraṅga or apavāda, among which each subsequent one is more powerful than the preceding one and which are all more powerful than the पर or the subsequent rule, set aside the पर rule. There is another dictum that when by the dictum about the subsequent rule being more powerful, an earlier rule is set aside by a later rule, the earlier rule does not apply again in that instance, barring a few exccptional cases; confer, compare सकृद्गतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद् वाधितं तद् बाधितमेव | पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्वम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 40, 39.
vibhaktyarthapradhānaan indeclinable, which is generally described as having the sense of a case affix as predominant in it: exempli gratia, for example तत्र, अधः, नीचैः et cetera, and others; some indeclinables have the sense of a root viz. the verb-activity as predominant: confer, compare किंचिदव्ययं विभक्त्यर्थप्रधानं किचित् क्रियाप्रधानम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.38.
vibhāga(1)lit, division, splitting; the splitting of a sentence into its constituent parts viz. the words; , the splitting of a word into its constituent parts viz. the base, the affix, the augments and the like: (2) understanding or taking a thing separately from a group of two or more; confer, compareअवश्यं खल्वपि विभज्योपपदग्रहणं कर्तव्यं यो हि बहूनां विभागस्तदर्थम् ! सांकाश्यकेभ्यश्च पाटलिपुत्रकेभ्यश्च माथुरा अभिरूपतराः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.V.3.57: (3) splitting of a Saṁhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada text: confer, compare अथादावुत्तरे विभागे ह्रस्वं व्यञ्जनपरः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.III.l, where विभाग is explained as पदविभाग by the commentator confer, compare also R.Pr.XVII.15; (4) the capacity of the Kārakas (to show the sense) confer, compare कारकशक्तिः विभागः Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on Kāś.I.2.44.
viṣayatābeing a subject of discussion of; coming under the domain of, applicability the meaning of विषयसप्तमी which is similar to विवक्षा.
vispaṣṭādia class of words headed by the word विस्पष्ट which retain their own accents in a compound when they are the first members of a compound, provided that any word of quality is the second member e. g. विस्पष्टकटुकम् | व्यक्तलवणम् where the words विस्पष्ट and व्यक्त are used in the sense of clear, referring to the different tastes; confer, compare Kāś. On P. VI. 2.24.
vun(1)kṛt affix अक added to the roots प्रु, सृ, and लू in the sense of 'a skilled agent' and to any root in the sense of 'an agent who is blessed'; exempli gratia, for example प्रवकः, सरकः, लवकः, जीवकः ( meaning जीवतात् ) नन्दकः, ( meaning नन्दतात् ); confer, compare P. III. 1. 149, 150; (2) taddhita affix. affix अक added to(a) the words क्रम and others in the sense of 'a student of'; e.g, क्रमक:, पदकः शिक्षकः मीमांसकः; confer, compare P.IV.2.61; (b) the words पूर्वाह्न, अपराह्ण et cetera, and others as also the words पथिन् and अमावास्या in the sense of 'produced in': exempli gratia, for example पूर्वाह्नक,पन्थक, अमावास्यकः confer, compare P. IV.3. 28, 29, 30; (c) the words कलापि, अश्वत्य, यव and बुस in the sense of 'debt paid at the time of', the words वासुदेव and अर्जुन in the sense of 'devoted to',and the dvandva compounds when the words so formed mean either 'enmity' or 'nuptial ties';exempli gratia, for example कलापकम् (ऋणम्),यवकम् (ऋणम्) वासुदेवकः, अर्जुनकः, काकोलूकिका, कुत्सकुशिकिका; confer, compareP.IV.3.48, 98,125: (d) the words गोषद, इषेत्व et cetera, and others in the sense of 'containing' or 'possessing', and the word पथिन् in the sense of 'expert' exempli gratia, for example इषेत्वकः, पथक:; confer, compareP.V.2.62, 63; and (e) the words पाद and शत preceded by a numeral, in the sense of वीप्सा, as also in the senses of दण्ड (fine) and व्यवसर्ग when those words are preceded by a numeral; exempli gratia, for example द्विपदिकां ( ददाति ), द्विशतिकां ( ददाति ), द्विपदिकां दाडितः confer, compare Kāś. on P. V.4.l and 2.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
vaiyarthyaabsence of any purpose or utility; the word is used many times in the case of a rule, or a word or two of it, in whose case वैयर्थ्य or absence of utility is shown, and, with a view to prevent its being looked upon as a serious fault, something is deduced and the purpose is shown; cf सूत्रवैयर्थ्यप्रसङ्गात् and व्यर्थं सज्ज्ञापयति used in grammar treatises.
vaiyākaraṇaśābdabodhaimport of a sentence according to the grammarians, in which verbal activity occupies a predominant place, and the residing place of the subject as also that of the verbal activity is identical in the active voice, while the object and the verbal activity have got the same place of residence in the passive voice. The other auxiliaries of activity such as the instrument, location and the like, are connected with the verbal activity. The import of the sentence चैत्रः पचति, in short, can be expressed as चैत्रकर्तृका वर्तमानकालिकां पाकक्रिया.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudīan extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita.
vaiśiṣṭayaspecific feature, peculiarity.
vaiṣamyadiversity in number or properties; confer, compare एवमपि पञ्चागमास्त्रय अागमिनः वैषम्यात्संख्यातानुदेशो न भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 2, 27, I. 3. 10 Vart. 4, I. 4.101.
vyatihāraexchange of activity; confer, compare कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14.
vyapavarga(1)division of a single thing into its constituent elements; confer, compare स्थानिवद्भावाद् व्यपवर्ग: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII. 2.36, VII.3.44 Vart. 3; (2) distinct comprehension as possessed of a specific quality: cf न हि गौरित्युक्ते व्यपवर्गौ गम्यते शुक्ला नीला कपिला कपॊतेति। M.Bh, on P. I.2.64 Vart 37 ; (3) separation into parts, confer, compare कश्चिदेकेनैव प्रहारेण व्यपवर्गे करोति, M.Bh.on V.I.119 Vart 5; (4) distinct notion as a separate unit after the things have been combined confer, compare एकादेशे कृते व्यपवर्गाभावः संबुद्धिलोपो न प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI.1.69 Vart 3; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.1.80.
vyabhicāralit, deviation or discrepancy: irregularity re: the application of a rule; confer, compareसंज्ञाव्यभिचारार्थश्चकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P. III.3.19; confer, comparealso.बहुलग्रहृणं व्यभिचारार्थम् । प्रवाहिका, विचर्चिका । न च भवति । शिरॊर्ति:; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.3.108.
vyartha(l)useless, serving no purpose, superfluous; the word is usually used in the sense of useless or futile in connection with a rule or its part, which serves no purpose, its purpose or object being served otherwise; such words or rules have never been condemned as futile by commentators, but an attempt is made invariably by them to deduce something from the futile wording and show its necessity; confer, compare व्यर्थे सज्ज्ञापयति a remark which is often found in the commentary literature; confer, compare अन्यथा अन्तरङ्गत्वाद्दीर्घे कृत एव प्रत्ययप्राप्त्या तद्यर्थता स्पष्टैव । Par. Sek. Pari. 56; (2) possessed of various senses such as the words अक्षा: माषा: et cetera, and others: confer, compare व्यर्थेषु च मुक्तसंशयम् । M.Bh.on P.I.2.64 Vart. 52. The word व्यर्थ possibly stands for विविधार्थ in such cases. It appears that the word व्यर्थ in the sense of futile was rarely used by ancient grammarians; the word अनर्थक appears to have been used in its placcusative case. See Mahabhasya in which the word व्यर्थ does not occur in this sense while the word अनर्थक occurs at several places.
vyāpyaliterally that which is occupied; the word refers to a kind of an object where the object is occupied by the verbal activity of the transitive root; the word अाप्य is also used in this sense: confer, compare कर्म निर्वर्त्ये विकार्यं प्राप्यं च ग्रस्य प्रकृत्युच्छेदो गुणान्तरं वोत्पद्यते तद्विकार्यम् SrinagaraPrakasa 2, The term is used as a technical term instead of the term कर्म in the Hemacandra, Candra and other systems of grammar: confer, compare Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II.2.3;Candra I.1.23.
śaktaendowed with शक्ति i. e. the potentiality to express the sense; potent to show the particular Sense.
śaktipotentiality of expressing the sense which is possessed by words permanently with them: denotative potentiality or denotation; this potentiality shows the senses,which are permanently possessed by the words, to the hearer and is described to be of one kind by ancient grammarian as contrasted with the two (अभिघा and लक्षणा) mentioned by the modern ones. It is described to be of two kinds-(a) स्मारिका शक्ति or recalling capacity which combines चैत्रत्व with पाक, and अनुभाविका शक्ति which is responsible for the actual meaning of a sentence. For details see Vakyapadiya III.
śakyawhich forms the object pointed out by means of the potentiality to the hearer by the word (id est, that is शब्द) which directly communicates the sense, in which case it is termed वाचक as contrasted with भेदक or द्योतक when the sense,which is of the type of संबन्ध is conveyed rather indirectly. This nice division into वाचकता and भेदकता was introduced clearly by भर्तृहरि: confer, compare Vakyapadtya Kanda 2.
śabdadyotyatvathe indicatory power to show the sense; the word is used in connection with the potentiality to convey the sense possessed by the Nipatas.
śarkarādia class of words headed by शर्करा to which the taddhita affix. affix अ (अण्) is added in the sense of इव viz. similarity:cf शर्करेव शार्करम् ,कापालिकम् पौण्डरीकम् Kas on P. V. 3.107.
śākhādia class of words headed by the word शाखा which have the taddhita affix य added to them in the sense of इव id est, that is similarity; exempli gratia, for example शाख्य:, मुख्यः, जघन्यः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.3.103.
śābdabodhaverbal interpretation; the term is generally used with reference to the verbal interpretation of a sentence as arising from that of the words which are all connected directly or indirectly with the verb-activity. It is defined as पदजन्यपदार्थोपस्थितिजन्यबोध:. According to the grammarians, verbal activity is the chief thing in a sentence and all the other words (excepting the one which expresses verbal activity) are subordinated to the verbal activity and hence are connected with it; confer, compare पदज्ञानं तु करणं द्वारे तत्र पदार्थधीः | शाब्दबोधः फलं तत्र शक्तिधीः सहकारिणी | मुक्तावली III.81.
śābdabodhavādatheory of verbal import or congnition; the theories to be noted in this respect are those of the Grammarians, the Naiyayikas and the Mimamsakas, according to whom verb-activity, agent, and injunction stand respectively as the principal factors in a sentence.
śāstrāsiddhatvathe supposed invalidity of a rule or a set of rules by virtue of the dictum laid down by Panini in पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1: confer, compare शास्त्रासिद्धत्वमनेन क्रियेत | एकादेशशास्त्रं तुक्शास्त्रे असिद्धं भवति | M.Bh. on P.VI.1.86 Vart. 5.
śuklayajuḥprātiśākhyaname of the Pratisakhya treatise pertaining to the White Yajurveda which is also called the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. This work appears to be a later one as compared with the other PratiSakhya works and bears much similarity with some of the Sutras of Panini. It is divided into eight chapters by the author and it deals with letters, their origin and their classification, the euphonic and other changes when the Samhita text is rendered into the Pada text, and accents. The work appears to be a common work for all the different branches of the White Yajurveda, being probably based on the individually different Pratisakhya works of the different branches of the Shukla Yajurveda composed in ancient times. Katyayana is traditionally believed to be the author of the work and very likely he was the same Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini.
ṣa(1)consonant ष् , the vowel अ being added for facility of pronunciation; (2) compound-ending अ, substituted for the final of the word मूर्धन् at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound when the word मूर्धन् is preceded by द्वि or त्रि e. g. द्विमूर्धः, त्रिमूर्धः confer, compare द्वित्रिभ्यां ष मूर्ध्नः P. V. 4.115 (3) a technical term for तत्पुरुषसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ṣaṭkāraka(1)the six Karakas or instruments of action, which are differently connected with the verbal activity, viz. कर्तृ, कर्म, करण, संप्रदान, अपादान and अधिकरण; for details see कारक a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare तत्र शक्तिमतो द्रव्यस्य कारकाख्यायामवान्तरव्यापारनिबन्धना षडुपाख्या भवन्ति |कर्ता कर्म करणं संप्रदानमपादानमधिकरणं चेति | Sringara Prakasa IV; (2) a work of the name (षट्कारक) written by a Jain grammarian Mahesanandin.
ṣa(1)consonant ष् , the vowel अ being added for facility of pronunciation; (2) compound-ending अ, substituted for the final of the word मूर्धन् at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound when the word मूर्धन् is preceded by द्वि or त्रि e. g. द्विमूर्धः, त्रिमूर्धः confer, compare द्वित्रिभ्यां ष मूर्ध्नः P. V. 4.115 (3) a technical term for तत्पुरुषसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ṣaṭkāraka(1)the six Karakas or instruments of action, which are differently connected with the verbal activity, viz. कर्तृ, कर्म, करण, संप्रदान, अपादान and अधिकरण; for details see कारक a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare तत्र शक्तिमतो द्रव्यस्य कारकाख्यायामवान्तरव्यापारनिबन्धना षडुपाख्या भवन्ति |कर्ता कर्म करणं संप्रदानमपादानमधिकरणं चेति | Sringara Prakasa IV; (2) a work of the name (षट्कारक) written by a Jain grammarian Mahesanandin.
ṣaṭkārakanirūpaṇaa work dealing with the six kinds of instruments of the verbal activity ( karakas ) written by Trilokanatha.
ṣaṣṭhīthe sixth case; the genitive case. This case is generally an ordinary case or विभक्ति as contrasted with कारकविभक्ति. A noun in the genitive case shows a relation in general, with another noun connected with it in a sentence. Commentators have mentioned many kinds of relations denoted by the genitive case and the phrase एकशतं षष्ठ्यर्थाः (the genitive case hassenses a hundred and one in all),. is frequently used by grammarians confer, compare षष्ठी शेषे P. II. 3.50; confer, compare also बहवो हि षष्ठ्यर्थाः स्वस्वाम्यनन्तरसमीपसमूहविकारावयवाद्यास्तत्र यावन्त: शब्दे संभवन्ति तेषु सर्वेषु प्राप्तेषु नियमः क्रियते षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा इति । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.49. The genitive case is used in the sense of any karaka when that karaka ; is not to be considered as a karaka; confer, compare कारकत्वेन अविवक्षिते शेषे षष्ठी भविष्यति. A noun standing as a subject or object of an activity is put in the genitive case when that activity is expressed by a verbal derivative , and not by a verb itself; confer, compare कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति P. II. 3 .65. For the senses and use of the genitive case, confer, compare P. II. 3.50 to 73.
ṣitan affix or sometimes a word marked by the mute letter ष्, The mute letter ष् attached to roots signifies the addition of the krt affix अङ् ( अ ) in the sense of the verbal activity: e. g. क्षमा from the root क्षमूष् ( क्षम् ), जरा from ज्ट्टष्ठ ( ज्दृ ); confer, compare षिद्भिदादिम्भोSङ् P. III. 3.104: attached to affixes, ष् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीष् ), e. g. वराकी, शतपथिकी et cetera, and others confer, compare षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च P. IV. 1.41. A few roots headed by घट् (roots from घट् to त्वर्) are to be looked upon as षित् for the purpose of the addition of the krt. affix अ; e. g. घटा, व्यथा et cetera, and others confer, compare घटादयः षितः । Gana sutra in Dhatupatha
ṣyañtaddhita affix. affix (1) in the sense of 'nature ' applied optionally with the affix इमनिच् to words showing colour as also to words headed by दृढ: e. g. शौक्ल्यम् , शुक्लिमा, कार्ष्ण्यम् कृष्णिमा, दार्ढ्यम्, द्रढिमा et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 1.123: (2) in the sense of nature as also in the sense of professional work to words of quality and words headed by ब्राम्हणः e. g. जाड्यम्, ब्राह्मण्यम् cf P.V. 1.124; (3) to the words चतुर्वर्ण, त्रिलोकी and others in the same sense as that of those very words; exempli gratia, for exampleचातुर्वर्ण्यम् त्रैलोक्यम् षाड्गुण्यम् सन्यम् etc, confer, compare P. V. 6.124 Vart, 1.
saṃkṣiptasāraname of a complete grammar-work written by क्रमदीश्वर for facility of study. This grammar appears to have been written before the time of कैयटं or हेमचन्द्र, as can be seen from the popular stanza परेत्र पाणिनयिज्ञा: केचित् कालापकोविदा; ।| एके विश्रान्तविद्याः स्युरन्ये संक्षिप्तसारका; ll
saṃtānacontinuity; line; continuous recital.
saṃdehaambiguity; doubt regarding the wording of a rule or its interpretation or regarding the correctness of a word. It is looked upon as the main purpose of grammar to solve doubts regarding the correctness of words; confer, compare व्याख्यानतो विशेषप्रतिप्रत्तिर्नहि संदेहादलक्षणम् Pari. Sekh.Pari.1.
saṃpadyakartṛthe agent of the activity or of the event which is to take place: cf अभूततद्भावे संपद्यकर्तरि च्विः । संपद्यते: कर्ता संपद्यकती Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 4.50.
saṃpradānaa karaka relation or a relation between a noun and the verbal activity with which it is connected, of the type of the donation and the donee; the word is technically used in connection with the bearer of such a relation confer, compare कर्मणा यमभिप्रैति स संप्रदानम् P. I.4.32.
saṃbhavaiit. possibility. The word is used in the general sense of the possibility of the application of a rule or of the occurrence of a rule; confer, compare विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान् .Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI, 4.49 Vart.: Pari. Sek. Pari. 100; confer, compare also असति संभवे बाधनं भवति | अास्ति च संभवो यदुभयं स्यात् | Siradeva Pari. 35.
saṃsṛṣṭavādipakṣathe theory, that the meaning of a sentence is a novel thing ( अपूर्व ), held by some Mimamsakas who believe that words connected with activity display their phenomenal capacity ( अनुभाविकाशक्ति ) after the recalling of the senses of words by the recalling capacity (स्मारिकाशाक्ति ).
saṃhitāposition of words or parts of words in the formation ofa word quite near each other which results into the natural phonetic coalescence of the preceding and the following letters. Originally when the Vedic hymns or the running prose passages of the Yajurveda were split up into their different constituent parts namely the words or padas by the Padakaras, the word संहिता or संहितापाठ came into use as contrasted with the पदपाठ. The writers of of the Pratisakhyas have conseguently defined संहिता as पदप्रकृतिः संहिता, while Panini who further split up the padas into bases ( प्रकृति ) and affixes ( प्रत्यय ) and mentioned several augments and substitutes, the phonetic combinations, which resulted inside the word or pada, had to be explained by reason of the close vicinity of the several phonetic units forming the base, the affix, the augment, the substitute and the like, and he had to define the word संहृिता rather differently which he did in the words परः संनिकर्षः संहिता; cf P.I.4.109: confer, compare also संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः । नित्य समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते Sabdakaustubha on Maheshvara Sutra 5.1.
sakarmakaa root which, by virtue of the nature of its meaning id est, that is verbal activity, requires or expects an object which is covered by the activity; a transitive root. In the passive voice of these roots the object is expressed by the verbal termination and hence it is put in the nominative case.
sakārakaaccompanied by the qualifying words such as the different Karakas or causal agents for the Verbal activity; confer, compare अाख्यातं साव्ययं सकारकं सकारकविशेषणं वाक्यम् । सकारकम् । ओदनं पचति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II.1.1. Vart. 9.
sakṛdākhyātanirgrāhyācapable of being understood on being mentioned only once just as the notion of genus or generality which is so understood; the phrase सकृदाख्यातनिर्ग्राह्या is cited as a definition of जाति; confer, compare सकृदाख्यातनिर्ग्राह्या गोत्रं च चरणैः सह, M.Bh. on P.IV.1.63.
sakriyāviśeṣaṇaaccompanied by a word qualifying the verbal activity; sometimes a verb with such a word makes a sentence; confer, compare सक्रियाविशेषणं चेति वक्तव्यम् । सुष्टु पचति । M.Bh. on P. II.1.1 Vart, 9
sakārakaaccompanied by the qualifying words such as the different Karakas or causal agents for the Verbal activity; confer, compare अाख्यातं साव्ययं सकारकं सकारकविशेषणं वाक्यम् । सकारकम् । ओदनं पचति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II.1.1. Vart. 9.
sakṛdākhyātanirgrāhyācapable of being understood on being mentioned only once just as the notion of genus or generality which is so understood; the phrase सकृदाख्यातनिर्ग्राह्या is cited as a definition of जाति; confer, compare सकृदाख्यातनिर्ग्राह्या गोत्रं च चरणैः सह, M.Bh. on P.IV.1.63.
sakriyāviśeṣaṇaaccompanied by a word qualifying the verbal activity; sometimes a verb with such a word makes a sentence; confer, compare सक्रियाविशेषणं चेति वक्तव्यम् । सुष्टु पचति । M.Bh. on P. II.1.1 Vart, 9
saṇtaddhita affix. affix सण् prescribed after the word पर्शु in the sense of collection; e. g. पार्श्र्वम् : confer, compare पर्श्वा: सण् P,IV,2.43 Vart, 3 for which there is an alfernative reading पर्श्वा णस् वक्तव्यः; for facility of grammatical operations णस् is recommended with preference in the Mahabhasya , cf एवं तर्हि णस् वक्तव्य; M.Bh. on P. IV.2.43 Vart. 3; (2) सण् is given as a technical term for संयोग in the Pratisakhya works: confer, compare सयुक् सण् । संयुक्तं व्यञ्जनं संयोगसंज्ञं भवति R.T.27.
sadeśaliterally belonging to the same place; the word is used in the sense of immediately near or quite in proximity; confer, compare अनन्त्यविकारे अन्त्यसदेशस्य Pari.Sek. Pari.108.
sapādasaptādhyāyīa term used in connection with Panini's first seven books and a quarter of the eighth, as contrasted with the term Tripadi, which is used for the last three quarters of the eighth book. The rules or operations given in the Tripadi, are stated to be asiddha or invalid for purposes of the application of the rules in the previous portion, viz. the Sapadasaptadhyayi, and hence in the formation of' words all the rules given in the first seven chapters and a quarter, are applied first and then a way is prepared for the rules of the last three quarters. It is a striking thing that the rules in the Tripadi mostly concern the padas or formed words, the province, in fact, of the Pratisakhya treatises, and hence they should, as a matter of fact, be applicable to words after their formation and evidently to accomplish this object, Panini has laid down the convention of the invalidity in question by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII. 2,1.
samābhahārarepetition of an action; intensity of an action. पौनःपुन्यं भृशार्थो वा समभिहारः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1. 22.
samartha(1)having an identical sense; cf प्रोपाभ्या समर्थाभ्याम् । ...तौ चेत् प्रोपौ समर्थौ तुल्यार्थौ भवतः । क्व चानयोस्तुल्यार्थता । आदिकर्मणि । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 3. 42: (2) mutually connected in meaning in such a way that the meanings are connected together or commixed together; समर्थः शक्वः । विग्रहवाक्यार्थाभिधाने यः शक्तः स समर्थो वेदितव्यः । अथवा समर्थपदाश्रयत्वात्समर्थः । समर्थानां पदानां संबद्धार्थानां संसृष्टार्थानां विधिर्वेदितव्यः । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1. I; confer, compare also एकार्थीभावो व्यपेक्षा वा सामर्थ्यम्;। (3) connected with relationship of senses, as between the activity and the subject,object, instrument et cetera, and others, or as between the master and the servant or the Possessor and the possessed; confer, compare राज्ञः पुरुषः or ग्रामं गच्छति,or सर्पिः पिब, but not सर्पिः पिब in the sentence तिष्ठतु सर्पिः पिब त्वमुदकम् । ; (4) capable of expressing the sense e. g. a word with the sandhis well observed; confer, compare समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा । सामर्थ्ये परिनिष्ठितत्वम् । कृतसन्धिकार्यत्वमिति यावत् । S. K. on IV. I. 82; cf also समर्थः पटुः शक्तः इति पर्यायाः। शक्तत्वं च कार्योत्पादनयोम्यत्वम् et cetera, and others Balamanorama on the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
samānakartṛkahaving got the same agent: the word is used in connection with actions ( क्रिया ) having the same agent of the activity; confer, compare समानकर्तृकेषु तुमुन् P. III. 3. 158. समानपद the same word as contrasted with भिन्नपद a compound word which consists of two or more words. confer, compare रषाभ्यां नो णः समानपदे P. VIII.4.1.
samudāyaaggregate, totality, collection of individual members: confer, compare समुदाये प्रवृत्ताः शब्दाः क्वचिदवयवेष्वपि वर्तन्ते also confer, compare समुदाये व्याकरणशब्दः अवयवे नोपपद्यते M.Bh. Ahnika 1 Vart, 14: confer, compare also समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः।Par.Sek.Pari.108.
sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇacalled also सरस्वतीसूत्र, name of a voluminous grammar work ascribed to king Bhoja in the eleventh century. The grammar is based very closely on Panini's Astadhyayi, consisting of eight chapters or books. Although the affixes, the augments and the substitutes are much the same, the order of the Sutras is considerably changedition By the anxiety of the author to bring together, the necessary portions of the Ganapatha, the Unadiptha and the Paribhasas, which the author' has included in his eight chapters, the book instead of being easy to understand, has lost the element of brevity and become tedious for reading. Hence it is that it is not studied widely. For details see pp. 392, 393 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's edition.
sādhakainstrument of an activity: c. सर्वाणि कारकाणि साधकानि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.42; cf also साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवतीति वक्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 4.23. See the word कारक a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
sāmarthyaliterally capacity of a word to express its sense the word is, however, used rather technically, as derived from समर्थ, in the sense of compositeness; confer, compare तत्र एकार्थीभाव: व्यपेक्षा वा सामर्थ्यम् ( M Bh.on P.II.1.1. See समंर्थ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., The word is also used in the sense of 'conformity in sense' or 'connectedness' : confer, compare इसुसोः सामर्थ्ये P.VIII. 3.41: confer, compare also उपसर्गः सामर्थ्ये Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 105: cf also Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 98 and 130.
sāmyasimilarity, homogeneity: described to be of two kindsin words and in sense; confer, compare किं पुनः शब्दतः साम्ये संख्यातानुदेशो भवत्याहोस्विदर्थतः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 3. 10 Vart 3; confer, compare also स्थानकरणकालादिभि: तौल्यम् T. Pr XXIV. 5.
sārasvataname of a grammar work which was once very popular on account of its brevity, believed to have been written in the sutra form by an ancient grammarian named Narendra who is said to have composed 700 sutras under the inspiration of Sarasvati.The exposition of these Sutras by a reputed grammarian named Anubhutisvarupacarya who possibly flourished in the thirteenth century A. D., is known by the name सारस्वतप्रक्रिया which has remained as a text book on grammar to the present day in some parts of India. This प्रक्रिया is popularly known as सारस्वतव्याकरण. The technical terms in this grammar are the current popular ones.
sāvarṇyathe quality of being cognate or allied; see the word सवर्ण a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
suc(l)taddhita affix. affix स् applied to fद्व, त्रि, चतुर् and to एक optionally, in the sense of 'repetition of the activity' e. g. द्विः करोति et cetera, and others cf Kas, on P. V. 4. 18, 19; (2) Unadi affix स्, see सु a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. सुजनपण्डित a grammarian who wrote a small treatise on genders named लिङार्थचन्द्रिका सुट् (1) short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the first five case-affixes which are called सर्वनामस्थान also, when they pertain to the masculine or the feminine gender: confer, compare सुडनपुंसकस्य I.1.43; (2)augment स् prefixed to the root कृ and to the root कॄ when preceded by certain prepositions and as seen in the words कुस्तुम्बुरु and others as also in the words अपरस्पर गोष्पद, आस्पद, अाश्चर्य, अपस्कर, विप्किर, हरिश्चन्द्र, प्रस्कण्व्, मल्कर, कास्तीर, अजास्तुन्द, कारस्कर and words in the class of words headed by पारस्कर, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VI. 1.135-57: (3) augment स् prefixed to the case-affix अाम् after a pronoun; e. g. सर्वेषाम् confer, compare P. VII. I.52;(4) augment स् prefixed to the consonant त् or थ् pertaining to लिङ् affixes, e. g. कृषीष्ट confer, compare P. III. 4.107.
sthrī(1)the sense of the feminine; confer, compare स्थ्रियाम् P. IV. ].3-8l (2) a word ending with an affix in the sense of feminity such as टापू, डाप् or चापू or ङीपू, ङीषू or ङीनू or the like; confer, compare स्त्रीभ्यो ढक् IV. 1.120 (3) a word in the sense of feminine confer, compare स्त्री पुवच्च P. I. 2.66.
svatantraliterally independent; independent in activity; the subject or agent of an action ( कर्ता ) is defined as स्वतन्त्र independent in his activity, i. e. not depending upon any one for the same; confer, compare स्वतन्त्र: कर्ता P. I. 4. 54.
svābhāvikanatural, unartificial; the word is used frequently in connection with the capacity of denotation which words naturally possess; confer, compare अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम् P. I. 2.64 Vrt. 36.
svābhāvyainherence; natural capacity; the word is used many times in connection with the power of denotation: confer, compare शब्दशक्तिस्वाभाव्यात् | Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. III.1. 112 or अभिधानशक्तिस्वाभाव्यात् Nyasa on P. IV. 4.60. स्वार a term used in the PratiSakhya works for स्वरित or the circumflex accent: स्वारः स्वरितः ( Com. on T.Pr. XVII.6: confer, compare also T.Pr.XX.20; XXIII.24. There are seven varieties of स्वार given in thc Pratisakhya works, viz. क्षैप्र, नित्य, प्रातिहत, अभिनिहत, प्रश्लिष्ट, पादवृत्त and तैरोव्यञ्जन, cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XX.1-7.
the last of the spirant consonants, | which is a glottal, voiced letter called also ऊष्म or spirant of a partial contact, i. e. possessed of the properties कण्ठय, नादानुप्रदान, ऊष्म and ईषत्स्पृष्टत्व. This letter has been given twice in the Paninian alphabet, viz. the Mahesvara Sutras, and the Bhasyakara has given the purpose of it, viz. the technical utility of being included among soft consonants along with semi-vowels, nasals and the fifth, the fourth, and the third class-consonants (हश् अश् et cetera, and others),as also among the hard consonants along with the fourth and the third class-letters and spirants ( झ्लू, ). The second letter हू in हल् appears, however, to have only a technical utility,as the purpose of its place there among spirants is served by the jihvamuliya and the Upadhmaniya letters which are,in fact, the velar and the labial spirants respectively, besides the other three शू, षू and सू .The Rk Pratisakhya calls ह as a chest sound. For details, see Mahabhasya on the Siva Sutra हयवरट् Varttikas 1, 2 and 3.
ha(1)representation of the consonant हू with अ added for facility of pronunciation; (2) a technical term for the internal effort between विवृत and संवृत, which causes घोष in the consonants; confer, compare संवृतविवृतयोर्मध्ये मध्यमप्रक्रारे यः शब्दः क्रियते स हकारसंज्ञो भवति। संज्ञायाः प्रयेाजनं ' हकारो हचतुर्थेषु ' इति ( तै. प्रा.श ९)Tribhasyaratna on T.Pr. II.6; (3) name of an external effort causing घोष: confer, compare सांप्रतिके प्रकृतिस्थे कण्ठे सति हृकारो नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नः क्रियते | तेन च व्यञ्जनेषु घोषो जायते। Vaidikabharana on T.Pr. II.6; (4) name of a kind of external effort of the type of अनुप्रदान found in the utterance of the consonant ( ह् ) and the fourth class-consonants; confer, compare हकारौ हृचतुर्थेषु T.Pr.II.9.
halsvaraprāptia possibility of the application of an accent to the consonant by the literal interpretation of rules prescribing an accent for the first or the last letter of a word, to prevent which a ruling is laid down that a consonant is not to be accented; confer, compare हल्स्वरप्राप्तौ व्यञ्जनमविद्यमानवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 80.
hetumaṇṇicthe affix णिच् added to a root in the sense of the activity of the causal agent; see हेतुमत् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare तत्र हेतुमण्णिचः प्रतिषेधः .P. I.1. 62, Vart. 7.
hetumatthe activity of the causal agent to express which a root has the affix णिच् added to it: confer, compare हेतु: स्वतन्त्रस्य कर्तुः प्रयोजकः । तदीयो व्यापार: प्रेषणादिलक्षणो हेतुमान् , तस्मिन्नमिधेये धातोर्णिच् स्यात् | Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26.
     DCS with thanks   
149 results
     
itya adjective to be gone to or towards (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33256/72933
ityanta adjective ending thus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19005/72933
ityartha adjective having such a sense or meaning (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13393/72933
ityevamādi indeclinable and so forth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27035/72933
ityādi adjective and so forth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
et caetera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
having such (thing or things) at the beginning (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
thus beginning (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 310/72933
ityādya adjective
Frequency rank 27034/72933
agnicityā noun (feminine) a heap or mass of fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
arranging to preparing the sacred or sacrificial fire-place (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41676/72933
atityakṣu adjective
Frequency rank 42069/72933
atityāgin adjective
Frequency rank 42070/72933
atiśaitya noun (neuter) excessive coldness
Frequency rank 31583/72933
atisauhitya noun (neuter) excessive satiety (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31595/72933
adaitya adjective without Daityas
Frequency rank 42409/72933
adhityakā noun (feminine) land on the upper part of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
table land (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17490/72933
anapāśritya indeclinable
Frequency rank 42680/72933
anāditya adjective sunless
Frequency rank 42852/72933
anāśritya indeclinable
Frequency rank 20553/72933
anitya adjective incidental (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
irregular (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not everlasting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
occasional (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
transient (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
uncertain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unstable (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unusual (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2002/72933
anityasama noun (masculine) a kind of sophism consisting in generalizing what is exceptional (as perishableness) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42947/72933
anityasamāsa noun (masculine) a compound, the sense of which may be equally expressed by resolving it into its constituent parts (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42948/72933
anirjitya indeclinable not having subdued
Frequency rank 26322/72933
aniścitya indeclinable not having considered
Frequency rank 22973/72933
aparityakta adjective
Frequency rank 43673/72933
aparityajya indeclinable ohne aufzugeben
Frequency rank 17538/72933
aparityāga noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 23058/72933
aparityājya adjective not to be given up
Frequency rank 32121/72933
abhityaj verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to abandon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 44139/72933
avijitya indeclinable not having overcome
Frequency rank 20786/72933
avyapāśritya indeclinable not relying on
Frequency rank 45545/72933
āditya noun (masculine) name of a constellation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a god in general (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Sūrya (the sun) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of seven deities of the heavenly sphere (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the plant Calotropis Gigantea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the seventh lunar mansion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 542/72933
āditya adjective belonging to or coming from Aditi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
belonging to or coming from Āditya
Frequency rank 26927/72933
ādityaketu noun (masculine) name of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20850/72933
ādityatīrthamāhātmyavarṇana noun (neuter) name of SkPur, Revākhaṇḍa 59
Frequency rank 46354/72933
ādityadarśana noun (neuter) "showing the sun" (to a child of four months) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one of the rites called Saṃskāra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46355/72933
ādityapattra noun (masculine) Calotropis Gigantea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
common sunflower
Frequency rank 33045/72933
ādityaparṇī noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 26928/72933
ādityaparṇin noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 46356/72933
ādityaparṇinī noun (feminine) Polanisia Icosandra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33046/72933
ādityapāka noun (masculine) bhānupāka
Frequency rank 46357/72933
ādityapurāṇa noun (neuter) name of an Upapurāṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46358/72933
ādityabhaktā noun (feminine) Polanisia Icosandra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26929/72933
ādityamustaka noun (masculine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 46359/72933
ādityamūrdhan noun (masculine) name of a servant of Śiva
Frequency rank 46360/72933
ādityavarcas noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 46361/72933
ādityavarṇā noun (feminine) [rel.] name of Devī
Frequency rank 46362/72933
ādityavāsara noun (masculine) ravidina
Frequency rank 46363/72933
ādityaśayana noun (neuter) the sun's sleep (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33047/72933
ādityaśarman noun (masculine) name of an astrologer
Frequency rank 17662/72933
ādityahṛdaya noun (neuter) name of a Stotra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26930/72933
ādityāyatana noun (neuter) [rel.] name of a Tīrtha at the Narmadā
Frequency rank 46364/72933
ādityeśvara noun (neuter) name of a Tīrtha; Ravitīrtha
Frequency rank 15514/72933
ādityeśvaratīrthamāhātmyavarṇana noun (neuter) name of SkPur, Revākhaṇḍa 153 name of SkPur, Revākhaṇḍa 60
Frequency rank 33048/72933
ādidaitya noun (masculine) name of Hiraṇyakaśipu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26932/72933
udayāditya noun (masculine) eine Art Quecksilber name of several men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of alchemical preparation
Frequency rank 27128/72933
aucitya noun (neuter) decorum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fitness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
habituation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
suitableness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the state of being used to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10608/72933
khālitya noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 12927/72933
gayāditya noun (neuter) [rel.] name of a Tīrtha
Frequency rank 51137/72933
caṇḍāditya noun (neuter) name of a Tīrtha at the Narmadā
Frequency rank 34854/72933
caṇḍādityatīrthamāhātmyavarṇana noun (neuter) name of SkPur, Revākhaṇḍa, 91
Frequency rank 51971/72933
citya adjective to be arranged in order (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be piled up (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34971/72933
cityā noun (feminine) a layer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
building (an altar. etc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23966/72933
caitya noun (masculine neuter) a funeral monument or Stūpa or pyramidal column containing the ashes of deceased persons (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a Jain or Buddhist image (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a sanctuary near a village (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hall or temple or place of worship (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sacred tree (esp. a religious fig-tree) growing on a mound (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4318/72933
caitya noun (masculine) the individual soul (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23991/72933
caityadru noun (masculine) a large tree in a village (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a religious fig-tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35023/72933
caityadruma noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 52448/72933
caityavṛkṣa noun (masculine) -taru (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a religious fig-tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 52449/72933
jitya noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 52965/72933
ditya noun (masculine) a son of Diti (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 54416/72933
dityavāh adjective
Frequency rank 54417/72933
duṣparityaj adjective
Frequency rank 54799/72933
daityā noun (feminine) name of plants (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spirituous liquor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21498/72933
daitya noun (masculine) a demon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a son of Diti (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 583/72933
daity</