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     Grammar Search "iti" has 1 results.
     
iti
     Amarakosha Search  
36 results
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
aitihyam2.7.14MasculineSingularitiha
amaraḥ1.1.7-9MasculineSingularnirjaraḥ, vibudhaḥ, sumanasaḥ, āditeyaḥ, aditinandanaḥ, asvapnaḥ, gīrvāṇaḥ, daivatam, devaḥ, suraḥ, tridiveśaḥ, diviṣad, ādityaḥ, amartyaḥ, dānavāriḥ, devatā, tridaśaḥ, suparvā, divaukāḥ, lekhaḥ, ṛbhuḥ, amṛtāndhāḥ, vṛndārakaḥimmortal
asuraḥ1.1.12MasculineSingularditisutaḥ, indrāriḥ, daityaḥ, suradviṣ, śukraśiṣyaḥ, danujaḥ, pūrvadevaḥ, dānavaḥ, daiteyaḥgiant
bāṇaḥ3.3.51MasculineSingularnirvyāpārasthiti, kālaviśeṣaḥ, utsavaḥ
bandhanam3.4.14NeuterSingularprasiti, cāraḥ
bhūḥ2.1.2-3FeminineSingularkṣmā, mahī, dhātrī, kumbhinī, ratnagarbhā, bhūmiḥ, rasā, dharā, kṣoṇī, kṣiti, vasudhā, gotrā, pṛthvī, medinī, gahvarī, ilā, bhūtadhātrī, sāgarāmbarā, anantā, sthirā, dharaṇī, kāśyapī, vasumatī, vasundharā, pṛthivī, avaniḥ, vipulā, gauḥ, kṣamā, jagatī, acalā, viśvambharā, dharitrī, jyā, sarvaṃsahā, urvī, kuḥ
bhūtiḥ3.3.76FeminineSingularjagat, chandoviśeṣaḥ, kṣiti
citā2.8.119FeminineSingularcityā, ‍citi
evam2.4.15MasculineSingulareva, iti, punaḥ,
gandhanam3.3.122NeuterSingularavakāśaḥ, sthiti
iti3.3.253MasculineSingularvikalpaḥ, pṛcchā
itihāsaḥMasculineSingularpurāvṛttamhistory
kaṣṭam3.3.45MasculineSingularutkarṣaḥ, sthiti, diśā
kīlaḥ3.3.204Ubhaya-lingaSingularkṛttikāḥ, gauḥ, agniḥ, śiti
kiraṇaḥ1.3.33MasculineSingulardhṛṣṇiḥ, aṃśuḥ, karaḥ, ghṛṇiḥ, mayūkhaḥ, dīdhiti, bhānuḥ, gabhasti, usraḥ, marīciḥray
kṣāntiḥFeminineSingulartitikṣāpatience,forbearance
madaḥ3.3.98MasculineSingularsthānam, lakṣma, aṅghri, vastu, vyavasiti, trāṇam
prakṛtiḥ3.3.79FeminineSingularkṣitivyudāsaḥ
pūjā2.7.36FeminineSingularnamasyā, apaciti, saparyā, arcā, arhaṇā
sahiṣṇuḥ3.1.30MasculineSingularkṣamitā, kṣamī, sahanaḥ, kṣantā, titikṣuḥ
samajyā2.7.17FeminineSingularāsthānī, pariṣat, āsthānam, goṣṭhī, sadaḥ, sabhā, samiti, saṃsat
śaṃbhuḥMasculineSingularkapardī, kapālabhṛt, virūpākṣaḥ, sarvajñaḥ, haraḥ, tryambakaḥ, andhakaripuḥ, vyomakeśaḥ, sthāṇuḥ, ahirbudhnyaḥ, paśupatiḥ, mahānaṭaḥ, maheśvaraḥ, īśānaḥ, bhūteśaḥ, giriśaḥ, kṛttivāsāḥ, ugraḥ, śitikaṇṭhaḥ, mahādevaḥ, kṛśānuretāḥ, nīlalohitaḥ, bhargaḥ, gaṅgādharaḥ, vṛṣadhvajaḥ, bhīmaḥ, umāpatiḥ, īśaḥ, gajāriḥ, śūlī, śarvaḥ, candraśekharaḥ, girīśaḥ, mṛtyuñjayaḥ, prathamādhipaḥ, śrīkaṇṭhaḥ, vāmadevaḥ, trilocanaḥ, dhūrjaṭiḥ, smaraharaḥ, tripurāntakaḥ, kratudhvaṃsī, bhavaḥ, rudraḥ, aṣṭamūrtiḥ, śivaḥ, īśvaraḥ, śaṅkaraḥ, khaṇḍaparaśuḥ, mṛḍaḥ, pinākī(51)shiva, god
śarkarā3.3.183FeminineSingularāmalakī, upamātā, kṣiti
stomaḥ3.3.149MasculineSingularkṣiti, kṣāntiḥ
tindukaḥ2.4.38MasculineSingularkālaskandhaḥ, śitisārakaḥ, sphūrjakaḥ
yuddham2.8.107NeuterSingularāyodhanam, pravidāraṇam, saṃkhyam, ‍samaraḥ, kalahaḥ, abhisaṃpātaḥ, saṃyogaḥ, saṃgrāmaḥ, ‍saṃyat, samit, janyam, mṛdham, samīkam, a‍nīkaḥ, ‍vigrahaḥ, kaṃliḥ, abhyāmardaḥ, āhavaḥ, ‍samiti, yut, pradhanam, āskandanam, ‍sāṃparāthikam, raṇaḥ, saṃprahāraḥ, saṃsphoṭaḥ, ‍samāghātaḥ, samudāyaḥ, ājiḥ
titinḍī2.2.43FeminineSingularciñcā, amblikā
aitihyam2.7.14MasculineSingularitiha
sthiti2.8.26FeminineSingularsaṃsthā, maryādā, dhāraṇā
pramiti3.4.10FeminineSingularpramā
sthiti2.4.21FeminineSingularāsanā, āsyā
apaciti3.3.74FeminineSingularḍimbaḥ, pravāsaḥ
samiti3.3.77FeminineSingularprabhāvaḥ
kṣiti3.3.77FeminineSingulargatiḥ
śiti3.3.89MasculineSingularvṛddhimān, prodyataḥ, utpannaḥ
jhaṭiti2.4.2MasculineSingulardrāṅ, maṅkṣu, sapadi, srāk, añjasā, āhnāya
     Monier-Williams
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835 results for iti
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
इतिf. ity/ai- (dative case) See i- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिf. (for 2. iti-See s. v.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिind. (fr. pronominal base 3. i-), in this manner, thus (in its original signification /iti-refers to something that has been said or thought, or lays stress on what precedes;in the brāhmaṇa-s it is often equivalent to "as you know", reminding the hearer or reader of certain customs, conditions, etc. supposed to be known to him). In quotations of every kind /iti- means that the preceding words are the very words which some person has or might have spoken, and placed thus at the end of a speech it serves the purpose of inverted commas (/ity uktvā-,having so said; /iti kṛtvā-,having so considered, having so decided) . It may often have reference merely to what is passing in the mind exempli gratia, 'for example' vamantavyo manuṣya /iti bhūmipaḥ&iencoding=deva&lang=sans'>bālo 'pi nāvamantavyo manuṣya /iti bhūmipaḥ-, a king, though a child, is not to be despised, saying to one's self,"he is a mortal", () In dramatic language /iti tathā karoti- means"after these words he acts thus."Sometimes /iti- is used to include under one head a number of separate objects aggregated together (exempli gratia, 'for example' ijyādhyayanadānāni tapaḥ satyaṃ kṣamā damaḥ- alobha /iti mārgo 'yam-,"sacrificing, studying, liberality, penance, truth, patience, self-restraint, absence of desire", this course of conduct, etc.) /iti- is sometimes followed by evam-, iva-, or a demonstrative pronoun pleonastically (exempli gratia, 'for example' tām brūyād bhavatīty evam-,her he may call "lady", thus) . /iti- may form an adverbial compound with the name of an author (exempli gratia, 'for example' /iti-pāṇini-,thus according to pāṇini-). It may also express the act of calling attention (lo! behold!) It may have some other significations exempli gratia, 'for example' something additional (as in /ityādi-,et caetera), order, arrangement specific or distinctive, and identity. It is used by native commentators after quoting a rule to express"according to such a rule" (exempli gratia, 'for example' anudāttaṅita /ity ātmanepadam bhavati-,according to the rule of pāṇini- , the ātmane-pada- takes place) . kim /iti- equals kim-, wherefore, why? (In the śatapatha-brāhmaṇa- ti-occurs for /iti-; see Prakrittiand tti-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इति"and so forth"(iti- co- ti- ca-,"thus and thus","in this and that manner"), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिहind. thus indeed, according to tradition. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिहरिind. thus according to hari-'s very words View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिहासsee below View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिहासm. (iti-ha-āsa-,"so indeed it was") , talk, legend, tradition, history, traditional accounts of former events, heroic history View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिहासपुराणn. the itihāsa-s and the purāṇa-s, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिहाससमुच्चयm. Name (also title or epithet) of a work containing 32 legends from the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिहासोपनिषद्f. Name (also title or epithet) of an upaniṣad-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिहोतिmfn. telling news, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकm. Name of a people (see ījika-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकारm. the word iti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकरणn. the word iti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकरणिय([ ]) mfn. proper or necessary to be done according to certain conditions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकरणियn. duty, obligation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकरणियताf. any proper or necessary measure, obligation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकर्तव्य mfn. proper or necessary to be done according to certain conditions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकर्तव्यn. duty, obligation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकर्तव्यताf. any proper or necessary measure, obligation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकर्तव्यतामूढmfn. embarrassed, dumb-foundered, wholly at a loss what to do View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकर्तव्यतामूढmfn. embarrassed, dumb-foundered, wholly at a loss what to do View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकार्य mfn. proper or necessary to be done according to certain conditions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकार्यn. duty, obligation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकार्यताf. any proper or necessary measure, obligation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकथmfn. unworthy of trust, not fit to be credited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकथmfn. wicked, lost View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकथाf. unmeaning or nonsensical discourse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकथf. (for atikatha- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिक्रमेणind. in this manner, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकृत्यmfn. proper or necessary to be done according to certain conditions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकृत्यn. duty, obligation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिकृत्यताf. any proper or necessary measure, obligation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिमात्रmfn. of such extent or quality. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिनामन्mfn. having such a name View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिनिश्चयmfn. one who has thus resolved, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिपाणिनिind. thus according to pāṇini-'s very words commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिपरmfn. followed by iti- (as a word) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिप्रभृतिmfn. thus beginning and so forth, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिशm. Name of a man, (gaRa naḍādi- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिथmf(ī-)n. Ved. such a one, such View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतितिthe hymn x, 119 (quoted), Mn, xi, 252 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिवत्ind. in the same manner commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इतिवृत्तn. occurrence, event View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभिहितिSee sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभिहितिf. telling, manifesting, title
अभिजितिf. victory, conquest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभिन्नस्थितिmfn. not breaking its rules View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभितिग्मरश्मिind. towards the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अभ्युत्थितिf. rising from a seat, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आचितिकmf(ī-)n. holding or being equal to an ācita- (or cart-load) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आचितिकmf(ī-)n. (also in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' with numerals exempli gratia, 'for example' dvy-ācitika-) 54. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अदब्धधिति(/adabdha--) mfn. whose works are unimpaired View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आदानसमितिf. a method of (cautious) seizing (so that no creature be hurt) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अधिदीधितिmfn. having excessive lustre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अधिक्षितिind. on the earth, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अधितिष्ठतिSee adhi-ṣṭhā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अध्यवसितिf. exertion, effort. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अदितिf. having nothing to give, destitution View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अदितिf. for 2. aditi-, 3. /a-diti- See below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अदितिm. ( ad-), devourer id est death View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अदितिmfn. (4. -or do-, dyati-;for 1. /a-diti-See above) , not tied, free , boundless, unbroken, entire, unimpaired, happy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अदितिf. freedom, security, safety View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अदितिf. boundlessness, immensity, inexhaustible abundance, unimpaired condition, perfection, creative power, Name of one of the most ancient of the Indian goddesses ("Infinity"or the"Eternal and Infinite Expanse" , often mentioned in ,daughter of dakṣa- and wife of kaśyapa-, mother of the āditya-s and of the gods) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अदितिf. a cow, milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अदितिf. the earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अदितिf. speech (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अदितिf. dual number heaven and earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अदितिजm. a son of aditi-, an āditya-, a divine being. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अदितिकुण्डलाहरणn. Name (also title or epithet) of a nāṭaka- by kādamba-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अदितिनन्दनm. equals -ja- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अदितित्वn. the condition of aditi-, or of freedom, unbrokenness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अदितित्वn. the state of the goddess aditi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अद्वैतिन्m. "non-dualist", an adherent of śaṃkara-, Sa1m2khyas., Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अग्निचितिf. arranging to preparing the sacred or sacrificial fire-place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अहिमदीधितिm. idem or 'm. idem or 'm. idem or 'm. "having hot rays", the sun ' ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आहितिf. placing or what is placed, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अइतिहn. = the next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अइतिहासिकmf(ī-)n. (fr. iti-sa-), derived from ancient legends, legendary, historical, traditional View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अइतिहासिकm. one who relates or knows ancient legends View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अइतिहासिकm. an historian. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अइतिह्यn. (fr. iti-ha-), traditional instruction, tradition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अइतिकायनm. a descendant of itika- gaRa naḍādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अइतिकायनीयmfn. belonging to the above.
अइतिशायनm. a descendant of itiśa- gaRa naḍādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अक्षितिf. imperishableness etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अक्षितिmfn. imperishable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अंहितिf. a gift, donation See aṃhat/i-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अमितिf. = a--2 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अमितिf. boundlessness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अमितिSee 2. a--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अमृतचितिf. the piling up (of sacrificial bricks) conferring immortality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अमृतदीधिति([ ]) ([ ]) m. "nectar-rayed", the moon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनैतिह्यmfn. not based on tradition, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनन्तर्हितिf. the not being covered or concealed, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनन्तरितिf. not excluding or passing over View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनवस्थितिf. instability View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनवस्थितिf. unsteadiness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनवस्थितिf. looseness of character. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनिदाघदीधितिm. the moon, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तर्हिति(ant/ar--), f. concealment, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरिति(ant/ar--), excluding, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरितिf. exclusion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुगणितिन्mfn. one who has counted over, (gaRa iṣṭādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुमानमणिदीधितिf. a similar work written by raghunātha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुमितिf. conclusion from given premises. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुपस्थितिf. absence, not being at hand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुपस्थितिf. incompleteness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुपठितिन्m. (one who has read through or recited) , proficient, (gaRa iṣṭādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्वितिf. following after View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्यतःसितिबाहु(any/ataḥ--), mfn. having the forefeet white only on one side, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्यतःसितिरन्ध्र(any/ataḥ--), mfn. having the ear-cavities white only on one side, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अपचितिf. honouring, reverence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अपचितिf. loss View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अपचितिf. expense View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अपचितिf. Name of a daughter of marīci- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अपचितिf. (for 3. /apa-citi-See below.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अपचितिf. (=,3. ci-), compensation, either recompense ([ etc.]) or retaliation, revenge, punishing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अपचितिमत्(/apaciti--) mfn. honoured View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अपिहितिf. a bar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अर्चितिन्mfn. honouring (with locative case), (gaRa iṣṭādi-, q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अर्दितिन्mfn. having spasms of the jaw-bones View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आशितिमन्m. satiety View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अस्मेहितिf. errand or message for us View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अस्मेहितिSee asma-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अस्पन्दनस्थितिf. fainting, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अस्तक्षितिभृत्m. "the mountain asta-", the western mountain (behind which the sun is supposed to set), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अस्थितिf. want of order View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
असुरक्षिति(/asura--.) mfn. idem or 'mfn. destroying the asura-s ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अतितिक्षमाणmfn. unable to endure, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउपोदितिmf(ī-). a descendant of upodita- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउपोदितिm. Name of tumiñja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अवधारितिन्mfn. (gaRa iṣṭād- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अवजितिf. conquest, victory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अवसितिf. conclusion, end, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अवस्थितिf. residence, abiding, stability, See an-av- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अवस्थितिf. following, practising View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अविजितिन्mfn. not victorious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बद्धावस्थितिmfn. constant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बलस्थितिf. "army-station", a camp, encampment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बलस्थितिf. a royal residence, royal camp or quarters View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बौद्धधिक्कारदीधितिf. Name of Comm. on it. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भणितिf. speech, talk, discourse (wrong reading ṇati-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भणितिमयmf(ī-)n. consisting in eloquence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भाषासमितिf. (with jaina-s) moderation in speech View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भवक्षितिf. the place of birth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भववितिf. liberation from the world, cessation of worldly acts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ब्रह्मचितिf. brahmā-'s layer in the fire-altar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चैतिकm. plural (fr. 2. caitya-? see caitya-saila-) Name of a Buddhist school. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चण्डदीधितिm. equals -kara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चटच्चटितिind. so as to crackle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चटदितिind. so as to make a crackling noise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चौडितिक्यn. idem or 'n. the state of being cūḍika- gaRa purohitādi-.' () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
छनच्छनितिind. (fr. natchanad-iti- ) onomatopoetic (i.e. formed from imitation of sounds) (imitative of the noise of drops falling on anything hot) (varia lectio chamaccham-iti- ,whence the author of the verse is called cchamikā-ratna-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
छन्दोविचितिf. (gaRa ṛgayanādi-),"examination of metres", metrical science View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
छन्दोविचितिf. Name of work (called vedāṅga-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चिकितिmfn. shining See View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चिन्तितिf. equals cintā-, thought, care View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चिरस्थितिकmfn. long existing (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound', evaṃ--,"existing so long") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिf. a layer (of wood or bricks etc.), pile, stack, funeral pile etc. (metrically - ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिf. Name of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिf. collecting, gathering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिf. a heap, multitude View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिf. an oblong with quadrangular sides (see idhma--; amṛta--and ṛṣi-cit/i-.)
चिति Name (also title or epithet) of a plant (varia lectio - citti-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिf. (only dative case t/aye-,Ved. infinitive mood) understanding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिm. the thinking mind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिSee 4. cit-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिघनm. the total amount of all the members of an arithmetical progression View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिकाf. a pile, funeral pile View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिकाf. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' "a layer" See p/añca-- and s/apta-citika- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिकाf. a small chain worn round the loins View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिका -, tīka- See 1. ci-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिकॢप्तिf. the arrangement of a sacrificial altar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिमत्mfn. having the faculty of thought View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिपुरीषn. plural the layer (of wood etc.) and the rubble-stones View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिपुरीषn. dual number idem or 'n. plural the layer (of wood etc.) and the rubble-stones ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिशक्तिf. equals cic-chakti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिवत्ind. like a pile, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चितिव्यवहारm. calculation of the cubic measure of a pile. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चूडितिकmfn. See ḍika-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दारुचितिf. a pile or pyre of wood, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दशक्षितिगर्भm. Name of a Buddhist sūtra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
देवहिति(v/a--) f. divine ordinance or arrangement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
देवीभागवतस्थितिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धगद्धगितिind. (onomatopoetic (i.e. formed from imitation of sounds)) crack! crack! View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धगितिind. (onom.) in a moment, at once View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धरणितलतैतिलm. a god on earth, a Brahman
धारयत्क्षिति(y/at-kṣ-) mfn. bearing or sustaining creatures View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धर्मस्थितिताf. the constant nature of dharma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धर्मविव्रितिf. "explanation of the law", Name of works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धितिf. See nem/a--, mitr/a--, van/a--, v/asu--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धृतदीधितिm. "constant in splendour", fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ध्रुवक्षितिmfn. (v/a--) having a firm position or abode View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ध्रुवक्षितिm. a particular personification View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीधितिf. brightness, splendour, light, a ray etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीधितिf. majesty, power View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीधितिf. Name of works., especially in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीधितिf. religious reflection, devotion, inspiration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीधितिमत्mfn. having splendour, shining, brilliant, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीधितिमत्m. the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीधितिमत्m. Name of a muni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीधितिमाथुरीf. Name of Comm. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीधितिप्रकाशm. Name of Comm. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीधितिप्रत्यक्षटिकाf. Name of Comm. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीधितिरौद्रीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीधितिव्याख्याf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीदितिf. equals dīti- (See su-d/īditi-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दितिf. Name of a deity answering to a-diti- (q.v) as sura- to a-sura- and without any distinct character View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दितिf. in Epic daughter of dakṣa- and wife of kaśyapa- and mother of the daitya-s (See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दितिf. (the marut-s are also described as her progeny or derived from the embryo in her womb divided into pieces by indra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दितिf. see View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दितिf. cutting, splitting, dividing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दितिf. distributing, liberality (also personified see 1. d/iti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दितिm. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दितिm. a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दितिजm. son of daitya-s, a daitya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दितिजारातिm. enemy of the daitya-s, Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दितिनन्दनm. equals -ja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दितिसुतm. idem or 'm. equals -ja- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दितिसुतगुरुm. the planet Venus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दितितनयm. equals -ja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्रोणचितिf. arrangement in trough form View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दुःखसंस्थितिmfn. in a wretched condition, poor, miserable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दुःस्थितिf. ill condition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दुरितिf. bad course, difficulty, distress View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्वैतिन्m. equals dvaita-vādin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्वितीयचक्रवर्तिलक्षणदीधितितीकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्वितीयस्वलक्षणदीधितिटीकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्व्याचितिकmf(ī-)n. containing 2 waggon-loads View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकचितिmfn. having one layer (of wood or bricks etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकचितिकmfn. idem or 'mfn. having one layer (of wood or bricks etc.) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकान्तरितिन्(?) mfn. one who fasts every second day, L View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकशितिपद्(pāt-, padī-, pat-) mfn. having one white foot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एषणासमितिf. correct behaviour when begging food View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एवंसंस्थितिकmfn. of such a nature or kind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गाणितिकm. (fr. gaṇita-), an arithmetician View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गणितिन्mfn. one who has calculated gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौरीवितिm. equals ri-vīti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गेहेविजितिन्mfn. "victorious at home", a house-hero, boaster View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
घर्मदीधितिm. "having warm rays", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
घृतदीधितिm. "having rays flowing with ghee", fire, the deity of fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोचितिf. a particular way of piling up sacrificial bricks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोष्ठेविजितिन्mfn. "victorious in a cow-pen" idem or 'mfn. "courageous in a cow-pen", a boasting coward ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोत्रस्थितिf. "id."and"standing like a mountain" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ग्रहस्थितिवर्णनn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गृहस्थितिf. the state of a householder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गुणदीधितिटिकाf. Name of two Comm. on -prakāśa-vivṛti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गुणदीधितिटिप्पनी f. Name of two Comm. on -prakāśa-vivṛti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गुणप्रकाशदीधितिमाथुरीf. Name of a Comm. on śa-vivṛti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हेत्वाभासदीधितिटिप्पणीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हिमदीधिति( ) m. "having cool rays", the moon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हितिf. sending, errand, direction (See asm/e--and dev/a-h-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हिति h/it-van- See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ह्रितिf. equals hṛti-, taking, conveying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इद्धदीधितिm. "kindling rays", fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इध्मचितिf. a pile of wood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इष्टकाचितिf. putting bricks in layers or rows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इष्टाथितित्वn. delight in (showing) hospitality, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जाङ्घाप्रह्रितिकmfn. (fr. jaṅghā-prahata-or hṛta-) produced by a blow with the leg gaRa akṣadyūtādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
झगिति equals jhaṭ-- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
झणिति varia lectio for jhaṭ-- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
झटितिind. onomatopoetic (i.e. formed from imitation of sounds) (gaRa svar-ādi-,not in ) instantly, at once View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
झटितिrepeated ="no sooner-than", . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जितिf. gaining, obtaining, victory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जितिf. a-jitasya j- Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जितिf. see pur/o--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कैतिपुत्रm. Name of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कामदुघाक्षितिmfn. "possessing wish-granting imperishableness", View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कतितिथmfn. with following cid- or ca-, the so-maniest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कायस्थितिf. support of the body, keeping alive, taking food, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
खाण्डितिmfn. fr. khaṇḍita- gaRa sutaṃgamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कृतस्थितिmfn. one who has taken up an abode. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षैति patronymic fr. kṣit/a- Va1rtt. 4. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिf. dominion (Comm.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिf. an abode, dwelling, habitation, house (see also uru--and su-kṣit/i-, dhruv/a-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिf. () the earth, soil of the earth etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिf. the number"one" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिf. (/ayas-) settlements, colonies, races of men, nations (of which five are named; see kṛṣṭ/i-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिf. (said of the families of the gods) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिf. estates (see uru--and su-kṣit/i-, dhāray/at--, dhruv/a--, bhava--, raṇa--, samara--.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिf. wane, perishing, ruin, destruction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिf. the period of the destruction of the universe, end of the world (see /a--, /asura--.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षिति3. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिSee 1. 2. and 4. kṣi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिf. a sort of yellow pigment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिf. a sort of base metal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिf. equals kṣiti-kṣama- (sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order 2. kṣit/i-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिबदरीf. Name of a plant (equals bhū-b-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिभर्तृm. equals -nātha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिभृत्m. "earth-supporter", a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिभृत्m. a king (varia lectio -bhuj-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिभृत्ताf. the state of a king, reign View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिभूf. (equals -tanayā-) Name of sītā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिभुज्m. "one who possesses the earth", a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिचलनn. equals -kampa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिदेवm. "earth-god" id est a Brahman
क्षितिदेवताf. idem or 'm. "earth-god" id est a Brahman ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिधरm. "earth-supporter", a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिधारिन्mfn. carrying soil or earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिधेनुf. the earth considered as a milch-cow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिदिनn. a common or sāvana- day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिगर्भm. Name of a bodhi-sattva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिजmfn. earth-born, produced of or in the earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिजm. a tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिजm. a kind of snail or earth-worm (bhū-nāga-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिजm. "earth-son", Name of the planet Mars View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिजm. of the demon naraka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिजाf. Name of sītā- (the wife of rāma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिजn. the horizon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिजन्तुm. a kind of snail or earth-worm (= bhū-nāga-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिजत्वn. the state of the horizon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिजीवाf. the sine of the bow formed by the horizon and the unmaṇḍala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिज्याf. idem or 'f. the sine of the bow formed by the horizon and the unmaṇḍala- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिकाf. a particular part of a lute, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिकम्पm. an earthquake , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिकम्पनm. Name of an attendant in skanda-'s retinue View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिकम्पनm. of a daitya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिकणm. a particle of earth, dust View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिखण्डm. a clod or lump of earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिक्षमm. the tree Acacia Catechu View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिक्षमावत्mfn. patient as the earth, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिक्षित्m. "ruler of the earth", a prince, king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिक्षोदm. a particle of earth, dust View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिलवभुज्m. "possessing only a small tract of the earth", a petty prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिमण्डलn. the globe, earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिनागm. (equals -jantu-) a kind of snail or earth-worm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिनन्दm. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिनन्दनm. (equals -ja-) Name of the planet Mars. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिनाथm. "lord of the earth", a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिपm. "earth-protector", a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिपालm. equals -pa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिपतिm. "lord of the earth" idem or 'm. "earth-protector", a king ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिपीठn. the surface of the earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिपीठn. Name of a town View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिप्रतिष्ठmfn. dwelling or abiding on the earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिपुरुहूतm. "the indra- of the earth", a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिपुत्रm. "son of the earth", Name of the demon naraka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिराजm. a prince, king. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिरसm. the juice or essence of the earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिरुह्m. "growing from the earth", a tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिरुहm. idem or 'm. "growing from the earth", a tree ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिशचीपतिm. equals -puru-hūta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिशतक्रतुm. idem or 'm. equals -puru-hūta- ' , . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिशिञ्जिनीf. equals -jīvā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिस्पृश्m. an inhabitant of the earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिसुरm. equals -deva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिसुतm. (equals -ja-) the planet Mars View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिसुतm. Name of the demon naraka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितितलn. the surface of the earth, ground View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितितलाप्सरस्f. an apsaras- who walks or lives on the earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितितनयm. (equals -ja-) Name of the planet Mars View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितितनयाf. "daughter of the earth", Name of sitā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितितनयदिनn. Tuesday View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितितनयदिवसवारm. idem or 'n. Tuesday ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितित्राणn. protection of the earth (one of the duties of the kṣatriya- caste) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिवर्धनm. a corpse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिवृषन्m. a king, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिवृत्तिमत्mfn. "of a behaviour similar to that of the earth", patient like the earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षितिव्युदासm. a cave within the earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षित्यदितिf. "the aditi- of the earth", Name of devakī- (mother of kṛṣṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कुलस्थितिf. custom observed in a family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कुलस्थितिf. antiquity or prosperity of a family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लोहितिमन्m. redness, red colour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लोकस्थितिf. duration or existence of the world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लोकस्थितिf. a universal law, generally established rule on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लोष्टचितिf. = śmaśānakaraṇa-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लोष्टचितिप्रयोगm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मकरसंक्रान्तितिलदानn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मानस्थितिf. See under 2. māna-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मानस्थितिf. "right measure"or,"strong sentiment of honour"(the latter fr. 1. māna-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मणिदीधितिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मणिदीधितिगूढार्थप्रकाशिकाf. Name of commentator or commentary on it, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मन्त्रदीधितिm. "having sacred text for rays", fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मार्गस्थितिf. wandering about View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मठस्थितिmfn. staying or residing in a college of priests View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
माथितिकmfn. dealing in buttermilk (-mathita-) Va1rtt. 2 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मौनिचिति(fr. muni-cita-) gaRa sutaṃ-gamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मीमांसासूत्रदिधितिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मिथ्याध्यवसिति(mithyādh-) f. a particular figure of speech (in which the impossibility of a thing is expressed by making it depend upon some impossible contingency) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मितिf. (for 2.See) fixing, erecting, establishing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मितिf. (for 1.See) measuring, measure, weight. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मितिf. accurate knowledge, evidence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मित्रधिति(mitr/a--) f. () a covenant or contract of friendship. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मुण्डितिकाf. Sphaerantus Hirtus
नटितिf. dancing, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नवदीधितिm. "9- rayed", the planet Mars or its regent (see navārcis-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नव्यानुमितिपरामर्शकार्यकारणभावविचार m. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नव्यानुमितिपरामर्शविचारm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नेमधितिf. (m/a--) separation, conflict View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निगदितिन्mfn. one who has spoken gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निकथितिन्mfn. (fr. ni-kathita-, kath-) gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निकुचितिf. contraction (?) , Va1rtt . 1 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निमितिf. (?) settlement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निपठितिf. ( on ) idem or 'n. () idem or 'm. ( paṭh-) recitation, study ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निपठितिन्mfn. gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निर्जितिf. equals -jaya-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निर्मितिf. formation, creation, making View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निर्मितिf. adding, addition (of a word) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निरूपितिf. statement, definition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निषादितिन्mfn. equals niṣāditam anena- gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निश्चितिf. ascertainment, fixing, settling (see pāṭha-niśc-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निशिति(n/i--) f. exciting, stimulating, refreshing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नितिक्तmfn. ( tig-) excited, roused up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नितिक्तिind. quickly, speedily View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नियमस्थितिf. state of self-restraint, ascetism View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नियमोज्झितिf. spontaneousness, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
न्यायलीलावतीप्रकाशदीधितिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
न्यायलीलावतीप्रकाशदिधितिविवेकm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
न्यायावलीदीधितिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पलितिन्mfn. grey-haired View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चचितिक pañcacitīka (p/a-) mfn. piled up in 5 tiers or layers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चगृहितिन्mfn. one who has taken up 5 times , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पाञ्चलौहितिकn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पाञ्चलोहितिकn. Va1rtt. 1 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पाञ्चनापिति(fr, pañca-nāpita-) Va1rtt. 2 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पण्डितिमन्m. wisdom, learning, scholarship gaRa dṛḍhādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परामर्शपूर्वपक्षग्रन्थदीधितिटीकाf. Name of work
परिचितिf. acquaintance, familiarity, intimacy, 2.
परिगदितिन्mfn. equals parigaditaṃ yena saḥ- gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परिगणितिन्mfn. one who has well considered everything , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परिकलितिन्mfn. equals kalitaṃ yena saḥ- gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परीक्षिति() m. equals prec. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परिमितिf. measure, quantity, limitation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परिमितिमत्mfn. limited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परिरक्षितिन् gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परिष्ठितिf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परितिक्तmfn. extremely bitter, jātakam-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परितिक्तm. Melia Azedarach View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परितिन् gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पाठनिश्चितिf. repeated study of a text, repetition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पठितिf. Name of a particular figure of speech View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पौरोहितिकm. metron. fr. puro-hitikā- gaRa śivādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पौष्कजितिm. patronymic (fr. puṣkajit-?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पिच्छितिका(!) f. Dalbergia Sissoo (wrong reading for picchilikā-?). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पिहितिf. covering, stopping View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रचितिf. (2. ci-) investigation, examination (= vi-citi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रजापतिचितिf. prajā-pati-'s slayer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रलयस्थितिसर्गm. plural destruction, preservation and creation (of the world). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रमितिf. a correct notion, right conception, knowledge gained or established by pramāṇa- or proof View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रमितिf. manifestation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रमितिf. inference or analogy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रमितिf. measuring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्राणचितिf. a mass or deposit of breath View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रासादप्रतिष्ठादीधितिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रसितिf. (pr/a--) (for 2.See below) a net for catching birds ( ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रसितिf. a ligament, binding, fetter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रसितिf. (pr/a--) (for 1.See above) onward rush, onset, attack, assault View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रसितिf. a throw, cast, shot, missile View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रसितिf. stretch, reach, extension, sphere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रसितिf. succession, duration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रसितिf. dominion, power, authority, influence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रस्थितिf. setting out, departure, march, journey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रथितिf. extension of fame, celebrity, notoriety. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिचितिind. in every layer or pile View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिहितिf. adjusting an arrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिज्ञालक्षणदिधितिटीकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिमितिf. reflected image, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतिष्ठादीधितिf. Name of work
प्रतिष्ठिति(pr/ati--) f. standing firmly, a firm stand or footing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रतितिज्to emit heat or fire against or towards (only imperative pr/ati-tigdhi-and titig/ahi-,for which prati-tityagdhi-[!], and prati-tiṅḍhi-[!]) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रौगचितिf. arrangement in the forepart of a triangle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पृथक्स्थितिf. separate existence, separation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुच्छलक्षणदीधितिटीकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुनश्चितिf. piling up again View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरोहितिf. priestly ministration (equals puro-dhāna-,Sly.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरोहितिकाf. a favourite wife (see puro-dhikā-) or Name of a woman gaRa śivādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुरोजिति(pur/o--) f. previous possession or acquisition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पूर्वस्थितिf. first or former state View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रैतिकmf(ī-)n. (fr. rīti-) of or belonging to brass, brazen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
राज्याभिषेकदीधितिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
राज्यस्थितिf. the being in a kingly office, government View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रक्षितिकाf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रणक्षितिf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रात्रितिथिf. a lunar night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रौहक्षितिm. gaRa pailādi- () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रोहक्षिति wrong reading for rauhakṣiti- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
साधुद्वितिल्यmfn. having a merchant as second, accompanied by a-merchant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सद्मचितिf. a collection of houses
सग्धितिSee column 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सग्धितिf. idem or 'f. (fr. 7. sa-+ gdhi- equals jagdhi-) a common meal ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सहदीक्षितिन्mfn. undertaking the dīkṣā- (q.v) together, , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सहस्रदीधितिm. "thousand-rayed", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सहस्थितिf. abiding together in (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शैतिबाहेयm. metron. fr. śiti-bāhu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शैतिकक्षm. patronymic fr. śiti-kakṣa- (-pāñcāleyāḥ-. on ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समाहितिकाf. Name of a woman (see samādhimatikā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समकोष्ठमितिf. the measure of compartments or number of equal squares of the same denomination (as cubit, fathom etc.) in which the dimension of the side is given View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समकोष्ठमितिf. the area or superficial contents View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सममितिf. mean measure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समन्तशितिबाहु(samant/a--) mfn. having both fore-feet white View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समन्तशितिरन्ध्र(samant/a--) mfn. having both ear-cavities white on Va1rtt. 27. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सामान्यलक्षणदिधितिटीकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सामान्यलक्षणदिधितिटिप्पणीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सामान्यनिरुक्तिदिधितिटीकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समरक्षितिf. field of battle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सामवेदपरितिष्टn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संचितिf. Name of the 9th book of the śatapatha-brāhmaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संचितिf. heaping together, collecting, saving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संगत्यनुमितिf. Name of work
संगत्यनुमितिवादm. Name of work
संहितिf. putting together, connection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संहितिक wrong reading for sāṃh- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सांहितिकmfn. equals sāṃhita- gaRa ukthādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सांहितिकm. the author of an astrological saṃhitā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समितिf. (for 2.See below) coming together, meeting, assembling, an assembly, council View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समितिf. a flock, herd View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समितिf. association, society (personified as daughter of prajā-pati-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समितिf. a league, plot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समितिf. encounter, hostile meeting, war, battle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समितिf. sameness, likeness (see 2. sam/a-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समितिf. (with jaina-s) rule of life or conduct (five are enumerated, viz. īryā--, bhāṣā--, eṣaṇā--, ādāna--,and utsarga-s-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समितिind. (for 1.See above) a sacred verse beginning with sam- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समितिमर्दनmfn. crushing or harassing in battle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समितिंगम(t/iṃ--) mfn. assisting a council View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समितिंजयmfn. (t/iṃ--) "victorious in battle"or"eminent in an assembly"(also Name of yama- and viṣṇu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समितिंजयm. Name of a warrior View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समितिशालिन्mfn. warlike, brave View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समितिशोभनmfn. conspicuous in fight or battle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संजितिf. complete victory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संकलितिन्mfn. one who has made an addition (with locative case) gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सम्मितिf. equalization, comparison (varia lectio sam-iti-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
साम्मितिकायनिm. a patronymic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संरक्षितिन्mfn. one who has guarded etc. (with locative case) gaRa iṣṭādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संशयानुमितिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संशयानुमितिरहस्यn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संशितिf. excessive sharpening View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संस्कारदीधितिSee -kaustubha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संस्कारकौस्तुभदीधितिf. saṃskārakaustubha
संस्थितिf. staying together, living in or with or near, union with (locative case) etc.
संस्थितिf. standing or sitting on (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संस्थितिf. duration, continuance in the same state or condition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संस्थितिf. constancy, perseverance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संस्थितिf. being bent upon, attaching importance to (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संस्थितिf. existence, possibility of (genitive case or compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संस्थितिf. form, shape View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संस्थितिf. established order View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संस्थितिf. nature, condition, quality, property View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संस्थितिf. conclusion, completion (of a sacrifice) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संस्थितिf. end, death View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संस्थितिf. obstruction of the bowels, constipation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संस्थितिf. heap, accumulation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संस्थितिf. restraint View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संस्थितिकSee evaṃ-saṃsthitika-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुच्छ्रितिf. augmentation, increase, growth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समुपस्थितिf. equals upasthāna- above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संवत्सरदिधितिf. See -kṛtya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संवत्सरकृत्यदिधितिf. saṃvatsarakṛtya
सम्यक्स्थितिf. remaining together View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सनितिf. acquisition, obtainment
सप्तचितिक(t/a--) mfn. piled up in 7 layers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तदीधितिm. "having 7 rays of light", fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सारमितिm. "measure of all truth", Name of the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शरीरस्थितिf. equals -vṛtti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सर्वक्षितिपतित्वn. lordship of the world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
षट्चितिmfn. consisting of six layers or strata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
षट्चितिक(ṣ/aṭ--) mfn. idem or 'mfn. consisting of six layers or strata ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सत्प्रतिपक्षपूर्वपक्षग्रन्थदीधितिटीकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सत्प्रतिपक्षसिद्धान्तग्रन्थदीधितिटीकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सत्यजितिf. a true victory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सत्यतितिक्षावत्mfn. truthful and patient View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सौरोहितिकm. metron. fr. su-rohitikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सौत्थितिm. patronymic fr. tthita- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सावित्रचितिf. equals -cayana-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सव्यभिचारपूर्वपक्षग्रन्थदीधितिटीकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सव्यभिचारसिद्धान्तग्रन्थदीधितिटीकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सिद्धान्तलक्षणदीधितिटीकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शिशिरदीधितिm. () equals -kara-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शीतदीधितिm. equals -kiraṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सितदीधितिm. "white-rayed", the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिmfn. (perhaps fr. śo-) white (see sita-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिmfn. black, dark-blue View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिm. the Bhojpattra or birch tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिm. equals sāra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सितिf. (for 2.See) binding, fastening (in 1. pr/a-siti-,) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सितिmfn. (wrong reading for śiti-;for 1.See;for 3.See 1. so-) white View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सितिmfn. black View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सितिSee sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिबाहु mfn. having white fore-feet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिबाहुmfn. having white fore-feet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिभसद्(ś/iti--) mfn. having white hinder parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिभ्रुmfn. white-browed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिचन्दनn. musk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिचारm. a kind of potherb (apparently Marsilea Dentata) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिच्छदm. "white-feathered", a goose (see sita-cch-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिकक्षmfn. white-shouldered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिकक्षिन्m. a vulture with a white belly (= pāṇḍarodaro gṛdhraḥ-) (Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिककुद्(ś/iti--) mfn. white-humped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिककुदmfn. idem or '(ś/iti--) mfn. white-humped ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिकण्ठmfn. white-necked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिकण्ठmfn. dark-necked (as rudra-- śiva-; see nīla-k-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिकण्ठm. a particular bird of prey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिकण्ठm. a peacock View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिकण्ठm. a gallinule (equals dātyūha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिकण्ठm. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिकण्ठm. of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिकण्ठm. (also with dīkṣita-and often confounded with śrī-kaṇṭha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिकण्ठm. of various authors etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सितिकण्ठmfn. having a white throat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सितिकण्ठmfn. dark-necked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सितिकण्ठm. śiva- (see śiti-k-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिकण्ठकmfn. blue-necked (as a peacock) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिकण्ठरामायणn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिकण्ठस्तोत्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिकण्ठठीयn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिकण्ठठीयटिप्पणीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिकेशm. "white-haired", Name of one of skanda-'s attendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिकुम्भm. the oleander tree, Nerium Odorum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिललाटmfn. having a white forehead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिमांसn. "white-flesh", fat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सितिमन्m. whiteness
सितिमारक(prob.) wrong reading for sita-sāraka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिनस्mfn. white-nosed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिङ्गmfn. (prob.) whitish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिपद्mf(padī-)n. (strong form -p/ād-) white-footed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिपद्mf(padī-)n. black-footed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिपादmfn. white-footed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिपक्षmf(ā-)n. white-winged View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिपक्षm. a goose (see sita-p-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिप्रभmfn. white-hued, whitish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिपृष्ठmf(ā-)n. white-backed (according to to others "black-backed")
शितिपृष्ठm. Name of a serpent-priest (fabled to have acted as maitrā-varuṇa- at a sacrifice) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिरन्ध्रmfn. having white ear-holes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिरत्नn. "blue-gem", a sapphire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिसारकm. "having a dark essence", Diospyros Embryopteris View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिवालmfn. white-tailed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिवरm. Marsilea Quadrifulia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिवारmfn. white-tailed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिवारm. equals -vara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सितिवारm. equals śiti-v- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शितिवासस्mfn. wearing a dark garment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सितिवासस्mfn. clad in black View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सितिवासस्m. Name of bala-rāma- (for śiti-v-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्मितिf. smiling, a smile, laughter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्नेहितिf. (prob.) slaughter, carnage (see sn/īhiti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्निहितिf. moisture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्नीहितिf. wetness, moisture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्नीहितिf. (prob.) slaughter, carnage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शोणितिन्See vāta-ś-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्राद्धदीधितिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रितिf. approach, recourse, entering (See ucchriti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रितिf. (-) equals śṛtyai-, śrayaṇārtham- (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. standing upright or firmly, not falling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. standing, staying, remaining, abiding, stay, residence, sojourn in or on or at (locative case or compound; sthitiṃ-kṛ-or vi--1. dhā-or grah-or bhaj-,"to make a stay","take up one's abode") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. staying or remaining or being in any state or condition (See rājya-sth-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. continuance in being, maintenance of life, continued existence (the 2nd of the three states of all created things, the 1st being utpatti-,"coming into existence", and the 3rd laya-,"dissolution"), permanence, duration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. duration of life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. (in astronomy) duration of an eclipse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. continued existence in any place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. that which continually exists, the world, earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. any situation or state or position or abode View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. station, high position, rank etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. maintenance, sustenance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. settled rule, fixed decision, ordinance, decree, axiom, maxim etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. maintenance of discipline, establishment of good order (in a state etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. continuance or steadfastness in the path of duty, virtuous conduct, steadiness, rectitude, propriety View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. constancy, perseverance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. devotion or addiction to, intentness on (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. firm persuasion or opinion, conviction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. settled practice, institution, custom, usage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. settled boundary or bounds (especially of morality exempli gratia, 'for example' sthitim-bhid-,"to transgress the bounds of morality"), term, limit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. standing still, stopping, halting (sthitim ā-car-,"to remain standing") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. standing-place, halting-place, stand or place or fixed abode View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. resistance to motion, inertia (in philosophy) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. fixedness, immobility, stability View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. depositing, laying down View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. form, shape View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. manner of acting, procedure, behaviour, conduct View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. occurrence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. regard or consideration for (locative case) varia lectio View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिf. (in Vedic gram.) the standing of a word by itself (id est without the particle iti-;See sthita-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिभिद्mfn. violating or transgressing the bounds of morality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिदेशm. place of abode View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिज्ञmfn. knowing (and observing) the bounds of morality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिकर्तृmfn. causing stability or permanence
स्थितिमत्mfn. possessing firmness or stability, firm, stable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिमत्mfn. lasting, enduring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिमत्mfn. keeping within limits (as the ocean) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिमत्mfn. keeping within the limits of morality, virtuous, honest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिपालनm. maintenance of stability or permanence (naṃ-kṛ-,"to maintain stability") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिप्रदmfn. bestowing firmness or stability View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिप्रकरणn. Name of a chapter of the vāsiṣṭha-rāmāyaṇa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिस्थापकmfn. restoring anything to its original state or condition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिस्थापकm. the capability of restoration to an original state or position, elasticity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिता(sthit/i--) f. fixity, stability, firm position View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थितिवर्मन्m. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्तोमचितिf. piling up the bricks called stoma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुचरितिन्mfn. well-conducted, moral, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुधादीधितिm. equals sudhāṃśu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुधितिmfn. equals svadhiti-, an axe, hatchet, knife
सुदीदितिmfn. flaming brightly, shining beautifully View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुदितिmfn. (in a formula as opp. to a-diti-) (su-dīt/i- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुक्षितिf. a good abode, secure dwelling, place of refuge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुमिति(s/u--) f. the being well fixed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुपर्णचितिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुपर्णचितिदीपिकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुपर्णचितिपद्धतिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुरसमितिf. an assemblage of gods View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुरोहितिकाf. Name of a woman gaRa śivādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुस्थितिf. an excellent position View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुस्थितिf. good condition, wellbeing, welfare View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुस्थितिf. health convalescence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्वधितिsee svadh-, parasmE-pada 1280. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्वधितिmf. (also written śv-) an axe etc. (in among the vajra-māni-; dev/ī sv/adhitiḥ-,"heavenly axe", thunderbolt) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्वधितिmf. a saw View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्वधितिmf. (according to some) a large tree with hard wood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्वधितिहेतिकm. "axe-armed", a soldier armed with an axe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्वैति(fr. śveta-) gaRa sutaṃgamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्वर्णदीधितिm. "gold-rayed", fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्वयंचितिf. piling up on one's own account View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्विति(prob.) f. whiteness, a white colour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तडतडितिind. (onomatopoetic (i.e. formed from imitation of sounds)) crack! View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तडतडितिind. see taṭataṭa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तडितिind. (onomatopoetic (i.e. formed from imitation of sounds)) equals taḍataḍ-iti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तैतिक्षmfn. (fr. titikṣā-) patient gaRa chattrādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तैतिक्षmfn. relating to kṣya- gaRa kaṇvādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तैतिक्षवm. patronymic fr. titikṣu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तैतिक्ष्यm. patronymic fr. titikṣa- gaRa gargādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तैतिलm. Name of a man (varia lectio tala-) gaRa tikādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तैतिलm. a rhinoceros View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तैतिलm. a god View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तैतिलm. kaliṅga-, 129 Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तैतिलn. (m. Scholiast or Commentator) a pillow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तैतिलn. Name of the 4th karaṇa- (in astr.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तैतिलकद्रूf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तैतिलायनिm. patronymic fr. taitila- gaRa tikādi- (varia lectio tal-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तैतिलिm. Name of a man () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तैतिलिm. (tali-[in Prakritteyali ] ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तैतिलिन्m. Name of a man (equals la-) Va1rtt. 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तारक्षितिf. Name of a country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
टसितिind. idem or 'ind. (sad-iti-) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तिग्मदीधितिm. "hot-rayed", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तिमितिमिंगिलm. a large fabulous fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तितिभm. cochineal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तितिक्षm. (fr. Desiderative) Name of a man gaRa kaṇvādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तितिक्षाf. endurance, forbearance, patience etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तितिक्षाf. Patience (daughter of dakṣa-;wife of dharma-;mother of kṣema-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तितिक्षetc. See above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तितिक्षितmfn. endured View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तितिक्षितmfn. patient View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तितिक्षुmfn. bearing, enduring patiently, forbearing, patient View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तितिक्षुm. Name of a son of mahā-manas-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तितिलn. sesamum cake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तितिलn. one of the 7 karaṇa-s (in astronomy) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तितिलn. a bowl or bucket View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तितिरिfor titt-, a partridge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तितिरुm. or f. = pasaṃga-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्रटत्त्रटितिind. crack! View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तुहिनदीधितिm. idem or 'm. idem or 'm. equals -kara- ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तुहिनक्षितिभृत्m. equals tuṣāra-giri- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उच्छ्रितिf. rising upwards, elevation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उच्छ्रितिf. increase, intensity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उच्छ्रितिf. the upright side of a triangle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उच्छ्रितिf. the elevation or height of a figure. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उदीर्णदीधितिmfn. intensely bright. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उदितिf. ascending or rising (of the sun) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उदितिf. going away or down, setting of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उदितिf. conclusion, end (of a sacrifice, through the fire going out ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उज्झितिf. abandoning (the world) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उज्जितिf. victory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उज्जितिf. Name of the verses (so called because the words /udajayat tam /ujjeṣam-occur in them) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उन्मितिf. measure of altitude commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उन्मितिf. measure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उन्मितिf. value, price. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपचितिf. accumulation, increase View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपचितिf. augmentation, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपचितिf. gain, advantage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपचितिf. a heap, pile View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपचितिf. (in arithmetic) progression View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपहितिf. the putting or placing upon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपहितिf. devotedness to
उपमितिf. comparison View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपमितिf. resemblance, likeness, similarity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपमितिf. analogy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपमितिf. knowledge of things derived from analogy or resemblance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपासादितिन्mfn. one who has met or approached View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपस्निहितिf. the becoming wet, moistening on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपस्थितिf. standing near, approach View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपस्थितिf. presence, proximity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपस्थितिf. accomplishing, completeness See an-upa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपस्थितिf. obtaining, getting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपस्थितिf. remaining View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपस्थितिf. the faculty of remembering, memory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपवेष्टितिन्mfn. one who has wrapped himself round the loins in a cloth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपोदितिm. Name of a ṛṣi- (son of gopāla-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ऊर्ध्वस्थितिf. standing upright, rearing (of a horse) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ऊर्ध्वस्थितिf. a horse's back View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ऊर्ध्वस्थितिf. the place where the rider sits View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ऊर्ध्वस्थितिf. elevation, superiority View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उरुक्षितिf. spacious dwelling or habitation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उष्णदीधितिm. "hot-rayed", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्सर्गसमितिf. carefulness in the act of excretion (so that no living creature be hurt ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उत्थितिf. elevation, rising up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वैप्रचितिmfn. (fr. vipra-cita-) gaRa sutaṃgamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वाजजिति() f. a victorious course or contest. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वंशस्थितिf. the state or condition of a family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वनधिति(van/a--) f. (prob.) a layer of wood to be laid on an altar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वारितिmfn. growing near the water (said of water-plants) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वर्णव्यवस्थिति() f. caste-system, institution of caste. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वर्षदीधितिf. Name of work
वस्तुस्थितिf. reality (instrumental case"in reality") , sāṃkhya-s. Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वसुधितिmfn. (v/asu--) possessing wealth, bestowing wealth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वसुधितिf. the bestowal of wealth or a treasury View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वातशोणितिन्mfn. suffering from it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वायुचितिf. vāyu-'s pile or layer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वेष्टितिन्mfn. wearing a turban View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विचिचितिf. equals caya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विदीधितिmfn. rayless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विहसितिकाSee hasatikā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विहितिf. procedure, way of acting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विहितिf. action, performance, accomplishment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विजितिf. (v/i--) contest for victory, conquest, triumph View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विजितिf. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') gain or acquisition of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विजितिf. Name of a goddess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विजितिन्mfn. victorious, triumphant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विनिर्मितिf. formation, building, creation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विपन्नदीधितिmfn. one whose splendour or glory is gone. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विस्मितिf. astonishment, wonder, surprise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विश्वक्षिति(viśv/a--) mfn. equals -kṛṣṭi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वितिf. equals vīti-, in g/aurī-viti- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वितिलकmfn. having no sectarian mark (on the forehead) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वितिमिरmfn. equals -tamas- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वितिरे vi-tīrṇa- See vi-tṝ-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्याकुलितिन्mfn. = vyākulitam anena- gaRa iṣṭādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यवहारदीधितिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यवहारस्थितिf. judicial procedure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यवसितवसितिf. ascertainment, determination, resolution View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यवस्थितवस्थितिf. the being placed apart or kept asunder or distinguished, separation, distinction, difference staying, abiding, perseverance in (instrumental case or locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यवस्थितवस्थितिf. constancy, steadfastness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यवस्थितवस्थितिf. fixity, fixed rule or statute, decision, determination etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यवस्थितवस्थितिf. extracting (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यथाचितिind. layer after layer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यथास्थितिind. according to usage, as on previous occasions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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iti इति ind. 1 this particle is most generally used to report the very words spoken or supposed to be spoken by some one, as represented by quotation marks in English. The speech reported may be (1) a single word used merely to express what the form of the word is, when it is used as it is (शब्दस्वरूपद्योतक); कूजन्तं रामरामेति मधुरं मधुराक्षरम् Rāmarakṣā. अत एव गवित्याह Bhartṛi.; (2) or a substantive, which must be put in the nominative case when its meaning is to be indicated (प्रतिपदिकार्थद्योतक); चयस्त्विषामित्यवधारितं पुरा ... क्रमादमुं नारद इत्यबोधि सः Śi.1.3.; अवैमि चैनामनघेति R.14.4; दिलीप इति राजेन्दुः R.1.12; sometimes with acc. कैवर्तमिति यं प्राहुः Ms.1.34.; Bg.6.2; (3) or a whole sentence when इति is merely used at the end of that sentence; (वाक्यार्थद्योतक); ज्ञास्यसि कियद् भुजो मे रक्षति भौंर्वीकिणाङ्क इति Ś.1.13; तयोर्मुनिकुमारयोरन्यतरः कथयति अक्षमालामुपयचितुमागतो- स्मीति K.151. -2 Besides this general sense इति has the following senses:-(a) Cause, as expressed by 'because', 'since', 'on the ground that', in English; वैदेशिको$स्मीति पृच्छामि U.; पुराणमित्येव न साधु सर्वम् M.1.2, oft. with किम् q. v. (b) Purpose or motive, as expressed by 'that', 'in order that' शरीरस्य विनाशो मा भूदिति मयेदमु- त्क्षिप्य समानीतम् K.32; R.1.37. (c) Thus, to mark the conclusion (opp. अथ); इति प्रथमो$ङ्कः thus or here ends the first Act. (d) It is often used to include under one head a number of separate objects grouped together; पृथिव्यापस्तेजो वायुराकाशं कालो दिगात्मा मन इति द्रव्याणि T. S. (e) So, thus, in this manner; इत्युक्तवन्तं परिरभ्य दोर्भ्याम् Ki.11.8. (f) Of this nature or description; गौरश्वः पुरुषो हस्तीति जातिः. (g) As follows, to the following effect; रामाभिधानो हरिरित्युवाच R.13.1. (h) As for, in the capacity of, as regards, showing capacity or relation; पितेति स पूज्यः, अध्यापक इति निन्द्यः, शीघ्रमिति सुकरं, निभृतमिति चिन्तनीयं भवेत् Ś.3. (i) It is often used with the name of an author to form an Avyayibhāva comp. इतिपाणिनि thus according to Pāṇini. (j) Illustration (usually with आदि); इन्दुरिन्दुरिव श्रीमानित्यादौ तदनन्वयः Chandr.; गौः शुश्चलो डित्थ इत्यादौ K. P.2. (k) A quotation or an opinion accepted; इति पाणिनिः, इत्यापिशलिः, इत्यमरः, विश्वः &c. (l) It is often used by commentators after quoting a rule in the sense of 'according to such a rule'; शकि लिङ् च (P.III.3.172) इति शक्यार्थे लिङ् Malli. Other senses mentioned are:- (m) Manifestation. (n) Order. (o) Arrangement. (p) Identity. (q) Proximity. (r) Visibility. (s) Excess or superiority. (t) Requiring. (इति स्वरूपे सान्निध्ये विवक्षानियमे मते । हेतौ प्रकार- प्रत्यक्षप्रकाशेप्यवधारणे, एकमर्थे समाप्तौ च ॥ Hem.). -Comp. -अर्थः sum and substance, meaning in short (often) used by commentators). -अर्थम् ind. for this purpose, hence. -आदि a. having such a thing or things at the beginning, so forth, et cætera (&c.). इत्यादिप्रचुराः पुरातन- कथाः सर्वेभ्य एवं श्रुताः Udb. -उक्तम् information, report. -कथ a. 1 not fit to be believed, untrustworthy. -2 wicked, lost. (-था) a meaningless or nonsensical talk. -कर्तव्य, -करणीय, -कार्य, -कृत्य a. proper or necessary to be done according to certain rules. (-कर्तव्यम्, -णीयम्) duty, obligation; श्रूयतामितिकर्तव्यं सर्वानेव ब्रवीमि वः Rām.2.68.5. एवं सर्वं विधायेदमितिकर्तव्यमात्मनः Ms.7.14 2. संसिद्धावितिकरणीयसंनिबद्धैरालापैः Ki.7.17. ˚ता, -कार्यता, -कृत्यता any proper or necessary duty, obligation; स मुहूर्तमिव घ्यात्वा विनिश्चित्येतिकृत्यताम् Mb.3.36.4. इति- कर्तव्यतामूढः wholly at a loss what to do, embarrassed, perplexed. -पाणिनि ind. Thus according to Pāṇini's very words. -मात्र a. of such extent or quality. -वृत्तम् 1 occurrence, event. -2 a tale, story.
iti इतिः 1 Knowledge. -2 Speed; Śabda Ch.
iti इतिः f. Going, moving.
itiha इतिह ind. Thus indeed, quite in conformity to tradition; सुप्रसिद्धः प्रवादो$यमितिहेतीह गीयते Mv.2.47.
itihāsaḥ इतिहासः [fr. इति-ह-आस (3rd. pers. sing. Perf. of अस् to be); so it has been] (1 History (legendary or traditional); धर्मार्थकाममोक्षाणामुपदेशसमन्वितम् पूर्ववृत्तं कथा- युक्तमितिहासं प्रचक्षते; Mb. cf. also आर्यादिबहुव्याख्यानं देवर्षि- चरिताश्रयम् । इतिहासमिति प्रोक्तं भविष्याद्भुतधर्मयुक् ॥ -2 Heroic history (such as the Mahābhārata). -3 Historical evidence, tradition (which is recognized as a proof by the Paurāṇikas). -Comp. -निबन्धनम् legendary composition or narrative; Ś3. -पुराणम् history and legendary stories; इतिहासपुराणानि पञ्चमो वेद उच्यते । -वादः historical story, legend; Māl.3.3.
itika इतिक a. Having gait or speed.
itiśaḥ इतिशः Name of a sage.
ititha इतिथ a. Ved. Such a one, such.
itivat इतिवत् ind. In the same manner.
aṃhiti अंहितिः ती f. [अंह् क्तिन् ग्रहादित्वात् इट् Tv.] A gift.
akṣiti अक्षिति a. [न. ब.] Imperishable. -तिः f. Imperishable nature; यो वैषामक्षितिं वेद सो$न्नमिति प्रतीकेन Br. &Aamacr;r. Up.1.5.1.
aditi अदिति a. [न दीयते खण्ड्यते बध्यते बृहत्त्वात्; दो-क्तिच्] Free, not tied. आदित्यासो अदितयः स्याम Rv.7.52.1. boundless, unlimited, inexhaustible; entire, unbroken; happy, pious (mostly Ved. in all these senses). -तिः [अत्ति प्राणिजातम्; अद्इतिच्] 1 Devourer i. e. death; यद्यदेवासृज तत्तदत्तुमध्रियत, सर्वं वा अत्तीति तददितेरदितित्वम् Bṛi. Ār. Up.1.2.5. -2 An epithet of God. -तिः f. [न दातुं शक्तिः] 1 Inability to give, poverty. -2 [दातुं छेत्तुम् अयोग्या] (a) The earth. (b) The goddess Aditi, mother of the Ādityas, in mythology represented as the mother of gods; see further on. (c) Freedom, security; boundlessness, immensity of space (opp. to the earth). (d) Inexhaustible abundance, perfection. (e) The lunar mansion called पुनर्वसु. (f) Speech; या प्राणेन संभवत्यदितिर्देवतामयी (शब्दादीनां अदनात् अदितिः Śaṅkara). (g) A cow. cf. ŚB. on MS. 1-3-49. (h) Milk; wife (?). -ती (dual) Heaven and earth. [अदिति literally means 'unbounded', 'the boundless Heaven', or according to others, 'the visible infinite, the endless expanse beyond the earth, beyond the clouds, beyond the sky'. According to Yāska अदिति- रदीना देवमाता, and the verse beginning with अदितिर्द्यौः &c. Rv.1.89.16. he interprets by taking अदिति to mean अदीन i. e. अनुपक्षीण, न ह्येषां क्षयो$स्ति इति. [In the Ṛigveda Aditi is frequently implored 'for blessing on children and cattle, for protection and for forgiveness'. She is called 'Devamātā' being strangely enough represented both as mother and daughter of Dakṣa. She had 8 sons; she approached the gods with 7 and cast away the 8th (Mārtaṇḍa, the sun.) In another place Aditi is addressed as 'supporter of the sky, sustainer of the earth, sovereign of this world, wife of Viṣṇu', but in the Mahābhārata, Rāmāyaṇa and Purāṇas, Viṣṇu is said to be the son of Aditi, one of the several daughters of Dakṣa and given in marriage of Kaśyapa by whom she was the mother of Viṣṇu in his dwarf incarnation, and also of Indra, and she is called mother of gods and the gods her sons, 'Aditinandanas'; See Dakṣa and Kaśyapa also]. -Comp. -जः, -नन्दनः a god, divine being.
adhidīdhiti अधिदीधिति a. Of superior or transcendental lustre; निदाघधामानमिवाधिदीधितिम् Śi.1 24.
anupaṭhitin अनुपठितिन् a. Who has read through, proficient.
anupasthiti अनुपस्थितिः f. 1 Absence; मम ˚तिं क्षमन्तां भवन्तः your honour will be pleased to excuse my absence. -2 Inability to remember.
anumiti अनुमितिः f. Inference form given premises; the knowledge obtained by means of अनुमान; लिङ्गपरामर्शजन्यं ज्ञानमनुमितिः the knowledge that arises from deduction or syllogistic reasoning.
anaitihyam अनैतिह्यम् Absence of traditional sanction or authority, or that which is without such sanction; अनागतमनैतिह्यं कथं ब्रह्माधिगच्छति Mb.12.239.2.
anviti अन्विति a. Won over or favourably disposed by means of a salutation. -तिः f. 1 Following. -2 Food.
apaciti अपचितिः f. (P.VII.2.3 Vārt.) 1 Loss, decay, decline, destruction; न वैनतेयो गरुडः प्रशंसति महाजनम् । दृष्ट्वा- सुपर्णो$पचितिं महत्या अपि भारत ॥ Mb.6.3.84. -2 Expense. -3 Atonement, amends; निहत्य पितृहन्तारं यास्याम्यपचितिं पितुः Bhāg.1.66.27. Compensation, expiation of sin. -4 Exclusion. -5 Punishing. -6 N. of a daughter of Marīchi. -7 Honouring, worshipping, showing reverence, worship; अहं त्वपचितिं भ्रातुः पितुश्च सकलामिमाम् (करिष्यामि) Rām.2.74.3; विहितापचितिर्महीभृता Śi.16.9.1.17; (where it also means loss, destruction हानि), अस्य वनशुन इवापचितिः 15.34; देवतोचितामपचितिं संपाद्य K.324; Ki.6.46; 11.9. cf. स्त्री पूजायामपचितिर्द्वयोश्च स्यात्क्षयार्चयोः Nm.
abhijiti अभिजितिः f. Ved. Victory, conquest.
arcitin अर्चितिन् a. Honouring, adoring.
arditin अर्दितिन् a. [अर्दितमस्त्यस्य-ईनि] Suffering from the spasms of jaw-bones.
āhiti आहितिः f. Ved. Placing on, anything placed on.
āsthiti आस्थितिः Condition.
ucchriti उच्छ्रितिः = उच्छ्रय q. v.
ujjiti उज्जितिः f. Ved. 1 Victory. -2 N. of certain verses in the Vājasaneyī Saṁhitā.
utthiti उत्थितिः f. Elevation, rising up. उत्पक्ष्मन् utpakṣman उत्पक्ष्मल utpakṣmala उत्पक्ष्मन् उत्पक्ष्मल a. With up-turned eye lashes; उत्पक्ष्मणोर्नयनयोरुपरुद्धवृत्तिम् Ś.4.15; V.2.
uditi उदितिः f. 1 Ascending, rising (of the sun); पश्येम तदुदितौ सूर्यस्य Av.7.5.3. -2 Setting, मध्यन्दिन उदिता सूर्यस्य Rv.5.69.3;76.3. -3 Speech.
unmiti उन्मितिः f. Measure; price.
upaciti उपचितिः f. 1 Accumulation, collection, growth, increase; सहायोपचितिम् कृत्वा Mb.5.134.5. -2 honour, gain; लब्धोपचितयः सर्वे Bhāg.1.12.29.
upahiti उपहितिः f. 1 The putting or placing upon. -2 Devotedness to; Yv. Ts 2.
upamiti उपमितिः f. 1 Resemblance, comparison, similarity; पल्लवोपमितिसाम्यसपक्षम् S. D.; तदाननस्योपमितौ दरिद्रता N.1.24. -2 (In Nyāya Phil.) Analogy, inference, deduction, knowledge of things derived from analogy, a conclusion deduced by means of an उपमान; प्रत्यक्षमप्यनुमितिस्तथोप- मितिशब्दजे Bhāṣā P.52. -3 A figure of speech = उपमा q. v. -4 A likeness, picture.
upasthiti उपस्थितिः f. 1 Approach. -2 Proximity, presence. -3 Obtaining, getting. -4 Accomplishing, effecting. -5 Remembrance, recollectiou, -6 Service, attendance.
aitihāsika ऐतिहासिक a. (-की f.) [इतिहास-ठक्] 1 Traditional. -2 Historical -कः 1 An historian. -2 One who knows or studies ancient legends.
aitihyam ऐतिह्यम् Traditional instruction, legendary account; ऐतिह्यमनुमानं च प्रत्यक्षमपि चागमम् Rām.; किलेत्यैतिह्यो (ऐतिह्य is regarded as one of the Pramāṇas or proofs by the Paurāṇika as and reckoned along with प्रत्यक्ष अनुमान &c.; see अनुभव). प्रत्यक्षं ह्येतयोर्मूलं कृतान्तैतिह्ययोरपि Mb.12. 218.27; श्रुतिः प्रत्यक्षमैतिह्यमनुमानं चतुष्टयम् । प्रमाणेप्वनवस्थाना- द्रिकल्पात्स विरज्यते ॥ Bhāg.11.19.17.2. Tradition -a figure of speech; Kuval.123.
aupasthitikaḥ औपस्थितिकः An attendant; एष भर्तृपादमूलादौपस्थितिको हंसकः आगतः Pratijñā.1.
kulamiti कुलमितिका A variety of carpets; Kau. A.2.11.
kṣiti क्षितिः f. [क्षि निवासे आधारे क्तिन्] 1 The earth, soil of the earth; Mb.4. -2 A dwelling, an abode, a house; तं भक्तिभावो$भ्यगृणादसत्वरं परिश्रुतोरुश्रवसं ध्रुवक्षितिः Bhāg.4.9.5. -3 Loss, destruction. -4 The end of the world. -5 Wane. -6 A man (Ved.) -7 Prosperity; क्षिते रोहः प्रवहः शश्वदेव Mb.13.76.1. -8 Number 'one'; Bij. -Comp. -अदितिः an epithet of Devakī, mother of Kṛiṣṇa. -ईशः, -ईश्वरः a king; R.1.5; तदाननं मृत्सुरभि- क्षितीक्षरो रहस्युपाघ्नाय न तृप्तिमाययौ 3.3;11.1. -कणः dust. -कम्पः an earth-quake. -क्षित् m. a king, prince; Śi.13.4. -जः, -रुहः, -सुतः 1 a tree; गिरिप्रकाशान् क्षिति- जान् भञ्जेयमनिलो यथा Mb.7.197.19. -2 an earth worm. -3 the planet Mars. -4 N. of the demon Naraka killed by Viṣṇu. Śi.8.15. (-जम्) the horizon. (-जा) an epithet of Sītā. -तलम् the surface of the earth. उत्खातं निधिशङ्कया क्षितितलं ध्माता गिरेर्धातवः Bh.3.4. -त्राणम् protection of the earth (a duty of क्षत्रिय caste). -देवः, -सुरः a Brāhmaṇa; Bhāg.3.1.12. -धरः a mountain; क्षितिधरपतिकन्यामाददानः करेण Ku.7.94. -धेनुः earth considered as a milchcow; राजन्दुधुक्षसि यदि क्षितिधेनुमेतां तेनाद्य वत्समिव लोकममुं पुषाण Bh.2.46. -नाथः, -पः, -पतिः, -पालः, भुज् m., -रक्षिन् m. a king, sovereign; R.2.51, 6.76,6.86,7.3,9.75; यः संमानं सदा धत्ते भृत्यानां क्षितिपो$- धिकम् Pt. -पुत्रः 1 the planet Mars. -2 the demon Naraka. -प्रतिष्ठ a. dwelling on the earth. -भृत् m. 1 a mountain; सर्वक्षितिभृतां नाथ V.4.27; (where it means 'a king' also); Ki.5.2; Ṛs.6.26. -2 a king. -मण्डलम् the globe. -रन्ध्रम् a ditch, hollow. -वर्धनः m. a corpse, dead body. करोमि क्षितिवर्धनम् Bk. -वृत्तिः f. 'the course of the earth, patient behaviour. -व्युदासः a cave within the earth, an underground hole. -संक्रन्दनः (= क्षितीन्द्रः, a king); Śāhendra.2.1. -स्पृश् an inhabitant of the earth (मानुष); इति चोपनतां क्षितिस्पृशं कृतवानासुरपुष्पदर्शनात् R.8.81.
gaṇitin गणितिन् m. One who has made a calculation. -2 A mathematician.
gāṇitikaḥ गाणितिकः An arithmetician; Līla.
citi चितिः f. [चि-आधारे क्तिन्] 1 Collecting, gathering. -2 A heap, multitude, quantity. -3 A layer, pile, stack; सभ्यावसथ्यं चितयो$सवो हि ते Bhāg.3.13.37. -4 A funeral pile. -5 An oblong with quadrangula rsides. -6 The understanding. -m. The thinking mind.
citi चितिका 1 A pile, stack. -2 A funeral pile. -3 A small chain (or girdle) worn as an ornament round the loins.
cintiti चिन्तितिः f. चिन्तिया Consideration, reflection, thought.
jiti जितिः f. 1 Victory, conquest; क्षेमाय तापविरमाय च मृत्यु- जित्यै Bhāg.12.8.41. -2 Gaining, obtaining; सिषासनिर्वनते कार इज्जितिम् Rv.1.53.11.
jhaṭiti झटिति ind. Quickly, at once; मुक्ताजालमिव प्रयाति झटिति भ्रश्यद्दृशो$दृश्यताम् Bh.1.96,7; आनीय झटिति घटयति विधि- रभिमतमभिमुखीभूतः Ratn.1.5. -मालिन् God Śiva. -मुखी a volcano. -रासभकामयः Ring-worm. -लिङ्गम् N. of a sanctuary of Śiva; ततो ददृशतुस्तत्र ज्वालालिङ्गं महत् पुरः Ks.1.28. -वक्त्रः an epithet of Śiva.
titikṣā तितिक्षा Endurance, patience, resignation, forbearance; अनपायि निबर्हणं द्विषां न तितिक्षासममस्ति साधनम् Ki.2.43.
titikṣu तितिक्षु a. 1 Patient, forbearing, enduring; Bṛi. Up.4.4.23. -2 Desiring to give up; अतितिक्षुः पुत्रपौत्रान् Mb.12.141.7.
titikṣā तितिक्षा &c. See under तिज्.
titibhaḥ तितिभः 1 A fire-fly. -2 A kind of insect (इन्द्रगोप), cochineal.
titiraḥ तितिरः तित्तिरः The francoline partridge; Bhāg. 3.15.18. -Comp. -अङ्गम् a kind of steel.
titilam तितिलम् 1 A pressing stone (?); L. D. B. -2 N. of a karaṇa. (तैतिलम्). -3 Flattened sesamum cake. -4 A bowl or bucket.
taitikṣa तैतिक्ष a. (-क्षी f.) Patient, enduring.
taitiraḥ तैतिरः A partridge.
taitilaḥ तैतिलः 1 A rhinoceros. -2 A god. -लम् N. of the fourth astronomical period or करण.
diti दितिः f. 1 Cutting, splitting, dividing. -2 Liberality. -3 N. of a daughter of Dakṣa, wife of Kaśyapa and mother of the demons or daityas. -m. A king. -Comp. -जः, -तनयः a demon, a Rākṣasa.
dīdhiti दीधितिः f. 1 A ray of light; तैरेव प्रतियुवतेरकारि दूरात् कालुष्यं शशधरदीधितिच्छटाच्छैः Śi.8.38; R.3.22;17.48; N.2.69; U.6.18. -2 Splendour, brightness. -3 Bodily lustre, energy; विपन्नदीधितिरपि Bh.2.29. -4 A finger. -5 Ved. A religious prayer or devotion; इयं सा वो अस्मे दीधितिर्यजत्रा Rv.1.186. 11. -6 A son-in-law. -7 Divine inspiration.
dīdhitimat दीधितिमत् a. Brilliant. -m. The sun; प्रातर्दीधितिमानिव आविरभूत्) Ku.2.2;7.7.
duhiliti दुहिलितिका A hairy variety of skins of animals; Kau. A.2.11.
dvaitin द्वैतिन् m. A philosopher who maintains the dvaita doctrine.
dhagiti धगिति ind. In a moment, at once; K.
nirūpiti निरूपितिः f. 1 Definition (of an idea); ascertainment. -2 Investigation, examination.
nirmiti निर्मितिः f. Production, creation, formation, any artistic production; नवरसरुचिरां निर्मितिमादधती भारती कवेर्जयति K. P.1.1.
niśiti निशितिः f. Excitement, agitation (Ved.).
niściti निश्चितिः f. 1 Ascertainment, settling. -2 A determination, resolution.
paṭhiti पठितिः f. N. of a figure of speech.
paṇḍitiman पण्डितिमन् m. Learning, scholarship, wisdom.
pariciti परिचितिः f. Acquaintance, familiarity, intimacy.
parimiti परिमितिः f. 1 Measure, quantity. -2 Limitation.
palitin पलितिन् a. Grey-haired.
pratiṣṭhiti प्रतिष्ठितिः f. Ved. 1 Standing firmly. -2 A station, position.
prathiti प्रथितिः f. Celebrity, fame.
pradhāviti प्रधावितिका A passage for flight; अग्राह्ये देशे प्रधावितिकां निष्कुरद्वारं च Kau. A.2.3.21.
pramiti प्रमितिः f. 1 Measurement, a measure. -2 True or certain knowledge, accurate notion or conception. -3 Knowledge obtained by any one of the Pramāṇas or means of knowledge. -4 True inference or analogy. -5 Manifestation; इतिरेशे$तर्क्ये निजमहिमनि स्वप्रमितिके Bhāg. 1.13.57.
prasiti प्रसितिः f. 1 A net. -2 A ligament. -3 A tie, fetter. -4 An attack, assault. -5 A throw, shot. -6 Reach, extent. -7 A series, succession. -8 Power, authority, influence. -9 Ved. A flame. -1 A track, path.
prasthiti प्रस्थितिः f. 1 Going forth, departure. -2 March, journey.
miti मितिः f. [मा-मि-क्तिन्] 1 Measuring, a measure, weight. -2 Accurate knowledge. -3 Proof, evidence. -4 Determination.
raitika रैतिक रैत्य a. Brazen, made of brass.
lohitiman लोहितिमन् m. Redness.
viciti विचितिः f. 1 Searching, search, seeking for. -2 Inquiry, investigation.
vijiti विजितिः f. Conquest, victory, triumph; क्षितिविजिति- स्थितिविहितिव्रतरतयः परमतयः Kāv.3.85.
vismiti विस्मितिः f. Astonishment, wonder, surprise.
vihiti विहितिः f. 1 Performance, doing, action. -2 Arrangement.
vyavasiti व्यवसितिः 1 Determination. -2 Endeavour; भूम्नौत्सुक्यानुरूपव्यवसितिरधिकं पर्यवप्लुत्य गत्वा Mv.6.51.
vyavasthiti व्यवस्थिति See व्यवस्थान.
śiti शिति a. [शि-क्तिच्] 1 White. -2 Black; शितितारकानु- मितताम्रनयनमरुणीकृतं क्रुधा Śi.15.48. -3 Blue, dark blue; शितिना गलेन विलसन् मरीचिना Ki.12.23. -4 Variegated; L. D. B. -तिः The birch tree. -Comp. -कण्ठः 1 an epithet of Śiva; तस्यात्मा शितिकण्ठस्य सैनापत्यमुपेत्य वः Ku.2.61;6.81; Bhāg.4.3.12. -2 a peacock; अवनतशितिकण्ठकण्ठलक्ष्मीमिह दधति स्फुरिताणुरेणुजालाः Śi.4.56. -3 a gallinule. -कुम्भः the oleander tree (Mar. कण्हेर). -चन्दनम् musk. -छदः, -पक्षः a goose. -रत्नम् a sapphire. -वासस् m. an epithet of Balarāma; विडम्बयन्तं शितिवाससस्तनुम् Śi.1.6. -सारकः a kind of ebony.
śriti श्रितिः f. Resort, recourse, approach.
śviti श्वितिः f. Whiteness.
saṃsthiti संस्थितिः f. 1 Being together, staying with; यस्य मित्रेण संभाषा यस्य मित्रेण संस्थितिः H.1.36. -2 Contiguity, nearness, vicinity. -3 Residence, abode, resting-place; यथा नदीनदाः सर्वे सागरे यान्ति संस्थितिम् । तथैवाश्रमिणः सर्वे गृहस्थे यान्ति संस्थितिम् ॥ Ms.6.9. -4 Accumulation, heap. -5 Duration, continuance; धर्मार्थकाममोक्षाणं प्राणाः संस्थितिहेतवः H.1.4. -6 Station, state, condition of life. -7 Restraint. -8 Death; अहो इमां को नु लभेत संस्थितिम् Bhāg.3.19.27. -9 Destruction of the world. -1 Living in the same state; पुराणसंहिताप्रश्नो महापुरुषसंस्थितिः Bhāg.12.12.8. -11 Attaching importance to; नैता रूपं परीक्षन्ते नासां वयसि संस्थितिः Ms.9.14. -12 Form, shape (स्वरूप); उत्सृज्य सर्वतः सङ्गं विज्ञाताजितसंस्थितिः Bhāg.1.18.3. -13 Constancy; वैन्यस्तु धुर्यो महतां संस्थित्याध्यात्मशिक्षया Bhāg.4.22.49. -14 Standing or sitting on; केशभस्मतुषाङ्गारकपालेषु च संस्थितिम् Y.1.139.
saṃkalitin संकलितिन् a. One who has made an addition.
saṃciti संचितिः f. A collection.
samiti समितिः f. 1 Meeting, union, association; स्वधर्मे चानु- तिष्ठेत गुणानां समितिहिं सा Bhāg.11.25.8. -2 An assembly. -3 Flock, herd; द्युतिं समग्रां समितिर्गवामसौ Ki.4.32. -4 War, battle; आशंसन्ते समितिषु सुराः Ś.2.15 (v. l.); Ki.3.15; समितौ रभसादुपागतः Śi.16.13. -5 Likeness, equality. -6 Moderation. -7 (With Jainas) Rule of conduct. -Comp. -मर्दन a. harassing in battle. -शालिन् brave. -शोभन a. conspicuous in battle.
samitiṃjaya समितिंजय a. Victorious in battle; भवान् भीष्मश्च कर्णश्च कृपश्च समितिंजयः Bg.1.8.
samucchriti समुच्छ्रितिः Increase, growth. समुच्छ्वसितम् samucchvasitam समुच्छ्वासः samucchvāsḥ समुच्छ्वसितम् समुच्छ्वासः Sighing deeply, a heavy or deep sigh.
samupasthiti समुपस्थितिः = समुपस्थानम् q. v.
saṃmiti संमितिः Equalization, comparison.
siti सितिः Binding, fastening.
siti सिति a. 1 White. -2 Black. -तिः 1 White or black colour. -2 Binding, fastening. -Comp. -कण्ठ, -वासस् see शितिकण्ठ, शितिवासस्.
sitiman सितिमन् m. Whiteness.
sudhiti सुधितिः m., f. An axe.
saumitikam सौमितिकम् A variety of woollen cloth; Kau. A.2.11. सौमित्रः saumitrḥ सौमित्रिः saumitriḥ सौमित्रः सौमित्रिः 1 An epithet of Lakṣmaṇa; सौमित्रेरपि पत्रिणामविषये तत्र प्रिये क्वासि भोः U.3.45.
sthiti स्थितिः f. [स्था-क्तिन्] 1 Standing, remaining, staying, abiding, living, stay, residence; स्थितिं नो र दध्याः क्षणमपि मदान्धेक्षण सखे Bv.1.52; रक्षोगृहे स्थितिर्मूलमग्निशुद्धौ त्वनिश्चयः U.1.6. -2 Stopping, standing still, continuance in one state; प्रस्थितायां प्रतिष्ठेथाः स्थितायां स्थितिमाचरेः R.1.89. -3 Remaining stationary, fixity, steadiness, firmness, steady application or devotion; मम भूयात् परमात्मनि स्थितिः Bv.4.23; Māl.5.22. -4 A state, position, situation, condition; एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः पार्थ नैनां प्राप्य विमुह्यति Bg.2.72. -5 Natural state, nature, habit; सपर्वतावनां कृत्स्नां व्यथयिष्यामि ते स्थितिम् Rām.7.98.1; अथ वा स्थितिरियं मन्दमतीनाम् H.4. -6 Stability, permanence, perpetuation, continuance; वंशस्थितेरधिगमान्महति प्रमोदे V.5.15; कन्यां कुलस्य स्थितये स्थितिज्ञः Ku.1.18; Mv.7.3; R.3.27. -7 Correctness of conduct, steadfastness in the path of duty, decorum, duty, moral rectitude, propriety; अमंस्त चानेन परार्ध्यजन्मना स्थितेरभेत्ता स्थितिमन्तमन्वयम् R.3.27;11.65;12.31; कन्यां कुलस्य स्थितये स्थितिज्ञः (विधिनोपयेमे) Ku.1.18; Ś.5.1. -8 Maintenance of discipline, establishment of good order (in a state); स्थित्यै दण्डयतो दण्ड्यान् R.1.25. -9 Rank, dignity, high station or rank. -1 Maintenance, sustenance; जग्धार्धैर्नवसल्लकीकिसलयैरस्याः स्थितिं कल्पयन् Māl.9.32; R.5.9. -11 Continuance in life, preservation (one of the three states of human beings); सर्गस्थितिप्रत्यवहारहेतुः R.2.44; Ku.2.6. -12 Cessation, pause, stop, restriction; नासां कश्चिदगम्योस्ति नासां च वयसि स्थितिः Pt.1.143. -13 Wellbeing, welfare. -14 Consistency. -15 A settled rule, ordinance, decree, an axiom or maxim; अबान्धवं शवं चैव निर्हरेयुरिति स्थितिः Ms.1.55. -16 Settled determination. -17 Term, limit, boundary. -18 Inertia, resistance to motion. -19 Duration of an eclipse. -2 Regard, consideration, account; नासां च वयसि स्थितिः Pt.1.143. -Comp. -ज्ञ a. knowing the bounds of morality; कन्यां कुलस्य स्थितये स्थितिज्ञः Ku.1.18. -पद् the epithet of Viṣṇu; पादेषु सर्वभूतानि पुंसः स्थितिपदो विदुः Bhāg.2.6.18. -पदम् the proper basin (for flow), the right path; -अपामुद्वृत्तानां निजमुपदिशन्त्या स्थितिपदम् Mu.3.8. -भिद् a. violating the bounds of morality. -मार्गः the way to compose (the mind); मनसश्च स्थितिमार्गमाललम्बे Bu. Ch. 5.9. -स्थापक a. fixing in the original position, having the power of restoring to a previous state, having elastic properties. (-कः) elasticity, capability of recovering the former position.
sthitimat स्थितिमत् a. 1 Possessed of firmness, steady, firm; N.5.22. -2 Permanent; स्थितेरभेत्ता स्थितिमन्तमन्वयम् R. 3.27. -3 Virtuous, upright. -4 Keeping within limits (as the ocean).
smiti स्मितिः f. A smile, smiling.
svadhiti स्वधितिः m., f., -स्वधिती An axe; सूदा महानसं नीत्वा$- वद्यन्स्वधितिनाद्भुतम् Bhāg.1.55.5. -Comp. -हेतिकः a soldier armed with an axe.
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iti í-ti, pcl. thus, ii. 12, 52; vi. 54, 1. 2; x. 34, 6 [180].
aditi Á-diti, f. name of a goddess, viii. 48, 2 [unbinding, freedom, from 3. dā bind].
devahiti devá-hiti, f. divine order, viii. 103, 9 [devá god + hi-tí, f. impulse from hi impel].
purohiti puró-hiti, f. priestly service, vii. 61, 7.
prasiti prá-siti, f. toils, x. 34, 15 [si bind].
śitipad śiti-pád, a. (Bv.) white-footed, i. 35, 5.
sukṣiti su-kṣití, f. safe dwelling, ii. 35, 15.
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iti ad. so, thus (quoting words or thoughts, generally at the end, sts. at beg. or near the end, serving the purpose of inverted commas, and supplying the place of oratio obliqua; it is also used to conclude an enumeration, with or without ka): iti tathâ karoti, so saying, he acts accordingly (stage direction); iti kritvâ, so saying, therefore, considering that --; kimiti=kim, why? (sts. =iti kim). iti½iti, iti½iva, iti½uta, iti½e vam, iti sma, iti ha, iti ha sma=iti (sts. iti is followed pleonastically by a dem. prn.).
iti f. going.
itihāsa m. (&open;so-it-was&close;), tra dition, legend, story; epic poem.
itikartavya n. (thus it must be done), proper measure: -tâ, f. abst. n.: -mûdha, pp. completely at a loss what to do; -kârya, n. (-tâ, f. abst. n.), -kritya, n. (-tâ, f. abst. n.) proper measure; incum bency; -krama, m.; in. in such a manner; -thá, a. (î) such and such; -vat, ad. just so, in this very way; -vritta, n. incident, event.
atititīrṣu des. a. wishing to get across.
aditi a. infinite; f. infinity; N. of the mother of the gods.
aditi f. want, penury.
adhidīdhiti a. brightly illu mined.
anavasthiti f. restlessness; in stability.
anidāghadīdhiti m. moon.
abhitigmaraśmi ad. to wards the sun.
asthiti f. disorder.
asmehiti f. mission to us.
ahimadīdhiti m. sun; -mayûkha, -rasmi, -rokis, m. id.; -½amsu, m. id.
iddhadīdhiti m. fire.
ityartha iti̮artha, ˚ka a. having the above mentioned meaning.
ujjiti f. victory.
uditi f. sunrise; sunset.
upamiti f. similarity; analogical inference, induction; -meya, fp. comparable with (in., --°ree;); n. object compared (opp. to upamâna): -½upamâ, f. reciprocal simile.
aitihāsika a. (î) legendary; m. narrator of old legends.
kṣitikampa m. earthquake; -kshit, m. king, prince; -kshoda, m. dust of the earth; -tala, n. surface of the earth: -½ap saras, f. Apsaras dwelling on earth; -dhara, m. mountain; -dhenu, f. the cowlike earth; -pa, -pati, -pâla, -bhug, m. king; -bhrit, m. mountain; king; -rasa, m. sap of the earth; -lava-bhug, m. petty prince; -sakî pati, m. king; -sata-kratu, m. id.; -½indra, -½îsa, -½îsvara, m. king.
kṣiti f. destruction.
kṣiti f. abode, dwelling; earth, land: pl. the tribes, races, peoples, men.
citi f. pile of wood; funeral pyre; often --°ree; (after a numeral) a. in the sense of layer.
citi f. understanding; intellect, mind.
citi f. pile; pyre; heap; multitude.
chanacchaniti ad. hissing.
jiti f. acquisition; victory.
jhaṇiti ad. ting!
jhaṭiti ad. at once, on the spot.
ṭasat tasat, ṭasiti ij. bang!
titikṣā (des.) f. endurance (of, --°ree;); patience; -shú, des. a. enduring (ac.); patient.
taitila m. deity.
diti f. distribution; liberality.
dīdhiti f. sheen, brightness; ray; splendour, lustre.
dīdhiti f. devotion.
duṣkṛti dushkriti, ˚n a. sinning; m. miscreant, sinner.
dhagiti ad. in a trice.
dvaitin m. dualist.
nirmiti f. formation, creation; addition (of a word).
parīkṣiti m. Parîkshit.
miti f. 1. [√ mâ, measure] measure, weight, value; correct knowledge; 2. -tí, √ 1. mi] setting up, erection.
raitika a. [fr. rîti] made of brass, brazen.
lohitiman m. redness.
śiti a. white; black; (síti)-kakud, a. white-humped (V.); -káksha, a. white-shouldered (V.); -kántha, a. white-necked (V., rare); blue-necked (C.); m. (C.) peacock; ep. of Siva; N.: -ka, a. blue-necked (peacock); -paksha, a. white-winged; -pád, a. (stg. st. -pâd, f. pad-&isharp;) white-footed (V.); -pâda, a. id. (C.); -prishthá, a. (V.) white-backed (according to others, black-backed); -ratna, n. sapphire; -vâsas, a.wearing a dark garment; m. ep. of Balarâma.
saniti f. obtainment (RV.1).
samiti f. V., C.: coming together, meeting; council, assembly; V.: plot, league; C.: conflict, battle; combination (rare): -m- gaya, a. victorious in battle.
sitivāsas m. ep. of Balarâma (for siti-).
sitiman m. whiteness.
sthitideśa m. place of abode; -mat, a. firm, stable, enduring; keeping within bounds (ocean); observing the limits of morality, virtuous; -varman, m. N. of a prince; -sthâpaka, m. (sc. samskâra) elasticity (restoring the original state).
sthiti f. [√ sthâ] C.: standing; re maining, staying, stay, residence (in, on, at, with any one, lc., --°ree;; ord. mg.); upright posi tion (of the breasts); depositing, keeping (of records, money); halting-place, abode (also rarely in Br.); station, position, rank, dignity; steady application to, addiction to, intentness on (lc.); steadfastness, stability; sustained existence, continuance, permanence (common mg.; also U.); duration; existence, occur rence; procedure, behaviour, conduct; state, condition; decree, ordinance; settled rule, maxim (also Br.); usage, custom, institution; fixed opinion, conviction; attaching importance to (youth, lc.); steady adherence to the path of duty or law, moral rectitude; limit, bounds (esp. of morality): -m â-kar, remain standing; -m kri, grah, bhag, or vi-dhâ, make a stay, take up one's abode.
snīhiti f. moisture (V., rare); carnage (V., very rare).
svadhiti f. axe, (butcher's) knife (V., very rarely P.).
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itihāsa As a kind of literature, is repeatedlymentioned along with Purāna in the later texts of the Vedic period. The earliest reference to both occurs in the late fifteenth book of the Atharvaveda. Itihāsa then appears in the Satapatha Brāhmana, the Jaiminīya, Brhadāranyaka, and Chāndogya Upanisads. In the latter it is expressly declared with Purāna to make up the fifth Veda, while the Sāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra makes the Itihāsa a Veda and the Purāna a Veda. The Itihāsa-veda and the Purāna-veda appear also in the Gopatha Brāhmana, while the śatapatha identifies the Itihāsa as well as the Purāna with the Veda. In one passage Anvākhyāna and Itihāsa are distinguished as different classes of works, but the exact point of distinction is obscure; probably the former was supplementary. The Taittirīya Áranyaka mentions Itihāsas and Purānas in the plural. There is nothing to show in the older literature what dis¬tinction there was, if any, between Itihāsa and Purāna; and the late literature, which has been elaborately examined by Sieg, yields no consistent result. Geldner has conjectured that there existed a single work, the Itihāsa-purāna, a collection. of the old legends of all sorts, heroic, cosmogonic, genealogical; but though a work called Itihāsa, and another called Purāna, were probably known to Patañjali, the inaccuracy of Geldner’s view is proved by the fact that Yāska shows no sign of having known any such work. To him the Itihāsa may be a part of the Mantra literature itself, Aitihāsikas being merely people who interpret the Rigveda by seeing in it legends where others see myths. The fact, however, that the use of the compound form is rare, and that Yāska regularly has Itihāsa, not Itihāsa-purāna, is against the theory of there ever having been one work. The relation of Itihāsa to Akhyāna is also uncertain. Sieg considers that the words Itihāsa and Purāna referred to the great body of mythology, legendary history, and cosmogonic legend available to the Vedic poets, and roughly classed as a fifth Veda, though not definitely and finally fixed. Thus, Anvākhyānas, Anuvyākhyānas, and Vyākhyānas could arise, and separate Ákhyānas could still exist outside the cycle, while an Akhyāna could also be a part of the Itihāsa-purāna. He also suggests that the word Akhyāna has special reference to the form of the narrative. Oldenberg, following Windisch, and followed by Geldner, Sieg, and others, has found in the Akhyāna form a mixture of prose and verse, alternating as the narrative was concerned with the mere accessory parts of the tale, or with the chief points, at which the poetic form was naturally produced to correspond with the stress of the emotion. This theory has been severely criticized by Hertel and von Schroeder. These scholars, in accordance with older suggestions of Max Muller and Levi, see in the so-called Ákhyāna hymns of the Rigveda, in which Oldenberg finds actual specimens of the supposed literary genus, though the prose has been lost, actual remains of ritual dramas. Elsewhere it has been suggested that the hymns in question are merely literary dialogues.
upoditi gaupāleya Is mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāh­mana as a seer of Sāmans.
aitihāsika This term was applied to the people who explained the Vedic hymns by treating them as legendary history (Itihāsa), as Sieg shows by the passages of the Nirukta, where their views are opposed to those of the Nairuktas, who relied rather on etymology. Sieg also seems right in finding them in the Naidānas of the Nirukta: it is possible that their textbook was called the Nidāna.
aupoditi ‘Descendant of Upodita,’ is the patronymic applied in the Taittirīya Samhitā to Tumiñja, and in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra to Gaupālāyana, son of Vyāghrapad, Sthapati (‘ general ’) of the Kurus. In the form of Aupoditeya, a metro­nymic from Upoditā, the name is found in the śatapatha Brāhmana, where the Kānva text calls him Tumiñja Aupo­diteya Vaiyāghrapadya.
kṣiti Is in the Rigveda a regular word for dwelling,’ and in particular the ksitir dhruvā, the secure dwelling,’ is mentioned in a context that shows it to be equivalent to the Vrjana or Grāma regarded as a stronghold. From this sense is developed that of the peoples occupying the settlements, and in particular the five peoples (for whom see Pañca Janāsah).
tumiñja aupoditi Is mentioned in the Taittirīya Samhitā as a Hotr priest at a Sattra, or ‘ sacrificial session,’ and as having been engaged in a discussion with Suśravas.
prasiti In the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmana denotes a divine ‘ missile,’ but does not seem to be used of human combatants.
śitikakṣī In the Taittirīya Sarphitā is explained by Sāyaṇa as a 'white-breasted' (pāndarodara) vulture. The word may, however, well be only an adjective.
śitipṛṣṭha (‘White-backed’) is the name of the Maitrāvaruṇa priest at the snake festival in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa.
śitibāhu aiṣakṛta naimiśi Is mentioned as a sacrificer in the Jaiminīya Brāhmaṇa, where it is recorded that a monkey ran off with his sacrificial cake.
samiti Denotes an ‘assembly’ of the Vedic tribe. It is alreadv mentioned in the Rigveda, and often later, sometimes in connexion with Sabhā. Ludwig considers that the Samiti included all the people, primarily the viśafy, 'subjects,' but also the Mag’havans and Brahmins if they desired, though the Sabhā was their special assembly. This view is not probable, nor is that of Zimmer, that the Sabhā was the village assembly. Hillebrandt appears to be right in holding that Samiti and Sabhā are much the same, the one being the assembly, the other primarily the place of assembly. The king went to the assembly just as he went to the Sabhā. That he was elected there, as Zimmer thinks, is as uncertain as whether he was elected at all (see Rājan). But there are clear signs that concord between king and assembly were essential for his prosperity. It is reasonable to assume that the business of the assembly was general deliberation on policy of all kinds, legislation so far as the Vedic Indian cared to legislate, and judicial work (cf. Sabhāsad). But of all these occupations there is, perhaps as a result of the nature of the texts, little or no evidence directly available.The gods had a Samiti, hence called daivī, ‘divine,’ just as they had a Sabhā. The assembly disappears as an effective part of government in the Buddhist texts, the Epic, and the law-books.
svadhiti In the Rigveda denotes the ‘axe’ or ‘knife’ used for dissecting the sacrificial horse. In all the other passages in that Saṃhitā the sense of 'axe' for cutting wood is adequate; reference is made in one place to sharpening the axe on the whetstone (ksnotra). In the Atharvaveda the term seems once to denote the copper (lohita) knife used to mark the ears of cattle; the carpenter’s knife or axe is also twice referred to there.® Later the word means ‘axe’ generally. As a weapon it does not appear at all.
svadhiti In certain passages of the Rigveda denotes, according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, a great tree with hard wood. This interpretation seems probable.
       Bloomfield Vedic
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124 results
     
iti kalyāṇam akuruthāḥ Mś.9.2.2.7.
iti kratvā nyerire RV.4.1.1c.
iti kratvā bubhujrire RV.1.138.3c.
iti cid dhi tvā dhanā jayantam RV.10.120.4a; AVś.20.107.7a; AVP.6.1.4a. See yadi cin nu tvā.
iti cin nu prajāyai paśumatyai RV.5.41.17a.
iti cin manyum adhrijaḥ RV.5.7.10a.
iti cyavānā sumatiṃ bhuraṇyū RV.6.62.7d.
iti tvāgne vṛṣṭihavyasya putrāḥ RV.10.115.9a.
iti tvā devā ima āhur aiḍa RV.10.95.18a.
iti tvā rabha oṣadhe AVś.4.20.6d.
iti tvopāsmahe vayam AVś.13.4.47c,50b--53b,54c.
iti devāso abruvan RV.9.101.5b; AVś.20.137.5b; SV.2.223b; JB.3.53b.
iti nāko brahmiśravo rāyo dhanam TA.1.27.6c.
iti bravīti vaktarī rarāṇaḥ RV.10.61.12b.
iti manvīta yācitaḥ AVś.12.4.48b.
iti rohita śuśruma AB.7.15.1b; śś.15.19b.
iti vatsasya vedanā TA.1.8.2d.
iti vā iti me manaḥ RV.10.119.1a. P: iti vai VHDh.5.527. Cf. BṛhD.8.40.
iti śuśruma dhīrāṇām VS.40.10c,13c; īśāU.10c,13c.
iti sālvīr avādiṣuḥ ApMB.2.11.12b.
iti subandhur namasā sūktaiḥ RV.10.61.26b.
iti stutāso asathā riśādasaḥ RV.8.30.2a.
iti smaiva pratāmyati AB.8.22.8b.
itihāsapurāṇaṃ ca TB.3.12.8.2a.
itihāsapurāṇaṃ tarpayāmi BDh.2.5.9.14.
itiś ca me gatiś ca me TS.4.7.5.2. See ityā ca.
akṣiti devebhyo bhāsā tapantīm # JB.2.258.
akṣiti bhūyasīm # AVś.18.4.27. Apparently a pratīka: the Anukramaṇī designates the passage as yājuṣī gāyatrī, i.e. a mantra consisting of six syllables.
akṣitir asi mā me kṣeṣṭhā amutrāmuṣmiṃl loka iha ca (Aś. kṣeṣṭhā asmiṃś ca loke 'muṣmiṃś ca) # VSK.2.3.8; Aś.1.13.4; śś.4.9.4; 11.3; Kś.3.4.30. P: akṣitir asi mā me kṣeṣṭhāḥ KS.5.5; Aś.1.11.6. Cf. akṣatam asy, akṣitam asi etc., and akṣito 'si etc.
akṣitir nāma te asau # TA.6.7.2c.
akṣitir bhavatāt tvam # AVP.14.6.1d.
akṣitiś ca kṣitiś ca yā # AVś.11.7.25b; 8.4b,26b.
akṣitiś ca me kūyavāś ca me # TS.4.7.4.2. See kuyavaṃ.
aditi kāmadughā paprathānā # AVś.12.1.61b.
aditi keśān vapatu # AG.1.17.7a; MG.1.21.3a; ApMB.2.1.1b; JG.1.11b; VārG.4.8a. Cf. aditiḥ śmaśru, and adite keśān.
aditi pātv aṃhasaḥ # TS.1.5.11.5c.
aditi pātv aṃhasaḥ sadāvṛdhā # RV.8.18.6c.
aditi pāntu marutaḥ # AVś.6.3.1b; 4.2b.
aditi pāśaṃ (MS.KSṃś. pāśān) pra mumoktv etam (MS.KS. etān) # TS.3.1.4.4a; MS.1.2.15a: 26.2; KS.30.8a; Apś.7.17.5. P: aditiḥ pāśān MS.4.14.4: 220.13; Mś.1.8.3.36.
aditi putrakāmyā # AVś.6.81.3b.
aditi prāyaṇīyo 'paśusthā nyuptaḥ # KS.34.14. Cf. aditir āsāditaḥ.
aditi śīrṣṇā # VS.25.2; TS.5.7.13.1; MS.3.15.2: 178.6; KSA.13.3.
aditi sa diśāṃ devīṃ devatānām ṛchatu (KS.Apś. sa ṛchatu) yo maitasyai diśo 'bhidāsati # KS.7.2; TB.3.11.5.3; Apś.6.18.3.
aditi nāma vacasā karāmahe # AVś.7.6.4b; VS.9.5b; 18.30b; TS.1.7.7.1b; MS.1.11.1b: 161.8; KS.13.14b; śB.5.1.4.4.
aditim aham iha huve # AVP.3.9.4a.
aditi mitraṃ varuṇaṃ sujātān # RV.6.51.3b.
aditir achinnapatrā priyā (also achinnapatraḥ priyo) devānāṃ priyeṇa dhāmnā priye sadasi sīda # KS.1.11 (quater). Cf. aditiraśanāchinnapatrā, aditir asi nāchinnapatrā, and aditir asy achidrapattrā.
aditir adhipatir (VSṭS.KS.śB. adhipatny) āsīt # VS.14.29; TS.4.3.10.1; MS.2.8.6: 110.9; KS.17.5; śB.8.4.3.7.
aditir apaś ca barhiś ca # MS.1.9.2: 132.1. Cf. aditir vedyā, and maruto 'paś.
aditiraśanāchinnapatrā # Mś.1.2.3.24. Cf. under aditir achinnapatrā priyā.
aditir asi # VS.4.21; TS.1.2.5.1; MS.1.2.4: 13.8; 3.2.6: 24.17; KS.2.5; 16.16; śB.3.3.1.2.
aditir asi nāchinnapatrā # VārG.1.12. Cf. under aditir achinnapatrā priyā.
aditir asi viśvadhāyā viśvasya bhuvanasya dhartrī # VS.13.18; TS.4.2.9.1; MS.2.8.14: 117.16; KS.39.3; śB.7.4.2.7.
aditir asy achidrapattrā # Apś.2.6.1. Cf. under aditir achinnapatrā priyā.
aditir asy ubhayataḥśīrṣṇī # VS.4.19; TS.1.2.4.2; 6.1.7.5; MS.1.2.4: 13.4; 3.7.5: 81.19; KS.2.5; 24.3; śB.3.2.4.16.
aditir āsāditaḥ # TS.4.4.9.1. Cf. aditiḥ prāyaṇīyo.
aditir iva tvā suputropaniṣadeyam (Mś. saputropaniṣade yeyam) indrāṇīvāvidhavā # KS.1.10; Mś.1.2.5.11. See next.
aditir iva suputrā # TB.3.5.13.3; 7.5.10b; Apś.2.5.9b. See prec.
aditir ūtyā gamat # RV.8.18.7b; SV.1.102b; TB.3.7.10.5b; Apś.14.29.1b.
aditir jātam aditir janitvam # RV.1.89.10d; AVś.7.6.1d; VS.25.23d; MS.4.14.4d: 221.2; AB.3.31.12; TA.1.13.2d; JUB.1.41.4d; N.4.23d.
aditir devatā # MS.2.13.20: 165.16; TS.4.4.10.1; KS.7.2; 39.13; TB.3.11.5.3; Apś.6.18.3.
aditir devā gandharvā manuṣyāḥ pitaro 'surās teṣāṃ sarvabhūtānāṃ mātā medinī (MahānU. medinī pṛthivī) mahatī mahī sāvitrī gāyatrī jagaty urvī pṛthvī bahulā viśvā bhūtā katamā kāyā sā satyety amṛteti vasiṣṭhaḥ # TA.10.21.1; MahānU.13.7.
aditir dyāvāpṛthivī ṛtaṃ mahat # RV.10.66.4a.
aditir dyaur aditir antarikṣam # RV.1.89.10a; AVś.7.6.1a; VS.25.23a; MS.4.14.4a: 221.1; AB.3.31.9; TA.1.13.2a; Aś.3.8.1; 5.18.12; JUB.1.41.4a; N.1.15; 4.23a. P: aditir dyauḥ Vait.6.11; Kauś.59.18. Cf. BṛhD.3.123.
aditir na uruṣyatu # RV.8.47.9a; TS.1.5.11.5a; TB.3.1.3.3.
aditir naktam advayāḥ # RV.8.18.6b.
aditir no divā paśum # RV.8.18.6a.
aditir madhyaṃ dadatām # TS.3.5.6.2. See vāyuṣ ṭe madhyaṃ.
aditir mātā sa pitā sa putraḥ # RV.1.89.10b; AVś.7.6.1b; VS.25.23b; MS.4.14.4b: 221.1; AB.3.31.10; ā.3.1.6.22; TA.1.13.2b; JUB.1.41.4b; N.4.23b.
aditir mātāsy āntarikṣān mā chetsīḥ # Aś.1.3.22.
aditir mādityaiḥ pratīcyā diśaḥ pātu # AVś.18.3.27a.
aditir vedyā # TA.3.8.1. Cf. under aditir apaś.
aditir hy ajaniṣṭa # RV.10.72.5a; Aś.3.8.1.
aditiś ca pṛthivī ca # MS.2.11.6: 143.11. See pṛthivī ca me 'ditiś.
aditiś ca mā indraś ca me # MS.2.11.5: 142.13.
aditi śarma yachatu # RV.6.75.12d,17d; 8.47.9b; SV.2.1216d; VS.17.48d; 29.49d; TS.1.5.11.5b; 4.6.6.4d; MS.3.16.3d: 187.1; KSA.6.1d. Cf. viśvāhā śarma yachatu.
aditi śmaśru vapatu # AVś.6.68.2a; MG.1.21.14. P: aditiḥ śmaśru Kauś.53.18. Cf. aditiḥ keśān, and adite keśān. See also the ūha AG.1.18.3.
aditi śrapayān iti # VS.11.59d; TS.4.1.5.4d; MS.2.7.6d: 81.6; 3.1.7: 9.1; KS.16.5d; śB.6.5.2.21.
aditi ṭe (TS.KSṭA.Apś. aditis te) bilaṃ gṛbhṇātu (KS.Apś. gṛhṇātu; TA. gṛhṇātu pāṅktena chandasā; TS. gṛhṇātu pāṅktena chandasāṅgirasvat) # VS.11.59; TS.4.1.5.4; MS.2.7.6: 81.4; 3.1.7: 8.20; KS.16.5; 19.6; śB.6.5.2.20; TA.4.2.6; Apś.15.3.4; 16.5.3. Ps: aditiṣ ṭe bilam Mś.6.1.2.10; aditiṣ ṭe Kś.16.4.3.
aditi ṭvā (TS.KS. aditis tvā) devī viśvadevyāvatī (MS. -devyavatī) pṛthivyāḥ sadhasthe aṅgirasvat (TS. 'ṅgirasvat) khanatv avaṭa # VS.11.61; TS.4.1.6.1; MS.2.7.6: 81.9; 3.1.8: 9.18; 4.9.1: 121.11; KS.16.6; śB.6.5.4.3. Ps: aditis tvā devī viśvadevyāvatī KS.19.7; aditis tvā devī (Mś. aditiṣ ṭvā devī) Apś.16.5.8; Mś.6.1.2.15; aditiṣ ṭvā (TS. aditis tvā) TS.5.1.7.1; Kś.16.4.9.
aditi ṣoḍaśam # KS.14.4 (ter).
aditi ṣoḍaśākṣarayā ṣoḍaśaṃ māsam udajayat # MS.1.11.10 (bis): 172.8; 173.1. Cf. adityai ṣoḍaśākṣarāya etc., and next two.
aditi ṣoḍaśākṣarām # MS.1.11.10: 171.18. Cf. under prec.
aditi ṣoḍaśākṣareṇa (VSK. ṣol-) ṣoḍaśaṃ (VSK. ṣol-) stomam udajayat # VS.9.34; VSK.10.6.4; TS.1.7.11.2.
aditis te kakṣāṃ badhnātu vedasyānuvaktavai medhāyai śraddhāyā anūktasyānirākaraṇāya brahmaṇe brahmavarcasāya # HG.1.4.6.
aditis te bilaṃ etc. # see aditiṣ ṭe bilaṃ.
aditis tvā etc. # see aditiṣ ṭvā.
aditis sadohavirdhānābhyām # KS.9.10. See marutaḥ sado-.
aditi sarvam # N.1.15. Perhaps no quotation at all.
aditi sindhuḥ pṛthivī uta dyauḥ # RV.1.94.16d; 95.11d; 96.9d; 98.3d; 100.19d; 101.11d; 102.11d; 103.8d; 105.19d; 106.7d; 107.3d; 108.13d; 109.8d; 110.9d; 111.5d; 112.25d; 113.20d; 114.11d; 115.6d; 9.97.58d; AVP.4.28.7d; 8.14.11d; 13.6.6d; ArS.1.5d; VS.33.42d; 34.30d; MS.4.12.4d (bis): 187.6,8; 4.14.4d: 220.12; KS.12.14d (bis); AB.1.21.19; TB.2.8.7.2d; TA.4.42.3d; KA.1.218Bd.
anitir asi # GB.2.2.13. Blunder for anvitir asi, q.v.
anvitir asi dive tvā divaṃ jinva # TS.3.5.2.2; 4.4.1.1; KS.17.7; 37.17; GB.2.2.13; PB.1.9.3; Vait.20.13. P: anvitiḥ TS.5.3.6.1. See next.
apaciti potrīyām ayajat # TB.3.12.9.5a.
apacitimān bhūyāsam # śB.11.2.7.11. P: apacitimān Kś.3.3.5.
apacitir asy apacitiṃ mā kuru # ApMB.2.10.8 (ApG.6.13.17).
aprāṇaiti prāṇena prāṇatīnām # AVś.8.9.9a.
abhyaiti na (SV. abhyeti na; AVś. asmān aity abhy) ojasā spardhamānā # RVKh.10.103.1b; AVś.3.2.6b; SV.2.1210b; VS.17.47b. See asmān abhy aity.
asiti cārthasiddhiṃ ca # RVKh.1.191.8a.
āvittāditir uruśarmā # VS.10.9; śB.5.3.5.37. See next, and āvinnā devy.
āśitimne svāhā # TS.7.1.17.1; KSA.1.8.
uditir asi # KS.39.6; Apś.16.30.1.
urukṣiti sujanimā cakāra # RV.7.100.4d; MS.4.14.5d: 221.8; TB.2.4.3.5d.
kāsmehiti kā paritakmyāsīt # RV.10.108.1c; N.11.25c.
kṣitir na rāyā puruvāro adyaut # RV.4.5.15d.
gāthayaiti pariṣkṛtam (AVś. -kṛtā) # RV.10.85.6d; AVś.14.1.7d.
citi juhomi etc. # see cittiṃ etc.
citibhyaḥ praṇīyamānābhyaḥ # śś.9.24.9. See cityagnibhyaḥ.
titikṣante abhiśastiṃ janānām # RV.3.30.1c; VS.34.18c.
titirvāṃso ati sridhaḥ # RV.1.36.7d.
tenaiti brahmavit taijasaḥ puṇyakṛc ca # śB.14.7.2.12d; BṛhU.4.4.12d.
diti ca rāsvāditim uruṣya # RV.4.2.11d; TS.5.5.4.4d; KS.40.5d.
ditiś ca dāti vāryam # RV.7.15.12c; MS.4.10.1c: 143.2.
ditiś ca dyauś ca # MS.2.11.6: 143.12. See next.
ditiś ca me dyauś ca me # VS.18.22; TS.4.7.9.1; KS.18.11. See prec.
duścaritinn avakīrṇin # Lś.4.3.10.
devahiti jugupur dvādaśasya # RV.7.103.9a.
dhruvakṣitir asi # MS.1.2.8: 18.7; Mś.1.7.3.34. Cf. dhruvakṣid.
dhruvakṣitir dhruvayoniḥ # ApMB.1.9.6a (ApG.2.6.12); HG.1.22.14a.
dhruvakṣitir dhruvayonir dhruvāsi # VS.14.1a; TS.4.3.4.1a; MS.2.8.1a: 106.7; KS.17.1a; śB.8.2.1.4,14. Ps: dhruvakṣitir dhruvayoniḥ Mś.6.2.1.2; dhruvakṣitiḥ Kś.17.8.15; Apś.17.1.2.
nitikti yo vāraṇam annam atti # RV.6.4.5a.
niśiti martyo naśat # RV.6.2.5b.
paritiṣṭhād yātubhir yaś ca naḥ śapāt # AVP.12.20.5b.
pratitiṣṭhantaṃ tvādityānupratitiṣṭhāsam # SMB.2.5.16; GG.4.6.12. P: pratitiṣṭhantaṃ tvā KhG.4.1.27.
yathākṣitim akṣitayaḥ pibanti (KS. -yo madanti) # MS.4.9.27b: 140.3; 4.12.2b: 181.7; KS.10.12b. See yam akṣitam.
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"iti" has 529 results.
     
ikpadopasthitithe presence of the word इक् (vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ) in a rule, where the operations गुण and वृद्धि are prescribed by putting the words गुण and वृद्धि; exempli gratia, for example सिचि वृद्धिः परस्मैपदेषु P.VII.2.1; confer, compare इको गुणवृद्वी P.I.1.3.
jvalitistanding for ज्वलादि, name of a class of 30 roots headed by the root ज्वल दीप्तौ and given as चल कम्पने, जल घातने etc; cf: ज्वलितिकसन्तेभ्यो णः P. III. 1.140.
sāṃhitikaoriginal, as belonging to the Samhitapatha of the Sutras and not introduced for some additional purpose without forming a part of the actual affix; confer, compare अाकर्षात् ष्ठल् | इह केषां चित्सांहितिकं षत्वं केषांचित्षिदर्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 4.9.
sthitiutterance of a pada or padas in the Padapatha without इति; the utterance with इति being called उपस्थिति; confer, compare पदं यदा केवलमाह सा स्थितिः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI.15; (2) established practice or view: confer, compare शाकल्यस्य स्थविरस्येतरा स्थितिः। Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 44.
svatantrapadopasthitipakṣaan alternative view regarding the explanation of the rule 'इको गुणवृद्धी' P. I. 1. 3 by taking an additional word गुणवृद्धी supplied in the sutra. For full explanation see Sabdakaustubha on P. I. 1. 3.
a(1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perfeminine. second.pluraland first and third person.singular.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अ प्रत्ययात् et cetera, and others (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 exempli gratia, for example अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. exempli gratia, for example भवति, तुदति et cetera, and others; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; exempli gratia, for example द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imperfeminine. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् confer, compare P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, et cetera, and others in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; (9) taddhita affix. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ et cetera, and others in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the inst. instrumental case. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
aḥ( : )visarga called visarjanīya in ancient works and shown in writing by two dots, one below the other, exactly of the same size, like the pair of breasts of a maiden as jocularly larly expressed by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.. confer, compare अः ( : ) इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः । कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसजर्नीयसंज्ञो भवति ( दुर्गसिंह on कातन्त्र I.1.16). विसर्ग is always a dependent letter included among the Ayogavāha letters and it is looked upon as a vowel when it forms a part of the preceding vowel; while it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into the Jihvāmūlīya or the Upadhmānīya letter.
a,k(ೱ),(ೱ)जिह्वामूलीय, represented by a sign like the वज्र in writing, as stated by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. who remarks वज्राकृतिर्वर्णो जिह्वामूलीयसंज्ञो भवति. the Jihvāmūlīya is only a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the guttural letter क् or ख् . It is looked upon as a letter (वर्ण), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. e. g. विष्णु ೱ करोति.
akarmakaintransitive, without any object, (said with regard to roots which cannot possess an object or whose object is suppressed or ignored). The reasons for suppression are briefly given in the well-known stanza ; धातोरर्थान्तरे वृत्तेर्धात्वर्थेनोपसंग्रहात् । प्रसिद्धेरविवक्षातः कर्मणोऽकर्मिकाक्रिया ॥ In the case of intransitive roots, the verbal activity and its fruit are centred in one and the same individual viz. the agent or कर्ता confer, compare फलव्यापारयोरेकनिष्ठतायामकर्मकः Vāk. Pad.
akāryanot a grammatical positive operation: e. g. elision (लोप.) confer, compare ननु च लोप एवेत्कार्यं स्यात् । अकार्यं लोपः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.2.
akriyājanot a result of a verbal activity; the expression is used in connection with qualities ( on a substance) as opposed to the activities found in it. confer, compare अाधेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोs सत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV. 1.44.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
aṅitnot marked with the mute letter ṅ ( ङ्) signifying the absence of the prohibition of the guṇa or the vṛddhi substitute. cf अङिति गुणप्रतिषेधः ( वक्तव्यः ) M.Bh. III.3.83 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2. In the case of the preposition ā ( अा ) unmarked with ṅ (ड् ), it signifies a sentence or remembrance of something confer, compare वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् exempli gratia, for example आ एवं नु मन्यसे, आ एवं किल तत् confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.l.14.
(1)taddhita affix. affix a ( अ ) with the mute letter ñ ( ञ्), prescribed (i) after the words उत्स and others in various senses like progeny, dyed in, produced in, come from et cetera, and othersP. IV.1.86, (ii) after the words विद and others in the sense of grandson and other descendents.P. IV.1.104. For other cases see P. IV. I. 141, 161; IV.2.12,14 et cetera, and others IV.3.7 et cetera, and others IV.4.49. The feminine is formed by adding i ( ई ) to words ending with this affix अञ्, which have the vṛddhi vowel substituted for their initial vowel which gets the acute accent also exempli gratia, for example औत्सः, औत्सी,औदपानः, बैदः, बैदी.
aṭ(1)token term standing for vowels and semi-vowels excepting l ( ल्) specially mentioned as not interfering with the substitution of ṇ ( ण् ) for n ( न् ) exempli gratia, for example गिरिणा, आर्येण, खर्वेण et cetera, and others Sec P.VIII.4.2; (2) augment a (अट्) with an acute accent, which is prefixed to verbal forms in the imperfect and the aorist tenses and the conditional mood. exempli gratia, for example अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् Sec P.IV.4.71; (3) augment a ( अट् ) prescribed in the case of the roots रुद्, स्वप् et cetera, and others before a Sārvadhātuka affix beginning with any consonant except y ( य्), exempli gratia, for example अरोदत्, अस्वपत्, अजक्षत्, आदत् et cetera, and others; see P.VII.3, 99, 100;(4) augment a ( अट् ) prefixed sometimes in Vedic Literature to affixes of the Vedic subjunctive (लेट्) exempli gratia, for example तारिवत्, मन्दिवत् et cetera, and others see P.III.4.94.
aḍactaddhita affix. affix अड applied in the sense of pitiable or poor to a word preceded by the word उप when the whole word after उप is dropped, e.g उपड् ( उपेन्द्रदत्त + अड् ) see. p. V. 3. 80.
atadanubandhakanot having the same mute significatory letter, but having one or two additional ones, confer, compare तदनुबन्धकग्रहणे नातदनुबन्धकस्य ग्रहणम् (Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 84.)
atantraimplying no specific purpose: not intended to teach anything, अविवक्षित; exempli gratia, for example ह्रस्वग्रहणमतन्त्रम् Kāś and Si. Kau. on तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P.1.2.32: confer, compare also अतन्त्रं तरनिर्देशः ( the use of तरप् does not necessarily convey the sense of the comparative degree in Pāṇini's rules) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.2.33. This statement has been given as a distinct Paribhāṣa by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and Sākaṭāyana. The author of the Mahābhāṣya appears to have quoted it from the writings of Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and the earlier grammarians See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on अल्पाच्तरम् P. II.2.34.
atikramapassing over a word in the क्रमपाठ without repeating it; passing beyond, confer, compare अतिक्रम्य परिग्रहः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X.7, which means catching a word for repetition by coming back after passing over it, e. g. इन्द्राग्नी अपात् । इन्द्राग्नी इति इन्द्राग्नी । or अनु दक्षि । दक्षि दावने | दक्षीति दक्षि ।
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
atiprasaṅgaover-application of a definition which is looked upon as a serious fault: e. g. अतिप्रसङ्गो व्रश्चा दिषु P.VI.1.66 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
atyādigaṇathe group of prepositions headed by अति which are compounded with a noun in the acc. case ; confer, compare अत्यादयः क्रान्ताद्यर्थे द्वितीयया Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). om P. II. 2.18.
adarśanaa term in ancient grammars and Prātiśākhyas meaning nonappearance of a phonetic member वर्णस्यादर्शनं लोपः (V. Pr 1. 141),explained as अनुपलब्धिः by उव्वट. Later on, the idea of non-appearance came to be associated with the idea of expectation and the definition of लोप given by Pāṇini in the words अदर्शनं लोपः (as based evidently on the Prātiśākhya definition) was explained as non-appearance of a letter or a group of letters where it was expected to have been present. See Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4 and Kaiyaṭa thereon.
adravyavācinnot expressive of any substance which forms a place of residence (of qualities and actions); confer, compare तथा व्याकरणे विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरणवाचि ( P. II.4.13 ); इत्यद्रव्यवाचीति गम्यते । M.Bh. on II.1.1.
advyupasargenot preceded by (two or more) prepositions; i. e. preceded by only one preposition. confer, compare छादेर्घेऽद्व्युपसर्गस्य P.VI.4.96 prescribing short अ for the long अा of the root छाद् before the kṛt (affix). affix घ, eg. प्रच्छदः
adhika(1)additional or surplus activity which a rule in grammar sometimes shows; अधिकः कारः or अधिकं कार्यम्; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.11, Kāś. on III.2.124, Bh. Vṛ. on III.4.72; ( 2 ) surplus subject matter e. g. अथाख्याः समाम्नायाधिकाः प्राग्रिफितात् (V.Pr. I.33.)
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
adhyāsasuperimposition : a relation between a word and its sense according to the grammarians; confer, compare Vāk. Pad. II.240. (2) appendage; confer, compare आहुस्त्वेकपदा अन्ये अध्यासानेकपातिनः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XVII.43.
adhyai,adhyainkṛt affixes substituted in the place of तुम् of the infinitive in Vedic Literature (P. III.4.9.), e. g. पिबध्यैः when अध्यैन् is substituted, the initial vowel of the word becomes उदात्त. e. g. कर्मण्युपाचारध्यै ।
anantara(1)immediate, contiguous अव्यवहित. confer, compare हलोनन्तराः संयोगः P.1. 1.7, also गतिरनन्तरः P. VI.2.49: confer, compare अनन्तरं संयोगः V. Pr.I.48. ; (2) nearest, as compared with others of the same type; confer, compare अथवा अनन्तरा या प्राप्तिः सा प्रतिषिध्यते M.Bh. on I.1.43; confer, compare Pari. Śek. अनन्तरस्य विधिर्वा भवति प्रतिषेधो वा, which means that a prescriptive or prohibitive rule applies to the nearest and not to the distant one.Par.Śek. 61,Cān. Par.30.
anarthaka(1)without any signification;literally having no meaning of themselves, id est, that ispossessing a meaning only when used in company with other words or parts of words which bear an independent sense;(the word is used generally in connection with prepositions); exempli gratia, for example अधिपरी अनर्थकौ P.1.4.93, confer, compare अनर्थान्तरवाचिनावनर्थकौ । धातुनोक्तां क्रियामाहतुः । तदविशिष्टं भवति यथा शङ्के पय: ॥ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.93; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1.3: confer, compare also अनर्थकौ अनर्थान्तरवाचिनौ Kāś. on I.4.93, explained as अनर्थान्तरवाचित्वादनर्थकावित्युक्तम् न त्वर्थाभावादिति दर्शयति by न्यासकार; (2) meaningless, purposeless: confer, compare प्रमाणभूत आचार्यो दर्भपवित्रपाणिः महता यत्नेन सूत्रं प्रणयति स्म । तत्राशक्यं वर्णेनाप्यनर्थकेन भवितुं किं पुनरियता सूत्रेण M.Bh. on I.1.1, as also सामर्थ्ययोगान्न हि किंचिदस्मिन् पश्यामि शास्त्रे यदनर्थकं स्यात् M.Bh. on P. VI.I.77. See for details M.Bh. on I.2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 12: III.1.77 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 and Kaiyaṭa and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon; (3) possessed of no sense absolutely as some nipātas केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः केचन च निरर्थकाः U1. varia lectio, another reading, on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII.9; निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P. I. 2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).12 confer, compare also जन्या इति निपातनानर्थक्यं P. IV. 4.82. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, एकागारान्निपातनानर्थक्यं P. V.1.113 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, also 114 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).1.
anākṛtinot capable of presenting (on its mere utterance) any tangible form or figure the word is used in connection with a technical term (संज्ञाशब्द) which presents its sense by a definition actually laid down or given in the treatise: confer, compare अनाकृति: संज्ञा । अाकृतिमन्तः संज्ञिनः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.
anādinon-initial. exempli gratia, for example अनादेश्च मुङ्वचनम् P. III.4.102, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.1.3.
anāpyahaving or possessing no āpya or object; intransitive (root): confer, compare चालशब्दार्थाद् अनाप्याद् युच् Cāndra I.2 97 standing for चलनशब्दार्थाद् अकर्मकाद् युच् P. III.2.148.
anikṛt affix in the sense of curse, exempli gratia, for example अजीवनिस्ते शठ भूयात्; confer, compareआक्रोशे नञि अनिः P.III.3.112. This affix अनि gets its न् changed into ण् after ऋ or रेफ of the preceding preposition as in अप्रयाणिः;confer, compare Kāś, on VIII.4.29.
anunādaa fore-sound : a preceding additional sound which is looked upon as a fault: e. g. ह्वयामि whom pronounced as अह्वयामि. This sound is uttered before an initial sonant consonant. It is also uttered before initial aspirates or visarga. confer, compare घोषवतामनुनादः पुरस्ताद् आदिस्थानां, क्रियते धारणं वा । सोष्मोष्माणामनुनादोप्यनादः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.18,19.
anunāsika(a letter)uttered through the nose and mouth both, as different from anusvāra which is uttered only through the nose. confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिकःP.I.1.8, and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). thereon. The anunāsika or nasal letters are the fifth letters of the five classes ( id est, that is ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न्, म् ) as also vowels अ, इ, उ and semivowels when so pronounced, as ordinarily they are uttered through the mouth only; ( exempli gratia, for example अँ, आँ, et cetera, and others or य्यँ, व्वँ, ल्लँ et cetera, and others in सय्यँन्ता, सव्वँत्सरः, सँल्लीनः et cetera, and others) The अनुनासिक or nasalized vowels are named रङ्गवर्ण and they are said to be consisting of three mātras. confer, compare अष्टौ आद्यानवसानेsप्रगृह्यान् आचार्या आहुरनुनासिकान् स्वरान् । तात्रिमात्रे शाकला दर्शयन्ति Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.63.64; confer, compare also अप्रग्रहाः समानाक्षराणि अनुनासिकानि एकेषाम् T. Pr XV.6. Trivikrama, a commentator on the Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Sūtras, explains अनुनासिक as अनु पश्चात् नासिकास्थानं उच्चारणं एषां इत्यनुनासिकाः । पूर्वं मुखस्थानमुच्चारणं पश्चान्नासिकास्थानमुच्चारणमित्यर्थः । अनुग्रहणात्केवलनासिकास्थानोच्चारणस्य अनुस्वारस्य नेयं संज्ञा । and remarks further पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्धसंज्ञेयमन्वर्था । Com. by Tr. on Kat. I 1.13. Vowels which are uttered nasalized by Pāṇini in his works viz. सूत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ et cetera, and others are silent ones i. e. they are not actually found in use. They are put by him only for the sake of a complete utterance, their nasalized nature being made out only by means of traditional convention. e. g. एध, स्पर्ध et cetera, and others confer, compare उपदेशेSजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2; confer, compare also प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः Kāś on I.3.2.
anuprayogasubsequent utterance; literally post-position as in the case of the roots कृ, भू and अम् in the periphrastic perfect forms; confer, compare आम्प्रत्ययवत् कृञोऽ नुप्रयोगस्य, P.I.3.63; यथाविध्यनुप्रयोगः पूर्वस्मिन् III.4.4.
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
anumnot allowing the addition of the augment नुम् (id est, that is letter न् ) after the last vowel; The term is used, in connection with the present participle. affix, by Pāṇini in his rule शतुरनुमो नद्यजादी VI.1.173.
anuvādarepetition of a rule already laid down or of a statement already made confer, compare प्रमाणान्तरावगतस्य अर्थस्य शब्देन संकीर्तनमात्रमनुवाद: Kāś. on II.4.3.
anuvṛttirepetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the subsequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intended interpretation. The word is of common use in books on Pāṇini's grammar. This recurrence is generally continuous like the stream of a river ( गङ्गास्रोतोवत् ); sometimes however, when it is not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवृत्ति. In rare cases it is taken backwards in a sūtra work from a subsequent rule to a previous rule when it is called अपकर्ष.
anuśāsanatraditional instruction; treatment of a topic; exempli gratia, for example अथ शब्दानुशासनम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.1 where the word is explained as अनुशिष्यन्ते संस्क्रियन्ते व्युत्पाद्यन्ते अनेन इति अनुशासनम्.
antaratamavery close or very cognate being characterized (l) by the same place of utterance, or (2) by possessing the same sense, or (3) by possessing the same qualities, or (4) by possessing the same dimension ; cf स्थानेन्तरतमः P.I. I.50 and Kāś. thereon अान्तर्यं स्थानार्थगुणुप्रमाणतः स्थानतः दण्डाग्रम् , अर्थतः वतण्डी चासौ युवतिश्च वातण्ड्ययुवतिः । गुणतः पाकः, त्यागः, रागः । प्रमाणतः अमुष्मै अमूभ्याम् ॥
antavadbhāvasupposed condition of being at the end obtained by the single substitute(एकादेश) for the final of the preceding and the initial of the succeeding word. confer, compare अन्तादिवच्च । योयमेकादेशः स पूर्वस्यान्तवत् परस्थादिवत् स्यात् । Sid. Kau. on अन्तादिवच्च P.VI. 1.84.
antādivadbhāvacondition, attributed to a single substitute for the final of the preceding and initial of the succeeding word, of being looked upon either as the final of the preceding word or as the initial of the succeeding word but never as both (the final as well as the initial) at one and the same time; confer, compare उभयत आश्रये नान्तादिवत् Sīr. Pari 39 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.48.
apakarṣa(1)deterioration of the place or instrument of the production of sound resulting in the fault called निरस्त; confer, compare स्थानकरणयेारपकर्षेण निरस्तं नाम दोष उत्पद्यते, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.2; (2) drawing back a word or words from a succeeding rule of grammar to the preceding one; confer, compare "वक्ष्यति तस्यायं पुरस्तादपकर्षः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.2.8. (3) inferiority (in the case of qualities) न च द्रव्यस्य प्रकर्षापकर्षौ स्तः ।
apialso in addition to; अपि is used sometimes to mean absolute of or ungualified by any condition; confer, compare अन्येभ्येपि दृश्यते । अपिशब्दः सर्वोपाधिव्यभिचारार्थः । निरुपपदादपि भवति । धीवा पीवा । KS. on P. III. 2.75, III. 2.101, VII. 1.38; confer, compare अपिग्रहणे व्यभिचारार्थम् ) Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. on Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.3.64.
apratiṣedhauseless prohibition; unnecessary prohibition; confer, compare अनर्थकः प्रतिषेधः अप्रतिषेधः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.6: I.1.20. I.1.22 et cetera, and others
aprāpti(i)non-occurrence for nonrealization of a grammatical operation or ruleअप्रतिषेधः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8; (2) prohibition of the occurrence of a rule or operation, confer, compare अप्राप्तेर्वा । अथवानन्तरा या प्राप्तिः सा प्रतिषिध्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.I.43, I.1.63.
abhyaṃkara(BHASKARASHASTRI Abhyankar 1785-1870 A. D. )an eminent scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who prepared a number of Sanskrit scholars in Grammar at Sātārā. He has also written a gloss on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another one on the Laghu-Śabdenduśekhara. (VASUDEVA SHASTRI Abhyakar 863-1942 A. D.) a stalwart Sanskrit Pandit, who, besides writing several learned commentaries on books in several Sanskrit Shastras, has written a commentary named 'Tattvādarśa' on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another named 'Guḍhārthaprakāśa' on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara. (KASHINATH VASUDEVA Abhyankar, 1890-) a student of Sanskrit Grammar who has written महाभाष्यप्रस्तावना-खण्ड, and जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति and compiled the परिभाषासंग्रह and the present Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar.
abhyāsalit, doubling or reduplication technically the word refers to the first portion of the reduplication, which is called the reduplicative syllable as opposed to the second part which is called the reduplicated syllable; confer, compare पूर्वोभ्यासः P. VI.1.4. (2) Repetition, the sccond part which is repeated; confer, compare दोऽभ्यासे(RT.165) explained as दकारः अभ्यासे लुप्यते । पटत्पटेति । द्रसद्रसेति ; (3) repeated action; confer, compare अभ्यासः पुनः पुनः करणमावृत्तिः Kāś. on P.1-3, 1.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
alontyavidhian operation, which, on the strength of its being enjoined by means of the genitive case, applies to the last letter of the wording put in the genitive; confer, compare नानर्थकेलोन्त्यविधिरनभ्यासविकारे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.65, confer, compare अलोन्त्यस्य । षष्ठीनिर्दिष्टोन्त्यस्यादेशः स्यात् S.K. on P. I.1.52.
avagraha(1)separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; exempli gratia, for example पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originatedition The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. (Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; confer, compare also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।(Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.36); also confer, compare यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ exempli gratia, for example शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; confer, compare समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.
avayavaṣaṣṭhīthe genitive case signifying or showing a part: confer, compare वक्ष्यत्यादेशप्रत्यययोरित्यवयवषष्ठी M.Bh. on I. 1.21.
avasthāstage, condition; stage in the formation of a word; e. g. उपदेशावस्था, लावस्था, et cetera, and others
avṛttiabsence of, or prohibition of, a vṛtti or composite expression; monformation of a composite expression; confer, compare समानाधिकरणानां सर्वत्रावृत्तिरयोगादेकेन M.Bh. on III.1. 8.
avyāpyaan intransitive root; a technical term in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa (C. Vy. I.4.70 ) as also in Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana; confer, compare अव्याप्यस्य मुचेर्मोग् वा । मुचेरकर्मकस्य सकारादौ सनि परे मोक् इत्ययमादेशो वा स्यात् । न चास्य द्विः । मोक्षति मुमुक्षति चैत्र: । मोक्षते मुमुक्षते वा वत्सः स्वयमेव Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. IV.1.19.
aṣṭādhyāyīname popularly given to the Sūtrapāṭha of Pāṇini consisting of eight books (adhyāyas) containing in all 3981 Sūtras,as found in the traditional recital, current at the time of the authors of the Kāśika. Out of these 398l Sūtras, seven are found given as Vārtikas in the Mahābhāṣya and two are found in Gaṇapāṭha.The author of the Mahābhāṣya has commented upon only 1228 of these 3981 sūtras. Originally there were a very few differences of readings also, as observed by Patañjali ( see Mbh on I.4.1 ); but the text was fixed by Patañjali which, with a few additions made by the authors of the Kāśika,as observed a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., has traditionally come down to the present day. The Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is believed to be one of the six Vedāṅga works which are committed to memory by the reciters of Ṛgveda. The text of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is recited without accents. The word अष्टाध्यायी was current in Patañjali's time; confer, compare शिष्टज्ञानार्था अष्टाध्यायी Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 3.109.
as(1)case affix of the nominative and accusative plural and the ablative and genitive singular (जस् , शस्, ङसि and ङस् ) (2) taddhita affix अस् ( असि ) added to पूर्व, अधर and अवर, by P.V.3.39: (3) compoundending अस् ( असिच् ) applied to the words प्रजा and मेधा standing at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound (P.V.4.122): (4) Uṇādi affix अस् prescribed by the rule सर्वधातुभ्योऽसुन् and subsequent rules (628-678) to form words such as मनस्,सरस् et cetera, and others(5) ending syllable अस्, with or without sense, of words in connection with which special operations are given in grammar; confer, compare P.VI.4.14; confer, compare also अनिनस्मन्ग्रहणान्यर्थवता चानर्थकेन च तदन्तविधिं प्रयोजयन्ति Par.Śek. Pari. 16.
asaṃhitāabsence of juxta-position, absence of connectedness; confer, compare यदि तावत्संहितया निर्देशः क्रियते भ्वादय इति भवितव्यम् । अथासंहितया भू अादय इति भविंतव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.1.
asamartha(1)syntactically not connected, e. g. राज्ञः and पुरुषः in the sentence भार्या राज्ञः पुरुषो देवदत्तस्य (2) unable to enter into a compound word, the term is used in connection with a word which cannot be compounded with another word, although related in sense to it, and connected with it by apposition or by a suitable case affix, the reason being that it is connected more closely with another word: confer, compare सापेक्षमसमर्थं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.1.1.; exempli gratia, for example the words कष्टं and श्रितः in the sentence महत् कष्टं श्रितः.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
asekṛt affix in the sense of the infinitive (तुमर्थे) in Vedic Literature,e.gजीवसे; confer, compare तुमर्थे सेसेनसेo P.III.4.9
aākhyātaverbal form, verb; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातं सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि Nirukta of Yāska.I.1; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्यातोपसर्गनिपाताश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1. Āhnika 1 ; also A.Prāt. XII. 5, अाकार अाख्याते पदादिश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.2.37 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2, आख्यातमाख्यातेन क्रियासातत्ये Sid. Kau. on II.1.72, क्रियावाचकमाख्यातं Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1; confer, compare भारद्वाजकमाख्यातं भार्गवं नाम भाष्यते । भारद्वाजेन दृष्टत्वादाख्यातं भारद्वाजगोत्रम् V. Prāt. VIII. 52; confer, compare also Athar. Prāt.I.I.12, 18; 1.3.3,6; II.2.5 where ākhyāta means verbal form. The word also meant in ancient days the root also,as differentiated from a verb or a verbal form as is shown by the lines तन्नाम येनाभिदधाति सत्त्वं, तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातुः R.Pr.XII.5 where 'आख्यात' and 'धातु' are used as synonyms As the root form such as कृ, भृ et cetera, and others as distinct from the verbal form, is never found in actual use, it is immaterial whether the word means root or verb.In the passages quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. from the Nirukta and the Mahābhāṣya referring to the four kinds of words, the word ākhyāta could be taken to mean root (धातु) or verb (क्रियापद). The ākhyāta or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being and bccoming while nouns (नामानि) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the activities and things in this world but with every process and entity; confer, compare पूर्वापूरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे Nir.I.;अस्तिभवतिविद्यतीनामर्थः सत्ता । अनेककालस्थायिनीति कालगतपौर्वापर्येण क्रमवतीति तस्याः क्रियात्वम् । Laghumañjūṣā. When a kṛt (affix). affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a word ending with a kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of bhāva or verbal activity is treated as a noun and regularly declined;confer, compareकृदभिहितो भावे द्रव्यवद् भवति M.Bh. on II.2.19 and III. 1.67, where the words गति, व्रज्या, पाक and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words ending with kṛt (affix). affixes such as कर्तुं, कृत्वा, and others, the modern grammarians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be,in a way, looked upon as ākhyātas; confer, compare अव्ययकृतो भावे Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa.
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
āgamaaugment, accrement, a word element which is added to the primitive or basic word during the process of the formation of a complete word or pada. The āgama is an adventitious word element and hence differs from ādeśa, the substitute which wholly takes the place of the original or ( आदेशिन् ). Out of the several āgamas mentioned by Pāṇini, those that are marked with mute ट् are prefixed, those, marked with क्, are affixed, while those, marked with म्, are placed immediately after the last vowel of the word. The augments become a part and parcel of the word to which they are added, and the characteristics of which they possess;confer, compareयदागमास्तद्गुणीभूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते, also आगमानां आगमिधर्मिवैशिष्ट्यम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.11. Those grammarians, who hold the view that words are unproduced and eternal, explain the addition of an augment as only the substitution of a word with an augment in the place of a word without an augment; confer, compare आदेशास्तर्हिमे भविष्यन्ति अनागमकानां सागमकाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20; I.1.46. The term āgama is defined as अन्यत्र विद्यमानस्तु यो वर्णः श्रुयतेधिकः । आगम्यमानतुल्यत्वात्स आगम इति स्मृतः Com. on Tait. Prāt.I. 23.
aāṅthe preposition आ. See the word आ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
ācāryapreceptor, teacher; a designation usually given to Pāṇini by Patañjali in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare the usual expression तज्ज्ञापयति आचार्यः as also अाचार्यप्रवृत्तिर्ज्ञापयति; also confer, compare नेदानीमाचार्याः सूत्राणि कृत्वा निवर्तयन्ति; confer, compare also the popular definition of अाचार्य given as 'निशम्य यद्गिरं प्राज्ञा अविचार्यैव तत्क्षणम् । संभावयन्ति शिरसा तमाचार्यं प्रचक्षते ।"
ācitādia class of words headed by the word अाचित which do not have their final vowel accented acute by P. VI.2.146 when they are preceded by the prepositions प्र, परा et cetera, and others although they are used as proper nouns. exempli gratia, for example आचितम्,निरुक्तम्, प्रश्लिष्टम्; confer, compare Kāśikā on P. VI.2.146.
aāṭ(1)augment अा prefixed to roots beginning with a vowel in the imperfect, aorist and conditional, which is always accented (उदात्त); confer, compare P.VI.4.72; (2) augment अा prefixed to the imperative first person terminations, exempli gratia, for example करवाणि, करवै et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.4.92: (3) augment अा to be prefixed to caseaffixes which are डित् after nouns called nadī: exempli gratia, for example कुमार्यं; cf P.VII. 3.112.
aādi(1)commencement, initial: confer, compare अपूर्वलक्षण आदिः M.Bh. on I.1.21, (2) of the kind of, similar; एवंप्रक्रारः.
ādyantavattvaअाद्यन्तवद्भाव, consideration of a single or solitary letter as the initial or the final one according to requirements for opcrations prescribed for the initial or for the final. Both these notions --the initial and the final-are relative notions, and because they require the presence of an additional letter or letters for the sake of being called initial or final it becomes necessary to prescribe आद्यन्तवद्भाव in the case of a single letter; confer, compareअाद्यन्तवदेकस्मिन् । आदौ इव अन्त इव एकस्मिन्नपि कार्यं भवति । यथा कर्तव्यमित्यत्र प्रत्ययाद्युदात्तत्वं भवति एवमौपगवमित्यत्रापि यथा स्यात् । Kāś. on P.I.1.21 ; confer, compare also अाद्यन्तवच्च । अपृक्तस्य आदिवदन्तवच्च कार्यं भवति । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.55. This अाद्यन्तवद्भाव of Pāṇini is, in fact, a specific application of the general maxim known as vyapadeśivadbhāva by virtue of which "an operation which affects something on account of some special designation, which for certain reasons attaches to the letter, affects likewise that which stands alone;" confer, compare Pari.Śek. Pari. 30.
aānaṅsubstitute आन् in the place of the last letter (ऋ) of the first member of dvandva compounds of words meaning deities or of words showing blood-relationship which end with the vowel ऋ; exempli gratia, for example होतापोतारौ, मातापितरो confer, compare P.VI.3.25, 26.
ānunāsikyanasalization; utterance through the nose, an additional property possessed by vowels and the fifth letters of the 5 classes (ङ्, ञ्, ण् ,न्, म्) confer, compare आनुनासिक्यं तेषामधिको गुणः M.Bh. on I.1.9.
ānupūrvyasuccessive order, as prescribed by tradition or by the writer; confer, compare ऋतुनक्षत्राणामानुपूर्व्येण समानाक्षराणां पूर्वनिपातः । शिशिरवसन्तौ उदगयनस्थौ । कृत्तिकारोहिण्यः । M.Bh. II.2.34 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).3;also वर्णानामानुपूर्व्येण ब्राह्मणक्षत्रियविट्शूद्राः M.Bh. on II.2.34 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6: confer, compare पदानुपूर्व्येण प्रश्लिष्टान् संधीन् कुर्यात् । इन्द्र अा इहि । आदौ इन्द्र आ इत्येतयोः; न तु अा इहि इत्येतयाः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.2; confer, compare also आनुपूर्व्यात् सिद्धम् Sīra. Pari. 6.
ānupūrvyasaṃhitāthe saṁhitā-pāṭha or recital of the running Vedic text in accordance with the constituent words;exempli gratia, for example शुनः शेपं चित् निदितम् or नरा शंसं वा पूषणम्, as opposed to the अनानुपूर्व्यसंहिता which is actually found in the traditional recital exempli gratia, for example शुनश्चिच्छेपं निदितम् Ṛk saṁh. V 2.7 or नरा वा शंसं पूषणम् Ṛk saṁh. X.64.3. See R. Prāt. II 43.
aāpyato be obtained by an activity: (the same as vyāpya). The term is used in connection with the object of a verb which is to be obtained by the verbal activity. The word अाप्य is found used in the sense of Karman or object in the grammars of Jainendra, Śākaṭāyana, Cāndra and Hemacandra; confer, compare Cāndra II I. 43; Jainendra I. 2.119; Śāk.IV.3.120: Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III.3.31. Hence, the term साप्य is used for a transitive root in these grammars.
ābhīkṣṇyarepetition of an action; confer, compare पौनःपुन्यं आभीक्ष्ण्यम् Kāś. on III.4.22; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III.4.24: VIII.1.4; VIII.1.12.
ārṣaderived from the holy sages; founded on sacred tradition, such as the Vedāṅgas;confer, compare कृत्स्नं च वेदाड्गमनिन्द्यमार्षम् R. Prāt. XIV 30. The word is explained as स्वयंपाठ by the commentary on Vāj Prāt. IX.2I, and as Vaidika saṁdhi on X.l3. Patañjali has looked upon the pada-pāṭha or Pada-text of the Saṁhitās of the Vedas, as anārṣa, as contrasted with the Saṁhitā text which is ārṣa; confer, compare आर्ष्याम् in the sense संहितायाम् R. Prāt. II.27; confer, compare also पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् M.Bh. on III.1.109.
aāvṛttirepetition, exempli gratia, for example पदावृत्तिः; see commentary on Vāj. Prāt. IV.21; confer, compare also आवृत्तितः सप्तदशत्वं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 2.
āśvalāyanaprātiśākhyaan authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the Ṛksaṁhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa.
āsvadīyaa sub-division of the चुरादि (Xth conjugation) roots, beginning with the root ग्रस् and ending with the root स्वद्, which take the Vikaraṇa णिच् id est, that is which are conjugated like roots of the tenth conjugation, only if they are transitive in sense.
iṅgyaa separable word as opposed to अनिङ्ग्य; part of a compound word which is separated or may be separated from the remaining part when the word is split up into its constituent parts. Generally the word is applied to the first part of a compound word when it is split up in the recital of the padapāṭha. The 'iṅgya' word is shown by a pause or avagraha after it which is shown in writing by the sign (ऽ): confer, compare इङ्गयेत विभागेन चाल्यते इति इङ्गयम् । इङ्गयमिति विभागपदस्य संशा commentary on Tait. Prāt. 1.48. सावग्रहं पदमिङ्गयम् Com.on T.Pr. I.48.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
iṣyaikṛt affix in Vedic Literature in the sense of the infinitive, e. g. रेहिष्यै, अव्यथिष्यै; cf P.III.4.10.
īdit(a root)possessed of long ई as a mute indicatory ending meant for prohibiting the addition of the augment इ to the past participle. terminations त and तवत् ; exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, दीप्तः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P VII.2.14.
īpsitaa desired object, which, in connection with transitive roots, gets the designation कर्म,when the agent has a keen desire for it; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म P.I.4.49.
uktārthaa word or expression whose sense has been already expressedition The expression उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः is frequently used in the Mahābhāṣya and the Vārttikas and cited as a Paribhāṣā or a salutary conventional maxim against repetition of words in the Paribhāṣāpāṭhas of Vyādi (Par. 51), Candragomin (Par 28) and Kātantra (Par. 46) and Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. (Par. 46) grammars.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
uṇādeikośaa metrical work explaining the उणादि words referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. with meanings assigned to them. There are two such compositions one by Rāmatarkavāgīśa or Rāmaśarma and the other by Rāmacandra Dīkṣita.
uṇādisūtradaśapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable.
utpatti(1)production: confer, compare वर्णोत्पत्तिः production of a phonetic element Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.23.1 ; (2) production of a grammatical element such as the application of an affix or addition of an augment or substitution of a letter or letters during the process of word-formation: confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari. Śek. Par. 75; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.2.19. Vārt, 4.
udayaṃkarasurnamed pāṭhaka who wrote a commentary on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara named Jyotsna and a very critical work on Paribhāṣās similar to Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti; the work is incomplete.
uddeśadescription; mention of qualities; confer, compare गुणैः प्रापणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on I. 3.2: the word is used in contrast with उपदेश or direct mention; confer, compare कः पुनुरुद्देशोपदेशयोर्विशेषः । प्रत्यक्षमाख्यानमुपदेशो गुणैः प्रापणमुद्देशः । प्रत्यक्षं तावदाख्यानमुपदेशः तद्यथा । अगोज्ञाय कश्चिद्गां सक्थनि कर्णे वा गृहीत्वोपदिशति । अयं गौरिति । स प्रत्यक्षमाख्यातमाह । उपदिष्टो मे गौरिति । गुणैः प्रापणमुद्देशः । तद्यथा । कश्चित्कंचिदाह । देवदत्तं मे भवानुद्दिशतु इति । स इहस्थः पाटलिपुत्रस्थं देवदत्तमुद्दिशति । अङ्गदी कुण्डली किरीटी...ईदृशो देवदत्त इति । स गुणैः प्राप्यमाणमाह । उद्दिष्टो मे दवदत्त इति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.2; (2) spot, place, passage of occurrence: उद्देश उपदेशदेशः; confer, compare यथोद्देशं संज्ञापरिभाषम् Pari.Śek. Pari. 2.
uddyotathe word always refers in grammar to the famous commentary by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa written in the first decade of the 18th century A. D. om the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa. The Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.appears to be one of the earlier works of Nāgeśa. It is also called Vivaraṇa. The commentary is a scholarly one and is looked upon as a final word re : the exposition of the Mahābhāṣya. It is believed that Nāgeśa wrote 12 Uddyotas and 12 Śekharas which form some authoritative commentaries on prominent works in the different Śāstras.
upagrahaa term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मनेपदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेशव्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.
upajanaliterallyorigin; one that originates, augment, उपजायते असौ उपजन: । The word is used in the sense of 'additional phonetic element'; confer, compare उपजन आगमः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Śivasūtra 5; confer, compare also वर्णव्यत्ययापायोपजनविकारेष्वर्थदर्शनात् । Māheśvarasūtras. 5 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 15. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya gives स् in पुरुश्चन्द्र as an instance ofeminine. उपजन confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 37. In the Nirukta उपजन is given as the sense of the prefix 'उप'; confer, compare उपेत्युपजनम्: The commentary on the Nirukta explains the word उपजन as अाधिक्य.
upanyāsaproposition, statement, The remark 'विषम उपन्यासः' is of frequent occurrence in the Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya in connection with statements that are defective and have to be refuted or corrected; confer, compare M.Bh. on P.1.1.21,46,50; I.2.5 et cetera, and others
upapadavibhaktia case termination added to a word on account of the presence of another word requiring the addition;confer, compare the well-known Paribhāṣā,उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 94; and M.Bh. on I.4. 96 stating the possession of greater force in the case of a kāra-kavibhakti than in the case of an upapadavibhakti.
upapadasamāsathe compound of a word, technically termed as उपपद by Pāṇini according to his definition of the word in III.1.92., with another word which is a verbal derivative; confer, compare कुम्भकारः, नगरकारः Here technically the compound of the words कुम्भ, नगर et cetera, and others which are upapadas is formed with कार,before a case-termination is added to the nominal base कार; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 75.
upasaṃkhyānamention, generally of the type of the annexation of some words to words already given, or of some limiting conditions or additions to what has been already statedition The word is often found at the end of the statements made by the Vārttikakāra on the sūtras of Pāṇini.: confer, compare P.I.1.29 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1: I.1.36 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3 et cetera, and others The words वाच्य and वक्तव्य are also similarly useditionThe word is found similarly used in the Mahābhāṣya also very frequently.
upasaṃyoga(1)union;confer, compare नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति prepositions are signs to show that such a union with another sense has occurred in the case of the noun or verb to which they are prefixed, Nirukta of Yāska.I.3.; (2) addition; confer, compare अक्रियमाणे हि संज्ञाग्रहणे गरीयानुपसंयोगः कर्तव्यः स्यात् M.Bh. on P. IV.2.21. Vārt, 2.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upasargavivaraṇaa short anonymous work on the nature of upasargas or prepositions explaining their meanings with illustrations.
upaskāraintroduction of the necessary changes in the wording of the base, such as elision, or addition or substitution of a letter or letters as caused by the addition of suffixes.
upahita(1)with, preceded by; e g. दीर्घोपहित, ह्रस्वोपहित; (2) sticking to, connected with, 'उपश्लेषित': confer, compareDurga on Nir.V.12;(3) coming to be placed near or in juxtaposition with the preceding word: confer, compare आवोन्तोपहितात् सतः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.15.
upādhicondition, limitation, determinant, qualification: exempli gratia, for example न हि उपाधेरुपाधिर्भवति, विशेषणस्य वा विशेषणम् M.Bh. on I.3.2 as also on V.1.16; confer, compare also इह यो विशेष उपाधिर्वोपादीयते द्योत्ये तस्मिंस्तेन भवितव्यम् । M.Bh. on III.1.7.
ubhayaprāptia case or a matter in which both the alternatives occur, as for instance, the genitive case for the subject and the object of a verbal derivative noun (कृदन्त); confer, compare उभयप्राप्तौ कर्मणि । उभयोः प्राप्तिः यस्मिन् कृति सोयमुभयप्राप्तिः तत्र कर्मण्येव षष्ठी स्यात् न कर्तरि । आश्चर्यो गवां दोहः अगोपालकेन Kāś. on P. II.3.66.
uv(उवङ्)substitute for the vowel उ belonging to the Vikaraṇa श्रु, to roots and to the noun भ्रू under certain conditions: cf अचि श्नुधातुर्भ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ P.VI.4.77.
ūṭh(1)saṁprasāraṇa vowel ऊ substituted for the व् of वाह् under certain conditions exempli gratia, for example, ऊढः, confer, compare वाह ऊठ् P.VI.4.132; (2) substitute ऊ for व् before certain affixes; e. g. द्यूतः, द्यूत्वा, जूर्तिः, तूर्तिः et cetera, and others confer, compare च्छ्वोः शूडनुनासिके च P.VI.4.19, 20.
ūditmarked with the mute indicatory letter ऊ; confer, compare स्वरतिसूतिसूयतिधूञूदितो वा । prescribing the addition of the augment इ optionally in the case of ऊदित् roots P. VII.2.44.
ekakarmakatransitive verbs having one object, as contrasted with द्विक्रमेक; cf kātantra IV.6.62
ekatiṅpossessed of one verb; given as a definition of a sentence: confer, compare एकतिङ् P.II.1.1 Vārt 10, explained by Patañjali as एकतिङ् वाक्यसंज्ञं भवतीति वक्तव्यम् । ब्रूहि ब्रूहि ।
ekadravyaone and the same individual substance: cf the words एकद्रव्यसम-वायित्व Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.23, एकद्रव्याभिघान on P.VIII.1.51, एकद्रव्योपनिवेशिनी given as a definition of संज्ञा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.1.
ekavākyaan expression giving one idea, either a single or a composite one. A positive statement and its negation, so also, a general rule and its exception are looked upon as making a single sentence on account of their mutual expectancy even though they be sometimes detached from each other confer, compare विदेशस्थमपि सदेकवाक्यं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.4.67; confer, compare also निषेधवाक्यानामपि निषेध्यविशेषाकाङ्क्षत्वाद्विध्येकवाक्यतयैव अन्वयः । तत्रैकवाक्यता पर्युदासन्यायेन । संज्ञाशास्त्रस्य तु कार्यकालपक्षे न पृथग्वाक्यार्थबोधः । Par. Śek on Pari. 3. Such sentences are, in fact, two sentences, but, to avoid the fault of गौरव, caused by वाक्यभेद, grammarians hold them to be composite single sentences.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
aaudumvarāyaṇaan ancient sage whose doctrine of 'evanescence of words' (literally existence as long as its cognition is had by the sense organs) is seen quoted in the Nirukta; confer, compare इन्द्रियनित्यं वचनमौदुम्बरायणस्तत्र चतुष्टयं नोपपद्यते Nirukta of Yāska.I.1.
aupasaṃkhyānikasubsequently stated by way of addition or modification as done by the Vārttikakāras; confer, compare औपसंख्यानिकस्य णस्यापवादंः । आरण्यको मनुष्यः Kāś on P.IV.2.129; confer, compare also Kāś. on V.1.29 and VI.3.41.
{{c|-( anusvāra ) ṃanusvāraor nasal (l) looked upon as a phonetic element, independent, no doubt, but incapable of being pronounced without a vowel Preceding it. Hence, it is shown in writing with अ although its form in writing is only a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the line cf अं इत्यनुस्वारः । अकार इह उच्चारणर्थ इति बिन्दुमात्रो वर्णोनुस्वारसंज्ञो भवति Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Vyāk I.1.19; (2) anusvāra,showing or signifying Vikāra id est, that is अागम and used as a technical term for the second विभक्ति or the accusative case. See the word अं a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 1.
or विसर्गः literally letting out breath from the mouth; sound or utterance caused by breath escaping from the mouth; breathing. The Visarjanīya, just like the anusvāra, is incapable of being independently utteredition Hence, it is written for convenience as अः although its form for writing purposes is only two dots after the vowel preceding it; confer, compare अः इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः इति कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसर्जनीयसंज्ञो भवति । Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Vyāk. I.1.16. See अः a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 2.
ᳶ upadhmānīyaliterally blowing; a term applied to the visarga when followed by the consonant प् or फ्. The upadhmānīya is looked upon as a letter or phonetic element, which is always connected with the preceding vowel. As the upadhmānīya is an optional substitute for the visarga before the letter प् or फ्, when, in writing, it is to be shown instead of the visarga, it is shown as ᳶ, or as w , or even as x just as the Jihvāmūlīya; confer, compare उपध्मायते शब्दायते इति, उप समीपे ध्मायते शब्द्यते इति वा commentary on Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I:; : confer, compare also कपाभ्यां प्रागर्धविसर्गसदृशो जिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयौः:S.K.on P.VIII.2.1.
kadhyai kadhyainkṛt affix अध्यै of the infinitive in Vedic Literature: confer, compare तुमर्थे सेसे...कध्यैकध्यैन्..तवेनः P.III.4.9.
kap(1)kṛt affix क prescribed after the root दुह् exempli gratia, for example कामदुघा, confer, compare P.III.2. 70;(2) the Samāsānta अ at the end of Bahuvrīhi compounds exempli gratia, for example व्वूढोरस्कः, बहुदण्डिका, बहुकुमारीकः,बहुकर्तृकः, confer, compare P.V.4.151-154. For its prohibition, see P.V.4.155-160.
kamulkṛt (affix). affix अम् in Vedic Literaore in the sense of the infinitive, e. g. विभाजं in अग्निं वै देवा विभाजं नाशक्नुवन्;confer, compare P.III.4.12.
karaṇa(1)lit instrument; the term signifies the most efficient means for accomplishing an act; confer, compare क्रियासिद्धी यत् प्रकृष्टोपकारकं विवक्षितं तत्साधकतमं कारकं करणसंज्ञं भवति, Kāś. on साधकतमं करणम् P.I.4.42, e. g. दात्रेण in दात्रेण लुनाति; (2) effort inside the mouth (अाभ्यन्तर-प्रयत्न ) to produce sound; e. g. touching of the particular place ( स्थान ) inside the mouth for uttering consonants; confer, compare स्पृष्टं स्पर्शानां करणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P, I.1.10 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (3) disposition of the organ which produces the sound; confer, compare श्वासनादोभयानां विशेषः करणमित्युच्यते । एतच्च पाणिनिसंमताभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न इति भाति । Com. on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII.3;confer, compare also स्थानकरणानुप्रदानानि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.32: confer, compare also अनुप्रदानात्संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् । जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 2. where karaṇa is described to be of five kinds अनुप्रदान (id est, that is नाद or resonance), संसर्ग (contact), स्थान, करणविन्यय and परिमाण; confer, compareअकारस्य तावत् अनुप्रदानं नादः, संसर्गः कण्ठे, स्थानं हनू, करणविन्ययः ओष्ठौ, परिमाणं मात्राकालः । अनुप्रदानादिभिः पञ्चभिः करणैर्वर्णानां वैशेष्यं जायते Com. on Tai. Pr. XXIII.2. The Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya mentions two karaṇas संवृत and विवृत; confer, compare द्वे करणे संवृतविवृताख्ये वायोर्भवतः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 11; (4) use of a word exempli gratia, for example इतिकरणं, वत्करणम्; confer, compare किमुपस्थितं नाम । अनार्षं इतिकरणः M.Bh.on. P.VI.1.129.
kartṛagent of an action, subject; name of a kāraka or instrument in general, of an action, which produces the fruit or result of an action without depending on any other instrument; confer, compare स्वतन्त्रः कर्ता P. I.4.54, explained as अगुणीभूतो यः क्रियाप्रसिद्धौ स्वातन्त्र्येण विवक्ष्यते तत्कारकं कर्तृसंज्ञं भवति in the Kāśikā on P.I. 4.54. This agent, or rather, the word standing for the agent, is put in the nominative case in the active voice (confer, compare P.I.4.54), in the instrumental case in the passive voice (cf P. II.3.18), and in the genitive case when it is connected with a noun of action or verbal derivative noun, (confer, compare P.II.3.65).
kartṛsthakriya(a root)whose activity is found functioning in the subject;confer, compare यत्र क्रियाकृतविशेषदर्शनं कर्तरि Kaiyata on P.III.1.87 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3. Such roots, although transitive do not have any Karmakartari construction by the rule कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III. 1.87. as exempli gratia, for example ग्रामं गच्छति देवदत्तः has no कर्मकर्तरि construction; confer, compare कर्मस्थभावकानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां वा कर्ता कर्मवद् भवतीति वक्तव्यम् । कर्तृस्थभावकानां कर्तृस्थक्रियाणां वा कर्ता कर्मवन्मा भूदिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.87. Vārt, 3.
karmakartṛobject of the transitive verb which functions as the subject when there is a marked facility of action: exempli gratia, for exampleओदन is karmakartariobject, functioning as subject, in पच्यते ओदनः स्वयमेव. The word कर्मकर्तृ is used also for the कर्मकर्तरि प्रयोग where the object, on which the verb-activity is found, is turned into a subject and the verb which is transitive is turned into intransitive as a result.
karmadhārayaname technically given to a compound-formation of two words in apposition i. e. used in the same case, technically called समानाधिकरण showing the same substratutm; confer, compare तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः I 2.42. The karmadhāraya compound is looked upon as a variety of the tatpuruṣa compound. There is no satisfactory explanation of the reason why such a compound is termed कर्मधारय. Śākaṭāyana defines Karmadhāraya as विशेषणं व्यभिचारि एकार्थं कर्मधारयश्च where the word विशेषण is explained as व्यावर्तक or भेदक (distinguishing attribute) showing that the word कर्म may mean भेदकक्रिया. The word कर्मधारय in that case could mean 'कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयति असौ कर्मधारयः' a compound which gives a specification of the thing in hand.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
kamenāmanliterally noun showing action, participle. कर्मप्रवचनीय a technical term used in connection with a preposition which showed a verbal activity formerly, although for the present time it does not show it; the word is used as a technical term in grammar in connection with prefixes or उपसर्गs which are not used along.with a root, but without it confer, compare कर्म प्रोक्तवन्तः कर्मप्रवचनीयाः इति M.Bh. on P.I.4.83; exempli gratia, for example शाकल्यस्य संहितामनु प्रावर्षत्, अन्वर्जुनं योद्धारः, अा कुमारं यशः पाणिनेः; confer, compare Kāś. on P.I.4.83 to 98.
kalāpa(कलाप-व्याकरण)alternative name given to the treatise on grammar written by Sarvavarman who is believed to have lived in the days of the Sātavāhana kings. The treatise is popularly known by the namc Kātantra Vyākaraṇa. The available treatise,viz. Kalpasūtras, is much similar to the Kātantra Sūtras having a few changes and additions only here and there.It is rather risky to say that Kalāpa was an ancient system of grammar which is referred to in the Pāṇini Sūtra कलापिनोण् P. IV.3.108. For details see कातन्त्र.
kalpana,kalpanāsupposition, assumption; cf गुणकल्पनया च भिक्षुनटसूत्रयोश्छन्दस्त्वम् Kāś. on P. IV.3.110; confer, compare also अनेकक्लिष्टकल्पनापेक्षया अस्या उचितत्वात् Pari. Śek. on. Pari. 94.
kasunkṛt affix अस् found in Vedic Literature, in the sense of the infinitive: e. g. ईश्वरो विलिखः (विलि-खितुम्) confer, compare P. III.4.13, 17. The word ending in this कसुन् becomes an indeclinable: cf क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः P.I.1.40.
kasenkṛt affix असे in the sense of the infinitive in Vedic Literature; e. g. प्रेषे, श्रियसे्; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 4. 9.
kātantrasūtravṛttian old Vṛtti on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Vararuci who is, of course, different from Vararuci Kātyāyana. The Vṛtti appears to have been occupying a position similar to that of Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti..
kātya(1)another name sometimes given to Katyāyana to whom is ascribed the composition of the Vārttikas on Pāṇini-sūtras; (2) an ancient writer Kātya quoted as a lexicographer by Kṣīrasvāmin, Hemacandra and other writers.
kāraan affix, given in the Prātiśākhya works and,by Kātyāyana also in his Vārttika, which is added to a letter or a phonetic element for convenience of mention; exempli gratia, for example इकारः, उकारः ; confer, compare वर्णः कारोत्तरो वर्णाख्या; वर्णकारौ निर्देशकौ Tai. Pra.I. 16: XXII.4.;confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1.37. It is also applied to syllables or words in a similar way to indicate the phonetic element of the word as apart from the sense of the word: e. g.' यत एवकारस्ततीन्यत्रावधारणम् Vyak. Paribhāṣā , confer, compare also the words वकार:, हिंकारः: (2) additional purpose served by a word such as an adhikāra word; confer, compare अधिकः कारः , पूर्वविप्रतिषेघा न पठितव्या भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.11.
kārmanāmikathe word is found used in Yāska's Nirukta as an adjective to the word संस्कार where it means belonging to nouns derived fromroofs (कर्मनाम)"like पाचक,कर्षक et cetera, and othersThe changes undergone by the roots in the formation of such words i. e. words showing action are termed कार्मनामिकसंस्कार; confer, compare कर्मकृतं नाम कर्मनाम। तस्मिन् भवः कार्मनामिकः Durgavṛtti on Nirukta of Yāska.I.13. कार्य(l) brought.into existence by activity (क्रियया निर्वृत्तं कार्यम् ) as oppo- sed to नित्य eternal; confer, compare एके वर्णाञ् शाश्वतिकान् न कार्यान् R.Pr. XIII.4 confer, compare also ननु च यस्यापि कार्याः ( शब्दाः ) तस्यापि पूजार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 17;(2) which should be done, used in connection with a grammatical operation: confer, compare कार्य एत्वे सयमीकारमाहुः ।| अभैष्म इत्येतस्य स्थाने अभयीष्मेति । R.Pr. XIV.16; confer, compare also विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I.4.2; (3) a grammatical opera- tion as for instance in the phrases द्विकार्ययोगे, त्रिकार्ययोगे et cetera, and others; confer, compare also गौणमुख्ययोर्मुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्ययः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 15;(4) object of a transitive verb: confer, compare शेषः कार्ये Śāk.
kāryātideśalooking upon the substitute as the very original for the sake of operations that are caused by the presence of the original;the word is used in contrast with रूपातिदेश where actually the original is restored in the place of the substitute on certain conditions. For details see Mahābhāṣya on द्विर्वचनेचि P. 1.1.59.
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
kīlhārnKielhorn F., a sound scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who brought out excellent editions of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya and the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and wrote an essay on the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana. For details see Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya Vol VII.p.40, D. E society edition, Poona.
kuṇaptaddhita affix. affix कुण added to words of पीलु group in the sense of 'ripened condition';exempli gratia, for exampleपीलुकुणः=पीलूनां पाकः; confer, compare P.V.2.24.
kumārīstanayugākṛtia phrase used in the gloss on the कातन्त्र by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. to give along with the definition of र्विसर्जनीय or विसर्ग a graphic description of it as shown in script confer, compare Kāt, I.1.16 commentary
kṛtākṛtaprasaṅgia definition of the term नित्य in the sense of a rule which occurs after certain another rule is applied as well as before that rule is applied: confer, compare कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि नित्यम् । तद्विपरीतमनित्यम् । Pari, Sek. Pari. 42; cf also कंथं पुनरयं नित्यः । कृताकृतप्रसङ्गित्वात् l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 4. 62.
kṛtvasuctaddhita affix. affix कृत्वम् applied to numerals to convey the sense of repetition, e. g. पंञ्चकृत्वः दशकृत्वः confer, compare संख्यायाः क्रियाभ्यावृत्तिगणने कृत्वसुच् P. V. 4.17.
kaimarthakyaiit. position of questioning the utility; absence of any apparent utility: confer, compare कैमर्थक्यान्नियमो भवति विधेयं नास्तीति कृत्वा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 4.3, III.1.46; III.2.127, III. 3.19; VI.4.49, VII.2.26, and VIII.4.32.
kaumāra,komāravyākaraṇa(1)an alternative name of the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa given to it on the strength of the traditional belief that the original inspiration for writing it was received by Sarvavarman from Kumara or Kārtikeya; (2) small treatises bearing the name Kaumāravyākaraṇa written by Munipuṅgava and Bhāvasena. The latter has written Kātantrarūpamāla also.
ktvākṛt (affix). affix त्वा added to roots (1) in the sense of prohibition conveyed by the word अलं or खलु preceding the root, exempli gratia, for example अलं कृत्वा, खलु कृत्वा; confer, compare P. III.4.18; (2) in the sense of exchange in the case of the root मा, e. g. अपमित्य याचते; confer, compare P. III.4.19; (3) to show an activity of the past time along with a verb or noun of action showing comparatively a later time, provided the agent of the former and the latter activities is the same; exempli gratia, for example भुक्त्वा व्रजति, स्नात्वा पीत्वा भुक्त्वा व्रजति; confer, compare P. III.4. 21. This kṛt affix is always added to roots when they are without any prefix; when there is a prefix the indeclinable, ending in त्वा, is always compounded with the prefix and त्वा is changed into य (ल्यप्), exempli gratia, for example प्रकृत्य, प्रहृत्य; confer, compare समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1.37. The substitution of य is at will in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कृष्णं वासो यजमानं परिधापयित्वा ( instead of परिधाप्य ), confer, compare P. VII.1.38, while sometimes, य is added after त्वा as an augment e. g. दत्वाय सविता धियः confer, compare P. VII.l.47, as also sometimes त्वी or त्वीनम् is substituted for त्वा e. g. इष्ट्वीनं देवान्, स्नात्वी मलादिव, confer, compare P. VII.1.48, 49.
kyacdenominative affix ( विकरण ) in the sense of desiring for oneself, added to nouns to form denomitive roots; exempli gratia, for example पुत्रीयति; क्यच् is also added to nouns that are upamānas or standards of comparison in the sense of (similar) behaviour: exempli gratia, for example पुत्रीयति च्छात्रम्: confer, compare Kāś. on P. III.1.8, 10. It is also added in the sense of 'doing' to the words नमस्, वरिवस् and चित्र; e. g. नमस्यति देवान्, वरिवस्यति गुरून् , चित्रीयते ; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1.19.
īśeḥ(VII.2.77)अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. l to 4; confer, compare also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, confer, compare also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 1. For details and special features, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ch. X and XI: confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
kriyātipattiliterally over-extension or excess of action; the word is, however, used in grammar in the sense of non-happening of an expected action especially when . it forms a condition of the conditional mood ( लृङ् ); confer, compare कुताश्चिद्वैगुण्यादनभिनिर्वृत्तिः क्रियायाः क्रियातिपत्तिः Kāś. on P. III. 3.139; confer, compare also नान्तरेण साधनं क्रियायाः प्रवृत्तिरस्तीति साधनातिपत्तिश्चेत्कियातिपत्तिरपि भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.3.139.
kriyāsamabhihārarepetition or intensity of a verbal activity; confer, compare समभिहारः पौनः पुन्यं भृशार्थो वा, Kāś. on P.I.4.2.
kvinkṛt zero affix, id est, that is an affix of which every letter is dropped and nothing remains, added to the roots स्पृश्, यज्, सृज्, दृश्, et cetera, and others under certain conditions; exempli gratia, for example घृतस्पृक्, ऋत्विक्, यादृक्, तादृक्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.2.58-60.
kvip(1)kṛt affix zero, added to the roots सद्, सू, द्विष् and others with a preceding word as upapada or with a prefix or sometimes even without any word, as also to the root हन् preceded by the words ब्रह्मन्, भ्रूण and वृत्र, and to the root कृ preceded by सु, कर्मन् et cetera, and others, and to the roots सु, and चि under certain conditions exempli gratia, for example उपसत्, सूः, प्रसूः, पर्णध्वत्, ब्रह्महा, वृत्रहा, सोमसुत्, अग्निचित्; confer, compareP.III. 2.61, 76, 77, 87-92: 177-179; (2) the denominative affix zero applied to any substantive in the sense of behaviour अश्वति, गर्दभति et cetera, and others; confer, compare M.Bh. and Kāś, on P.III.1.11.
kṣitīśacandra(चक्रवर्तिन्)or K. C. CHATTERJI a scholar of Sanskrit grammar who has written a work on technical terms in Sanskrit, who has edited several grammar works and is at present editing the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa and conducting the Sanskrit journal named Mañjūṣa at Calcutta.
khsecond consonant of the guttural class of consonants possessed of श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष and विवार qualities.
khaśkṛt affix added to the roots यज् (causal), ध्मा, धे,रुज्, वह्, लिह्, पच् , दृश् , तप्, मन् et cetera, and others preceded by certain specified upapada words. The root undergoes all the operations such as the addition of the conjugational sign et cetera, and others before this खश् on account of the mute letter श् which makes खश् a Sārvadhātuka affix, and the augment म् is added to the preceding उपपद if it is not an indeclinable on account of the mute letter ख्; e. g. जनमेजयः, स्तनंधयः, नाडिंधमः, असूयै. पश्यः पण्डितंमन्यः etc,; confer, compare Pāṇ. III2.28-37, 83.
khitcharacterized by the mute letter ख्, applied to kṛt affixes which, by reason of their being खित् , cause (a) the addition of the augment मुम् ( म् ) to the preceding words अरुस् , द्विषद् and words ending in a vowel, and (b) the shortening of the long vowel of the preceding word if it is not an indeclinable; confer, compare P. VI. 3.66-68.
gaṇapāṭhathe mention individually of the several words forming a class or gaṇa, named after the first word said to have been written by Pāṇini himself as a supplementary work to his great grammar called Aṣṭaka or Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., the Sikṣā,the Dhātupātha and the Lingānuśāsana being the other ones. Other grammarians such as शाकटायन, अापिशलि and others have their own gaṇapāthās. The gaṇapāthā is traditionally ascribed to Pāṇini; the issue is questioned, however, by modern scholars. The text of the gaṇapāṭha is metrically arranged by some scholars. The most scholarly and authoritative treatise on gaṇapāṭha is the Gaṇaratnamahodadhī of Vardhamāna.
gaṇasūtraa statement of the type of a Sūtra in the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini where mention of a word or words in the Gaṇapāṭha is made along with certain conditions; e. g. पूर्वपुरावरo, स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् , in the सर्वादिगण, and क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः, तसिलादय: प्राक्पाशपः in the स्वरादिगण. Some of the gaṇasūtras are found incorporated in the Sūtrapāṭha itself Many later grammarians have appended their own gaṇapāṭha to their Sūtrapāṭha.
gati(1)literally motion; stretching out, lengthening of a syllable. The word is explained in the Prātiśakhya works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel इ or उ after it, exempli gratia, for example हाइ or हायि for हा; similarly आ-इ or अा -यि ; (2) a technical term used by Pāṇini in connection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called गति, confer, compare P.I.4.60-79. The words called gati can be compounded with the following word provided the latter is not a verb, the compound being named tatpuruṣa e.g, प्रकृतम् , ऊरीकृत्य confer, compare P.II.2.18; the word गति is used by Pāṇini in the masculine gender as seen in the Sūtra गतिरनन्तरः P.VI. 2.49 and hence explained as formed by the addition of the affix क्तिच् to गम्, the word being used as a technical term by the rule क्तिच्क्तौ च संज्ञायाम् P.III.3.174; (3) realization, understanding; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.9; सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 76; अगत्या हि परिभाषा अाश्रीयते Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva Pari. Pāṭha 119.
galatpadathe word occurs in the Prātiśākhya works in connection with the definition of संक्रम, in the kramapātha. The word संक्रम means bringing together two words when they are combined according to rules of Samdhi. (See the word संक्रम). In the Kramapātha, where each word occurs twice by repetition, a word occurring twice in a hymn or a sentence is not to be repeated for Kramapātha, but it is to be passed over. The word which is passed over in the Kramapātha is called गलत्पद; e. g. दिशां च पतये नमो नमो वृक्षेभ्यो हरिकेशेभ्यः पशूनां पतये नमो नमः सस्पिञ्जराय त्विषीमतॆ पथीनां पतये नमः । In the Kramapātha पतये नमः and नमः are passed over and पशूनां is to be connected with सस्पिञ्जराय. The words पतये नमः and नमः are called galatpada; confer, compare गलत्पदमतिक्रम्य अगलता सह संधानं संक्रम; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 197. There is no गलत्पद in पदपाठ.
guṇa(1)degree of a vowel; vocalic degree, the second out of the three degrees of a vowel viz. primary degree, guna degree and vrddhi degree exempli gratia, for example इ, ए and ऐ or उ, ओ and औ. अ is given as a guna of अ; but regarding अ also,three degrees can be stated अ, अ and आ. In the Pratisakhya and Nirukta ए is called गुण or even गुणागम but no definiti6n is given ; confer, compare गुणागमादेतनभावि चेतन R.Pr.XI.6;शेवम् इति विभीषितगुणः। शेवमित्यपि भवति Nir.X.17: (2) the properties of phonetic elements or letters such as श्वास,नाद et cetera, and others: confer, compareṚgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) Ch.XIII : (3) secondary, subordinate;confer, compare शेषः,अङ्गं, गुणः इति समानार्थाः Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.on Nirukta of Yāska.I.12: (4) properties residing in a substance just as whiteness, et cetera, and others in a garment which are different from the substance ( द्रव्य ). The word गुण is explained by quotations from ancient grammarians in the Maha bhasya as सत्वे निविशतेsपैति पृथग्जातिषु दृश्यते । अाघेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोSसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः ॥ अपर आह । उपैत्यन्यज्जहात्यन्यद् दृष्टो द्रव्यान्तरेष्वपि। वाचकः सर्वलिङ्गानां द्रव्यादन्यो गुणः स्मृतः ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.44;cf also शब्दस्पर्शरूपरसगन्धा गुणास्ततोन्यद् द्रव्यम् ,M.Bh.on V.1.119 (5) properties of letters like उदात्तत्व, अनुदात्तत्व, स्वरितत्व, ह्र्स्वत्व, दीर्घत्व, प्लुतत्व, अानुनासिक्य et cetera, and others; confer, compare भेदकत्वाद् गुणस्य । आनुनासिक्यं नाम गुणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.. Vart, 13: (6) determinant cf भवति बहुव्रीहौ तद्गुणसंविज्ञानमपि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.27; (7) technical term in Panini's grarnmar standing for the vowels अ, ए and ओ, confer, compare अदेङ्गुणः P.I.1.2. For the various shades of the meaning of the word गुण, see Mahabhasya on V.1.119. " गुणशब्दोयं बह्वर्थः । अस्त्येव समेष्ववयवेषु वर्तते ।...... चर्चागुणांश्च ।
guṇavacanaliterally expressing quality; words expressing quality such as शुक्ल, नील, et cetera, and others; confer, compare गुणवचनब्राह्मणादिभ्यः कर्मणि च P.V. 1.124. See page 369 Vyākarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D.E. Society edition, Poona.
gaurādia class of words to which the affix ई ( ङीष्) is added to form the feminine base; exempli gratia, for example गौरी, मत्सी, हयी, हरिणी; the class contains a large number of words exceeding 150; for details see Kasika on P.IV.1. 41; (2) a small class of eleven words, headed by the word गौर which do not have the acute accent on the last syllable in a tatpurusa compound when they are placed after the preposition उप; confer, compare P. VI.2.194.
grahaṇa(1)technical term for a word or प्रातिपदिक in Veda; confer, compare ग्रहणस्य च । गृह्यते इति ग्रहणं वेदस्थः इाब्दः । तत् त्रिविधम् । कार्यभाक्, निमित्तम्, उपबन्ध इति । तस्यापि स्वरूपपूर्वकः अकारः आख्या भवति । Com. on T.Pr.I.22; (2) citing, quoting; confer, compare ग्रहणवता प्रातिपादिकेन न तदन्तविधिः Par.Sek. Pari. 3I ; confer, compare also गृह्णन्तीति ग्रहणाानि Com. on T.Pr.I.24. (3) mention, inclusion; (4) employment in a rule of grammar; confer, compare प्रातिपादिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम्. Par. Sek.Pari.71.
grahaṇakaciting or instructing the inclusion ( ग्रहण) of certain other things by the mention of a particular thing; e. g. the rule अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः is a ग्रहणक rule as it advises that the citing of the letters अ, इ, उ, ऋ et cetera, and others includes the long and protracted forms of अ, इ, उ etc; confer, compare also ग्रहणकशास्त्रस्य सावर्ण्यविधिनिषेधाभ्यां प्रागनिष्पत्ते; Sid. Kau. on अकः सवर्णे दीर्धः V1. 1. 101.
gh(1)fourth consonant of the guttural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदानत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2)the consonant घ at the beginning of a taddhita affix. affix which is always changed into इय्; confer, compare P. VII. 1. 9; (3) substitute for ह् at the end of roots beginning with द्, as also of the root नह् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.VIII.2.32,33,34; (4) substitute for the consonant व् of मतुव् placed after the pronouns किम् and इदम् which again is changed into इय् by VII.1.9: exempli gratia, for example कियान्, इयान्: confer, compare P.V. 2.40.
gha(l)consonant घ्, अ being added at the end for facility of pronunciation; confer, compareTai. Pr.I.21; (2) technical term for the taddhita affix. affixes तरप् and तमप्, confer, compare P.I.1.22, causing the shortening of ई at the end of bases before it, under certain conditions, confer, compare P. VI. 3.43-45, and liable to be changed into तराम् and तमाम् after किम्, verbs ending in ए, and indeclinables; confer, compare P.V.4.11; (3) taddhita affix. affix घ ( इय) in the sense of 'a descendant' applied to क्षत्र, and in the sense of 'having that as a deity' applied to अपोनप्तृ अपांनप्तृ and also to महेन्द्र and to the words राष्ट्र et cetera, and others, exempli gratia, for example क्षत्रियः, अपोनाप्त्रिय:, अपांनप्त्रियः, महेन्द्रियम्,राष्ट्रियः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV.1.138, IV.2.27, 29, 93; (4) taddhita affix. affix घ, applied to अग्र, समुद्र and अभ्र in the sense of 'present there', to सहस्र in the sense of 'possession', to, नक्षत्र without any change of sense, and to यज्ञ and ऋत्विज् in the sense of 'deserving'; confer, compare P.IV.4.117,118,135, 136,141, V.1.71 ; (5) krt affix अ when the word to which it has been applied becomes a proper noun id est, that isa noun in a specific sense or a technical term; confer, compare III.3. 118, 119,125.
ṅasending of the genitive case singular; स्य is substituted for ङस् after bases ending in अ; cf P. IV. l . 2 and VII. 1. 12.
ṅit(l)affixes with the mute letter ङ् attached to them either before or after, with a view to preventing the guna and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding इ, उ, ऋ, or लृ, as for example, the affixes चङ्, अङ् and others (2) affixes conventionally called ङित् after certain bases under certain conditions; confer, compare गाङ्कुटादिम्यो ञ्णिन्ङित् P. I. 2. 1-4; (3) roots marked with the mute letter ङ् signifying the application of the Atmanepada terminations to them: (4) substitutes marked with mute ङ् which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which they are prescribed as substitutes; (5) case affixes marked with mute letter ङ् which cause the substitution of guna to the last vowel इ or उ of words termed घि.
ṅīpfeminine. affix ई which is anudatta (grave) added (a) to words ending in the vowel ऋ or the consonant न् (confer, compareP.IV.1.5), (b) to words ending with affixes marked with mute उ,ऋ or लृ; confer, compareP.IV.1.6 (c) to words ending with affixes marked with mute ट् as also ending with the affixes ढ, अण्, अञ्, द्वयसच् दघ्नच्,मात्रच्, तयप्, ठक्, ठञ्, कञ् and क्वरप् (confer, compareP.IV.1.15) and to certain other words under certain conditions; confer, compare P. IV. 1.16-24.
ṅīṣfeminine. afix ई, which is udatta, applied to words in the class of words headed by गौर, as also to noun bases ending in affixes marked with.mute ष्, as also to words mentioned in the class headed by बहुः confer, compare P.IV.1.41-46.It is also added in the sense of 'wife of' to any word denoting a male person; confer, compare P. IV. 1. 48, and together with the augment आनुक् (आन्) to the words इन्द्र, वरुण etc exempli gratia, for example इन्द्राणी, वरुणानि, यवनानि meaning 'the script of the Yavanas' confer, compare P. IV. 1.49. It is also added words ending in क्रीत and words ending in क्त and also to words expressive of ' limbs of body ' under certain conditions; confer, compare P.IV.1. 50-59 and IV. 1.61-65.
cakrina grammarian who has written a small disquisition on the correctness of the form जाग्रहीता. See जाग्रहीतेतिवाद.
caṇthe indeclinable च (with ण् as a mute letter added to it which of course disappears) possessing the sense of चेत् or condition. exempli gratia, for example अयं च मरिष्यति confer, compare Kas, on P. VIII. 1.30.
candrācāryaa grammarian mentioned by Bhartrhari in his Vakyapadiya as one who took a leading part in restoring the traditional explanation of Panini's Vyakarana which, by the spread of rival easy treatises on grammar, had become almost lost: confer, compare यः पतञ्जलिशिष्येभ्यो भ्रष्टो ब्याकरणागमः । काले स दाक्षिणात्येषु ग्रन्थमात्रे व्यवस्थित: ॥ पर्वतादागमं लब्ध्वा भाष्यबीजानुसारिभि: । स नीतो बहुशाखत्वं चन्द्राचार्यादिभिः पुनः ॥ Vakyapadiya II. 488-489. See चन्द्र and चन्द्रगोमिन्.
carcāguṇarepetition of a word in the पद्पाठ, क्रमपाठ, जटापाठ et cetera, and others where the several Pathas appear to be called चर्चा.In the पदपाठ a word in a compound is repeated twice, in the क्रमपाठ every word is repeated twice, in the जटापाठ, six times.
cāndraname of a treatise on grammar written by Candra, who is believed to have been the same as Candragomin. The Grammar is based upon that of Panini, but it does not treat Vedic forms and accents. See the word चन्द्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For details see pp. 375376 Patanjali Mahabhasya. Vol. VII, D.E. Society's Edition.
codaka(1)an objector; the word is common in the Commentary Literature where likely objections to a particular statement are raised, without specific reference to any individual objector, and replies are given, simply with a view to making matters clear; (2) repetition of a word with इति interposed: confer, compare चेदकः परिग्रहः इत्यनर्थान्तरम्. See अदृष्टवर्ण and परिग्रह.
coradthe crude form of the word चोर with the mute consonant ट् added to signify the addition of ङीप् to form the feminine base e. g. चोरी; confer, compare P. IV. 1. 15.
chakārathe letter छ, the word कार being looked upon as an affix added to the consonant छ् which, by the addition of अ, is made a complete syllable; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 16, 21.
jagannātha(1)the well-known poet and scholar of Vyakarana and Alam kara who wrote many excellent poetical works. He lived in the sixteenth century. He was a pupil of कृष्णशेष and he severely criticised the views of Appaya Diksita and Bhattoji Diksita. He wrote a sort of refutation of Bhattoji's commentary Praudha-Manorama on the Siddhānta Kaumudi, which he named प्रौढमनेारमाखण्डन but which is popularly termed मनोरमाकुचमर्दन. His famous work is the Rasagangadhara on Alankrasastra; (2) writer of a commentary on the Rk-Pratisakhya by name Varnakramalaksana; (3) writer of Sarapradipika, a commentary on the Sarasvata Vyakarana.
jāgrahitetivādaa short disguisition on the correctness of the word जाग्रहीता, written by a grammarian named Cakrin; confer, compare भट्टोजिदीक्षितग्राहग्रस्तं माधवदिग्गजम्। अमूमुचत् सत्यवर्यश्चक्री चक्रिप्रसादभाक्, colophon.
jāmitautologous, unnecessarily repeated; the word is defined and illustrated by Yaska as;-तद्यत्समान्यामृचि समानाभिव्याहारं भवति तज्जामि भवतीत्येकं । मधुमन्तं मधुश्चुतमिति यथा Nir.x.16.2. For other definitions of the word जामि conveying practically the same idea, confer, compare Nir.X. 16. 3 and 4.
ñia mute syllable prefixed to a root in the Dhatuptha of Panini' signifying the addition of the affix त (क्त) to the root, in the sense of the present time; exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, धृष्ट: et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 2.187.
ñīta root marked with the mute syllable ञि prefixed to it, signifying the addition of the affix क्त in the present tense. See ञि.
ñyataddhita affix य signifying the substitution of vrddhi as also the acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition It is added (1) to words headed by प्रगदिन् in the four senses termed वंतुरर्थ exempli gratia, for exampleप्रागृद्यम्, शारद्यम् et cetera, and others;confer, compareP.IV. 2.80; (2).to the word गम्भीर and अव्ययीभाव compounds in the sense of present there', exempli gratia, for example गाम्भीर्यम् , पारिमुख्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.3.58, 59 (3) to the word विदूर exempli gratia, for example वैदुर्य; confer, compare P. IV.3.84;.(4) to the words headed by शण्डिक in the sense of 'domicile of', exempli gratia, for example शाण्डिक्यः ; confer, compare P. IV.3.92; (5) to the words छन्दोग, औक्थिक, नट et cetera, and others in the sense of duty (धर्म) or scripture (अाम्नाय) e. g. छान्दोग्यम् , औविथक्यम् नाट्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.129; (6) to the word गृहपति in the sense of ’associated with'; exempli gratia, for example गार्हपत्यः (अग्निः);confer, compareP.IV.4.90;(7) to the words ऋषभ and उपानह् ; confer, compare P. V.1.14; .(8) to the words अनन्त, आवसथ et cetera, and others,confer, compare P. V.4.23; (9) to the word अतिथि; confer, compare P.V.4.26; and (10) to the words in the sense of पूग(wandering tribes for earning money), as also to the words meaning व्रात (kinds of tribes) as also to words ending with the affix च्फञ् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.V.3. 112, 113.
ñyaṭtaddhita affix. affix य .causing वृद्धि to the first vowel of the word to which it is added and the addition of ई ( ङीप् ) in the sense of feminine gender, added to words meaning warrior tribes of the Vahika country but not Brahmanas or Ksatriyas. exempli gratia, for example क्षौद्रक्यः, क्षौद्रक्री et cetera, and others; cf P. V. 3. 114.
the first consonant of the lingual class ( टवर्ग ) possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When prefixed or affixed to an affix as an indicatory letter, it signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ); confer, compare P. IV. 1.15, When added to the conjugational affixes ( लकार ) it shows that in the Atmanepada the vowel of the last syllable is changed to ए. confer, compare P. III. 4.79. When added to an augment ( अागम ), it shows that the augment marked with it is to be prefixed and not to be affixed; e. g. नुट्, तुट् et cetera, and others; cf P. I. 1.46.
ṭa(1)the consonant ट्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance; confer, compare अकारो व्यञ्जनानाम्, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) short term, (प्रत्याहार) standing for टवगे or the lingual class of consonants, found used mostly in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare RT. 13, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 64, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 27: (3) taddhita affix. affix ( अ ) added to the word फल्गुनी in the sense ' तत्र जातः' e. g. फल्गुनी, confer, compare P. IV. 3.34, Vart. 2; (4) krt affix ( अ ) added to the root चर्, सृ and कृ under certain conditions; e. g. कुरुचर:, अग्रेसुर:, यशस्करी ( विद्या ) दिवाकरः, वेिभकरः कर्मकरः et cetera, and others confer, compare P. III. 2.16-23.
ṭakkrt affix अ, not admitting गुण or वृद्धि to the preceding vowel and causing ङीप् in the feminine ( by P.IV. 1.15), added to the roots गा, पा and हन् under certain conditions; e. g. समग;, सुरापः, पतिघ्नी et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 2.8, 52, 53, 54, 55.
ṭitmarked or characterized by the mute letter ट्. For the significance of the addition of ट्, see ट्.
ṭīṭactaddhita affix. affix टीट added to the preposition अच in the sense of 'lowering of the nose' ( नासिकाया: नतम् ) e. g. अवटीटम्: confer, compare P. V. 2.31
ṭu(1)mute syllable टु prefixed to roots to signify the addition of the affix अथुच् in the sense of verbal activity; e. g. वेपथुः, श्वयथु:, confer, compare P.III. 3.89; (2) the class of lingual consonants ट्, ठ्, ड्, ढ् and ण्; cf चुटू P. I. 3.7.
ṭyaṇtaddhita affix. affix य, causing वृद्धि for the initial vowel and the addition of the feminine. affix ई, applied to the word सोम in the sense of 'having that as a deity,' e. g. सौम्यं हविः, सौमी ऋक्: confer, compare P.IV. 2.30.
ṭlañtaddhita affix. affix ल, causing vrddhi for the initial vowel of the word to which it is added and also the addition of the feminine.affix ई,applied to the word शमी in the sense of 'विकार,' e. g. शामीली स्रुक्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.142.
ṭha(l)taddhita affix. affix ठ; see ठ् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. for the substitution of इक and क for ठ. ठ stands as a common term for ठक् , ठन् , ठञ्, and ठच् as also for ष्ठल्,ष्ठन् , and प्ठच्;(2) the consonant ठ, the vowel अ being added for facitity of pronunciation, confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.21.
ṭhantaddhita affix. affix इक or क (according to P. VII.3.51), causing the addition of आ, and not ई,..for forming the feminine base, applied (1) to the word नौ and words with two syllables in the sense of 'crossing' or 'swimming' over; confer, compare P.IV.4. 7; exempli gratia, for example नाविकः नाविका, बाहुकः बाहुक्रा; (2) to the words वस्र, क्रय, and विक्रय and optionally with छ to अायुघ in the sense of maintaining (तेन जीवति) ; confer, compare P. IV. 4.13, 14; (3) to the word प्रतिपथ, words ending with अगार, to the word शत, to words showing completion ( पूरणवाचिन् ), to the words अर्ध, भाग, वस्त्र, द्रव्य, षण्मास and. श्राद्ध in specified senses; confer, compare P. IV 4.42, 70, V. 1.21, 48, 49, 51, 84, V. 2, 85, and 109; (4) to words ending in अ as also to the words headed by व्रीहि, and optionally with the affix इल्च् to तुन्द and with the affix व to केशin the sense of मतुप्(possession); cf P.V. 2. 115, 116, 117 and 109.
ḍa(1)krt affix अ applied to the root गम् preceded by अन्त, अत्यन्त, अध्वन् et cetera, and others, as also to the roots हन् and जन् under certain conditions; confer, compare P. III.2,48,49, 50, 97-101 and to the root क्रन् to form the word नक्र confer, compare P. VI. 3.75; (2) taddhita affix. affix अ applied to words ending in दशन्, words ending in शत् and the word विंशति in the sense of 'more than' exempli gratia, for example एकादशं शतम्, एकत्रिंशम्, एकविंशम्, cf P.V.2.45, 46.
ḍvita root marked with the mute syllable डु (at the beginning) to Signify the application of the krt affix त्रि which is invariably followed by the addition of म ( मप् ), in the sense of 'achieved by' e. g. पक्त्रिमम् ; कृत्रिमम्: confer, compare P. III. 3.88 ; and IV. 4.20.
ḍhañtaddhita affix. affix एय causing Vrddhi substituted for the first vowel of the base and the addition of the feminine. affix ङीप् (इ), applied (1) to words meaning quadrupeds and words in the class of words headed by गृष्टि in the sense of अपत्य; e. g. कामण्डलेयः, गार्ष्टेयः, हालेय:, बालेयः etc; confer, compare P. IV.1.135,136; (2) to the word क्षीर, words of the class headed by सखि, the words कोश, दृति, कुक्षि, कलशि, अस्ति, अहि,ग्रीवा,वर्मती,एणी,पथि,अतिथि,वसति,स्वपति, पुरुष, छदि्स, उपधि, बलि, परिखा, and वस्ति in the various senses mentioned in connection with these words; exempli gratia, for exampleक्षेरेयः, .साखेयम् कौशेयम् दात्र्ऱेयम् , कौक्षेयम् etc, cf Kas'. on P. IV. 2. 20, 80, IV. 3. 42, 56, 57, 94, 159, IV.4.1 04, V.1.10,13,17, V.3.101.
ṇatvacerebralization; lingualization ; the substitution of ण् for न् under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VIII.4. 1-39. See ण.
ṇamulkrt affix अम्, causing vrddhi to the final vowel or to the penultimate अ, (!) added to any root in the sense of the infinitive in Vedic Literature when the connected root is शक्: exempli gratia, for example अग्निं वै देवा विभाजं नाशक्नुवन; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 4.14; (2) added to any root to show frequency of a past action, when the root form ending with णमुल् is repeated to convey the sense of frequency : exempli gratia, for example भोजं भोजं व्रजति, पायंपायं व्रजति, confer, compare Kas on P. III. 4.22; (3) added to a root showing past action and preceded by the word अग्रे, प्रथम or पूर्व, optionally along with the krt affix क्त्वा; exempli gratia, for example अग्रेभोजं or अग्रे भुक्त्वा व्रजति; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.24;(4) added in general to a root specified in P.III.4.25 to 64, showing a subordinate action and having the same subject as the root showing the main action, provided the root to which णमुल् is added is preceded by an antecedent or connected word, such as स्वादुम् or अन्यथा or एवम् or any other given in Panini's rules; confer, compare P. III.4.26 to III.4.64; exempli gratia, for example स्वादुंकारं भुङ्क्ते, अन्यथाकारं भुङ्क्ते, एवंकारं भुङ्क्ते, ब्राह्मणवेदं भोजयति, यावज्जीवमधीते, समूलकाषं कषति, समूलघातं हन्ति, तैलपेषं पिनष्टि, अजकनाशं नष्टः et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.26-64. When णमुल् is added to the roots कष्, पिष्, हन् and others mentioned in P. III. 4. 34 to 45, the same root is repeated to show the principal action. The word ending in णमुल् has the acute accent (उदात) on the first vowel (confer, compare P.VI.I. 94) or on the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare P. VI.1.193.
ṇicaffix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् et cetera, and others e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; confer, compare P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising et cetera, and others ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; confer, compare P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, exempli gratia, for example सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, et cetera, and others: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: confer, compare णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे et cetera, and others; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
ṇuṭaugment ण्, prefixed to the initial vowel when it follows upon the consonant ण् at the end of the preceding word; e. g. सुगण्णीशः for सुगण् + ईशः cf P. VIII. 3.82.
ṇopadeśaa root mentioned in the Dhatupatha by Panini as beginning with ण् which subsequently is changed to न् ( by P. VI. 1.65) in all the forms derived from the root; e. g. the roots णम, णी and others. In the case of these roots the initial न् is again changed into ण् after a prefix like प्र or परा having the letter र् in it and having a vowel or a consonant of the guttural or labial class intervening between the letter र् and the letter न्; e. g. प्रणमति, प्रणयकः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.14.
ṇvikrt, affix ण्वि i. e. zero, causing vrddhi, applied to the root भज् and to सह् and वह् in Vedic Literature if the root is preceded by any preposition ( उपसर्ग ) or a substantive as the upapada ; e. g. अर्द्धभाक्, प्रभाक्, तुराषाट् , दित्यवाट्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III, 2.62, 63, 64.
t(1)personal ending of the third pers singular. Atm: confer, compare P. III. 4.78, which is changed to ते in the perfect tense and omitted after the substitute चिण् for च्लि in the aorist; confer, compare P.VI.4.04: (2) personal ending substituted for the affix थ of the Paras. 2nd person. plural in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional for which, तात्, तन and थन are substituted in Vedic Literature, and also for हि in case a repetition of an action is meant; confer, compare P. III. 4. 85, 10l as also VII. 1. 44, 45 and III. 4. 2-5. cf P. III. 4. 85 and III. 4. 10I ; (3) taddhita affix. affix त applied to the words कम् and शम् e. g. कन्तः, शन्त:, confer, compare P. V. 2. 138: (4) taddhita affix. affix त applied to दशत् when दशत् is changed to श; confer, compare दशानां दशतां शभावः तश्च प्रत्ययः । दश दाशतः परिमाणमस्य संधस्य शतम्, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. l. 59; (5) .general term for the affix क्त of the past passive voice. part, in popular use: (6) a technical term for the past participle affixes (त) क्त and तवत् ( क्तवतु ) called निष्ठा by Panini; confer, compare P. I.1.26; the term त is used for निष्ठI in the Jainendra Vyakararna.
tattvādarśaname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by M. M. Vasudev Shastri Abhyankar in 1889 A. D. The commentary is more critical than explanatory,wherein the author has given the purpose and the gist of the important Paribhasas and has brought out clearly the differences between the school of Bhattoji and the school of Nagesa in several important matters.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
taparakaraṇaaddition of the mute letter त् after a vowel to signify the inclusion of only such varieties of the vowel as take the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with त्; confer, compare P. I. 1.70. See त्.
tampersonal ending तम् substituted for थम् in the imperative imperfeminine. potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional; confer, compare P. III. 4.85, 101
taveṅkrt affix तवे for the infinitive affix तुम् in Vedic Literature: exempli gratia, for example दशमे मासि सूतवे; confer, compare P.III 4.9.
tavenkrt affix तवे for the infinitive affix तुम् in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for exampleगन्तवे, कर्तवे, हर्तवे; confer, compare P.III. 4.9.
tavai(1)krt affix तवै for the infinitive affix तुम् in Vedic Literature. The affix तवै has a peculiarity of accent, namely that the word ending in तवै has got both the initial and ending vowels accented acute (उदात्त); exempli gratia, for example सोममिन्द्राय पातवै, हर्षसे दातवा उ; confer, compare P.III.4.9; and VI. 1.200; (2) krtya affix in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example परिघातवै for परिघातव्यम्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 4.14.
tasi(1)taddhita affix.affix तस् showing direction by means of a thing exempli gratia, for example वृक्षमूलतः, हिमवत्तः; confer, compare Kas on P.IV.3.114,115; (2) taddhita affix.affix तस् applied in the sense of the ablative case. case and substituted for the ablative case. case affix: exempli gratia, for example ग्रामतः अागच्छति, चोरतो विभेति; sometimes the affix is applied instead of the instrumental or the genitive case also. e. g. वृत्ततः न व्यथते for वृत्तेन न व्यथते; देवा अर्जुनतः अभवन्, for अर्जुनस्य पक्षे अभवन् confer, compare Kas, on P.V.4.44-49.
(1)a technical term for the genitive case affix used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; (2) the taddhita affix. affix तल् which is popularly called ता as the nouns ending in तल् id est, that is त are declined in the feminine. gender with the feminine. affix अा added to them.
tātparya(1)repetition of action; confer, compare तात्पर्यमाभीक्ष्ण्यं पौनःपुन्यमासेवा Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on III. 2.81 also तात्पर्यमासेवा । द्रव्ये व्याप्तिः, क्रियायामासेवा । (2) foremost consideration; confer, compare चतुर्ग्रहणे सति तात्पर्येण स्यन्दिः संनिधापितो भवति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VII.2.59; (3) purport (of a sentence), significance, intention; confer, compare सर्वशास्त्रोपकारकमिति तत्तात्पर्यम् Par. Sek. Pari. 2, 3.
tāmpersonal ending substituted for तस् of the 3rd person. dual in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional; confer, compare P. III.4.85, 101.
tugvidhia rule prescribing the addition of the augment त् ; e. g. नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति P. VIII. 2. 2 See तुक्.
tumkrt affix तुम् of the infinitive (1) added to a root optionally with ण्वुल् when the root refers to an action for the purpose of which another action is mentioned by the principal verb ; exempli gratia, for example भोक्तुं व्रजति or भोजको व्रजति्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.3.11; (2) added to a root connected with ' another root in the sense of desire provided both have the same subject; exempli gratia, for example इच्छति भोक्तुम् ; confer, compare P. III. 3.158; (3) added to a root connected with the words काल, समय or वेला; exempli gratia, for example कालो भोक्तुम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.3.167; (4) added to any root which is connected with the roots शक्, धृष्, ज्ञा, ग्लै, घट्, रभ्, लभ्, क्रम्, सह्, अर्ह् and अस् or its synonym, as also with अलम्, or its synonym; exempli gratia, for example शक्नोति भोक्तुम्, भवति भोक्तुम्, वेला भोक्तुम्, अलं भोक्तुम्, पर्याप्तः कर्तुम् : confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4. 65, 66.
tṛtīyāthe third case; affixes of the third case ( instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति ) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an instrument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: confer, compare P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sentence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word id est, that is हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; exempli gratia, for example पृथग्देवदत्तेन et cetera, and others स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the taddhita affix. affix after them has been elided; exempli gratia, for example पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; confer, compare P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; exempli gratia, for exampleतुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; confer, compare P. II.3.72.
tosunkrt affix तोस् in the sense of the infinitive ( तुम् ) seen in Vedic Literature; e. g. ईश्वरोभिचरितो:. The word ending with तोसुन् becomes an indeclinable.
tripādīterm usually used in connection with the last three Padas (ch. VIII. 2, VIII. 3 and VIII. 4) of Panini’s Ashtadhyayi, the rules in which are not valid by convention to rules in the first seven chapters and a quarter, as also a later rule in which (the Tripadi) is not valid to an earlier one; confer, compare पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1; (2) name of a critical treatise on Panini's grammar ("The Tripadi") written by Dr. H. E. Buiskool recently.
th()second consonant of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2) augment थ् ( थुक् ) added to the words षष् , कति, कतिपय and चतुर् before the Purana affix डट्. e. g. षण्णां पूरण: षष्ठ:, कतिथः, चतुर्थः; confer, compare Kas, on P. V. 2.51 ; (3) substitute for the consonant ह् of आह् before any consonant except a nasal, and a semivowel as also for the consonant स् of स्था preceded by the preposition उद्: confer, compare P, VIII. 2.35, VIII. 4.61.
thīma(THIEME, PAUL)a sound scholar of the present day, well versed in Sanskrit Grammar and Vedic Literature, who has written a critical treatise named "Panini and the Veda."
dākṣāyaṇaname, by which व्याडि, the author of the grammar work संग्रह is referred to. The word दाक्षायण indicates that व्याडि was a descendant of दक्ष, and, as Panini is called दाक्षीपुत्र, critics say that Panini and Vyadi were relatives; confer, compare शोभना खलु दाक्षायणस्य दाक्षायणेन वा संग्रहस्य कृतिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II.3.66.
dākṣāyaṇaname, by which व्याडि, the author of the grammar work संग्रह is referred to. The word दाक्षायण indicates that व्याडि was a descendant of दक्ष, and, as Panini is called दाक्षीपुत्र, critics say that Panini and Vyadi were relatives; confer, compare शोभना खलु दाक्षायणस्य दाक्षायणेन वा संग्रहस्य कृतिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II.3.66.
dūṣakaradodbhedaname of a commentary, on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesa, believed to have been written by Gopalacārya Karhadkar, a grammarian of the 19th century and attributed to Bhimacarya. This commentary, which was written to criticize the commentary written by Visnusastri Bhat, was again criticized in reply by Visnusastri Bhat in his Ciccandrika ( चिच्चन्द्रिका ). See विष्णुशास्त्री भट.
devatādvandvaa compound word called द्वन्द्व whose members are names of deities; the peculiarities of this Dvandva compound are (a) that generally there are changes at the end of the first member, by virtue of which it appears similar to a word ending in the dual number, and (b) that both the words retain their original accents.exempli gratia, for example इन्द्रासोमौ, सौमापूषणा, अग्नीषोमाभ्यां, मित्रावरुणाभ्याम् ; for changes, confer, compare P. VI.3.25-31; for accent, confer, compare देवताद्वन्द्वानि चानामन्त्रितानि (द्विरुदात्तानिं) । इन्द्राबृहस्पतिभ्याम्, इन्द्राबृहस्पती इति त्रीणि Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.II.48, 49; confer, compare also देवताद्वन्द्वे च P. VI, 2.141.
devaśarmana grammarian who has written a disquisition on the philosophy of Vyakarana in verse, and added a commentary of his own on it which he has named as समन्वयप्रदीपसंकेत.
droṇikāa kind of the position of the tongue at the time of pronouncing the letter ष्.
dvikarmakaa term used in connection with roots governing two objects or two words in the accusative case, exempli gratia, for example दुह् in, गां दोग्धि पयः; the term कर्म according to the strict definition of the term कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म or अाप्यं कर्म applies to one of the two, which is called the प्रधानकर्म or the direct object, the other one, which, in fact, is related to the verbal activity by relation of any other karaka or instrument is taken as karmakaraka and hence put in the accusative case. For details see Mahabhasya and Kasika on P.I.4.51. Some roots in their causal formation govern two objects out of which one object is the actual one while the other is the subject of the primitive root. exempli gratia, for example गमयति माणवकं ग्रामम्; बोधयति माणवकं धर्मम्; cf Kas on P.I.4.52. See for details Mahabhasya on P. I. 4.52.
dvitvadoubling, reduplication prescribed for (I) a root in the perfect tense excepting the cases where the affix अाम् is added to the root before the personal ending: exempli gratia, for example बभूव, चकार, ऊर्णुनाव et cetera, and others cf P. VI. 1.1,2; (2) a root before the vikarana affixes सन्, यङ्, श्लु and चङ् e. g. बुभूषति, चेक्रीयते, चर्करीति, जुहोति, अचीकरत् et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VI. 1.9l l ; (3) a word ending in अम् . ( णमुल् ) in the sense of repetition, e. g. स्मारं स्मारं वक्ष्ये, भोजं भोजं व्रजति confer, compare आभीक्ष्ण्ये द्वे भवतः P. VIII. 1.12 Vart. 7; (4) any word (a) in the sense of constant or frequent action, (b) in the sense of repetition, (c) showing reproach, or scorn, or quality in the sense of its incomplete possess-, ion, or (d) in the vocative case at the beginning of a sentence in some specified senses; reduplication is also prescribed for the prepositions परि, प्र, सम्, उप, उद्, उपरि, अधि, अघस् in some specified senses confer, compare P. VIII. 1.1 to 15. A letter excepting हृ and र्, is also repeated, if so desired, when (a) it occurs after the letter ह् or र् , which is preceded by a vowel e g. अर्क्कः अर्द्धम् et cetera, and others cf VIII. 4.46; or when (b) it is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant e. g. दद्ध्यत्र, म्द्धवत्र confer, compare P. VIII. 4.47. For details see Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VIII. 4.46-52. The word द्वित्व is sometimes used in the sense of the dual number; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.2.51. The words द्वित्व, द्विर्वचन and द्विरुक्त are generally used as synonymanuscript. Panini generally uses the word द्वे. For द्वित्व in Vedic Literature confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1.4; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 1-8 V, Pr. IV. 101-118.
dviruktirepetition of a word, or of a letter or of a root. See द्वित्व.
dvirbhāvarepetition, reduplication. See द्वित्व.
dvivarṇa(1)a repeated consonant; confer, compare द्विवर्णमेकवर्णवत्, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 144: (2) doubling, repetition: cf ह्रस्वपूर्वो ङकारो द्विवर्णम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.IX. 18; confer, compare also Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 1, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IX. 18.
dharmadefined as ऋषिसंप्रदाय, the traditional practices laid down by the sages for posterity; confer, compareकेवलमृषिसंप्रदायो धर्म इति कृत्वा याज्ञिक्राः शास्त्रेण अनुविदधते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika I ; cf also धर्मशास्त्रं in एवं च कृत्वा धर्मशास्त्रं प्रवृत्तम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64, as also धर्मसूत्रकाराः in नैवेश्वर आज्ञापयति नापि धर्मसूत्रकाराः पठन्ति अपवादैरुत्सर्गा बाध्यन्तामिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. l.47; (2) religious merit, confer, compare धर्मोपदेशनमिदं शास्त्रमस्मिन्ननवयवेन शास्त्रार्थः संप्रतीयते , Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. I. 84, cf also ज्ञाने घमै इति चेत्तथाSधर्मः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika l ; ' 3) property possessed by a thing or a letter or a word. e. g. वर्णधर्म; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 2.29; cf also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1, 55, II. 3.33, VIII. 1. 4. confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 8, 13 XIV. 1 et cetera, and others: ( 4 ) the characteristic of being in a substance; in the phrase अयं घटः the dharma viz.घटत्व is predicated of this (इदम्) or, in other words the designation pot ( घटसंज्ञा ) is the predication; the explanation in short, can be given as घटत्ववान् इदंपदार्थः or घटाभिन्नः इदंपदार्थ:
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
dhātupārāyaṇaa grammatical treatise dealing with roots written as a supplementary work by Jumaranandin to his grammar work called Rasavati,which itself was a thoroughly revised and enlarged edition of the रसवती a commentary written by Kramadisvara on his own grammar named संक्षिप्तसार.Jumaranandin is believed to have been a Jain writer who lived in the fifteenth century A.D.
dhātuvṛttia general term applied to a treatise discussing roots, but specifically used in connection with the scholarly commentary written by Madhavacārya, the reputed scholar and politician at the court of the Vijayanagara kings in the fourteenth century, on the Dhatupatha ot Panini. The work is generally referred to as माधवीया-धातुवृति to distinguish it from ordinary commentary works called also धातुवृत्ति written by grammarians like Wijayananda and others.
dhātvartheliterally meaning of a root, the verbal activity, named क्रिया or भावः . confer, compare धात्वर्थः क्रिया; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2. 84, III.2.115. The verbal activity is described generally to be made up of a series of continuous subordinate activities carried on by the different karakas or agents and instruments of verbal activity helping the process of the main activity. When the process of the verbal activity is complete, the completed activity is looked upon as a substantive or dravya and a word denoting it, such as पाक,or याग does not get conjugational affixes, but it is regularly declined like a noun.Just as स्वार्थ, द्रब्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या, and कारक are given as प्रातिपदिकार्थ, in the same manner क्रिया, काल, पुरुष, वचन or संख्या, and कारक are given as धात्वर्थ, as they are shown by a verbal form, although strictly speaking verbal activity (क्रियorभाव) alone is the sense of a root, as stated in the Mahbhasya. For details see Vaiyak.Bh.Sara, where it is said that fruit ( फल) and effort ( ब्यापार ) are expressed by a root, confer, compare फलव्यापारयोर्धातुः. The five senses given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are in fact conveyed not by a root, but by a verb or अाख्यात or तिडन्त.
dhāraṇa(1)suppression of a consonant, out of two successive consonants which is looked upon as a fault of recital; exempli gratia, for example ह्वयामि when recited as वयामि; efeminine. धारणमनुपलब्धिः Uvvata on R.Pr.XIV. 6; (2) repetition of a consonant which is also a fault; exempli gratia, for example ज्ज्योतिष्कृत् for ज्योतिष्कृत्: confer, compare Uvvata on XIV.6;confer, compare also धारयन्त; परक्रमं et cetera, and others explained by Uvvata as सान्तस्थस्य संयोगस्य आदौ रक्तं धारयन्तो विलम्बमानाः परक्रमं कुर्वन्ति where धारयन्तः means 'lengthening’ or 'prolonging' confer, compare R.Pr. on XIV.23; (3) the peculiar position of the mouth (मुखसंधारणम् ) by which a double consonant is recited as a single one, confer, compare द्विवर्णमेकवर्णवत् ( एकप्रयत्ननिर्वर्त्य ) धारणात् exempli gratia, for example व्यात्तम् , कुक्कुटः, confer, compare V.Pr. IV.144.
dhvānathe second out of the seven Positions of voice in the Veda recital which are-उपांशु, ध्वान, निमद, उपब्दिमत्, मन्द्र, मध्यम and तार.
nadīa technical term applied in Panini's grammar to words in the feminine gender ending in ई and ऊ excepting a few like स्त्री,श्री, भ्रू and others; it is optionally applied to words ending in इ and उ, of course in the feminine. gender, before case affixes of the dative, ablative, genitive and locative singular. The term was probably in use before Panini and was taken from the feminine. word नदी which was taken as a model. Very probably there was a long list of words like नद् ( नदट्) चोर ( चोरट् ) et cetera, and others which were given as ending in ट् and to which the affix ई (ङीप्) was added for forming the feminine base;the first word नदी so formed, was taken as a model and all words in the list and similar others were called नदी; confer, compare P. I 4. 3-6.
nandikeśvarakārikāa short treatise of 28 stanzas, attributed to an ancient grammarian नन्दिकेश्वर, which gives a philosophical interpretation of the fourteen sutras attributed to God Siva. The authorship of the treatise is assigned traditionally to the Divine Bull of God Siva. See नन्दिकेश्वर. The treatise is also named नन्दिकेश्वरकारिकासूत्र.
nāmthe genitive affix आम् together with the augment न् prefixed to it; confer, compare नामि P. VI. 4. 3.
nigamaa statement in the Vedic passage; a Vedic passage; sacred tradition or Vedic Literature in general; confer, compare the frequent expression इत्यपि निगमो भवति where निगम means 'a vedic word, given as an instance'; if also means 'Veda'; confer, compare निगम एव यथा स्यात् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII. 2. 64. Durgacarya says that the word it also used in the sense of 'meaning';confer, compare तत्र खले इत्येतस्य निगमा भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.III.9. Durgacarya has also explained the word as गमयन्ति मन्त्रार्थान् ज्ञापयन्ति इति निगमाः, those that make the hidden meaning of the Mantras very clear.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
niyama(1)restriction; regulation; binding; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in connection with a restriction laid down with reference to the application of a grammatical rule generally on the strength of that rule, or a part of it, liable to become superfluous if the restriction has not been laid down; confer, compare M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on I. 3.63, VI. 4.11; confer, compare also the frequently quoted dictum अनियमे नियमकारिणी परिभाषा; (2) limitation as contrasted with विकल्प or कामचार; confer, compare अनेकप्राप्तावेकस्य नियमो भवति शेषेष्वनियम; पटुमृदुशुक्लाः पटुशुक्लमृदव इति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2. 34 Vart. 2; (3) a regulating rule; a restrictive rule, corresponding to the Parisamkhya statement of the Mimamsakas, e. g. the rule अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; the grammarians generally take a rule as a positive injunction avoiding a restrictive sense as far as possible; confer, compare the dictum विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान्. Par. Sek. Pari. 100; the commentators have given various kinds of restrictions,. such as प्रयोगनियम,अभिधेयनियम,अर्थनियम, प्रत्ययनियम, प्रकृतिनियम, संज्ञानियम et cetera, and otherset cetera, and others; (4) grave accent or anudatta; confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वं नियतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 9; see नियत (2).
niyāmakalimiting; limitative; confer, compare तुः क्रियते । स नियामको भविष्यति । अमेवापञ्चम्याः इति M. Bh, on II. 4.83; confer, compare also लोके निमित्तं द्विविधं दृष्टम् । कार्यस्थितौ नियामकं तदनियामकं च Par. Sek. Pari. 56.
nirdeśamention, actual statement; the word is often used in the Mahabhasya in sentences like स तथा निर्देशः कर्तव्यः, निर्देशं कुरुते et cetera, and others; confer, compare also V.Pr. I. 36;confer, compare also the maxim तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य P. I.1.66 and Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 134; confer, compare also अवश्यं कयाचिद्विभक्त्या केनचिद्वचनेन निर्देशः कर्तव्यः M.Bh. on P. I. 2. 39 Vart. 1. Sometimes the mention or exhibition made by a word shows the particular type of word; confer, compare Durghata Vrtti on P. I. 2. 6 and VII. 4. 73 as also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3. 11 and V. 2. 20.
nirvartyaone of the many kinds of karman or object governed by a transitive verb or root, which has got the nature of being produced or brought into existence or into a new shape; confer, compare त्रिविधं कर्म निर्वर्त्य विकार्य प्राप्यं चेति । निर्वर्त्य तावत् कुम्भकारः नगरकारः। The word निर्वर्त्य is explained as यदसज्जन्यते यद्वा प्रकाश्यते तन्निर्वर्त्यम् । कर्तव्यः कटः । उच्चार्यः शब्दः Sr. Prakasa; confer, compare also Vakyapadiya III.7.78; confer, compare also इह हि तण्डुलानोदनं पचतीति द्व्यर्थः पचिः । तण्डुलान्पचन्नोदनं निर्वर्तयति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.49. For details see the word कर्मन्; also see M.Bh. on I.4.49.
niṣedhanegation; prohibition; cf निषेधपञ्चसूत्रीयं स्वरार्था Bhasavrtti on P. II. 2.16; confer, compare निषेधाश्च बलीयांसः Par. Sek. Pari. 112. The word प्रतिषेध is used frequently in this sense in old grammar works such as the Mahabhasya, the word निषेध being comparatively a modern one.
nīlakaṇṭhadīkṣitaa famous grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote an independent work on the Paribhasas in Vyakarana named Paribhasavrtti. This Vrtti is referred to in the Paribhsendusekhara by Nagesabhatta and the views expressed in it are severely criticised in the commentary गदा.
nuṭaugment न् prefixed (l) to the genitive case plural ending in अाम् after a crude base ending in a short vowel, or in ई or ऊ of feminine bases termed nadi, or in अा of the feminine affix ( टाप् डाप् or चाप्); e g. वृक्षाणाम्, अग्नीनाम् , कर्तॄणाम् , कुमारीणाम् , मालानाम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII.1.54; (2) to the affix अाम् after numerals termed षट् and the numeral चतुर् as also after the words श्री, ग्रामणी and गो in Vedic Literature, e. g. षण्णाम् , पञ्चानाम् , चतुर्णाम्, श्रीणाम्, ग्रामणीनाम्, गोनाम्; confer, compare P. VII.1.55,56, 57; (3) to the part of a root possessed of two consonants, as also of the root अश् of the fifth conjugation after the reduplicative syllable ending in अा, which is substituted for अ; exempli gratia, for example अानञ्ज, व्यानशे; confer, compare P.VII.4. 71,72; (4) to the affix मतुप् after a base ending in अन् as also to the affixes तरप् and तमप् after a base ending in न् in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example मूर्धन्वती, अक्षण्वन्तः, सुपथिन्तरः et cetera, and others;confer, compare P. VIII. 2.16, 17: (5) to the initial vowel of the second member of a compound having अ of नञ् as the first member; e. g. अनघः, confer, compare P.VI. 3.74; (6) to any vowel after न् which is preceded by a short vowel and which is at the end of a word exempli gratia, for example कुर्वन्नास्ते, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.32.
numaugment न् inserted after the last vowel (1) of a root given in the Dhātupātha as ending with mute इ; exempli gratia, for example निन्दति, क्रन्दति, चिन्तयति, जिन्वति et cetera, and others; confer, compare P VII.1.58; (2) of roots मुच् and others before the conjugational sign अ ( श ); e. g. मुञ्चति, लुम्पति; confer, compare P. VII.1.59; (3) of the roots मस्ज्, नश्, रध्, जभ् and लभ् under certain specified conditions, exempli gratia, for exampleमङ्क्त्वा, नंष्टा, रन्धयति, जम्भयति, लम्भयति, आलम्भ्यः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VII. 1.60-69; (4) of declinable bases marked with the mute indicatory letter उ, ऋ or ऌ as also of the declinable wording अञ्च् from the root अञ्च् and युज्, exempli gratia, for exampleभवान्, श्रेयान् , प्राङ्, युङ्, confer, compare Kās. on P. VII.1. 70, 71; (5) of the declinable base in the neuter gender, ending with a vowel or with any consonant excepting a semivowel or a nasal, before a case-ending termed Sarvanāmasthāna; exempli gratia, for example यशांसि, वनानि, जतूनि et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kās. on VII.1.72; (6) of the declinable base in the neuter gender, ending with इ, उ,ऋ or ऌ before a case-ending beginning with a vowel; exempli gratia, for example मधुने, शुचिने et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kās, on P. VII.1.73; (7) of the affix शतृ ( अत् of the present tense. participle.) under certain conditions याती यान्ती; पचन्ती, सीव्यन्ती, confer, compare I .VII.78-8 : (8) of the word अनडुह् before the nominative case. and vocative case. singular. affix सु;exempli gratia, for example अनड्वान् , हे अनड्वन्, confer, compare P. VII.1. 82; (9) of the words दृक्, स्ववस् and स्वतवस् before the nominative case. and vocative case.singular.affix सु in Vedic Literature, e. g. यादृङ्, स्ववान् , स्वतवान् , confer, compare P.VII.1.83.
nyāsa(1)literally position, placing;a word used in the sense of actual expression or wording especially in the sūtras; confer, compare the usual expression क्रियते एतन्न्यास एव in the Mahābhāșya, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.11, 1.1.47 et cetera, and others; (2) a name given by the writers or readers to works of the type of learned and scholarly commentaries on vŗitti-type-works on standard sūtras in a Śāstra; e. g. the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. is given to the learned commentaries on the Vŗtti on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśasana as also on the Paribhāşāvŗtti by Hemahamsagani. Similarly the commentary by Devanandin on Jainendra grammar and that by Prabhācandra on the Amoghāvŗtti on Śākatāyana grammar are named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. In the same way, the learned commentary on the Kāśikāvŗtti by Jinendrabuddhi, named Kāśikāvivaranapaňjikā by the author, is very widely known by the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. This commentary Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, c