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     Grammar Search "indu" has 3 results.
     
indū: masculine nominative dual stem: indu
indū: masculine accusative dual stem: indu
indū: masculine vocative dual stem: indu
     Amarakosha Search  
12 results
     
     Monier-Williams
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274 results for indu
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
indum. ( und- ;probably fr. ind-= und-,"to drop"[see , and see /indra-];perhaps connected with bindu-,which last is unknown in the ṛg-- veda- ), Ved. a drop (especially of soma-), soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indum. a bright drop, a spark View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indum. the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indum. plural (avas-) the moons id est the periodic changes of the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indum. time of moonlight, night etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indum. camphor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indum. the point on a die View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indum. Name of vāstoṣpati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indum. a symbolic expression for the number"one" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indum. designation of the anusvāra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indum. a coin (In the brāhmaṇa-s, indu-is used only for the moon;but the connexion between the meanings" soma- juice"and"moon"in the word indu-has led to the same two ideas being transferred in classical Sanskrit to the word soma-,although the latter has properly only the sense " soma- juice.") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
induthe weight of a silver pala-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indubhan. Name of the nakṣatra- mṛgaśiras- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indubhāf. a group of lotuses. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indubhavāf. Name of a river. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indubhṛtm. "bearing the crescent on his forehead"Name of śiva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indubimban. the disk of the moon, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indudalan. a portion of the moon, a digit, crescent. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indudinan. a lunar day. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indugauram. Name (also title or epithet) of śiva-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indujam. "son of the moon", Name of the planet Mercury View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
induf. the river revā- or narmadā- in the Dekhan View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indujanakam. "father of the moon", the ocean (the moon being produced at the churning of the ocean) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indukam. Name of a plant equals aśmantaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
induf. Name (also title or epithet) of a river, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indukakṣāf. the radiating circle all round the moon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indukalāf. a digit of the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indukalāf. Name of several plants, Cocculus Cordifolius, Sarcostema Viminale, Ligusticum Ajowan View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indukalaśam. idem or 'm. Name of a man.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indukalāvataṃsam. Name (also title or epithet) of śiva-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indukalikāf. the plant Pandanus Odoratissimus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indukamalan. the blossom of the white lotus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indukāntam. "moon-loved", the moon-stone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indukāntāf. night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indukaram. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indukesarinm. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indukirīṭam. "moon-crested", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indukṣayam. wane of the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indukṣayam. new moon, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indulekhāf. a digit of the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indulekhāf. the plant Menispermum Glabrum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indulekhāf. the moon-plant Asclepias Acida View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indulekhāf. a kind of lovage, Ligusticum Ajwaen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indulohakan. silver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indulokam. equals candraloka-, q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indumaṇḍalan. the orb or disc of the moon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indumaṇim. the moon-stone. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indumatm. (/indu-) (in liturgical language) Name of agni- (because in the verses in which he is addressed the word indu-occurs) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indumatīf. (-) day of full moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indumatīf. Name of the sister of bhoja- and wife of aja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indumatīf. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indumatīf. of a commentary. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indumaulim. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indumitram. Name of a grammarian. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indumukhamf(ī-)n. moon-faced View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indunandana m. Name of the planet Mercury. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indupadam. a moon-ray, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
induphalam. Spondias Mangifera View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
induprabham. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indupuṣpikāf. the plant Methonica Superba View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
induputram. Name of the planet Mercury. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indurājam. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
induratnan. a pearl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indurekhāf. a digit of the moon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
induśakalāf. Vernonia Anthelminthica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
induśapharīf. Bauhinia Tomentosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
induśekharam. "moon-crested", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
induśekharam. of a kiṃnara-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indusūnum. Name of the planet Mercury. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indusuta m. Name of the planet Mercury. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
induvadanamf(ā-)n. moon-faced View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
induvadanāf. a metre of four verses (each of which contains fourteen syllables). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
induvallīf. the plant Sarcostemma Viminale View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
induvāram. in astrology = the Arabic $. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
induvratan. a religious observance depending on the age of the moon (diminishing the quantity of food by a certain portion daily, for a fortnight or a month, etc.) (see cāndrāyaṇa-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abbindum. a tear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abbindum. a drop of water, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aindumateyam. a descendant of indumatī-, Name of daśaratha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ainduśekharamfn. (fr. indu-śekhara-), belonging to or treating of the moon-crested one id est śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asrabinducchadāf. Name of a tuberous plant. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāṣpabindum. a tear-drop, tear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktibindum. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktirasāmṛtabindum. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhindum. a breaker, destroyer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhindum. a bubble on liquids (see bindu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhinduf. a woman who brings forth a still-born child (see nindu-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhindu bhinna- etc. See column 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhinduram. Ficus Infectoria View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindum. (once n. ;in later language mostly written vindu-) a detached particle, drop, globule, dot, spot etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindum. (with hiraṇyaya-) a pearl (see -phala-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindum. a drop of water taken as a measure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindum. a spot or mark of coloured paint on the body of an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindum. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' also -ka-) the dot over a letter representing the anusvāra- (supposed to be connected with śiva- and of great mystical importance) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindum. a zero or cypher (in manuscripts put over an erased word to show that it ought not to be erased ="stet") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindum. a particular mark like a dot made in cauterizing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindum. a mark made by the teeth of a lover on the lips of his mistress View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindum. a coloured mark made on the forehead between the eyebrows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindum. (in dramatic language) the sudden development of a secondary incident (which, like a drop of oil in water, expands and furnishes an important element in the plot) (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' also -ka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindum. Name of a man gaRa bidādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindum. of an āṅgirasa- (author of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindum. of the author of a rasa-paddhati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindum. plural Name of a warrior tribe gaRa dāmany-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindubhedam. Name of a particular yoga- posture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindubrahmānandīyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
binducitra m. the spotted antelope. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
binducitrakam. the spotted antelope. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindudevam. equals ṇa-, a Buddhist deity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindudevam. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindughṛtan. a particular medicine compound taken in small quantities, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
binduhradam. Name of a lake (said to have been formed by the drops of the Ganges shaken from śiva-'s hair) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindujāla n. collection or mass of dots or spots (especially on an elephant's face and trunk) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindujālakan. collection or mass of dots or spots (especially on an elephant's face and trunk) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindukam. a drop View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindukam. Name of a tīrtha- (See also under bindu-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindukitamfn. dotted over View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindulam. a particular venomous insect (written vi-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindumādhavam. a form of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindumālinm. (in music) a kind of measure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindumatmfn. having drops or bubbles or clots, formed into balls or globules View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindumatm. Name of a son of marīci- by bindu-matī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindumatm. of a drama View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindumatm. of the wife of marīci- (see above) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindumatm. of a daughter of śaśa-bindu- and wife of māndhātṛ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindumatm. of the murderess of vidūratha-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindumatm. of a fisherman's daughter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindumatīf. Name of a kind of verse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindunātham. Name of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindupattram. Betula Bhojpattra View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindupattrakam. a species of Amaranthus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
binduphalan. a pearl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindupratiṣṭhāmayamf(ī-)n. founded or based upon the anusvāra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindurājim. "row of spots", Name of a kind of serpent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindurakam. Ximenia Aegyptiaca View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindurekhāf. a row or line of points or dots View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindurekhāf. Name of a daughter of caṇḍavarman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindurekhakam. a kind of bird (see prec. and next) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindusaṃdīpanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindusaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindusāram. Name of a king (son of candra-gupta-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindusarasn. Name of a sacred lake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindusarasn. (mc. also -sara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindusarastīrthan. Name of a sacred bathing-place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
binduśarmanm. Name of a poet, cat. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindusenam. Name of a king (son of kṣatraujas-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindutantram. a die, dice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindutantramn. a kind of chess-board View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindutantramn. a playing-ball View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindutīrthan. Name of a sacred bathing-place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bindutīrthamāhātmyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
binduvāsaram. the day of fecundation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmabindum. a drop of saliva sputtered while reciting the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
candrabindum. "moon-like spot", the sign for the nasal $ View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
candrabindum. equals candrakita- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmabindum. "a drop of the law", Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvibindum. "double-dot", the sign of the visarga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gharmabindum. a drop of perspiration. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ginduka equals gend- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
govindumfn. searching for milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hindum. (fr. the Persian $) a Hindu (more properly Hindo) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hindudharmam. the Hindu religion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hindusthānan. the country of the Hindus, Hindustan (properly restricted to the upper provinces between Benares and the Sutlej) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hiraṇyabindum. fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hiraṇyabindum. Name of a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hiraṇyabindum. of a tīrtha- (also -bindos tīrtham-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalabindum. a drop of water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalabindum. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalabinduf. Name of a nāga- virgin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalabinduf. sugar prepared from yava-nāla- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jindurājam. Name of a man (jya-) ; 271f.; 370 and 564. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kadvindu(?), Name (also title or epithet) of a reed plant (in du-- koṣṭha-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kākatindum. a kind of ebony (Diospyros tomentosa) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kākatindukam. a kind of ebony (Diospyros tomentosa) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kālatindukam. a kind of ebony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmabindum. "wish-drop", anything dropped into the fire to procure the fulfilment of a wish, drop of melted butter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāruvindum. the son of a Brahman and a vaidehakī-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kindubilvaName of the place where jaya-deva- was born and where his family resided (vv.ll. kinduvilla-, kenduvilla-,and tinduvilla-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuśabindum. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kusurubindum. equals nda- (author of ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kusurubindutrirātran. Name of particular observances (lasting three days) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laghubinduśekharam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lindumfn. equals picchala-, slimy, slippery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lindumam. a particular fragrant substance, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lohitabinducitramfn. covered with red spots, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokabindusāran. Name of the last of the 14 pūrva-s or most ancient jaina- writings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokavindumfn. possessing or creating or affording space or freedom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
markaṭatindukam. a kind of ebony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāthavindumfn. (3. vid-) possessing or granting protection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanodabindum. tear-drop View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ninduf. a woman bearing a dead child View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nīrindum. a species of plant (Trophis Aspera ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirṇayabindum. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyāyabindum. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyāyabinduṭīkāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pakṣabindum. "wing-spot", a heron View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcabinduprasṛtan. Name of a particular movement in dancing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasvedabindum. equals -kaṇikā-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pulindukam. plural Name of a barbarous tribe (= pulinda-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pulindukam. (sg.) Name of a king of the pulinda- and śabara- and bhilla-
pulindukam. of a son of ārdraka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raktabindum. a red spot forming a flaw in a gem View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raktabindum. a drop of blood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raktavinduSee -bindu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudhirabindum. a drop of blood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sabindum. Name of a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaḍbindumfn. having six drops or spots View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaḍbindum. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaḍbindum. a kind of insect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaḍbindu(with taila-) n. an oily mixture six drops of which are drawn up the nose (as a remedy for head-ache) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaṃkarabindum. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkhyāṅkabindu(khyāṅk-) m. a cipher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarobindum. a kind of song (gītaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaśabindum. "hare-spotted", the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaśabindum. Name of a king (son of citraratha-; plural his descendants) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāśabindumf(ī-)n. descended from śaśa-bindu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaśibindu wrong reading for śaśa-b- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sattattvabindum. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
senābindum. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
senāvinduSee -bindu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhāntabindum. (See siddhānta-tattva-b-) Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhāntabinduvyākhyāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhāntatattvabindum. Name of work (or siddhānta-bindū-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhāntatattvabindusaṃdīpanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sindukam. (of unknown derivation) equals sinduvāra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sinduf. idem or 'm. (of unknown derivation) equals sinduvāra- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sinduvāram. (see sindhu-v-) Vitex Negundo (also raka- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sinduvāran. the berry of that plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śoṇitabinduvarṣinmfn. showering drops of blood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śramavāribindum. a drop of perspiration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūnyabindum. the mark of a cypher or nought (see bindu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvarṇabindum. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvarṇabindum. of a temple View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svarṇabindum. a spot of yellow or gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svarṇabindum. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svarṇabindum. of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svedabindum. drop of perspiration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvetabinduf. a girl with white spots (and there fore unfit for marriage) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taindukamf(ī-)n. derived from Diospyros embryopteris (tind-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tattvabindum. "truth-drop", Name of a philos. treatise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindum. Diospyros embryopteris (also dinī- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindum. Strychnos nux vomica (also duka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindubilvan. Name of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindukam. Diospyros embryopteris, (n.) its fruit (yielding a kind of resin used as pitch for caulking vessels etc.) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindukam. equals du- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindukan. a kind of weight (equals karṣa-; equals suvarṇa- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tinduf. equals ki-
tindukif. Diospyros embryopteris View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindukinīf. the senna plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindulam. equals duki- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tṛṇabindum. Name of an ancient sage and prince ix View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tṛṇabindun. see tārṇabindavīya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tṛṇabinduśarasn. Name of a lake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udabindum. a drop of water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udakabindum. a drop of water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udakavinduSee -bindu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udavinduSee -bindu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upabindum. Name of a man gaRa bāhv-ādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upavinduSee upa-bindu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
urubindum. Name of a flamingo ( transl.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāribindum. a water-drop View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhindumfn. splitting or cleaving asunder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhindum. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhindukam. Name of an asura- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīdhrabindum. a rain-drop fallen in sunshine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijilabindum. Name of a town View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viklindum. a kind of disease View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vindumfn. finding, getting, acquiring, procuring (see go--, loka-v-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vindumfn. (fr.1. vid-) knowing, acquainted or familiar with (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vindumfn. equals veditavya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vindu duka-, dula-. See bindu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viñilavinduName of a town
viṣatindum. Strychnos Nux Vomica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣatindum. a kind of ebony tree with poisonous fruit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣatindukam. a species of poisonous plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogabinduṭippaṇam. or n. (?) Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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indu इन्दुः [उनत्ति क्लेदयति चन्द्रिकया भुवनं उन्द्-उ आदेरिच्च Uṇ.1.12] 1 The moon; दिलीप इति राजेन्दुरिन्दुः क्षीरनिधाविव R.1.12 (इन्दु is said to mean in the Veda a drop of Soma juice, a bright drop or spark; सुतास इन्दवः Rv.1.16.6). -2 The मृगशिरस् Nakṣatra. -3 (in Math.) The number 'one'. -4 Camphor. -5 The point on a die; तेभ्यो व इन्दवो हविषा विधेम Av.7.19.6. -6 Designation of the अनुस्वार. - (pl.) 1 The periodical changes of the moon. -2 The time of moon-light, night. -Comp. -कमलम् the white lotus. -कला 1 a digit of the moon. (These are 16, each of which is mythologically said to be devoured by 16 deities in succession). -2 N. of several plants; अमृता, गुडूची, सोम- लता. -कलिका 1 N. of a plant (केतकी). -2 a digit of the moon. -कान्तः the moon-stone. (-ता) 1 night. -2 N. of a plant (केतकी). -क्षयः 1 waning or disappearance of the moon. -2 the new moon day. Ms.3.122. -जः, -पुत्रः the planet Mercury. (-जा) N. of the river Revā or Narmadā. -जनकः 1 the ocean (the moon being produced amongst other jewels at the churning of the ocean) -2 the sage अत्रि. -दलः a digit, crescent. -पुष्पिका N. of a plant (कलिकारी or जांगली). -भम् 1 the sign called Cancer. -2 the Nakṣatra called मृगशिरस्. -भा a kind of water-lily. -भृत्, -शेखरः, -मौलिः 'the moon-crested god, epithets of Śiva. -मणिः 1 the moon-stone. -2 a pearl. -मुखी A lotus-creeper. -मण्डलम् the orb or disc of the moon. -रत्नम् a pearl. -ले (रे) खा 1 a digit of the moon. -2 N. of several plants, especially, plant Flacourtia Sapida. Its seed is much used by women as a detergent to their oiled hair (Mar. बांवच्या). -3 Ligusticum Ajwaen (Mar. ओंवा). see इन्दुकला. -लोकः the world of the moon. -लोहकम्, लौहम् silver. -वदना A moon-faced lady. N. of a metre; see Appendix. -वल्ली The Soma plant. -वारः a kind of yoga in Astrology. -वासरः Monday. -व्रतम् a religious observance depending on the age of the moon. It consists in diminishing the quantity of food by a certain portion daily, for a fortnight or a month; cf. चान्द्रायण. इन्दुव्रतसहस्रं तु यश्चरेत्कायशोधनम् Mb.13.26.39. -शफरिन् A tree, Bauhinia tomentosa (Mar. आपटा) -सुतः or -सूनुः N. of the planet Mercury.
indukaḥ इन्दुकः (कुः) see इन्दुशफरिन् above.
indumat इन्दुमत् m. An epithet of Agni.
indumatī इन्दुमती 1 A day of full moon. -2 The wife of अज and sister of भोज.
abbindu अब्बिन्दुः A tear; Bhāg.
aindumateyaḥ ऐन्दुमतेयः A descendant of Indumati. N. of Daśaratha.
gindukaḥ गिन्दुकः 1 A ball for playing with. -2 N. of a tree; see गेन्दुक.
jindurājaḥ जिन्दुराजः N. of a person; तदानीं जिन्दुराजाख्यो ... साचिव्यं ग्राहितो$भवत् Rāj. T.7.265.
tindukam तिन्दुकम् की The fruit of the ebony tree. -कम् A kind of measure (कर्ष).
nindu निन्दुः f. A woman bearing a dead child.
bindu बिन्दुः [बिन्द्-उ] A drop, small particle; जलबिन्दु- निपातेन क्रमशः पूर्यते घटः 'small drops make a pool'; विस्तीर्यते यशो लोके तैलबिन्दुरिवाम्भसि Ms.7.33; संक्षिप्यते यशो लोके घृतबिन्दुरिवाम्भसि 7.34; अधुना (कुतूहलस्य) बिन्दुरपि नाव- शेषितः Ś.2. -2 A dot, point. -3 A spot or mark of coloured paint on the body of an elephant; न्यस्ताक्षरा धातुरसेन यत्र भूर्जत्वचः कुञ्जरबिन्दुशोणाः Ku.1.7. -4 A zero or cypher; न रोमकूपौघमिषाज्जगत्कृता कृताश्च किं दूषणशून्यबिन्दवः N.1.21. -5 (In geom.) A point having no parts or no magnitude. -6 A drop of water taken as a measure. -7 The dot over a letter representing the अनुस्वार. -8 (In manuscripts) A mark over an erased word (which shows that the word ought not to be erased); 'stet'. -9 A mark made by the teeth of a lover on the lips of his mistress. -1 A peculiar mark like a dot made in cauterizing. -11 The part of the forehead between the eyebrows. -12 (In dramas) the sudden development of a secondary incident (which, like a drop of oil in water quickly diffuses itself and thus supplies important elements in the development of the plot; it is the source of an intermediate object, while 'Bīja' is that of the principal one); अवान्तरार्थविच्छेदे बिन्दुरुच्छेदकारणम् S. D.319. -13 (In phil.) A condition of चिच्छक्ति; सच्चिदानन्दविभवात् सकलात् परमेश्वरा । आसीच्छक्तिस्ततो नादो नादाद् बिन्दुसमुद्भवः ॥ -Comp. -चित्रकः the spotted antelope. -च्युतकः a kind of word-play; चकास्ति बिन्दु- च्युतकातिचातुरी N.9.14. -जालम्, -जालकम् 1 a number of drops. -2 marks of coloured paint on the trunk and face of an elephant. -तन्त्रः 1 a die. -2 a chessboard. -देवः an epithet of Śiva. -पत्रः a kind of birch tree. -प्रतिष्ठामय a. founded or based upon the अनुस्वार. -फलम् a pearl. -भेदः a particular Yoga posture. -माधवः a form of Viṣṇu. -मालिन् m. (in music) a kind of measure. -रेखकः 1 an anusvāra. -2 a kind of bird. -रेखा a line of dots. -वासरः the day of conception.
bindukita बिन्दुकित a. Dotted over.
bindulaḥ बिन्दुलः A kind of venomous insect.
bhindu भिन्दु a. Destroying. -न्दुः 1 A breaker, destroyer; पुरां भिन्दुर्युवा कविरमितौजा अजायत Ṛv.1.11.4. -2 A drop; cf. बिन्दु. -न्दुः f. A woman bringing forth a dead child.
lindu लिन्दु a. Ved. Slimy, slippery (पिच्छिल); लिन्दु माभिगाम् Ch. Up.8.14.1.
vindu विन्दु a. 1 Intelligent, wise. -2 Liberal. -न्दुः A drop; see बिन्दु.
hindu हिन्दुः also हिन्दू. N. of the people of Hindusthan or Bhāratavarṣa. The name appears to have been derived from Sindhu, the name of the celebrated river where the Vedic Āryans recited their Vedic mantras. In the Avesta स् is pronounced as ह्; so सप्तसिन्धु was pronounced by the Persians as हप्तहिन्दु. The Bhaviṣya-Purāṇa speaks of हप्तहिन्दु. Here are a few references in a few Kośas and the Purāṇas :(1) The Kālikā-Purāṇa says, "कलिना बलिना नूनमधर्माकलिते कलौ । यवनैर्घोरमाक्रान्ता हिन्दवो विन्ध्यमाविशन् ॥" (2) The Merutantra of the 8th century A. D.-- "हिन्दुधर्मप्रलोप्तारो जायन्ते चक्रवर्तिनः । हीनं च दूषयत्येष हिन्दूरित्युच्यते प्रिये ॥" (3) The Rāmakośa--"हिन्दुर्दुष्टो ना भवति नानार्यो न विदूषकः । सद्धर्मपालको विद्वान् श्रौतधर्मपरायणः ॥" (4) The Hemantakavikośa-- "हिन्दुर्हि नारायणादिदेवताभक्तः" (5) The Adbhutarūpakośa-- "हिन्दुर्हिन्दूश्च पुंसि द्वौ दुष्टानां च विघर्षणे ।" -Comp. -धर्मः the Hindu religion.
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indu índ-u, m. drop, Soma, viii. 48, 2. 4. 8. 12. 13. 15; pl. iv. 50, 10; viii. 48, 5.
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indu m. drop, juice, esp. of Soma; (drop in the sky), moon; -kalasa, m. man's N.; -kalâ, f. crescent: -½avatamsa, m. ep. of Siva; -kânta, m. moon-stone; -kesarin, m. N. of a king; -dala, n. crescent; -prabha, m. N.; -bimba, n. orb of the moon; -mani, m. moon-stone; -matî, f. N. of various women; -mukha, a. (î) moon-faced; -yasas, f. N. of a princess; -râga, m. man's N.; -lekhâ, f. N. of a queen; -vadana, a. moon-faced; -sekhara, m. ep. of Siva.
udabindu m. drop of water.
kindubilva kindu-bilva, ˚villa N. of a race or of the birthplace of Gayadeva.
bindumat a. having bubbles or clots; m. N. of a son of Marîki: -î, f. kind of verses; N.; -rekhâ, f. line of dots; -saras, n. N. of a sacred lake; -sâra, m. N. of a prince, son of Kandra-gupta.
bindu m. drop; globule; dot, spot; mark of the anusvâra (supposed to be of great mystical import and connected with Siva); zero or cypher; dot made above a letter to cancel an erasure; apparentlyinsignificant incident the effects of which spread like a drop of oil on water (dr.); spot or mark of paint on the body of an elephant; N.: -ka, m. drop; -ki-ta, den. pp. dotted over, covered with drops of (in.).
bhindu m. destroyer (RV.1); drop (V.).
vindu a. 1. knowing, familiar with (--°ree;); 2. finding, seeking, gaining (--°ree;); 3. m. drop (v. bindú).
saṃkhyāṅkabindu m. sign of zero.
svedabindu m. drop of sweat; -lesa, m. id.; -vâri, n. perspiration; -½ambu, n. id.; (svéda)-½ayana, n. passage for sweat, pore; -½udgama, m. breaking out of perspiration.
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acyut He acted as Pratihartr at the Sattra celebrated by the Vibhindukīyas and described in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana
apvā A disease affecting the stomach, possibly dysentery, as suggested by Zimmer, on the ground that the disease is invoked to confound the enemy. Weber considers that it is diarrhoea induced by fear, as often in the Epic. This view is supported by Bloomfield, and was apparently that of Yāska.
arundhatī Is the name of a plant celebrated in several passages of the Atharvaveda as possessing healing properties in case of wounds, as a febrifuge, and as inducing cows to give milk. The plant was a climber which attached itself to trees like the Plaksa, Aśvattha, Nyagrodha, and Parna. It was of golden colour (hiranya-varnā), and had a hairy stem (lomaśa- vaksanā). It was also called Silāci, and the Lāksā appears to have been a product of it.
aśva Is the commonest word for ‘horse’ in the Vedic literature. The horse is also called ‘the runner' (atya), ‘the swift’ (arvant), ‘the strong,’ for pulling ([vājin), ‘the runner’ (sapti), and ‘ the speeding ’ (haya). The mare is termed aśvā, atyā, arvatī, vadavā, etc. Horses of various colour were known, dun (harita, hart), ruddy (aruna, arusa, piśañga, rohita), dark brown (śyāυa), white (śveta), etc. A white horse with black ears is mentioned in the Atharvaveda as of special value. Horses were highly prized, and were not rare, as Roth thought, for as many as four hundred mares are mentioned in one Dānastuti (‘Praise of Gifts’). They were on occasion ornamented with pearls and gold. Mares were preferred for drawing chariots because of their swiftness and sureness. They were also used for drawing carts, but were not ordinarily so employed. No mention is made of riding in battle, but for other purposes it was not unknown. Horses were often kept in stalls, and fed there. But they were also allowed to go out to grass, and were then hobbled. They were watered to cool them after racing. Their attendants are frequently referred to (aśva-pāla,u aśva-pa,15 aśva-pati).16 Stallions were frequently castrated (vadhri). Besides reins (;mśmayah), reference is made to halters (aśvābhidhānī),18 and whips (aśvājani).19 See also Ratha. Horses from the Indus were of special value,20 as also horses from the Sarasvatī.
asamāti rāthaprauṣṭha The story of the quarrel between Asamāti, the Iksvāku prince of the Rathaprostha family, and his priests, the Gaupāyanas, is found only in the later Brāhmanas. It appears to be based on a misreading of the Rigveda, where asamdti is merely an adjective. The later story is that the king was induced to abandon his family priests by two Asuras, Kirāta and Ákuli, who by their magic com¬passed the death of Subandhu, one of the brother priests, and that the others revived him by the use of the hymns.
asitamṛga is the designation in the Aitareya Brāhmana1 of a family of the Kaśyapas who were excluded from a sacrifice by Janamejaya, but who took away the conduct of the offering from the Bhūtavīras, whom the king employed. In the Jaiminīya Brāhmana[1] and the Sadvimsa Brāhmana[2] the Asita- mrgas are called 4 sons of the Kaśyapas,’ and one is mentioned as Kusurubindu4 Auddālaki.
ārjīka And Arjīkīyā2 (masc.), Arjīkīyā3 (fem.).—The two masculine forms probably denote the people or land, while the feminine word designates the river of the land. Hillebrandt locates the country in or near Kaśmir, as Arrian mentions Arsaces, brother of Abhisares, who presumably took his name from his people, and Abhisāra bordered on Kaśmir. Pischel accepts Arjīka as designating a country, which he, however, thinks cannot be identified. But neither Roth nor Zimmer recognizes the word as a proper name. On the other hand, all authorities agree in regarding Arjīkīyā as the name of ariver. Roth9 does so in one passage10 only, elsewhere seeing references to Soma vessels; but it seems necessary to treat the word alike in all passages containing it. Zimmer does not locate the river, and Pischel denies the possibility of its identification. Hillebrandt thinks it may have been the Upper Indus, or the Vitastā (the Jhelum), or some other stream. Grassmann follows Yāska in identifying it with the the Vipāś (Beás), but this is rendered improbable by the position of the name in the hymn in praise of rivers (nadī- stuti). Brunnhofer identifies it with the Arghesan, a tributary of the Arghanab.
āśrama (‘resting-place’) does not occur in any Upanisad which can be regarded as pre-Buddhistic. Its earliest use as denoting the stages of a Hindu’s life is found in the śvetāśvatara Upanisad. In one passage of the Chāndogya Upanisad reference is made only to the Brahmacārin and householder, to whom, as a reward for study, the procreation of children, the practice of Yoga, abstention from injury to living creatures, and sacrifices, freedom from transmigration are promised. In another place three states are contemplated, but not as con­secutive. The Brahmacārin may either become a householder or become an anchorite, or remain in his teacher’s house all his life. Similarly, reference is made to the death of the anchorite in the forest, or the sacrifice in the village. In contrast with all three is the man who stands fast in Brahman (Brahma- samstha). In the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad the knowerof the Atman is contrasted with those who (1) study, or (2) sacrifice and give alms, or (3) are anchorites, and in another place with those who sacrifice and make benefactions, and those who practice asceticism. This position of superiority to, and distinction from, the Aśramas became later a fourth Aśrama, the Grhastha, or householder, who was in the second stage, being required to pass not only into the stage of Vānaprastha, but also that of the Sannyāsin (Bhiksu, Parivrājaka). The first stage, that of the Brahmacārin, was still obligatory, but was no longer allowed to remain a permanent one, as was originally possible.
ikṣvāku In the Rigveda this name occurs but once, and in a doubtful context. It is clear, however, that it denotes a prince ; later interpretations make Asamāti, whose name is read into the hymn, an Iksvāku prince. In the Atharvaveda also the name is found in only one passage, where it is uncertain whether a descendant of Iksvāku, or Iksvāku himself, is referred to; in either case he seems to be regarded as an ancient hero. In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana mention is made of Tryaruna Traidhātva Aiksvāka, who is identical with the Tryaruna Traivrsna of the Brhaddevatā, and with Tryaruna Trasa- dasyu in the Rigveda. The connection of Trasadasyu with the Iksvākus is confirmed by the fact that Purukutsa was an Aiksvāka, according to the śatapatha Brāhmana. Thus the Iksvāku line was originally a line of princes of the Pūrus. Zimmer places them on the upper Indus, but they may well have been somewhat further east. Later Iksvāku is connected with Ayodhyā.
uśīnara In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Kuru-Pañcālas are mentioned as dwelling together in the * Middle Country ’ with the Vaśas and the Uśīnaras. In the Kausītaki Upanisad also the Uśīnaras are associated with the Kuril-Pañcālas and Vaśas, but in the Gopatha Brāhmana the Uśīnaras and Vaśas are re­garded as northerners. In the Rigveda the people is alluded to in one passage by reference to their queen, Uśīnarānī. Zimmer thinks that the Uśīnaras earlier lived farther to the north-west, but for this there is no clear evidence. His theory is based merely on the fact that the Anukramanī (Index) of the Rigveda ascribes one hymn to śibi Auśīnara, and that the śibis were known to Alexander’s followers as Xiβoc, living between the Indus and the Akesines (Chenab). But this is in no way conclusive, as the Sibis, at any rate in Epic times, occupied the land to the north of Kuruksetra, and there is no reason whatever to show that in the Vedic period the Uśīnaras were farther west than the ‘ Middle Country.’
ūrṇāvatī In the hymn of the Rigveda which celebrates the rivers Ludwig finds a reference to an affluent of the Indus called Urnāvatī. This interpretation, however, seems certainly wrong. Roth renders the word merely as ‘ woolly,’ and Zimmer rejects Ludwig’s explanation on the ground that it throws the structure of the hymn into confusion. Pischel makes the word an epithet of the Indus, ‘rich in sheep.’
kakṣīvant Is the name of a Rsi mentioned frequently in the Rigveda, and occasionally elsewhere. He appears to have been a descendant of a female slave named Uśij. He must have been a Pajra by family, as he bears the epithet Pajriya, and his descendants are called Pajras. In a hymn of the Rigveda he celebrates the prince Svanaya Bhāvya, who dwelt on the Sindhu (Indus), as having bestowed magnificent gifts on him ; and the list of Nārāśamsas (‘ Praises of Heroes ’) in the Sāñkhāyana Srauta Sūtra mentions one by Kaksīvant Auśija in honour of Svanaya Bhāvayavya. In his old age he obtained as a wife the maiden Vrcayā. He appears to have lived to be a hundred, the typical length of life in the Vedas. He seems always to be thought of as belonging to the past, and in a hymn of the fourth book of the Rigveda he is mentioned with the semi-mythical Kutsa and Kavi Uśanas. Later, also, he is a teacher of bygone days. In Vedic literature he is not connected with Dīrghatamas beyond being once mentioned along with him in a hymn of the Rigveda. But in the Brhaddevatā he appears as a son of Dīrghatamas by a slave woman, Uśij. Weber14 considers that Kaksīvant was originally a Ksatriya, not a Brāhmana, quoting in favour of this view the fact that he is mentioned beside kings like Para Atnāra, Vītahavya Srāyasa, and Trasadasyu Paurukutsya. But that these are all kings is an unnecessary assumption : these persons are mentioned in the passages in question undoubtedly only as famous men of old, to whom are ascribed mythical sacrificial performances, and who thus gained numerous sons.
kamboja Yāska, in the Nirukta, refers to the speech of the Kambojas as differing from that of the other Aryas. The Kambojas were later settled to the north-west of the Indus, and are known as Kambujiya in the old Persian inscriptions. A teacher, Kāmboja Aupamanyava, pupil of Madragára, is mentioned in the Vamśa Brāhmana. This points to a possible connexion of the Madras, or more probably the Uttara Madras, with the Kambojas, who probably had Iranian as well as Indian affinities.
kāpya (‘ descendant of Kapi') is the patronymic of Sanaka and Navaka, two obviously fictitious persons who served at the Sattra (‘ sacrificial session ’) of the Vibhindukīyas in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana. It is also the patronymic of Patañcala in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. See also Kaiśorya.
kṛṣi ‘ploughing.’ The cultivation of the soil was no doubt known to the Indians before they separated from the Iranians, as is indicated by the identity of the expressions yavam krs and sasya in the Rigveda with yao karesh and hahya in the Avesta, referring to the ploughing in of the seed and to the grain which resulted. But it is not without significance that the expressions for ploughing occur mainly in the first and tenth books of the Rigveda, and only rarely in the so-called ‘ family ’ books (ii.-vii.). In the Atharvaveda Prthī Vainya is credited with the origination of ploughing, and even in the Rigveda the Aśvins are spoken of as concerned with the sowing of grain by means of the plough. In the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas ploughing is repeatedly referred to. Even in the Rigveda there is clear proof of the importance attached to agriculture. In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana the Vrātyas, Hindus without the pale of Brahminism, are de¬scribed as not cultivating the soil.The plough land was called Urvarā or Ksetra; manure (Sakan, Karīsa) was used, and irrigation was practised (Khani- tra). The plough (Lāñgala, Sira) was drawn by oxen, teams of six, eight, or even twelve being employed. The operations of agriculture are neatly summed up in the śatapatha Brāhmana as ‘ ploughing, sowing, reaping, and threshing ’ (
kekaya Is the name of a tribe which in later days, and probably also in Vedic times, was settled in the north-west, between the Sindhu (Indus) and Vitastā. In the Vedic texts the Kekayas are mentioned indirectly only in the name of their prince Aśvapati Kaikeya.
kausurubindi ‘descendant of Kusurubinda,’ is the patro­nymic of Proti Kauśāmbeya in the śatapatha Brāhmana. In the Gopatha Brāhmana the form is Kausuravindu.
krumu Is the name of a stream mentioned twice in the Rigveda—once in the fifth book and once in the last, in the Nadī-stuti, or ‘ praise of rivers.’There can be little doubt that this river is identical with the modern Kurum, a western tributary of the Indus.
gomatī ‘Possessing cows,’ is mentioned as a river in the Nadī-stuti, or ‘Praise of Rivers,’ in the tenth Mandala of the Rigveda. In that hymn a river flowing into the Indus must be meant, and its identification with the Gomal, a western tributary of the Indus, cannot be doubted. In one other passage of the Rigveda the accentuation of Gomati shows that a river is meant. It is possible that in a third passage the reading should be changed to gomaiir from gomatīr. Geldner suggests that in the two last passages the Gumti, or rather its four upper arms (hence the use of the plural) is meant: this accords well with the later use of the name and with the general probability of the river here intended being in Kuruksetra, as the centre of Vedic civilization.
gaurivīti śāktya (‘Descendant of śakti’) or Gaurīviti, as the name is also spelt, is the Rsi, or Seer, of a hymn of the Rigveda, and is frequently mentioned in the Brāhmanas. According to the Jaiminīya Brāhmana, he was Prastotr at the Sattra, or sacrificial session, celebrated by the Vibhindukīyas and mentioned in that Brāhmana.
janamejaya (‘Man-impelling’) is the name of a king, a Pāriksita, famous towards the end of the Brāhmana period. He is mentioned in the Satapatha Brāhmana as owning horses which when wearied were refreshed with sweet drinks, and as a performer of the Aśvamedha, or horse sacrifice. His capital, according to a Gāthā quoted in the śatapatha and the Aitareya Brāhmanas, was Asandīvant. His brothers Ugrasena, Bhīmasena, and Srutasena are mentioned as having by the horse sacrifice purified themselves from sin. The priest who performed the sacrifice for him was Indrota Daivāpi Saunaka. On the other hand the Aitareya Brāhmana, which also mentions his Aśvamedha, names Tura Kāvaseya as his priest. It also contains an obscure tale stating that at one sacrifice of his he did not employ the Kaśyapas, but the Bhūtavīras, being, however, induced by the Asitamygas to have recourse to the Kaśyapas again. He was a Kuru prince; see Pariksit. The Gopatha Brāhmana tells an absurd tale about him, evidently as of an ancient hero.
dṛḍhacyut ágasti (‘Descendant of Agastya ’) is mentioned in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana as having been Udgātr priest at the Sattra (‘ sacrificial session ’) of the Vibhindukīyas.
deśa ‘Land,’ is a word that does not come into use till the time of the Upanisads and Sūtras, excepting one occurrence in the latest period of the Brāhmana literature, and one in a much-discussed passage of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, where the Sarasvatī is mentioned as having five tributaries. This passage militates against the view that Sarasvatī was a name of the Indus, because the use of Deśa here seems to indicate that the seer of the verse placed the Sarasvatī in the Madhya- deśa or * Middle Country,’ to which all the geographical data of the Yajurvedas point.
daivavāta Descendant of Devavāta,’ is the patronymic of Srñjaya, probably the Srñjaya king, in the Rigveda. He is mentioned as a devotee of the fire cult, and as victorious over the Turvaśa king and the Vrcīvants. According to Zimmer, his name was Abhyāvartin Cāyamāna Pārthava (‘ descendant of Prthu ’), but Hillebrandt4 recognizes this as doubtful, though he none the less places the Srñjayas to the west of the Indus with Divodāsa. What is more important is to note that the name suggests connexion with the Bharata Devavāta, and as Kurus and Srñjayas were closely connected this is not immaterial.
dvīpa ‘Island,’ is mentioned in the Rigveda and later. But there is no reason to imagine that the islands referred to were other than sandbanks in the great rivers, Indus or Ganges. Vedic literature knows nothing of the system of geography according to which the earth consists of four, seven, or thirteen Dvīpas grouped round Mount Meru.
dhanvan Desert,’ is repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda and later. Death from thirst in the desert was not rare, and the value of a spring in the desert was fully appreciated. The great desert east of the Sindhu (Indus) and the Sutudrī (Sutlej) is possibly referred to in one hymn of the Rigveda.
nakṣatra Is a word of obscure origin and derivation. The Indian interpreters already show a great divergence of opinion as to its primary meaning. The śatapatha Brāhmana re­solves it into na-ksatra (‘ no power ’), explaining it by a legend. The Nirukta refers it to the root naks, ‘obtain/ following the Taittirīya Brāhmana. Aufrecht and Weber derived it from nakta-tra, ‘ guardian of night/ and more recently the derivation from nak-ksatra, ‘ having rule over night/ seems to be gaining acceptance. The generic meaning of the word therefore seems to be ‘star/ The Naksatras as Stars in the Rigveda and Later.—The sense of star ’ appears to be adequate for all or nearly all the passages in which Naksatra occurs in the Rigveda. The same sense occurs in the later Samhitās also : the sun and the Naksatras are mentioned together, or the sun, the moon, and the Naksatras, or the moon and the Naksatras, or the Naksatras alone; but there is no necessity to attribute to the word the sense of lunar mansion ’ in these passages. On the other hand, the names of at least three of the Naksatras in the later sense occur in the Rigveda. Tisya, however, does not seem to be mentioned as a lunar mansion. With Aghās (plur.) and Arjunī (dual) the case is different: it seems probable that they are the later lunar mansions called Maghās (plur.) and Phālgunī (dual). The names appear to have been deliberately changed in the Rigveda, and it must be remembered that the hymn in which they occur, the wedding hymn of Sūryā, has no claim to great age. Ludwig and Zimmer have seen other references to the Naksatras as 27 in the Rigveda, but these seem most improbable. Nor do the adjectives revatī (£ rich ’) and punarvasīi (‘ bringing wealth again’) in another hymn appear to refer to the Naksatras. The Naksatras as Lunar Mansions.—In several passages of the later Samhitās the connexion of the moon and the Naksatras is conceived of as a marriage union. Thus in the Kāthaka and Taittirīya Samhitās it is expressly stated that Soma was wedded to the mansions, but dwelt only with Rohinī; the others being angry, he had ultimately to undertake to live with them all equally. Weber hence deduced that the Naksatras were regarded as of equal extent, but this is to press the texts unduly, except in the sense of approximate equality. The number of the mansions is not stated as 27 in the story told in the two Samhitās: the Taittīriya has, and the Kāthaka no number; but 27 appears as their number in the list which is found in the Taittirīya Samhitā and elsewhere. The number 28 is much less well attested: in one passage of the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is practically marked as a new comer, though in a later book, in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and in the Atharvaveda list,27 it has found acceptance. It is perfectly possible that 28 is the earlier number, and that Abhijit dropped out because it was faint, or too far north, or because 27 was a more mystic (3x3x3) number: it is significant that the Chinese Sieou and the Arabic Manāzil are 28 in number.28 Weber, however, believes that 27 is the older number in India. The meaning of the number is easily explained when it is remembered that a periodic month occupies something between 27 and 28 days, more nearly the former number. Such a month is in fact recognized in the Lātyāyana and Nidāna Sūtras as consisting of 27 days, 12 months making a year of 324 days, a Naksatra year, or with an intercalary month, a year of 351 days. The Nidāna Sūtra makes an attempt to introduce the Naksatra reckoning into the civil or solar (sāvana) year of 360 days, for it holds that the sun spends 13J• days in each Naksatra (13^x27 = 360). But the month of 27 or 28 days plays no part in the chronological calculations of the Veda. The Names of the Naksatras.—In addition to the two mentioned in the Rigveda, the earlier Atharvaveda gives the names of Jyesthaghnī (the later Jyesthā) and Vicrtau, which are mentioned as in close connexion, and of Revatīs (plural) and Kyttikās. With reference to possible times for the ceremony of the Agnyādhāna, or Maying of the sacred fires/ the Kāthaka Samhitā, the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and the Taittirīya Brāhmana mention the Naksatras called Krttikās, Rohinī, Phalgunyas, Hasta; the latter Brāhmana adds Punar- vasū, and in an additional remark excludes Pūrve Phālgunī in favour of Uttare Phālgunī. The śatapatha Brāhmana adds Mrgaśīrsa and Citrā as possibilities. On the other hand, Punarvasū is recommended by all authorities as suitable for the Punarādheya, 'relaying of the sacred fires,’ which takes place if the first fire has failed to effect the aim of its existence, the prosperity of the sacrificer. The Kāthaka Samhitā, however, allows Anurādhās also. In the ceremony of the Agnicayana, or 'piling of the fire- altar,’ the bricks are assumed to be equal in number to the Naksatras. The bricks number 756, and they are equated to 27 Naksatras multiplied by 27 secondary Naksatras, reckoned as 720 (instead of 729), with the addition of 36 days, the length of an intercalary month. Nothing can be usefully derived from this piece of priestly nonsense. But in connexion with this ceremony the Yajurveda Samhitās enumerate the 27, The Taittirīya Brāhmana has a list of the Naksatras which agrees generally with the list of the Samhitās. It runs as follows: Kyttikās, Rohinī, Invakās, Bāhū (dual), Tisya, Aśleṣās, Maghās, Pūrve Phālgunī, Uttare Phālgunī, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Rohinī, Mūlabarhanī, Pūrvā Asādhās', Uttarā Asādhās, Sronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Pūrve Prosthapadās, Uttare Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Apabharanīs. In a later book, however, the list grows to 28, and the full moon is inserted after number 14, and the new moon after number, as an attempt to bring the Naksatra (lunar) month into accordance with the Sāvana (solar) month of 30 days. The names in this second list are as in the Samhitās with the following exceptions. The seven stars of the Krttikās are named as Ambā, Dulā, Nitatnī, Abhrayantī, Meghayantī, Varsayantī, Cupunīkā, names found also in the Taittirīya and Kāthaka Samhitās. Beside Mrgaśīrsa, Invakās are also mentioned. Then come Ardrā, Punarvasū, Tisya, Aśresās, Maghās (beside which Anaghās, Agadās, and Arun- dhatīs are also mentioned), Phalgunyas (but elsewhere in the dual, Phalgunyau), Phalgunyas, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Jyesthā, Mūla, Asādhās, Asā(jhās, Abhijit, śronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Prosthapadās, Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas, but also Apabharanīs. Abhijit, which occurs also in an earlier part of the Brāhmana, is perhaps interpolated. But Weber’s argument that Abhijit is out of place in this list because Brāhmana is here mentioned as the 28th Naksatra, loses some force from the fact (of course unknown to him) that the list in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā contains 28 Naksatras, including Abhijit, and adds Brāhmana at the end as another. In another passage the Taittirīya Brāhmana divides the Naksatras into two sets, the Deva Naksatras and the Yama Naksatras, being 1-14 and 15-27 (with the omission of Abhijit) respectively. This division corresponds with one in the third book of the Brāhmana60 where the days of the light half of the month and those of the dark half are equated with the Naksatras. The Brāhmana treats the former series as south, the latter as north; but this has no relation to facts, and can only be regarded as a ritual absurdity. The late nineteenth book of the Atharvaveda contains a list of the Naksatras, including Abhijit. The names here (masc.), Viśākhe, Anurādhā, Jyesthā, Mūla, Pūrvā Asādhās, Uttarā Asādhās, Abhijit, śravana, śravisthās, śatabhisaj, Dvayā Prosthapadā, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas. The Position of the Naksatras.—There is nothing definite in Vedic literature regarding the position of most of the Naksatras, but the later astronomy precisely locates all of them, and its statements agree on the whole satisfactorily with what is said in the earlier texts, though Weber was inclined to doubt this. The determinations adopted below are due to Whitney in his notes on the Sūrya Siddhānta. 1.Krttikās are unquestionably η Tauri, etc., the Pleiades. The names of the seven stars forming this constellation, and given above from Yajurveda texts, include three --------abhrayantī, forming clouds meghayantī, ‘making cloudy’; varsayantī, ‘causing rain’—which clearly refer to the rainy Pleiades. The word krttikā possibly means ‘web/ from the root krt, spin.’ 2. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy,’ is the name of the conspicuously reddish star, a Tauri or Aldebaran, and denotes the group of the Hyades, <* θ y 8 e Tauri. Its identification seems absolutely assured by the legend of Prajāpati in the Aitareya Brāhmana. He is there represented as pursuing his daughter with incestuous intention, and as having been shot with an arrow (Isu Trikāndā, ‘ the belt of Orion ’) by the huntsman ’ (Mrgavyādha, Sirius ’). Prajāpati is clearly Orion (Mrgaśiras being the name of the little group of stars in Orion’s head). 3.Mrgaśīrsa or Mrgaśiras, also called Invakā or Invagā, seems to be the faint stars λ, φ,1 φ2 Orionis. They are called Andhakā, * blind,’ in the śāntikalpa of the Atharvaveda, probably because of their dimness. 4.Ardrā, ‘ moist,’ is the name of the brilliant star, α Orionis. But the names by which it is styled, in the plural as Árdrās in the śāñkhāyana Grhya Sūtra and the Naksatrakalpa, and in the dual as Bāhú, in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, point to a constellation of two or more stars, and it may be noted that the corresponding Chinese Sieou includes the seven brilliant stars composing the shoulders, the belt, and the knees of Orion. 5. Punarvasu, the two that give wealth again,’ denotes the two stars, a and β Geminorum, on the heads of Castor and Pollux. The name is no doubt connected with the beneficent character of the Aśvins, who correspond to the Dioscuri. 6.Tisya or Pusya includes the somewhat faint group in the body of the Crab, 7, δ, and θ Cancri. The singular is rather curious, as primarily one star would seem to have been meant, and none of the group is at all prominent. 7. Aśresās or Aślesās, which in some texts is certainly to be read Aśresās or Aślesas, denotes δ, e, η, p, σ, and perhaps also ζ, Hydrse. The word means ‘embracer,’ a name which admirably fits the constellation. 8. Maghās, the ‘bounties,’ are the Sickle, or α, γ, ζ, μ, e Leonis. The variants Anaghā, the ‘ sinless one,’ etc.,clearly refer to the auspicious influence of the constellation. 9. 10. Phālgunī, Phalgunyau, Phalgū, Phalg-unīs, Phal- gunyas, is really a double constellation, divided into Pūrve, ‘ former,’ and Uttare, ‘latter.’ The former is δ and θ Leonis, the latter β and Leonis. According to Weber, the word denotes, like Arjunī, the variant of the Rigveda, a ‘ bright- coloured ’ constellation. 11. Hasta, ‘hand,’ is made up of the five conspicuous stars (δ> Ί, e, a, β) in Corvus, a number which the word itself suggests. According to Geldner, the ‘ five bulls ’ of the Rigveda are this constellation. 12. Citrā, ‘bright,’ is the beautiful star, a Virginis. It is mentioned in a legend of Indra in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, and in that of the ‘ two divine dogs ’ (divyau śvānau) in the śatapatha Brāhmana. 13. Svāti or Nistyā is later clearly the brilliant star Arcturus or a Bootis, its place in the north being assured by the notice in the śāntikalpa, where it is said to be ‘ ever traversing the northern way ’ (nityam uttara-mārgagam). The Taittirīya Brāhmana, however, constructs an asterismal Prajāpati, giving him Citrā (α Virginis) for head, Hasta (Corvus) for hand, the Viśākhe (α and β Librae) for thighs, and the Anurādhās (β, δ, and 7r Scorpionis) for standing place, with Nistyā for heart. But Arcturus, being 30° out, spoils this figure, while, on the other hand, the Arabic and Chinese systems have respectively, instead of Arcturus, Virginis and κ Virginis, which would well fit into the Prajāpati figure. But in spite of the force of this argument of Weber’s, Whitney is not certain that Nistyā here must mean a star in Virgo, pointing out that the name Nistyā, ‘outcast,’ suggests the separation of this Naksatra from the others in question. 14.Viśākhe is the couple of stars a and β Librae. This mansion is later called Rādhā according to the Amarakośa, and it is curious that in the Atharvaveda the expression rādho Viśākhe, the Viśākhe are prosperity,’ should occur. But probably Rādhā is merely an invention due to the name of the next Naksatra, Anurādhā, wrongly conceived as meaning that which is after or follows Rādhā.’ 15. Anūrādhās or Anurādhā, propitious,’ is β, δ, and tγ (perhaps also p) Scorpionis. 16. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy ’; Jyesthaghnī, * slaying the eldest ’; or Jyesthā, ‘eldest,’ is the name of the constellation σ, α, and τ Scorpionis, of which the central star, a, is the brilliant reddish Antares (or Cor Scorpionis). 17.Vicrtau, ‘ the two releasers ’; Mūla, ‘ root or Mūla- barhanī, ‘ uprooting,’ denote primarily λ and v at the extremity of the tail of the Scorpion, but including also the nine or eleven stars from e to v. 18.19. Asādhās (‘ unconquered ’), distinguished as Pūrvās, ‘ former,’ and Uttarās, ‘ latter,’ are really two constellations, of which the former is composed of γ, δ, e, and η Sagittarii, or of 8 and e only, and the latter of θ, σ, t, and ξ Sagittarii, or of two, σ and ζ, only. It is probable that originally only four stars forming a square were meant as included in the whole constellation —viz., σ and f, with 8 and e. 20. Abhijit is the brilliant star a Lyrse with its two companions e and ζ. Its location in 6o° north latitude is completely discordant with the position of the corresponding Arabian and Chinese asterisms. This fact is considered by Oldenberg to support the view that it was a later addition to the system; its occurrence, however, as early as the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, which he does not note, somewhat invalidates that view. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is said to be ‘over Asādhās, under śronā,’ which Weber held to refer to its position in space, inferring thence that its Vedic position corresponded to that of the Arab Manāzil and the Chinese Sieou—viz., a, β Capricorni. But Whitney argues effectively that the words ‘ over ’ and ‘ under ’ really refer to the place of Abhijit in the list, ‘ after ’ Asādhās and ‘ before ’ Sronā. 21. Sronā, ‘lame,’ or Sravana, ‘ ear,’ denotes the bright star a Aquilai with β below and 7 above it. Weber very need- lessly thinks that the name Sravana suggested two ears and the head between. It is quite out of correspondence with the Manāzil and the Sieou, and is clearly an Indian invention. 22. śravisthās, ‘ most famous,’ or later Dhanisthās, ‘most wealthy,’ is the diamond-shaped group, α, β, δ, and 7, in the Dolphin, perhaps also ζ in the same constellation. Like the preceding Naksatra, it is out of harmony with the Manāzil and Sieou. 23. Satabhisaj or śatabhisa, ‘having a hundred physicians,’ seems to be λ Aquarii with the others around it vaguely conceived as numbering a hundred. 24. 25. Prostha-padās (fem. plur.), ‘ feet of a stool,’ or later Bhadra-padās,100 ‘auspicious feet,’ a double asterism forming a square, the former (pūrva) consisting of a and β Pegasi, the latter (uttara) of γ Pegasi and a Andromedse. 26. Revatī, ‘ wealthy,’ denotes a large number of stars (later 32), of which ζ Piscium, close upon the ecliptic where it was crossed by the equator of about 570 a.d., is given as the southernmost. 27. Aśva-yujau, ‘the two horse-harnessers,’ denotes the stars β and ζ Arietis. Aśvinyau101 and Aśvinī102 are later names. 28. Apabharanīs, Bharanīs, or Bharanyas, ‘ the bearers,’ is the name of the small triangle in the northern part of the Ram known as Musca or 35, 39, and 41 Arietis. The Naksatras and the Months.—In the Brāhmanas the Naksatra names are regularly used to denote dates. This is done in two ways. The name, if not already a feminine, may be turned into a feminine and compounded with pūrna-māsa, ‘the full moon,’ as in Tisyā-pūrnamāsa, ‘the full moon in the Naksatra Tisya.’103 Much more often, however, it is turned into a derivative adjective, used with paurnamāsī, ‘the full moon (night)/ or with amāvāsyā, ‘the new moon (night)/ as in Phālgunī paurnamāsl, ‘the full-moon night in the Naksatra Phālgunī’;104 or, as is usual in the Sūtras, the Naksatra adjective alone is used to denote the full-moon night. The month itself is called by a name derived105 from that of a Naksatra, but only Phālguna,106 Caitra,107 Vaiśākha,108 Taisya,109 Māgha110 occur in the Brāhmanas, the complete list later being Phālguna, Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyaistha, Asādha, Srāvana, Prausthapada, Aśvayuja, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrsa, Taisya, Māgha. Strictly speaking, these should be lunar months, but the use of a lunar year was clearly very restricted: we have seen that as early as the Taittirīya Brāhmana there was a tendency to equate lunar months with the twelve months of thirty days which made up the solar year (see Māsa). The Naksatras and Chronology.—(i) An endeavour has been made to ascertain from the names of the months the period at which the systematic employment of those names was intro¬duced. Sir William Jones111 refers to this possibility, and Bentley, by the gratuitous assumption that śrāvana always marked the summer solstice, concluded that the names of the months did not date before b.c. Ii8I. Weber112 considered that there was a possibility of fixing a date by this means, but Whitney113 has convincingly shown that it is an impossible feat, and Thibaut114 concurs in this view. Twelve became fixed as the number of the months because of the desire, evident in the Brāhmanas, somehow or other to harmonize lunar with solar time; but the selection of twelve Naksatras out of twenty-seven as connected with the night of full moon can have no chronological significance, because full moon at no period occurred in those twelve only, but has at all periods occurred in every one of the twenty-seven at regularly recurrent intervals. (2) All the lists of the Naksatras begin with Krttikās. It is only fair to suppose that there was some special reason for this fact. Now the later list of the Naksatras begins with Aśvinī, and it was unquestionably rearranged because at the time of its adoption the vernal equinox coincided with the star ζ Piscium on the border of Revatī and Aśvinī, say in the course of the sixth century A.D. Weber has therefore accepted the view that the Krttikās were chosen for a similar reason, and the date at which that Naksatra coincided with the vernal equinox has been estimated at some period in the third millennium B.C. A very grave objection to this view is its assumption that the sun, and not the moon, was then regarded as connected with the Naksatras; and both Thibaut and Oldenberg have pronounced decidedly against the idea of connecting the equinox with the Krttikās. Jacobi has contended that in the Rigveda the commencement of the rains and the summer solstice mark the beginning of the new year and the end of the old, and that further the new year began with the summer solstice in Phālgunī.121 He has also referred to the distinction of the two sets of Deva and Yama Naksatras in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as supporting his view of the connexion of the sun and the Naksatras. But this view is far from satisfactory: the Rigveda passages cannot yield the sense required except by translating the word dvādaśa123 as 4 the twelfth (month) * instead of consisting of twelve parts,’ that is, ‘year/ the accepted interpretation; and the division of the Naksatras is not at all satisfactorily explained by a supposed connexion with the sun. It may further be mentioned that even if the Naksatra of Krttikās be deemed to have been chosen because of its coincidence with the vernal equinox, both Whitney and Thibaut are pre¬pared to regard it as no more than a careless variant of the date given by the Jyotisa, which puts the winter solstice in Māgha. (3) The winter solstice in Māgha is assured by a Brāhmana text, for the Kausītaki Brāhmana12® expressly places it in the new moon of Māgha (māghasyāmāυāsyāyām). It is not very important whether we take this with the commentators as the new moon in the middle of a month commencing with the day after full moon in Taisa, or, which is much more likely, as the new moon beginning the month and preceding full moon in Māgha. The datum gives a certain possibility of fixing an epoch in the following way. If the end of Revatī marked the vernal equinox at one period, then the precession of the equinoxes would enable us to calculate at what point of time the vernal equinox was in a position corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha, when the solstitial colure cut the ecliptic at the beginning of Sravisthās. This would be, on the strict theory, in the third quarter of Bharanī, 6f asterisms removed from Sravisthās, and the difference between that and the beginning of Aśvinī = if asterisms = 23 (27 asterisms being = 360°). Taking, the starting-point at 499 a.d., the assured period of Varāha Mihira, Jones arrived at the date B.C. 1181 for the vernal equinox corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha—that is, on the basis of ι° = 72 years as the precession. Pratt arrived at precisely the same date, taking the same rate of precession and adopting as his basis the ascertained position in the Siddhantas of the junction star of Maghā, a Leonis or Regulus. Davis and Colebrooke arrived at a different date, B.C. 1391, by taking as the basis of their calculation the junction star of Citrā, which happens to be of uncertain position, varying as much as 30 in the different textbooks. But though the twelfth century has received a certain currency as the epoch of the observation in the Jyotisa, it is of very doubtful value. As Whitney points out, it is impossible to say that the earlier asterisms coincided in position with the later asterisms of 13J0 extent each. They were not chosen as equal divisions, but as groups of stars which stood in conjunction with the moon; and the result of subsequently making them strictly equal divisions was to throw the principal stars of the later groups altogether out of their asterisms. Nor can we say that the star ζ Piscium early formed the eastern boundary of Revatī; it may possibly not even have been in that asterism at all, for it is far remote from the Chinese and Arabic asterisms corresponding to Revatī. Added to all this, and to the uncertainty of the starting-point— 582 a.d., 560 a.d., or 491 a.d. being variants —is the fact that the place of the equinox is not a matter accurately determin¬able by mere observation, and that the Hindu astronomers of the Vedic period cannot be deemed to have been very accurate observers, since they made no precise determination of the number of days of the year, which even in the Jyotisa they do not determine more precisely than as 366 days, and even the Sūrya Siddhānta136 does not know the precession of the equinoxes. It is therefore only fair to allow a thousand years for possible errors,137 and the only probable conclusion to be drawn from the datum of the Kausītaki Brāhmana is that it was recording an observation which must have been made some centuries B.C., in itself a result quite in harmony with the probable date of the Brāhmana literature,138 say B.C. 800-600. (4) Another chronological argument has been derived from the fact that there is a considerable amount of evidence for Phālguna having been regarded as the beginning of the year, since the full moon in Phālgunī is often described as the ‘ mouth (mukham) of the year.’139 Jacobi140 considers that this was due to the fact that the year was reckoned from the winter solstice, which would coincide with the month of Phālguna about B.C. 4000. Oldenberg and Thibaut, on the other hand, maintain that the choice of Phālguna as the ‘ mouth ’ of the year was due to its being the first month of spring. This view is favoured by the fact that there is distinct evidence of the correspondence of Phālguna and the beginning of spring : as we have seen above in the Kausītaki Brāhmana, the new moon in Māgha is placed at the winter solstice, which puts the full moon of Phālgunī at a month and a half after the winter solstice, or in the first week of February, a date not in itself improbable for about B.C. 800, and corresponding with the February 7 of the veris initium in the Roman Calendar. This fact accords with the only natural division of the year into three periods of four months, as the rainy season lasts from June 7-10 to October 7-10, and it is certain that the second set of four months dates from the beginning of the rains (see Cāturmāsya). Tilak, on the other hand, holds that the winter solstice coincided with Māghī full moon at the time of the Taittirīya Samhitā (b.c. 2350), and had coincided with Phālgunī and Caitrī in early periods—viz., B.C. 4000-2500, and B.C. 6000¬4000. (5) The passages of the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, which treat the full moon in Phālguna as the beginning of the year, give as an alternative the full moon in Caitra. Probably the latter month was chosen so as to secure that the initial day should fall well within the season of spring, and was not, as Jacobi believes, a relic of a period when the winter solstice corresponded with Caitra. Another alternative is the Ekāstakā, interpreted by the commentators as the eighth day after the full moon in Maghās, a time which might, as being the last quarter of the waning half of the old year, well be considered as representing the end of the year. A fourth alternative is the fourth day before full moon; the full moon meant must be that of Caitra, as Álekhana quoted by Ápastamba held, not of Māgha, as Asmarathya, Laugāksi and the Mīmāmsists believed, and as Tilak believes. (6) Others, again, according to the Grhya ritual, began the year with the month Mārgaśīrsa, as is shown by its other name Agrahāyana (‘ belonging to the commencement of the year ’). Jacobi and Tilak think that this one denoted the autumn equinox in Mrgaśiras, corresponding to the winter solstice in Phālgunī. But, as Thibaut shows clearly, it was selected as the beginning of a year that was taken to commence with autumn, just as some took the spring to commence with Caitra instead of Phālguna. (7) Jacobi has also argued, with the support of Buhler, from the terms given for the beginning of Vedic study in the Grhya Sūtras, on the principle that study commenced with the rains (as in the Buddhist vassā) which mark the summer solstice. He concludes that if Bhādrapada appears as the date of commencing study in some texts, it was fixed thus because at one time Prosthapadās (the early name of Bhadra- padās) coincided with the summer solstice, this having been the case when the winter solstice was in Phālguna. But Whitney155 has pointed out that this argument is utterly illegitimate; we cannot say that there was any necessary connexion between the rains and learning—a month like Srāvana might be preferred because of its connexion with the word Sravana, 4 ear ’—and in view of the precession of the equinoxes, we must assume that Bhādrapada was kept because of its traditional coincidence with the beginning of the rains after it had ceased actually so to coincide. the other astronomical phenomena; the discovery of a series of 27 lunar mansions by them would therefore be rather surprising. On the other hand, the nature of such an operation is not very complicated ; it consists merely in selecting a star or a star group with which the moon is in conjunction. It is thus impossible a priori to deny that the Vedic Indians could have invented for themselves a lunar Zodiac. But the question is complicated by the fact that there exist two similar sets of 28 stars or star groups in Arabia and in China, the Manāzil and the Sieou. The use of the Manāzil in Arabia is consistent and effective ; the calendar is regulated by them, and the position of the asterisms corresponds best with the positions required for a lunar Zodiac. The Indians might therefore have borrowed the system from Arabia, but that is a mere possibility, because the evidence for the existence of the Manāzil is long posterior to that for the existence of the Naksatras, while again the Mazzaroth or Mazzaloth of the Old Testament may really be the lunar mansions. That the Arabian system is borrowed from India, as Burgess held, is, on the other hand, not at all probable. Biot, the eminent Chinese scholar, in a series of papers published by him between. 1839 and 1861, attempted to prove the derivation of the Naksatra from the Chinese Sieou. The latter he did not regard as being in origin lunar mansions at all. He thought that they were equatorial stars used, as in modern astronomy, as a standard to which planets or other stars observed in the neighbourhood can be referred; they were, as regards twenty-four of them, selected about B.C. 2357 on account of their proximity to the equator, and of their having the same right ascension as certain circumpolar stars which had attracted the attention of Chinese observers. Four more were added in B.C. IIOO in order to mark the equinoxes and solstices of the period. He held that the list of stars commenced with Mao (= Krttikās), which was at the vernal equinox in B.C. 2357. Weber, in an elaborate essay of i860, disputed this theory, and endeavoured to show that the Chinese literary evidence for the Sieou was late, dating not even from before the third century B.C. The last point does not appear to be correct, but his objections against the basis of Biot’s theory were rein¬forced by Whitney, who insisted that Biot’s supposition of the Sieou’s not having been ultimately derived from a system of lunar mansions, was untenable. This is admitted by the latest defender of the hypothesis of borrowing from China, Lśopold de Saussure, , but his arguments in favour of a Chinese origin for the Indian lunar mansions have been refuted by Oldenberg, who has also pointed out that the series does not begin with Mao ( = Krttikās). There remains only the possibility that a common source for all the three sets—Naksatra, Manāzil, and Sieou—may be found in Babylonia. Hommel has endeavoured to show that recent research has established in Babylonia the existence of a lunar zodiac of twenty-four members headed by the Pleiades ( = Krttikās); but Thibaut’s researches are not favourable to this claim. On the other hand, Weber, Whitney, Zimmer, and Oldenberg all incline to the view that in Babylonia is to be found the origin of the system, and this must for the present be regarded as the most probable view, for there are other traces of Babylonian influence in Vedic literature, such as the legend of the flood, perhaps the Adityas, and possibly the word Manā.
navaka Is mentioned as having wished for a wife at the Sattra of the Vibhindukīyas in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana.
nahus Occurs several times in the Rigveda, but the exact sense is not certain. Ludwig sees in the Nahus a tribe on the Sindhu (Indus) or Sarasvatī, rich in horses, allied with the Bharatas and Simyus, connected with Kaksīvant and the Vārsāgiras, and having as kings Maśarśāra and Ayavasa. Roth, on the other hand, sees in Nahus the general sense of ‘ neighbour ’ as opposed to a member of one’s own people (Viś); this interpretation is supported by the occurrence of the phrase ηahuso ηahustam? ‘ closer than a neighbour.’ Nahusa has the same sense as Nahus in two passages of the Rigveda, but in one it seems to be intended for the proper name of a man. Possibly Nahus was originally a man like Manu.
nīcya (‘Living below ’) is a designation of certain nations of the west. The Nīcyas are mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmana as distinguished from the people of Madhyadeśa, and no doubt mean the inhabitants of the Indus and Panjab regions.
nau Is the regular word in the Rigveda and later for a 4 boat ’ or 4 ship.’ In the great majority of cases the ship was merely a boat for crossing rivers, though no doubt a large boat was needed for crossing many of the broad rivers of the Panjab as well as the Yamunā and Gañgā. Often no doubt the Nau was a mere dug-out canoe (
paḍbīśa The foot-fetter ’ of a horse in five passages, two in the Rigveda, and one each in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, the Chāndogya Upanisad, and the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka. Elsewhere its uses are metaphorical. According to Roth,® the literal sense is ‘foot-fastening’ (pad being = pad, ‘foot,’ and bīśa, written visa in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, being connected with the Latin viηcire, ‘bind’). Pischel[2] objects that the sense of * foot-fastening’ involves the absurdity, in the Upanisad passages, of a fine horse from the Sindhu (Indus) being spoken of as tearing up the peg to which it is fastened. He suggests instead the meaning of ‘ hobble,’ which must be right.8
pastyā (fem. pi.) Is a word occurring in several passages of the Rigveda. Roth ascribes to it the meaning of‘house’ or ‘ dwelling,’ in the wide sense of the term, as well as that of the ‘family’ living in the house; and this view is accepted by Zimmer. On the other hand, Pischel finds in two of the passages usually referred to Pastyā the neuter Pastya, which appears in Pastya-sad and in Pastyā-vant (where the length of the second syllable is not primitive), and which is certainly found in the Rigveda in the metaphorical sense of ‘ dwelling,’ ascribed to it in the Naighantuka. In the other passages he thinks the word means ‘rivers’ or ‘ waters ’; in particular, where Soma in the middle of the Pastyās is spoken of, he sees a reference to Kuruksetra, with its several rivers, Apayā, Drsadvatī, and Sarasvatī (c/. 2. Pastyāvant). In some passages he sees in Pastyā the proper name of a stream, just as Sindhu primarily means ‘river,’ then the ‘Indus.’ a rich householder seems meant, and in the two others reference to a ‘house’ is clear.
pūru Is the name of a people and their king in the Rigveda. They are mentioned with the Anus, Druhyus, Turvaśas, and Yadus in one passage. They also occur as enemies of the TrtSUS in the hymn of Sudās’ victory. In another hymn Agni of the Bharatas is celebrated as victorious over the Pūrus, probably a reference to the same decisive overthrow. On the other hand, victories of the Pūrus over the aborigines seem to be referred to in several passages. The great kings of the Pūrus were Purukutsa and his son Trasadasyu, whose name bears testimony to his prowess against aboriginal foes, while a later prince was Trksi Trāsa- dasyava. In the Rigveda the Pūrus are expressly mentioned as on the Sarasvatī. Zimmer thinks that the Sindhu (Indus) is meant in this passage. But Ludwig and Hillebrandt with much greater probability think that the eastern Sarasvatī in Kuruksetra is meant. This view accords well with the sudden disappearance of the name of the Pūrus from Vedic tradition, a disappearance accounted for by Oldenberg’s conjecture that the Pūrus became part of the great Kuru people, just as Turvaśa and Krivi disappear from the tradition on their being merged in the Pañcāla nation. Trāsadasyava, the patronymic of Kuruśravana in the Rigveda, shows that the royal families of the Kurus and the Pūrus were allied by intermarriage. Hillebrandt, admitting that the Pūrus in later times lived in the eastern country round the Sarasvatī, thinks that in earlier days they were to be found to the west of the Indus with Divodāsa. This theory must fall with the theory that Divodāsa was in the far west. It might, however, be held to be supported by the fact that Alexander found a Πώρος—that is, a Paurava prince on the Hydaspes, a sort of half-way locality between the Sarasvatī and the West. But it is quite simple to suppose either that the Hydaspes was the earlier home of the Pūrus, where some remained after the others had wandered east, or that the later Paurava represents a successful onslaught upon the west from the east. In several other passages of the Rigveda the Purus as a people seem to be meant. The Nirukta recognizes the general sense of ‘man,’ but in no passage is this really necessary or even probable. So utterly, however, is the tradition lost that the śatapatha Brāhmana explains Pūru in the Rigveda as an Asura Rakṣas; it is only in the Epic that Pūru revives as the name of a son of Yayāti and śarmiṣṭhā.
balāsa Is the name of a disease mentioned several times in the Atharvaveda and occasionally later. Mahīdhara and Sāyana interpret the term as ‘consumption.’ Zimmer supports this view on the ground that it is mentioned as a kind of Yakçma, makes the bones and joints fall apart (asthi-srainsa, paruh-srainsa), and is caused by love, aversion, and the heart, characteristics which agree with the statements of the later Hindu medicine. It is in keeping with a demon of the character of consumption that Balāsa should appear as an accompaniment of Takman. Grohmann, however, thought that a ‘sore* or ‘swelling’ (in the case of fever caused by dropsy) was meant. Bloomfield considers that the question is still open. Ludwig renders the word by ‘dropsy. As remedies against the disease the salve (Áñjasa) from Trikakud and the Jañgida plant are mentioned.
brāmaṇa Descendant of a Brahman' (i.e., of a priest), is found only a few times in the Rigveda, and mostly in its latest parts. In the Atharvaveda and later it is a very common word denoting ‘priest,’ and it appears in the quadruple division of the castes in the Purusa-sūkta (‘hymn of man’) of the Rigveda. It seems certain that in the Rigveda this Brāhmaṇa, or Brahmin, is already a separate caste, differing from the warrior and agricultural castes. The texts regularly claim for them a superiority to the Kṣatriya caste, and the Brahmin is able by his spells or manipulation of the rite to embroil the people and the warriors or the different sections of the warriors. If it is necessary to. recognize, as is sometimes done, that the Brahmin does pay homage to the king at the Rājasūya, nevertheless the unusual fact is carefully explained away so as to leave the priority of the Brahmin unaffected. But it is expressly recognized that the union of the Ksatriya and the Brāhmaṇa is essential for complete prosperity. It is admitted that the king or the nobles might at times oppress the Brahmins, but it is indicated that ruin is then certain swiftly to follow. The Brahmins are gods on earth, like the gods in heaven, but this claim is hardly found in the Rigveda. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Brahmin is said to be the ‘ recipient of gifts * (ādāyt) and the * drinker of the offering ’ (āpāyT). The other two epithets applied, āvasāyī and yathā- kāma-prayāpya, are more obscure; the former denotes either ‘ dwelling everywhere ’ or ‘ seeking food ’; the latter is usually taken as * moving at pleasure,’ but it must rather allude to the power of the king to assign a place of residence to the Brahmin. In the śatapatha Brāhmana the prerogatives of the Brah¬min are summed up as Arcā, ‘honour’; Dāna, ‘gifts’; Aj'yeyatā,‘ freedom from oppression ’; and Avadhyatā, ‘ freedom from being killed.’ On the other hand, his duties are summed up as Brāhmanya, ‘ purity of descent’; Pratirūpa-caryā, ‘devotion of the duties of his caste’; and Loka-pakti, ‘the perfecting of people ’ (by teaching). ī. Respect paid to Brahmins. The texts are full of references to the civilities to be paid to the Brahmin. He is styled bhagavant, and is provided with good food and entertain¬ment wherever he goes. Indeed, his sanctity exempts him from any close inquiry into his real claim to Brahminhood according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Gifts to Brahmins. The Dānastuti (‘Praise of gifts’) is a recognized feature of the Rigveda, and the greed of the poets for Dakṣiṇās, or sacrificial fees, is notorious. Vedic texts themselves recognize that the literature thence resulting (Nārā- śamsī) was often false to please the donors. It was, however, a rule that Brahmins should not accept what had been refused by others; this indicates a keen sense of the danger of cheapening their wares. So exclusively theirs was the right to receive gifts that the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa has to explain how Taranta and Purumīlha became able to accept gifts by composing a Rigvedic hymn. The exaggerations in the celebration of the gifts bestowed on the priests has the curious result of giving us a series of numerals of some interest (Daśan). In some passages certain gifts those of a horse or sheep are forbidden, but this rule was not, it is clear, generally observed. Immunities of Brahmins. The Brahmin claimed to be exempt from the ordinary exercise of the royal power. When a king gives all his land and what is on it to the priests, the gift does not cover the property of the Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. The king censures all, but not the Brahmin, nor can he safely oppress any Brahmin other than an ignorant priest. An arbitrator (or a witness) must decide (or speak) for a Brahmin against a non-Brahmin in a legal dispute. The Brahmin’s proper food is the Soma, not Surā or Parisrut, and he is forbidden to eat certain forms of flesh. On the other hand, he alone is allowed to eat the remains of the sacrifice, for no one else is sufficiently holy to consume food which the gods have eaten. Moreover, though he cannot be a physician, he helps the physician by being beside him while he exercises his art. His wife and his cow are both sacred. 4.Legal Position of. Brahmins.—The Taittirīya Samhitā lays down a penalty of a hundred (the unit meant is unknown) for an insult to a Brahmin, and of a thousand for a blow ; but if his blood is drawn, the penalty is a spiritual one. The only real murder is the slaying of a Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmana. The crime of slaying a Brahmin ranks above the sin of killing any other man, but below that of killing an embryo (bhrūna) in the Yajurveda ; the crime of slaying an embryo whose sex is uncertain is on a level with that of slaying a Brahmin. The murder of a Brahmin can be expiated only by the horse sacrifice, or by a lesser rite in the late Taittirīya Araṇyaka.The ritual slaying of a Brahmin is allowed in the later ceremonial, and hinted at in the curious legend of śunahśepa ; and a Purohita might be punished with death for treachery to his master. 5.Purity of Birth. The importance of pure descent is seeη in the stress laid on being a descendant of a Rṣi (ārseya). But, on the other hand, there are clear traces of another doctrine, which requires learning, and not physical descent, as the true criterion of Rsihood. In agreement with this is the fact that Satyakāma Jābāla was received as a pupil, though his parentage was unknown, his mother being a slave girl who had been connected with several men, and that in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the ceremony on acceptance as a pupil required merely the name of the pupil. So Kavasa is taunted in the Rigveda Brāhmaṇas as being the son of a female slave (Dāsī), and Vatsa cleared himself of a similar imputation by a fire ordeal. Moreover, a very simple rite was adequate to remove doubts as to origin. In these circumstances it is doubtful whether much value attaches to the Pravara lists in which the ancestors of the priest were invoked at the beginning of the sacrifice by the Hotṛ and the Adhvaryu priests.66 Still, in many parts of the ritual the knowledge of two or more genera¬tions was needed, and in one ceremony ten ancestors who have drunk the Soma are required, but a literal performance of the rite is excused. Moreover, there are clear traces of ritual variations in schools, like those of the Vasisthas and the Viśvāmitras. 6. The Conduct of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required to maintain a fair standard of excellence. He was to be kind to all and gentle, offering sacrifice and receiving gifts. Especial stress was laid on purity of speech ; thus Viśvan- tara’s excuse for excluding the Syaparnas from his retinue was their impure (apūtā) speech. Theirs was the craving for knowledge and the life of begging. False Brahmins are those who do not fulfil their duties (cf, Brahmabandhu). But the penances for breach of duty are, in the Sūtras, of a very light and unimportant character. 7. Brahminical Studies. The aim of the priest is to obtain pre-eminence in sacred knowledge (brahma-varcasam), as is stated in numerous passages of Vedic literature. Such distinction is not indeed confined to the Brahmin: the king has it also, but it is not really in a special manner appropriate to the Kṣatriya. Many ritual acts are specified as leading to Brahmavarcasa, but more stress is laid on the study of the sacred texts : the importance of such study is repeatedly insisted upon. The technical name for study is Svādhyāya : the śatapatha Brāhmana is eloquent upon its advantages, and it is asserted that the joy of the learned śrotriya, or ‘student,’ is equal to the highest joy possible. Nāka Maudgfalya held that study and the teaching of others were the true penance (tapas).7δ The object was the ‘ threefold knowledge’ (trayī vidyā), that of the Rc, Yajus, and Sāman, a student of all three Vedas being called tri-śukriya or tn-sukra, ‘thrice pure.’ Other objects of study are enumerated in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, the Chāndogya Upanisad, etc. (See Itihāsa, Purāna; Gāthā, Nārāśamsī; Brahmodya; Anuśās- ana, Anuvyākhyāna, Anvākhyāna, Kalpa, Brāhmaria; Vidyā, Ksatravidyā, Devajanavidyā, Nakçatravidyā, Bhūta- vidyā, Sarpavidyā; Atharvāñgirasah, Daiva, Nidhi, Pitrya, Rāśi; Sūtra, etc.) Directions as to the exact place and time of study are given in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka and in the Sūtras. If study is carried on in the village, it is to be done silently (manasā); if outside, aloud (vācā). Learning is expected even from persons not normally competent as teachers, such as the Carakas, who are recognized in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as possible sources of information. Here, too, may be mentioned the cases of Brahmins learning from princes, though their absolute value is doubtful, for the priests would naturally represent their patrons as interested in their sacred science: it is thus not necessary to see in these notices any real and independent study on the part of the Kṣatriyas. Yājñavalkya learnt from Janaka, Uddālaka Aruni and two other Brahmins from Pravāhaṇa Jaivali, Drptabālāki Gārgya from Ajātaśatru, and five Brahmins under the lead of Aruṇa from Aśvapati Kaikeya. A few notices show the real educators of thought: wandering scholars went through the country and engaged in disputes and discussions in which a prize was staked by the disputants. Moreover, kings like Janaka offered rewards to the most learned of the Brahmins; Ajātaśatru was jealous of his renown, and imitated his generosity. Again, learned women are several times mentioned in the Brāhmaṇas. A special form of disputation was the Brahmodya, for which there was a regular place at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and at the Daśarātra (‘ ten-day festival,). The reward of learning was the gaining of the title of Kavi or Vipra, ‘ sage.’ 8. The Functions of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required not merely to practise individual culture, but also to give others the advantage of his skill, either as a teacher or as a sacrificial priest, or as a Purohita. As a teacher the Brahmin has, of course, the special duty of instructing his own son in both study and sacrificial ritual. The texts give examples of this, such as Áruṇi and Svetaketu, or mythically Varuṇa and Bhṛgu. This fact also appears from some of the names in the Vamśa Brāhmana" of the Sāmaveda and the Vamśa (list of teachers) of the śāñkhāyana Áraṇyaka. On the other hand, these Vamśas and the Vamśas of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa show that a father often preferred to let his son study under a famous teacher. The relation of pupil and teacher is described under Brahmacarya. A teacher might take several pupils, and he was bound to teach them with all his heart and soul. He was bound to reveal everything to his pupil, at any rate to one who was staying with him for a year (saηivatsara-vāsin), an expression which shows, as was natural, that a pupil might easily change teachers. But, nevertheless, certain cases of learning kept secret and only revealed to special persons are enumerated. The exact times and modes of teaching are elaborately laid down in the Sūtras, but not in the earlier texts. As priest the Brahmin operated in all the greater sacrifices; the simple domestic {grhya) rites could normally be performed without his help, but not the more important rites {śrauta). The number varied : the ritual literature requires sixteen priests to be employed at the greatest sacrifices (see Rtvij), but other rites could be accomplished with four, five, six, seven, or ten priests. Again, the Kauçītakins had a seventeenth priest beside the usual sixteen, the Sadasya, so called because he watched the performance from the Sadas, seat.’ In one rite, the Sattra (‘sacrificial session') of the serpents, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, adds three more to the sixteen, a second Unnetṛ, an Abhigara, and an Apagara. The later ritual places the Brahman at the head of all the priests, but this is probably not the early view (see Brahman). The sacrifice ensured, if properly performed, primarily the advantages of the sacrificer (yajamāna), but the priest shared in the profit, besides securing the Daksiṇās. Disputes between sacrificers and the priests were not rare, as in the case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas, or Janamejaya and the Asitamrgras and the Aiçāvīras are referred to as undesirable priests. Moreover, Viśvāmitra once held the post of Purohita to Sudās, but gave place to Vasiṣtha. The position of Purohita differed considerably from that of the ordinary priest, for the Purohita not merely might officiate at the sacrifice, but was the officiator in all the private sacrifices of his king. Hence he could, and undoubtedly sometimes did, obtain great influence over his master in matters of secular importance; and the power of the priesthood in political as opposed to domestic and religious matters, no doubt rested on the Purohita. There is no recognition in Vedic literature of the rule later prevailing by which, after spending part of his life as a Brahma- cārin, and part as a householder, the Brahmin became an ascetic (later divided into the two stages of Vānaprastha, ‘forest-dweller,’ and Samnyāsin, ‘mystic ’). Yājñavalkya's case shows that study of the Absolute might empty life of all its content for the sage, and drive him to abandon wife and family. In Buddhist times the same phenomenon is seen applying to other than Brahmins. The Buddhist texts are here confirmed in some degree by the Greek authorities. The practice bears a certain resemblance to the habit of kings, in the Epic tradition,of retiring to the forest when active life is over. From the Greek authorities it also appears what is certainly the case in the Buddhist literature that Brahmins practised the most diverse occupations. It is difficult to say how far this was true for the Vedic period. The analogy of the Druids in some respects very close suggests that the Brahmins may have been mainly confined to their professional tasks, including all the learned professions such as astronomy and so forth. This is not contradicted by any Vedic evidence ; for instance, the poet of a hymn of the Rigveda says he is a poet, his father a physician (Bhiṣaj), and his mother a grinder of corn (Upala-prakṣiṇī). This would seem to show that a Brahmin could be a doctor, while his wife would perform the ordinary household duties. So a Purohita could perhaps take the field to assist the king by prayer, as Viśvāmitra, and later on Vasiṣtha do, but this does not show that priests normally fought. Nor do they seem normally to have been agriculturists or merchants. On the other hand, they kept cattle: a Brahmacarin’s duty was to watch his master’s cattle.129 It is therefore needless to suppose that they could not, and did not, on occasion turn to agricultural or mercan¬tile pursuits, as they certainly did later. But it must be remembered that in all probability there was more purity of blood, and less pressure of life, among the Brahmins of the Vedic age than later in Buddhist times, when the Vedic sacrificial apparatus was falling into grave disrepute. It is clear that the Brahmins, whatever their defects, represented the intellectual side of Vedic life, and that the Kṣatriyas, if they played a part in that life, did so only in a secondary degree, and to a minor extent. It is natural to suppose that the Brahmins also composed ballads, the precursors of the epic; for though none such have survived, a few stanzas of this character, celebrating the generosity of patrons, have been preserved by being embedded in priestly compositions. A legend in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa shows clearly that the Brahmins regarded civilization as being spread by them only: Kosala and Videha, no doubt settled by Aryan tribes, are only rendered civilized and habitable by the influence of pious Brahmins. We need not doubt that the non-Brahminical tribes (see Vrātya) had attained intellectual as well as material civilization, but it is reasonable to assume that their civilization was inferior to that of the Brahmins, for the history of Hinduism is the conquest by the Brahmins not by arms, but by mind of the tribes Aryan and non-Aryan originally beyond the pale.
bhāvya Is the name of a patron, as it seems, in the Rigveda. In the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra the form given is Bhāva­yavya, being a patronymic of Svanaya, who is the patron of Kaksīvant. This combination is borne out by the Rigveda, where Kaksīvant and Svanaya are mentioned in the same verse, while Svanaya must be meant in the verse of the same hymn, where Bhāvya is mentioned as ‘ living on the Sindhu ’ (Indus). Roth’s view that Bhāvya here is perhaps a gerundive meaning to be ‘ reverenced ’ is not probable. Ludwig® thinks Svanaya was connected with the Nahusas.
mahāsuhaya A ‘great {i.e., high-spirited) horse,’ is the description in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad of the steed from the Indus (saindhava) which tears away the peg of its hobble (padbīśa-śaṅkhu).
mehatnū Is the name of a stream in the Nadīstuti (‘ Praise of Rivers’) in the Rigveda. It must apparently have been a tributary of the Sindhu (Indus), entering that river before the Krumu (Kurum) and Gomatī (Gomal). It may conceivably have been a tributary of the Krumu.
rathakāra ‘Chariot-maker,’ is mentioned in the Atharva­veda as one of those who are to be subject to the king, seeming to stand generally as an example of the industrial population. He is also referred to in the Yajurveda Samhitās and in the Brāhmaṇas: in all these passages, as well as probably in the Atharvaveda also, the Rathakāra already forms a caste. The later system4 regards the Rathakāra as the offspring of a Māhiṣya (the son of a Kṣatriya husband and a Vaiśya wife) and a Karanī (the daughter of a Vaiśya husband and a śūdra wife), but it is unreasonable^to suppose that such an origin is historically accurate. The Rathakāras must rather be deemed to have been a functional caste. Hillebrandt6 suggests that ♦.he Anu tribe formed the basis of the Rathakāra caste, referring to their worship of the Rbhus, who are, of course, the chariot- makers par excellence. But there is little ground for this view.
lavaṇa Salt,' is never mentioned in the Rigveda, only once in the Atharvaveda, and not after that until the latest part of the Brāhmaṇas, where it is regarded as of extremely high value. This silence in the early period is somewhat surprising if the regions then occupied by the Indians were the Panjab and the Indus valley, where salt abounds; it would at first sight seem less curious if the home of the early Vedic Indian is taken to be Kurukçetra. It is, however, quite conceivable that a necessary commodity might happen to be passed over without literary mention in a region where it is very common, but to be referred to in a locality where it is not found, and consequently becomes highly prized.
vatsa Is often found in the Rigveda and later in the sense of ‘calf.’ Reference is made to the use of a calf to induce the cow to give milk, and to the separation of the cows from the calves at certain times.
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
vibhinduka Occurs in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa as the name of a man or a demon from whom Medhātithi drove away the cows. Hopkins is inclined to read Vaibhinduka as a patronymic of Medhātithi. Cf, Vibhindukīya.
viśvantara sauṣadmana (‘Descendant of Suṣadman’) is the name in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa of a prince who set aside the śyāparṇas, his priests, and performed a sacrifice without their help, presumably with the aid of others. Rāma Mārgaveya, one of the śyāparṇas, however, succeeded in inducing the king to reinstate the śyāparṇas, and to give him a thousand cows.
viṣūcikā Is the name of a disease mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā as a result of over-indulgence in Soma drinking. It seems clearly to be ‘dysentery,’ or, as Wise calls it, ‘sporadic cholera.’ The term apparently means ‘causing evacuations in both directions.’
vaira Seem to have in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmaṇas the definite and technical sense of ‘wergeld,’ the money to be paid for killing a man as a compensation to his relatives. This view is borne out by the Sūtras of Apa­stamba and Baudhāyana. Both prescribe the scale of 1,000 cows for a Kṣatriya, 100 for a Vaiśya, 10 for a śūdra, and a bull over and above in each case. Apastamba leaves the destination of the payment vague, but Baudhāyana assigns it to the king. It is reasonable to suppose that the cows were intended for the relations, and the bull was a present to the king for his intervention to induce the injured relatives to abandon the demand for the life of the offender. The Apa­stamba Sūtra allows the same scale of wergeld for women, but the Gautama Sūtra puts them on a level with men of the śūdra caste only, except in one special case. The payment is made for the purpose of vaira-yātana or vaira-niryātana, 'requital of enmity,' 'expiation' he Rigveda preserves, also, the important notice that a man’s wergeld was a hundred (cows), for it contains the epithet śata-dāya, ‘one whose wergeld is a hundred/ No doubt the values varied, but in the case of śunaháepa the amount is a hundred (cows) in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. In the Yajurveda Samhitās śata-dāya again appears. The fixing of the price shows that already public opinion, and perhaps the royal authority, was in Rigvedic times diminishing the sphere of private revenge; on the other hand, the existence of the system shows how weak was the criminal authority of the king (cf. Dharma).
vaiśya Denotes a man, not so much of the people, as of the subject class, distinct from the ruling noble (Kṣatriya) and the Brāhmaṇa, the higher strata of the Aryan community on the one side, and from the aboriginal śūdra on the other. The name is first found in the Puruṣa-sūkta (‘ hymn of man ’) in the Rigveda, and then frequently from the Atharvaveda onwards, sometimes in the form of Viśya. The Vaiśya plays singularly little part in Vedic literature, which has much to say of Kṣatriya and Brahmin. His characteristics are admirably summed up in the Aitareya Brāh¬maṇa in the adjectives anyasya bali-krt, ‘tributary to another’; anyasyādya, ‘to be lived upon by another’; and yathakāma- jyeyafr, ‘to be oppressed at will.’ He was unquestionably taxed by the king (Rājan), who no doubt assigned to his retinue the right of support by the people, so that the Kṣatriyas grew more and more to depend on the services rendered to them by the Vaiśyas. But the Vaiśya was not a slave: he could not be killed by the king or anyone else without the slayer incurring risk and the payment of a wergeld (Vaira), which even in the Brahmin books extends to 100 cows for a Vaiśya. Moreover, though the Vaiśya could be expelled by the king at pleasure, he cannot be said to have been without property in his land. Hopkins® thinks it is absurd to suppose that he could really be a landowner when he was subject to removal at will, but this is to ignore the fact that normally the king could not remove the landowner, and that kings were ultimately dependent on the people, as the tales of exiled kings show. On the other hand, Hopkins is clearly right in holding that the Vaiśya was really an agriculturist, and that Vedic society was not merely a landholding aristocracy, superimposed upon an agricultural aboriginal stock, as Baden Powell8 urged. Without ignoring the possibility that the Dravidians were agriculturists, there is no reason to deny that the Aryans were so likewise, and the goad of the plougher was the mark of a Vaiśya in life and in death. It would be absurd to suppose that the Aryan Vaiśyas 'did not engage in industry and com¬merce (cf. Paṇi, Vaṇij), but pastoral pursuits and agriculture must have been their normal occupations. In war the Vaiśyas must have formed the bulk of the force under the Kṣatriya leaders (see Kçatriya). But like the Homeric commoners, the Vaiśyas may well have done little of the serious fighting, being probably ill-provided with either body armour or offensive weapons. That the Vaiśyas were engaged in the intellectual life of the day is unlikely; nor is there any tradition, corresponding to that regarding the Kṣatriyas, of their having taken part in the evolution of the doctrine of Brahman, the great philosophic achievement of the age. The aim of the Vaiśya's ambition was, according to the Taittirīya Samhitā, to become a Grāmariī, or village headman, a post probably conferred by the king on wealthy Vaiśyas, of whom no doubt there were many. It is impossible to say if in Vedic times a Vaiśya could attain to nobility or become a Brahmin. No instance can safely be quoted in support of such a view, though such changes of status may have taken place (see Kṣatriya and Varṇa). It is denied by Fick that the Vaiśyas were ever a caste, and the denial is certainly based on good grounds if it is held that a caste means a body within which marriage is essential, and which follows a hereditary occupation (cf. Varṇa). But it would be wrong to suppose that the term Vaiśya was merely applied by theorists to the people who were not nobles or priests. It must have been an early appellation of a definite class which was separate from the other classes, and properly to be compared with them. Moreover, though there were differences among Vaiśyas, there were equally differences among Kṣatriyas and Brāhmaṇas, and it is impossible to deny the Vaiśyas’ claim to be reckoned a class or caste if the other two are such, though at the present day things are different.
śiva As the name of a people occurs once in the Rigveda, where they share with the Alinas, Pakthas, Bhalanases, and Viṣāiúns the honour of being defeated by Sudās, not of being, as Roth thought, his allies. There can hardly be any doubt of their identity with the Χίβαι3 or Sιβoi4 of the Greeks, who dwelt between the Indus^nd the Akesines (Asiknī) in Alexander’s time. The village of śiva-pura, mentioned by the scholiast on Pānini6 as situated in the northern country, may also preserve the name. Cf. śibi.
śyāpapṇa sāyakāyana Is the name of a man, the last for whom five victims were slain at the building of the sacrificial altar according to the śatapatha Brāhmana. The same text again mentions him as a builder of the fire-altar. He must have been connected in some way with the Salvas. His family, the śyāparṇas, appear in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa as a self-assertive family of priests whom king Viśvantara excluded from his sacrifice, but whose leader, Rāma Mārgaveya, induced him to take them back. In some way śyāparṇa was connected with the defeat of the Pañcālas by the Kuntis.
śvetyā Appears in the Nadī-stuti (‘praise of rivers’) to be a stream, probably a tributary of the Indus.
sanaka Occurs as the name of one of the two Kāpyas (the other being Navaka) who took part in the sacrifice of the Vibhindukīyas, which is mentioned in the Jaiminiya Brāh­maṇa. Ludwig thinks that the Sanakas are referred to as non-sacrificers in one passage of the Rigveda, but this is very doubtful.
sapta sindhavaḥ The seven rivers,' occur only once in the Rigveda as the designation of a definite country, while else­where the seven rivers themselves are meant. Max Muller thinks that the five streams of the Panjab, with the Indus and the Sarasvatī, are intended; others4 hold that the Kubhā should be substituted for the Sarasvatī, or that perhaps the Oxus6 must originally have been one of the seven. Zimmer is prob­ably right in laying no stress at all on any identifications; 'seven' being one of the favourite numbers in the Rigveda and later.
samudra (Literally ‘gathering of waters’), ‘ocean,’ is a frequent word in the Rigveda and later. It is of importance in so far as it indicates that the Vedic Indians knew the sea. This is, indeed, denied by Vivien de Saint Martin, but not only do Max Muller and Lassen assert it, but even Zimmer, who is inclined to restrict their knowledge of the sea as far as possible, admits it in one passage of the Rigveda, and of course later. He points out that the ebb and flow of the sea are unknown, that the mouths of the Indus are never mentioned, that fish is not a known diet in the Rigveda (cf. Matsya), and that in many places Samudra is metaphorically used, as of the two oceans, the lower and the upper oceans, etc. In other passages he thinks that Samudra denotes the river Indus when it receives all its Panjab tributaries. It is probable that this is to circumscribe too narrowly the Vedic knowledge of the ocean, which was almost inevitable to people who knew the Indus. There are references to the treasures of the ocean, perhaps pearls or the gains of trade, and the story of Bhujyu seems to allude to marine navigation. That there was any sea trade with Babylon in Vedic times cannot be proved : the stress laid on the occurrence in the Hebrew Book of Kings of qof and iukhiīm, ‘monkey’ (kapi) and ‘ peacock,’ is invalidated by the doubtful date of the Book of Kings. There is, besides, little reason to assume an early date for the trade that no doubt developed later, perhaps about 700 B.C. In the later texts Samudra repeatedly means the sea.
sarasvatī Is the name of a river frequently mentioned in the Rigveda and later. In many passages of the later texts it is certain the river meant is the modern Sarasvatī, which loses itself in the sands of Patiala (see Vinaśana). Even Roth admits that this river is intended in some passages of the Rigveda. With the Drṣadvatī it formed the western boundary of Brahmāvarta (see Madhyadeśa). It is the holy stream of early Vedic India. The Sūtras mention sacrifices held on its banks as of great importance and sanctity. In many other passages of the Rigveda, and even later, Roth held that another river, the Sindhu (Indus), was really meant: only thus could it be explained why the Sarasvatī is called the ‘foremost of rivers’ (nadītamā), is said to go to the ocean, and is referred to as a large river, on the banks of which many kings, and, indeed, the five tribes, were located. This view is accepted by Zimmer and others. On the other hand, Lassen and Max Muller maintain the identity of the Vedic Sarasvatī with the later Sarasvatī. The latter is of opinion that in Vedic times the Sarasvatī was as large a stream as the Sutlej, and that it actually reached the sea either after union with the Indus or not, being the 'iron citadel,’ as the last boundary on the west, a frontier of the Panjab against the rest of India. There is no conclusive evidence of there having been any great change in the size or course of the Sarasvatī, though it would be impossible to deny that the river may easily have diminished in size. But there are strong reasons to accept the identification of the later and the earlier Sarasvatī throughout. The insistence on the divine character of the river is seen in the very hymn which refers to it as the support of the five tribes, and corresponds well with its later sacredness. Moreover, that hymn alludes to the Pārāvatas, a people shown by the later evidence of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa to have been in the east, a very long way from their original home, if Sarasvatī means the Indus. Again, the Pūrus, who were settled on the Sarasvatī, could with great difficulty be located in the far west. Moreover, the five tribes might easily be held to be on the Sarasvatī, when they were, as they seem to have been, the western neighbours of the Bharatas in Kurukçetra, and the Sarasvatī could easily be regarded as the boundary of the Panjab in that sense. Again, the ‘seven rivers’ in one passage clearly designate a district: it is most probable that they are not the five rivers with the Indus and the Kubhā (Cabul river), but the five rivers, the Indus and the Sarasvatī. Nor is it difficult to see why the river is said to flow to the sea: either the Vedic poet had never followed the course of the river to its end, or the river did actually penetrate the desert either completely or for a long distance, and only in the Brāhmaṇa period was its disappear ance in the desert found out. It is said, indeed, in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā21 that the five rivers go to the Sarasvatī, but this passage is not only late (as the use of the word Deśa shows), but it does not say that the five rivers meant are those of the Panjab. Moreover, the passage has neither a parallel in the other Samhitās, nor can it possibly be regarded as an early production; if it is late it must refer to the later Sarasvatī. Hillebrandt,22 on the whole, adopts this view of the Saras¬vatī,23 but he also sees in it, besides the designation of a mythical stream, the later Vaitaraṇī,24 as well as the name of the Arghandab in Arachosia.25 This opinion depends essentially on his theory that the sixth Mandala of the Rigveda places the scene of its action in Iranian lands, as opposed to the seventh Maṇdala: it is as untenable as that theory itself. Brunn-hofer at one time accepted the Iranian identification, but later decided for the Oxus, which is quite out of the question. See also Plakṣa Prāsravaṇa.
sindhu In the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda often means 'stream' merely (cf. Sapta Sindhavah), but it has also the more exact sense of ‘the stream’ par excellence, ‘the Indus.’ The name is, however, rarely mentioned after the period of the Samhitās, always then occurring in such a way as to suggest distance. The horses from the Indus (saindhaυa) were famous. See Saindhava. Cf. also Sarasvatī.
suvāstu (‘Having fair dwellings ’) is the name of a river in the Rigveda. It is clearly the Soastos of Arrian and the modern Swāt, a tributary of the Kubhā (Kabul river) which is itself an affluent of the Indus.
susartu Is the name of a river in the Nadī-stuti (‘praise of rivers’) in the Rigveda. That it was a tributary of the Indus is certain, but which one is unknown.
sṛñjaya Is the name of a people mentioned as early as the Rigveda. Sṛñjaya (that is, the king of this people) Daivavāta is celebrated as victorious over the Turvaśas and the Vrcī- vants, and his sacrificial fire is referred to. In connexion with Daivavāta is also mentioned Sāhadevya Somaka, no doubt another prince; for in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa we find Somaka Sāhadevya and his father, Sahadeva (originally Suplan) Sārñjaya, as kings who were anointed by Parvata and Nārada. The Rigveda has also a Dānastuti (‘praise of gifts’) of Prastoka, a Sṛñjaya, who is lauded along with Divodāsa. Moreover, Vītahavya seems to have been a Sṛñjaya, though Zimmer prefers to take the derivative word, Vaitahavya, not as a patronymic, but as an epithet. It seems probable that the Sṛñjayas and the Tptsus were closely allied, for Divodāsa and a Sṛñjaya prince are celebrated together, and the Turvaśas were enemies of both. This view is borne out by the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, which recognizes Devabhāga śrautarṣa as Purohita of the Kurus and the Sṛñjayas. On the other hand, some disaster certainly befel the Srujayas, at least the Vaitahavyas, for they are said in the Atharvaveda to have offended the BhrgTUS and to have ended miserably. There is, it is true, no precise confirmation of this notice, but both the Kāthaka Saiphitā and the Taittirīya Samhitā, in independent passages, refer to the Sṛñjayas having sustained some serious loss, though the notice is in each case coupled with a ritual error, much as in the Old Testament the fate of kings depends on their devotion to Jahve or their dis¬obedience. It is justifiable to recognize some disaster in this allusion. The geographical position of the Sṛñjayas is uncertain. Hillebrandt suggests that in early times they must be looked for west of the Indus with Divodāsa; he also mentions, though he does not definitely adopt, the suggestion of Brunnhofer that the Sṛñjayas are to be compared with the Xapáyyai10 of the Greeks, and to be located in Drangiana. Zimmer is inclined to locate them on the upper Indus; but it is difficult to decide definitely in favour of any particular location. They may well have been a good deal farther east than the Indus, since their allies, the Tṛtsus, were in the Madhyadeśa, and were certainly absorbed in the Kurus. Of the history of this clan we have one notice. They expelled Duçtarītu Pauηisāyana, one of their kings, from the hereditary monarchy—of ten generations—and also drove out Revottaras Pā^ava Cākra Sthapati, probably his minister, who, however, succeeded in effecting the restoration of the king, despite the opposition of the Kuru prince, Balhika Prātīpya. Very probably this Kuru prince may have been at the bottom of the movement which led to the expulsion of the king and his minister. But the restoration of the king can hardly be regarded, in accordance with Bloomfield’s view, as a defeat of the Sṛñjayas.
saindhava ‘Coming from the Indus,’ is a term applied to water in the Taittirlya Samhitā, to Guggulu in the Atharva­veda, to a horse in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, and to salt in the same text.
svanaya bhāvya Is the name of a prince on the Sindhu (Indus) who bestowed gifts on Kakṣīvant, according to the Rigveda. He is called Svanaya Bhāvayavya in the Sāñkhāyana Srauta Sūtra.
hiraṇya In the Rigveda and later denotes ‘gold.’ It is hardly possible to exaggerate the value attached to gold by the Vedic Indians. The metal was, it is clear, won from the bed of rivers. Hence the Indus is called ‘golden’ and ‘of golden stream.’ Apparently the extraction of gold from the earth was known, and washing for gold is also recorded. Gold is the object of the wishes of the Vedic singer, and golden treasures (hiranyāni) are mentioned as given by patrons along with cows and horses. Gold was used for ornaments for neck and breast (Niska), for ear-rings (Karṇa-śobhana), and even for cups. Gold is always associated with the gods. In the plural Hiraṇya denotes ‘ornaments of gold.’11 A gold currency was evidently beginning to be known in so far as definite weights of gold are mentioned: thus a weight, astā-prīīd, occurs in the Samhitās and the golden śatamāna, ‘ weight of a hundred (Kpçṇalas) ’ is found in the same texts. In several passages, moreover, hiranya or hiranyāni may mean ‘ pieces of gold.’ Gold is described sometimes as harita, ‘yellowish,’ some¬times as rajata,ls 'whitish,' when probably ‘ silver ’ is alluded to. It was obtained from the ore by smelting. Mega- sthenes bears testimony to the richness in gold of India in his time.
       Bloomfield Vedic
         Concordance  
53 results
     
indu paviṣṭa cārur madāya RV.9.109.13a; SV.1.431a.
indu paviṣṭa cetanaḥ RV.9.64.10a; SV.1.481a.
indu punānaḥ prajām urāṇaḥ RV.9.109.9a.
indu punāno ati gāhate mṛdhaḥ RV.9.86.26a.
indu satrācā manasā puruṣṭutaḥ RV.9.77.4b.
indu satrājid astṛtaḥ RV.9.27.4c; SV.2.639c,674c.
indu samudram ud iyarti vāyubhiḥ RV.9.84.4c.
indu samudram urviyā vibhāti JB.2.85,86.
indu siṣakty uṣasaṃ na sūryaḥ RV.9.84.2d.
indu rihanti mahiṣā adabdhāḥ RV.9.97.57a.
indu sa dhatta ānuṣak RV.5.18.2c.
indu sam ahyan pītaye sam asmai RV.6.40.2d.
indu sahasracakṣasam RV.9.60.1c.
indu dakṣaṃ paridadād ahīnām MS.4.9.11d: 132.5. See indro dakṣaṃ.
indu devā ayāsiṣuḥ RV.9.61.13c; SV.1.487c; 2.112c,685c; JB.1.90; 3.273c.
indu dhartāram ā divaḥ RV.9.26.2c.
indu nāvā anūṣata RV.9.45.5c.
indum indra tava vrate RV.9.9.5c.
indum indrāya pītaye RV.9.32.2c; 38.2c; 43.2c; 65.8c; SV.2.121c,253c,625c. Cf. indav etc.
indum indrāya matsaram RV.9.53.4c; 63.17c; SV.2.1067c. Cf. indav etc.
indum indre dadhātana RV.9.11.6c; SV.2.796c.
indu prothantaṃ pravapantam arṇavam RV.10.115.3b.
indu madāya yujyāya somam RV.9.88.1d; SV.2.821d.
indur atyo na patyate RV.10.144.1b.
indur atyo na vājasṛt RV.9.43.5a.
indur atyo vicakṣaṇaḥ RV.9.66.23c.
indur abhi druṇā hitaḥ RV.9.98.2c.
indur amuṣṇād aśivasya māyāḥ RV.6.44.22d.
indur avye madacyutaḥ RV.9.98.3b; SV.2.590b; JB.3.227.
indur aśvo na kṛtvyaḥ (JB. kṛtviyaḥ) RV.9.101.2c; SV.2.48c; JB.1.163c.
indur indum avāgāt (KS. avāgan; Mś. upāgāt) KS.35.11; JB.1.351; PB.9.9.10; TB.3.7.10.6; śś.13.12.10; Kś.25.12.6; Apś.14.29.2; Mś.3.6.15.
indur indra iti bruvan RV.9.63.9c; SV.2.568c. Cf. indra iti.
indur indrasya sakhyaṃ juṣāṇaḥ RV.9.97.11c; SV.2.370c.
indur indrāya tośate ni tośate RV.9.109.22a.
indur indrāya dhīyate RV.9.62.15b; SV.1.489c.
indur indrāya pavate RV.9.101.5a; AVś.20.137.5a; SV.2.223a; JB.3.53a.
indur indrāya pūrvyaḥ RV.9.67.8b.
indur indrāya maṃhanā (SV. maṃhayan) RV.9.37.6c; SV.2.647c.
indur indro vṛṣā hariḥ RV.9.5.9c.
indur janiṣṭa rodasī RV.9.98.9b.
indur dakṣaḥ śyena ṛtāvā VS.18.53a; TS.4.7.13.1b; MS.2.12.3a: 146.12; 4.9.11a: 132.7; KS.18.15a; śB.9.4.4.5a; TB.3.10.4.3b; TA.4.11.6b; KA.3.195. P: indur dakṣaḥ Mś.6.2.6.10.
indur devānām upa sakhyam āyan RV.9.97.5a.
indur deveṣu patyate RV.9.45.4c.
indur dharmāṇy ṛtuthā vasānaḥ RV.9.97.12c; SV.2.371c.
indur dhārābhiḥ sacate sumedhāḥ RV.9.93.3b; SV.2.770b.
indur na pūṣā vṛṣā RV.10.26.3b.
indur yebhir āṣṭa sveduhavyaiḥ RV.1.121.6c.
indur vājī pavate gonyoghāḥ RV.9.97.10a; SV.1.540a; 2.369a; JB.3.131; PB.13.5.6.
indur hinvāno ajyate RV.9.105.2b; SV.2.449b; JB.3.162.
indur hinvāno ajyate manīṣibhiḥ RV.9.76.2d; SV.2.579d.
indur hinvāno arṣati RV.9.34.1b; 67.4a.
indur hiyānaḥ sotṛbhiḥ RV.9.30.2a; 107.26b.
govindur drapsa āyudhāni bibhrat # RV.9.96.19b; SV.2.527b; JB.3.205.
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"indu" has 7 results.
     
indumitraauthor of अनुन्यास, a commentary on Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa., the well-known commentary on the Kāśikavṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi. Many quotations from the Anunyāsa are found in the Paribhāṣāvṛtti of Sīradeva. The word इन्दु is often used for इन्दुमित्र; confer, compare एतस्मिन् वाक्ये इन्दुमैत्रेययोः शाश्वतिको विरोध: Sīra. Pari. 36.
induprakāśaauthor of a commentary on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
binduanusvara, letter pronounced only through the nose; a dot to indicate the nasal phonetic element shown in writing a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. or sometimes after that letter or vowel, after which it is uttered; confer, compare अं इत्यनुस्वारः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः इति बिन्दुमात्रो वर्णोनुस्वारसंज्ञो भवति ।। Kat. I.1.19.
pratyārambhaḥ(1)statement after prohibition literally commencing again; inducing a person to do something after he has refused to do it by repeating the order or request for generally by beginning the appeal with the word नह; exempli gratia, for example नह भोक्ष्यसे ? नह अध्येप्यसे; confer, compare नह प्रत्यारम्भे P. VIII. 1.31 and Kasika and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. thereon. (2) commencement or laying down again in spite of previous mention; confer, compare शेषवचनात्तु योसौ प्रत्यारम्भात्कृतो बहुव्रीहिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI-3.46.
pravartanāincitement or inducement which is the sense of 'lin' affixes in general ;confer, compare प्रवर्तनायां लिङ्.
mugdhabodhaliterally instructions to the ignorant: a treatise on grammar similar to the Astadhyayi of Panini but much shorter, written by Bopadeva or Vopadeva an inhabitant of the greater Maharastra in the Vardha district, in the thirteenth century. After the fall of the Hindu rulers in Bengal, treatises like भाषावृत्ति and others written by eastern grammarians fell into the back-ground and their place was taken up by easier treatises written by Bopadeva and others.Many commentaries were written upon the Mugdhabodha, of which the Vidyanivsa is much known to grammarians
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162 results
     
indu and the moonSB 10.81.21-23
indu like the full moonCC Madhya 21.135
indu like the moonMM 19
indu moonCC Antya 19.36
indu moonlikeSB 3.8.26
indu of the moonSB 3.21.51
indu the moonSB 10.7.35-36
SB 10.8.37-39
SB 11.16.34
SB 3.8.31
indu-maṇḍalam the moon planetSB 5.17.4
indu-maṇḍalam the moon planetSB 5.17.4
indu-vadanā moon-facedCC Antya 1.151
indu-vadanā moon-facedCC Antya 1.151
indu like the moonCC Adi 1.6
CC Adi 4.230
CC Madhya 18.12
indu the moonSB 1.19.30
SB 10.79.32
SB 11.18.32
SB 8.21.30
induḥ iva like the full moonSB 10.3.6
induḥ iva like the full moonSB 10.3.6
indum the moonSB 8.20.25-29
mada-induvara-candana-aguru-sugandhi-carcā-arcitaḥ smeared with the unguents of musk, camphor, white sandalwood and aguruCC Antya 19.91
mada-induvara-candana-aguru-sugandhi-carcā-arcitaḥ smeared with the unguents of musk, camphor, white sandalwood and aguruCC Antya 19.91
aṣṭamī-indu eighth-day moon (half moon)CC Madhya 21.127
bindu-sarasaḥ from Lake Bindu-sarovaraSB 3.21.33
bindu-sarasi on the bank of Lake Bindu-sarovaraSB 3.21.35
bindu-saraḥ lake of tearsSB 3.21.38-39
bindu-matyām in the womb of his wife BindumatīSB 5.15.14-15
bindu-saraḥ the place where Bindu-sarovara is situatedSB 7.14.30-33
bindu-saraḥ the lake Bindu-sarovaraSB 10.78.19-20
bindu dropCC Adi 6.44
bindu dropCC Adi 7.85
masī-bindu a spot of inkCC Madhya 2.48
bindu dropCC Madhya 2.49
sei bindu that dropCC Madhya 2.49
bindu dropCC Madhya 2.82
kallolera eka bindu one drop of one waveCC Madhya 2.95
masi-bindu a spot of inkCC Madhya 12.51
surā-bindu-pāte with simply a drop of liquorCC Madhya 12.53
eka bindu a dropCC Madhya 14.85
eka bindu one dropCC Madhya 14.219
bindu dropsCC Madhya 17.32
bindu-mādhava-caraṇe the lotus feet of Bindu MādhavaCC Madhya 17.86
eka-bindu one dropCC Madhya 18.228
bindu-mādhava-daraśane to see Lord Bindu MādhavaCC Madhya 19.38
bindu dropCC Madhya 19.137
eka bindu even a dropCC Madhya 21.26
eka bindu only one dropCC Madhya 21.98
candana-bindu the drop of sandalwood pulpCC Madhya 21.127
bindu dropCC Madhya 21.137
rodana-bindu with teardropsCC Madhya 23.33
bindu-bindutayā with a very minute quantityCC Madhya 23.77
eka-bindu even a dropCC Madhya 23.121
bindu-mādhava hari the Deity known as Lord Bindu MādhavaCC Madhya 25.60
eka-bindu-pāne if one drinks one dropCC Madhya 25.278
kṣāra-bindu like a drop of alkaliCC Antya 1.179
eka bindu one dropCC Antya 1.180
eka bindu one dropCC Antya 3.88
eka bindu one dropCC Antya 5.88
bindu dropCC Antya 11.106
tarańga-bindu a drop of a waveCC Antya 15.19
eka-bindu one dropCC Antya 15.19
bindubhiḥ by the particlesSB 3.13.44
bindubhiḥ by dropsSB 6.14.53
kāma-bindubhiḥ by small drops of clarified butterSB 7.11.33-34
bindubhiḥ with dropsSB 10.43.15
bindum a son named BinduSB 5.15.14-15
bindumatyām whose name was BindumatīSB 9.6.38
bindusare Lake Bindu-sarovaraSB 3.25.5
bindu-bindutayā with a very minute quantityCC Madhya 23.77
tṛṇabinduḥ yayātiḥ ca Tṛṇabindu and YayātiSB 12.3.9-13
candana-bindu the drop of sandalwood pulpCC Madhya 21.127
mada-induvara-candana-aguru-sugandhi-carcā-arcitaḥ smeared with the unguents of musk, camphor, white sandalwood and aguruCC Antya 19.91
hindu-cara the Hindu spyCC Madhya 16.162-163
bindu-mādhava-caraṇe the lotus feet of Bindu MādhavaCC Madhya 17.86
mada-induvara-candana-aguru-sugandhi-carcā-arcitaḥ smeared with the unguents of musk, camphor, white sandalwood and aguruCC Antya 19.91
bindu-mādhava-daraśane to see Lord Bindu MādhavaCC Madhya 19.38
hindu-veśa dhari' accepting the dress of a HinduCC Madhya 16.178
hindu-dharma the religious principles of the HindusCC Adi 17.174
kallolera eka bindu one drop of one waveCC Madhya 2.95
eka bindu a dropCC Madhya 14.85
eka bindu one dropCC Madhya 14.219
eka-bindu one dropCC Madhya 18.228
eka bindu even a dropCC Madhya 21.26
eka bindu only one dropCC Madhya 21.98
eka-bindu even a dropCC Madhya 23.121
eka-bindu-pāne if one drinks one dropCC Madhya 25.278
eka bindu one dropCC Antya 1.180
eka bindu one dropCC Antya 3.88
eka bindu one dropCC Antya 5.88
eka-bindu one dropCC Antya 15.19
hindu-gaṇa the HindusCC Adi 17.201-202
hindu haile if I had been born in a Hindu familyCC Madhya 16.182
bindu-mādhava hari the Deity known as Lord Bindu MādhavaCC Madhya 25.60
hindu HinduCC Adi 17.159
hindu-dharma the religious principles of the HindusCC Adi 17.174
hindu HindusCC Adi 17.194
hindu the HindusCC Adi 17.195
hindu the HinduCC Adi 17.196
hindu-gaṇa the HindusCC Adi 17.201-202
hindu HindusCC Adi 17.203
hindu-śāstre in the scriptures of the HindusCC Adi 17.212
hindu-cara the Hindu spyCC Madhya 16.162-163
hindu-veśa dhari' accepting the dress of a HinduCC Madhya 16.178
hindu-kule in the family of a HinduCC Madhya 16.181
hindu haile if I had been born in a Hindu familyCC Madhya 16.182
hinduke unto the HindusCC Adi 13.95
hinduke to a HinduCC Adi 17.201-202
hindura of a HinduCC Adi 17.178-179
hindura of the HindusCC Adi 17.193
hindura of the HindusCC Adi 17.197
hindura of the HindusCC Adi 17.204
hindura of the HindusCC Adi 17.210
hindura of the HindusCC Adi 17.215
hindure unto a HinduCC Adi 17.198
hinduyāni regulative principles of the HindusCC Adi 17.126
koṭi-indu like millions upon millions of moonsCC Adi 4.247
pūrṇa indu full moonCC Adi 4.271-272
aṣṭamī-indu eighth-day moon (half moon)CC Madhya 21.127
koṭi-indu than ten million moonsCC Antya 15.14
koṭi-indu millions upon millions of moonsCC Antya 15.21
nakha-indubhiḥ by the effulgence of the nailsSB 8.21.1
mada-induvara-candana-aguru-sugandhi-carcā-arcitaḥ smeared with the unguents of musk, camphor, white sandalwood and aguruCC Antya 19.91
kallolera eka bindu one drop of one waveCC Madhya 2.95
kāma-bindubhiḥ by small drops of clarified butterSB 7.11.33-34
koṭi-indu like millions upon millions of moonsCC Adi 4.247
koṭi-indu than ten million moonsCC Antya 15.14
koṭi-indu millions upon millions of moonsCC Antya 15.21
kṣāra-bindu like a drop of alkaliCC Antya 1.179
hindu-kule in the family of a HinduCC Madhya 16.181
mada-induvara-candana-aguru-sugandhi-carcā-arcitaḥ smeared with the unguents of musk, camphor, white sandalwood and aguruCC Antya 19.91
bindu-mādhava-caraṇe the lotus feet of Bindu MādhavaCC Madhya 17.86
bindu-mādhava-daraśane to see Lord Bindu MādhavaCC Madhya 19.38
bindu-mādhava hari the Deity known as Lord Bindu MādhavaCC Madhya 25.60
masī-bindu a spot of inkCC Madhya 2.48
masi-bindu a spot of inkCC Madhya 12.51
bindu-matyām in the womb of his wife BindumatīSB 5.15.14-15
nakha-indubhiḥ by the effulgence of the nailsSB 8.21.1
ninduka-svabhāva a critic by natureCC Antya 8.72
eka-bindu-pāne if one drinks one dropCC Madhya 25.278
surā-bindu-pāte with simply a drop of liquorCC Madhya 12.53
pūrṇa indu full moonCC Adi 4.271-272
rodana-bindu with teardropsCC Madhya 23.33
bindu-saraḥ lake of tearsSB 3.21.38-39
bindu-saraḥ the place where Bindu-sarovara is situatedSB 7.14.30-33
bindu-saraḥ the lake Bindu-sarovaraSB 10.78.19-20
bindu-sarasaḥ from Lake Bindu-sarovaraSB 3.21.33
bindu-sarasi on the bank of Lake Bindu-sarovaraSB 3.21.35
śaśabindu ŚaśabinduSB 9.23.29
hindu-śāstre in the scriptures of the HindusCC Adi 17.212
sei bindu that dropCC Madhya 2.49
mada-induvara-candana-aguru-sugandhi-carcā-arcitaḥ smeared with the unguents of musk, camphor, white sandalwood and aguruCC Antya 19.91
surā-bindu-pāte with simply a drop of liquorCC Madhya 12.53
ninduka-svabhāva a critic by natureCC Antya 8.72
tarańga-bindu a drop of a waveCC Antya 15.19
tṛṇabindu a son named TṛṇabinduSB 9.2.30
tṛṇabinduḥ yayātiḥ ca Tṛṇabindu and YayātiSB 12.3.9-13
hindu-veśa dhari' accepting the dress of a HinduCC Madhya 16.178
tṛṇabinduḥ yayātiḥ ca Tṛṇabindu and YayātiSB 12.3.9-13
     DCS with thanks   
103 results
     
indu noun (masculine) a bright drop (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a drop (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a spark (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a symbolic expression for the number "one" (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
camphor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
designation of the Anusvāra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
night (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Soma (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the periodic changes of the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the point on a die (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
time of moonlight (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
silver
Frequency rank 1306/72933
indubimba noun (neuter) the disk of the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46897/72933
indudhara noun (masculine) name of an alchemical preparation
Frequency rank 46895/72933
induka noun (masculine) aśmantaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the number one
Frequency rank 20892/72933
indukalikā noun (feminine) the plant Pandanus Odoratissimus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46892/72933
indukalā noun (feminine) a digit of the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Cocculus Cordifolius (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ligusticum Ajowan (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of several plants (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Sarcostema Viminale (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46891/72933
indukamala noun (neuter) the blossom of the white lotus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46890/72933
indukhaṇḍā noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 46894/72933
indukānta noun (masculine) the moon-stone (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
candrakānta
Frequency rank 23423/72933
indukṣaya noun (masculine) new moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wane of the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46893/72933
indulekhā noun (feminine) a digit of the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of lovage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ligusticum Ajwaen (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the moon-plant Asclepias Acida (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the plant Menispermum Glabrum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33261/72933
indulohaka noun (neuter) silver (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46904/72933
indumatī noun (feminine) day of full moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a commentary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the sister of Bhoja and wife of Aja (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46898/72933
indumauli noun (masculine) name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mercury (Ḍhuṇḍhukanātha (2000), 114)
Frequency rank 15537/72933
indupuṣpikā noun (feminine) the plant Methonica Superba (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46896/72933
indura noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 46900/72933
induratna noun (neuter) a pearl (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46901/72933
indurekhā noun (feminine) a digit of the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Vernonia anthelminthica Willd.
Frequency rank 46903/72933
indurājī noun (feminine) somarājī (a kind of plant)
Frequency rank 46902/72933
indu noun (feminine) Vernonia anthelminthica Willd.
Frequency rank 46899/72933
indusundarī noun (feminine) name of a pill
Frequency rank 46907/72933
indusūnu noun (masculine) name of the planet Mercury (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33262/72933
induvāra noun (masculine) (astrol. term) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46905/72933
induśapharī noun (feminine) Bauhinia Tomentosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46906/72933
induśekhara noun (masculine) name of a Kimnara (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27038/72933
ajabindu noun (masculine) name of a man
Frequency rank 31461/72933
abbindu noun (masculine) a drop of water a tear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 32267/72933
asrabinducchadā noun (feminine) name of a tuberous plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46053/72933
upabindu noun (masculine) name of a man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 47562/72933
uśīrabindu noun (masculine) name of a mountain
Frequency rank 47839/72933
ekabindu noun (masculine) a holy place in Gokarṇa
Frequency rank 47977/72933
ainduka noun (neuter) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 33697/72933
kapitindu noun (masculine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 27382/72933
kapitinduka noun (masculine) kapitindu
Frequency rank 27383/72933
kākatindu noun (masculine) a kind of ebony (Diospyros tomentosa) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 48961/72933
kākatinduka noun (masculine) Capparis sepiaria Linn. Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 541) Disopyros tomentosa Roxb. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 541) Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 541)
Frequency rank 27454/72933
jalabindu noun (masculine) a drop of water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Tirtha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 52775/72933
jalabindu noun (feminine) a kind of plant (beng. chenchda) (Ray, Rasārṇava)
Frequency rank 52776/72933
jālabindu noun (feminine) a kind of sugar
Frequency rank 52943/72933
tindu noun (masculine feminine) Diospyros embryopteris Pers. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Diospyros glutinosa Koen. Diospyros paniculata Dalz. (Surapāla (1988), 234) Strychnos nux vomica (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16810/72933
tinduka noun (neuter) a kind of weight (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the fruit of Diospyros emryopteris (yielding a kind of resin used as pitch for caulking vessels etc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12970/72933
tindu noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 24107/72933
tinduka noun (masculine) Diospyros embryopteris Pers. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Diospyros paniculata Dalz. (Surapāla (1988), 234)
Frequency rank 6606/72933
tinduki noun (feminine) Diospyros embryopteris (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53544/72933
tindukinī noun (feminine) the senna plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53545/72933
tinduvāraka noun (masculine) Name einer Pflanze
Frequency rank 53546/72933
tindusāra noun (masculine) name of a son of Nitantu
Frequency rank 35383/72933
tṛṇabindu noun (masculine) name of an ancient sage and prince (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Āśrama
Frequency rank 12510/72933
tainduka adjective derived from Diospyros embryopteris (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24139/72933
nādabindu noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 14227/72933
nādabindumant adjective possessing the Nādabindu
Frequency rank 36182/72933
nīlasinduka noun (masculine) a blue-flowered Vitex negundo
Frequency rank 36481/72933
bindu noun (masculine) name of a man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a warrior tribe (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Āṅgirasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the author of a Rasapaddhati (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60239/72933
bindu noun (masculine neuter) (in dram.) the sudden development of a secondary incident (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a coloured mark made on the forehead between the eyebrows (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a detached particle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a drop of water taken as a measure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a mark made by the teeth of a lover on the lips of his mistress (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular mark like a dot made in cauterizing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a pearl (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a spot or mark of coloured paint on the body of an elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a zero or cypher (in manuscripts put over an erased word to show that it ought not to be erased "stet") (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
drop (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
globule (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the dot over a letter representing the Anusvāra (supposed to be connected with Śiva and of great mystical importance) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a flaw in a jewel
Frequency rank 1282/72933
bindu noun (feminine) [rel.] name of a Śakti of Śiva
Frequency rank 60240/72933
binduka noun (masculine neuter) a drop (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of poison name of a Tirtha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10442/72933
bindukinī noun (feminine) name of a plant
Frequency rank 37654/72933
bindukīṭa noun (masculine) a kind of insect ?
Frequency rank 37655/72933
bindugarbhā noun (feminine) [rel.] name of a Śakti of Śiva
Frequency rank 60241/72933
bindu noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 60242/72933
bindunātha noun (masculine) name of a teacher (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37656/72933
bindupattra noun (masculine) Betula Bhojpattra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60243/72933
binduphala noun (neuter) a pearl (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37657/72933
bindubheda noun (masculine) name of a particular Yoga posture (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60244/72933
bindumant adjective formed into balls or globules (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
having drops or bubbles or clots (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
img/min.bmp
Frequency rank 29391/72933
bindumatī noun (feminine) name of a daughter of Śaśabindu and wife of Māndhātṛ (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a drama (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a fisherman's daughter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a kind of verse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the murderess of Vidūratha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Marīci (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37658/72933
bindumālā noun (feminine) [erotics] a kind of bite
Frequency rank 29392/72933
bindurāji noun (masculine) name of a kind of serpent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60245/72933
bindula noun (masculine feminine) a particular venomous insect (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21918/72933
binduśaḥ indeclinable in drops
Frequency rank 15957/72933
bindusara noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 60246/72933
bindusaras noun (neuter) name of a sacred lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13669/72933
bindusiddhi noun (feminine) retention of seed
Frequency rank 60247/72933
markaṭatinduka noun (masculine) a kind of ebony (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 61560/72933
mitrabindu noun (masculine) name of a son of the 12th Manu
Frequency rank 62217/72933
raktabindu noun (masculine) a red spot forming a flaw in a gem (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 38603/72933
raktabinduka noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 72898/72933
raktabinducchadā noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 63205/72933
raktabindupattrā noun (feminine) name of a plant
Frequency rank 63206/72933
lindu adjective slimy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
slippery (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 38915/72933
viṣatindu noun (masculine) a kind of ebony tree with poisonous fruit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Strychnos Nux Vomica (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20086/72933
viṣatinduka noun (masculine) a species of poisonous plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 25450/72933
śatabindu noun (masculine) name of a man
Frequency rank 67174/72933
śaśabindu noun (masculine) name of a king; son of Citraratha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one of the sons of Śaśabindu the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11444/72933
śāśabindu adjective descended from Śaśa-bindu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 67526/72933
ṣaḍbindu noun (masculine) a kind of insect (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 25668/72933
ṣaḍbinduka noun (masculine) ṣaḍbindu a kind of insect
Frequency rank 68481/72933
satinduka adjective
Frequency rank 68640/72933
sanādabindu adjective possessing the Nādabindu
Frequency rank 68764/72933
sabindu noun (masculine) name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40381/72933
sabindumant adjective together with the bindu
Frequency rank 68860/72933
sarobindu noun (masculine) a kind of song (gītaka) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 69381/72933
sinduka noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 25856/72933
sinduvāra noun (masculine) Symphorema polyandrum Wight. (Surapāla (1988), 137) Vitex negundo Linn. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Vitex trifolia Linn. (Surapāla (1988), 137)
Frequency rank 11127/72933
sinduvāra noun (neuter) the berry of Vitex Negundo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31006/72933
sinduvāraka noun (masculine) Vitex negundo
Frequency rank 20310/72933
sinduvārikā noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 70593/72933
suvarṇabindutīrthamāhātmyavarṇana noun (neuter) name of Skandapurāṇa, Revākhaṇḍa, 207
Frequency rank 71221/72933
senābindu noun (masculine) name of a king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 22688/72933
sainduka adjective made from the plant nirguṇḍī
Frequency rank 71450/72933
svargabindu noun (masculine) [rel.] name of a Tīrtha
Frequency rank 72143/72933
svarṇabindu noun (masculine neuter) a spot of yellow or gold (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Tīrtha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72163/72933
hiraṇyabindu noun (masculine) fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Tirtha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41450/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
     Purchase Kindle edition

abhiśāpajvara

fever due to curse of elders, gods etc; stress induced fever.

abhiṣuka

pista nut , Pistacia vera, native to the Middle East and introduced into India during the period of Indus civilization .

amlīkā

tamarind, Tamarindus indica.

āṣāḍha

a lunar month of Hindu calendar (june-july)

aśvayuja

a lunar month in Hindu calendar (october-november)

aticaraṇā

pain in vagina and lower abdomen due to over indulgence in sex.

atiyoga

over-use, over indulgence.

bhādrapada

a lunar month of Hindu calendar (august-september)

caitra

first month of Hindu lunar year (March-April).

ciñcā

Plant tamarind tree; fruits of Tamarindus indica.

hindupatri

Plant wild asafoetida, Ferula jaeschkeana.

jātakarma

a Hindu ceremony to welcome the newborn into the world, by stimulating senses by ghee, honey et Century and chanting oracles.

jyeṣṭha

a lunar month of Hindu year (may-june); elder sister.

kārtīka

a lunar month of Hindu calendar (November-december).

kūpasveda

a pit is made under the bed to light a fire with medicinal herbs to induce sweating.

mārgaśira,mārgaśīrṣa

a lunar month in Hindu calendar.

nāḍisveda

inducing sweat using a tube to release steam.

netrabindu

eye-drops prepared by dissolving the specified drugs (sphaṭika, karpūra) in water or decoctions (kaṣāya).

patangi

induction of golden colour to silver or any other metal by applying paste of herbs.

phālguṇa

1. star(s) Delta and Alpha Leonis in the constellation Leo; 2. a lunar month in Hindu calendar.

phenila

1. foamy, frothy; 2. Plant soapnut, Sapindus detergens; 3. notched leaf soapnut, Sapindus emarginatus.

prastarasveda

inducing perspiration by laying on a straw-bed.

puṣya

1. star Delta Cancri in the constellation Gemini; 2. a lunar month in Hindu calendar.

ṛgveda

first of the four sacred scriptures of Hinduism.

ṣaḍbindutaila

oil preparation used in the nasal diseases and headache.

śaśilekha

commentary on Aṣṭāngasamgraha by Indu.

śirovirecan

nasal instillation inducing nasal discharge.

śrāvaṇa

a lunar month of Hindu calendar (july-august).

tapasveda

inducing sweating by pressing the body with a heated stone or bottle.

tinduka

Plant 1. Malabar ebony, black and white ebony, Diospyros malabarica. 2. Indian persimon,Diospyros exsculpta.

tintriṇi

Plant tamarind; Tamarindus indica.

vaiṣākha,baiṣākha

a lunar month of Hindu year (april-may).

vidrāvaṇa

inducing discharge, fleeing, perplexing.

viṣatinduka

Plant a poisonous plant. 1. Bombay ebony, Diospyros montana; 2. nux-vomica, Strychnos nux-vomica.

     Wordnet Search "indu" has 90 results.
     

indu

kaṇaḥ, binduḥ, kṣodaḥ, vipluṭ, vipruṭ, pṛṣat, pṛṣataḥ, pṛṣanti, lavaḥ, leśaḥ, stokaḥ, gaḍaḥ, kaṇikā, śīkaraḥ, sphāṭakaḥ, puṣvā   

niṣyandamāna-jalādi-dravapadārthānāṃ golikāsamaḥ laghuḥ aṃśaḥ।

jalasya kaṇaiḥ ghaṭaḥ pūritaḥ।

indu

mūṣakaḥ, mūṣikaḥ, mūṣaḥ, ākhuḥ, induraḥ, induruḥ, unduraḥ, unduru, giriḥ, girikā, dīnā, vileśayaḥ, vajradantaḥ, dhānyāriḥ, cikkā, kunduḥ, kuhanaḥ, karvaḥ, kācigha, tuṭuma, daharaḥ, vṛṣaḥ, śaṅkumukhaḥ, suṣiraḥ, steyī, muṣmaḥ   

jantuviśeṣaḥ-yaḥ gṛhe kṛṣīkṣetre vā bile vasati tathā ca yaḥ gajānanasya vāhanam।

tena mūṣakāṇāṃ hananārtham auṣadhaṃ krītam।

indu

ambukaṇaḥ, udabinduḥ, udastokaḥ, udakabinduḥ, jalabinduḥ, pṛṣantiḥ, pṛṣataḥ, vāribinduḥ, vārileśaḥ, śīkarakaṇaḥ, śīkaraḥ, abbindu   

jalasya binduḥ।

padmapatrasthaḥ ambukaṇaḥ sūryaprakāśe mauktikasadṛśaḥ dṛśyate।

indu

raktaḥ, raktā, raktam, lohitaḥ, lohitā, lohitāhinī, lohitam, raktavarṇaḥ, raktavarṇā, raktavarṇam, lohitavarṇam, rohitaḥ, rohitā, rohitāhinī, śoṇitaḥ, śoṇitā, śoṇitam, śoṇaḥ, śoṇā, śoṇam, śoṇī, sindūravarṇaḥ, kaṣāyaḥ, kaṣāyā, kaṣāyam, mañjiṣṭhaḥ, mañjiṣṭhī, mañjiṣṭham, aruṇaḥ, aruṇā, aruṇam, pāṭalaḥ, pāṭalā, pāṭalam   

varṇaviśeṣaḥ, raktasya varṇaḥ iva varṇaḥ।

imaṃ prakoṣṭhaṃ raktena varṇena varṇaya।

indu

pūrṇimā, paurṇimā, paurṇamāsī, rākā, cāndrī, pūrṇamāsī, anantā, candramātā, nirañjanā, jyotsnī, indumatī, sitā   

cāndramāse śuklapakṣasya antimatithiḥ।

pūrṇimāyāḥ niśākaraḥ atīva ramaṇīyaḥ।

indu

kendra binduḥ, kendram, madhya-binduḥ, nābhiḥ, madhyam, madhyaḥ, madhyasthānam, madhyasthalam, garbhaḥ, udaram, abhyantaram, hṛdayam   

kasyāpi vṛttasya paridheḥ paṅkteḥ vā yāthārthena madhye vartamāno binduḥ।

asya vṛttasya kendrabinduṃ chindantīṃ rekhāṃ likhatu।

indu

kalā, candrakalā, indukalā, indurekhā, śaśirekhā, śaśilekhā   

candraprakāśasya ṣoḍaśo'śaḥ।

jagati jayinaste te bhāvā navendukalādayaḥ।

indu

mauktikam, muktā, mauktikā, muktāphalam, śuktijam, śaukteyam, sindhujātaḥ, śuktibījam, muktikā, tautikam, mañjaram, mañjarī, mañjariḥ, induratnam, nīrajaḥ, muktāmaṇiḥ   

samudrasthaśukteḥ udare udbhavaḥ ojayuktaḥ ratnaviśeṣaḥ।

śaile śaile na māṇikyaṃ mauktikaṃ na gaje gaje sādhavo na hi sarvatra candanaṃ na vane vane।

indu

narmadā, revā, muralā, indujā, pūrvagaṅgā, mekalasutā, mekalakanyā, somodbhavā, somasutā, vedagarbhā   

bhāratasthā nadī।

narmadāyām prāptam aṇḍākāraṃ śivaliṅgaṃ narmadeśvaram iti abhisaṃjñitam।

indu

somavāsaraḥ, induvāsaraḥ   

saptāhasya prathamadinaḥ।

agrime somavāsare saḥ vārāṇasīṃ gacchati।

indu

jalam, vāri, ambu, ambhaḥ, payaḥ, salilam, sarilam, udakam, udam, jaḍam, payas, toyam, pānīyam, āpaḥ, nīram, vāḥ, pāthas, kīlālam, annam, apaḥ, puṣkaram, arṇaḥ, peyam, salam, saṃvaram, śaṃvaram, saṃmbam, saṃvatsaram, saṃvavaraḥ, kṣīram, pāyam, kṣaram, kamalam, komalam, pīvā, amṛtam, jīvanam, jīvanīyam, bhuvanam, vanam, kabandham, kapandham, nāram, abhrapuṣpam, ghṛtam, kaṃ, pīppalam, kuśam, viṣam, kāṇḍam, savaram, saram, kṛpīṭam, candrorasam, sadanam, karvuram, vyoma, sambaḥ, saraḥ, irā, vājam, tāmarasa, kambalam, syandanam, sambalam, jalapītham, ṛtam, ūrjam, komalam, somam, andham, sarvatomukham, meghapuṣpam, ghanarasaḥ, vahnimārakaḥ, dahanārātiḥ, nīcagam, kulīnasam, kṛtsnam, kṛpīṭam, pāvanam, śaralakam, tṛṣāham, kṣodaḥ, kṣadmaḥ, nabhaḥ, madhuḥ, purīṣam, akṣaram, akṣitam, amba, aravindāni, sarṇīkam, sarpiḥ, ahiḥ, sahaḥ, sukṣema, sukham, surā, āyudhāni, āvayāḥ, induḥ, īm, ṛtasyayoniḥ, ojaḥ, kaśaḥ, komalam, komalam, kṣatram, kṣapaḥ, gabhīram, gambhanam, gahanam, janma, jalāṣam, jāmi, tugryā, tūyam, tṛptiḥ, tejaḥ, sadma, srotaḥ, svaḥ, svadhā, svargāḥ, svṛtikam, haviḥ, hema, dharuṇam, dhvasmanvatu, nāma, pavitram, pāthaḥ, akṣaram, pūrṇam, satīnam, sat, satyam, śavaḥ, śukram, śubham, śambaram, vūsam, vṛvūkam, vyomaḥ, bhaviṣyat, vapuḥ, varvuram, varhiḥ, bhūtam, bheṣajam, mahaḥ, mahat, mahaḥ, mahat, yaśaḥ, yahaḥ, yāduḥ, yoniḥ, rayiḥ, rasaḥ, rahasaḥ, retam   

sindhuhimavarṣādiṣu prāptaḥ dravarupo padārthaḥ yaḥ pāna-khāna-secanādyartham upayujyate।

jalaṃ jīvanasya ādhāram। /ajīrṇe jalam auṣadhaṃ jīrṇe balapradam। āhārakāle āyurjanakaṃ bhuktānnopari rātrau na peyam।

indu

aṅkuraṇabindu   

yasmāt aṅkurotpattirbhavati tad bījasthaṃ sthānam।

bīje naikāḥ aṅkuraṇabindavaḥ santi।

indu

viṣṇuḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, vaikuṇṭhaḥ, viṣṭaraśravāḥ, dāmodaraḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, keśavaḥ, mādhavaḥ, svabhūḥ, daityāriḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, govindaḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, acyutaḥ, śārṅgī, viṣvaksenaḥ, janārdanaḥ, upendraḥ, indrāvarajaḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ, caturbhujaḥ, padmanābhaḥ, madhuripuḥ, vāsudevaḥ, trivikramaḥ, daivakīnandanaḥ, śauriḥ, śrīpatiḥ, puruṣottamaḥ, vanamālī, balidhvaṃsī, kaṃsārātiḥ, adhokṣajaḥ, viśvambharaḥ, kaiṭabhajit, vidhuḥ, śrīvatsalāñachanaḥ, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, vṛṣṇiḥ, śatadhāmā, gadāgrajaḥ, ekaśṛṅgaḥ, jagannāthaḥ, viśvarūpaḥ, sanātanaḥ, mukundaḥ, rāhubhedī, vāmanaḥ, śivakīrtanaḥ, śrīnivāsaḥ, ajaḥ, vāsuḥ, śrīhariḥ, kaṃsāriḥ, nṛhariḥ, vibhuḥ, madhujit, madhusūdanaḥ, kāntaḥ, puruṣaḥ, śrīgarbhaḥ, śrīkaraḥ, śrīmān, śrīdharaḥ, śrīniketanaḥ, śrīkāntaḥ, śrīśaḥ, prabhuḥ, jagadīśaḥ, gadādharaḥ, ajitaḥ, jitāmitraḥ, ṛtadhāmā, śaśabinduḥ, punarvasuḥ, ādidevaḥ, śrīvarāhaḥ, sahasravadanaḥ, tripāt, ūrdhvadevaḥ, gṛdhnuḥ, hariḥ, yādavaḥ, cāṇūrasūdanaḥ, sadāyogī, dhruvaḥ, hemaśaṅkhaḥ, śatāvarttī, kālanemiripuḥ, somasindhuḥ, viriñciḥ, dharaṇīdharaḥ, bahumūrddhā, vardhamānaḥ, śatānandaḥ, vṛṣāntakaḥ, rantidevaḥ, vṛṣākapiḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, dāśārhaḥ, abdhiśayanaḥ, indrānujaḥ, jalaśayaḥ, yajñapuruṣaḥ, tārkṣadhvajaḥ, ṣaḍbinduḥ, padmeśaḥ, mārjaḥ, jinaḥ, kumodakaḥ, jahnuḥ, vasuḥ, śatāvartaḥ, muñjakeśī, babhruḥ, vedhāḥ, prasniśṛṅgaḥ, ātmabhūḥ, suvarṇabinduḥ, śrīvatsaḥ, gadābhṛt, śārṅgabhṛt, cakrabhṛt, śrīvatsabhṛt, śaṅkhabhṛt, jalaśāyī, muramardanaḥ, lakṣmīpatiḥ, murāriḥ, amṛtaḥ, ariṣṭanemaḥ, kapiḥ, keśaḥ, jagadīśaḥ, janārdanaḥ, jinaḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, vikramaḥ, śarvaḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ hindudharmānusāraṃ jagataḥ pālanakartā।

ekādaśastathā tvaṣṭā dvādaśo viṣṇurucyate jaghanyajastu sarveṣāmādityānāṃ guṇādhikaḥ।

indu

strī, nārī, narī, mānuṣī, manuṣī, mānavī, lalanā, lalitā, ramaṇī, rāmā, vanitā, priyā, mahilā, yoṣā, yoṣitā, yoṣit, yoṣīt, vadhūḥ, bharaṇyā, mahelā, mahelikā, māninī, vāmā, aṅganā, abalā, kāminī, janiḥ, janī, joṣā, joṣitā, joṣit, dhanikā, parigṛhyā, pramadā, pratīpadarśinī, vilāsinī, sindūratilakā, sīmantinī, subhrūḥ, śarvarī   

manuṣyajātīyānāṃ strī-puṃrūpīyayoḥ prabhedadvayayoḥ prathamā yā prajananakṣamā asti।

adhunā vividheṣu kṣetreṣu strīṇām ādhipatyam vartate।

indu

raktaḥ, raktā, raktam, raktavarṇīyaḥ, raktavarṇīyā, raktavarṇīyam, lohitaḥ, lohitā, lohitāhinī, lohitam, raktavarṇaḥ, raktavarṇā, raktavarṇam, lohitavarṇam, rohitaḥ, rohitā, rohitāhinī, śoṇitaḥ, śoṇitā, śoṇitam, śoṇaḥ, śoṇā, śoṇam, śoṇī, sindūravarṇaḥ, kaṣāyaḥ, kaṣāyā, kaṣāyam, mañjiṣṭhaḥ, mañjiṣṭhī, mañjiṣṭham, aruṇaḥ, aruṇā, aruṇam, pāṭalaḥ, pāṭalā, pāṭalam   

vastūnāṃ raktaguṇatvadyotanārthe upayujyamānaṃ viśeṣaṇam।

rakte guṇe tatvaṃ raktam iti ucyate।

indu

sindūraḥ, nāgasambhavam, nāgareṇuḥ, raktam, sīmantakam, nāgajam, nāgagarbham, śoṇam, vīrarajaḥ, gaṇeśabhūṣaṇam, sandhyārāgam, śṛṅgārakam, saubhāgyam, arūṇam, maṅgalyam, agniśikham, piśunam, asṛk, vareṇyam   

raktavarṇacūrṇaviśeṣaḥ hindudharmīyāṇāṃ kṛte māṅgalyasūcakam ābharaṇañca, yaṃ akhrīṣṭīyāḥ tathā ca amuslimadharmīyāḥ bhāratīyāḥ striyaḥ pratidinaṃ sīmantake bhālapradeśe vā dhārayanti, khrīṣṭīyān tathā ca muslimadharmīyān vinā itare sarve bhāratīyāḥ puruṣāḥ bālakāḥ ca pūjāvidhau māṅgalyārthaṃ bhālapradeśe bindumātraṃ dhārayanti, tathā ca pūjādiṣu devadevatān samarpayanti।

kāścit striyaḥ sindurasya dhāraṇāt pateḥ āyurvṛddhirbhavati iti manyante।

indu

bindu   

tad laghuttamaṃ vartulākāraṃ cihnaṃ yad kasyāpi sthānasya nirdeśaṃ karoti kiṃ tu tasya vibhāgo nāsti।

vālakaiḥ krīḍāyāṃ bindū upayujya gajasya ākṛtiḥ ālekhitā।

indu

rajatam, rūpyam, raupyam, śvetam, śvetakam, sitam, dhautam, śuklam, śubhram, mahāśubhram, kharjūram, kharjuram, durvarṇam, candralauham, candrahāsam, rājaraṅgam, indulohakam, tāram, brāhmapiṅgā, akūpyam   

śvetavarṇīyaḥ dīptimān dhātuḥ tathā ca yasmāt alaṅkārādayaḥ nirmīyante।

sā rajatasya alaṅkārān dhārayati।

indu

gal, syand, niṣyand, nisyand, praścut, snu, prasnu, bindūya, tuś, nituś, stip   

bindūrūpeṇa prasravaṇānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

klinnebhyaḥ vastrebhyaḥ jalaṃ galati।

indu

bhāratīya, hindusthāyin   

bhāratasya bhāratasambandhī vā।

bahuṣu dineṣu yāvat bhāratīyā janatā dāsyatvam anvabhūt।

indu

hindu   

āryāṇāṃ bhāratīyāḥ vaṃśajāḥ yeṣāṃ vedasmṛtipurāṇādayaḥ dharmagranthāḥ santi।

hindavaḥ mūrtipūjakāḥ santi।

indu

ketakaḥ, ketakī, indukalikā, tīkṣṇapuṣpā, dīrghapatraḥ, pāṃsukā, amarapuṣpaḥ, amarapuṣpakaḥ, kaṇṭadalā, kanakaketakī, kanakapuṣpī, droṇīdalaḥ, karatṛṇam, krakacacchadaḥ, gandhapuṣpaḥ, dalapuṣpā, dalapuṣpī, cakṣuṣyaḥ, cāmarapuṣpaḥ, chinnaruhā, jambālaḥ, jambulaḥ, dhūlipuṣpikā, nṛpapriyā, pharendraḥ, valīnakaḥ, viphalaḥ, vyañjanaḥ, śivadviṣṭā, sugandhinī, sūcipuṣpaḥ, sūcikā, strībhūṣaṇam, sthiragandhaḥ, svarṇaketakī, hanīlaḥ, halīmaḥ, hemaketakī, haimaḥ   

kṣupaviśeṣaḥ- yasya savāsikasya puṣpasya patrāṇi krakacasya iva tīkṣṇāni santi।

adhunā udyānasthasya ketakasya puṣpaṃ vikasati।

indu

sindūraḥ   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ;

sindūrasya puṣpāṇi atīva śobhanāni।

indu

parākāṣṭhā, caramasīmā, caramabinduḥ, caramāvasthā   

yā antimā sīmā yāvat na ko'pi gacchati।

eṣā asabhyatāyāḥ parākāṣṭhā asti।

indu

khasvastikam, viṣṇupadam, ūrdhvā, nabhomadhyam, khamadhyam, svarmadhyam, gaganamadhyam, śirobindu   

ākāśe śirasaḥ upari manyamānaḥ kalpitabinduḥ।

madhyāhne sūryaḥ khasvastike bhavati।

indu

śītasahā, sindhuvārakaḥ, nirguṇḍī, kapikā, sthirasādhanakaḥ, sindhukaḥ, nīlasindhukaḥ, indrasurasaḥ, sindhuvārikā, śvetapuṣpaḥ, nirguṇṭī, candrasurasaḥ, surasaḥ, sindhurāvaḥ, nīlāśī, sindhuvāritaḥ, śvetarāvakaḥ, nisindhuḥ, sindhuvāraḥ, śepālaḥ, nirguṇḍiḥ, sinduvāraḥ, nisindhukaḥ, nīlakaḥ, arthasiddhakaḥ, indrāṇikā, indrāṇī, śvetasurasā   

kundajātīyā śvetapuṣpaviśiṣṭā latā।

śītasahā varṣākāle vikasati।

indu

śītasaham, sindhuvārakam, nirguṇḍi, kapikam, sthirasādhanakam, sindhukam, nīlasindhukam, indrasurasam, sindhuvārikam, śvetapuṣpam, nirguṇṭi, candrasurasam, surasam, sindhurāvam, nīlāśi, sindhuvāritam, śvetarāvakam, nisindhum, sindhuvāram, śepālam, nirguṇḍim, sinduvāram, nisindhukam, nīlakam, arthasiddhakam, indrāṇikam, indrāṇi, śvetasurasam   

kundajātīyapuṣpam।

śītasahasya ārdragandhaḥ āgacchati।

indu

candrakāntaḥ, indumaṇiḥ, śaśāṅkopalaḥ   

ekaṃ kalpitaṃ ratnam।

candrakāntaḥ yadā candramasaḥ agre āgacchati tadā galati iti manyate।

indu

bindu   

lipyām anusvāradarśako binduḥ(prācīnahastalikhiteṣu vyāmṛṣṭākṣarasya upari pradatto binduḥ yaḥ tasya akṣarasya tatra vyāmṛṣṭatvam āvaśyakatvaṃ ca darśayati);

sambhāṣā iti śabdaḥ bindunā sahitaṃ saṃbhāṣā iti api likhyate

indu

hindudharmaḥ, hindutvam   

ekaḥ bhāratīyaḥ sanātanaḥ dharmaḥ yasmin devatānāṃ vedānāṃ purāṇādīnāṃ ca atīva mahatvaṃ vartate।

hindudharmaḥ ekena manuṣyena na pravartitaḥ।

indu

indrapuṣpā, indrapuṣpī, indrapuṣpikā, indupuṣpikā, amūlā, dīptaḥ, vahniśikhā, kalihārī, manojavā, vahnivaktrā, puṣpasaurabhā, viśalyā, vahnicakrā, halinī, puṣā, halī, vidyujjvālā   

bhāratasya dakṣiṇe vardhamānaḥ ekaḥ kṣupaḥ yaḥ oṣadhyāṃ prayujyate।

indrapuṣpāyāḥ patrāṇāṃ kaṇḍānā ca kaṣāyaṃ pīnasāya lābhadāyakaṃ bhavati।

indu

amṛta-bindu-upaniṣad, amṛta-bindu   

ekā upaniṣad।

amṛta-bindu-upaniṣad yajurvedasya bhāgaḥ।

indu

tejo-bindu-upaniṣad, tejo-bindu   

ekā upaniṣad।

tejo-bindu-upaniṣad yajurvedasya bhāgaḥ।

indu

nāda-bindu upaniṣad, nāda-bindu   

ekā upaniṣad।

nāda-bindu-upaniṣad ṛgvedena sambaddhā।

indu

dhyānabindu-upaniṣad, dhyānabindu   

ekā upaniṣad।

dhyānabindu-upaniṣad yajurvedena sambandhitā।

indu

bindu   

kasmiñcit vastuni vartamānaṃ laghu vartulam।

asmin paṭe rañjitāḥ bindavaḥ śobhante।

indu

somaḥ, candraḥ, śaśāṅkaḥ, induḥ, mayaṅkaḥ, kalānidhiḥ, kalānāthaḥ, kalādharaḥ, himāṃśuḥ, candramāḥ, kumudabāndhavaḥ, vidhuḥ, sudhāṃśuḥ, śubhrāṃśuḥ, oṣadhīśaḥ, niśāpatiḥ, abjaḥ, jaivātṛkaḥ, somaḥ, glauḥ, mṛgāṅkaḥ, dvijarājaḥ, śaśadharaḥ, nakṣatreśaḥ, kṣapākaraḥ, doṣākaraḥ, niśīthinīnāthaḥ, śarvarīśaḥ, eṇāṅkaḥ, śītaraśmiḥ, samudranavanītaḥ, sārasaḥ, śvetavāhanaḥ, nakṣatranāmiḥ, uḍupaḥ, sudhāsūtiḥ, tithipraṇīḥ, amatiḥ, candiraḥ, citrāṭīraḥ, pakṣadharaḥ, rohiṇīśaḥ, atrinetrajaḥ, pakṣajaḥ, sindhujanmā, daśāśvaḥ, māḥ, tārāpīḍaḥ, niśāmaṇiḥ, mṛgalāñchanaḥ, darśavipat, chāyāmṛgadharaḥ, grahanemiḥ, dākṣāyaṇīpati, lakṣmīsahajaḥ, sudhākaraḥ, sudhādhāraḥ, śītabhānuḥ, tamoharaḥ, tuśārakiraṇaḥ, pariḥ, himadyutiḥ, dvijapatiḥ, viśvapsā, amṛtadīdhitiḥ, hariṇāṅkaḥ, rohiṇīpatiḥ, sindhunandanaḥ, tamonut, eṇatilakaḥ, kumudeśaḥ, kṣīrodanandanaḥ, kāntaḥ, kalāvān, yāminījatiḥ, sijraḥ, mṛgapipluḥ, sudhānidhiḥ, tuṅgī, pakṣajanmā, abdhīnavanītakaḥ, pīyūṣamahāḥ, śītamarīciḥ, śītalaḥ, trinetracūḍāmaṇiḥ, atrinetrabhūḥ, sudhāṅgaḥ, parijñāḥ, sudhāṅgaḥ, valakṣaguḥ, tuṅgīpatiḥ, yajvanāmpatiḥ, parvvadhiḥ, kleduḥ, jayantaḥ, tapasaḥ, khacamasaḥ, vikasaḥ, daśavājī, śvetavājī, amṛtasūḥ, kaumudīpatiḥ, kumudinīpatiḥ, bhūpatiḥ, dakṣajāpatiḥ, oṣadhīpatiḥ, kalābhṛt, śaśabhṛt, eṇabhṛt, chāyābhṛt, atridṛgjaḥ, niśāratnam, niśākaraḥ, amṛtaḥ, śvetadyutiḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ;

patitaṃ somamālokya brahmā lokapitāmahaḥ[śa.ka]

indu

hindukuśaḥ, pāriyātraḥ   

madhya-eśiyākhaṇḍasya parvataḥ।

hindukuśasya vistāraḥ bṛhad asti।

indu

tindukaḥ, atimuktakaḥ, āluḥ, āluka, kākatinduḥ, kākatindukaḥ, kākenduḥ, kālatindukaḥ, kālapīlukaḥ, kupīluḥ, kulakaḥ, kenduḥ, kendukaḥ, gālavaḥ   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ, āyurvede asya guṇāḥ - pittapramehasraśleṣmanāśitvam।

tindukasya pakvaphalaḥ madhuram asti।

indu

tindukīyam, tindukīyaḥ, tindukīyā   

tindukasya tindukasambandhī vā।

takṣakaḥ tindukasya krīḍānakaṃ nirmāti।

indu

tindukīya-varṇaḥ, atimuktaka-varṇaḥ, ālularṇaḥ, ālukavarṇaḥ, kākatinduvarṇaḥ, kākatindukavarṇaḥ, kākenduvarṇaḥ, kālatindukavarṇaḥ, kālapīlukavarṇaḥ, kupīluvarṇaḥ, kulakavarṇaḥ, kenduvarṇaḥ, kendukavarṇaḥ, gālavavarṇaḥ   

tindukasya varṇa iva varṇaḥ।

asya paṭasya tindukīyavarṇaḥ asti।

indu

śūnyam, bindu   

vallakandukakrīḍāyāṃ yadā valladhārī ekām api dhāvāṃ kartum na śaknoti tadā tasya prāptāṅkaḥ।

adya tena śūnyaṃ prāptam। / adya saḥ śūnye eva gataḥ।

indu

induvadanā   

chandoviśeṣaḥ।

induvadanāyāḥ pratyekasmin caraṇe bhagaṇaḥ jagaṇaḥ sagaṇaḥ nagaṇaḥ dvau guruśca bhavanti।

indu

amṛtabindūpaniṣad   

upaniṣadaḥ bhedaḥ।

atharvavedīyāḥ amṛtabindūpaniṣadam anusaranti।

indu

śaśabindu   

gandharvasya citrarathasya putraḥ।

śaśabindoḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu asti।

indu

jalabindu   

yavanālasya śarkarā।

jalabindujā virecakam auṣadham asti।

indu

aśruleśaḥ, nayanodabinduḥ, bāṣpabindu   

aśrubinduḥ।

sā netrayoḥ samāgatānām aśruleśānām avarodhanasya prayantam akarot।

indu

andhabindu   

netrapaṭalasya tat sthānaṃ yasya prakāśagrahaṇasya asāmarthyena vastūni na dṛśyante।

bahudhā madhumehaḥ api andhabindoḥ kāraṇaṃ bhavati।

indu

indumatī   

rājñaḥ candravijayasya patnī।

indumatī dhārmikī strī āsīt।

indu

indumatī   

rājñaḥ ajasya patnī।

indumatyāḥ ullekhaḥ paurāṇikāsu kathāsu prāpyate।

indu

induvāraḥ   

jyotiṣaśāstrānusāreṇa janmapatrikāyāṃ tṛtīye ṣaṣṭhame dvādaśe sthāne grahāṇāṃ saḥ saṃyogaḥ yaḥ pīḍādāyakaḥ manyate।

daivajñaḥ induvārasya duṣprabhāvanāśasya upāyān sūcayati।

indu

binduprasphoṭaḥ   

dvayoḥ kargajayoḥ madhye sphoṭān sthāpayitvā bindurūpeṇa nirmitaḥ ekaḥ prasphoṭaḥ yasyopari āghātaṃ kṛtvā bhañjate।

saḥ binduprasphoṭān bhañjate।

indu

kendrabindu   

saḥ binduḥ yatra prakāśasya anyavikiraṇānāṃ vā kiraṇāni ekatritāni bhavanti yasmāt prasaranti ca।

udbhujasya tathā ca uttānasya dīptopalasya kendrabindavaḥ bhinnāḥ santi।

indu

svedabindu   

svedasya kaṇaḥ।

tasya lalāṭāt svedabindavaḥ galanti।

indu

indumatī   

nadīvaśeṣaḥ ।

indumatyāḥ varṇanaṃ rāmāyaṇe vartate

indu

vijilabindu   

ekaḥ grāmaḥ ।

vijilabindoḥ varṇanaṃ śaṅkaravijayaḥ iti granthe asti

indu

viñilavindu   

ekaḥ grāmaḥ ।

viñilavindoḥ varṇanaṃ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

indu

vibhindu   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

vibhindoḥ varṇanaṃ kośe asti

indu

bindu   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

binduḥ bidādigaṇe parigaṇitaḥ

indu

bindu   

ekaḥ lekhakaḥ ।

bindoḥ rasapaddhatiḥ iti granthasya ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

indu

bindu   

ekā kṣatriyajātiḥ ।

binduḥ dāmanyādigaṇe parigaṇitaḥ

indu

kuśabindu   

ekaḥ janasamūhaḥ ।

kuśabindavaḥ mahābhārate ullikhitāḥ santi

indu

bindunāthaḥ   

ekaḥ ācāryaḥ ।

kośeṣu bindunāthaḥ ullikhitaḥ vidyate

indu

bindumatī   

ekaḥ padyaprakāraviśeṣaḥ ।

kādambarī iti prasiddha-abhijāta-saṃskṛta-vāṅmaya-kṛtyāṃ bindumatī varṇitā āsīt

indu

binduśarmā   

ekaḥ kaviḥ ।

kośakāraiḥ binduśarmā samullikhitaḥ vidyate

indu

bindusaraḥ   

ekaṃ puṇyatīrtham ।

rāmāyaṇe tathā ca mahābhārate bindusaraḥ nirdiṣṭaḥ āsīt

indu

kuśabindu   

ekaḥ janasamūhaḥ ।

kuśabindavaḥ mahābhārate ullikhitāḥ santi

indu

bindunāthaḥ   

ekaḥ ācāryaḥ ।

kośeṣu bindunāthaḥ ullikhitaḥ vidyate

indu

bindumatī   

ekaḥ padyaprakāraviśeṣaḥ ।

kādambarī iti prasiddha-abhijāta-saṃskṛta-vāṅmaya-kṛtyāṃ bindumatī varṇitā āsīt

indu

binduśarmā   

ekaḥ kaviḥ ।

kośakāraiḥ binduśarmā samullikhitaḥ vidyate

indu

bindusaraḥ   

ekaṃ puṇyatīrtham ।

rāmāyaṇe tathā ca mahābhārate bindusaraḥ nirdiṣṭaḥ āsīt

indu

sabindu   

ekaḥ parvataḥ ।

sabindoḥ ullekhaḥ mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇe asti

indu

hariharadevahindūpatiḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

hariharadevahindūpateḥ ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

indu

pulindukaḥ   

ekaḥ pratyantaḥ ।

pulindukānām ullekhaḥ mahābhārate asti

indu

tṛṇabindu   

ekaḥ ṛṣiḥ ।

tṛṇabindoḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate vartate

indu

tṛṇabindu   

ekaḥ rājaputraḥ ।

tṛṇabindoḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate vartate

indu

tṛṇabinduśarasaḥ   

ekaṃ saraḥ ।

tṛṇabinduśarasaḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate vartate

indu

tejobindūpaniṣad   

ekā upaniṣad ।

tejobindūpaniṣadaḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

indu

urubindu   

ekaḥ haṃsaḥ ।

urubindoḥ ullekhaḥ harivaṃśe asti

indu

upabindu   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

upabindoḥ ullekhaḥ bāhvāhigaṇe asti

indu

indubhavā   

ekā nadī ।

indubhavāyāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

indu

induprabhaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

induprabhasya ullekhaḥ kathāsaritsāgare asti

indu

indukesarī   

ekaḥ rājā ।

indukesarīṇaḥ ullekhaḥ kathāsaritsāgare asti

indu

jindurājaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

jindurājasya ullekhaḥ rājataraṅgiṇyām asti

indu

tṛṇabindu   

ekaḥ ṛṣiḥ ।

tṛṇabindoḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate vartate

indu

tṛṇabindu   

ekaḥ rājaputraḥ ।

tṛṇabindoḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate vartate

indu

tṛṇabinduśarasaḥ   

ekaṃ saraḥ ।

tṛṇabinduśarasaḥ ullekhaḥ mahābhārate vartate

indu

tejobindūpaniṣad   

ekā upaniṣad ।

tejobindūpaniṣadaḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

indu

dhyānabindupaniṣad   

ekā upaniṣad ।

dhyānabindūpaniṣadaḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

indu

tindubilvasya ullekhaḥ gītagovinde asti   

tindubilva ।

ekaṃ sthānam

Parse Time: 1.472s Search Word: indu Input Encoding: IAST: indu