Donate
 
    
Select your preferred input and type any Sanskrit or English word. Enclose the word in “” for an EXACT match e.g. “yoga”.
  
"hni" has 1 results.
        Root WordIAST MeaningMonier Williams PageClass
√ह्णीhṇībeing ashamed / lajjā895/2Cl.3
     Amarakosha Search  
11 results
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
agniḥMasculineSingularjvalanaḥ, barhiḥ, śociṣkeśaḥ, bṛhadbhānuḥ, analaḥ, śikhāvān, hutabhuk, saptārciḥ, citrabhānuḥ, appittam, vaiśvānaraḥ, dhanañjayaḥ, jātavedāḥ, śuṣmā, uṣarbudhaḥ, kṛśānuḥ, rohitāśvaḥ, āśuśukṣaṇiḥ, dahanaḥ, damunāḥ, vibhāvasuḥ, vahni, kṛpīṭayoniḥ, tanūnapāt, kṛṣṇavartmā, āśrayāśaḥ, pāvakaḥ, vāyusakhaḥ, hiraṇyaretāḥ, havyavāhanaḥ, śukraḥ, śuciḥ, vītihotraḥfire god
andham3.3.110NeuterSingularsūryaḥ, vahni
gauḥ2.9.67-72FeminineSingularupasaryā, rohiṇī, bahusūtiḥ, kapilā, navasūtikā, ekahāyanī, droṇakṣīrā, bandhyā, saurabheyī, garbhopaghātinī, arjunī, acaṇḍī, dhavalā, vaṣkayiṇī, dvivarṣā, pīnoghnī, tryabdā, samāṃsamīnā, sandhinī, vaśā, praṣṭhauhī, naicikī, pareṣṭukā, pāṭalā, suvratā, caturabdā, droṇadugdhā, avatokā, usrā, kālyā, aghnyā, sukarā, kṛṣṇā, dhenuḥ, ekābdā, pīvarastanī, trihāyaṇī, māheyī, vehad, śṛṅgiṇī, bālagarbhiṇī, śavalī, cirasūtā, dvihāyanī, sukhasaṃdohyā, caturhāyaṇī, dhenuṣyā, sravadgarbhā, mātā(49)cow
mahatī3.3.76FeminineSingularśastram, vahnijvālā, raverarciḥ
pāṭhīMasculineSingularcitrakaḥ, vahnisañjñakaḥ
piccaṭam2.9.106NeuterSingularvahniśikham, ‍mahārajanam, ku‍sumbham
pṛthagjanaḥ3.3.112MasculineSingularvahni, barhī
punarnavāFeminineSingularśothaghnī
sthūlam3.3.212MasculineSingularvanam, araṇyavahni
tviṭ3.3.233FeminineSingularsūryaḥ, vahni
pīnoghnī2.9.72FeminineSingulardroṇadugdhā
     Monier-Williams
          Search  
93 results for hni
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
अभिचिह्नयNom. P. (perf. Passive voice parasmE-pada -cihnita-) to mark, characterize View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अच्a technical term for all the vowels View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अहन् locative case /ahan- (Ved.) or /ahani-, or ahni-, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आह्नेयm. (fr. ahni- f.), Name of śauca- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनेकाच्mfn. having more than one vowel or syllable (ac-in grammar being the technical term for vowel) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनेकाल्mfn. consisting of more than one letter (al-being the technical term for letter) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरचक्रn. a technical term in augury. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्तरितn. a technical term in architecture. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अन्वर्थसंज्ञाf. a term whose meaning is intelligible in itself (opposed to such technical terms as bha-, ghu-,etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आर्धधातुकmf(ā-)n. (fr. ardha-dhātu-),"applicable to the shorter form of the verbal base", a technical N. given to the terminations of the perfect tense and bened. and to any Pratyaya (q.v) except the personal terminations of the conjugational tenses in P. and A1., and except the pratyaya-s which have the anubandha- ś- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आविद्f. technical designation of the formulas (in ) beginning with āvis- and āvitta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बहुशिखाf. Commelina Salicifolia and another species (varia lectio vahni-ś-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भर्गm. of a son of vahni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भाष्यn. an explanatory work, exposition, explanation, commentary (especially on technical sūtra-s) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धारिन्m. plural a collect. Name of the 74 wives of the gods View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धर्मसंग्रहm. Name of a collection of technical terms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धातृm. one of the 49 winds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
धूम्रोर्णाf. Name of a divine female (morṇā-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीर्घाहन्mf(hnī-)n. having long days. Va1rtt. 1 idem or 'm. Name of a people ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्विस्ind. (; confer, compare ) twice etc. dvir ahnaḥ-, ahnā-, or ahni-, twice a day [ confer, compare Zend bis; Greek ; Latin bis.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्व्यहन्(only locative case hni-), 2 days
गोभानुm. Name of a son of vahni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हल्m. n. (in pāṇini-'s system) a technical expression for all the consonants or for any consonant. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जयन्तn. kṛṣṇa-'s birthnight (the 8th of the dark half of śrāvaṇa-, the asterism rohiṇī- rising at midnight ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जुहोतिm. a technical name for those sacrificial ceremonies to which hu- (not yaj-) is applied
कविm. a singer, bard, poet (but in this sense without any technical application in the veda-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कव्यवाहनm. ([ see kravya-v-, havya-v-, vahni-.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
a technical term for all the tenses and moods of a finite verb or for the terminations of those tenses and moods (also applied to some forms with kṛt-affixes construed like a finite verb ; see , and when accompanied by certain indicatory letters denoting each tense separatelySee laṭ-; laṅ-; liṅ-; loṭ-; liṭ-; luṭ-; ḷṭ-; luṅ-; ḷṅ-; leṭ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लाक्षणिकmf(ī-)n. indicatory, expressing indirectly or figuratively. metaphorical, secondary, technical ( lākṣaṇikatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लङ्(in gram.) a technical term for the terminations of the Imperfect or for that tense itself (see 1. la-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लट्(in gram.) a technical term for the terminations of the Present or for that tense itself (see 1. la-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लोकविनायकm. plural a particular class of deities presiding over diseases View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महाशिलाf. a kind of weapon (a śata-ghnī- with iron nails) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मखाग्निm. equals makha-vahni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पाण्डवारणिf. the araṇi- or mother of the pāṇḍava-s (see va-vahni-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पारिभाषिकmf(ī-)n. (-bhāṣā-) conventional, technical View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परिभाषितmfn. explained, said, stated as (Nominal verb), taught, established as a rule, formed or used technically View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पौर्वाह्णिकmfn. (wrong reading hnika-) relating to the morning, produced in the forenoon, matutinal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पृथारणि(thār-) f. "the araṇi- pāṇḍu-", Name of kuntī- the wife of pāṇḍu- (as the mystical wood from which the pāṇḍava-s were struck out or generated; see pāṇḍava-vahni-and pāṇḍavāraṇi-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शब्दm. a technical term View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शब्दसंज्ञाf. (in gram.) a technical term View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संज्ञाf. a name, appellation, title, technical term (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' = "called, named") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संज्ञाf. a technical expression in grammar (See -sūtra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संज्ञासूत्रn. any sūtra- which teaches the meaning of a technical term View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संज्ञात्वn. the being a technical term View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संयमकmfn. checking, restraining View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सन्(in gram.) a technical term for the syllable sa- or sign of the desiderative. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शानच्(in gram.) , a technical term for the kṛt- affixes āna-, or amāna- (used in forming present participles ātmane-pada- when the radical syllable is accentuated, or for āna-substituted for hi-,the affix of the 2. sg. imperative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शप्(in gram.) a technical term used for the vikaraṇa- a (inserted between the root and terminations of the conjugational tenses in verbs of the Ist class;See vi-karaṇa-,p.954) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सरमाf. of a wife of kaśyapa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सर्वाह्णिकmfn. daily (wrong reading hnika-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शस्(in gram.) the technical case-termination of the accusative plural View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शतघ्निन्mfn. having the weapon śata-ghnī- (or else perhaps to be taken as one word, śata-ghnī-khaḍgin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शतघ्नीपाशशक्तिमत्mfn. having a śata-ghnī- and a noose and a spear (but śata-ghnī-may also be, separate). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शतह्रदाf. Name of one of the daughters of dakṣa- (the wife of bāhu-putra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शतृ(in gram.) a technical term for the kṛt- affix at used in forming present participles of the parasmai-pada-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शि(in gram.) a technical term for the case-ending i- (substituted for jas-and śas-in neuters) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शिबिकादानn. "the gift of a litter etc.", Name of a chapter of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शिबिकादानविधिm. "the gift of a litter etc.", Name of a chapter of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सिम्(in Vedic gram.) a technical term for the eight simple vowels (viz. a-, ā-, i-, ī-, u-, ū-, -, -). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्लु(in gram.) Name of the vikaraṇa- [q.v.] of the 3rd class of roots in which there is elision of the conjugational affix a- (ślu-is one of the 3 technical terms [containing lu-]for grammatical elisionSee 2. luk-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्ना(in gram.) a technical term for the affix - (the characteristic sign of the 9th class of verbs) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्नम्(in gram.) a technical term for the verbal affix na- (inserted in roots of the 7th class) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्नु(in gram.) a technical term for the affix nu- (added to the root in the 5th class of verbs) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रौतपदार्थनिर्वचनn. an explanation of technical terms occurring in śrauta- sacrifices (compiled about 1880 by Benares Pandits). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुबन्तn. technical expression for an inflected noun as ending with a case-termination View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुनामद्वादशीf. a particular religious observance performed on the 12th day of the 12th month View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शुप्(in gram.) a technical term for the affix u- (the characteristic sign of the eighth class of verbs) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुप्(in gram.) technical expression for the termination of the locative case case plural View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सूर्यm. of a dānava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुट्(in gram.) a pratyāhāra- used as a technical expression for the first five inflections (id est Nominal verb sg. dual number plural accusative singular dual number for masc. and fem. nouns; see sarva-nāma-sthāna-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्वलीनm. Name of a dānava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्यन्(in gram.) a technical term for the syllable ya- (inserted after the root in the 4th class of verbs) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तान्त्रिकmf(ā- ; ī-)n. taught in a scientific manual (kī saṃjñā-,"a technical N.") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपसद्m. (t-) Name of a particular fire (different from the gārhapatya-, dakṣiṇāgni-, and āhavanīya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वाह्नmfn. (fr. vahni-) relating or belonging to agni-, addressed to him etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वह्निm. fire (in general or"the god of fire") etc. (vahninā saṃ-skṛ-,to hallow by fire, burn solemnly) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वह्निजायाf. the wife of vahni- (called svāhā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वह्नितमmfn. (v/ahni--) carrying or leading best View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वह्निवत्mfn. containing the word vahni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वार्षकn. (fr. varṣa-,division of the world) Name of one of the 10 parts into which su-dyumna- divided the world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वारुणकर्मन्n. " varuṇa-'s work", any work connected with the supply of water (exempli gratia, 'for example' the digging of tanks or wells etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वत्an affix (technically termed vati-;See ) added to words to imply likeness or resemblance, and generally translatable by "as","like" (exempli gratia, 'for example' brāhmaṇa-vat-,like a Brahman; pitṛ-vat- equals piteva-, pitaram iva-, pitur iva-and pitarīva-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वेधm. Name of a son of ananta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विनिर्भयm. Name of a sādhya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विश् cl.6 P. () viś/ati- (rarely, in later language mostly mc. also A1. viśate-; perfect tense viv/eśa-, viviśe- etc.[ viveśitha-, viveśuḥ- ; viviśyās- ; parasmE-pada -viśiv/as- ; viviśivas-or viviśvas- ; aviveśīs- ]; Aorist /aviśran-, /avikṣmahi-, veśīt- ; avikṣat- etc.; avikṣata- grammar; preceding viśyāt- ; future veṣṭā- ; vekṣyati-, te- etc.; infinitive mood veṣṭum- etc.; veṣṭavai- ; viśam- ; ind.p. -viśya- etc.) , to enter, enter in or settle down on, go into (accusative locative case,or antar-with genitive case), pervade etc. etc. (with punar-or bhūyas-,to re-enter, return, come back) ; to be absorbed into (accusative) ; (in astronomy) to come into conjunction with (accusative) ; (with agnim-, jvalanam-etc.) to enter the fire id est ascend the funeral pyre etc. ; (with apas-) to sink or be immersed in the water ; to enter (a house etc.) ; to appear (on the stage) ; to go home or to rest ; to sit down upon (accusative or locative case) ; to resort or betake one's self to (agratas-, agre-,or accusative) ; to flow into (and, join with,; applied to rivers and armies) ; to flow or redound to, fall to the share of (accusative) etc. ; to occur to (as a thought, with accusative) ; to befall, come to (as death, with accusative) ; to belong to, exist for (locative case) ; to fall or get into any state or condition (accusative) ; to enter upon, undertake, begin ; to mind (any business), attend to (dative case) : Causal veś/ayati-, te- (Aorist avīviśat-; Passive voice veśyate-), to cause to enter into (accusative) ; to cause to sit down on (locative case) : Desiderative vivikṣati-, to wish to enter (accusative) ; (with agnim-or vahnim-) to wish to enter the fire id est to ascend the funeral pyre : Intensive veviśyate-, veveṣṭi-, grammar ([ confer, compare Greek ; Latin vicus; Lithuanian ve0sze8ti; Slavonic or Slavonian vi8si8; Gothic weihs; Anglo-Saxon wi7c; Germ,wi7ch,Weich-bild.])
विश्वप्सन्m. equals vahni-, candra-, samīraṇa-, kṛtānta-, sūrya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्य(said to be an abbreviated form of a-vyaya-) a technical symbol for indeclinables such as ni-, cit-, svar-, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्याघ्रm. a tiger (not in ,but in , often mentioned with the lion; according to to , śārdūlī- is the mythical mother of tigers;but in vahni-purāṇa- they are said to be the offspring of kaśyapa-'s wife daṃṣṭrā-; see citra-vy-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यहन्mfn. (locative case hni-, hani-,or hne-) (-ahna-) done or happening on separate days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्यह्नmfn. (locative case hni-, hani-,or hne-) (-ahna-) done or happening on separate days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्याप्तmfn. comprehended or included under (a general notion), having invariably inherent properties, invariably pervaded or attended or accompanied by (in logic; exempli gratia, 'for example' dhūmo vahninnā vyāptaḥ-,"smoke is invariably attended by fire"), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यजुस्n. a sacrificial prayer or formula (technical term for particular mantra-s muttered in a peculiar manner at a sacrifice;they were properly in prose and distinguished from the ṛc-and sāman- q.v) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
57 results
     
adhikaraṇam अधिकरणम् [कृ-ल्युदट्] 1 Placing at the head of, appointing &c. -2 Relation, reference, connection; रामाधिकरणाः कथाः Rām. referring to. -3 (In gram.) Agreement, concord, government or grammatical relation (as of subject and predicate &c.); तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P.1.2.42 having the members (of the compound) in the same relation or apposition; समानाधिकरणो or व्यधिकरणो बहुर्व्रीहिः; पीताम्बरः, चक्रपाणिः &c. -4 A receptacle or subject, technically substratum ज्ञानाधिकरणम् आत्मा T. S. the soul is the substratum of knowledge. -5 Location, place, the sense of the locative case; आधारोधिकरणम् P.1.4.45; कर्तृकर्म- व्यवहितामसाक्षाद्धारयत् क्रियाम् । उपकुर्वत् क्रियासिद्धौ शास्त्रेधिकरणं स्मृतम् ॥ Hari; as गेहे स्थाल्यामन्नं पचति. -6 A topic, subject; section, article or paragraph; a complete argument treating of one subject; A chapter in Kauṭilīya Arthaśāstra. e. g. प्रथमाधिकरणम् the Sūtras of Vyāsa and Jaimini are divided into Adhyāyas, the Adhyāyas into Pādas and the Pādas into Adhikara-ṇas or sections. (According to the Mīmāṁsakas a complete Adhikaraṇa consists of five members : विषय the subject or matter to be explained, विशय or संशय the doubt or question arising upon that matter, पूर्वपक्ष the first side or prima facie argument concerning it, उत्तर or उत्तरपक्ष or सिद्धान्त the answer or demonstrated conclusion, and संगति pertinency or relevancy, or (according to others निर्णय the final conclusion); विषयो विशयश्चैव पूर्वपक्षस्तथोत्तरम् । निर्णयश्चैति सिद्धान्तः शास्त्रे$धिकरणं स्मृतम् ॥ The Vedāntins put संगति in th 3 rd place, and सिद्धान्त last; तत्र एकैकमधिकरणं पञ्चावयवम्, विषयः संदेहः संगतिः पूर्वपक्षः सिद्धान्तश्च. Generally speaking, the five members may be विषय, संशय, पूर्वपक्ष, उत्तरपक्ष and सिद्धान्त or राद्धान्त). -7 Court of justice, court, tribunal; स्वान्दोषान् कथयन्ति नाधिकरणे Mk.9.3; ˚रणे च साधनम् Dk.4. -8 Stuff, material; विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरणवाचि P.II.4.13 (अद्रव्यवाचि); अधिकरणै ˚एतावत्त्वे च P.II.4.15 fixed number of things, as दश तन्तोष्ठः Sk. -9 A claim, Bhāg, 5.1.16. -1 Supremacy. -11 A government department; सर्वाधिकरणरक्षणम् Kau. A.4. -12 A gathering place प्रत्यक्षाश्च परोक्षाश्च सर्वाधिकरणेष्वथ । वृत्तेर्भरतशार्दूल नित्यं चैवान्ववेक्षणम् ॥ Mb.12.59.68. -13 A department; अश्वागारान् गजागारान् बलाधिकरणानि च Mb.12. 69.54. -णी One who superintends. -Comp. -भोजकः a court-dignitary, a judge, भीतभीता अधिकरणभोजकाः Mk.9. -मण्डपः court or hall of justice. अधिकरणमण्डपस्य मार्गमादेशय Mk.9. -लेखकः a. official recorder or scribe, who drew up sale-deeds and other documents after getting the land measured in his presence; RT.VI.38. -विचालः [अधिकरणस्य विचालः अन्यथाकरणम्] changing the quantity of any thing, increasing or decreasing it so many times; ˚विचाले च P.V.3.43; द्रव्यस्य संख्यान्तरापादने संख्याया धा स्यात्; एकं राशिं पञ्चधा कुरु Sk. -सिद्धान्तः a conclusion which involves others.
adhvaryuḥ अध्वर्युः [अध्वरमधीते Nir.; अध्वर-क्यच्-युच् ततो$न्त्याकार- लोपः Tv.] 1 Any officiating priest, technically distinguished from होतृ, उद्रातृ and ब्रह्मन्. His duty was "to measure the ground, build the altar, prepare sacrificial vessels, to fetch wood and water, to light the fire, to bring the animal and immolate it," and while doing this to repeat the Yajurveda; होता प्रथमं शंसति तमध्वर्युः प्रोत्साहयति Sk. See अच्छावाक also. -2 The Yajurveda itself. -pl. Adherents of that Veda. -Comp. -काण्डम् N. of a book of mantras or prayers intended for Adhvaryu priest. -कृतुः Sacrificial act performed by the Adhvaryu (Pāṇini II.4.4.) -वेदः Yajurveda.
anuśayaḥ अनुशयः [शी-अच्] 1 Repentance, remorse; regret, sorrow; नन्वनुशयस्थानमेतत् Māl.8; कुतस्ते$नुशयः M.3 why should you be sorry; बाष्पं प्रमृज्य विगतानुशयो भवेयम् Ś.7.25; इतो गतस्यानुशयो मा भूदिति V.4; ततः सपत्नापनयस्मरणानुशयस्फुरा Śi.2.14. -2 Intense enmity or anger; शिशुपालो$नुशयं परं गतः Śi.16.2; यस्मिन्नमुक्तानुशया सदैव जागर्ति भुजङ्गी Māl. 6.1. -3 Hatred. -4 Close connection, as with a consequence; close attachment (to any object). अयं त्वन्यो गुणः श्रेष्ठश्च्युतानां स्वर्गतो मुने । शुभानुशययोगेन मनुष्येषूपजायते ॥ Mh.3.261.33. -5 (In Vedānta Phil.) The result or consequence of bad deeds which very closely clings to them and makes the soul enter other bodies after enjoying temporary freedom from recurring births; (स्वर्गार्थकर्मणो भुक्तफलस्य अवशेषः कश्चिदनुशयो नाम भाण्डानुसारि- स्नेहवत्, यथा हि स्नेहभाण्ड विरिच्यमानं सर्वात्मना न विरिच्यते भाण्डा- नुसार्येव कश्चित् स्नेहशेषो$वतिष्ठते तथानुशयो$पि Tv.). -6 Regret in the case of purchases, technically called rescission; क्रीत्वा विक्रीय वा किञ्चिद्यस्येहानुशयो भवेत् Ms. 8.222; see क्रीतानुशय. cf. ......अनुशयो द्वेषे पश्चात्तापानुबन्धयोः and...... अनुशयो दीर्घद्वेषानुतापयोः Nm. -यी A disease of the feet, a sort of boil or abscess on the upper part.
antara अन्तर a. [अन्तं राति ददाति, रा-क] 1 Being in the inside, interior, inward, internal (opp. बाह्य); योन्तरो यमयति Śat. Br.; ˚र आत्मा Tait. Up.; कश्चनान्तरो धर्मः S. D. अन्तरापणवीथ्यश्च नानापण्योपशोभिताः अनुगच्छन्तु Rām.7.64.3. -2 Near, proximate (आसन्न); कृष्वा युजश्चिदन्तरम् Rv.1. 1.9. -3 Related, intimate, dear, closely connected (आत्मीय) (opp. पर); तदेतत्प्रेयः पुत्रात् ...... प्रेयो$न्यस्मात्सर्व- स्मादन्तरतरं यदयमात्मा Śat. Br.; अयमत्यन्तरो मम Bharata. -4 Similar (also अन्तरतम) (of sounds and words); स्थाने$न्तरतमः P.I.1.5; हकारस्य घकारोन्तरतमः Śabdak.; सर्वस्य पदस्य स्थाने शब्दतो$र्थतश्चान्तरतमे द्वे शब्दस्वरूपे भवतः P. VIII.1.1. Com. -5 (a) Different from, other than (with abl.); यो$प्सु तिष्ठन्नद्भ्यो$न्तरः Bṛi. Ār. Up.; आत्मा स्वभावो$न्तरो$न्यो यस्य स आत्मान्तरः अन्यस्वभावः व्यवसायिनो$न्तरम् P.VI.2.166 Sk. ततो$न्तराणि सत्त्वानि स्वादते स महाबलः Rām.7. 62.5. (b) The other; उदधेरन्तरं पारम् Rām. -6 Exterior, outer, situated outside, or to be worn outside (अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः P.I.1.36) (In this sense it is declined optionally like सर्व in nom. pl. and abl. and loc. sing.) अन्तरे-रा वा गृहाः बाह्या इत्यर्थः (चण्डालादिगृहाः); अन्तरे-रा वा शाटकाः परिधानीया इत्यर्थः Sk.; so अन्तरायां पुरि, अन्तरायै नगर्यै, नमो$न्तरस्मै अमेधसाम् Vop. -रम् 1 (a) The interior, inside; ततान्तरं सान्तरवारिशीकरैः Ki.4.29,5.5; जालान्तरगते भानौ Ms.8.132; विमानान्तरलम्बिनीनाम् R.13.33; Mk.8.5, Ku. 7.62; अपि वनान्तरं श्रयति V.4.24; लीयन्ते मुकुलान्तरेषु Ratn. 1.26, Ki.3.58; अन्तरात् from inside, from out of; प्राकारपरिखान्तरान्निर्ययुः Rām.; अन्तरे in, into; वन˚, कानन˚, प्रविश्यान्तरे &c. (b) Hence, the interior of any thing, contents; purport, tenor; अत्रान्तरं ब्रह्मविदो विदित्वा Śvet. Up. (c) A hole, an opening; तस्य बाणान्तरेभ्यस्तु बहु सुस्राव शोणितम्. -2 Soul, heart; mind; सततमसुतरं वर्णयन्त्यन्तरम् Ki.5.18 the inmost or secret nature (lit. middle space or region); लब्धप्रतिष्ठान्तरैः भृत्यैः Mu.3.13 having entered the heart; सदृशं पुरुषान्तरविदो महेन्द्रस्य V.3. -3 The Supreme Soul. -4 Interval, intermediate time or space, distance; रम्यान्तरः Ś.4.11; किंचिदन्तरमगमम् Dk.6; अल्प- कुचान्तरा V.4.49; क्रोशान्तरेण पथि स्थिताः H.4 at the distance of; बृहद् भुजान्तरम् R.3.54; अन्तरे oft. translated by between, betwixt; गीतान्तरेषु Ku.3.38 in the intervals of singing; मरणजीवितयोरन्तरे वर्ते betwixt life and death; अस्त्रयोगान्तरेषु Rām.; तन्मुहूर्तकं बाष्पसलिलान्तरेषु प्रेक्षे तावदार्यपुत्रम् U.3 in the intervals of weeping; बाष्पविश्रामो$प्यन्तरे कर्तव्य एव U.4 at intervals; स्मर्तव्योस्मि कथान्तरेषु भवता Mk.7.7 in the course of conversation; कालान्तरावर्तिशुभाशुभानि H.1 v. l. See कालान्तरम्; सरस्वतीदृषद्वत्योर्यदन्तरम् Ms.2.17,22; द्यावापृथिव्यो- रिदमन्तरं हि व्याप्तं त्वयैकेन Bg.11.2; न मृणालसूत्रं रचितं स्तनान्तरे Ś.6.18 between the breasts; Bg.5.27; अस्य खलु ते बाणपथवर्तिनः कृष्णसारस्यान्तरे तपस्विन उपस्थिताः Ś.1; तदन्तरे सा विरराज धेनुः R.2.2;12.29. (b) Intervention (व्यवधान) oft. in the sense of 'through'; मेघान्तरालक्ष्यमि- वेन्दुबिम्बम् R.13.38 through the clouds; वस्त्रं अन्तरं व्यवधायकं यस्य स वस्त्रान्तरः P.VI.2.166 Sk.; महानद्यन्तरं यत्र तद्देशान्त- रमुच्यते; जालान्तरप्रेषितदृष्टिः R.7.9 peeping through a window; विटपान्तरेण अवलोकयामि Ś.1; क्षणमपि विलम्बमन्तरीकर्तु- मक्षमा K.36 to allow to come between or intervene; कियच्चिरं वा मैघान्तरेण पूर्णिमाचन्द्रस्य दर्शनम् U.3. -5 Room, place, space in general; मृणालसूत्रान्तरमप्यलभ्यम् Ku.1.4; न ह्यविद्धं तयोर्गात्रे बभूवाङ्गुलमन्तरम् Rām.; मूषिकैः कृते$न्तरे Y.1. 147; गुणाः कृतान्तराः K.4 finding or making room for themselves; न यस्य कस्यचिदन्तरं दातव्यम् K.266; देहि दर्शना- न्तरम् 84. room; पौरुषं श्रय शोकस्य नान्तरं दातुमर्हसि Rām. do not give way to sorrow; तस्यान्तरं मार्गते Mk.7.2 waits till it finds room; अन्तरं अन्तरम् Mk.2 make way, make way. -6 Access, entrance, admission, footing; लेभेन्तरं चेतसि नोपदेशः R.6.66 found no admission into (was not impressed on) the mind; 17.75; लब्धान्तरा सावरणे$पि गेहे 16.7. -7 Period (of time), term; मासान्तरे देयम् Ak.; सप्तैते मनवः । स्वे स्वेन्तरे सर्वमिदमुत्पाद्यापुश्चराचरम् Ms.1.63, see मन्वन्तरम्; इति तौ विरहान्तरक्षमौ R.8.56 the term or period of separation; क्षणान्तरे -रात् within the period of a moment. -8 Opportunity, occasion, time; देवी चित्रलेखामव- लोकयन्ती तिष्ठति । तस्मिन्नन्तरे भर्तोपस्थितः M.1. अत्रान्तरे प्रणम्याग्रे समुपविष्टः; Pt.1 on that occasion, at that time; अस्मिन्नन्तरे Dk.164; केन पुनरुपायेन मरणनिर्वाणस्यान्तरं संभावयिष्ये Māl.6; कृतकृत्यता लब्धान्तरा भेत्स्यति Mu.2.22 getting an opportunity; 9; यावत्त्वामिन्द्रगुरवे निवेदयितुं अन्तरान्वेषी भवामि Ś.7. find a fit or opportune time; शक्तेनापि सता जनेन विदुषा कालान्तरप्रेक्षिणा वस्तव्यम् Pt.3.12; waiting for a suitable opportunity or time; सारणस्यान्तरं दृष्ट्वा शुको रावणमब्रवीत् Rām. -9 Difference (between two things), (with gen. or in comp.) शरीरस्य गुणानां च दूरमत्यन्तमन्तरम् H.1.46; उभयोः पश्यतान्तरम् H.1.64, नारीपुरुषतोयानामन्तरं महदन्तरम् 2.39; तव मम च समुद्रपल्वलयोरिवान्तरम् M.1; Bg.13.34; यदन्तरं सर्षपशैलराजयोर्यदन्तरं वायसवैनतेययोः Rām.; द्रुमसानुमतां किमन्तरम् R.8.9;18.15; rarely with instr.; त्वया समुद्रेण च महदन्तरम् H.2; स्वामिनि गुणान्तरज्ञे Pt.1.11; difference; सैव विशिनष्टि पुनः प्रधानपुरषान्तरं सूक्ष्मम् Sāṅ. K. -1 (Math.) Difference, remainder also subtraction, cf. योगोन्तरेणोनयुतो$र्धितस्तौ राशी स्मृतौ संक्रमणाख्यमेतत् ॥ Līlā. -11 (a) Different, another, other, changed, altered (manner, kind, way &c.); (Note:- that in this sense अन्तर always forms the latter part of a compound and its gender remains unaffected i. e. neuter, whatever be the gender of the noun forming the first part; कन्यान्तरम् (अन्या कन्या), राजान्तरम् (अन्यो राजा), गृहान्तरम् (अन्यद् गृहम्); in most cases it may be rendered by the English word 'another'.); इदमवस्थान्तरमारोपिता Ś.3 changed condition; K.154; Mu.5; शुभाशुभफलं सद्यो नृपाद्देवाद्भवान्तरे Pt.1.121; जननान्तरसौहृदानि &Sacute.5.2 friendships of another (former) existence; नैवं वारान्तरं विधास्यते H.3 I shall not do so again; आमोदान् हरिदन्तराणि नेतुम् Bv.1.15, so दिगन्तराणि; पक्षान्तरे in the other case; देश˚, राज˚, क्रिया˚ &c. (b) Various, different, manifold (used in pl.); लोको नियम्यत इवात्मदशान्तरेषु Ś.4.2; मन्निमित्तान्यवस्थान्तराण्यवर्णयत् Dk.118 various or different states; 16; sometimes used pleonastically with अन्यत् &c.; अन्यत्स्थानान्तरं गत्वा Pt.1. -12 Distance (in space); व्यामो बाह्वोः सकरयोस्ततयोस्ति- र्यगन्तरम् Ak.; प्रयातस्य कथंचिद् दूरमन्तरम् Ks.5.8. -13 Absence; तासामन्तरमासाद्य राक्षरीनां वराङ्गना Rām.; तस्यान्तरं च विदित्वा ibid. -14 Intermediate member, remove, step, gradation (of a generation &c.); एकान्तरम् Ms.1.13; द्वयेकान्तरासु जातानाम् 7; एकान्तरमामन्त्रितम् P.VIII.1.55; तत्स्रष्टुरेकान्तरम् Ś.7.27 separated by one remove, See एकान्तर also. -15 Peculiarity, peculiar or characteristic possession or property; a (peculiar) sort, variety, or kind; व्रीह्यन्तरेप्यणुः Trik.; मीनो राश्यन्तरे, वेणुर्नृपान्तरे ibid.; प्रासङ्गो युगान्तरम् cf. also प्रधानपुरुषान्तरं सूक्ष्मम् Sāṅ. K.37. &c. -16 Weakness, weak or vulnerable point; a failing, defect, or defective point; प्रहरेदन्तरे रिपुम्, Śabdak. सुजयः खलु तादृगन्तरे Ki.2.52; असहद्भिर्माममिमित्रैर्नित्यमन्तरदर्शिभिः Rām; परस्यान्तरदर्शिना ibid.; कीटकेनेवान्तरं मार्गयमाणेन प्राप्तं मया महदन्तरम् Mk.9; अथास्य द्वादशे वर्षे ददर्श कलिरन्तरम् Nala.7.2.; हनूमतो वेत्ति न राक्षसो$न्तरं न मारुतिस्तस्य च राक्षसो$न्तरम् Rām. -17 Surety, guarantee, security; तेन तव विरूपकरणे सुकृतमन्तरे धृतम् Pt.4 he has pledged his honour that he will not harm you; आत्मान- मन्तरे$र्पितवान् K.247; अन्तरे च तयोर्यः स्यात् Y.2.239; भुवः संज्ञान्तरयोः P.III.2.179; धनिकाधमर्णयोरन्तरे यस्तिष्ठति विश्वासार्थं स प्रतिभूः Sk. -18 Regard, reference, account; न चैतदिष्टं माता मे यदवोचन्मदन्तरम् Rām. with reference to me; त्वदन्तरेण ऋणमेतत्. -19 Excellence, as in गुणान्तरं व्रजति शिल्पमाधातुः M.1.6 (this meaning may be deduced from 11). -2 A garment (परिधान). -21 Purpose, object, (तादर्थ्य) तौ वृषाविव नर्दन्तौ बलिनौ वासितान्तरे Mb.1.12.41; (Malli. on R.16.82). -22 Concealment, hiding; पर्व- तान्तरितो रविः (this sense properly belongs to अन्तर्-इ q. v.). -23 Representative, substitution. क्षात्रमाचरतो मार्गमपि बन्धोस्त्वदन्तरे Mb.12.1.3. -24 Destitution, being without (विना) which belongs to अन्तरेण. (अन्तरमवकाशाव- धिपरिधानान्तर्धिभेदतादर्थ्ये । छिद्रात्मीर्यावेनाबहिरवसरमध्येन्तरात्मनि च Ak.) [cf. L. alter] -25 Space (अवकाश); प्रेक्षतामृषि- सङ्घानां बभूव न तदान्तरम् Rām.7.14.19. -26 Separation (वियोग); भार्यापत्योरन्तरम् Mb.5.35.43. -27 A move or skilful play in wrestling; अन्योन्यस्थान्तरप्रेप्सू प्रचक्राते$न्तरं प्रति Mb.9.57.11. -28 A moulding of the pedestal and the base; षडंशं चान्तरे कर्णे उत्तरांशं तदूर्ध्वके । Māna.13.121; cf. स्थानात्मीयान्यतादर्थ्यरन्ध्रान्तर्धिषु चान्तरम् । परिधाने$वधौ मध्ये$- न्तरात्मनि नपुंसके । Nm. -Comp. -अपत्या a pregnant woman. -चक्रम् a technical term in augury Bṛi. S. chap.86. -ज्ञ a. knowing the interior, prudent, wise, foreseeing; नान्तरज्ञाः श्रियो जातु प्रियैरासां न भूयते Ki.11.24 not knowing the difference. -तत् a. spreading havoc. -द a. cutting the interior or heart. -दिशा, अन्तरा दिक् intermediate region or quarter of the compass. -दृश् a. realizing the Supreme Soul (परमात्मानुसंधायिन्). -पु(पू)रुषः the internal man, soul (the deity that resides in man and witnesses all his deeds); तांस्तु देवाः प्रपश्यन्ति स्वस्यैवान्तरपूरुषः; Ms.8.85. -पूजा = अन्तर-पूजा. -प्रभवः [अन्तराभ्यां भिन्नवर्णमातापितृभ्यां प्रभवति] one of a mixed origin or caste. (अम्बष्ठ, क्षत्तृ, करण, इ.); अन्तरप्रभवाणां च धर्मान्नो वक्तुमर्हसि Ms.1.2. -प्रश्नः an inner question, one contained in and arising out of what has been previously mentioned. -शायिन् -स्थ, -स्थायिन् -स्थित a. 1 inward, internal, inherent; ˚स्थैर्गुणैः शुभ्रैर्लक्ष्यते नैव केन चित् Pt. 1.221. -2 interposed, intervening, separate. -3 seated in the heart, an epithet of जीव.
antarita अन्तरित p. p. 1 Gone between, intervening. -2 Gone within, hidden, concealed, covered, screened, shielded, protected (from view) by something; पादपान्तरित एव विश्वस्तामेनां पश्यामि Ś.1 hid behind a creeper; सारसेन स्वदेहान्तरितो राजा H.3 screened; विटपान्तरितस्तिष्ठ Ś.3; नलिनीपत्रान्तरितं प्रियसहचरमपश्यन्ती Ś.4; शार्दूलचर्मान्तरितोरुपृष्ठम् Ku.7.37 covered; Dk.21,146; K.28,152,2; पर्व- तान्तरितो रविः set. Ak.; त्वगन्तरिततृतीयलोचनम् K.18, R.1. 8; उन्मादमोहान्तरितो$पि Māl.9; तल्पमन्तरितभूमिभिः कुथैः R. 19.2. -3 Gone in, reflected; स्फटिकभित्त्यन्तरितान् मृगशावकान् reflected in the crystal wall. -4 (a) Concealed, made dormant, impeded, hindered, prevented; त्वदभिप्रायापरि- ज्ञानान्तरित एवायमनुनयः Mu.2 prevented from being made; त्वद्वाञ्छान्तरितानि साध्यानि Mu.4.15 prevened from being actually effected &c.; द्विषत्प्रतापान्तरितोरुतेजाः Ki.3.45 obscured; नोपालभ्यः पुमांस्तत्र दैवान्तरितपौरुषः Pt.2.133. (b) Separated, lost to view, made invisible by interposition; मुहूर्तान्तरितमाधवा दुर्मनायमाना Māl.8; भर्तुरेतान्यक्ष- राणि बिम्बान्तरितानि M.3; धनमित्राख्ययान्तरितः Dk.36; चन्द्रा- पीडनामान्तरितस्य चन्द्रमसः K.338; प्रतिनिवर्तमानयात्राजनसंकुलेन अन्तरिते तस्मिन् Māl.2; क्रियतां कथमन्त्यमण्डनं परलोकान्तरितस्य ते मया Ku.4.22 separated (from me) by the next world, i. e. dead, deceased; मेघैरन्तरितः प्रिये तव मुखच्छा- यानुकारी शशी S. D. (c) Drowned, obscured removed, eclipsed; परलोकभयभैहिकदुःखेनान्तरितम् Dk.82. drowned, eclipsed, obscured; वीरलोकसाधुवादेनान्तरितः समरतूर्यरवः Ve. 4 drowned; विस्मयान्तरितशोकवृत्तान्ता K.322; कार्यान्तरितोत्कण्ठम् V.3.4 forgotten, removed; इन्दुप्रकाशान्तरितोडुतुल्याः R.16. 65 obscured by moon-light. -5 Disappeared, vanished, departed, retired, withdrawn; (महामृगः) आश्रमान्तरितः शीघ्रं प्लवमानो महाजवः Mb.3.311.9. अन्तरिते तस्मिञ्- शयरसेनापतौ K.33; नाथदेहस्पर्शेन अन्तरित एव सन्तापः U.6 has disappeared, has been removed. -6 Passed over, omitted; अये मध्यमाम्बावृत्तान्तो$न्तरित एवार्येण U. i; कथान्तरेणान्तरितमिदम् M.5 put off, delayed. -7 Slighted, despised. -8 (In Math.) That which remains, the remainder. -9 A technical term in architecture.
antarbhāvanā अन्तर्भावना 1 Inclusion. -2 Inward meditation or anxiety. -3 A technichl term in arithmetic, rectification of numbers by the differences of the products.
antya अन्त्य a. [अन्ते भवति वसति &c., अन्ताय हितः; अन्त-यत्] 1 Last, final (as a letter, word &c.); last (in time, order or place) P.I.1.47; as ह of letters, Revatī of asterisms, Mīna of the zodiacal signs. &c.; अन्त्ये वयसि in old age R.9.79; अन्त्यं ऋणम् R.1.71 last debt; ˚मण़्डनम् 8.71 last funeral decoration, Ku.4.22. -2 Immediately following (in comp.); अष्टम˚ ninth. -3 perishable, transitory; देहाद्यपार्थमसदन्यमभिज्ञमात्रं (विन्देत) Bhāg.12.8.44. -4 Lowest (in rank, degree or position), undermost, worst, inferior, base, vile, wretched; ˚अवस्थां गतः Pt.4.11 reduced to the worst plight; अन्त्यासु दशासु Pt.1.336 at perilous (critical) times; belonging to the lowest caste; चण्डाल ˚स्त्रियःMs.11.175; ˚स्त्रीनिषेविणः 12.59; अन्त्यादपि वरं रत्नं स्त्रीरत्नं दुष्कुलादपि; शूद्राश्च सन्तः शूद्राणामन्त्यानामन्त्ययोनयः (साक्ष्यं कुर्युः) 8.68, 3.9; 4.79; Y.1.148, 2.294. -न्त्यः 1 A man of the lowest caste; see above. -2 N. of a plant (मुस्ता Mar. नागर- मोथा) (f. also) (the roots of which are prescribed for colic). -3 The last syllable of a word. -4 The last lunar month i. e. Fālguna. -5 A Mlechcha, foreigner, barbarian. अन्त्येषु स विनिक्षिप्य पुत्रान् यदुपुरोगमान् Mb.1.86.12. -6 (In Vaiśeṣika Phil.) A name for the category विशेष; अन्त्यो नित्यद्रव्यवृत्तिर्विशेषः परिकीर्तितः Bhāṣā P. -न्त्या 1 A technical name for त्रिज्या in astronomy. -2 A woman of the lowest tribe. -न्त्यम् 1 A measure of number; 1 billions (1,,,,.) -2 The 12th sign of the zodiac. -3 The last member or term of a progression (series), the last figure; स्थाप्योन्तवर्गो द्विगुणान्त्यनिघ्नः Līlā. -Comp. -अनुप्रासः see under अनुप्रास. -अवसायिन् m., f. (˚यी, ˚यिनी) a man or woman of the lowest caste, begotten by a chāṇḍāla on a Niṣādī woman; निषादस्त्री तु चाण्डालात्पुत्रमन्त्यावसा- यितम् । स्मशानगोचरं सूते बाह्यानामपि गर्हितम् ॥ Ms.1.39; the following 7 are regarded as belonging to this class; चाण्डालः श्वपचः क्षत्ता सूतो वैदेहकस्तथा । मागधायोगवौ चैव सप्तैते$- न्त्यावसायिनः ॥ सो$हमन्त्यावसायानां हराम्येनां प्रतिगृहात् Mb.12.141.41. see अन्तेवसायिन्. -आश्रमिन् m. one who belongs to the last or mendicant order. -आहुतिः -इष्टिः f. -कर्मन्, -क्रिया last or funeral oblations, sacrifices or rites; ˚कर्म Ms.11.197,5.168; अन्त्याहुतिं हावयितुं सविप्राः Bk. -ऋणम् the last of the three debts which every one has to pay, i. e. begetting children; see अनृण. -गमनम् intercourse by a woman of the higher caste with a man of the lowest caste. -ज. a 1 latest born, younger -2 belonging to the lowest caste; ˚जैर्नृभिः Ms.4.61; ˚स्त्री 8.385. (-जः) 1 a śūdra (अन्त्यः सन् जायते, वर्णमध्ये शेषभवत्वात्). -2 one of the 7 inferior tribes; chāṇḍāla &c.; रजकश्चर्मकारश्च नटो वरुड एव च । कैवर्तमेदभिल्लाश्च सप्तैते चान्त्यजाः स्मृता ॥ Yama; also Ms.8.279; Y.1.273. (-जा) a woman of the lowest caste; Ms.11.59.171; Y.3.231. -जन्मन्, -जाति, -जातीय a. 1 one belonging to the lowest caste; प्रतिग्रहस्तु क्रियते शूद्रादप्यन्त्यजन्मनः Ms.1.11. -2 a Śūdra; ˚तिता Ms.12.9. -3 a chāṇḍāla. -धनम् the last term of a progression or series. -पदम्, -मूलम् the last or greatest root (in a square). -भम् 1 the last lunar mansion रेवती. -2 the last sign of zodiac; मीन Pisces.. -युगम् the last or Kali age. -योनि. a. of the lowest origin; अन्त्याना- मन्त्ययोनयः (साक्ष्यम्) Ms.8.68. (-निः) the lowest source or origin. -लोपः dropping of the last letter or syllable of a word. -वर्णः, -वर्णा a man or woman of the lowest caste, a śūdra male or female. -विपुला N. of a metre.
anvartha अन्वर्थ a. [अनुगतः अर्थम्] Having the meaning clear or intelligible, having a meaning easily deducible from the etymology of the word; hence, true to the sense, significant; तथैव सो$भूदन्वर्थो राजा प्रकृतिरञ्जनात् R.4.12; अन्वर्था तैर्वसुन्धरा Ki.11.64; अन्वर्थसंज्ञैव परं त्रिमार्गगा Śi.12.23; अन्वर्थ एवायमधुना प्रलापो वर्तते U.3.; अन्वर्थतो$पि ननु राक्षस राक्षसो$सि Mu.5.7 in the true sense of the word, properly so called. -Comp. -ग्रहणम् literal acceptation of the meaning of a word (opp. to रूढ or conventional). -संज्ञा 1 an appropriate name, a technical term which directly conveys its own meaning; e. g. भविष्यन्ती a name for 'future' is an अन्वर्थसंज्ञा compared with लृट्. -2 a proper name the meaning of which is obvious.
abhibalam अभिबलम् A technical term in Rhetoric; अभिबलमभि- सन्धिश्छलेन यः S. D.375 'an inquiry or examination by an artifice'. See Ratn.3.
āvid आविद् a. Ved. 1 Knowledge. -2 A technical name of the Vedic formulas (in Vāj.1.9.) beginning with आविस् and आवित्त.
utsedha उत्सेध a. High, tall. -धः 1 A height, elevation; (fig. also); पयोधरोत्सेधविशीर्णसंहति (वल्कलम्) Ku.5.8,24. cf. also Kau. A.1.3; Śukra.4.495; high or projecting breasts; सोत्सेधैः स्कन्धदेशैः Mu.4.7. raised high up. -2 Thickness, fatness. -3 Intumescence, swelling. -4 The body. -5 Sublimity, greatness; prosperity; मामकस्यास्य सैन्यस्य हतोत्सेधस्य सञ्जय । अवशेषं न पश्यामि Mb. 8.9.93. -धम् 1 Killing, slaughter. -2 The height from the basement to the top; उत्सेधं जन्मादिस्तूपिकान्तम् । Mānasāra 35.26. The different technical names of the heights of the idols are शान्तिक, पौष्टिक, जयद, सार्वकामिक, धनद and अद्भुत. Their lengths are respectively 1th, l, 1 rd of their breadths.
upasaṃkhyānam उपसंख्यानम् 1 Addition. -2 Supplementary addition, further or additional enumeration (a term technically applied to the Vārtikas. of Kātyāyana which are intended to supply omissions in Pāṇini's Sūtras and generally to supplement them); e. g. जुगुप्साविरामप्रमादार्था- नामुपसंख्यानम्; cf. इष्टि. -3 (In gram.) A substitute in form or sense.
lṛ लृ ind. 1 The earth. -2 A mountain. -3 The mother of the gods. -4 The female nature. -5 A mystical letter. (N. B. - No Sanskrit word begins with लृ or लॄ, except some of the technical names of Pāṇini for tenses and moods; e. g. लृङ् and लृट्). cf. also लृर्म्लेच्छो$
kanyakā कन्यका 1 A girl; संबद्धवैखानसकन्यकानि R.14.28;11.53. -2 An unmarried girl, virgin, maiden; गृहे गृहे पुरुषाः कुलकन्यकाः समुद्वहन्ति Māl.7; Y.1.15. -3 A technical name for a girl ten years old; (अष्टवर्षा भवेद्गौरी नववर्षा च रोहिणी । दशमे कन्यका प्रोक्ता अत ऊर्ध्वं रजस्वला Śabdak.) -4 (In Rhet.) One of the several kinds of heroines; an unmarried girl serving as a chief character in a poetical composition; see under अन्यस्त्री. -5 The sign Virgo. -6 N. of Durgā; Bhāg.1.2.12. -Comp. -च्छलः seduction; पैशाचः कन्यकाच्छलात् Y.1.61. -जनः a maiden; विशुद्धमुग्धः कुलकन्यकाजनः Māl.7.1. -जातः the son of an unmarried girl; कानीनः कन्यकाजातः Y.2.129 (= कानीन); for instance व्यास, कर्ण &c.
karman कर्मन् -m. Viśvakarmā; शक्रस्य नु सभा दिव्या भास्वरा कर्मनिर्मिता Mb.2.7.1. -n. [कृ-मनिन् Uṇ.4.144] 1 Action, work, deed. -2 Execution, performance; प्रीतो$स्मि सो$हं यद् भुक्तं वनं तैः कृतकर्मभिः Rām.5.63.3. -3 Business, office, duty; संप्रति विषवैद्यानां कर्म M.4. -4 A religious rite (it may be either नित्य, नैमित्तिक or काम्य). -5 A specific action, moral duty. -6 (a) Performance of religious rites as opposed to speculative religion or knowledge of Brahman (opp. ज्ञान); अपरो दहृने स्वकर्मणां ववृते R.8.2. (b) Labour, work. -7 Product, result. -8 A natural or active property (as support of the earth). -9 Fate, the certain consequence of acts done in a former life; कर्मायत्तं फलं पुंसां बुद्धिः कर्मानुसारिणी Bh.2.89,94. -1 (In gram.) The object of of an action; कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म P.I.4.49. -11 (In Vaiś. Phil.) Motion considered as one of the seven categories of things; (thus defined:-- एकद्रव्यमगुणं संयोगविभागेष्वनपेक्षकारणं कर्म Vaiś. Sūtra. (It is five-fold:-- उत्क्षेपणं ततो$वक्षेपणमाकुञ्चनं तथा । प्रसारणं च गमनं कर्माण्येतानि पञ्च च ॥ Bhāṣā P.6.) -12 Organ of sense. प्रजापतिर्ह कर्माणि ससृजे Bṛi. Up.1.5.21. -13 Organ of action; कर्माणि कर्मभिः कुर्वन् Bhāg.11.3.6. -14 (In Astr.) The tenth lunar mansion. -15 Practice, training; सर्वेषां कर्मणा वीर्यं जवस्तेजश्च वर्धते Kau. A.2.2. -Comp. -अक्षम a. incapable of doing anything. -अङ्गम् part of any act; part of a sacrificial rite (as प्रयाज of the Darśa sacrifice). -अधिकारः the right of performing religious rites. -अनुरूप a. 1 according to action or any particular office. -2 according to actions done in a previous existence. -अनुष्ठानम् practising one's duties. -अनुसारः consequence of, or conformity to, acts. -अन्तः 1 the end of any business or task. -2 a work, business, execution of business. -3 a barn, a store of grain &c. Ms.7.62 (कर्मान्तः इक्षुधान्यादिसंग्रहस्थानम् Kull.) -4 cultivated ground. -5 a worker; कच्चिन्न सर्वे कर्मान्ताः Rām.2.1.52. -अन्तरम् 1 difference or contrariety of action. -2 penance, expiation. -3 suspension of a religious action. -4 another work or action; कर्मान्तर- नियुक्तासु निर्ममन्थ स्वयं दधि Bhāg.1.9.1. -अन्तिक a. final. (-कः) a servant, workman, Rām.1.13.7. -अपनुत्तिः f. removing, sending away of कर्म; जन्मकर्माप- नुत्तये Bhāg.12.2.17. -अर्ह a. fit or suitable to an act or the rite. (-र्हः) a man. -आख्या f. Name received from the act performed; तस्मात् छिन्नगमनो$श्वो$पि छाग इति कर्माख्या भविष्यति । ŚB. on MS.6.8.37. -आजीवः one who maintains himself by some profession (as that of an artisan &c.) -आत्मन् a. endowed with the principles of action, active; कर्मात्मनां च देवानां सो$सृजत्प्राणिनां प्रभुः Ms.1.22. (-m.) the soul. -आयतनम् see कर्मेन्द्रियम्; शव्दः स्पर्शो रसो गन्धो रूपं चेत्यर्थजातयः । गत्युक्त्युत्सर्गशिल्पानि कर्मायतनसिद्धयः Bhāg.11.22.16. -आशयः receptacle or accumulation of (good and evil) acts; निर्हृत्य कर्माशयमाशु याति परां गतिम् Bhāg.1.46.32. -इन्द्रियम् an organ of action, as distinguished from ज्ञानेन्द्रिय; (they are :- वाक्पाणिपादपायूपस्थानि; Ms.2.99; see under इन्द्रिय also) कर्मेन्द्रियाणि संयम्य Bg.3.6,7. -उदारम् any valiant or noble act, magnanimity, prowess. -उद्युक्त a. busy, engaged, active, zealous. -करः 1 a hired labourer (a servant who is not a slave); आ तस्य गोः प्रतिदानात् कर्मकारी आगबीनः कर्मकरः Mbh. on P.V.2.14. कर्मकराः स्थपत्यादयः Pt.1; Śi.14.16. -2 Yama. -कर्तृ m. (in gram.) an agent who is at the same time the object of the action; e. g. पच्यते ओदनः, it is thus defined:- क्रियमाणं तु यत्कर्म स्वयमेव प्रसिध्यति । सुकरैः स्वैर्गुणैः कर्तुः कर्मकर्तेति तद्विदुः ॥ न चान्तरेण कर्मकर्तारं सकर्मका अकर्मका भवन्ति Mbh. on P.I.3.27 -काण्डः, -ण्डम् that department of the Veda which relates to ceremonial acts and sacrificial rites and the merit arising from a due performance thereof. -कारः 1 one who does any business, a mechanic, artisan (technically a worker not hired). -2 any labourer in general (whether hired or not). -3 a black-smith; हरिणाक्षि कटाक्षेण आत्मानमवलोकय । न हि खङ्गो विजानाति कर्मकारं स्वकारणम् ॥ Udb. -4 a bull. -कारिन् m. a labourer, artisan, workman. -कार्मुकः, -कम् a strong bow. -कीलकः a washerman. -कृत्यम् activity, the state of active exertion; यः प्रथमः कर्मकृत्याय जज्ञे Av.4.24.6. -क्षम a. able to perform any work or duty; आत्मकर्मक्षमं देहं क्षात्रो धर्म इवाश्रितः R.1.13. -क्षेत्रम् the land of religious acts, i. e. भरतवर्ष; Bhāg.5.17.11. cf. कर्मभूमि. -गतिः f. the course of fate; अथ कर्मगतिं चित्रां दृष्ट्वा$स्य हसितं मया Ks.59.159. -गृहीत a. caught in the very act (as a thief.). -ग्रन्थिः f. a term in Jaina metaphysics connoting 'weakness in the form of वासनाs produced by अज्ञान'. -घातः leaving off or suspending work. -च(चा)ण्डालः 1 'base in deed', a man of very low acts or deeds; Vasiṣṭha mentions these kinds :-- असूयकः पिशुनश्च कृतघ्नो दीर्घरोषकः । चत्वारः कर्मचाण्डाला जन्मतश्चापि पञ्चमः ॥ -2 one who commits an atrocious deed; अपूर्वकर्मचण्डालमयि मुग्धे विमुच्च माम् U.1.46. -3 N. of Rāhu. -चेष्टा active exertion, action. कर्मचेष्टास्वहः Ms.1.66. -चोदना 1 The motive impelling one to ritual acts. ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं परिज्ञाता त्रिविधा कर्मचोदना Bg.18.18. -2 any positive rule enjoining a religious act. -च्छेदः The loss caused by absence on duty; Kau. A.2.7. -जः a. resulting from an act; सिद्धिर्भवति कर्मजा Bg.4.12. कर्मजा गतयो नॄणामुत्तमाधममध्यमाः Ms.12.3. (-जः) 1 the holy fig-tree. -2 the Kali age. -3 the banian tree. -4 the effect arising from human acts :-- संयोग, विभाग &c. -5 heaven. -6 hell. -ज्ञ a. one acquainted with religious rites. -त्यागः renunciation of worldly duties or ceremonial acts. -दुष्ट a. corrupt in action, wicked, immoral, disrespectable. -देवः a god through religious action; ये शतं गन्धर्वलोक आनन्दाः स एकः कर्मदेवानामानन्दः Bṛi. Up.4.3.33. -दोषः 1 sin, vice; अवेक्षेत गतीर्नॄणां कर्मदोष- समुद्भवाः Ms.6.61,95. -2 an error, defect, or blunder (in doing an act); कर्मदोषैर्न लिप्यते Ms.1,14. -3 evil consequence of human acts. -4 discreditable conduct. -धारयः N. of a compound, a subdivision of Tatpuruṣa, (in which the members of the compound are in apposition) तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P.I. 2.42. तत्पुरुष कर्म धारय येनाहं स्यां बहुव्रीहिः Udb. -ध्वंसः 1 loss of fruit arising from religious acts. -2 disappointment. -नामन् (in gram.) a participal noun. -नामधेयम् N. of an act or sacrifice. These names are not arbitrary or technical such as गुण and वृद्धि but are always significant; सर्वेष्वेव कर्मनामधेयेषु अर्थसमन्वयेनानुवाद- भूतो नामशद्बो वर्तते, न लौकिकार्थतिरस्कारेण परिभाषामात्रेण वृद्धिगुणवत् ŚB. on MS.1.6.41. -नाशा N. of a river between Kaśi and Bihar. -निश्चयः a decision of action; न लेमे कर्मनिश्चयम् Bm.1.648. -निषद्या a manufactory; Kau. A.2.4. -निष्ठ a. devoted to the performance of religious acts; अग्निर्वीरं श्रुत्यं कर्मनिष्ठाम् Rv.1.8.1; Ms.3.134. -न्यासः renunciation of the result of religious acts. -पथः 1 the direction or source of an action. -2 the path of religious rites (opp. ज्ञानमार्ग). -पाकः ripening of actions, reward of actions done in a former life; Pt.1.372. -प्रवचनीयः a term for certain prepositions, particles, or adverbs when they are not connected with verbs and govern a noun in some case; literally-the term means, 'Concerned with the setting forth of an action'. According to Indian grammarians it means 'that which spoke of an action (क्रियां प्रोक्तवन्तः)' e. g. आ in आ मुक्तेः संसारः is a कर्मप्रवचनीय; so अनु in जपमनु प्रावर्षत् &c; कर्म प्रोक्तवन्तः कर्मप्रवचनीया इति Mbh. on P.I.4.83. cf. उपसर्ग, गति and निपात also. -फलम् 1 fruit or reward of actions done in a former life; (pain, pleasure); न मे कर्मफले स्पृहा Bg.4.14;5.12;6.1; ˚फलत्याग Bg.12.11,18.2; ˚फलत्यागिन् Bg.18.11; ˚फलप्रेप्सुः Bg.18.27; ˚फलसंयोग Bg.5.14; ˚फलहेतु Bg.2.47. एवं संचिन्त्य मनसा प्रेत्य कर्मफलोदयम् Ms.11.231. -2 the fruit of Averrhoa Carambola (Mar. कर्मर); also कर्मरङ्ग. -बन्धः, -बन्धनम् confinement to repeated birth, as the consequence of religious acts, good or bad (by which the soul is attached to worldly pleasures &c.); बुद्ध्या युक्तो यथा पार्थ कर्मबन्धं प्रहास्यति Bg.2.39. -भूः, -भूमिः f. 1 the land of religious rites, i. e. भरतवर्ष, this world (a place for man's probation); प्राप्येमां कर्मभूमिम् Bh.2.1; K.174,319. -2 ploughed ground. -मासः the Calendar month of thirty days. -मीमांसा the Mīmāṁsā of ceremonial acts; see मीमांसा. -मूलम् a kind of sacred grass called कुश. -युगम् the fourth (the present) age of the world, i. e. the Kaliyuga. -योगः 1 performance of actions, worldly and religious rites; कर्मयोगेन योगिनाम् Bg.3.3;3.7;5.2;13.24. -2 active exertion, industry; Ms.1.115. -वचनम् (with Buddhists) the ritual. -वज्रः an epithet of a Śūdra. -वशः fate considered as the inevitable result of actions done in a former life. -वाटी a lunar day (तिथि). -विपाक = कर्मपाक. -शाला a work-shop. -शील, -शूर a. assiduous, active, laborious; cf. कर्म- शीलस्तु कर्मठे । Nm. -शौचम् humility. -श्रुतिः f. The word expressive of the act; कर्मश्रुतेः परार्थत्वात् MS.11. 2.6. (read या अत्र कर्मश्रुतिः दर्शपूर्णमासाभ्यामिति सा परार्था तृतीया-योगात् &c. शबर). -सङ्गः attachment to worldly duties and their results. तन्निबध्नाति ... कर्मसङ्गेन Bg.14.7. -सचिवः a minister. -संन्यासिकः, -संन्यासिन् m. 1 a religious person who has withdrawn from every kind of worldly act. -2 an ascetic who performs religious deeds without looking to their reward. -साक्षिन् m. 1 an eyewitness; वह्निर्विवाहं प्रति कर्मसाक्षी Ku.7.83. -2 one who witnesses the good or bad actions of man; आदित्य भो लोककृताकृतज्ञ लोकस्य सत्यानृप- कर्मसाक्षिन् Rām.3.63.16. (There are nine divinities which are said to witness and watch over all human actions; सूर्यः सोमो यमः कालो महाभूतानि पञ्च च । एते शुभाशुभ- स्येह कर्मणो नव साक्षिणः ॥) -सिद्धिः f. accomplishment of any business or desired object; success. स्वकर्मसिद्धिं पुनरा- शशंसे Ku. -स्थानम् a public office, a place of business.
guru गुरु a. (-रु, -र्वी f.) [ग कु उच्च Uṇ.1.24.] (compar. गरीयस्; superl. गरिष्ठ) 1 Heavy, weighty (opp. लघु); (fig. also); तेन धूर्जगतो गुर्वी सचिवेषु निचिक्षिपे R.1.34;3.35; 12.12; विमुच्य वासांसि गुरूणि साम्प्रतम् Ṛs.1.7. -2 Great, large, long, extended. -3 Long (in duration or length). आरम्भगुर्वी Bh.2.6; गुरुषु दिवसेष्वेषु गच्छत्सु Me.85. -4 Important, momentous, great; विभवगुरुभिः कृत्यैः Ś.4. 19; स्वार्थात्सतां गुरुतरा प्रणयिक्रियैव V.4.31; Ku.3.13; Bh.3.7; R.14.35. -5 Arduous, difficult (to bear); कान्ताविरहगुरुणा शापेन Me.1. -6 Great, excessive, violent, intense; गुरुः प्रहर्षः प्रबभूव नात्मनि R.3.17; गुर्वपि विरहदुःखम् Ś.4.16; Bg.6.22. -7 Venerable, respectable. -8 Heavy, hard of digestion (as food). -9 Best, excellent. -1 Dear, beloved. -11 Haughty, proud (as a speech). -12 (In prosody) Long, as a syllable, either in itself, or being short, followed by a conjunct consonant &c.; e. g. ई in ईड् or त in तस्कर (It is usually represented by ग in works on prosody; मात्तौ गौ चेच्छालिनी वेदलोकैः &c.). -13 Irresistible, unassailable; जागर्ति दंशाय...गुरुर्भुजङ्गी Māl.6.1. -14 Mighty; powerful. -15 Valuable, highly prized; पूर्वं पूर्वं गुरु ज्ञेयम् Y.2.3. -16 Grievous; Me.85. -रुः 1 (a) A father; न केवलं तद्गुरुरेकपार्थिवः क्षितावभूदेकधनुर्धरो$पि सः R.3.31,48;4.1; 8.29. (b) Forefather, ancestor; त्वां मैत्रावरुणो$भिनन्दतु गुरुर्यस्ते गुरूणामपि U.5.27. (c) Father-in-law; त्वं हि मे गुरुः (तद्धर्मतः स्नुषा ते$हम्) Rām.7.26.28-29. -2 Any venerable or respectable person, an elderly personage or relative, the elders (pl.) शुश्रूषस्व गुरून् Ś.4.18; Bg. 2.5; Bv.2.7,18,19,49; आज्ञा गुरूणां ह्यविचारणीया R. 14.46. -3 A teacher, preceptor; गुरुशिष्यौ. -4 Particularly, a religious teacher, spiritual preceptor. तौ गुरुर्गुरुपत्नी च प्रीत्या प्रतिननन्दतुः R.1.57; (technically a Guru is one who performs the purificatory ceremonies over a boy and instructs him in the Vedas; स गुरुर्यः क्रियाः कृत्वा वेदमस्मै प्रयच्छति Y.1.34). -5 A lord, head, superintendent, ruler; सर्वे गुरुहिते स्थिताः Rām.4.4.6; कर्णाश्रमाणां गुरवे स वर्णी R.5.19 the head of the castes or orders; गुरुर्नृपाणां गुरवे निवेद्य 2.68. -6 N. of Bṛihaspati, the preceptor of the gods; गुरुं नेत्रसहस्रेण चोदयामास वासवः Ku.2.29; Pt.1.23. -7 The planet Jupiter; गुरुकाव्यानुगां बिभ्रच्चान्द्रीमभिनभः श्रियम् Śi.2.2. -8 The propounder of a new doctrine. -9 The lunar asterism called पुष्य. -1 N. of Droṇa, teacher of the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas. -11 N. of Prabhākara, the leader of a school of the Mīmāṁsakas (called after him Prābhākara). -12 The supreme spirit. -Comp. -अक्षरम् a long syllable. -अङ्गना 1 the wife of a Guru. -2 A woman entitled to great respect. -अर्थ a. important; सतीं व्यादाय शृण्वन्तो लघ्वीं गुर्वर्थगह्वराम् Bhāg.3. 16.14. (-र्थः) a preceptor's fee for instructing a pupil; गुर्वर्थमाहर्तुमहं यतिष्ये R.5.17. -उत्तम a. highly revered. (-मः) the Supreme soul. -उपदेशः 1 Consultation of the experts; एषु स्थानेषु गुरूपदेशात् सम्यङ् नाडीं परीक्ष्य शिरामोचनं कुर्यात् Śālihotra of Bhoja, 82. -2 advice by the elders or by the preceptor. -कण्ठः a peacock. -कारः worship, adoration. -कार्यम् 1 a serious or weighty affair. -2 the office of a spiritual teacher. -कुलम् the residence of a Guru (गुरुगृह), academy; वसन् गुरुकुले नित्यं नित्यम- ध्ययने रतः Mb.9.4.3; आवृत्तानां गुरुकुलाद्विप्राणां पूजको भवेत् Ms.7.82. -कृत a. 1 worshipped. -2 made much of; अहो निन्द्यं रूपं कविजनविशेषैर्गुरु कृतम् Bh.3.2. -क्रमः instruction handed down through a series of teachers, traditional instruction. -गृहम् signs (राशिs) Sagittarius (धनु) and Pisces (मीन). -घ्नः white mustard. -चर्या attendance upon a preceptor; Māl.9.51. -जनः any venerable person, an elderly relative, the elders collectively; नापेक्षितो गुरुजनः K.158; Bv.2.7. -तल्पः 1 the bed (wife) of a teacher. -2 violation or violator of a teacher's bed; Mb.12.56.32. -तल्पगः, -तल्पिन् m. 1 one who violates his teacher's bed (wife), (ranked in Hindu law as a sinner of the worst kind, committer of an अतिपातक; cf. Ms.11.13); Mb.3.43.6. -2 one who defiles his step-mother. -दक्षिणा fee given to a spiritual preceptor; उपात्तविद्यो गुरुदक्षिणार्थी R.5.1. -दानम् a Guru's gift. -दैवतम् the constellation पुष्य. -पत्रा the tamarind tree. -त्रम् tin. -पाक a. difficult of digestion. -पूजा 1 the ceremonies in propitiation of Bṛihaspati when a work is to be performed or undertaken. -2 the worship of one's spiritual preceptor. -प्रसादः the product of a Guru's blessing, i. e. learning. -भम् 1 the constellation पुष्य. -2 a bow. -3 the sign Pisces of the zodiac. -भावः importance, weight. -मर्दलः a kind of drum or tabor. -रत्नम् 1 topaz; (Mar. पुष्पराग, गोमेद). -2 a gem brought from the Himālaya and the Indus. -लाघवम् relative importance or value; विरोधिषु महीपाल निश्चित्य गुरु- लाघवम् Mb.3.131.12; Ś.5. -वर्चोघ्नः the lime, citron. -वर्तिन्, -वासिन् m. a student (ब्रह्मचारिन्) who resides at his preceptor's house. -वर्ति, -ता f. respectful behaviour towards Guru (elder or venerable person); निवेद्य गुरवे राज्यं भजिष्ये गुरुवर्तिताम् Rām.2.115.19. -वारः, -वासरः Thursday. -वृत्तिः f. the conduct of a pupil towards his preceptor; Rām.2.9.2. -व्यथ a. greatly distressed, heavy with grief; वचोभिराशाजननैर्भवानिव गुरुव्यथम् V. 3.9. -शिखरिन् m. an epithet of the Himālaya. -श्रुतिः a mantra (especially गायत्री); जपमानो गुरुश्रुतिम् Mb.13. 136.6. -स्वम् (= ष्वम्) the preceptor's wealth or property; गवां क्षीरं गुरुष्वं ते... Bm.1.35.
juhotiḥ जुहोतिः A technical name for those sacrificial ceremonies to which the verb जुहोति is applied as distinguished from those to which यजति is applied; क्षरन्ति सर्वा वैदिक्यो जुहोतियजतिक्रियाः Ms.2.84. (See Medhātithi and other commentators; सर्वज्ञनारायण shortly renders जुहोति by उपविष्टहोम and यजति by तिष्ठद्धोम. See Āśvalāyana 1. 2.5 also); cf. also जुहोतिरासेचनाधिकः स्यात् MS.4.2.28. यजतिरेवासेचनाधिको जुहोतिः । ŚB. on MS.4.2.28.
nañ नञ् ind. The technical term for the negative particle; न hence नञः (= A negative particle); द्वौ नञौ प्रकृतार्थं गमयतः.
niṣṭha निष्ठ a. [नि-स्था-क षत्वटुत्वे] (Usually at the end of comp.) 1 Being in or on, situated on; तन्निष्ठे फेने. -2 Depending or resting on, referring or relating to; तमोनिष्ठाः Ms.12.95. -3 Devoted or attached to, practising, intent on; सत्यनिष्ठ. -4 Skilled in. -5 Believing in; धर्मनिष्ठ. -6 Conducive to, effecting; हेमाम्भोज स्रजस्ते विशद सुमहते प्लोषपोषाय निष्ठाः B. R.5.51. -ष्ठा 1 Position, condition, state; तेषां निष्ठा तु का कृष्ण Bg.17.1; तेषामशान्तकामानां का निष्ठा$विजितात्मनाम् Bhāg.11.5.1. -2 Basis, foundation. -3 Fixity, fixedness, steadiness; मनो निष्ठाशून्यं भ्रमति च किमप्यालिखति च Māl.1.31; -4 Devotion or application, close attachment. -5 Belief, firm adherence, faith; शास्त्रेषु निष्ठा Māl.3.11; लोके$स्मिन् द्विविधा निष्ठा पुरा प्रोक्ता मया$नघ Bg.3.3. -6 Excellence, skill, proficiency, perfection. -7 Conclusion, end, termination; (शृणु) चरितं पार्थिवेन्द्रस्य यथा निष्ठां गतश्च सः Mb.1.49.6; अत्यारूढि- र्भवति महतामप्यपभ्रंशनिष्ठा Ś.4.3. (v. l.). -8 The catastrophe or end of a drama. -9 Accomplishment, completion (समाप्ति); पाणिग्रहणिका मन्त्रा नियतं दारलक्षणम् । तेषां निष्ठा तु विज्ञेया विद्वद्भिः सप्तमे पदे ॥ Ms.8.227. -1 The culminating point; इयं च निष्ठा नियतं प्रजानाम् Bu. Ch.3.61. -11 Death, destruction, disappearance from the world at the fixed time. -12 Fixed or certain knowledge, certainty. -13 Begging. -14 Suffering, trouble, distress, anxiety. -15 (In gram.) A technical term for the past participial terminations क्त, क्तवतु (i. e. त and तवत.) -16 N. of Viṣṇu.
paribhāṣā परिभाषा 1 Speech, discourse; ग्राम्यवैदग्ध्यया परिभाषया Bhāg.5.2.17. -2 Censure, reproof, blame, abuse. -3 An explanation. -4 Terminology, technical phraseology, technical terms (used in a work); इति परिभाषाप्रकरणम् Sk.; इको गुणवृद्धीत्यादिका परिभाषा Mbh; cf. also अधिकारशब्देन पारार्थ्यात् परिभाषाप्युच्यते । कश्चित् परिभाषारूप इति Kaiyaṭa. -5 (Hence) Any general rule, precept or definition which is applicable throughout (अनियमनिवारको न्याय- विशेषः); परितः प्रमिताक्षरापि सर्वं विषयं प्राप्तवती गता प्रतिष्ठाम् । न खलु प्रतिहन्यते कदाचित् परिभाषेव गरीयसी यदाज्ञा Śi.16.8. -6 A list of abbreviations or signs used in any work. -7 (In gram.) An explanatory Sūtra mixed up with the other Sūtras of Pāṇini, which teaches the method of applying them. -8 (In medicine) Prognosis.
paryudāsaḥ पर्युदासः 1 An exception, a prohibitive rule or precept; प्राधान्यं हि विधेर्यत्र प्रतिषेधे$प्रधानता । पर्युदासः स विज्ञेयो यत्रोत्तरपदेन नञ् ॥ -2 A negation purporting to state some matter of the exclusion of something that is actually mentioned. Technically नञ् (the negative particle) has the sense of पर्युदास when it is connected with any word that is not a verb. But it conveys प्रतिषेध when it is connected with a verb. Thus अब्राह्मणम् आनय means ब्राह्मणं वर्जयित्वा यं कमपि आनय; while कलञ्जं न भक्षयेत् conveys prohibition of कलञ्जभक्षण. For a discussion on पर्युदास read MS.1.8.1-4 and ŚB. thereon.
paspaśaḥ पस्पशः 1 N. of the first Āhnika of the first chapter of Patañjali's Mahābhāṣya; शब्दविद्येव नो भाति राजनीति- रपस्पशा Śi.2.112 (where अपस्पश also means 'without spies'). -2 (Fig.) An introductory chapter in general (उपोद्घात). -शाः N. of the introduction of the Mahābhāṣya. पह्न pahna (ह्ल hla) वाः vāḥ पह्लिकाः pahlikāḥ पह्न (ह्ल) वाः पह्लिकाः m. (pl.) N. of a people; (the Persians ?); Ms.1.44.
pāribhāṣika पारिभाषिक a. (-की f.) 1 Current, common, universally received; उभयावृत्तिधर्मेण संज्ञा स्यात् पारिभाषिकी Nyāya-śāstra. -2 Technical (as a word &c.).
bhavantī भवन्ती 1 A virtuous wife. -2 Time being, present time; Uṇ.3.5. -3 (In gram.) A technical term for the present tense.
bhuvanam भुवनम् [भवत्यत्र, भू-आधारादौ-क्थुन्] 1 A world, the number of worlds is either three, as in त्रिभुवन or fourteen; इह हि भुवनान्यन्ये धीराश्चतुर्दश भुञ्जते Bh.3.23 (see लोक also); cf. also अतलं सुतलं चैव वितलं च गभस्तिमत् । महातलं रसातलं पातालं सप्तमं स्मृतम् ॥ रुक्मभौमं शिलाभौमं पातालं नीलमृत्तिकम् । रक्तपीतश्वेतकृष्णभौमानि च भवन्त्यपि । पातालानां च सप्तानां लोकानां च यदन्तरम् । सुशिरं तानि कथ्यन्ते भुवनानि चतुर्दश ॥ Vahni. P.; भुवनालोकनप्रीतिः Ku.2.45; भुवनविदितम् Me.6. -2 The earth. -3 Heaven. -4 A being, living creature. -5 Man, mankind. -6 Water; पाणिरेष भुवनं वितरेति छद्मवाग्भिरव वामन विश्वम् N.21.64. -7 The number 'fourteen'. -8 Abode, residence (Ved.). -9 Becoming prosperous. -Comp. -अद्भुत a. astonishing the world. -ईशः a lord of the earth, king. -ईश्वरः 1 a king. -2 N. of Śiva. -ईश्वरी N. of various goddesses. ˚पूजायन्त्रम् N. of a mystical diagram. -ओकस् m. a god. -कोशः the receptacle of beings. -तलम् the surface of the earth. -त्रयम् the three worlds (the earth, atmosphere, and heaven; or heaven, earth, and lower regions). -पावनी an epithet of the Ganges. -भावनः the creator of the world. -भर्तृ m. the supporter of the earth. -शासिन् m. a king, ruler. -हितम् the welfare of the world.
yajatiḥ यजतिः 1 A technical name for those sacrificial ceremonies to which the verb यजति is applied; (see जुहोति for further information). -2 The act of offering something with reference to some deity; द्रव्यदवताक्रियार्थस्य यजतिशब्देन प्रत्यायनं क्रियते । ŚB. on MS.4.2.27. -Comp. -देशः, -स्थानम् a place south of the sacrificial altar.
la लः 1 An epithet of Indra. -2 A short syllable (in prosody). -3 A technical term used by Pāṇini for the ten tenses and moods (there being ten lakāras). -4 (In astr.) The number '5'; Gīrvāṇa.
laṅ लङ् A technical term used by Pāṇini to denote the Imperfect tense or its terminations.
laṭ लट् A technical term used by Pāṇdenote the Present tense or its terminations.
lākṣaṇika लाक्षणिक a. (-की f.) [लक्षणया बोधयति ठक्] 1 One who is acquainted with marks or signs. -2 Characteristic, indicatory. -3 Having a secondary sense, used in a secondary sense (as a word, as distinguished from वाच्य and व्यञ्जक q. q. v. v.); स्याद्वाचको लाक्षणिकः शब्दो$त्र व्यञ्जक- स्त्रिधा K. P.2. -4 Expressing indirectly or figuratively. -5 Secondary, inferior; साक्षात् सुधांशुर्मुखमेव भैम्या दिवः स्फुटं लाक्षणिकः शशाङ्कः N.1.115. -6 Technical. -कः A technical term.
liṅ लिङ् A technical term used by Pāṇini to denote the Potential and Benedictive moods or their terminations (the two moods being distinguished as विधिलिङ् and आशीर्लिङ्).
liṭ लिट् A technical term in grammer used by Pāṇini to denote the Perfect tense or its terminations.
lidhu लिधु A technical term in grammar used by Pāṇini for nominal verbs.
luk लुक् ind. A technical term used by Pāṇini to express the dropping or disappearance of affixes.
luṅ लुङ् A technical term used by Pāṇini to denote the Aorist or its terminations.
luṭ लुट् A technical term used by Pāṇini to denote the First or Periphrastic Future or its terminations.
lṛṅ लृङ् A technical term used by Pāṇini to denote the Conditional Mood or its terminations.
lṛṭ लृट् A technical term used by Pāṇini to denote the Second or Simple Future or its terminations.
leṭ लेट् A technical term used by Pāṇini to denote the Vedic Subjunctive Mood or its terminations.
loṭ लोट् A technical term used by Pāṇini to denote the Imperative Mood or its terminations.
vārtraghnaḥ वार्त्रघ्नः N. of Arjuna; अथ भूतानि वार्त्रघ्नशरेभ्यस्तत्र तत्रसुः Ki.15.1. वार्त्रघ्नीन्यायः vārtraghnīnyāyḥ वार्त्रघ्नीन्यायः (Mīmāṁsa) A rule of interpretation according to which a detail that cannot properly find connection with the primary or main matter should be understood as belonging to a subsidiary thereof. This is an exception to the मिथो$सम्बन्धन्याय (q. v.). This is discussed by Jaimini and Śabara at MS.3.1.23.
vṛthā वृथा ind. [वृ-थाल् किच्च] 1 To no purpose, in vain, uselessly, unprofitably; often with the force of an adjective; व्यर्थं यत्र कपीन्द्रसख्यमपि मे वीर्यं हरीणां वृथा U.3. 45; दिवं यदि प्रार्थयसे वृथा श्रमः Ku.5.45. -2 Unnecessarily. -3 Foolishly, idly, wantonly. -4 Wrongly; improperly. (At the beginning of comp. वृथा may be translated by 'vain, useless, improper, false, idle' &c.). -Comp. -अट्या strolling about idly, walking for pleasure; Ms.7.47. -अन्नम् food for one's own use only. -आकारः a false form, an empty show; पश्येद्दारान् वृथा- कारान् स भवेद्राजवल्लभः Pt.1.58. -आर्तवा a barren woman. -आलम्भः Cutting unnecessarily; (ओषधीनां) वृथालम्भे$नु- गच्छेद्गां दिनमेकं पयोव्रतः Ms.11.144. -उत्पन्न a. born in vain; तं (पुत्रं) कामजमरिक्थीयं वृथोत्पन्नं प्रचक्षते Ms.9.147. -कथा idle talk. -जन्मन् n. unprofitable or vain birth. -दानम् a gift that may be revoked, or not made good if promised; देवपितृविहीनं यदीश्वरेभ्यः स्वदोषतः । दत्वानुकीर्तनाच्चैव वेदाग्निव्रतत्यागिने ॥ अन्यायोपार्जितं दानं व्यर्थं ब्रह्महणे तथा । गुरवे$- नृतवक्त्राया स्तेनाय पतिताय च ॥ कृतघ्नाय च यद्दत्तं सर्वदा ब्रह्मविद्विषे । याजकाय च सर्वस्य वृषल्याः पतये तथा ॥ परिचारकाय भृत्याय सर्वत्र पिशुनाय च । इत्येतानि तु राजेन्द्र वृथादानानि षोडश ॥ Vahni Purāṇa; Ms.8.159. -मति a. foolish-minded. -मांसम् flesh not intended for the Gods or Manes. -वादिन् a. speaking falsely.
vya व्य A technicl term for indeclinables such as नि, चित् &c.
śatṛ शतृ A technical term used by Pāṇini to denote the Kṛit affix अत् used in forming present participles of the Parasmaipada.
śap शप् A technical term used by Pāṇini for the conjugational sign अ inserted between the root and the terminations of the conjugational tenses in the first class of roots.
śabdaḥ शब्दः [शब्द्-घञ्] 1 Sound (the object of the sense of hearing and property of आकाश); अथात्मनः शब्दगुणं गुणज्ञः पदं विमानेन विगाहमानः R.13.1. -2 Sound, note (of birds; men &c.), noise in general; विश्वासोपगमादभिन्नगतयः शब्दं सहन्ते मृगाः Ś.1.14; स शब्दस्तुमुलो$भवत् Bg.1.13; Ś.3.1; Ms.4.31; Ku.1.45. -3 The sound of a musical instrument; वाद्यशब्दः Pt.2; Ku.1.45. -4 A word, sound, significant word (for def. &c. see Mbh. introduction); एकः शब्दः सम्यगधीतः सम्यक् प्रयुक्तः स्वर्गे लोके कामधुग्भवति; so शब्दार्थौ. -5 A declinable word, a noun, substantive. -6 A title, an epithet; यस्यार्थुक्तं गिरिराज- शब्दं कुर्वन्ति बालव्यजनैश्चमर्यः Ku.1.13; Ś.2.15; नृपेण चक्रे युवराजशब्दभाक् R.3.35;2.53,64;3.49;5.22;18.42; V.1.1. -7 The name, mere name as in शब्दपति q. v. -3 Verbal authority (regarded by the Naiyāyikas as a Pramāṇa. -9 Grammar; Dk.1.1. -1 Fame; लब्धशब्देन कौसल्ये कुमारेण धनुष्मता Rām.2.63.11; स्वर्गाय शब्दं दिवमात्महेतोर्धर्मार्थमात्मंस्थितिमाचकाङ्क्ष Bu. Ch.2.53; (cf. also 'शब्दो$क्षरे यशोगीत्योः' -हैमः). -11 The sacred syllable ओम्. -12 A technical term. -Comp. -अक्षरम् the sacred syllable ओम् uttered aloud. -अतीत a. beyond the power or reach of words, indescribable. -अधिष्ठानम् the ear. -अध्याहारः supplying a word (to complete an ellipsis). -अनुकृतिः onomatopœia. -अनुरूप a. proportionate or corresponding to the sound; शब्दानुरूपेण पराक्रमेण भवि- तव्यम् Pt.1. -अनुशासनम् the science of words; i. e. grammar. -अर्थः the meaning of a word. (-र्थौ dual) a word and its meaning; अदोषौ शब्दार्थौ K.P.1; न त्वयं शब्दार्थः, व्यामोहादेषा प्रतीतिः ŚB. on MS.4.1.14. -अलं- कारः a figure of speech depending for its charmingness on sound or words and disappearing as soon as the words which constitute the figure are replaced by others of the same meaning (opp. अर्थालंकार); e. g.; see K. P. 9. -आख्येय a. to be communicated in words; शब्दाख्येयं यदपि किल ते यः सखीनां पुरस्तात् Me.15. (-यम्) an oral or verbal communication. -आडम्बरः bombast, verbosity, high-sounding or grandiloquent words. -आदि a. beginning with शब्द (as the objects of sense); शब्दादीन् विषयान् भोक्तुं चरितुं दुश्चरं तपः R.1.25. -इन्द्रियम् the ear. -कार a. sounding, sonorous. -कोशः a lexicon, dictionary. -ग a. 1 perceiving sounds. -2 uttering sounds. -गत a. inherent or residing in a word. -गतिः music, song. -गुण a. having sound for its quality; अथात्मनः शब्दगुणं गुणज्ञः R.13.1. -गोचरः the aim or object of speech. -ग्रहः 1 catching the sound. -2 the ear. -ग्रामः the range or reach of sound. -चातुर्यम् cleverness of style, eloquence. -चित्रम् one of the two subdivisions of the last (अवर or अधम) class of poetry (wherein the charm lies in the use of words which please the ear simply by their sound; see the example given under the word चित्र). -चोरः 'a word-thief', a plagiarist. -तन्मात्रम् the subtle element of sound. -नेतृ m. N. of Pāṇini. -पतिः a lord in name only, nominal lord; ननु शब्दपतिः क्षितरेहं त्वयि मे भावनिबन्धना रतिः R.8.52. -पातिन् a. hitting an invisible mark the sound of which is only heard, tracing a sound; शब्दपातिनमिषुं विससर्ज R.9.73. -प्रमाणम् verbal or oral evidence. -बोधः knowledge derived from verbal testimony. -ब्रह्मन् n. 1 the Vedas; शब्द- ब्रह्मणि निष्णातः परं ब्रह्माधिगच्छति Maitra. Up.6.22. -2 spiritual knowledge consisting in words, knowledge of the Supreme Sprit or the Spirit itself; शब्दब्रह्मणस्तादृशं विवर्तमितिहासम् U.2;7.2. -3 a property of words called स्फोट q. v. -भाव्यत्वम् the state of becoming known through scriptural word only; कर्मणः शब्दभाव्य- त्वात्... Ms.7.1.9. (on which Śabara writes अथेह कर्मणः शब्दभाव्यत्वम् । नान्यतः शक्यमेतज्ज्ञातुं कस्यापूर्वस्य धर्मा इति ॥ -भिद् f. perversion of words. -भेदिन् a. hitting a mark merely by its sound. (-m.) 1 an epithet of Arjuna. -2 the anus. -3 a kind of arrow. -योनिः f. a root, radical word. -लक्षण a. what is determined by the sacred word; इह शब्दलक्षणे कर्मणि यथाशब्दार्थं प्रवृत्तिः ŚB. on Ms.11.1.26. -वारिधिः a vocabulary. -विद्या, -शास्त्रम् the science of words; i. e. grammar; अनन्तपारं किल शब्द- शास्त्रम् Pt.1; Śi.2.112;14.24. -विरोधः opposition of words (in a sentence). -विशेषः a variety of sound. -विशेषणम् (in gram.) an adjective, adjectival word. -वृत्तिः f. 1 the function of a word (in Rhet.). -2 the power of a word (to convey sense), indicative power (लक्षणा); अदृष्टार्थाच्छब्दवृत्तिर्लघीयसी ŚB. on MS.11.1.48. -वेधिन् a. hitting an invisible mark the sound of which is only heard; see शब्दपातिन्; अभ्याससाध्यं निखिलं मत्वा संतमसे व्यधात् । इषुपातानभूद्येन शब्दवेधविशारदः ॥ Bm.1.632. (-m.) 1 a kind of arrow. -2 an archer. -3 a warrior who pierces his enemies by mere sounds; Rām.2.63.11. -4 an epithet of king Daśaratha. -5 an epithet of Arjuna. -वेध्य a. to be shot at without being seen; एवं मयाप्यविज्ञातं शब्दवेध्यमिदं फलम् Rām.2.63.13. -वैलक्ष्यण्यम् verbal difference. -शक्तिः f. the force or expressive power of a word; signification of a word; see शक्ति. -शासनम् 1 a rule of grammar. -2 the science of grammar. -शुद्धिः f. 1 purity of words. -2 the correct use of words. -श्लेषः a play or pun upon words, a verbal equivoque; (it differs from अर्थश्लेष in-as-much as the pun dissappears as soon as the words which constitute it are replaced by others of the same signification, whereas in अर्थश्लेष the pun remains unchanged; शब्दपरि- वृत्तिसहत्मर्थश्लेषः.) -संग्रहः a vocabulary, lexicon. -संज्ञा (in gram.) a technical term; P.I.1.68. -साधन, -साह a. See शब्दवेधिन्; ततो$स्त्रं शब्दसाहं वै त्वरमाणो महारणे Mb.3.22. 5. -सौष्ठवम् elegance of words, a graceful or elegant style. -सौकर्यम् ease of expression. -स्मृतिः f. philology. -हीनम् the use of a word in a form or meaning not sanctioned by standard authors.
śas शस् 1 A technical name for the termination of the acc. plural. -2 A Taddhita affix forming adverbs from nouns, especially from numerals; as द्विशः, शतशः, बहुशः &c.
śānac शानच् (In gram.) A technical term used by Paṇini for the Kṛit affix आन or मान used in forming present participles of the Ātm.
śilpam शिल्पम् [शिल्-पक् Uṇ.3.28] 1 An art, a fine or mechanical art; (64 such arts are enumerated). -2 Skill (in any art); craft; शिल्पोपचारयुक्ताश्च निपुणाः पण्ययोषितः Ms.9.259; पात्रविशेषे न्यस्तं गुणान्तरं व्रजति शिल्पमाधातुः M. 1.6. -3 Ingenuity, cleverness. -4 Work, manual work or labour; विसर्गरत्यर्त्यभिजल्पशिल्पाः Bhāg.5.11.1. -5 A rite, ceremony. -6 A kind of ladle or spoon used at sacrifices. -7 Form, shape. -3 Creation, procreation. -Comp. -कर्मन् n., -क्रिया any manual labour, handicraft. -कारः, -कारकः, -कारिका, -कारिन् m. an artisan, a mechanic; Kau. A.1.1. -गृहम्, -गेहम् a workshop, manufactory. -जीविन् an artisan, a mechanic. -विद्या 1 mechanical science. -2 any manual skill, handicraft. -शालम्, -ला a workshop, manufactory (a technical school). -शास्त्रम् 1 a book on any art, fine or mechanical. -2 mechanics. -स्थानम् skill in art; Buddh.
śup शुप् A technical term used by Pāṇini for उ the sign of the eighth class of roots.
śnam श्नम् A technical term used by Pāṇini for न, the sign of the 7th class of roots.
śnā श्ना A technical term used by Pāṇini for ना, the sign of the 9th class of roots.
śnu श्नु A technical term used by Pāṇini for नु, the sign of the 5th class of roots.
saṃjñā संज्ञा 1 Consciousness, अकरुण पुनः संज्ञाव्याधिं विधाय किमीहसे Māl.9.42; रतिखेदसमुत्पन्ना निद्रा संज्ञाविपर्ययः Ku.6.44. संज्ञा लभ्, आपद् or प्रतिपद् 'to regain or recover one's consciousness, come to one's senses'. -2 Knowledge, understanding; नायका मम सैन्यस्य संज्ञार्थं तान् व्रवीमि ते Bg.1.7; Mb.12.153.63. -3 Intellect, mind; लोकतन्त्रं हि संज्ञाश्च सर्वमन्ने प्रतिष्ठितम् Mb.13.63.5. -4 A hint, sign, token, gesture; मुखापिंतैकाङ्गुलिसंज्ञयैव मा चापलायेति गणान् व्यनैषीत् Ku.3.41; उपलभ्य ततश्च धर्मसंज्ञाम् Bu. Ch.5.21; Bhāg. 6.7.17. -5 A name, designation, an appellation; oft. at the end of comp. in this sense; द्वन्द्वैर्विमुक्ताः सुखदुःखसंज्ञैः Bg.15.5. -6 (In gram.) Any name or noun having a special meaning, a proper name. -7 The technical name for an affix. -8 The Gāyatrī Mantra; see गायत्री. -9 A track, footstep. -1 Direction. -11 A technical term. -12 N. of the daughter of Viśvakarman and wife of the sun, and mother of Yama, Yamī, and the two Aśvins. [A legend relates that संज्ञा on one occasion wished to go to her father's house and asked her husband's permission, which was not granted. Resolved to carry out her purpose, she created, by means of her superhuman power, a woman exactly like herself --who was, as it were, her own shadow (and was therefore called Chhāyā), --and putting her in her own place, went away without the knowledge of the sun. Chhāya bore to the sun three children (see छाया), and lived quite happily with him, so that when Saṁjñā returned, he would not admit her. Thus repudiated and disappointed, she assumed the form of a mare and roamed over the earth. The sun, however, in course of time, came to know the real state of things, and discovered that his wife had assumed the form of a mare. He accordingly assumed the form of a horse, and was united with his wife, who bore to him, two sons--the Aśvinīkumāras or Aśvins q. v.] -Comp. -अधिकारः a leading rule which gives a particular name to the rules falling under it, and which exercises influence over them. -विपर्ययः loss of consciousness; रतिखेदसमुत्पन्ना निद्रा संज्ञाविपर्ययः Ku.6.44. -विषयः an epithet, an attribute. -सुतः an epithet of Saturn. -सूत्रम् any Sūtra which teaches the meaning of a technical term.
suṭ सुट् A technical term used by Pāṇini for the first five case-inflections; cf. सर्वनामस्थान.
sup सुप् 1 A technical term used by Pāṇini for the termination of the Locative plural. -2 A name for any one of the several case-endings or terminations.
sūtram सूत्रम् [सूत्र्-अच्] 1 A thread, string, line, cord; पुष्पमालानुषङ्गेण सूत्रं शिरसि धार्यते Subhās.; मणौ वज्रसमुत्कीर्णे सूत्रस्येवास्ति मे गतिः R.1.4. -2 A fibre; सुराङ्गना कर्षति खण्डिताग्रात् सूत्रं मृणालादिव राजहंसी V.1.18; Ku.1.4. -3 A wire. -4 A collection of threads. -5 The sacred thread or sacrificial cord worn by members of the first three classes; शिखासूत्रवान् ब्राह्मणः Tarka K.; विप्रत्वे सूत्रमेव हि Bhāg.12.2.3. -6 The string or wire of a puppet. -7 A short rule or precept, an aphorism. -8 A short or concise technical sentence used as a memorial rule; it is thus defined:-- स्वल्पाक्षरमसंदिग्धं सारवद् विश्वतोमुखम् । अस्तोभमनवद्यं च सूत्रं सूत्रविदो विदुः. -9 Any work or manual containing such aphoristic rules; e. g. मानवकल्पसूत्र, आपस्तम्बसूत्र, गृह्यसूत्र &c. -1 A rule, canon, decree (in law). -11 A girdle; वासः ससूत्रं लघुमारुतो$हरद् भवस्य देवस्य किलानुपश्यतः Bhāg.8.12.23. -12 A line, stroke. -13 A sketch, plan; त्वमेव धर्मार्थदुघाभिपत्तये दक्षेण सूत्रेण ससर्जिथा- ध्वरम् Bhāg.4.6.44. -14 Indication, prelude; विशङ्क्य सूत्रं पुरुषायितस्य तद् भविष्यतो$स्मायि तदा तदालिभिः N.16.15. -Comp. -अध्यक्षः superintendent of weaving; Kau. A.2. -आत्मन् a. having the nature of a string or thread. (-m.) the soul. -आली a string of beads &c. worn round the neck, a necklace. -कण्ठः 1 a Brāhmaṇa. -2 a pigeon, dove. -3 a wag-tail. -कर्मन् n. carpentry; अथ भूमिप्रदेशज्ञाः सूत्रकर्मविशारदाः Rām.2.8.1. ˚विशेषज्ञः a weaver; Rām.2.83.12. -कारः, -कृत् m. 1 an author or composer of Sūtras. -2 a carpenter. -कोणः, -कोणकः a small drum shaped like an hourglass (डमरु). -कोशः a skein of yarn. -क्रीडा a particular game with strings (one of the 64 kalās). -गण्डिका a kind of stick used by weavers in spinning threads. -ग्रन्थः a book of a phorisms. -ग्राह a. seizing a thread. -ग्राहिन् m. a draftsman, an architect. -चरणम् N. of a class of Charaṇas or Vedic schools which introduced various Sūtra-works. -तन्तुः 1 a thread, string. -2 perseverance, energy. -तर्कुटी a distaff, spindle. -दरिद्र a. 'poor in threads', having a small number of threads, thread-bare; अयं पटः सूत्रदरिद्रतां गतः Mk.2.9. -धरः, -धारः 1 'the threadholder', a stage-manager, the principal actor who arranges the cast of characters and instructs them, and takes a prominent part in the Prastāvanā or prelude; he is thus defined:-- नाट्यस्य यदनुष्ठानं तत् सूत्रं स्यात् सबीजकम् । रङ्गदैवतपूजाकृत् सूत्रधार इति स्मृतः ॥ -2 a carpenter, an artisan. -3 the author of a set of aphorisms. -4 an epithet of Indra. -धृक् m. 1 an architect. -2 a stage-manager. -पातः applying the measuring line. -पिटकः N. of one of the three collections of Buddhistic writings. -पुष्पः the cotton plant. -प्रोत a. fastened. with wires (as puppets). -भिद् m. a tailor. -भृत् m. = सूत्रधार q. v. -यन्त्रम् 1 'a thread-machine', shuttle. -2 a weaver's loom; सूत्रयन्त्रजविशिष्टचेष्टयाश्चर्यसञ्जिबहुशालभञ्जिकः N.18.13. -3 a shuttle. -वापः weaving (threads). -वीणा a kind of lute. -वेष्टनम् 1 a weaver's shuttle. -2 the act of weaving. -शाखम् the body. -स्थानम् (in medic. works) the first general section (treating of the physician, disease, remedies &c).
     Macdonell Vedic Search  
1 result
     
grabh grabh seize, IX. gṛbhṇá̄ti, gṛbhṇīté, vii. 103, 4. ánu- greet, vii. 103, 4.
     Macdonell Search  
46 results
     
abindhana a. having water for its fuel: -vahni, m. the submarine fire.
gavāśana m. tanner, shoemaker; -½asva, n. cattle and horses; -½ahnika, n. daily allowance of fodder for a cow.
ghaṭotkaca m. N. of a Râkshasa; -½ûdhnî, a. f. having a jar-shaped udder (cow).
cāturtha a. discussed in the fourth (chapter): -ka, a. occurring every fourth day (fever); -½ahnika, a. belonging to the fourth day.
cinhaya den. P. mark: pp. kihnita, marked; symbolized; pari, id.: pp. signed.
jāragarbha m. child by a paramour; â, a. f. pregnant by a paramour; -ghnî, a.f. killing her paramour; -ga, -gâta, -gâtaka, a. begotten by a paramour; -tâ, f. adultery with (--°ree;).
juhoti m. (3 sg. of √ hu) techni cal designation of the sacrifices denoted by the term guhoti (not by yagati).
duṣparigraha a. hard to re tain; -parihántu, a. hard to remove; -pari hara, a. hard to avoid; -pâra, a. hard to cross; -perform; -pârshni-graha, a. hav ing a bad enemy in the rear, -grâha, a. id.;-pûra, a. hard to fill; -satisfy; -prakriti, f. low nature; a. base; -prakriyâ, f. trifling dignity; -pragña, a. stupid: -tva, n. stu pidity; -pranîta, pp. led astray; n. indis cretion; -pradharsha, a. hard to assail; -prabhañgana, m.hurricane; -prayukta, pp. badly or wrongly employed; -pravâda, m. slander; -pravritti, f. bad news; -pra vesa, a. hard to enter; -prasaha, a. hard to endure, irresistible; -prasâda, a. hard to ap pease: -na, a. id.; -prasâdhana, a. hard to manage (person); -prasâdhya, fp. id.; -prâ pa, a. hard to attain; -preksha, a., -preksha- nîya, fp. hard to see; unpleasant to look at; -prekshya, fp. id.
devara m. husband's (younger) bro ther, brother-in-law; lover, husband: -ghnî, a. f. killing her brother-in-law.
drughaṇa m. [wooden striker], (wood en) club; -ghnî, f. wood-chopper.
dvis ad. twice: *dvir ahnâ, ahnah, or ahni, twice a day.
nirukta pp. √ vak; n. explanation; etymological interpretation; esp. T. of Yâs ka's commentary on the Nighantus; -ukti, f. etymological explanation; -uñkhana, n. = nî-râgana; -uttara, a.having no superior; unable to give an answer; -utsava, a. devoid of festivals; -utsâha, a. destitute of energy, unenterprising, spiritless: -tâ, f. cowardice; -utsuka, a. unconcerned; having no desire for (prati); -utseka, m.modesty; a. unpre tentious, modest; -udara, a. trunkless; -ud desam, ad. without making any statement; -udyama, a. avoiding exertion, indolent; -udyoga, a. id.; -udvigna, pp. untroubled, unagitated: -manas, a. havingone's mind undisturbed; -udvega, a. free from agitation, calm; -unmâda, a. free from arrogance; -upakârin, a. unable to render a service; -upakriya, a. rendering no service; -upa-drava, a. unassailed by mischances orcalami ties, prosperous, faring well; free from danger, safe: -tâ, f. security; -upadhi, a. free from guile, honest; blameless; -upapatti, a. un suitable; -upapada, a. unaccompanied by a secondary word; -upaplava, a.undisturbed, uninterrupted; -upabhoga, a. not enjoying; -upama, a. having no equal; -upayoga, a. useless; -upâkhya, a. indescribable: -tva, n. abst. n.; -upâya, a. futile; -ushna-tâ, f. coldness: -m nî, make cold, kill; -ushnîsha, a. turbanless, bareheaded.
pada (m.) n. step; stride; footstep; trace; mark, sign; footing, place, abode, home; station, position, office; dignity, rank; object (of contempt, dispute, etc.); cause, oc casion; foot (also as a measure); quarter verse; word; nominal base before consonant terminations (so-called because treated like a word in external Sandhi); word-reading of the Veda (in which the words are given sepa rately irrespective of the rules of Sandhi): padam kri, set foot on, enter (lc.); have a regard for (prati); have to do with (lc.): mûrdhni, place one's foot on the head of (g.) =overcome, surpass, hridaye or kitte --, take complete possession of the heartor mind; padam â-tan, gain ground; -dhâ, gain a footing; -ni-dhâ, set foot on=make an im pression on (lc.): -padavyâm, set foot on the path of=emulate (g.); padam ni-bandh= engage in (lc.); pade pade, at every step, everywhere, on every occasion.
payoṣṇī ½ushnî ] f. N. of a river (milk-warm).
paruṣa a. (â, V. párushnî) knotty (reed); spotted, variegated; dirty; rough, rugged; dishevelled, shaggy; rough (wind), scorching (fire, sun); harsh (tone); severe, hard, rude, abusive (speech, person); n. sg., pl. contumelious speech, abuse: -vakana, n. harsh or contumelious speech; a. speaking harshly or rudely; -vâdin, a. id.; -½akshara, a. rough, harsh (of speeches or persons): -m, ad. rudely, harshly.
paroṣṇī f. N. of a river (probably corrupted from Parushnî: cp. Payoshnî).
paroṣṇih ½ushnih ] f. a metre (8+ 8+12 syllables).
paśu m. [tethered beast], cattle (single head or herd); domestic animal (including cows, horses, goats, sheep, asses, and dogs: opp. mriga, wild beast); beast, brute; sacrificial animal, victim: -kalpa, m. ritual of the animal sacrifice; (ú)-kâma, a. desiring cattle; -ghna, a. killing animals; m. cattle-slayer; -tâ, f., -tva, n. condition of being a sacrificial animal; condition of cattle; bestiality; -trip, a. cattle-stealing;-dharma, m. manner of beasts or in which beasts are treated; -páti, m. lord of beasts, ep. of Siva; -pâla, m. guardian of flocks, herds man (also: -ka): -vat, ad. after the manner of herdsmen; -pîdita, (pp.) n. damagecaused by cattle; -bandhá, m. (binding of victim to sacrificial post), animal sacrifice; -mát, a. connected with or abounding in cattle; containing the word &open;pasu;&close; -rakshin, m. tender of cattle, herdsman; -roman, n. hair of an animal; -vat, ad. like the brutes; as with cattle; -vadha, m. slaughter of animals; -sam âmnâya, m. enumeration of the sacrificial animals in the Asvamedha: i-ka, a. mentioned in the Samâmnâya; -han, a. (ghnî) killing beasts; -havya, n. animal sacrifice.
pāriṇāmika a. digestible; subject to development: with bhâva, m. natural disposition; -nâyya, n. household utensils; -nâhya, n. id.; -tosh-ika, n. reward, gratuity (token of satisfaction); -panth-ika, m. highwayman, robber; -pâtra, incorrect for -yâtra; -pârsva-ka, a. atten dant: ikâ, f. chambermaid; -pârsvika, a. standing at one's side; m. attendant: pl. retinue; -pâlya, n. governorship; -plava, a. swimming; moving to and fro, unsteady; wavering, irresolute; m. ship: -tâ, f., -tva, n. unsteadiness, caprice; -bhadra, m. coral tree (Erythrina indica); -bhâsh-ika, a. (î) technical; -mândal-ya, n. spherical shape; -mân-ya, n.circumference; -yâtra, m. N. of the western Vindhya range; -vitt-ya, n. bachelorhood while a younger brother is mar ried; -vettr-ya, n. marriage of a younger before an elder brother; -sesh-ya, n. result: ab. therefore; -shada, m. member of an as sembly or council, auditor, spectator: pl. retinue of a god; -shad-ya, m. one who takes part in an assembly, spectator; -hâr-ika, a. privileged; -hâr-ya, m. bracelet; -hâs-ya, n. jest.
pārṣṇī f. = pârshni.
prajāgupti f. protection of sub jects; -ghnî, f. of -han; -kandra, m. moon to his subjects (honorific epithet of a prince); -tantu, m. continuation of a family, progeny.
prajāvṛddhi f. abundance of offspring; -vyâpâra, m. care for or interest in the people; -srig, m. creator of the world, ep. of Brahman and of Kasyapa; -han, a. (f. -ghnî) killing offspring.
prativaktavya fp. to be replied to; to be given (answer); to be combated or disputed; to be contradicted (person); -vak ana, n. answer, reply, to (g. or --°ree;): î-kri, give as an answer, reply with (ac.); -vakas, n. answer; -vatsara, m. year; -vatsaram, ad. every year; -vaditavya, fp. to be com bated or disputed; -vanam, ad. in every forest; -vat, a. containing the word &open;prati;&close; -vanitâ, f. female rival; -varna, m. each caste: -m, ad. for every caste; -varnika, a. having a corresponding colour, similar; -var sha, °ree;-or -m, ad. every year; -vallabhâ, f. female rival, concubine; -vasati, ad. in or on every house; -vastu, n. corresponding thing, equivalent, compensation: -½upamâ, f. parallel simile (rh.); -vahni-pradakshi- nam, ad. at every circumambulation of the fire from left to right; -vâkya, n. answer; -vâk, f. yelling orbarking at (pl.); answer; -vâkita, n. answer; -vâta, m. wind blowing in front: -m, ad. against the wind; lc. to the leeward; -vâda, m. refusal, rejection; -vâd in, a. contradicting; refractory; m. oppo nent; defendant (in a lawsuit); -vârana, 1. a. warding off; n. keeping off; 2. hostile elephant; -vârttâ, f. news; -vârya, fp. to be warded off (--°ree;); -vâsaram, m. daily.
pratyāharaṇa n. bringing back; withdrawal or withholding from (ab.); -hâra, m. withdrawal (of troops), retreat; with holding (the senses) from (ab.); abstention from the objects of the senses;withdrawal of creation, dissolution; technical grammatical contraction to a single syllable of a series of letters or suffixes by combining the initial of the first with the final of the last: thus al, the first vowel a+the last consonant ha-l (h with the technical suffix l), designates the entire alphabet; -hârya, fp. to be received or learned, from (ab.); -hvaya, m. echo.
bālaka a. (ikâ) young, childish, not yet full-grown; m. child, boy; young of an animal; five-year-old elephant; N. of a prince; -kânda, n. Boy-section, T. of the first book of the Râmâyana treating of the boy hood of Râma; -kunda½anuviddha, pp. n. spray of young jasmine intertwined (in their hair); -krishna, m. the boy Krishna; -kel&ibrevcirc;, f. children's game; -kriyâ, f. doings of children; -krîdana, n. child's play: -ka, m. children's toy; n. child's play; -krîdâ, f. child's play, childish sport; -ghna, m. child murderer; -kandra, m. young or crescent moon; n. breach of a peculiar shape; -kandra mas, m. young moon; -kandrikâ, f. N.; -karita, n. early life of a god, etc.; -karyâ, f. doings of a child; -tantra, n. midwifery; -tâ, f. childhood; -tva, n. id.; -darsam, abs. on seeing a boy; -pattra, m. a tree; -putra, a. having young children, having young: -ka,m. little son; -bandhana, m. binder of children (a demon of disease); -bhañgaka, m. N.; -bhâva, m. childhood; recent rise of a planet; -bhritya, m. servant from child hood; -mati, a. of childish intellect; -man dâra-vriksha, m. young coral tree; -râmâ yana, n. T. of a play; -roga, m. children's disease; -lîlâ, f. child's play; -vinashta: -ka, m. N.; -vaidhavya, n. child-widow hood; -sri&ndot;ga, a. having young horns; -sakhi, m. friend from youth; friend of a fool: -tva, n. friendship with a fool; -su hrid, m. friend from childhood; -han, a. (-ghnî) child-murdering.
brahma m. priest (only --°ree; with asura-); n. metrical for brahman, the Absolute: -ka, --°ree; a.=brahman, m. the god Brahman; -kara, m. tribute paid to Brâhmans; -karman, n. function of a Brâhman; office of the Brah man priest; -karma-samâdhi, a. intent on Brahman in action; -kalpa, a. resembling Brahman; m. age or cosmic period of Brahman (a primaeval age); -kânda, n. the Brahman section=the dogmatic part of the scriptures; T. of a work or part of a work by Bhartri hari; -kilbishá, n. sin against Brâhmans (RV.1); -kûrka, n. a kind of penance in which the five products of the cow are eaten (=pañka-gavya); -krít, a. offering prayers; (bráhma)-kriti, f. prayer, devotion; -kosá, m. treasury of prayer; -kshatra, n. sg. & du. Brâhmans and nobles: -sava, m. pl. sacri fices offered by Brâhmans and Kshatriyas; -kshetra, n. N. of a sacred locality; -gav&isharp;, f. cow of a Brâhman; -gîtikâ, f. Brahman's song, N. of certain verses; -gupta, m. N. of a son of Brahman; N. of an astronomer born 598 a. d.; N.; -gola, m. universe; -ghât aka, m.Brâhman-killer; -ghâtin, m. id.: -î, f. woman on the second day of her menses; -ghosha, m. murmur of prayer (sts. pl.); sacred word, Veda (coll.): -rava, m. sound of murmured prayer; -ghna, m. Brâhman slayer; -ghnî,f. of -han, q. v.; -kakra, n. Brahman's wheel; kind of mystical circle; -kárya, n. religious study; religious student ship (of a Brâhman youth, passed in celibacy, being the first stage in the religious life of a Brâhman); sp.self-restraint, continence, chastity: -m upa½i, -â-gam, grah, kar, or vas, practise chastity: â, f. chastity, a-tva, n. continence, chastity, -vat, a. practising chastity, -½âsrama, m. order of religious stu dentship; -kârín, a. (n-î) practising sacred knowledge; sp. practising continence or chas tity; m. religious student; -kâri-vâsa, m. living as a religious student; -kâri-vrata, n. vow of chastity; -ganman, n. Veda-birth, regeneration by sacred knowledge; -gîvin, a. subsisting by sacred knowledge; -gña, a. knowing the scriptures or Brahman; -gñâna, n. knowledge of the Veda or of Brahman; -gyá, a. oppressing Brâhmans; -gyotis, n. splendour of Brahman; a.having the splen dour of Brahman or of the Veda.
bhrātṛvyavat a. having rivals; -hán, a. (-ghnî) slaying rivals.
marmaga a. penetrating the joints, poignant; cutting to the quick (fig.); m. wounding the vitals; -ghnî, a. f. of -han; -kkhid, a. penetrating the joints, cutting to the quick, very poignant; m. piercing the vitals, excessive pain; -kkhedin, a. cutting to the quick, very poignant; -gña, a. know ing the weak or vulnerable points (also fig.); knowing the inmost recesses of a thing, hav ing a deep insight, into (--°ree;); extremely clever.
marmavid a. knowing the weak or vulnerable points of any one; -vidârana, a. lacerating the vitals, wounding mortally; -vegitâ, f. prob. incorr. for -vedi-tâ; -ved in, a. knowing the vulnerable orweak points: (-i)-tâ, f. knowledge of the weak points; -spris, a. touching the vitals, cutting to the quick; very cutting or stinging (fig.); -han, a. (-ghnî) striking the vitals, exceedingly stinging (speech).
mūrdhan m. forehead; skull; head; highest or most prominent part, top (of a tree), summit, peak (of a mountain), height (of heaven), forefront (of battle); head, chief; ab. mûrdhnáh, (V.) at the head of, before, above (g.); lc. mûrdhni, id.: --vrit, be above everything, prevail; -dhri, bear on the head, hold in high honour; -â-dâ, place on the head, hold in high honour, attach great value to (ac.); mûrdhnâ kri, id.
mṛga m. [roaming: √ mrig] forest or wild animal, game (ord. meaning); deer, antelope (ord. meaning); musk-deer; antelope in the moon (the spots in which being considered to resemble an antelope as well as a hare); antelope in the sky=the lunar man sion Mrigasiras; Capricorn (sign of the zo diac); kind of elephant; large soaring bird (RV., rare); a demon fought by Indra (RV.); musk (=mriga-nâbhi): -kâka, m. du. a deer and a crow; -kânana, n. game-forest, hunt ing forest; -kopa, m. rage against the forest animals; -gambuka, m. du. a deer and a jackal; -gîvana, m. (subsisting by the chase), hunter; -trishâ, -trishnâ, -trishni, -trish- nikâ, f. (deer's thirst), mirage; -tva, n. con dition of an antelope; -dâva, m. deer-park; -dris, m. Capricorn (sign of the zodiac); f. gazelle-eyed woman; -dviga, m. pl. beasts and birds; -dhara, m. (holding an antelope), moon; -nâbhi, m. musk; musk-deer: -ga, a. derived from the musk-deer; -pakshin, m. pl. beasts and birds; -pati, m. lord of wild animals, lion or tiger; lord of deer, roe-buck; -prabhu, m. lord of wild animals, lion; -mada, m. musk; -manda, -mandra, m. a class of elephants; -maya, a. derived from wild animals; -mâmsa, n. deer's flesh, veni son; -mâsa, m. the month Mârgasîrsha; -mukha, m. Capricorn (sign of the zodiac).
yajati m. technical term for rites de- signated by the verb yagati (and not guhoti).
rakṣoghna a. repelling or destroy ing demons; m. spell destructive of demons; -ghnî, f., v. -han; -gana, m. demon-folk; -(a)dhidevatâ, f. goddess presiding over the demons; -bhâsh, a. barking like a demon; -hán, a. (-ghnî) demon-slaying.
la m. technical term embracing all tenses and moods =finite verb (also applied to some forms with primary suffixes construed like the finite verb): -kâra, m. letter l.
vanalatā f. forest-creeper; -le khâ, f. line of forest, far-extending forest; -vahni, m. forest fire; -vâta, m. forest wind; -vâsa, m. dwelling or residence in the forest; a. living in the forest; m. forest-dweller; -vâsin, a., m. id.; -svan, m. (wild dog), jackal.
vanhi m. drawer (of a car), steed (V.); charioteer (said of various gods in V.); conveyer of offerings to the gods, esp. Agni (V.); fire, god of fire (C.): vahninâ sam skri, hallow by fire, burn solemnly: -kunda, n. cavity in the ground for the sacred fire; -krit, a. producing conflagration; -kopa, m. raging conflagration; -mat, a. containing fire; -maya, a. consisting of fire; -loka, m. world of Agni; -vat, a. containing the word vahni; -sikhâ, f. flame of fire; -samskâra, m. sacrament of fire, cremation; -sâkshikam, ad. so as to be witnessed by fire; -sât-kri, burn; -sphuli&ndot;ga, m. spark of fire.
vārṣṇeya m. pat. (fr. vrishni) of various men; N. of Nala's charioteer: (a) sahita, pp. accompanied by Vârshneya.
viśuddha pp. (√ sudh) pure etc.: -tâ, f., -tva, n. pureness; -dhî, a. pure minded; -pârshni, a. whose rear is covered; -bhâva, a. having a pure nature or mind; -vamsya, a. of pure descent; -sattva-vigñâ na, a. whose character and nature are pure; -½âtman, a. having a pure nature or character.
viṣa n. [potent] poison, venom; water (rare): -kanyâ, f. poisonous girl (sup posed to cause the death of one cohabiting with her); -kumbha, m. jar of poison; -kri ta, pp. poisoned; -krimi, m. muck-worm; -ghna, a. destroying poison; n. antidote; -ghnî, f. of -han.
viṣarasa m. poisonous draught; -latâ, f. poisonous creeper; -lâtâ, f. N. of a locality; (á)-vat, a. poisonous; poisoned; -vallarî, -vall&ibrevcirc;, f. poisonous creeper; -vitap in, m. poison tree; -vriksha, m. id.; -vaid ya, m. dealer in antidotes; -vyavasthâ, f. poisoned condition; -sûka, m. wasp; -han, a. (-ghnî) destroying poison; -hara, a. (î) removing poison; -hridaya, a. poison-hearted.
śataka a. (ikâ) consisting of a hun dred; hundredth; n. a hundred, century (construed like sata); -kritvas, ad. a hun dred times; -koti, 1. f. pl. a thousand mil lions; 2. m. (having a hundred points), In dra's thunderbolt; (á)-kratu, a. having a hundredfold power or counsel (V.); con taining a hundred sacrifices (Br.); m. N. of Indra (C.).: --°ree; with kshitietc., lord of earth, prince, king; -khanda-maya, a. (î) consist ing of a hundred rays; -gu, a. possessing a hun dred cows; -guna, a. a hundredfold, increased a hundred times, a hundred times stronger, more valuable or efficacious etc.: -m, ad. ahun dred times more than (ab.); -gunita,pp. in creased a hundredfold, a hundred times longer; -gunî-bhâva, m. hundredfold increase; -gunî-bhû, be multiplied a hundredfold; -gvín, a. hundredfold (RV.); -ghn&isharp;, f. of -han; (á)-kakra, a. hundred-wheeled (RV.1); -tamá, a. (&asharp;, î) hundredth; -traya, n., î, f. three hundred; -dala, n. lotus flower; -dru (-kâ), -drû, f. N. of a river (=V. sutu drî), now Sutlej; -dvâra, a. having a hundred exits (hole); -dhara, m. N. of a king;-dh&asharp;, ad. a hundredfold; into a hundred parts or pieces: with bhû, be divided into a hundred parts consisting of (g.); (á)-dhâra, a. 1. having a hundred streams; 2. having a hundred points or edges; m.thunderbolt (C.); -dhriti, m. ep. of Brahman and of Indra; -dhauta, pp. cleansed a hundredfold, perfectly clean; 1. -pattra, n. (°ree;--) a hundred leaves; a hundred vehicles; 2. (á)-pattra, a. having a hundred feathers orleaves (RV.1); m. woodpecker; peacock; n. day-lotus: -yoni, m. ep. of Brahman, -½âyata½îkshana, a. having long lotus-like eyes; -patha, a. hav ing a hundred paths, very many-sided; m. T. of a Brâhmana: -brâhmana,n. id.; (á)-pad, a. (-î; strg. base -pâd) hundred-footed; m., -î, f. centipede; (á)-parvan, a. hundred-jointed; (á)-pavitra, a. purifying a hundredfold (RV.1); -pâdaka, m. centipede; -pâla, m. overseer of a hundred (vil lages, g.); -buddhi, a. hundred-witted; m. N. of a fish; -brâhmana-ghâta-ga, a. (arising from=) equal to the guilt produced by the murder of a hundred Brâhmans; -bha&ndot;gî bhû, be varied in a hundred ways; -makha, m. ep. of Indra; (á)-manyu, a. having a hundredfold wrath; m. ep. of Indra (C.): -kâpa, m. n. rainbow; -mayûkha, m. (hundred-rayed) moon; (á)-mâna, a. hundredfold (V.); weighing a hundred (Raktikâs, comm.; V.); m.gold object weighing a hun dred Mânas; m. n. weight (or gift) of a hundred Mânas in gold or silver; -mukha, a. having a hundred openings or entrances; possible in a hundred ways (fall); (á)-yâtu, m. N.; -yogana-yâyin,a. travelling a hundred Yoganas; -râtra, m. n. festival of a hundred days; -rudríya, a. belonging or sacred to a hundred Rudras; -½rikin, m. pl. designation of the composers of Mand. I. of the Rig-veda; -laksha, n. a hundred lacs; -varsha, a. a hundred years old; lasting a hundred years; -sarkara, n. sg. hundred globules: -tâ, f. condition of a --; -sás, ad. in a hundred ways, in hundreds (referring to a nm., ac., or in.); a hundred times;(á)-sâkha, a. (â, î) having a hundred branches (also fig.); (á)-sârada, a. containing, be stowing etc. a hundred autumns (V.); n. period or age of a hundred years (V.); -sri&ndot;ga, a. hundred-peaked; -samkhya, a.numbering a hundred; -sani, a. gaining a hundred; -sahasra, n. sg. pl. a hundred thousand (w. g., app., or --°ree;); -s&asharp;, a. winning a hundred (RV.); -sâhasra, a. (î) amount ing to a hundred thousand, hundred thou sandfold; -séya, n. hundredfold gain (RV.1); -svín, a. possessing a hundred (RV.1); -hán, a. (-ghnî) slaying a hundred (V.): -ghnî, f. kind of deadly weapon; -hali, a. possess ing a hundred large ploughs; (á)-hima, a.living a hundred winters (V.); -hradâ, f. lightning.
śabdarūpa n. nature of a sound; peculiar sound; form of a word (gr.); -vat, a. sounding; uttering sounds; possessing the quality of sound; -vidyâ, f. science of sounds, grammar: -½upâdhyâya, m.teacher of gram mar; -virodha, m. contradiction in words (not sense), seeming contradiction; -vedhin, a. shooting or hitting by sound (without see ing the mark); -sakti, f. force or meaning of a word; -sâsana, n.doctrine of sounds, grammar: -vid, a. knowing grammar; -sâs tra, n. grammar; -sesha, a. of which the name only remains; having only the title of -left (--°ree;); -slesha, m. verbal equivoque, pun; -samgña, a. bearing the name of (--°ree;); -samgñâ, f. technical grammatical term; -sphota, m. crackling (of fire); -hîna, (pp.) n. unsanctioned use of a word.
śuddha pp. (√ sudh) pure etc.; m. bright fort night (in which the moon increases): -karman, a. pure in one's actions, upright; -kîrti, m. N.; -tâ, f., -tva, n. purity, upright ness; -dhî, a. pure-hearted, guileless; -pak sha, m. bright fortnight (in which the moon increases); -pata, m. (wearing clean gar ments), N.; -pârshni, a. having one's rear covered; -buddhi, a. pure-hearted; -bhâva, a. id.; -mati, a. id.; -vamsya, a. of pure race; -vat, a. containing the word suddha: -î, f. pl. N. of the verses RV. VIII, 84, 7-9; -vesha, a. wearing pure garments; -sîla, a. having a pure character, guileless; -snâna, n. washing in pure water (without unguents etc.); -hridaya, a. pure-hearted.
saṃjña a. --°ree; = sam-gñâ (la bdha samgña-tâ, f. recovery of consciousness): -ka, a. --°ree; (ikâ)=sam-gñâ, name; -gñapana, n. strangulation of a sacrificial animal; de ception, fraud; -gñ&asharp;,f. V., C.: agreement, understanding; consciousness, knowledge, clear conception; C.: gesture, sign, with (the hand etc., --°ree;); designation, name, technical term (--°ree; a. a, named, called); N. of a daughter of Tvashtri (Visvakarman), wife of the sun, and mother of Manu, Yama, and Yamî.
saṃjñātarūpa a. having a well known form (RV.1); -gñâti, f. agreement, understanding (Br.); -gñ&asharp;na, a. producing harmony (Br.); n. unanimity, harmony, with (in., lc.; V.); consciousness (Br., P., rare); -gñâ-sûtra, n. pl. Sûtras of technical terms (the Siva-sûtras).
sārtha a. bearing an errand (Br.); having its object attained, successful (re quest); wealthy; significant; m. travelling company of merchants, caravan (sts. pl.); company, troop, multitude: -ka, a.profit able; significant; -ghnî, f. (of-han) destroyer of a caravan; -ga, a. born or reared in the caravan, tame (elephant); -dhara, m. N. of the leader of a caravan; -mandala, n. (circle of the=) assembled caravan; -vâha,m. leader or captain of a caravan, head of a trading company; -vâhana, m. id.; -samkaya, n. possessing great wealth.
     Vedic Index of
     Names and Subjects  
30 results
     
ugra In one passage of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad seems to have a technical force, denoting ‘ man in authority,’ or according to Max Muller’s rendering, ‘policeman.’ Roth compares a passage in the Rigveda, where, however, the word has simply the general sense of ‘ mighty man.’ Bǒhtlingk, in his rendering of the Upaniṣad, treats the word as merely adjectival.
upara Which, according to Pischel, means ‘ stone ’ in general, is the technical name of the stone on which the Soma plant was laid in order to be pounded for the extraction of the juice by other stones (adri, grāvan). The word is rare, occur­ring only thrice in the Rigveda, and once in the Atharvaveda.
ṛtvij Is the regular term for ‘ sacrificial priest,’ covering all the different kinds of priests employed at the sacrifice. It appears certain that all the priests were Brāhmanas. The number of priests officiating at a sacrifice with different functions was almost certainly seven. The oldest list, occurring in one passage of the Rigveda, enumerates their names as Hotr, Potr, Nestr, Agnīdh, Praśāstr, Adhvaryu, Brahman, besides the institutor of the sacrifice. The number of seven probably explains the phrase ‘ seven Hotrs ’ occurring so frequently in the Rigveda, and is most likely connected with that of the mythical ‘ seven Rsis.’ It may be compared with the eight of Iran. The chief of the seven priests was the Hotr, who was the singer of the hymns, and in the early times their composer also. The Adhvaryu performed the practical work of the sacrifice, and accompanied his performance with muttered formulas of prayer and deprecation of evil. His chief assist­ance was derived from the Agnīdh, the two performing the smaller sacrifices without other help in practical matters. The Praśāstr, Upavaktr, or Maitrāvaruna, as he was variously called, appeared only in the greater sacrifices as giving in­structions to the Hotr, and as entrusted with certain litanies. The Potr, Nestr, and Brahman belonged to the ritual of the Soma sacrifice, the latter being later styled Brāhmanāc- chamsin to distinguish him from the priest who in the later ritual acted as supervisor. Other priests referred to in the Rigveda are the singers of Sāmans or chants, the Udgātr and his assistant the Prastotr, while the Pratihartr, another assistant, though not mentioned, may quite well have been known. Their functions undoubtedly represent a later stage of the ritual, the development of the elaborate series of sacrificial calls on the one hand, and on the other the use of long hymns addressed to the Soma plant. Other priests, such as the Achāvāka, the Grāvastut, the Unnetr, and the Subrahmanyan were known later in the developed ritual of the Brāhmanas, making in all sixteen priests, who were technically and artificially classed in four groups : Hotr, Maitrāvaruna, Achāvāka, and Grāvastut; Udgātr, Prastotr, Pratihartr, and Subrahmanya; Adhvaryu, Pratisthātr, Nestr, and Unnetr; Brahman, Brāhmanācchamsin, Agnīdhra, and Poty. Apart from all these priests was the Purohita, who was the spiritual adviser of the king in all his religious duties. Geldner holds that, as a rule, when the Purohita actually took part in one of the great sacrifices he played the part of the Brahman, in the sense of the priest who superintended the whole conduct of the ritual. He sees evidence for this view in a considerable number of passages of the Rigveda and the later literature, where Purohita and Brahman were combined or identified. Oldenberg, however, more correctly points out that in the earlier period this was not the case: the Purohita was then normally the Hotr, the singer of the most important of the songs; it was only later that the Brahman, who in the capacity of overseer of the rite is not known to the Rigveda, acquired the function of general supervision hitherto exercised by the Purohita, who was ex officio skilled in the use of magic and in guarding the king by spells which could also be applied to guarding the sacrifice from evil demons. With this agrees the fact that Agni, pre-eminently the Purohita of men, is also a Hotr, and that the two divine Hotrs of the Aprī hymns are called the divine Purohitas. On the other hand, the rule is explicitly recognized in the Aitareya Brāhmana that a Ksatriya should have a Brahman as a Purohita; and in the Taittirīya Samhitā the Vasistha family have a special claim to the office of Brahman-Purohita, perhaps an indi¬cation that it was they who first as Purohitas exchanged the function of Hotys for that of Brahmans in the sacrificial ritual. The sacrifices were performed for an individual in the great majority of cases. The Sattra, or prolonged sacrificial session, was, however, performed for the common benefit of the priests taking part in it, though its advantageous results could only be secured if all the members actually engaged were consecrated (ιdīksita). Sacrifices for a people as such were unknown. The sacrifice for the king was, it is true, intended to bring about the prosperity of his people also; but it is characteristic that the prayer16 for welfare includes by name only the priest and the king, referring to the people indirectly in connexion with the prosperity of their cattle and agriculture.
kitava ‘ the gambler/ is frequently referred to in the Rig­veda and later. A father is represented as chastising his son for gambling. The gambler seems at times to have fallen, along with his family, into servitude, presumably by selling himself to pay his debts.Technical names for different sorts of gamblers given in the Yajurveda Samhitās are Adinava-darśa, Kalpin, Adhi-kalpin, and Sabhā-sthānu. None of these can be safely explained, though the last has usually been taken as a satirical name derived from the gambler’s devotion to the dicing place (Sabhā), pillar of the dicing hall.’ The first literally means seeing ill-luck,’ and may refer to the quickness of the dicer to note an error on the part of his antagonist, or to his eagerness to see the defeat of his rival.
jñātṛ Occurs in two passages of the Atharvaveda and one of the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka with a somewhat obscure sense. Zimmer conjectures not unnaturally that the word is a technical term taken from law, meaning ‘witness.’ The reference is, perhaps, to a custom of carrying on transactions of business before witnesses as practised in other primitive societies. Roth suggests that the word has the sense of ‘surety.’ But Bloomfield and Whitney ignore these inter¬pretations.
dharma Are the regular words, the latter in the Rigveda, and both later, for ‘ law ’ or ‘ custom.’ But there is very little evidence in the early literature as to the administra­tion of justice or the code of law followed. On the other hand, the Dharma Sūtras contain full particulars.Criminal Law.—The crimes recognized in Vedic literature vary greatly in importance, while there is no distinction adopted in principle between real crimes and what now are regarded as fanciful bodily defects or infringements of merely conventional practices. The crimes enumerated include the slaying of an embryo (
nakṣatra Is a word of obscure origin and derivation. The Indian interpreters already show a great divergence of opinion as to its primary meaning. The śatapatha Brāhmana re­solves it into na-ksatra (‘ no power ’), explaining it by a legend. The Nirukta refers it to the root naks, ‘obtain/ following the Taittirīya Brāhmana. Aufrecht and Weber derived it from nakta-tra, ‘ guardian of night/ and more recently the derivation from nak-ksatra, ‘ having rule over night/ seems to be gaining acceptance. The generic meaning of the word therefore seems to be ‘star/ The Naksatras as Stars in the Rigveda and Later.—The sense of star ’ appears to be adequate for all or nearly all the passages in which Naksatra occurs in the Rigveda. The same sense occurs in the later Samhitās also : the sun and the Naksatras are mentioned together, or the sun, the moon, and the Naksatras, or the moon and the Naksatras, or the Naksatras alone; but there is no necessity to attribute to the word the sense of lunar mansion ’ in these passages. On the other hand, the names of at least three of the Naksatras in the later sense occur in the Rigveda. Tisya, however, does not seem to be mentioned as a lunar mansion. With Aghās (plur.) and Arjunī (dual) the case is different: it seems probable that they are the later lunar mansions called Maghās (plur.) and Phālgunī (dual). The names appear to have been deliberately changed in the Rigveda, and it must be remembered that the hymn in which they occur, the wedding hymn of Sūryā, has no claim to great age. Ludwig and Zimmer have seen other references to the Naksatras as 27 in the Rigveda, but these seem most improbable. Nor do the adjectives revatī (£ rich ’) and punarvasīi (‘ bringing wealth again’) in another hymn appear to refer to the Naksatras. The Naksatras as Lunar Mansions.—In several passages of the later Samhitās the connexion of the moon and the Naksatras is conceived of as a marriage union. Thus in the Kāthaka and Taittirīya Samhitās it is expressly stated that Soma was wedded to the mansions, but dwelt only with Rohinī; the others being angry, he had ultimately to undertake to live with them all equally. Weber hence deduced that the Naksatras were regarded as of equal extent, but this is to press the texts unduly, except in the sense of approximate equality. The number of the mansions is not stated as 27 in the story told in the two Samhitās: the Taittīriya has, and the Kāthaka no number; but 27 appears as their number in the list which is found in the Taittirīya Samhitā and elsewhere. The number 28 is much less well attested: in one passage of the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is practically marked as a new comer, though in a later book, in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and in the Atharvaveda list,27 it has found acceptance. It is perfectly possible that 28 is the earlier number, and that Abhijit dropped out because it was faint, or too far north, or because 27 was a more mystic (3x3x3) number: it is significant that the Chinese Sieou and the Arabic Manāzil are 28 in number.28 Weber, however, believes that 27 is the older number in India. The meaning of the number is easily explained when it is remembered that a periodic month occupies something between 27 and 28 days, more nearly the former number. Such a month is in fact recognized in the Lātyāyana and Nidāna Sūtras as consisting of 27 days, 12 months making a year of 324 days, a Naksatra year, or with an intercalary month, a year of 351 days. The Nidāna Sūtra makes an attempt to introduce the Naksatra reckoning into the civil or solar (sāvana) year of 360 days, for it holds that the sun spends 13J• days in each Naksatra (13^x27 = 360). But the month of 27 or 28 days plays no part in the chronological calculations of the Veda. The Names of the Naksatras.—In addition to the two mentioned in the Rigveda, the earlier Atharvaveda gives the names of Jyesthaghnī (the later Jyesthā) and Vicrtau, which are mentioned as in close connexion, and of Revatīs (plural) and Kyttikās. With reference to possible times for the ceremony of the Agnyādhāna, or Maying of the sacred fires/ the Kāthaka Samhitā, the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and the Taittirīya Brāhmana mention the Naksatras called Krttikās, Rohinī, Phalgunyas, Hasta; the latter Brāhmana adds Punar- vasū, and in an additional remark excludes Pūrve Phālgunī in favour of Uttare Phālgunī. The śatapatha Brāhmana adds Mrgaśīrsa and Citrā as possibilities. On the other hand, Punarvasū is recommended by all authorities as suitable for the Punarādheya, 'relaying of the sacred fires,’ which takes place if the first fire has failed to effect the aim of its existence, the prosperity of the sacrificer. The Kāthaka Samhitā, however, allows Anurādhās also. In the ceremony of the Agnicayana, or 'piling of the fire- altar,’ the bricks are assumed to be equal in number to the Naksatras. The bricks number 756, and they are equated to 27 Naksatras multiplied by 27 secondary Naksatras, reckoned as 720 (instead of 729), with the addition of 36 days, the length of an intercalary month. Nothing can be usefully derived from this piece of priestly nonsense. But in connexion with this ceremony the Yajurveda Samhitās enumerate the 27, The Taittirīya Brāhmana has a list of the Naksatras which agrees generally with the list of the Samhitās. It runs as follows: Kyttikās, Rohinī, Invakās, Bāhū (dual), Tisya, Aśleṣās, Maghās, Pūrve Phālgunī, Uttare Phālgunī, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Rohinī, Mūlabarhanī, Pūrvā Asādhās', Uttarā Asādhās, Sronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Pūrve Prosthapadās, Uttare Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Apabharanīs. In a later book, however, the list grows to 28, and the full moon is inserted after number 14, and the new moon after number, as an attempt to bring the Naksatra (lunar) month into accordance with the Sāvana (solar) month of 30 days. The names in this second list are as in the Samhitās with the following exceptions. The seven stars of the Krttikās are named as Ambā, Dulā, Nitatnī, Abhrayantī, Meghayantī, Varsayantī, Cupunīkā, names found also in the Taittirīya and Kāthaka Samhitās. Beside Mrgaśīrsa, Invakās are also mentioned. Then come Ardrā, Punarvasū, Tisya, Aśresās, Maghās (beside which Anaghās, Agadās, and Arun- dhatīs are also mentioned), Phalgunyas (but elsewhere in the dual, Phalgunyau), Phalgunyas, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Jyesthā, Mūla, Asādhās, Asā(jhās, Abhijit, śronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Prosthapadās, Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas, but also Apabharanīs. Abhijit, which occurs also in an earlier part of the Brāhmana, is perhaps interpolated. But Weber’s argument that Abhijit is out of place in this list because Brāhmana is here mentioned as the 28th Naksatra, loses some force from the fact (of course unknown to him) that the list in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā contains 28 Naksatras, including Abhijit, and adds Brāhmana at the end as another. In another passage the Taittirīya Brāhmana divides the Naksatras into two sets, the Deva Naksatras and the Yama Naksatras, being 1-14 and 15-27 (with the omission of Abhijit) respectively. This division corresponds with one in the third book of the Brāhmana60 where the days of the light half of the month and those of the dark half are equated with the Naksatras. The Brāhmana treats the former series as south, the latter as north; but this has no relation to facts, and can only be regarded as a ritual absurdity. The late nineteenth book of the Atharvaveda contains a list of the Naksatras, including Abhijit. The names here (masc.), Viśākhe, Anurādhā, Jyesthā, Mūla, Pūrvā Asādhās, Uttarā Asādhās, Abhijit, śravana, śravisthās, śatabhisaj, Dvayā Prosthapadā, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas. The Position of the Naksatras.—There is nothing definite in Vedic literature regarding the position of most of the Naksatras, but the later astronomy precisely locates all of them, and its statements agree on the whole satisfactorily with what is said in the earlier texts, though Weber was inclined to doubt this. The determinations adopted below are due to Whitney in his notes on the Sūrya Siddhānta. 1.Krttikās are unquestionably η Tauri, etc., the Pleiades. The names of the seven stars forming this constellation, and given above from Yajurveda texts, include three --------abhrayantī, forming clouds meghayantī, ‘making cloudy’; varsayantī, ‘causing rain’—which clearly refer to the rainy Pleiades. The word krttikā possibly means ‘web/ from the root krt, spin.’ 2. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy,’ is the name of the conspicuously reddish star, a Tauri or Aldebaran, and denotes the group of the Hyades, <* θ y 8 e Tauri. Its identification seems absolutely assured by the legend of Prajāpati in the Aitareya Brāhmana. He is there represented as pursuing his daughter with incestuous intention, and as having been shot with an arrow (Isu Trikāndā, ‘ the belt of Orion ’) by the huntsman ’ (Mrgavyādha, Sirius ’). Prajāpati is clearly Orion (Mrgaśiras being the name of the little group of stars in Orion’s head). 3.Mrgaśīrsa or Mrgaśiras, also called Invakā or Invagā, seems to be the faint stars λ, φ,1 φ2 Orionis. They are called Andhakā, * blind,’ in the śāntikalpa of the Atharvaveda, probably because of their dimness. 4.Ardrā, ‘ moist,’ is the name of the brilliant star, α Orionis. But the names by which it is styled, in the plural as Árdrās in the śāñkhāyana Grhya Sūtra and the Naksatrakalpa, and in the dual as Bāhú, in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, point to a constellation of two or more stars, and it may be noted that the corresponding Chinese Sieou includes the seven brilliant stars composing the shoulders, the belt, and the knees of Orion. 5. Punarvasu, the two that give wealth again,’ denotes the two stars, a and β Geminorum, on the heads of Castor and Pollux. The name is no doubt connected with the beneficent character of the Aśvins, who correspond to the Dioscuri. 6.Tisya or Pusya includes the somewhat faint group in the body of the Crab, 7, δ, and θ Cancri. The singular is rather curious, as primarily one star would seem to have been meant, and none of the group is at all prominent. 7. Aśresās or Aślesās, which in some texts is certainly to be read Aśresās or Aślesas, denotes δ, e, η, p, σ, and perhaps also ζ, Hydrse. The word means ‘embracer,’ a name which admirably fits the constellation. 8. Maghās, the ‘bounties,’ are the Sickle, or α, γ, ζ, μ, e Leonis. The variants Anaghā, the ‘ sinless one,’ etc.,clearly refer to the auspicious influence of the constellation. 9. 10. Phālgunī, Phalgunyau, Phalgū, Phalg-unīs, Phal- gunyas, is really a double constellation, divided into Pūrve, ‘ former,’ and Uttare, ‘latter.’ The former is δ and θ Leonis, the latter β and Leonis. According to Weber, the word denotes, like Arjunī, the variant of the Rigveda, a ‘ bright- coloured ’ constellation. 11. Hasta, ‘hand,’ is made up of the five conspicuous stars (δ> Ί, e, a, β) in Corvus, a number which the word itself suggests. According to Geldner, the ‘ five bulls ’ of the Rigveda are this constellation. 12. Citrā, ‘bright,’ is the beautiful star, a Virginis. It is mentioned in a legend of Indra in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, and in that of the ‘ two divine dogs ’ (divyau śvānau) in the śatapatha Brāhmana. 13. Svāti or Nistyā is later clearly the brilliant star Arcturus or a Bootis, its place in the north being assured by the notice in the śāntikalpa, where it is said to be ‘ ever traversing the northern way ’ (nityam uttara-mārgagam). The Taittirīya Brāhmana, however, constructs an asterismal Prajāpati, giving him Citrā (α Virginis) for head, Hasta (Corvus) for hand, the Viśākhe (α and β Librae) for thighs, and the Anurādhās (β, δ, and 7r Scorpionis) for standing place, with Nistyā for heart. But Arcturus, being 30° out, spoils this figure, while, on the other hand, the Arabic and Chinese systems have respectively, instead of Arcturus, Virginis and κ Virginis, which would well fit into the Prajāpati figure. But in spite of the force of this argument of Weber’s, Whitney is not certain that Nistyā here must mean a star in Virgo, pointing out that the name Nistyā, ‘outcast,’ suggests the separation of this Naksatra from the others in question. 14.Viśākhe is the couple of stars a and β Librae. This mansion is later called Rādhā according to the Amarakośa, and it is curious that in the Atharvaveda the expression rādho Viśākhe, the Viśākhe are prosperity,’ should occur. But probably Rādhā is merely an invention due to the name of the next Naksatra, Anurādhā, wrongly conceived as meaning that which is after or follows Rādhā.’ 15. Anūrādhās or Anurādhā, propitious,’ is β, δ, and tγ (perhaps also p) Scorpionis. 16. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy ’; Jyesthaghnī, * slaying the eldest ’; or Jyesthā, ‘eldest,’ is the name of the constellation σ, α, and τ Scorpionis, of which the central star, a, is the brilliant reddish Antares (or Cor Scorpionis). 17.Vicrtau, ‘ the two releasers ’; Mūla, ‘ root or Mūla- barhanī, ‘ uprooting,’ denote primarily λ and v at the extremity of the tail of the Scorpion, but including also the nine or eleven stars from e to v. 18.19. Asādhās (‘ unconquered ’), distinguished as Pūrvās, ‘ former,’ and Uttarās, ‘ latter,’ are really two constellations, of which the former is composed of γ, δ, e, and η Sagittarii, or of 8 and e only, and the latter of θ, σ, t, and ξ Sagittarii, or of two, σ and ζ, only. It is probable that originally only four stars forming a square were meant as included in the whole constellation —viz., σ and f, with 8 and e. 20. Abhijit is the brilliant star a Lyrse with its two companions e and ζ. Its location in 6o° north latitude is completely discordant with the position of the corresponding Arabian and Chinese asterisms. This fact is considered by Oldenberg to support the view that it was a later addition to the system; its occurrence, however, as early as the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, which he does not note, somewhat invalidates that view. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is said to be ‘over Asādhās, under śronā,’ which Weber held to refer to its position in space, inferring thence that its Vedic position corresponded to that of the Arab Manāzil and the Chinese Sieou—viz., a, β Capricorni. But Whitney argues effectively that the words ‘ over ’ and ‘ under ’ really refer to the place of Abhijit in the list, ‘ after ’ Asādhās and ‘ before ’ Sronā. 21. Sronā, ‘lame,’ or Sravana, ‘ ear,’ denotes the bright star a Aquilai with β below and 7 above it. Weber very need- lessly thinks that the name Sravana suggested two ears and the head between. It is quite out of correspondence with the Manāzil and the Sieou, and is clearly an Indian invention. 22. śravisthās, ‘ most famous,’ or later Dhanisthās, ‘most wealthy,’ is the diamond-shaped group, α, β, δ, and 7, in the Dolphin, perhaps also ζ in the same constellation. Like the preceding Naksatra, it is out of harmony with the Manāzil and Sieou. 23. Satabhisaj or śatabhisa, ‘having a hundred physicians,’ seems to be λ Aquarii with the others around it vaguely conceived as numbering a hundred. 24. 25. Prostha-padās (fem. plur.), ‘ feet of a stool,’ or later Bhadra-padās,100 ‘auspicious feet,’ a double asterism forming a square, the former (pūrva) consisting of a and β Pegasi, the latter (uttara) of γ Pegasi and a Andromedse. 26. Revatī, ‘ wealthy,’ denotes a large number of stars (later 32), of which ζ Piscium, close upon the ecliptic where it was crossed by the equator of about 570 a.d., is given as the southernmost. 27. Aśva-yujau, ‘the two horse-harnessers,’ denotes the stars β and ζ Arietis. Aśvinyau101 and Aśvinī102 are later names. 28. Apabharanīs, Bharanīs, or Bharanyas, ‘ the bearers,’ is the name of the small triangle in the northern part of the Ram known as Musca or 35, 39, and 41 Arietis. The Naksatras and the Months.—In the Brāhmanas the Naksatra names are regularly used to denote dates. This is done in two ways. The name, if not already a feminine, may be turned into a feminine and compounded with pūrna-māsa, ‘the full moon,’ as in Tisyā-pūrnamāsa, ‘the full moon in the Naksatra Tisya.’103 Much more often, however, it is turned into a derivative adjective, used with paurnamāsī, ‘the full moon (night)/ or with amāvāsyā, ‘the new moon (night)/ as in Phālgunī paurnamāsl, ‘the full-moon night in the Naksatra Phālgunī’;104 or, as is usual in the Sūtras, the Naksatra adjective alone is used to denote the full-moon night. The month itself is called by a name derived105 from that of a Naksatra, but only Phālguna,106 Caitra,107 Vaiśākha,108 Taisya,109 Māgha110 occur in the Brāhmanas, the complete list later being Phālguna, Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyaistha, Asādha, Srāvana, Prausthapada, Aśvayuja, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrsa, Taisya, Māgha. Strictly speaking, these should be lunar months, but the use of a lunar year was clearly very restricted: we have seen that as early as the Taittirīya Brāhmana there was a tendency to equate lunar months with the twelve months of thirty days which made up the solar year (see Māsa). The Naksatras and Chronology.—(i) An endeavour has been made to ascertain from the names of the months the period at which the systematic employment of those names was intro¬duced. Sir William Jones111 refers to this possibility, and Bentley, by the gratuitous assumption that śrāvana always marked the summer solstice, concluded that the names of the months did not date before b.c. Ii8I. Weber112 considered that there was a possibility of fixing a date by this means, but Whitney113 has convincingly shown that it is an impossible feat, and Thibaut114 concurs in this view. Twelve became fixed as the number of the months because of the desire, evident in the Brāhmanas, somehow or other to harmonize lunar with solar time; but the selection of twelve Naksatras out of twenty-seven as connected with the night of full moon can have no chronological significance, because full moon at no period occurred in those twelve only, but has at all periods occurred in every one of the twenty-seven at regularly recurrent intervals. (2) All the lists of the Naksatras begin with Krttikās. It is only fair to suppose that there was some special reason for this fact. Now the later list of the Naksatras begins with Aśvinī, and it was unquestionably rearranged because at the time of its adoption the vernal equinox coincided with the star ζ Piscium on the border of Revatī and Aśvinī, say in the course of the sixth century A.D. Weber has therefore accepted the view that the Krttikās were chosen for a similar reason, and the date at which that Naksatra coincided with the vernal equinox has been estimated at some period in the third millennium B.C. A very grave objection to this view is its assumption that the sun, and not the moon, was then regarded as connected with the Naksatras; and both Thibaut and Oldenberg have pronounced decidedly against the idea of connecting the equinox with the Krttikās. Jacobi has contended that in the Rigveda the commencement of the rains and the summer solstice mark the beginning of the new year and the end of the old, and that further the new year began with the summer solstice in Phālgunī.121 He has also referred to the distinction of the two sets of Deva and Yama Naksatras in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as supporting his view of the connexion of the sun and the Naksatras. But this view is far from satisfactory: the Rigveda passages cannot yield the sense required except by translating the word dvādaśa123 as 4 the twelfth (month) * instead of consisting of twelve parts,’ that is, ‘year/ the accepted interpretation; and the division of the Naksatras is not at all satisfactorily explained by a supposed connexion with the sun. It may further be mentioned that even if the Naksatra of Krttikās be deemed to have been chosen because of its coincidence with the vernal equinox, both Whitney and Thibaut are pre¬pared to regard it as no more than a careless variant of the date given by the Jyotisa, which puts the winter solstice in Māgha. (3) The winter solstice in Māgha is assured by a Brāhmana text, for the Kausītaki Brāhmana12® expressly places it in the new moon of Māgha (māghasyāmāυāsyāyām). It is not very important whether we take this with the commentators as the new moon in the middle of a month commencing with the day after full moon in Taisa, or, which is much more likely, as the new moon beginning the month and preceding full moon in Māgha. The datum gives a certain possibility of fixing an epoch in the following way. If the end of Revatī marked the vernal equinox at one period, then the precession of the equinoxes would enable us to calculate at what point of time the vernal equinox was in a position corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha, when the solstitial colure cut the ecliptic at the beginning of Sravisthās. This would be, on the strict theory, in the third quarter of Bharanī, 6f asterisms removed from Sravisthās, and the difference between that and the beginning of Aśvinī = if asterisms = 23 (27 asterisms being = 360°). Taking, the starting-point at 499 a.d., the assured period of Varāha Mihira, Jones arrived at the date B.C. 1181 for the vernal equinox corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha—that is, on the basis of ι° = 72 years as the precession. Pratt arrived at precisely the same date, taking the same rate of precession and adopting as his basis the ascertained position in the Siddhantas of the junction star of Maghā, a Leonis or Regulus. Davis and Colebrooke arrived at a different date, B.C. 1391, by taking as the basis of their calculation the junction star of Citrā, which happens to be of uncertain position, varying as much as 30 in the different textbooks. But though the twelfth century has received a certain currency as the epoch of the observation in the Jyotisa, it is of very doubtful value. As Whitney points out, it is impossible to say that the earlier asterisms coincided in position with the later asterisms of 13J0 extent each. They were not chosen as equal divisions, but as groups of stars which stood in conjunction with the moon; and the result of subsequently making them strictly equal divisions was to throw the principal stars of the later groups altogether out of their asterisms. Nor can we say that the star ζ Piscium early formed the eastern boundary of Revatī; it may possibly not even have been in that asterism at all, for it is far remote from the Chinese and Arabic asterisms corresponding to Revatī. Added to all this, and to the uncertainty of the starting-point— 582 a.d., 560 a.d., or 491 a.d. being variants —is the fact that the place of the equinox is not a matter accurately determin¬able by mere observation, and that the Hindu astronomers of the Vedic period cannot be deemed to have been very accurate observers, since they made no precise determination of the number of days of the year, which even in the Jyotisa they do not determine more precisely than as 366 days, and even the Sūrya Siddhānta136 does not know the precession of the equinoxes. It is therefore only fair to allow a thousand years for possible errors,137 and the only probable conclusion to be drawn from the datum of the Kausītaki Brāhmana is that it was recording an observation which must have been made some centuries B.C., in itself a result quite in harmony with the probable date of the Brāhmana literature,138 say B.C. 800-600. (4) Another chronological argument has been derived from the fact that there is a considerable amount of evidence for Phālguna having been regarded as the beginning of the year, since the full moon in Phālgunī is often described as the ‘ mouth (mukham) of the year.’139 Jacobi140 considers that this was due to the fact that the year was reckoned from the winter solstice, which would coincide with the month of Phālguna about B.C. 4000. Oldenberg and Thibaut, on the other hand, maintain that the choice of Phālguna as the ‘ mouth ’ of the year was due to its being the first month of spring. This view is favoured by the fact that there is distinct evidence of the correspondence of Phālguna and the beginning of spring : as we have seen above in the Kausītaki Brāhmana, the new moon in Māgha is placed at the winter solstice, which puts the full moon of Phālgunī at a month and a half after the winter solstice, or in the first week of February, a date not in itself improbable for about B.C. 800, and corresponding with the February 7 of the veris initium in the Roman Calendar. This fact accords with the only natural division of the year into three periods of four months, as the rainy season lasts from June 7-10 to October 7-10, and it is certain that the second set of four months dates from the beginning of the rains (see Cāturmāsya). Tilak, on the other hand, holds that the winter solstice coincided with Māghī full moon at the time of the Taittirīya Samhitā (b.c. 2350), and had coincided with Phālgunī and Caitrī in early periods—viz., B.C. 4000-2500, and B.C. 6000¬4000. (5) The passages of the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, which treat the full moon in Phālguna as the beginning of the year, give as an alternative the full moon in Caitra. Probably the latter month was chosen so as to secure that the initial day should fall well within the season of spring, and was not, as Jacobi believes, a relic of a period when the winter solstice corresponded with Caitra. Another alternative is the Ekāstakā, interpreted by the commentators as the eighth day after the full moon in Maghās, a time which might, as being the last quarter of the waning half of the old year, well be considered as representing the end of the year. A fourth alternative is the fourth day before full moon; the full moon meant must be that of Caitra, as Álekhana quoted by Ápastamba held, not of Māgha, as Asmarathya, Laugāksi and the Mīmāmsists believed, and as Tilak believes. (6) Others, again, according to the Grhya ritual, began the year with the month Mārgaśīrsa, as is shown by its other name Agrahāyana (‘ belonging to the commencement of the year ’). Jacobi and Tilak think that this one denoted the autumn equinox in Mrgaśiras, corresponding to the winter solstice in Phālgunī. But, as Thibaut shows clearly, it was selected as the beginning of a year that was taken to commence with autumn, just as some took the spring to commence with Caitra instead of Phālguna. (7) Jacobi has also argued, with the support of Buhler, from the terms given for the beginning of Vedic study in the Grhya Sūtras, on the principle that study commenced with the rains (as in the Buddhist vassā) which mark the summer solstice. He concludes that if Bhādrapada appears as the date of commencing study in some texts, it was fixed thus because at one time Prosthapadās (the early name of Bhadra- padās) coincided with the summer solstice, this having been the case when the winter solstice was in Phālguna. But Whitney155 has pointed out that this argument is utterly illegitimate; we cannot say that there was any necessary connexion between the rains and learning—a month like Srāvana might be preferred because of its connexion with the word Sravana, 4 ear ’—and in view of the precession of the equinoxes, we must assume that Bhādrapada was kept because of its traditional coincidence with the beginning of the rains after it had ceased actually so to coincide. the other astronomical phenomena; the discovery of a series of 27 lunar mansions by them would therefore be rather surprising. On the other hand, the nature of such an operation is not very complicated ; it consists merely in selecting a star or a star group with which the moon is in conjunction. It is thus impossible a priori to deny that the Vedic Indians could have invented for themselves a lunar Zodiac. But the question is complicated by the fact that there exist two similar sets of 28 stars or star groups in Arabia and in China, the Manāzil and the Sieou. The use of the Manāzil in Arabia is consistent and effective ; the calendar is regulated by them, and the position of the asterisms corresponds best with the positions required for a lunar Zodiac. The Indians might therefore have borrowed the system from Arabia, but that is a mere possibility, because the evidence for the existence of the Manāzil is long posterior to that for the existence of the Naksatras, while again the Mazzaroth or Mazzaloth of the Old Testament may really be the lunar mansions. That the Arabian system is borrowed from India, as Burgess held, is, on the other hand, not at all probable. Biot, the eminent Chinese scholar, in a series of papers published by him between. 1839 and 1861, attempted to prove the derivation of the Naksatra from the Chinese Sieou. The latter he did not regard as being in origin lunar mansions at all. He thought that they were equatorial stars used, as in modern astronomy, as a standard to which planets or other stars observed in the neighbourhood can be referred; they were, as regards twenty-four of them, selected about B.C. 2357 on account of their proximity to the equator, and of their having the same right ascension as certain circumpolar stars which had attracted the attention of Chinese observers. Four more were added in B.C. IIOO in order to mark the equinoxes and solstices of the period. He held that the list of stars commenced with Mao (= Krttikās), which was at the vernal equinox in B.C. 2357. Weber, in an elaborate essay of i860, disputed this theory, and endeavoured to show that the Chinese literary evidence for the Sieou was late, dating not even from before the third century B.C. The last point does not appear to be correct, but his objections against the basis of Biot’s theory were rein¬forced by Whitney, who insisted that Biot’s supposition of the Sieou’s not having been ultimately derived from a system of lunar mansions, was untenable. This is admitted by the latest defender of the hypothesis of borrowing from China, Lśopold de Saussure, , but his arguments in favour of a Chinese origin for the Indian lunar mansions have been refuted by Oldenberg, who has also pointed out that the series does not begin with Mao ( = Krttikās). There remains only the possibility that a common source for all the three sets—Naksatra, Manāzil, and Sieou—may be found in Babylonia. Hommel has endeavoured to show that recent research has established in Babylonia the existence of a lunar zodiac of twenty-four members headed by the Pleiades ( = Krttikās); but Thibaut’s researches are not favourable to this claim. On the other hand, Weber, Whitney, Zimmer, and Oldenberg all incline to the view that in Babylonia is to be found the origin of the system, and this must for the present be regarded as the most probable view, for there are other traces of Babylonian influence in Vedic literature, such as the legend of the flood, perhaps the Adityas, and possibly the word Manā.
nārāśaṃsī (scil. Rc), ‘ (verse) celebrating men,’ is mentioned as early as the Rigveda, and is distinguished from Gāthā in a number of passages in the later literature. The Kāthaka Samhitā, while distinguishing the two, asserts that both are false (aηγtam). It is hardly probable that the two were abso­lutely distinct, for the Taittirīya Brāhmana has the phrase ‘a Gāthā celebrating men’ (nārāśamsī). What such verses were may be seen from the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra, which enumerates the Nārāśamsāni at the Purusamedha, or ‘human sacrifice.’ They may legitimately be reckoned as a source of the epic.The term Nārāśamsī is restricted in some passages to a particular group of three verses of the Atharvaveda, but Oldenberg must be right in holding that the restricted sense is not to be read into the Rigveda. Not even in the Taittirīya Samhitā is the technical sense certain, and the Brhaddevatā gives the word a general application.
nivid Denotes a brief invocation of the deity that is invited in a liturgy in honour of the god. The Brāhmanas repeatedly mention Nivids as inserted in the śastras (recitations), and the Khilas of the Rigveda preserve among them a set of Nivids. But it is doubtful whether the habit of using such brief formulas—the Nivid is usually not more than a Pada or quarter-verse in length—is known to the Rigveda, though it has been seen even there, and the word Nivid is several times found in that Samhitā, but hardly in the technical sense of the Brāhmanas. In the later Samhitās the technical sense is common.
pitṛ Common from the Rigveda onwards, denotes ‘father, not so much as the ‘begetter’ (janitr) but rather as the pro­tector of the child, this being probably also the etymological sense of the word. The father in the Rigveda stands for all that is good and kind. Hence Agni is compared with a father, while Indra is even dearer than a father. The father carries his son in his arms, and places him on his lap, while the child pulls his garment to attract attention. In later years the son depends on his father for help in trouble, and greets him with joy. It is difficult to ascertain precisely how far the son was subject to parental control, and how long such control continued. Reference is made in the Rigveda to a father’s chastising his son for gambling, and Rjrāśva is said to have been blinded by his father. From the latter statement Zimmer infers the existence of a developed patria potestas, but to lay stress on this isolated and semi-mythical incident would be unwise. It is, however, quite likely that the patria potestas was originally strong, for we have other support for the thesis in the Roman patria potestas. If there is no proof that a father legally controlled his son’s wedding, and not much that he controlled his daughter’s, the fact is in itself not improbable. There is again no evidence to show whether a son, when grown up, normally continued to stay with his father, his wife becoming a member of the father’s household, or whether he set up a house of his own : probably the custom varied. Nor do we know whether the son was granted a special plot of land on marriage or otherwise, or whether he only came into such property after his father’s death. But any excessive estimate of the father’s powers over a son who was no longer a minor and naturally under his control, must be qualified by the fact that in his old age the sons might divide their father’s property, or he might divide it amongst them, and that when the father-in-law became aged he fell under the control of his son’s wife. There are also obscure traces that in old age a father might be exposed, though there is no reason to suppose that this was usual in Vedic India. Normally the son was bound to give his father full obedience. The later Sūtras show in detail the acts of courtesy which he owed his father, and they allow him to eat the remnants of his father’s food. On the other hand, the father was expected to be kind. The story of Sunahśepa in the Aitareya Brāh-mana emphasizes the horror with which the father’s heartless treatment of his son was viewed. The Upanisads insist on the spiritual succession from father to son. The kissing of a son was a frequent and usual token of affection, even in mature years. On the failure of natural children, adoption was possible. It was even resorted to when natural children existed, but when it was desired to secure the presence in the family of a person of specially high qualifications, as in Visvamitra’s adoption of Sunahśepa. It is not clear that adoption from one caste into another was possible, for there is no good evidence that Viśvāmitra was, as Weber holds, a Ksatriya who adopted a Brāhmana. Adoption was also not always in high favour: it may be accidental or not that a hymn of the Vasistha book of the Rigveda condemns the usage. It was also possible for the father who had a daughter, but no sons, to appoint her to bear a son for him. At any rate the practice appears to be referred to in an obscure verse of the Rigveda as interpreted by Yāska. Moreover, it is possible that the difficulty of a brotherless maiden finding a husband may have been due in part to the possibility of her father desiring to make her a Putrikā, the later technical name for a daughter whose son is to belong to her father’s family. There can be no doubt that in a family the father took precedence of the mother. Delbruck explains away the apparent cases to the contrary. There is no trace of the family as a land-owning corporation. The dual form Pitarau regularly means ‘father and mother,’ ‘parents.
putrikā In the later literature has the technical sense of the daughter of a man without sons, whom he gives in marriage on the express terms that her son shall perform the funeral rites for him, and be counted as his. The thing as well as the name is recognized by Yāska in the Nirukta, and traced to the Rigveda. But the passages in the Rigveda are of very uncertain meaning, and in all probability do not refer to this custom at all.
puro'nuvākyā (‘Introductory verse to be recited’) is the technical term for the address to a god inviting him to partake of the offering; it was followed by the Yājyā, which accom­panied the actual oblation. Such addresses are not unknown, but are rare, according to Oldenberg in the Rigveda; subse­quently they are regular, the word itself occurring in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmarias.
puroruc Is the technical description of certain Nivid verses which were recited at the morning libation in the Ájya and Praūga ceremonies before the hymn (sūkta) of the litany or its parts. It occurs in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmaṇas.
pratipraśna occurs in the śatapatha Brāhmana applied to Prajāpati as the decider of doubts; it may have been a technical term for an ‘arbitrator’ (cf, Madhyamaśī and Dharma).
pratiṣṭhā Is found in one passage of the Atharvaveda, where Zimmer thinks the word is used as a technical term of law; possibly a ‘ sanctuary ’ may be meant, but it is more than doubtful whether the sense of ‘home’ or abode,’ as given by Roth,s is not quite adequate. Cf Jñātr.
brahmacarya Denotes the condition of life of the Brahma-cārin or religious student. The technical sense is first found in the last Maṇdala of the Rigveda. The practice of-studentship doubtless developed, and was more strictly regulated by custom as time went on, but it is regularly assumed and discussed in the later Vedic literature, being obviously a necessary part of Vedic society. The Atharvaveda has in honour of the Brahmacārin a hymn which already gives all the characteristic features of religious studentship. The youth is initiated (iipa-nī) by the teacher into a new life; he wears an antelope skin, and lets his hair grow long ;δ he collects fuel, and begs, learns, and practises penance. All these characteristics appear in the later literature. The student lives in the house of his teacher (ācārya-kala-vāsin ; ante-vāsin); he begs, looks after the sacrificial fires, and tends the house. His term of studentship might be long extended: it was normally fixed at twelve years, but much longer periods, such as thirty-two years, are mentioned. The age at which studentship began varied: śvetaketu commenced at twelve and studied for twelve years. It is assumed in the Grhya Sūtras that the three Aryan castes were all required to pass through a period of studentship. But that this is much more than priestly schematism is uncertain. No doubt individuals of the Kçatriya or Vaiśya caste might go through part of the period of studentship, just as Burmese boys of all classes now pass some time in a monastery as students. This is borne out by the reference in the Atharvaveda to the king guarding his country by Brahmacarya—though that is susceptible of a different interpretation—and more clearly by the reference in the Kāthaka Samhitā to a rite intended to benefit one who, although not a Brahmin, had studied (vidyūm anūcya), but had not gained renown, and by references in the Upaniṣads to kings who like Janaka studied the Vedas and the Upaniṣads. Normally, however, the Kṣatriya studied the art of war. One of the duties of the Brahmacārin was chastity. But reference is in several places made to the possibility of misconduct between a student and the wife of his preceptor, nor is any very severe penance imposed in early times later it is different for such a sin. In certain cases the ritual required a breach of chastity, no doubt as a magic spell to secure fertility. Even an old man might on occasion become a pupil, as the story of Árurii shows.
brahman Is found in many passages of the Rigveda and later in the sense of * priest.’ In many passages of the Rigveda he is referred to as praising the gods; in others the sense of ‘ priest ’ is adequate. In not a few cases the priesthood as a profession is clearly alluded to, nor is there any reason to doubt that in all cases the word has the technical sense of a member of the priesthood. There is, however, considerable doubt as to the number of cases in the Rigveda, where it has the technical sense of the priest who guides the sacrifice generally. It is undoubtedly found in that sense, both Muir and Roth® recognizing instances of its being used thus. Geldner however, is anxious to find that sense in a large number of passages, and insists that the Purohita was normally a Brahman in the narrower sense. Oldenberg, on the other hand, holds with greater probability that in most of the passages adduced Brahman means simply ‘ priest,’ and that the Purohita, who was essentially not a member of the ordinary body of sacri¬ficing priests (Rtvij), was, when he officiated at the sacrifice, more usually the Hotṛ priest, and only later became the Brahman. This change he regards as having taken place when the importance of the hymns declined, and most weight was laid on the functions of the priest who superintended the sacrifice as a whole, and by his magic repaired the flaws in the sacrifice. In the later literature both senses of the word are quite common.
brāmaṇa Descendant of a Brahman' (i.e., of a priest), is found only a few times in the Rigveda, and mostly in its latest parts. In the Atharvaveda and later it is a very common word denoting ‘priest,’ and it appears in the quadruple division of the castes in the Purusa-sūkta (‘hymn of man’) of the Rigveda. It seems certain that in the Rigveda this Brāhmaṇa, or Brahmin, is already a separate caste, differing from the warrior and agricultural castes. The texts regularly claim for them a superiority to the Kṣatriya caste, and the Brahmin is able by his spells or manipulation of the rite to embroil the people and the warriors or the different sections of the warriors. If it is necessary to. recognize, as is sometimes done, that the Brahmin does pay homage to the king at the Rājasūya, nevertheless the unusual fact is carefully explained away so as to leave the priority of the Brahmin unaffected. But it is expressly recognized that the union of the Ksatriya and the Brāhmaṇa is essential for complete prosperity. It is admitted that the king or the nobles might at times oppress the Brahmins, but it is indicated that ruin is then certain swiftly to follow. The Brahmins are gods on earth, like the gods in heaven, but this claim is hardly found in the Rigveda. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Brahmin is said to be the ‘ recipient of gifts * (ādāyt) and the * drinker of the offering ’ (āpāyT). The other two epithets applied, āvasāyī and yathā- kāma-prayāpya, are more obscure; the former denotes either ‘ dwelling everywhere ’ or ‘ seeking food ’; the latter is usually taken as * moving at pleasure,’ but it must rather allude to the power of the king to assign a place of residence to the Brahmin. In the śatapatha Brāhmana the prerogatives of the Brah¬min are summed up as Arcā, ‘honour’; Dāna, ‘gifts’; Aj'yeyatā,‘ freedom from oppression ’; and Avadhyatā, ‘ freedom from being killed.’ On the other hand, his duties are summed up as Brāhmanya, ‘ purity of descent’; Pratirūpa-caryā, ‘devotion of the duties of his caste’; and Loka-pakti, ‘the perfecting of people ’ (by teaching). ī. Respect paid to Brahmins. The texts are full of references to the civilities to be paid to the Brahmin. He is styled bhagavant, and is provided with good food and entertain¬ment wherever he goes. Indeed, his sanctity exempts him from any close inquiry into his real claim to Brahminhood according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Gifts to Brahmins. The Dānastuti (‘Praise of gifts’) is a recognized feature of the Rigveda, and the greed of the poets for Dakṣiṇās, or sacrificial fees, is notorious. Vedic texts themselves recognize that the literature thence resulting (Nārā- śamsī) was often false to please the donors. It was, however, a rule that Brahmins should not accept what had been refused by others; this indicates a keen sense of the danger of cheapening their wares. So exclusively theirs was the right to receive gifts that the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa has to explain how Taranta and Purumīlha became able to accept gifts by composing a Rigvedic hymn. The exaggerations in the celebration of the gifts bestowed on the priests has the curious result of giving us a series of numerals of some interest (Daśan). In some passages certain gifts those of a horse or sheep are forbidden, but this rule was not, it is clear, generally observed. Immunities of Brahmins. The Brahmin claimed to be exempt from the ordinary exercise of the royal power. When a king gives all his land and what is on it to the priests, the gift does not cover the property of the Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. The king censures all, but not the Brahmin, nor can he safely oppress any Brahmin other than an ignorant priest. An arbitrator (or a witness) must decide (or speak) for a Brahmin against a non-Brahmin in a legal dispute. The Brahmin’s proper food is the Soma, not Surā or Parisrut, and he is forbidden to eat certain forms of flesh. On the other hand, he alone is allowed to eat the remains of the sacrifice, for no one else is sufficiently holy to consume food which the gods have eaten. Moreover, though he cannot be a physician, he helps the physician by being beside him while he exercises his art. His wife and his cow are both sacred. 4.Legal Position of. Brahmins.—The Taittirīya Samhitā lays down a penalty of a hundred (the unit meant is unknown) for an insult to a Brahmin, and of a thousand for a blow ; but if his blood is drawn, the penalty is a spiritual one. The only real murder is the slaying of a Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmana. The crime of slaying a Brahmin ranks above the sin of killing any other man, but below that of killing an embryo (bhrūna) in the Yajurveda ; the crime of slaying an embryo whose sex is uncertain is on a level with that of slaying a Brahmin. The murder of a Brahmin can be expiated only by the horse sacrifice, or by a lesser rite in the late Taittirīya Araṇyaka.The ritual slaying of a Brahmin is allowed in the later ceremonial, and hinted at in the curious legend of śunahśepa ; and a Purohita might be punished with death for treachery to his master. 5.Purity of Birth. The importance of pure descent is seeη in the stress laid on being a descendant of a Rṣi (ārseya). But, on the other hand, there are clear traces of another doctrine, which requires learning, and not physical descent, as the true criterion of Rsihood. In agreement with this is the fact that Satyakāma Jābāla was received as a pupil, though his parentage was unknown, his mother being a slave girl who had been connected with several men, and that in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the ceremony on acceptance as a pupil required merely the name of the pupil. So Kavasa is taunted in the Rigveda Brāhmaṇas as being the son of a female slave (Dāsī), and Vatsa cleared himself of a similar imputation by a fire ordeal. Moreover, a very simple rite was adequate to remove doubts as to origin. In these circumstances it is doubtful whether much value attaches to the Pravara lists in which the ancestors of the priest were invoked at the beginning of the sacrifice by the Hotṛ and the Adhvaryu priests.66 Still, in many parts of the ritual the knowledge of two or more genera¬tions was needed, and in one ceremony ten ancestors who have drunk the Soma are required, but a literal performance of the rite is excused. Moreover, there are clear traces of ritual variations in schools, like those of the Vasisthas and the Viśvāmitras. 6. The Conduct of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required to maintain a fair standard of excellence. He was to be kind to all and gentle, offering sacrifice and receiving gifts. Especial stress was laid on purity of speech ; thus Viśvan- tara’s excuse for excluding the Syaparnas from his retinue was their impure (apūtā) speech. Theirs was the craving for knowledge and the life of begging. False Brahmins are those who do not fulfil their duties (cf, Brahmabandhu). But the penances for breach of duty are, in the Sūtras, of a very light and unimportant character. 7. Brahminical Studies. The aim of the priest is to obtain pre-eminence in sacred knowledge (brahma-varcasam), as is stated in numerous passages of Vedic literature. Such distinction is not indeed confined to the Brahmin: the king has it also, but it is not really in a special manner appropriate to the Kṣatriya. Many ritual acts are specified as leading to Brahmavarcasa, but more stress is laid on the study of the sacred texts : the importance of such study is repeatedly insisted upon. The technical name for study is Svādhyāya : the śatapatha Brāhmana is eloquent upon its advantages, and it is asserted that the joy of the learned śrotriya, or ‘student,’ is equal to the highest joy possible. Nāka Maudgfalya held that study and the teaching of others were the true penance (tapas).7δ The object was the ‘ threefold knowledge’ (trayī vidyā), that of the Rc, Yajus, and Sāman, a student of all three Vedas being called tri-śukriya or tn-sukra, ‘thrice pure.’ Other objects of study are enumerated in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, the Chāndogya Upanisad, etc. (See Itihāsa, Purāna; Gāthā, Nārāśamsī; Brahmodya; Anuśās- ana, Anuvyākhyāna, Anvākhyāna, Kalpa, Brāhmaria; Vidyā, Ksatravidyā, Devajanavidyā, Nakçatravidyā, Bhūta- vidyā, Sarpavidyā; Atharvāñgirasah, Daiva, Nidhi, Pitrya, Rāśi; Sūtra, etc.) Directions as to the exact place and time of study are given in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka and in the Sūtras. If study is carried on in the village, it is to be done silently (manasā); if outside, aloud (vācā). Learning is expected even from persons not normally competent as teachers, such as the Carakas, who are recognized in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as possible sources of information. Here, too, may be mentioned the cases of Brahmins learning from princes, though their absolute value is doubtful, for the priests would naturally represent their patrons as interested in their sacred science: it is thus not necessary to see in these notices any real and independent study on the part of the Kṣatriyas. Yājñavalkya learnt from Janaka, Uddālaka Aruni and two other Brahmins from Pravāhaṇa Jaivali, Drptabālāki Gārgya from Ajātaśatru, and five Brahmins under the lead of Aruṇa from Aśvapati Kaikeya. A few notices show the real educators of thought: wandering scholars went through the country and engaged in disputes and discussions in which a prize was staked by the disputants. Moreover, kings like Janaka offered rewards to the most learned of the Brahmins; Ajātaśatru was jealous of his renown, and imitated his generosity. Again, learned women are several times mentioned in the Brāhmaṇas. A special form of disputation was the Brahmodya, for which there was a regular place at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and at the Daśarātra (‘ ten-day festival,). The reward of learning was the gaining of the title of Kavi or Vipra, ‘ sage.’ 8. The Functions of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required not merely to practise individual culture, but also to give others the advantage of his skill, either as a teacher or as a sacrificial priest, or as a Purohita. As a teacher the Brahmin has, of course, the special duty of instructing his own son in both study and sacrificial ritual. The texts give examples of this, such as Áruṇi and Svetaketu, or mythically Varuṇa and Bhṛgu. This fact also appears from some of the names in the Vamśa Brāhmana" of the Sāmaveda and the Vamśa (list of teachers) of the śāñkhāyana Áraṇyaka. On the other hand, these Vamśas and the Vamśas of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa show that a father often preferred to let his son study under a famous teacher. The relation of pupil and teacher is described under Brahmacarya. A teacher might take several pupils, and he was bound to teach them with all his heart and soul. He was bound to reveal everything to his pupil, at any rate to one who was staying with him for a year (saηivatsara-vāsin), an expression which shows, as was natural, that a pupil might easily change teachers. But, nevertheless, certain cases of learning kept secret and only revealed to special persons are enumerated. The exact times and modes of teaching are elaborately laid down in the Sūtras, but not in the earlier texts. As priest the Brahmin operated in all the greater sacrifices; the simple domestic {grhya) rites could normally be performed without his help, but not the more important rites {śrauta). The number varied : the ritual literature requires sixteen priests to be employed at the greatest sacrifices (see Rtvij), but other rites could be accomplished with four, five, six, seven, or ten priests. Again, the Kauçītakins had a seventeenth priest beside the usual sixteen, the Sadasya, so called because he watched the performance from the Sadas, seat.’ In one rite, the Sattra (‘sacrificial session') of the serpents, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, adds three more to the sixteen, a second Unnetṛ, an Abhigara, and an Apagara. The later ritual places the Brahman at the head of all the priests, but this is probably not the early view (see Brahman). The sacrifice ensured, if properly performed, primarily the advantages of the sacrificer (yajamāna), but the priest shared in the profit, besides securing the Daksiṇās. Disputes between sacrificers and the priests were not rare, as in the case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas, or Janamejaya and the Asitamrgras and the Aiçāvīras are referred to as undesirable priests. Moreover, Viśvāmitra once held the post of Purohita to Sudās, but gave place to Vasiṣtha. The position of Purohita differed considerably from that of the ordinary priest, for the Purohita not merely might officiate at the sacrifice, but was the officiator in all the private sacrifices of his king. Hence he could, and undoubtedly sometimes did, obtain great influence over his master in matters of secular importance; and the power of the priesthood in political as opposed to domestic and religious matters, no doubt rested on the Purohita. There is no recognition in Vedic literature of the rule later prevailing by which, after spending part of his life as a Brahma- cārin, and part as a householder, the Brahmin became an ascetic (later divided into the two stages of Vānaprastha, ‘forest-dweller,’ and Samnyāsin, ‘mystic ’). Yājñavalkya's case shows that study of the Absolute might empty life of all its content for the sage, and drive him to abandon wife and family. In Buddhist times the same phenomenon is seen applying to other than Brahmins. The Buddhist texts are here confirmed in some degree by the Greek authorities. The practice bears a certain resemblance to the habit of kings, in the Epic tradition,of retiring to the forest when active life is over. From the Greek authorities it also appears what is certainly the case in the Buddhist literature that Brahmins practised the most diverse occupations. It is difficult to say how far this was true for the Vedic period. The analogy of the Druids in some respects very close suggests that the Brahmins may have been mainly confined to their professional tasks, including all the learned professions such as astronomy and so forth. This is not contradicted by any Vedic evidence ; for instance, the poet of a hymn of the Rigveda says he is a poet, his father a physician (Bhiṣaj), and his mother a grinder of corn (Upala-prakṣiṇī). This would seem to show that a Brahmin could be a doctor, while his wife would perform the ordinary household duties. So a Purohita could perhaps take the field to assist the king by prayer, as Viśvāmitra, and later on Vasiṣtha do, but this does not show that priests normally fought. Nor do they seem normally to have been agriculturists or merchants. On the other hand, they kept cattle: a Brahmacarin’s duty was to watch his master’s cattle.129 It is therefore needless to suppose that they could not, and did not, on occasion turn to agricultural or mercan¬tile pursuits, as they certainly did later. But it must be remembered that in all probability there was more purity of blood, and less pressure of life, among the Brahmins of the Vedic age than later in Buddhist times, when the Vedic sacrificial apparatus was falling into grave disrepute. It is clear that the Brahmins, whatever their defects, represented the intellectual side of Vedic life, and that the Kṣatriyas, if they played a part in that life, did so only in a secondary degree, and to a minor extent. It is natural to suppose that the Brahmins also composed ballads, the precursors of the epic; for though none such have survived, a few stanzas of this character, celebrating the generosity of patrons, have been preserved by being embedded in priestly compositions. A legend in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa shows clearly that the Brahmins regarded civilization as being spread by them only: Kosala and Videha, no doubt settled by Aryan tribes, are only rendered civilized and habitable by the influence of pious Brahmins. We need not doubt that the non-Brahminical tribes (see Vrātya) had attained intellectual as well as material civilization, but it is reasonable to assume that their civilization was inferior to that of the Brahmins, for the history of Hinduism is the conquest by the Brahmins not by arms, but by mind of the tribes Aryan and non-Aryan originally beyond the pale.
brāhmaṇācchaṃsin (‘Reciting after the Brāhmaṇa — i.e., Brahman ’) is the name of a priest in the Brāhmaṇas. In the technical division of the sacrificial priests (Rtvy) he is classed with the Brahman, but it is clear that he was really a Hotraka or assistant of the Hotṛ. According to Oldenberg, he was known to the Rigveda as Brahman. This is denied by Geldner, who sees in Brahman merely the ‘superintending priest’ or the ‘ priest.’
mahiṣī ‘The powerful one,’ the name of the first of the four wives (see Pati) of the king, is mentioned frequently in the later literature. Perhaps even in the Rigveda the technical sense of ‘ first wife ’ is present.
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
vaira Seem to have in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmaṇas the definite and technical sense of ‘wergeld,’ the money to be paid for killing a man as a compensation to his relatives. This view is borne out by the Sūtras of Apa­stamba and Baudhāyana. Both prescribe the scale of 1,000 cows for a Kṣatriya, 100 for a Vaiśya, 10 for a śūdra, and a bull over and above in each case. Apastamba leaves the destination of the payment vague, but Baudhāyana assigns it to the king. It is reasonable to suppose that the cows were intended for the relations, and the bull was a present to the king for his intervention to induce the injured relatives to abandon the demand for the life of the offender. The Apa­stamba Sūtra allows the same scale of wergeld for women, but the Gautama Sūtra puts them on a level with men of the śūdra caste only, except in one special case. The payment is made for the purpose of vaira-yātana or vaira-niryātana, 'requital of enmity,' 'expiation' he Rigveda preserves, also, the important notice that a man’s wergeld was a hundred (cows), for it contains the epithet śata-dāya, ‘one whose wergeld is a hundred/ No doubt the values varied, but in the case of śunaháepa the amount is a hundred (cows) in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. In the Yajurveda Samhitās śata-dāya again appears. The fixing of the price shows that already public opinion, and perhaps the royal authority, was in Rigvedic times diminishing the sphere of private revenge; on the other hand, the existence of the system shows how weak was the criminal authority of the king (cf. Dharma).
vrāta Is found in several passages of the Rigveda and later in the sense of ‘troop.’ In one passage of the Rigveda the troops of the Maruts are referred to by three different terms—śardha, vrāta, and gana. From this fact Zimmer has deduced that a Vedic host fought according to clan (Viś), village (Grāma), and family, but this conclusion is hardly warranted, there being nothing to show that there is any intention to present a distinct series of divisions. It is not probable that the word ever has the technical sense of ‘guild,’ as Roth6 thinks. Cf. Vrātapati.
śastra Is the technical term for the ‘recitation’ of the Hotr priest, as opposed to the Stotra of the Udgātṛ. The recitations at the morning offering of Soma are called the Ajya and Praūga ; at the midday offering, the Marutvatīya and the Niṣkevalya; at the evening offering, the Vaiśvadeva and the Agnimāruta.
śūṣa vāhneya (‘Descendant of Vahni’) Bhāradvāja (‘descendant of Bharadvūya ’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Arāda Dātreya śaunaka, in the Vamśa Brāhmaṇa. Cf. śruṣa.
śruṣa vāhneya (‘Descendant of Vahni’) Kāśyapa ('descen­dant of Kaśyapa') is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Deva- taras, in the Jaiminlya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa. It is much more likely that śruṣa is a mere misreading for Sūça.
saṃrudh Occur in the Atharvaveda as two technical terms, of unknown sense, used in dicing.
sabhāsad ‘Sitter in the assembly,’ is probably a technical description of the assessors who decided legal cases in the assembly (cf. Sabhācara). The term, which is found in the Atharvaveda and later, cannot well merely denote any member of the assembly. It is also possible that the Sabhāsads, perhaps the heads of families, were expected to be present at the Sabhā oftener than the ordinary man: the meetings of the assembly for justice may have been more frequent than for general discus­sion and decision.
stoma Denotes ‘ song of praise ’ in the Rigveda. Later the term has the technical sense of the typical forms in which the Stotras are chanted.
svarāj ‘Self-ruler,’ ‘ king,’ is found frequently in the Rigveda and later. It is the technical term for the kings of the west according to the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa.
       Bloomfield Vedic
         Concordance  
124 results
     
akṣān iva śvaghnī ni minoti tāni # AVś.4.16.5d. Cf. next, kṛtam iva śvaghnī, and kṛtaṃ yac chvaghnī.
akṣān na śvaghnī bhuvanā mimīte # AVP.5.32.5d. Cf. under prec.
agne brahma gṛbhṇīṣva (MSṃś. gṛhṇīṣva; KS. gṛhīṣva) # VS.1.18; MS.1.1.9: 5.9; KS.1.8; śB.1.2.1.9; Mś.1.2.3.30. P: agne brahma Kś.2.4.30. See saṃ brahmaṇā pṛcyasva.
aghoracakṣur apatighny edhi (JG. -ghnī ma edhi; AVś. syonā) # RV.10.85.44a; AVś.14.2.17a; SMB.1.2.17a (GG.2.2.16); PG.1.4.16a; ApMB.1.1.4a (ApG.2.4.4); HG.1.20.2a; MG.1.10.6a; JG.1.21a; VārG.14.3a. P: aghoracakṣuḥ śG.1.16.5; Kauś.77.22. Cf. BṛhD.8.137.
ajanti vahniṃ sadanāny acha # RV.9.91.1d. See mṛjanti vahniṃ.
adevṛghny apatighnīhaidhi # AVś.14.2.18a.
adhvana skabhnīta (VS. skabhnuvantaḥ) # VS.9.13; TS.1.7.8.1. See adhvānaṃ skabhnuvanto.
adhvānaṃ skabhnuvanto yojanā mimānāḥ # MS.1.11.2: 162.8. See adhvana skabhnīta.
apa dvārā tamaso vahnir āvaḥ # RV.3.5.1d.
abhi vahnir amartyaḥ # RV.9.9.6a.
abhi vahnī anūṣātām # RV.8.8.12d.
abhrātṛghnīṃ varuṇa # AVś.14.1.62a; ApMB.1.1.3a (ApG.2.4.3). P: abhrātṛghnīm Kauś.76.32.
ayā nijaghnir ojasā # RV.9.53.2a; SV.2.1065a.
aviṃ vṛka iva mathnīta # AVś.5.8.4c; AVP.7.18.5c.
avīraghnī (MG. vīraṃ hi, read avīraghnī ?) vīravataḥ suśevā # MG.1.14.6b; VārG.15.17b. See next.
aśvibhyāṃ tiroahniyānāṃ (Mś. tiro 'hnyānāṃ) somānām anubrūhi # Apś.14.4.7; Mś.2.5.3.23.
aśvibhyāṃ tiroahniyānāṃ somānāṃ preṣya # Apś.14.4.7.
aśvibhyāṃ tiro 'hnyānāṃ etc. # see aśvibhyāṃ tiroahniyānāṃ.
aśvibhyāṃ tiro 'hnyān somān prasthitān preṣya # Mś.2.5.3.24. See tiroahniyān.
aṣṭadhā yukto vahati vahnir ugraḥ # AVś.13.3.19a.
asapatnā sapatnaghnī (ApMB. -nighnī) # RV.10.159.5a; AVP.2.41.5a; ApMB.1.16.5a (ApG.3.9.9).
asādi vṛto vahnir ājaganvān # RV.7.7.5a.
asmāsv aghniyā yūyam # TB.3.7.10.1b; Apś.9.18.15b.
ahaye budhniyāya mantraṃ śriyam # Apś.5.18.2c.
ahaye budhniyāya svāhā # TB.3.1.5.11.
ahiṃsantīṃ prati gṛhṇīma enām # AVP.5.31.9d; 7.15.10d.
ahir asi budhnyaḥ (TS.Apś. budhniyaḥ) # VS.5.33; TS.1.3.3.1; MS.1.2.12: 21.16; KS.2.13; PB.1.4.11; śś.6.12.26; Apś.1.22.2; 11.15.1. P: ahiḥ Lś.2.2.22.
ahir budhniyaḥ prathamāna eti # TB.3.1.2.9a.
ahir budhniyo devatā # see ahir budhnyo etc.
ahir budhniyo niyachatu # TB.3.7.4.6d; Apś.4.2.1d.
ahirbudhnya mantraṃ me pāhi # Mś.1.6.3.7. Cf. MS.1.5.14: 82.15 ff. See ahe budhniya.
ahir budhnyo (TS. budhniyo) devatā # TS.4.4.10.3; MS.2.13.20: 166.7; KS.39.13.
ahe budhniya mantraṃ me gopāya # TB.1.1.10.3,5; 2.1.26a; Apś.5.18.2a. See ahirbudhnya.
ā gṛhṇītaṃ saṃ bṛhatam # AVś.11.9.11a.
ād rodasī jyotiṣā vahnir ātanot # RV.2.17.4c.
āpo devīḥ pratigṛbhṇīta (TS.KS.Apś. -gṛhṇīta) bhasmaitat # VS.12.35a; TS.4.2.3.2a; MS.2.7.10a: 88.3; KS.16.10a; 19.12; śB.6.8.2.3; Apś.16.12.11. Ps: āpo devīḥ pratigṛbhṇīta Mś.6.1.4.33; āpo devīḥ Kś.16.6.26, (28); BṛhPDh.2.134,135.
ā pyāyadhvam aghniyā indrāya (also with vikāra, mahendrāya) devabhāgam # Apś.1.2.6. See next four.
ā pyāyadhvam aghniyā devabhāgam ūrjasvatīḥ payasvatīḥ prajāvatīr anamīvā ayakṣmāḥ # TS.1.1.1.1; TB.3.2.1.4 (in fragments). See under prec.
āsā vahniṃ na śociṣā virapśinam # RV.10.115.3c.
āsā vahnir no acha # RV.1.129.5g.
idaṃ rādhaḥ prati gṛbhṇīhy (JB. gṛhṇīhy) aṅgiraḥ # AVś.20.135.9b; AB.6.35.16b; GB.2.6.14b; JB.2.117b; śś.12.19.2d.
indrāpatighnīṃ putriṇīm # AVś.14.1.62c. See indrāputraghnīṃ.
indrāputraghnīṃ lakṣmyam # ApMB.1.1.3c. See indrāpatighnīṃ.
imam indraṃ vahniṃ paprim anv ārabhadhvam # AVś.12.2.47a. P: imam indram Kauś.72.7.
imau yunajmi te vahnī # AVś.18.2.56a; TA.6.1.1a; Kauś.80.34.
iha vatsāṃ ni badhnīmaḥ # AVś.4.38.7d. P: iha vatsām Kauś.21.11.
īḍāno (VSK. īlāno; KS. īḍānā) vahnir (KS. vahniṃ) namasā # AVś.5.27.4b; VS.27.14b; VSK.29.19b; TS.4.1.8.1b; MS.2.12.6a: 150.3; KS.18.17a. See īḍe vahniṃ.
īḍe vahniṃ namasāgnim # AVP.9.1.3b. See īḍāno vahnir.
uchantyām uṣasi vahnir ukthaiḥ # RV.1.184.1b.
upa tyā vahnī gamato viśaṃ naḥ # RV.7.73.4a.
upa devān daivīr viśaḥ prāgur uśijo vahnitamān (KS. prāgur vahnaya uśijaḥ) # VS.6.7; KS.3.4; 26.7; śB.3.7.3.9. P: upa devān Kś.6.3.19. See upo etc.
upavidā vahnir vindate vasu # RV.8.23.3c.
upo devān daivīr viśaḥ prāgur vahnīr (MS. vahnaya) uśijaḥ # TS.1.3.7.1; 6.3.6.1; MS.1.2.15: 24.8; 3.9.6: 123.14. P: upo devān daivīr viśaḥ Apś.7.12.8; Mś.1.8.3.3. See upa etc.
ubhe dhurau prati vahniṃ yunakta # RV.10.101.10d.
ubhe dhurau vahnir āpibdamānaḥ # RV.10.101.11a.
uṣā uchati vahnibhir gṛṇānā # RV.7.75.5d.
ūrjaṃ gṛhṇīta # MS.4.1.5: 6.16.
ṛṣṭivajri śataghni ca # TA.1.5.1b.
etāni te aghniye (JB.PBṃś. 'ghnye) nāmāni # TS.7.1.6.8; JB.2.251; PB.20.15.15; Mś.9.4.1.28 (corrupt). See etā te aghnye.
etān ghnataitān gṛhṇīta # ApMB.2.13.12a (ApG.6.15.6). See etān hataitān.
etān hataitān badhnīta # HG.2.3.7a. See etān ghna-.
oṣadhayaḥ prati gṛbhṇīta # VS.11.48a; VSK.13.6.3a; śB.6.4.4.17. See next, oṣadhayaḥ prati moda-, and oṣadhīḥ prati.
oṣadhayaḥ prati gṛhṇītāgnim (MSṃś. gṛbhṇītā-) etam # TS.4.1.4.4a; 5.1.5.9; MS.2.7.5a: 79.10; 3.1.6: 8.5; KS.16.4a; 19.5. P: oṣadhayaḥ pratigṛbhṇīta Mś.6.1.1.40. See under prec.
oṣadhayaḥ prati modadhvam enam (KS. omits enam; VS.śB. modadhvam agnim etam) # VS.11.47a; TS.4.1.4.4a; 5.1.5.9; MS.2.7.5a: 79.12; KS.16.4a; śB.6.4.4.16. P: oṣadhayaḥ Kś.16.3.14. See under oṣadhayaḥ prati gṛbhṇīta.
kṛṇuṣva pājaḥ (Mś.11.9.2.8, pājāḥ) prasitiṃ na pṛthvīm # RV.4.4.1a; VS.13.9a; TS.1.2.14.1a; MS.2.7.15a: 97.7; KS.10.5; 16.15a; AB.1.19.8; KB.8.4; śB.7.4.1.33; Aś.4.6.3; BDh.3.6.6; N.6.12a. Ps: kṛṇuṣva pājaḥ MS.4.11.5: 173.3; KS.6.11; TA.10.20.1; śś.5.9.11; Kś.17.4.7; Apś.16.22.4; 19.18.16; Mś.5.1.7.40; 6.1.7.5; 11.9.2.8; MahānU.13.6; kṛṇuṣva Rvidh.2.13.1. Designated as rākṣoghnīḥ (comm. kṛṇuṣva-pājīyāḥ, sc. ṛcaḥ) Apś.7.13.4.
kṛtaṃ yac chvaghnī vicinoti kāle # RV.10.42.9b; AVś.20.89.9. See kṛtam iva, and cf. kṛtaṃ na śvaghnī.
kṛtaṃ na śvaghnī vi cinoti devane # RV.10.43.5a; AVś.20.17.5a; N.5.22. Cf. under kṛtaṃ yac.
kṛtam iva śvaghnī vi cinoti kāle # AVś.7.50.6b. See kṛtaṃ yac, and cf. kṛtaṃ na śvaghnī.
guhā cid indra vahnibhiḥ # RV.1.6.5b; AVś.20.70.1b; SV.2.202b; JB.3.38b.
grābhaṃ gṛbhṇīta (SV. gṛbhṇāti) sānasim # RV.9.106.3b; SV.2.46b.
jaghānendro jaghnimā vayam # AVś.10.4.12c.
tan no vahniḥ pracodayāt # MS.2.9.1c: 120.11.
tam ātman (MS.KS. ātmani) pari gṛhṇīmahe vayam (MS. gṛhṇīmasīha) # TS.5.7.9.1c; MS.1.6.1c: 86.1; KS.7.12c.
tasya gṛhṇīta yat kṛtam # AVP.8.18.10c.
tasya madhye vahniśikhāḥ # TA.10.11.2c; MahānU.11.11c; MahāU.3c; Vāsū.3c.
ekamūrdhnīr abhi lokam ekam # AVś.8.9.15d. See samānamūrdhnīr.
tāsāṃ gṛhṇītād yatamā yajñiyāḥ # AVś.11.1.13c.
tisro vāca īrayati pra vahniḥ # RV.9.97.34a; SV.1.525a; 2.209a; JB.3.46a; PB.12.3.6; N.14.14a.
te budhniyaṃ pariṣadyaṃ stuvantaḥ # TB.3.1.2.9c.
tebhir yujyantām aghniyāḥ # TA.6.6.1c.
tvacaṃ gṛhṇīṣva # TS.1.1.8.1; TB.3.2.8.4; Apś.1.25.7.
tvaṃ devānām asi sasnitamaṃ papritamaṃ juṣṭatamaṃ vahnitamaṃ devahūtamam # TS.1.1.4.1; TB.3.2.4.4. P: tvaṃ devānām asi sasnitamam Apś.1.17.7. See devānām asi.
dakṣiṇena pratigṛbhṇīma enat # TB.3.1.1.9b.
divyānāṃ sarpāṇām adhipatiḥ pra likhatām # śG.4.15.7; ... adhipatiḥ pra limpatām 4.15.8; ... adhipatir ava neniktām 4.15.6; ... adhipatir āṅktām 4.15.11; ... adhipatir ā chādayatām 4.15.10; ... adhipatir ā badhnītām 4.15.9; ... adhipatir īkṣatām 4.15.12.
devānām asi vahnitamaṃ sasnitamaṃ papritamaṃ juṣṭatamaṃ devahūtamam # VS.1.8; MS.1.1.5: 3.1; 4.1.5: 6.12; KS.1.4; śB.1.1.2.12. Ps: devānām asi vahnitamam KS.31.3; Mś.1.2.1.25; devānām Kś.2.3.14. See tvaṃ devānām asi sasnitamaṃ.
namo jaghanyāya ca budhnyāya (TS. budhniyāya) ca # VS.16.32; TS.4.5.6.1; MS.2.9.6: 125.4. See namo budhnyāya.
payo gṛheṣu payo aghnyāyām (TB.Apś. aghniyāsu; Mś. 'stu tan naḥ) # AB.5.27.8c; 7.3.4c; TB.1.4.3.3c; 3.7.4.2a; Aś.3.11.7c; Apś.9.5.6c; Mś.3.2.2e. See payo aghnyāsu.
parjanyo me mūrdhni śrito mūrdhā hṛdaye hṛdayaṃ mayy aham amṛta amṛtaṃ brahmaṇi # TB.3.10.8.8.
pārāvataghnīm (TB. pārāvadaghnīm) avase suvṛktibhiḥ # RV.6.61.2c; MS.4.14.7c: 226.10; KS.4.16c; TB.2.8.2.8c; N.2.24c.
pāvakayā juhvā vahnir āsā # RV.6.11.2c.
putrā no adya sudinatve ahni # AVP.11.11.3c.
purā rātryā janitor eke ahni # AVś.19.56.2b; AVP.3.8.2b.
prajāvatā vacasā vahnir āsā # RV.1.76.4a.
prati gṛbhṇīta mānavaṃ sumedhasaḥ # RV.10.62.1d--4d; AB.5.14.4.
prati gṛhṇīta juhvatām # AVP.2.25.2d.
prati gṛhṇītāgnim etam # Apś.16.3.14.
pra budhnyā va īrate (TS. budhniyā īrate vo) mahāṃsi # RV.7.56.14a; TS.4.3.13.6a; MS.4.10.5a: 154.14; KS.21.13a; Aś.2.18.4. P: pra budhnyā vaḥ śś.3.15.9.
prītaṃ vahniṃ vahatu jātavedāḥ # VS.29.3d; TS.5.1.11.2d; MS.3.16.2d: 184.3; KSA.6.2d.
pro sya vahniḥ pathyābhir asyān # RV.9.89.1a.
makṣū na vahniḥ prajāyā upabdiḥ # RV.10.61.9a.
mitras tvā padi badhnātu (VS.śB. badhnītām) # VS.4.19; TS.1.2.4.2; 6.1.7.6; MS.1.2.4: 13.5; 3.7.6: 82.6; KS.2.5; 24.3 (bis); śB.3.2.4.18; Apś.10.22.10.
mimāti vahnir etaśaḥ # RV.9.64.19a.
mṛjanti vahniṃ sadaneṣv acha # SV.1.543d. See ajanti vahniṃ.
yajiṣṭho vahnitamaḥ śośucānaḥ # RV.4.1.4c; VS.21.3c; TS.2.5.12.3c; MS.4.10.4c: 153.13; 4.14.17c: 246.10; KS.34.19c; KA.1.198.29c; ApMB.1.4.14c.
yaj jagrantha savitā satyadharmā # Mś.1.3.5.17b; MG.1.11.20b. See yam abadhnīta savitā.
yatra vahnir abhihitaḥ # RV.5.50.4a.
yad āpo aghnyā (TSṭB. aghniyā) iti (TSṃS.KSṭBḷś. omit iti) # AVś.7.83.2c; 19.44.9a; AVP.15.3.9a; VS.20.18a; TS.1.3.11.1c; MS.1.2.18c: 28.5; KS.3.8c; 38.5a; śB.12.9.2.4a; TB.2.6.6.2a; Aś.3.6.24c; śś.8.12.11c; Lś.5.4.6c. Cf. yad āhur.
yadī mātaro janayanta vahnim # RV.3.31.2c; N.3.6c. Fragment: janayanta vahnim AB.6.18.5.
yam abadhnīta savitā suketaḥ (ApMB. suśevaḥ) # TS.1.1.10.2b; 3.5.6.2b; ApMB.1.5.17b. See yaj jagrantha.
ārdroghnīḥ pari tasthuṣīḥ # ApMB.2.19.2b. See yā dabhrāḥ.
te patighnī tanūḥ # HG.1.24.5c. See next two, and yāsyāṃ patighnī.
te patighnī prajāghnī paśughnī gṛhaghnī yaśoghnī ninditā tanūr jāraghnīṃ tata enāṃ karomi sā jīrya tvaṃ mayā sahāsau # PG.1.11.4. See under prec.
te patighny alakṣmī devaraghnī jāraghnīṃ taṃ karomy asau svāhā # śG.1.16.4. See under prec. but one.
dabhrāḥ parisasruṣīḥ # śG.3.13.5b. See yā ārdroghnīḥ.
yāsyā aputryā (śG. -triyā) tanūs tām asyā apajahi # śG.1.18.3; SMB.1.4.3. See yāsyai prajāghnī.
yāsyāḥ patighnī tanūs tām asyā apajahi # śG.1.18.3; SMB.1.4.2. See yāsyai etc.
yāsyāḥ pāpī lakṣmīr yā patighnī yāputryā yāpaśavyā tā asyā apahata # SMB.1.4.5.
yāsyāṃ patighnī tanūḥ prajāghnī paśughnī lakṣmighnī jāraghnīm asyai tāṃ kṛṇomi svāhā # ApMB.1.10.3--6. See under yā te patighnī tanūḥ.
yāsyai gṛhaghnī tanūs tām asyai nāśaya (JG. tām asyā apajahi) svāhā # PG.1.11.2; JG.1.22.
yāsyai patighnī tanūs tām asyai (HG. ito) nāśaya (JG. tām asyā apajahi) svāhā # PG.1.11.2; HG.1.24.1; JG.1.22. See yāsyāḥ etc.
yāsyai paśughnī tanūs tām asyai nāśaya (JG. tām asyā apajahi) svāhā # PG.1.11.2; JG.1.22. See yāsyā apaśavyā.
yāsyai prajāghnī tanūs tām asyai nāśaya (JG. tām asyā apajahi) svāhā # PG.1.11.2; JG.1.22. See yāsyā aputryā.
yāsyai yaśoghnī tanūs tām asyai nāśaya (JG. tām asyā apahata) svāhā # PG.1.11.2; JG.1.22.
yuktā vahnī rathānām # RV.8.94.1c; SV.1.149c.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
     Grammar
     KV Abhyankar
"hni" has 215 results.
     
navāhniname given to the first nine Ahnikas or lessons of the Mahabhasya which are written in explanation of only the first pada of the first Adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi and which contain almost all the important theories, statements and problems newly introduced by Patanjali.
pratyāhārāhnikaname given to the second Ahnika of the Mahabhasya which explains the Siva Sutras अइउण्, ऋऌक् , et cetera, and others, and hence naturally discusses the Pratyaharas.
akālaka(1)not limited by any time-factors for its study such as certain periods of the day or the year. (2) not characterized by any technical terms expressive of time such as adyatanī, parokṣā occurring in the ancient Prātiśākhya and grammar works. The term akalika is used by the writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti in connection with the grammar of Pāṇini. confer, compare “पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम्” Kās. on P. II.4.21 explained by the writer of the Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. as पूर्वाणि व्याकरणानि अद्यतनादिकालपरिभाषायुक्तानि तद्रहितम् ।
akṛtrimanon-technical: not formed or not arrived at by grammatical operations such as the application of affixes to crude bases and so on; natural; assigned only by accident. cf the gram. maxim कृत्रिमाकृतिमयोः कृत्रिमे कार्यसंप्रत्ययः which means "in cases of doubt whether an operation refers to that expressed by the technical sense or to that which is expressed by the ordinary sense of a term, the operation refers to what is expressed by the technical sense." Par. śek. Par.9 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.28.
akṣaraa letter of the alphabet, such as a (अ) or i (इ) or h (ह) or y (य्) or the like. The word was originally applied in the Prātiśākhya works to vowels (long, short as also protracted), to consonants and the ayogavāha letters which were tied down to them as their appendages. Hence अक्षर came later on to mean a syllable i. e. a vowel with a consonant or consonants preceding or following it, or without any consonant at all. confer, compare ओजा ह्रस्वाः सप्तमान्ताः स्वराणामन्ये दीर्घा उभये अक्षराणि R Pr. I 17-19 confer, compareएकाक्षरा, द्व्यक्षरा et cetera, and others The term akṣara was also applied to any letter (वर्ण), be it a vowel or a consonant, cf, the terms एकाक्षर, सन्ध्यक्षर, समानाक्षर used by Patañjali as also by the earlier writers. For the etymology of the term see Mahābhāṣya अक्षरं न क्षरं विद्यात्, अश्नोतेर्वा सरोक्षरम् । वर्णे वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 2 end.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
aṅga(1)the crude base of a noun or a verb to which affixes are added; a technical term in Pāṇini's grammar for the crude base after which an affix is prescribed e. g. उपगु in औपगव,or कृ in करिष्यति et cetera, and others confer, compare यस्मात् प्रत्ययविधिस्तदादि प्रत्ययेSङ्गम् P.I.4.13; (2) subordinate participle. constituent part confer, compare पराङ्गवद् in सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे P. II.1.2, also विध्यङ्गभूतानां परिभाषाणां Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Par. 93.10: (3) auxiliary for an operation, e. g. अन्तरङ्ग, बहिरङ्ग et cetera, and others confer, compare अत्राङगशब्देन शब्दरूपं निमित्तमेव गृह्यते Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Par.50; (4) element of a word or of an expression confer, compare अङ्गव्यवाये चाङ्गपरः Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 190, अङ्गे च क्म्ब्यादौ R.T. 127. व्यञ्जनं स्वराङ्गम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.21.1.
ājirādigaṇaclass of words headed by the word अजिर which do not allow lengthening of the final vowel by P. VI.3.119. although they form technical terms e. g. अजिरवती, पुलिनवती et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś on P. VI.3.119.
anavakāśahaving no occasion or scope of application; used in connection with a rule the whole of whose province of application is covered by a general rule, and hence which becomes technically useless, unless it is allowed to set aside the general rule: confer, compare अनवकाशा हि विधयो बाधका भवन्तिrules which have no opportunity of taking effect( without setting aside other rules ) supersede those rules; M.Bh. on V.4.154, also Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on Pari. 64.
anākṛtinot capable of presenting (on its mere utterance) any tangible form or figure the word is used in connection with a technical term (संज्ञाशब्द) which presents its sense by a definition actually laid down or given in the treatise: confer, compare अनाकृति: संज्ञा । अाकृतिमन्तः संज्ञिनः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.
anukramaṇaenumeration (in the right order as.opposed to व्युत्क्रम ); e. g. अथ किमर्थमुत्तरत्र एवमादि अनुक्रमणं क्रियते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.58; also on IV. 2.70; verbal forms of the root क्रम् with अनु occur in this sense very frequently; exempli gratia, for example यदित ऊर्ध्वं अनुक्रमिष्यामः; so also the past passive participle. अनुक्रान्तं occurs frequently in the same sense. अनुतन्त्र literally that which follows Tantra id est, that is Śāstra which means the original rules of a Śāstra; technical term for Vartika used by Bhartṛhari;confer, compare सूत्राणां सानुतन्त्राणां भाष्याणां च प्रणेतृभिः Vāk. Pad. I.23, where the word अनुतन्त्र is explained as Vārtika by the commentator.
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
anvarthakagiven in accordance with the sense; generally applied to a technical term which is found in accordance with the sense conveyed by the constituent parts of it; e. g. सर्वनामसंज्ञा, confer, compare महत्याः संज्ञायाः करणे एतत् प्रयोजनमन्वर्थसंज्ञा यथा विज्ञायेत Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.23.
anvarthasaṃjñāA technical term used in accordance with the sense of its constituent parts; e. g. सर्वनाम, संख्या, अव्यय उपसर्जन,कारक, कर्मप्रवचनीय, अव्ययी-भाव, प्रत्यय, उपपद et cetera, and others All these terms are picked up from ancient grammarians by Pāṇini: confer, compare तत्र महत्याः संज्ञाया एतत् प्रयोजनम् । अन्वर्थसंज्ञा यथा विज्ञायेत । संख्यायते अनया संख्येति । confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.23; also confer, compare M.Bh.on I.1.27,I. 1.38,I.2.43, I.4.83, II.1,5, III. 1.1, III.1.92 et cetera, and others
apādānadetachment, separation, ablation technical term for अपादानकारक which is defined as ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् in P.I.4.24 and subsequent rules 25 to 3l and which is put in the ablative case; confer, compare अपादाने पञ्चमी P. II.3.28.
apṛktaliterally unmixed with any (letter); a technical term for an affix consisting of one phonetic element, id est, that is of a single letter. confer, compare अपृक्त एकाल्प्रत्ययः P. I.2.41.
aprasaṅganon-application of a rule of grammar or of a technical term; confer, compare अन्यत्र सहवचनात् समुदाये संज्ञाsप्रसङ्गः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 11.
abhāvaabsence; absence of any following letter which is technically called avasāna. confer, compare विरामोऽवसानम् । वर्णानामभावोऽवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् S. K. on P. I.4.110.
abhyāsalit, doubling or reduplication technically the word refers to the first portion of the reduplication, which is called the reduplicative syllable as opposed to the second part which is called the reduplicated syllable; confer, compare पूर्वोभ्यासः P. VI.1.4. (2) Repetition, the sccond part which is repeated; confer, compare दोऽभ्यासे(RT.165) explained as दकारः अभ्यासे लुप्यते । पटत्पटेति । द्रसद्रसेति ; (3) repeated action; confer, compare अभ्यासः पुनः पुनः करणमावृत्तिः Kāś. on P.1-3, 1.
abhyāhataomission of any sound; a fault of utterance. अम् (1)a technical brief term in Panini's grammar including vowels, semivowels, the letter ह् and nasals; (2) a significant term for the accusative case showing change or substitution or modification: confer, compare अं विकारस्य Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.28 explained as अमिति शब्दे विकारस्याख्या भवति । अमिति द्वितीय विभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् । (3) augment अ applied to the penultimate vowel of सृज् & दृश् (P. VI.1.58, 59 and VII.1.99) (4) substitute tor Ist person. singular. affix मिप्, by P.III.4.101 (5) Acc. singular. case affix अम् .
ara technical term for Ārdhadhātuka affixes in the Mugdhabodha grammar.
avivakṣita(1)not taken technically into consideration, not meant: confer, compare अविवक्षिते कर्मणि षष्ठी भवति M.Bh on II.3. 52; (2) unnecessary; superfluous; the word is especially used in connection with a word in a Sūtra which could as well be read without that word. The word अतन्त्रं is sometimes used similarly.
avyayaindeclinable, literally invariant, not undergoing a change. Pāṇini has used the word as a technical term and includes in it all such words as स्वर्, अन्तर् , प्रातर् etc, or composite expressions like अव्ययीभावसमास, or such taddhitānta words as do not take all case affixes as also kṛdanta words ending in म् or ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. He gives such words in a long list of Sutras P. I.1.37 to 41; confer, compare सदृशं त्रिषु लिङ्गेषु सर्वासु च विभक्तिषु । वचनेषु च सर्वेषु यन्न व्येति तदव्ययम् Kāś. on P.I.1.37.
avyāpyaan intransitive root; a technical term in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa (C. Vy. I.4.70 ) as also in Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana; confer, compare अव्याप्यस्य मुचेर्मोग् वा । मुचेरकर्मकस्य सकारादौ सनि परे मोक् इत्ययमादेशो वा स्यात् । न चास्य द्विः । मोक्षति मुमुक्षति चैत्र: । मोक्षते मुमुक्षते वा वत्सः स्वयमेव Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. IV.1.19.
aśvapatyādia class of words headed by अश्वपति to which the taddhita affix अण् (अ) is added in the senses mentioned in rules before the rule तेन दीव्यति० P.IV.4.2, which are technically called the Prāgdīvyatiya senses. e g. अश्वपतम्, गाणपतम्. गार्हपतम् et cetera, and others
asaṃjñakaa term used for the Cāndra Grammar,as no saṁjñas or technical terms are used therein; confer, compareचान्द्रं चासंज्ञकं स्मृतम्.
asaṃjñānot used as a technical term or name of a thing; confer, compare पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् P.1.1.34.
aākhyātaverbal form, verb; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातं सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि Nirukta of Yāska.I.1; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्यातोपसर्गनिपाताश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1. Āhnika 1 ; also A.Prāt. XII. 5, अाकार अाख्याते पदादिश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.2.37 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2, आख्यातमाख्यातेन क्रियासातत्ये Sid. Kau. on II.1.72, क्रियावाचकमाख्यातं Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1; confer, compare भारद्वाजकमाख्यातं भार्गवं नाम भाष्यते । भारद्वाजेन दृष्टत्वादाख्यातं भारद्वाजगोत्रम् V. Prāt. VIII. 52; confer, compare also Athar. Prāt.I.I.12, 18; 1.3.3,6; II.2.5 where ākhyāta means verbal form. The word also meant in ancient days the root also,as differentiated from a verb or a verbal form as is shown by the lines तन्नाम येनाभिदधाति सत्त्वं, तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातुः R.Pr.XII.5 where 'आख्यात' and 'धातु' are used as synonyms As the root form such as कृ, भृ et cetera, and others as distinct from the verbal form, is never found in actual use, it is immaterial whether the word means root or verb.In the passages quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. from the Nirukta and the Mahābhāṣya referring to the four kinds of words, the word ākhyāta could be taken to mean root (धातु) or verb (क्रियापद). The ākhyāta or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being and bccoming while nouns (नामानि) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the activities and things in this world but with every process and entity; confer, compare पूर्वापूरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे Nir.I.;अस्तिभवतिविद्यतीनामर्थः सत्ता । अनेककालस्थायिनीति कालगतपौर्वापर्येण क्रमवतीति तस्याः क्रियात्वम् । Laghumañjūṣā. When a kṛt (affix). affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a word ending with a kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of bhāva or verbal activity is treated as a noun and regularly declined;confer, compareकृदभिहितो भावे द्रव्यवद् भवति M.Bh. on II.2.19 and III. 1.67, where the words गति, व्रज्या, पाक and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words ending with kṛt (affix). affixes such as कर्तुं, कृत्वा, and others, the modern grammarians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be,in a way, looked upon as ākhyātas; confer, compare अव्ययकृतो भावे Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa.
aāgamina base to which an augment is added; confer, compare एवमपि पञ्च अागमास्त्रय आगमिनः M.Bh.I.1. Āhnika 2.
ātāmĀtmanepada third person dual ending, technically substituted for लकार by P.III.4.78
ātmanepadaa technical term for the affixes called तड् (त, आताम् et cetera, and others) and the affix अान ( शानच् , चानश्, कानच् ), called so possibly because, the fruit of the activity is such as generally goes to the agent (आत्मने) when these affixes are usedition Contrast this term (Ātmanepada) with the term Parasmaipada when the fruit is meant for another. For an explanation of the terms see P. VI.3.7 and 8.
aātmanebhāṣaa technical term used for such roots as speak for the agent himself; the term अात्मनेभाष means the same as the term अात्मनेपदिन्. The term अात्मनेभाष is not mentioned by Pāṇini; but the writer of the Vārtikas explains it, confer, compare आत्मनेभाषपरस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI.3.7 and 8 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1; confer, compare also आत्मनेपदिनश्च धातवो वैयाकरणैरात्मनेभाषशब्देन व्यवह्रियन्ते,Kaiyaṭa on VI.3.7.The term is found in the Atharva-Prātiśākhya. III. 4.7. It cannot be said whether the term came in use after Pāṇini or, although earlier, it belonged to some school other than that of Pāṇini or, Pāṇini put into use the terms Ātmanepada and Parasmaipada for the affixes as the ancient terms Ātmanebhāṣa and Parasmaibhāṣa were in use for the roots.
ānantarya(1)close proximity; absence of any intermediary element generally of the same nature: अनन्तरस्य भावः आनन्तर्यम्; confer, compare नाजानन्तर्ये वहिष्ट्वप्रक्लृप्तिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 21: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 51. This close proximity of one letter or syllable or so, with another, is actually id est, that isphonetically required and generally so found out also, but sometimes such proximity is theoretically not existing as the letter required for proximity is technically not present there by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्. In such cases, a technical absence is not looked upon as a fault. confer, compare कचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्ये शास्त्रकृतमनानन्तर्ये यथा ष्टुत्वे, क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतं यथा जश्त्वे । यत्र कुतश्चिदेवानन्तर्यं तदाश्रयिष्यामः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.3.13. (2) close connection by mention together at a common place et cetera, and others;confer, compare सर्वाद्यानन्तर्यं कार्यार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27.
ipa technical term for द्वितीया (accusative case ) in the Jainendra grammar; confer, compare कर्मणीप् Jain. 1.4.2.
īpa technical term in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for सप्तमी (the locative case).
īthe long vowel ई which is technically included in the vowel इ in Pāṇini's alphabet being the long tone of that vowel; (2) substitute ई for the vowel अा of the roots घ्रा and ध्मा before the frequentative sign यङ् as for example in जेघ्रीयते, देध्मीयते, confer, compare P.VII. 4.31; (3) substitute ई for the vowel अ before the affixes च्वि and क्यच् as, for instance, in शुक्लीभवति, पुत्रीयति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.VII.4.32, 33; (4) substitute ई for the vowel अा at the end of reduplicated bases as also for the vowel आ of bases ending in the conjugational sign ना, exempli gratia, for example मिमीध्वे, लुनीतः et cetera, and others; cf P.VI. 4.113; (5) substitute ई for the locative case case affix इ ( ङि ) in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example सरसी for सरसि in दृतिं न शुश्कं सरसी शयानम्,: confer, compare Kāś. on P. VII.1.39: (6) taddhita affix. affix ई in the sense of possession in Vedic Literature as for instance in रथीः,सुमङ्गलीः, confer, compare Kāś on. P.V.2.109: (7) the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् , ङीञ् or ङीन् ); confer, compare P.IV.1.58, 15-39, IV.1.40-65, IV.1.13.
uṅa technical term for उपधा, the penultimate letter in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa; confer, compare इदुदुङः Jain. V. 4.28.
upa technical term in the jainendra Grammar for the terms लुप् and लुक्; confer, compare अन्तरङ्गानपि विधीन् बहिरङ्ग उप् बाधते. Jainendra Paribhāṣāvṛtti by K. V. Abhyankar.85, प्रकृतिग्रहणे यङुबन्तस्यापि ग्रहणम् Jain Pari. 20.
upagītaa fault in the pronunciation of letters, noticed sometimes in the utterance of a letter adjoining such a letter as is coloured with a musical tone on account of the proximity of the adjacent letter which is uttered in a musical note and which therefore is called 'प्रगीत'; confer, compare प्रगीतः सामवदुच्चारितः । उपगीतः समीपवर्णान्तरगीत्यानुरक्तः Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on M.Bh. I. Āhnika 1.
upapadasamāsathe compound of a word, technically termed as उपपद by Pāṇini according to his definition of the word in III.1.92., with another word which is a verbal derivative; confer, compare कुम्भकारः, नगरकारः Here technically the compound of the words कुम्भ, नगर et cetera, and others which are upapadas is formed with कार,before a case-termination is added to the nominal base कार; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 75.
upabandhaa technical term used in the Prātiśākhya works in the sense of words which proceed from a rule to the following rules upto a particular stated limit; confer, compare उपबन्धस्तु देशाय नित्यम् T. Pr I.59 explained by the commentator as उपबध्यते इति उपबन्धः । एतस्मिन्नित्यधिकरणरूपः संख्यानविषयः प्रदेशश्च उपबन्ध उच्यते । उपबन्धे यदुक्तं तदन्यत्र न भवतीति तुशब्दार्थः ।
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upasthitaa word used father technically in the sense of the word इति which is used in the Krama and other recitals when Vedic reciters show separately the two words compounded together by uttering the compound word first, then the word इति and then the two compound words, exempli gratia, for example सुश्लोक ३ इति सु-श्लोक। विभावसो इति विभा-वसो. The Kāśikā defines the word उपस्थित as समुदायादवच्छिद्य पदं येन स्वरूपे अवस्थाप्यते तद् उपस्थितम् । इतिशब्दः । Kāś.on VI.1.129. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya explains the word rather differently, but in the same context.The word after which इति is placed is called upasthita exempli gratia, for example the word बाहू in बाहू इति or विभावसौ in विभावसो इति as contrasted with स्थित id est, that is the word without इति exempli gratia, for example बाहू or विभावसो, as also contrasted with स्थितोपस्थित id est, that is the whole word विभावसो इति विभाsवसो which is also called संहित or मिलित; (2) occurring, present; cf कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् . यत्र कार्यं तत्रोपस्थितं द्रष्टव्यम् । Par.Śek. Pari.3.
upāṃśuliterally inaudible. The word is explained in the technical sense as the first place or stage in the utterance of speech where it is perfectly inaudible although produced; confer, compare उपांशु इति प्रथमं वाचः स्थानम् Com. on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII, 5.
ubhayagatiboth the alternatives; both the senses; double signification; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति P.I.1.23,Vārt 4,Pari. Śek, Par. 9 where the word ubhaya refers to both the senses-the ordinary one ( अकृत्रिम } and the technical one ( कृत्रिम)--exempli gratia, for example the meanings ( i ) numeral, and ( ii ) words बहु, गण et cetera, and others of the word संख्या.
ūhamodification of a word, in a Vedic Mantra, so as to suit the context in which the mantra is to be utilised, generally by change of case affixes; adaptation of a mantra: confer, compare ऊहः खल्वपि । न सर्वैर्लिङ्गैर्न च सर्वाभिर्विभक्तिभिर्वेदे मन्त्रा निगदिताः । ते च अवश्यं यज्ञगतेन यथायथं विपरिणमयितव्याः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.1.1 Āhnika 1.
ekapadamade up of one word; consisting of one word; confer, compare अथवा सन्त्येकपदान्यप्यवधारणानि । यथा अब्भक्षो वायुभक्षः । अप एव भक्षयति वायुमव भक्षयति । M.Bh. first Āhnika; (2) a continuous word paraphrased as अखण्डपद and समानपद by commentators; confer, compare तेनानन्तरा षष्ठयेकपदवत् V.Pr.II. 18: (3) every individual word: confer, compare बहुक्रमे क्रमेत तस्यैकपदानि नि:सृजन् R.Pr.XI.18.
ekavacanasingular number; affix of the singular numberin Pāṇini's grammar applied to noun-bases ( प्रातिपदिक) and roots when the sense of the singular number is to be conveyed; the singular sense can be of the form of an individual or collection or genus. The word एकवचन in the technical sense of singular number is found used in the Prātiśākhyas and Nirukta also.
{{c|-( anusvāra ) ṃanusvāraor nasal (l) looked upon as a phonetic element, independent, no doubt, but incapable of being pronounced without a vowel Preceding it. Hence, it is shown in writing with अ although its form in writing is only a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the line cf अं इत्यनुस्वारः । अकार इह उच्चारणर्थ इति बिन्दुमात्रो वर्णोनुस्वारसंज्ञो भवति Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Vyāk I.1.19; (2) anusvāra,showing or signifying Vikāra id est, that is अागम and used as a technical term for the second विभक्ति or the accusative case. See the word अं a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 1.
kariṣyat kariṣyantīancient technical terms for the future tense;the word करिष्यन्ती is more frequently usedition
karmadhārayaname technically given to a compound-formation of two words in apposition i. e. used in the same case, technically called समानाधिकरण showing the same substratutm; confer, compare तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः I 2.42. The karmadhāraya compound is looked upon as a variety of the tatpuruṣa compound. There is no satisfactory explanation of the reason why such a compound is termed कर्मधारय. Śākaṭāyana defines Karmadhāraya as विशेषणं व्यभिचारि एकार्थं कर्मधारयश्च where the word विशेषण is explained as व्यावर्तक or भेदक (distinguishing attribute) showing that the word कर्म may mean भेदकक्रिया. The word कर्मधारय in that case could mean 'कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयति असौ कर्मधारयः' a compound which gives a specification of the thing in hand.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
kamenāmanliterally noun showing action, participle. कर्मप्रवचनीय a technical term used in connection with a preposition which showed a verbal activity formerly, although for the present time it does not show it; the word is used as a technical term in grammar in connection with prefixes or उपसर्गs which are not used along.with a root, but without it confer, compare कर्म प्रोक्तवन्तः कर्मप्रवचनीयाः इति M.Bh. on P.I.4.83; exempli gratia, for example शाकल्यस्य संहितामनु प्रावर्षत्, अन्वर्जुनं योद्धारः, अा कुमारं यशः पाणिनेः; confer, compare Kāś. on P.I.4.83 to 98.
kalaa fault of pronunciation consequent upon directing the tongue to a place in the mouth which is not the proper one, for the utterance of a vowel; a vowel so pronounced; confer, compare संवृतः कलो ध्मात: ... रोमश इति confer, comparealso निवृत्तकलादिकामवर्णस्य प्रत्यापत्तिं वक्ष्यामि M.Bh. Āhnika 1.
a technical term used in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for the term पञ्चमी used in Pāṇini's grammar.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kānacaffix अान forming perfect partciples which are mostly seen in Vedic Literature. The affix कानच् is technically a substitute for the लिट् affix. Nouns ending in कानच् govern the accusative case of the nouns connected with them: exempli gratia, for example सोमं सुषुवाणः; confer, compare P. III.3.106 and P.II.3.69.
kārakaliterally doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारकशब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्थान्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: confer, compare also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and कर्तृ to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
kāryakālaalong with the operation; confer, compare कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् , rules laying down technical terms and regulating rules are to be interpreted along with the rules that prescribe or enjoin operations ( provided the technical terms occur in those rules, or, the regulating rules concern those rules). See Pari. Śek. Pari 3.
kāśakṛtsna(1)an ancient grammarian and philosopher referred to in the Mahābhāṣya; (2) the work on grammar by Kāśakṛtsna; confer, compareपाणिनिना प्रोक्तं पाणिनीयम् । आपिशलम् । काशकृत्स्नम् । M.Bh. on I.1. Āhnika 1.
kṛtrimaartificial; technical, as opposed to derivative. In grammar, the term कृत्रिम means 'technical sense', as contrasted with अकृत्रिम 'ordinary sense'; confer, compare कृत्रिमाकृत्रिमयोः कृत्रिमे कार्यसंप्रत्यय: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 9.
kṛtrimākṛtrimaparibhāṣāa term popularly used by grammarians for the परिभाषा or maxim that out of the two senses, the technical and the derived ones, the technical sense should be preferred; in rare cases, the other too, is preferred confer, compare Pari. Śek. Pari.9.
ktakṛt affix त in various senses, called by the name निष्ठा in Pāṇini's grammar along with the affix क्तवतू confer, compare क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा P.I.1.26.The various senses in which क्त is prescribed can be noticed below : (1) the general sense of something done in the past time as past passive voice.participle e. g. कृत:, भुक्तम् et cetera, and others: cf P. III.2.102; (2) the sense of the beginning of an activity when it is used actively: e. g. प्रकृतः कटं देवदत्तः, confer, compare P.III.2.102 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (3) the sense of activity of the present tense applied to roots marked with a mute ञ् as also to roots in the sense of desire, knowledge and worship; exempli gratia, for exampleमिन्नः, क्ष्विण्ण:, धृष्ट: as also राज्ञां मतः, राज्ञामिष्टः, राज्ञां बुद्धः; confer, compare P.III.2.187, 88; (4) the sense of mere verbal activity (भाव) e. g. हसितम् , सहितम् , जल्पितम् , (used always in the neuter gender); confer, compare P.III.3. 114: (5) the sense of benediction when the word ending in क्त is used as a technical term, exempli gratia, for example देवदत्तः in the sense of देवा एनं देयासुः. The kṛt affix क्तिन् is also used similarly exempli gratia, for example सातिः भूतिः मन्ति:; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III.3.174.
ktickṛt affix ति added to roots in the benedictive sense to form संज्ञाशब्द or nouns in a technical sense; e.gतन्तिः in the sense of तनुतात्: confer, compare Kāś. on III.3.174. क्त is also added in the same way. See क्त.
kriyāaction, verbal activity; confer, compare क्रियावचनो धातु: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.1 ; confer, compare also क्रियावाचकमाख्यातम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8. quoted by Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.in his Bhāṣya on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50; confer, compare also उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I.4.59, लक्षणहेत्वेाः क्रियायाः P.III. 2.126; confer, compare also यत्तर्हि तदिङ्गितं चेष्टितं निमिषितं स शब्दः । नेत्याह क्रिया नाम सा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1. The word भाव many times is used in the same sense as kriyā or verbal activity in the sūtras of Pāṇini. confer, compare P.I.2.21 ; I.3.13; III. 1. 66.etc; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति a statement made frequently by the Mahābhāṣyakāra. Some scholars draw a nice distinction between क्रिया and भाव, क्रिया meaning dynamic activity and भाव meaning static activity: confer, compare अपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यो धात्वर्थो भावः । सपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यस्तु क्रिया Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.87. Philosophically क्रिया is defined as सत्ता appearing in temporal sequence in various things. When सत्ता does not so appear it is called सत्त्व.
kṣitīśacandra(चक्रवर्तिन्)or K. C. CHATTERJI a scholar of Sanskrit grammar who has written a work on technical terms in Sanskrit, who has edited several grammar works and is at present editing the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa and conducting the Sanskrit journal named Mañjūṣa at Calcutta.
khataddhita affix. affix, always changed into ईन, (l) applied to the word कुल in the sense of a descendant, exempli gratia, for example कुलीनः, आढ्यकुलीन:; confer, compare P. IV. 1.139; (2) applied to the words अवार, पार, पारावार and अवारपार in the Śaīṣika senses, e. g. अवारीणः, पारीणः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.2.93 and Vārttikas 2, 3 on it; (3) applied to words ending in the word वर्ग ( which does not mean 'sound' or 'letter' ) in the sense of 'present there,' e. g. वासुदेववर्गीणः, युधिष्ठिरवर्गीणः; confer, compare P. IV. 3.64; (4) applied to the words सर्वधुर and एकधुर in the sense of 'bearing,' and to ओजसू , वेशोभग, यशोभग and पूर्व, exempli gratia, for example ओजसीनः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.IV.4.78, 79, 130, 132, 133; (5) applied in the sense of 'favourable to' to the words आत्मन् , विश्वजन, et cetera, and others (P.V.1.9), to विंशतिक, (32) to अाढक, अाचित, पात्र and others (53-55), to समा (85-86), to रात्रि, अहन् , संवत्सर and वर्ष (87-88) and संवत्सर and परिवत्सर (92); e. g. आत्मनीनः, आढकीनः पात्रीणः, समीनः, संवत्सरीणः et cetera, and others; (6) to the words सर्वचर्मन्, यथामुख et cetera, and others e. g. सर्वचर्मीणः confer, compare P.V. 2.5 to 17; (7) to the words अषडक्ष, अशितंगु et cetera, and others confer, compare P.V.4.7,8. e. g. अषडक्षीणः. (8) ख is also a technical term in the sense of elision or लोप in the Jainendra Grammar confer, compare Jain I. 1.61. (9) The word ख is used in the sense of 'glottis' or the hole of the throat ( गलबिल ) in the ancient Prātiṣākhya works.
gati(1)literally motion; stretching out, lengthening of a syllable. The word is explained in the Prātiśakhya works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel इ or उ after it, exempli gratia, for example हाइ or हायि for हा; similarly आ-इ or अा -यि ; (2) a technical term used by Pāṇini in connection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called गति, confer, compare P.I.4.60-79. The words called gati can be compounded with the following word provided the latter is not a verb, the compound being named tatpuruṣa e.g, प्रकृतम् , ऊरीकृत्य confer, compare P.II.2.18; the word गति is used by Pāṇini in the masculine gender as seen in the Sūtra गतिरनन्तरः P.VI. 2.49 and hence explained as formed by the addition of the affix क्तिच् to गम्, the word being used as a technical term by the rule क्तिच्क्तौ च संज्ञायाम् P.III.3.174; (3) realization, understanding; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.9; सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 76; अगत्या हि परिभाषा अाश्रीयते Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva Pari. Pāṭha 119.
gāvaa technical term for the term अाङ्ग (pertaining to the base in the grammar of Panini); confer, compare वार्णात् गावं बलीयः Kat. Pari. 72.
guṇa(1)degree of a vowel; vocalic degree, the second out of the three degrees of a vowel viz. primary degree, guna degree and vrddhi degree exempli gratia, for example इ, ए and ऐ or उ, ओ and औ. अ is given as a guna of अ; but regarding अ also,three degrees can be stated अ, अ and आ. In the Pratisakhya and Nirukta ए is called गुण or even गुणागम but no definiti6n is given ; confer, compare गुणागमादेतनभावि चेतन R.Pr.XI.6;शेवम् इति विभीषितगुणः। शेवमित्यपि भवति Nir.X.17: (2) the properties of phonetic elements or letters such as श्वास,नाद et cetera, and others: confer, compareṚgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) Ch.XIII : (3) secondary, subordinate;confer, compare शेषः,अङ्गं, गुणः इति समानार्थाः Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.on Nirukta of Yāska.I.12: (4) properties residing in a substance just as whiteness, et cetera, and others in a garment which are different from the substance ( द्रव्य ). The word गुण is explained by quotations from ancient grammarians in the Maha bhasya as सत्वे निविशतेsपैति पृथग्जातिषु दृश्यते । अाघेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोSसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः ॥ अपर आह । उपैत्यन्यज्जहात्यन्यद् दृष्टो द्रव्यान्तरेष्वपि। वाचकः सर्वलिङ्गानां द्रव्यादन्यो गुणः स्मृतः ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.44;cf also शब्दस्पर्शरूपरसगन्धा गुणास्ततोन्यद् द्रव्यम् ,M.Bh.on V.1.119 (5) properties of letters like उदात्तत्व, अनुदात्तत्व, स्वरितत्व, ह्र्स्वत्व, दीर्घत्व, प्लुतत्व, अानुनासिक्य et cetera, and others; confer, compare भेदकत्वाद् गुणस्य । आनुनासिक्यं नाम गुणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.. Vart, 13: (6) determinant cf भवति बहुव्रीहौ तद्गुणसंविज्ञानमपि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.27; (7) technical term in Panini's grarnmar standing for the vowels अ, ए and ओ, confer, compare अदेङ्गुणः P.I.1.2. For the various shades of the meaning of the word गुण, see Mahabhasya on V.1.119. " गुणशब्दोयं बह्वर्थः । अस्त्येव समेष्ववयवेषु वर्तते ।...... चर्चागुणांश्च ।
guru(1)possessed of a special effort as opposed to लघु; confer, compare तद् गुरु भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1। (2) heavy, a technical term including दीर्घ (long) vowel as also a ह्रस्व (short) vowel when it is followed by a conjunct consonant, (confer, compare संयोगे गुरु । दीर्घ च। P. I. 4.11, 12) or a consonant after which the word terminates or when it (the vowel) is nasalized; confer, compare Tai. Pr. XXII. 14, confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 5.
gotraliterally family. The word is used by Panini in the technical sense of a descendant except the son or a daughter; confer, compare अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम् P. IV. 1.162. The word गोत्रापत्य is also used in the same sense. The affix, which is found many times in the sense of gotra, barring the usual अण् , is यञ् ; confer, compare गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् P. IV. 1.105.
grastaa fault of pronunciation due to the utterance of a letter hindered or held back at the throat; confer, compare जिह्वामूलनिग्रहे ग्रस्तमेतत् R.Pr.XIV.3; confer, compare also ग्रस्तं निरस्तमवलम्बितम् । ग्रस्तः जिह्वामूले गृहीतः । अव्यक्त इत्यपरे । Pradipa on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1.
grahaṇa(1)technical term for a word or प्रातिपदिक in Veda; confer, compare ग्रहणस्य च । गृह्यते इति ग्रहणं वेदस्थः इाब्दः । तत् त्रिविधम् । कार्यभाक्, निमित्तम्, उपबन्ध इति । तस्यापि स्वरूपपूर्वकः अकारः आख्या भवति । Com. on T.Pr.I.22; (2) citing, quoting; confer, compare ग्रहणवता प्रातिपादिकेन न तदन्तविधिः Par.Sek. Pari. 3I ; confer, compare also गृह्णन्तीति ग्रहणाानि Com. on T.Pr.I.24. (3) mention, inclusion; (4) employment in a rule of grammar; confer, compare प्रातिपादिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम्. Par. Sek.Pari.71.
gha(l)consonant घ्, अ being added at the end for facility of pronunciation; confer, compareTai. Pr.I.21; (2) technical term for the taddhita affix. affixes तरप् and तमप्, confer, compare P.I.1.22, causing the shortening of ई at the end of bases before it, under certain conditions, confer, compare P. VI. 3.43-45, and liable to be changed into तराम् and तमाम् after किम्, verbs ending in ए, and indeclinables; confer, compare P.V.4.11; (3) taddhita affix. affix घ ( इय) in the sense of 'a descendant' applied to क्षत्र, and in the sense of 'having that as a deity' applied to अपोनप्तृ अपांनप्तृ and also to महेन्द्र and to the words राष्ट्र et cetera, and others, exempli gratia, for example क्षत्रियः, अपोनाप्त्रिय:, अपांनप्त्रियः, महेन्द्रियम्,राष्ट्रियः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV.1.138, IV.2.27, 29, 93; (4) taddhita affix. affix घ, applied to अग्र, समुद्र and अभ्र in the sense of 'present there', to सहस्र in the sense of 'possession', to, नक्षत्र without any change of sense, and to यज्ञ and ऋत्विज् in the sense of 'deserving'; confer, compare P.IV.4.117,118,135, 136,141, V.1.71 ; (5) krt affix अ when the word to which it has been applied becomes a proper noun id est, that isa noun in a specific sense or a technical term; confer, compare III.3. 118, 119,125.
candraa famous Buddhist Sanskrit grammarian whose grammar existing in the Tibetan script, is now available in the Devanagar script. The work consists of six chapters or Adhyayas in which no technical terms or sanjnas like टि, घु are found. There is no section on Vedic Grammar and accents. The work is based on Panini's grammar and is believed to have been written by Candra or Candragomin in the 5th centnry A. D. Bhartrhari in his Vakyapadiya refers to him; confer, compare स नीतो बहुशाखत्वं चन्द्राचार्यादिभिः पुनः Vakyapadiya II. 489. A summary of the work is found in the Agnipurana, ch. 248-258.
ṭhitmarked with the mute letter ठ्. There is no affix or word marked with mute ठ् (at the end) in Panini's grammar, but to avoid certain technical difficulties, the Mahabhasyakara has proposed mute ठ् instead of 'ट् in the' case of the affix इट् of the first person. singular. perf Atm. and ऊठ् prescribed as Samprasarana substitute by P. VI. 4.132 e: g. प्रष्ठौहः, प्रष्ठौहा; confer, compare M.Bh. on III.4.79 and VI.4.19.
t(1)personal ending of the third pers singular. Atm: confer, compare P. III. 4.78, which is changed to ते in the perfect tense and omitted after the substitute चिण् for च्लि in the aorist; confer, compare P.VI.4.04: (2) personal ending substituted for the affix थ of the Paras. 2nd person. plural in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional for which, तात्, तन and थन are substituted in Vedic Literature, and also for हि in case a repetition of an action is meant; confer, compare P. III. 4. 85, 10l as also VII. 1. 44, 45 and III. 4. 2-5. cf P. III. 4. 85 and III. 4. 10I ; (3) taddhita affix. affix त applied to the words कम् and शम् e. g. कन्तः, शन्त:, confer, compare P. V. 2. 138: (4) taddhita affix. affix त applied to दशत् when दशत् is changed to श; confer, compare दशानां दशतां शभावः तश्च प्रत्ययः । दश दाशतः परिमाणमस्य संधस्य शतम्, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. l. 59; (5) .general term for the affix क्त of the past passive voice. part, in popular use: (6) a technical term for the past participle affixes (त) क्त and तवत् ( क्तवतु ) called निष्ठा by Panini; confer, compare P. I.1.26; the term त is used for निष्ठI in the Jainendra Vyakararna.
tas(1)personal ending of the third person. dual Parasmaipada substituted technically for ल् (लकार); cf P. III.4.78; (2) taddhita affix. affix तस् ( तसि or तसिल् ). See तसि and तसिल्.
(1)a technical term for the genitive case affix used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; (2) the taddhita affix. affix तल् which is popularly called ता as the nouns ending in तल् id est, that is त are declined in the feminine. gender with the feminine. affix अा added to them.
ti(1)personal ending तिप् of the 3rd person. singular.; (2) common term for the krt affixes क्तिन् and क्तिच् as also for the unadi affix ति; see क्तिन् and क्तिच्; (3) feminine. affix ति added to the word युवन्. e. g. युवतिः confer, compare P. IV. 1.77; (4) taddhita affix. affix ति as found in the words पङ्क्ति and विंशति confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.1.59; (5) taddhita affix. affix added to the word पक्ष in the sense of 'a root,' and to the words कम् and शम् in the sense of possession (मत्वर्थे ); exempli gratia, for example पक्षतिः, कन्तिः, शान्तिः, confer, compare Kas, on P. V.2.25, 138; (6) a technical term for the term गति in Panini's grammar, confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे; गतिश्च P. 1.4.59, 60. The term ति for गति is used in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
tya(1)taddhita affix. affix त्य standing for त्यक् and त्यप् which see below; (2) a technical term for प्रत्यय ( a suffix or a termination ) in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
th(1)personal-ending of the 2nd person. plural Parasmaipada,substituted for the ल् of the ten lakara affixes; (2) substitute ( थल् ) for the 2nd pers singular. personal ending सिप् in. the perfect tense: (3) unadi affix ( थक् ) added to the roots पा, तॄ, तुद् et cetera, and others e. g. पीथः, तीर्थः, et cetera, and others; cf unadi sutra II. 7; (4) unadi affix ( क्थन् ) | added to the roots हन्, कुष् ,नी et cetera, and others; e. g, हथः, कुष्टं, नीथः et cetera, and others cf unadi sutra II. 2: (5) unadi affix (थन्) added to the roots उष्, कुष्, गा and ऋ, e. g. ओष्ठः, कोष्ठम् et cetera, and others cf unadi sutra_II. 4; (6) a technical term for the term अभ्यस्त or the reduplicated wording of Panini ( confer, compare उभे अभ्यस्तम् ) P. VI. 1. 5, used in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
d(1)the consonant द्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance or use; (2) a technical term used in the Jainendra Vyakarana for the term आत्मनेपद in the grammar of Panini.
dia technical term in the Jainendra Vyakarana for the term प्रगृह्य used by Panini.
a technical term in the Jainendra Vyakarana for दीर्ध (long vowel) in Panini's grammar.
dua technical term in the Jainendra Vyakarana for the term वृद्ध which is used in Panini's grammar and which is defined by Panini in the rule वृद्धिर्यस्याचामादिस्तद् वृद्धम् P. I. 1.73.
ghuatechnical term in the Jainendra Vyakarana for the term उत्तरपद (the latter or the second member of-a compound word ) which is used in Panini's grammar.
drutaliterally rapid; the vice of rapidity in utterance;a fault of speech especially in connection with the utterance of vowels in Vedic recital when on account of haste the utterance of letters becomes indistinct. confer, compare संदृष्टमेणीकृतमर्धकं द्रुतं विकीर्णमेताः स्वरद्रोषभावनाः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1 vart. 18.
dvirvacanasee द्वित्व and द्विरुक्ति; the word is very frequently used in the Mahabhasya instead of द्वित्व. confer, compare M Bh on I. 1. Ahnika 1, I. 1.7, 10, 57, 59. et cetera, and others et cetera, and others
ghaa technical term in the Jainendra Vyakarana for the term सर्वनामस्थान of Panini used for the first five case affixes सु, औ, अस्, अम्, ओ and इ (nominative case. and acc. plural neuter gender); cf P. I. I. 42, 43.
dharmadefined as ऋषिसंप्रदाय, the traditional practices laid down by the sages for posterity; confer, compareकेवलमृषिसंप्रदायो धर्म इति कृत्वा याज्ञिक्राः शास्त्रेण अनुविदधते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika I ; cf also धर्मशास्त्रं in एवं च कृत्वा धर्मशास्त्रं प्रवृत्तम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64, as also धर्मसूत्रकाराः in नैवेश्वर आज्ञापयति नापि धर्मसूत्रकाराः पठन्ति अपवादैरुत्सर्गा बाध्यन्तामिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. l.47; (2) religious merit, confer, compare धर्मोपदेशनमिदं शास्त्रमस्मिन्ननवयवेन शास्त्रार्थः संप्रतीयते , Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. I. 84, cf also ज्ञाने घमै इति चेत्तथाSधर्मः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika l ; ' 3) property possessed by a thing or a letter or a word. e. g. वर्णधर्म; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 2.29; cf also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1, 55, II. 3.33, VIII. 1. 4. confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 8, 13 XIV. 1 et cetera, and others: ( 4 ) the characteristic of being in a substance; in the phrase अयं घटः the dharma viz.घटत्व is predicated of this (इदम्) or, in other words the designation pot ( घटसंज्ञा ) is the predication; the explanation in short, can be given as घटत्ववान् इदंपदार्थः or घटाभिन्नः इदंपदार्थ:
dhi(1)a technical term used for sonant consonants in the Pratisakhya and old grammar works; confer, compare धि शेषः V. Pr.I.53, explained by Uvvata as वर्गाणां उत्तरास्त्रय: यरलवहकाराश्च धिः V.Pr. I.53; the term धि corresponds to हश् of Panini; (2) personal ending धि substituted for हि of the imperative 2nd singular. exempli gratia, for example जुहुधि, छिन्द्धि, भिन्द्धि, श्रुधि, रारन्धि et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.V.4.101-103.
dhua technical term in the Jainendra Vyakarana for धातु (a root) which is used freely by the ancient grammarians and Panini.
dhuṭ(1)the augment ध् prefixed to the consonant स् following upon the consonant ड् or न् occurring at the end of a word; exempli gratia, for example श्वलिट्त्साये, महान्त्साये et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII.3.29; (2) technical short term for धातु (root); the technical term is धुष् , but the nominative case. singular. used is धुट्; (3) a technical term standing for cononants excepting semi-vowels and nasals; confer, compare धुटश्च धुटि Kat. III.6.51. The term is used in the Katantra Vyakarana. It corresponds to the term झर् of Panini.
dhmātaname of a fault in the pronunciation of a vowel when on account of fullness of breath it appears as uttered long (दीर्घ ), although really it is short; confer, compare श्वासभूयिष्ठतया ह्रस्वोपि दीर्घ इव लक्ष्यते, Kaiyata on I. 1. Ahnika 1. Vart. 18.
dhvani(1)sound; confer, compare ध्वनिं कुर्वन्नेवमुच्यतेशब्दं कुरु शब्दं मा कार्षीः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika 1; confer, compare also Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. I. 77; confer, compare also स्फोटः शब्दः, ध्वनिः शब्दगुणः, M.Bh. on I. 1.70 Vart. 5. ध्वनि or sound is said to be the indicator (सूचक्र or व्यञ्जक) of स्फोट the eternal sound.
natiliterallyinclination, bending down; the word is used generally in the technical sense of 'cerebralization' but applied to the change of न् into ण् as also that of स् into ष्; confer, compare दन्त्यस्य मूर्धन्यापत्तिर्नतिः, V. Pr.I. 42. The root नम् is used in the sense of 'cerebralizing ' or 'being cerebralized' very frequently in the Pratisakhya works; exempli gratia, for example the word नम्यते is used in the sense of 'is cerebralized'; नमयति in the sense of 'cerebralizes' and नामिंन् in the sense of 'causing cerebralization'; confer, compare ऋकारादयो दश नामिन: स्वराः, पूर्वो नन्ता नतिषु नम्यमुत्तरम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 27.
nadīa technical term applied in Panini's grammar to words in the feminine gender ending in ई and ऊ excepting a few like स्त्री,श्री, भ्रू and others; it is optionally applied to words ending in इ and उ, of course in the feminine. gender, before case affixes of the dative, ablative, genitive and locative singular. The term was probably in use before Panini and was taken from the feminine. word नदी which was taken as a model. Very probably there was a long list of words like नद् ( नदट्) चोर ( चोरट् ) et cetera, and others which were given as ending in ट् and to which the affix ई (ङीप्) was added for forming the feminine base;the first word नदी so formed, was taken as a model and all words in the list and similar others were called नदी; confer, compare P. I 4. 3-6.
ni(1)personal ending substituted for मि (मिप्) of the 1st person. singular. in the imperative; (2) a technical term in the Jainendra Vyakarana for the term निपात of Panini.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
nipātanaa word given, as it appears, without trying for its derivation,in authoritative works of ancient grammarians especially Panini;confer, compareदाण्डिनायनहास्तिनयनo P. VI.4.174, as also अचतुरविचतुरo V.4.77 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others The phrase निपातनात्सिद्धम् is very frequently used by Patanjali to show that some technical difficulties in the formation of a word are not sometimes to be taken into consideration, the word given by Panini being the correct one; confer, compare M.Bh.on I.1.4, III.1.22 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others; cf also the usual expression बाधकान्येव निपातनानि. The derivation of the word from पत् with नि causal, is suggested in the Rk Pratisakhya where it is stated that Nipatas are laid down or presented as such in manifold senses; cf Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XII.9; cf also घातुसाधनकालानां प्राप्त्यर्थं नियमस्य च । अनुबन्घविकाराणां रूढ्यर्थ च निपातनम् M. Bh Pradipa on P. V.1.114: confer, comparealso Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.27.
niranunāsikapure, unnasalized, as opposed to सानुनासिक nasalizedition confer, compare सन्ति हि यणः सानुनासिका निरनुनासिकाश्च । M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika 1.
nirhataa fault of pronunciation by which a letter is uttered harsh or rude; confer, compare निर्हतो रूक्षः Kaiyata on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).I.1. Ahnika 1 .
nyaka technical term in the Jainendra Vyākarana for the term उपसर्जन defined by Pānini in the rules प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् and एकविभक्ति चा पूर्वनिपाते P.I.2.43, 44.
nyacgoing lower, subordinate, the word is used in the sense of upasarjana as a technical term in the Jainendra Vyākarana, confer, compare वोक्तं न्यक् Jain. Vy.I.1.93.
nyāyamaxim, a familiar or patent instance quoted to explain similar cases; confer, compare the words अग्नौकरवाणिन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II 2.24, अपवादन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 3.9, अविरविकन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1. 88, 89, IV. 2.60, IV.3.131, V. 1.7, 28, VI 2. 11 ; कुम्भीधान्यन्याय M.Bh. on P.I. 3.7, कूपखानकन्याय M.Bh. I. 1. Āhnika 1, दण्डिन्याय M.Bh. on P. VIII.2.83, नष्टाश्वदग्धरथन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.50 प्रधानाप्रधानन्याय M.Bh.on P.II.1.69,VI. 3. 82, प्रासादवासिन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I . 1.8, मांसकण्टकन्याय M.Bh. on P.I.2.39, लट्वानुकर्षणन्याय M.Bh. on Siva Sūtra 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, शालिपलालन्याय M.Bh on P. 1.2.39,सूत्रशाटकन्याय M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12. The word came to be used in the general sense of Paribhāsās or rules of interpretation many of which were based upon popular maxims as stated in the word लोकन्यायसिद्ध by Nāgesa. Hemacandra has used the word न्याय for Paribhāsa-vacana. The word is also used in the sense of a general rule which has got some exceptions, confer, compare न्यायैर्मिश्रानपवादान् प्रतीयात् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) which lays down the direction that 'one should interpret the rule laying down an exception along with the general rule'.
pañcālapadavṛttithe usage or the method of the Pañcālas; the eastern method of euphonic combinations, viz. the retention of the vowel अ after the preceding vowel ओ which is substituted for the Visarga; e. g. यो अस्मै; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 12; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI. 19. This vowel अ which is retained, is pronounced like a short ओ or अर्धओकार by the followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāņāyaniya branches of the Sāmavedins; confer, compare commentary on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI. 19 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1.
padārthameaning of a word, signification of a word; that which corresponds to the meaning of a word; sense of a word. Grammarians look upon both-the generic notion and the individual object as Padārtha or meaning of a word, and support their view by quoting the sūtras of Pāņini जात्याख्यायामेकस्मिन् बहुवचनमन्यतरस्याम् I. 2.58 and सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ I. 2.64; confer, compare किं पुनराकृतिः पदार्थ अाहोस्विद् द्रव्यम् । उभयमित्याह । कथं ज्ञायते । उभयथा ह्याचार्येण सूत्राणि प्रणीतानि । अाकृतिं पदार्थे मत्वा जात्याख्यायामित्युच्यते | द्रव्यं पदार्थे मत्वा सरूपाणामित्येकशेष अारभ्यते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in I. 1. first Āhnika. In rules of grammar the meaning of a word is generally the vocal element or the wording, as the science of grammar deals with words and their formation; confer, compare स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा, P. I. 1. 68. The possession of vocal element as the sense is technically termed शब्दपदार्थकता as opposed to अर्थपदार्थकता; confer, compare सोसौ गोशब्दः स्वस्मात्पदार्थात् प्रच्युतो यासौ अर्थपदार्थकता तस्याः शब्दपदार्थकः संपद्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.44 V. 3. The word पदार्थ means also the categories or the predicaments in connection with the different Śāstrās or lores as for instance, the 25 categories in the Sāmkhyaśāstra or 7 in the Vaiśeșika system or 16 in the NyayaŚāstra. The Vyākaranaśāstra, in this way to state, has only one category the Akhandavākyasphota or the radical meaning given by the sentence in one strok
paraṃkāryatvaor परंकार्यत्वपक्ष the view that the subsequent संज्ञा or technical term should be preferred to the prior one, when both happen to apply simultaneously to a word. The word is frequently used in the Mahaabhaasya as referring to the reading आ काडारात् परं कार्यम् which is believed to have been an alternative reading to the reading अा कडारादेका संज्ञा;confer, compare ननु च यस्यापि परंकार्यत्वं तेनापि परग्रहणं कर्तव्यम्; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.1; also भवेदेकसंज्ञाधिकारे सिद्धम् | परंकार्यत्वे तु न सिद्ध्यति: M.Bh. on II. 1.20, II.2.24.
paratvaposteriority; mention afterwards; the word is frequently used in works on grammar in connection with a rule which is mentioned in the treatise after another rule; the posterior rule is looked upon as stronger than the prior one, and is given priority in application when the two rules come in conflict although technically they are equally strong: confer, compare परत्वादल्लोप: ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.4 Vaart 7; 'परत्वाच्छीभाव: I. 1.11 et cetera, and others
parigrahaalso परिग्रहण. (1) acceptance, inclusion; confer, compare किं प्रयोजनम् | प्रत्ययार्थे परिग्रहार्थम् M.Bh. on P.III.26.1 ; (2) repetition of a Samhita word in the Pada recital, technically named वेष्टक also; repetition of a word with इति interposed; e. g. सुप्राव्या इति सुप्रऽ अव्या: Rg Veda II.13.9, अलला भवन्तीरित्यललाSभवन्तीः Rg. IV.18.6; confer, compare परिग्रहेत्वनार्षान्तात् तेन वैकाक्षरीक्तात् | परेषां न्यास-माचारं व्यालिस्तौ चेत्स्वरौ परौ; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 14. confer, compare also, R.Pr.XI.32,36,42.
paśyantīname of the second out of the four successive stages in the origination or utterance of a word from the mouth. According to the ancient writers on Phonetics, sound or word ( वाक् ) which is constituted of air ( वायु ) originates at the Mulaadhaaracakra where it is called परा. It then springs up and it is called पश्यन्ती in the second stage. Thence it comes up and is called मध्यमा in the third stage; rising up from the third stage when the air strikes against the vocal chords in the glottis and comes in contact with the different parts of the mouth, it becomes articulate and is heard in the form of different sounds. when it is called वैखरी; confer, compare वैखर्या मध्यमायाश्च पश्यन्त्याश्चैतदद्भुतम् । अनेकतीर्थभेदायास्त्रय्या वाचः परं पदम् Vaakyapadiya I. 144, and also confer, compare पश्यन्ती तु सा चलाचलप्रतिबद्धसमाधाना संनिविष्टज्ञेयाकारा प्रतिलीनाकारा निराकारा च परिच्छिन्नार्थप्रत्ययवभासा संसृष्टार्थप्रत्यवभासा च प्रशान्तसर्वार्थप्रत्यवभासा चेत्यपरिमितभेदा । पश्यन्त्या रूपमनपभ्रंशामसंकीर्ण लोकव्यवह्यरातीतम् । commentary on Vaakyapadiya I. 144. confer, compare also तत्र श्रोत्रविषया वैखरी । मध्यमा हृदयदशेस्था पदप्रत्यक्षानुपपत्त्या व्यवहारकारणम् । पश्यन्ती तु लोकव्यवहारातीता। योगिनां तु तत्रापि प्रकृतिप्रत्ययविभागावगतिरस्ति | परायां तु न इति त्रय्या इत्युक्तम् । Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on चत्वारि वाक्परिमिता पदानि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1.
pāribhāṣika(l)technical, as opposed to literal; conventional; e. g. the words संबुद्धि, हेतु et cetera, and others cf शब्दैरर्थाभिधानं स्वाभाविकम् । न पारिभाषिकमशक्यत्वात् । लोकत एवार्थावगते: । Kāś on P.I.2.56; confer, compare किमिदम् पारिभाषिक्याः संबुद्धैग्रहणमेकवचनं संबुद्धिराहोस्विदन्वर्थग्रहणं संबोधनं संबुद्धिरिति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.33; (2) derived on the strength of a Paribhasa confer, compare पारिभाषिकं क्वचिदनित्यं स्यात् Kat. Par. vr. Pari. 58.
purāṇaold; the word is used in the sense of old or ancient confer, compare पुराणप्रोक्तेषु ब्राह्मणकल्पेषु. P. IV. 3.105. It is also used in the sense of old mythological works; confer, compare इतिहृास: पुराणं वैद्यकं M.Bh. on Āhnika l Vart. 5.
pūrvasūtraliterally previous rule: a rule cited erlier in a treatise. The word is however, frequently used in the Mahabhasya in the sense of 'a rule laid down by an earlier grammarian': confer, compareवर्ण वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे M. Bh, Ahnika 1, पूर्वसूत्रे गोत्रस्य वृद्धमिति संज्ञा क्रियते M. Bh on I. 2.68; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.IV.1.14 Vart. 3, VI.I. 163 Vart. 1, VII.1.18, VIII. 4.7.
pragītaa fault of utterance or recital where a simple word in conversation or recital is uttered in a tone proper for singing or in a manner suitable for singing; cf प्रगीत: सामवदुच्चारितः Kaiy. on M.Bh.Ahni.1.
prativarṇafor every letter; corresponding to every letter; confer, compare अनर्थकास्तु वर्णाः प्रतिवर्णमर्थानुपलब्धेः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Ahnika 2, Siva sutra 5.
pratyudāharaṇacounter instance. In order to explain the wording of a grammatical rule clearly, it is customary to give along with the instances of the rule (where the rule has been effectively employed), a few words which would have resulted into other faulty words by the application of the particular rule in case that rule had not been stated or a word or more of it had been omitted; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऐच् इति । किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत् समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika 1.
prayoga(1)employment or use of a word in language and literature about which, laying down rules is looked upon as the purpose of grammar; confer, compare प्रयोगमूलत्वाद् व्याकरणस्मृतेः Kaiy.on P. V. 1.16, लोकतोर्थप्रयुक्ते शब्दप्रयोगे शास्त्रेण धर्मनियमो यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika I. Vart. 1; (2) use of speech; utterance; confer, compare मध्यमेन स वाक्प्रयोगः प्रणवात्मकः कर्तव्यः, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVIII. 4.
prayoganiyamageneral rules or principles laid down regarding the use of words in language and literature such as (l) a word recognised as correct should always be used, confer, compare एवमिहापि समानायामर्थगतौ शब्देन चापशब्देन च धर्मनियमः क्रियते शब्देनैवार्थोभिधेयो नापशब्देनेति । एवंक्रियमाणमभ्युदयकारि भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. I. Ahnika l, (2) never a base alone or an affix alone should be used, but always a base with the necessary affix should be used; confer, compare यावता समयः कृतो न केवला प्रकृतिः प्रयोक्तव्या न केवलः प्रत्ययः M. Bh, on P. I. 2.64 Vart. 8, also on P. III. 1.94 Vart. 3; (3) when the sense is already expressed by a word, a word repeating the sense should not be used; confer, compare उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः. Besides these, many minor regulations of the type of Paribhasas are laid down by grammarians. For details see Paribhashasamgraha Introduction.
prayogaviṣayasphere or domain of the use of words; the whole Vedic and classical recognized literature: cf महान् हि शब्दस्य प्रयोगविषयः । सप्तद्वीपा वसुमती त्रयो लोकाः चत्वारो वेदाः साङ्गाः सरहस्याः बहुधा विाभन्नाः, एकशतमध्वर्युशाखाः, सहस्रवर्त्मा सामवेदः, एकविंशतिधा बाह् वृच्यम् , नवधाथर्वणो वेदो वाकोवाक्यामितिहासः पुराणं वैद्यकमित्येतावाञ्शब्दस्य प्रयोगविषयः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1. Vrt. 5
prayojanaobject, motive or purpose in undertaking a particular thing; the word is used although rarely, in the sense of a cause also; confer, compare इमान्यस्य प्रयोजनानि अध्येयं व्याकरणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1. For the advantages of the study of Vyakarana, see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1. See also Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII pp.226,227, D.E. Society's edition.
plutiprolation or protraction of a vowel when it is possessed of three matras; confer, compare. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.31. See प्लुत a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare अविद्वांसः प्रत्यभिवादे नाम्नो ये न प्लुतिं विदुः । कामं तेषु तु विप्रोष्य स्त्रीष्विवायमहं वदेत् M.Bh. on P.I.1 Ahnika 1
bodhyaa technical term for the vocative case in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
brahmarāśithe sacred Sanskrit alphabet given in the fourteen sutras of Mahesvara, named Aksarasamamnaya which is called ब्रह्मराशि as it contains the basic letters of शब्द which is Brahma according to Grammarians; confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्यसमाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 2 end; confer, compare also एते पञ्चषष्टिवर्णा ब्रह्मराशिरात्मवाचः V. Pr.VIII. 25.
bha(1)the letter or sound भ् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; (2) a technical term in the Grammar of Panini given to a noun base before such case and taddhita affixes as begin with any vowel or with the consonant य्. The utility of this designation of भ to the base is (l) to prevent the substitutes which are enjoined for the final vowel or consonant of a pada (a word ending with a case-affix or a base before case and taddhita affix. affixes beginning with any consonant excepting य् ) just as the substitution of Visarga, anusvara, the first or third consonant, and others given in P. VIII. 4.37 and the following. For the various changes and operations for a base termed भ see P. VI. 4.129 to 175.
bhāva(1)becoming; existence. The word is used many times in the sense of धात्वर्थthe sense of a root which is 'incomplete activity' or 'process of evolving'; confer, compare तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातु: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 5; confer, compare also षड् भावविकारा भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 36; पूर्वापरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेन आचष्टे व्रजतिपचतीत्युपक्रमप्रभृति अपवर्गपर्यन्तम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1 ; (2) activity as opposed to instruments ( साधन or कारक ); confer, compare भावगर्हायाम् । धात्वर्थगर्हायाम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.24; confer, compare also भावः क्रिया, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम् P. II. 3.37; (3) completed action which is shown, not by a verb, but by a verbal derivative noun; confer, compare धात्वर्थश्च धातुनैवोच्यते | यस्तस्य सिद्धता नाम धर्मस्तत्र घञादयः प्रत्यया विधीयन्ते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on 'भावे' P. III. 3.18; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.19, III. 1.67, IV. 1.3, V. 4.19; confer, compare also भावस्त्वेक: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.67; (4) the radical factor for the use of a word; प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त; confer, compare भवतोत्मादभिधानप्रत्ययौ इति भावः | शब्दस्य प्रवृत्तिनिमित्तं भावशब्देनोच्यते | अश्वत्वम् , अश्वता | Kāś, on P. 5.1.119; (5) thing, object cf सिद्धशब्दः कूटस्थेषु भावेष्वविचालिषु वर्तते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Āhnika l; (6) transformation, substitution; change into the nature of another; confer, compare तत्र प्रथमास्तृतीयभावम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 4. confer, compare also the words मूर्धन्यभाव, अभिनिधानभाव et cetera, and others {7) possession of the qualities, nature; तदर्थस्य भाव: तादर्थ्यम्: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.13; (8) relationship; confer, compare गुणप्रधानभाव, प्रकृतिविकृतिभाव et cetera, and others
bhāvitadesignated by a technical term; confer, compare किं पुनरिदं तद्भावितग्रहणं वृद्धिरित्येवं ये आकारैकारौकारा विहिता भाव्यन्ते तेषां ग्रहणं आहोस्विद् आदैन्मात्रस्य, M.Bh.on P.I.11.
bhāṣyaa learned commentary on an original work, of recognised merit and scholarship, for which people have got a sense of sanctity in their mind; generally every Sūtra work of a branch of technical learning (or Śāstra) in Sanskrit has got a Bhāṣya written on it by a scholar of recognised merit. Out of the various Bhāṣya works of the kind given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., the Bhāṣya on the Vyākaraṇa sūtras of Pāṇini is called the Mahābhāṣya, on the nature of which possibly the following definition is based "सूत्रार्थो वर्ण्यते यत्र पदैः सूत्रानुकारिभिः| स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः ।" In books on Sanskrit Grammar the word भाष्य is used always for the Mahābhāṣya. The word भाष्य is sometimes used in the Mahābhāṣya of Patanjali (confer, compare उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये III.3.19, IV.4.67) where the word may refer to a work like लघुभाष्य which Patañjali may have written, or may have got available to him as written by somebody else, before he wrote the Mahābhāṣya.
bhrājastray or spurious verses or stanzas whose authorship cannot be traced, but which are commonly quoted by scholars; confer, compare भ्राजा नाम श्लेाका: M.Bh. on I.1 Āhnika 1; the word भ्राज is explained as 'composed by Kātyāyana' by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa in his Uddyota.
madhyaliterally middle; middling variety. The word is used in the sense of the middling effort between the open (विवृत) and the close (संवृत) external efforts which technically is called हकार; confer, compare मध्ये हकारः | मध्ये भव: मध्यः | अ सांप्रतिके | तदयमर्थः | सांप्रतिके प्रकृतिस्थे कण्ठे सति हकारो नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नः क्रियते | तेन च व्यञ्जनेषु घोषो जायते | Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.Bhāṣya on II.6.
madhyapatitaliterally fallen in the middle; the word is used generally in the sense of an augment which is inserted in the middle of a word. Sometimes an affix too, like अकच् or a conjugational sign like श्रम्, is placed in the middle of a word. Such a middling augment is technically ignored and a word together with it is taken as the original word for grammatical operations; exempli gratia, for example उच्चकै:, नीचकै: et cetera, and others cf तन्मध्यपतितस्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यते Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 89.
mahābhāṣyadīpikāa very learned old commentary on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali written by the reputed grammarian Bhartrhari or Hari in the seventh century A. D. The commentary has got only one manuscript preserved in Germany available at present, of which photostat copies or ordinary copies are found here and there. The first page of the manuscript is missing and it is incomplete also, the commentary not going beyond the first seven Aahnikas. For details see page 383 Vol. VII Vyaakarana Mahabhasya D. E. Society's edition.
mit(1)characterized by the mute letter म्; augments So characterized such as नुम् , अम् and the like, are inserted after the last vowel of a word to which they are to be added; confer, compare मिदचोन्त्यात् परः P. I. 1.47; (2) a technical term applied to the fifty-five roots which are headed by the root घट् and which belong to the first corjugation, to the roots ज्वळ et cetera, and others, as also to the roots जन्, जू, क्नूस्, रञ्ज् and roots ending in अम्. These roots are not really characterized by the mute letter म्, but they are given the designation मित्. The use of the designation मित् is (a) the shortening of the penultimate vowel which : has been lengthened by Vrddhi , before the causal sign णि and (b) ; the optional lengthening of the ; penultimate vowel before the affix ) चिण् and णमुल्, For a complete list ] of 'mit' roots see Dhaatupaatha.
mukhyaviśeṣyathe principal word in a sentence which comes last in the technical expression of the import or शाब्दबोध. It is described as primary and not subordinated to any other thing ( अन्याविशेषणीभूत). This मुख्यविशेष्य is, in a way,the crucial point in the various theories of import; exempli gratia, for example according to the grammarians the verbal activity is the principal word while,according to the Mimaamsakas the bhaavanaa is the principal word.and according to the Naiyayikas it is the subject that is the principal word.
muda technical term for the sibilants श् , ष् and स् given in the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya: confer, compare मुच्च Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.52, cf also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.9,III.13,IV.122.
mleccha(1)a word although correct,yet looked upon as incorrect owing to its faulty utterance; (2) a person like the uncultured people, who is not able to pronounce words correctly confer, compare म्लेच्छा मा भूमेत्यध्येयं व्याकरणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1, Ahnika 1.
yatna(1)effort in the utterance of a letter: the word which is generally used for such an effort is प्रयत्न. This effort is described to be oftwo kinds अाभ्यन्तर internal id est, that is below the root of the tongue and बाह्य a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the root of the tongue id est, that is inside the mouth; confer, compare यत्नं द्विधा | अाभ्यन्तरो बाह्यश्च | S. K. on P. I. 1.9; (2) specific effort, by adding a word to a rule for drawing some inference, with a view to removing some technical difficulty: cf तेन पये धावतीत्यादौ यत्नान्तरमास्थेयम् Kaas. on P. VIII. 2. 25. The phrase कर्तव्योत्र यत्न: often occurs in the Mahaabhaasya.
yathānyāsaṃas it is actually put in the rule or a treatise by the author. The phrase is often used in the Mahaabhaasya when after a long discussion, involving further and further difficulties, the author reverts to the original stand and defends the writing of the sUtra as it stands. सिध्यत्येवमपाणिनीयं तु भवति or सूत्रं भिद्यते । तर्हि यथान्यासमेवास्तु is the usual expression found in the Mahaabhaasya; cf, M.Bh. I.1. Aahnika 1, I.1.1, 9, 20, 62, 65 et cetera, and others
yathodeśa( परिभाषा)a short phrase or term for the Paribhaasaa or guiding statement यथोद्देशं संज्ञापरिभाषम् 'technical terms and Paribhaasaas are to be interpreted at the place where they are stated, and not at the place or places of their application or utility'.
yuvanliterally young person; masculine; the word is given as a technical term in grammar in the sense of one, who is the son of the grandson or his descendant, provided his father is alive; the term is also applied to a nephew, brother, or a paternal relative of the grandson or his descendant, provided his elderly relative, if not his his father, is alive; it is also applied to the grandson, in case respect is to be shown to him: confer, compare P. IV. 1.163-167. The affixes prescribed in the sense of युवन् are always applied to a word ending with a taddhita affix. affix applied to it in the sense of an offspring (अपत्य) or grandson (गोत्र), in spite of the ruling that in the sense of grandson or his descendant (गोत्र), one affix only इञ् or अण् or the like is added to the base; exempli gratia, for example गार्ग्यस्यापत्यं गार्ग्यायण:, दाक्षेरपत्यं दाक्षाय्ण: गार्ग्ये जीवति तस्य भ्राता सपिण्डो वा गाम्यार्यण: तत्रभवान् गार्ग्यः; गार्ग्यायणो वा.
yuvasaṃjñāthe technical term युवन् which is given to persons described or mentioned in P.IV.1.163 to 167.
yogavāhaa technical term used for phonetic elements or letters which are mentioned in the alphabet of Panini, viz., the Mahesvara sutras in contrast with the term अयोगवाह which is used by grammarians for the phonetic elements अनुस्वार, विसर्ग and others which are not mentionedition ,See अयोगवाह; confer, compare also M. Bh on Siva sutra 5.
r(1)second letter of the यण् class ( semi-vowels ) which has got the properties नादभागित्व, घोषवत्त्व,' संवृतत्व and अल्पप्राणता i. e. it is a sonant, inaspirate consonant. Regarding its स्थान or place of production, there is a difference of opinion : generally the consonant र् is looked upon as a cerebral or lingual letter (मूर्धन्य); cf ऋटुरषाणां मूर्धा, S.K.also Pāṇini. Siksa; but it is called by some as दन्त्य or दन्तमूलीय: cf रेफस्तु दस्त्ये दन्तमूले वा RT. 8, by others as दन्तमूलीय and and by still others as वर्स्त्य gingival. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya it is described as दन्तमूलीय: cf रो दन्तमूल I. 68, while in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya it is said to be produced by the touch of the middle part of the tip of the tongue just a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the root of the teeth;confer, compare रेफे जिह्वाग्रमध्येन प्रत्यग्दन्तमूलेभ्यः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 41; (2) substitute र् (रेफ ) for the final letter of the word अहन्, as also for the final of अम्रस्, ऊधस्, अवस् and भुवस् optionally with रु, which ( रु) is dropped before vowels, and changed to ओ before अ and soft consonants, while it is changed into visarga before hard consonants and surds.exempli gratia, for example अम्नरेव, अम्र एवः ऊधरेव, ऊधएव: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII, 2-70: (3) the consonants र् (technically) called र् in Panini's grammar ) which is substituted for the consonant स् and for the consonant न् of the word अहन् when the consonant स् or न् stands at the end of a word. This substitute रु, unlike the substitute र् is liable to be changed into visarga, or the consonant य्, or the vowel उ by P. VIII.3.15, 17, VI.1.113, 114.
lokaa term used in the Mahābhāșya in contrast with the term वेद, signifying common people speaking the language correctly; the term लोक is also used in contrast with the term शास्त्र or its technique; confer, compare यथा लोके or लोकतः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.VII. 1. 9, I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; also confer, compare न यथा लोके तथा व्याकरणे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7.
laukikaprevalent in common utterance.of the people as contrasted with वैदिक;confer, compareयथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु कृतान्तेषु M.Bh.on Āhnika 1.See लोक a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.
varṇaphonemic unit: a letter The term was in use in ancient times and found used generally in the masculine gender, but occasionally in the neuter gender too; .e. g. उपदिष्टा इमे वर्णाः M.Bh. Ahnika 1. also मा कदाचिदवर्णे भूत् M.Bh. on Siva Sutras 3, 4.
varṇavikārachange of one letter into another ( in the formation of a word ) the discussion of which is looked upon as one of the features of grammar; confer, compare लोपागमवर्णविकारज्ञो हृि सम्यग्वेदान्परिपालायिष्यति.M.Bh. Ahnika 1.
varṇasamāmnāyaa collection of letters or alphabet given traditionally. Although the Sanskrit alphabet has got everywhere the same cardinal letters id est, that is vowels अ, इ et cetera, and others, consonants क्, ख् etc : semivowels य्, र्, ल्, व, sibilants श् ष् स् ह् and a few additional phonetic units such as अनुस्वार, विसर्ग and others, still their number and order differ in the different traditional enumerations. Panini has not mentioned them actually but the fourteen Siva Sutras, on which he has based his work, mention only 9 vowels and 34 consonants, the long vowels being looked upon as varieties of the short ones. The Siksa of Panini mentions 63 or 64 letters, adding the letter ळ ( दुःस्पृष्ट ); confer, compare त्रिषष्टि: चतुःषष्टिर्वा वर्णाः शम्भुमते मताः Panini Siksa. St.3. The Rk Pratisakhya adds four (Visarga, Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya and Anusvara ) to the forty three given in the Siva Sutras and mentions 47. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya mentions 52 letters viz. 16 vowels, 25class consonants, 4 semivowels,six sibilants (श्, ष् , स्, ह् , क्, प् , ) and anusvara. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions 65 letters 3 varieties of अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ, two varieties of ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, 25 class-consonants, four semivowels, four sibilants, and जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय, अनुस्वार, विसर्जनीय, नासिक्य and four यम letters; confer, compare एते पञ्चषष्टिवर्णा ब्रह्मराशिरात्मवाचः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 25. The Rk Tantra gives 57 letters viz. 14 vowels, 25 class consonants, 4 semivowels, 4 sibilants, Visarga,.Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya, Anunasika, 4_yamas and two Anusvaras. The Rk Tantra gives two different serial orders, the Uddesa (common) and the Upadesa (traditional). The common order or Uddesa gives the 14 vowels beginning with अ, then the 25 class consonants, then the four semivowels, the four sibilants and lastly the eight ayogavahas, viz. the visarjanya and others. The traditional order gives the diphthongs first, then long vowels ( अा, ऋ, लॄ, ई and ऊ ) then short vowels (ऋ, लृ, इ, उ, and lastly अ ), then semivowels, then the five fifth consonants, the five fourths, the five thirds, the five seconds, the five firsts, then the four sibilants and then the eight ayogavaha letters and two Ausvaras instead of one anuswara. Panini appears to have followed the traditional order with a few changes that are necessary for the technigue of his work.
vāṇīspeech; utterance; the same as वाच् which is believed to be of four kinds as cited by the grammarians and explained by Bhartrhari; the four kinds are based upon the four places of origin, the three first places belonging to the inarticulate speech and the fourth belonging to the articulate one: cfचत्वारि वाक्परिमिता पदानि तानि विदुर्ब्राह्मण य मनीषिणः | गुहा त्रीणि निहिता नेङ्गयन्तिं तुरीयं वाचेी मनुष्या वदन्ति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I Ahnika l and the Pradipa and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon.
vikampitaa fault in the pronunciation of vowels, the utterance being attended with a kind of tremor; confer, compare ग्रस्तं निरस्त...विकम्पितम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). at the end of Ahnika 1.
vikāraliterally change: modification; modification of a word-base or an affix, caused generally by the addition of suffixes: confer, compare प्रकृतेरवस्थान्तरं विकार: Kas, on P. IV.3.134: confer, compare also लेपागमवर्णविकारज्ञो हि सम्यग्वेदान् परिपालयिष्यति Mahabhasya Ahnika 1.
vikṛtamutilated, changed in nature e. g. the word राम into रम् in रामौ which is equivalent to राम् + औ. For technical purposes in grammar a word, although mutilated a little by lopa, agama or varnavikara, is looked upon as the original one for undergoing operations cf एकदेशविकृतमनन्यवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 37.
vigṛhītashown by separating the combined elements, for instance, the two or more words in a compound or, the base or affix from a word which is a combination of the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix (प्रत्ययः); confer, compare तदेव सूत्रं विगृहीतं व्याख्यानं भवति M.Bh. on I.1. Ahnika 1, Vart. 11, 14; also confer, compare अवारपाराद् विगृहीतादपि P. IV.2. 93 Vart.1.
vigrahalit, separation of the two parts of a thing; the term is generally applied to the separation of the constituent words of a compound word: it is described to be of two kinds : ( a ) शास्त्रीयविग्रहृ or technical separation; e. g. राजपुरुष्: into राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु and ( 2 ) लौकिकविग्रहं or common or popular separation ; e. g. राजपुरूष: into राज्ञ: पुरुष:. It is also divided into two kinds according to the nature of the constituent words (a) स्वपदाविग्रह separation by means of the constituent words, exempli gratia, for example राजहितम् into राज्ञे हृितम्;(b) अस्वपदविग्रह, e. g. राजार्थम् into राज्ञे इदम् ;or exempli gratia, for example सुमुखीं into शोभनं मुखं अस्याः confer, compare M.Bh. on P.V.4.7. The compounds whose separation into constituent words cannot be shown by those words (viz. the constituent words) are popularly termed nityasamsa. The term नित्यसमास is explained as नित्यः समासो नित्यसमासः | यस्य विग्रहो नास्ति । M.Bh. on P.II.2.19 Vart. 4. The upapadasamsa is described as नित्यसमास. Sometimes especially in some Dvandva compounds each of the two separated words is capable of giving individually the senses of both the words exempli gratia, for example the words द्यावा and क्षामा of the compound द्यावाक्षामा. The word विग्रह is found used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the separate use of a word as contrasted with the use in a compound; cf अच्छेति विग्रहे प्लुतं भवति R.Pr.VII.1. विग्रहृ is defined as वृत्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः in the Siddhantakaumudi.
viccheda(1)breach or break (in the Samhitapatha); utterance of words separately by breaking their coalescence: confer, compare पदविच्छेद: असंहितः V. Pr.I.156; (2) doubling of a consonant technically called यम ; confer, compare अन्त:पदे अपञ्चमः पञ्चमेषु विच्छेदम् V.Pr. IV.163.
vipratipanna(1)doubtful: a matter of doubt; confer, compare विद्याद् विप्रतिपन्नानां पादवृत्ताक्षरैर्ऋचाम् R.Pr.XVII.13; (2) perverted: confer, compare तेभ्य एवं विप्रतिपन्नबुद्धिभ्यः अध्येतृभ्यः इदं शास्त्रमन्वाचष्टे M.Bh. on I.1 Āhnika 1.
viśeṣaspecific nature causing a difference; difference; specific feature; confer, compare सामान्यग्रहणे विशेषानतिदेश:(Paribhāṣā) confer, compare also यस्तु प्रयुङ्क्ते कुशलो विशेषे et cetera, and others Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Āhnika 1; confer, compare also क्रियावाचकमाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत् Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on V.Pr.VIII.50.
viśeṣapratipattia clear understanding, or a determined sense in a place of doubt: confer, compare व्याख्यानतो विशेषप्रतिपत्तिर्नहि संदेहादलक्षणम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 1; also M.Bh. in Āhnika 1.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
vṛttisamavāyaserial arrangement of letters in a specific way ( as for instance in the Mahesvara Sutras) for the sake of grammatical functions; confer, compare वृत्तिसमवायार्थं उपदेशः | वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः। समवायॊ वर्णानामानुपूर्व्येण सांनवेशः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Ahnika I.
vṛddhi(1)a technical term used by Panini to denote the vowels अा, ऐ and औ: a vowel belonging to the third grade out of the three grades of vowels which are known as zero, normal and long grades; cf , वृद्धिरादैच् P I. 1.1: (2) lengthening completely of a vowel which is called प्लुति in grammar: the term is used in the Rk Tantra Pratisakhya in this sense.
vedalanguage of the Vedic Literature as contrasted with the term लॊकः; confer, compare नैव लोके न च वेदे अकारो विवृतोस्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Mahesvara Sutra; confer, compare also रक्षार्थं वेदानामध्येयं व्याकरणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).Ahnika 1. The term वैदिक referring to words found in Vedic language is also frequently used in the Mahabhasya. Panini, however, has used the term छन्दस्, मन्त्र and निगम, and not वेद, out of which the first term छन्दस् is often used; confer, compare बहुलं छन्दसि P. II. 4.39, 76: III, 2.88; V. 2.122; or छन्दसि च P. V. 1.67, V. 4.142, VI. 3.126. VI. l.34, VII. 1.8, et cetera, and others
vaidikafound in Vedic Literature; the term is used in contrast with लौकिक which means ’found , in commmon use' : confer, compare यथा लोकिकवैदिकेषुMahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1. kaiyata explains वैदिक as श्रुत्युपनिबद्ध.
vaiṣamyadiversity in number or properties; confer, compare एवमपि पञ्चागमास्त्रय अागमिनः वैषम्यात्संख्यातानुदेशो न भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 2, 27, I. 3. 10 Vart. 4, I. 4.101.
vyatireka(1)surplus, excess; (2) separate presence; (3) contrary thing: confer, compare तत्र फलव्यतिरेकोपि स्यात् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Ahnika 1.
vyapadeśivadbhāvatreatment of a secon dary thing as the principal one, e g. a person or a thing, without any second or any others, looked upon as the first or the last; confer, compare व्यपदेशिवदेकस्मिन् कार्ये भवतीति वक्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.21. Vart. 2. The remark or expression व्यपदेशिवद्भावेन भविष्यति is found often given in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1 Vart 14; I.1.9, I.1.51 I,1.72: I.2.48 et cetera, and others For details see Par. Sek. Pari. 30,
vyākaraṇaGrammar the development of the meaning of the term can be seen by the senses given below in a serial order and the examples after those senses; (a) analysis or explanation by analysis; (b) rules of explanation; (c) specific rules explaining the formation of words; d) explanation of the formation of rules; (e) a treatise in which such an explanation is given; (f) a collection of such treatises and (g) a systematic explanation of the formation of words in a language (व्याकरणशास्त्र or शब्दानुशासन); confer, compare(a) व्यक्रियते अनेन इति व्याकरणम् ; M.Bh.on Ahnika 1, Vart. 12: confer, compare (b) लक्ष्यलक्षणे व्याकरणम्: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1, Vart. 14; confer, compare (c) न यथा लोके तथा व्याकरणे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.1. Vart. 7; d) सर्वत्रैव हि व्याकरणे पूर्वोच्चारित: संज्ञी परोच्चारिता संज्ञा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P. I. 1.1. Vart 7: (e) न तथा लोके यथा व्याकरणे M.Bh. on P, I. 1.23 Vart. 4: confer, compare(f)इह च व्याकरणे शब्दे कार्यस्य संभव:, अर्थं असंभवः | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.68. confer, compare (g) व्याकरणं नाम इयमुत्तरा विद्या । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.32. The word व्याकरण is mostly used in the sense of ’the Science of Grammar ' in the Mahabhasya. It is explained by modern scholars as 'the law of the corrections of speech and etymological science' and described both as a science and an art.
vyākaraṇādhyayanaprayojanathe purpose of the study of Grammar which is beautifully summed up and discussed in the first Ahnika by Patanjali in his Mahabhasya.
vyākhyāna(1)explanation of a rule, or a line, or a verse by analysing the rule and giving examples and counter-examples; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऎजिति | किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत्समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति | M.Bh. Ahnika l Vart.11 ; (2)authoritative decision given in places of doubt by ancient scholars; confer, compare याख्थानतो विशेषप्रतिपत्ति: न हि संदेहादलक्षणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika .1; Par.Sek.Pari.1.
vyāpyaliterally that which is occupied; the word refers to a kind of an object where the object is occupied by the verbal activity of the transitive root; the word अाप्य is also used in this sense: confer, compare कर्म निर्वर्त्ये विकार्यं प्राप्यं च ग्रस्य प्रकृत्युच्छेदो गुणान्तरं वोत्पद्यते तद्विकार्यम् SrinagaraPrakasa 2, The term is used as a technical term instead of the term कर्म in the Hemacandra, Candra and other systems of grammar: confer, compare Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II.2.3;Candra I.1.23.
śabdaliterally "sound" in general; confer, compare शब्दं कुरु शब्दं मा कार्षीः | ध्वनिं कुर्वनेवमुच्यते | M.Bh. in Ahnika I; confer, compare also शब्दः प्रकृतिः सर्ववर्णानाम् | वर्णपृक्तः: शब्दो वाच उत्पत्तिः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII.1, XXIII.3.In grammar the word शब्द is applied to such words only as possess sense; confer, compare प्रतीतपदार्थको लोके ध्वनि: शब्द: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika 1: confer, comparealso येनोच्चरितेन अर्थः प्रतीयते स शब्दः Sringara Prakasa I; confer, compare also अथ शब्दानुशासनम् M.Bh. Ahnika 1. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya, शब्द् is said to be constituted of air as far as its nature is concerned, but it is taken to mean in the Pratisakhya and grammar works in a restricted sense as letters possessed of sense, The vajasaneyiPratisakhya gives four kinds of words तिडू, कृत्, तद्धित and समास while नाम, आख्यात, निपात and उपसर्ग are described to be the four kinds in the Nirukta. As शब्द in grammar, is restricted to a phonetic unit possessed of sense, it can be applied to crude bases, affixes, as also to words that are completely formed with case-endings or personal affixes. In fact, taking it to be applicable to all such kinds, some grammarians have given tweive subdivisions of शब्द, vizप्रक्रुति, प्रत्यय,उपत्कार, उपपद, प्रातिपदिक, विभक्ति, उपसर्जन, समास, पद, वाक्य, प्रकरण and प्रबन्ध; confer, compare Sringara Prakasa I.
śabdapārāyaṇarecital or enumeration of one word after another in a language: cf ब्रुहस्पतरिन्द्राय दिव्यं वर्षसहस्रं प्रतिपदोक्तानां शब्दानां शब्दपारायणं प्रोवाच नान्तं जगाम M.Bh. Ahnika 1.
śabdasaṃcayaan anonymous elementary booklet on declension similar to Sabdarupavali. शब्दसंज्ञा a technical term given to a wording irrespective of the sense element as contrasted with अर्थसंज्ञा. See.exempli gratia, for example घु, भ or the like: confer, compare शब्दसंज्ञायां ह्यर्थासंप्रत्ययो यथान्यत्र P.I. 1.44 Vart. 2.
śabdopadeśascientific and authoritative citation or statement of a word as contrasted with अपशब्दोपदेशः; confer, compare किं शब्दोपदेश: कर्तव्यः आहोस्विदपशब्दोपदेशः आहोस्विदुभयोपदेश इति ।Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika l. शमादि a class of eight roots headed by शम् which get their vowel lengthened before the conjugational sign य (श्यन्) as also before the krt. affix इन् ( घिनुण् ) in the sense of 'habituated to': exempli gratia, for example शाम्यति, शमी, भ्राम्यति, भ्रमी et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.VII.3.74 and P. III.2.141.
śraddhāa technical term for nounstems ending in आ in the feminine gender used in the Katantra Grammar; confer, compare अा श्रद्धा Kat. II. 1.10.
śravaṇahearing of a phonetic element or a word in the actual speech; audition; confer, compare तस्य चोदात्तस्वरितपरत्वे श्रवणं स्पष्टम् S. K. on P.I.2.32. In many technical grammatical terms, affixes and substitutes, there is sometimes a portion of them which is not a vital part of the word, but it is for the sake of causing certain prescribed grammatical operations. The letters or syllables which form such a portion are called इत् and they are only for the sake of grammatical operations (कार्यार्थ ), as contrasted with the other ones which are actually heard (श्रुत्यर्थ or श्रवणार्थ ).
śratisāmānyacommon hearing; common form of technically different wordings, such as अा of टाप्, डाप् and चाप् feminine affixes, or ई of ङिप्, ङिष्, and ङीन् feminine. affixes; confer, compare र इति श्रुतिसामान्यमुपादीयते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.VIII. 2.18: confer, compare also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VIII. 2.42 and VIII. 4.1.
ṣa(1)consonant ष् , the vowel अ being added for facility of pronunciation; (2) compound-ending अ, substituted for the final of the word मूर्धन् at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound when the word मूर्धन् is preceded by द्वि or त्रि e. g. द्विमूर्धः, त्रिमूर्धः confer, compare द्वित्रिभ्यां ष मूर्ध्नः P. V. 4.115 (3) a technical term for तत्पुरुषसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ṣa(1)consonant ष् , the vowel अ being added for facility of pronunciation; (2) compound-ending अ, substituted for the final of the word मूर्धन् at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound when the word मूर्धन् is preceded by द्वि or त्रि e. g. द्विमूर्धः, त्रिमूर्धः confer, compare द्वित्रिभ्यां ष मूर्ध्नः P. V. 4.115 (3) a technical term for तत्पुरुषसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ṣaṣ( षट् )a technical term used in Panini's grammar for such numeral words ( संख्थाशब्द ) as end with ष् or न् e. g. षष्, पञ्चन्, सप्तन् et cetera, and others; confer, compare ष्णान्ता षट् P. I. 1.24.
saṃkhyātānudeśaapplication respectively of terms stated in the उद्देश्य and विधेय portions in their numerical order when the stated terms; are equal in number: cf यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् P. 1.3.10: confer, compare also पञ्चागमास्त्रय अागमिनः वैषम्यात् संख्यातानुदेशो न प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 2.
saṃjñāa technical term; a short wording to convey ample sense; a term to know the general nature cf things; convention; confer, compare वृद्धिशब्द; संज्ञा; अादेच: संज्ञिन: M.Bh. on P.1-1.1. There are two main divisions of संज्ञा-कृत्रिमसंज्ञा or an artificial term such as टि, घु, or भ which is merely conventional, and अकृत्रिमसंज्ञा which refers to the literal sense conveyed by the word such as अव्यय, सर्वनाम and the like. Some grammar works such as the Candra avoid purely conventional terms, These samjhas are necessary for every scientific treatise. In Panini's grammar, there are the first two chapters giving and explaining the technical terms whose number exceeds well-nigh a hundredition
saṃjñādhikāraa topic or a chapter or a portion of a treatise in which technical terms are given and explained; cf, संज्ञाधिकारोयम्; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.46, I. 1.56, I. 4.1, I. 4.23; see the word संज्ञा.
saṃjñāpūrvakaan operation with respect to which a technical term has been expressly mentioned: confer, compare संज्ञापूर्वको विधिरनित्यः, Par. Sek. Pari. 93.1: Vyadi Pari. 53.
saṃjñābhūta(1)that, which by usage has become a technical word possessed of a conventional sense: confer, compare किं पुनर्यानि एतानि संज्ञाभूतानि अाख्यानानि तत्र उत्पत्त्या भवितव्यम् , Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1. 26 Vart. 7; (2) which stands as a proper noun or the name of a person; confer, compare संज्ञाभूतास्तु न सर्वादयः S. K. on P. I. 1.27.
saṃjñāvidhia rule laying down the definition of a संज्ञा or a technical term as contrasted with कार्यविधि or a rule laying down a grammatical operation: confer, compare संज्ञाविधौ वृद्धिरादैच् अदेङ्गुणः इति M.Bh. on Siva Sutra 3, 4.
saṃjñinthe recipient or the bearer or possessor of a technical term; confer, compare संज्ञासंज्ञ्यसंदेहश्च । कुतो ह्येतद् वृद्धिशब्दः संज्ञा, आदैच: संज्ञिन इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.l Vart. 3; confer, comparealso स्वभावात् संज्ञाः संज्ञिनः प्रत्याय्य निवर्तन्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I, 1.1. Vart. 7.
saṃniveśaorder or arrangement of letters: confer, compare वर्णानामानुपूर्व्येण संनिवेशः समवाय: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika I. Vart. 15; confer, compare also संनिवेशेान्यः प्रत्याहारार्थः Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. I. 3.
saṃpratyayathe same as संप्रतिपत्ति which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare इंतंरंथा ह्यसंप्रत्यये यथा लोके Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.1 Vart. 2; confer, comparealso येनोच्चारितेन सास्नालाङ्गूलककुदखुरविषाणिनां संप्रत्ययो भवति स शब्दः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Ahnika 1.
saṃpradānaa karaka relation or a relation between a noun and the verbal activity with which it is connected, of the type of the donation and the donee; the word is technically used in connection with the bearer of such a relation confer, compare कर्मणा यमभिप्रैति स संप्रदानम् P. I.4.32.
saṃyogaconnection in general; the word is used as a technical term in the grammar of Panini, in the sense of two or more consonants coming closely together unseparated by any vowel: confer, compareहलोनन्तराः संयोगः cf P. I. 1.7; cf also अनन्तरं संयोगः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 48.
saṃvaraṇaliterally concealment; slurring over a consonant by practically merging its sound into that of the following one; the technical term अंभिनिधान is also used in the same sense; e. g. षट् द्वा द्वा; confer, compare संधारणं संवरणं श्रुतेश्च Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 5.
saṇtaddhita affix. affix सण् prescribed after the word पर्शु in the sense of collection; e. g. पार्श्र्वम् : confer, compare पर्श्वा: सण् P,IV,2.43 Vart, 3 for which there is an alfernative reading पर्श्वा णस् वक्तव्यः; for facility of grammatical operations णस् is recommended with preference in the Mahabhasya , cf एवं तर्हि णस् वक्तव्य; M.Bh. on P. IV.2.43 Vart. 3; (2) सण् is given as a technical term for संयोग in the Pratisakhya works: confer, compare सयुक् सण् । संयुक्तं व्यञ्जनं संयोगसंज्ञं भवति R.T.27.
samavāya(I)combination as contrasted with व्यवाय disjunction or separation; (2) the enumeration of the letters of the alphabet in a particular order so as to facilitate their combination, technically termed प्रत्याहार; confer, compare वृतिसमवायार्थ उपदेशः । का पुनर्वृत्तिः l शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः । अथ कः समवायः । वर्णानामानुपूर्व्येण संनिवेशः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika l Vart. 15. confer, compare also समवायो वर्णगत: क्रमविशेषः । Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on the Bhasya mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; (3) contact; cf रक्तै रागः समवाये स्वराणाम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.24.
samānacommon; the same; confer, compare समानस्थानकरणा नासिक्यौष्ठ्याः । एतेषां यदेव स्थानं तदेव करणम्; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 80. समानश्च खेदविगमो गम्यायां च अगम्यायां च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Ahnika 1.
samudāyaaggregate, totality, collection of individual members: confer, compare समुदाये प्रवृत्ताः शब्दाः क्वचिदवयवेष्वपि वर्तन्ते also confer, compare समुदाये व्याकरणशब्दः अवयवे नोपपद्यते M.Bh. Ahnika 1 Vart, 14: confer, compare also समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः।Par.Sek.Pari.108.
savarṇacognate, homophonic: a letter belonging to the same technical category of letters possessing an identical place of utterance and internal effort confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. 1, 1. 9. For example, the eighteen varieties of अ, due to its short, long and protracted nature as also due to its accents and nasalization, are savarna to each other. The vowels ऋ and लृ are prescribed to be considered as Savarna although their place of utterance differs. The consonants in each class of consonants are savarna to one another, but by the utterance of one, another cannot be taken except when the vowel उ has been applied to the first. Thus कु stands for क्, ख्, ग्, घ् and ङ्. confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. 1, I. 9 and अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्यय: P. I. 1. 69.
savighaof the same kind; having the same accent. सविभाक्तक with the suitable case-affixadded; confer, compare प्रयाजाः सविभक्तिकाः कार्याः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika 1.
sāmarthyaliterally capacity of a word to express its sense the word is, however, used rather technically, as derived from समर्थ, in the sense of compositeness; confer, compare तत्र एकार्थीभाव: व्यपेक्षा वा सामर्थ्यम् ( M Bh.on P.II.1.1. See समंर्थ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., The word is also used in the sense of 'conformity in sense' or 'connectedness' : confer, compare इसुसोः सामर्थ्ये P.VIII. 3.41: confer, compare also उपसर्गः सामर्थ्ये Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 105: cf also Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 98 and 130.
sāmānyaviśeṣabhāvathe relationship between the general and the particular, which forms the basis of the type of apavada which is explained by the analogy of तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय; the word also refers to the method followed by the Sutras of Panini, or any treatise of grammar for the matter of that, where a general rule is prescribed and, for the sake of definiteness some specific rules laying down exceptions, are given afterwards: confer, compare किंचित्सामान्यविशेषवल्लक्षणं प्रवर्त्यं येनाल्पेन यत्नेन महतः शद्बौघान् प्रतिपद्येरन् l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnik 1.
sārasvataname of a grammar work which was once very popular on account of its brevity, believed to have been written in the sutra form by an ancient grammarian named Narendra who is said to have composed 700 sutras under the inspiration of Sarasvati.The exposition of these Sutras by a reputed grammarian named Anubhutisvarupacarya who possibly flourished in the thirteenth century A. D., is known by the name सारस्वतप्रक्रिया which has remained as a text book on grammar to the present day in some parts of India. This प्रक्रिया is popularly known as सारस्वतव्याकरण. The technical terms in this grammar are the current popular ones.
sārasvataparibhāṣāa grammar work of the Sarasvata school written by Dayaratna in explanation of the technical rules giving conventions and maximanuscript.
siṃhāvalokitanyāyathe analogy of the backward look peculiar to a lion, who, as he advances, does always look back at the ground coveredition The word is used in grammar with reference to a word taken back from a rule to the preceding rule which technically is called अपकर्षः confer, compare वक्ष्यमाणं विभाषाग्रहणमिह सिंहावलोकितन्यायेन संबध्यते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.3.49.
siddha(1)established; the term is used in the sense of नित्य or eternal in the Varttika सिद्धे शब्दार्थसंबन्धे where, as Patanjali has observed, the word सिद्ध meaning नित्य has been purposely put in to mark an auspicious beginning of the शब्दानुशासनशास्त्र which commences with that Varttika; confer, compare माङ्गलिक आचार्यो महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थे सिद्धशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्क्ते M.Bh.on Ahnika 1; (2) established, proved, formed; the word is many times used in this sense in the Mahabhasya, as also in the Varttikas especially when a reply is to be given to an objection; confer, compare P.I. 1.3 Vart. 17, I.1. 4. Vart. 6: I. I. 5, Vart.5,I.1.9 Vart. 2 et cetera, and others
siddhāntasārasvataan independent work on grammar believed to have been written by Devanandin. सिद्धान्तिन् a term used in connection with the writer himself of a treatise when he gives a reply to the objections raised by himself or quoted from others,the term पूर्वपाक्षिन् being used for the objector. सिद्धि formation of a word: establishment of the correct view after the removal of the objection; e. g. संज्ञासिद्वि, कार्यसिाद्व, स्वरसिद्धि. सिप् (1) the personal ending ( सि ) of the second person singular (मध्यमपुरुषैकवचन ) substituted for the affix ल्; of the ten tenses and moods लट्, लिट्, लृट् and others; confer, compare P.III.4.78: (2 Vikarana affix स् added to a root before the affixes of लेट् or Vedic Subjunctive. सिम् a technical term used in the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya for the first eight vowels of the alphabet, viz. अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ and ऋ: confer, compare सिमादितोष्टौ स्वराणाम् V. Pr.. I.44.
sūtraa short pithy assertion laying down something in a scientific treatise; aphorism; the word is sometimes used in a collective sense in the singular, referring to the whole collection of Sutras or rules; confer, compare व्याकरणस्य सूत्रम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Ahnika I. The term is defined as अाल्पाक्षरमसंदिग्धं सारवद्विश्वतोमुखम् | अस्तोभमनवद्यं च सूत्रं सूत्रविदो विदुः. There are given generally six kinds of Sutras viz. संज्ञासूत्र, परिभाषासूत्र,विधिसूत्र, नियमसूत्र, प्रतिषेधसूत्र and अधिकारसूत्र; confer, compare also संज्ञा च परिभाषा च विधिर्नियम एव च प्रतिषेधोधिकारश्च षड्विधम् सूत्रलक्षणम् | Com. on Kat. I. 1.2.
sphaa short technical term used in the jainendra Vyakarana instead of the संयेाग in Panini's grammar.
sphoṭaname given to the radical Sabda which communicates the meaning to the hearers as different from ध्वनि or the sound in ordinary experience.The Vaiyakaranas,who followed Panini and who were headed by Bhartihari entered into discussions regarding the philosophy of Grammar, and introduced by way of deduction from Panini's grammar, an important theory that शब्द which communicates the meaning is different from the sound which is produced and heard and which is merely instrumental in the manifestation of an internal voice which is called Sphota.स्फुटयतेनेन अर्थः: इति स्फोटः or स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायमादुपजायते Vakyapadiya; confer, compare also अभिव्यक्तवादको मध्यमावस्थ आन्तर: शब्द: Kaiyata's Pradipa. For, details see Vakyapadiya I and Sabdakaustubha Ahnika 1. It is doubtful whether this Sphota theory was. advocated before Panini. The word स्फोटायन has been put by Panini in the rule अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य only incidentally and, in fact, nothing can be definitely deduced from it although Haradatta says that स्फोटायन was the originator of the स्फोटवाद. The word स्फोट is not actually found in the Pratisakhya works. However, commentators on the Pratisakhya works have introduced it in their explanations of the texts which describe वर्णोत्पत्ति or production of sound; confer, compare commentary on R.Pr.XIII.4, T.Pr. II.1. Grammarians have given various kinds of sphota; confer, compare स्फोटो द्विधा | व्यक्तिस्फोटो जातिस्फोटश्च। व्यक्तिस्पोटः सखण्ड अखण्डश्च । सखण्ड। वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। अखण्ड: पदवाक्यभेदेन द्विधा ! एवं पञ्च व्यक्तिस्फोटाः| जातिस्फोट: वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। इत्येवमष्टौ स्फोटः तत्र अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट एव मुख्य इति नव्याः । वाक्य जातिस्फोट इति तु प्राञ्चः॥; confer, compare also पदप्रकृतिः संहिता इति प्रातिशाख्यमत्र मानम् । पदानां प्रकृतिरिति षष्ठीतत्पुरुषे अखण्डवाक्यस्फोटपक्षः । बहुव्रीहौ सखण्डबाक्यस्फोट:||
svarabhinnadiffering in the matter of accent; words so differing are Practically looked upon as one and the same; confer, compare स्वरभिन्नानां यस्योत्तरस्वरविधिस्तस्येंकशेषो वक्यव्य: | अक्षश्च अक्षश्च अक्षौ । M. Bh on I. 2. 64 Vart. 24, For technical purposes, they are sometimes looked upon as different; confer, compare स्वरभिन्नस्य च प्राप्नुवन् विधिरनित्यः । Par. Sek. Pari. 49.
svarūpavidhian operation prescribed for the verbal form of the word and not for such words as possess the meaning of the word; .cf अस्ति कश्चित्पुरुषारम्भः। क: | स्वरूपविधिर्नाम | हन्तेरात्मनेपदमुच्यमानं हृन्तेरेत्र स्यादूधेर्न स्यात् | M.Bh. on P.I.1.56 Vart. 1. In grammar there is a general dictum that in connection with words of a Sutra, unless they are technical terms, the word-forms are to be understood, and not those shown by the sense of the word: confer, compare स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा P. I.1.68. This rule has some exceptions; for example in the rule नदीभिश्च P.II.1.20 the various rivers are to be understood and not the word नदी.
the last of the spirant consonants, | which is a glottal, voiced letter called also ऊष्म or spirant of a partial contact, i. e. possessed of the properties कण्ठय, नादानुप्रदान, ऊष्म and ईषत्स्पृष्टत्व. This letter has been given twice in the Paninian alphabet, viz. the Mahesvara Sutras, and the Bhasyakara has given the purpose of it, viz. the technical utility of being included among soft consonants along with semi-vowels, nasals and the fifth, the fourth, and the third class-consonants (हश् अश् et cetera, and others),as also among the hard consonants along with the fourth and the third class-letters and spirants ( झ्लू, ). The second letter हू in हल् appears, however, to have only a technical utility,as the purpose of its place there among spirants is served by the jihvamuliya and the Upadhmaniya letters which are,in fact, the velar and the labial spirants respectively, besides the other three शू, षू and सू .The Rk Pratisakhya calls ह as a chest sound. For details, see Mahabhasya on the Siva Sutra हयवरट् Varttikas 1, 2 and 3.
ha(1)representation of the consonant हू with अ added for facility of pronunciation; (2) a technical term for the internal effort between विवृत and संवृत, which causes घोष in the consonants; confer, compare संवृतविवृतयोर्मध्ये मध्यमप्रक्रारे यः शब्दः क्रियते स हकारसंज्ञो भवति। संज्ञायाः प्रयेाजनं ' हकारो हचतुर्थेषु ' इति ( तै. प्रा.श ९)Tribhasyaratna on T.Pr. II.6; (3) name of an external effort causing घोष: confer, compare सांप्रतिके प्रकृतिस्थे कण्ठे सति हृकारो नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नः क्रियते | तेन च व्यञ्जनेषु घोषो जायते। Vaidikabharana on T.Pr. II.6; (4) name of a kind of external effort of the type of अनुप्रदान found in the utterance of the consonant ( ह् ) and the fourth class-consonants; confer, compare हकारौ हृचतुर्थेषु T.Pr.II.9.
     Vedabase Search  
24 results
     
adhirūḍha bhāva an ecstasy technically known as adhirūḍhaCC Madhya 6.13
adhirūḍha bhāva an ecstasy technically known as adhirūḍhaCC Madhya 6.13
rūḍha-bhāvaḥ stage of perfect love (known technically as mahā-bhāva)SB 10.47.59
śata-ghnīm Śataghnī (the name of his śakti spear)SB 10.59.15
pūra-kumbhaka-recakaiḥ by inhaling, exhaling and holding, which are technically known as pūraka, kumbhaka and recakaSB 7.15.32-33
kuṭṭamitam the technical term kuṭṭamitaCC Madhya 14.197
mahāṃsaḥ pāvanaḥ vahni Mahāṃsa, Pāvana and VahniSB 10.61.16
māyinā possessing technical knowledgeSB 7.10.51
udghātyaka' nāma a dancing appearance of the player, technically known as udghātyakaCC Antya 1.185
mahāṃsaḥ pāvanaḥ vahni Mahāṃsa, Pāvana and VahniSB 10.61.16
pūra-kumbhaka-recakaiḥ by inhaling, exhaling and holding, which are technically known as pūraka, kumbhaka and recakaSB 7.15.32-33
pūra-kumbhaka-recakaiḥ by inhaling, exhaling and holding, which are technically known as pūraka, kumbhaka and recakaSB 7.15.32-33
rūḍha-bhāvaḥ stage of perfect love (known technically as mahā-bhāva)SB 10.47.59
śata-ghnīm Śataghnī (the name of his śakti spear)SB 10.59.15
śataghni with weapons called śataghnisSB 9.15.30
śataghnībhiḥ by śataghnīsSB 6.10.23
tataḥ from him (Vahni)SB 9.24.19
udghātyaka' nāma a dancing appearance of the player, technically known as udghātyakaCC Antya 1.185
vahneḥ of VahniSB 9.23.16
vahnibhiḥ and the VahnisSB 6.10.17-18
vahni VahniSB 9.23.16
vahni VahniSB 9.24.19
mahāṃsaḥ pāvanaḥ vahni Mahāṃsa, Pāvana and VahniSB 10.61.16
vidhibhiḥ techniquesSB 10.44.19
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
     Purchase Kindle edition

āharaṅa

extraction, one of the surgical techniques; removing.

rājayoga

the royal yoga, an eight step technique of yoga proponded by Patanjali in Yogasūtra.

śaśaghni

hawk.

śataghni

1. a deadly disease of throat, malignant tumor/cancer; 2. female scorpion; 3. cannon.

tantra

technique; class of works that teach magical and mystical formularies.

tantrayukti

contrivance; metaphorical and logical expression; literary techniques.

upayogasamstha

instructions to use or practice a technique; user manual.

vahni

Go to citraka

vahni

fire.

vahnimantha

Go to agnimantha.

vahniveśa

Go to Agniveśa.

viṣaghni

Go to pṛsniparṇi.

     Wordnet Search "hni" has 43 results.
     

hni

kuṅkumam, vāhnīkam, vāhnikam, varavāhnīkam, agniśikham, varaḥ, varam, baraḥ, baram, kāśmīrajanma, kāśmīrajaḥ, pītakam, pītanam, pītacandanam, pītakāveram, kāveram, raktasaṃjñam, raktam, śoṇitam, lohitam, lohitacandanam, gauram, haricandanam, ghusṛṇam, jāguḍam, saṅkocam, piśunam, ghīram, kucandanam   

puṣpaviśeṣaḥ।

mahyaṃ kāśmīrajena yuktā kulphīprakāraḥ rocate।

hni

jalam, vāri, ambu, ambhaḥ, payaḥ, salilam, sarilam, udakam, udam, jaḍam, payas, toyam, pānīyam, āpaḥ, nīram, vāḥ, pāthas, kīlālam, annam, apaḥ, puṣkaram, arṇaḥ, peyam, salam, saṃvaram, śaṃvaram, saṃmbam, saṃvatsaram, saṃvavaraḥ, kṣīram, pāyam, kṣaram, kamalam, komalam, pīvā, amṛtam, jīvanam, jīvanīyam, bhuvanam, vanam, kabandham, kapandham, nāram, abhrapuṣpam, ghṛtam, kaṃ, pīppalam, kuśam, viṣam, kāṇḍam, savaram, saram, kṛpīṭam, candrorasam, sadanam, karvuram, vyoma, sambaḥ, saraḥ, irā, vājam, tāmarasa, kambalam, syandanam, sambalam, jalapītham, ṛtam, ūrjam, komalam, somam, andham, sarvatomukham, meghapuṣpam, ghanarasaḥ, vahnimārakaḥ, dahanārātiḥ, nīcagam, kulīnasam, kṛtsnam, kṛpīṭam, pāvanam, śaralakam, tṛṣāham, kṣodaḥ, kṣadmaḥ, nabhaḥ, madhuḥ, purīṣam, akṣaram, akṣitam, amba, aravindāni, sarṇīkam, sarpiḥ, ahiḥ, sahaḥ, sukṣema, sukham, surā, āyudhāni, āvayāḥ, induḥ, īm, ṛtasyayoniḥ, ojaḥ, kaśaḥ, komalam, komalam, kṣatram, kṣapaḥ, gabhīram, gambhanam, gahanam, janma, jalāṣam, jāmi, tugryā, tūyam, tṛptiḥ, tejaḥ, sadma, srotaḥ, svaḥ, svadhā, svargāḥ, svṛtikam, haviḥ, hema, dharuṇam, dhvasmanvatu, nāma, pavitram, pāthaḥ, akṣaram, pūrṇam, satīnam, sat, satyam, śavaḥ, śukram, śubham, śambaram, vūsam, vṛvūkam, vyomaḥ, bhaviṣyat, vapuḥ, varvuram, varhiḥ, bhūtam, bheṣajam, mahaḥ, mahat, mahaḥ, mahat, yaśaḥ, yahaḥ, yāduḥ, yoniḥ, rayiḥ, rasaḥ, rahasaḥ, retam   

sindhuhimavarṣādiṣu prāptaḥ dravarupo padārthaḥ yaḥ pāna-khāna-secanādyartham upayujyate।

jalaṃ jīvanasya ādhāram। /ajīrṇe jalam auṣadhaṃ jīrṇe balapradam। āhārakāle āyurjanakaṃ bhuktānnopari rātrau na peyam।

hni

sphuliṅgaḥ, sphuliṅgakaḥ, visphuliṅgaḥ, agnilavaḥ, agnikaṇaḥ, vahnikaṇaḥ   

agneḥ kaṇikā।

sphuliṅgena vastre chedaḥ jātaḥ।

hni

agniḥ, pāvakaḥ, pāvanaḥ, tejaḥ, vahniḥ, jvalanaḥ, analaḥ, kṛśānuḥ, vāyusakhā, vāyusakhaḥ, dahanaḥ, śikhī, śikhāvān, kṛṣṇavartmā, araṇiḥ, ghāsiḥ, dāvaḥ, pacanaḥ, pācanaḥ, pācakaḥ, juhuvān, vāśiḥ, arciṣmān, prabhākaraḥ, chidiraḥ, śundhyuḥ, jaganuḥ, jāgṛviḥ, apāmpitaḥ, jalapittaḥ, apittam, himārātiḥ, phutkaraḥ, śukraḥ, āśaraḥ, samidhaḥ, citrabhānuḥ, jvālājihvā, kapilaḥ, vibhāvasuḥ, tamonud, śuciḥ, śukraḥ, damunaḥ, damīnaḥ, agiraḥ, hariḥ, kaviḥ   

tejaḥpadārthaviśeṣaḥ।

parvate dṛśyamānaḥ dhūmaḥ agneḥ sūcakaḥ।

hni

adhyāyaḥ, pāṭhaḥ, paricchedaḥ, sargaḥ, vargaḥ, udghātaḥ, aṅkaḥ, saṃgrahaḥ, ucchvāsaḥ, parivartaḥ, paṭalaḥ, parvaḥ, āhnikam, prakaraṇam   

granthasandhiḥ।

upādhyāyena pravacane gītāyāḥ pañcamasya adhyāyasya vivaraṇaṃ kṛtam।

hni

aśvagandhā, prasūkā, palāśaparṇī, vātaghnī, vṛṣā, avarohakaḥ, varāhapatrī, raktagandhā, hayagandhā, varāhī, varāhakarṇī, varadā   

catvāri padāni yāvat unnataḥ ekaḥ vṛkṣaḥ yasya mūlāni bheṣajarūpeṇa upayujyante।

aśvagandhāyāḥ puṣpāṇi laghuni kānicana dīrghāṇi tathā ca pītaharitavarṇīyāni santi।

hni

śikharī, viṣaghnikā, śvetadhāmā, vṛhatphalā, veśmakūlā, śikhī, mālākaṇṭhaḥ, argvadhā, keśaparṇī   

vanyakṣupaḥ yaḥ bheṣajarūpeṇa upayujyate।

vaidyena pīḍitāya śikhariṇaḥ satvasya sevanaṃ sūcitam।

hni

jīrakaḥ, jīraḥ, jīrṇaḥ, dīpyaḥ, jīraṇaḥ, sugandham, sūkṣmapatraḥ, kṛṣṇasakhī, dūtā, suṣavī, ajājī, śvetaḥ, kaṇā, ajājīkā, vahniśikhaḥ, māgadhaḥ, dīpakaḥ   

vaṇigdravyaviśeṣaḥ asya guṇāḥ gandha-yuktatva-ruci-svara-kāritva-vāta-gulmadhmāna-atīsāragrahaṇī-krimināśitvādayaḥ।

mātā jīrakeṇa āmlasūpaṃ bhājayati।

hni

jvālāmukhiparvataḥ, adrivahniḥ, jvalanaparvataḥ, jvālāmukhaḥ, āgneyagiriḥ, agniparvataḥ   

saḥ parvataḥ yasya śikharāt bhūgarbhasthaḥ dhūmaḥ rakṣā tathā ca dravaḥ bahiḥ āgacchati।

jvālāmukhīparvatāt naikānāṃ dvīpānāṃ nirmitiḥ abhavat।

hni

agnisikhaḥ, agnisekharaḥ, ambaram, asṛk, kanakagauram, kaśmīrajanma, kāntam, kāveram, kāśmīram, kāśmīrajanmā, kāśmīrasambhavam, kucandanam, kusumātmaka, kesaravaram, goravaḥ, gauram, ghasram, ghusṛṇam, ghoraḥ, javā, jāguḍam, dīpakaḥ, dīpakam, nakulī, pāṭalam, piṇyākaḥ, piṇyākam, piśunam, pītakāveram, pītacandanam, pītikā, pītakam, pītanam, puṣparajaḥ, priyaṅgum, bālhikam, bāhlika, raktam, raktacandanam, raktasaṃjñam, raktāṅgam, rañjanaḥ, rudhiram, rohitam, lohitacandanam, vareṇyam, varṇam, varṇyam, vahniśikham, vahniśekharam, veram, śaṭham, śoṇitam, saṃkocam, saṃkocapiśunam, surārham, sūryasaṃjñam, saurabham, haricandanam   

puṣpe vartamānaḥ strīliṅgī avayavaviśeṣaḥ yaḥ keśa sadṛśaḥ asti।

agnisikhaḥ kṣapasya jananāṅgena sambadhitaḥ asti।

hni

haridrā, harit, suvarṇā, kāñcanī, pītā, gaurī, svarṇavarṇā, kāverī, umā, śivā, dīrgharāgā, haladdī, pauñjā, pītavālukā, hemanāśā, rañjanī, bhaṅgavāsā, gharṣiṇī, pītikā, rajanī, mehaghnī, bahulā, varṇinī, rātrināmikā, niśāhvā, niśā, śarvarī, varavarṇinī, varṇadātā, maṅgalapradā, hemarāgiṇī, gharṣaṇī, janeṣṭā, kṛmaghnī, lasā, yāminī, varāṅgī, varā, varṇadātrī, pavitrā, haritā, viṣaghnī, piṅgā, maṅgalyā, maṅgalā, lakṣmīḥ, bhadrā, śiphā, śobhā, śobhanā, subhagāhvayā, śyāmā, jayantikā   

oṣadhiviśeṣaḥ asya pītavarṇīyāni mūlāni pākādiṣu vyañjanatvena upayujyante raktaśuddhikaratvāt te bheṣaje tathā ca dehavarṇavidhāyitvāt ca prasādhakeṣu api upayujyante।

samaye akṛtena siṃcanena haridrā śuṣkā jātā। / haridrā kapha-pittāstraśotha-kaṇḍuvraṇāpahā।

hni

indravallī, viśālā, aindrī, citrā, gavākṣī, gajacirbhaṭā, mṛgervāruḥ, piṭaṅkīkī, mṛgādanī, indrā, aruṇā, gavādanī, kṣudrasahā, indracirbhiṭī, sūryā, viṣaghnī, gaṇakarṇikā, amarā, mamātā, sukarṇī, suphalā, tārakā, vṛṣabhākṣī, pītapuṣpā, indravallarī, hemapuṣpī, kṣudraphalā, vāruṇī, bālakapriyā, raktairvāruḥ, viṣalatā, śakravallī, viṣāpahā, amṛtā, viṣavallī, citraphalā, gavākṣaḥ   

ekā vanyā latā yasyāḥ phalāni raktavarṇīyāni santi।

indravalyaḥ phalaṃ tiktam asti।

hni

tulasī, subhagā, tīvrā, pāvanī, viṣṇuvallabhā, surejyā, surasā, kāyasthā, suradundubhiḥ, surabhiḥ, bahupatrī, mañjarī, haripriyā, apetarākṣasī, śyāmā, gaurī, tridaśamañjarī, bhūtaghnī, bhūtapatrī, vaiṣṇavī, puṇyā, mādhavī, amṛtā, patrapuṣpā, vṛndā, maruvakaḥ, samīraṇaḥ, prasthapuṣpaḥ, phaṇijhakaḥ, parṇāsaḥ, jambhīraḥ, kaṭhiñjaraḥ, kuṭherakaḥ, arjjakaḥ, kulasaurabham, lakṣmī   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ yaḥ pavitraḥ asti tathā ca yasya parṇāni gandhayuktāni santi।

tulasyāḥ parṇāni oṣadhirūpeṇa upayujyante।

hni

dūravedhinī, śataghnī   

astraviśeṣaḥ- tat astraṃ yasmāt raṇagolaḥ kṣipyate।

nūtanānāṃ dūravedhinīnāṃ parīkṣaṇam āvaśyakam asti।

hni

dainika, āhnika, daina, daivasika, prātyahika, divātana, anvāhika, naityika   

pratidinasambandhī।

śyāmaḥ dainikaṃ vartamānapatraṃ paṭhati।

hni

putraghnī   

yonirogaviśeṣaḥ।

putraghnyaḥ kāraṇāt garbhadhāraṇā na bhavati।

hni

śyenaḥ, kravyādaḥ, krūraḥ, āpatikaḥ, nakhadāraṇaḥ, puṅkhaḥ, prājikaḥ, lambakarṇaḥ, vegī, śaśaghātakaḥ, śaśaghātī, śaśaghnī, sthūlanīlaḥ, patadbhīruḥ   

ekā khagajātiḥ। śyenena jhaṭiti mūṣakaḥ parigṛhītaḥ। /

śyenāḥ praśastāḥ prakṛtasvarāste

[śa.ka]

hni

vṛścikālī, vṛścipatrī, viṣaghnī, nāgadantikā, sarpadaṃśaṣṭrā, amarā, kālī, uṣṭradhūsarapucchikā, viṣāṇī, netrarogahā, uṣṭrikā, aliparṇī, dakṣiṇāvartakī, kālikā, āgamāvartā, devalāṅgūlikā, karabhī, bhūrīdugdhā, karkaśā, svarṇadā, yugmaphalā, kṣīraviṣāṇikā, bhāsurapuṣpā   

kṣupaviśeṣaḥ, yasya tīkṣṇapatrāṇāṃ daṃśaḥ vṛścikavat dāhakaḥ asti (āyurvede asya hṛdraktaśuddhikārīkatvaṃ raktapittavibandhārocakāpahatvam ityādi guṇāḥ proktāḥ);

atra vṛścikālī samudbhūtā/

vṛścikālī viṣaghnī tu kāsamārutanāśinī [rājavallabhaḥ]

hni

cihnita, citrita, lakṣita   

yasmin cihnam asti।

eṣā mudrā gāndhīmahodayasya citreṇa cihnitā asti।

hni

āhnikam, dinakramaḥ   

ahnā nivṛttaḥ sādhyaḥ।

pratidine bhramaṇaṃ tasya āhnike samāviṣṭaḥ। / kṛtāhnikaḥ saṃvṛttaḥ।

hni

haridrā, harit, suvarṇā, kāñcanī, pītā, gaurī, svarṇavarṇā, kāverī, umā, śivā, dīrgharāgā, haladdī, pauñjā, pītavālukā, hemanāśā, rañjanī, bhaṅgavāsā, gharṣiṇī, pītikā, rajanī, mehaghnī, bahulā, varṇinī, rātrināmikā, niśāhvā, niśā, śarvarī, varavarṇinī, varṇadātā, maṅgalapradā, hemarāgiṇī, gharṣaṇī, janeṣṭā, kṛmaghnī, lasā, yāminī, varāṅgī, varā, varṇadātrī, pavitrā, haritā, viṣaghnī, piṅgā, maṅgalyā, maṅgalā, lakṣmīḥ, bhadrā, śiphā, śobhā, śobhanā, subhagāhvayā, śyāmā, jayantikā   

oṣadhimūlaviśeṣaḥ। haridrā nāma oṣadheḥ pītavarṇīyāni mūlāni ye janaiḥ pākādiṣu vyañjanatvena upayujyante। raktaśuddhikaratvāt te bheṣaje tathā ca dehavarṇavidhāyitvāt ca prasādhakeṣu upayujyante।

haridrāyāḥ lepena tvakśuddhiḥ bhavati।

hni

indravāruṇī, viśālā, aindrī, citrā, gavākṣī, gajacirbhacā, mṛgervāru, piṭaṅgikī, mṛgādanī, indrā, aruṇā, gavādanī, kṣudrasahā, indracarbhiṭī, sūryā, viṣaghnī, gaṇakarṇikā, amarā, mātā, sukarṇī, suphalā, tārakā, vṛṣabhākṣī, potapuṣpā, indravallarī, hemapuṣpī, kṣudraphalā, vāruṇī, bālakapriyā, raktairvāruḥ, viṣalatā, śakravallī, viṣāpahā, amṛtā, viṣavallī, citraphalā   

latāviśeṣaḥ yaḥ bheṣajayuktaḥ dīrghajīvī asti tathā ca yasya parṇāni tāmbulasya parṇasadṛśāni santi।

indravāruṇeḥ puṣpāṇi pītavarṇīyāni santi tathā ca samūharūpeṇa santi।

hni

araṇī, śrīparṇam, agnimanthaḥ, kaṇikā, gaṇikārikā, jayā, araṇiḥ, tejomanthaḥ, havirmanthaḥ, jyotiṣkaḥ, pāvakaḥ, vahnimanthaḥ, mathanaḥ, agnimathanaḥ, tarkārī, vaijayantikā, araṇīketuḥ, śrīparṇī, karṇikā, nādeyī, vijayā, anantā, nadījā   

himālayeṣu vartamānaḥ vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ yasya khādyaṃ phalaṃ bhavati evaṃ tasya bījamapi upayogāya vartate।

araṇī tu auṣadhavṛkṣaḥ bhavati।

hni

svāhā, agnāyī, hutabhukpriyā, dviṭhaḥ, analapriyā, vahnivadhūḥ   

agnibhāryā।

dharmagrantheṣu svāhā iti agnipatnī asti iti varṇanaṃ prāpyate।

hni

vṛtraghnī   

purāṇānusāreṇa ekā nadī।

vṛtraghnyaḥ taṭe sundaranagaram āsīt।

hni

punarnavā, śothaghnī, varṣābhūḥ, prāvṛṣāyaṇī, kaṭhillakaḥ, vṛścīrāḥ, cirāṭikā, viśākhaḥ, kaṭhillaḥ, śaśivāṭikā, pṛthvī, sitavarṣābhūḥ, ghanapatraḥ   

auṣadhīyoṣadhiḥ yā dvitryaṅgulā unnatā evaṃ varṣakāle udbhavati uṣṇakāle nirgacchati ca।

punarnavāyāḥ laghuphalaṃ śleṣmabījayuktaṃ bhavati।

hni

dhātupuṣpikā, subhikṣā, agnijvālā, vahnipuṣpī, tāmrapuṣpī, dhāvanī, pārvatī, dhātakī, bahupuṣpikā, kusudā, sīdhupuṣpī, kuñjarā, madyavāsinī, gucchapuṣpī, sandhapuṣpī, rodhrapuṣpiṇī, tīvrajvālā, vahniśikhā, madyapuṣpā, dhātṛpuṣpī, dhātupuṣpī, dhātṛpuṣpikā, dhātrī, dhātupuṣpikā   

auṣadhopayogī vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ।

dhātupuṣpikā unnatā sundarā ca bhavati।

hni

bandhūkaḥ, bandhujīvakaḥ, raktakaḥ, bandhūjīvakaḥ, bandhukaḥ, bandhuḥ, bandhulaḥ, bandhujīvaḥ, bandhūliḥ, bandhuraḥ, raktaḥ, mādhyāhnikaḥ, oṣṭhapuṣpaḥ, arkavallabhaḥ, madhyandinaḥ, raktapuṣpaḥ, rāgapuṣpaḥ, haripriyaḥ   

kṣupakaviśeṣaḥ।

bandhūkasya śuklavarṇīyaṃ sugandhitaṃ puṣpaṃ bhavati।

hni

indrapuṣpā, indrapuṣpī, indrapuṣpikā, indupuṣpikā, amūlā, dīptaḥ, vahniśikhā, kalihārī, manojavā, vahnivaktrā, puṣpasaurabhā, viśalyā, vahnicakrā, halinī, puṣā, halī, vidyujjvālā   

bhāratasya dakṣiṇe vardhamānaḥ ekaḥ kṣupaḥ yaḥ oṣadhyāṃ prayujyate।

indrapuṣpāyāḥ patrāṇāṃ kaṇḍānā ca kaṣāyaṃ pīnasāya lābhadāyakaṃ bhavati।

hni

kumārī, kaṇṭakaprāvṛtā, kanyāgṛhakanyā, taraṇi, brahmaghnī, vipulāśravā, sthūladalā, kapilaḥ   

ekaḥ auṣadhīyaḥ kṣupaviśeṣaḥ।

vaidyaḥ udyāne kumārīṃ ropayati।

hni

kopalatā, ardhacandrikā, analaprabhā, kaṭabhī, kanakaprabhā, kukundanī, kaiḍaryaḥ, gīrlatā, jyotiṣkā, jyotirlatā, tīktakā, tīkṣṇā, dīptaḥ, niphalā, paṇyā, parāpatapadī, pītatailā, piṇyā, pūtitailā, bahurasā, matidā, lagaṇā, latā, latāpuṭakī, lavaṇaḥ, vāyasādanī, śṛṅgin, śleṣmaghnī, sarasvatī, supiṅgalā, suvegā, suvarṇalatā, svarṇalatā, sumedhas, sphuṭavalkalī, sphuṭaraṅgiṇī   

ekā latā।

kopalatā oṣadhyāṃ prayujyate।

hni

jaṭāmāṃsī, tapasvinī, jaṭā, māṃsī, jaṭilā, lomaśā, misī, naladam, vahninī, peṣī, kṛṣṇajaṭā, jaṭī, kirātinī, jaṭilā, bhṛtajaṭā, peśī, kravyādi, piśitā, piśī, peśinī, jaṭā, hiṃsā, māṃsinī, jaṭālā, naladā, meṣī, tāmasī, cakravartinī, mātā, amṛtajaṭā, jananī, jaṭāvatī, mṛgabhakṣyā, miṃsī, misiḥ, miṣikā, miṣiḥ   

auṣadhīyavanaspateḥ sugandhitaṃ mūlam।

jaṭāmāṃsyāḥ upayogaḥ vibhinneṣu auṣadheṣu bhavati।

hni

agniḥ, vaiśvānaraḥ, vītahotraḥ, agnihotraḥ, huraṇyaretāḥ, saptārci, vibhāvasuḥ, vṛṣākapiḥ, svāhāpatiḥ, svāhāprayaḥ, svāhābhuk, agnidevaḥ, agnidevatā, dhanañjayaḥ, jātavedaḥ, kṛpīṭayoniḥ, śociṣkeśaḥ, uṣarbudhaḥ, bṛhadbhānuḥ, hutabhuk, haviraśanaḥ, hutāśaḥ, hutāśanaḥ, havirbhuk, havyavāhanaḥ, havyāśanaḥ, kravyavāhanaḥ, tanunapāt, rohitāśvaḥ, āśuśukṣaṇiḥ, āśrayāśaḥ, āśayāśaḥ, āśrayabhuk, āśrayadhvaṃsī, pāvakaḥ, pāvanaḥ, tejaḥ, vahniḥ, jvalanaḥ, analaḥ, kṛśānuḥ, vāyusakhā, vāyusakhaḥ, dahanaḥ, śikhī, śikhāvān, kṛṣṇavartmā, araṇiḥ, ghāsiḥ, dāvaḥ, pacanaḥ, pācanaḥ, pācakaḥ, juhuvān, vāśiḥ, arciṣmān, prabhākaraḥ, chidiraḥ, śundhyuḥ, jaganuḥ, jāgṛviḥ, apāmpitaḥ, jalapittaḥ, apittam, himārātiḥ, phutkaraḥ, śukraḥ, āśaraḥ, samidhaḥ, citrabhānuḥ, jvālājihvā, kapilaḥ, vibhāvasuḥ, tamonud, śuciḥ, śukraḥ, damunaḥ, damīnaḥ, agiraḥ, hariḥ, bhuvaḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ-hindudharmānusāram agneḥ devatāsvarūpam।

agneḥ patnī svāhā।

hni

vahni   

kṛṣṇasya putraḥ।

vahneḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu prāpyate।

hni

vahni   

rāmasenāyāḥ vānaraḥ।

vahniḥ vīraḥ āsīt।

hni

anakṣita, anupalakṣita, acihnita   

cihnarahitaḥ।

anakṣitāt mārgāt dūre āgatāḥ vayam।

hni

āhnikam   

pratyekasmin dine viśiṣṭe samaye kriyamāṇaṃ dhārmikaṃ kāryam।

pitāmahasya āhnike rāmāyaṇapaṭhanasya api samāveśaḥ asti।

hni

yantraśataghnī   

ekā svayaṃcālitā śataghnī।

sainikānāṃ haste yantraśataghnī āsīt।

hni

kaṭabhī, analaprabhā, kukundanī, pārāpatapadī, pītatailā, kanakaprabhā, gīrlatā, jyotirlatā, jyotiṣkā, tejasvinī, tejohvā, tiktakā, niphalā, paṇyā, pārāvatapadī, piṇyā, pūtitailā, bahurasā, lagaṇā, nagaṇā, latā, latāpuṭakī, lavaṇakiṃśukā, śleṣmaghnī, sārasvatī, supiṅgalā, sphuṭaraṅgiṇī, sphuṭavalkalī, sumedhā, suvarṇalatā, suvegā, svarṇalatā, dīptaḥ, lavaṇaḥ, śṛṅgī, nagnaḥ   

kṣupaviśeṣaḥ ।

kaṭabhyāḥ varṇanaṃ suśrutena kṛtam

hni

śālaparṇī, śālaparṇaḥ, triparṇī, triparṇikā, sarivanā, śāliparṇī, dhavaniḥ, śālapatrā, tṛṇagandhā, pītinī, pītanī, rudrajaṭā, saumyā, śālānī, dīrghamūlā, niścalā, vātaghnī, dhruvā, granthaparṇī, kukuraḥ, pīlumūlaḥ, pīvarī, śālikā, śubhapatrikā, nīlapuṣpaḥ, parṇī, astamatī, pālindī, pālindhī   

ekaḥ kṣupaḥ ।

śālaparṇī bheṣajyarūpeṇa upayujyate

hni

vahni   

kṣupanāmaviśeṣaḥ ।

naikeṣāṃ kṣupāṇāṃ nāma vahniḥ iti asti

hni

āhnikam   

kṛtiviśeṣaḥ ।

āhnikam iti nāmakānāṃ naikāsāṃ kṛtīnām ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

hni

pāpaghnī   

ekā nadī ।

pāpaghnyāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

Parse Time: 1.392s Search Word: hni Input Encoding: Devanagari IAST: hni