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hil has 1 results
        Root Word (Pāṇini Dhātupāṭha:)Full Root MarkerSenseClassSutra
√hilhilaabhāvakaraṇe668
 
 
hil has 1 results
Root WordIAST MeaningMonier Williams PageClass
√हिल्hilsporting amorously / bhāva-karaṇa754/1, 254/1Cl.6
Amarakosha Search
18 results
Monier-Williams Search
419 results for hil
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
hil (prob. artificial) cl.6 P. hilati-, to sport amorously, dally, wanton, express amorous inclination View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hilam. Name of a mountain and a town (see hetu-h-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hilamocif. Enhydra Hingcha View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hilamocīf. Enhydra Hingcha View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hilamocikā f. Enhydra Hingcha View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hilihilamfn. sporting, dallying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hilimāf. (of unknown meaning) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hilīsamudraName of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hillam. a kind of aquatic bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hillam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hillājam. Name of an astronomer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hillājadīpikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hillājagrahaphalan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hillājajātakan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hillājatājikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hillolam. (see hindola-) a wave, surge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hillolam. a whim View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hillolam. a particular form of sexual union View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hillolam. (in music) one of the rāga-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hillolayaNom. P. yati-, to swing or rock or roll about (varia lectio for hiṇḍolaya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilabhA1. to take or lay hold of ; to reach, obtain, gain etc.: Desiderative (parasmE-pada P. -lipsat-) to intend to catch or obtain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilakṣ Passive voice -lakṣyate-, to appear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilakṣaṇan. the act of marking (with signs) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilakṣitamfn. fixed or indicated by (as by special signs) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilakṣitamfn. determined for, selected as View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilakṣitamfn. indicated, pointed out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilakṣitamfn. appearing, visible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilakṣitamfn. (an--or na- negative) unseen, unperceived View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilakṣyamfn. to be fixed or indicated by, distinguishable through (in compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilakṣyamind. towards a mark or aim View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilakṣyīkṛtya ind.p. (1. kṛ-), aiming at a mark, directing towards. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilambham. acquisition, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilaṅgh Causal to jump across or over ; to transgress, violate ; to injure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilaṅghanan. jumping over (genitive case)
abhilaṅghanan. violating, acting contrary to (in compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilaṅghinmfn. violating, acting contrary to (in compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilapto talk or speak about View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilāpam. expression, word etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilāpam. declaration (as of the object of a vow) (see abhīlāpal/ap-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilapyamfn. See nir-abhilapya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilaṣ -laṣati-, to desire or wish for (accusative), covet, crave. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilāṣa(or less correctly abhi-lāsa-) m. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).), desire, wish, covetousness, affection (with locative case or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilāṣakamfn. wishing, desiring (with accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilaṣaṇan. craving after, desiring. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilaṣaṇīyamfn. desirable, to be coveted. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilāṣinmfn. idem or 'mfn. wishing, desiring (with accusative) ' (with locative case or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') etc.; (less correctly abhi-lāsin- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilaṣitamfn. desired, wished View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilaṣitan. desire, wish, will. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilaṣitārthacintāmaṇim. Name (also title or epithet) of an encyclopaedia by bhū-loka-malla- someśvaradeva- (who reigned from 1127-1138 D.). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilāṣukamf(ā-)n. idem or 'mfn. idem or 'mfn. wishing, desiring (with accusative) ' (with locative case or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') etc.; (less correctly abhi-lāsin- )' (with accusative [ ]or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' [ ]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilāvam. ( -), cutting, reaping, mowing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilekhanan. writing upon, inscribing. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilekhitan. a written document View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilī -līyate-, to adhere to, cling to (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilikhto engrave, write upon, draw, paint: Caus. to cause to paint, have anything painted ; to cause to write down View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilīnamfn. adhering to, clinging to (accusative) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilīnamfn. "adhered to", chosen (as a seat by birds or bees) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilipto smear with : Causal idem or 'n. a written document ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilipsāf. desire of obtaining. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilokCaus. (p. -lokayat-) to view, look at (from a height) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilubhCaus. -lobhayati-, to entice, allure. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilulitamfn. touched or grazed by (anything) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilulitamfn. shaken about, agitated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilup(p. -lumpat-) to rob, plunder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiluptamfn. disturbed, injured. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilūtāf. a kind of spider View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhilaṅkamind. over laṅkā-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhilokamind. on the universe (treated of in the upaniṣad-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhilokanātham. lord of the universe. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhiluṭh(P. - luṭhati-), to leap up and down, spring about, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ahilatāf. equals -mardanī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ahilatāf. the plant Betel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ahilocanam. Name of a servant of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ahilolikāf. equals ahibhaya-- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akhilamf(ā-)n. without a gap, complete, whole View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akhilātmanm. the universal Spirit, brahma-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akhilenaind. completely. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akhilīkṛ -kṛtya- ind.p. not having annihilated or rendered powerless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākhilyan. (fr. a-khila-), the whole View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anabhilakṣitam. "destitute of (right) marks or symbols", an impostor. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anabhilāṣam. non-relish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anabhilāṣam. want of appetite View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anabhilāṣam. want of desire. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anabhilāṣinmfn. not desirous. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anabhilulitamfn. not pressed upon (varia lectio for an-- atil-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apicchilamfn. clear, free from sediment or soil. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśithilamf(ā-)n. idem or 'mfn. not loose, tight, firm ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśithilaṃbhāva(/aśithilaṃ-bh-) m. the becoming tight or firm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astābhilāṣinmfn. verging towards sunset, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvatthilamfn. (gaṇa-s parpādi-, kumudādi-, kāśādi-,and utkarādi-qq. vv.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṭhilf. Name of a Prakrit metre. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātmābhilāṣam. the soul's desire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bālakhilyaSee vāla-kh-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balātkārābhilāṣinmfn. wishing to use force, intending to violate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktābhilāṣam. equals ta-cchanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhil= bil- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhillam. Name of a wild mountain race, (prob.) the"Bheels"(who live in the vindhya- hills, in the forests of Malwa, Mewar, Kandesh, the Dakhin) etc. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhillam. a king of the bhilla-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhillam. the son of a śabara- and an andhrī- (who was previously married to a niṣṭhya-,) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhillam. a species of lodhra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhillabhūṣaṇāf. the seed of Abrus Precatorius View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhillagavīf. equals gavayī-, the female of the Bos Gavaeus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhillatarum. Symplocos Racemosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhilf. a bhilla- woman, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhilf. Symplocos Racemosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhilf. of bhilla-, in compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhillīcakreśvaram. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhillinm. Symplocos Racemosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhillīnātham. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhilloṭa m. a species of plant (prob. = bhilla-taru-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhilloṭakam. a species of plant (prob. = bhilla-taru-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhilman. a word used to explain bilma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhinddhilavaṇāf. (fr. 2. sg. imperative + l-) constant sprinkling of salt gaRa mayūra-vyaṃsakādi- (see paca-lavaṇā-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bodhilam. (fr. bodhi-) Name of a teacher
buddhilāghavan. lightness or levity of judgement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
buddhilakṣaṇan. a sign of intellect or wisdom, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
budhilamfn. wise, learned View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chilihiṇḍam. Name of a creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cicchilaSee 4. cit-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cirābhilaṣitamfn. long desired, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hil f. the city Delhi, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hillikā f. the city Delhi, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gardabhilam. Name of the father of vikramāditya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gardabhilam. plural Name of a dynasty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gardabhillam. equals bhila- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaubhilan. gobhila-'s gṛhya-sūtra- (varia lectio gobh-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaubhileyaSee gauphil-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaudhili plural patronymic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gauhileyafor gauphil- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gauphilaSee laka-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gauphilakam. patronymic gaRa śivādi- (; la-and gauhila- ; lika- varia lectio gaubhilika-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gauphileyamfn. fr. gophila- gaRa sakhy-ādi- (gaubhil- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaviṣṭhilafor -ṣṭhira- gaRa haritādi- ( and ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāviṣṭhila ( ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāviṣṭhilāyana ( ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghṛṣṭhilāf. Name of a plant akin to Hemionitis cordifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gobhilam. Name of the author of and of the gṛhya-sūtra- of the (said to have also composed a śrauta-sūtra- and a naigeya-sūtra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gobhilam. plural Name of a family (varia lectio go-bida-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gobhilīyamfn. relating to or proceeding from gobhila-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gohilam. gaRa sakhy-ādi- () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gohillam. Name of a man, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gokarṇaśithilamfn. "swinging like a cow-ear", trimming, between parties (as a witness) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gophila gaRa sakhy-ādi- (gobh- ; gop-and goh- vv.ll.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grahilamf(ā-)n. (gaRa kāśādi-) taking interest in, inclined to (in compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grahilamf(ā-)n. (equals grathika-) possessed by a demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
granthilamfn. knotted, knotty gaRa sidhmādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
granthilam. Name of several plants and roots (Flacourtia sapida, Capparis aphylla, Amaranthus polygonoides, Asteracantha longifolia, Cocculus cordifolius, hitāvalī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
granthilam. a kind of perfume View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
granthilan. equals nthīka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
granthilan. green or undried ginger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
granthilāf. Name of two kinds of dūrvā- grass and of a kind of Cyperus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
granthilībhūto become bulbous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grathilamfn. possessed by an evil spirit (see grahila-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guhilam. Name of a prince (descendant of bappa-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guhilan. (gaRa kāśādi-) equals hina- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇābhilāṣinmfn. equals ṇa-gṛdhnu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hailihilamfn. of a sportive or wanton nature View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
helihila mfn. of a sportive or wanton nature View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetuhilan. a particular high number View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hṛdayaśaithilyan. faintheartedness, depression View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaṅghilamfn. running swiftly, quick View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jarhilam. equals rtīla- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jehilam. Name of a Jain sūri- (successor of nāga-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhillarīf. idem or 'f. idem or 'f. idem or 'f. a cricket ' ' ' (?, or equals jhall-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhillif. idem or 'f. idem or 'f. idem or 'f. idem or 'f. a cricket ' ' ' (?, or equals jhall-) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhillif. a kind of musical instrument View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhillif. parchment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhilf. a cricket View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhilf. the wick of a lamp View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhilf. equals jhallikā- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhilf. rice burnt by cooking in a saucepan View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhilf. cymbals View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhilf. parchment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhillikam. plural varia lectio for jill- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhillikāf. a cricket
jhillikāf. a cricket's chirp View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhillikāf. a kind of vehicle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhillikāf. equals jhall- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhillikāf. equals jhiṇṭikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhillikāf. membrane, parchment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhillīkam. a cricket View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhillīkāf. idem or 'm. a cricket ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhillīkaf. equals jhallīkā- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhillīkaṇṭham. a domestic pigeon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jhillinName of a vṛṣṇi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jyeṣṭhilāf. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kamphilla vv.ll. for the above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kamphillam. varia lectio for kapphiṇa- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaphila vv.ll. for the above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapphilla vv.ll. for the above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṣphilam. Name of a bhikṣu- (kasphila- edition Calc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kasphilam. Name of a Buddhist bhikṣu- (varia lectio for kaṣphila-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṭhillam. Momordica Charantia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṭhillam. gravel (see kaṭhalya-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṭhillakam. Momordica Charantia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṭhillakam. Ocimum Sanctum (see kaṭhiñjara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṭhillakam. Boerhavia Diffusa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kauṣṭhilaetc. See mahā-k-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilam. (n. ) a piece of waste or uncultivated land situated between cultivated fields, desert, bare soil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khila according to to some also"pasture-land" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilan. "a space not filled up, gap", that which serves to fill up a gap, supplement (of a book etc.), additional hymn appended to the regular collection etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilan. a compendium, compilation (especially of hymns and prayers) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilan. plural remainder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilan. sg. (in algebra) an insolvable problem View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilan. obduracy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilan. equals vedhas- (brahmā- or viṣṇu- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilamfn. defective, insufficient View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilagrantham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilakāṇḍan. "supplementary section", Name of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilakṣetran. an uncultivated field View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilapāṭham. (opposed to sūtra-p-) a collective N. for , , and vArttika View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilīind. fr. la- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilībhūtamfn. (anything) that has become a desert, abandoned, unfrequented (by genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilībhūtamfn. frustrated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilīkṛ(ind.p. -kṛtya-), to make vain or powerless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilīkṛtamfn. turned into a desert, devastated, made impassable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilīkṛtamfn. made powerless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilyam. a piece of waste or uncultivated land situated between cultivated fields View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilyam. a piece of rock in the earth, mass, heap, lump View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilyam. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khilya (according to to some also"pasture-land"). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
koṣṭhilam. Name of a man (see kauṣṭh-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kucchilāf. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumbhilam. a thief who breaks into a house (often in PrakritkumbhI8laa etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumbhilam. a plagiarist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumbhilam. a wife's brother View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumbhilam. a child begotten at undue seasons or a child of an imperfect pregnation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumbhilam. a kind of fish (the gilthead, Ophiocephalus Wrahl) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumbhilaetc. See kumbh/a-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laghupicchilam. Cordia Myxa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
likhikhilla(?) m. a peacock View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokābhilāṣinm. Name of a buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokābhilaṣitamfn. world-desired, universally coveted, generally liked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokābhilaṣitam. Name of buddha- (wrong reading lāṣita-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokābhilāṣita(wrong reading for prec.) m. Name of a buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāhailihila View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahākauṣṭhila m. Name of a disciple of buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahākauṣṭhilyam. Name of a disciple of buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahilāf. (according to to fr.1. mah-) a woman, female (see mahelā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahilāf. a woman literally or figuratively intoxicated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahilāf. a particular fragrant drug (equals priyaṅgu- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahilāf. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahilāhvayāf. idem or 'f. equals priyaṅgu- (see above) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahilākhyāf. equals priyaṅgu- (see above) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahilāpādamfn. gaRa hasīy-ādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahilāropyan. Name of a city in the south (see mihil-).
maithilamf(ī-)n. relating or belonging to mithilā- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maithilam. a king of mithilā- (plural the people of mithilā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maithilakāyastham. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maithilapaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maithilasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maithilaśrīdattam. Name of two men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maithilavācaspati m. Name of two men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maithileyam. metron. fr. maithilī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maithilīf. See below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maithilīf. Name of sītā- (daughter of janaka-, king of maithilī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maithilikam. plural the inhabitants of mithilā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maithilīnāṭakan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maithilīpraiṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maithilīśaraṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māndhilavam. a large bat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
manobhilāṣam. the heart's desire or wish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medabhilla(?) m. Name of a degraded tribe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mihilāropyan. Name of a city in the south of India (see mahilāropya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mithilam. Name of a king (the founder of mithilā-) = mithi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mithilam. plural Name of a people (prob. the inhabitants of mithilā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mithilāf. Name of a city said to have been founded by mithi- or mithila- (it was the capital of videha- or the modern Tirhut, and residence of King janaka-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mithilāf. of a school of law View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mithilādhipatim. lord of mithilā- id est janaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mithileśam. (prob.) idem or 'm. lord of mithilā- id est janaka- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mithileśacaritan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mithileśāhnikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛcchilāmaya(for śil-) mf(ī-)n. made of clay and stone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nābhilamfn. gaRa sidhmādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nābhilakṣitamfn. unperceived, unseen (varia lectio an-abh-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nikhilamf(ā-)n. complete, all, whole, entire etc.
nikhilenaind. completely, totally (see a-kh-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nikumbhilamf. (fr. kumbha-?), a place where oblations are offered, (especially) a grove at the western gate of laṅkā- for the performance of sacrificial rites View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nikumbhilam. (according to others) an image of bhadra-kālī- on the west side of laṅkā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirabhilapyamfn. unutterable, inexpressible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirabhilāṣamfn. not desirous of. indifferent to (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirgatanikhilakalmaṣatāf. the state of being entirely freed from sin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nivartitākhilāhāramfn. one who has abstained from all food View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
oṣadhilokam. the world of plants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padābhilāṣinmfn. wishing for an office View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paicchilyan. (fr. picchila-) sliminess, mucilaginousness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañchīhilam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariśithilamfn. very loose or lax View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pathilam. a traveller View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchilamf(ā-)n. slimy, lubricous, slippery, smeary (opp. to viśada-) ( picchilatva -tva- n.), etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchilamf(ā-)n. having a tail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchilam. Cordia Latifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchilam. Tamarix Indica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchilāf. Name of a river (varia lectio picchalā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchilam. of several trees and other plants (Dalbergia Sissoo, Bombax Heptaphyllum, Basella Lucida or Rubra, a kind of grass etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchilabījan. the fruit of Dillenia Indica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchilacchadāf. Basella Cordifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchilakam. Grewia Elastica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchilasāram. the gum of Bombax Heptaphyllum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchilātantran. Name of a tantra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchilatvan. picchila
picchilatvacm. Grewia Elastica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchilatvacm. an orange tree or orange-peel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchilīkṛto make slippery or smeary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāptiśaithilyan. diminution of probability, slight probability View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśithilamf(ā-)n. very loose, relaxed, lax View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśithilamf(ā-)n. very feeble, hardly perceptible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśithilabhujagranthimfn. one who loosens the clasp of the arms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśithilīin compound for la-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśithilībhūtamfn. become loose or lax View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśithilīkṛtamfn. rendered very loose, greatly loosened View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyabhilekhyan. ( likh-) a counter document, a document brought forward by the opposing party View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṅkhilatīrthan. Name of a place of pilgrimage (= rāma-t-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrṇābhilāṣamfn. one whose wishes are fulfilled, satisfied, contented View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hilam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājamahilaName of a town View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛddhilam. Name of a man () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛddhilakṣmīf. Name (also title or epithet) of a Nepal queen, (dhy-) - abkisaṃskāra-, m. a phantom produced by magical art, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rebhila m. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rebhilakam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sābhilāṣamf(ā-)n. having a desire or longing for (locative case accusative with prati-,or compound; sābhilāṣam am- ind.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sābhilāṣamind. sābhilāṣa
hilam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saindhavakhilya m. a lump of salt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaithilikamfn. (fr. śithila-) loose, lax, slack, idle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaithilyan. looseness, laxity etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaithilyan. flaccidity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaithilyan. decrease, diminution, smallness, weakness, relaxation, remission, depression (of the mind), unsteadiness, vacancy (of gaze) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaithilyan. negligence in (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaithilyan. relaxation of rule or connection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaithilyan. dilatoriness, inattention View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākhilam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sakhilamfn. (for sakh-See) with the supplements View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sakhilamfn. (for sa-khila-See) friendly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sākhilyan. (fr. sakhila-) friendship, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śakrābhilagnaratnan. a particular gem View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samabhilaṣP. -laṣati-, to long for, be eager for View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samaṣṭhilam. (see 3. aṣṭi-, aṣṭhi-etc.) a kind of shrub View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samaṣṭhilāf. (also ṭhīlā-) a kind of culinary herb or cucumber View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdhilāf. (only ) a breach or hole made in a wall View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdhilāf. a chasm, mine, pit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdhilāf. spirituous liquor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdhilāf. equals nāndī- equals dvādaśa-tūrya-nirghoṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdhilāf. equals nadī-, a river (wrong reading for nāndī-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samṛddhivṛddhilābham. acquisition of increase of prosperity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
savālakhilyamfn. together with the vālakhilya- hymns View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhilābham. acquirement of success or perfection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siṃhilam. endearing forms of siṃha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilamf(ā-)n. (collateral form of prec.) loose, slack, lax, relaxed, untied, flaccid, not rigid or compact etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilamf(ā-)n. soft, pliant, supple View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilamf(ā-)n. unsteady, tremulous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilamf(ā-)n. languid, inert, unenergetic, weak, feeble etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilamf(ā-)n. careless in (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilamf(ā-)n. indistinct (as sound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilamf(ā-)n. not rigidly observed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilamf(ā-)n. loosely retained or possessed, abandoned, shaken off View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilan. a loose fastening, looseness, laxity, slowness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilan. a particular separation of the terms or members of a logical series View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilabalamfn. relaxed in strength, weakened, relaxed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilamind. loosely, not firmly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilambhāvaSee /a-ś-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilapīḍitamfn. loosely pressed or compressed ( śithilapīḍitatā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilapīḍitatāf. śithilapīḍita
śithilaprayatnamfn. one whose efforts are relaxed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilaśaktimfn. impaired in strength or power View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilasamādhimfn. having the attention drawn off or relaxed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilatvan. looseness, laxity, relaxation, want of energy or care, indifference, languor (-tāṃ-gam-or vraj-,"to undergo indifference", be neglected) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilavasumfn. having diminished wealth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilavasumfn. shining with diminished rays View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilayaNom. P. yati-, to loosen, make loose, relax ; A1. yate-, to neglect, let pass (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilāyaNom. A1. yate-, to become relaxed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilīf. a kind of tawny-coloured ant (said to be a variety of the white ant) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilīin compound for śithila-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilībhūP. -bhavati-, to become loosened or slackened, be relaxed, slacken ; to desist from (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilībhūtamfn. loosened, relaxed, slackened, languid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilīkaraṇan. the act of loosening, relaxing, impairing, weakening View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilīkṛP. A1. -karoti-, -kurute-, to make loose, loosen, relax, slacken, weaken, impair, remit, abandon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilīkṛtamfn. made loose, loosened, relaxed etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilīśāntif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilitamfn. loosed, loosened, slackened, relaxed, dissolved, made soft View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilitajyamfn. (a bow) whose string has been relaxed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilitamṛṇālamfn. (an armlet formed) of lotus-fibres hanging loose View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
skandhilam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtiśaithilyan. weakness or loss of memory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodadhilamfn. consisting of four (udadhi-= "the ocean"and"the number 4") short syllables (la-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrāddhakalpabhāṣyagobhilīyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuddhilocanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukhābhilāṣam. desire of pleasure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sunikhilamind. very completely View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suśithilamfn. very loose, much slackened or lessened View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suśithilīkṛtamfn. idem or 'mfn. very loose, much slackened or lessened' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ucchilīndhra(ud-śi-) mfn. covered with sprouting mushrooms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upakhilan. a sub-supplement, supplement to a supplement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparataviṣayābhilāṣamfn. one whose desire after worldly things has ceased. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utkhilī f. Name (also title or epithet) of a goddess, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaidyanāthamaithilam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vālakhilyan. (also written bāl-,of doubtful derivation) Name of a collection of 11 (according to to some only 6 or 8) hymns of the ṛg-- veda- (commonly inserted after viii, 48, but numbered separately as a supplement by some editors;they are also called vālakhilyāḥ-,with or scilicet mantrāḥ-,or ṛcaḥ-,and daśatī vālakhilyakā-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vālakhilyan. (ly/a-) plural Name of a class of ṛṣi-s of the size of a thumb (sixty thousand were produced from brahmā-'s body and surround the chariot of the sun) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vālakhilf. Name of a particular kind of brick View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vālakhilyagrantham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vālakhilyasaṃhitāf. the collection of the vālakhilya- hymns, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vālakhilyaśastran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vālakhilyāśramam. Name of a hermitage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vālakhilyeśvaratīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vālikhillam. Name of a son of draviḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vālikhilya wrong reading for vālakh-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vanābhilāvamfn. forest-destroying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidhilopam. transgression of a commandment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidhilopakamfn. transgressing commandment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyākaramiśramaithilam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśākhilam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśākhilam. of a merchant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣayābhilāṣam. the enjoyment of sensual pleasures View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvajijjicchilpam. (for jit-+ śilpa-) Name of an ekāha-
viśvambharamaithilopādhyāyam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vrīhilamfn. equals vrīhika- gaRa tundādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yathābhilaṣita(thābh-) mfn. as desired View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yathābhilikhita(thābh-) mfn. painted or written in the manner stated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
Apte Search
73 results
hil हिल् 6 P. (हिलति) To sport amorously, wanton, dally, express amorous desire.
hilihila हिलिहिल a. Sporting, dallying. हिलमोचिः hilamōciḥ मोचिका mōcikā मोची mōcī हिलमोचिः मोचिका मोची Enhydra Hingcha (Mar. चाकवत).
hillaḥ हिल्लः A kind of aquatic bird.
hillolaḥ हिल्लोलः 1 A wave, billow. -2 The musical mode called Hindola. -3 A caprice, whim. -4 A kind of coitus.
hilvalāḥ हिल्वलाः f. pl. N. of five small stars in the head of the lunar mansion called मृगशिरस्.
akhila अखिल a. [नास्ति खिलं अवशिष्टं यस्य Tv.] 1 Whole, entire, complete; oft. with सर्व. एतद्धि मत्तो$धिजगे सर्वमेषो$खिलं मुनिः Ms.1.59; ˚लेन entirely. -2 Not uncultivated or fallow, ploughed (land); ˚आत्मन् the universal spirit.
akhilikā अखिलिका (वनस्पतिवि.) Momordaica Charantia (Mar. कारली.)
aṭhil अठिल्ला N. of a Prākṛit metre.
anabhilakṣitaḥ अनभिलक्षितः An impostor.
anabhilāṣa अनभिलाष a. Free from desire. -षः 1 Want of appetite or desire. -2 Non-relish.
apicchila अपिच्छिल a. 1 Not muddy, clear, free from sedi- ment. -2 Deep.
abhilakṣita अभिलक्षित a. 1 Marked with signs, bearing marks; मुमोच परमेष्वासः षट् शरानभिलक्षितान् Rām.3.28.26. -2 Selected; दक्षिणां प्रेषयामास वानरानभिलक्षितान् Rām.4.41.1.
abhilakṣya अभिलक्ष्य a. To be marked or noted. हरिस्तस्याभिलक्ष्यस्य मोक्षयंल्लक्ष्यसंग्रहम् Rām.5.48.3. -क्ष्यम् ind. Towards a mark or aim.
abhilaṅgh अभिलङ्घ् 1, 1 P. 1 To jump across or over; (अग्निं) न चैनमभिलङ्घयेत् Ms.4.54; Y.1.137. -2 To attack, rush upon or over, fly at; तत्रभवत्या वदनमभिलङ्घति मधुकरः Ś.6. -3 To violate, transgress; to offend, injure.
abhilaṅghanam अभिलङ्घनम् Jumping across or over, flying at.
abhilap अभिलप् 1 P. To talk to or address; अभिलपतश्च द्वार- निहितलोचनौ Mk.2.
abhilāpaḥ अभिलापः 1 Expression, word, speech; अनवसितार्थ- पदाकुलो$भिलापः Ki.1.61. -2 Declaration, mention, specification; न च स्मार्तमतद्धर्माभिलापात् Br. Sūt.1.2.19. -3 Declaration of the object of a vow or religious obligation.
abhilambhanam अभिलम्भनम् Acquisition; शशंस पित्रे तत्सर्वं वयोरूपाभि- लम्भनम् Bhāg.9.3.23.
abhilaṣ अभिलष् 1, 4 P. To desire or wish for, long for, covet, crave or yearn after; तेन दत्तमभिलेषुरङ्गनाः R.19. 12; मानुषानभिलष्यन्ती Bk.4.22.
abhilaṣaṇam अभिलषणम् Desiring, longing.
abhilaṣita अभिलषित p. p. Desired, wished, longed for. -तम् Desire, wish, will, pleasure; यथाभिलषितं अनुष्ठीयताम् Pt.1.
abhilāṣaḥ अभिलाषः (˚सः sometimes) A desire, wish, longing for, craving after; affection, longing of a lover, love, (usually with loc. of the object of desire); अतो$भिलाषे प्रथमं तथाविधे मनो बबन्ध R.3.4; भव हृदय साभिलाषम् Śi.27; Me.112. साभिलाषं निर्वर्ण्य Ś.3 casting a coveting or wistful look; न खलु सत्यमेव शकुन्तलायां ममाभिलाषः Ś.2, Pt.5. 67; sometimes with प्रति and acc., or in comp. अभिलाषक, -लाषि (सि) न्, -लाषुक a. Wishing or desiring for (with acc., loc. or in comp.); desirous, covetous, greedy of; यदार्यमस्यामभिलाषि मे मनः Ś.1.22. जलाभिलाषी जलमाददानाम् R.2.6;3.36; Me.8; जयमत्र- भवान् नूनमरातिष्वभिलाषुकः Ki.11.18; Śi.15.59.
abhilāvaḥ अभिलावः [लू-घञ् निरभ्योः पूल्वोः P.III.3.28] Cutting, reaping, mowing. वनाभिलावान् कुर्वन्तः स्वेच्छया चारुविक्रमाः Bk.7.37.
abhilikhita अभिलिखित a. Written, inscribed. -तम्, अभिलेखि- तम्, -नम् 1 Writing, inscribing. -2 A writing; ज्ञातिबन्धु- साक्ष्यभिलेखितैः Y.2.149. A written document.
abhilī अभिली 4. A. To enter into, lurk or lie hid into. कपिलाशवस्य क्रोडमभ्यलीयत Dk.6.
abhilīna अभिलीन a. 1 Adhering or clinging to, attached to; तिरश्चकार भ्रमराभिलीनयोः सुजातयोः पङ्कजकोशयोः श्रियम् R.3.8. -2 Embracing, shrouding; पश्चादुच्चैर्भुजतरुवनं मण्डलेनाभिलीनः Me.38.
abhilulita अभिलुलित a. 1 Agitated, disturbed. -2 Playful, unsteady.
abhilūtā अभिलूता f. A sort of spider.
ucchilīndhra उच्छिलीन्ध्र a. Full of mushrooms (shot up); कर्तुं यच्च प्रभवति महीमुच्छिलीन्ध्रामवन्ध्याम् Me.11. -न्ध्रम् A mushroom; उच्छिलीन्ध्रकृतच्छाया नृणां श्रीरिव भूरभूत् Bhāg. 1.2.11.
upakhilam उपखिलम् Supplement to a supplement, subsupplement.
kaṭhillaḥ कठिल्लः The Balsam apple (Mar. कारलें).
kumbhilaḥ कुम्भिलः 1 A thief who breaks into a house. -2 A plagiarist. -3 A wife's brother. -4 A child of an imperfect impregnation or born at undue seasons.
khilaḥ खिलः लम् [खिल्-क] 1 A piece of waste or uncultivated land, desert or bare soil; a desert, waste; खिले गा विष्ठिता इव Av.7.115.4. -2 A gap, vacant place. -3 An additional hymn appended to the regular collection; Ms.3.232. -4 A supplement in general. -5 A compendium, compilation. -6 Vacuity. -7 Remainder; अलं दग्धैर्द्रुमैर्दीनैः खिलानां शिवमस्तु नः Bhāg.6.4.15. -लः N. of Brahmā and of Viṣṇu. [खिल is often used in combination with भू and कृ; (1) खिलीभू (a) to become impassable, to be blocked up, be left unfrequented; खिलीभूते विमानानां तदापातभयात्पथि Ku.2.45. (b) to be impossible, be rendered impracticable or stopped; प्रजागरात्खिलीभूतस्तस्याः स्वप्नसमागमः Ś.6.22. (2) खिलीकृ means (a) to obstruct, impede, make impassable, block up; तौ सुकेतसुतया खिली- कृते R.11.14,87. (b) to lay waste, devastate, put down or vanquish completely; विपक्षमखिलीकृत्य प्रतिष्ठा खलु दुर्लभा Śi.2.34.]
khilyaḥ खिल्यः Ved. 1 A desert; उत खिल्या उर्बराणां भवन्ति Rv.1.142.3. -2 A piece of rock in the earth; अभिन्ने खिल्ये नि दधाति देवयुम् Rv.6.28.2.
guhilam गुहिलम् Wealth, property.
granthila ग्रन्थिल a. [ग्रन्थिर्विद्यते$स्य सिध्मा˚लच्] Knotted, knotty. -लम् 1 The root of long pepper. -2 Undried ginger.
grahila ग्रहिल a. 1 Taking, accepting. -2 Unyielding, relentless, obstinate; न निशाखिलयापि वापिका प्रससाद ग्रहिलेव मानिनी N.2.77.
cicchilāḥ चिच्छिलाः m. (pl.) N. of a country and its people.
jaṅghila जङ्घिल a. [जङ्घा-इलच्] Running swiftly, rapid, quick.
jarhilaḥ जर्हिलः = जर्तिल q. v.
jhilliḥ झिल्लिः f. 1 A cricket. -2 A kind of musical instrument. -3 Parchment. -Comp. -कण्ठः a domestic pigeon.
jhillikaḥ झिल्लिकः N. of a tribe (see जिल्लिक).
jhillikā झिल्लिका 1 A cricket. -2 The sound or cry of a cricket. -3 The light of sunshine. -4 Light, splendour. -5 The dirt which comes from the body in rubbing it with perfumes. -6 A cloth used for applying colour &c.
jhillin झिल्लिन् m. N. of a Vṛiṣṇi.
jhil झिल्ली A cricket; लूतातन्तुवितानसंवृतमुखी झिल्ली चिरं रोदिति Sūkti.5.19. -2 A kind of musical instrument, cymbal. -3 A parchment. -4 The wick of a lamp. -5 A cloth for applying unguents, colours &c. -6 Sunshine. -7 Light, lustre. -8 Rice burnt by cooking in a saucepan &c.
jhilli झिल्लि (ल्ली) कः A cricket; झिल्लीकगणनादितम् Mb.4. 7.5; यत्र निर्झरनिर्ह्रादनिवृत्तस्वनझिल्लिकम् Bhāg.1.18.1. -का 1 A cricket. -2 Sunshine. -3 Dirt which comes from the body in rubbing it with perfumes.
duhilitikā दुहिलितिका A hairy variety of skins of animals; Kau. A.2.11.
nābhila नाभिल a. [नाभिरस्त्यस्य सिध्मा˚ लच्] Relating to or coming from a navel.
nikumbhilā निकुम्भिला 1 A cave or grove at the western gate of Laṅkā. -2 An image of Bhadrakālī on the west side of Laṅkā. -3 A place where oblations are offered; ध्रुवं स मोहयित्वा$स्मान् पापो$गच्छन्निकुम्भिलाम् Bk.17.25.
nikhila निखिल a. [निवृत्तं खिलं शेषो यस्मात्] Complete, whole, entire, all; प्रत्यक्षं ते निखिलमचिराद् भ्रातरुक्तं मया यत् Me.96; सूर्यांशुभिर्जगदिदं निखिलार्थमेति Bil. Ch.29. -लेन ind. completely, totally; निखिलेन विचिन्वन्तौ सीतां दशरथात्मजौ Rām. 3.61.2.
pathilaḥ पथिलः A traveller, way-farer; Uṇ.1.58.
picchila पिच्छिल a. [पिच्छ् बा˚ इल] 1 Slimy, lubricous, slippery, smeary; Mb.12.184.34; तरुणं सर्षपशाकं नवौदनं पिच्छिलानि च दधीनि Chand. M.1. -2 Having a tail. -लः, -ला, -लम् 1 The scum of boiled rice (भक्तमण्ड). -2 Sauce mixed with rice-gruel. -3 Curds with cream on the surface. -4 Broth, soup. -5 Moist split pulse. -Comp. -त्वच् m. the orange tree or its peel.
paicchilyam पैच्छिल्यम् Sliminess, mucilaginousness; Suśr.
pracchila प्रच्छिल a. Dry, waterless.
pratyabhilekhyam प्रत्यभिलेख्यम् A counter-document.
praśithila प्रशिथिल a. 1 Very loose; प्रशिथिलमृणालैकवलयम् Ś.3.9. -2 Very feeble, hardly perceptible.
budhila बुधिल a. Learned, wise.
bhillaḥ भिल्लः N. of a wild tribe (who lives in the Vindhya hills, in the forests of Mālawa, Mewar, Khandesha and the Deccan); मलये भिल्लपुरन्ध्री चन्दनतरुकाष्ठमिन्धनं कुरुते Subhāṣ. -ल्ली 1 The lodhra tree. -2 A woman of the Bhil tribe; भिल्ली पल्लवशङ्कया वितनुते सान्दुद्रुम ... Udb. -Comp. -गवी the female of the Bos gavœus. -तरुः the lodhra tree -भूषणम् the guṅjā plant.
bhilloṭaḥ भिल्लोटः टकः The lodhra tree.
mahilā महिला [मह्-इलच् Uṇ.1.54] 1 A woman; तवैतद्वक्षोज- द्वितयमरविन्दाक्षमहिले Lakṣmīlaharī S.22. -2 An amorous or intoxicated woman; विरहेण विकलहृदया निर्जलमीनायते महिला Bv.2.68. -3 The creeper called Priyaṅgu. -4 A kind of perfume of fragrant plant (रेणुका). -Comp. -आह्वया the Priyaṅgu creeper; कान्ता लता महिलाङ्वया.
mahilāropyam महिलारोप्यम् N. of a city in the south.
mithilaḥ मिथिलः N. of a king. -लाः (pl.) N. of a people. -ला [मथ्यन्ते$त्र रिपवः इति मिथिला Uṇ.1.57] N. of a city, capital of the country called Videha, q. v.; मिथिला वदत्ययोध्यां त्वं स्त्री परपुरुषानुरक्तासि Udb.
maithilaḥ मैथिलः [मिथिलायां भवः अण्] A king of Mithilā; उत्पन्ना मैथिलकुले जनकस्य महात्मनः Rām.7.17.37; R.11.32,48. -लाः (pl.) The people of Mithilā q.v. -ली N. of Sītā; स जहार तयोर्मध्ये मैथिलीं लोकशोषणः R.12.29.
vālakhilyaḥ वालखिल्यः 1 See बालखिल्य; Rām.3.6.2. -ल्यम् N. of a collection of 11 hymns of the ऋग्वेद.
śithila शिथिल a. [श्लथ्-किलच् पृषो˚ Uṇ.1.53.] 1 Loose, loosened, slackened, relaxed. -2 Untied, unfastened; विश्रामं लभतामिदं च शिथिल़ज्याबन्धमस्मद्धनुः Ś.2.6. -2 Severed, fallen from the stalk; अर्कस्योपरि शिथिलं च्युतमिव नवमल्लिका- कुसुमम् Ś.2.8. -3 Languid, enfeebled, unnerved. -4 Weak, feeble; अशिथिलपरिरम्भ U.1.24 'fast or close embrace'; 1.27. -5 Flaccid, flabby. -6 Dissolved. -7 Decayed. -8 Ineffective, futile, vain. -9 Inattentive, careless; सुभक्ष्याणि विचित्राणि शिथिलाश्चैव योषितः Pt.4.116. -1 Loosely done, not strictly or rigidly performed. -11 Cast off, abandoned. -12 Indistinct (as sound). -लम् 1 Laxity, looseness. -2 Slowness. (शिथिलीकृ means 1 to loosen, unfasten, untie. -2 To relax, slacken; (शिथिलीकृते$धिकृतकृत्यविधौ Ki.6.3. -3 to weaken, impair, enfeeble. -4 to give up, abandon; आत्मन्यवज्ञां शिथिलीचकार R.2.41. शिथिलीभू 1 to be slackened or relaxed. -2 to fall off from; एतत् तु मां दहति नष्टधनाश्रयस्य यत् सौहृदादपि जनाः शिथिलीभवन्ति Mk.1.13).
śithilayati शिथिलयति Den. P. 1 To relax, slacken, loosen; शिथि- लितमानग्रहणो वाति दक्षिणपवनः Ratn.1.14. -2 To give up, abandon; शिथिलय क्षणमात्रं बाष्पमोक्षम् Ve.5. -3 To lessen, allow to cool down; न सा इतोगतमनुरागं शिथिलयति V.2.
śithilāyate शिथिलायते Den. Ā. To become loose or flaccid; गात्राणि शिथिलायन्ते Bh.3.14.
śithilita शिथिलित a. 1 Loosed. -2 Relaxed, loosened. -3 Dissolved.
śaithilika शैथिलिक a. Loose, lax, idle.
śaithilyamm शैथिल्यम्म् [शिथिलस्य भावः ष्यञ्] 1 Looseness, laxity, relaxation of rule &c. -2 Slackness. -3 Dilatoriness, inattention. -4 Weakness; cowardice. -5 Unsteadiness. -6 Vacancy (of gaze). -7 Negligence.
saṃdhilā संधिला 1 A hole or breach made in a wall, pit, chasm. -2 A river. -3 Spirituous liquor. -4 Loud orchestral sound of a band of musicians; L. D. B.
samaṣṭhilaḥ समष्ठिलः A kind of cucumber (Mar. कडू सुरण).
sākhilyam साखिल्यम् Friendship.
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toka tok-á, m. offspring, children, ii. 33, 14; vii. 63, 6.
mad mad rejoice, I. máda, in (lc.), i. 85, 1; 154, 5; in (inst.), 154, 4; x. 14, 3. 7; with (inst.), x. 14, 10; be exhilarated, viii. 29, 7; drink with exhilaration, vii. 49, 4; cs. mādaya, Ā. rejoice, x. 15, 14; in(inst.), x. 14, 14; (gen.), i. 85, 6; with (inst.), x. 14, 5; gladden, x. 34, 1 [Gk. μαδάω, Lat. madeō‘drip’].
mand mand exhilarate, I. mánda: is ao. Ā. ámandiṣātām, vii. 103, 4. úd- gladden, pf. mamanda, ii. 33, 6 [= mad rejoice].
mandra mand-rá, a. gladdening, v. 11, 3 [mand exhilarate].
śiśu śíśu, m. child, ii. 33, 13 [śū swell, cp. Gk. κυέω].
hīḍ hīḍ be angry, I. héḍa: pf. jihīḷa, x. 34, 2.
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aṅgaja a. produced in, on or from the body, bodily; -gâta, m. son: pl. children.
advaya a. not of two kinds, single: -tva, n. unity; -½ânanda, m. N. of a philosopher (whose joy is unity).
adri m. [not splitting], rock, hill, mountain-range; stone (as missile); pressing stone; cloud; -grahana, n. reverberation; -dugdha, pp. milked, i. e. pressed out, with stones; -pati, m. Himâlaya: -kanyâ, f.Pâr vatî; -budhna, a. founded on rock; -bhed ana, n. cleaving of rocks.
anapatya a. childless; n. -ness; -tâ, f. childlessness.
antarāla n. interval: lc. on the way, meanwhile; intermediate caste; -bhû, f. space between (g.).
anusara a. (î) following; conform ing to: -na, n. following, pursuing; -sânu, ad. on the ridge of the hills; -sâra, m. follow ing, pursuing; conformity; (legal) precedent: -tas, in. according to (--°ree;); -sârin, a. following, attendant on; seeking out; aiming at; conform ing to; adhering to; -sevâ, f. service, attend ance; -sevin, a. addicted to, practising (--°ree;).
antara a. intimate; inner; other; n. interior; interval, distance; entrance; time, while; opportunity, weak point; difference, species, peculiarity; surety; --°ree;=other, dif ferent, special, peculiar: -m,ad. inwards, within; further; into the midst of (g., --°ree;); in. between, within, during, after (ac., --°ree;); with out, except; on account of, with regard to (ac., g.); ab. out of, after (--°ree;); lc. (also pl.) in, within; meanwhile, on the way; during, after (--°ree;); between, among (g., --°ree;); (e)tasmin --, (t)atra --, meanwhile.
antaryāma m. Soma draught while suppressing the breath; -yâmín, m. the inner guide; -laggâ, f. inward shame; -lâpikâ, f. riddle containing its own solution; -lîna, pp. √ lî.
apatya n. offspring, progeny, child; -duhkha½eka-maya, a. consisting solely of grief for children; -vat, a. possessed of off spring; -sneha-kripâ-maya, a. filled with love and pity for children.
apadravya n. bad ware; -dh&asharp;, f. hiding-place; -dhûma, a. smokeless: -tva, n. -ness; -dhyâna, n. disfavour, malice; -dhvam sá, m. degradation: -ga, m. child of a mixed marriage; -dhvasta,pp. degraded.
apasada m. outcast; worst among (--°ree;): pl. children of mixed marriages (in which the father is lower); -sarana, n. going away, retreat; -sarpa, m. spy; -savya, a. not left, right: -m kri, turn the right side towards (ac., lc.); hang the sacred thread on the right shoulder: -vat, a. in which the sa cred cord is on the right shoulder; -sâra, m. exit, outlet, egress: -na, n. removing, dismiss ing, banishing; -sâri-tâ, f. issue, end; -sârin, a. decreasing, diminishing.
apraja a. childless; f. â, not bear ing; -gagñi, a. ignorant; unfertile; -gana, a. not begetting: -tva, n. abst. n.; -gas, a. child less; -gás-tâ, f., -gasyá, n. childlessness.
abāliśa n. not childish, not silly.
amara a. (â, î) immortal; m. god; -garbha, m. divine child; -guru, m. Brihas pati, the planet Jupiter; -tatinî, f. river of the gods, Ganges; -taru, m. a certain tree; -tâ, f., -tva, n. divinity; immortality; -dat ta, m. N.; -druma, m. tree of the gods, Pârigâta; -dvish, m. Asura; -paksha-pâtin, m. friend of the gods; -pati-kumâra, m. son of Indra (Gayanta); -parvata, m. N. of a mtn.; -pura, n., î, f. city of the gods; -prakhya,a. like an immortal; -prabha, a. bright as an im mortal; -prârthita, pp. wooed by immortals; -mrigî-dris, f. A psaras.
ambaṣṭha m. (â, î) child of a Brâh man and a woman of the third caste: pl. N. of a people.
alīka a. disagreeable; false; n. dis agreeable thing; untruthfulness, falsehood; forehead; -nimîlana, n. feigned closing of the eyes; -pandita, m. philosophaster; -man trin, m. dishonest minister; -vâda-sîla, a. lying; -supta, -ka, n. feigned sleep.
avilīna pp. not annihilated: with bhû, remain alive.
avīra a. unmanly: â, f. woman without husband and children.
aśeṣaya den. P. end entirely: pp. annihilated.
ākrīḍa m. n. play-ground, grove, garden; -giri, -parvata, m. pleasure-hill.
āsīna pr. pt. (√ âs) sitting: -pra- kalâyita, n. nodding with sleep while sitting.
ucchikhaṇḍa a. with tail out spread; -khitti, f. destruction, extermina tion; -khinna, pp. (√ khid) cut off; m. (sc. sandhi) peace bought by ceding fertile terri tory; -khiras, a. holding the head high; -khilîmdhra, n. luxuriant mushroom; a. covered with mushrooms.
upanyāsa a. procuring; m. ad junction; procurement; incidental mention, intimation; statement, declaration; discus sion; kind of alliance or peace: -m, ad. while alleging (--°ree;).
uroja m. female breast; -vidâram, abs. while his breast was lacerated.
ekākin a. alone, solitary: (i)-kesarin, m. N. of a Bhilla.
kārikā f. activity; torment; memo rial verse explaining obscure grammatical rules or philosophical doctrines.
kīṭotkara m. ant-hill.
kuṭila a. bent, curved; crooked, winding; curly; going crooked ways, deceit ful; adverse: -ka, a. winding; curly; -kesa, a. (î) curly-haired; -gati, a. going crookedly or stealthily; f. a metre; -gâ, f. river:-½îsa, m. lord of rivers, ocean; -gâman, a. winding; capricious; -tâ, f. curliness; deceitfulness; -tva, n. id.; deviation from (--°ree;); -mati, a. crooked-minded, deceitful; -manas, a. id.
kumārikā f. girl; N. of a part of Bhâratavarsha; -ín, a. possessed of children.
kumāra m. [dying easily], (new born) child; boy; youth, son; prince; ep. of Skanda; (a)-ká, m. little boy, boy, youth; --°ree;, a young --; -tva, n. boyhood, youth; sonship; -datta, m. N.; (á)-deshna, a.giving but fleet ing gifts; -dhârâ, f. N. of a river; -bhukti, f. apanage of a crown prince; -bhrityâ, f. fostering of a child; midwifery; -vana, n. Kumâra's grove; -vikrama, a. valiant as the god of war; -vrata, n. vow of chastity; -sambhava, m. birth of the war-god: T. of a poem by Kâlidâsa; -sena, m. N. of a minister; -sevaka, m. prince's servant.
kulatantu m. thread on which a family hangs=the last of a race; -deva, m.: -tâ, f. family deity; -daiva: -ta, n. id.; -dha ra, m. N. of a prince; -dharma, m. usage of a family; -dhurya, a. able to bear the burden of a family; m. head of a family; -nandana, a. n. (child) delighting the family; -nârî, f. virtuous woman; -nimnagâ, f. main or noble stream.
kūla n. slope, hill; bank.
koṭādri m. N. of a mountain (for tress-hill).
kaumāra a. (î) relating to a youth or virgin; youthful; relating to Kumâra (god of war); n. childhood, youth; innocence of youth, virginity; -kârin, a. practising chas tity; -vrata, n. vow of chastity:-kârin, a. practising a vow of chastity.
krīḍā f. play, sport, jest, dalliance: -kapi-tva, n. jesting imitation of a monkey; -kânana, n. pleasure-grove; -kâsâra, m. plea sure-pond; -kopa, n. simulated anger; -kau tuka, n. wanton curiosity; -kausala, n. art of jesting; -gríha, m. n. pleasure-house; -par vata, m. (artificial) pleasure-hill: -ka, m. id.; -mayûra, m. pet peacock; -markata pota, m. pet young monkey; -mahîdhra, m. pleasure-hill; -rasa, m.enjoyment of sport or fun: -maya, a. consisting in the water of play; -vesman, n. pleasure-house; -sakun ta, m. pet bird; -saila, m. pleasure-hill; -saras, n. pleasure-lake.
kṣaṇāntara n. space of a moment, little while: lc. after a while, thereupon.
kṣīrakuṇḍa n. milk-pot; -ksha ya, m. failure of milk (in the udder); -dhi, m. ocean of milk; -nidhi, m. id.; -nîra, n. milk and water (°ree;--); -pa, a. drinking only milk; m. suckling, infant, child; -bhrita, pp. paid with milk; -maya, a. representing milk; -mahâr- nava, m. ocean of milk; (á)-vat, a. full of milk; -vâridhi, m. ocean of milk; -vriksha, m. tree with milky juice, the common name of the Nyagrodha, Udumbara, Asvattha, and Madhûka; -shâshtika, n. sixty days' rice with milk; -samudra, -sâgara, m. ocean of milk; -snigdha, pp. moist with milky juice; -svâmin, m. N. of a grammarian.
garbha m. womb; interior (--°ree; a. con taining -within); foetus, embryo; new-born child; child; offspring, brood (of birds); con ception; sprout: *-ka, m. wreath of flowers interwoven with the hair; -kâma, a. desirous of the fruit of the womb; -kâra, n. N. of a Sastra (producing fertility); -kâla, m. time of pregnancy; -gata, pp. lying in the womb; -griha, -geha, n. inner apartment, bed chamber; inner sanctuarycontaining the image of the deity; -graha, m., -grahana, n. conception; -kyuti, f. birth; -tâ, f., -tva, n. pregnancy; -dâsa, m. (î, f.) slave by birth (Pr.); -dvâdasa, m. pl. twelfth year after conception; -dharâ, a. f. pregnant;-dhâr ana, n. pregnancy; -purodâsa, m. cake offered during the pregnancy of a female animal; -bhartri-druh, a. injuring the foetus and the husband; -bharman, n. nurture of the foetus; -bhavana, n. inner sanctuary con taining the image of the deity; -bhâra, m. burden of the womb: -m dhri, become preg nant; -mandapa, m. inner apartment, bed chamber; -mâsa, m. month of pregnancy; -rûpaka, m. young man; -lakshana, n. sign of pregnancy; -vatî, a. f. pregnant; -vasati, f., -vâsa, m. womb; -vesman, n. inner chamber; lying-in room; -sâtana, n. causing of abortion; -samsravana, n. miscarriage; -samkarita, m. one of mixed extraction; -sambhava,m. conception; -sambhûti, f. id.; -stha, a. being in the womb; -sthâna, n. womb; -srâva, m. miscarriage.
girikuhara n. mountain cave; -kshít, a. dwelling on mountains; -kakra vartin, m. prince of mountains, the Himâ laya; -kará, a. mountain-roaming; m. wild elephant; -ga, a. mountain-born: â, f.daughter of the mountain, ep. of Pârvatî; -nadî, f. mountain stream; -trá, a. moun tain-ruling, ep. of Siva; -durga, a. inac cessible owing to mountains; n. hill-fort; -dhâtu, m. pl. mountain ores; -nadikâ, f. mountain brook; -nadî, f.=giri-nadî; -pati, m. king of mountains, lofty mountain; -pri shtha, n. mountain ridge; -prapâta, m. preci pice; -prastha, m. mountain plain, plateau; -bhid, a. mountain-piercing; -râg, m. king of mountains, lofty mountain; -vâsin, a. dwelling in the mountains; -sá, a. dwelling in the mountains, ep. of Siva; -shad, a. sit ting on mountains (Rudra); -shth&asharp;, a.= giri-vâsin; -sutâ, f. daughter of the moun tain,ep. of Pârvatî.
guṇākara m. mine of virtues; -½aguna, m. pl. virtues and faults; -½âdhya, m. N. of a poet; -½antara, n. another quality: -m vrag=attain superior excellence: -½âdhâ na, n. contributing something on one's own part=caring for (g.); -½anvita, pp. endowed with good qualities; auspicious (constellation); -½abhilâshin, a. desirous of virtues.
gotama m. N. of a Rishi (pl. his descendants); the biggest ox; N. of the founder of the Nyâya system of philosophy.
grahoktha n. hymn recited while drawing Soma.
cārvāka m. N. of a materialistic and heterodox philosopher; materialist.
citraka m. small hunting leopard (Cheeta); n. mark (--°ree;, a. characterised by); picture, painting; -kara, m. painter (a mixed caste); -karman, n. painting; picture; adornment (Pr.); -kûta, m. hill of pleasure; (Bright-peak), N. of a mountain (in Bun delkund, now Kitrakote); N. of a town; -krit, m. painter; -kritya, n. painting; -ga, a., -gata, pp. (belonging to a picture), painted; -gupta, m. N. of a recorder of human actions in Yama's realm; -griha, n. apartment adorned with pictures; -grâvan, a. stony; -grîva, m. Spotted-neck, N. of a pigeon king; -nyasta, pp. put on canvas, painted; -paksha, m. (spotted-wing), kind of pigeon; N. of a demon causing headache; -pata, m. picture; -patta, m. id.: -gata, pp. painted; -putrikâ, f. female portrait; -phalaka, picture-panel, painting; (á)-bhânu, a. shining brightly; m. fire, Agni; -bhâshya, n. eloquence; -bhitti,f. painted wall, wall-painting; -mriga, m. spotted antelope.
cintā f. thought, reflection, con sideration; uneasiness, apprehension; solici tude regarding (lc. or --°ree;); anxiety about (g., lc., or upari); N.: -para, a. engrossed by (sad) reflections, thoughtful; -mani, m. magical thought-gem (fulfilling its possessor's every wish); philosopher's stone; T. of various works, esp. --°ree;; -moha, m. bewilderment of thought; -visha-ghna, a. destroying the poison of care.
cūḍa m. ridge (on bricks); ceremony of tonsure (performed on children); â, f. hair on the crown; tuft of hair left on the crown after the ceremony of tonsure; cere mony of tonsure; crest, summit;a-ka, --°ree;= kûdâ, tonsure.
janaka a. begetting; producing; m. father; N., esp. of a king of Videha (Mithilâ).
jātaka a. --°ree;, begotten by --; born under (a star); m. new-born child; n. (astro logical) nativity; story of one of Buddha's former births.
jāḍya n. chilliness; want of sensa tion, dulness; stupidity; inanimateness.
jāterṣya a. having jealousy en gendered, jealous; -ishti, f. sacrifice on the birth of a child.
jāragarbha m. child by a paramour; â, a. f. pregnant by a paramour; -ghnî, a.f. killing her paramour; -ga, -gâta, -gâtaka, a. begotten by a paramour; -tâ, f. adultery with (--°ree;).
jīvanmaraṇa n. living death; -mukta, pp. having obtained final liberation while yet alive; -mukti, f. liberation during life; -mrita, pp. living and yet dead, half dead: -ka, a. id.
jīvaloka m. world of the living, mankind; -vadha, m. killing a living being; -vishaya, m. duration of life; -vishâna, n. horn of a living animal; -samsá, m. com munity of the living; -sesha, a. having life only as a remnant, having bare life; -siddhi, m. N.; -sû, a. f. bearing a living child.
jīvapati m. living husband; -pat nî, a. f. whose husband is alive; -pitri: -ka, a. whose father is still alive; (á)-putra, a. whose son or children are alive; m. N. of a Rishi and of a hymn composed by him; -praga, a. having children still alive; -maya, a. ani mate, living.
jaimini m. N. of a teacher, founder of the Pûrva-Mîmâmsâ school of philosophy: î-ya, f. relating to Gamini; m. adherent of Gaimini; n. Gaimini's work.
ḍimbha m. (new-born) child, boy; ignoramus.
tattva n. (that-ness), very essence, true nature, truth, reality; principle (esp. one of the 25 in the Sâ&ndot;khya philosophy); in the Vedânta philosophy the word is artificially analysed into &open;tat tvam,&close; that (art) thou, as expressing the identity of the multiform phenomenal world (tvam) with the one undifferentiated invisible Brahma (tad): in., -tas, °ree;--, in reality; truly; exactly; thoroughly.
tatrāntare lc. in the interval, meanwhile.
tadanukṛti ad. accordingly; -anusarana-krama, m. continual following of him; -anta, a. ending with that; -apatya tâ, f. condition of having offspring through him (the son) or by her (the Sûdrâ woman); apatya-maya, a. devoted to his (her) children; -apeksha, a. having regard to that; -artha, m. the meaning of that or those; a. having that for its object, meant for that; having the same meaning: -m, ad. for that purpose, on that account, therefore; -arthin, a. desiring that; -arthîya, a. undertaken for that end, having that as its object; -ardhika, a. half as much; -arha, a. commensurate with that; -avastha, a. being in that condition or plight; being in the same condition=safe.
tanaya a. continuing a family; belonging to one's own family; m. son; â, f. daughter; n. progeny; race, family; child.
tamas n. (sg. & pl.) darkness; gloom of hell; N. of a hell; eclipse=Râhu; error, ignorance; delusion; Darkness (one of the three fundamental qualities (gunas) incident to creation; in the Sâ&ndot;khya philosophy one of the five forms of Avidyâ).
tarka m. supposition, conjecture; re flexion, speculation; speculative doctrine, philosophical system (of which there are six, the Pûrvaand Uttara-Mîmâmsâ, Nyâya, Vaiseshika, Sâ&ndot;khya, and Yoga); refutation, reductio ad absurdum (in logic); -gñâna, n. knowledge derived from speculation; -vid, m. philosopher, dialectician; -vidyâ, -sâstra, n. science of thought; -samgraha, m. T. of a manual on the Nyâya system.
tāta m. father: voc. dear (addressing elders, superiors, children, or pupils).
tāraka a. (ikâ) putting across, de livering; m. N. of a Daitya (slain by Indra): pl. children of Târaka.
tārkika m. sceptic, dialectician, philosopher.
tāvat a. so great, so extensive; so long; so much; so manifold, so numerous, just so many (with corr. yâvat): n. ad. (with corr. yâvat) so much, so far; so long, during that time, then; (without corr.) meanwhile; for a while; in the first place, first; just, at once (very often with the impv. to express what is to be done immediately=pray just or at once --; or with 1st pers. pr.=I will first of all); only, merely; indeed, certainly, it is true (concessively, followed by but); already, even (opp. how much more or less); well! enough! emphasizes a notion (±eva), only, just, quite, why (sts. to be rendered by stress only); tâvat -ka, scarcely -when; tâvan na -api na, not only not -but also not; na tâvat, not yet: na tâvat--yâvat, not yet while; m&asharp; tâvat, (interjectionally) not for heaven's sake, God forbid; yâvad yâvat tâvat tâvat, in proportion--as;yâvan na tâvat, while not--so long=till: in. tâvatâ, during that time, meanwhile; to the same extent, just as far; lc. t&asharp;vati, so far; so long, in that time.
tuṅga a. high, prominent, lofty; m. height; hill; N.; -dhanvan, m. N. of a king; -bala, m. N. of a warrior; -½âtman, a. eminent.
tuk m. child, boy.
toka n. progeny, offspring, race; child.
tejas n. sharpness; edge; heat, fire, bright flame, light, brilliance (sg. & pl.); splendour, beauty; energy, vigour, force, vi tality, strength; violence; influence; mental, moral, or magical power; dignity, majesty, glory; distinguished personage; semen virile; passion in philosophy (=ragas).
tsaru m. stalk (of a leaf); handle (of a vessel); hilt (of a sword).
dantacchada m. (tooth-covering), lip; -ganman, n. growth of the teeth; -gâta, pp. having teethed; -dyut, f. glitter of the teeth; -dhâva, m. cleansing the teeth; -dhâv ana, n. id.; splint of wood chewed for clean ing the teeth; -pattra, n. kind of ear orna ment: i-kâ, f. id.; -pâñkâlikâ, f. doll of ivory; -pâli, f. ivory sword hilt; -prakshâl ana, n. cleansing of the teeth; means for cleansing the teeth; -praveshta, m. (?) ring round an elephant's tusk; -bha&ndot;ga, m. break ing or splitting of the teeth; -maya, a. made of ivory; -mâmsa, n. gum; -mûlá, n. root of a tooth; -mûlîya, a. dental (letter); -rak anâ, f. cleansing of the teeth; -vakra, m. N. of a prince; -vâsas, n. (cover of the teeth), lip; -vînâ, f. chattering of the teeth (lit. teeth-lute): -m vâdaya, play the teeth lute=have chattering of the teeth (from cold); -veshta, m. gum: du. gums; -vyâpâra,m. working in ivory; -suddhi, f. cleansing the teeth; -sodhana, n. id.; -samgharsha, m. grinding of the teeth.
darśana a. (î) --°ree;, seeing, looking at; knowing; showing, teaching; n. 1. with active meaning: seeing, looking at, beholding; sight of, meeting with, visiting, attendance at (--°ree; or g.); adoration (of, g.); eyesight; review of (g.); inspection, investigation of (--°ree;); foreseeing (--°ree;); perception, understanding, in sight; recognition of (--°ree;); opinion, intention; doctrine, philosophical system; 2. with ps. meaning: becoming or being visible, appear ance, presence, attendance (in court); occur rence, mention (esp. in a standard work); ap parition, vision; 3. with cs. meaning: showing; with concrete meaning: eye; it is often --°ree; a. having a -appearance, looking --; -m dâ, show oneself.
dala n. fragment, piece; part; half; leaf, petal (that which unfolds itself); -ana, n. bursting (int.); breaking, crushing, shat tering; annihilation.
dārasaṃgraha m. marriage; -su ta, n. sg. wife and child; -½adhigamana, n. taking a wife, marriage.
devapati m. lord of the gods, Indra; (á)-patnî, a. f. having a god for a husband; -pasu, m. animal consecrated to the gods; -pâtrá, n. cup of the gods; -p&asharp;na, a. serving the gods for drinking;-putra, m. son of a god; a. (devá-) having gods as children; -pur, f. citadel of the gods; Indra's abode; -pura, n. Indra's abode; -pûgâ, f. divine worship; -pûrva, a. preceded by the word deva: -giri, m.=deva-giri; -prabha, m. N. of a Gandharva; -prasâda, m. N.; -priya, a. beloved of the gods (Siva); -bhakti, f. devotion to a god or the gods; -bhavana, n. abode of the gods, heaven; temple; -bhi shag, m. divine physician; -bhûta,pp. hav ing become or being a god; -maní, m. divine jewel, esp. Vishnu's breast ornament; whirl of hair on a horse's neck; -maya, a. con taining the gods; -mâtri-ka, a. nourished by rain only, i. e. by no other water; -mârga, m. path of the gods, jocular designation of the hind quarters; -muni, m. divine sage.
narayāna n. palanquin; -rûpa, n. human form; -loka, m. world of men: -pâla, m. prince, king; -vara, m. excellent man: -½uttama, spv. best of excellent men; -var man, m. N. of a prince; -vâhana, a.drawn by men; m. ep. of Kubera; N.: -datta, m. N. of a prince: -karita, n. adventures of Naravâhanadatta; -vâhana-datt-îya, a. be longing to Naravâhanadatta; -vâhin, a. borne by men: w. yâna, n. palanquin; -vishâna,n. human horn=chimera; -vîra, m. heroic man: -loka, m.=children of men; -vyâghra, -sâr dûla, m. tiger-like man=most illustrious of men; -sreshtha, spv. best of men; -sakha, m. friend of Nara, ep. of Nârâyana; -simha, m. lion among men=great warrior; man-lion (the fourth Avatâr of Vishnu); -hari, m. man lion, Vishnu's fourth Avatâr.
nidhana n. [putting down], abode; conclusion, end; annihilation; death; musical finish of a Sâman.
nimna n. low ground, hollow; a. concave; low-lying, depressed, deep: -gata, pp. situated in hollows; n. low ground; -gâ, f. (going to the lowlands), river: -pati, m. lord of rivers, sea, -suta, pp. m.Bhîshma (son of the river, i. e. of the Ganges); -½un nata, pp. depressed and elevated; n. pl. hill and dale.
nirapa a. waterless; -apatya, a. childless; -apatrapa, a. shameless; -aparâ dha, a. harmless, innocent; -apavâda, a. blameless; subject to no exception; -apâya, a. imperishable; unfailing; unharmed, safe; -apâyin, a. imperishable; -apeksha, a. re gardless of, indifferent to (lc. or --°ree;); caring for nothing, indifferent to worldly objects; independent of (--°ree;): -m, ad. without having any regard, without troubling about a thing, -ka, a. independent, -tâ, f. regardlessness; indifference towards (lc.), -tva, n. indiffer ence; independence; -apekshâ, f. indiffer ence towards (lc.); -apekshita, pp. disre garded; regardless of (--°ree;); indifferent towards (lc.); -apekshya, fp. not to be troubled about.
nirbhaya a. fearless; not afraid of (--°ree;); secure: -m, ad. fearlessly; m. N. of a warrior; n. security; -bhara, a. vehement, ardent; excessive; deep (sleep); full of (--°ree;): -m or °ree;--, ardently, excessively, soundly, fast; -bhartsana, n. menace, reproach; -bhas mita, pp. burned to ashes, annihilated; -bhâgya, pp. to be excluded from his share (ab.); -bhî-ka, a. fearless, not afraid of (ab.); -bhîta, pp. id.; -bheda,m. cracking, burst ing; splitting; blurting out, betrayal; -bhed in, a. cleaving, shattering; -bhedya, fp. free from chinks; missing its mark.
nirvaṃśa a. having no family, child less, alone in the world; -vakana, n. ex planation, etymology; a. speechless: -m, ad. without saying a word; -vatsala, a. not tenderly attached to, esp. children (lc.);-váp ana, n. (funeral) offering; -vartaka, a. per forming; -vartana, n. performance; -vart anîya, fp. to be accomplished; -varti, a. wickless; -vartitavya, fp. to be performed (Pr.); -vartin, a. ill-behaved (--°ree;); performing, doing (--°ree;); -vartya, fp. to be accomplished; -produced; -uttered; -vasa, a. possessing no will of one's own, dependent: -tâ, f. depend ence; -vashatkâra-ma&ndot;gala, a. lacking sacri fices and festivities;-vasu, a. poor; -vastrî kri, deprive of one's clothes; -vahana, n. con clusion, issue; final act, catastrophe (dr.)
niṣkrama m. going out; first walk out with a child in the fourth month after birth; -kramana, n. id.; leaving (ab.); disappearing; -kráya, m. redemption; com pensation; reward, payment: -kráyana,n. redemption; ransom; expiation.
niṣpāṇḍava a. delivered from the Pândavas; -pâda-ka, a. accomplishing; -pâdana, n. accomplishment; -pâdya, fp. to be accomplished, -brought about: -½abda sahasra, full millennium; -pâpa,a. sinless; -pâlaka, a. having no guardian; -pîdana, n. pressure; -putra, a. sonless, childless; -pu rusha, a. having no males; -pulâka, a. free from shrivelled grain: î-kri, free from shrivelled grain; -pesha, m. impact; clash ing sound; -paurusha½âmarsha, a. desti tute of manliness and anger; -prakâra-ka, a. free from specifications; -prakâsa, a. dark; -pragña, a. witless, stupid; -pratâpa, a. destitute of dignity; -pratikriya, a. not to be saved, past help: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -prati graha, a. accepting no gifts: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -pratigha, a. unobstructed; -pratipaksha, a. having no adversary: -tâ, f., -tva, n. abst. n.; -pratibandha, a. free from ob stacles; unobjectionable; -pratîkâra, a. that cannot be helped; irremediable; unhindered; -pratyâsa, a. having given up all hope of (lc. or upari): î-bhu, lose all hope of (prati); -pratyûha, a. free from obstacles: -m, ad. without hindrance; -pradesa, a. having no fixed place; -prapañka, a. unevolved, exempt from multiformity: -sad-âtman, a. having real existence without being evolved; -pra bha, a. deprived of radiance or splendour: -tâ, f., -tva, n. abst. n.; -prabhâva, a. powerless: -tva, n. -ness; -pramâna-ka, a. supported by no authority; -prayogana, a. disinterested (spectator); useless: -m, ad. uselessly; needless, uncalled for; -pravâni, a. fresh from the loom; quite new.
nṛprajā f. pl. children of men; -mâmsa, n. human flesh.
naiyāyika a. relating to the Nyâya philosophy; m. logician.
nyāya m. [going back, reference, precedent], rule, standard, axiom, principle, method; manner; propriety, correct way; logical proof or conclusion, syllogism; logic, the Nyâya system of philosophy;lawsuit; decision, judgment: in., ab., °ree;--, after the manner of (--°ree;); in. -tas, °ree;--, suitably, properly; -vartin, a. behaving with propriety; -vâdin, a. speaking suitably; -vid, m. connoisseur; -vidyâ, f. logic; -vritta,pp. behaving with propriety; -sâstra, n. treatise on logic; -sikshâ, f. logic.
paṇḍita a. learned; wise, shrewd; skilled in (--°ree;); m. scholar, learned or wise man, Pandit: -tâ, f., -tva, n. wisdom; skill in (--°ree;); -buddhi, a. philosophic-minded; -mânika, -mânin, -m-manya, a.consider ing oneself wise; -sabhâ, f. assembly of Pandits.
pariskanda m. servant, esp. one running beside a carriage; -skhalita, (pp.) n. staggering; -stara, m. layer of sacrificial grass; -stárana, n. strewing about; -stoma, m. cover, bolster; -spanda, m.motion; -spand ita, (pp.) n. quivering; flaming up; manifes tation; -spardhin, a. vying with (--°ree;); -sphu- ta, a. quite evident; -m, ad.; -syanda, m. flow, stream (fig.); -srava, m. flow, effusion; overflow; river; birth (of a child); -srút, a. overflowing, foaming; f. kind of intoxicant.
parvata a. consisting of knots or ragged masses (with ádri or girí); m. moun tain, hill; rock, boulder; cloud; N. of a Rishi and of a minister of Purûravas: -ka, m. N.; -kandara, n. mountain-cave; -dur ga, n. impenetrable mountain; -râg: -a, m. king of mountains, ep. of the Himâlaya; -si khara, m. n. hill-top, mountain-peak; -sre shtha, spv. best of mountains; -½agra, n. id.; î-kri, turn into a mountain; &isharp;-ya, a.belong ing to mountains; -½îsvara, m. N.; -½upa-tyakâ, f. mountain-lowland, land at the foot of a mountain-range.
narmaya den. P. exhilarate by jest ing, amuse.
pāriṇāmika a. digestible; subject to development: with bhâva, m. natural disposition; -nâyya, n. household utensils; -nâhya, n. id.; -tosh-ika, n. reward, gratuity (token of satisfaction); -panth-ika, m. highwayman, robber; -pâtra, incorrect for -yâtra; -pârsva-ka, a. atten dant: ikâ, f. chambermaid; -pârsvika, a. standing at one's side; m. attendant: pl. retinue; -pâlya, n. governorship; -plava, a. swimming; moving to and fro, unsteady; wavering, irresolute; m. ship: -tâ, f., -tva, n. unsteadiness, caprice; -bhadra, m. coral tree (Erythrina indica); -bhâsh-ika, a. (î) technical; -mândal-ya, n. spherical shape; -mân-ya, n.circumference; -yâtra, m. N. of the western Vindhya range; -vitt-ya, n. bachelorhood while a younger brother is mar ried; -vettr-ya, n. marriage of a younger before an elder brother; -sesh-ya, n. result: ab. therefore; -shada, m. member of an as sembly or council, auditor, spectator: pl. retinue of a god; -shad-ya, m. one who takes part in an assembly, spectator; -hâr-ika, a. privileged; -hâr-ya, m. bracelet; -hâs-ya, n. jest.
pārāśara a. belonging to Parâ sara; -in, m. monk of the order of Pârâsarya: pl. a certain philosophical school; -ya, m. pat. son of Parâsara, i. e. Vyâsa.
puṃsavana a. causing the birth of a male child; n. (±vrata) domestic rite (at the beginning of conception) for the obtain ment of a son.
putrin a. having a son or sons, rich in or blessed with children; m. father of a son; n-î, f. mother of a son.
putra m. son, child; young of an animal, whelp: du. two sons or son and daughter; vc. (sg., du., pl.) often used in addressing young persons: î, f. daughter; (a)-ka, m. son, boy: often used as a term of endearment; N. of the reputed founder of Pâtaliputra; -kâmy&asharp;, f. wish for a son or children; -kri ta-ka, a. adopted as a child; -kritya, n. duty of a son; -krithá, m. n. procreation of children; -tâ, f., -tva, n.sonship; -dâra, n. sg. son and wife, wife and child; -nivesana, n. son's abode; -pura, n. N. of a town; -pau tra, n. sg. or m. pl. sons and grandsons: -ka, n. sg. id.; -pautrin, a. having sons and grand sons; -priya, a. dear toor beloved by one's son; -bhâga, m. heritage of a son; -bhânda, n. (?) substitute for a son; -vat, ad. like a son or sons; as in the case of the son; (á)-vat, a. having a son, sons, or children; possessed of a son in the true sense of the word.
pulinda m. pl. N. of a barbarous tribe (later identified with the Bhillas and Sabaras); sg. man of this tribe; prince of the Pulindas: -ka, m. id.; N. of a prince of the Pulindas, Sabaras, and Bhillas.
puṣṭa pp. √ push; n. (V.) property, abundance, wealth (esp. in children or cattle).
pūtana m. kind of demon, spectre: â, f. N. of a female demon causing a certain disease in children, and killed by Krishna; i-kâ, f. id.
pūrvamadhyānha m. forenoon; -mârin, a. dying before, predeceasing; -mî mâmsâ, f. earlier Mîmâmsâ (the philosophi cal system founded by Gaimini and dealing with the discussion of the sacred text); -mu kha, a. facing eastwards.
pṛṣṭhānuga a. going behind, following; -½anugâmin, a. id.; -½avagunth ana-pata, m. horse-cloth; -½ashthîla, n. (?) tortoise's back.
pautra a. (î) relating to or proceeding from a son or children; m. son of a son, grandson: -ka, m. id.
pracaya m. [√ ki] picking, gathering; accumulation, collection, quantity, multitude; -kayana, n. collecting; -kaya-svara, m. accumulated tone (i. e. tone occurring in a series of syllables), tone of the unaccented syllables following a Svarita; -karana, n. setting to work: &isharp;, f. kind of supplementary wooden ladle (rit.); -karanîya, fp. being in actual use (Br., S.); -karitavya, fp. n. imps. one should set to work;-kala, a. moving, tremulous, shaking; -kalana, n trembling, swaying; fleeing; -kalâyita, (den. pp.), n. nodding while asleep (âsîna-, -in a sitting posture); -kalita, pp. set out, departed, etc.; -kâra, m. walking about, ranging; going in pursuit of (--°ree;); showing oneself, manifestation, appearance; application, employment; currency; conduct, behaviour; pasture-ground; exercising-ground; -kârana, n. scattering; -kârin, a. going about; attaching oneself to (lc., --°ree;); acting, behaving; -kita, pp. (√ ki), pronounced with the Prakaya tone; -kura, a. abundant, ample, much, many, frequent; --°ree;, abounding in, replete with: -gaha&ntod;a,a. having abundance of impervious passages, -tva, n. abundance of (--°ree;), -ratna-dhana½â gama, a. having a large income of gems and money; -kurī-bhû, grow in extent; -kritta- sikha, a. having loosened braids orflowing hair; (á)-ketas, a. heedful, intelligent, wise (V.); m. (C.), ep. of Varuna; N.; -kodana, n. instigation, incitement; command; -kodin, a. driving before one (--°ree;).
prajāpati m. lord of creatures; genius presiding over procreation, protector of life; Creator, N. of a supreme being above the Vedic gods; this epithet is in the post-Vedic period applied to various holy men regarded as demiurgic beings; Time (personified); planet Mars; N.: -yagña, m. sacrifice to Pragâpati=procreation of children prescribed by law; -loká, m. Pragâpati's world.
prajādāna n. procreation of children; -dvâra, n. gate of progeny, ep. of the sun; -dhara, a. maintaining creatures (Vishnu); -½adhyaksha, m. surveyor of creatures, ep. of the sun, Daksha, etc.; -nâtha, m. lord of creatures, ep. of Brahman, Manu, and Daksha; protector of the people, king, prince; -½antaka, m. destroyer of creatures, Yama.
prajana m. (n.) procreation, impregnation; parturition; m. procreator; -gánana, a. generating, procreative; n. impregnation; parturition, procreation; birth, propagation; production, of (--°ree;); genital member; progeny, children; -gaya, m. victory; -galpa, m. conversation; prattle; -galpana, n. speaking, talking; -gavá, m. haste, speed; -gav ana, a. running very fast; -gavin, a. hurry ing, running fast, quick;-gas, a. --°ree;=pragâ, progeny; -gahitá, pp. given up, abandoned.
pratikūla a. (against the bank, uphill), contrary, adverse (wind, fate, etc.); perverse, wrong; disagreeable, repugnant; hostile, refractory, rebellious (towards, g.): -m, ad. against any one, contrary (wind); inversely; n. inverse order; repugnant con duct (v. l. prâtikûlya): -kârin, a. offering resistance to, opposing (g.); -tâ, f. adverse ness (of fate); rebelliousness, hostility; -dai va, a. opposed by fate: -tâ, f. hostility of fate; -pravartin, a. taking an adverse course (ship) and acting with hostility (tongue); -bhâshin, a. contradicting.
pratyari m. well-matched foe, adver sary equal to (g.); -½arka, m. mock sun; -½ark ana, n. return of a salutation; -½artham, ad. with regard to anything; -½arthin, a. hostile; rivalling, vying with (--°ree;); m. opponent, ad versary, rival; defendant; (práti)-½ardhi, a. standing at the side of, equal to (g.); -½arp ana, n. re-delivery, restoration; -½arpanîya, fp. to be given back or restored; -½arshá, m. side, slope (of a hill).
prathamaka a. first; -kalpa, m. primary ordinance; -kalpita, pp. first in rank; -garbha, m. first pregnancy; a. f. â, pregnant for the first time; -ga or -g&asharp;, a. first-born; original; firstling; born in the first (i. e. first mentioned) wedlock; -gâta, pp. first-born; -tara, °ree;-or -m, (cpv.) ad. first; -tas, ad. first; forthwith; before, in preference to (g.); be fore, previously to (--°ree;); -darsana, n. first sight (lc. at --): -dina, n. first day of seeing any one (g.); -dugdhá, pp. just milked; -dhâra, m. (?) first drop; -nirdishta, pp. first stated or mentioned; -purusha, m. first (our third) person (gr.); -pravada, a. utter ing the first sound (child); -prasûtâ, pp. f. having calved for the first time; -bh&asharp;g, a. obtaining the first share; -yagñá, m. first sacrifice; -râtra, m. beginning of the night; -vayas-ín, a. young; -vasati, f. original or old home; -vittâ, f.first wife; -samgama, m. N.; -samâvritta, pp. only just turned to wards (lc.); -½âgâmin, a. coming or men tioned first; -½âdesa, m. initial position (of a word); -½abhidheya, n. fundamental meaning: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -½ardha, m. n. first half; -½ava ra-tva, n. higher and lower rank, seniority and juniority; -½astamita, n. recent setting of the sun; -½ahám, ad. on the first day; -½âhâra, m. first employment; -½itara, a. re verse of the first, second.
pradeya fp. to be given, bestowed, or offered, to (--°ree; or d.); -given in marriage, marriageable (f.); -imparted (news, doctrine) or taught, to (d. or --°ree;); -initiated or instructed in (lc.); m. present; -desa, m. designation, reference; determination, definition; appeal to a precedent; example; spot, place, region (often --°ree; with a part of the body); short while: -bhâg, -vartin, -stha, a. of short duration, -vat, a.occupying a place; -des- ita, cs. pp. urged, directed; -desinî, f. fore-finger; second toe; -deshtri, m. chief justice; -deha, m. unction; unguent, plaster.
pradhyāna n. reflexion, absorp tion; -dhvamsa, m. annihilation, destruc tion; disappearance (of a disease); -dhváms ana, a. destroying; m. destroyer; -dhvams a½abhâva, m. (non-existence in consequence of annihilation), cessation of existence; -dhvamsin, a. perishable, transitory; --°ree;, de stroying.
prabodha m. awaking; revival, re covery of consciousness; awaking=opening of flowers; manifestation, appearance (of intelligence); waking, wakefulness; know ledge, understanding, intelligence; awak ening (tr.); restoration of an evaporated scent; friendly admonition: -ka, a. awaking =causing to open or blossom; --°ree; a. (i-kâ), knowledge, understanding; -kandra, m. moon of knowledge: -½udaya, m. rise of the moon of knowledge: title of a philosophical drama; -bodhana, a. awaking, arousing; n. awaking (int.), understanding, comprehension; instructing, enlightening; wakening (tr.); -bodhita, cs. pp. aroused, awakened: -vat, pp. act. (he) aroused; -bodhin, a. awaking; -bodha½udaya, m. rise of knowledge: title of a work; -bodhya, 1. cs. gd. having in structed, explained, suggested, or called the attention; 2. fp. to be awakened.
pramoka m. setting free, release; -moktavya, fp. to be released; -moksha, m. loss; release, deliverance, from (--°ree;); redemp tion; -mokana, a. (î) delivering from (--°ree;); n. shedding (of tears); freeing or delivering from (--°ree;); -modá, m. joy, delight (sts. pl.); strong perfume; N.: -ka, m. kind of rice; N.; -modana, a. delighting; n. enjoyment, hilarity; gladdening; -modita, (cs. pp. √ mud) m. ep. of Kubera;N.; -modín, a. delighting; m. kind of rice; -moda½upa-ruddha, (pp.) n. retreat of joy, harem; -mo sha, m. deprivation; -moha, m. bewilder ment: -kitta, a. bewildered in mind; -moh ana, a. (î) bewildering; -mohin, a. (--°ree;) id.
pralopa m. destruction, annihila tion; -lobha, m. allurement: -ka, m. enticer, N. of a jackal; -lobhana, a. enticing; n. allurement; -lobhin, a. alluring, seductive; -lobhya, a. alluring, enticing; -lola, a.vio lently agitated (ocean).
pralaghu a. very small or insignificant (retinue): -tâ, f. excessive smallness; -lap ana, n. prattling, chattering; -lapita, pp. √ lap; n. prattle, chatter; lament; -lab dhavya, fp. to be made sport of, to be de ceived; -lamba, a. hanging down, pendulous; stooping; m. N. of a Daitya slain by Bala deva or Krishna: -tâ, f. pendulousness, -bâhu, a. having pendulous arms, -bhuga, a. id.; -lambin, a. pendulous; -lambha, m.obtainment; deception; -lambhana, n. taking in, deceiving; -laya, m. dissolution, destruction, death; annihilation or end of the world; setting (of stars); cause of dissolu tion; swoon: -ghana, m. cloud producing the dissolution of the world, -m-kara, a. (î) causing destruction, -tâ, f. dissolution: -m gam, be annihilated, -tva, n. id.: â-ya klip, go to ruin, -dahana, m. conflagration causing the destruction of the world, -½anta-ga, a.perishing only at the end of the world (sun).
pravilambin a. prominent; -laya, m. melting; dissolution, complete dis appearance; -lâpana, n. annihilation; -lâpayitavya, fp. to be annihilated; -lâpita-tva, n. complete annihilation; -lâpin, a.lament ing; -lâpya, fp. to be completely destroyed; -vâda, m. quarrel; -vikta, pp. √ vik; n. (?) solitude (only lc. pl.); -vikshu, des. a. being about to enter; -veka, m. complete retirement.
praśithila a. very loose, flaccid, or lax; extremely feeble, hardly perceptible: -sithilî-kri, make very loose; -sithilî-bhû, become very loose; -sishta, pp. √ sâs; (á)- sishti, f. order, command;-sishya, m. pupil of a pupil: -tva, n. abst. n.; -sís, f. order, precept.
prasava m. 1. pressing (of Soma); 2. setting in motion, impulse; course, current; quickening power, stimulation, instigation; aid; command; acquisition; vivifier; 3. be getting, generation; conception; bringing forth, bearing; birth; delivery, confinement; augmentation; birth-place; flower, blossom; sg. & pl. offspring, progeny (--°ree;, sts.=young --): -griha, n. lying-in chamber; -savana, n. bringing forth, bearing of children; fe cundity; -sava-vedanâ, f. pangs of child birth, travail; -savitrí, m. 1. impeller, in citer, vivifier (of, g.); 2. (-tri), m. procreator, father; -savin, a. bearing, producing; -sa vya, a. (holding the left hand outtowards anything), following one's left hand, keeping one's left hand towards anything (in walking round it): -m, ad. to the left; -sáh, a. (str. st. -s&asharp;h) overpowering; -saha, a. enduring, withstanding (--°ree;); m.endurance, resistance (only --°ree;); beast or bird of prey; -sahana, n. resisting; overcoming; embracing; -sahya, 1. gd. forcibly; exceedingly; without more ado; necessarily (with na, by no means); 2. fp. conquerable;with inf. capable of being (ps. pt.): -kârin, a. acting with violence; -harana, n. forcible abduction or appro priation.
prasū a. bearing, giving birth to; fruitful, prolific; producing, providing for (--°ree;); f. mother; sprout; flowering sacrificial grass; -sûta, pp. born, produced; n. pri mordial soul or matter (phil.);(á)-sûti, 1. f. instigation, command; permission; (a) sûti, 2. f. bringing forth, parturition; laying (of eggs); birth; coming forth, production (of fruit, flowers, etc.); producer; child, off spring, progeny; product; -sûtikâ, f. a. re cently confined; having lately calved; -sûna, pp. √ sû; n. blossom, flower: -bâna, m. (flower-arrowed), Kâma, -½âsuga, m. id.
prākṛta a. (â, î) connected with nature (prakriti), natural, original; unal tered; usual, ordinary, common; low, vul gar; proceeding from or relating to nature (phil.); Prâkritic; m. low orvulgar man, n. vernacular dialect (derived from Sanskrit and spoken by women and inferior charac ters in Sanskrit plays), Prâkrit: -bhâshin, a. speaking Prâkrit, -sâsana, n. treatise on Prâkrit, -kandrikâ, f. Moonlight of Prâkrit, T. of Vararuki's Prâkrit grammar, -pra kâsa, m. Illustration of Prâkrit, id.
prāk n. (of prâñk) ad. before, in front of (ab.); before (in order: ab.); formerly, previously, to (ab., rarely g.); to the east of (ab.); first, in the first place; hence forth; prâg eva, a short while ago; still more (B.).
prāṇa m. breath; vital spirit (pl. life); vital air (five are generally assumed; but three, six, seven, nine, and even ten are also spoken of); sp. inhaled air; breath of air, wind; breath as a measure of time (requisite for pronouncing ten long sylla bles); vigour, energy, power; soul (in the Sâmkhya phil.); intelligence associated with totality (Vedânta); sign of vitality (pl.); organ of sense (mouth, nose, eyes, and ears: pl.); N.; --°ree;, a. = loving -as dearly as life, or having one's life dependent on --: -kara, a. invigorating; -karman, n. vital function; -krikkhra, n. danger to life; -ghna, a. life destroying, deadly; -khid, a. cutting life short, fatal; -kkheda, m. destruction of life, murder; -tyâga, m. abandonment of life, suicide; death.
prājña a. (relating to intellect, pra gñâ), intellectual; intelligent, wise, clever; m. wise or sensible man; intelligence asso ciated with individuality (phil.): -tva, n. wisdom, intelligence, cleverness, -mâninor -m-mânin, a. considering oneself wise.
prādakṣiṇya n. circumambu lation while following one's (extended) right hand, keeping the right hand towards a per son or object; respectful behaviour.
prāvacana a. usual while reciting Vedic texts; i-ka, a. id.
prāśa m. eating, tasting; food; first feeding of a child with rice; -½asana, n. id.; feeding: -½arthîya, a. intended for food; -½asanîya, fp. serving as food.
prābhākara m. follower of Pra bhâkara (founder of one of the sects of the Pûrva Mîmâmsâ school of philosophy); n. the work of Prabhâkara.
bahiraṅga a. external; unessen tial: -tâ, f., -tva, n. abst. n.; -argala, --°ree;, a. external bolt; -artha, m. external object; -gata, pp. come forth: -tva, n. appearance; -giri, m. (country beyond the hills), N. of a country: pl. N. of a people; -geham, ad. outside the house; -grâmam, ad. outside the village; -grâma-pratisraya, a. dwelling outside the village; -dris, a. looking at the outside, superficial (person); -dvâra, n. outer door; space outside the door; -dvârin, a. being outside the door; -dh&asharp;, ad. prp. with ab. outside, away from (V.); -nirgamana, n. going out of (ab.); -nihsarana, n. taking out, removal; -bhava, a.external; -bhâga, m. exterior; -mandala-stha, a. being out side the circle; -mukha, a. issuing from the mouth; averting one's face, averse from (--°ree;); having one's mind outward, i.e. directed to wards the external world; -yâna, n. going out; (ír)-loma, a. having the hair turned outwards; -loman, a. id.; -vâsas, n. upper garment; -vikâram, ad. apart from indi vidual existence (Sâmkhya ph.); -vritti, f. occupation with external matters; -vedi, 1. f. space outside the Vedi; 2. ad. (í) outside the Vedi; -vedi-ka, a. being outside the Vedi.
bahuvaktavya fp. about which much can be said; -vakaná, n. plural; case and personal terminations of the plural; -vat, a. in the plural; -varna, a. many-coloured; -valkala, m.=Priyâla tree (Buchanania latifolia); -vâdín, a. talking much, loquacious; -vâra: -ka, m. a. small tree (Cordia Myxa): -phala, n. its fruit (=Selu); -vâram, ad. frequently, often; -vârshika, a. (î) many years old; lasting many years; -vâla, a. hairy, shaggy (tail); -vighna, a. attended with many difficulties; -víd, a. knowing much; -vidya, a. having much knowledge, learned; -vidha, a. of many sorts, manifold, various: -m, ad. variously, repeatedly; -vistara, m. great extension; a. wide-spread; manifold, various; very detailed; -vistâra, a. of wide extent; -vistîrna, pp. wide-spread; -vîrya, a. of great strength, very efficacious; -velam, ad. ofttimes, frequently; -vyâla nishevita, pp. infested by many beasts of prey; -vrîhi, m. (having much rice), possessive adjective compound: the last member is a substantive, the whole compound becoming an adjective qualifying another substantive and agreeing with it in gender; these possessives often become substantives to designate a species (a generic term being under stood) or an individual as a proper name (a specific term being understood): e.g. bahu vrîhih (sc. samâsah), m. a &open;much-rice&close; com pound; Brihadasvah, m. Many-horse (sc. man: cp. Gr. Philippos, horse-loving, and Engl. Great-head). The term bahuvrîhi being an instance is used to designate the whole class.
bahutama spv. remotest: â bahutamât purushât, down to the remotest descendant; -tara, cpv. more numerous, more, than (ab.); more extensive, greater (fire); too or very much; several: etad eva½asmâkam bahutaram -yad, it is already a great thing for us that --; -m, ad. more; repeatedly; -tara-ka, a. very much or numerous; -tarâm, (ac. f.) ad. highly, greatly, very; -tâ, f. abundance, multitude; -titha, a.(having many tithis or lunar days), long (time); much, manifold: -m, ad. greatly; e&zip;hani, on many a day=for many days; -trina, n. almost grass, a mere straw; -trish- na, a. suffering from great thirst; -trivarsha, a.almost three years old; -tva, n. multiplicity, multitude; majority, opinion of the majority; plural; -dakshiná, a. accompanied by many gifts (sacrifice); -dâna, n. bounteous gift; 2. a. (á) munificent; -dâyin, a. id.; -drisvan,m. great observer, very learned man; -devata, a. addressed to many deities (verse); -devatyã, a. belonging to many gods; -daivata, a. relating to many gods; -dosha, 1. m. great harm or disadvantage; 2. a. having many drawbacks (forest); -dhana, a. possessing much wealth, very rich: -½îsvara, m. very wealthy man; -dh&asharp;, ad. in many ways, parts, or places; variously; many times, repeatedly; very: -kri, multiply; spread abroad;-nâman, a. having many names; -patnîka, a. having many wives: -tâ, f. polygamy; -pada, a. many footed; -parná, a. many-leaved; -pasu, a. rich in cattle; -pâda, a. many-footed; hav ing several pâdas (verse); -putra, a.having many sons or children; -pushpa-phala½upe ta, pp. having many flowers and fruits; -pra kâra, a. manifold: -m, ad. variously; repeatedly; -prakriti, a. consisting of several nominal bases (compound); -praga, a.rich in children; -pragña, a. very wise; -pra- gñâna-sâlin, a. possessed of much knowledge; -pratigña, a. involving several charges or counts (leg.); -prapañka, a. of great diffuseness, prolix; -pralâpin, a. garrulous; -bhâshin, a. id.; -bhâshya, n. loquacity; -bhug, a. eating much; -bhûmika, a. consisting of many stories (building); -bhoktri, m. great eater; -bhogyâ, f. harlot; -bhog aka, a. eating much; -bhog-in, a. id.: (-i) tâ, f.voracity; -bhauma, a. many-storied (building); -mati, f. high opinion, esteem, respect; -matsya, n. place abounding in fish; -madhya-ga, a. belonging to many; -mantavya, fp. to be highly thought of, prized or esteemed; -mâna, m. high opinion or regard, esteem, respect, for (lc. of prs. or thing, rarely g. of prs.); attaching great im portance to (lc.): -purah-saram, ad. with respect; -mânin, a. held in esteem, respected; -mânya, fp. to be highly thought of, estimable; -mâya, a. having many wiles, artful, treacherous; -mitra, a. having many friends; -mukha, a. many-mouthed, talking of many things; -mûla-phala½anvita, pp. furnished with many roots and fruits; -mûlya, 1. n. large sum of money; 2. a. of great price, costly; -yâgín, a. having offered many sacrifices; -ragas, a. very dusty and having much pollen; -ratna, a. abounding in jewels.
bālātapa m. morning sun, early sunshine (also pl.); -½âditya, m. newly-risen sun; N. of two princes; -½adhyâpa-ka, m. teacher of boys: -tâ, f. tutorship of boys; -½apatya, n. young offspring; -½âmaya, m. children's disease; -½aruna, m. (red of) early dawn; -½avabodhana, a. instruction of the young or inexperienced; -½avastha, a. young, juvenile.
bālaka a. (ikâ) young, childish, not yet full-grown; m. child, boy; young of an animal; five-year-old elephant; N. of a prince; -kânda, n. Boy-section, T. of the first book of the Râmâyana treating of the boy hood of Râma; -kunda½anuviddha, pp. n. spray of young jasmine intertwined (in their hair); -krishna, m. the boy Krishna; -kel&ibrevcirc;, f. children's game; -kriyâ, f. doings of children; -krîdana, n. child's play: -ka, m. children's toy; n. child's play; -krîdâ, f. child's play, childish sport; -ghna, m. child murderer; -kandra, m. young or crescent moon; n. breach of a peculiar shape; -kandra mas, m. young moon; -kandrikâ, f. N.; -karita, n. early life of a god, etc.; -karyâ, f. doings of a child; -tantra, n. midwifery; -tâ, f. childhood; -tva, n. id.; -darsam, abs. on seeing a boy; -pattra, m. a tree; -putra, a. having young children, having young: -ka,m. little son; -bandhana, m. binder of children (a demon of disease); -bhañgaka, m. N.; -bhâva, m. childhood; recent rise of a planet; -bhritya, m. servant from child hood; -mati, a. of childish intellect; -man dâra-vriksha, m. young coral tree; -râmâ yana, n. T. of a play; -roga, m. children's disease; -lîlâ, f. child's play; -vinashta: -ka, m. N.; -vaidhavya, n. child-widow hood; -sri&ndot;ga, a. having young horns; -sakhi, m. friend from youth; friend of a fool: -tva, n. friendship with a fool; -su hrid, m. friend from childhood; -han, a. (-ghnî) child-murdering.
bāla a. young, not yet full-grown; recently risen (sun), early (rays), new, crescent (moon); childish, puerile, foolish; m. child, boy; minor (under sixteen years of age); simpleton, fool; N.: â, f. girl, young woman; cow one year old.
bālya n. infancy, childhood; crescent state (of the moon); childishness, immaturity of mind, puerility, folly: -tâ, f. childhood.
bālopacaraṇa n. medical treatment of children: î-ya, a. relating to the --; -½upakâra, m. medical treatment of children.
bāliśa a. young, childish; silly, foolish; m. fool, blockhead: -tâ, f., -tva, n., (is)-ya, n. childishness, folly.
brahmaloka m. world or heaven of Brahman (sts. pl.); -laukika, a. inhabit ing the world of Brahman; -vaktri, m. ex pounder of the Vedas; -vat, ad. in accord ance with or like the Veda; -vadya, n.recitation of Vedic texts; -vadha, m. mur der of a Brâhman; -vadhyâ, f. id.: -krita, n. perpetrated murder of a Brâhman; -vark asá, n. pre-eminence in sacred knowledge, sanctity; -varkas-in, a. pre-eminent in di vine knowledge, holy; -varkas-vin, a. id.; -vâdá, m. discourse on sacred matters; -vâd ín, a. discoursing on sacred matters; m. theologian, Vedântin; -vâsa, m. Brahman's abode or heaven; (bráhma)-vâhas, a. to whom prayer is offered; -vit-tva, n. sacred knowledge, theology, philosophy; -víd, a. knowing the Vedas; versed in magic; m. theologian, philosopher; -vidy&asharp;, f. knowledge of Brahman or of sacred things; -vidvas, pt. knowing Brahman; -vivardhana, a. increas ing sacred knowledge, ep. of Vishnu; -vrik sha, m. Brahman as a tree; -vritti, f. sub sistence of a Brâhman; -veda, m. Veda of Spells, Atharva-veda; -vedi, f. N. of a local ity; -vedin, a.knowing the Brahman or the Vedas; -vaivarta: -ka, n. T. of a Purâna; -vrata, n. vow of chastity: -dhara, a. prac tising --; -sâyin, a. resting in Brahman; -sâlâ, f. Brahman's hall; N. of a sacred locality; -siras, -sîrshan, n. kind of mythi cal missile; -samsad, f. Brahman's audience chamber; -samstha, a. devoted to sacred things; -samhitâ, f. collection of prayers; -sattra, n. sacrifice of prayer; -sattrin, a. offering a sacrifice of prayer; -sadana, n. seat of the Brahman priest; abode or heaven of Brahman; -sabhâ, f. hall or audience chamber of Brahman; -sambhava, a. sprung from Brahman; -saras, n. N. of a bathing place; -savá, m. purification of prayer; kind of sacrificial rite; -sât-kri, bring into har mony with Brahman; -sâmá, -sâmán, n. Sâman chanted after a verse recited by the Brahman priest; -sâyugya, n. complete union or identification with the universal soul; -sârshti-tâ, f. equality with Brahman; -sâ varna, m. N. of the tenth Manu; -sâvarni, m. id.; -siddhânta, m. T. of various astrono mical works; -siddhi, m. N. of an ascetic; -suta, m. son of Brahman; -suvarkalâ, f. kind of plant; decoction of this plant (drunk as a penance); -sûtra, n. sacred cord worn by Brâhmans over the shoulder; sacred or theological Sûtra; T. of a Sûtra work on the Vedânta philosophy ascribed to Bâdarâyana or Vyâsa: -pada, n. statement of a theolo gical Sûtra; a. (î) consisting of the state ments of a theological Sûtra; -sûtrin, a. wearing the sacred cord; -srig, m. creator of Brahman, ep. of Siva; -soma, m. N. of a saint; -stamba, m. universe, world; -stena, m. (thief of=) one in unlawful possession of the Veda; -steya, n. (theft of=) unlawful acquisition of the Veda; -sthala, n. N. of a town and of various villages; -sva, n. pro perty of a Brâhman; -haty&asharp;, f. murder of a Brâhman; -hán, m. murderer of a Brâhman; -hridaya, m. n. N. of a star (Capella).
brahmanirvāṇa n. extinction or absorption in Brahman (n.); -nishtha, a. absorbed in the contemplation of Brahman (n.); -nîda, n. resting-place of Brahman (n.); -pattra, n. Brahman's leaf=leaf of the Palâsa tree (Butea frondosa); -patha, m. path to Brahman (m. or n.); -pada, n. place of Brahman (n.); pârâyana, n. complete study or entire text of the Veda; -putrá, m. son of a priest or Brâhman; son of the god Brahman; kind of vegetable poison; N. of a large river rising in the eastern Himâlayas and falling into the bay of Bengal; N. of a lake; -pura, n. Brahman's citadel (in heaven); N. of a city (Theopolis): î, f. id.; ep. of the city of Benares; -puraka, m. pl. N. of a people; -pura½âkhya, a. named Brahmapura; -purâna, n. T. of a Purâna; -purusha, m. servant of the Brahman priest; servant of the god Brahman; -prakriti-ka, a. having Brahman as its source (world): -tva, n. origination from Brahman; -priya, a. found of devotion; -prî, a. id. (RV.); -bandhava, n. function of a priest's assistant; -bandhu, m. priest fellow (used contemptuously), unworthy Brâhman, Brâhman in caste only, nominal Brâhman; sp. Brâhman who does not perform the morning and the evening Samdhyâ ceremony (according to Sâyana); -bindu, m. Dot (Anusvâra) of Brahman, T. of an Upani shad; -bîga, n. seed of the Veda, the sacred syllable &open;om;&close; -bruvâna, pr. pt. Â. calling himself or pretending to be a Brâhman; -bhavana, n. abode of Brahman; -bhâgá, m. share of the Brahman priest; -bhâva, m. absorption in the Absolute; -bhâvana, a. manifesting or teaching the Veda; -bhid, a. dividing the one Brahman into many; -bhuvana, n. world of Brahman; -bhûta, pp. having become one with, i.e. absorbed in Brahman or the Abso lute; -bhûya, n. identification with or absorption in Brahman; rank of a Brâhman, Brâhmanhood; -bhûyas, a. becoming one with Brahman; n. absorption in Brahman; -bhrashta, pp. having forfeited sacred knowledge; -ma&ndot;gala-devatâ, f. ep. of Lakshmî; -matha, m. N. of a monastic school or college; -maya, a. (î) consisting or formed of Brahman; -maha, m. festival in honour of Brâhmans; -mîmâmsâ, f. inquiry into the nature of Brahman, the Vedânta philosophy; -yagñá, m. sacrifice of devotion=Vedic reci tation or study (one of the five daily sacri fices of the householder); -yasas, n.: -a, n. glory of Brahman; -yasas-in, a. possessing the glory of Brâhmans; -yúg, a. yoked by prayer = bringing the god in answer to prayer; -yoni, f. home of Brahman (n.); a. having one's home in Brahman; sprung from Brahman: -stha, a. abiding in Brahman (n.) as one's source; -rakshas, n. kind of evil demon; -ratna, n. valuable present bestowed on Brâh mans; -ratha, m. Brâhman's cart; -râkshasa, m. kind of evil demon; -râga, m. N.; -râta, m.given by Brahman, ep. of Suka; N. of Yâgñavalkya's father; -râsi, m. entire mass or circle of Vedic texts or sacred knowledge.
bhakta pp. (√ bhag) devoted, etc.; m. worshipper; n. food; meal: -kara, m. preparer of food, cook; -kkhanda, n. appetite; -tva, n. being a part of or belonging to (--°ree;); -da, -dâyaka, a.presenting food to (g.); -dâsa, m. one who serves in return for his daily food; -dvesha, m. aversion to food, lack of appetite; -dveshin, a. disliking food, lacking appetite; -pâtra, n. dish of food; -ruki, f. appetite; -rokana,a. stimulating appetite; -sarana, n. kitchen; -sâlâ, f. dining-hall; -½âkâ&ndot;kshâ, f. appetite; -½abhilâsha, m. id.; -½abhisâra, m. dining-room; -½aruki, f. aversion for food.
bhaṭṭi m. N. of the author of the Bhat tikâvya (by various commentators identified with Bhartrihari): -kâvya, n. the poem of Bhatti (sixth or seventh century a.d.), the main object of which, while describing the deeds of Râma, is to illustrate the forms of Sanskrit grammar.
bhagin a. prosperous, happy, fortunate, lucky; splendid, glorious: -î, f. sis ter (happy, as not being an only child but having a brother): -pati, m. sister's husband, brother-in-law, -suta, m. sister's son, nephew.
bhavabhaṅga m. annihilation of mundane existence; -bhâva, m. love of the world; -bhâvana, a. bestowing welfare: â, f. regarding anything as good fortune (--°ree;); -bhîru, a. fearing rebirth; -bhûti, f. for tunate existence; m. N. of a dramatic poet, author of the Mâlatîmâdhava, the Mahâvîra karita, and the Uttararâmakarita, who lived in the eighth century a.d.; -bhoga, m. plea sures of the world; -manyu, m. resentment against the world; -maya, a. proceeding from Siva; -mokana, a. releasing from mundane existence; -sarman, m. N.; -sa&ndot;gin, a. at tached to worldly existence; -samtati, f. continuous series of transmigrations; -sâyu- gya, n. union with Siva (after death); -sâra, m. ocean of existence.
bhasmita pp. reduced to ashes, an nihilated.
bhilla m. N. of a wild mountain tribe; prince of the Bhillas: î, f. female Bhilla.
bhūrikālam ac. ad. for a long time; -kritrima-mânikya-maya, a. con sisting of many spurious rubies; -gadgadam, a. with much stammering; -guna, a. multi plying greatly;(bh&usharp;ri)-ganman, a. having many births; -tâ, f. multiplicity, multitude; -tegas, a. having great lustre; m. N.: -a, a. id.; -toka, a. rich in children; -da, a. giving much, liberal; -dakshina, a. attended with liberal rewards (sacrifice); giving rich re wards, munificent; -d&asharp;van, a. (r-î) giving much, liberal; -dhâman, a. possessed of great might; -nidhana, a. perishing in many ways; -prayoga, a. frequently used; m. T. of a dictionary containing frequently used words; -bhoga, a. having many enjoyments; -retas, a. abounding in seed; -vasu, m. N.; -vikrama, a. of great valour; -vrishti, f. ex cessive rain; -sas, ad. variously; (bhûri)-sri&ndot;ga, a. many-horned; (-bh&usharp;ri)-sthâtra, a. having many stations, being in many places.
matākṣa a. skilled in dice; -½anu- gñâ, f. admission of a fallacy in one's own reasoning while insisting on a similar one in that of one's opponent.
madakara a. intoxicating; -karin, m. elephant in rut; -kala, a. passionately sweet (note); uttering soft sounds of love; drunk with passion; reeling with intoxica tion; being in rut, beginning to rut (elephant); -kârin, -krit, a. intoxicating; -kyút, a. 1. (V.) reeling with excitement, exhilarated with Soma; gladdening, exhilarating; 2. distilling temple-juice (elephant); -gala, n. temple juice (of elephants); -gvara, m.fever of pas sion or pride; -durdina, n. stream of temple juice; -dvipa, m. rutting elephant.
mada m. hilarity, exhilaration, rap ture, intoxication; passion for (--°ree;); wanton ness, lust; rut; pride, arrogance, presump tion, conceit (of, about, g. or --°ree;); intoxicating draught; honey; temple-juice of elephants.
madvan a. (RV.) addicted to joy or intoxication; exhilarating.
madvat a. exhilarating (Br.); con taining some derivative of √ 1. mad.
madya a. (V.) gladdening, exhilarat ing, intoxicating; n. spirituous liquor, sp. brandy: -kumbha, m. brandy-jar; -pa, a. drinking spirituous liquors; m. drunkard; -pâna, n. drinking of intoxicants; spirituous liquor; -bhânda, n. vessel for intoxicating drinks; -vikraya, m. sale of intoxicants; -½âkshepa, m. addiction to drink; -½âsattaka, m. N.
madhyā in. ad. (RV.) between (g.); meanwhile.
manas n. mind (in its widest sense as the seat of intellectual operations and of emotions), internal organ; understanding, intellect; soul, heart; conscience; thought, conception; imagination; cogitation, reflexion; inclination, desire, will; mood, disposition; in the philosophical systems manas is regarded as distinct from soul (âtman), of which it is only the instrument, and is (except in the Nyâya) considered perishable:-kri, make up one's mind, resolve; fix one's heart or affections upon any one (g.); -kri, pra-kri, dhâ, vi-dhâ, dhri, bandh, and nivesaya, direct the thoughts to, think of (d., lc., prati, or inf.); -sam-â-dhâ, collect oneself; in.mánasâ, in the mind; in thought or imagination; with all one's heart, will ingly; by the leave of (g.); manasâ½iva, as with a thought, in a trice; manasâ man, think of in one's mind, -gam, go to in thought =imagine, remember, -sam-gam, become unanimous; manasi kri, bear or ponder in mind, -ni-dhâ, impress on the mind, trea sure in the heart; meditate, -vrit, be pass ing in one's mind; manas is often used --°ree; a. with an inf. in -tu=wishing or intend ing to (e. g. prashtu-manas, desirous of inquiring).
manotā f. [nm. sg. of manótri treated as a f.], RV. VI, i. (which contains the word manótâ); deity to whom an offering is made while this hymn is recited.
mandasāna pt. joyous, glad, exhilarated, intoxicated (RV.).
mīmāṃsaka m. investigator, examiner (--°ree;); follower of the Mîmâmsâ philosophy.
mihilāropya N. of a town (v. l. mahilâ-).
mīmāṃsā f. [des. fr. √ man] deep reflexion, inquiry, examination, discus sion; opinion; discussion of a sacred text; designation of a philosophical system, which is divided into two distinct branches: the former, called Pûrvaor Karma-mîmâmsâ, and founded by Gaimini, is chiefly concerned with the correct interpretation of Vedic ritual; the latter, called Uttara-, Brahma-, or Sârî raka-mîmâmsâ,but best known under the name of Vedânta, and founded by Bâdarâ yana, is a pantheistic system discussing chiefly the nature of Brahman or the uni versal soul.
muktaka a. detached, independent; n. independent sloka (the meaning of which is complete in itself); simple prose (without compound words); -kantha, a. or -m, ad. with krand or rud, shout or cry (with relaxed throat=) at the top of one's voice; -kara, a. open-handed, liberal; -kesa, a. (â, î) having loose or dishevelled hair; -tâ, f., -tva, n. deliverance from the bonds of existence, final emancipation; -nidra, a.awakened; -bandh ana, a. released from bonds; -buddhi, a. having one's soul emancipated; -vasana, m. (having cast aside raiment), Jain monk (=dig-ambara); -sâpa, a. having a curse laid aside, released from a curse;-sikha, a. having the top-knot loosened, having the hair hanging down; -saisava, a. (having left childhood behind), grown up; -samsaya, a. free from doubt, undoubted; -sûryâ, a. f. with dis, quarter just quitted by the sun; -svâmin, m. N. of a temple; -hasta, a. open handed, bountiful, liberal.
muhur ad. [in a bewildering man ner], suddenly, in a moment (frequently with a following &asharp;; V.); for a moment, for a while (RV.); on the contrary (C.); every moment, repeatedly, incessantly(C.): rep. id.; muhur -muhur, now -now, at one time -at another.
muṣṭi m. f. clenched hand, fist; handful (also as a measure); handle, hilt (of a sword etc.); brief contents.
mūtroccāra m. (?) voiding urine and excrement: lc. while --.
mūṣikā f. rat, mouse: -½âkriti, a. shaped like a rat's tail; -½utkara, m. mole-hill.
mūṣika m. rat, mouse: -nirvise sha, a. not differing from a mouse; -vishâna, n. mouse's horn (a chimera); -sthala, n. mole-hill.
mūlaka a. (ikâ) having its root in, produced or derived from; n. radish; root; -karman, n. magic rites with roots; -kâr ana, n. original or prime cause; -krikkhra, m. n. penance consisting in eating onlyroots; -khânaka, m. digger of roots; -grantha, m. original text; -kkhinna, pp. cut off with the root, dissipated (hope); -kkheda, m. cutting down (a tree) by the root; -kkhedin, a. de stroying the text (super-cleverness);-ga, a. growing from the root (plant); formed on roots of trees (ant-hill); -tás, ad. below: w. â, from the root onwards; from the begin ning (relate); -tâ, f. being the root or source of (--°ree;); -tva, n. id.; -deva, m. N.; -dvâra, n. main door; -nikrintana, a. (î) cutting off by the root, destroying root and branch (--°ree;); -purusha, m. (root-man), male repre sentative of a family; -prakriti, f. primeval or unevolved matter (in the Sâ&ndot;khya phil.; also called pradhâna): pl. principal sovereigns to be considered in time of war; -pranihita, pp. known through spies from the beginning (thieves); -phala, n. roots and fruits; interest of capital; -bhava, a. growing from roots; -bhâga, m. lower part; -bhritya, m. heredi tary servant; -mantra, m. main or heading text; spell; -mantra-maya, a. formed of spells, taking effect like a spell; -râmâyana, n. original (i. e. Vâlmîki's) Râmâyana; -vakana, n. original words or text; -vat, a. supplied with (esculent) roots (place); stand ing upright; -vâpa, m. planter of (esculent) roots; -vinâsana, n. radical destruction; -vyasana-vritti-mat, a.following a calling which is a hereditarily vile occupation; -vyâdhi, m. main disease; -vratin, a. sub sisting exclusively on roots; -sâdhana, n. main instrument; -sthâna, n. base, founda tion; chief place; Multan; -sthâyin,a. ex isting from the beginning (Siva); -srotas, n. main stream of a river; -hara, a. taking away the roots, completely destroying (g.): -tva, n. complete ruin; -½âyatana, n. original abode or seat; -½âsin, a. subsisting on roots.
mṛta pp. √ 1. mri; m. dead man, corpse (also of animals); n. death; begging, begged food: -ka, m. n. dead man, corpse; n. a death; -kambala, m. winding-sheet; -kalpa, a. almost dead, insensible, in a trance; -kela, n. garment of the dead; -gâta, pp. born dead; -gîvana, a. (î) reviving the dead; -deha, m. dead body, corpse; -dhâra, a. bear ing a corpse; -niryâtaka, m. corpse-bearer; -pa, m. watcher of the dead; -purusha-sa rîra, n. human corpse; -pûrusha-deha, m. id.; -praga, a. whose children have died; -bhartrikâ, a. f. whose husband is dead; -mâ trika, a. whose mother is dead; -vat, ad. as if dead: âtmânam mritavat samdarsya, pretending to be dead, feigning death; -vas tra-bhrit, a. wearing the clothes of the dead; -sabda, m. report of any one's death; -sam- gîvana, a. bringing the dead to life; n., î, f. revival of a dead person; -samgîvin, a. re viving the dead, life-restoring; -strî, a. whose wife is dead; -hâra, -hârin, m. corpse-bearer.
mithila m. N. of a people (pl.); N. of a prince, founder of Mithilâ: â, f. N. of the capital of Videha.
maithila a. relating to Mithilâ; m. king of Mithilâ; people of Mithilâ (pl.): î, f. princess of Mithilâ, ep. of Sîtâ, wife of Râma.
moha m. [√ muh] loss of conscious ness, bewilderment; delusion, infatuation; folly, error; delusion of mind preventing dis cernment of the truth and making men believe in the reality of the world (phil.); stupefac tion, swoon; magical art for confounding an enemy: -m brû, say anything that leads to error; -m yâ, fall into error; ab. through folly or infatuation; mohas tatra na kâr yas te, don't allow yourself to be confused thereby.
yacchandas a. having which metre; -khîla, a. having which character; -khraddha, a. having which faith.
yathārthita pp. as requested, previously asked; -½arthi-tvam, ad. accord ing to the intention; -½arpita, pp. as de livered up; -½arha, a. according to deserts or merit, suitable: °ree;-or -m, ad. in accordance with merit or worth, worthily, suitably, justly: -tas, ad. id.; -labdha, pp. such as comes to hand; -lâbha, °ree;-or -m, ad. just as it hap pens to be; -li&ndot;gam, ad. according to the characteristic.
yathāpaṇyam ad. according to the commodity; -½aparâdha-danda, a. pun ishing in proportion to guilt; -parîttam, ad. as delivered up; -puram, ad. as before; -pûr va, a. being as before: (á)-m, ad. as before; in succession, one after the other; -pragñam, ad. to the best of one's knowledge; -pratya ksha-darsanam, ad. as if actually seen; -pra dishtam, ad. as prescribed, duly; -pradesam, ad. in its respective place; in the proper place; in all directions; according to precept; -pradhânam, ad. according to size; accord ing to precedence; -pravesam, ad. as one has entered; -prasnam, ad. in accordance with the questions; -prastutam, ad. as had al ready been begun, at length; -prânam, ad. according to one's strength, with all one's might; -prânena, in. ad. id.; -prâpta, pp. as fallen in with, the first that occurs; as resulting from circumstances, suitable; re sulting from a preceding grammatical rule: -m, ad. according to the rule, regularly; -prârthitam, ad. as requested; -phalam, ad. according to the produce; -balám, ad. according to one'spower, with all one's might; according to the condition of the army; -bîg am, ad. according to the seed; -buddhi, ad. to the best of one's knowledge; -bhâgám, ad. according to the share; in one's respective place; in the right place; -bhâganam, ad. respectively in the right place; -bhâva, m. condition of how it is, true state; fate; -½abhi preta, pp. wished for, desirable (--°ree;): -m, ad. according to desire, as any one (g.) likes; -½abhimata, pp. desired: -m, ad. according to desire, to one's heart's content, -desa, m. desired place, whatever place one likes; -½abhi rukita, pp. liked, favourite; -½abhilashita, wished for, desirable; -½abhîshta, pp.desired: -dis, f. place desired by each; -bhûtam, ad. according to what has happened, truly; -bhû mi, ad. into the respective country; -½abhy arthita, pp. previously requested; -ma&ndot;ga lam, ad. according to the respective custom; -mati, ad. as seems fit to any one (g.); to the best of one's understanding; -manas, ad. to one's heart's content; -mukhyam, ad. as re gards the chief persons; -mukhyena, in. ad. chiefly, above all; -½âmnâtam, ad. as handed down in the text.
yāt ab. (of rel. yá), ad. cj. (V.) as far as; as long as, while.
yāvat rel. a. (with its following cor. t&asharp;vat, so great etc.=) as great, much, many, far, long, manifold, or frequent as: yâvak karma dâru ka, (as much as=) nothing but skin and wood;yâvat tâvat, how much soever; iti yâvat, as much as, that is to say (frequent in commentators); n. y&asharp;vat, indc. as far, much, or often as, to what amount (gnly. w. following cor. -tâvat, so far etc.); as long as, while; meanwhile, just (w. 1 prs. pr. or 3 impv., to denote an intended action); till (w. pr., pot., ft., impf., aor., or ellipse of copula); as soon as (w. pr., pot., pf., aor., or ellipse of copula): na yâvat -tâvat, scarcely -when, no sooner -than; yâvan na, while not=till (w. pr., pot., ft., impf., or ellipse of copula); also=if not, whether not; na pa ram or kevalam -yâvat, not only -but even; y&asharp;vad yâvat -t&asharp;vat tâvat, as gradu ally -so; prp. w. (gnly. preceding) ac. during, for (e.g. a year); up to, as far as (e.g. one's house; sts. nm.+iti instead of ac.); till (e.g. the evening): adya yâvat, till to-day; w. following ab. till (rare); in. yâvatâ, as far or long as; till (pot.); as soon as (pr.); inas much as, since; w. na, while not=till; lc. y&asharp;vati, as far or as long as (cor. tâvati).
yoga m. [√ yug] yoking; team; vehi cle; equipment (of an army); performance, employment, use, application, of (g., --°ree;); remedy, cure; means, expedient; device, trick; spell, magic; fraud (°ree;-=spurious); opportunity; undertaking (V.); union, con tact, with (in. ± saha or --°ree;); combination, mixture; connexion, relation; connexion with, acquisition of (in., --°ree;); gain, profit; order, succession; aggregate, sum; fitness, propriety; strenuousness, exertion, endea vour, zeal, assiduity; occupation; mental concentration, systematic abstraction, Yoga system of philosophy; follower of the Yoga system; unity of the soul and nature (Sâm khya ph.); connexion of a word with its root, etymology, etymological meaning of a word; syntactical dependence of a word, construc tion; (concentrated sentence), grammatical rule; conjunction (of stars); constellation: in. yogena, by means of an expedient or stratagem; by means or in consequence of, in accordance with (--°ree;, also -yogât and -yoga tas); suitably, duly, in the correct manner; yogatas, id.; strenuously, assiduously.
rajas n. [dimness, region of clouds] 1. V.: sky, air, atmosphere (distinguished from div or svar, region of light, heaven, which is beyond; regarded as consisting of an upper and a lower stratum, hence often du., the lower and upper air; pl. the skies); vapour, mist, gloom; (dark=) ploughed soil, cultivated field (RV., rare); 2. C.: dust; grain of dust; pollen of flowers; menstrual discharge, menses; [quality inflaming or ob scuring the mind] passion (one of the three qualities, sattva, ragas, tamas, in phil.).
rāga m. [√ rag] colouring, dyeing; colour; redness; passion, vehement desire, love, affection or sympathy for, joy or delight in (lc. or --°ree;); (colouring), nasalization; love liness, beauty (of voice or song); musical mode (of which six are generally assumed, these being variously stated to be Srîrâga, Bhairava, Megha, Kausika, Hindola, Dîpaka; or Srî râga, Bhairava, Megha, Vasanta, Pañkama, Natanârâyana; or Srîrâga, Vasanta, Mâlava, Mallâra, Karnâta, and Hillola; sts. seven or twenty-six are spoken of).
liṅgavat a. having characteristic marks; having various genders; having a phallus (a certain Sivaite sect); -sarîra, n. the subtle body (phil.); -sâstra, n. treatise on grammatical gender; -stha,m. ascetic; -½anusâsana, n. doctrine of grammatical gender.
liṅga n. [anything attaching to an object] mark, token, sign, emblem, charac teristic; catchword; deceptive badge (rare, E.); proof, evidence; sign of guilt, stolen property; sign of sex, sexual organ; gram matical gender; Siva's phallus (as an object of worship); image of a god (rare); typical or subtle body (the indestructible original of the gross visible body: Vedânta phil.); nominal base (=prâtipadika: gr.): -deha, m. n. subtle body (phil.); -dhârana, n. bear ing of marks of identification; -nâsa, m. loss of characteristic marks; -pîtha, n. pedestal of a Siva phallus; -purâna, n. T. of a Purâna; -mâtra, n. intellect; -mûrti, a.having the form of a phallus (Siva).
līlā f. play, sport, pastime, diver sion, amusement; playful imitation of a lover; mere sport, child's play (=action easily performed); mere appearance, sem blance (--°ree;); dissimulation, disguise, pre tence; charm, grace: °ree;-and in. a-yâ, sportively, to amuse oneself; in sport=with the greatest ease; for mere appearance, feignedly: -kamala, n. toy-lotus, lotus for playing with; -kalaha, m. playful or feigned quarrel; -khela, a. playfully sportive; -½â gâra, n., -griha, n., -geha, n. pleasure house; -tâmarasa, n. toy-lotus, lotus for playing with; -nritya, n. playful dance; -padma, n. lotus for playing with; -½abga, n. id.; -½âbharana, n.sham ornament (e. g. a brace let of lotus fibres); -manushya, m. man in appearance only, man in disguise; -mand ira, n. pleasure house; -½ambuga, n. toy lotus.
vaṃśakara a. perpetuating a race; m. continuer of a family; N.; -karma-krit, m. worker in bamboo, basket-maker; -krit ya, n. function of a flute, flute-playing; -krama½âgata, pp. come down by family succession, lineally descended, hereditary; -krama½âhita-gaurava, a. highly esteemed by successive generations of the family; -gop tri, m. preserver of the family; -kintaka, m. genealogist; -kkhettri, m. (cutter off=) last of a family; -ga, a. made of bamboo; born in or belonging to the family of, sprung from a -family (--°ree;); belonging to the same family: with prâktanâh=ancestors; -dhara, a. perpetuating a family; m.continuer of a family; m. descendant; -nâdikâ, -nâdî, f. pipe of bamboo; -nâtha, m. chief of a race; -pattra, n. bamboo leaf; -pota, m. shoot of a cane and child of good family; -bâhya, a. re pudiated by the family; -brâhmana, n. list of ancient teachers; T.; -bhrit, m. perpetuator of a race; -bhogya, fp. to be enjoyed by successive generations, hereditary; -maya, a. (î) made of bamboo; -râgya-dhara, a. perpetuating race and dominion; -lûna, pp. deprived of one's family, alone in the world; -vardh ana, a. increasing or perpetuating a race; m. son; -vardhin, a. id.; -visuddha, pp. unblemished or sound in the cane; of pure lineage; -vistara, m.complete genealogy; -sthiti, f. perpetuation of a family.
vatsa m. [vat(a)s-á, yearling], calf: young of an animal; child (vc. often as a term of endearment=my dear); year (only in tri-vatsá); N.; N. of a country: pl. its inhabitants.
vatsikā f. female calf, heifer; -ín, a. having a calf; -i-man, m. childhood, early youth; -îya, a. watching the calves; -bâlaka, m. boy watching calves.
vadha m. vanquisher, slayer (V.); deadly weapon, esp. Indra's bolt (V.); slay ing, slaughter, murder, destruction (of or by, --°ree;); capital or (more commonly) corporal punishment (in law-books); annihilation (of things); prevention (rare): -ka, m. murderer; executioner; -karma½adhikârin, m. execu tioner; -kâma, a. desirous of killing; -kâm yâ, f. intention of striking or killing; -gîvin, a. living by the killing ofanimals, butcher; hunter.
vapra m. n. [heap thrown up: √ 2. vap] mound; earthwork, rampart, mud wall; high river-bank (rare); slope of a hill, de clivity (rare): -kriyâ, -krîdâ, f. playful butting (of an elephant or bull) against a bank or mound; -½abhighâta, m. butting (of a bull) against a bank or mound.
vapana n. 1. shearing, shaving; 2. sowing; -anîya, fp. n. one should sow; -&asharp;, f. 1. caul, omentum; fat (comm.); 2. mound, anthill (only --°ree; with valmîka-).
valmīka m. n. ant-hill; n. N. of a locality: -½agra, n. N. of a peak of Râma giri.
vākkalaha m. strife of words, dis pute; -kelî, f. jest with words, witty con verse; -kshata, n. wound inflicted with words; -kakshus, n. sg. speech and look; -kapala, a. inconsiderate in speech, talking idly; -kâp alya, n. inconsiderateness in talk; -khala, n. semblance of a voice; sg. & pl. lying talk; prevarication (in argument); -khalya, n. word-arrow, wounding speech; -patu, a. clever in speech, eloquent: -tâ, f.fluency of speech, eloquence; -páti, m. lord of speech; Saiva saint who has attained a certain stage of perfection: -râga, m. N. of a poet; -pa tha, m. opportunity for speech; province of speech (atîta --, a. indescribable): -pâram avâpita, become indescribable; -p&asharp;, a. protecting speech; -pâtava, n. eloquence; -pârushya, n. roughness of voice; scurrilous language; -pushtâ, f. N. of a princess: -½ata vî, f. N. of a forest named after her; -push pa, n. pl. flowers of speech; -pralâpa, m. elo quence; -prasasta, pp. expressly sanctioned as fit for food; -prasâri-kâma, a. desirous of one (i.e. a child) progressing in speech.
encl. pcl. or (following, but metr. sts. preceding); either or not, optionally; (= iva), like, as, as it were; (=eva), just, etc. (rare); but, however (rare); even, even sup posing (with ft.; rare); after inter. or rel.= possibly, pray: vâ -vâ, either -or (when there are two clauses, the vb. of the first only is as a rule accented); na ± vâ -vâ, kim vâ -kim vâ or na vâ, neither -nor; vâ na vâ, either -or not; perhaps -or perhaps not; whether -or not; yadi vâ -vâ, whether -or; in a sentence containing more than two members vâ is nearly always repeated, while a negative at the beginning of the series need not be repeated as its sense runs through all the remaining members (=not, either -or or); in this case vâ often interchanges with ka and api, or is combined with the pcls. api (± punah), atha (± u, api, or punah), yad, yadi, or utá.
vācaspati m. lord of speech (a genius presiding over human life), ep. of Soma, Visvakarman, Pragâpati, Brahman; esp. of Brihaspati as lord of eloquence (teacher of the gods and regent of the planet Jupiter); N. of a Rishi, a lexicographer, a philosopher, etc.
vācaspatya a. connected with Vâkaspati (Siva); composed by the philoso pher Vâkaspati; n. eloquence.
vikṛti f. transformation, altera tion, change, modification, variation, changed condition; apparition, spectre; product; de rivative of Prakriti (=vikâra in Sâmkhya phil.); derivative form (in gr.; rare); de velopment (of seed; Br.); change of the nor mal mental condition, perturbation; change of feeling, hostility, defection: -m gam, yâ, vrag, or pra-pad, be changed: -mat, a. liable to change; indisposed, ill.
vikṣepa m. scattering about; cast ing, throwing; moving to and fro, waving, tossing (ord. mg.); inattention, distraction; projection or extension (a power of ignor ance which causes the world to seem real: Vedânta phil.); -kshepana, n. moving to and fro; -kshepa-sakti-mat, a. possessing the power of projection or extension.
vikrīḍa m. playground; toy: â, f. play, sport; -krîdita, (pp.) n. play, sport; child's play, action performed with the great est ease; -krîta, pp. (√ krî) sold; n. sale; -krushta, pp. (√ krus) n. cry for help; -kre tavya, fp. [√ krî] to be sold, salable; -kre tri, m. seller; -kreya, fp. to be sold, vendi ble; n. (?) selling price; -krosa, m. cry, -for help; -krósana, m. N. of a mythical being; N. of a king; -kroshtri, m. one who calls out or cries for help.
vigraha m. separation; division; independence of a word (opp. composition; gr.); analysis of a compound (gr.); discord, quarrel, strife, war (ord. mg.), with (in. ± saha, sârdham, sâkam, g. with upari,lc., --°ree;); (separate=) individual form or shape, body (common mg.; also of the shape of a rain bow); element (in Sâmkhya phil.); ornament (E.): -m kri, make war; -m kri, grah, or upa½â-dâ, assume a form.
videha m. [=videgha] N. of a country in the modern Tirhut, with the capi tal Mithilâ: pl. the people; sg. prince of Videha: -nagarî, f.=Mithilâ.
vipruṣ f. (nm. -prút) drop; spot, speck, spark; phenomenon (--°ree; w. âskarya-): pl. drops falling from the mouth while speak ing; -prusha, m. or n. drop; -prekshana, n. looking round; -prekshita, n.glance; -prekshitri, m. one who looks round.
visukha a. joyless; -suta, a. child less; -suhrid, a. friendless.
vīṭā f. round pebble (plaything of children and held in the mouth as a penance): i-kâ, f. button (of a garment); ball, esp. pieces of areca-nut rolled up with spices in a betel leaf.
vīra m. [vigorous: √ 1. vî] man, esp. man of might, hero; champion, chief, leader; sg. & pl. men, folk; men, retainers (pl.); hero, ep. of gods, esp. Indra (V.); husband (E., P.); male child, son, coll.male progeny (V.); heroic sentiment (rh.); N.
vṛthākarman n. action done at will, non-religious act; -½âkâra, m. useless phenomenon or thing; a. whose form is vain or illusory; -tva, n. futility; -½anna, n. food for one's own use only; -palita, a. grown grey in vain; -pasughna, a. slaying cattle for pleasure (not for sacrifice); -pragâ, a. f. having borne children in vain; -mâmsá, n. flesh taken at random (not conforming to prescribed rules), flesh meantfor one's own use only (Br., C.); -vâk, f. unsuitable or un true speech; -vâdin, a. speaking falsely; -vriddha, pp. grown old in vain (i. e. without learning wisdom); -½udyama, a. exerting oneself in vain.
vedānta m. end of the Veda (rare); end of Vedic study (rare); text forming the conclusion or the essence of the Veda, i.e. an Upanishad and the theologico-philosophical doctrine based thereon (Uttara-mîmâmsâ or Vedânta system): -krit, m. author of the Vedântas; -sâra, m. essence of the Vedânta, T. of a compendium of the Vedânta system; -½abhihita, pp. contained in the Vedânta; -½upagata, pp.accruing from the Vedânta (reward).
vaijanana a. relating to child birth (viganana); ± mâs, m. last month of pregnancy.
vaināśika a. believing in com plete annihilation (vinâsa); m. Buddhist: -tantra, n., -samaya, m. doctrine or system of the Buddhists.
vaiśvānara a. (&isharp;) belonging to all men; universal, dwelling or worshipped everywhere, generally known (Agni, sacri fice; V., C.); consisting of all men, present in full numbers (V.); m. fire; sun, sunlight (V.); intellect conditioned by the aggregate (Vedânta phil.); N.: (a)-datta, m. N.; î-ya, a. relating to or treating of Vaisvânara.
vyaṣṭi f. obtainment, success (V.); single or individual object, individuality (Ve dânta phil.; opp. sam-ashti); -samashti-tâ, f. individuality or collectiveness.
śaṃkara a. (î) causing prosperity, beneficent (C.); m. ep. of Rudra or Siva (V., C.); N., esp. of a philosopher, regenerator of Brâhmanism (born 788 a. d.): -giri, m. N. of a mountain; -gaurî½îsa, m. N. of a tem ple; -datta, m. N. of a Brâhman; -priyâ, f. Siva's wife; -vardhana, m. N.; -varman, m. N.; -vrishabha, m. Siva's (white) bull; -siddhi, m. N.; -svâmin, m. N. of a Brâh man; -½âkârya, m. N. of a celebrated scholar, author of numerous philosophical commen taries, reformer of Saivism (died 820 a. d.).
śabda m. sound; voice, tone, note; noise; word; C.: word-ending, suffix (gr., rare); name, appellation, title; verbal author ity (as a pramâna or source of knowledge, phil.): -m kri, utter a sound, cry aloud; sabdena, by word, expressly.
śabara m. pl. N. of a savage tribe in the Deccan (Br., S.); sg. Sabara man, î, f. Sabara woman; savage, barbarian (C.,= kirâta, pulinda, bhilla); m. N.: -ka, m. savage; -svâmin, m. N. of an author.
śārīraka a. bodily; n. = sârî raka-sûtra: -sûtra, n. the Brahma or Ve dânta Sûtra of Bâdarâyana, the aphorisms of the Vedânta philosophy.
śiśuka m. infant; -kâla, m. child hood; -kândrâyana, n. child's lunar pen ance; -gana, m. children; -tâ, f., -tva, n. childhood; childishness; -desya, a. border ing on childhood, still almost a child; -nâga, m. young serpent; N.; -pâla, m. N. of a king of the Khedis, son of Damaghosha, slain by Krishna: -vadha, n. Death of Sisupâla, T. of an epic poem by Mâgha; (sísu)-mat, a. possessed of children or young (V.); -mâra, m. porpoise.
śiśu m. [grower: √ sû] child, infant; young (of animals; also of young plants and the recently risen sun): in cpds. gnly. --°ree;; N. of Skanda; N.
śīta pp. [√ syâ] cool, cold (V., C.); n. coldness, chilliness (C.).
śītālu a. sensitive to cold, shiver ing, chilled.
śītāṃśu a. cold-rayed; m. moon: -mat, m. moon; -½adhivâsa, a. living in cool places or cooling; -½ârta, pp. tortured by cold, chilled.
śaila a. (î) made of stone; stony; m. rock; hill, mountain: -kanyâ, f. daughter of the mountain (Himâlaya), Pârvatî; -kû- ta, mountain-peak; -guru, a. heavy as a mountain; chief of mountains, Himâlaya;-tanayâ, f. daughter of the mountain, Pârvatî -tâ, f. condition of a mountain; -duhitri, f. daughter of the mountain, Pârvatî; -dhâ tu, m. mineral; -patha, m. mountain path; -pura, n. N. of a town; -maya, a. (î) made of stone; -mriga, m. wild goat; -râga, m. king of mountains, Himâlaya; -sikhara, m. moun tain peak; -sekhara, m. id.; -sri&ndot;ga, n. id.; -sâra, a. hard as a rock; -sutâ, f. daughter of the mountain, Pârvatî: -kânta, m.husband of Pârvatî, Siva; -setu, m. embankment of stone.
śaiśava n. [sisu] childhood; child- ishness, stupidity (rare): -yaunîya, a. re presenting childhood and youth.
ślāghana a. boasting; n., â, f. prais ing; -anîya, fp. to be praised, praiseworthy, honourable: -tâ, f. praiseworthiness; -â, f. boastfulness; commendation, praise; fame; -in, a. boasting or proud of (--°ree;); haughty; famous, for (--°ree;); praising; -ya, fp. to be praised, praiseworthy, honourable: -m, ad. worthily, -tara, cp. greatly to be praised, -tâ, f. fame.
ṣaṣṭhī f. sixth (sc. tithi) day of a fortnight; sixth (sc. vibhakti) case, genitive; personification of the sixth day after the birth of a child (when the main risks are over): -gâgara, m. watch on the sixth day after the birth of a child (a certain ceremony); -tatpurusha, m. genitive Tatpurusha compound (in which the first member has the sense of a genitive); -samâsa, m. compound in which the first member has the sense of a genitive.
ṣaḍgava m. n. team of six bulls; n. six cows; --°ree;, aggregate of six (animals); -guna, a. sixfold; having six good qualities; m. pl. qualities perceived by the six (i. e. the five senses and Manas); six excellences; six expedients (of a king in foreign politics); -gunî-kri, multiply by six; -guru-sishya, m. (pupil of six teachers), N. of a commentator on Kâtyâyana's Sarvânukramanî (12th century); -ga, m. (produced fromor based on the other six notes), the first note of the Indian gamut; -darsana, n. the six philosophical systems; a. conversant with the six philosophical systems; -bhâga, m. sixth part, one-sixth, sp. as a tax imposed by kings (w. ab. or g.): -bhâg, a. receiving one-sixth of (g.); -bhuga, a. six-armed; hexagonal; -rasa, a. having the six tastes (food); -râtrá, m. period or celebration of six days; -vaktra, a. hav ing six mouths; m. ep. ofSkanda: î, f. six faces; -varga, m. aggregate or group of six; the five senses and Manas; the six inward enemies of man (kâma, krodha, lobha, harsha, mâna, mada; sts. --°ree; with ripuor satru-); -vimsá, a. (î) twenty-sixth; consisting of twenty-six; -vimsati, f. twenty-six: -tama, a. twenty-sixth; -vimsat-ka, a. consisting of twenty-six; (shád)-vidha, a. sixfold; (shád) vidhâna, a. forming a sixfold order.
saṃvadana n. conversation, talk; -vánana, a. (î) V.: conciliating, propitiat ing; C.: encouraging (liberality, --°ree;); n. (V., C.) means of conciliation; subduing spell; -vara, m. n. incorr. for sambara;-várana, 1. m. N. (C.); n. enclosure (as place of sacri fice; V.); concealment, secrecy (C.); 2. n. (C.) choice (of a husband): -srag, f. wreath given by a girl to the man of her choice; -varanîya, fp. to be concealed; -vargá,a. √ vrig] rapacious (Agni; V.); -várgam, abs. snatching up, sweeping together (RV.); -varta, m. [rolling together: √ vrit] dense mass (of people); cloud charged with rain; end or dissolution of the world; N. (C.;á, RV.1): -ka, a. (rolling together), destroying all things at the end of the world (fire etc.); m. fire of universal destruction: pl. fires of hell; -vartikâ, f. (rolled up leaf=) young lotus petal; -vardhana, a. increasing, pro moting; m. N.; n. growing up (of a child); rearing (of a child); success; promoting; -vardhanîya, fp. to be reared (child); to be maintained (servants); to be increased or fos tered (virtue); -valana, n., â, f. (hostile) en counter; mixture, union; -vasati, f. dwell ing together; -vásana, n. dwelling-place (RV.1); (sám)-vasu, m. fellow-dweller (V.); -vaha, m. N. of one of the seven winds; -v&asharp;k, f. colloquy (V.); -vâdá, m. conversation (V., C.), with (in. ± saha, lc., --°ree;); agreement, conformity, correspondence, similarity, equal ity (C.): (a)-ka, a. agreeing; m. N.; -vâd ana, n. agreement; -vâdin, a. conversing; agreeing or harmonizing, with (g., --°ree;); -vâ ra, m. contraction of the vocal chords (in pronouncing a sound), obtuse articulation (opp. vivâra); impediment (v. r.); -vârya, fp. to be concealed; -vâsa, m. dwelling to gether, with (in. ± saha, --°ree;); cohabitation, with (--°ree;); settlement, dwelling; common abode (rare); -vâsin, a. 1. clothed in (--°ree;); 2. dwelling together; --°ree;, dwelling in, inha biting; m. fellow-dweller; -vâha, m. ex tortion, oppression: -ka, a.stroking (--°ree;); m., i-kâ, f. shampooer; -vâhana, n. passage (of clouds); stroking with the hand (±hasta-, of limbs etc., --°ree;); -vâhya, fp. to be borne; to be exhibited (in a-).
sagaṇa a. attended by a troop, sur rounded by (in.; V.); attended by his retinue (C.); -gadgada, a. falteringly uttered: -m, ad. falteringly; -gadgada-gir, a. with a faltering voice; -gandha, a. smelling; having the same smell as (in., --°ree;); related (Pr.); proud (v. r. -garva); (sá)-gara, m. [pro vided with moisture], atmosphere, air (V., rare); N. of a mythical king of Ayodhyâ, whose 60,000 sons while digging up the earth to recover a sacrificial horse, were burnt by the sage Kapila; the Ganges, brought down from heaven by Bhagîratha, a descendant of Sagara, to purify their remains, flowed with their ashes into the sea, which was called Sâgara in their honour (C.): pl. the sons of Sagara; -garbha, a. pregnant, by (in., ab.); (sá)-garbh-ya, a. born from the same womb; -garva, a. exulting, arrogant; proud of (lc., --°ree;): -m, ad. proudly; -guna, a.furnished with a string; together with the string; possessed of qualities or virtues; -gun-in, a. virtuous (rare); -gulika, a. along with a pill; -gotra, a. being of the same kin, related to (g., --°ree;); -gauravam, ad. with dignity.
saṃcaya m. sg. & pl. accumulation, hoard, store, wealth, quantity, collection; gathering, collecting (rare): d. in order to have more; -kayana, n. gathering, collecting; -kaya-vat, a. possessed of wealth, rich; -kay ika, a. having provisions (only --°ree;); -kará, a. go ing about (mûrti-, with a body=incarnate); together, simultaneous (V.); m. place for walk ing, road, path, passage; evolution (in Sâ&ndot; khya phil.); -kárana, a. (î) suitable for going on, passable, converging (V.); n. navigation (of the sea: ac.; RV.); motion, from (ab.), in (lc., --°ree;), by means of (--°ree;); -karishnu, a. moving about, roaming; -karvana, n. chew ing; -kalana, n. trembling, quaking; -kâra, m. walking about, wandering, roaming, driv ing; motion; transit, passage; entrance, portal; transition or transference to (--°ree;); track (of wild animals), road (rare): -ka, m.guide; -kâranîya, fp. to be wandered through; -transferred to (lc.); -kârita, cs. pp. (√ kar) set in motion, worked; -kârin, a. (n-î) walk ing about, wandering, roaming, moving, mov able (in, lc., --°ree;); penetrating into (--°ree;); trans mitted, infectious, hereditary (disease); com ing in contact with, contiguous to (in.); carried with one (umbrella); being in, en gaged with (--°ree;); accessory (sentiment, etc.); taking with one (--°ree;);-kârya, fp. accessible (in a-); produced by (--°ree;); -kikîrshu, des. a. intending to perform; -kiti, f. piling; col lecting, saving; -kintya, fp. to be considered; -regarded as (-vat); -kinu½âna-ka, a. oc cupied with collecting(wealth); -keya, fp. to be accumulated; -kodayitavya, fp. to be urged on; -khettri, m. dispeller (of doubts).
sattarka m. orthodox system of philosophy.
satkathā f. good conversation or tale; -kartri, m. benefactor; -karman, n. good work, virtuous act; a. performing good actions; -kalâ, f. fine art; -kavi, m. good or true poet: -tva, n. true poetic gift;-kâra, m. sg., pl. kind treatment, hospitable recep tion, hospitality; praise, favour (of a king, --°ree;): -½arha, a. worthy of hospitable treat ment; -kârya, fp. effected; deserving of honour or hospitality; n. necessary exist ence of the effect (as inherent in the cause: in Sâ&ndot;khya phil.): -vâda, m. theory of the actual existence of the effect, -vâdin, m. ad herent of this theory; -kâvya, n. good poem; -kîrti, f. good reputation; a. having a --; -kula, n. good or noble family; a. belonging to a --; -krita, pp. honoured, treated hos pitably; n. honourable reception; -kriti, f. kind treatment, hospitable reception, hos pitality; -kritya, gd. having entertained hospitably; -kriyâ, f. putting in order, pre paration (rare); sg., pl. kind treatment, hos pitable reception, hospitality (ord. mg.); cele bration (of a wedding, --°ree;); -kshetra, n. good field.
sadvaṃśa m. beautiful cane; noble race; a. having a fine hilt (sword) and of noble race (-tva, n. abst. n.): -gâta, pp. sprung from a noble race.
saparyāṇa a. saddled; -palâsa, a. covered with leaves (branch; Br., S.); -pâ da, a. together with a quarter: -laksha, m. or n. one hundred and twenty-five thousand; -pâla, a. attended by a herdsman; -pinda, a. sharing the funeral cake, related to any one (g.) as far as the sixth generation: -tâ, f. kinship as far as the sixth generation; -pind î-karana, n. turning into a Sapinda relative, admission to orperformance of the first Srâd dha after a death; -pitrika, a. together with the father or fathers; -pitri-râganya, a. to gether with the royal members among the fathers; -pidhâna, a. provided with a lid; -putra, a. together with one's son or children; -with the calf: -ka, a. (ikâ) together with one's little son, -dâra, a. with son and wife; -pulaka, a. bristling, thrilled: -m, ad.; -pushpa, a. flowering (tree); -pûrva, a. possessed by one's ancestors; together with the preceding letter.
samīkṣā f. perceiving, behold ing; desire to see; glance; opinion (regard ing, prati); deep insight; -îkshitavya, fp. to be found out; -îkshya, fp. id.; n. Sâ&ndot; khya system of philosophy.
sarvakarman n. pl. all kinds of works, rites, or occupations; 1. -kâma, m. pl. all kinds of desires; 2. (á)-kâma, a. wish ing everything; fulfilling all wishes; possess ing everything wished for; m. N. of a son of Rituparna; -kâmika, a. fulfilling all wishes; obtaining all one's desires; -kâmin, a. id.; -kâlam, ad. at all times, always (w. na, never); -kâle, lc. id.; -kâla-mitra, n. friend at all times; -kâsham, abs. w.√ kash, ex haust completely; -kshaya, m. destruction of the universe; -ga, a. all-pervading, omni present; -gana, m. the whole throng; a. (sárva- or sarvá-) having or forming a com plete company (V.); -gata, pp. all-pervading, universally prevalent; omnipresent: papra- kkha½anâmayam sarvagatam, he asked after their universal health=whether they were well in every respect: -tva, n. universal dif fusion, omnipresence; -gandha-vaha, a. wafting perfumes of all kinds; -gâtra, n. pl. all limbs; -guna, m. pl. all excellences; -grâsam, abs. w. √ gras, devour entirely; -m-kasha, a. wearing out entirely, exceed ingly cruel; all-pervading: â, f. T. of Mal linâtha's commentary on the Sisupâla-va dha; -karu, m. N. (Br.); -gana, m. every one; -ganîna, a. relating or belonging to every one; -git, a. all-conquering; -gña, a. all-knowing, omniscient (gods or men, esp. ministers and philosophers); m. N.; -gña-tâ, f., -gña-tva, n. omniscience; -gña-nârâya- na, m. N. of a scholar; -gña-mitra, m. N., -gñam-manya, a. considering oneself omni scient: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -gñâna-maya, a.containing all knowledge.
sarṣapa m. mustard; mustard seed; grain of mustard seed (as a measure of weight of very various value): -sneha, m. mustard oil; -½aruna, m. a demon hostile to children.
sarvaśūnya a. entirely empty: -tâ, f. complete void; theory that everything is non-existent, nihilism, -tva, n. id.: -vâdin, m. nihilist; -samhârin, a. all-destroying; -sa-guna, a. possessing excellences in every thing; -sama-tâ, f. impartiality towards everything; (á)-samriddha, pp. entirely well arranged (V.); -sampatti, f. success in everything; abundance of everything; -sam panna, pp. provided with everything: -sas ya, a. having abundant corn everywhere (earth); -saha, a. enduring everything; -sâdhana, a. accomplishing everything; -sâdhârana, a. (â, î) common to all; -sâdhu, ad. very good (as an exclamation); -sâmân ya, a.common to all; -siddhârtha, a. having all one's aims accomplished, having every thing one desires; -sukha-krit, a. causing universal happiness; (sárva)-sena, a. leading all his host (RV.); -sthâna-gavâta, m. N. of a Yaksha; -sva, n. entire property; --°ree;, entirety, whole, or sum of: -phal-in, a. with all their goods and fruits; -svarna-maya, a. (î) entirely golden; -hara, a. appropriating everything; all-destroying (death); -hara- na, n.confiscation of the entire property; -hâra, m. id.: -m, abs. confiscating his whole property; -hâsya, fp. derided by all; -hút, a. offered completely (sacrifice; V.); -huti, f. entire sacrifice (Br.).
sarvadeva m. pl. all the gods; -devatâ-maya, a. (î) containing all deities; -devatyã, a. sacred to or representing all the gods; -deva-maya, a. (î) containing or representing all gods; -desîya, a. coming from every country; -daivatya, a. representing all gods; -dravya, n. pl. all things; -dhar ma-maya, a. containing --, -vid, a. knowing all laws; -nara, m. every one; -nâma-tva, n. pronominal nature; -nâman, n. (general name), pronoun; -nâma-sthâna, n. case termination added to the strong base; -nâsa, m. complete lack; loss of everything, com plete ruin: -m kri, lose everything; -niyan tri, m. all-subduer: -tva, n. abst. n.; -patta maya,a. made of fabrics of all kinds; -path îna, a. occupying the whole road; -prabhu, m. lord of all; -prâna, m.: in. with all one's might; -prâyaskittá, a. (&isharp;) atoning for every thing (Br.); n. (V.) expiation for everything; a certain libation in the Âhavanîya; -prâ yaskitti, f. complete atonement; -bhaksha, a. eating or devouring everything, omnivor ous; -bhakshin, a. id.; -bhâva, m. whole heart or soul; complete satisfaction:in., °ree;--, with one's whole soul (love etc.): pl. all ob jects; -bhûta, pp. being everywhere; n. pl. °ree;--, all beings: with na, no being: -krit, a. framing all beings, -maya, a. (î) containing or representing all beings, -½âtman, m. soul of all beings; -bhûmi, a. owning the whole earth; -bhogya, fp. advantageous to all; -ma&ndot;gala, a. universally auspicious: â, f. ep. of Durgâ (sts. also of Lakshmî); -manorama, a. delighting every one; -máya, a. (î) con taining everything; -mahat, a. greatest of all: -tara, cpv. greater than all the rest; -mâmsa½ada, a. eating every kind of flesh; -mâya, m. N. of a Râkshasa; -medhá, m. universal offering (a ten days' Soma sacrifice); -medhya-tva, n. universal purity; -yagña, m. every sacrifice: pl. all sacrifices; -yatna, m. every effort: in. with all one's might, to the best of one's ability; -yatna- vat, a. making every possible effort; -yoni, f. source of all; -yoshit, f. pl. all women; -ratna, m. N.: -maya, a. formed of all gems; entirely studded with jewels, -samanvita, pp. possessed of all jewels; -rasa, m. all kinds of juices or fluids (pl. or °ree;--); every taste: pl. all kinds of palatable food; -râtra, m. (?) the whole night: °ree;-or -m, ad. the whole night through; (sárva- AV., or sarvá- SB.)-rûpa, a. (V.) having all colours; having or assum ing all forms; of all kinds; -½ritu-ka, a. habitable in every season (house); -li&ndot;ga, a. having all genders, adjectival; -loká, m. V., C.: the whole world; C.: the whole people; every one: pl. or °ree;--, all beings; every one: -bhayamkara, a. appalling to the whole world, -mahesvara, m. ep. of Siva and of Krishna; -loha, a. entirely red; n. metals of all kinds (°ree;--): -maya, a. (î) entirely of iron; -vâram, ad. all at once, simultaneously; -vikrayin, a. selling all kinds of things; -vigñân-in, a. knowing everything: (-i)-tâ, f. omniscience; -víd, a. omniscient; -vinâsa, m. entire destruction; -vinda, m. a certain mythical being; -vishaya, a. relating to everything, general; (sárva)-vîra, a. all-heroic, consisting of, relating to, accompanied by or leading all men or heroes (V.); -ved asá, a. attended by a gift of all one's goods (sacrifice; V.); bestowing all his property on priests after a sacrifice (C., rare); n. en tire property (V.): -dakshina, a. attended with a gift of all one's property as a sacrificial fee (sacrifice; V., C.); -vedin, a. omniscient; knowing all the Vedas; -vainâsika, a. be lieving in complete annihilation; m. Bud dhist; -vyâpad, f. complete failure; -vyâp in, a. all-pervading; -vrata, n. universal vow; a. all-vowing; -sakti, f. entire strength: in. with all one's might; -sa&ndot;kâ, f. suspicion of every one.
sasākṣika a. occurring before witnesses: -m, ad. in the presence of wit nesses; -sâgara, a. together with the oceans; -sâdhana, a. having means; together with forces; -sâdhvasa, a. dismayed, terrified: -m, ad.; -sâdhvî-ka, a. together with Arun dhatî; -sâra, a. firm, strong: -tâ, f. strength; -sârtha, a. with a caravan; -sita½utpala mâlin, a. having a wreath of white lotuses; -suta, a. together with sons orchildren; -sura, a. together with the gods; -suhrid, a. having friends; -saurabha, a. fragrant; -saurâshtra, a. together with the Saurâsh tras; -sthâna, a. occupying the same position as (g.); produced in the same part of the mouth as (g., --°ree;); -sthûna-kkhinna, pp. hewn down together with the stump.
sahapāṃsukrīḍana n. play ing with sand together (in childhood), -krîd ita, pp. having been a (sand) play-mate; -pinda-kriyâ, f. common offering of the fu neral cake; -prayâyin, m. fellow-traveller; -prasthâyin, a. travelling with one; m. travelling companion; -bhasman, a. together with the ashes (Br., S.); -bhâva, m. commu nity; inseparable connexion; -bhâvanika, a. together with Bhâvanikâ; -bhâvin,a. connected, with (--°ree;); -bhû, a. born with one, innate, natural; n. counterpart of (g.); -bhog ana, n. eating in company, with (--°ree;); joint enjoyment of (g.); -manas, a. sensible; -mâda, m. joint fight; -yagña, a.together with the sacrifice; -yâyin, a. accompanying; m. fellow-traveller; -yaugamdharâyana, a. with Yaugamdharâyana.
sākṣin m., n-î, f. eye-witness, observer, witness (in court), of (g., lc., --°ree;); m. subject (in phil.; opp. object).
sāṃkhya a. [samkhyâ] relating to grammatical number; m. calculator, delibera tor; adherent of the Sâmkhya doctrine; n. the philosophical system, attributed to Kapila, which enumerates the twenty-five Tattvas or principles (an evolutionist doctrine): -puru sha, m. the universal soul in the Sâmkhya system; -yoga, n. the Sâmkhya and the Yoga systems; m. the theistical Sâmkhya Yoga: -vâdin, m. adherent of thetheistical Sâmkhya-Yoga.
sāpatneya a. (î) born of a rival wife; -ya, a. based on rivalry, hereditary (enmity); born of a rival wife; n. relation ship of step-children; rivalry among wives of the same husband: -ka, n. rivalry.
sāpatya a. having children; -½apa trapa, a. ashamed, embarrassed; -½âpad, a. being in distress or difficulties; -½apadesam, ad. under some pretext; -½apamâna, a. at tended with contempt; -½aparâdha, a. guilty, criminal; erroneous; -½aparânta, a. together with the country of Aparânta; -½apavâda ka, a. liable to exception; -½apahnava, a. dissembling; concealed, veiled; -½apâya, a. struggling with adversity; attended with danger, dangerous.
sāyaṇa m. N. of celebrated commen- tator (died 1387; also called Sâyana-mâdhava and Sâyana½âkârya) on numerous Vedic, philosophical, and grammatical works.
sāvaka a. (ikâ) having borne a child [√ 2. su].
siṃhāvalokana n. lion's backward glance: in. or -nyâyena, on the principle of the lion's backward glance, i. e. treating a subject retrospectively while pro ceeding with it; -½avalokita, n. id.;-½âsa na, n. lion's seat, throne.
siddhāṅganā f. female Siddha; -½añgana, n. magical ointment; -½âdesa, m. prediction of a soothsayer; (whose predic tions are fulfilled), soothsayer; -½anta, m. established conclusion, demonstrated truth, settled doctrine; true logical conclusion (following on the refutation of the objection raised: phil.); astronomical treatise; a class of works among Buddhists and Jains: -kau mudî, f. Moonlight (=elucidation) of settled conclusions: T. of a grammar by Bhattogi, -dharma½âgama, m. canonical law.
siddhi f. [√ 2. sidh] hitting of a mark (lc.); accomplishment, performance, ful filment, complete attainment, success (sg., pl.; ord. mg.); getting the better of, cure (of a disease), by (--°ree;); coming into force; pay ment, recovery (of money due); attainment of one's aims, success, fortune (common mg.); personal perfection entailing the acquisition of supernatural powers (phil.); magical power (often °ree;-w. the magical object); effi cacy, efficiency, skill; resultance, establish ment, demonstration; work of art (rare); Success personified as a goddess, as Durgâ; N. of a female friend of Danu: -ka, a. --°ree;= siddhi, magical power; -kara, a. (î) produc ing success or fortune: î, f. N. of a sorceress; -kâra-ka, a. causing any one (g.) to attain his object; producing an effect; -kârin, a. accomplishing anything (g.); -kshetra, n. field of success, successfully accomplished ob ject; -gñâna, n. certain knowledge; -da, a. granting success or fortune; -darsin, a. see ing future success, knowing the future; -prâya, a. near to perfection; -mat, a. suc cessful; perfect (man); possessing magical power; m. perfect man; -mârga, m. road to fairyland; -yâtrika, a. wandering about for the purpose of learning magical arts; m. fortune-hunter; -yoga, m. employment of magical power; -varti,f. magical wick; -½îsvara, m. lord of magical power, ep. of Siva; n. N. of a region sacred to Siva.
sukaṇṭha a. (î) sweet-voiced: î, f. N. of an Apsaras; -kathâ, f. beautiful story; -kany&asharp;, f. N. of a daughter of Saryâta and wife of Kyavana (Br., C.); -kára, a. easily done, easy, for (g.), to (inf.): -tva, n. easi ness, feasibleness, -samdhi, a. easily united; -kárman, a. expert (V.); virtuous (C.); m. artificer (V.); -kalatra, n. good wife; -kavi, m. good poet; -kânta, pp. very handsome (youth); -kâlin, m. pl. a class of Manes; -kimsuká, a. adorned with Kimsuka flowers (car of Sûryâ; RV.1); -kîrtí, f. worthy praise (RV.); a. easily praised (RV.); m. N. of the composer of RV. X, 131 and of that hymn; -kukâ, a. f. having beautiful breasts; -ku mâra, a. (î) very tender or delicate; m. tender youth: -tva, n. tenderness, -½a&ndot;gî, a. f. very delicate-limbed; -kula, n. noble family; a. sprung from a noble family: -ga, -ganman, a. id., -tâ, f. noble birth;-kulîna, a. well-born; -kûrkura, m. N. of a demon injurious to children; -krit, a. doing good, benevolent; righteous, pious; m. pl. the Pious deceased, the Fathers who enjoy the reward of virtue in the other world (V.); 1.-kritá, n. good deed, meritorious act, righteousness, virtue, moral merit (V., C.); benefit, bounty, friendly aid, favour (C.); world of virtue, heaven (V., rare); a. well done (RV.1); 2. (sú)-krita, pp. well done, made, orexecuted; well-formed, adorned, fine: w. karman, n. good work; w. loká, m.= sukritasya loka, world of righteousness (V.); -krita-karman, n. good or meritorious act; a. doing good deeds, virtuous; -krita-krit, a. id.; -krita-bhâg, a. meritorious; -krita½ar tha, a. having fully attained one's object; -kriti, f. good conduct; a. righteous, vir tuous; -kritin, a. doing good actions, vir tuous; prosperous, fortunate; cultivated, wise; -kritya, n.good work to be done, duty; good action; -krity&asharp;, f. (RV.) ex pertness; right conduct, virtue; -krishta, pp. well-ploughed; -kéta, a. benevolent (V.); m. N. of an Âditya (V.); -ketú, a. radiant (dawn; RV.1); m. N. of a prince of the Yak shas and of various kings (C.): -sutâ, f. daughter of Suketu, Tâdakâ; -ketri, m. a personification (identified with the sun); -kesa, a. (î) beautiful-haired; -kesânta, a. having fair locks; -komala, a. very soft or tender; -krátu, a. skilful, wise (gods; RV.); -klesa, a. very distressing; -kshatrá, a. (V.) ruling well (gods); conferring power (wealth); -kshatriya, a. good Kshatriya; -kshití, f. (V.) good abode, security, refuge; -kshétra, n. fine field, good soil; a. affording a fair field or dwelling-place; having fair fields; -kshetriy&asharp;, f. desire of fair fields (RV.1); -kshobhya, fp. easily agitated.
sucakra a. having good wheels; m. good chariot (RV.); -kákshas, a. having good sight, keen-sighted (V.); -katura, a. very expert; -karita, pp. well-performed (vow); n. (sú-) sg. pl. good conduct, virtuous actions (V., C.); a. well-conducted (C.): -vrata, a. having performed his vow thoroughly, -½ar tha-pada, a. having well-selected sense and words (speech); -kintita, pp. well-consi dered; -kira, a. very long (of time): -m, in., °ree;--, ad. for a very long while; ab. after a very long time; -kétas, a. intelligent, sa pient; benevolent; -ketú, m. grace: only in. ú-nâ, graciously (RV.); -gana, m. good or benevolent man or person (sts. referring to a f.): svabhâva-sugano ganah, good-na tured man; -gana-tâ, f. good nature, geni ality, benevolence; -gana-tva, n. id.; -ga na½âkara, m. N.; -gániman, a. creating fair things (RV.); -gánman, a. id. (V.); of noble or auspicious birth (C.); -gaya, m. great victory; a. easy to conquer; -gala, a. having good water; (sú)-gâta (or á), pp. V.: well born or produced, of excellent kind or nature; nobly born, noble; of genuine birth; C.: well-formed, beautiful (ord. mg.); genuine, sincere (rare); not born in vain (v. r. sa gâtah); -gâta-vaktra, m. N. of a teacher (S.); -gâta½a&ndot;gî, a. f. having well-formed limbs; -gita-srama, a. getting over exertions well, indefatigable; -gihvá, a. (RV.) fair tongued; sweet-voiced; -gîrna, pp. well worn, ragged; well-digested: -sata-khanda maya, a. (î) consisting of a hundred worn out rags; -gîva, n. imps. it is easy for (g.) to live;-gîvita, a. living happily.
sutavat a. containing the word suta (Br.); -vatsala, a. tender towards one's children; m. tender father.
supakva a. well-cooked; thoroughly ripe or mature (also fig.); -pa&ndot;ka, m. (?) good clay; -patha, a. easy to read, legible; -pati, m. good husband; -pattra, a. having beau tiful wings; well-feathered (arrow); having a beautiful vehicle; -pátnî, a. f. having a good husband; -páth, m. good path; -pátha, n. (V.), m. (C.) good road (V., C.); virtuous course (C.); -pathin, m. (nm. -panthâs) good path; -pad, a. (-î) swift-footed (RV.1); -pa p[a]t-aní, f. swift flight (RV.1); -parigñâta, pp. well-ascertained; -parisrânta, pp. com pletely exhausted; -parihara, a. easy to avoid; -parîkshana, n. careful examina tion; -parîkshita, pp.carefully examined; -parus, a. having beautiful knots (arrow); -parná, a. (&isharp;) having beautiful wings (RV.); m. a large bird of prey, vulture, eagle (fig. of sun, moon, and clouds; du. = sun and moon; V.); a mythical bird, identified with Garuda (C.): -ketu, m. ep. of Vishnu Krishna; -paryavasita, pp. well carried out; -paryâpta, pp. very spacious (house); -par van, a. having beautiful joints; having beauti ful sections orbooks (Mahâbhârata); famous; -palâyita, (pp.) n. skilful or opportune re treat; -pâni, V. a. beautiful-handed; dex terous-handed; -pâtra, n. good receptacle, worthy person (esp. to receive gifts); -pârá, a. (RV.) easy to cross; easy to bear; easily passing over (rain); conducting to a pros perous issue (also TS.); m. a certain per sonification: (á)-kshatra, a. easily traversing his realm (Varuna; RV.1); -pârsva, a. hav ing beautiful sides; m. N.; -pippalá, a. bear ing good berries (V.); -pihita-vat, pp. act. having (the ears, ac.) carefully closed: -î, f. =finite vb.; -punya, a. very excellent; n. great religious or moral merit; -putra, m. good son; á, a. having manyor good chil dren (V., E.); -purusha, m. a certain per sonification; -pushkala, a. very abundant; -pushta, pp. well-fed; -pushpa, a. having beautiful flowers; -pushpita, den. pp. adorned with beautiful flowers; -pûgita,pp. highly honoured; (sú)-pûta, pp. well-clarified; -pûra, a. easy to fill; (sú)-pûrna, pp. well filled, quite full; -pûrvam, ad. very early in the morning; -pûrvâhne, lc. early in the forenoon; -pésas, a. well-adorned, beauti ful, fair (V., rarely P.).
sunanda m. N.: â, f. N.; -nandana, m. N.; -naya, m. wise conduct; -nayana, a. fair-eyed; -naya-sâlin, a. possessed of wisdom; -nasa, a. having a beautiful nose; -nâsa, a. id.: -½akshi-bhruva, a.having a beautiful nose, beautiful eyes, and brows; -nikrishta, pp. very low or base; -nikhilam, ad. completely; -nigraha, a. easy to con trol or subdue; -nitambinî, a. f. having beautiful buttocks; -nidra, a. sleeping well; -ninada, a. having a beautiful sound; -ni bhritam, ad. very secretly; -nirûpita, pp. well-inspected, well-considered; -nirgata, pp. having emerged well from (ab.); -nirmala, a. perfectly clean; -nirvrita, pp. perfectly unconcerned; -niskaya, m. firm resolve; a. absolutely certain about sthg.; -niskita, pp. firmly resolved; certain: -m, ad. with ab solute certainty, most assuredly; -niskita pura, n. N. of a town; -nihita, pp. well established; -nîta, pp. well led; well execut ed; n. wise conduct; (sú)-nîti (or í), f. good guidance (V.); wise conduct (C.); a. guiding well (V.); -nîthá, a. giving good guidance, guiding well (RV.); m. N. (V., C.); -nîhâra, a.very misty; -nripa, m. good king.
suprakāśa a. well-lighted; dis tinctly visible; -praketá, a. bright, con spicuous, notable (RV.); -práketa, a. id. (RV.1); -prakshâlita, pp. well-washed; -pra gupta, pp. very secret; -prakkhanna, pp.well-concealed; -pragá, a. having good or numerous children; -pragás, a. id.; -pragña, a. very wise (person); -pránîti, f. safe guidance (V.); a. guiding safely (V.); following good guidance (RV.); -pratara, a. easy to cross (rivers); -pratarka, m. sound judgment; -pratikara, a. easy to requite; -pratigña, m. N. of a Dânava; -prativarman, m. N.; -pratishtha, a. standing firm; firmly sup porting; m. kind of military array; -pra tishthâpita, cs. pp. well set up (image); (sú)-pratishthita, pp. standing firm; pro perly set up (stone); thoroughly implanted in (lc.); well-established (fame, Pr.); n. N. of a town in Pratishthâna; -prátîka, a. having a beautiful countenance, handsome, lovely; m. N.; N. of a mythical elephant; -pratîta, pp. well-known; -pratúr, a. (nm. t&usharp;s) advancing victoriously (RV.1); -prá tûrti, a. id. (V.); -prapâná, n. good drink ing-place (RV.); -prabha, a. having a good appearance, fine, excellent; m. N. of a Deva putra: -deva, m. N.; -prabhâta, pp. beau tifully illuminated by dawn; n. beautiful dawn; -prayás, a. well-regaled (V.); -pra y&asharp;, a. pleasant to tread on (RV.1); -pra yukta, pp. well-discharged (arrow); well recited; well-planned (fraud); -pravâkaná, a. praiseworthy (RV.); -prasanna, pp. very clear (water); very bright or pleased (face etc.); very gracious; -prasava, m. easy par turition; -prasâda, a. placable; -prasâdh ita, pp. well-adorned; -prasiddha, pp. well known; -prahâra, m. N. of a fisherman.
suvitta a. having abundant wealth, rich; -vidagdha, pp. very cunning; -vidátra, a. noticing kindly, benevolent, propitious (V.); n. benevolence, favour (V.); -vidatr-íya, a. id. (RV.1); (sú)-vidita, pp.well-known; -vidyâ, f. good knowledge; -vidha, a. of a good kind; -vidhâna, n. good order or arrangement: -tas, ad. duly; -vidhi, m. suitable manner: in. suitably; -vinîta, pp. well-trained (horses); well-bred; -vipula, a.very great, abundant, etc.; (sú)-vipra, a. very devout (RV.1); -vimala, a. very clear or pure; -virûdha, pp. (√ ruh) fully developed; -visada, a. very distinct or intelligible; -visâla, a. very ex tensive; m. N. of an Asura;-visuddha, pp. perfectly pure; -visvasta, pp. full of confi dence, quite unconcerned; -vistara, m. great extent; great diffuseness: ab. very fully, in great detail: -m yâ, be filled (treasury); a. very extensive or large; very great, intense, or intimate etc.: -m, ad. in great detail, at full length; very vehemently; -vistîrna, pp. very extensive or great: -m, ad. in a very detailed manner; -vismaya, a. greatly sur prised or astonished; -vismita, pp. id.; -vi hita, pp. well carried out or fulfilled; well provided, with (in.); -vihvala, a. greatly exhausted, perturbed or distressed; -vîthî patha, m. a certain entrance to a palace; -v&isharp;ra, V. a. very mighty, heroic; having, abounding, or consisting in, retainers or heroes; m. hero (V.); -v&isharp;rya, n. manly vigour, heroism (V., very rare in E.): pl. heroic deeds; abundance of brave men, host of heroes (V.); a. (C.) very efficacious (herb); -v-riktí, f. [for su½rikti: √ rik] excellent praise, hymn (RV.); a. praising excellently (RV.); praiseworthy (V.); -vriksha, m. fine tree; -vrigána, a. dwelling in fair regions (RV.1); -vrít, V. a. (revolving=) running well (car); -vritta, pp. well-rounded; well conducted, virtuous (esp. of women; ord. mg.); composed in a fine metre; n. good conduct: â, f. N.: (a)-tâ, f. round shape and good conduct; -vriddha, pp. very old (family); -vrídh, a. glad, joyful (RV.); -vega, a. run ning, moving, or flying very fast; -vena, m. N.; -véda, a. easy to find or obtain (V.); -vesha, a. beautifully dressed or adorned: -vat, a. id.; -vyakta, pp. very clear or bright; quite distinct: -m, ad. quite clearly, manifestly; -vyasta, pp. thoroughly dis persed (army); -vyâhrita, (pp.) n. fine say ing; -vratá, a. ruling well (V.); fulfilling one's duties well, very virtuous (C.: often vc.); quiet, gentle (of animals; C., rare); m. N.; -samsa, a. (RV.) blessing bountifully (god); saying good things, pronouncing bless ings (men); -sákti, f. easy possibility, easy matter (RV.1); -sám&ibrevcirc;, in. ad. carefully, dili gently (V.);-saraná, a. granting secure refuge (RV.); -sárman, a. id. (V.); very pleasant (C.); m. frequent N.; -sasta, pp. well-recited (Br.); -sastí, f. good hymn of praise (V.); a. praiseworthy (RV.); -sânta, pp. very calm (water);-sâsita, pp. well controlled, well-disciplined (wife); -sikha, a. having a bright flame (lamp); -sithilî-kri, greatly relax; -siprá (sts. -sípra), a. having beautiful cheeks (RV.); (sú)-si-sv-i, a. √ sû: cp. sisu] growing well (in the womb; RV.1); (sú)-sishti, f. excellent aid (RV.1); -sishya, m. good pupil; -sîghrá, °ree;-or -m, ad. very swiftly; -sîta, a. quite cool or cold; -sîtala, a. id.; -s&isharp;ma, a. [√ sî] pleasant to recline on (Br., rare); -sîma-kâma, a. [hav ing deep-seated love] deeply in love; -sîla, n. good disposition; a. having a good dispo sition, good-tempered; m. N.: -guna-vat, a. having good nature and other good quali ties, -tâ, f. good nature, -vat, a. good natured; -subha, a. very fine (arm); very auspicious (day); very noble (deed); -séva, a. very kindly, loving, tender, or dear (V.); very prosperous (path; Br.); -sóka, a. shin ing brightly (RV.1);-sobhana, a. very hand some or beautiful; most excellent; -skandrá, a. very brilliant (V.); -srávas, a. very famous (V., P.); hearing well or gladly (V.); m. N.; N. of a Nâga; -srânta, pp. greatly exhausted; -sr&isharp;, a.splendid; rich; (sú)-sruta, pp. very famous (RV.1); C.: correctly heard; gladly heard; m. N. of a celebrated medical writer; N. of a son of Padmodbhava; -sronî, a. f. hav ing beautiful hips; -slakshna, a. very smooth, soft,or delicate; -slishta, pp. well-joined or united; well-ratified, very close (alliance); very convincing (argument): -guna, a. hav ing a well-fastened band: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -slesha, a. attended with a close embrace, with a euphonious coalescence of words, or with the rhetorical figure termed slesha; (sú-)-sloka, a. sounding, speaking etc. well (V., P.); famous (P.); -slok-ya, n. fame or well-sounding speech.
sūtikā f. woman lying in; cow that has recently calved (± go): -½agâra, -griha, -geha, n. lying-in room; -mâruta, m. vital air of childbirth.
sūtaka n. birth; calving; impurity (of the parents) caused by childbirth; im purity (in general): -bhogana, n. natal feast; -½anna, (V.) n.: -½âdya, (C.) n. food rendered impure by childbirth.
vāmalūra m. ant-hill.
sṛjatvakarman n. procrea tion of children.
sūryāṃśu m. sunbeam; â-kandra más-â (V.) or -au, m. nm. du. sun and moon; -½âtapa, m. heat of the sun: e dâ, expose to the sun; -½apâya, m. departure of the sun, sunset; (s&usharp;rya)-½abhyudita, pp. risen upon while sleeping by the sun (V.); â-vasu, a. whose wealth is Sûrya (Asvins; RV.1); â vid, a. knowing the Sûryâ hymn (RV. X, 85); â-sûkta, n. the Sûryâ hymn (RV. X, 85); a½asta, m. sunset.
saindhava a. (&isharp;) relating to the sea (sindhu), marine, maritime; belonging to or coming from the Indus or Sindh; m. inhabi tants of Sindh (pl.); prince of Sindh; horse bred in Sindh; m. n. rock-salt (abounding in Sindh): -ka, a. belonging to the people of Sindh; -khilyá, m. lump of salt (Br.); -silâ- sakala, n. piece of rock-salt.
skanda m. hopper (in trina-skandá, grasshopper, N.); effusion, dropping (of, g., --°ree;); destruction; Assailer, god of war, leader of the divine hosts and chief of the demons of disease which attack children, possessed of eternal youth (hence Kumâra), son of Siva or Agni, brought up by Krittikâ (hence Kârtti keya): -ka, n. (?) a metre: -grâma, m. N. of a village; -gupta, m. N. of a prince and of an elephant-keeper;-gananî, f. Skanda's mother, Pârvatî; -tâ, f., -tva, n. condition of Skanda; -dâsa, m. N. of a merchant.
strī f. [perh.=starî; nm. without s, ac., V., C. striyam, C. also strîm] woman, female, wife; feminine form or gender (gr.): -ka, --°ree; a.=strî; -kat&ibrevcirc;, f. female hip; (str&isharp;) kâma, a.lusting after women (V., C.); de siring female offspring; -kârya, n. attend ance on women; -kumâra, m. pl. women and children; (str&isharp;)-krita, pp. done by women; n. copulation (S.); -kshîra, n. milk of women; -gamana, n. consorting or sexual intercourse with women; -ghâtaka, a. mur dering a woman or one's wife; -ghna, a. id.; -gana, m. women-kind; feminine (gr.); -gan anî, a. f. bringing forth daughters; -gita, pp. ruled by women, henpecked; -tva, n. womanhood; feminine gender (gr.); -dhana, n. woman's private property; wife and pro perty; -dharma, m. laws concerning women; copulation; -dharminî, a. menstruating; -pumsa, m. du.husband and wife; mascu line and feminine (gr.); -pumdharma, m. laws concerning men and women; -praty aya, m. feminine suffix; -prasû, a. f. bring ing forth daughters; -bhava, m. womanhood; -mantra, m. woman's counsel or stratagem; -maya, a. (î) feminine; effeminate.
stoma m. [√ 1. stu] (hymn of) praise, eulogium, panegyric (V.; very rare in P.); fundamental form of chant (seven being the usual number of them; rit.); mass, quan tity, multitude (C.): -tashta,pp. fashioned into (=being the theme of) praise (RV.); -bhâga, a. having the Stoma as one's share (Br.); m. pl. N. of certain (29) verses be longing to the Soma sacrifice, employed while laying the fifth layer of bricks (V.):â, f. N. of these bricks; -várdhana, a. (thriving on=) delighting in hymns of praise (RV.1); (stóma)-vâhas, a. (RV.) offering praise; receiving a hymn of praise; -vriddhi, f. en largement of the Stoma.
stokīya stok-îya, stokya a. relat ing to drops (said of oblations of melted but ter and of verses employed while drops are falling).
sthūla a. thick, bulky, big, large, stout, massive; coarse, gross (also fig., e. g. crime); dull, stupid; material, tangible (phil.; opp. sûkshma); n. gross or material body: -kesa, m. N. of a Rishi; -tâ, f.largeness, fulness, bulkiness; clumsiness; stupidity; -tva, n. grossness (phil.); -datta, m. N.; -nâsika, m. (large-snouted), boar; -pra pañka, m. gross material world; -bâhu, m. N.; -buddhi, a. dull-witted; -bhuga, m. N. of a fairy; -bhûta, n. gross element; -mati, a. dull-witted; -madhya, a. thick in the middle; -roma, a. thick-haired; -laksha, a. liberal, munificent; shooting at a large tar get: -tva, n. abst. n.; -lakshi-tâ, f. liber ality; -lakshya, a.=-laksha: -tâ, f., -tva, n. abst. n.; -vishaya, m. gross material ob ject; -sarîra, n. gross material body; -siras, a. thick-headed; m. N. of a Rishi, a Râk shasa, and a Yaksha; -sûkshma, a. large and small: -prapañka, m. the gross and the subtle world, -sarîra, n. gross and subtle body; -hasta, m. elephant's trunk.
sparśopala m. (touch-=) philo sopher's stone (the contact of which produces gold).
spṛṣṭika f. touching (the body or feet, --°ree;, while taking an oath).
sphoṭa m. [√ sphut] bursting, split ting (int.); opening, unlocking; blister, pus tule; small fragment, chip (rare); roar, crash; indivisible creative word (phil.); eternal and imperceptible element in sounds and words regarded as the real vehicle of the sense (gr.); -ana, a. cleaving, crushing; dispelling (doubt, --°ree;); m. divider (a term applied to the vocalic sound heard between certain conjunct conso nants); n.splitting, rending, breaking; waving (the arms); cracking (the fingers); -ita, cs. pp. √ sphut; n. crackling.
svaja a. self-born, own, akin; m. viper (V.); -gana, m. man of one's own peo ple, kinsman: sg. also coll. kindred: -gan dhin, a. distantly related to (g.), -tâ, f. re lationship with (g.); -ganaya, den. P. be related to (ac.)=resemble; -ganâya, Â. be come a relation; -gana½âvrita, pp. surrounded by his own people; -gâta, pp. self-begotten; m. child begotten by oneself; -gâti, f. one's own kind; one's own family or caste; a. ofone's own kind; -gâtîya, -gâtya, a. id.
hantavya fp. to be slain or killed, -punished with death; -transgressed (law); -refuted (rare): (hán)-tri (w. ac.; -trí, w. g.), m. striker, slayer, killer, murderer; de stroyer, disturber; (hán)-tave, (hán)-tavaí, V. d. inf. √ han; -tu-kâma, a. desirous of slaying; -trî-mukha, m. a kind of demon injurious to children; (hán)-man, m. or n. blow, thrust, stroke (RV.).
harva a. short, little, small; short of stature; low (entrance); insignificant; weak (voice); less by (ab.); short (vowel; gr.); m. short vowel: -ka, a. very short or small; -tâ, f. shortness (of stature); -tva, n. shortness (of a vowel); -bâhu, a. (f. id.) short-armed; m. assumed N. of Nala while in the service of Rituparna; -½a&ndot;ga, a. short bodied, small of stature.
Bloomfield Vedic
Concordance
267 results0 results17 results
apūpaṃ nābhilaṃ te ghṛtaścutam # AVP.2.61.4a.
abhinne khilye (TB. khille) ni dadhāti devayum # RV.6.28.2d; AVś.4.21.2d; TB.2.8.8.11d.
abhi pra vaḥ surādhasam # RV.8.49 (Vāl.1).1a; AVś.20.51.1a; SV.1.235a; 2.161a; PB.11.9.2; ā.5.2.4.2; Aś.7.4.3; 8.6.16; Vait.31.18,24; 33.7; 41.8. P: abhi pra vaḥ śś.7.23.4; 12.9.11. Designated as vālakhilyāni Aś.8.4.8, and elsewhere. Each stanza of this hymn is to be compared with the corresponding stanza of RV.8.50 (Vāl.2).
abhiśaste khileṣu ca # Kauś.141.38b.
arpitāḥ ṣaṣṭir na calācalāsaḥ # RV.1.164.48d; N.4.27. See ṣaṣṭiś ca khīlā.
āsuḥ (some kind of khila) # BṛhD.8.59.
idaṃ hiraṇyaiḥ khīlāḥ # Apś.21.20.3c.
ut (some kind of khila) # BṛhD.7.118.
uta khilyā urvarāṇāṃ bhavanti # RV.10.142.3c.
divaḥ khīlo 'vatataḥ # TB.3.7.6.19a; Apś.4.12.8a.
nairhastyam (pratīka of a khila) # Rvidh.4.24.3; BṛhD.8.94.
pāṅktraḥ (KSA. pāṅktaḥ) kaśo mānthīlavas (KSA. man-) te pitṛṇām (KSA. pitṝṇām) # TS.5.5.18.1; KSA.7.8 (but mss. of both texts pāṃtra, intending pāṅtra). See ākhuḥ.
prādhvarāṇām (continuing pate vaso: pratīka of a khila) # BṛhD.8.94.
brahma (designation of a khila) # BṛhD.8.14, and elsewhere. See brahma jajñānaṃ.
brahma jajñānaṃ prathamaṃ purastāt # AVś.4.1.1a; 5.6.1a; AVP.5.2.2a; 6.11.1a; SV.1.321a; VS.13.3a; TS.4.2.8.2a; MS.2.7.15a: 96.11; 3.2.6: 23.8; KS.16.15a; 20.5; 38.14a; AB.1.19.1; KB.8.4; śB.7.4.1.14; 14.1.3.3; TB.2.8.8.8a; TA.10.1.10a; Aś.4.6.3a; 9.9.12; śś.5.9.5a; 15.3.6; 18.1.2. P: brahma jajñānam TS.5.2.7.1 (bis); GB.2.2.6; TB.3.12.1.1; TA.1.13.3; SaṃnyāsaU.1; Mś.6.1.7.2; 11.7.3.2; Vait.14.1; 28.33; Kś.17.4.2; Apś.16.18.7; 22.3; Kauś.9.1; 15.12; 18.25; 19.1; 28.15; 38.23; 51.7; 79.11; 139.10; JG.2.8,9; BDh.2.10.18.7; BṛhPDh.9.62,314; Svidh.1.6.4,8. Cf. the khila mentioned as brahma BṛhD.8.14; Rvidh., Meyer's edition, p. xxī; Oldenberg, Die Hymnen des Rig-Veda, p. 363.
bhūmiḥ (designation of a khila, bhūmir mātā nabhaḥ pitā, aryamā te pitāmahaḥ) # BṛhD.8.51. See rātrī mātā.
yāṃ kalpayanti no 'rayaḥ (some kind of khila) # BṛhD.8.45; yāṃ kalpayanti naḥ: see preface to Rvidh., pp. xxīi and xxv. See Macdonell, Bṛhaddevatā, vol. ī, p. 305.
Dictionary of Sanskrit Search
"hil" has 103 results
khilapāṭhaa supplementary recital or enunciation which is taken along with the original enunciation or upadeśa generally in the form of the sūtras. The word is used in the Kāśikā in the sense of one of the texts forming a part of the original text which is called upadeśa; confer, compare Kāśikā उपदिश्यते अनेनेत्युपदेश: शास्त्रवाक्यानि सूत्रपाठ: खिलपाठश्च (on P.I.3.2); confer, compare also खिलपाठो धातुपाठः प्रातिपदिकपाठो वाक्यपाठश्च Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on Kāśikā I.3.2.
rhil(1)a taddhita affix. affix termed also विभक्ति which is applied to the word इदभ् in the sense of the locative case, the word इदम् being changed into एत; e. g. एतर्हि; confer, compare इदमो र्हिल् P. V. 3.16 and एतेतौ रथो: P. V. 3.4. (2) taddhita affix. affix applied in Veda to तत् and other pronouns: exempli gratia, for exampleतर्हि, कर्हि, यर्हि, confer, compare P. V. 3.20, 21.
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
aḥ( : )visarga called visarjanīya in ancient works and shown in writing by two dots, one below the other, exactly of the same size, like the pair of breasts of a maiden as jocularly larly expressed by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.. confer, compare अः ( : ) इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः । कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसजर्नीयसंज्ञो भवति ( दुर्गसिंह on कातन्त्र I.1.16). विसर्ग is always a dependent letter included among the Ayogavāha letters and it is looked upon as a vowel when it forms a part of the preceding vowel; while it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into the Jihvāmūlīya or the Upadhmānīya letter.
akathitanot mentioned by any other case-relation such as अपादान, संप्रदान and अधिकरण; stated with respect to the indirect object, governed by roots possessing two objects such as दुह्, याच् and others, which in the passive woice is put in the nominative case. The in-direct object is called akathita because in some cases there exists no other case-relation as, for example, in पौरवं गां याचते or भिक्षते, or माणवकं पन्थानं पृच्छति; while, in the other cases, the other case-relations (with the activity expressed by the verb) are wilfully suppressed or ignored although they exist, as for instance in गां दोग्धि पयः, अन्ववरुणद्धि गां व्रजम्; see अकथितं च P.1.4.51 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.id est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
anvakṣarasaṃdhia combination of letters according to the order of the letters in the Alphabet; a samdhi or euphonic combination of a vowel and a consonant, called अन्वक्षर-अनुलोमसंधि where a vowel precedes a consonant; and अन्वक्षरप्रतिलोमसंधि where a consonant precedes a vowel, the consonant in that case being changed into the third of its class; एष स्य स च स्वराश्च पूर्वे भवति व्यञ्जनमुत्तरं यदेभ्यः। तेन्वक्षरसेधयेानुलोमाः प्रतिलोमाश्च विपर्यये त एव ।। R Pr. II.8.9 e. g. एष देवः, स देवः and others are instances of अन्वक्षरानुलोमसंधि where विसर्ग after the vowel is dropped; while हलव्यवाड् अग्निः is an instance of अन्वक्षरप्रतिलोमसंधि where the consonant ट् precedes the vowel अ.
abhikramathe first of the two utterances of a word which characterise the krama method of recital; e. g in the krama recital of प्रण इन्दो et cetera, and others प्र णः । न इन्दो । the first recial प्र णः is called अभिक्रम, or प्रथमवचन while न इन्दो is called द्वितीयवचनः confer, compare अभिक्रमे पूर्वविधानमाचरेत् पुनर्ध्रुवंस्तूत्तरकारितं क्रमे Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI.21.
abhyāvṛttiinclination towards an action; tendency to do an act; confer, compare संख्यायाः क्रियाभ्यावृत्तिगणनं कृत्वसुच् । P. V. 4.17 अभिमुखी प्रवृत्तिरभ्यावृत्तिः (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.4.19) is the explanation in the Mahābhāṣya,while पौनः पुन्यमभ्यावृत्तिः (Kāś. on V.4.17) is the one given in Kāśikā
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
avagrahavirāmathe interval or pause after the utterance of the first member of a compound word when the members are uttered separately. This interval is equal to two moras according to Tait. Pr. while, it is equal to one mora according to the other Prātiśākhyas.
aśvādi(1)a class of words headed by the word अश्व to which the affix फञ्(अायन) is added in the sense of गोत्र (grandchildren et cetera, and others); exempli gratia, for exampleआश्वायनः जातायनः, औत्सायनः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.1. 110; (2) a class of words headed by the word अश्व to which the taddhita affix यत् is added in the sense of a cause of the type of a meeting or an accidental circumstance; exempli gratia, for example आश्विकम् अाश्मिकम् confer, compare P. V.1.39.
aākhyātaverbal form, verb; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातं सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि Nirukta of Yāska.I.1; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्यातोपसर्गनिपाताश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1. Āhnika 1 ; also A.Prāt. XII. 5, अाकार अाख्याते पदादिश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.2.37 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2, आख्यातमाख्यातेन क्रियासातत्ये Sid. Kau. on II.1.72, क्रियावाचकमाख्यातं Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1; confer, compare भारद्वाजकमाख्यातं भार्गवं नाम भाष्यते । भारद्वाजेन दृष्टत्वादाख्यातं भारद्वाजगोत्रम् V. Prāt. VIII. 52; confer, compare also Athar. Prāt.I.I.12, 18; 1.3.3,6; II.2.5 where ākhyāta means verbal form. The word also meant in ancient days the root also,as differentiated from a verb or a verbal form as is shown by the lines तन्नाम येनाभिदधाति सत्त्वं, तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातुः R.Pr.XII.5 where 'आख्यात' and 'धातु' are used as synonyms As the root form such as कृ, भृ et cetera, and others as distinct from the verbal form, is never found in actual use, it is immaterial whether the word means root or verb.In the passages quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. from the Nirukta and the Mahābhāṣya referring to the four kinds of words, the word ākhyāta could be taken to mean root (धातु) or verb (क्रियापद). The ākhyāta or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being and bccoming while nouns (नामानि) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the activities and things in this world but with every process and entity; confer, compare पूर्वापूरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे Nir.I.;अस्तिभवतिविद्यतीनामर्थः सत्ता । अनेककालस्थायिनीति कालगतपौर्वापर्येण क्रमवतीति तस्याः क्रियात्वम् । Laghumañjūṣā. When a kṛt (affix). affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a word ending with a kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of bhāva or verbal activity is treated as a noun and regularly declined;confer, compareकृदभिहितो भावे द्रव्यवद् भवति M.Bh. on II.2.19 and III. 1.67, where the words गति, व्रज्या, पाक and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words ending with kṛt (affix). affixes such as कर्तुं, कृत्वा, and others, the modern grammarians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be,in a way, looked upon as ākhyātas; confer, compare अव्ययकृतो भावे Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa.
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
āgamaaugment, accrement, a word element which is added to the primitive or basic word during the process of the formation of a complete word or pada. The āgama is an adventitious word element and hence differs from ādeśa, the substitute which wholly takes the place of the original or ( आदेशिन् ). Out of the several āgamas mentioned by Pāṇini, those that are marked with mute ट् are prefixed, those, marked with क्, are affixed, while those, marked with म्, are placed immediately after the last vowel of the word. The augments become a part and parcel of the word to which they are added, and the characteristics of which they possess;confer, compareयदागमास्तद्गुणीभूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते, also आगमानां आगमिधर्मिवैशिष्ट्यम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.11. Those grammarians, who hold the view that words are unproduced and eternal, explain the addition of an augment as only the substitution of a word with an augment in the place of a word without an augment; confer, compare आदेशास्तर्हिमे भविष्यन्ति अनागमकानां सागमकाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20; I.1.46. The term āgama is defined as अन्यत्र विद्यमानस्तु यो वर्णः श्रुयतेधिकः । आगम्यमानतुल्यत्वात्स आगम इति स्मृतः Com. on Tait. Prāt.I. 23.
ārdhadhātukaa term used in contrast to the term सार्वधातुक for such verbal and kṛt affixes, as are not personal endings of verbs nor marked with the mute letter श् confer, compare तिङ्शित् सार्वधातुकम् । आर्धधातुकं शेषः। P.III.4.113 and 114. The personal endings of verbs in the perfect tense and the benedictive mood are termed ārdhadhātuka, confer, compare P. III. 4.115, 116; while both the terms are promiscuously found utilised in the Vedic Literature; confer, compare P. III. 4. 117. The main utility of the ārdhadhātuka term is the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to the ārdhadhātuka affixes. The term आर्धधातुका was in use in works of the old Vaiyākaraṇas; confer, compare अथवा आर्धधातुकासु इति वक्ष्यामि कासु आर्धधातुकासु । उक्तिषु युक्तिषु रूढिषु प्रतीतिषु श्रुतिषु संज्ञासु M.Bh. on II. 4.35. It cannot be said how the term ārdhadhātuka originatedition Probably such affixes or pratyayas, like the kṛt affixes generally, as could be placed after certain roots only were called ārdhadhātuka, as contrasted with the verbal and the present participle affixes which were termed sārvadhātuka on account of their being found in use after every root.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
upakādia class of words headed by the word उपक after which the taddhita affix, added in the sense of गोत्र ( grand-children et cetera, and others ) is optionally elided, provided the word is to be used in the plural number; confer, compare उपकलमकाः भ्रष्टककपिष्ठलाः also उपकाः, औपकायनाः; लमकाः, लामकायना ; भ्रष्टकाः भ्राष्टकयः । Kāś. on P. II.4.69.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upasargayogaconnection with a prefix; joining of the prefix. Some scholars of grammar hold the view that the Upasarga is prefixed to the root and then the verbal form is arrived at by placing the desired terminations after the root, while others hold the opposite view: confer, compare पूर्वं धातुः साधनेनोपयुज्यते पश्चादुपसर्गेण । अन्ये तु पूर्वं धातुरुपसर्गेण युज्यते पश्चात्साधनेनेत्याहुः Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti Pari. 131, 132; cf also vol. VII. Mahābhāṣya edited by the D. E. Society, Poona, pages 371-372.
ubhayathāin both the ways (in the case of an option, of course); confer, compare छन्दस्युभयथा P.III.4.117 where the word ubhayathā refers to both the alternative uses exempli gratia, for example Sārvadhātuka and Ārdhadhātuka;so also vidhiliṅ and āśīrliṅ; confer, compare Kāśikā on P.III.4.117. The term ubhayatha is described as synonymous with 'bahulam' or 'anyatarasyām' or 'vā' or ekeśām'; confer, compare बहुलमन्यतरस्यामुभयथा वा एकेषामिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.44: Vart. 19; confer, compare also अध्यायान्तेषूभयथा स्मरन्ति R.Pr.XV.8.
ūṣmasaṃdhiname of a combination or संधि where a visarga is changed into a breathing ( ऊष्मन् ). It has got two varieties named व्यापन्न where the visarga is charged into a breathing as for instance in यस्ककुभः, while it is called विक्रान्त (passed over) where it remains unchanged as for instance in यः ककुभः, य: पञ्च; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 1 1.
ṛktantraa work consisting of five chapters containing in all 287 sūtras. It covers the same topics as the Prātiśākhya works and is looked upon as one of the Prātiśākhya works of the Sāma Veda. Its authorship is attributed to Śākaṭāyana according to Nageśa, while औदिव्राज is held as its author by some, and कात्यायन by others. It bears a remarkable similarity to Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. especially in topics concerning coalescence and changes of स् and न् to ष् and ण् respectively. It cannot be definitely said whether it preceded or followed Pāṇini's work.
ekādeśaa single substitute in the place of two original units; exempli gratia, for example ए in the place of अ and इ,or ओ in the place of अ and उ. The ādeśas or substitutes named पूर्वरूप and पररूप are looked upon as ekadeśas in Pāṇini's grammar although instead of them, the omission of the latter and former vowels respectively, is prescribed in some Prātiśākhya works. गुण and वृद्धि are sometimes single substitutes for single originals, while they are sometimes ekadeśas for two original vowels exempli gratia, for example तवेदम्, ब्रह्मौदनः, उपैति, प्रार्च्छति, गाम्, सीमन्तः et cetera, and others; see P.VI.1.87 to ll l, confer, compare also A.Pr.II 3.6.
omSee ओंकार a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.ओम् consists of 2 1/2 matras, confer, compare अर्धतृतीयमात्र एके ब्रुवते T. Pr 18.1; शैत्यायन says that ओम् has any one of the three accemts, while कौण्डिन्य says it has प्रचय or एकश्रुति i. e. absence of any accent.
m̐ nāsikyaa nasal letter or utterance included among the अयोगवाह letters analogous to anusvāra and yama letters. It is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as हुँ इति नासिक्यः on which Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.makes the remark अयमृक्शाखायां प्रसिद्धः. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya mentions नासिक्य, यम and अनुस्वार as नासिक्य or nasal letters, while Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.defines नासिक्य as a letter produced only by the nose; confer, compare केवलनासिकया उच्चार्यमाणे वर्णॊ नासिक्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya calls the letter ह् as nāsikya when it is followed by the consonant न् or ण् or म् and gives अह्नाम् , अपराह्णे and ब्रह्म as instances. The Pāṇinīya Śikṣā does not mention नासिक्य as a letter. The Mahābhāṣya mentions नासिक्य as one of the six ayogavāha letters; confer, compare के पुनरयोगवाहाः । विसर्जनीयजिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयानुस्वारानुनासिक्ययमाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Śivasūtra 5 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, where some manuscripts read नासिक्य for अानुनासिक्य while in some other manuscripts there is neither the word आनुनासिक्य nor नासिक्य. It is likely that the anunāsika-colouring given to the vowel preceding the consonant सू substituted for the consonants म, न् and others by P. VIII. 3.2. to 12, was looked upon as a separate phonetic unit and called नासिक्य as for instance in सँस्कर्ता, मा हिँसीः, सँशिशाधि et cetera, and others
kaṇṭhyaproduced at the throat or at the glottis; the vowel अ, visarga and the consonant ह् are called कण्ठ्यं in the Prātiśākhyas, while later grammarians include the guttural consonants क्, ख् ग्, घ् and ङ् among the Kaṇṭhya letters; confer, compare अकुहविसर्जनीयानां कण्ठः Sid. Kau.on तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.I.1.9. See कण्ठ.
kātantraparibhāṣāvṛtti(1)name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha written by Bhāvamiśra, probably a Maithila Pandit whose date is not known. He has explained 62 Paribhāṣās deriving many of them from the Kātantra Sūtras. The work seems to be based on the Paribhāṣā works by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and others on the system of Pāṇini, suitable changes having been made by the writer with a view to present the work as belonging to the Kātantra school; (2) name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha of the Kātantra school explaining 65 Paribhāṣās. No name of the author is found in the Poona manuscript. The India Office Library copy has given Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. as the author's name; but it is doubted whether Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. was the author of it. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
kāśakṛtsna(1)an ancient grammarian and philosopher referred to in the Mahābhāṣya; (2) the work on grammar by Kāśakṛtsna; confer, compareपाणिनिना प्रोक्तं पाणिनीयम् । आपिशलम् । काशकृत्स्नम् । M.Bh. on I.1. Āhnika 1.
kinakṛt affix इ prescribed along with कि. See कि a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The affix किन् causes the acute accent on the first vowel of the word ending with it, while the affix ki ( इ ) has itself the acute accent on its vowel इ.
kuñjādia class of words headed by कुञ्ज to which the taddhita affix अायन (च्फञ्) is applied in the sense of गोत्र i. e. grandchildren etc e. g. कौञ्जायनाः confer, compare Kāś, on P.IV.1.9.
ktvākṛt (affix). affix त्वा added to roots (1) in the sense of prohibition conveyed by the word अलं or खलु preceding the root, exempli gratia, for example अलं कृत्वा, खलु कृत्वा; confer, compare P. III.4.18; (2) in the sense of exchange in the case of the root मा, e. g. अपमित्य याचते; confer, compare P. III.4.19; (3) to show an activity of the past time along with a verb or noun of action showing comparatively a later time, provided the agent of the former and the latter activities is the same; exempli gratia, for example भुक्त्वा व्रजति, स्नात्वा पीत्वा भुक्त्वा व्रजति; confer, compare P. III.4. 21. This kṛt affix is always added to roots when they are without any prefix; when there is a prefix the indeclinable, ending in त्वा, is always compounded with the prefix and त्वा is changed into य (ल्यप्), exempli gratia, for example प्रकृत्य, प्रहृत्य; confer, compare समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1.37. The substitution of य is at will in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कृष्णं वासो यजमानं परिधापयित्वा ( instead of परिधाप्य ), confer, compare P. VII.1.38, while sometimes, य is added after त्वा as an augment e. g. दत्वाय सविता धियः confer, compare P. VII.l.47, as also sometimes त्वी or त्वीनम् is substituted for त्वा e. g. इष्ट्वीनं देवान्, स्नात्वी मलादिव, confer, compare P. VII.1.48, 49.
kriyāaction, verbal activity; confer, compare क्रियावचनो धातु: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.1 ; confer, compare also क्रियावाचकमाख्यातम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8. quoted by Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.in his Bhāṣya on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50; confer, compare also उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I.4.59, लक्षणहेत्वेाः क्रियायाः P.III. 2.126; confer, compare also यत्तर्हि तदिङ्गितं चेष्टितं निमिषितं स शब्दः । नेत्याह क्रिया नाम सा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1. The word भाव many times is used in the same sense as kriyā or verbal activity in the sūtras of Pāṇini. confer, compare P.I.2.21 ; I.3.13; III. 1. 66.etc; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति a statement made frequently by the Mahābhāṣyakāra. Some scholars draw a nice distinction between क्रिया and भाव, क्रिया meaning dynamic activity and भाव meaning static activity: confer, compare अपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यो धात्वर्थो भावः । सपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यस्तु क्रिया Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.87. Philosophically क्रिया is defined as सत्ता appearing in temporal sequence in various things. When सत्ता does not so appear it is called सत्त्व.
chthe second consonant of the palatal class of consonants ( चवर्ग ), which is possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, मह्याप्राण and कण्ठविवृतकारित्व. छ् , placed at the beginning of affixes, is mute; while ईय् is substituted for छ् standing at the beginning of taddhita affixes; confer, compare P. I. 3.7 and VII. 1.2. छ् at the end of roots has got ष्, substituted for it: confer, compare P. VIII. 2.36.
jhaya short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the fourth, third, second and first consonants of the five classes, after which ह् is changed into the cognate of the preceding consonant while श्, is changed into छ् optionally; confer, compare P. VIII. 4.62, 63.
ṭhaka very common taddhita affix. affix इक, or क in case it is added to words ending in इस् , उस् , उ, ऋ, ल् and त् according to P. VII. 3. 51, causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ठक् is added to (1) रेवती and other words in the sense of descendant ( अपत्य ) e. g. रैवतिकः:, दाण्डग्राहिकः, गार्गिकः, भागवित्तिकः यामुन्दायनिकः, confer, compare P. IV. 1.146-149; (2) to the words लाक्षा,रोचना et cetera, and others in the sense of 'dyed in', e. g. लाक्षिकम्, रौचनिकम् ; confer, compare P. IV. 2.2; (3) to the words दधि and उदश्वित् in the sense of संस्कृत 'made better ', e. g. दाधिकम् , औदश्वित्कम् ( क instead of इक substituted for टक् ), confer, compare P. IV.2. 18, 19; (4) to the words अाग्रहायुणी, अश्वत्थ et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 22, 23; (5) to words expressive of inanimate objects, to the words हस्ति and धेनु, as also to the words केश and अश्व in the sense of 'multitude '; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 47, 48; (6) to the words क्रतु, उक्थ and words ending in सूत्र, वसन्त et cetera, and others, in the sense of 'students of' ( तदधीते तद्वेद ), confer, compare P. IV. 2.59, 60, 63; (7) to the words कुमुद and others as also to शर्करा as a चातुरर्थिक affix; confer, compare P. IV. 2.80, 84; (8) to the words कन्था, भवत् and वर्षा in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P. IV. 2.102, 115, IV. 3.18; (9) to the words उपजानु and others in the sense 'generally present '; confer, compare P. IV. 3. 40; (10) to the words consisting of two syllables, and the words ऋक्, ब्राह्मण et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'explanatory literary work'; confer, compare P. IV.3.72: ( 11) to words meaning 'sources of income ' in the sense of 'accruing from’; confer, compare P. IV. 3.75; (12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place in the sense of ' भक्ति ', cf P. IV. 8.96; and (13) to the words हल् and सीर in the sense of 'belonging to', confer, compare P. IV. 3.124. The taddhita affix. affix ठक् is added as a general termination, excepting in such cases where other affixes are prescribed, in specified senses like 'तेन दीव्यति, ' 'तेन खनति,' 'तेन संस्कृतम्' et cetera, and others; cf P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to words हल, सीर, कथा, विकथा, वितण्डा et cetera, and others in specified senses, confer, compare P. IV.4. 81, 102 ठक् is also added as a general taddhita affix. affix or अधिकारविहितप्रत्यय, in various specified senses, as prescribed by P. V.1.19-63,and to the words उदर, अयःशूल,दण्ड, अजिन, अङ्गुली, मण्डल, et cetera, and others and to the word एकशाला, in the prescribed senses; confer, compare P. V. 2.67,76, V. 3.108,109; while, without making any change in sense it is added to अनुगादिन् , विनय, समय, उपाय ( औपयिक being the word formed), अकस्मात्, कथंचित्; (confer, compareआकस्मिक काथंचित्क), समूह,विशेष, अत्यय and others, and to the word वाक् in the sense of 'expressed'; confer, compare P. V. 4.13, 34, 35. The feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ) is added to words ending in the affix टक् to form feminine. bases.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
tiṅ(1)a brief term (प्रत्याहार) for the 18 personal endings. Out of these eighteen personal endings, which are common for all tenses and moods, the first nine तिप्, तस् et cetera, and others all called Parasmaipada, while the other nine त, अाताम् et cetera, and others are named Atmanepada and तङ् also; confer, compare तङानावात्मनेपदम्; (2) a verbal form called also अाख्यातक; confer, compare तिङ् खलु अाख्यातका भवान्ति । पचति पठति । V.Pr.I.27.
taulvalyādia class of words headed by the word तौल्वलि, the taddhita affix in the sense of युवन् ( grandchild ) placed after which is not elided by P. II. 4. 60; exempli gratia, for example तौल्वलिः पिता, तौल्वलायनः पुत्रः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II. 4.61.
dntyaproduced at the teeth, dental; formed at the teeth by the tip of the tongue; exempli gratia, for example the letters लृ ल् ,स् and तवर्ग; confer, compare लृलसिता दन्ते V.Pr.I.69. According to Panini's grammar लॄ(long) does not exist. According to Taittirya Prtisakhya र् is partly dental and partly lingual; cf T.Pr.II.41, while व् is partly dental and partly labial; confer, compare T.Pr. II.43; confer, compare दन्त्या जिह्वाग्रकरणाः V. Pr.I. 76; confer, compare लुग्वा दुहदिहलिहगुहामात्मनेपदे दन्त्ये P. VII. 3.73.
devaśarmana grammarian who has written a disquisition on the philosophy of Vyakarana in verse, and added a commentary of his own on it which he has named as समन्वयप्रदीपसंकेत.
drutāone of the three Vrttis or styles of utterance mentioned in the Pratisakhya works and quoted in the Mahabhasya; confer, compareतित्रो वृत्तीरुपदिशन्ति वाचो विलम्बितां मध्यमां च दुतां च । अभ्यासार्थे दुतां वृत्तिं प्रयोगार्थे तु मध्यमाम् । शिष्याणामुपदेशार्थे कुर्याद् वृत्ति विलम्बिताम् । Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 18, 19; confer, compare ये हि द्रुतायां वृत्तौ वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते मध्यमायां, ये मध्यमायां वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते विलाम्बितायाम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.70, Vart. 4. The utterance of a letter takes ,1/3 rd time more in the मध्यमवृत्ति than in the द्रुतवृत्ति, while in the विलम्बितवृत्ति it takes 1/3 rd more than in the मध्यमवृत्ति. In short, the utterance of the same letter takes in the three vrttis, Druta, Vilambita and Madhyama the quantity of time in the proportion of 9:12:16 respectively.
dvanddhaname of a compound, formed of two or more words used in the same case, showing their collection together; confer, compare चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II.2.29. Out of the four meanings of the indeclinable च, viz. समुच्चय अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार, the dvandva compound is sanctioned in the last two senses only called इतरेतरद्वन्द्व (as in प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ et cetera, and others) and समाहारद्वन्द्व (as in वाक्त्वचम् et cetera, and others) respectively For details see Mahabhasya on II.2.29. The dvandva compound takes place only when the speaker intends mentioning the several objects together id est, that is when there is, in short, सहविवक्षा orयुगपदधिकरणवचनता; confer, compare अनुस्यूतेव मेदाभ्यां एका प्रख्योपजायते । यस्यां सहविवक्षां तामाहुर्द्वन्द्वैकशेषयोः । Sr. Pr. II. The gender of a word in the द्वन्द्वसमास is that of the last word in the case of the इतरेतरद्वन्द्व, while it is the neuter gender in the case of the समाहारद्वन्द्व.
dvikarmakaa term used in connection with roots governing two objects or two words in the accusative case, exempli gratia, for example दुह् in, गां दोग्धि पयः; the term कर्म according to the strict definition of the term कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म or अाप्यं कर्म applies to one of the two, which is called the प्रधानकर्म or the direct object, the other one, which, in fact, is related to the verbal activity by relation of any other karaka or instrument is taken as karmakaraka and hence put in the accusative case. For details see Mahabhasya and Kasika on P.I.4.51. Some roots in their causal formation govern two objects out of which one object is the actual one while the other is the subject of the primitive root. exempli gratia, for example गमयति माणवकं ग्रामम्; बोधयति माणवकं धर्मम्; cf Kas on P.I.4.52. See for details Mahabhasya on P. I. 4.52.
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
naḍādi(1)a class of words headed by the word नड to which the taddhita affix.affix आयन ( फक् ) is added in the sense of गोत्र ( grandchild and further descendants); e. g, नाडायनः, चारायणः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.1. 99; (2) a class of words headed by नड to which the affix ईय (छ) is added, together with the augment क placed after the word and before the affix, in the four senses prescribed in P. IV.2. 67-70; exempli gratia, for example नडकीयम् , प्लक्षकीयम् ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2. 91.
nandikeśvarakārikāa short treatise of 28 stanzas, attributed to an ancient grammarian नन्दिकेश्वर, which gives a philosophical interpretation of the fourteen sutras attributed to God Siva. The authorship of the treatise is assigned traditionally to the Divine Bull of God Siva. See नन्दिकेश्वर. The treatise is also named नन्दिकेश्वरकारिकासूत्र.
nāsikāsthānaa place in the nose where a nasal letter such as ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न् or म् and anusvara get a tinge of nasalization while passing through it. The yama letters e.g the nasal क्, ख् ,ग् , घ् get nasalization in the utterance of the words पलिक्किनः, चख्ख्नतुः, अग्ग्निः, घ्घ्नन्ति; confer, compare यमो नाम वर्णः प्रातिशाख्ये प्रसिद्धः S.K. on P. VIII. 2. 1. confer, compare also यमानुस्वारनासिक्यानां नासिके Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 74, Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 12.
nyaṅkusāriṇīa kind of बृहती metre in which the second foot has twelve syllables, while the rest have eight syllables each; confer, compare द्वितीये न्यङ्कुसारिणी R.Pr.XVI.32.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padaprabhedalit, divisions of words: parts of speech. There are four parts of speech viz.नामन् , आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात given by ancient grammarians and the authors of the Prātiśākhya works, while there are given only two, सुबन्त and तिङन्त by Pāņini. For details see pp. 145, 146 Vol. VII. Mahābhāșya D. E. Society's edition.
padavāda or padavādipakṣaview that words are real and have an existence and individuality of their own. The view is advocated by the followers of both the Mīmāmsā schools and the logicians who believe that words have a real existence. Grammarians admit the view for practical purposes, while they advocate that the अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट alone is the real sense. confer, compare Vākyapadīya II.90 and the foll.
padmanābhaa grammarian who wrote a treatise on grammar known as the Supadma Vyākaraņa. He is believed to have been an inhabitant of Bengal who lived in the fourteenth century A. D. Some say that he was a resident of Mithilā.
parasmaipadaa term used in grammar with reference to the personal affixs ति, त: et cetera, and others applied to roots. The term परस्मैपद is given to the first nine afixes ति, त:, अन्ति, सि, थ:, थ, मि, व: and म:, while the term आत्मनेपद is used in connection with the next nine त, आताम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare परस्मै परोद्देशार्थफलकं पदम् Vac. Kosa. The term परस्मैपद is explained by some as representing the Active_Voice as contrasted with the Passive Voice which necessarily is characterized by the Aatmanepada affixes. The term परस्मैभाष in the sense of परस्मैपद was used by ancient grammarians and is also found in the Vaarttika अात्मनेभाषपस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI. 3.8 Vart.1 . The term परस्मैभाष as applied to roots, could be explained as परस्मै क्रियां (or क्रियाफलं) भाषन्ते इति परस्मैभाषाः and originally such roots as had their activity meant for another, used to take the परस्मैपद् affixes, while the rest which had the activity meant for self, took the अात्मनेपद affixes. Roots having activity for both, took both the terminations and were termed उभयपदिनः.
parāthe highest eternal voice or word, the highest and the most lofty of the our divisions of language (वाक), viz. परा,पश्यन्ती, मध्यमा and वैखरी, which, (परा), philosophically is identified with नाद ( व्रह्म ) or शब्दब्रह्म . It is described as वर्णादि -विशेषरहिता चेतनमिश्रा सृष्ट्युपयोगिनी जगदुपादानभूता कुण्डलिनीरूपेण प्राणिनां मूलाधारे वर्तते | कुण्डलिन्याः प्राणवायुसंयोगे परा व्यज्यते | इयं निःष्पन्दा पश्यन्त्यादयः सस्पन्दा अस्या विवर्तः । इयमेव सूक्ष्मस्फोट इत्युच्यते ।
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
pāṇinisūtravṛttia gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiin his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known.
pāyaguṇḍa,pāyaguṇḍeA learned pupil of Nāgeśabhațța who lived in Vārǎņasī in the latter half of the 18th century A.D. He was a renowned teacher of Grammar and is believed to have written commentaries on many works of Nāgeśa, the famous among which are the 'Kāśikā' called also 'Gadā' on the Paribhāșenduśekhara,the'Cidasthimālā' on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara and the 'Chāyā' on the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.Bālambhațța Pāyaguņde, who has written a commentary on the Mitākșarā (the famous commentary on the Yajňavalkyasmŗti), is believed by some as the same as Vaidyanātha: while others say that Bālambhațța was the son of Vaidyanātha.
prācīnamatathe view or doctrine of the former or rather older grammarians. The word is used in many commentary books and the meaning of the word is to be decided according to the context. For example in the works of Ramacandra, the author of the Prakriyakaumudi and his followers, the word refers to the view given by the writers of the Kasikavrtti and the commentaries thereon in the works of Bhattoji and his pupils, it refers to the writer of the Prakriyakaumudi in addition to the writers of the Kasika, while in the works of Nagesa it refers to the writings of Bhattoji and his pupils. For details see Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. V1I pp. 23-24 D. E. Society's Edition.
prātipadikaliterallyavailable in every word. The term प्रातिपादिक can be explained as प्रतिपदं गृह्णाति तत् प्रातिपदिकम् cf P.IV. 4. 39. The term प्रातिपदिक, although mentioned in the Brahmana works, is not found in the Pratisakhya works probably because those works were concerned with formed words which had been actually in use. The regular division of a word into the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix ( प्रत्यय ) is available, first in the grammar of Panini, who has given two kinds of bases, the noun-base and the verb-base. The noun-base is named Pratipadika by him while the verb-base is named Dhatu. The definition of Pratipadika is given by him as a word which is possessed of sense, but which is neither a root nor a suffix; confer, compare अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् . P.I. 2.45. Although his definition includes, the krdanta words,the taddhitanta words and the compound words, still, Panini has mentioned them separately in the rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I. 2.45 to distinguish them as secondary noun-bases as compared with the primary noun-bases which are mentioned in the rule अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्, Thus,Panini implies four kinds of Pratipadikas मूलभूत, कृदन्त, तद्धितान्त and समास, The Varttikakara appears to have given nine kinds-गुणवचन, सर्वनाम, अव्यय, तद्धितान्त, कृदन्त, समास, जाति, संख्या and संज्ञा. See Varttikas 39 to 44 on P. I. 4. 1. Later on, Bhojaraja in his SringaraPrakasa has quoted the definition अर्थवदधातु given by Panini, and has given six subdivisions.: confer, compare नामाव्ययानुकरणकृत्तद्धितसमासाः प्रातिपदिकानि Sr. Prak. I. page 6. For the sense conveyed by a Pratipadika or nounbase, see प्रातिपदिकार्थ.
prātipadikārthadenoted sense of a Pratipadika or a noun-base. Standard grammarians state that the denotation of a pratipadika is five-fold viz. स्वार्थ, द्रव्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या and कारक. The word स्वार्थ refers to the causal factor of denotation or प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त which is of four kinds जाति, गुण, क्रिया and संज्ञा as noticed respectively in the words गौः, शुक्लः, चलः and डित्ः. The word द्रव्य refers to the individual object which sometimes is directly denoted as in अश्वमानय, while on some occasions it is indirectly denoted through the genus or the general notion as in ब्राह्मणः पूज्य:, लिङ्ग the gender, संख्या the number and कारक the case-relation are the denotations of the case-terminations, but sometimes as they are conveyed in the absence of a case-affix as in the words पञ्च, दश, and others, they are stated as the denoted senses of the Pratipadika, while the case-affixes are said to indicate them; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युः शब्दादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya.
phak(1)taddhita affix.affix फ marked with mute क् for effecting the वृद्धि substitute for the initial vowel of the word to which it is appliedition The initial letter फ् of all the affixes beginning with फ् in Panini's grammar is always changed into आयन्. The taddhita affix. affix फक् is affixed (1) in the sense of गोत्रापत्य grandchild and his issues, to the words नड and others as also to the words ending with the affixes यञ् and इञ् and words शरद्वत्, दर्भ, द्रोण et cetera, and others exempli gratia, for example नाडायनः, शालङ्कायनः, दाक्षायणः प्लाक्षायणः, द्रोणायनः, वैदः, अौर्वः et cetera, and others; cf P.IV. 1.99-103; (2) as a caturarthika affix in the four senses mentioned in P. IV. 2.67-70 to the words पक्ष and others e. g. पाक्षायणः, तौषायणः; confer, compare P.IV. 2.80.
phañtaddhita affix. affix फ marked with ञ् causing the Vrddhi substitute for the initial vowel of the word, applied in the sense of grandchildren and their issues to words अश्व and others, as also to the word भर्ग; exempli gratia, for exampleआश्वायन, अाश्मायनः, भार्गायणः confer, compare अश्वादिभ्यः फञ् and भर्गात् त्रैगर्ते; confer, compare P.IV.1.110 and 111.
phala(1)fruit or benefit of an action which goes to the agent; confer, compare फलव्यापारयोर्धातुः Vaiyakarana-bhusana. A root which is given as Ubhayapadin in Panini's Grammar takes the Atmanepada affixes when the fruit of the activity is meant for the agent, while otherwise it takes the Parasmaipada affixes; (2) The word फल also means the result of a grammatical operation or grammatical injunction.
bidādia class of words headed by the word बिद to which the affix अ (अञ्) is added in the sense of a grandchild and further descendants; exempli gratia, for example बैदः, और्वः, काश्यप:, कौशिकः et cetera, and others The words in this class are mostly names of sages. In the case of such words as are not names of sages, the affix अ is added in the sense of the offspring and not any descendant. exempli gratia, for example पौत्रः, दौहित्रः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.104.
brahmakāṇḍaname given to the first section or Kanda of Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya. It deals with Sphota, and in a way it contains in a nutshell the philosophy of Sanskrit Grammar.
bhakti(1)name given to two of the five divisions of a Saman which are प्रस्तावभक्ति, उद्गीथ, प्रतिहार, उपद्रव and निधानभाक्ति; (2) the vowel portion surrounding, or placed after, the consonant र् or ल् which (consonant) is believed to be present in the vowel ऋ or ऌ respectively forming its important portion, but never separately noticed in it. The vowels ऋ and ऌ are made up of one matra each. It is contended by the grammarians that the consonants र् and ल् forming respectively the portion of ऋ and ऌ, make up halfa-matra, while the remaining half is made up of the भाक्ति of the vowel surrounding the consonant or situated after the consonant. The word which is generally used for this 'bhakti is 'ajbhakti' instead of which the word स्वरभक्ति is found in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare यत्तद्रेफात्परं भक्तेस्तेन व्यवहितत्वान्न प्राप्नेति | ...... यच्चात्र रेफात्परं भुक्तेर्न तत् क्वचिदपि व्यपवृक्तं दृश्यते | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VIII. 4.1 Vart 2; confer, compare स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गं Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 17; also confer, compare रेफात्स्वरोपहिताद् व्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णी स्वरभक्तिरुत्तरा ) Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 13.
bhartṛharia very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. confer, compare शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'.
bhāvavikārakinds of verbal activity which are described to be six in number viz. production, existence, transformation, growth, decay and destruction. These six modes of existence first mentioned by Vāŗșyayani and quoted by Yāska are explained philosophically by Bhartŗhari as a mere appearance of the Śabdabrahman or Sattā when one of its own powers, the time factor ( कालशक्ति ) is superimposed upon it, and as a result of that superimposition, it (id est, that is the Śabdabrahman) appears as a process; confer, compare षड् भावाविकारा भवन्ति इति वार्ष्यायणि: | जायते अस्ति विपरिणमते वर्धते अपक्षीयते विनश्यति इति । Nir.I.2; confer, compare also Vākyapadiya III.30.
mātraca taddhita affix. affix in the sense of measure applied optionally with द्वयस and दघ्न to a noun exempli gratia, for example ऊरुमात्रम् प्रस्थमात्रम् ; confer, compare प्रमाणे द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रचः P. V.2.37 and Kasika thereon which remarks that द्वयस and दघ्न are applied in the sense of height, while मात्र is applied in the sense of any measure: confer, compare प्रथमश्च द्वितीयश्च ऊर्ध्वमाने मतौ मम Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.2.37.
mukhyaviśeṣyathe principal word in a sentence which comes last in the technical expression of the import or शाब्दबोध. It is described as primary and not subordinated to any other thing ( अन्याविशेषणीभूत). This मुख्यविशेष्य is, in a way,the crucial point in the various theories of import; exempli gratia, for example according to the grammarians the verbal activity is the principal word while,according to the Mimaamsakas the bhaavanaa is the principal word.and according to the Naiyayikas it is the subject that is the principal word.
mṛdu(1)soft in utterance ; the term is used in the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya for the क्षैप्र, प्रश्लिष्ट, तैरोव्यञ्जन, and पादवृत्त varieties of the circumflex accent (स्वरित) out of which the पादवृत्त is the softest ( मृदुतम ) and consequently always called मृदु, while the others are called मृदु only with respect to the preceding one in the order given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; viz.अभिनिहत, क्षैप्र et cetera, and othersconfer, compareसर्वतीक्ष्णोभिनिहत:प्राश्लिष्टस्तदनन्तरम् । ततो मृदुतरौ स्वरौ जात्यक्षेप्रावुभौ स्मृतौ | ततो मृदुतर: स्वारस्तैरोव्यञ्जन उच्यते | पादवृत्तो मृदुतमस्त्वेतत्स्वारबलाबलम् Uvvata on V.Pr. I. !25; (2) soft, as opposed to hard; the term is used in connection with the first,third and fifth consonants of the five classes.
yañ(1)short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) formed by the letter य of हृयवरट् and the mute letter ञ्ज of इभञ् including serni-vowels and the third and the fourth consonants excepting घ् , ढ् and ध् of the five consonant groups: confer, compare अतो दीर्घो याञि P. VII. 3. 10l ; (2) taddhita affix. affix added (a) in the sense of गोत्र (grand-children and their descendants) to words of the गर्ग class and some other words under specific conditions, exempli gratia, for example गार्ग्यः: वात्स्य:, काप्यः et cetera, and others, confer, compare गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् and the following P.IV. 1. 105-108: (b) in the sense of collection to केदार, गणिका, केश and अश्व, confer, compare P.IV.2.40 and the Varttika.thereon and IV. 2.48; (c) in the Saiska senses to the word द्वीप, confer, compare P.IV.3.10: (d) to the word कंसीय e. g. कांस्यम् confer, compare P.IV.3.168, and (e) to the words अभिजित्, विदभृत् and others when they have the taddhita affix. affix अण् added to them : exempli gratia, for example अाभजित्य: confer, compare P. V. 3. 118.
r(1)second letter of the यण् class ( semi-vowels ) which has got the properties नादभागित्व, घोषवत्त्व,' संवृतत्व and अल्पप्राणता i. e. it is a sonant, inaspirate consonant. Regarding its स्थान or place of production, there is a difference of opinion : generally the consonant र् is looked upon as a cerebral or lingual letter (मूर्धन्य); cf ऋटुरषाणां मूर्धा, S.K.also Pāṇini. Siksa; but it is called by some as दन्त्य or दन्तमूलीय: cf रेफस्तु दस्त्ये दन्तमूले वा RT. 8, by others as दन्तमूलीय and and by still others as वर्स्त्य gingival. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya it is described as दन्तमूलीय: cf रो दन्तमूल I. 68, while in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya it is said to be produced by the touch of the middle part of the tip of the tongue just a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the root of the teeth;confer, compare रेफे जिह्वाग्रमध्येन प्रत्यग्दन्तमूलेभ्यः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 41; (2) substitute र् (रेफ ) for the final letter of the word अहन्, as also for the final of अम्रस्, ऊधस्, अवस् and भुवस् optionally with रु, which ( रु) is dropped before vowels, and changed to ओ before अ and soft consonants, while it is changed into visarga before hard consonants and surds.exempli gratia, for example अम्नरेव, अम्र एवः ऊधरेव, ऊधएव: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII, 2-70: (3) the consonants र् (technically) called र् in Panini's grammar ) which is substituted for the consonant स् and for the consonant न् of the word अहन् when the consonant स् or न् stands at the end of a word. This substitute रु, unlike the substitute र् is liable to be changed into visarga, or the consonant य्, or the vowel उ by P. VIII.3.15, 17, VI.1.113, 114.
rāmainhabitant of Mithila who wrote a commentary by name विद्वत्प्रबोधिनी on the Sarasvata Prakriya.
rāmānanda grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote a commentary on Bopadeva's Mugdhabodha. He was possibly the same as Ramarama (see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) and Ramānandatirtha who wrote the Katantrasamgraha, although different from the well-known रामानन्दतर्थि of the sixteenth century who was a sanyasin and who wrote many philosophical and religious booklets.
ru(1)substitute र् for the consonant स् at the end of a word as also for the ष् of सजुत्र् , न् of अहन् and optionally with र् for the final स् of अम्नस्, ऊधस् and अवस् in Veda; exempli gratia, for example अग्निरत्र, वायुरत्र, सजूर्देवोभिः confer, compare P.VIII.2.66; the र् of this रु (as contrasted with the substitute र् which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) is further changed into उ before a soft consonant and before the vowel अ provided it is preceded by the vowel अ, while र् , prescribed as substitute र (which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.), remains unchanged; e g. शिवोर्च्यः, शिवो वन्द्य: as contrasted with अहरत्र, अहर्गण:; (2) substitute र् for the final ज् of अवयज् (e. g, अवयाः), for ह् of श्वेतवह् (exempli gratia, for example श्वेतवाः), and for श् of पुरोडाश् (exempli gratia, for example पुगेडा:) before the case affix सु ; confer, compareP.VIII.4.67;(3)substitute र् (or द्) for the final स् or द् of a verb-form ending with the personal ending सिप् of the 2nd person. sing; confer, compare P. VIII.2.74,75;(4)substitute र् for the final न् of words ending with the affix मत् or वस् in Veda; exempli gratia, for example मरुत्व: हरिवः ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VIII.3.1; (5) substitute र् for the final न् at the end of a word when it is followed by a छव् letter id est, that is the first or a second consonant excepting ख् and फ्; exempli gratia, for example भवांश्चिनोति; confer, compare P.VIII. 3.7; (6) substitute र् for the final न् of नॄन् before the letter प् as also for the final न् of स्वतवान् and कान् under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VIII.3. 10.12.
laghuprayatnatararequiring still less effort for utterance than that required for the usual utterance; the term is used in connection with the utterance of the consonant य् which is substituted for Visarga following upon long अा and followed by any vowel. In such cases य् is not pronounced at all according to Śākalya, while it is somewhat audibly pronounced according to Śākațāyana; confer, compare व्योर्लघुप्रयत्नतरः शाकटायनस्य P. VIII. 3.18.
liṭan affix of the perfect tense; confer, compare परोक्षे लिट् P.III.2.115 for which the specific affixes णल्, अतुस् उस् et cetera, and others are substituted after roots which take Parasmaipada affixes. Before the lit affixes, a monosyllabic root is reduplicated while dissyllabic roots and denominative and other secondary roots, formed by adding an affix to an original root,take the affix अाम् after which all 'liț' personal endings are dropped and the forms of the roots कृ,भू and अस् with the necessary personal-endings, are placed immediately after the word ending in अाम् , but often with the intervention of a word or more in the Vedic language and rarely in the classical language; confer, compare तं पातयां प्रथममास पपात पश्चात् ; confer, compare कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि P.III.I. 35 to 42.
lohitādi(1)a class of words headed by लोहित to which the affix क्यव् ( य ) is added in the sense of 'becoming', to form a denominative root-base which gets the verb-endings of both the padas; e. g. लोहितायति, लोहितायते; निद्रायति, निद्रायते; the class लोहितादि is considered as अाकृतिगण so that similar denominative verb-bases could be explained; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.1. 13; (2) a class of words headed by लेहित, to which the feminine. affix ष्फ ( अायनी ) is added after they have got the taddhita affix यञ् added to them in the sense of 'a grandchild'; e. g. लौहित्यायनी, कात्यायनी et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.18.
vilambitā vṛttiretarding or slow manner of speech in which the letters are uttered quite distinctly; this kind of speech is followed by the preceptor while teaching Veda to his pupils; confer, compare अभ्यासार्थे द्रुतां वृत्ति प्रयोगार्थे तु मध्यमाम् । शिष्याणामुपदेशार्थे कुर्याद् वृत्तिं विलम्बिताम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 19. confer, compare also Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 24. See विलम्बित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
vivṛtti(1)separation of the two vowels which were euphonically combined into one; the hiatus or position of two vowels near each other; confer, compare विवृत्तिः स्वरयोरसंधिः; (2) the interval between two vowels placed near each other; confer, compare स्वरयोरनन्तरयोरन्तरं विवृत्तिः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.119; confer, compare also संहितायां यत्स्वरयोरन्तरं तद्विवृत्तिसंज्ञं स्यात् Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.I. This interval is one mātrā according to the Taittirīya Prātiśākhya, while it is only half-a-mātrā according to the Ṛktantra and the Ṛk-Prātiśākhya; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 13; Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 3५. See विराम.
vaiyākaraṇaśābdabodhaimport of a sentence according to the grammarians, in which verbal activity occupies a predominant place, and the residing place of the subject as also that of the verbal activity is identical in the active voice, while the object and the verbal activity have got the same place of residence in the passive voice. The other auxiliaries of activity such as the instrument, location and the like, are connected with the verbal activity. The import of the sentence चैत्रः पचति, in short, can be expressed as चैत्रकर्तृका वर्तमानकालिकां पाकक्रिया.
vyartha(l)useless, serving no purpose, superfluous; the word is usually used in the sense of useless or futile in connection with a rule or its part, which serves no purpose, its purpose or object being served otherwise; such words or rules have never been condemned as futile by commentators, but an attempt is made invariably by them to deduce something from the futile wording and show its necessity; confer, compare व्यर्थे सज्ज्ञापयति a remark which is often found in the commentary literature; confer, compare अन्यथा अन्तरङ्गत्वाद्दीर्घे कृत एव प्रत्ययप्राप्त्या तद्यर्थता स्पष्टैव । Par. Sek. Pari. 56; (2) possessed of various senses such as the words अक्षा: माषा: et cetera, and others: confer, compare व्यर्थेषु च मुक्तसंशयम् । M.Bh.on P.I.2.64 Vart. 52. The word व्यर्थ possibly stands for विविधार्थ in such cases. It appears that the word व्यर्थ in the sense of futile was rarely used by ancient grammarians; the word अनर्थक appears to have been used in its placcusative case. See Mahabhasya in which the word व्यर्थ does not occur in this sense while the word अनर्थक occurs at several places.
śabdaliterally "sound" in general; confer, compare शब्दं कुरु शब्दं मा कार्षीः | ध्वनिं कुर्वनेवमुच्यते | M.Bh. in Ahnika I; confer, compare also शब्दः प्रकृतिः सर्ववर्णानाम् | वर्णपृक्तः: शब्दो वाच उत्पत्तिः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII.1, XXIII.3.In grammar the word शब्द is applied to such words only as possess sense; confer, compare प्रतीतपदार्थको लोके ध्वनि: शब्द: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika 1: confer, comparealso येनोच्चरितेन अर्थः प्रतीयते स शब्दः Sringara Prakasa I; confer, compare also अथ शब्दानुशासनम् M.Bh. Ahnika 1. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya, शब्द् is said to be constituted of air as far as its nature is concerned, but it is taken to mean in the Pratisakhya and grammar works in a restricted sense as letters possessed of sense, The vajasaneyiPratisakhya gives four kinds of words तिडू, कृत्, तद्धित and समास while नाम, आख्यात, निपात and उपसर्ग are described to be the four kinds in the Nirukta. As शब्द in grammar, is restricted to a phonetic unit possessed of sense, it can be applied to crude bases, affixes, as also to words that are completely formed with case-endings or personal affixes. In fact, taking it to be applicable to all such kinds, some grammarians have given tweive subdivisions of शब्द, vizप्रक्रुति, प्रत्यय,उपत्कार, उपपद, प्रातिपदिक, विभक्ति, उपसर्जन, समास, पद, वाक्य, प्रकरण and प्रबन्ध; confer, compare Sringara Prakasa I.
śabdatattvaliterally the essence of a word; the ultimate sense conveyed by the word which is termed स्फोट by the Vaiyakaranas. Philosophically this Sabdatattva or Sphota is the philosophical Brahman of the Vedantins, which is named as Sabdabrahma or Nadabrahma by the Vaiykaranas,and which appears as the Phenomenal world of the basis of its own powers such as time factor and the like; confer, compare अनादिनिधनं ब्रह्म शब्दतत्वं यदक्षरम् ! विवर्ततेर्थभावेन प्रक्रिया जगतो यतः ॥ vakyapadiya, I.1: cf। also Vakyapadiya II.31.
śitpossessed of, or characterized by, the indicatory letter श्; the krt affixes which are marked with the indicatory श् are termed Sarvadhatuka affixes (confer, compare P.III.4.113), while, the Adesas or substitutes, marked with the indicatory श्, are substituted for the whole of the Sthanin or the original and not for its final letter according to the rule अलोन्त्यस्य P. I.1.52; e. g. शि is substituted,not for the final स् of जस् and शस् but for the whole जस् and the whole शस्; confer, compare P.I.1.55.
saṃprasāraṇaliterally extension; the process of changing a semi-vowel into a simple vowel of the same sthana or place of utterance; the substitution of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ for the semi-vowels य्, व् , र् and ल् respectively; cf इग्यणः संप्रसारणम् P. 1.1.45. The term संप्रसारण is rendered as a 'resultant vowel' or as 'an emergent vowel'. The ancient term was प्रसारण and possibly it referred to the extension of य् and व्, into their constituent parts इ +अ, उ+अ et cetera, and others the vowel अ being of a weak grade but becoming strong after the merging of the subseguent vowel into it exempli gratia, for example confer, compare सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P. III. 2.8 Vart.1. For the words taking this samprasarana change, see P. VI. 1 .13 to .19. According to some grammarians the term संप्रसारण is applied to the substituted vowels while according to others the term refers to the operation of the substitution: confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.15. The substitution of the samprasarana vowel is to be given preference in the formation of a word; , confer, compare संप्रसारणं तदाश्रयं च कार्यं बलवत् Pari. Sek. Pari. 1 19. संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्व the relative superior strength of the samprasarana change in comparison with other operations occurring simultaneotisly. The phrase न वा संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्वात् is often used in the Mahabhasya which is based upon the dictum of the superior strength of the samprasarana substitution, which is announced by the writer of the Varttikas; P. VI. 1.17 Vart, 2. , See संप्रसारण.
saṃhitāposition of words or parts of words in the formation ofa word quite near each other which results into the natural phonetic coalescence of the preceding and the following letters. Originally when the Vedic hymns or the running prose passages of the Yajurveda were split up into their different constituent parts namely the words or padas by the Padakaras, the word संहिता or संहितापाठ came into use as contrasted with the पदपाठ. The writers of of the Pratisakhyas have conseguently defined संहिता as पदप्रकृतिः संहिता, while Panini who further split up the padas into bases ( प्रकृति ) and affixes ( प्रत्यय ) and mentioned several augments and substitutes, the phonetic combinations, which resulted inside the word or pada, had to be explained by reason of the close vicinity of the several phonetic units forming the base, the affix, the augment, the substitute and the like, and he had to define the word संहृिता rather differently which he did in the words परः संनिकर्षः संहिता; cf P.I.4.109: confer, compare also संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः । नित्य समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते Sabdakaustubha on Maheshvara Sutra 5.1.
sattāexistence, supreme or universal existence the Jati par excellence which is advocated to be the final sense of all words and expressions in the language by Bhartrhari and other grammarians after him who discussed the interpretation of words. The grammarians believe that the ultimate sense of a word is सत्ता which appears manifold and limited in our everyday experience due to different limitations such as desa, kala and others. Seen from the static viewpoint, सत्ता appears as द्रब्य while, from the dynamic view point it appears as a क्रिया. This सत्ता is the soul of everything and it is the same as शव्दतत्त्व or ब्रह्मन् or अस्त्यर्थ; confer, compare Vakyapadiya II. 12. The static existence, further, is . called व्यक्ति or individual with reference to the object, and जाति with reference to the common form possessed by individuals.
samanvayapradīpasaṃketaa treatise on the philosophy of Vyakarana written as a commentary by the author दंवशर्मन् on his own Karikas on the subject.
samāsāntasecondary suffixes which are prescribed at the end of compounds in specific cases and which are looked upon as taddhita affixes; exempli gratia, for examplethe Samasanta डच् ( अ ), causing elision of the last syllable of the compound word, is added to compounds called संख्याबहुव्रीहि; exempli gratia, for example उपदशाः,पञ्चषाः et cetera, and others P.V.4.73. Samasanta अ is added to compounds ending with ऋच्,पुर्, अप्, and धुर,and अच् to words ending with सामन् , लोमन् , अक्षन् , चतुर् पुंस् , अनडुह्, मनस् , वर्चस्, तमस् , श्रेयस् , रहस्, उरस्, गो, तावत्, अध्वन् , etc :under specific conditions; cf P.V.4.68 to 86. अच् ( अ ) is added at the end of the tatpurusa compounds to the words अङ्गुलि, and रात्रि, under specific conditions; confer, compare P.V.4.86, 87: टच् ( अ ) is added at the end of tatpurusa compounds ending in राजन् , अहन् , सखि , गो, and उरस् and under specific conditions to those ending in तक्षन् , श्वन् , सक्थि, नौ, खारी, and अज्जलि as also to words ending in अस् and अन् in the neuter gender in Vedic Literature, and to the word ब्रह्मन् under specific conditions: confer, compare P.V. 4.91 to 105: टच् is added at the end of समाहारद्वन्द्व compounds ending in च् , छ् , ज्, झ्,ञ्, , द्, ष् and ह्, and at the end of अव्ययीभाव compounds ending with the words शरद् , विपाश् , अनस् , and मनस् et cetera, and others as also at the end of words ending in अन् or with any of the class consonants except nasals, confer, compare P.V.4.106-ll2; षच् ( अ ) is added to Bahuvrihi compounds ending with सक्थि and अक्षि as limbs of the body, as also with अङ्गुलि, while ष , अप् and अच् are added to specified words under special conditions; the Samasanta affix असिच् ( अस् ) is added at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound ending in प्रजा, and मेधा, the Samasanta affix इच् is added at the end of the peculiar Bahuvrihi compound formed of दण्ड, मुसल et cetera, and others when they are repeated and when they show a fight with the instruments of fight exchanged; confer, compare P. V.4.113128. Besides these affixes, a general समासान्त affix कप् is added necessarily or optionally as specified in P.V. 4.151-159.
supadmavyākaraṇaan independent work on grammar written by a scholar of grammar named पद्मनाभ, who fourished in Mithila in the fifteenth century A. D.
sphoṭaname given to the radical Sabda which communicates the meaning to the hearers as different from ध्वनि or the sound in ordinary experience.The Vaiyakaranas,who followed Panini and who were headed by Bhartihari entered into discussions regarding the philosophy of Grammar, and introduced by way of deduction from Panini's grammar, an important theory that शब्द which communicates the meaning is different from the sound which is produced and heard and which is merely instrumental in the manifestation of an internal voice which is called Sphota.स्फुटयतेनेन अर्थः: इति स्फोटः or स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायमादुपजायते Vakyapadiya; confer, compare also अभिव्यक्तवादको मध्यमावस्थ आन्तर: शब्द: Kaiyata's Pradipa. For, details see Vakyapadiya I and Sabdakaustubha Ahnika 1. It is doubtful whether this Sphota theory was. advocated before Panini. The word स्फोटायन has been put by Panini in the rule अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य only incidentally and, in fact, nothing can be definitely deduced from it although Haradatta says that स्फोटायन was the originator of the स्फोटवाद. The word स्फोट is not actually found in the Pratisakhya works. However, commentators on the Pratisakhya works have introduced it in their explanations of the texts which describe वर्णोत्पत्ति or production of sound; confer, compare commentary on R.Pr.XIII.4, T.Pr. II.1. Grammarians have given various kinds of sphota; confer, compare स्फोटो द्विधा | व्यक्तिस्फोटो जातिस्फोटश्च। व्यक्तिस्पोटः सखण्ड अखण्डश्च । सखण्ड। वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। अखण्ड: पदवाक्यभेदेन द्विधा ! एवं पञ्च व्यक्तिस्फोटाः| जातिस्फोट: वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। इत्येवमष्टौ स्फोटः तत्र अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट एव मुख्य इति नव्याः । वाक्य जातिस्फोट इति तु प्राञ्चः॥; confer, compare also पदप्रकृतिः संहिता इति प्रातिशाख्यमत्र मानम् । पदानां प्रकृतिरिति षष्ठीतत्पुरुषे अखण्डवाक्यस्फोटपक्षः । बहुव्रीहौ सखण्डबाक्यस्फोट:||
svarabhaktia vowel part; appearance of a consonant as a vowel; the character of a vowel borne by a consonant. Many times a semivowel which consists of one letter has to be divided especially for purposes of metre, as also for accentuation into two letters or rather, has to be turned into two letters by inserting a vowel before it or after it, for instance य् is to be turned into इय् e. g, in त्रियम्बकं यजामहे, while र् or रेफ is to be turned into र् ऋ as for instance in कर्हि चित् which is to be uttered as कर् ऋ हृि चित्. This prefixing or suffixing of a vowel is called स्वरभक्तिः confer, compare स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गं द्राघीयसी सार्धमात्रेतरे च | अधोनान्या ( Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 32.35; confer, compare also न संयोगं स्वरभाक्तिर्विहृान्ति Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 35; confer, compare also रेफात् खरोपहिताद् व्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णा स्वरभक्तिरुत्तरा: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 46. In Panini's grammar, however, the word अज्भाक्त, which means the same is used for स्वरभक्ति; cf ऋति ऋ वा लृति लृ वा इत्युभयत्रापि विधेयं वर्णद्वयं द्विमात्रम् | अाद्यस्य मध्ये द्वौ ; रेफौ तयोरेकां मात्रा । अभितेाज्भक्तेरपरा। S. K. on VI. 1.101.
svaritapratijñāthe conventional dictum that a particular rule or part of a rule, is marked with the accent स्वरित which enables the grammarians to decide that that rule or that part of a rule is to occur in each of the subsequent Sutras, the limit of continuation being ascertained from convention. It is possible that Panini in his original recital of the Astadhyayi recited the words in the rules with the necessary accents; probably he recited every word, which was not to proceed further, with one acute or with one circumflex vowel, while, the words which were to proceed to the next rule or rules, were marked with an actual circumflex accent ( स्वरित ), or with a neutralization of the acute and the grave accents (स्वरितत्व), that is, probably without accents or by एकश्रुति or by प्रचय; cf स्वरितेनाधिकार: P. I.3.II and the Mahabhasya thereon.
haritādia class of words headed by the word इरित to which the taddhita affix फक् ( अायन ) is added in the sense of a descendant after the affix अ ( अञ् ) has already been added to them by P. IV. 1. 104, the word so formed possessing the sense of the great grandchild (युवापत्य) of the individuals denoted by इरित and others; e. g. हारितायनः; confer, compare इह् तु गोत्राधिकारेपि सामर्थ्याद् यूनि प्रत्ययोभिघीयते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, IV.1.100
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
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2093 results
acalān hillsSB 9.15.34
adri hillSB 3.1.18
SB 4.23.21
adri hillsCC Antya 15.14
SB 1.8.40
adriḥ hillCC Antya 14.86
CC Madhya 18.34
SB 10.21.18
SB 8.7.6
adrīn hills and mountainsSB 1.6.12
girayaḥ hills and mountainsSB 1.10.5
giri hill (Trikūṭa Mountain)SB 8.4.17-24
giri hillsSB 5.17.6
SB 5.5.30
girīn hillsSB 10.71.21
kulācalāḥ hilly tracts of landSB 7.14.30-33
śaila hillsCC Antya 4.210
SB 10.46.22
SB 10.47.49
śaila hills and mountainsCC Madhya 13.83
śailaḥ hillSB 10.24.36
śailam hillSB 10.25.28
tila-adrīn hills of grainSB 10.5.3
tila-adrīn hills of grainSB 10.5.3
ā-vaṭubhyaḥ unto those who appear as childrenSB 5.13.23
ā-bāla including the childrenSB 10.16.13-15
bālya-līlā'ra of the Lord's childhood pastimesCC Adi 17.326
ā-bāla-vṛddha beginning from the children up to the old personsCC Madhya 4.83
ā-bāla from the childrenCC Madhya 7.81
ā-janma from childhoodCC Madhya 9.25
abalaḥ a small childSB 10.26.25
abhadrāṇi all inauspiciousness or annihilationSB 10.2.29
abhāvāya for the annihilationSB 8.14.9
abhidhyāyataḥ while thinking ofSB 3.12.21
abhidhyāyataḥ while thinkingSB 3.13.18
abhigoptā a well-wisher of the citizens as a father is the well-wisher of his childrenSB 5.10.23
abhipaśyataḥ while thus observingSB 3.13.19
abhipatantam while falling downSB 2.7.14
abhiṣicya after bathing (the child)SB 10.7.13-15
abhiṣṭuvatsu while they were glorifyingSB 10.83.5
abhyarcayan thus while receiving in a proper moodSB 1.13.38
abibhran maintained (the child)SB 9.20.39
acakṣāṇaḥ while searching forSB 1.18.24-25
acala the hillsSB 4.22.58
acala-droṇyām in one valley of the Mandara HillSB 5.2.2
mandara-acalam the hill known as MandarācalaSB 7.7.2
govardhana-acalam Govardhana HillSB 10.25.19
toka-ācaritam adbhutam they are also wonderful childhood pastimesSB 10.7.3
bauddha-ācārya the leader in Buddhist philosophyCC Madhya 9.47
yoga-ācāryaḥ the propounder of the philosophy of yogaSB 9.12.2
sāńkhya-ācāryaiḥ by ācāryas expert in Sāńkhya philosophySB 3.24.19
ācicchide separated the child by forceSB 10.4.7
deha-ādau identifying oneself with the material body and then with one's wife, children, family, community, nation and so onSB 7.7.19-20
mat-kathā-ādau in the narrations, songs, philosophy, dramatical performances, etc., that describe My gloriesSB 11.20.8
sutam ādāya taking back his childSB 10.1.61
suta-ādayaḥ childrenSB 1.10.29
dāra-apatya-ādayaḥ beginning with the wife and childrenSB 5.14.3
suta-ādayaḥ children and so onSB 7.7.39
suta-ādayaḥ children and so forthSB 10.46.38
suta-ādayaḥ children and othersSB 10.49.23
adbhuta-arbhakam this wonderful child who was different from an ordinary childSB 10.7.27
toka-ācaritam adbhutam they are also wonderful childhood pastimesSB 10.7.3
adhaḥ down at the foot of Govardhana HillSB 10.13.31
mithilā-adhipaḥ became the king of MithilāSB 9.13.23
adhyātma-padaviḥ the path of philosophical speculationSB 4.7.42
niṣeka-ādi the beginning of life (the purificatory process of garbhādhāna, performed when the father begets a child by discharging semen into the womb of the mother)SB 7.15.52
janma-ādi the creation, maintenance and annihilationSB 8.1.13
sṛṣṭi-ādi-nimitte for the cause of creation, maintenance and annihilationCC Adi 5.81
ādi by artificially practicing detachment, by the mechanical practice of yoga, by studying the Sāńkhya philosophy, and so onCC Madhya 19.167
dhana-ādibhiḥ such as wealth, honor, children, land and houseSB 1.13.20
dṛśi-ādibhiḥ by philosophical research and other processesSB 3.32.26
kṛta-majjana-ādikam after she and the other members of the house had bathed and the child had been bathed alsoSB 10.7.5
dāra-ādīn the wife and childrenSB 5.26.9
suta-ādīnām and childrenSB 7.15.65
adīnānām of the happy (children)SB 11.7.60
āśana-ādiṣu while eating and so onSB 5.8.11
ātma-ja-ādiṣu as well as in childrenSB 7.14.3-4
adrau from the top of Kailāsa HillSB 8.7.20
mahendra-adrau in the hilly country known as MahendraSB 9.16.26
adrayaḥ the hillsCC Madhya 24.206
adreḥ and of the hill (Govardhana)SB 10.24.25
adri-parivarta rolling the hillSB 2.7.13
govardhana-adri-śirasi on the top of Govardhana HillSB 10.13.29
adri-sānu upon the peaks of the hillsSB 10.21.10
adri to Govardhana HillSB 10.24.38
adri of Govardhana HillCC Madhya 8.195
saha adribhiḥ along with the hills and mountainsSB 1.14.15
adrim the hillSB 10.79.11-15
adrīn mountains and hillsSB 4.16.22
adrīn the hillsSB 10.59.4
go-brāhmaṇa-adrīṇām for the cows, brāhmaṇas and Govardhana HillSB 10.24.30
vyeńkaṭa-adrye to the holy place Veńkaṭa HillCC Madhya 9.64
sarga-ādyāḥ bringing about creation, maintenance and annihilationCC Madhya 20.113
apatya-ādyaiḥ with his children and so onSB 10.46.16
agādha-bodhaiḥ who were highly learned philosophersSB 10.82.48
agādha-bodhaiḥ who were highly learned philosophersCC Madhya 1.81
agādha-bodhaiḥ who are highly learned philosophersCC Madhya 13.136
pretya-āgatam as if Kṛṣṇa had returned from death (no one could even imagine that from such danger a child could be saved)SB 10.6.43
agha-ogha-nāśaḥ who annihilates all kinds of inauspicious offenses for a devoteeCC Madhya 25.128
hūyamāne agnau while oblations were being offered in the fire of sacrificeSB 9.17.15
ahaitukam where there is no dry philosophical speculationSB 9.5.22
aiśvarya kahite while describing the opulenceCC Madhya 21.99
ajñāna-mattam maddened by ignorance or foolishly passing time in karma, jñāna, yoga and Māyāvāda philosophyCC Madhya 19.54
ajuṣṭa-grāmya-viṣayau for sex life and to beget a child like MeSB 10.3.39
vālakhilya-ākhya entitled VālakhilyaSB 12.6.59
parvata-ākramaṇaiḥ by crushing with big stones and hillsSB 7.5.43-44
āmnāya-vādinaḥ adopting various materialistic philosophiesSB 11.5.5
amogha-vīryaḥ a person who discharges semen without being baffled, or, in other words, who must beget a childSB 9.20.17
amogha śiśu Amogha is a childCC Madhya 15.287
amogha śiśu Amogha is a childCC Madhya 15.291
anapatyaḥ without childrenSB 6.6.23
anapatyaḥ without childrenSB 6.6.43
anaśnan while refraining from eatingSB 12.12.60
rudatā anena as soon as the child criedSB 10.7.9
ańga My dear childSB 7.10.22
malaya-anilau and the refreshing breeze from the Malaya HillsSB 12.8.16
paśyatām animeṣāṇām while the demigods were looking onSB 6.10.1
anīnaśat drove away or annihilatedSB 9.15.15
ānsīkṣikīm of philosophical debateSB 10.45.34
anta-karaḥ annihilatorSB 4.11.19
anta-kāle at the time of annihilationSB 8.7.32
anta and its annihilationSB 11.22.12
gṛha-antaḥ khelantyaḥ who were engaged in childish play within the houseCC Antya 1.153
kula-antakam the annihilator of the dynastySB 9.15.14
antakam for her own annihilationSB 10.6.8
antam and annihilationSB 10.50.29
antarā while in youthSB 9.18.40
ante in the annihilationSB 10.14.19
kalpa-ante at the time of annihilationSB 11.9.16
arbhaka-antike near the childSB 10.56.20
nidhanāt anu after its annihilationSB 10.87.37
anugataḥ while followingSB 1.18.24-25
anujānatām of those who follow this philosophical calculationCC Madhya 19.143
anuśerate serve the Lord while He sleepsSB 3.7.37
anveṣamāṇāḥ while seekingSB 9.8.8
aśva-anveṣaṇe while trying to find their lost horseSB 5.19.29-30
anveṣantī while searching outSB 4.9.23
anveṣite while searchingCC Adi 17.283
anyatamaḥ another childSB 10.11.26
paurva-aparyeṇa in the form of parents and childrenSB 11.24.20
apaśyamānaḥ while not observingSB 4.10.21
āpatataḥ while moving toward him and falling downSB 8.10.42
apatya childrenSB 2.1.4
apatya-kāmā desirous of having a childSB 3.14.8
apatya from her childrenSB 3.17.2
apatya childrenSB 3.31.42
apatya childrenSB 4.12.16
apatya childrenSB 4.24.3
dāra-apatya-ādayaḥ beginning with the wife and childrenSB 5.14.3
apatya childrenSB 5.24.8
kalatra-apatya wives and childrenSB 5.24.29
para-vitta-apatya-kalatrāṇi the money, wife and children of anotherSB 5.26.8
apatya childrenSB 7.7.44
apatya childrenSB 10.14.50
apatya childrenSB 10.16.60
apatya childrenSB 10.23.27
apatya childrenSB 10.29.32
apatya-ādyaiḥ with his children and so onSB 10.46.16
apatya childrenSB 10.47.16
apatya childrenSB 10.60.20
apatya (of Your being my) childSB 10.85.19
apatya childrenSB 11.3.19
apatya childrenSB 11.5.18
apatya childrenSB 11.10.7
apatya of childrenCC Adi 13.73
apatyaḥ and childrenSB 10.86.43
bhūri-apatyāḥ having many childrenSB 12.3.34
apatyam the childrenSB 5.18.19
apatyam a childSB 7.5.37
apatyam childSB 10.4.15
apatyam the childSB 10.89.43-44
apatyānām of the childrenSB 10.69.33
apatyāni childrenSB 3.12.56
apatyāni childrenSB 3.13.11
apatyāni childrenSB 8.13.1
apatyāni childrenSB 9.14.39
apatyasya for the childrenSB 7.14.26
apatye childrenSB 4.20.6
guṇa-apāya the cause of the annihilation of everything made of the material modes of natureSB 6.4.29
apāya and annihilationSB 11.24.22-27
apāyayat made the child suckSB 10.7.11
patamānaḥ api even while falling downSB 10.6.14
yātudhānī api although she was a witch (whose only business was to kill small children and who had tried to kill Kṛṣṇa also)SB 10.6.34
aprajaḥ being childlessSB 4.8.2
aprajaḥ one who has no childrenSB 4.23.33
aprajayā who had not given birth to any childrenSB 5.3.1
apyaya-bhāvayoḥ of annihilation and generationSB 4.12.3
apyaya and annihilationSB 7.10.43-44
apyayaḥ annihilationSB 2.8.10
apyayāḥ and annihilationSB 4.29.79
apyayaḥ and annihilationSB 11.16.9
apyayam and annihilationSB 11.18.45
apyayam and annihilationSB 12.12.4
sarga-sthiti-apyayān creation, maintenance and annihilationSB 8.7.23
apyayān and annihilationSB 11.19.15
apyayau annihilationSB 11.20.22
apyayāya annihilationSB 9.24.58
apyayāya for annihilationSB 11.4.5
apyaye during the annihilationSB 11.4.18
apyayeṣu and annihilationSB 11.31.13
arbha-bhāvāt from childhoodSB 5.1.26
arbhāḥ their childrenSB 10.16.32
arbhaḥ the childSB 10.68.8
arbhaka-arthe for the sake of fatherless childrenSB 3.1.40
arbhaka-grahāḥ like evil stars for childrenSB 10.6.24
arbhaka-īhitam the childhood pastimes He performedSB 10.8.47
arbhaka of a childSB 10.39.19
arbhaka-antike near the childSB 10.56.20
arbhakaḥ a childSB 3.14.6
arbhakaḥ childSB 4.8.79
arbhakaḥ childSB 4.12.52
arbhakaḥ although a childSB 7.10.28
arbhakāḥ and childrenSB 10.25.26
arbhakaḥ childSB 10.55.34
arbhakaḥ a young childSB 11.7.11
arbhakaḥ the childSB 11.7.33-35
arbhakāḥ childrenSB 12.8.29
arbhakaiḥ who were all childishSB 1.18.32
arbhakam unto the childSB 10.6.20
ārbhakam the childhood pastimesSB 10.6.44
arbhakam childSB 10.7.20
adbhuta-arbhakam this wonderful child who was different from an ordinary childSB 10.7.27
arbhakam the childSB 10.7.34
mama arbhakasya of my childSB 10.8.40
arbhake small childSB 6.1.25
arbhake for the childSB 10.55.7-8
arcatī while servingSB 4.28.46
arhati is worthwhileSB 1.8.52
arṇāḥ and the kingdom bordering Mithilā on the eastSB 10.86.20
vyākhyāta-arthā and while complaining against Him before mother YaśodāSB 10.8.31
sūtra-artha the meaning of the Brahma-sūtra, or Vedānta philosophyCC Madhya 25.47
prajā-arthaḥ wanting a childSB 11.2.8
sa-arthakam worthwhileSB 10.41.45
utsādana-artham for the sake of causing annihilationBG 17.19
arbhaka-arthe for the sake of fatherless childrenSB 3.1.40
pāyayām āsa fed the childSB 10.7.34
āsakteṣu while they were completely absorbedSB 10.19.1
āśana-ādiṣu while eating and so onSB 5.8.11
hantā gata-āśańkaḥ there is a possibility that Kaṃsa would take steps to kill this childSB 10.8.8-9
asat-graha by the bad philosophySB 7.5.3
āsatīm while she was sittingSB 4.25.57-61
asau the childSB 1.12.22
bālakaḥ asau that child, KṛṣṇaSB 10.11.26
prajā-asavaḥ those whose love for their children is the same as their love for their own lifeSB 10.12.15
āsīnaḥ while sittingSB 7.4.38
āsīnaḥ while sitting comfortably in his sitting room or on the throneSB 10.2.24
āsīnam while sitting downSB 10.6.24
āśiṣā with blessings ('My dear child, may you live long and be happy' and so on)SB 7.5.20
aśīśayat laid the child downSB 10.7.5
āsite while He was coming backCC Adi 15.28
aśnan while eatingSB 7.4.38
aśnantyām while she was eatingSB 4.25.57-61
kulācala-āśramaḥ he made his āśrama in Kulācala (the Malaya Hills)SB 8.4.8
āśṛṇvataḥ while thus hearingSB 3.4.10
yathā āste while staying hereSB 10.8.31
asu-vigame while quitting this lifeSB 3.9.15
aśva-anveṣaṇe while trying to find their lost horseSB 5.19.29-30
asya of this childSB 9.20.22
asyataḥ for the supreme annihilatorSB 8.22.20
aṭamānaḥ while travelingSB 1.19.25
aṭamānaḥ while on tourSB 5.4.19
atha thus (while coming back home)SB 1.19.1
ati-bhara-girim the big hillSB 5.14.18
ati-vāma-ceṣṭitām although she was trying to treat the child better than a motherSB 10.6.9
saha-ātma-jā along with my childrenSB 1.8.23
tat-ātma-jāḥ ca and his children like Priyavrata, Uttānapāda, Devahūti, etc.SB 2.7.43-45
ātma-ja childrenSB 4.25.55
ātma-ja childrenSB 5.5.3
ātma-ja childrenSB 5.18.10
ātma-ja childrenSB 6.11.27
ātma-ja-ādiṣu as well as in childrenSB 7.14.3-4
ātma-mīmāṃsā philosophical inquiry into the reality of the selfSB 10.23.43-44
ātma-ja childrenSB 10.40.24
ātma-ja childrenSB 10.49.20
sva-ātma-jān his own childrenSB 11.7.67
ātma-ja childrenSB 11.9.26
ātmā-jāḥ and my other young childrenSB 11.17.57
ātmaja and childrenSB 10.89.28
ātmajaḥ Kṛṣṇa, who has taken birth as your childSB 10.8.14
ātmajaḥ Kṛṣṇa, who has taken birth as your childSB 10.26.17
saha-ātmajāḥ along with their childrenSB 10.71.15
ātmajam her own childSB 9.20.39
ātmajeṣu for their childrenSB 10.45.21
ātmanaḥ childrenSB 3.21.29
vilaya-udaya-ātmane in whom everything is annihilated and from whom everything is again manifestedSB 5.17.24
atsi annihilateSB 4.6.43
avati atti maintains and annihilatesSB 1.3.36
avati atti annihilatesSB 1.5.6
avati atti also maintains and annihilatesSB 1.10.24
atti annihilatesSB 3.29.38
atti annihilatesSB 4.11.26
atti annihilatesSB 10.84.17
kalā-atyaye after the annihilation of the material worldSB 4.24.29
autthānika-autsukya-manāḥ mother Yaśodā was very busy celebrating the utthāna ceremony of her childSB 10.7.6
autthānika-autsukya-manāḥ mother Yaśodā was very busy celebrating the utthāna ceremony of her childSB 10.7.6
avadhārya understanding surely that the child was the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 10.3.12
bālya-avadhi since the days of my childhoodCC Madhya 9.26
avalumpate annihilatesSB 7.2.39
avaśiṣṭā remaining childSB 10.5.29
avasthitaḥ staying (a householder generally stays home with his wife and children)SB 7.14.2
avatarataḥ while descendingSB 4.22.2
avati atti maintains and annihilatesSB 1.3.36
avati atti annihilatesSB 1.5.6
avati atti also maintains and annihilatesSB 1.10.24
avayavāḥ (children) whose limbsSB 11.7.58
ayam this process of creation and annihilationSB 2.10.46
ayam this (child within the womb)SB 7.7.10
ayam this (child)SB 9.14.11
ayam this childSB 9.20.38
ayam this childSB 10.8.14
ayam this childSB 10.26.17
ayuge and before that, during the time of annihilationSB 11.24.2
baddhān the captured (children)SB 11.7.66
bāla-prajā having young childrenSB 1.9.13
bāla while a childSB 2.3.15
bāla-līlayā childhoodSB 3.2.2
bāla-vat like a childSB 3.18.24
bāla-hitam the welfare of one's childSB 4.20.31
bāla-ghnyaḥ the killers of the childSB 6.16.14
bāla-hatyā because of killing the childSB 6.16.14
bāla-hatyā-vratam the atonement fur killing the childSB 6.16.14
bāla-dhvanim the crying of the newborn childSB 10.4.1
bāla-grahāḥ ca and those attacking childrenSB 10.6.24
loka-bāla-ghnī who used to kill human childrenSB 10.6.34
bāla-bhāṣitam childish talk from the assembled childrenSB 10.7.10
tat-bāla-caritāni in which the activities of her own child were enactedSB 10.9.1-2
bāla-vat exactly like a human childSB 10.11.7
bāla-ceṣṭitaiḥ by His activities like those of a child trying to do so many thingsSB 10.11.9
bāla-ghnyāḥ who was determined to kill small childrenSB 10.11.24
bāla-ceṣṭitaiḥ by the activities and pastimes of childhoodSB 10.11.37
yajña-bhuk bāla-keliḥ although He accepts offerings in yajña, for the sake of childhood pastimes He was enjoying foodstuffs very jubilantly with His cowherd boyfriendsSB 10.13.11
ā-bāla including the childrenSB 10.16.13-15
bāla childrenSB 10.25.27
bāla childishSB 10.56.9
bāla of a childSB 10.56.20
bāla by childrenSB 10.66.3
bāla-buddhiḥ is a person of childish intelligenceSB 11.4.2
bāla-vat like a childSB 11.7.26
bāla-vat like a childSB 11.9.3
bāla childrenSB 11.31.25
bāla childhoodSB 11.31.28
bāla childrenSB 12.1.39-40
bāla-gopāla Lord Kṛṣṇa as a childCC Adi 14.9
ā-bāla-vṛddha beginning from the children up to the old personsCC Madhya 4.83
ā-bāla from the childrenCC Madhya 7.81
bāla-cāñcalya kare sport like childrenCC Madhya 14.84
bāla childrenCC Madhya 18.121-122
bāla-gopāla-mantre with the mantra of Bāla-gopāla, child KṛṣṇaCC Antya 7.148
bālaḥ the childSB 3.2.30
bālaḥ childSB 4.8.12
bālaḥ only a childSB 4.8.26
bālaḥ childSB 4.13.39
bālaḥ childSB 6.1.24
bālaḥ a mere childSB 7.5.46
saha-bālaḥ with the childSB 10.7.28
bālaḥ the innocent child KṛṣṇaSB 10.7.31
bālāḥ the childrenSB 10.29.21-22
bālāḥ childrenSB 10.45.4
bālaḥ the childSB 10.55.39
bālaḥ a mere childSB 10.57.16
bālāḥ men of childish intelligenceSB 10.73.11
bālaḥ childishSB 11.9.4
bālāḥ childrenSB 11.30.6
bālaḥ an ignorant childCC Adi 2.1
bālaḥ a childCC Adi 4.1
bālaiḥ by childrenSB 1.19.25
bālaiḥ by childish menSB 10.66.2
bālaka-vat like a child (oblivious to honor and dishonor)SB 11.18.29
bālaka childrenCC Adi 7.25
bālaka the childCC Adi 13.111
bālaka-ṭhāma the feature of the childCC Adi 13.115
bālaka only a childCC Adi 15.19
bālaka-doṣa the offense of a childCC Madhya 15.291
bālaka-samāna like the childish activities of a boyCC Antya 19.46
bālakaḥ a mere childSB 1.6.8
eṇa-bālakaḥ the deer childSB 5.8.16
bālakaḥ the childSB 9.20.18
bālakāḥ the childrenSB 10.7.9
bālakaḥ the childSB 10.7.32
manuja-bālakaḥ exactly like the child of a human beingSB 10.8.36
bālakaḥ especially the child KṛṣṇaSB 10.11.24
bālakaḥ asau that child, KṛṣṇaSB 10.11.26
bālakaḥ a childSB 10.25.19
vraja-bālakaiḥ with other small children in VrajaSB 10.8.27
bālakam unto the childSB 6.1.26
bālakam childSB 10.3.6
bālakam the childSB 10.7.13-15
bālakam the childSB 12.9.26
bālakān childrenSB 4.28.18
bālakān the childrenSB 11.7.65
bālake unto the newborn childSB 10.5.12
bālake childCC Antya 12.50
bālakera of the childCC Adi 2.33
bālakera of the childCC Adi 13.104
bālakera of the childCC Adi 13.116
bālakera of the childCC Antya 4.186
bālakere with other childrenCC Adi 14.40
bālam the childSB 1.14.41
bālam the childSB 6.14.47
bālam the childSB 6.14.52
bālam the childSB 10.6.7
bālam ca the child alsoSB 10.6.18
bālam his childSB 10.45.37
bālam a childSB 10.55.6
bālān childrenSB 1.16.21
bālān small childrenSB 8.11.4
bālān childrenSB 10.11.31-32
bālānām of the childrenSB 4.7.2
bālānām of little childrenSB 7.6.29-30
bālānām of childlike personsSB 11.3.44
bālasya while the boySB 4.9.26
bālasya a childSB 7.2.7-8
bālasya of a childSB 7.6.29-30
bālasya of a little childSB 7.9.19
bālasya of the childSB 10.6.19
bālasya of the childSB 10.6.21
bālasya of the childSB 10.55.6
bālavat like childrenSB 4.15.26
bāle the childSB 6.1.27
bāle while Yamarāja in the form of a boySB 7.2.58
bāle childSB 10.89.26-27
bālena by a childSB 1.18.47
bāleṣu childrenSB 10.2.3
bāliśa O childish oneSB 10.77.26
bāliśa childishCC Antya 5.140
bāliśāḥ childishSB 4.14.23
bāliśāḥ childish foolsSB 10.23.9
bāliśaḥ childishSB 10.64.36
bāliśam childSB 10.25.5
bāliśam childishCC Antya 5.137
nityānanda balite while talking of Nityānanda PrabhuCC Adi 8.23
bālya childhoodCC Adi 2.98
bālya-līlā childish playCC Adi 11.39
bālya childhoodCC Adi 13.18
bālya childhoodCC Adi 13.22
bālya-bhāva chale as if in His childhood stateCC Adi 13.23
bālya vayasa childhood ageCC Adi 13.26
bālya-līlā of the pastimes of childhoodCC Adi 14.4
bālya-līlā pastimes of childhoodCC Adi 14.5
bālya-līlāya in His pastimes as a childCC Adi 14.6
bālya-bhāva the status of a childCC Adi 14.36
bālya childhoodCC Adi 14.64
bālya-līlā-sūtra synopsis of the pastimes of childhoodCC Adi 14.95
bālya-līlā'ra of the Lord's childhood pastimesCC Adi 17.326
bālya-kāla haite from my childhoodCC Madhya 3.165
bālya-kāle in My childhoodCC Madhya 5.129
bālya-avadhi since the days of my childhoodCC Madhya 9.26
bālya-kāla haite from my childhoodCC Madhya 9.28
bālya-kāla haite from his very childhoodCC Madhya 16.222
bālya childhoodCC Madhya 19.103
bālya childhoodCC Madhya 20.247
bālya in childhoodCC Madhya 20.377
bālya childhoodCC Madhya 20.384
bālya childhoodCC Madhya 20.394
bālya haite from the very beginning of my childhoodCC Madhya 24.253
bālyasya of childhoodCC Antya 1.153
bālyayoḥ and childhoodSB 10.47.9-10
bālye in childhoodSB 7.6.7
bālye in childhoodSB 9.9.44
bālye in childhoodCC Adi 10.70
bauddha-ācārya the leader in Buddhist philosophyCC Madhya 9.47
bauddha followers of Buddha's philosophyCC Madhya 9.48
bauddha followers of Buddhist philosophyCC Madhya 19.145
bhāgavata paḍite while reciting Śrīmad-BhāgavatamCC Antya 13.126
janma-bhājaḥ having taken a worthwhile birthSB 10.82.28
jñāna-śūnyā bhakti devotional service independent of logic and empiric philosophyCC Madhya 8.66
ati-bhara-girim the big hillSB 5.14.18
bhāra-pīḍitā being aggrieved by the weight of the childSB 10.7.19
bhāṣamāṇasya while describing his fortunate positionSB 8.22.12
kala-bhāṣaṇāt from the unclear speech of a childSB 7.1.18
karuṇa-bhāṣiṇyāḥ while the brāhmaṇa's wife was speaking very pitiablySB 9.9.33
bāla-bhāṣitam childish talk from the assembled childrenSB 10.7.10
bhāṣitam while they were talkingSB 10.12.25
bālya-bhāva chale as if in His childhood stateCC Adi 13.23
bālya-bhāva the status of a childCC Adi 14.36
bhava-kṣaya annihilation of material existenceCC Madhya 20.142
bhavānyāḥ while Bhavānī, the wife of Lord ŚivaSB 8.12.25
bhavasya while Lord ŚivaSB 8.12.23
arbha-bhāvāt from childhoodSB 5.1.26
apyaya-bhāvayoḥ of annihilation and generationSB 4.12.3
mugdha-bhāvena by the childish behavior of the deerSB 5.8.13
bhaviṣyati will appear in the future, while the Kali-yuga still continuesSB 9.12.16
bhavyāni great philanthropic soulsSB 3.5.3
mura-bhidi in the annihilator of the demon MuraMM 9
bhojana while eatingSB 11.17.24
bhojaneṣu or while eating togetherBG 11.41-42
bhojaneṣu while eating togetherCC Madhya 19.199-200
bhraman while wanderingSB 12.9.20
bhramite bhramite while thus movingCC Adi 17.139
bhramite bhramite while thus movingCC Adi 17.139
bhramite bhramite while travelingCC Madhya 4.21
bhramite bhramite while travelingCC Madhya 4.21
bhramite bhramite while touringCC Madhya 17.166
bhramite bhramite while touringCC Madhya 17.166
bhramite bhramite while wanderingCC Antya 18.26
bhramite bhramite while wanderingCC Antya 18.26
bhūbhṛtām of the hillsSB 2.8.15
yajña-bhuk bāla-keliḥ although He accepts offerings in yajña, for the sake of childhood pastimes He was enjoying foodstuffs very jubilantly with His cowherd boyfriendsSB 10.13.11
huta-bhuk the fire (of universal annihilation)SB 10.66.17
bhuñjan while eatingCC Madhya 15.1
bhuñjānaḥ while eatingSB 6.1.26
bhuñjānaḥ while eatingSB 10.2.24
bhuñjānam while enjoying lifeSB 10.6.24
bhūri-apatyāḥ having many childrenSB 12.3.34
bhuvi-ṣṭham while standing on the groundSB 1.15.17
agādha-bodhaiḥ who were highly learned philosophersSB 10.82.48
agādha-bodhaiḥ who were highly learned philosophersCC Madhya 1.81
agādha-bodhaiḥ who are highly learned philosophersCC Madhya 13.136
brahma-jñānī impersonalist philosopherCC Antya 8.27
go-brāhmaṇa-adrīṇām for the cows, brāhmaṇas and Govardhana HillSB 10.24.30
bruvan while talkingSB 7.4.38
bruvāṇaḥ while speakingSB 8.12.17
bruvāṇam while speakingSB 4.21.45
bruvati while he was speakingSB 11.30.44
bāla-buddhiḥ is a person of childish intelligenceSB 11.4.2
gāhiyā bule travel while chantingCC Madhya 18.211
tat-ātma-jāḥ ca and his children like Priyavrata, Uttānapāda, Devahūti, etc.SB 2.7.43-45
bālam ca the child alsoSB 10.6.18
ḍākinyaḥ yātudhānyaḥ ca kuṣmāṇḍāḥ witches and devils, enemies of childrenSB 10.6.24
bāla-grahāḥ ca and those attacking childrenSB 10.6.24
nāśayām cakruḥ began to annihilateSB 7.10.54-55
calite while goingCC Adi 14.78
calite while walkingCC Madhya 1.165
bāla-cāñcalya kare sport like childrenCC Madhya 14.84
malayaja-candana sandalwood produced in the Malaya HillsCC Madhya 4.106
candana-gireḥ from the Malaya HillsCC Antya 1.158
kaumāra-cāpalam the restlessness of the childish pastimesSB 10.8.28
caradbhiḥ while travelingSB 1.13.9
carame while the last sacrificeSB 4.16.24
caran while wandering (toward the lake)SB 8.2.20
caran while walkingSB 9.14.42
caran while walking bySB 10.30.12
caran while passingCC Antya 15.51
priyavrata-ratha-caraṇa-parikhātaiḥ by the ditches made by the wheels of the chariot used by Priyavrata Mahārāja while circumambulating Sumeru behind the sunSB 5.16.2
carantyaḥ while pasturing to findSB 10.13.29
carataḥ while pasturingSB 10.13.29
caratām while roamingBG 2.67
cārayan vatsān while taking care of all the calvesSB 10.13.28
cārayan while tendingSB 10.21.2
cārayatoḥ while the two of Them were herdingSB 10.18.17
tat-bāla-caritāni in which the activities of her own child were enactedSB 10.9.1-2
caṭaka-parvata the hill known as Caṭaka-parvataCC Antya 20.125
bāla-ceṣṭitaiḥ by His activities like those of a child trying to do so many thingsSB 10.11.9
bāla-ceṣṭitaiḥ by the activities and pastimes of childhoodSB 10.11.37
ati-vāma-ceṣṭitām although she was trying to treat the child better than a motherSB 10.6.9
ceṣṭitam the childish playCC Antya 19.45
sandigdha-cetasaḥ became doubtful about what could be done (because Gargamuni had predicted that this child would be equal to Nārāyaṇa)SB 10.11.5
bālya-bhāva chale as if in His childhood stateCC Adi 13.23
chaya darśana haite from the six philosophical principlesCC Madhya 25.56
chayera of the six philosophersCC Madhya 25.53
śaila-chidre in the space between the hillsCC Antya 15.75
cikīrṣamāṇam the child Dhruva, who was trying to get upSB 4.8.10
cintayan while thus thinkingSB 2.9.6
cintayataḥ while thinking to himselfSB 1.14.22
cintayataḥ while thinking of the instructionsSB 1.15.28
cintayataḥ while thinking very seriouslySB 6.7.16
cintite while he was thinkingCC Antya 6.159-160
tīkṣṇa-cittām having a very fierce heart for killing the childSB 10.6.9
codyamānā although Mamatā was encouraged (to maintain the child)SB 9.20.39
cūṣite cūṣite while licking upCC Antya 16.37
cūṣite cūṣite while licking upCC Antya 16.37
dadhi-nirmanthane while churning the yogurtSB 10.9.1-2
dahana O annihilatorSB 1.8.43
dahana O annihilatorSB 12.11.25
dahyamānasya while being burnt to ashesSB 10.6.34
dahyamāne while it is burningSB 1.13.58
dahyamāneṣu even while they are burningSB 11.7.29
ḍākinyaḥ yātudhānyaḥ ca kuṣmāṇḍāḥ witches and devils, enemies of childrenSB 10.6.24
dakṣaḥ Dakṣa, the expert in begetting childrenSB 6.4.17
dakṣiṇa yāite while touring in the southern part of IndiaCC Madhya 18.221
dānaiḥ like charity and philanthropyCC Adi 6.61
dānava-sańkṣayam the total annihilation of the demonsSB 8.11.43
daṇḍaka-kaṇṭakaiḥ by thorns in the forest of Daṇḍakāraṇya (while Lord Rāmacandra was living there)SB 9.11.19
daṇḍavat kare offers You obeisances: haridāsa kahilāCC Antya 1.48
suta-dāra-vatsalaḥ being attached to the children and wifeSB 5.13.18
dāra-apatya-ādayaḥ beginning with the wife and childrenSB 5.14.3
suta-dāra-vatsalaḥ very affectionate to the children and wifeSB 5.14.32
dāra-sutān the wife and children or the most opulent family lifeSB 5.14.43
dāra-ādīn the wife and childrenSB 5.26.9
dāra-sutān wife and childrenCC Madhya 23.25
dāra-sutān wife and childrenCC Antya 6.137
nara-dārakeṇa with Him who is like an ordinary childSB 10.12.7-11
dārikām the female childSB 10.3.52
ṣaṭ-darśana of the six philosophical thesesCC Madhya 17.96
chaya darśana haite from the six philosophical principlesCC Madhya 25.56
ṣaṭ-darśana of the six philosophical thesesCC Antya 7.21
darśanaiḥ by philosophical approachesSB 8.14.10
darśanam philosophyBG 13.8-12
darśanam philosophySB 1.5.8
darśanam philosophySB 4.31.7
tat-darśanāt by seeing the childSB 12.9.26
darśane while looking overCC Madhya 11.232
ṣaṭ-darśane in six philosophical thesesCC Antya 7.21
dārśanika philosophical speculatorsCC Madhya 9.51
darśayan while showingSB 3.2.28
jīvan-mukta-daśā the stage of liberation even while in this bodyCC Madhya 22.29
janma-dātā pitā the father who begets the childCC Antya 6.40
dattaḥ the same child was givenSB 9.20.39
deha-ādau identifying oneself with the material body and then with one's wife, children, family, community, nation and so onSB 7.7.19-20
kuñja dekhāñā while showing him the bushCC Madhya 4.36
vana dekhi' while seeing the forestsCC Madhya 5.12
śaila dekhi' seeing a hillCC Madhya 17.55
govardhana dekhi' seeing Govardhana HillCC Madhya 18.16
govardhana dekhi' seeing Govardhana HillCC Madhya 18.33
nandīśvara dekhi' while seeing NandīśvaraCC Madhya 18.57
dekhite while going to visitCC Adi 10.141
dekhite while seeingCC Madhya 14.186
sarva-devānām while all the demigodsSB 6.12.35
devarṣi while the great sage NāradaSB 6.17.26
devyāḥ while the goddess PārvatīSB 6.17.4-5
gaura-dhāma Lord Śrī Caitanya as a childCC Adi 14.22
dhana-ādibhiḥ such as wealth, honor, children, land and houseSB 1.13.20
tat-dhanam the property in the possession of a childSB 8.11.4
govardhana-dharaḥ the lifter of Govardhana HillSB 10.25.25
govardhana-dhārī the lifter of Govardhana HillCC Madhya 4.41
govardhana-dhārī the lifter of Govardhana HillCC Madhya 4.48
giri-dhātu some minerals from the hillsCC Madhya 14.204
prajā-sarga-dhiyaḥ who were under the impression that begetting children was the most important dutySB 6.5.29
dhṛta-eka-garbha who conceive one childSB 5.17.12
dhṛta-vratāḥ while executing a Vedic ritualistic vowSB 10.22.19
dhruva-kṣitiḥ Dhruva, whose planet would not be annihilatedSB 4.9.5
dhūma-ketuḥ the annihilating fireSB 11.6.10
bāla-dhvanim the crying of the newborn childSB 10.4.1
dhvastam annihilatedSB 4.24.68
dhyāyantī while meditatingSB 10.47.11
dhyāyataḥ while contemplatingBG 2.62
dhyāyataḥ while contemplatingSB 3.12.34
dhyāyatī while thinking ofSB 4.23.22
dhyāyati while He was meditatingSB 10.50.11
didhiṣum her husband, who was about to give the seed of a childSB 9.9.34
dik-vijaye while conquering all directionsSB 9.20.30
dohane while milkingSB 10.44.15
bālaka-doṣa the offense of a childCC Madhya 15.291
acala-droṇyām in one valley of the Mandara HillSB 5.2.2
mandara-droṇyām in a valley of Mandara HillSB 7.3.2
dṛśi-ādibhiḥ by philosophical research and other processesSB 3.32.26
dṛṣṭena while meetingSB 4.24.15
ei this childCC Adi 13.121
ei śiśu this childCC Adi 14.14
ei ta' this childCC Adi 14.17
ei govardhana this is Govardhana HillCC Madhya 17.55
dhṛta-eka-garbha who conceive one childSB 5.17.12
eka-ṛṣe the primeval philosopherIso 16
suhṛt ekaḥ the one friend and philosopherSB 3.9.22
eṇa-bālakaḥ the deer childSB 5.8.16
enam to the childSB 10.3.12
eṣaḥ this childSB 1.12.20
eṣaḥ this childSB 1.12.21
eṣaḥ this childSB 1.12.24
eṣaḥ this childSB 1.12.25
eṣaḥ this (child)SB 10.7.31
eṣaḥ this childSB 10.8.16
eṣaḥ this childSB 10.26.19
etasmin unto this childSB 10.8.18
etasmin unto this childSB 10.26.21
evam in this way (while they were enjoying their lunch)SB 10.13.12
gacchan while goingSB 12.6.11
gadataḥ mama while I am speakingSB 4.25.9
gāhiyā bule travel while chantingCC Madhya 18.211
gamana-kāle while goingCC Madhya 16.265-266
mathurā-gamane while touring MathurāCC Adi 10.146
gamiṣyantaḥ while departing fromSB 1.5.30
māyāvādi-gaṇa the Māyāvādī philosophersCC Adi 7.40
muni-gaṇa philosophersCC Madhya 24.187
gaṇḍa-śaila very small hillsCC Madhya 14.86
gandha-mādanam to the Gandhamādana HillSB 4.1.58
gandha-mādana of the planet where the Gandhamādana Hill is foundSB 5.1.8
gandharva-pura-upameṣu which are compared to the illusion of a gandharva-pura, a town or houses seen in the forest or on a hillSB 9.9.47
śiśu-gaṇe all the childrenCC Adi 14.23
dhṛta-eka-garbha who conceive one childSB 5.17.12
garbha-sambhūtam the children born from the wombSB 10.1.65-66
garbha-gatasya of a child in the wombSB 10.14.12
garbhaḥ the child within the wombSB 6.18.76
garbham the child within the wombSB 9.9.39
hantā gata-āśańkaḥ there is a possibility that Kaṃsa would take steps to kill this childSB 10.8.8-9
garbha-gatasya of a child in the wombSB 10.14.12
gatāyāḥ while lying inSB 3.13.43
gate while passing overSB 1.11.24
gaura-dhāma Lord Śrī Caitanya as a childCC Adi 14.22
gāyamāne while singingSB 3.15.18
gāyantyām while his wife was singingSB 4.25.57-61
guru-gehe in the guru-kula, the place where children are sent to be instructed by the guruSB 7.5.7
loka-bāla-ghnī who used to kill human childrenSB 10.6.34
bāla-ghnyaḥ the killers of the childSB 6.16.14
bāla-ghnyāḥ who was determined to kill small childrenSB 10.11.24
girayaḥ the hillsSB 2.1.32
girayaḥ the hills and mountainsSB 4.18.25
girayaḥ the hillsSB 4.19.9
varṣa-girayaḥ boundary hills of the tracts of landSB 5.20.21
girayaḥ the big hillsSB 5.20.26
girayaḥ the hills and mountainsSB 9.10.52
gireḥ from the hillCC Madhya 18.25
candana-gireḥ from the Malaya HillsCC Antya 1.158
giri of hillsSB 3.30.27
giri-kānana the hills and forestsSB 4.14.46
giri of the hillsSB 4.18.29
giri-śam the lord of the Kailāsa HillSB 4.30.2
giri by hills and mountainsSB 5.1.40
giri to the hillSB 10.24.32-33
giri this hillSB 10.25.20
giri govardhana to the hill known as GovardhanaCC Madhya 4.21
giri-dhātu some minerals from the hillsCC Madhya 14.204
govardhana-giri-patim Govardhana, the king of hillsCC Antya 14.120
ucca-giri high hillsCC Antya 15.19
giri-taṭe at the foot of Govardhana HillNoI 9
giriḥ the hillCC Madhya 18.38
sura-girim the Sumeru HillSB 5.1.30
ati-bhara-girim the big hillSB 5.14.18
girim of the hillSB 10.24.32-33
gīte while singingCC Adi 11.19
go-brāhmaṇa-adrīṇām for the cows, brāhmaṇas and Govardhana HillSB 10.24.30
bāla-gopāla Lord Kṛṣṇa as a childCC Adi 14.9
bāla-gopāla-mantre with the mantra of Bāla-gopāla, child KṛṣṇaCC Antya 7.148
gopāyasva just raise this childSB 10.8.19
gotra the hill for the cowsSB 3.2.33
gotram the Mandara HillSB 2.7.13
govardhana-adri-śirasi on the top of Govardhana HillSB 10.13.29
govardhana-acalam Govardhana HillSB 10.25.19
govardhana-dharaḥ the lifter of Govardhana HillSB 10.25.25
govardhana-uddhāraṇam the lifting of Govardhana HillSB 12.12.31-33
govardhana Govardhana Hill in VṛndāvanaCC Madhya 2.9
giri govardhana to the hill known as GovardhanaCC Madhya 4.21
govardhana-dhārī the lifter of Govardhana HillCC Madhya 4.41
govardhana-dhārī the lifter of Govardhana HillCC Madhya 4.48
govardhana Govardhana HillCC Madhya 5.12
govardhana Govardhana HillCC Madhya 13.143
ei govardhana this is Govardhana HillCC Madhya 17.55
govardhana Govardhana HillCC Madhya 18.15
govardhana dekhi' seeing Govardhana HillCC Madhya 18.16
govardhana-upare upon the hill known as GovardhanaCC Madhya 18.23
govardhana Govardhana HillCC Madhya 18.32
govardhana dekhi' seeing Govardhana HillCC Madhya 18.33
govardhana-śilā the stone from Govardhana HillCC Antya 6.291
govardhana-śilā the stone from Govardhana HillCC Antya 6.301
govardhana-śilām a stone from Govardhana HillCC Antya 6.327
govardhana-śaila Govardhana HillCC Antya 14.85
govardhana haite from Govardhana HillCC Antya 14.105
govardhana-giri-patim Govardhana, the king of hillsCC Antya 14.120
govardhana-śilā the stone from Govardhana HillCC Antya 20.113
govardhanaḥ Govardhana HillNoI 9
govardhanam along with Govardhana HillSB 10.11.36
govardhane on the hill of GovardhanaCC Adi 10.94
govardhane near the Govardhana HillCC Adi 17.282
govardhane on Govardhana HillCC Madhya 17.168
govardhane on the hill known as GovardhanaCC Madhya 18.43
govardhane a place near Govardhana HillCC Antya 6.307
govardhane on Govardhana HillCC Antya 13.39
govardhane to Govardhana HillCC Antya 14.106
govardhane on Govardhana HillCC Antya 14.107
govardhanera śilā a stone from Govardhana HillCC Antya 6.287
govardhanera śilā a stone from Govardhana HillCC Antya 13.67
govardhanera of Govardhana HillCC Antya 14.107
asat-graha by the bad philosophySB 7.5.3
arbhaka-grahāḥ like evil stars for childrenSB 10.6.24
bāla-grahāḥ ca and those attacking childrenSB 10.6.24
grāmya-īha-uparamaḥ not taking part in so-called philanthropic activitiesSB 7.11.8-12
ajuṣṭa-grāmya-viṣayau for sex life and to beget a child like MeSB 10.3.39
grasantam while devouringSB 3.3.6
grasatām while devouringSB 3.12.16
gṛha-medhinām although situated with a wife and childrenSB 6.5.42
gṛha-antaḥ khelantyaḥ who were engaged in childish play within the houseCC Antya 1.153
gṛhāt by sacrifices while living in the homeCC Madhya 22.52
gṛṇantam while talkingSB 4.21.8
guṇa-apāya the cause of the annihilation of everything made of the material modes of natureSB 6.4.29
guṇeṣu while the modesSB 3.27.19
guru-gehe in the guru-kula, the place where children are sent to be instructed by the guruSB 7.5.7
guru-śikhariṇam the hill of the superior relativesCC Antya 1.155
pura-hā who annihilated the residences of the asurasSB 7.10.69
bālya-kāla haite from my childhoodCC Madhya 3.165
bālya-kāla haite from my childhoodCC Madhya 9.28
śiśu haite from childhoodCC Madhya 11.138
bālya-kāla haite from his very childhoodCC Madhya 16.222
bālya haite from the very beginning of my childhoodCC Madhya 24.253
chaya darśana haite from the six philosophical principlesCC Madhya 25.56
śiśu-kāla haite from the beginning of childhoodCC Antya 4.30
govardhana haite from Govardhana HillCC Antya 14.105
haṃsi You annihilateSB 9.11.6
śatru-han O annihilator of enemiesSB 4.4.24
viṣayī hañā being a pounds-and-shillings manCC Antya 5.80
hantā gata-āśańkaḥ there is a possibility that Kaṃsa would take steps to kill this childSB 10.8.8-9
hanti annihilatesSB 1.8.16
hanti annihilatesSB 4.11.25
haran annihilatingSB 4.7.51
harantaḥ while offeringSB 3.5.49
harasi annihilateSB 6.9.34
harati annihilatesCC Madhya 20.318
harati annihilatesCC Madhya 21.37
hasantyaḥ while laughingSB 10.8.24
hasantyām while she was laughingSB 4.25.57-61
hāsiyā hāsiyā while smilingCC Adi 17.41
hāsiyā hāsiyā while smilingCC Adi 17.41
hasta-sthām while still in the hand of BaliSB 8.10.43
hata-sutā deprived of all childrenSB 10.4.6
bāla-hatyā because of killing the childSB 6.16.14
bāla-hatyā-vratam the atonement fur killing the childSB 6.16.14
he putrakaḥ O childrenSB 10.80.40
hena-kāle while Svarūpa Dāmodara and Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu were talkingCC Madhya 14.128
hima chillingSB 12.8.18-20
bāla-hitam the welfare of one's childSB 4.20.31
homeṣu and while attending sacrificial performancesSB 11.17.24
hṛṣyantyām while she was feeling enjoymentSB 4.25.57-61
hṛṣyat exhilaratedSB 10.71.26
hūna uncivilized hill tribesCC Madhya 24.190
huta-bhuk the fire (of universal annihilation)SB 10.66.17
hūyamāne agnau while oblations were being offered in the fire of sacrificeSB 9.17.15
idam this philosophy of lifeSB 8.22.11
grāmya-īha-uparamaḥ not taking part in so-called philanthropic activitiesSB 7.11.8-12
ihań this childCC Adi 14.19
īhate engages in activities of creation, maintenance and annihilationSB 8.1.15
arbhaka-īhitam the childhood pastimes He performedSB 10.8.47
suta-īkṣaṇam as a mother looks upon her childSB 10.6.34
mama īkṣataḥ while I am seeingSB 3.18.3
imam this childSB 9.20.38
mithilā-īśvaraḥ the master of the kingdom of Mithilā, King NimiSB 11.5.43
iyam this female childSB 4.15.5
snuṣā iyam tava this child will be your daughter-in-law, the wife of your future sonSB 10.4.4
saha-ātma-jā along with my childrenSB 1.8.23
ātma-ja childrenSB 4.25.55
ātma-ja childrenSB 5.5.3
ātma-ja childrenSB 5.18.10
ātma-ja childrenSB 6.11.27
ātma-ja-ādiṣu as well as in childrenSB 7.14.3-4
ātma-ja childrenSB 10.40.24
ātma-ja childrenSB 10.49.20
ātma-ja childrenSB 11.9.26
jāgare while awakeSB 11.13.32
jāgaritāni while awakeSB 10.42.28-31
jagat saṃhāra annihilation of the material worldCC Adi 5.105
tat-ātma-jāḥ ca and his children like Priyavrata, Uttānapāda, Devahūti, etc.SB 2.7.43-45
ātmā-jāḥ and my other young childrenSB 11.17.57
pūrva-jaiḥ knowledge suggested by a previous philosopherSB 2.8.25
jakṣatyām while she was chewingSB 4.25.57-61
jāla vāhite while I was working with the netCC Antya 18.47
jalpantyām while she was talking looselySB 4.25.57-61
sva-ātma-jān his own childrenSB 11.7.67
jane while the peopleSB 4.4.31
janma-ādi the creation, maintenance and annihilationSB 8.1.13
sthiti-janma-nāśam creation, maintenance and annihilationSB 8.12.11
janma-bhājaḥ having taken a worthwhile birthSB 10.82.28
ā-janma from childhoodCC Madhya 9.25
janma-dātā pitā the father who begets the childCC Antya 6.40
jantuḥ the childSB 3.31.26
japa while chanting mantras to oneselfSB 11.17.24
japata while chantingSB 4.24.69
jāta-mātrām the newborn childSB 10.4.8
jāta-karma the festival for the birth of the childSB summary
jātakam one of the purificatory processes performed just after the birth of a childSB 1.12.13
jātam a child was bornSB 10.3.53
tat-jātim exactly like a human childSB 10.7.3
jhāla the taste of chiliCC Antya 13.76
jighrantyām while his wife was smellingSB 4.25.57-61
jihāsatā while quittingSB 3.4.26
jīva-sutā a woman whose child has a long duration of lifeSB 6.19.26-28
jīvan while livingSB 2.3.23
jīvan while livingSB 4.14.31
jīvan while livingSB 10.2.22
jīvan-mukta-daśā the stage of liberation even while in this bodyCC Madhya 22.29
jñāne jīvan-mukta a person liberated in this life by following the process of philosophical speculationCC Madhya 24.129
jīvat-mṛtatvam the quality of being dead while livingSB 5.10.11
jīvati while he is aliveSB 10.38.41
jīvitei while livingCC Adi 12.70
jñāna knowledge, philosophical speculationsSB 3.5.31
jñāna-yogaḥ philosophical researchSB 3.32.32
jñāna to philosophical knowledgeSB 11.18.28
jñāna-yogaḥ the path of philosophical speculationSB 11.20.7
jñāna analytic philosophySB 11.21.1
jñāna-mārge by the path of philosophical speculationCC Adi 2.13
jñāna of philosophical speculationCC Adi 2.26
jñāna the path of philosophical speculationCC Adi 13.64
jñāna philosophical speculationCC Adi 13.65
jñāna-yoga philosophical speculationCC Adi 14.30
jñāna-mārga the path of philosophical speculationCC Adi 17.67
jñāna-śūnyā bhakti devotional service independent of logic and empiric philosophyCC Madhya 8.66
jñāna by the knowledge of the philosophy of the monist MāyāvādīsCC Madhya 19.167
jñāna-mārge the process of philosophical speculationCC Madhya 24.83
jñāna-mārge on the path of philosophical speculationCC Madhya 24.107
jñānam the path of philosophySB 11.20.6
jñāne philosophical speculationCC Madhya 13.139
jñāne by philosophical speculationCC Madhya 24.109
jñāne jīvan-mukta a person liberated in this life by following the process of philosophical speculationCC Madhya 24.129
jñānī the philosophical speculatorsCC Madhya 8.259
jñānī philosophical speculatorCC Madhya 9.9
jñānī the speculative philosophersCC Madhya 22.29
brahma-jñānī impersonalist philosopherCC Antya 8.27
jñāninaḥ of a learned self-realized philosopherSB 11.19.2
jñātīnām paśyatām while their relatives and soldiers were watchingSB 8.11.28
jṛmbhamāṇasya while yawningSB 5.24.16
jṛmbhataḥ while the child was yawningSB 10.7.35-36
sāńkhya kahe the atheistic Sāńkhya philosophers sayCC Madhya 25.50