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     Grammar Search "ge" has 6 results.
     
ge: feminine nominative dual stem: ga
ge: neuter nominative dual stem: ga
ge: feminine accusative dual stem: ga
ge: neuter accusative dual stem: ga
ge: masculine locative singular stem: ga
ge: neuter locative singular stem: ga
     Amarakosha Search  
9 results
     
     Monier-Williams
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316 results for ge
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
gehan. (corrupted fr. gṛh/a-), a house, dwelling, habitation etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehafamily life, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehan. dual number "the two habitations", the house and the body View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehabhūf. equals gṛha-bhūmi- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehadāham. a conflagration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehanakulam. (equals gṛha-babhru-) the musk rat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehānuprapādamind. so as to go into one house after the other View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehānuprapātamind. so as to rush into one house after the other View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehānupraveśamind. idem or 'ind. so as to go into one house after the other ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehānupraveśanīya View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehapārāvatam. a domestic pigeon, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehapatim. the master of a house, householder, husband View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehāvaskandamind. equals nuprapātam- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehe(locative case of h/a- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehedāhinmfn. "scorching and burning at home", idem or 'mfn. "blustering at home", a house-hero, coward gaRa pātresamitādi- and yuktārohy-ādi-.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehedhṛṣṭamfn. "insolent at home" idem or 'mfn. "overbearing at home" idem or 'mfn. "scorching and burning at home", idem or 'mfn. "blustering at home", a house-hero, coward gaRa pātresamitādi- and yuktārohy-ādi-.' ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehedṛptamfn. "overbearing at home" idem or 'mfn. "scorching and burning at home", idem or 'mfn. "blustering at home", a house-hero, coward gaRa pātresamitādi- and yuktārohy-ādi-.' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehekṣveḍinmfn. "blustering at home", a house-hero, coward gaRa pātresamitādi- and yuktārohy-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehemehinmfn. "making water at home", a lazy or indolent man gaRa pātre-samitādi- and yuktārohy-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehenardinmfn. "shouting defiance at home", idem or 'mfn. "insolent at home" idem or 'mfn. "overbearing at home" idem or 'mfn. "scorching and burning at home", idem or 'mfn. "blustering at home", a house-hero, coward gaRa pātresamitādi- and yuktārohy-ādi-.' ' ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geheśūram. a house-hero, carpet-knight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehevijitinmfn. "victorious at home", a house-hero, boaster View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehevyāḍam. "fierce at home" idem or 'mfn. "victorious at home", a house-hero, boaster ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gef. equals ud-g-, a kind of ant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehiṇīf. equals gṛh-, a housewife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehinīf. idem or 'f. equals gṛh-, a housewife ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehīyaNom. P. yati-, to take anything (accusative) for a house View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehopavanan. a small forest near a house View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehyamfn. being in a house, domestic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehyan. domestic wealth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gela lu-, a particular number View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geṇḍum. a ball to play with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geṇḍukam. idem or 'm. a ball to play with ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geṇḍukam. a cushion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geṇḍūkam. a ball to play with
gendukam. idem or 'm. a ball to play with ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gendukam. a cushion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gep (= kep-) cl.1 A1. pate-, to go, move ; to shake, tremble View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ge (see gav-eṣ-) cl.1 A1. ṣate-, to seek, search View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geṣam. Name of a nāga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geṣṇam. a singer ("a joint"Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geṣṇam. equals udgīth/a-, chanting of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geṣṇam. equals geṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geṣṇam. a chanter of the (see abhi--.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geṣṇum. a professional singer, actor, mime View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gev (= kev-, khev-, sev-) cl.1 A1. vate-, to serve View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geyamfn. ( ) to be sung, being sung or praised in song View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geyamfn. singing, singer of (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geyan. a song, singing etc. (said of the flies' humming ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geyan. see āśīr--, prātar--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geyajñamfn. skilful in song View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geyapadan. a song sung before any one with the lute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geyarājanm. "king of songs", Name of a cakra-vartin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhigeṣṇamfn. calling to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āgeyamfn. to be sung or intoned in a low voice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amārgeṇaind. instrumental case in a dishonourable manner
ambulīlāgehan. a pleasure-house standing in water, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṅgeṣṭhāmfn. situated in a member or in the body View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṅgeśvaram. the king of aṅga-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āṅgeyam. (equals āṅga-,m.) a prince of aṅga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āṅgeya āṅgya- See āṅga-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āṅgef. a princess of aṅga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antargehan. interior of the house, inner apartment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antargehamind. in the interior of a house. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āntargehikamf(ī-)n. (fr. antargeha-), being inside a house
anugeyamfn. to be sung after, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anurāgeṅgitan. gesture expressive of passion. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpageyam. "a descendant of the river āpagā-", Name of bhīṣma-
araṇyegeyaetc. See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order araṇye-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
araṇyegeyamfn. to be sung in the forest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ardhamārge locative case ind. half-way, mid-way View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asaṅgenaind. instrumental case "non-impediment", generally without obstacle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśīrgeyan. song together with benediction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atiprageind. very early View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avibhāgenaind. instrumental case without distinction, in the same way View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirgehamind. outside the house, abroad View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāgānubhāgenaind. wish a greater or smaller share, at a different rate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhageśaSee . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhageśam. the lord of fortune or prosperity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhagevita(equals bhage-+ avita- ), satisfied with good fortune or prosperity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhagnayugeind. when the yoke is broken View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhogeśvaratīrthan. Name of a sacred bathing-place (wrong reading for bhogīśv-?) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhṛṅgeriṭim. () equals bhṛngariṭi- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhṛṅgeśasaṃhitāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhṛṅgeṣṭāf. "liked by bees", Name of several plants (Aloe Indica;Clerodendrum Siphonanthus; equals kākajambū-; equals taruṇī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūgehan. an underground room View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhujagendram. "serpent-king", a large serpent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhujageśvaram. "serpent-lord", Name of śeṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhujaṃgendram. the king of snakes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhujaṃgeritan. a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhujaṃgeśam. "species-lord", Name of piṅgala-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cāndrabhāgeyam. metron. fr. candra-bhāgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caṅgef. idem or 'f. idem or 'n. a basket ', ' , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cāṅgef. wood-sorrel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caṅgerikan. a basket View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caṅgerikāf. idem or 'n. a basket ' , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāgeyam. plural Name of a school of the black yajur-veda-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndogeyam. plural Name of a family (varia lectio gi-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daivayogenaind. by chance, accidentally View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmayogeśvaram. Name of a poetry or poetic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāṅgerukan. the grain of - View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāṅgerukīf. the plant Uraria lagopodioides, 25. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṅgeśam. Name of the author of the tattva-cintāmaṇi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāṅgeṣṭhīf. Guilandina Bonducella View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṅgeṣṭif. a pearl, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṅgeśvaram. idem or 'm. Name of the author of the tattva-cintāmaṇi-.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṅgeśvaraliṅgan. Name of a liṅga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāṅgeyamfn. being in or on the Ganges, coming from or belonging or relating to the Ganges View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāṅgeyam. (gaRa śubhrādi- and ; equals gāṅgāyani-) bhīṣma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāṅgeyam. Name of skanda-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāṅgeyam. the Hilsa or Illias fish (illiśa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāṅgeyam. the root of a kind of grass View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāṅgeyam. plural Name of a family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāṅgeyan. the root of Scirpus Kysoor or of a Cyperus (kaśeru-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāṅgeyan. gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāṅgeyadevam. Name (also title or epithet) of a kalacuri- king, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
garbhagehan. equals -gṛha- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gārgeyam. metron. fr. gārgī-, 1 Va1rtt. 9 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gārgeyamfn. composed by garga- (śruti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gomṛgendram. equals g/a- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāmageyan. "to be sung in a village", Name of one of the 4 hymn-books of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāmageyagānan. idem or 'n. "to be sung in a village", Name of one of the 4 hymn-books of the ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāmegeyaetc. See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order grāme-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāmegeyamfn. to be sung in the village (see ma-g-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
havirgehan. any house or chamber in which an oblation is offered, sacrificial hall View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jatugehan. equals gṛha- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalhoḍīgaṅgeśvaratīrthan. Name of a tīrtha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kathāprasaṅgenaind. on the occasion of a conversation, in the course of conversation commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khagendram. the chief of the birds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khagendram. a vulture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khagendram. garuḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khagendram. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khagendradhvajam. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khageśvaram. "the chief of the birds", a vulture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khageśvaram. garuḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kharagehan. a stable for asses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
koṭiliṅgeśvaran. idem or 'n. Name of a tīrtha- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kramayogenaind. instrumental case in regular manner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kucāṅgef. a kind of wood sorrel (Rumex vesicarius, equals cukrikā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kugehinīf. equals -kuṭumbinī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuṭilageśam. "the lord of rivers", the ocean View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
līlāgeha() n. a pleasure-house, place of amusement or sport. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
logeṣṭakāf. a brick made from a lump of clay View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāyogeśvaram. a great master of the yoga- system View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṇiliṅgeśvaram. Name of one of the 8 vīta-rāga-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mārgeśam. equals mārga-pa- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgebhan. sg. an antelope and (or) an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgekṣaṇan. a deer's eye, an eye like a deer's, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgekṣaṇāf. a fawn-eyed woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgekṣaṇāf. coloquintida View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendram. "king of beasts", a lion etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendram. the sign Leo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendram. a tiger. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendram. a particular metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendram. a house lying to the south(?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendram. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendram. of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendran. (prob.) Name of mṛgendra-'s work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendran. of a tantra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendracaṭakam. a falcon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendramukhan. a lion's mouth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendramukhan. a particular metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendrāsanan. "lion's seat", a throne (see siṃhās-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendrasvātikarṇam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendrāsyamfn. lion-faced (Name of śiva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendratāf. dominion over wild animals View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendravṛṣabham. dual number a lion and a bull View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendrottaran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgervārum. or n. (?) coloquintida View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgervārum. a species of animal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgervārum. a white deer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgeśa m. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgeśavaravarmanm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgeṣṭam. a species of jasmine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgeśvaram. "lord of beasts", a lion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgeśvaram. the sign Leo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mrigendrāṇīf. Gendarussa Vulgaris View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mrigervārukam. a species of animal dwelling in holes or caves View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nagendram. "mountain-lord", Name of himālaya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nagendram. of kailāsa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nagendram. of niṣadha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gendram. serpent-chief. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gendram. a large or noble elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gendram. (ī-), Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nageśam. idem or 'm. of niṣadha- ' , Name of a particular mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nageśam. of kailāsa- or of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geśam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geśam. of a man called also daiva-jña- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geśam. of patañjali- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geśam. (also -bhaṭṭa-) equals nagoji-bh- ( nāgeśavivaraṇa śa-vivaraṇa- n.Name of work) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geśan. Name of a liṅga- in dārukā-vana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geśavivaraṇan. nāgeśa
nagesvaram. idem or 'm. of kailāsa- or of śiva- ' , Name of himālaya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geśvaram. a kind of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geśvaram. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geśvaran. Name of a liṅga-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geśvaratīrthan. Name of several sacred bathing. places View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
geśvarīf. Name of the goddess manasā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naigeyam. (fr. nega-) Name of a school of the sāma-veda-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niḥsaṅgenaind. without interest, without reflection, at random (for śaṅkam-?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nisargeṇaind. nisarga
niyogenaind. niyoga
niyogenaind. niyoga
pannagendram. "serpent king" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pannageśvaram. "serpent king" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paragehavāsam. dwelling in another's house View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patageśvaram. "lord of birds", Name of garuḍa- () or jaṭāyu- () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṅgekṣaṇamfn. equals ga-locana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṅgekṣaṇamfn. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṅgeśam. "lord of the yellow hue", Name of agni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṅgeśvaram. "id.", Name of a being attendant on pārvatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavagendram. "monkey chief", Name of hanumat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prageind. See below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prageind. early in the morning, at dawn, at day-break ("when the sun goes forth"?) etc.
prageind. to-morrow morning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prageSee under pra-gam-.
prageniśamfn. one who (sleeps) in the early morning as (if it were) night
prageśayamfn. asleep early in the morning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pragetanamfn. () matutinal, early
pragetanamfn. relating to the next day, future View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasaṅgānusaṅgenaind. by the way, by the by, sāṃkhya-s. Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasaṅgenaind. prasaṅga
prasaṅgenaind. prasaṅga
prātargeyamfn. to be sung in the morning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātargeyam. a minstrel who wakes the king in the morning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratigeham() ind. in every house. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimārgeind. on the way View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiśṛṅgeṇaind. horn by horn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyagekarasamfn. having taste or pleasure only for the interior, delighting only in one's own soul View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punargeyamfn. to be sung again (a-punar-g-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṇyagehan. a house id est a place or seat of virtue View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvāhṇegeyamfn. [ii, 1, 43 Scholiast or Commentator ]to be sung in the forenoon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājagehan. a kings's palace View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raṅgeśam. Name of a king (patron of parāśara- bhaṭṭa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raṅgeśapuran. Name of a city (Seringapatam) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raṅgeṣṭālu n. a kind of bulbous root or onion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raṅgeṣṭālukan. a kind of bulbous root or onion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raṅgeśvarīf. (prob.) Name of the wife of raṅgeśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratnaliṅgeśvaram. (with Buddhists) Name of svayam-bhū- in his visible form View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarāgentramfn. red-eyed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śārṅgeṣṭā varia lectio for prec. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śauṅgeyam. (metron. fr. śuṅgā-) Name of garuḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śauṅgeyam. a falcon or hawk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhayogeśvaratantran. Name of a tantra- work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhayogeśvaratantram. a particular mixture or preparation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śilpageha() n. a workshop, workroom, manufactory. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śirogehan. a top-room, a room on the top of a house View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīraṅgeśam. lord of śrī-raṅga- ( śrīraṅgeśvarī śvarī- f.wife of the lord of śrī-raṅga-) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīraṅgeśvarīf. śrīraṅgeśa
śṛṅgeri (prob.) f. (for śṛṅgagiri-) Name of a hill and town in Mysore View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śṛṅge(prob.) f. (for śṛṅgagiri-) Name of a hill and town in Mysore View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śṛṅgerimaṭhāf. Name of a monastery (founded by śaṃkara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śṛṅgeripuran. idem or '(prob.) f. (for śṛṅgagiri-) Name of a hill and town in Mysore ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śṛṅgeśvaram. or n. (?) Name of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sugehinīf. a good housewife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sugeṣṇāf. "singing well", a kiṃ-narī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sugevṛdhmfn. rejoicing in good progress View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sugevṛdhSee under 1. su-ga-, column 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūnyagehan. an empty house View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūrabhogeśvaram. Name of a liṅga- in Nepal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūtikāgehan. idem or ' n. idem or '(g-) n. a lying-in chamber ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvargeya mfn. equals svargy/a-, leading to heaven, celestial etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svargepsumfn. desirous of obtaining heaven View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tuṅgeśvaram. Name of a temple of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tuṅgeśvarāpaṇam. Name of a market-place, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tvagelan. Cassia bark and cardamoms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udgef. a kind of ant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udgeyamfn. to be sung View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upageyamfn. (for 2.See) to be approached View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upageyamfn. to be observed or kept on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upageyamfn. to be sung or celebrated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upageyan. song View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uragendram. equals uraga-rāja- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaiṅgeyaName of a particular region View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaṅgerikāf. a small basket View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaṅgeśvararasam. a particular medical preparation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsagehan. "dwelling-house", the inner part of a house, sleeping-room, bed-chamber View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhāgecchumfn. wishing for a partition or distribution View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vihagendram. (equals -pati-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vihagendrasaṃhitāf. Name of Tantric work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vihagendrasampātam. Name of Tantric work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajñabhāgeśvaram. yajñabhāga
yajñāraṅgeśapurīf. Name of a town (perhaps for yajña-r-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yathāyogenaind. () as is fit, according to circumstances, according to requirements View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yathāyogenaind. in due order View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yathāyogenamind. according to usage, as hitherto, usual View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogenaind. yoga
yogendram. a master or adept in the yoga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśam. idem or 'm. a master or adept in the yoga- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśam. Name of yājñavalkya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśam. of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśam. of the city of brahmā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśārṇavam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśīsahasranāmastotran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeṣṭan. tin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeṣṭan. lead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvaram. a master in magical art (said of a vetāla-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvaram. a master or adept in the yoga- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvaram. a deity, the object of devout contemplation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvaram. Name of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvaram. of yājñavalkya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvaram. of a son of deva-hotra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvaram. of a brahma-rākṣasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvaram. of various authors and learned men etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvaram. of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvaramantram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvarapaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvaratīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvaratvan. mastery of the Yoga View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvarīf. a fairy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvarīf. a mistress or adept in the yoga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvarīf. a form of durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvarīf. a species of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvarīf. Name of a goddess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogeśvarīf. of a vidyā-dharī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yugeśam. the lord of a lustrum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
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geham गेहम् [गो गणेशो गन्धर्वो वा ईहः ईप्सितो यत्र Tv.] A house, habitation; सा नारी विधवा जाता गेहे रोदिति तत्पतिः Subhāṣ. N. B. The loc. of this word is used with several words to form aluk Tat. compounds; e. g. गेहेक्ष्वेडिन् a. 'bellowing at home only', i. e. a coward, poltroon. गेहेदाहिन् a. 'sharp at home only' i.e. a coward. गेहेनर्दिन् a. 'shouting defiance at home only'; i. e. a coward, dunghill-cock; यद् गेहेनर्दिनमसौ शरैर्भीरुमभाययत् Bk.5.41. गेहमेहिन् a. 'making water at home; i.e. indolent. गेहेव्याडः a braggadocio, braggart, boaster. गेहेशूरः 'a househero', a carpet-knight, boasting coward.
gehin गेहिन् a. (-नी f.) = गृहिन् q. v.
gehinī गेहिनी A wife, the mistress of the house; यशोदा नन्द- गेहिनी Bhāg.1.9.1; धैर्यं यस्य पिता क्षमा च जननी शान्तिश्चिरं गेहिनी Śānti.4.9; मद्गेहिन्याः प्रिय इति सखे चेतसा कातरेण Me.79.
gehya गेह्य a. Domestic, being in a house. -ह्यम् 1 Domestic affair. -2 Wealth.
geṇḍu गेण्डु (दु) कः 1 A ball for playing with (also गेण्डूक). -2 A cushion; Śi.2.77. com. 'उपधानं विशेषे स्याद्गेन्दुके प्रणये$पि च' इति विश्वः ।
gep गेप् 1 Ā. (गेपते) To shake, tremble.
ge गेष् 1 Ā. (गेषते, गेष्ण) To seek, search, investigate; cf. गवेष्.
geṣṇaḥ गेष्णः 1 A singer, a professional singer; Ch. Up. 1.6. -2 An actor.
geṣṇuḥ गेष्णुः [गै इष्णुच्] A singer, an actor.
gev गेव् 1 Ā. (गेवते) To serve.
geya गेय pot. p. [गै कर्तरि नि˚ यत्] 1 A singer, one who sings; गेयो माणवकः साम्नाम् P.III.4.68 Sk. -2 To be sung. -यम् 1 A song, singing, also the art of singing; गेये केन विनीतौ वाम् R.15.69; Me.88; अनन्ता वाङ्मयस्याहो गेयस्येव विचित्रता Śi.2.72.
atiprage अतिप्रगे ind. Very early in the morning, in the early dawn. नातिप्रगे नातिसायं न सायं प्रातराशितः (भुञ्जीत). Ms.4.62.
abhigeṣṇa अभिगेष्ण ष्णु a. [गै-इष्णुच्] Singing.
āntargehika आन्तर्गेहिक a. (-की f.) [अन्तर्गेहं वेश्मनि भवः ठञ्] Being or produced inside a house.
āpageyaḥ आपगेयः [आपगायां गङ्गायां भवः ढक्] A son of the river, an epithet of Bhīṣma or Krisṇa; यदाश्रौषं चापगेयेन संख्ये Mb.1.183.
upageyam उपगेयम् Song; Bhāg.5.26.38.
gāṅgeya गाङ्गेय a. (-यी f.) Being in or on or of the Ganges; स्नातानां शुचिभिस्तोयैर्गाङ्गेयैः प्रयतात्मनाम् Mb.13.26.31. -यः 1 N. of Bhīṣma or Kārtikeya. -2 The Hilsa fish. -यम् 1 Gold. -2 The Musta grass. -3 The Dhattūra plant; गाङ्गेयः षण्मुखे भीष्मे जातरूपकशेरुणोः । मुस्तायां पुंनपुंसि स्यात् Nm. गाङ्गेरी (-रिका) f. The N. of a plant (Mar. नागबला). गाङ्गेरुः (-कः) The N. of a plant (Mar. तोरण, कांकडाचें झाड).
gāṅgerukī गाङ्गेरुकी f. The N.of a plant (Mar. नागबला, नाडेधामण).
gāṅgeruvā गाङ्गेरुवा f. The N. of a plant (Mar. कांकडाचें झाड).
cāṅgerikā चाङ्गेरिका f. A medicinal herb used as an antidote against bile and wind; चाङ्गेरी वातपित्तहरा काचिदौषधिः (Mar. चुका ?).
prage प्रगे ind. Early in the morning, at day-break; इत्थं रथाश्वेभनिषादिनां प्रगे गणो नृपाणामथ तोरणाद् बहिः Śi.12.1; सायं स्नायात् प्रगे तथा Ms.6.6;4.62; अथ प्रगे प्रजानाथः स आस्थाय हयोत्तमम् Śiva B.29.65. -Comp. -तन a. to be performed in the morning; उत्थाय च धौतवक्त्रौ प्रगेतनानि मङ्गलान्यनुष्ठाय Dk.2.2. -निश, -शय a. who is asleep at day-break; उत्सूर्यशायिनश्चासन् सर्वे चासन् प्रगेनिशाः Bhāratam. नैनानभ्युदियात् सूर्यो न चाप्यासन् प्रगेशयाः Mb.12.228.37.
bhṛṅgeriṭiḥ भृङ्गेरिटिः N. of an attendant of Śiva.
śauṅgeyaḥ शौङ्गेयः 1 N. of Garuḍa. -2 A falcon, hawk.
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agnidūta agní-dūta, a. (Bv.) having Agni as a messenger, x. 14, 13.
aṅgiras Áṅgiras, m. pl. name of a group of ancestors, v. 11, 6; x. 14, 3. 4. 5. 6; s., as an epithet of Agni, i. 1, 6; v. 11, 6 [Gk. ἄγγελο-ς ‘messenger’].
atri Átri, m. an ancient sage, vii. 71, 5.
anta ánta, m. end, iv. 50, 1; edge, proximity: lc. ánte near, x. 34, 16.
amītavarṇa ámīta-varṇa, a. (Bv.) of unchanged colour, iv. 51, 9.
ari a-rí, m. niggard, enemy, gen. aryás, ii. 12, 4. 5; iv. 50, 11; viii. 48, 8 [having no wealth: ri = rai; 1.indigent; 2. niggardly].
ājāta á̄-jāta, pp. produced, x. 129, 6 [jan generate]. [226]
āsām ā-sām, gen. pl. f. of the prn. root a, of them, iv. 51, 6.
i I go, II. P. émi, x. 34, 5; éti, iv. 50, 8; x. 34, 6; 168, 12; yánti, vii. 49, 1; approach (acc.), viii. 48, 10; áyan, pr. sb. pass, vii. 61, 4; attain, vii. 63, 4; pf. īyúr, x. 15, 1. 2. ánu- go after, vi. 54, 5; follow (acc.), viii. 63, 5.ápa- go away, x. 14, 9. abhí- come upon. ipf. á̄yan, vii. 103, 2.áva- appease: op. iyām, vii. 86, 4. á̄- come, ii. 33, 1; v. 83, 6; go to, x. 14, 8. úpa á̄- come to (acc.), i. 1, 7. úd- rise, vii. 61, 1; 63, 1-4; ipf. ait, x. 90, 4. úpa- approach, vii. 86, 3; 103, 3; x. 14, 10; 34, 10; flow to, ii. 35, 3.párā- pass away, pf. īyúr, x. 14, 2. 7. pári- surround, ii. 35, 4. 9. prá- go forth, i. 154, 3; x. 14, 7. ánu prá- go forth after, vi. 54, 6. sám- flow together, ii. 35, 3; unite, vii, 103, 2.
īr stir īr stir, set in motion, II. Ā. í̄rte. ánu sáṃ prá- speed on together after, x. 168, 2.
īś īś be master of, overpower, II. Ā. í̄ṣṭe, with gen., viii. 48, 14.
īśāna í̄ś-āna, pr. pt. Ā. ruling over, disposing of (gen.), vi. 54, 8; x. 90, 2; m. ruler, ii. 33, 9.
uśant uś-ánt, pr. pt. eager, vii. 103, 3; x. 15, 82 [vaś desire].
ena e-na, enc. prn. stem of 3. prs. he, she, it: acc. enam him, ii. 12, 5; iii. 59, 3; vii. 103, 2; x. 14, 11; 34, 4; 168, 2; acc. pl. enān them, vii. 103, 3; gen. du. enos of them two, vii. 103, 4 [prn. root e].
kanīyāṃs kán-īyāṃs, cpv. younger, vii. 86, 6 [cp. kan-yà̄, f. girl; Gk. καινό-ς ‘new’ for κανi̮ό-ς].
kavi kav-í, m. sage, v. 11, 3; vii. 86, 3; x. 129, 4 [Av. kavi ‘king’].
kavikratu kaví-kratu, a. (Bv.) having the intelligence of a sage, i. 1, 5; v. 11, 4.
kaviśasta kavi-śastá, pp. (Tp.) recited by the sages, x. 14, 4.
kīri kīr-í, m. singer, ii. 12, 6 [2. kṛ commemorate].
kṛṣṭi kṛṣ-ṭí, f. pl. people, i. 160, 5; iii. 59, 1 [tillage, settlement: kṛṣ till].
kḷp kḷp be fit, I. kálpati, cs. kalpáyati, -te arrange, x. 15, 14. vi- dispose, x. 90, 11. 14.
gabhīra gabh-īrá, a. profound, x. 129, 1 [gabh = gāh plunge].
garbha gárbh-a, m. germ, ii. 33, 13; v. 83, 1. 7; x. 168, 4 [gṛbh receive].
gavyūti gáv-y-ūti, f. pasturage, x. 14, 2 [Bv. having nurture for cows: go].
gahana gáh-ana, a. unfathomable, x. 129, 1 [gāh plunge].
gṛṇant gṛṇ-ánt, pr. pt. singing; m. singer, iii. 59, 5 [gṛ sing].
grāma grá̄ma, m. village, x. 127, 5; pl. = clans, ii. 12, 7.
grāmya grām-yá, a. belonging to the village, x. 90, 8 [grá̄ma].
car car fare, I. cárati, -te, iv. 51, 6. 9; viii. 29, 8; x. 14, 12; 168, 4. abhí- bewitch, x. 34, 14. á̄- approach, iv. 51, 8. prá- go forward, enter, viii. 48, 6. abhí sám- come together, viii. 48, 1.
jajñāna jajñ-āná, pf. pt. Ā. having been born, x. 14, 2 [jan generate].
jan jan generate, create, I. jánati; pf. jajá̄na, i. 160, 4; ii. 12, 3. 7; 35, 2; jajñiré were born, x. 90, 92. 10; iṣ ao. ájaniṣṭa has been born, iii. 59, 4; v. 11, 1; red. ao. ájījanas hast caused to grow, v. 83, 10; cs. janáya generate, ii. 35, 13; x. 135, 5 [Old Lat. gen-ō ‘generate’; Gk. ao. ἐ-γεν-ό-μην]. prá- be prolific, IV. Ā. jāya, ii. 33, 1; 35, 8.
jana ján-a, m. mankind, ii. 35, 15; iii. 59, 9; iv. 51, 1; v. 11, 1; pl. men, people, i. 35, 5; ii. 12, 1-14; iii. 59, 1. 8; iv. 51, 11; vii. 49, 3; 61, 5; 63, 2. 4; x. 14, 1 [jan generate; cp. Lat. gen-us, Gk. γέν-ος, Eng.kin].
janayant janáy-ant, cs. pr. pt. generating, i. 85, 2.
janus jan-ús, n. generation, vii. 86, 1 [jan generate].
jaras jar-ás, m. old age, vii. 71, 5 [jṝ waste away; cp. Gk. γη̂ρας ‘old age’].
jaritr jar-i-tṛ́, m. singer, ii. 33, 11 [jṛ sing].
jātavedas jātá-vedas, a. (Bv.) having a knowledge of beings, x. 15, 12. 13 [véd-as, n. knowledge from vidknow].
jānu já̄n-u, n. knee, x. 15, 6 [Gk. γόν-υ, Lat. genu, Go. kniu, Eng. knee].
jmā jmá̄, f. earth, gen. jmás, iv. 50, 1.
tava táva, gen. (of. tvám) of thee, i. 1, 6; vi. 54, 9; viii. 48, 8 [Av. tava, Lith. tavè].
tura tur-á, a. cager, vii. 86, 4 [tur = tvar speed].
te te, enc. dat. (of tvám), to thee, ii. 33, 1; iii. 59, 2; viii. 48, 13; x. 127, 8; for thee, iv. 50, 3; gen. of thee, i. 35, 11; ii. 12, 15; 33, 7. 11; v. 11, 3; vi. 54, 9; viii. 48, 6. 7. 9; x. 14, 5. 11; 127, 4 [Av. tōi, Gk. τοὶ].
daśāṅgula daśāṅgulá, length of ten fingers, x. 90, 1 [dáśa + aṅgúli finger].
dūta dū-tá, m. messenger, v. 11, 4; 83, 3; x. 14, 12.
druh drúh, f. malice, ii. 35, 6; m. avenger, vii. 61, 5.
dhārayatkavi dhārayát-kavi, a. (gov.) supporting the sage, i. 160, 1 [dhāráyat, pr. pt. cs. of dhṛ hold].
dhīra dhí̄-ra, a. thoughtful, viii. 48, 4; wise, i. 160, 3; intelligent, vii. 86, 1 [dhī think].
naptṛ náptṛ, m. (weak stem of nápāt) son: gen. náptur, ii. 35, 11; dat. náptre, ii. 35, 14 [ná-pitṛ having no father = ‘nephew’, ‘grandson’].
namas nám-as, n. homage, i. 1, 7; ii. 33, 4. 8; 35, 12; iii. 59, 5; iv. 50, 6; v. 83, 1; vii. 61, 6; 63, 5; 86, 4; x. 14, 15; 15, 2; 34, 8 [nam bend].
namasya namas-yá, den. adore, ii. 33, 8 [námas homage].
nah nah bind, IV. náhya. sám- knit together: irr. pf. 2. pl. anāha, viii. 48, 5.
niṣkṛta niṣ-kṛtá, n. appointed place, x. 34, 5 [pp. arranged: nís out + kṛ make].
pakṣin Pakṣ-ín, a. winged, x. 127, 5 [pakṣá, m. wing].
1. pā drink, I. píba, iv. 50, 10; root ao. ápāma, viii. 48, 3 [cp. Lat. bibo ‘drink’]. sám- drink together, x. 135, 1.
pāra pār-á, m. farther shore, ii. 33, 3 [pr pass = crossing; Gk. πόρο-ς ‘passage’].
prajā pra-já̄, f. offspring, ii. 33, 1; pl. progeny, ii. 35, 8; = men, v. 83, 10 [cp. Lat. pro-gen-ies].
prasarga pra-sargá, m. discharge, vii. 103, 4 [sṛj emit]
brhaspati Bṛ́has-páti, m. Lord of prayer, name of a god, iv. 50, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 10. 11; x. 14, 3 [bṛ́h-as prob. gen. = bṛhás; cp. bráhmaṇas páti].
bhaj bhaj partake of (gen.), x. 15, 3; s ao., viii. 48, 1. 7.
mad mad rejoice, I. máda, in (lc.), i. 85, 1; 154, 5; in (inst.), 154, 4; x. 14, 3. 7; with (inst.), x. 14, 10; be exhilarated, viii. 29, 7; drink with exhilaration, vii. 49, 4; cs. mādaya, Ā. rejoice, x. 15, 14; in(inst.), x. 14, 14; (gen.), i. 85, 6; with (inst.), x. 14, 5; gladden, x. 34, 1 [Gk. μαδάω, Lat. madeō‘drip’].
manu Mán-u, m. an ancient sage, ii. 33, 13.
mī damage, IX. miná̄ti [cp. Gk. μι-νύ-ω, Lat. mi-nu-o]. á̄- diminish, ii. 12, 5.
mṛṣ mṛṣ be heedless, IV. mṛ́ṣya. ápi- forget, vi. 54, 4.
yam yam extend, bestow, I. yácha, iv. 51, 10; v. 83, 5; pf. Ā. yemire submit to (dat.), iii. 59, 8; s ao.bestow on (dat.), ii. 35, 152. ádhi- extend to (dat.), i. 85, 12. á̄- guide to (lc.), root ao. inj. yamat, x. 14, 14. ní- bestow, iv. 50, 10. prá- present a share of (gen.), x. 15, 7. ví- extend to, i. 85, 12.
rāj rāj rule, over (gen.), I. P. rá̄jati, i. 1, 8.
rājant rá̄j-ant, pr. pt. ruling over (gen.), i. 1, 8 [rāj rule].
rukma ruk-má, m. golden gem, vii. 63, 4 [ruc shine].
rebha rebh-á, m. singer, vii. 63, 3 [ribh sing].
vatsa vatsá, m. calf, vii. 86, 5 [yearling from *vatas, Gk. ϝέτος year, Lat. vetus in vetus-tas ‘age’].
vanus van-ús, m. enemy, iv. 50, 11 [eager, rival: van win].
vid 1. vid know, II. P. vétti; pr. sb. know of (gen.), ii. 35, 2; ipv. viddhi, viii. 48, 8; pf. véda, viii. 29, 6; s. 2. véttha, x. 15, 13; 3. véda, x. 129, 62. 72; pl. 1. vidmá, x. 15, 13 [Gk. οɩ̂̓δα, ἴδμεν; AS. ic wāt, wē witon; Eng. I wot; Lat. vid-ēre ‘see’] .prá- know, x. 15, 13.
vipra víp-ra, a. wise, iv. 50, 1; m. sage, i. 85, 11; vii. 61, 2; x. 135, 4 [inspired: vip tremble with emotion].
saṃyant saṃ-yánt, pr. pt. going together, ii. 12, 8 [sám + i go].
sadhamāda sadha-má̄da, m. joint feast, x. 14. 10 [co-revelry; sadhá = sahá together].
samana sám-ana, n. festival, x. 168, 2 [coming together].
samanā samaná̄, adv. in the same way, iv. 51, 82 [inst., with shift of accent, from sámana being together].
sahasrabhṛṣṭi sahásra-bhṛṣṭi, a. (Bv.) thousand-edged, i. 85, 9 [bhṛṣ-ṭí from bhṛṣ = hṛṣ stick up].
sā bind, VI. syáti. ví- discharge, i. 85, 5.
subhaga su-bhága, a. having a good share, opulent; genial, vii. 63, 1.
sṛj sṛj emit, VI. sṛjáti [Av. herezaiti]. áva- discharge downward, ii. 12, 12; cast off, vii. 86, 5. úpa- send forth to (acc.), ii. 35, 1.
senā sé-nā, f. missile, ii. 33, 11 [si discharge].
senānī senā-ní̄, m. leader of an army, general, x. 34, 12.
hvā hvā call, IV. hváya, i. 35, 14. ví- call divergently, ii. 12, 8.
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geha n. house, dwelling: du. house and body; -inî, f. housewife, spouse.
gehīya den. P. take (ac.) for a house.
geṇḍuka m. *playing-ball; pillow.
geṣṇa m. joint; also=udgîtha.
geya fp. to be sung; *singing (g.); n. song; buzzing, humming.
atiprage ad. too early in the morning.
āpageya m. metronymic of Bhîshma.
nagendra m. lord of mountains, ep. of Himâlaya and Kailâsa; -½îsvara, m. ep. of the Himâlaya; -½udara, n. mountain ravine.
gendra m. chief of serpents; lordly elephant; -½îsvara, m. N.
prage lc. ad. [in the foregoing time] early in the morning: -tana, a. matutinal.
mārgeśa m. road-keeper.
mṛgekṣaṇa n. eye of a gazelle: â, f. gazelle-eyed woman; -½indra, m. king of the beasts; lion; tiger; Leo (sign of the zodiac): -tâ, f. lordship of the beasts; -½ibha, n. sg. a deer and (or) an elephant; -½îsvara, m. lord of the beasts, lion.
yogeśvara m. lord of mystic power; adept in magic; ep. of Yâgñavalkya; N. of a demon: î, f. female adept in Yoga; fairy; a form of Durgâ; N. of a fairy.
śṛṅgeripura n. N. of a town (corruption of sri&ndot;ga-giri-).
śauṅgeya m. met. (fr. su&ndot;gâ) of Garuda; falcon, hawk (C.).
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gehāyopapatim VS.30.9; TB.3.4.1.4.
aṅge-aṅga ārpita utsitaś ca # AVś.6.112.3b. Cf. parau-parāv ārpito.
aṅge-aṅge lomni-lomni # AVś.2.33.7a. See aṅgād-aṅgāl etc.
aṅge-aṅge śociṣā śiśriyāṇam (AVP. -ṇaḥ) # AVś.1.12.2a; AVP.1.17.2a.
aṅge gātrā vibhejire # AVś.10.7.27b.
aṅgenāṅgaṃ saṃsamakaṃ kṛṇotu # AVś.6.72.1d.
aṅgebhyas ta udarāya # AVś.11.2.6a.
aṅgebhyaḥ svāhā # TS.7.3.16.2; KSA.3.6.
aṅgebhyo aṅgajvaraṃ tava # AVś.5.30.8d; AVP.9.13.8d. Cf. under aṅgabhedam aṅgajvaram.
aṅgebhyo nāśayāmasi # AVś.3.7.3d; AVP.3.2.3d.
aṅgebhyo magadhebhyaḥ # AVś.5.22.14b. See kāśibhyo magadhebhyaḥ.
aṅgebhyo me varcodāḥ pavasva # Mś.2.3.7.1. P: aṅgebhyo me Apś.12.18.20. Fragment: aṅgebhyo (sc. me varcodau varcase pavethām) TS.3.2.3.2.
aṅgebhyo hṛdayāya ca # AVś.6.90.1b.
aṅgeṣu baddham uta yad dṛṣatte # AVP.1.109.4d.
aṅgeṣṭhā yaś ca parvasu # AVś.6.14.1d. Cf. aṅgam-aṅgaṃ.
aṅge sarve samāhitāḥ # AVś.10.7.13b.
ādityarathavegena # RVKh.1.191.2a.
ekenāṅgena divo asya pṛṣṭham # VS.23.50d; Aś.10.9.2d; śś.16.6.2d; Lś.9.10.10e.
khāḍgenaudumbareṇa ca # ViDh.79.24b.
chāgena tejo haviṣā śṛtena (MS. ghṛtena) # VS.19.89b; MS.3.11.9b: 154.4; KS.38.3b; TB.2.6.4.4b.
tyāgenaike amṛtatvam ānaśuḥ # TA.10.10.3b; MahānU.10.5b.
durge cana dhriyate viśva ā puru # RV.5.34.7c.
durge cid ā susaraṇam # RV.8.27.18b.
durge cin naḥ sugaṃ kṛdhi # RV.8.93.10a.
durge duroṇe kratvā na yātām # RV.4.28.3c.
durgeṣu viṣame ghore # RVKh.10.127.9a.
durgeṣu viṣameṣu tvam # RVKh.10.127.10a.
pannagebhyaḥ (sc. namaḥ) # MG.2.12.17.
piśaṅge sūtre khṛgalam # AVś.3.9.3a. See sūtre piśaṅge.
pṛṣṭiyuge kṛṇutaṃ vīryāṇi # AVP.15.12.9c.
paiṅge śabde bhaye rute # Kauś.141.39b.
prāyogeva śvātryā śāsur ethaḥ # RV.10.106.2b.
bhagena dattam upa medam āgan # AVP.10.6.4c,9c.
bhagena devāḥ samaganmahi # AVP.10.6.10a.
bhagena mā śāṃśayena # AVś.6.129.1a. P: bhagena mā Kauś.36.12.
bhagena varcasā saha # AVś.6.129.2b. See bhagena saha.
bhagena vācam iṣitāṃ vadāni # AVP.10.6.4a.
bhagena savitā śriyam # VS.20.72b; MS.3.11.4b: 145.11; KS.38.9b; TB.2.6.13.3b.
bhagena saha varcasā # ApMB.2.7.19c; 8.10d; HG.1.11.4d,5d. See bhagena varcasā.
bhagenādya bhagavantaḥ syāma # AVP.1.51.2d.
bhagenābhi ṣiñcatam # AVP.2.79.2d.
bhagenāhaṃ sahāgamam # AVś.2.30.5d; AVP.2.17.2d.
bhagenāhaṃ parihitaḥ # AVP.8.20.9a.
bhagemāṃ dhiyam ud avā (TB.ApMB. ava) dadan naḥ # RV.7.41.3b; AVś.3.16.3b; AVP.4.31.3b; VS.34.36b; TB.2.5.5.2b; 8.9.8b; ApMB.1.14.3b.
bhagevitā turpharī phārivāram # RV.10.106.8b.
bhage sīda # KS.39.6; Apś.16.30.1.
bhāge deva na mīyase # TB.2.4.8.6b.
bhogebhiḥ pari vāraya # AVś.11.9.5d.
mṛgeṣv api dhāvati # AVP.1.85.2b.
maināge ca mahāgirau # TA.1.31.2b.
yuge-yuge vayasā cekitānaḥ # RV.6.36.5d.
yuge-yuge vidathyaṃ gṛṇadbhyaḥ # RV.6.8.5a.
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"ge" has 918 results.
     
advyupasargenot preceded by (two or more) prepositions; i. e. preceded by only one preposition. confer, compare छादेर्घेऽद्व्युपसर्गस्य P.VI.4.96 prescribing short अ for the long अा of the root छाद् before the kṛt (affix). affix घ, eg. प्रच्छदः
egeliṃg( Eggeling )a well-known German scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who flourished in the l9th century and who edited the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa with the commentary of Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. and many appendices in 1876.
gaṅgeśaśarmāwriter of Kātantra-kaumudī possibly different from the reputed Gaṅgeśa Upādhyāa who is looked upon as the founder of the Navyanyāya school of modern Naiyāyikas, and who lived in the twelfth century A. D.
geśathe most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundredition He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D. E. Society, Poona.
saṃsargeliterally contact, connection; (1) contact of the air passing up through the gullet and striking the several places which produce the sound, which is of three kinds, hard, middling and soft; confer, compare संसर्गो वायुस्थानसंसर्गः अभिवातात्मकः स त्रिविधः । अयःपिण्डवद्दारुपिण्डवदूर्णापिण्डवदिति । तदुवतमापिशलशिक्षायाम् । स्पर्शयमवर्णकरो वायुः अय:पिण्डवत्स्थानमापीडयति | अन्तस्थावर्णकरो दांरुपिण्डवत् | ऊष्मस्थस्वरवर्णकर ऊर्णापिण्डवत् commentary on. T, Pr. XXIII. 1 ; ,(2) syntactical connection between words themselves which exists between pairs of words as between nouns and adjectives as also between verbs and the karakas, which is necessary for understanding the meaning of a sentence. Some Mimamsakas and Logicians hold that samsarga itself is the meaning of a sentence. The syntactical relation between two words is described to be of two kinds अभेद-संसर्ग of the type of आधाराधेयभाव and भेदसंसर्ग of the type of विषयविषयिभाव, समवाय, जन्यजनकभाव and the like.
a(1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perfeminine. second.pluraland first and third person.singular.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अ प्रत्ययात् et cetera, and others (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 exempli gratia, for example अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. exempli gratia, for example भवति, तुदति et cetera, and others; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; exempli gratia, for example द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imperfeminine. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् confer, compare P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, et cetera, and others in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; (9) taddhita affix. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ et cetera, and others in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the inst. instrumental case. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
aḥ( : )visarga called visarjanīya in ancient works and shown in writing by two dots, one below the other, exactly of the same size, like the pair of breasts of a maiden as jocularly larly expressed by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.. confer, compare अः ( : ) इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः । कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसजर्नीयसंज्ञो भवति ( दुर्गसिंह on कातन्त्र I.1.16). विसर्ग is always a dependent letter included among the Ayogavāha letters and it is looked upon as a vowel when it forms a part of the preceding vowel; while it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into the Jihvāmūlīya or the Upadhmānīya letter.
akarmakaintransitive, without any object, (said with regard to roots which cannot possess an object or whose object is suppressed or ignored). The reasons for suppression are briefly given in the well-known stanza ; धातोरर्थान्तरे वृत्तेर्धात्वर्थेनोपसंग्रहात् । प्रसिद्धेरविवक्षातः कर्मणोऽकर्मिकाक्रिया ॥ In the case of intransitive roots, the verbal activity and its fruit are centred in one and the same individual viz. the agent or कर्ता confer, compare फलव्यापारयोरेकनिष्ठतायामकर्मकः Vāk. Pad.
akāṇḍatāṇḍavaname of the commentary by Harinātha on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara (परिभाषेन्दुशेखर) of Nageśabhaṭṭa.
akāma(अकामसंधि)(अकामसंधि) an invariable (नित्य) euphonic change (संधि) such as the dropping of th' consonant r ( र् ) when followed by r. confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV.9. रेफोदयो लुप्यते द्राघितोपधा ह्रस्वस्या-कामनियता उभाविमी । e. g. युवो रजांसि, सुयमासो अश्वा रथ: R. V. I. 180.1.
akārathe letter a, (अ) inclusive of all its eighteen kinds caused by shortness, length, protraction, accentuation and nasalization in Pānini's grammar, in cases where a(अ) is not actually prescribed as a termination or an augment or a substitute. confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.73. The letter is generally given as the first letter of the alphabet ( वर्णसमाम्नाय ) in all Prātiśākhya and grammar works except in the alphabet termed Varṇopadeśa, as mentioned in the Ṛk Tantra confer, compare ए ओ ऐ औ अा ॠ लॄ ई ऊ ऋ लृ इ उ अाः । रयवलाः । ङञणनमाः । अः ೱ क ೱ पाः । हुं कुं खुं गुं घुं अं अां एवमुपदेशे et cetera, and others Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.I. 4.
akārakanot causing any verbal activity; different from the kārakas or instruments of action such as the agent, the object, the instrument, the recipient (संप्रदान), the separated (अपादान) and the location, (अधिकरण) confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.23, 29 and 5l and on II.3.1.
akṛtakāridoing or accomplishing what is not done or accomplished; the expression is used in connection with grammatical operations like ह्रस्वकरण or दीर्घकरण only in cases where it is necessary i, e. where already there is no hrasva or drgha confer, compare अकृतकारि खल्वपि शास्त्रमग्निवत् । तद्यथा । अग्निर्यददग्धं तद्दहति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 1.127. the rules of Grammar, like fire, are applied to places where they produce a change.
akṛtasaṃdhiword or expression without the necessary euphonic changes cf वरुणादीनां च तृतीयात् स च अकृतंसंधीनाम् P. V.3.84 vārt. 1.
akṣaraa letter of the alphabet, such as a (अ) or i (इ) or h (ह) or y (य्) or the like. The word was originally applied in the Prātiśākhya works to vowels (long, short as also protracted), to consonants and the ayogavāha letters which were tied down to them as their appendages. Hence अक्षर came later on to mean a syllable i. e. a vowel with a consonant or consonants preceding or following it, or without any consonant at all. confer, compare ओजा ह्रस्वाः सप्तमान्ताः स्वराणामन्ये दीर्घा उभये अक्षराणि R Pr. I 17-19 confer, compareएकाक्षरा, द्व्यक्षरा et cetera, and others The term akṣara was also applied to any letter (वर्ण), be it a vowel or a consonant, cf, the terms एकाक्षर, सन्ध्यक्षर, समानाक्षर used by Patañjali as also by the earlier writers. For the etymology of the term see Mahābhāṣya अक्षरं न क्षरं विद्यात्, अश्नोतेर्वा सरोक्षरम् । वर्णे वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 2 end.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
agnaukaravāṇinyāyaanalogy conveyed by the expression अग्नौ करवाणि implying permission to the agent to do certain other things in a sacrificial session when, as a matter of fact, he is only permitted to work as an agent at the sacrificial action ( अग्नौकरण ), by virtue of the reply ' कुरु ' to his request made in the sentence अग्नौ करवाणि. confer, compare अग्नौकरवाणिन्यायेन भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on. II.2.24.
aṅThe vikaraṇa before luṅ affixes, substituted for the affix cvi ( च्वि ) in the case of the roots mentioned by Pāṇini in sūtras III.1.52-59:(2) the Vikaraṇapratyaya in Vedic Literature before the benedictive affixes prescribed by Pāṇini in Sūtra III.1.86; (3) kṛt affix in the feminine gender showing verbal activity applied to roots marked with the mute letter ष् and the roots भिद्, छिद् and others. P.III.3 104-106.exempli gratia, for example जरा, त्रपा, भिदा, छिदा et cetera, and others
aṅgādhikāraa large section of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. covering five quarters (VI.4.1 to the end of VII) in which the various operations undergone by crude bases before various affixes et cetera, and others are prescribedition
(1)taddhita affix. affix a ( अ ) with the mute letter ñ ( ञ्), prescribed (i) after the words उत्स and others in various senses like progeny, dyed in, produced in, come from et cetera, and othersP. IV.1.86, (ii) after the words विद and others in the sense of grandson and other descendents.P. IV.1.104. For other cases see P. IV. I. 141, 161; IV.2.12,14 et cetera, and others IV.3.7 et cetera, and others IV.4.49. The feminine is formed by adding i ( ई ) to words ending with this affix अञ्, which have the vṛddhi vowel substituted for their initial vowel which gets the acute accent also exempli gratia, for example औत्सः, औत्सी,औदपानः, बैदः, बैदी.
aṇ(1)token term ( प्रत्याहार ) for all vowels and semivowels which, when prescribed for an operation, include all such of their sub-divisions as are caused by length, protraction accent or nasalization. cf अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.60;(2) token term for the vowels अ, इ and उ in all Pānini's rules except in the rule I.1.69 given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. e.g see ढ्रलोपे पूर्वस्य दीर्घोणः P.VI.3. 111, केऽणः P.VII.4.13. and अणोऽ प्रगृह्यस्य. P.VIII.4.57: (3) tad, affix. a ( अ ) prescribed generally in the various senses such as 'the offspring', 'dyed in,' 'belonging to' et cetera, and others except in cases where other specific affixes are prescribed cf प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् P. IV.1.83; (4) kṛ. affix a ( अ ), applied, in the sense of an agent, to a root with an antecedent word (उपपद) standing as its object. e. g. कुम्भकारः, see P.III.2.1: काण्डलावः, see P.III.3.12.
at(1)tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar for short अ, cf तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70; अदेङ् गुणः P.I.1.2; (2) personal ending अ for इ ( इट् ) of the Ist person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada in the Potential, P III. 4. 106; (3) caseaffix in the case of युष्मद् and अस्मद् for ablative case. singular. and plural P.VII. 1.31,32: (4) tad-affix अत् (अ) prescribed after किम् in the sense of the locative case case before which किम् is changed to कु, क्व being the taddhita affix. formation; confer, compare P. V.3.12 and VII.2.105:(5) substitute अत्(शतृ) for लट् forming the present and future participles in the Parasmaipada. active voice confer, compare लटः शतृशानचौ. P.III. 2.124 and लृटः सद्वा P. III.3.14.
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
atiśāyanaexcellence, surpassing; the same as अतिशय in Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V. 2 confer, compare अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ P. V. 3.55, also confer, compare भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेऽतिशायने । संसर्गेऽ स्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.2.94, where अतिशायन means अतिशाय. Patañjali, commenting on P. V.3.55 clearly remarks that for अतिशय, or for अतिशयन, the old grammarians, out of fancy only, used the term अतिशायन as it was a current term in popular usage; confer, compare देश्याः सूत्रनिबन्धाः क्रियन्ते यावद् ब्रूयात् प्रकर्षे अतिशय इति तावदतिशायन इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on , P. V.3.55.
atushort term used by Pāṇini to signify together the five affixes क्तवतु, ड्वतुप्, ड्मतुप् मतुप् and वतुप् ;confer, compareअत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः P. VI.4.14.
atepersonal ending of present tense. 3rd per. plural substituted for झ ( अन्त ), the अ of झ ( अन्त ) being changed into ए and न being omitted: see झोन्त: (P.VII.1.3) अदभ्यस्तात् (P. VII. 1.4) and टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे (P. III. 4.79).
atvaalso अत्व change of a vowel into short अ.
adyatanītech. term of ancient grammarians signifying in general the present time of the day in question, the occurrence of the immediate past or future events in which is generally expressed by the aorist (लुड्) or the simple future ( लृट् ); the other two corresponding tenses imperfect and first future (viz. लड् and लुट्) being used in connection with past and future events respectively, provided the events do not pertain to that day which is in question; confer, compare 'वा चाद्यतन्याम्' M.Bh. P.III.2.102 Vār.6, वादृतन्याम् P, VI.4.114. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (2) term for the tense showing immediate past time called लुङ् in Pāṇini's grammar e. g. मायोगे अद्यतनी । मा कार्षीत् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.III. 1.22, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III. 3.11.
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
adhunātaddhita affix. affix applied to the pronoun इदम् which is changed into इ before the affix and then elided by P. VI.4.148, or changed into अ in which case धुना or अधुना could be looked upon as a taddhita affix. affix.
adhyavasāyadetermination to begin an activity with a view to get the fruit. confer, compare य एष मनुष्यः प्रेक्षापूर्वकारी स बुद्ध्या कंचिदर्थं संपश्यति, संदृष्टे प्रार्थना, प्रार्थिते अध्यवसायः,म् अध्यवसाये आरम्भः, आरम्भे निर्वृत्तिः, निर्वृत्तौ फलावाप्तिः confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.14 and I.4.32.
adhyāsasuperimposition : a relation between a word and its sense according to the grammarians; confer, compare Vāk. Pad. II.240. (2) appendage; confer, compare आहुस्त्वेकपदा अन्ये अध्यासानेकपातिनः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XVII.43.
anaḍ(1)substitute अन् as Samāsānta at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound in the feminine for the last letter of the word ऊधस् and for that of धनुस् in all genders exempli gratia, for example कुण्डोघ्नी (by applying ई to कुण्डोधन्), शार्ङ्गधन्वा, अधिज्यधन्वा; confer, compare P V.4.131, 132; (2) substitute अन् for the last letter of the words अस्थि, दधि et cetera, and others before the affixes of the instrumental and the following cases beginning with a vowel e. g. अस्थ्ना, दध्ना, अक्ष्णा et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 1.75; (3) substitute अन् for the last letter of the word सखि, of words ending in ऋ,as also of उशनस् and others before the nominative singular. affix सु. e. g. सखा, कर्ता, उशना confer, compare P. VII.1.93, 94.
anatauncerebralized; not changed into a cerebral ( मूर्धन्य ) letter.confer, compare दन्त्यस्य मूर्धन्यापात्तिर्नति: Uvaṭa on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV.34.
anadyatanaperiod of time not pertaining to the day in question; used in connection with past time, to express which the imperfect is generally used; also in connection with the future time, to express which the first future is generally used e gह्यः अपचत्, श्वः कर्ता et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.2.111,113; III. 3.15,135: V.3.21.
anantyanon-final confer, compare अनन्त्यविकारे अन्त्यसदेशस्य when a change does not concern a final letter then it concerns that which immediately precedes the final, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 95. confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI.1.13 Vārt 5.
ananyanot different, the same: confer, compare एकदेशविकृतमनन्यवत् that which has got a change regarding one of its parts is by no means something else; Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 37.
anarthaka(1)without any signification;literally having no meaning of themselves, id est, that ispossessing a meaning only when used in company with other words or parts of words which bear an independent sense;(the word is used generally in connection with prepositions); exempli gratia, for example अधिपरी अनर्थकौ P.1.4.93, confer, compare अनर्थान्तरवाचिनावनर्थकौ । धातुनोक्तां क्रियामाहतुः । तदविशिष्टं भवति यथा शङ्के पय: ॥ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.93; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1.3: confer, compare also अनर्थकौ अनर्थान्तरवाचिनौ Kāś. on I.4.93, explained as अनर्थान्तरवाचित्वादनर्थकावित्युक्तम् न त्वर्थाभावादिति दर्शयति by न्यासकार; (2) meaningless, purposeless: confer, compare प्रमाणभूत आचार्यो दर्भपवित्रपाणिः महता यत्नेन सूत्रं प्रणयति स्म । तत्राशक्यं वर्णेनाप्यनर्थकेन भवितुं किं पुनरियता सूत्रेण M.Bh. on I.1.1, as also सामर्थ्ययोगान्न हि किंचिदस्मिन् पश्यामि शास्त्रे यदनर्थकं स्यात् M.Bh. on P. VI.I.77. See for details M.Bh. on I.2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 12: III.1.77 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 and Kaiyaṭa and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon; (3) possessed of no sense absolutely as some nipātas केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः केचन च निरर्थकाः U1. varia lectio, another reading, on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII.9; निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P. I. 2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).12 confer, compare also जन्या इति निपातनानर्थक्यं P. IV. 4.82. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, एकागारान्निपातनानर्थक्यं P. V.1.113 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, also 114 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).1.
anavakāśahaving no occasion or scope of application; used in connection with a rule the whole of whose province of application is covered by a general rule, and hence which becomes technically useless, unless it is allowed to set aside the general rule: confer, compare अनवकाशा हि विधयो बाधका भवन्तिrules which have no opportunity of taking effect( without setting aside other rules ) supersede those rules; M.Bh. on V.4.154, also Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on Pari. 64.
anavakāśatvaabsence of any opportunity of taking effect, scopelessness considered in the case of a particular rule, as a criterion for setting aside that general rule which deprives it of that opportunity confer, compare अनवकाशत्वं निरवकाशत्वं वा बाधकत्वे बीजम्. This अनवकाशत्व is slightly different from अपवादत्व or particular mention which is defined usually by the words सामान्यविधिरुत्सर्गः । विशेषविधिरपवादः ।
anānupūrvyasaṃhitāthat saṁhitā text which has an order of words in it, which is different from what obtains in the Pada-pāṭha, and which appears appropriate according to the sense intended in the passage. There are three places of such combinations of words which are not according to the succcession of words in the Pada-pāṭha, quoted in the R.Pr. शुनश्चिच्छेपं निदितं सहस्रात् Rk. Saṁ. V.2.7, नरा वा शंसं पूषणमगोह्यम् Rk. Saṁ. X. 64.3; नरा च शंसं दैव्यम् Rk. Saṁh. IX. 86. 42. confer, compare एता अनानुपूर्व्यसंहिताः । न ह्येतेषां त्रयाणां पदानुपूर्व्येण संहितास्ति Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.78.
anikṛt affix in the sense of curse, exempli gratia, for example अजीवनिस्ते शठ भूयात्; confer, compareआक्रोशे नञि अनिः P.III.3.112. This affix अनि gets its न् changed into ण् after ऋ or रेफ of the preceding preposition as in अप्रयाणिः;confer, compare Kāś, on VIII.4.29.
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.id est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
anudāttataraquite a low tone, completely grave; generally applied to the tone of that grave or anudātta vowel which is immediately followed by an acute ( उदात्त ) vowel. When the three Vedic accents were sub-divided into seven tones viz. उदात्त, उदात्ततर्, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितस्थोदात्त and एकश्रुति corresponding to the seven musical notes, the अनुदात्ततर was the name given to the lowest of them all. अनुदात्ततर was termed सन्नतर also; confer, compare उदात्तस्वरितपरस्य सन्नतरः P.I.2.40; confer, compare also M, Bh. on I.2.33.
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
anumānainference,suggestion, confer, compare अशक्या क्रिया पिण्डीभूता निदर्शयितुम् । सासामनुमानगम्या Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.1.
anulomasaṃdhicombination according to the alphabetical order; a kind of euphonic alteration ( संधि ) where the vowel comes first. e.gहव्यवाट् + अग्निः where ट् is changed to द्; एषः देवः= एष देवः confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 8. (Sce अनुलोम ).
anuvṛttirepetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the subsequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intended interpretation. The word is of common use in books on Pāṇini's grammar. This recurrence is generally continuous like the stream of a river ( गङ्गास्रोतोवत् ); sometimes however, when it is not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवृत्ति. In rare cases it is taken backwards in a sūtra work from a subsequent rule to a previous rule when it is called अपकर्ष.
anūktasaid afterwards, generally in imitation; confer, compare अनूक्तवान् अनूचानः । अनूक्तमित्येवान्यत्र M.Bh. on III.2.109.
antakaraṇaliterally bringing about as the final; an affix (which is generally put at the end); ancient term for an affix: confer, compareएतेः कारितं च यकारादिं चान्तकरणम्। अस्तेः शुद्धं च सकारादिं च । Nirukta of Yāska.I.13
antaḥkāryaliterally interior operation; an operation inside a word in its formation-stage which naturally becomes antaraṅga as contrasted with an operation depending on two complete words after their formation which is looked upon as bahiraṅga.
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
antaraṅgaparibhāṣāthe phrase is used generally for the परिभाषा "असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे' described a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. See the word अन्तरङ्ग. The परिभाषा has got a very wide field of application and is used several times in setting aside difficulties which present themselves in the formation of a word. Like many other paribhāṣās this paribhāṣā is not a paribhāṣā of universal application.
antaraṅgalakṣaṇacharacterized by the nature of an antaraṅga operation which gives that rule a special strength to set aside other rules occurring together with it.
antodāttaa word with its last vowel accented acute. Roots, crude : noun bases and compound words generally have their last vowel accented acute; confer, compare फिषः (प्रातिपदिकस्य ) अन्त उदात्तः स्यात् Phiṭ Sūtra 1-1; धातोः (P. VI.1.162} अन्त उदात्तः स्यात्; समासस्य ( P.VI.1.223) अन्त उदात्तः स्यात् ।
anvakṣarasaṃdhia combination of letters according to the order of the letters in the Alphabet; a samdhi or euphonic combination of a vowel and a consonant, called अन्वक्षर-अनुलोमसंधि where a vowel precedes a consonant; and अन्वक्षरप्रतिलोमसंधि where a consonant precedes a vowel, the consonant in that case being changed into the third of its class; एष स्य स च स्वराश्च पूर्वे भवति व्यञ्जनमुत्तरं यदेभ्यः। तेन्वक्षरसेधयेानुलोमाः प्रतिलोमाश्च विपर्यये त एव ।। R Pr. II.8.9 e. g. एष देवः, स देवः and others are instances of अन्वक्षरानुलोमसंधि where विसर्ग after the vowel is dropped; while हलव्यवाड् अग्निः is an instance of अन्वक्षरप्रतिलोमसंधि where the consonant ट् precedes the vowel अ.
anvaya(1)construing, construction: arrangement of words according to their mutual relationship based upon the sense conveyed by them, शब्दानां परस्परमर्थानुगमनम् । (2) continuance, continuation;confer, compare घृतघटतैलवट इति ; निषिक्ते घृते तैले वा अन्वयाद्विशेषणं भवति अयं घृतघटः, अयं तैलघट इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II. 1.1.
anvarthakagiven in accordance with the sense; generally applied to a technical term which is found in accordance with the sense conveyed by the constituent parts of it; e. g. सर्वनामसंज्ञा, confer, compare महत्याः संज्ञायाः करणे एतत् प्रयोजनमन्वर्थसंज्ञा यथा विज्ञायेत Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.23.
ap(1)kṛt affix अ, in the sense of verbal activity (भाव) or any verbal relation (कारक) excepting that of an agent, (कर्तृ) applied to roots ending in ऋ or उ and the roots ग्रह्,वृ,दृ et cetera, and others mentioned in P. III.3.58 and the following rules in preference to the usual affix घञ. exempli gratia, for example करः, गरः, शरः, यवः, लवः, पवः, ग्रहः, स्वनः etc, confer, compare P.III, 3.57-87 ; (2) compound-ending अप् applied to Bahuvrīhi compounds in the feminine gender ending with a Pūraṇa affix as also to Bahuvrīhi compounds ending with लोमन् preceded by अन्त् or वहिर् e. g. कल्याणीपञ्चमा रात्रयः, अन्तर्लोमः,बहिर्लोमः पटः confer, compare P. V. 4.116, 117.
apatyaa descendent, male or female, from the son or daughter onwards upto any generation; cf तस्यापत्यम् P, IV.1.92.
apavādaa special rule which sets aside the general rule; a rule forming an exception to the general rule. exempli gratia, for example आतोनुपसर्गे कः III.2.2 which is an exception of the general rule कर्मण्यण् III.2.1; confer, compare येन नाप्राप्तो यो विधिरारभ्यते स तस्य बाधको भवति, तदपवादोयं येागो भवति; Pari. Śekh. Par 57; for details see Pari. Śekh. Pari. 57-65: cf न्यायैर्मिश्रानपवादान् प्रतीयात् । न्याया उत्सर्गाः महाविधयः । अपवादा अल्पविषयाः विधय: । तानुत्सर्गेण मिश्रानेकीकृताञ् जानीयात् । अपवादविषयं मुक्त्वा उत्सर्गाः प्रवर्तन्ते इत्यर्थः । Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 23 and commentary thereon ; (2) fault; confer, compare शास्त्रापवादात् प्रतिपत्तिभेदात् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 30 on which उव्वट remarks शास्त्राणामपवादा दोषाः सन्ति पुनरुक्तता अविस्पष्टार्थता, कष्टशब्दार्थता...
apavādanyāyathe convention that a rule laying down an exception supersedes the general rule; confer, compare सिद्धं त्वपवादन्यायेन P. I.3.9 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7
apavādabalīyastcathe convention that a special rule is always stronger than the general rule.
apavādavipratiṣedhaa conflict with a special rule, which the special rule supersedes the general rule: confer, compare 'अलोन्त्यस्य' इति उत्सर्गः । तस्य 'आदेः परस्य' 'अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य' इत्यपवादौ अपवादविप्रतिषेधात्तु सर्वादेशो भविष्यति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.54 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1.
abhāṣitapuṃskathat which does not convey a masculine sense; a word which is not declined in the masculine gender; a word possessing only the feminine gender e.gखट्वा, लता et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अभाषितपुंस्काच्च P. VII. 3.48.
abhinihitaused in connection with a सन्धि or euphonic combination in which the vowel अ, as a first or a second member, is absorbed into the other member. e. g. रथेभ्यः + अग्रे = रथेभ्योऽग्रे also दाशुषेऽग्रे, where अ of अग्रे is absorbed or merged in ओ of रथेभ्यः or ए of दाशुषे; confer, compare अथाभिनिहितः संधिरेतैः प्राकृतवैकृतैः । एकीभवति पादादिरकारस्तेत्र संधिजाः; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 13 to 25; confer, compareएङः पदान्तादति P.VI.1.109.
abhivyādānaabsorption of a vowel when two long vowels of the same kind come together exempli gratia, for example ता आपः = तापः, अवसा आ = अवसा, the resultant vowel being pronounced specially long consisting of some more mātrā, which is evidently, a fault of pronunciation. confer, compare आदानं आरम्भः; विपुलं विशालं वा आदानं व्यादानम् । अभिव्याप्तं अभिभूतं व्यादानं अभिव्यादानम् Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 27.
abhyāhataomission of any sound; a fault of utterance. अम् (1)a technical brief term in Panini's grammar including vowels, semivowels, the letter ह् and nasals; (2) a significant term for the accusative case showing change or substitution or modification: confer, compare अं विकारस्य Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.28 explained as अमिति शब्दे विकारस्याख्या भवति । अमिति द्वितीय विभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् । (3) augment अ applied to the penultimate vowel of सृज् & दृश् (P. VI.1.58, 59 and VII.1.99) (4) substitute tor Ist person. singular. affix मिप्, by P.III.4.101 (5) Acc. singular. case affix अम् .
ambākartrīcommentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāsenduśekhara named so, as it commences with the words अम्बा कर्त्री et cetera, and others
ayāvananon-mixture of words where the previous word is in no way the cause of (any charge in) the next word. अयावनं अमिश्रयम् U1. varia lectio, another reading, on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI. 12 e. g, अग्निमीळे where the क्रमपाठ is अग्निं ईळे ।
arīhaṇādia group of words given in P. IV.2.80 which get the taddhita affix घुञ् ( अक ) added to them as a cāturarthika affix e. g. अारीहणकम्, द्रौघणकम् et cetera, and otherssee Kāśikā on P.IV.2.80.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
ardharcādia group of words given in P.II.4.31 which are declined in both the masculine and the neuter genders; c.g. अर्धर्चः,अर्धर्चमू, यूथः, यूथम्; गृहः गृहम्, et cetera, and others; cf अर्धर्चाः पुंसिं च P.II.4.31.
ardhavisargaa term used for the Jihvāmūliya and Upadhmāniya into which a visarga is changed when followed by the letters क्, ख, and the letters प्, फ् respectively.
aliṅga(1)not possessed of a definite gender; confer, compare अलिङ्गमसंख्यमव्ययसंज्ञं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.38; II.4.82;(2)अलिङे ह्युष्मदस्मदी (Sid. Kau. on P.VII.2.90)
aliṅgavacananot possessed of a definite gender and number; a term generally used in connection with अव्ययs or indeclinables.
alontyavidhian operation, which, on the strength of its being enjoined by means of the genitive case, applies to the last letter of the wording put in the genitive; confer, compare नानर्थकेलोन्त्यविधिरनभ्यासविकारे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.65, confer, compare अलोन्त्यस्य । षष्ठीनिर्दिष्टोन्त्यस्यादेशः स्यात् S.K. on P. I.1.52.
alpataranot of frequent occurence in the spoken language or literature the term is used in connection with such words as are not frequently used; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः । व्रंततिर्दम्नाः जाटय आट्णारो जागरूको द्विर्धिहोमीति Nir I.14.
alpāctarahaving a smaller number of vowels in it; such a word is generally placed first in a Dvandva compound; cf अल्पाच्तरम्, P.II.2.34. अल्पाच्तरे पूर्वं भवति प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ अपाच्तर is the same as अल्पाच्क used in the प्रक्रियाकौमुदी or अल्पस्वरतर in Kātantra (Kāt, II.5.12).
avagraha(1)separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; exempli gratia, for example पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originatedition The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. (Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; confer, compare also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।(Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.36); also confer, compare यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ exempli gratia, for example शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; confer, compare समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.
avayavaṣaṣṭhīthe genitive case signifying or showing a part: confer, compare वक्ष्यत्यादेशप्रत्यययोरित्यवयवषष्ठी M.Bh. on I. 1.21.
avarṇathe letter अ; the first letter of the Sanskrit alphabet, comprising all its varieties caused by grades, ( ह्रस्व, दीर्घ, प्लुत) or accents of nasalization. The word वर्ण is used in the neuter gender in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare सर्वमुखस्थानमवर्णम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.9, मा कदाचिदवर्णं भूत् M.Bh. I.1.48 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1; cf also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.50 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 18 and I.1.51 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2: confer, compare also ह्रस्वमवर्णं प्रयोगे संवृतम् Sīradeva's ParibhāṣāvṛttiPari. 17. 6
avaśaṃgamaname of a Samdhi when a class consonant, followed by any consonant is not changed, but retained as it is; confer, compare स्पर्शाः पूर्वे व्यञ्जनान्युत्तराणि अास्थापितानां अवशंगमं तत् R.Pr.IV. l; eg. अारैक् पन्थाम् Ṛgveda, Ṛk. Saṁh=Ṛgveda-saṁhita. I.113.16, वषट् ते (Ṛgveda, Ṛk. Saṁh=Ṛgveda-saṁhita.VII.99.7) अजानन् पुत्रः (R. V. X.85.14).
avaśiṣṭaliṅga(v.1. अविशिष्टलिङ्ग)a term occurring in the liṅgānuśāsana meaning 'possessed of such genders as have not been mentioned already either singly or by combination' id est, that is possessed of all genders.Under अवशिष्टलिङ्ग are mentioned indeclinables, numerals ending in ष् or न् , adjectives, words ending with kṛtya affixes id est, that is potential passive participles, pronouns, words ending with the affix अन in the sense of an instrument or a location and the words कति and युष्मद् (See पाणिनीय-लिङ्गानुशासन Sūtras 182-188).
avasthāstage, condition; stage in the formation of a word; e. g. उपदेशावस्था, लावस्था, et cetera, and others
avāgyogavidone who is not conversant with the proper use of language: confer, compare अथ योऽवाग्योगविद् विज्ञानं तस्य शरणम्; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 1.1.1.
avibhaktikawithout the application of a case termination.The term is used frequently in connection with such words as are found used by Pāṇini without any case-affix in his Sūtras; sometimes, such usage is explained by commentators as an archaic usage; confer, compare अविभक्तिको निर्देशः । कृप उः रः लः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I 1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 2; also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3 ; III.1.36, VII.1.3 et cetera, and others
avyayaindeclinable, literally invariant, not undergoing a change. Pāṇini has used the word as a technical term and includes in it all such words as स्वर्, अन्तर् , प्रातर् etc, or composite expressions like अव्ययीभावसमास, or such taddhitānta words as do not take all case affixes as also kṛdanta words ending in म् or ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. He gives such words in a long list of Sutras P. I.1.37 to 41; confer, compare सदृशं त्रिषु लिङ्गेषु सर्वासु च विभक्तिषु । वचनेषु च सर्वेषु यन्न व्येति तदव्ययम् Kāś. on P.I.1.37.
avyutpattipakṣathe view held generally by grammarians that all words are not necessarily susceptible to analysis or derivation, an alternative view opposed to the view of the etymologists or Nairuktas that every word is derivable; confer, compare पाणिनेस्त्वव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष एवेति शब्देन्दुशेखरे निरूपितम् Pari. Śekh. Pari. 22; वाचक उपादान: स्वरूपवानिति अव्युत्पत्तिपक्षे Vyāḍi's Saṁgraha.
(1)Pratyāhāra or a brief term standing for all vowels, semivowels, and the fifth, fourth and third of the class-consonants; all letters excepting the surds and sibilants; (2) substitute अ for the word इदम् before affixes of cases beginning with the instrumental, and for एतद् before the taddhita affix. affixes त्र and तस्; see P.II.4.32 and 33; (3) substitute अ for the genitive case singular. case-affix ङस् after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद्; see P.VII.1.27.
aśvatthanārāyaṇaa commentator who wrote a gloss on Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. in the Tamil language.
as(1)case affix of the nominative and accusative plural and the ablative and genitive singular (जस् , शस्, ङसि and ङस् ) (2) taddhita affix अस् ( असि ) added to पूर्व, अधर and अवर, by P.V.3.39: (3) compoundending अस् ( असिच् ) applied to the words प्रजा and मेधा standing at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound (P.V.4.122): (4) Uṇādi affix अस् prescribed by the rule सर्वधातुभ्योऽसुन् and subsequent rules (628-678) to form words such as मनस्,सरस् et cetera, and others(5) ending syllable अस्, with or without sense, of words in connection with which special operations are given in grammar; confer, compare P.VI.4.14; confer, compare also अनिनस्मन्ग्रहणान्यर्थवता चानर्थकेन च तदन्तविधिं प्रयोजयन्ति Par.Śek. Pari. 16.
asamarthasamāsaa compound of two words, which ordinarily is inadmissible, one of the two words being more closely connected with a third word, but which takes place on the authority of usage, there being no obstacle in the way of understanding the sense to be conveyed; e. g. देवदत्तस्य गुरुकुलम् । देवदत्तस्य दासभार्या । असूर्यंपश्यानि मुखानि, अश्राद्धभोजी ब्राह्मणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.1.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
asiddhaparibhāṣāthe same as Antaraṅga Paribhāṣā or the doctrine of the invalidity of the bahiraṅga operation. See the word असिद्ध a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For details see the Paribhāṣā 'asiddham , bahiraṅgam antaraṅge' Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 50 and the discussion thereon. Some grammarians have given the name असिद्धपरिभाषा to the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे as contrasted with अन्तरङ्गं बहुिरङ्कगाद् वलीयः which they have named as बहिरङ्गपरिभाषा.
asvanot homogeneous: asavarṇa. confer, compare इवर्णादेः अस्वे स्वरे यवरलम् Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. I.2.21, also अस्वे Śāk.I.1.73.
ākamthe substitute आकम् for साम् of the genitive case plural after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद् e. g. युष्माकं, अस्माकम् confer, compare P.VII.1.33.
ākāṅkṣāexpectancy with regard to sense-completion, generally in compounds such as साकाङ्क्ष, निराकाङ्क्ष et cetera, and others confer, compare अस्त्यस्मिन्नाकाङ्क्षा इत्यतः साकाङ्क्षम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2.114.
ākṛtiliterally form; individual thing; confer, compare एकस्या अाकृतेश्चरितः प्रयोगो द्वितीयस्यास्तृतीयस्याश्च न भवति M.Bh on III.1.40 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).6. The word is derived as आक्रियते सा आकृतिः and explained as संस्थानम्; confer, compare आक्रियते व्यज्यते अनया इति आकृतिः संस्थानमुच्यते Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on IV.1.63; (2) general form which, in a way, is equivalent to the generic notion or genus; confer, compare आकृत्युपदेशात्सिद्धम् । अवर्णाकृतिरुपदिष्टा सर्वमवर्णकुलं ग्रहीष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).I.1 Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 1; (3) notion of genus; cf also यत्तर्हि तद् भिन्नेष्वभिन्नं छिनेष्वच्छिन्नं सामान्यभूतं स शब्दः । नेत्याह । अाकृतिर्नाम सा. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya.1; (4) a metre consisting of 88 letters; confer, compare R. Prāt. XVI.56,57.
aākhyātaverbal form, verb; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातं सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि Nirukta of Yāska.I.1; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्यातोपसर्गनिपाताश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1. Āhnika 1 ; also A.Prāt. XII. 5, अाकार अाख्याते पदादिश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.2.37 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2, आख्यातमाख्यातेन क्रियासातत्ये Sid. Kau. on II.1.72, क्रियावाचकमाख्यातं Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1; confer, compare भारद्वाजकमाख्यातं भार्गवं नाम भाष्यते । भारद्वाजेन दृष्टत्वादाख्यातं भारद्वाजगोत्रम् V. Prāt. VIII. 52; confer, compare also Athar. Prāt.I.I.12, 18; 1.3.3,6; II.2.5 where ākhyāta means verbal form. The word also meant in ancient days the root also,as differentiated from a verb or a verbal form as is shown by the lines तन्नाम येनाभिदधाति सत्त्वं, तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातुः R.Pr.XII.5 where 'आख्यात' and 'धातु' are used as synonyms As the root form such as कृ, भृ et cetera, and others as distinct from the verbal form, is never found in actual use, it is immaterial whether the word means root or verb.In the passages quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. from the Nirukta and the Mahābhāṣya referring to the four kinds of words, the word ākhyāta could be taken to mean root (धातु) or verb (क्रियापद). The ākhyāta or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being and bccoming while nouns (नामानि) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the activities and things in this world but with every process and entity; confer, compare पूर्वापूरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे Nir.I.;अस्तिभवतिविद्यतीनामर्थः सत्ता । अनेककालस्थायिनीति कालगतपौर्वापर्येण क्रमवतीति तस्याः क्रियात्वम् । Laghumañjūṣā. When a kṛt (affix). affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a word ending with a kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of bhāva or verbal activity is treated as a noun and regularly declined;confer, compareकृदभिहितो भावे द्रव्यवद् भवति M.Bh. on II.2.19 and III. 1.67, where the words गति, व्रज्या, पाक and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words ending with kṛt (affix). affixes such as कर्तुं, कृत्वा, and others, the modern grammarians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be,in a way, looked upon as ākhyātas; confer, compare अव्ययकृतो भावे Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa.
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
ācāra(1)customary usage of putting or employing words in rules; confer, compare आचार्याचारात्संज्ञासिद्धिः, P.I,1.1, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4. (2) behaviour;confer, compare उपमानादाचारे P.III. 1.10; cf also निवासत आचारतश्च M.Bh. on VI.3.109.
ācāryasaṃpadnecessary qualification to teach the Veda with all its pāṭhas having the necessary knowledge of accents, matrās and the like. confer, compare पदक्रमविभागज्ञो वर्णक्रमविचक्षणः स्वरमात्राविशेषज्ञो गच्छेदाचार्यसंपदम् R. Prāt.I.8.
ātmanagent or Kaṛtr as in the terms अात्मनेपद or अात्मनेभाषा, confer, compare सुप आत्मनः क्यच् III. 1.8.
ātmanepadaa technical term for the affixes called तड् (त, आताम् et cetera, and others) and the affix अान ( शानच् , चानश्, कानच् ), called so possibly because, the fruit of the activity is such as generally goes to the agent (आत्मने) when these affixes are usedition Contrast this term (Ātmanepada) with the term Parasmaipada when the fruit is meant for another. For an explanation of the terms see P. VI.3.7 and 8.
aātmanebhāṣaa technical term used for such roots as speak for the agent himself; the term अात्मनेभाष means the same as the term अात्मनेपदिन्. The term अात्मनेभाष is not mentioned by Pāṇini; but the writer of the Vārtikas explains it, confer, compare आत्मनेभाषपरस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI.3.7 and 8 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1; confer, compare also आत्मनेपदिनश्च धातवो वैयाकरणैरात्मनेभाषशब्देन व्यवह्रियन्ते,Kaiyaṭa on VI.3.7.The term is found in the Atharva-Prātiśākhya. III. 4.7. It cannot be said whether the term came in use after Pāṇini or, although earlier, it belonged to some school other than that of Pāṇini or, Pāṇini put into use the terms Ātmanepada and Parasmaipada for the affixes as the ancient terms Ātmanebhāṣa and Parasmaibhāṣa were in use for the roots.
ādeśa(1)substitute as opposed to sthānin, the original. In Pāṇini's grammar there is a very general maxim, possessed of a number of exceptions, no doubt, that 'the substitute behaves like the original' (स्थानिवदादेशः अनल्विधौ P.I.1.56.); the application of this maxim is called स्थानिवद्भाव; for purposes of this स्थानिवद्भाव the elision (लोप) of a phonetic element is looked upon as a sort of substitute;confer, compare उपधालेपस्य स्थानिवत्त्वात् Kāś. on P.I.1.58. Grammarians many times look upon a complete word or a word-base as a substitute for another one, although only a letter or a syllable in the word is changed into another, as also when a letter or syllable is added to or dropped in a word; confer, compare पचतु, पचन्तु ... इमेप्यादेशाः । कथम् । अादिश्यते यः स आदेशः । इमे चाप्यादिश्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; cf also सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः M.Bh. on P. I.1.20; confer, compare also अनागमकानां सागमका आदेशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20: (2) indication, assignment; confer, compare योयं स्वरादेशः अन्तोदात्तं, वधेराद्युदात्तत्वं, स्वः स्वरितमिति अादेशः R.Pr.I.30-32; confer, compare also अादेशः उपदेशः commentary on Tai.-Prāt. II.20: confer, compare also अनादेशे अविकारः V.Pr.IV.131, where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.remarks यत्र उदात्तादीनां स्वराणां सन्धौ आदेशो न क्रियते तत्र अविकारः प्रत्येतव्यः । confer, compare also एकारो विभक्त्यादेशः छन्दसि A.Pr. II.1.2, where ए is prescribed as a substitute for a caseaffix and त्ये and अस्मे are cited as examples where the acute acent is also prescribed for the substitute ए.
ādyantavattvaअाद्यन्तवद्भाव, consideration of a single or solitary letter as the initial or the final one according to requirements for opcrations prescribed for the initial or for the final. Both these notions --the initial and the final-are relative notions, and because they require the presence of an additional letter or letters for the sake of being called initial or final it becomes necessary to prescribe आद्यन्तवद्भाव in the case of a single letter; confer, compareअाद्यन्तवदेकस्मिन् । आदौ इव अन्त इव एकस्मिन्नपि कार्यं भवति । यथा कर्तव्यमित्यत्र प्रत्ययाद्युदात्तत्वं भवति एवमौपगवमित्यत्रापि यथा स्यात् । Kāś. on P.I.1.21 ; confer, compare also अाद्यन्तवच्च । अपृक्तस्य आदिवदन्तवच्च कार्यं भवति । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.55. This अाद्यन्तवद्भाव of Pāṇini is, in fact, a specific application of the general maxim known as vyapadeśivadbhāva by virtue of which "an operation which affects something on account of some special designation, which for certain reasons attaches to the letter, affects likewise that which stands alone;" confer, compare Pari.Śek. Pari. 30.
ānantarya(1)close proximity; absence of any intermediary element generally of the same nature: अनन्तरस्य भावः आनन्तर्यम्; confer, compare नाजानन्तर्ये वहिष्ट्वप्रक्लृप्तिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 21: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 51. This close proximity of one letter or syllable or so, with another, is actually id est, that isphonetically required and generally so found out also, but sometimes such proximity is theoretically not existing as the letter required for proximity is technically not present there by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्. In such cases, a technical absence is not looked upon as a fault. confer, compare कचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्ये शास्त्रकृतमनानन्तर्ये यथा ष्टुत्वे, क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतं यथा जश्त्वे । यत्र कुतश्चिदेवानन्तर्यं तदाश्रयिष्यामः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.3.13. (2) close connection by mention together at a common place et cetera, and others;confer, compare सर्वाद्यानन्तर्यं कार्यार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27.
aāniimp. 1st per.sing affix नि with the augment अा prefixed, which has got its न् changed into ण् by P. VIII.4.16.
aāpatti(1)production; resulting of something into another; change; cf दन्त्यस्य मूर्धन्यापत्तिः नतिः मूर्धन्यापत्तिः मूर्धन्यभावः V. Prāt. I. 42 and Uvaṭa's commentary thereon; cf also यमापत्तिं explained as यमभावं Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 9. (2) modification; confer, compare अापद्यते श्वासतां नादतां वा R.Pr.XIII.1.; (3) contingency, undesired result.
āpuṭaugment ( आप् ) suggested in the place of आपुक् by Patañjali to be prefixed to the affix णिच् confer, compare M Bh on III.1.25.
abhyāsachanges prescribed in connection with the अभ्यास or reduplicative syllable; confer, compare अभ्यासविकार अाभ्यासः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.6.
ām(1)augment आ prescribed in connection with the words चतुर् and अनडुह् before the case-affixes called सर्वनामस्थान; confer, compare चतुरनडुहोराम् उदात्तः P.VII.1.98; (2) the affix आम् added before लिट् or a perfect termination by rules कास्प्रत्ययादाम् अमन्त्रे लिटि and the following (P. III 1.35-39), as for instance, in कासांचक्रे, ऊहांचक्रे, दयांचक्रे, जागरांचकार, विभयांचकार et cetera, and others; (3) geni. plural caseaffix आम् as in दृषदाम्, शरदाम्, with न् prefixed in रामाणाम् et cetera, and others, and with स् prefixed in सर्र्वेषाम् et cetera, and others; (4) locative case singular. case-affix अाम् substituted for इ (ङि); confer, compare ङेराम् नद्याम्नीभ्यः P.VI.4.116.
āmreḍita(1)iterative: a repeated word, defined as द्विरुक्तं पदम् confer, compare द्विरुक्तमात्रेडितं पदम् exempli gratia, for example यज्ञायज्ञा वो अग्नये Vāj. Prāt. I. 146; (2). the second or latter portion, of a repeated word according to Pāṇini; c. तस्य (द्विरुक्तस्य) परमाम्रेडितम् P. VIII.1.2. The Āmreḍita word gets the grave accent and has its last vowel protracted when it implies censure; confer, compare P.VIII.1.3 and VIII. 2.95.Haradatta has tried to explain how the term आम्रेडित means the first member; confer, compare ननु अाम्रेडितशब्दे । निघण्टुषु प्रसिद्धः अाम्रेडितं द्विस्त्रिरुक्तमिति । सत्यमर्थे प्रसिद्धः इह तु शब्दे परिभाष्यते । महासंज्ञाकरणं पूर्वाचार्यानुरोधेन Padamañj. on VIII.1.2.
aāyyakṛt (affix). affix अाय्य before which णि (causal इ) is changed into अय्;confer, compare, अय् अामन्ताल्वाय्येत्विष्णुषु P.VI.4.55. exempli gratia, for example स्पृहयाय्य.
ārdhadhātukaa term used in contrast to the term सार्वधातुक for such verbal and kṛt affixes, as are not personal endings of verbs nor marked with the mute letter श् confer, compare तिङ्शित् सार्वधातुकम् । आर्धधातुकं शेषः। P.III.4.113 and 114. The personal endings of verbs in the perfect tense and the benedictive mood are termed ārdhadhātuka, confer, compare P. III. 4.115, 116; while both the terms are promiscuously found utilised in the Vedic Literature; confer, compare P. III. 4. 117. The main utility of the ārdhadhātuka term is the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to the ārdhadhātuka affixes. The term आर्धधातुका was in use in works of the old Vaiyākaraṇas; confer, compare अथवा आर्धधातुकासु इति वक्ष्यामि कासु आर्धधातुकासु । उक्तिषु युक्तिषु रूढिषु प्रतीतिषु श्रुतिषु संज्ञासु M.Bh. on II. 4.35. It cannot be said how the term ārdhadhātuka originatedition Probably such affixes or pratyayas, like the kṛt affixes generally, as could be placed after certain roots only were called ārdhadhātuka, as contrasted with the verbal and the present participle affixes which were termed sārvadhātuka on account of their being found in use after every root.
ārṣaderived from the holy sages; founded on sacred tradition, such as the Vedāṅgas;confer, compare कृत्स्नं च वेदाड्गमनिन्द्यमार्षम् R. Prāt. XIV 30. The word is explained as स्वयंपाठ by the commentary on Vāj Prāt. IX.2I, and as Vaidika saṁdhi on X.l3. Patañjali has looked upon the pada-pāṭha or Pada-text of the Saṁhitās of the Vedas, as anārṣa, as contrasted with the Saṁhitā text which is ārṣa; confer, compare आर्ष्याम् in the sense संहितायाम् R. Prāt. II.27; confer, compare also पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् M.Bh. on III.1.109.
āviṣṭāliṅgahaving a fixed gender as opposed to अनाविष्टलिङ्गpossessed of all genders; confer, compare अविश्लिङ्गा जातिः । यल्लिङ्गमुपादाय प्रवर्तते न तल्लिङ्गे जहाति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.52 exempli gratia, for example the word प्रमाण in प्रमाणं वेदाः.
āśvalāyanaprātiśākhyaan authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the Ṛksaṁhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa.
aāhañtad-affix (आह) in the general Śaiṣika senses, exempli gratia, for example belonging to, produced in, et cetera, and others, added to the word उत्तर, exempli gratia, for example औत्तराह confer, compare उत्तरादाहञ् वक्तव्यः।; M.Bh. on IV.2.104.
āhitad-affix added to the word दक्षिण in the general sense of direction but when distance is specially meant; exempli gratia, for example दक्षिणाहि वसति, दक्षिणाहि रमणीयम्. See Kāś. on आहि च दूरे P. V.3.37.
i(1)the vowel इ, representing all its eighteen forms viz. short, long protracted, acute, grave, circumflex, pure and nasalised; exempli gratia, for example इ in यस्येति च P.VI.4.128;(2) Uṅādi affix ई(3)tad-affix इच्(इ)applied to Bahuvrihi compounds in the sense of exchange of action or as seen in words like द्विदण्डि exempli gratia, for example केशाकेशि, दण्डादण्डि, द्विमुसलि et cetera, and others confer, compare इच् कर्मव्यतिहारे P.V.4. 127,also V.4.128; (4) kṛt (affix). affix कि (इ) confer, compare उपसर्गे घोः किः P.III.3.92; (5) augment इट् (इ); see इट् (6) conjugational affix इट् of the 1st person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada
ic(1)short wording or pratyāhāra for vowels except अ. confer, compare इजोदश्च गुरुमतोSनृच्छः P.III.1.36; cf also VI. I.104, VI.3.68. VIII.4.31,32; (2) Samāsānta affix इ after Bahuvrīhi compounds showing a mutual exchange of actions. exempli gratia, for example केशाकेशि, दण्डादण्डि confer, compare इच् कर्मव्यतिहारे P.V.4. 127 also 128.
(1)kṛt (affix). affix (इ), in the sense of verbal activity applied to any root, the word so formed being used in the feminine. gender and in connection with narration or in interrogation; exempli gratia, for example कां त्वं कारिमकार्षीः । सर्वौ कारिमकार्षम् । confer, compare Pāṇini III.3.110: (2) kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of verbal activity applied to the roots वप् and others exempli gratia, for example वापिः, वासि: et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7;(3) tad-affix इ in the sense of offspring applied to a noun ending in अ; e.g, दाक्षि: confer, compare P.IV.1. 95-7, 153.
id(1)augment इ prefixed,in general in the case of all roots barring a few roots ending in vowels except ऊ and ऋ and roots शक्, पच्, et cetera, and others, to such affixes of non-conjugational tenses and moods as begin with any consonant except ह् and य्; confer, compare आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः P.VII.2.35 to 78 and its exceptions P.VII.2.8 to 34; (2) personal ending of the third person singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
inactaddhita affix. affix इन in the sense of possession applied to the word नि which is changed into चिक, exempli gratia, for example चिकिनः confer, compare इनच् पिटच् चिकचि च P.V.2.33.
ini(1)kṛt affix इन् applied to the roots क्री with धि, जु with प्र, and the roots जि, दृ, क्षि and others, e. g. सोमविक्रयी, प्रजवी, जयी et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III 2.93 and III.2.156-157: (2) taddhita affix. affix इन् affixed to the word पाण्डुकम्बल in the sense of 'covered with' ( confer, compare P, IV.2.11), in the sense of collection to the word खल exempli gratia, for example खलिनी confer, compare P.IV.2.51, to the word अनुब्राह्मण in sense 'student of' exempli gratia, for example अनुब्राह्मणी confer, compare P.IV.2.62, to the words कर्मन्द and कृशाश्च confer, compare P.IV.3.lll, to the word चूर्ण confer, compare P.IV.4.23 and to the word श्राद्ध confer, compare P.V.2.85 and साक्षात् confer, compare P. V. 2. 91 in specified senses and in the general sense of possession to words ending in अ, cf P. V.2.115-117 and to certain other words confer, compare P.V.2.128-37.
indirāpatiauthor of 'परीक्षा' a commentary on the ParibhāṣenduŚekhara of Nāgeśabhaṭṭa.
indraname of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; confer, compare the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya edition by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.
indradattaauthor of the ' Gūḍhaphakkikāprakāśa', a gloss on the difficult passages in the Mahābhāṣya.
imanor इमनिच् taddhita affix. affix इमन् applied to the words पृथु, मृदु, महत्, लघु, गुरु, words showing colour and words such as दृढ, परिवृढ, भृश, शीत, उष्ण et cetera, and others in the sense of 'quality' or 'attribute': cf Pāṇ. V. 1.122, 123. For changes in the base before the affix इमन् see P. VI.4.154-163.
iyaṅsubstitute for the last इ before a vowel generally in the case of monosyllabic roots ending in इ and the word स्त्री; exempli gratia, for example चिक्षियुः, नियौ नियः, स्त्रियौ स्त्रियः; confer, compare अचि क्षुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ P.VI. 4.77-80.
iṣṭādia class of words headed by the word इष्ट to which the taddhita affix इन् ( इनि ) is added in the sense of अनेन i. e. 'by him' i. e. by the agent of the activity denoted by the past passive voice. participles इष्ट and others; confer, compare इष्टी, यज्ञे, पूर्ती श्राद्धे et cetera, and others Kāś, on P.V.2.88.
iṣṭia word generally used in the statements made in the Mahā bhāṣya, similar to those of the Sūtrakāra and the Vārttikakāras, which are 'desired ones' with a view to arrive at the correct forms of words; confer, compare प्राप्तिज्ञो देवानांप्रियो न त्विाष्टिज्ञः, इष्यत एतद् रूपमिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 4.56.
īpsitaa desired object, which, in connection with transitive roots, gets the designation कर्म,when the agent has a keen desire for it; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म P.I.4.49.
īṣadasamāptistage of the quality of a thing or of an undertaking which is almost complete,to show which,the tad-affixes कल्प, देश्य and देशीय are applied to a word:exempli gratia, for example पटुकल्पः,पटुदेश्यः; पटुदेशीयः, पचतिकल्पम्, जल्पतिकल्पम्, confer, compare P, V.3.67.
uktaprescribed, taught, lit, said (already). उक्तं वा is a familiar expression in the Mahābhāṣya and the Vārttikas referring usually to something already expresseditionSometimes this expression in the Mahābhāṣya, referring to something which is not already expressed, but which could be found subsequently expressed, leads to the conclusion that the Mahābhāṣyakāra had something like a 'Laghubhāṣya' before him at the time of teaching the Mahābhāṣya. See Kielhorn's Kātyāyana and Patañjali, also Mahābhāṣya D.E. S.Ed. Vol. VII, pages 71, 72.
uktapuṃskaa word with its meaning (in the neuter gender) unchanged when used in the masculine gender; generally an adjectival word; cf, Cāndra Vyāk. I.4.30.
ugrabhūtior उग्राचार्य writer of a gloss on the Nirukta, called Niruktabhāṣya believed to have lived in the 18th century A. D; writer also of a grammatical work Śiṣyahitāvṛtti or Śiṣyahitānyāsa, which was sent to kāshmir and made popular with a large sum of money spent upon it, by his pupil Ānanadpāla.
uccaritapronounced or uttered; the phrase उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः is used in connection with the mute indicatory letters termed इत् in Pāṇini's grammar, as these letters are not actually found in use in the language and are therefore supposed to vanish immediately after their purpose has been servedition The phrase 'उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनोSनुबन्धा:' has been given as a Paribhāṣā by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.(Pari.11), in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 14), in the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa (Pari.54) and also in the Kalāpa Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 71). Patañjali has used the expression उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः in connection with ordinary letters of a word, which have existence for a moment and which also vanish immediately after they have been uttered; confer, compare उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः खल्वपि वर्णा: ...न वर्णो वर्णस्य सहायः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4. 109.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
uṇādisūtradaśapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable.
utpadto be produced, to be placed after to be annexed; (causal) to produce, to get annexed, to add; confer, compare धेनुरनञि कमुत्पादयति Āpiśali's Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). quoted in M; Bh. on P.IV.2.45.
utpalaauthor of a commentary on Pāṇini's Liṅgānuśāsana. It is doubtful whether he was the same as उत्पल-भट्ट or ‌भट्टोत्पल, the famous astrologer of the tenth century.
utsargaa general rule as contrasted with a special rule which is called अपवाद or exception; confer, compare उत्सर्गापवादयोरपवादो बलीयान् Hema. Pari.56; प्रकल्प्य वापवादविषयं तत उत्सर्गोभिनिविशते Par.Śek. Pari.63, Sīra. Pari.97; confer, compare also उत्सर्गसमानदेशा अपवादा;. For the बाध्यबाधकभाव relation between उत्सर्ग and अपवाद and its details see Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara on Paribhāṣās 57 to 65: confer, compare also न्यायैर्मिश्रान् अपवादान्प्रतीयात् explained by the commentator as न्याया उत्सर्गा महाविषया विधयः अपवादा अल्पविषया विधयः । तान् उत्सर्गेण भिश्रानेकीकृतान् जानीयात् । अपवादविषयं मुक्त्वा उत्सर्गाः प्रवर्तन्ते इत्यर्थः R.Pr.I.23.
udāttathe acute accent defined by Pāṇini in the words उचैरुदात्त: P.I.2. 29. The word उच्चैः is explained by Patañjali in the words 'आयामो दारुण्यं अणुता स्वस्य इति उचैःकराणि शब्दस्य' where आयाम (गात्रनिग्रह restriction of the organs), दारुण्य (रूक्षता rudeness ) and स्वस्य अणुता ( कण्ठस्य संवृतता closure of the glottis) are given as specific characteristics of the acute accent. The acute is the prominent accent in a word-a simple word as also a compound word-and when a vowel in a word is possessed of the acute accent, the remaining vowels have the अनुदात्त or the grave accent. Accent is a property of vowels and consonants do not possess any independent accent. They possess the accent of the adjoining vowel connected with it. The acute accert corresponds to what is termed 'accent' in English and other languages.
uditcharacterized by short उ as a mute indicatory vowel, by virtue of which the word कु, for instance, signifies along with क् its cognate consonants ख्, ग्, घ् and ङ् also; confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P.I.I.69. Roots marked with उ as mute get the augment इ optionally added before the kṛt affix क्त्वा; e gशमित्वा and शान्त्वा from the root शम् ( शमु ) by virtue of the rule उदितो वा P.VII.2.56.
udgrāhaalleviation, ease, relief; name given to a Saṁdhi in the Prātiśākhya works when a visarga and a short vowel अ preceding it are changed into short अ, (e. g. यः + इन्द्र: = य इन्द्र:), as also when the vowel ए or ओ is changed into अ being followed by a dissimilar vowel; e. g. अग्ने + इन्द्रः = अग्न इन्द्रः; confer, compare R.Pr.II.10.
udgrāhavatname given to a saṁdhi in the Rk. Prātiśākhya when the vowel अ or अा is changed into अ e. g. प्र ऋभुभ्यः=प्रऋभुभ्य: also मधुना + ऋतस्य=मधुन ऋतस्य confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 11.
uddeśadescription; mention of qualities; confer, compare गुणैः प्रापणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on I. 3.2: the word is used in contrast with उपदेश or direct mention; confer, compare कः पुनुरुद्देशोपदेशयोर्विशेषः । प्रत्यक्षमाख्यानमुपदेशो गुणैः प्रापणमुद्देशः । प्रत्यक्षं तावदाख्यानमुपदेशः तद्यथा । अगोज्ञाय कश्चिद्गां सक्थनि कर्णे वा गृहीत्वोपदिशति । अयं गौरिति । स प्रत्यक्षमाख्यातमाह । उपदिष्टो मे गौरिति । गुणैः प्रापणमुद्देशः । तद्यथा । कश्चित्कंचिदाह । देवदत्तं मे भवानुद्दिशतु इति । स इहस्थः पाटलिपुत्रस्थं देवदत्तमुद्दिशति । अङ्गदी कुण्डली किरीटी...ईदृशो देवदत्त इति । स गुणैः प्राप्यमाणमाह । उद्दिष्टो मे दवदत्त इति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.2; (2) spot, place, passage of occurrence: उद्देश उपदेशदेशः; confer, compare यथोद्देशं संज्ञापरिभाषम् Pari.Śek. Pari. 2.
uddeśyavidheyabhāvarelationship between the subject and the predicate where generally the subject is placed first in a sentence; confer, compare उद्देश्यवचनं पूर्वं विधेयत्वं ततः परम् । confer, compare also तादात्म्यसंसर्गकस्थले विशेष्यत्वमेव उद्देश्यं विशेषणत्वमेव विधेयम् Padavākyaratnākara.
uddyotathe word always refers in grammar to the famous commentary by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa written in the first decade of the 18th century A. D. om the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa. The Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.appears to be one of the earlier works of Nāgeśa. It is also called Vivaraṇa. The commentary is a scholarly one and is looked upon as a final word re : the exposition of the Mahābhāṣya. It is believed that Nāgeśa wrote 12 Uddyotas and 12 Śekharas which form some authoritative commentaries on prominent works in the different Śāstras.
upagrahaa term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मनेपदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेशव्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.
upacāra(1)taking a secondary sense; implication; literally moving for a sense which is near about; the same as लक्षणा. The word आचार is explained as उपचार, employment or current usage, by Patañjali; confer, compare आचारात् । आचार्याणामुपचारात् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; ( 2 ) substitution of the letter सं for विसर्ग : confer, compare प्रत्ययग्रहणोपचारेषु च, P.IV.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7.
upapadaliterallya word placed near; an adjoining word. In Pāṇini's grammar, the term उपपद is applied to such words as are put in the locative case by Pāṇini in his rules prescribing kṛt affixes in rules from 1 II. 1, 90 to III. 4 end; confer, compare तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम् P.III.1.92; exempli gratia, for example कर्मणि in कर्मण्यण् P. III.2.1. The word is also used in the sense of an adjoining word connected in sense. e. g. युष्मद्युपपदे as also प्रहासे च मन्योपपदे P.I.4.105,106; confer, compare also क्रियार्थायां क्रियायामुपपदे धातोर्भविष्यति काले तुमुन्ण्वुलौ भवतः Kāś. on P.III.3.10; confer, compare also इतरेतरान्योन्योपपदाच्च P.I.3.10, मिथ्योपपदात् कृञोभ्यासे P.I.3.71, as also उपपदमतिङ् P.II.2.19; and गतिकारकोपपदात्कृत् P. VI.2.139. Kaiyaṭa on P.III.1. 92 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 explains the word उपपद as उपोच्चारि or उपोच्चारितं पदं उपपदम्. The word उपपद is found used in the Prātiśākhya literature where it means a word standing near and effecting some change: confer, compare च वा ह अह एव एतानि चप्रभृतीनि यान्युपपदानि उक्तानि आख्यातस्य विकारीणिo Uvaṭa on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI. 23.
upabdimatthe fourth out of the seven stages or places in the production of articulate speech, upāṁśu being the first stage; confer, compare सशब्दमुपद्भिमत् Tait. Pr. 23.9 explained by the commentator as: सशब्दं परश्राव्यशब्दसहितम् । यत्र प्रयुज्यमानः शब्दः परैरक्षरव्यञ्जनववेकवर्जे श्रूयते तदुपद्विमत्संज्ञं भवति ।
upamanyu(1)the famous commentator on the grammatical verses attributed to Nandikeśvarakārikā. which are known by the name नन्दिकेश्वरकारिका and which form a kind of a commentary on the sūtras of Maheśvara; (2) a comparatively modern grammarian possibly belonging to the nineteenth century who is also named Nandikeśvarakārikā.kārikābhāṣya by Upamanyu.and who has written a commentory on the famous Kāśikāvṛtti by Jayāditya and Vāmana. Some believe that Upa-manyu was an ancient sage who wrote a nirukta or etymological work and whose pupil came to be known as औपमन्यव.
upalakṣaṇaimplication, indication: a thing indicatory of another thing. The term is very frequently found in commentary works in connection with a word which signifies something beyond it which is similar to it; the indication is generally inclusive; confer, compare Kāśikā on भीस्म्योर्हेतुभये P.I.3.68 भयग्रहणमुपलक्षणार्थं विस्मयोपि तत एव । as also मन्त्रग्रहणं तु च्छन्दस उपलक्षणार्थम् Kāś. on II.4.80. The verbal forms of लक्ष् and उपलक्ष् as also the words लक्षयितुम्, लक्षणीय, लक्षित et cetera, and others possess the sense of 'expressing the meaning not primarily, but secondarily by indication or implication'.
upasaṃkhyānamention, generally of the type of the annexation of some words to words already given, or of some limiting conditions or additions to what has been already statedition The word is often found at the end of the statements made by the Vārttikakāra on the sūtras of Pāṇini.: confer, compare P.I.1.29 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1: I.1.36 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3 et cetera, and others The words वाच्य and वक्तव्य are also similarly useditionThe word is found similarly used in the Mahābhāṣya also very frequently.
upasamastacompounded together, joined together by special grammatical connection called समास; confer, compare न केवल; पथिशब्दः स्त्रियां वर्तते । उपसमस्तस्तर्हि वर्तते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 18.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upasargadyotyatāthe view or doctrine that prefixes, by themselves, do not possess any sense, but they indicate the sense of the verb or noun with which they are connectedition For details See Vākyapadīya II.165-206; also vol. VII. pages 370-372 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya edition by the D. E. Society, Poona.
upasargayogaconnection with a prefix; joining of the prefix. Some scholars of grammar hold the view that the Upasarga is prefixed to the root and then the verbal form is arrived at by placing the desired terminations after the root, while others hold the opposite view: confer, compare पूर्वं धातुः साधनेनोपयुज्यते पश्चादुपसर्गेण । अन्ये तु पूर्वं धातुरुपसर्गेण युज्यते पश्चात्साधनेनेत्याहुः Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti Pari. 131, 132; cf also vol. VII. Mahābhāṣya edited by the D. E. Society, Poona, pages 371-372.
upasṛṣṭaattended with a prefix, generally used in connection with roots; exempli gratia, for example क्रुधद्रुहोरुपसृष्टयोः कर्म P.I.4.38 where the Kāśikā has explaincd the word as उपसर्गसंबद्ध.
upaskāraintroduction of the necessary changes in the wording of the base, such as elision, or addition or substitution of a letter or letters as caused by the addition of suffixes.
upasthitaa word used father technically in the sense of the word इति which is used in the Krama and other recitals when Vedic reciters show separately the two words compounded together by uttering the compound word first, then the word इति and then the two compound words, exempli gratia, for example सुश्लोक ३ इति सु-श्लोक। विभावसो इति विभा-वसो. The Kāśikā defines the word उपस्थित as समुदायादवच्छिद्य पदं येन स्वरूपे अवस्थाप्यते तद् उपस्थितम् । इतिशब्दः । Kāś.on VI.1.129. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya explains the word rather differently, but in the same context.The word after which इति is placed is called upasthita exempli gratia, for example the word बाहू in बाहू इति or विभावसौ in विभावसो इति as contrasted with स्थित id est, that is the word without इति exempli gratia, for example बाहू or विभावसो, as also contrasted with स्थितोपस्थित id est, that is the whole word विभावसो इति विभाsवसो which is also called संहित or मिलित; (2) occurring, present; cf कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् . यत्र कार्यं तत्रोपस्थितं द्रष्टव्यम् । Par.Śek. Pari.3.
upāṃśuliterally inaudible. The word is explained in the technical sense as the first place or stage in the utterance of speech where it is perfectly inaudible although produced; confer, compare उपांशु इति प्रथमं वाचः स्थानम् Com. on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII, 5.
upācarita(1)sibilation substitution of a sibilant letter for a visarga: confer, compare प्लुतोपाचरिते च R.Pr. XI.19; (2) name of the saṁdhi in which a visarga is changed into a sibilant letter; confer, compare सर्वत्रैवोपाचरितः स संधिः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)IV.14 which corresponds to Pāṇini VIII.3.18 and 19.
upācārachange of Visarga into s (स्); sibilation of Visarga, e. g. ब्रह्मणः पतिः = ब्रह्मणस्पतिः. The words उपचार and उपाचरित are found used in the same sense by ancient Grammarians. See उपचार; confer, compare समापाद्यं नाम वदन्ति षत्वं, तथा णत्वं सामवशांश्च सन्धीन् । ...उपाचारं लक्षणतश्च सिद्धम् , आचार्या व्यालिशाकल्यगार्ग्याः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VIII.12.
upāntaliterally near the last; penultimate. The word is generally found used in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa.
upāntyasee उपान्त; the word is generally found used in the grammars of Śākaṭāyana and Hemacandra.
upottamaliterallyone near or before the last; the term is generally used in connection with words having two or more syllables, where it means the vowel before the last (vowel); confer, compare उपोत्तमं रिति P. VI.1.217 and योपधाद्गुरूपोत्तमाद्वुञ् P.V.1.132 where the writer of the Kāśikā explains it as त्रिप्रभृतीनामन्त्यमुत्तमं तस्य समीपमुपोत्तमम् । giving रमणीय and वसनीय as examples where the long ई is upottama; confer, compare also T.Pr. XI.3. and Nir.I.19 where the word refers to the third out of the four feet of the verse.
ubhayaprāptia case or a matter in which both the alternatives occur, as for instance, the genitive case for the subject and the object of a verbal derivative noun (कृदन्त); confer, compare उभयप्राप्तौ कर्मणि । उभयोः प्राप्तिः यस्मिन् कृति सोयमुभयप्राप्तिः तत्र कर्मण्येव षष्ठी स्यात् न कर्तरि । आश्चर्यो गवां दोहः अगोपालकेन Kāś. on P. II.3.66.
ūṣmasaṃdhiname of a combination or संधि where a visarga is changed into a breathing ( ऊष्मन् ). It has got two varieties named व्यापन्न where the visarga is charged into a breathing as for instance in यस्ककुभः, while it is called विक्रान्त (passed over) where it remains unchanged as for instance in यः ककुभः, य: पञ्च; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 1 1.
ūhamodification of a word, in a Vedic Mantra, so as to suit the context in which the mantra is to be utilised, generally by change of case affixes; adaptation of a mantra: confer, compare ऊहः खल्वपि । न सर्वैर्लिङ्गैर्न च सर्वाभिर्विभक्तिभिर्वेदे मन्त्रा निगदिताः । ते च अवश्यं यज्ञगतेन यथायथं विपरिणमयितव्याः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.1.1 Āhnika 1.
ṛktantraa work consisting of five chapters containing in all 287 sūtras. It covers the same topics as the Prātiśākhya works and is looked upon as one of the Prātiśākhya works of the Sāma Veda. Its authorship is attributed to Śākaṭāyana according to Nageśa, while औदिव्राज is held as its author by some, and कात्यायन by others. It bears a remarkable similarity to Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. especially in topics concerning coalescence and changes of स् and न् to ष् and ण् respectively. It cannot be definitely said whether it preceded or followed Pāṇini's work.
ṛṣicchandsthe metre of the Vedic seers. The seven metres गायत्री, उष्णिक्, अनुष्टुप्, बृहती, पङ्क्ति, त्रिष्टुप् and जगती consisting respectively of 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44 and 48 syllables are named ऋषिच्छन्दस् as contrasted with the metres दैव, प्राजापत्य and आसुर, which, when combined together, make the metres of the Vedic seers, For details see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI.1.5.
ṛṣyaṇtaddhita affix अण् in the sense of 'descendant' applied to names of ancient sages, by the rule ऋष्यन्धकवृष्णिकुरुभ्यश्च P.IV.1.114; exempli gratia, for example वासिष्ठः,वैश्वामित्रः.
ṝdanta(roots)ending in ॠ which have the vowel ॠ changed into इर् by the rule ॠत इद्धातोः P.VII. 1.100; e. g. किरति, गिलति.
ekapātincombined together; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) commentary एकपातिनः एकीभूतस्य अक्षरस्य क्रमे ध्रुवमाषीं लुप्यते; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI. 25, also XVII.26.
ekamunipakṣaa view or doctrine propounded by one of the many ancient sages or munis who are believed to be the founders of a Sastra; a view propounded only by Pāṇini, to the exclusion of Kātyāyana and Patañjali; confer, compare एकमुनिपक्षे तु अचो ञ्णितीत्यत्राच इति योगं विभज्य...व्यवस्थितविभाषात्रोक्ता Durghaṭa-Vṛtti I.1.5; see also I.4.24, II.3.18.
ekavacanasingular number; affix of the singular numberin Pāṇini's grammar applied to noun-bases ( प्रातिपदिक) and roots when the sense of the singular number is to be conveyed; the singular sense can be of the form of an individual or collection or genus. The word एकवचन in the technical sense of singular number is found used in the Prātiśākhyas and Nirukta also.
ekavākyaan expression giving one idea, either a single or a composite one. A positive statement and its negation, so also, a general rule and its exception are looked upon as making a single sentence on account of their mutual expectancy even though they be sometimes detached from each other confer, compare विदेशस्थमपि सदेकवाक्यं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.4.67; confer, compare also निषेधवाक्यानामपि निषेध्यविशेषाकाङ्क्षत्वाद्विध्येकवाक्यतयैव अन्वयः । तत्रैकवाक्यता पर्युदासन्यायेन । संज्ञाशास्त्रस्य तु कार्यकालपक्षे न पृथग्वाक्यार्थबोधः । Par. Śek on Pari. 3. Such sentences are, in fact, two sentences, but, to avoid the fault of गौरव, caused by वाक्यभेद, grammarians hold them to be composite single sentences.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
eṇīkṛtaA fault in pronunciation when the voice is indistinct, and the word pronounced is not distinctly heard; confer, compare एणीकृतः अविशिष्टः । किमयमोकारः अथौकार इति यत्र संदेहः Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on M.Bh.I.1.1,explained as अवशिष्ट: संश्लिष्टः संदिग्ध इति यावत् by Nāgeśa in his Uddyota.
eṇyataddhita affix. affix एण्य applied to the word प्रावृष् in the general शैषिक senses; confer, compare प्रावृष एण्यः । प्रावृषेण्यः बलाहकः Kāś. on P.IV.3.17.
aikārthyapossession of a single composite sense (by all words together in a compound); cf संंघातस्य ऐकार्थ्यात् सुबभावो वर्णात् M.Bh. on I. 2.45 Vārt 10; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.2.29 Vārt, 7; confer, compare also नाम नाम्नैकार्थ्ये समासो बहुलम् Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III.1.18 where the commentator explains ऐकार्थ्य as एकार्थीभावः In the commentary on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III 2.8 ऐकार्थ्य is explained as ऐकपद्य
aindraname of an ancient school of grammar and of the treatise also, belonging to that school, believed to have been written under instructions of Indra. The work is not available. Patañjali mentions that Bṛhaspati instructed Indra for one thousand celestial years and still did not finish his instructions in words': (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.1 ). The Taittirīya Saṁhitā mentions the same. Pāṇini has referred to some ancient grammarians of the East by the word प्राचाम् without mentioning their names, and scholars like Burnell think that the grammar assigned to Indra is to be referred to by the word प्राचाम्. The Bṛhatkathāmañjarī remarks that Pāṇini's grammar threw into the background the Aindra Grammar. Some scholars believe that Kalāpa grammar which is available today is based upon Aindra,just as Cāndra is based upon Pāṇini's grammar. References to Aindra Grammar are found in the commentary on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa, in the Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva as also in the commentary upon the Mahābhārata by Devabodha.Quotations, although very few, are given by some writers from the work. All these facts prove that there was an ancient pre-Pāṇinian treatise on Grammar assigned to इन्द्र which was called Aindra-Vyākaraṇa.For details see Dr.Burnell's 'Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians' as also Vol. VII pages 124-126 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya, edited by the D.E.Society, Poona.
oṃkārathe syllable ओं called by the term प्रणव and generally recited at the beginning of Vedic works. Patañjali has commented upon the word briefly as follows; पादस्य वा अर्धर्चस्य वा अन्त्यमक्षरमुपसंहृत्य तदाद्यक्षरशेषस्य स्थाने त्रिमात्रमोंकारं त्रिमात्रमोंकारं वा विदधति तं प्रणव इत्याचक्षते M.Bh. on VIII.2.89.
oditmarked with the indicatory letter ओ; roots marked with the mute letter ओ have the Niṣṭhā affix त or तवत् changed to न or नवत्; exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, लग्नवान् दीनः, दीनवान् et cetera, and others confer, compare ओदितश्र P VIII.2.45; confer, compare also स्वादय ओदितः इत्युक्तम् । सूनः सूनवान्; दूनः दूनवान् Si. Kau. on P. VIII.2.45.
oṣṭhayaliterally produced upon the lip: a letter ofthe labial class;letters उ,ऊ, ओ, औ, प्, फ्, ब्, भ्, म् and व् are given as ओष्ठय letters in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. See the word ओष्ठ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For the utterance of the letter व् tips of the teeth. are also employed; hence the letter व् is said to have दन्तौष्ठ as its स्थान.. ओस् the case affix ओस् of the genitive case and the loc, dual number
oṅa term used by ancient grammarians for the affix औ of the nominative case. and the acc. dual number The vowel ई (शी) is substituted for औ in the case of nouns of the feminine and neuter genders; confer, compare औङः शी P. VII. 1.18, 19.
autsargikaan affix or an operation resulting from the general rule ( उत्सर्ग ); confer, compare अपत्ये कुत्सिते मूढे मनौरोत्सर्गिकः स्मृत: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.161 ; confer, compare also एवमप्यौत्सर्गिकाणां तद्विषयता न प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.66.
audavrajian ancient sage and scholar of Vedic Grammar who is believed to have revised the original text of the ऋक्तन्त्रप्रातिशाख्य of the Sāma-Veda. confer, compare Śab. Kaus. I.1.8.
aaudumvarāyaṇaan ancient sage whose doctrine of 'evanescence of words' (literally existence as long as its cognition is had by the sense organs) is seen quoted in the Nirukta; confer, compare इन्द्रियनित्यं वचनमौदुम्बरायणस्तत्र चतुष्टयं नोपपद्यते Nirukta of Yāska.I.1.
{{c|-( anusvāra ) ṃanusvāraor nasal (l) looked upon as a phonetic element, independent, no doubt, but incapable of being pronounced without a vowel Preceding it. Hence, it is shown in writing with अ although its form in writing is only a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the line cf अं इत्यनुस्वारः । अकार इह उच्चारणर्थ इति बिन्दुमात्रो वर्णोनुस्वारसंज्ञो भवति Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Vyāk I.1.19; (2) anusvāra,showing or signifying Vikāra id est, that is अागम and used as a technical term for the second विभक्ति or the accusative case. See the word अं a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 1.
or विसर्गः literally letting out breath from the mouth; sound or utterance caused by breath escaping from the mouth; breathing. The Visarjanīya, just like the anusvāra, is incapable of being independently utteredition Hence, it is written for convenience as अः although its form for writing purposes is only two dots after the vowel preceding it; confer, compare अः इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः इति कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसर्जनीयसंज्ञो भवति । Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Vyāk. I.1.16. See अः a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 2.
ᳵjihvāmūlīyaa phonetical element or unit called Jihvāmūlīya, produced at the root of the tongue, which is optionally substituted in the place of the Visarga (left 0ut breath) directly preceding the utterance of the letter क् or ख् and hence shown as ᳵ क्. See अ ᳵ क् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 2.
yamaa letter called यम which is uttered partly through the nose. A class consonant excepting the fifth, when followed by the fifth viz. ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न or म् , gets doubled in the Vedic recital, when the second of the doubled consonant which is coloured by the following nasal consonant is called यम. This यम letter is not independent. It necessarily depends upon the following nasal consonant and hence it is called अयोगवाह. The nasalization is shown in script as xx followed by the consonant; e. g. पलिक्क्नी, अगूग्रे, et cetera, and others The pronunciation of this yama or twin letter is seen in the Vedic recital only; confer, compare पलिक्कनी ... कखगघेभ्य; परे तत्सदृशा एव यमाः S. K. on P. VIII. 2.1. confer, compare कु खु गु घु इति यमाः विंशतिसंख्याका भवन्ति Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII.24.
k(1)taddhita affix.affix क applied to the words of the ऋश्य group in the four senses called चातुरर्थिक e. g. ऋश्यकः, अनडुत्कः, वेणुकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.IV.2.80; (2) taddhita affix. affix क applied to nouns in the sense of diminution, censure, pity et cetera, and others e. g. अश्वक्रः, उष्ट्रकः, पुत्रकः, confer, compare P.V. 3.70-87: (3) taddhita affix. affix क in the very sense of the word itself ( स्वार्थे ) exempli gratia, for example अविकः, यावकः, कालकः; confer, compare P.V.4.2833; (4) Uṇādi affix क exempli gratia, for example कर्क, वृक, राका, एक, भेक, काक, पाक, शल्क et cetera, and others by Uṇādi sūtras III. 40-48 before which the angment इट् is prohibited by P. VII.2.9; (5) kṛt affix क ( अ ) where क् is dropped by P. I. 3.8, applied, in the sense of agent, to certain roots mentioned in P.III.1.135, 136, 144, III. 2.3 to 7, III.2.77 and III.3.83 exempli gratia, for example बुध:, प्रस्थः, गृहम्, कम्बलदः, द्विपः, मूलविभुजः, सामगः, सुरापः et cetera, and others; (6) substitute क for the word किम् before a case affix, confer, compare P.VII.2.103; (7) the Samāsānta affix कप् (क) at the end of Bahuvrīhi compounds as prescribed by P.V.4.151-160.
kaṇṭakoddhāraname of a commentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Mannudeva, known also as Mantudeva or Manyudeva, who was a pupil of Pāyaguṇḍe in the latter half of the 18th century.
kartṛagent of an action, subject; name of a kāraka or instrument in general, of an action, which produces the fruit or result of an action without depending on any other instrument; confer, compare स्वतन्त्रः कर्ता P. I.4.54, explained as अगुणीभूतो यः क्रियाप्रसिद्धौ स्वातन्त्र्येण विवक्ष्यते तत्कारकं कर्तृसंज्ञं भवति in the Kāśikā on P.I. 4.54. This agent, or rather, the word standing for the agent, is put in the nominative case in the active voice (confer, compare P.I.4.54), in the instrumental case in the passive voice (cf P. II.3.18), and in the genitive case when it is connected with a noun of action or verbal derivative noun, (confer, compare P.II.3.65).
kartṛvedanāexperience (of something) by the agent himself; confer, compare सुखादिभ्यः कर्तृवेदनायाम् P. III.1.18
kartṛsādhana(an affix)appplied in the sense of the agent of an activity; भवतीति भावः । कतृसाधनश्चायं प्रत्ययः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7.
kartrabhiprāyameant for the agent of the action. The word is used in connection with the fruit or result of an action; when the result is for the agent, roots having both the Padas get the Ātmanepada terminations; confer, compare स्वरितञ्जितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P.I.3.72.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
karmavadbhāvathe activity of the agent or kartā of an action represented as object or karman of that very action, for the sake of grammatical operations: e. g. भिद्यते काष्ठं स्वयमेव;. करिष्यते कटः स्वयमेव. To show facility of a verbal activity on the object, when the agent or kartā is dispensed with, and the object is looked upon as the agent, and used also as an agent, the verbal terminations ति, त; et cetera, and others are not applied in the sense of an agent, but they are applied in the sense of an object; consequently the sign of the voice is not अ (शप्), but य (यक्) and the verbal terminations are त, आताम् et cetera, and others (तङ्) instead of ति, तस् et cetera, and others In popular language the use of an expression of this type is called Karmakartari-Prayoga. For details see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III.1.87. Only such roots as are कर्मस्थक्रियक or कर्मस्थभावक id est, that is roots whose verbal activity is noticed in the object and not in the subject can have this Karmakartari-Prayoga.
karmavyatihāraexchange of verbal activity; reciprocity of action; कर्मव्यतिहार means क्रियाव्यतिहार or क्रियाविनिमय; confer, compare कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14.; also कर्मव्यतिहारे णच् स्त्रियाम् । व्यावक्रोशी, व्यात्युक्षी Kāś. on P.III.3.43. The roots having their agents characterized by a reciprocity of action take the Ātmanepada terminations; confer, compare P. I. 3.14.
kalāpa(कलाप-व्याकरण)alternative name given to the treatise on grammar written by Sarvavarman who is believed to have lived in the days of the Sātavāhana kings. The treatise is popularly known by the namc Kātantra Vyākaraṇa. The available treatise,viz. Kalpasūtras, is much similar to the Kātantra Sūtras having a few changes and additions only here and there.It is rather risky to say that Kalāpa was an ancient system of grammar which is referred to in the Pāṇini Sūtra कलापिनोण् P. IV.3.108. For details see कातन्त्र.
kaskādia class of compound-words headed by कस्क in which the visarga occurring at the end of the first member is noticed as changed into स् against the usual rules e. g. कस्क:, कौतस्कुतः भ्रातुष्पुत्रः, सद्यस्कालः, धनुष्कपालम् and others; confer, compare P. VIII.3.48. As this कस्कादिगण is said to be अाकृतिगण, similar words can be said to be in the कस्कादिगण although they are not actually mentioned in the गणपाठ.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantrakaumudī(1)a commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras written by Govardhana in the 12th century. A. D.; (2) a commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Gaṅgeśaśarman.
kātantraparibhāṣāvṛtti(1)name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha written by Bhāvamiśra, probably a Maithila Pandit whose date is not known. He has explained 62 Paribhāṣās deriving many of them from the Kātantra Sūtras. The work seems to be based on the Paribhāṣā works by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and others on the system of Pāṇini, suitable changes having been made by the writer with a view to present the work as belonging to the Kātantra school; (2) name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha of the Kātantra school explaining 65 Paribhāṣās. No name of the author is found in the Poona manuscript. The India Office Library copy has given Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. as the author's name; but it is doubted whether Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. was the author of it. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
kātyāyanathe well-known author of the Vārttikas on the sūtras of Pāṇini. He is also believed to be the author of the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya and many sūtra works named after him. He is believed to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्याः made by Patañjali in connection with the statement 'यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु' which is looked upon as Kātyāyana's Vārttika. Some scholars say that Vararuci was also another name given to him, in which case the Vārttikakāra Vararuci Kātyāyana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Kātantra grammar are ascribedition For details see The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pages I93-223 published by the D. E.Society, Poona.See also वार्तिकपाठ below.
kārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaalso called षट्कारक-खण्डनमण्डन which is a portion of theauthor's bigger work named त्रिलो-चनचन्द्रिका. The work is a discourse on the six kārakas written by Maṇikaṇṭha, a grammarian of the Kātantra school. He has also written another treatise named Kārakavicāra
kārakavibhaktibalīyastvathe dictum that a Kāraka case is stronger than an Upapada case,e. g. the accusative case as required by the word नमस्कृत्य,which is stronger than the dative case as required by the word नमः. Hence the word मुनित्रयं has to be used in the sentence : मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य and not the word मुनित्रयाय confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari. 94.
kārakavivekaknown as कारकवाद also; a short work on the meaning and relation of words written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya who lived in the beginning of the eighteenth century. The work forms the concluding portion of a larger work called कारकविवेक which was written by शिरोमणिभट्टाचार्य.. The work कारकवाद has a short commentary written by the author himselfeminine.
kārmanāmikathe word is found used in Yāska's Nirukta as an adjective to the word संस्कार where it means belonging to nouns derived fromroofs (कर्मनाम)"like पाचक,कर्षक et cetera, and othersThe changes undergone by the roots in the formation of such words i. e. words showing action are termed कार्मनामिकसंस्कार; confer, compare कर्मकृतं नाम कर्मनाम। तस्मिन् भवः कार्मनामिकः Durgavṛtti on Nirukta of Yāska.I.13. कार्य(l) brought.into existence by activity (क्रियया निर्वृत्तं कार्यम् ) as oppo- sed to नित्य eternal; confer, compare एके वर्णाञ् शाश्वतिकान् न कार्यान् R.Pr. XIII.4 confer, compare also ननु च यस्यापि कार्याः ( शब्दाः ) तस्यापि पूजार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 17;(2) which should be done, used in connection with a grammatical operation: confer, compare कार्य एत्वे सयमीकारमाहुः ।| अभैष्म इत्येतस्य स्थाने अभयीष्मेति । R.Pr. XIV.16; confer, compare also विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I.4.2; (3) a grammatical opera- tion as for instance in the phrases द्विकार्ययोगे, त्रिकार्ययोगे et cetera, and others; confer, compare also गौणमुख्ययोर्मुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्ययः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 15;(4) object of a transitive verb: confer, compare शेषः कार्ये Śāk.
kālanotion of time created by different contacts made by a thing with other things one after another. Time required for the utterance of a short vowel is taken as a unit of time which is called मात्रा or कालमात्रा, literally measurement of time; (2) degree of a vowel, the vowels being looked upon as possessed of three degrees ह्रस्व,दीर्घ,& प्लुत measured respectively by one, two and three mātrās; confer, compare ऊकालोSझ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P.I.2.27; (3) time notion in general, expressed in connection with an activity in three ways past (भूत), present (वर्तमान), and future (भविष्यत्) to show which the terms भूता, वर्तमाना and भविष्यन्ती were used by ancient grammarians; cf the words पूर्वकाल, उत्तरकाल; also confer, compare पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम् Kāś. on P. II. 4.21 ; (4) place of recital ( पाठदेश ) depending on the time of recital, confer, compare न परकालः पूर्वकाले पुनः (V.Pr.III. 3) a dictum similar to Pāṇini's पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1.
kālasāmānyatime in general; unspecified time; confer, compare वर्तमाने लडुक्तः कालसामान्ये न प्राप्नोति Kāś. on P.III.3.142.
kāṣṭhādia class of words headed by the word काष्ठ after which a word standing as a second member in a compound gets the grave accent for it,e. g. काष्ठाध्यापकः, परमाध्यापक et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII.1.67.
kiṃśulakādia class of words headed by the word किंशुलक, which get their final vowel lengthened when the word गिरि is placed after them as a second member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e. g. किंशुलकागिरिः, अञ्जनागिरिः; confer, compare Kāś. on P. VI.3.117.
kirādia class of roots headed by the root कॄ, viz. the five roots कॄ, गॄ, दृ, धृ and प्रच्छ् after which the desiderative sign, id est, that is the affix सन्, gets the augment इ (इट्); exempli gratia, for example चिकरिषति, पिप्रच्छिषति: confer, compare Kāś. on P.VII.2.75.
kiśarādi,kisarādia class of words headed by किसर meaning some kind of scent, which get the taddhita affix इक (ष्टन्) applied to them when the word so formed means 'a dealer of that thing;' exempli gratia, for example किशारिकः, किशारिकी cf; Kāś. on P. IV.4.53.
kuñcikā(1)a commentary on Nāgeśa's Laghūmañjūṣā by Krṣṇamiśra; ( 2 ) a commentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Durbalācārya.
kumbhapadyādia class of words headed by कुम्भपदी in which the word पाद at the end of the compound is changed into पाद् and further changed into पद् before the feminine affix ई; exempli gratia, for example कुम्भपदी, शतपदी, द्रुपदी, पञ्चपदी et cetera, and others; cf Kāś. on P. V.4.138, 139.
kṛñ(1)root कृ in the general sense of activity; (2) pratyāhāra or short form for the three roots कृ, भू and अस्, confer, compare कृञ् चानुप्रयुज्यते लिटि P.II.1.40.
kṛtliterally activity; a term used in the grammars of Pāṇini and others for affixes applied to roots to form verbal derivatives; confer, compare कृदतिङ् । धातोः ( ३ ।१।९१ ) इत्यधिकारे तिङ्कवर्जितः प्रत्ययः कृत् स्यात् । Kāś. on III.1.93, The kṛt affixes are given exhaustively by Pāṇini in Sūtras III.1.91 to III.4. I17. कृत् and तद्धित appear to be the ancient Pre-Pāṇinian terms used in the Nirukta and the Prātiśākhya works in the respective senses of root-born and noun-born words ( कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त according to Pāṇini's terminology), and not in the sense of mere affixes; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः Nirukta of Yāska.I.14: अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; तिङ्कृत्तद्धितसमासा: शब्दमयम् V.Pr. I.27; also confer, compare V.Pr. VI.4. Patañjali and later grammarians have used the word कृत् in the sense of कृदन्त; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari Śek.Pari.75. The kṛt affixes are given by Pāṇini in the senses of the different Kārakas अपादान, संप्रदान, करण, अाधकरण, कर्म and कर्तृ, stating in general terms that if no other sense is assigned to a kṛt affix it should be understood that कर्ता or the agent of the verbal activity is the sense; confer, compare कर्तरि कृत् । येष्वर्थनिर्देशो नास्ति तत्रेदमुपतिष्ठते Kāś. on III.4.67. The activity element possessed by the root lies generally dormant in the verbal derivative nouns; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति, क्रियावदपि । M.Bh.on V.4.19 and VI. 2.139
kaiyaṭaname of the renowned commentator on the Mahābhāṣya, who lived in the 11th century. He was a resident of Kashmir and his father's name was Jaiyaṭa. The commentary on the Mahābhāṣya was named महाभाष्यप्रदीप by him, which is believed by later grammarians to have really acted as प्रदीप or light, as without it, the Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali would have remained unlit, that is unintelligible, at several places. Later grammarians attached to प्रदीप almost the same importance as they did to the Mahābhāṣya and the expression तदुक्तं भावकैयटयोः has been often used by commentators. Many commentary works were written on the Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.out of which Nageśa's Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.is the most popular. The word कैयट came to be used for the word महाभाष्यप्रदीप which was the work of Kaiyaṭa. For details see Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII. pp. 389-390.
koṭarādia class of words headed by the word कोटर which get their final vowel lengthened when the word वन is placed after them as a seconditional member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; exempli gratia, for example कोटरावणम्, मिश्रकावणम्. confer, compare Kāś. on P.VI.3.117.
ktakṛt affix त in various senses, called by the name निष्ठा in Pāṇini's grammar along with the affix क्तवतू confer, compare क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा P.I.1.26.The various senses in which क्त is prescribed can be noticed below : (1) the general sense of something done in the past time as past passive voice.participle e. g. कृत:, भुक्तम् et cetera, and others: cf P. III.2.102; (2) the sense of the beginning of an activity when it is used actively: e. g. प्रकृतः कटं देवदत्तः, confer, compare P.III.2.102 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (3) the sense of activity of the present tense applied to roots marked with a mute ञ् as also to roots in the sense of desire, knowledge and worship; exempli gratia, for exampleमिन्नः, क्ष्विण्ण:, धृष्ट: as also राज्ञां मतः, राज्ञामिष्टः, राज्ञां बुद्धः; confer, compare P.III.2.187, 88; (4) the sense of mere verbal activity (भाव) e. g. हसितम् , सहितम् , जल्पितम् , (used always in the neuter gender); confer, compare P.III.3. 114: (5) the sense of benediction when the word ending in क्त is used as a technical term, exempli gratia, for example देवदत्तः in the sense of देवा एनं देयासुः. The kṛt affix क्तिन् is also used similarly exempli gratia, for example सातिः भूतिः मन्ति:; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III.3.174.
ktvākṛt (affix). affix त्वा added to roots (1) in the sense of prohibition conveyed by the word अलं or खलु preceding the root, exempli gratia, for example अलं कृत्वा, खलु कृत्वा; confer, compare P. III.4.18; (2) in the sense of exchange in the case of the root मा, e. g. अपमित्य याचते; confer, compare P. III.4.19; (3) to show an activity of the past time along with a verb or noun of action showing comparatively a later time, provided the agent of the former and the latter activities is the same; exempli gratia, for example भुक्त्वा व्रजति, स्नात्वा पीत्वा भुक्त्वा व्रजति; confer, compare P. III.4. 21. This kṛt affix is always added to roots when they are without any prefix; when there is a prefix the indeclinable, ending in त्वा, is always compounded with the prefix and त्वा is changed into य (ल्यप्), exempli gratia, for example प्रकृत्य, प्रहृत्य; confer, compare समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1.37. The substitution of य is at will in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कृष्णं वासो यजमानं परिधापयित्वा ( instead of परिधाप्य ), confer, compare P. VII.1.38, while sometimes, य is added after त्वा as an augment e. g. दत्वाय सविता धियः confer, compare P. VII.l.47, as also sometimes त्वी or त्वीनम् is substituted for त्वा e. g. इष्ट्वीनं देवान्, स्नात्वी मलादिव, confer, compare P. VII.1.48, 49.
ktvāntagerund; a mid-way derivative of a verbal root which does not leave its verbal nature on the one hand although it takes the form of a substantive on the other hand.
krama(1)serial order or succession as contrasted with यौगपद्य or simultaneity. The difference between क्रम and यौगपद्य is given by भर्तृहरि in the line क्रमे विभिद्यते रूपं यौगपद्ये न भिद्यते Vāk. Pad. II. 470. In order to form a word by the application of several rules of grammar, a particular order is generally followed in accordance with the general principle laid down in the Paribhāṣā पूर्वपरनित्यान्तरङ्गापवादानामुत्तरोत्तरं बलीयः, as also according to what is stated in the sūtras असिद्धवदत्राभात्, पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् et cetera, and others (2) succession, or being placed after, specifically with reference to indeclinables like एव, च et cetera, and others which are placed after a noun with which they are connectedition When an indecinable is not so connected, it is called भिन्नक्रम; confer, compare परिपन्थं च तिष्ठति (P.IV. 4.36), चकारो भिन्नक्रमः प्रत्ययार्थं समुच्चिनोति, Kāś. on P. IV. 4.36; also ईडजनोर्ध्वे च । चशब्दो भिन्नक्रमः
īśeḥ(VII.2.77)अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. l to 4; confer, compare also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, confer, compare also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 1. For details and special features, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ch. X and XI: confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
kramapāṭharecital of the Vedic Saṁhitā by means of separate groups of two words, repeating each word except the first of the Vedic verseline; see क्रम a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The various rules and exceptions are given in detail in Paṭalas ten and eleven of the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. The Vedic Saṁhitā or Saṁhitāpāṭha is supposed to be the original one and the Padapāṭha prepared later on, with a view to preserving the Vedic text without any change or modification of a letter, or accent; confer, compare न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and VIII. 2.16, where Patañjali clearly says that grammar-rules are not to follow the Padapāṭha, but, the writer of the Padapāṭha is to follow the rules already laid down. The Jaṭāpāṭha, the Ghanapāṭha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapāṭha as they are not mentioned in the Prātiśākhya works.
kriyāvacanameaning or expressing a verbal activity; a term generally applied to dhātus or roots, or even to verbs. The term is also applied to denominative affixes like क्यच् which produce a sort of verbal activity in the noun to which they are added; confer, compare क्रियावचनाः क्यजादय: M.Bh. on III.1.19.
kriyāviśeṣaṇadeterminant or modifier of a verbal activity; confer, compare क्रियाविशेषणं चेति वक्तव्यम् । सुष्टु पचति दुष्टु पचति M.Bh. on II.1.1; nouns used as Kriyāviśeṣaṇa are put in the neuter gender, and in the nominative case. or the acc. case in the singular. number; confer, compare क्रियाविशेषणानां कर्मत्वं नपुंसकलिङ्गता च Pari.Bhāśkara Pari.56.
klībatvaa word used in the sense of 'neuter gender' by grammarians later than पतञ्जलि and the Vārttikakāra; confer, compare समभागे क्लीबलिङ्गमर्धमेकदेशिना समस्यते Bhāṣā Vr. on P.II.2.2; पक्षे हि क्लीबत्वम् Kaiyaṭa's Pr. on II.1. 51; समाहारद्वन्द्वे क्लीबत्वप्रसङ्गात् Durgh. Vr. on P.II.4.l7.
kanipkṛt affix वन् in the sense of agent added to (l) a root preceded by an Upasarga or a Subanta Upapada or sometimes even without any preceding word; exempli gratia, for exampleप्रतरित्वा, धीवा, पीवा; (2) to the root दृश्, preceded by an Upapada which is the object of the root दृश्, exempli gratia, for example पारदृश्वा; (3) to roots युध् and कृञ् having राजन् as their object, exempli gratia, for example राजयुध्वा, राजकृत्वा ; confer, compare Pāṇini III.2.94-96.
kvarapkṛt affix वर, taking the affix ई ( ङीप् ) in the feminine gender, added to the roots इ, नश्, जि et cetera, and others; इत्वरी, नश्वर:, जित्वरी, गत्वरी; confer, compare P.III. 2.163-164.
kvasukṛt affix वस्, taking the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) in the feminine gender, prescribed in the sense of perfect tense, which is mostly found in Vedic Literature and added to some roots only such as सद्, वस्, श्रु et cetera, and others in the spoken language; e. g. जक्षिवान् पपिवान् उपसेदिवान् कौत्स; पाणिनिम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.2.107-109.
kvibantaa substantive ending with the kṛt affix क्विप् (zero affix) added to a root to form a noun in the sense of the verbal action (भाव). The words ending with this affix having got the sense of verbal activity in them quite suppressed, get the noun terminations सु, औ, जस् et cetera, and others and not ति, तः et cetera, and others placed after them; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद् भवति. However, at the same time, these words undergo certain operations peculiar to roots simply because the kṛt affix entirely disappears and the word formed, appears like a root; confer, compare क्विबन्ता धातुत्वं न जहति. Kaiyaṭa's Prad. on VII.1.70.
kṣapaṇakaa Jain grammarian quoted in the well-known stanza धन्वन्तरिः क्षपणकोमरसिंहशङ्कु which enumerates the seven gems of the court of Vikramāditya, on the strength of which some scholars believe that he was a famous grammarian of the first century B.C.
kṣubhnādia class of wordings such as क्षुभ्ना, तृप्नु and the like in which the consonant न् is not changed into ण् although the consonant न् is preceded by ऋ, ॠ, र् or ष् and intervened by letters which are admissible; e. g. क्षुभ्नाति, तृप्नोति, नृनमनः et cetera, and others cf Kāś. on P. VIII. 4.39. This class ( क्षुभ्नादिगण ) is styled as आकृतिगण.
khataddhita affix. affix, always changed into ईन, (l) applied to the word कुल in the sense of a descendant, exempli gratia, for example कुलीनः, आढ्यकुलीन:; confer, compare P. IV. 1.139; (2) applied to the words अवार, पार, पारावार and अवारपार in the Śaīṣika senses, e. g. अवारीणः, पारीणः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.2.93 and Vārttikas 2, 3 on it; (3) applied to words ending in the word वर्ग ( which does not mean 'sound' or 'letter' ) in the sense of 'present there,' e. g. वासुदेववर्गीणः, युधिष्ठिरवर्गीणः; confer, compare P. IV. 3.64; (4) applied to the words सर्वधुर and एकधुर in the sense of 'bearing,' and to ओजसू , वेशोभग, यशोभग and पूर्व, exempli gratia, for example ओजसीनः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.IV.4.78, 79, 130, 132, 133; (5) applied in the sense of 'favourable to' to the words आत्मन् , विश्वजन, et cetera, and others (P.V.1.9), to विंशतिक, (32) to अाढक, अाचित, पात्र and others (53-55), to समा (85-86), to रात्रि, अहन् , संवत्सर and वर्ष (87-88) and संवत्सर and परिवत्सर (92); e. g. आत्मनीनः, आढकीनः पात्रीणः, समीनः, संवत्सरीणः et cetera, and others; (6) to the words सर्वचर्मन्, यथामुख et cetera, and others e. g. सर्वचर्मीणः confer, compare P.V. 2.5 to 17; (7) to the words अषडक्ष, अशितंगु et cetera, and others confer, compare P.V.4.7,8. e. g. अषडक्षीणः. (8) ख is also a technical term in the sense of elision or लोप in the Jainendra Grammar confer, compare Jain I. 1.61. (9) The word ख is used in the sense of 'glottis' or the hole of the throat ( गलबिल ) in the ancient Prātiṣākhya works.
khackṛt affix अ in the sense of 'agent' applied to the roots वद्, ताप् , and यम् when preceded by certain उपपद words standing as objects. Before this affix खच्, the augment मुम् ( म् ) is added to the preceding उपपद if it is not an indeclinable. e. g. प्रियंवदः, वशंवदः, द्विषंतपः परंतपः वाचंयम: et cetera, and others cf P.III. 2.38-47.
khilapāṭhaa supplementary recital or enunciation which is taken along with the original enunciation or upadeśa generally in the form of the sūtras. The word is used in the Kāśikā in the sense of one of the texts forming a part of the original text which is called upadeśa; confer, compare Kāśikā उपदिश्यते अनेनेत्युपदेश: शास्त्रवाक्यानि सूत्रपाठ: खिलपाठश्च (on P.I.3.2); confer, compare also खिलपाठो धातुपाठः प्रातिपदिकपाठो वाक्यपाठश्च Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on Kāśikā I.3.2.
khiṣṇuckṛt affix इष्णु in the sense of an agent added to the root भू, e. g. आढ्यंभविष्णुः, स्थूलंभविष्णुः; confer, compare P. III. 2.57.
khukañkṛt affix उक in the sense of an agent added to the root भू, e. g. आढ्यंभावुकः, सुभगंभावुकः; confer, compare P. III. 2.57. See खिष्णुच्.
gaṇapāṭhathe mention individually of the several words forming a class or gaṇa, named after the first word said to have been written by Pāṇini himself as a supplementary work to his great grammar called Aṣṭaka or Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., the Sikṣā,the Dhātupātha and the Lingānuśāsana being the other ones. Other grammarians such as शाकटायन, अापिशलि and others have their own gaṇapāthās. The gaṇapāthā is traditionally ascribed to Pāṇini; the issue is questioned, however, by modern scholars. The text of the gaṇapāṭha is metrically arranged by some scholars. The most scholarly and authoritative treatise on gaṇapāṭha is the Gaṇaratnamahodadhī of Vardhamāna.
gaṇaratnamahodadhia grammar work, consisting of a metrical enumeration of the words in the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini, written by Vardhamāna, a Jain grammarian of the 12th century, who is believed to have been one of the six gems at the court of Lakṣmaṇasena of Bengal. Vardhamāna has written a commentary also, on his Gaṇaratnamahodadhi. Besides Vardhamāna's commentary, there are other commentaries written by गोवर्धन and गङ्गाधर.
gati(1)literally motion; stretching out, lengthening of a syllable. The word is explained in the Prātiśakhya works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel इ or उ after it, exempli gratia, for example हाइ or हायि for हा; similarly आ-इ or अा -यि ; (2) a technical term used by Pāṇini in connection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called गति, confer, compare P.I.4.60-79. The words called gati can be compounded with the following word provided the latter is not a verb, the compound being named tatpuruṣa e.g, प्रकृतम् , ऊरीकृत्य confer, compare P.II.2.18; the word गति is used by Pāṇini in the masculine gender as seen in the Sūtra गतिरनन्तरः P.VI. 2.49 and hence explained as formed by the addition of the affix क्तिच् to गम्, the word being used as a technical term by the rule क्तिच्क्तौ च संज्ञायाम् P.III.3.174; (3) realization, understanding; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.9; सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 76; अगत्या हि परिभाषा अाश्रीयते Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva Pari. Pāṭha 119.
gatyarthaa root denoting motion; the word frequently occurs in the Sūtras of Pāṇini and the Mahābhāṣya in connection with some special operations prescribed for roots which are गत्यर्थ. There is also a conventional expression सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्था: meaning 'roots denoting motion denote also knowledge'; confer, compare Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. Pari. 121 .
garīyasinvolving a special effort.The word is frequently used by the Vārttikakāra and old grammarians in connection with something, which involves greater effort and longer expression and, hence, not commendable in rules of the Shastra works where brevity is the soul of 'wit'; confer, compare पदगौरवाद्योगवेिभागो गरीयान् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 121. The word गुरु is also sometimes used in a similar sense; confer, compare तद् गुरु भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1 Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. l Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
galatpadathe word occurs in the Prātiśākhya works in connection with the definition of संक्रम, in the kramapātha. The word संक्रम means bringing together two words when they are combined according to rules of Samdhi. (See the word संक्रम). In the Kramapātha, where each word occurs twice by repetition, a word occurring twice in a hymn or a sentence is not to be repeated for Kramapātha, but it is to be passed over. The word which is passed over in the Kramapātha is called गलत्पद; e. g. दिशां च पतये नमो नमो वृक्षेभ्यो हरिकेशेभ्यः पशूनां पतये नमो नमः सस्पिञ्जराय त्विषीमतॆ पथीनां पतये नमः । In the Kramapātha पतये नमः and नमः are passed over and पशूनां is to be connected with सस्पिञ्जराय. The words पतये नमः and नमः are called galatpada; confer, compare गलत्पदमतिक्रम्य अगलता सह संधानं संक्रम; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 197. There is no गलत्पद in पदपाठ.
gavāśvaprabhṛtithe dvandva compound words गवाश्व, गवाविक गवैडक, अजाविक, कुब्जमाणवक, पुत्रपौत्र मांसशोणित and others which are to be declined in the neuter gender and singular number; confer, compare P. II. 4.11.
guṇavacanaliterally expressing quality; words expressing quality such as शुक्ल, नील, et cetera, and others; confer, compare गुणवचनब्राह्मणादिभ्यः कर्मणि च P.V. 1.124. See page 369 Vyākarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D.E. Society edition, Poona.
guṇībhūtasubordinate, literally which has become subordinated, which has become submerged, and therefore has formed an integral part of another; e. g. an augment ( अागम ) with respect to the word to which it has been added;confer, compareयदागमास्तद्गुणी भूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.20 Vart. 5; Par. Sek. Pari. 11.
goṇikāputraa grammarian whose wiew in connection with the correctness of the expressions नेताश्वस्य स्त्रुघ्नं and नेताश्वस्य स्त्रुघ्नस्य is given by the Mahabhasyakara in the words 'both expressions are justified' ( उभयथा गेणिकापुत्रः ). Nagesa has observed that गेोणिकापुत्र is nobody else but the Mahabhasyakara himself; confer, compare गोणिकापुत्रः भाष्यकार इत्याहुः । NageSa's Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Mahabhasyapradipa on P. I. 4.5I.
govindawriter of a commentary known as अम्बाकर्त्री by reason of that work beginning with the stanza अम्बा कर्त्रींó, on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesa.
gautamaan ancient sage referred to in the Pratisakhya works as a Pratisakhyakara; confer, compare T.Pr. V.38.
gaurādia class of words to which the affix ई ( ङीष्) is added to form the feminine base; exempli gratia, for example गौरी, मत्सी, हयी, हरिणी; the class contains a large number of words exceeding 150; for details see Kasika on P.IV.1. 41; (2) a small class of eleven words, headed by the word गौर which do not have the acute accent on the last syllable in a tatpurusa compound when they are placed after the preposition उप; confer, compare P. VI.2.194.
grahādia class of roots headed by the root ग्रह् to which the affix इन् (णिनि), causing vrddhi to the preceding vowel of the root, is added in the sense of an agent: exempli gratia, for example ग्राही, उत्साही, स्थायी, मन्त्री et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III. 1.134.
gsnukrt affix स्नु applied to the roots ग्लै, जि and स्था in the sense of an agent: confer, compare ग्लाजिस्थश्व क्स्नुः P.III.1.139.
gh(1)fourth consonant of the guttural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदानत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2)the consonant घ at the beginning of a taddhita affix. affix which is always changed into इय्; confer, compare P. VII. 1. 9; (3) substitute for ह् at the end of roots beginning with द्, as also of the root नह् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.VIII.2.32,33,34; (4) substitute for the consonant व् of मतुव् placed after the pronouns किम् and इदम् which again is changed into इय् by VII.1.9: exempli gratia, for example कियान्, इयान्: confer, compare P.V. 2.40.
gha(l)consonant घ्, अ being added at the end for facility of pronunciation; confer, compareTai. Pr.I.21; (2) technical term for the taddhita affix. affixes तरप् and तमप्, confer, compare P.I.1.22, causing the shortening of ई at the end of bases before it, under certain conditions, confer, compare P. VI. 3.43-45, and liable to be changed into तराम् and तमाम् after किम्, verbs ending in ए, and indeclinables; confer, compare P.V.4.11; (3) taddhita affix. affix घ ( इय) in the sense of 'a descendant' applied to क्षत्र, and in the sense of 'having that as a deity' applied to अपोनप्तृ अपांनप्तृ and also to महेन्द्र and to the words राष्ट्र et cetera, and others, exempli gratia, for example क्षत्रियः, अपोनाप्त्रिय:, अपांनप्त्रियः, महेन्द्रियम्,राष्ट्रियः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV.1.138, IV.2.27, 29, 93; (4) taddhita affix. affix घ, applied to अग्र, समुद्र and अभ्र in the sense of 'present there', to सहस्र in the sense of 'possession', to, नक्षत्र without any change of sense, and to यज्ञ and ऋत्विज् in the sense of 'deserving'; confer, compare P.IV.4.117,118,135, 136,141, V.1.71 ; (5) krt affix अ when the word to which it has been applied becomes a proper noun id est, that isa noun in a specific sense or a technical term; confer, compare III.3. 118, 119,125.
(1)fifth letter of the guttural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदान, अल्पप्राणत्व and अानुनासिक्य; (2) the consonant ङ् getting the letter ,क as an augment added to it, if standing at the end of a word and followed by a sibilant, e. g. प्राङ्कूशेते confer, compare ङ्णो: कुक् टुक् शरि P. VIII. 3.28; (3) the consonant ङ् which, standing at the end of a word and preceded by a short vowel, causes the vowel following it to get the augment ङ् prefixed to it; e. g, प्रत्यङ्ङास्ते confer, compare ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण् नित्यम् P. VIII.3.32.
ṅasending of the genitive case singular; स्य is substituted for ङस् after bases ending in अ; cf P. IV. l . 2 and VII. 1. 12.
ṅasicase-ending of the ablative case, changed into अात् after bases ending in अ and into स्मात् after pronouns; confer, compareP.IV.1.2,VII.1.12,15.
ṅicase-ending of the locative case, changed into (a) अाम् after bases termed Nadi, feminine. bases ending in अा and the word नी, (b) into औ after bases ending in इ and उ, and (c) into स्मिन् after bases of pronouns;confer, compare P.IV. 1. 2, VII. 3. 116, 117, 118, 119 and VII. 1. 15, 16.
ṅīṣfeminine. afix ई, which is udatta, applied to words in the class of words headed by गौर, as also to noun bases ending in affixes marked with.mute ष्, as also to words mentioned in the class headed by बहुः confer, compare P.IV.1.41-46.It is also added in the sense of 'wife of' to any word denoting a male person; confer, compare P. IV. 1. 48, and together with the augment आनुक् (आन्) to the words इन्द्र, वरुण etc exempli gratia, for example इन्द्राणी, वरुणानि, यवनानि meaning 'the script of the Yavanas' confer, compare P. IV. 1.49. It is also added words ending in क्रीत and words ending in क्त and also to words expressive of ' limbs of body ' under certain conditions; confer, compare P.IV.1. 50-59 and IV. 1.61-65.
ṅedative case termination changed into य after bases ending in short अ and into स्मै after pronouns; confer, compare P.IV.1.2, VII, 1.13, 14.
ṅvanipkrt affix वन् in the sense of an agent referring to an activity of past time, added to the roots सु and यज्; e. g. सुत्वा, सुत्वानौ;यज्वा यज्वानौ CF. P.III 2.103.
candrakalācalled also कला, a wellknown commentary on Nagesa's Laghusabdendusekhara by Bhairavamisra who lived in the latter half of the 18th century and the first half of the nineteenth century.
cara short term (Pratyahara) for the hard unaspirated surds and श्, ष्, स्. The change of the second, third and fourth letters into the first is called चर्त्व: confer, compare अभ्यासे चर्च । खरि च । वावसाने । Pāṇini. VIII.4.54-56.
carkarītaa term used by the ancient grammarians in connection with a secondary root in the sense of frequency; the term यङ्लुगन्त is used by comparatively modern grammarians in the same sense. The चर्करीत roots are treated as roots of the adadi class or second conjugation and hence the general Vikarana अ ( शप् ) is omitted after them.The word is based on the 3rd person. sing form चर्करीति from .the root कृ in the sense of frequency; exempli gratia, for example चर्करीति, चर्कर्ति, बोभवीति बोभोति; confer, compare चर्करीतं च a gana-sutra in the gana named ’adadi’ given by Panini in connection with अदिप्रभृतिभ्य; शपः Pāṇini. II.4.72; confer, compare also चर्करीतमिति यङ्लुकः प्राचां संज्ञा Bhasa Vr. on P. II. 4.72, The word चेक्रीयित is similarly used for the frequentative when the sign of the frequentative viz. य ( यङ् ) is not elidedition See चेक्रीयित.
carcā(1)splitting up of a word into its component parts, which is generalty shown in the Padaptha by अवग्रहं (S). The word, hence means पदपाठ or recital by showing separately the constitutent words of the Samhita or the running text of the Veda. The word is used almost in the same sense in the Mahabhasya in respect of showing the words of a sutra separately; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऐजिति । किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत्समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति M.Bh. on Mahesvara Sutra 1 Wart. 6l ; (2) a repeated word; confer, compare इतिकरणात् पुरतो यत् पुनः पदवचनं तत् चर्चाशब्देनोच्यते. Uvvata on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.20; (3) a discussion or a debate where consideration is given to each single word; confer, compare प्रर्यायशब्दानां लाघवगौरवचर्चा नाद्रियते Par. Sek. Pari. 115.
cānaśkrt affix अान applied to a root, to signify habit, age or strength; e. g. आत्मानं भूषयमाणाः । कवचं बिभ्राणाः । शत्रून्निघ्राना: confer, compare P. III. 2. 129.
cidasthimālāname of a commentary on the Laghusabdendusekhara by Vaidyanatha Payagunde,one of the distinguished disciples of Nagesabhatta.
cidrūpāśrayanamed also चिद्रूपाश्रम who wrote a learned commentary named विषमी on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesabhatta
cilathe sign of the aorist ( लुड् ) for which generally सिच् and अङ्, क्स, चङ् and चिण् are substituted in specified cases; confer, compare P. III. 1. 43-66.
chataddhita affix. affix ईय, added ( 1 ) to the words स्वसृ, भ्रातृ and to words ending with the taddhita affix. affix फिञ्: confer, compare P. IV. 1.143,144 and 149; (2) to the dvandva compound of words meaning constellations,to the words अपोनप्तृ, अपांनप्तृ, महेन्द्र, द्यावापृथिवी, शुनासीर et cetera, and others as also to शर्करा, उत्कर , नड et cetera, and others in certain specified senses, confer, compare P. IV. 2.6, 28, 29, 32, 48, 84, 90 &91 ;(3) to words beginning with the vowel called Vrddhi (आ,ऐ or औ),to words ending with गर्त, to words of the गह class, and to युष्मद् and अस्मद् in the शैषिक senses, confer, compare P. IV. 3.114, 137-45 and IV. 3.1 ; (4) to the words जिह्वामूल, अङ्गुलि, as also to words ending in वर्ग in the sense of 'present there '; confer, compare P.IV.3.62-64; (5) to the words शिशुक्रन्द, यमसम, dvandva compounds, इन्द्रजनन and others in the sense of 'a book composed in respect of', confer, compare P.IV. 3.88; (6)to words meaning warrior tribes, to words रैवतिक etc, as also अायुध, and अग्र, in some specified senses: cf P.IV. 3.91, 131, IV. 4.14, 117; (7) to all words barring those given as exceptions in the general senses mentioned in the second. V.I.1-37; (8) to the words पुत्र, कडङ्कर, दक्षिण, words ending in वत्सर, अनुप्रवचन et cetera, and others होत्रा, अभ्यमित्र and कुशाग्र in specified senses; confer, compare P. V. 1. 40, 69,70,91,92, 111,112,135, V. 2.17, V.3.105; (9) to compound words in the sense of इव; e. g. काकतालीयम् , अजाकृपाणीयम् et cetera, and others confer, compare V. 3. 106;and (10) to words ending in जति and स्थान in specified senses; confer, compare P. V.4, 9,10.
chandas(1)Vedic Literature in general as found in the rule बहुलं छन्दसि which has occurred several times in the Sutras of Panini, confer, compare छन्दोवत्सूत्राणि भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1, and I.4.3; confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 1, 4; (2) Vedic Samhita texts as contrasted with the Brahmana texts; confer, compareछन्दोब्राह्मणानि च तद्विषयाणि P, IV.2.66; () metre, metrical portion of the Veda.
chandobhāṣāVedic language as contrasted with भाषा (ordinary language in use); confer, compare गुरुत्वं लघुता साम्यं ह्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतानि च...एतत्सर्व तु विज्ञेयं छन्दोभाषां विजानता Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIV. 5.
chastaddhita affix. affix ईय added to the word भवत् in the general शैषिक senses, e. g. भवदीयः; cf P. IV.2.115. The mute letter स् has been attached to the affix छस् So that the base भवत् before it could be termed pada (confer, compare सिति च P, I.4.16) and as a result have the consonant त् changed into द् by P. VIII.2.39.
chāyāa learned commentary on Nagesa's Mahabhasyapradipoddyota written by his pupil बाळंभट्ट (possibly the same as, or the son of, वैद्यनाथ पायगुण्डे) who lived in the eighteenth century.
jātigenus; class;universal;the notion of generality which is present in the several individual objects of the same kindeclinable The biggest or widest notion of the universal or genus is सत्ता which, according to the grammarians, exists in every object or substance, and hence, it is the denotation or denoted sense of every substantive or Pratipadika, although on many an occasion vyakti or an individual object is required for daily affairs and is actually referred to in ordinary talks. In the Mahabhasya a learned discussion is held regarding whether जाति is the denotation or व्यक्ति is the denotation. The word जाति is defined in the Mahabhasya as follows:आकृतिग्रहणा जातिर्लिङ्गानां च न सर्वभाक् । सकृदाख्यातनिर्गाह्या गोत्रं च चरणैः सह ॥ अपर आह । ग्रादुभीवविनाशाभ्यां सत्त्वस्य युगपद्गुणैः । असर्वलिङ्गां बह्वर्थो तां जातिं कवयो विदुः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV. 1.63. For details see Bhartphari's Vakyapadiya.
jātipakṣathe view that जाति, or genus only, is the denotation of every word. The view was first advocated by Vajapyayana which was later on held by many, the Mimamsakas being the chief supporters of the view. See Mahabhasya on P. I. 2.64. See Par. Sek. Pari. 40.
jātisvarathe acute accent for the last vowel of a word ending with क्त of the past passive participle. denoting a genus; confer, compare P. VI. 2.170.
jihvāmūlasthāna(l)having the root of the tongue as the place of its production;the phonetic element or letter called जिह्वामूलीय; (2) name given to that phonetic element into which a visarga is changed when followed by क् or ख्; cf X क इति जिह्वामूलीयः V.Pr.VIII.19. The जिह्वामूलीय letter is called जिह्व्य also; see Nyasa on I. 1.9. The Rk. Pratisakhya looks upon ऋ, लृ, जिह्वामूलीय, and the guttural letters as जिह्वामूलस्थान.
jñāpyamānaindicated or suggested: confer, compare उत्पातेन ज्ञाप्यमाने ( चतुर्थी वाच्या )। वाताय कपिला विद्युत् et cetera, and others M.Bh. on ΙΙ. 3.13 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
jyotsnā(Ι)name of a commentary by Rāmacandra possibly belonging to the 18th century on the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya; (2) name of a commentary on Nāgeśa's 'Laghuśabdenduśekhara by Udayaṃakara Pāṭhaka of Vārāṇasi in the 18th century.
jhacwording of the affix झ (see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) suggested by the Varttikakara to have the last vowel of अन्त acute, by चितः (P.VI.1.163) the property चित्व being transferred from the original झ to अन्त; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. तथा च झचश्चित्करणमर्थवद् भवति on P.VII.1.3.
jhaya short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the fourth, third, second and first consonants of the five classes, after which ह् is changed into the cognate of the preceding consonant while श्, is changed into छ् optionally; confer, compare P. VIII. 4.62, 63.
jhi(1)verb-ending of the 3rd person. plural Parasmaipada, substituted for the लकार of the ten lakaras, changed to जुस in the potential and the benedictive moods, and optionally so in the imperfect and after the sign स् of the aorist; confer, compareP,III. 4. 82, 83, 84, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112: (2) a conventional term for अव्यय (indeclinable) used in the Jainendra Vyakaraha.
ñiṭhataddhita affix. affix इक added to words headed by काशी as also to words meaning a village in the Vahika country optionally with the affix ठञ् in the Saisika senses;exempli gratia, for example काशिका, काशिकी, बैदिका, बेदिकी, शाकलिकां, शाकलिकी. The affixes ठञ् and ञिठ are added to the word काल preceded by आपद् as also by some other words; e. g. आपत्कालिका, अापत्कालिकी तात्कालिका, तात्कालिकी et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV.2. 116,117,118 and Varttika on IV. 2.116.
ñyaṭtaddhita affix. affix य .causing वृद्धि to the first vowel of the word to which it is added and the addition of ई ( ङीप् ) in the sense of feminine gender, added to words meaning warrior tribes of the Vahika country but not Brahmanas or Ksatriyas. exempli gratia, for example क्षौद्रक्यः, क्षौद्रक्री et cetera, and others; cf P. V. 3. 114.
the first consonant of the lingual class ( टवर्ग ) possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When prefixed or affixed to an affix as an indicatory letter, it signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ); confer, compare P. IV. 1.15, When added to the conjugational affixes ( लकार ) it shows that in the Atmanepada the vowel of the last syllable is changed to ए. confer, compare P. III. 4.79. When added to an augment ( अागम ), it shows that the augment marked with it is to be prefixed and not to be affixed; e. g. नुट्, तुट् et cetera, and others; cf P. I. 1.46.
ṭiṭhan(l)taddhita affix. affix इक added to the words श्राणा, मांस and ओदन in the sense of ' something given as wages' e. g. श्राणिकः श्राणिकी; confer, compare P. IV. 4.67; (2) taddhita affix. affix इक added to कंस and शूर्प in the अार्हीय senses e. g. कंसिक:, कांसिक्री; confer, compare P. V.1.25,26.
ṭhaka very common taddhita affix. affix इक, or क in case it is added to words ending in इस् , उस् , उ, ऋ, ल् and त् according to P. VII. 3. 51, causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ठक् is added to (1) रेवती and other words in the sense of descendant ( अपत्य ) e. g. रैवतिकः:, दाण्डग्राहिकः, गार्गिकः, भागवित्तिकः यामुन्दायनिकः, confer, compare P. IV. 1.146-149; (2) to the words लाक्षा,रोचना et cetera, and others in the sense of 'dyed in', e. g. लाक्षिकम्, रौचनिकम् ; confer, compare P. IV. 2.2; (3) to the words दधि and उदश्वित् in the sense of संस्कृत 'made better ', e. g. दाधिकम् , औदश्वित्कम् ( क instead of इक substituted for टक् ), confer, compare P. IV.2. 18, 19; (4) to the words अाग्रहायुणी, अश्वत्थ et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 22, 23; (5) to words expressive of inanimate objects, to the words हस्ति and धेनु, as also to the words केश and अश्व in the sense of 'multitude '; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 47, 48; (6) to the words क्रतु, उक्थ and words ending in सूत्र, वसन्त et cetera, and others, in the sense of 'students of' ( तदधीते तद्वेद ), confer, compare P. IV. 2.59, 60, 63; (7) to the words कुमुद and others as also to शर्करा as a चातुरर्थिक affix; confer, compare P. IV. 2.80, 84; (8) to the words कन्था, भवत् and वर्षा in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P. IV. 2.102, 115, IV. 3.18; (9) to the words उपजानु and others in the sense 'generally present '; confer, compare P. IV. 3. 40; (10) to the words consisting of two syllables, and the words ऋक्, ब्राह्मण et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'explanatory literary work'; confer, compare P. IV.3.72: ( 11) to words meaning 'sources of income ' in the sense of 'accruing from’; confer, compare P. IV. 3.75; (12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place in the sense of ' भक्ति ', cf P. IV. 8.96; and (13) to the words हल् and सीर in the sense of 'belonging to', confer, compare P. IV. 3.124. The taddhita affix. affix ठक् is added as a general termination, excepting in such cases where other affixes are prescribed, in specified senses like 'तेन दीव्यति, ' 'तेन खनति,' 'तेन संस्कृतम्' et cetera, and others; cf P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to words हल, सीर, कथा, विकथा, वितण्डा et cetera, and others in specified senses, confer, compare P. IV.4. 81, 102 ठक् is also added as a general taddhita affix. affix or अधिकारविहितप्रत्यय, in various specified senses, as prescribed by P. V.1.19-63,and to the words उदर, अयःशूल,दण्ड, अजिन, अङ्गुली, मण्डल, et cetera, and others and to the word एकशाला, in the prescribed senses; confer, compare P. V. 2.67,76, V. 3.108,109; while, without making any change in sense it is added to अनुगादिन् , विनय, समय, उपाय ( औपयिक being the word formed), अकस्मात्, कथंचित्; (confer, compareआकस्मिक काथंचित्क), समूह,विशेष, अत्यय and others, and to the word वाक् in the sense of 'expressed'; confer, compare P. V. 4.13, 34, 35. The feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ) is added to words ending in the affix टक् to form feminine. bases.
ṭhacataddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) with the vowel अ accented acute applied to (1) कुमुद and others as a Caturarthika affix; confer, compare P. IV.2.80; (2) to multisyllabic words and words beginning with उप which are proper nouns for persons; confer, compare P. V.3.78, 80; and (3) to the word एकशाला in the sense of इव; confer, compare P. V.3.109. The base, to which टच् is added, retains generally two syllables or sometimes three, the rest being elided before the affix ठच् e. g. देविकः, वायुकः, पितृकः शेबलिकः et cetera, and others from the words देवदत्त, वायुदत्त, पितृदत्त, शेवलदत्त et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. V,3.83, 84.
ṭhañtaddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) causing Vrddhi and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, applied (1) to महृाराज, प्रोष्ठपद and क्वाचिन् in the specifieditionsenses, confer, compare P. IV.2.35, 4l e. g. माहृाराजिक, प्रौष्ठपदिक et cetera, and others; (2) to words काशि, चेदि, संज्ञा and others, along with ञिठ, e. g. काशिकी, काशिका, also with ञिठ to words denoting villages in the Vahika country exempli gratia, for example शाकलिकी शाकलिका; as also to words ending in उ forming names of countries in all the Saisika senses confer, compare P. IV.2.116-120; (3) to compound words having a word showing direction as their first member, to words denoting time, as also to the words शरद्, निशा and प्रदोष in the Saisika senses; cf P. IV.3.6, 7, 1115; (4) to the words वर्षा (1n Vedic Literature), and to हेमन्त and वसन्त in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P.IV.3.1921; (5) to संवत्सर, अाग्रहायणी, words having अन्तः as the first member, to the word ग्राम preceded by परि or अनु, to multisyllabic words having their last vowel accented acute, to words denoting sacrifices, to words forming names of sages, to words ending in ऋ and to the word महाराज in the specific senses which are mentioned; confer, compare P. IV.3.50, 60, 61, 67, 68, 69, 78, 79, 97; (6) to the words गोपुच्छ, श्वगण, आक्रन्द, लवण, परश्वध, compound words having a multisyllabic words as their first member, and to the words गुड et cetera, and others in the specified senses;confer, compareP.IV.4.6,II, 38, 52, 58, 64, 103;(7) to any word as a general taddhita affix. affix (अधिकारविहित), unless any other affix has been specified in the specified senses ' तेन क्रीतम् ' ' तस्य निमित्तम्' ... ' तदर्हम्' mentioned in the section of sutras V. 1. 18. to 117; (8) to the words अय:शूल, दण्ड, अजिन, compound words having एक or गो as their first member as also to the words निष्कशत and निष्कसहस्र; confer, compare P.V.2.76, 118,119.
ḍatarāṃdia class of words headed by the word डतर which stands for डतरान्त id est, that is words ending with the affix डतर; similarly the word डतम which follows डतर stands for डतमान्त. This class डतरादि is a subdivision of the bigger class called सर्वादि. and it consists of only five words viz. डतरान्त, डतमान्त, अन्य, अन्यतर and इतरः cf P. VII.1.25 and I.1.27.
ḍāverb-ending आ, causing elision of the penultimate vowel as also of the following consonant, substituted for the 3rd person. sing, affix तिप् of the first future; exempli gratia, for example क्रर्ता ; confer, compare P.II.4.85; (2) case ending आ substituted in Vedic Literature for any case affix as noticed in Vedic usages; exempli gratia, for example नाभा पृथिव्याम्: confer, compare P. VII.1.39
ḍāctaddhita affix. affix आ applied to dissyllabic words, used as imitation of sounds, or used as onomatopoetic, when connected with the root कृ or भू or अम्. The word to which डाच् is applied becomes generally doubled; c. g पटपटाकरोति, पटपटाभवति पटपटास्यात्; confer, compare P.V.4.57. The affix डाच् is also applied to द्वितीय, तृतीय, to compound words formed of a numeral and the word गुण, as also to the words सपत्र, निष्पत्र, सुख, प्रिच etc when these words are connected with the root कृ;exempli gratia, for example द्वितीयाकरोति,तृतीया करोति, द्विगुणाकरोति, सपत्राकरोति, सुखाकरोति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.V.4. 58 to 67.
ḍāpfeminine. affix आ added optionally to words ending in मन् and to Bahuvrihi compounds ending in अन् to show feminine gender, the words remaining as they are when the optional affix डाप् is not applied; exempli gratia, for example दामा, सीमा, सुपर्वा; confer, compare P. IV. I.l l, 12, 13.
ḍhataddhita affix. affix ढ (1) applied to the word सभा in the sense of 'fit for' ( तत्र साधुः ) in Vedic literature;. e. g. सभेयः; confer, compare IV. 4.106; (2) applied to the word शिला in the sense of इव; e. g. शिलेयं दधि ; confer, compare P. V. 3.102; (3) common term ( ढ ) for the affixes ढक्, ढञ् and ढ also, after the application of which the affix ङीप् (ई) is , added in the sense of feminine gender; confer, compare P. IV. 1.15.
ḍhaktaddhita affix. affix एय causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ढक् is added in the sense of अपत्य (descendant) (I) to words ending in feminine affixes, to words ending in the vowel इ, excepting इ of the taddhita affix. afix इञ्, to words of the class headed by शुभ्र, to words मण्डूक, विकर्ण, कुषीतक, भ्रू , .कुलटा and to words headed by कल्याणी which get इन substituted for its !ast vowel; exempli gratia, for example सौपर्णेयः, दात्तेयः शौभ्रेय, माण्डूकेयः, , वैकर्णेयः, कौषीतकेयः, भ्रौवेयः,.कौलटेयः, काल्याणिनेयः etc: cf Kas on P. IV.I. 1 19-127; (2) to the words पितृष्वसृ and मातृष्वसृ with the vowel ऋ elided and to the word . दुष्कुल, पितृष्वसेय:, मातृष्वसेयः, दौष्कुलेयः, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.133, 134, 142: (3) to the word कलि in the sense of Sama, to the word अग्नि in the sense of 'dedicated to a deity' ( सास्य देवता ) as also to the words नदी, मही, वाराणसी, श्रावस्ती and others in the Saisika senses; e. g. कालेयं साम, आग्नेयः, नादेयम् महियम् et cetera, and others cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.8, 33, 97: (4) to the words तूदी, धुर् , कपि, ज्ञाति, व्रीहि and शालि in the specified senses; confer, compare P. IV. 3.94, IV. 4.77, V. 1.127, V. 2.2.
(1)fifth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties, नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्यः (2) the mute letter ण् indicating the substitution of vrddhi ( confer, compare P. VII. 2. 115-117) when attached to affixes; (3) the consonant ण् at the beginning of roots which is changed into न्; the roots, having ण् at the beginning changeable to न्, being called णोपदेशः (4) ण् as a substitute for न् following the letters ऋ, ॠ, र्, and ष् directly, or with the intervention of consonants of the guttural and labial classes, but occurring in the same word, Such a substitution of ण् for न् is called णत्व; confer, compare P.VIII.4. I-39. For णत्व in Vedic Literature; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)V.20-28, T.Pr.VII.1-12. V.Pr.III.84-88;(5) the consonant ण् added as an augment to a vowel at the beginning of a word when it follows the consonant ण् at the end of the previous word; confer, compare P. VIII. 3. 32. In the Vedic Pratisakhyas this augment ण् is added to the preceding ण् and looked upon as a part of the previous word.
ṇa(1)krt affix अ, added optionally to the roots headed by ज्वल् and ending with कस् in the first conjugation (see ज्वलिति a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) in the sense of agent, and necessarily to the root श्यै, roots ending with अा and the roots व्यध्, आस्रु, संस्रु, इ with अति, सो with अव, हृ with अव, लिह्, श्लिष् and श्वस्, to the roots दु and नी without any prefix and optionally to ग्रह्: e. g. ज्वालः or ज्वलः, अवश्यायः, दायः, धायः, व्याधः, अास्त्रावः, संस्त्रवः, अत्यायः, अवसायः, अवहार:, लेहः, श्लेष:, श्वास:, दावः, नाय:, ग्रहः or ग्राहः: ; in the case of the root ग्रह् the affix ण is applied by ब्यवस्थितविभाषा, the word ग्रहः meaning a planet and the word ग्राहः meaning a crocodile; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.140-143; (2) krt affix अ in the sense of verbal activity ( भाव ) applied along with the affix अप् to the root अद् with नि; exempli gratia, for exampleन्यादः निघसः; confer, compare P. III.3.60; (3) krt affix ण prescribed by the Varttikakara after the roots तन्, शील्. काम, भक्ष् and चर् with आ; confer, compare P.III.1.140 Vart 1, and III. 2.l Vart. 7; (4) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added along with टक् also, to a word referring to a female descendant (गेीत्रस्त्री) if the resultant word indicates censure ; e. g. गार्भ्यः गार्गिकः confer, compare P. IV.1.147, 150; (5) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added also with the affix फिञ्, to the word फाण्टाहृति: (6) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of 'a game' added to a word meaning 'an instrument in the game'; exempli gratia, for example दाण्डा, मौष्टा: confer, compare P. IV.2.57: {7) taddhita affix. affix अ added to the word छत्त्र and others in the sense of 'habituated to' exempli gratia, for example छात्र:, शैक्षः, पौरोहः चौर:: confer, compare P.IV. 4.62: (8) taddhita affix. affix अ added to the words अन्न, भक्त, सर्व, पथिन् , यथाकथाच, प्रज्ञा, श्रद्धा, अर्चा, वृत्तिं and अरण्य in the senses specified with respect to each ; exempli gratia, for example आन्नः (मनुष्यः) भाक्तः ( शालिः ), सार्वे ( सर्वस्मै हितम् ), पान्थः, याथाकथाचं (कार्यम्), प्राज्ञः or प्रज्ञावान् , श्राद्धः or श्रद्धावान् , अार्चः or अर्चावान् , घार्त्तः or वृत्तिमान् and अारण्याः ( सुमनसः ); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV. 4.85, 100, V.1.10, 76, 98, V.2.101 and IV.2.104 Varttika.
ṇackrt affix अ in the sense of reciprocal action, added to any root; the affix णच् is to get necessarily the affix अञ् added to it followed by the feminine. affix ई exempli gratia, for example व्यावकोशी, व्यावहासी; confer, compare Kas, on P.III.3.43 and P. V. 4.14.
ṇamulkrt affix अम्, causing vrddhi to the final vowel or to the penultimate अ, (!) added to any root in the sense of the infinitive in Vedic Literature when the connected root is शक्: exempli gratia, for example अग्निं वै देवा विभाजं नाशक्नुवन; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 4.14; (2) added to any root to show frequency of a past action, when the root form ending with णमुल् is repeated to convey the sense of frequency : exempli gratia, for example भोजं भोजं व्रजति, पायंपायं व्रजति, confer, compare Kas on P. III. 4.22; (3) added to a root showing past action and preceded by the word अग्रे, प्रथम or पूर्व, optionally along with the krt affix क्त्वा; exempli gratia, for example अग्रेभोजं or अग्रे भुक्त्वा व्रजति; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.24;(4) added in general to a root specified in P.III.4.25 to 64, showing a subordinate action and having the same subject as the root showing the main action, provided the root to which णमुल् is added is preceded by an antecedent or connected word, such as स्वादुम् or अन्यथा or एवम् or any other given in Panini's rules; confer, compare P. III.4.26 to III.4.64; exempli gratia, for example स्वादुंकारं भुङ्क्ते, अन्यथाकारं भुङ्क्ते, एवंकारं भुङ्क्ते, ब्राह्मणवेदं भोजयति, यावज्जीवमधीते, समूलकाषं कषति, समूलघातं हन्ति, तैलपेषं पिनष्टि, अजकनाशं नष्टः et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.26-64. When णमुल् is added to the roots कष्, पिष्, हन् and others mentioned in P. III. 4. 34 to 45, the same root is repeated to show the principal action. The word ending in णमुल् has the acute accent (उदात) on the first vowel (confer, compare P.VI.I. 94) or on the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare P. VI.1.193.
ṇijantaroots ending in णिच्; the term is generally applied to causal bases of roots. See णिच्.
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
ṇopadeśaa root mentioned in the Dhatupatha by Panini as beginning with ण् which subsequently is changed to न् ( by P. VI. 1.65) in all the forms derived from the root; e. g. the roots णम, णी and others. In the case of these roots the initial न् is again changed into ण् after a prefix like प्र or परा having the letter र् in it and having a vowel or a consonant of the guttural or labial class intervening between the letter र् and the letter न्; e. g. प्रणमति, प्रणयकः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.14.
ṇyuṭkrt affix अन in the sense of ' skilled agent ' applied (1) to the root गै to singular. exempli gratia, for example गायनः, गायनी, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III 1.147, also गाथकः, गाथिका by P. III. 1.146: (2) to the root हा (III. P. and III.A. also) if ' rice ' or ' time ' be the sense conveyed: e. g. हायना व्रीहयः, हायनः संवत्सरः .confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.148.
ṇvul(1)a very general krt affix अक, causing vrddhi and acute accent to the vowel preceding the affix, applied to a root optionally with तृ (i. e. तृच् ) in the sense of an agent e. g कारकः हारकः also कर्ता, हर्ता ; Cf P. III. 1.33; (2) krt. affix अक applied optionally with the affix तुम् to a root when it refers to an action for which another action is mentioned by the principal verb; e. g. भोजको व्रजति or भोक्तुं व्रजति; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्; P. III. 3.10; (3) krt affix अक, necessarily accompanied by the feminine. affix अा added to it, applied to a root if the sense given by the word so formed is the name of a disease or a proper noun or a narration or a query ; e. g. प्रवाहिका, प्रच्छर्दिका, शालभञ्जिका, तालभञ्जिका, कारिक, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.108, 109, 110.
t(1)personal ending of the third pers singular. Atm: confer, compare P. III. 4.78, which is changed to ते in the perfect tense and omitted after the substitute चिण् for च्लि in the aorist; confer, compare P.VI.4.04: (2) personal ending substituted for the affix थ of the Paras. 2nd person. plural in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional for which, तात्, तन and थन are substituted in Vedic Literature, and also for हि in case a repetition of an action is meant; confer, compare P. III. 4. 85, 10l as also VII. 1. 44, 45 and III. 4. 2-5. cf P. III. 4. 85 and III. 4. 10I ; (3) taddhita affix. affix त applied to the words कम् and शम् e. g. कन्तः, शन्त:, confer, compare P. V. 2. 138: (4) taddhita affix. affix त applied to दशत् when दशत् is changed to श; confer, compare दशानां दशतां शभावः तश्च प्रत्ययः । दश दाशतः परिमाणमस्य संधस्य शतम्, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. l. 59; (5) .general term for the affix क्त of the past passive voice. part, in popular use: (6) a technical term for the past participle affixes (त) क्त and तवत् ( क्तवतु ) called निष्ठा by Panini; confer, compare P. I.1.26; the term त is used for निष्ठI in the Jainendra Vyakararna.
tacchīlādithe triad of senses तच्छील्, तद्धर्म and तत्साधुकारिन् possessed by the agent of an action, in connection with which the affixes तृन् , इष्णुच् et cetera, and others are prescribed (cf P.III. 2.184 et cetera, and others) which (affixes) hence are called ताच्छीलिक; confer, compare अयं तच्छीलादिष्वर्थेषु तृन् विधीयते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 2.146, e. g. कर्ता कटान्.
tattvādarśaname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by M. M. Vasudev Shastri Abhyankar in 1889 A. D. The commentary is more critical than explanatory,wherein the author has given the purpose and the gist of the important Paribhasas and has brought out clearly the differences between the school of Bhattoji and the school of Nagesa in several important matters.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
tadantavidhia peculiar feature in the interpretation of the rules of Panini, laid down by the author of the Sutras himself by virtue of which an adjectival word, qualifying its principal word, does not denote itself, but something ending with it also; confer, compare येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य P.I.1.72.This feature is principally noticed in the case of general words or adhikaras which are put in a particular rule, but which Occur in a large number of subsequent rules; for instance, the word प्रातिपदिकात्, put in P.IV.1.1, is valid in every rule upto the end of chapter V and the words अतः, उतः, यञः et cetera, and others mean अदन्ताद् , उदन्तात् , यञन्तात् et cetera, and others Similarly the words धातोः (P.III.1.91) and अङ्गस्य (P.VI. 4.1 ) occurring in a number of subsequent rules have the adjectival words to them, which are mentioned in subsequent rules, denoting not only those words,but words ending with them. In a large number of cases this feature of तदन्तविधि is not desirable, as it, goes against arriving at the desired forms, and exceptions deduced from Panini's rules are laid down by the Varttikakara and later grammarians; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 16,23, 31 : also Mahabhasya on P.I.1.72.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
tantraa word frequently used in the Mahabhasya in the sense of 'intended ' or विवक्षित. The word is used always in the neuter gender like प्रमाणम्; confer, compare तन्त्रं तरनिर्देशः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.33, II. 2.34, नात्र निर्देशस्तन्त्रम् On P. I. 2.39, III.3.38, III. 4.21,IV.1.92 et cetera, and others The word is also explained in the sense of 'impor. tant'.
tamaptaddhita affix. affix तम added without a change of sense, i. e. in the sense of the base itself to noun bases possessing the sense of excellence, as also to verbal forms showing excellence: e. g. आढ्यतमः, दर्शनीयतमः, श्रेष्ठतमः, पचतितमाम् confer, compare Kas on P. V. 3.55-56. The affix तमप् is termed घ also; confer, compare P. I. 1.22.
taltad, affix त (l) added in the sense of collection (समूह) to the words ग्राम, जन, बन्धु and सहाय and गज also, exempli gratia, for example ग्रामता, जनता et cetera, and others; (2) added in the sense of 'the nature of a thing' ( भाव ) along with the affix त्व optionally, as also optionally along with the affixes इमन्, ष्यञ् et cetera, and others given in P. V. 1.122 to 136; e. g. अश्वत्वम्, अश्वता; अपतित्वम्, अपतिता; पृथुत्वम्, पृथुता, प्रथिमा; शुक्लता, शुक्लत्वम्, शौक्ल्यम्, शुक्लिमा; et cetera, and others, cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.1.119 to 136. Words ending with the affix तल् are always declined in the feminine gender with the feminine. affix अा ( टाप् ) added to then; confer, compare तलन्तः (शब्दः स्त्रियाम् ), Linganusasana 17.
tasi(1)taddhita affix.affix तस् showing direction by means of a thing exempli gratia, for example वृक्षमूलतः, हिमवत्तः; confer, compare Kas on P.IV.3.114,115; (2) taddhita affix.affix तस् applied in the sense of the ablative case. case and substituted for the ablative case. case affix: exempli gratia, for example ग्रामतः अागच्छति, चोरतो विभेति; sometimes the affix is applied instead of the instrumental or the genitive case also. e. g. वृत्ततः न व्यथते for वृत्तेन न व्यथते; देवा अर्जुनतः अभवन्, for अर्जुनस्य पक्षे अभवन् confer, compare Kas, on P.V.4.44-49.
(1)a technical term for the genitive case affix used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; (2) the taddhita affix. affix तल् which is popularly called ता as the nouns ending in तल् id est, that is त are declined in the feminine. gender with the feminine. affix अा added to them.
tācchabdya(1)use of a word for that word (of which the sense has been conveyed); the expression तादर्थ्या त्ताच्छब्द्यम् is often used by grammarians just like a Paribhasa; confer, compare अस्ति तादर्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यम् । बहुव्रीह्यर्थानि पदानि बहुव्रीहिरिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.29; similarly तृतीयासमास;for तृतीयार्थानि पदानि M.Bh. on P.I.1.30 or समासार्थे शास्त्रं समासः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.43; (2) use of a word for that word of which there is the vicinity; confer, compare अथवा साहचर्यात् ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति। कालसहचरितो वर्णः। वर्णॊपि काल एव; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.27 where the letter उ is taken in the sense of time required for its utterance, the reason being that sound and time go together; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.I.2.70, IV.3.48, V.2.79; (3) use of a word for that which resides there; confer, compare तात्स्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति M.Bh. on V.4.50 Vart. 3. At all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. places, the use of one word for another is by Laksana.
tiṅarthasenses possessed by the personal endings of verbs, viz. कारक ( कर्ता or कर्म ) संख्या and काल. For details see Vaiyakaranabhusanasara. तिङ्निघात the grave accent for the whole word (सर्वेनिघात्) generally possessed by a verbal form when it is preceded by a word form which is not a verb; confer, compare तिङतिङ: P. VIII. 1.28.
tīyataddhita affix. affix तीय in the sense of पूरण added to the words द्वि and त्रि before which त्रि is changed into तृ. e, g. द्वितीयः, तृतीयः confer, compare P. V. 2.54, 55; the taddhita affix. affix अन् ( अ ) is added to the words ending in तीय to mean a section e. g. द्वितीयॊ भागः confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.48.
tṛ(1)substitute prescribed for the last vowel of the word अर्वन् so as to make it declinable like words marked with the mute letter ऋ; (2) common term for the krt affixes तृन् and तृच् prescribed in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity; the taddhita affix. affixes ईयस्, and इष्ठ are seen placed after words ending in तृ in Vedic Literature before which the affix तृ is elided; exempli gratia, for example करिष्ठः, दोहीयसी; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.59.
tṛctaddhita affix. affix तृ, taking the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ), (1) added to a root optionally with अक ( ण्वुल् ) in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity, the word so formed having the last vowel acute; exempli gratia, for example कर्ता कारक:; हर्ता हारकः; confer, compare P. III I.133; (2) prescribed in the sense of 'deserving one' optionally along with the pot. passive voice. participle. affixes; exempli gratia, for example भवान् खलु कन्यया वोढा, भवान् कन्यां वहेत्, भवता खलु कन्या वोढव्या, वाह्या, वहनीया वा; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.169
tṛjantaa word ending in the affix तृच् and hence getting the guna vowel (i. e. अ ) substituted for the final vowel ऋ before the Sarvanamasthana (i. e. the first five) case affixes; confer, compare तृजन्त आदेशॊ भविष्यति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII. 1.96.
tṛtīyāthe third case; affixes of the third case ( instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति ) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an instrument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: confer, compare P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sentence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word id est, that is हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; exempli gratia, for example पृथग्देवदत्तेन et cetera, and others स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the taddhita affix. affix after them has been elided; exempli gratia, for example पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; confer, compare P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; exempli gratia, for exampleतुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; confer, compare P. II.3.72.
tṛn(1)krt affix तृ with the acute accent on the first vowel of the word formed by its application, applied to any root in the sense of 'an agent' provided the agent is habituated to do a thing, or has his nature to do it, or does it well; exempli gratia, for example वदिता जनापवादान् , मुण्डयितारः श्राविष्ठायना -भवन्ति वधूमूढाम् , कर्ता कटम्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.2.135; words ending with तृन् govern the noun connected with them in the accusative case; (2) the term तृन् , used as a short term ( प्रत्याहार ) standing for krt affixes beginning with those prescribed by the rule लटः शतृशानचौ (P.III.2.124) and ending with the affix तृन् (in P.III.3.69); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.69.
taittirīyaprātiśākhyacalled also कृष्णयजुःप्रातिशाख्य and hence representing possibly all the different branches or Sakhas of the कृष्णयजुर्वेद, which is not attributed definitely to a particular author but is supposed to have been revised from time to time and taught by various acaryas who were the followers of the Taittiriya Sakha.The work is divided into two main parts, each of which is further divided into twelve sections called adhyayas, and discusses the various topics such as letters and their properties, accents, euphonic changes and the like, just as the other Pratisakhya works. It is believed that Vararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya wrote Bhasyas on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, but at present, only two important commentary works on it are available(a) the 'Tribhasyaratna', based upon the three Bhasyas mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. as the title shows, written by Somayarya and (b) the 'Vaidikabharana' written by Gopalayajvan. For details see Introduction to 'Taittiriya Pratisakhya' edition Govt Oriental Library Series, Mysore.
tnaptaddhita affix. affix त्न, added to the word नव optionally with the affixes तनप् and ख before which नव is changed to नू ; e. g. नूत्नम् , नूतनम्, नवीनम् ; confer, compare P. V. 4, 30 Vart. 6.
thakankrt affix थक added to the root गै 'to sing,' in the sense of agent provided he is skilled: e. g. गाथकः ; confer, compare P. III. 1.146.
thā(1)taddhita affix. affix था in the sense of question or reason ( हेतु ) added to the pronoun किम् in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कथा देवा आसन् ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.3.26; (2) taddhita affix. affix था (थाल् according to Panini) which gets caesura or avagraha after प्रत्न, पूर्व, विश्व, इम and ऋतु; exempli gratia, for example प्रत्नथेतिं प्रत्नSथा, पूर्वथेति पूर्वऽथा et cetera, and others: confer, compare Vij. Pr.V.12: (3) taddhita affix. affix थाल् in the sense of इव added to the words प्रत्न, पूर्व, विश्व and इम in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example तं प्रत्नथा पूर्वथा विश्वथेमथा; cf Kas, on P. V.3.111: (4) taddhita affix. affix थाल् in the sense of mannar ( प्रक्रार) added to किन् , pronouns excepting those headed by द्वि, and the word बहु; exempli gratia, for example सर्वथा, confer, compare P V.3.23.
dadhipayaādia class of compound words headed by the word दधिपयस् which are not compounded as समाहारद्वन्द्व which ends in the neuter gender and singular number; exempli gratia, for example दधिपयसी, शिववैश्रवणौ, श्रद्धातपसी et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II. 4.14.
dayānandasarasvatia brilliant Vedic scholar of the nineteenth century belonging to North India who established on a sound footing the study of the Vedas and Vyakarana and encouraged the study of Kasikavrtti. He has written many books on vedic studies.
dāmanyādia class of words headed by the word दामनि to which the taddhita affix छ is added without any change of sense: exempli gratia, for exampleदामनीयः, औलपीयः confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V, 3.116.
deinaṇtaddhita affix. affix added to the word मध्य, before which. मध्य is changed to मध्यम्: e. g. माध्यान्दिन उद्गायति;cf मध्य मध्ये दिनण् चास्मात् M.Bh. on IV. 3.60.
durgasiṃhathe famous commentator of the Katantra sutras, whose Vrtti on the sutras is the most popular one. It is called , कातन्त्रसूत्रवृत्ति or कातन्तवृत्ति or दौर्गसिंहीवृत्ति , also. A work on Paribhasas named परिभाषावृति, in which Paribhasas are explained and established as based on the Katantra Vyakarana sutras, is attributed to Durgasimha. It is doubtful whether this commentator Durgasimha is the same as Durgacarya, the famous commentator of Yaska's Nirukta. There is a legend that Durgasimha was the brother of Vikramaditya, the founder of the Vikrama Era. Besides the gloss on the Katantra sutras, some grammar works such as a gloss on the unadi sutras, a gloss ( वृत्ति ) on Kalapa-Vyakarana Sutras, a commentary on Karakas named षट्कारकरत्न, Namalinganusasana and Paribhasavrtti are ascribed to Durgasimha. Some scholars believe that the term अमरसिंह was only a title given to Durgasimha for his profound scholarship, and it was Durgasimha who was the author of the well-known work Amarakosa.
durgottamaa grammarian who wrote a work on genders called लिङ्गानुशासन and also a commentary on it.
durvalācāryaa grammarian who wrote a treatise on grammar दुर्वलीयव्याकरण, named after him. Besides this treatise, he has written commentaries on Nagesa's Laghumanjusa and Paribhasendusekhara.
dūṣakaradodbhedaname of a commentary, on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesa, believed to have been written by Gopalacārya Karhadkar, a grammarian of the 19th century and attributed to Bhimacarya. This commentary, which was written to criticize the commentary written by Visnusastri Bhat, was again criticized in reply by Visnusastri Bhat in his Ciccandrika ( चिच्चन्द्रिका ). See विष्णुशास्त्री भट.
dṛṣṭāntasimilar instance,generally quoted to explain effectively some rules or conventions laid down; confer, compare ननु चायमप्यस्ति दृष्टान्तः समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिरिति । तद्यथा गर्गाः शतं दण्ड्यन्तामिति M.Bh. on P.I. 1. 7.
devatādvandvaa compound word called द्वन्द्व whose members are names of deities; the peculiarities of this Dvandva compound are (a) that generally there are changes at the end of the first member, by virtue of which it appears similar to a word ending in the dual number, and (b) that both the words retain their original accents.exempli gratia, for example इन्द्रासोमौ, सौमापूषणा, अग्नीषोमाभ्यां, मित्रावरुणाभ्याम् ; for changes, confer, compare P. VI.3.25-31; for accent, confer, compare देवताद्वन्द्वानि चानामन्त्रितानि (द्विरुदात्तानिं) । इन्द्राबृहस्पतिभ्याम्, इन्द्राबृहस्पती इति त्रीणि Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.II.48, 49; confer, compare also देवताद्वन्द्वे च P. VI, 2.141.
deśaliterally place; (l) original place of articulation: confer, compare अदेशे वा वचनं व्यञ्जनस्य, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 5; (2) place of origin; उच्चारणस्थान: (3) place of inferential establishment of a Paribhasa et cetera, and others परिभाषादेशः उद्देशः Par. Sek. paribhāṣā. 2,3; (4) passage of the Samhita text, confer, compare.Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 59.
deśya(1)taddhita affix. affix in the sense of almost similar; see देशीयर् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; (2) (words) current in popular use or language, although not sanctioned by rules of grammar; confer, compare देश्याः सूत्रनिबन्धाः क्रियन्ते M.Bh. on P. V. 3.55: confer, compare देश्या देष्टव्याः साधुत्वेन प्रतिपाद्या:, Kaiyata on V. 3.55; probably Kaiyata had a difficulty in explaining the word देश्य in the old way meaning ' current in use', as many words called bad words, introduced from other languages were current at his time which he was reluctant to term देश्य.
doṣoddharaṇaname of a commentary on Nagesa's Paribhisendusekhara written by मन्नुदेव of the eighteenth century.
doṣoddhāraname of a commentary on Nagesa's Laghusabdendusekhara written by मन्नुदेव of the eighteenth century.
dyataddhita affix. affix द्य, applied to इदम् in the sense of ' a day ', when इदम् is changed into अ ( अश् ) ; e. gअद्य, confer, compare P.V. 3.22 Vart. 5.
dyastaddhita affix. affix द्यस्, applied to the word समान when समान is changed into स; exempli gratia, for example सद्यः, confer, compare सद्यः परुत्परार्यैषमः P. V.3.22: confer, compare also समानस्य सभावो द्यश्चाहनि P. V. 3.22, Vart. 1
dyutādia class of roots headed by the root द्युत् , the aorist sign च्लि after which gets ( अ ) अङ् substituted for it: exempli gratia, for example अद्युतत् , अश्वितत्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.1.55. and I.3.91. द्युस् taddhita affix. affix द्युस् applied to the word उभय in the sense of a day; exempli gratia, for example उभयद्युः confer, compare P. V. 3.22 Vart. 7.
dyotakaindicative, suggestive; not directly capable of expressing the sense by denotation; the nipatas and upasargas are said to be 'dyotaka' and not 'vacaka' by standard grammarians headed by the Varttikakara; confer, compare निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P.I.2.45 Varttika 12; confer, compare Kaiyata also on the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf also निपाता द्योतकाः केचित्पृथगर्थाभिधायिनः Vakyapadiya II.194;, गतिवाचकत्वमपि तस्य ( स्थाधातोः ) व्यवस्थाप्यते, उपसर्गस्तु तद्योतक एव commentary on Vakyapadiya II. 190; confer, compare पश्चाच्छ्रोतुर्बोधाय द्योतकोपसर्गसंबन्ध: Par. Sek. on Pari. 50; cf also इह स्वरादयो वाचकाः चादयो द्योतका इति भेदः Bhasa Vr. om P.I.1.37.The Karmapravacaniyas are definitely laid down as dyotaka, confer, compare क्रियाया द्योतको नायं न संबन्धस्य वाचकः । नापि क्रियापदाक्षेपीं संबन्धस्य तु भेदकः Vakyapadiya II.206; the case affixes are said to be any way, 'vacaka' or 'dyotaka'; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युर्द्वित्त्वादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya II. 165.
dyotanaconveyance of sense indirectly or by suggestion, and not directly. See द्योतक a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
dyotya(sense)conveyed by suggestion indirectly and not directly expressed, as in the case of karmapravacaniyas, the krt affixes and the tad, affixes: confer, compare अनुशब्दो लक्षणे द्योत्ये कर्मप्रवचनीयसंज्ञो भवति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 4.84.
dravyasubstance, as opposed to गुण property and क्रिया action which exist on dravya. The word सत्त्व is used by Yaska, Panini and other grammarians in a very general sense as something in completed formation or existence as opposed to 'bhava' or kriya or verbal activity, and the word द्रव्य is used by old grammarians as Synonymous with सत्त्व; confer, compare चादयोSसत्वे। चादयो निपातसंज्ञा भवन्ति न चेत्सत्वे वर्तन्ते, confer, compare Kas on P. I. 4.57; confer, compare S.K. also on P. I.4.57. (2)The word द्रव्य is also found used in the sense of an individual object, as opposed to the genus or generic notion ( अाकृति ); confer, compare द्रव्याभिधानं व्याडिः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64. Vart. 45.(3)The word द्रव्य is found used in the sense of Sadhana or means in Tait. Prati. confer, compare तत्र शब्दद्रव्याण्युदाहरिष्यामः । शब्दरूपाणि साधनानि वर्णयिष्यामः Tai, Pr. XXII. 8.
dravyābhidhānadenotation of द्रव्य or individual object as the sense of words as opposed to आकृत्यभिधान i, e. denotation of the general form possessed by objects of the same class; of द्रव्याभिधानं व्याडिः P. I.2.64 Vart. 45. See द्रव्य.
dvanddhaname of a compound, formed of two or more words used in the same case, showing their collection together; confer, compare चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II.2.29. Out of the four meanings of the indeclinable च, viz. समुच्चय अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार, the dvandva compound is sanctioned in the last two senses only called इतरेतरद्वन्द्व (as in प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ et cetera, and others) and समाहारद्वन्द्व (as in वाक्त्वचम् et cetera, and others) respectively For details see Mahabhasya on II.2.29. The dvandva compound takes place only when the speaker intends mentioning the several objects together id est, that is when there is, in short, सहविवक्षा orयुगपदधिकरणवचनता; confer, compare अनुस्यूतेव मेदाभ्यां एका प्रख्योपजायते । यस्यां सहविवक्षां तामाहुर्द्वन्द्वैकशेषयोः । Sr. Pr. II. The gender of a word in the द्वन्द्वसमास is that of the last word in the case of the इतरेतरद्वन्द्व, while it is the neuter gender in the case of the समाहारद्वन्द्व.
dvārādia class of words headed by the word द्वार् which get the augment ऐच् (id est, that is ऐ or औ ) placed before the letter य or व in them, instead of the substitution of vrddhi, when a taddhita affix marked with the mute letter ञ्,ण्, or क् is added to them; e. g. दौवारिकः सौवस्तिकः, शौवम्, शौवनम् et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, VII .3,4.
dviguname of a compound with a numeral as the first member. The compound is looked upon as a subdivision of the Tatpurusa comPoundThe dvigu compound, having collection as its general sense, is declined in the neuter gender and singular number; when it ends in अ the feminine. affix ङी is added generally, e. g. पञ्चपात्रम्, त्रिभुवनम्, पञ्चमूली. The Dvigu comPound also takes place when a karmadharaya compound, having a word denoting a direction or a numeral as its first member, (a) has a taddhita affix. affix added to it exempli gratia, for example पञ्चकपाळः (पुरोडाशः), or (b) has got a word placed after it in a compound e. g. पशञ्चगवधनः or (c) has a collective sense exempli gratia, for example पञ्चपूली; confer, compare तद्वितार्थोत्तरपदसमाहारे च ( P. II.1.51 ) also, cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. and S. K. om P.II.1.51,52.
dvitvadoubling, reduplication prescribed for (I) a root in the perfect tense excepting the cases where the affix अाम् is added to the root before the personal ending: exempli gratia, for example बभूव, चकार, ऊर्णुनाव et cetera, and others cf P. VI. 1.1,2; (2) a root before the vikarana affixes सन्, यङ्, श्लु and चङ् e. g. बुभूषति, चेक्रीयते, चर्करीति, जुहोति, अचीकरत् et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VI. 1.9l l ; (3) a word ending in अम् . ( णमुल् ) in the sense of repetition, e. g. स्मारं स्मारं वक्ष्ये, भोजं भोजं व्रजति confer, compare आभीक्ष्ण्ये द्वे भवतः P. VIII. 1.12 Vart. 7; (4) any word (a) in the sense of constant or frequent action, (b) in the sense of repetition, (c) showing reproach, or scorn, or quality in the sense of its incomplete possess-, ion, or (d) in the vocative case at the beginning of a sentence in some specified senses; reduplication is also prescribed for the prepositions परि, प्र, सम्, उप, उद्, उपरि, अधि, अघस् in some specified senses confer, compare P. VIII. 1.1 to 15. A letter excepting हृ and र्, is also repeated, if so desired, when (a) it occurs after the letter ह् or र् , which is preceded by a vowel e g. अर्क्कः अर्द्धम् et cetera, and others cf VIII. 4.46; or when (b) it is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant e. g. दद्ध्यत्र, म्द्धवत्र confer, compare P. VIII. 4.47. For details see Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VIII. 4.46-52. The word द्वित्व is sometimes used in the sense of the dual number; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.2.51. The words द्वित्व, द्विर्वचन and द्विरुक्त are generally used as synonymanuscript. Panini generally uses the word द्वे. For द्वित्व in Vedic Literature confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1.4; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 1-8 V, Pr. IV. 101-118.
dvisandhia kind of विवृत्ति or interval of time in the pronunciation of two consecutive vowels, which as a result of two euphonic changes has a vowel preceded by a vowel and followed also by a vowel: e. g. अभूदुभा उ अंशवे, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 44.
ghaa technical term in the Jainendra Vyakarana for the term सर्वनामस्थान of Panini used for the first five case affixes सु, औ, अस्, अम्, ओ and इ (nominative case. and acc. plural neuter gender); cf P. I. I. 42, 43.
dharmadefined as ऋषिसंप्रदाय, the traditional practices laid down by the sages for posterity; confer, compareकेवलमृषिसंप्रदायो धर्म इति कृत्वा याज्ञिक्राः शास्त्रेण अनुविदधते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika I ; cf also धर्मशास्त्रं in एवं च कृत्वा धर्मशास्त्रं प्रवृत्तम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64, as also धर्मसूत्रकाराः in नैवेश्वर आज्ञापयति नापि धर्मसूत्रकाराः पठन्ति अपवादैरुत्सर्गा बाध्यन्तामिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. l.47; (2) religious merit, confer, compare धर्मोपदेशनमिदं शास्त्रमस्मिन्ननवयवेन शास्त्रार्थः संप्रतीयते , Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. I. 84, cf also ज्ञाने घमै इति चेत्तथाSधर्मः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika l ; ' 3) property possessed by a thing or a letter or a word. e. g. वर्णधर्म; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 2.29; cf also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1, 55, II. 3.33, VIII. 1. 4. confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 8, 13 XIV. 1 et cetera, and others: ( 4 ) the characteristic of being in a substance; in the phrase अयं घटः the dharma viz.घटत्व is predicated of this (इदम्) or, in other words the designation pot ( घटसंज्ञा ) is the predication; the explanation in short, can be given as घटत्ववान् इदंपदार्थः or घटाभिन्नः इदंपदार्थ:
dhamekīrtia Jain scholar called by the name कीर्ति also, who was the author of धातुप्रत्ययपञ्जिक्रा and रूपावतार a well-known treatise on roots; confer, compare बोपदेवमहाग्राहग्रस्तो वामनदिग्गजः । कीर्तेरेव प्रसङ्गेन माधवेन समुद्धृतः । He is believed to have been the first grammarian who arranged the sutras of Panini according to the subject matter.
dhātupāṭha(1)name given in general to the several collections of roots given generally with their meanings by grammarians belonging to the various different schools of grammar. These collections are given as necessary appendices named खिल to their grammars by the well known grammarians of Sanskrit such as Panini, Sakatayana, and others; (2) a small treatise on roots written by Bhimasena of the 14th century.
dhātupāṭhavṛttia commentary on the Dhatupatha by Nagesa.
dhātupārāyaṇaa grammatical treatise dealing with roots written as a supplementary work by Jumaranandin to his grammar work called Rasavati,which itself was a thoroughly revised and enlarged edition of the रसवती a commentary written by Kramadisvara on his own grammar named संक्षिप्तसार.Jumaranandin is believed to have been a Jain writer who lived in the fifteenth century A.D.
dhātuvṛttia general term applied to a treatise discussing roots, but specifically used in connection with the scholarly commentary written by Madhavacārya, the reputed scholar and politician at the court of the Vijayanagara kings in the fourteenth century, on the Dhatupatha ot Panini. The work is generally referred to as माधवीया-धातुवृति to distinguish it from ordinary commentary works called also धातुवृत्ति written by grammarians like Wijayananda and others.
dhātvartheliterally meaning of a root, the verbal activity, named क्रिया or भावः . confer, compare धात्वर्थः क्रिया; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2. 84, III.2.115. The verbal activity is described generally to be made up of a series of continuous subordinate activities carried on by the different karakas or agents and instruments of verbal activity helping the process of the main activity. When the process of the verbal activity is complete, the completed activity is looked upon as a substantive or dravya and a word denoting it, such as पाक,or याग does not get conjugational affixes, but it is regularly declined like a noun.Just as स्वार्थ, द्रब्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या, and कारक are given as प्रातिपदिकार्थ, in the same manner क्रिया, काल, पुरुष, वचन or संख्या, and कारक are given as धात्वर्थ, as they are shown by a verbal form, although strictly speaking verbal activity (क्रियorभाव) alone is the sense of a root, as stated in the Mahbhasya. For details see Vaiyak.Bh.Sara, where it is said that fruit ( फल) and effort ( ब्यापार ) are expressed by a root, confer, compare फलव्यापारयोर्धातुः. The five senses given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are in fact conveyed not by a root, but by a verb or अाख्यात or तिडन्त.
dhunātaddhita affix. affix called Vibhakti taddhita affix. affix, applied to the word इदम् when इदम् is changed into अ; confer, compare इदमः अश्भावः धुना च प्रत्ययः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.17.
dhvanitasuggested, as opposed to उक्त expressed; the word is found frequently used in the Paribhasendusekhara and other works in connection with such dictums as are not actually made, but indicated in the Mahabhasya.
dhvePersonal-ending of the second. person. Pl. Atmanepada in the present and perfect tenses. न् fifth consonant of the dental class of consonants which is possessed of the properties घोष, नादानुप्रदान, अल्पप्राणत्व, संवृतकण्ठत्व and अानुनासिक्य. In Panini's grammar the nasal consonant न् (a)is added as an augment prescribed\ \नुट् or नुम् which originally is seen as न्, but afterwards changed into अनुस्वार or परसवर्ण as required, as for example in पयांसि, यशांसि, निन्दति, वन्दति et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII. 1.58-73, VII. 1.7983; VIII. 3.24; (b) is changed into ण् when it directly follows upon ऋ, ॠ, र् or ष् or even intervened by a vowel, a semivowel except ल् , a guttural consonant, a labial consonant or an anusvara; confer, compare P. VIII. 4.1.1-31. (c) is substituted for the final म् of a root, e. g. प्रशान्, प्रतान् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.64, 65.
na(1)the consonant न् (see न् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) with the vowel added to it for facility of utterance, confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21 ; (2) taddhita affix. affix न added to words headed by पामन् in the sense of possession; exempli gratia, for example पामनः, हेमनः et cetera, and others, cf P. V. 2.100; (3) taddhita affix. affix न as found in the word ज्योत्स्ना derived from ज्योतिष्, cf P. V. 2.114; (4) unadi affix न as found in the word स्योनः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI.4.19; (5) the krt affix नङ् as also नन् prescribed after the roots यज्, याच्, यत्, विच्छ्, प्रच्छ्, रक्ष् and स्वप् , e g. यज्ञ:, याञ्चा, प्रश्नः et cetera, and others, cf P. III. 3.90, 91; (6) the negative particle न given by Panini as नञ् and referred to in the same way, which (id est, that is न.) when compounded with a following word is changed into अ or अन् or retained in rare cases as for instance in नभ्राट्, नासत्यौ, नक्षत्रम् et cetera, and others cf P. VI.3.73-75;(7) taddhita affix.affix न (नञ्) applied to the words स्त्री and पुंस् in senses given from P. IV. 1.92 to V. 2.1 e. g. स्त्रैणं, पौंस्नम् confer, compare IV. 1.87.
nañtatpuruṣaa compound with न as its first member which is changed into अ or अन्, or remains unchanged, the indeclinable न (नञ् ) possessing any one of the six senses given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. under न (6); e. g अब्राह्मणः, अनश्वः, नमुचिः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VI. 3 73-77.
naḍādi(1)a class of words headed by the word नड to which the taddhita affix.affix आयन ( फक् ) is added in the sense of गोत्र ( grandchild and further descendants); e. g, नाडायनः, चारायणः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.1. 99; (2) a class of words headed by नड to which the affix ईय (छ) is added, together with the augment क placed after the word and before the affix, in the four senses prescribed in P. IV.2. 67-70; exempli gratia, for example नडकीयम् , प्लक्षकीयम् ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2. 91.
natacerebralized; changed into ण्. The change of the consonant न् into ण् is called नति in the old Pratisakhya works; confer, compare स्पर्शे वोष्मणि चानते Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 11.
natiliterallyinclination, bending down; the word is used generally in the technical sense of 'cerebralization' but applied to the change of न् into ण् as also that of स् into ष्; confer, compare दन्त्यस्य मूर्धन्यापत्तिर्नतिः, V. Pr.I. 42. The root नम् is used in the sense of 'cerebralizing ' or 'being cerebralized' very frequently in the Pratisakhya works; exempli gratia, for example the word नम्यते is used in the sense of 'is cerebralized'; नमयति in the sense of 'cerebralizes' and नामिंन् in the sense of 'causing cerebralization'; confer, compare ऋकारादयो दश नामिन: स्वराः, पूर्वो नन्ता नतिषु नम्यमुत्तरम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 27.
nadīa technical term applied in Panini's grammar to words in the feminine gender ending in ई and ऊ excepting a few like स्त्री,श्री, भ्रू and others; it is optionally applied to words ending in इ and उ, of course in the feminine. gender, before case affixes of the dative, ablative, genitive and locative singular. The term was probably in use before Panini and was taken from the feminine. word नदी which was taken as a model. Very probably there was a long list of words like नद् ( नदट्) चोर ( चोरट् ) et cetera, and others which were given as ending in ट् and to which the affix ई (ङीप्) was added for forming the feminine base;the first word नदी so formed, was taken as a model and all words in the list and similar others were called नदी; confer, compare P. I 4. 3-6.
nandikeśvaraan ancient grammarian who has written a short work in verses on grammar in general, which is named नन्दकेश्वरकारिकासूत्र. There is a scholarly commentary upon it written by उपमन्यु.
nandyādiname giver to the class of roots beginning with the root नन्द्, which includes the roots वाश्, मद् , दूष्, वृध् , शुभ् and others as given in the Ganapatha.These roots have the affix ल्यु id est, that is अन added to them in the sense of agent. exempli gratia, for example नन्दनः, वाशनः, मदनः, वर्धनः, शोभनः, रमणः, दर्पणः, जनार्दनः, यवनः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.1.134.
napuṃsaka1it. a word which is neither in the masculine nor in the feminine gender; a word in the neuter gender; confer, compare R.Pr.XIII.7,Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.II. 32; III.138; confer, compare P. VI.3.75, on which the Siddhanta Kaumudi observes न स्त्री पुमान् नपुंसकम् । स्त्रीपुंसयोः पुंसकभावो निपातनात् ।
napuṃsakasvarathe special accent viz. the acute accent for the first vowel for nouns in the neuter gender excepting those that end in इस्, as prescribed by नबिषयस्यानिसन्तस्य Phitsutra 11; confer, compare नपुंसकस्वरो मा भूत् M.Bh. on P.VII.1.77.
navyamataa term used for the differentiation in views and explanations held by the comparatively new school of Bhattoji Diksita, as contrasted with those held by Kasikakara and Kaiyata; the term is sometimes applied to the differences of opinion expressed by Nagesabhatta in contrast with Bhagttoji Diksita. For details see p.p. 23-24 Vol.VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D.E. Society, Poona.
(1)taddhita affix. affix ना as also नाञ् prescribed respectively after वि and नञ् (negative particle न ) in the sense of separation; e. g. विना, नाना ; (2) case ending ना substituted for the inst. instrumental case. singular. affix टा (called also अाङ् in ancient grammars) in the masculine gender after words called घि i. e. words ending in इ or उ excepting such as are called नदी.
nāda(1)voice; resonance; tone; the sound caused by the vibration of the vocal chords in the open glottis when the air passes through them; confer, compare वर्णाोत्पत्त्यनन्तरभावी अनुरणनरूपः शब्दः नादः Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.9; confer, compare also संवृते कण्ठे यः शब्दः क्रियते स नादसंज्ञो भवति Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 4; (2) sound, articulate sound generally without sense, which is momentary; (3) the highest sound. See परा.
nādi(a root)beginning with न् in the Dhatupatha as contrasted with one beginning with ण् ( णादि ) whose ण् is, of course, changed into न् when conjugational and other forms are arrived at; confer, compare सर्वे नादयो णोपदेशा नृतिनन्दिनदिनक्किनाटिनाथृनाधृनॄवर्जम् M.Bh. on VI. 1.65.
nāpuṃsakathe same as नपुंसुकलिङ्ग or neuter gender; confer, compare नापुंसकं भवेत्तस्मिन् । नपुंसके भवं नापुसकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV. 1.3.
nāmthe genitive affix आम् together with the augment न् prefixed to it; confer, compare नामि P. VI. 4. 3.
nāmaliṅgānuśāsanaa treatise in which words with their genders are given. The term is usually used in connection with the great dictionary by अमरसिंह which is called नामालिङ्गानुशासन or अमरकोष.
nāvyavadhānanecessary intervention; confer, compare येन नाव्यवधानं तेन व्यवहितेपि वचनप्रामाण्यात्, a statement which is looked upon as a general statement of the ' nature of Paribhasa occurring in the Mahabhasya on P. VII. 2.3.
nāsikāsthānaa place in the nose where a nasal letter such as ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न् or म् and anusvara get a tinge of nasalization while passing through it. The yama letters e.g the nasal क्, ख् ,ग् , घ् get nasalization in the utterance of the words पलिक्किनः, चख्ख्नतुः, अग्ग्निः, घ्घ्नन्ति; confer, compare यमो नाम वर्णः प्रातिशाख्ये प्रसिद्धः S.K. on P. VIII. 2. 1. confer, compare also यमानुस्वारनासिक्यानां नासिके Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 74, Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 12.
niḥsaṃdhideprived of Samdhi; without any euphoric combination or euphonic change.
nigamaa statement in the Vedic passage; a Vedic passage; sacred tradition or Vedic Literature in general; confer, compare the frequent expression इत्यपि निगमो भवति where निगम means 'a vedic word, given as an instance'; if also means 'Veda'; confer, compare निगम एव यथा स्यात् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII. 2. 64. Durgacarya says that the word it also used in the sense of 'meaning';confer, compare तत्र खले इत्येतस्य निगमा भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.III.9. Durgacarya has also explained the word as गमयन्ति मन्त्रार्थान् ज्ञापयन्ति इति निगमाः, those that make the hidden meaning of the Mantras very clear.
nighaṇṭua name given to a collection of words which are mainly Vedic. In ancient times such collections were possibly very general and numerous and the works or treatises on derivation such as the Nirukta of Yaska were based upon them; confer, compare निघण्टवः कस्मात् । निगमा इमे भवन्ति । छन्दोभ्यः समाहृत्य समाहृत्य समाम्नातास्ते निगन्तव एव सन्तो निगमनान्निघण्टव उच्यन्ते इत्यौपमन्यवः । अपि वा आहननादेव स्युः | समाहता भवन्ति । यद्वा समाहृता भवन्ति (Nir.I.1) where the word is derived from गम्,or हन् or हृ. The word निघण्टु is taken as synonymous with निगम by Durgacarya.
nitya(1)eternal, as applied to word or Sabda in contrast with sound or dhvani which is evanescent (कार्य ). The sound with meaning or without meaning,made by men and animals is impermanent; but the sense or idea awakened in the mind by the evanescent audible words on reaching the mind is of a permanent or eternal nature; confer, compare स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायामादुपजायते; confer, compare also व्याप्तिमत्त्वा्त्तु शब्दस्य Nir.I.1 ; (2) constant; not liable to be set aside by another; confer, compare उपबन्धस्तु देशाय नित्यम्, न रुन्धे नित्यम्। नित्यशब्दः प्राप्त्यन्तरानिषेधार्थः T.Pr.I.59, IV.14; (3) original as constrasted with one introduced anew such as an augment; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.VI.14; (4) permanently functioning, as opposed to tentatively doing so; confer, compare नित्यविरते द्विमात्रम् Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.37; (5) unchangeable, permanent, imperishable; confer, compare अयं नित्यशब्दोस्त्येव कूटस्थेष्वविचालिषु भावेषु वर्तते M.Bh. on P. VIII. 1.4; (6) always or invariably applying, as opposed to optional; the word in this sense is used in connection with rules or operations that do not optionally apply; confer, compare उपपदसमासो नित्यसमासः, षष्ठीसमासः पुनार्वेभाषा; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.2.19; (7) constant,as applied to a rule which applies if another simultaneously applying rule were to have taken effect, as well as when that other rule does not take effect; confer, compare क्वचित्कृताकृतप्रसङ्गमात्रेणापि नित्यता Par. Sek. Pari 46. The operations which are nitya according to this Paribhasa take effect in preference to others which are not 'nitya', although they may even be 'para'; confer, compare परान्नित्यं बलवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 42.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
nipātanaa word given, as it appears, without trying for its derivation,in authoritative works of ancient grammarians especially Panini;confer, compareदाण्डिनायनहास्तिनयनo P. VI.4.174, as also अचतुरविचतुरo V.4.77 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others The phrase निपातनात्सिद्धम् is very frequently used by Patanjali to show that some technical difficulties in the formation of a word are not sometimes to be taken into consideration, the word given by Panini being the correct one; confer, compare M.Bh.on I.1.4, III.1.22 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others; cf also the usual expression बाधकान्येव निपातनानि. The derivation of the word from पत् with नि causal, is suggested in the Rk Pratisakhya where it is stated that Nipatas are laid down or presented as such in manifold senses; cf Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XII.9; cf also घातुसाधनकालानां प्राप्त्यर्थं नियमस्य च । अनुबन्घविकाराणां रूढ्यर्थ च निपातनम् M. Bh Pradipa on P. V.1.114: confer, comparealso Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.27.
niyatasvara(1)an affix whose accent is definitely given by an indicatory mute letter applied to it; confer, compare M.Bh. on I.1.3; (2) the grave accent; a syllable with a grave accent; grave vowel; confer, compare नियतस्वरोदये R.Pr.XI.25; (3) name of a Samdhi when a visarga is changed into रेफ and then omitted and the preceding vowel is lengthened; cf ह्रस्वस्याकामनियता उभाविमौ R.Pr. IV.9; confer, compare also P. VIII.3.14 and VI.3.111.
niyama(1)restriction; regulation; binding; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in connection with a restriction laid down with reference to the application of a grammatical rule generally on the strength of that rule, or a part of it, liable to become superfluous if the restriction has not been laid down; confer, compare M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on I. 3.63, VI. 4.11; confer, compare also the frequently quoted dictum अनियमे नियमकारिणी परिभाषा; (2) limitation as contrasted with विकल्प or कामचार; confer, compare अनेकप्राप्तावेकस्य नियमो भवति शेषेष्वनियम; पटुमृदुशुक्लाः पटुशुक्लमृदव इति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2. 34 Vart. 2; (3) a regulating rule; a restrictive rule, corresponding to the Parisamkhya statement of the Mimamsakas, e. g. the rule अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; the grammarians generally take a rule as a positive injunction avoiding a restrictive sense as far as possible; confer, compare the dictum विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान्. Par. Sek. Pari. 100; the commentators have given various kinds of restrictions,. such as प्रयोगनियम,अभिधेयनियम,अर्थनियम, प्रत्ययनियम, प्रकृतिनियम, संज्ञानियम et cetera, and otherset cetera, and others; (4) grave accent or anudatta; confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वं नियतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 9; see नियत (2).
niravakāśapossessed of no scope of, or occasion for, application; the word अनवकाश is also used in this sense. The niravakasa rules always set aside the general rules which are always present wherever they i. e. the niravakasa rules are possible to be appliedition Niravakasatva is looked upon as one of the two criteria for बाध or sublation, the other one being सामान्यविशेषभाव as illustrated by the usual maxim, known as तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय. See तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय; confer, compare also अनवकाशा हि विधयो बाधका भवन्ति Par. Sek. on Pari. 64.
nirdhāraṇa(1)selection of one or some out of many; confer, compare जातिगुणाक्रियाभिः समुदायादेकदेशस्य पृथक्करणं निर्धारणम् । मनुष्याणां मनुष्येषु वा क्षत्रियः शूरतमः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.2.10 as also on II.3.4l; (2) determined or definite sense to the exclusion of another, generally on the strength of the indeclinable एव which is expressed or understood. The word नेिर्धारण is used for अवधारण in this sense; confer, compare यत एवकारस्ततोन्यत्रावधारणम् a maxim used as a Paribhasa by some grammarians; cf; also धातोस्तन्निमित्तस्यैव । धात्ववधारणं यथा स्यात्तन्निमित्तावधारणं मा भूदिति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 1.81.
nirvṛttiproduction of the effect; production of the activity by the agents or instruments of activity called Karakas; confer, compare साधनं हि क्रियां निर्वर्तयति तामुपसर्गो विशिनष्टि M.Bh. on II. 2.19 Vart. 2.
nīlakaṇṭhadīkṣitaa famous grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote an independent work on the Paribhasas in Vyakarana named Paribhasavrtti. This Vrtti is referred to in the Paribhsendusekhara by Nagesabhatta and the views expressed in it are severely criticised in the commentary गदा.
nuṭaugment न् prefixed (l) to the genitive case plural ending in अाम् after a crude base ending in a short vowel, or in ई or ऊ of feminine bases termed nadi, or in अा of the feminine affix ( टाप् डाप् or चाप्); e g. वृक्षाणाम्, अग्नीनाम् , कर्तॄणाम् , कुमारीणाम् , मालानाम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII.1.54; (2) to the affix अाम् after numerals termed षट् and the numeral चतुर् as also after the words श्री, ग्रामणी and गो in Vedic Literature, e. g. षण्णाम् , पञ्चानाम् , चतुर्णाम्, श्रीणाम्, ग्रामणीनाम्, गोनाम्; confer, compare P. VII.1.55,56, 57; (3) to the part of a root possessed of two consonants, as also of the root अश् of the fifth conjugation after the reduplicative syllable ending in अा, which is substituted for अ; exempli gratia, for example अानञ्ज, व्यानशे; confer, compare P.VII.4. 71,72; (4) to the affix मतुप् after a base ending in अन् as also to the affixes तरप् and तमप् after a base ending in न् in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example मूर्धन्वती, अक्षण्वन्तः, सुपथिन्तरः et cetera, and others;confer, compare P. VIII. 2.16, 17: (5) to the initial vowel of the second member of a compound having अ of नञ् as the first member; e. g. अनघः, confer, compare P.VI. 3.74; (6) to any vowel after न् which is preceded by a short vowel and which is at the end of a word exempli gratia, for example कुर्वन्नास्ते, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.32.
numaugment न् inserted after the last vowel (1) of a root given in the Dhātupātha as ending with mute इ; exempli gratia, for example निन्दति, क्रन्दति, चिन्तयति, जिन्वति et cetera, and others; confer, compare P VII.1.58; (2) of roots मुच् and others before the conjugational sign अ ( श ); e. g. मुञ्चति, लुम्पति; confer, compare P. VII.1.59; (3) of the roots मस्ज्, नश्, रध्, जभ् and लभ् under certain specified conditions, exempli gratia, for exampleमङ्क्त्वा, नंष्टा, रन्धयति, जम्भयति, लम्भयति, आलम्भ्यः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VII. 1.60-69; (4) of declinable bases marked with the mute indicatory letter उ, ऋ or ऌ as also of the declinable wording अञ्च् from the root अञ्च् and युज्, exempli gratia, for exampleभवान्, श्रेयान् , प्राङ्, युङ्, confer, compare Kās. on P. VII.1. 70, 71; (5) of the declinable base in the neuter gender, ending with a vowel or with any consonant excepting a semivowel or a nasal, before a case-ending termed Sarvanāmasthāna; exempli gratia, for example यशांसि, वनानि, जतूनि et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kās. on VII.1.72; (6) of the declinable base in the neuter gender, ending with इ, उ,ऋ or ऌ before a case-ending beginning with a vowel; exempli gratia, for example मधुने, शुचिने et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kās, on P. VII.1.73; (7) of the affix शतृ ( अत् of the present tense. participle.) under certain conditions याती यान्ती; पचन्ती, सीव्यन्ती, confer, compare I .VII.78-8 : (8) of the word अनडुह् before the nominative case. and vocative case. singular. affix सु;exempli gratia, for example अनड्वान् , हे अनड्वन्, confer, compare P. VII.1. 82; (9) of the words दृक्, स्ववस् and स्वतवस् before the nominative case. and vocative case.singular.affix सु in Vedic Literature, e. g. यादृङ्, स्ववान् , स्वतवान् , confer, compare P.VII.1.83.
nyāyamaxim, a familiar or patent instance quoted to explain similar cases; confer, compare the words अग्नौकरवाणिन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II 2.24, अपवादन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 3.9, अविरविकन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1. 88, 89, IV. 2.60, IV.3.131, V. 1.7, 28, VI 2. 11 ; कुम्भीधान्यन्याय M.Bh. on P.I. 3.7, कूपखानकन्याय M.Bh. I. 1. Āhnika 1, दण्डिन्याय M.Bh. on P. VIII.2.83, नष्टाश्वदग्धरथन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.50 प्रधानाप्रधानन्याय M.Bh.on P.II.1.69,VI. 3. 82, प्रासादवासिन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I . 1.8, मांसकण्टकन्याय M.Bh. on P.I.2.39, लट्वानुकर्षणन्याय M.Bh. on Siva Sūtra 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, शालिपलालन्याय M.Bh on P. 1.2.39,सूत्रशाटकन्याय M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12. The word came to be used in the general sense of Paribhāsās or rules of interpretation many of which were based upon popular maxims as stated in the word लोकन्यायसिद्ध by Nāgesa. Hemacandra has used the word न्याय for Paribhāsa-vacana. The word is also used in the sense of a general rule which has got some exceptions, confer, compare न्यायैर्मिश्रानपवादान् प्रतीयात् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) which lays down the direction that 'one should interpret the rule laying down an exception along with the general rule'.
nyāyasiddhaestablished by a maxim; with full justification; confer, compare न्यायसिद्धमेवैतत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on V.1.19.The word is used as opposed to ज्ञापकसिद्ध by Nāgesa; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 1.
nyāyyaproper; fully justified न्यायादनपेतम् confer, compare P.IV.4.92; correct; regular; confer, compare यञञ्भ्यामुक्तत्वादर्थस्य न्याय्योत्पत्तिर्न भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.3.1 where Kaiyata however, explains the word differently. Kaiyata states that न्याय्य means a general rule; confer, compareउत्सर्गः पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्ध्या न्याय्य उच्यते Kaiyata on P. II. 3.1. By Pūrvācārya he possibly refers to the writers of the Prātiśākhyas and other similar works by ancient grammarians, where the word nyāya is used in the sense of 'a general rule '. See the word न्याय a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
nyāsa(1)literally position, placing;a word used in the sense of actual expression or wording especially in the sūtras; confer, compare the usual expression क्रियते एतन्न्यास एव in the Mahābhāșya, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.11, 1.1.47 et cetera, and others; (2) a name given by the writers or readers to works of the type of learned and scholarly commentaries on vŗitti-type-works on standard sūtras in a Śāstra; e. g. the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. is given to the learned commentaries on the Vŗtti on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśasana as also on the Paribhāşāvŗtti by Hemahamsagani. Similarly the commentary by Devanandin on Jainendra grammar and that by Prabhācandra on the Amoghāvŗtti on Śākatāyana grammar are named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. In the same way, the learned commentary on the Kāśikāvŗtti by Jinendrabuddhi, named Kāśikāvivaranapaňjikā by the author, is very widely known by the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. This commentary Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. was written in the eighth century by the Buddhist grammarian Jinendrabuddhi, who belonged to the eastern school of Pānini's Grammar. This Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. has a learned commentary written on it by Maitreya Rakșita in the twelfth century named Tantrapradipa which is very largely quoted by subsequent grammarians, but which unfortunately is available only in a fragmentary state at present. Haradatta, a well-known southern scholar of grammar has drawn considerably from Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. in his Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta., which also is well-known as a scholarly work.
pacādia class of roots headed by the root पच् to which the kŗt. affix अ ( अच् ) is added in the sense of 'an agent'; e. g. श्वपचः, चोरः, देवः et cetera, and others The class पचादि is described as अाकृतिगण and it is usual with commentators to make a remark पचाद्यच् when a kŗt affix अ is seen after a root without causing the vŗddhi substitute to the preceding vowel or to the penultimate vowel अ. confer, compare अज्विधिः सर्वधातुभ्यः पठ्यन्ते च पचादय: । अण्बाधनार्थमेव स्यात् सिध्यन्ति श्वपचादघ: Kāś. on P. III. 1.134.
pañcālapadavṛttithe usage or the method of the Pañcālas; the eastern method of euphonic combinations, viz. the retention of the vowel अ after the preceding vowel ओ which is substituted for the Visarga; e. g. यो अस्मै; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 12; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI. 19. This vowel अ which is retained, is pronounced like a short ओ or अर्धओकार by the followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāņāyaniya branches of the Sāmavedins; confer, compare commentary on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI. 19 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padakāṇḍa(1)a term used in connection with the first section of the Vākyapadīya named ब्रह्मकाण्ड also, which deals with padas, as contrasted with the second section which deals with Vākyas; (2) a section of the Așțadhyāyī of Pāņini, which gives rules about changes and modifications applicable to the pada, or the formed word, as contrasted with the base (अङ्ग) and the suffixes. The section is called पदाधिकार which begins with the rule पदस्य P.VIII.1.16. and ends with the rule इडाया वा VIII. 3. 54.
padakāraliterally one who has divided the Samhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada-text. The term is applied to ancient Vedic Scholars शाकल्य, आत्रेय, कात्यायन and others who wrote the Padapātha of the Vedic Samhitās. The term is applied possibly through misunderstanding by some scholars to the Mahābhāsyakāra who has not divided any Vedic Samhitā,but has, in fact, pointed out a few errors of the Padakāras and stated categorically that grammarians need not follow the Padapāțha, but, rather, the writers of the Padapāțha should have followed the rules of grammar. Patañjali, in fact, refers by the term पदकार to Kātyāyana, who wrote the Padapātha and the Prātiśākhya of the Vājasaneyi-Samhitā in the following statement--न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम्। यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.1. 109; VI. 1. 207; VIII. 2.16; confer, compare also अदीधयुरिति पदकारस्य प्रत्याख्यानपक्षे उदाहरणमुपपन्नं भवति ( परिभाषासूचन of व्याडि Pari. 42 ) where Vyādi clearly refers to the Vārtika of Kātyāyana ' दीधीवेव्योश्छन्दोविषयत्वात् ' P. I. 1.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I. The misunderstanding is due to passages in the commentary of स्कन्दस्वामिन् on the Nirukta passage I. 3, उब्वटटीका on ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य XIII. 19 and others where the statements referred to as those of Patañjali are, in fact, quotations from the Prātiśākhya works and it is the writers of the Prātiśākhya works who are referred to as padakāras by Patañ jali in the Mahābhāsya.
padapāṭhathe recital of the Veda text pronouncing or showing each word separately as detached from the adjoining word. It is believed that the Veda texts were recited originally as running texts by the inspired sages, and as such, they were preserved by people by oral tradition. Later on after several centuries, their individually distinct words were shown by grammarians who were called Padakāras. The पदपाठ later on had many modifications or artificial recitations such as क्रम, जटा, घन et cetera, and others in which each word was repeated twice or more times, being uttered connectedly with the preceding or the following word, or with both. These artificial recitations were of eight kinds, which came to be known by the term अष्टविकृतयः.
padasaṃskārapakṣaan alternative view with वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष regarding the formation of words by the application of affixes to crude bases. According to the Padasamskāra alternative, every word is formed independently, and after formation the words are syntactically connected and used in a sentence. The sense of the sentence too, is understood after the sense of every word has been understood; confer, compare सुविचार्य पदस्यार्थं वाक्यं गृह्णन्ति सूरयः Sira. on Pari. 22. According to the other alternative viz. वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष, a whole sentence is brought before the mind and then the constituent individual words are formed exempli gratia, for example राम +सु, गम् + अ + ति । Both the views have got some advantages and some defects; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 56.
padādhikārathe topic concerning padas id est, that is words which are regularly formed, as contrasted with words in formation. Several grammatical operations, such as accents or euphonic combinations, are specifically prescribed together by Pāņini at places which are said to be in the Padādhikāra formed by sūtras VIII.1.16 to VIII.3.54.
padārthameaning of a word, signification of a word; that which corresponds to the meaning of a word; sense of a word. Grammarians look upon both-the generic notion and the individual object as Padārtha or meaning of a word, and support their view by quoting the sūtras of Pāņini जात्याख्यायामेकस्मिन् बहुवचनमन्यतरस्याम् I. 2.58 and सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ I. 2.64; confer, compare किं पुनराकृतिः पदार्थ अाहोस्विद् द्रव्यम् । उभयमित्याह । कथं ज्ञायते । उभयथा ह्याचार्येण सूत्राणि प्रणीतानि । अाकृतिं पदार्थे मत्वा जात्याख्यायामित्युच्यते | द्रव्यं पदार्थे मत्वा सरूपाणामित्येकशेष अारभ्यते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in I. 1. first Āhnika. In rules of grammar the meaning of a word is generally the vocal element or the wording, as the science of grammar deals with words and their formation; confer, compare स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा, P. I. 1. 68. The possession of vocal element as the sense is technically termed शब्दपदार्थकता as opposed to अर्थपदार्थकता; confer, compare सोसौ गोशब्दः स्वस्मात्पदार्थात् प्रच्युतो यासौ अर्थपदार्थकता तस्याः शब्दपदार्थकः संपद्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.44 V. 3. The word पदार्थ means also the categories or the predicaments in connection with the different Śāstrās or lores as for instance, the 25 categories in the Sāmkhyaśāstra or 7 in the Vaiśeșika system or 16 in the NyayaŚāstra. The Vyākaranaśāstra, in this way to state, has only one category the Akhandavākyasphota or the radical meaning given by the sentence in one strok
para(l)subsequent,as opposed to पूर्व or prior the word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a rule or an operation prescribed later on in a grammar treatise; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; ( 2 ) occurring after ( something ); confer, compare प्रत्ययः परश्च P. III. 1.1 and 2; confer, compare also तत् परस्वरम् T.Pr. XXI.2.(3)The word पर is sometimes explained in the sense of इष्ट or desired, possibly on the analogy of the meaning श्रेष्ठ possessed by the word. This sense is given to the word पर in the rule विप्रातिषेधे परं कार्यं with a view to apply it to earlier rules in cases of emergency; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवति M.Bh. on I.1.3.Vārt, 6; परशब्दः इष्टवाची M.Bh. on I. 2.5, I. 4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7; II. 1.69 et cetera, and others
paratvaposteriority; mention afterwards; the word is frequently used in works on grammar in connection with a rule which is mentioned in the treatise after another rule; the posterior rule is looked upon as stronger than the prior one, and is given priority in application when the two rules come in conflict although technically they are equally strong: confer, compare परत्वादल्लोप: ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.4 Vaart 7; 'परत्वाच्छीभाव: I. 1.11 et cetera, and others
paranipātaliterallyplacing after; the placing of a word in a compound after another as contrasted with पूर्वनिपात . A subordinate word is generally placed first in a compound, confer, compare उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्; in some exceptional cases however, this general rule is not observed as in the cases of राजदन्त and the like, where the subordinate word is placed after the principal word, and which cases, hence, are taken as cases of परनिपात. The words पूर्व and पर are relative, and hence, the cases of परनिपात with respect to the subordinate word ( उपसर्जन ) such as राजद्न्त, प्राप्तजीविक et cetera, and others can be called cases of पूर्वनिपात with respect to the principal word ( प्रधान ) confer, compare परश्शता: राजदन्तादित्वात्परनिपात: Kaas. on P. II.1.39.
paravalliṅgatāpossession of the gender of the final member of a compound word, which, in tatpurusa compounds, is the second of the two or the 1ast out of many; confer, compare परवल्लिङ्गद्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयो: (P. II.4 26) इति परवाल्लिङ्गता यथा स्यात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.V.4.68.
paravipratiṣedhathe conflict between two rules (by occurrence together) when the latter prevails over the former and takes place by. Virtue of the dictum विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I. 4.2; confer, compare कथं ये परविप्रतिषेधाः M.Bh. on I.4.2.
parāthe highest eternal voice or word, the highest and the most lofty of the our divisions of language (वाक), viz. परा,पश्यन्ती, मध्यमा and वैखरी, which, (परा), philosophically is identified with नाद ( व्रह्म ) or शब्दब्रह्म . It is described as वर्णादि -विशेषरहिता चेतनमिश्रा सृष्ट्युपयोगिनी जगदुपादानभूता कुण्डलिनीरूपेण प्राणिनां मूलाधारे वर्तते | कुण्डलिन्याः प्राणवायुसंयोगे परा व्यज्यते | इयं निःष्पन्दा पश्यन्त्यादयः सस्पन्दा अस्या विवर्तः । इयमेव सूक्ष्मस्फोट इत्युच्यते ।
parikṛṣṭadragged to the latter: confer, compare Puspasūtra III. 114; the word परि stands for पर here.
paripannaa kind of Samdhi or coalescence characterized by the change of the consonant म् into an anusvara, as by मोनुस्वारः P. VIII. 3.23, before a sibilant or before रेफ; confer, compare रेफोष्मणोरुदययोर्मकारः अनुस्वारं तत् परिपन्नमाहुः R.Pr.IV.5; confer, compare also सम्राट्शब्द: परिसंपन्नापवाद: R.Pr.IV.7.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
paribhāṣāpradīpārcisa scholarly independent treatise on Vyakarana Paribhasas written by Udayamkara Pathaka, called also Nana Pathaka, a Nagara Brahmana, who lived at Benares in the middle of the 18th century A. D. He has also written commentaries on the two Sekharas of Naagesa.
paribhāṣābhāskara(1)a treatise on the Paribhasas in Panini's grammar written by Haribhaskara Agnihotri, son of Appajibhatta Agnihotri, who lived in the seventeenth century : (2) a treatise on Paniniparibhasas, as arranged by Siradeva, written by Sesadrisuddhi,
paribhāṣāvṛttia general name given to an explanatory independent work on Paribhasas of the type of a gloss on a collection of Paribhasas,irrespective of the system of grammar, whether it be that of Panini, or of Katantra, or of Jainendra or of Hemacandra. The treatises of Vyadi (Panini system), Durgasimha and BhavamiSra (Katantra system), Purusottamadeva and Siradeva (Panini system), Abhyankar (Jainendra system) and others are all known by the name Paribhasavritti.
paribhāṣāsegraha'a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his paribhasa.work named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundredition
paribhāṣenduśekharathe reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis.
parisaṃkhyānaliterally enumeration; enunciation;mention ; the word is found generally used by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras at the end of their Varttikas. The words वक्तव्यम्, वाच्यम् , and the like, are similarly usedition
parihāra(1)removal of a difficulty, confer, compare अन्यथा कृत्वा चोदितमन्यथा कृत्वा परिहारं: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1.7. Vart. 3: (2) repetition in the Padapatha, Kramapatha et cetera, and others e. g अकरित्यक:. In this sense the word is found in the neuter gender ; confer, compare रेफपरिहाराणि Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. III. 1.1.
parokṣaused as an adjective of the word भूत meaning 'past tense'; literally behind the eyes, unnoticed by the eyes. The word is generally used in the sense of remote or long (past) or 'perfect'. For the alternative explanation of the word परोक्ष, confer, compare कथंजातीयकं पुनः परोक्षं नाम । केचित्तावदाहुः वर्षशतवृत्तं परोक्षमिति । अपर आहुः क्रटान्तरितं परोक्षमिति । अपर आहुर्ह्याहवृत्तं त्र्यहंर्वृत्तं चेति । M.Bh. on परोक्षे लिट् P. III.2.115.
paryudāsa(1)exclusion; negation with a view to exclude; one of the two senses ( प्रसज्यप्रतिषेध and पर्युदास ) of the negative particle नञ्, generally found in cases when the particle नञ् is compounded with a noun, and not used independently with a verbal form or a verbal activity ; e. g. अब्राह्मणः; अनचि च ; confer, compare अनपुंसकात् । नायं प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधो नपुंसकस्य नेति । किं तर्हि । पर्युदासोयं यदन्यन्नपुंसकादिति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.43: cf also प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधः स्यात् क्रियया सह यत्र नञ् । पयुदास: स विज्ञेयो यत्रोत्तरपदेन नञ् ॥ (2) removal in general, not by the use of a negative particle: confer, compare पाठात्पर्युदासः कर्तव्यः । शुद्धानां पठितानां संज्ञाः कर्तव्या । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.27 Vaart. 3.
parśvādia class of words headed by the word पर्शु to which the taddhita affix. affix अ ( अण् ) is added without any change of sense provided the words पर्शु and others, to which the affix अ is to be added mean fighting clans; e. g. पार्शव , आसुरः, राक्षसः, दाशार्हः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kaas. on V. 3.117.
paśyantīname of the second out of the four successive stages in the origination or utterance of a word from the mouth. According to the ancient writers on Phonetics, sound or word ( वाक् ) which is constituted of air ( वायु ) originates at the Mulaadhaaracakra where it is called परा. It then springs up and it is called पश्यन्ती in the second stage. Thence it comes up and is called मध्यमा in the third stage; rising up from the third stage when the air strikes against the vocal chords in the glottis and comes in contact with the different parts of the mouth, it becomes articulate and is heard in the form of different sounds. when it is called वैखरी; confer, compare वैखर्या मध्यमायाश्च पश्यन्त्याश्चैतदद्भुतम् । अनेकतीर्थभेदायास्त्रय्या वाचः परं पदम् Vaakyapadiya I. 144, and also confer, compare पश्यन्ती तु सा चलाचलप्रतिबद्धसमाधाना संनिविष्टज्ञेयाकारा प्रतिलीनाकारा निराकारा च परिच्छिन्नार्थप्रत्ययवभासा संसृष्टार्थप्रत्यवभासा च प्रशान्तसर्वार्थप्रत्यवभासा चेत्यपरिमितभेदा । पश्यन्त्या रूपमनपभ्रंशामसंकीर्ण लोकव्यवह्यरातीतम् । commentary on Vaakyapadiya I. 144. confer, compare also तत्र श्रोत्रविषया वैखरी । मध्यमा हृदयदशेस्था पदप्रत्यक्षानुपपत्त्या व्यवहारकारणम् । पश्यन्ती तु लोकव्यवहारातीता। योगिनां तु तत्रापि प्रकृतिप्रत्ययविभागावगतिरस्ति | परायां तु न इति त्रय्या इत्युक्तम् । Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on चत्वारि वाक्परिमिता पदानि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtracalled also by the name अष्टक or पाणिनीय-अष्टक; name given to the SUtras of Paanini comprising eight adhyaayaas or books. The total number of SUtras as commented upon by the writers of the Kasika and the Siddhaantakaumudi is 3983. As nine sUtras out of these are described as Vaarttikas and two as Ganasutras by Patanjali, it is evident that there were 3972 SUtras in the Astaka of Paanini according to Patanjali. A verse current among Vaiyakarana schools states the number to be 3996; confer, compare त्रीणि सूत्रसहस्राणि तथा नव शतानि च । षण्णवतिश्च सूत्राणां पाणिनिः कृतवान् स्वयम् । The traditional recital by Veda Scholars who look upon the Astadhyayi as a Vedaanga, consists of 3983 Sutras which are accepted and commented upon by all later grammarians and commentators. The SUtras of Paanini, which mainly aim at the correct formation of words, discuss declension, conjugation, euphonic changes, verbal derivatives, noun derivatives and accents. For details see Vol.VII, Vyaakarana Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's edition pp. 152-162.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
pāṇinisūtravṛttia gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiin his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known.
pāyaguṇḍa,pāyaguṇḍeA learned pupil of Nāgeśabhațța who lived in Vārǎņasī in the latter half of the 18th century A.D. He was a renowned teacher of Grammar and is believed to have written commentaries on many works of Nāgeśa, the famous among which are the 'Kāśikā' called also 'Gadā' on the Paribhāșenduśekhara,the'Cidasthimālā' on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara and the 'Chāyā' on the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.Bālambhațța Pāyaguņde, who has written a commentary on the Mitākșarā (the famous commentary on the Yajňavalkyasmŗti), is believed by some as the same as Vaidyanātha: while others say that Bālambhațța was the son of Vaidyanātha.
pitmarked with the mute letter प् which is indicative of a grave accent in the case of affixes marked with it, as for example, the affixes तिप् , सिप् and मिप् ; confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III. 1.4. A Sarvadhātuka affix, marked with the mute consonant प्, in Pāņiņi's Grammar has been described as instrumental in causing many operations such as (a) the substitution of guņa; (cf P. VII. 3 84,9l). (b) the prevention of guņa in the case of a reduplicative syllable as also in the case of the roots भू and सू ( confer, compare P. VII. 3.87, 88 ); (c) the substitution of Vŗddhi, (confer, compare P. VII. 3.89, 90 ), (d) the augments इ and ई in the case of the roots तृह् and ब्रू respectively ( confer, compare P. VII. 3.92, 93, 94 ), and (e) acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix in the case of the roots भी, हृी, भृ and others ( confer, compare P. VI. 1.192 ). A short vowel (of a root) gets त् added to it when followed by a kŗt affix marked with प्: exempli gratia, for example, विजित्य​, प्रकृत्य, et cetera, and others:(confer, compare P. VI. 1.71 ).
puṃvadbhāvarestoration of the masculine form in the place of the feminine one as noticed in compound words, formed generally by the Karmadhāraya and the Bahuvrīhi compounds, where the first member is declinable in all the three genders; e. g. दीर्घजङ्घः. This restoration to the masculine form is also noticed before the taddhita affix. affixes तस्, तर, तम्, रूप्य, पा​श, त्व as also before क्यङ् and the word मानिन्. For details, see P. VI, 3.34 to 42 and commentaries thereon. See also page 334, Vol. VII of the Pātańjala Mahābhāșya D. E. Society's edition.
puṃsmasculine: a word used in grammar in the पुंलिङ्ग or the masculine gender; cf स्त्रीपुंनपुंसकेषु Br. De1. varia lectio, another reading, I. 40, confer, comparealso असरूपाणां युवस्थविरस्त्रीपुंसानां विशेषश्चाविवक्षितः सामान्यं च विवक्षितम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.68 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1; confer, compare पुंस्प्रवाद. and पौंस्नानि नामानि.
puṃskamasculine nature, hence masculine gender. The word is generally found as a part of the word भाषितपुंस्क​ which means a word which is declined in the masculine and the feminine gender or in the neuter and the masculine gender in the same sense. For details see M. Bh, on P. VI.3.34.
puñjarājaa famous grammarian of the 12th century who wrote a learned commentaty on a part of the Vāky apadīya of Bhartŗhari in which he has quoted passages from famous writers and grammarians such as भामह, कुन्तक, वामन, हेमच​न्द्र and others. The name is found written as पुण्यराज also.
punaruktaa passage which is repeated in the क्रमपाठ and the other Pāțhas or recitals; the word is also used in the sense of the conventional repetition of a word at the end of a chapter. The word पुनर्वचन is used also in the same sense; confer, compare यथोक्तं पुनरुक्तं त्रिपदप्रभृति त्रिपदप्रभृति । T.Pr.I.6l: confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X.8 and 10.
punargrahaṇarecital of a word again in the Krama and other Pāțhas for a special purpose, although such a recital after three times is generally discouraged; confer, compare एवमर्थविशेषात् पुनरुक्तस्य ग्रहणं भवति ... Uv Bhāşya on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 177.
punarvidhānaprescribing the same affix or operation again, which geneally is attended with some purpose: confer, compare ण्वुलः क्रियार्थोपपदस्य पुनर्विधानं तृजादिप्रतिषेधार्थम्, P.III. 3.10 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I ; confer, compare also पुनर्विधानसामर्थ्यात् अध्यर्धपूर्वद्विगोर्लुङ् न​, Kāś. on P. V.1.57.
pum.or पुंस् masculine. It appears that both पुभ्, and पुंस् were current terms meaning 'masculine ' in ancient days. confer, compare पुमः खय्यम्परे P.VIII. 3.12. and पुंसोसुङ् P. VII. 1.89. Although पुभ् is changed to पुंस् before a word beginning with a hard consonant, still पुंस् is given as an independent word derived from the root पा confer, compare पातेर्डुम्सुन् Unādi S IV. 177; confer, compare also the expressions पुंवचन, पुंलिङ्ग and पुंयोग.
pūrvapakṣaliterally the view placed first for consideration which generally is the view of the objector and is generally refuted by the author's view called उत्तरपक्ष or सिद्धान्त.
pūrvapadaprakṛtisvararetention of the original acute accent of the first member in a compound as is generally noticed in the bahuvrihi compound and in special cases in other compounds; cf बहुव्रीहौ प्रकृत्या पूर्वपदम् and the following rules P. WI. 2.1 to 63.
pūrvapadārthaprādhānyaimportance in sense possessed by the first member of a compound as noticed generally in the case of the avyayibhava com pound, which hence is defined as पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानोव्ययीभावः M.Bh on P.I I. I.6, II.1.20, II. 1.49.
pūrvavipratiṣedhaconflict of two rules where the preceding rule supersedes the latter rule, as the arrival at the correct form requires it. Generally the dictum is that a subsequent rule should supersede the preceding one; cf विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; but sometimes the previous rule has to supersede the subsequent one in spite of the dictum विप्रतिषेधे परम्. The author of the Mahabhasya has brought these cases of the पूर्वविप्रतिषेध, which are, in fact, numerous, under the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् by taking the word पर in the sense of इष्ट 'what is desired '?; confer, compare इष्टवाची परशब्दः । विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवतीति l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.3; I.2, 5: I. 4.2: II.1.69, IV.1.85et cetera, and others confer, comparealso पूर्वविप्रतिषेधो नाम अयं र्विप्रतिषेधे परमित्यत्र परशब्दस्य इष्टवाचित्वाल्लब्धः सूत्रार्थः परिभाषारुपेण पाठ्यते Puru. Pari 108; for details see page 217 Vol. VII Mahabhasya D. E. Society's edition.
pūrvasthānikaa variety of antarangatva mentioned by Nagesa in the Paribhasendusekhara, where an operation, affecting a part of a word which precedes that portion of the word which is affected by the other operation, is looked upon as antaranga; e. g. the टिलोप in स्रजिष्ठ ( स्रग्विन् + इष्ठ ) is looked upon as अन्तरङ्ग with respect to the elision of विन् which is बहिरङ्ग. This kind of antarangatva is, of course, not admitted by Nagesa although mentioned by him; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 50,
pṛṣodarādia group of words, with irregularity in the coalescence of the two constituent members, collected together by Panini and mentioned together with the word पृषोदर at the head; confer, compare पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् P.VI. 3. 109; confer, compare also येषु लोपागमवर्णविकारः शास्त्रेण न विहिताः, दृश्यन्ते च तानि, यथोपदिष्टानि साधूनि भवन्ति । पृषोदरम् , बलाहकः, जीमूतः, पिशाचः, वृसी, मयूरः,पयोपवसनानाम्, दूढ्यः et cetera, and others Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VI. 3.109.
pauṣkarasādian ancient grammarian who belonged to the dynasty of पुष्करसद्, whose views are quoted by the Varttikakara and the writers of the Pratisakhya works: cf चयो द्वितीयाः शारि पौष्करसादेः P. VIII. 4.48 Vart. 3; confer, compare also व्यञ्जनपरः पौष्करसादेर्न पूर्वश्च ञकारम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V: confer, compare also Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIII. 16; XIV. 2, XVII. 6.
praa conventional term for हृस्व (short) generally applied to vowels in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
prakampadepression of the voice after raising it as noticed in connection with the utterance of the svarita vowels in certain cases and in certain Vedic schools with a view to show the svarita nature of the vowel distinctly, in spite of the fact that such a depression is generally looked upon as a.fault; confer, compare असन्दिग्धान् स्वरान् ब्रूयादविकृष्टानकाम्पितान् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.18 as also जात्योभिानिहितश्चैव क्षैप्रः प्रश्लिष्ट एव च । एते स्वराः प्रकम्पन्ते यत्रोच्चस्वरितोदयाः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 19.
prakaraṇagranthaliterary works in which the treatment is given in the form of topics by arranging the original sutras or rules differently so that all such rules as relate to a particular topic are found together: the Prakriykaumudi, the Siddhantakumudi and others are called प्रकरणग्रन्थs. Such works are generally known by the name प्राक्रयाग्रन्थ as opposed to वृतिग्रन्थ.
prakalpaka(fem. प्रकल्पिका )a word or expression causing a change in the nature of another word or expression which has to be taken as changed accordingly; confer, compare प्रकल्पक्रमिति चेन्नियमाभावः P.I. 1.68 Vart. 15; प्रत्ययविधिरयं न च प्रत्ययविधौ पञ्चम्यः प्रकल्पिक्रा भवन्ति M.Bh. on P.I.1.27 Vart.1,I.1. 62 Vart.7; II.2.3 Vart.1, IV. 1.60; cf also रुधादिभ्यः इत्येषा पञ्चमी शप् इति प्रथमायाः षष्ठीं प्रकल्पयिष्यति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II 2.3, Vart. 1, III.1.33.
prakṛta(1)in context, in question; the word is frequently used in connection with words in the preceding rules which are drawn on to the following rules by anuvrtti or continuation; confer, compare प्रकृतं गुणवृद्धिग्रहणमनुवर्तते, M.Bh. on I.1.3 Vart. 2: (2) found or available in a large quantity; confer, compare तत्प्रकृतवचने मयट् । प्राचुर्येण प्रस्तुतं प्रकृतम् । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 4.21.
prakṛti(1)material cause: confer, compare. तदर्थे विकृते: प्रकृतौ । प्रकृतिरुपादानकारणं तस्यैव उत्तरमवस्थान्तरं विकृतिः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.V.1.12; (2) original, as opposed to modified' ( विकृति ); the original base of a word which is used in language by the addition of affixes. There are mentioned three kinds of such original words in grammar, roots ( धातु ), noun bases ( प्रातिपदिक ) and affixes (प्रत्यय). प्रकृति is defined as शास्त्रप्रक्रियक्रियाव्यवहारे प्रकृतिप्रत्ययविभागकल्पनय शब्दार्थभावनायां प्रत्ययात् प्रथममुपादानकारणामिव या उपादीयते तां प्रकृतिरिति व्यापदिशन्ति' in the Sringaraprakasa; confer, compare अपशब्दो ह्यस्य प्रकृति: । न चापशब्द: प्रकृतिः , न ह्यपशब्दा उपदिश्यन्ते न चानुपदिष्टा प्रकृतिरस्ति । M.Bh. on Siva Sutra 2; confer, compare also कृत्प्रकृतिर्धातु: M.Bh. on P. VI. 2. 139 Vart. 2; पदप्रकृति: संहिता । पदप्रक्तीनि सर्वचरणानां पार्षदानि Nirukta of Yāska.I.17.
prakṛtipratyayavibhāgadivision of a word (in use in a language) into the base and the affix, which is looked upon as the main function of grammar.
.prakṛtyāintact, without any change by rules of euphony, accent et cetera, and others;confer, compareP. VI. 2.1 et cetera, and others VI.2.137, VI.3.74 and VI.4.163
prakriyākaumudīa well-known work on Sanskrit Grammar by रामचन्द्रशेष of the 15th century, in which the subject matter of the eight chapters of Panini's grammar is arranged into several different sections forming the different topics of grammar. It is similar to, and possibly. the predecessor of, the Siddhanta Kaumudi which has a similar arrangement. The work was very popular before the Siddhinta Kaumudi was written. it has got many commentaries numbering about a dozen viz. प्रक्रियाप्रसाद, प्रक्रियाप्रकाश, प्रक्रियाप्रदीप, अमृतस्तुति, प्रक्रियाव्याकृति,निर्मलदर्पण,तत्वचन्द्र, प्रक्रियारञ्जन, प्रक्रियाविवरण and others of which the Prasada of Vitthalesa and the Prakasa of Srikrsna are the wellknown ones.
prakriyāsaṃgrahaa work on grammar by Abhayacandra in which the Sutras of Sakatayana's Sabdanusasana are arranged in the form of different sections dealing with the different topics of grammar.
pragrahaabsence of euphonic change; the. term is frequently used in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.60, IV.1.1-54.
prajñādia class of words headed by the word प्रज्ञ to which the taddhita affix. affix अ (अण् ) is added without any change of sense: exempli gratia, for example प्राज्ञः, वाणिजः etc:; confer, compare प्रज्ञ एय प्राज्ञः । प्राज्ञी स्त्री । यस्यास्तु प्रज्ञा विद्यते सा प्राज्ञा भवति | Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 4. 38.
pratipattiknowledge, understanding; confer, compare तस्मादनभ्युपायः शब्दानां प्रतिपत्तौ प्रतिपदप्राठः। M.Bh. on Ahn. 1 ; also confer, compare MBh. on P. I. 1. 20. Vart.5 I.1 44,46 et cetera, and others
pratipattigauravadifficulty in understanding; requiring a longer time in understanding the sense: confer, compare एवं हि प्रतिपत्तिगौरवंं स्यात् Sira. Pari. 50. See प्रतिपत्तिगरीयस्त्व.
pratipadoktaexpressly stated as opposed to implied or suggested; confer, compare लक्षणप्रतिपदोक्तयोः प्रतिपदोक्तस्यैव ग्रहणम्,. Par. Sek.Pari.105: confer, compare also विशेषेण प्रतिपादितं प्रतिपदोक्तं Puru. Pari. 3.
pratiṣiddhaa rule or operation which is prohibited or prevented from application by a specific negation of it by another rule or operation laid down to prohibit it. Generally the prohibited rule does not apply again; confer, compare सकृद्रतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद्वाधितं तद्वाधितमेव Par, Sek.Pari. 40; confer, compareनोत्सहते प्रतिषिद्धा सती बाधितुम् । M.Bh. on P. I. 1.43. The word प्रातिषिद्ध which is generally used in ancient works appears to be an earlier word as compared with निषिद्ध which is used by later grammarians.
pratiṣedhaprohibition, negation, prohibition of a rule or operation; generaliy प्रतिषेध or प्रसज्यप्रतिषेध is laid down by the use of the negative particle ( नञ् ) connected with a verbal activity, and not with a noun in a compound in which case the negation is named पर्युदास; confer, compare प्रसज्ज्यप्रतिषेधो यः क्रियया सह यत्र नञ् । पयुदासः स विज्ञेयः थत्रोत्तरपदेन नञ् ।
pratyayaaffix, suffix, a termination, as contrasted with प्रकृति the base; confer, compare प्रत्याय्यते अर्थः अनेन इति प्रत्ययः; confer, compare also अर्थे संप्रत्याययति स प्रत्ययः M.Bh. on III. 1.l Vart. 8; The word प्रत्यय is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'following' or 'that which follows', e. g. स्पर्शे चोषः प्रत्यये पूर्वपद्यः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 30 which is explained by Uvvata as उषः इत्ययं ( शब्दः ) पूर्वपदावयवः सन् स्पर्शे प्रत्यये परभूते इति यावत्; रेफिसंज्ञो भवति; Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.30; confer, compare प्रत्येति पश्चादागच्छति इति प्रत्ययः परः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 7; cf also V. Pr, III. 8. Pratyaya or the suffix is generally placed after the base; cf, प्रत्ययः, परश्च P. III. I. 1,2; but sometimes it is placed before the base; e. g. बहुपटुः confer, compare विभाषा सुपो बहुच् पुरस्तात्तु P. V. 3.68. The conjugational signs (शप् , श्यन् et cetera, and others), the signs of tenses and moods ( च्लि, सिच् , स्य, ताम् et cetera, and others) and the compound endings(समासान्त) are all called pratyayas according fo Panini's grammar, as they are all given in the jurisdiction(अधिकार) of the rule प्रत्ययः III.1.1, which extends upto the end of the fifth chapter ( अध्याय ). There are six main kinds of affixes given in grammar सुप्प्रत्यय, तिङ्प्रत्यय, कृत्प्रत्यय , तद्धितप्रत्यय, धातुप्रत्यय (exempli gratia, for example in the roots चिकीर्ष, कण्डूय et cetera, and others) and स्त्रीप्रत्यय. The word प्रत्यय is used in the sense of realization, in which case the root इ in the word त्यय means'knowing' according to the maxim सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्थाः; confer, compare मन्त्रार्थप्रत्ययाय Nirukta of Yāska.I.15.
pratyayārthathe meaning of an affix. Generally meanings are assigned to affixes when they are prescribedition When the meanings are not assigned, the affix is supposed to bear the sense of the base; confer, compare अनिर्दिष्टार्थाः प्रत्ययाः स्वार्थे Par. Sek. on Pari. 113. The sense given by a word in language is the composite sense of the base and the affix together; confer, compare प्रकृतिप्रत्ययौ सहार्थं ब्रूतः । न केवला प्रकृतिः प्रयोक्तव्या, न केवलः प्रत्ययः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.64 Vart. 5.
pratyāmnāyaliterally, repetition in a contrary way; in the Pratisakhya literature, the word refers to the repetition of a Vedic passage; repetition by pupils after hearing from the preceptor ; confer, compare प्रत्याम्नायः पुनर्वचनं Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV. 9.
pratyārambhaḥ(1)statement after prohibition literally commencing again; inducing a person to do something after he has refused to do it by repeating the order or request for generally by beginning the appeal with the word नह; exempli gratia, for example नह भोक्ष्यसे ? नह अध्येप्यसे; confer, compare नह प्रत्यारम्भे P. VIII. 1.31 and Kasika and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. thereon. (2) commencement or laying down again in spite of previous mention; confer, compare शेषवचनात्तु योसौ प्रत्यारम्भात्कृतो बहुव्रीहिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI-3.46.
pratyāhāraliterally bringing together; bringing together of several letters ( or words in a few cases, such as roots or nouns ) by mentioning the first and the last only for the sake of brevity; the term प्रत्याहार is generally used in connection with brief terms such as अण्, अक् , अच् , हल् and the like, created by Panini in his grammar by taking any particular letter and associating it with any mute final letter ( अनुबन्ध ) of the fourteen Sivasutras, with a view to include all letters beginning with the letter uttered and ending with the letter which precedes the ( mute ) letter. The practice of using such abbreviations was in existence before Panini, possibly in the grammar attributed to Indra. The term प्रत्याहार is not actually used by Panini; it is found in the Rk. Tantra; confer, compare प्रत्याहारार्थो वर्णोनुबन्धो व्यञ्जनम् R.T.I.3. The term appears to have come into use after Panini. Panini has not given any definition of the term प्रत्याहार. He has simply given the method of forming the Pratyaharas and he has profusely used them; confer, compare आदिरन्त्येन सहेता P. I. 1.71. The word कृञ् in P. III.1.40 and तृन् in P. II. 3.69 are used as Pratyaharas. For a list of the Pratyharas which are used by Panini see Kasika on the Maheswara Sutras.
prathamalit, premier, first; the word is used in connection with the personal affixes तिप् , तस्, झि ( अन्ति ) of verbal formanuscript. See the word पुरुष a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare अस्तिर्भवन्तीपरः प्रथमपुरुषः अप्रयुज्यमानोप्यस्तीति । वृक्षः प्लक्षः। Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.1 and 4. The word प्रथम is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the first consonants of the five vargas or groups of consonants; confer, compare प्रथमैर्द्वितीयास्तृतीयैश्चतुर्थाः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 110 confer, compare प्रथमतृतीयादीनामादेशादित्वादेत्वाभावः, M.Bh. on P. VI. 4.120 Vart 3, also confer, compare Katantra I. 4.1 and Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. I. 3.35. The word is also used (in the feminine gender) in the sense of the case affixes सु ( स् ), औ, जस् ( अस् ) of the nominative case. The word is also used in the sense of the premier accent उदात्त (acute); confer, compare प्रथमभाविनः उदात्तभाविनः Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 8.
pradīpavivaraṇacalled also उद्द्योत written by the well-known grammarian Nagesabhatta of Varanasi who flourished in the first half of the eighteenth century.
prabhṛtia passage or a word at the commencement; confer, compare इरावतीप्रभृति अा दाधार Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.IV. 22; प्लुतादिप्रभृतीनि च Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 4 तिष्ठद्गुप्रभृतीनि च P.II.1.17.
pramādainadvertance, negligence; confer, compare प्रमादकृतमाचार्यस्य शक्यमकर्तुम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 2.70; confer, compare also अन्ये तु गौरादिष्वेतयेाः प्रमादपाठमाहुः Kaiy. of P. I. 1.72. Vart. 4.
prayoga(1)employment or use of a word in language and literature about which, laying down rules is looked upon as the purpose of grammar; confer, compare प्रयोगमूलत्वाद् व्याकरणस्मृतेः Kaiy.on P. V. 1.16, लोकतोर्थप्रयुक्ते शब्दप्रयोगे शास्त्रेण धर्मनियमो यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika I. Vart. 1; (2) use of speech; utterance; confer, compare मध्यमेन स वाक्प्रयोगः प्रणवात्मकः कर्तव्यः, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVIII. 4.
prayoganiyamageneral rules or principles laid down regarding the use of words in language and literature such as (l) a word recognised as correct should always be used, confer, compare एवमिहापि समानायामर्थगतौ शब्देन चापशब्देन च धर्मनियमः क्रियते शब्देनैवार्थोभिधेयो नापशब्देनेति । एवंक्रियमाणमभ्युदयकारि भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. I. Ahnika l, (2) never a base alone or an affix alone should be used, but always a base with the necessary affix should be used; confer, compare यावता समयः कृतो न केवला प्रकृतिः प्रयोक्तव्या न केवलः प्रत्ययः M. Bh, on P. I. 2.64 Vart. 8, also on P. III. 1.94 Vart. 3; (3) when the sense is already expressed by a word, a word repeating the sense should not be used; confer, compare उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः. Besides these, many minor regulations of the type of Paribhasas are laid down by grammarians. For details see Paribhashasamgraha Introduction.
prayogaratnamālāname of a recognised treatise on grammar written by पुरुषोत्तमविद्यावागीश of Bengal in the fourteenth century. The treatise explains many words which, although current in language and literature, cannot be easily formed by rules of grammar. The author has tried to form them by applying rules of grammar given in the grammatical systems of Panini and Katantra. The alphabet given in this treatise is according to the system of the Tantra Sastra which shows a scholarship of the author in that branch The grammar was studied much in Bengal and Assam.
prayojakacausing another to do; causal agent; confer, compare कुर्वाणं प्रयुङ्क्ते इति प्रयोजकः Ks. on P. I. 4.55.
prayojanaobject, motive or purpose in undertaking a particular thing; the word is used although rarely, in the sense of a cause also; confer, compare इमान्यस्य प्रयोजनानि अध्येयं व्याकरणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1. For the advantages of the study of Vyakarana, see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1. See also Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII pp.226,227, D.E. Society's edition.
prayojyathat which is employed or incited or urged; the word which is the subject in the primitive construction and becomes an object in the causal construction, and as a result, which is put in the accusative case being प्रयोज्यकर्म. As, however, the प्रयोज्यकर्म originally occupies the place of the subject in the primitive construction, the term प्रयोज्यकर्ता ( प्रयोज्यश्चासौ कर्ता च ) is often used in connection with it, as contrasted with the term प्रयोजककर्ता which is used with respect to the subject in the causal construction; confer, compare इह च भेदिका देवदत्तस्य यज्ञदत्तस्य काष्ठानामिति प्रयोज्ये कर्तरि षष्ठी न प्राप्नोति । M.Bh. on P. III. 1.26 Vart. l ; confer, compare also Kaiy. on P. I. 2.65.
pravartanāincitement or inducement which is the sense of 'lin' affixes in general ;confer, compare प्रवर्तनायां लिङ्.
pravādaa grammatical explanation; detailed explanation by citing the gender, number, krt affix, taddhita affix.affix and the like: confer, compare लिङ्गसंख्यातद्धितकृतरूपभेदाः प्रवादाः । पाण्यादिशब्दानां प्रवादेषु प्रथमो (original) नकारो णत्वमाप्नोति स च प्राकृतः । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIII. 9. The word is explained as a change in the form of a word, as for instance, by the substitution of स् for विसर्ग where विसर्ग is, in fact, expected; confer, compare कबन्धं पृथु इत्येतेषां पदानां प्रवादा रूपभेदा उदये परत्रावस्थिताः दिव इत्येतस्य उपचारं जनयन्ति । यथा दिवस्कबन्धम् , दिवस्पृथुः Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 22; confer, compare also प्रवादाः षडितः परे, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IX. 18. In the Nirukta, the word is used in the sense of 'distinct mention'; confer, compare एवमन्यासामपि देवतानामादित्यप्रवादाः स्तुतयो भवन्ति ( deities are mentioned under the name of Aditya) Nir II.13; cf also वैश्वानरीयाः प्रवादाः Nir, VII. 23.
pravādinaḥscholars who explain the changes ( प्रवाद ) mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; possibly the Padakaras or writers of the पदपाठ;cf प्रवादिनो दूणाशदूढ्यदूलभान् ... महाप्रदेशं स्वधितीव चानयेन्नुदच्च R Pr. XI. 20. Apparently प्रवादिनः ( nominative case. singular.) seems to be the word in the explanation of Uvvata.
pravigrahaseparate or distinct uterance of several words of a sentence which are joined together by Sandhi rules in a compound ( समास ) or otherwise, with a very short pause ( अवग्रह ) after each word. e. g. उद् उ एति instead of उद्वेति; confer, compare प्रविग्रहेण मृदूवग्रहेण चर्चयेयुः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV.10, where Uvvata remarks प्रविग्रहेषु प्रश्लिष्टं विश्लिष्टं कुर्यात् । कालाधिक्येन कुर्यात्। तथा च उद् उ एति इति पठेन्न तु उद्वेति.
prasajyapratiṣedhaprohibition of the possible application of a rule, generally laid down by the use of the negative particle न, together with, or connected with, a verbal activity: e.g न लुमताङ्गस्य P.I.1.63, नामि P.VI. 4.3, न माङ्योगे VI.4.74 et cetera, and others etc: confer, compare प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधोSयं क्रियया सह यत्र नञ्; confer, comparealso प्रसज्यायं क्रियागुणौ ततः पश्चान्निवृतिं करोति M.Bh. on P.II.2.6. In some cases the negative particle in a compound has also to be taken as stating a negation by प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधः;confer, compare M.Bh. on सुडनपुंसकस्य P.1.1.43, सार्वधातुकमपित् I.4.2, चादयोsसत्त्वे I. 4. 57.
prasāraṇinthat which gets, or is liable to get the Prasarana or Samprasarana substitute; confer, compare कविधौ सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III.2.3 Vart. 1.
prākbefore a particular thing in place, or in recital, or in mention. The word is used generally to show the limit upto which a particular topic extends; confer, compare तसिलादयः प्राक् पाशपः; cf also प्राक् कडारात्समासः P. I. 4.l : confer, compare also अथ आख्याः समाम्नायाधिकाः प्राग्रिफितात् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 33.
prākṛtasarvasyaa treatise on the grammar of Prakrta Languages attributed to Markandeya
prācīnamatathe view or doctrine of the former or rather older grammarians. The word is used in many commentary books and the meaning of the word is to be decided according to the context. For example in the works of Ramacandra, the author of the Prakriyakaumudi and his followers, the word refers to the view given by the writers of the Kasikavrtti and the commentaries thereon in the works of Bhattoji and his pupils, it refers to the writer of the Prakriyakaumudi in addition to the writers of the Kasika, while in the works of Nagesa it refers to the writings of Bhattoji and his pupils. For details see Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. V1I pp. 23-24 D. E. Society's Edition.
prācyapadavṛttisuccession of two vowels where the former vowel, which is either ए, or ओ remains without coalescence with the following vowel अ, even though by rules it is liable to be changed; exempli gratia, for exampleसुजाते अश्वसूनृते । अध्वर्यो अद्रिभिः सुतम् । In such cases the vowel अ is pronounced like ए. This view is held by the senior Sakalya (स्थविरशाकल्य); confer, compare प्राच्यपञ्चाल-उपधानिभोदयाः शाकल्यस्य स्थविरस्येतरा स्थितिः, R.Pr. II.44; confer, compare also स पूर्वस्यार्धसदृशमेकेषाम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI.19 and the commentaries thereon; confer, compare also छन्दोगानां सात्यमुग्रिराणायनीया अर्धमेकारमर्धमोकारं चाधीयते । सुजाते ए अश्वसूनृते । अध्वर्यो ओ अद्रिभिः सुतम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 3, 4 as also on P.I.1.48.
prāṇapaṇāa gloss on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali, written by the famous easterm grammarian Purusottamadeva of the 12th century A. D., of which only a fragment of a few pages is available. As the legend goes, the name प्राणपणा was given to the gloss as it was accompanied by an oath on the part of the author that his life was at stake if he did even the slightest injustice to the author of the Mahabhasya.
prātipadikaliterallyavailable in every word. The term प्रातिपादिक can be explained as प्रतिपदं गृह्णाति तत् प्रातिपदिकम् cf P.IV. 4. 39. The term प्रातिपदिक, although mentioned in the Brahmana works, is not found in the Pratisakhya works probably because those works were concerned with formed words which had been actually in use. The regular division of a word into the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix ( प्रत्यय ) is available, first in the grammar of Panini, who has given two kinds of bases, the noun-base and the verb-base. The noun-base is named Pratipadika by him while the verb-base is named Dhatu. The definition of Pratipadika is given by him as a word which is possessed of sense, but which is neither a root nor a suffix; confer, compare अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् . P.I. 2.45. Although his definition includes, the krdanta words,the taddhitanta words and the compound words, still, Panini has mentioned them separately in the rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I. 2.45 to distinguish them as secondary noun-bases as compared with the primary noun-bases which are mentioned in the rule अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्, Thus,Panini implies four kinds of Pratipadikas मूलभूत, कृदन्त, तद्धितान्त and समास, The Varttikakara appears to have given nine kinds-गुणवचन, सर्वनाम, अव्यय, तद्धितान्त, कृदन्त, समास, जाति, संख्या and संज्ञा. See Varttikas 39 to 44 on P. I. 4. 1. Later on, Bhojaraja in his SringaraPrakasa has quoted the definition अर्थवदधातु given by Panini, and has given six subdivisions.: confer, compare नामाव्ययानुकरणकृत्तद्धितसमासाः प्रातिपदिकानि Sr. Prak. I. page 6. For the sense conveyed by a Pratipadika or nounbase, see प्रातिपदिकार्थ.
prātipadikasvarathe general accent of the Pratipadika viz. the acute ( उदात्त ) for the last vowel as given by the Phit sutra फिषः ( प्रातिपदिकस्य ) अन्त उदात्तः; confer, compare also प्रातिपदिकस्वरस्यावकाशः । अाम्रः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.91 Vart. 7.
prātipadikārthadenoted sense of a Pratipadika or a noun-base. Standard grammarians state that the denotation of a pratipadika is five-fold viz. स्वार्थ, द्रव्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या and कारक. The word स्वार्थ refers to the causal factor of denotation or प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त which is of four kinds जाति, गुण, क्रिया and संज्ञा as noticed respectively in the words गौः, शुक्लः, चलः and डित्ः. The word द्रव्य refers to the individual object which sometimes is directly denoted as in अश्वमानय, while on some occasions it is indirectly denoted through the genus or the general notion as in ब्राह्मणः पूज्य:, लिङ्ग the gender, संख्या the number and कारक the case-relation are the denotations of the case-terminations, but sometimes as they are conveyed in the absence of a case-affix as in the words पञ्च, दश, and others, they are stated as the denoted senses of the Pratipadika, while the case-affixes are said to indicate them; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युः शब्दादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
prātiśrutkaplaces of echo or reverberation viz.chest and others, of sound which gets its origin at the navel but becomes reverberated at chest, throat, top of the month, mouth and nose; confer, compare तस्य ( उत्पत्त्याश्रयस्य शब्दस्य ) प्रातिश्रुत्कानि भवन्ति उरः कण्ठः शिरो मुखं नासिके इति, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 3.
prādisamāsaa compound with प्र and others prescribed by the rule कुगतिप्रादयः P. II.2.18 and explained in detail by the Varttikas headed by the Varttika प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया P. II. 2. 18 Vart. 4, which comes under the general head तत्पुरुष ; the compound is also called प्रादितत्पुरुष; confer, compare कथं प्रभावो राज्ञः । प्रकृष्टो भाव इति प्रादिसमासो भविष्यति । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.24 cf also प्रान्तः पर्यन्तः । बहुव्रीहिरयं प्रादिसमासो वा Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 2. 180.
prāyageneral nature, general public; confer, compare प्राय इति लोको व्यपदिश्यते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. V. 1.16; confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII.16; confer, compare also, लौकिकी विवक्षा यत्र प्रायस्य सं त्ययः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. V. 1.16.
prepsudesiderative adjective; a word formed by adding the affix उ in the sense of ' an agent ' to a desiderative root by the rule सनाशंसभिक्ष उः P.III.2.168. The term प्रेप्सु was used for such nouns by ancient grammarians.
proktapuṃskapossessed of the masculine gender
plutaprotracted, name given to vowels in the protracted grade. The vowels in this grade which are termed protracted vowels are possessed of three matras and in writing they are marked with the figure 3 placed after them. In pronunciation they take a longer time than the long or दीर्घ vowels; confer, compare ऊकालोज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P. I.2.27. The word is derived from प्लु (प्रु also) I Atmane to go, and explained as प्लवते इति, The word प्लवते is often found for प्लुतो भवति in the Pratisakhya works; cf also मात्रा ह्रस्वरतावदवग्रहान्तरं, द्वे दीर्धस्तिस्रः प्लुत उच्यते स्वरः । अधः स्विदासी३दुपरि स्विदासी३द् अर्थे प्लुतिर्भीरिव विन्दती३त्रिः ll Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.16.
pvādia class of roots headed by the root पू which get their vowel shortened in the four conjugational tenses as also before the present tense.participle. affix; exempli gratia, for example पुनाति पुनानः, लुनाति, लुनन् et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VII.3.80.
phak(1)taddhita affix.affix फ marked with mute क् for effecting the वृद्धि substitute for the initial vowel of the word to which it is appliedition The initial letter फ् of all the affixes beginning with फ् in Panini's grammar is always changed into आयन्. The taddhita affix. affix फक् is affixed (1) in the sense of गोत्रापत्य grandchild and his issues, to the words नड and others as also to the words ending with the affixes यञ् and इञ् and words शरद्वत्, दर्भ, द्रोण et cetera, and others exempli gratia, for example नाडायनः, शालङ्कायनः, दाक्षायणः प्लाक्षायणः, द्रोणायनः, वैदः, अौर्वः et cetera, and others; cf P.IV. 1.99-103; (2) as a caturarthika affix in the four senses mentioned in P. IV. 2.67-70 to the words पक्ष and others e. g. पाक्षायणः, तौषायणः; confer, compare P.IV. 2.80.
phaṇādia class of seven roots headed by the root फण्, which belong to the first conjugation and which have optionally their vowel अ changed into ए and the reduplicative syllable ( अभ्यास) dropped, in the forms of the perfect tense before the affix इथ and weak affixes; e. g. फेणतु:, फेणु:, फेणिथ फफणतुः, पफणुः, पफणिथ et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VI.4.:125.
phala(1)fruit or benefit of an action which goes to the agent; confer, compare फलव्यापारयोर्धातुः Vaiyakarana-bhusana. A root which is given as Ubhayapadin in Panini's Grammar takes the Atmanepada affixes when the fruit of the activity is meant for the agent, while otherwise it takes the Parasmaipada affixes; (2) The word फल also means the result of a grammatical operation or grammatical injunction.
balīyastvarelative superiority in strength possessed by rules of grammar or by operations based on rules of grammar. This Superiority is decided generally on any one or more of the four recognised criteria such as परत्व, नित्यत्व, अन्तरङ्गत्व and अपवादत्व. The phrase अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् very frequently occurs in the varttikas and in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare M.Bh. on P. III. 1.67, VI.i.17, 85 Vart. 15, VI. 4.62 and VII.1.1.
bahiraṅgāsiddhatvainvalidity i. e. nonoccurrence or non-application of a bahiranga rule or operation before the antaranga operation which is looked upon as stronger occurring earlier to the mind, or in the wording, as it does.
bahuprakruti(l)consisting of a large number of verbal parts in derivation; बह्वयः प्रकृतयो यत्र; (2) a compound in which the constituent words are all in the plural number, confer, compare सर्वे द्वन्द्वो विभाषैकवद्भवति । बहुप्रकृतिरिति वक्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.4.12 Vart.l ; (3) a compound word ( पद ) made up of many constituent words; confer, compare बहूनि पदानि यत्र तद् बहुप्रकृति पदम् Vaj. Prat. V. 7.
bahuvrīhiprakṛtisvarathe accent peculiar to, or specifically mentioned in the case of the Bahuvrihi compound viz. the retention of its own accents by the first member, in spite of the general rule that a compound word has the last vowel accented acute id est, that is उदात्त. confer, compare बहुव्रीहौ प्रकृत्या पूर्वपदम्. P. VI. 2.1. The expression बहुव्रीहिस्वर in this very sense is used in the Mahabhasya confer, compare बहुव्रीहिस्वरं शास्ति समासान्तविधेः सुकृत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 2.1.
bahvapekṣaliterally depending on many; the word is used in the sense of depending on many causal factors ( निमित्तानि ) and given as the definition of a kind of बहिरङ्ग by some grammarians; confer, compare अल्पापेक्षमन्तरङ्गं बह्वपेक्षं बहिरङ्गम् . This kind of अन्तरङ्गबहिरङ्गत्व, cited by Kaiyata is, however, disapproved by Nagesabhatta; confer, compare बहुिरङ्गान्तरङ्गाशब्दाभ्यां बह्वपेक्षत्वाल्पापेक्षत्वयोः शब्दमर्यादया अलाभाच्च । तथा सति असिद्धं बह्वपेक्षमल्पापेक्षे इत्येव वदेत् । Par. Sek. on Pari. 50.
bādhakaliterally that which sublates or sets aside; generally a special rule which sets aside a general rule: confer, compare येन नाप्राप्ते यो विधिरारभ्यते स तस्य बाधको भवति, Pari. Patha of पुरुषोत्तमदेव Pari. 51; confer, compare also नैतज्ज्ञापकसाध्यं अपवादैरुत्सर्गा बाध्यन्त इति । बाधकेनानेन भवितव्यं सामान्यविहितस्य विशेषविहितेन । M.Bh. on P. II. 1.24 Vart. 5. बाधक is used as a synonym of अपवाद, confer, compare अपवादशब्दोत्र बाधकपरः Par. Sek. Pari. 58.
bidādia class of words headed by the word बिद to which the affix अ (अञ्) is added in the sense of a grandchild and further descendants; exempli gratia, for example बैदः, और्वः, काश्यप:, कौशिकः et cetera, and others The words in this class are mostly names of sages. In the case of such words as are not names of sages, the affix अ is added in the sense of the offspring and not any descendant. exempli gratia, for example पौत्रः, दौहित्रः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.104.
bṛhacchabdaratnaa learned commentary on the commentary मनोरमा of भट्टोजीदीक्षित; the commentary was written by हरिदीक्षित the grandson of Bhattoji. The work is called बृहच्छब्दरत्न in contrast with the लघुशब्दरत्न of the same author (हरिदीक्षित) which is generally studied at the Pathasalas all over the country. The work बृहच्छब्दरत्न is only in a Manuscript form at present. Some scholars believe that it was written by Nagesabhatta, who ascribed it to his preceptor Hari Diksita, but the belief is not correct as proved by a reference in the Laghusabdaratna, where the author himself remarks that he himself has written the बृहच्छब्दरत्न, and internal evidences show that लबुशब्दरत्न is sometimes a word-forword summary of the बृहच्छब्दरत्न. confer, compareविस्तरस्तु अस्मत्कृते बृहच्छब्दरत्ने मदन्तेवासिवृतलधुशब्देन्दुशेखरे च द्रष्टव्यः Laghusabdaratna. For details see Bhandarkar Ins. Journal Vol. 32 pp.258-60.
bṛhatsaṃjñāthe same as महत्संज्ञा or महती संज्ञा; a bigger terminology as contrasted with लघुसंज्ञा brief terminology such as टि, घु, भ et cetera, and others for which (latter) Panini is very particular. The bigger terms such as सर्वनाम, अात्मनेपद, परस्मैपद and others are evidently borrowed by Panini from the ancient grammarians who lived before him.
bha(1)the letter or sound भ् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; (2) a technical term in the Grammar of Panini given to a noun base before such case and taddhita affixes as begin with any vowel or with the consonant य्. The utility of this designation of भ to the base is (l) to prevent the substitutes which are enjoined for the final vowel or consonant of a pada (a word ending with a case-affix or a base before case and taddhita affix. affixes beginning with any consonant excepting य् ) just as the substitution of Visarga, anusvara, the first or third consonant, and others given in P. VIII. 4.37 and the following. For the various changes and operations for a base termed भ see P. VI. 4.129 to 175.
bhakti(1)name given to two of the five divisions of a Saman which are प्रस्तावभक्ति, उद्गीथ, प्रतिहार, उपद्रव and निधानभाक्ति; (2) the vowel portion surrounding, or placed after, the consonant र् or ल् which (consonant) is believed to be present in the vowel ऋ or ऌ respectively forming its important portion, but never separately noticed in it. The vowels ऋ and ऌ are made up of one matra each. It is contended by the grammarians that the consonants र् and ल् forming respectively the portion of ऋ and ऌ, make up halfa-matra, while the remaining half is made up of the भाक्ति of the vowel surrounding the consonant or situated after the consonant. The word which is generally used for this 'bhakti is 'ajbhakti' instead of which the word स्वरभक्ति is found in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare यत्तद्रेफात्परं भक्तेस्तेन व्यवहितत्वान्न प्राप्नेति | ...... यच्चात्र रेफात्परं भुक्तेर्न तत् क्वचिदपि व्यपवृक्तं दृश्यते | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VIII. 4.1 Vart 2; confer, compare स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गं Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 17; also confer, compare रेफात्स्वरोपहिताद् व्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णी स्वरभक्तिरुत्तरा ) Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 13.
bhaṭṭojīsurnamed Diksita; a stalwart grammarian of the Panini system who flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century and wrote many independent books and commentaries such as the Siddhantakaumudi, the Praudhamanorama, the Vaiyakaranasiddhantakarika, the Sabdakaustubha and others. The most reputed work out of these, however, is the Siddhantakaumudi which is very popular even today and which has almost set aside other works of its kind such as the Prakriyakaumudi and others. Bhattoji was a Telagu Brahmana, as generally believed, and although he belonged to the South, he made Varanasi his home where he prepared a school of learned Grammarians. Although he carried on his work silently in Varanasi, he was envied by the reputed rhetorician of his time Pandita Jagannātha, who criticised his work ( Bhattojis work ) named Manorama very severely. See प्रौढमनोरमा a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got many commentaries of which the Tattvabodhini written by Bhattoji's pupil Jnanendrasarasvati is appreciated much by learned grammarians.
bhatvathe nature or quality of being called भ which causes many grammatical operations which are given together by Panini in VI. 4.129 to 179. See the word भ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
bhargādia class of words headed by भर्ग which are generally names of countries, the taddhita affixes अण् and others added to which are not elided; e. g. भार्गीं, कैकेयी, काश्मीरी; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on IV. 1.178.
bhaviṣyatancient term for the future tense in general; confer, compare भविष्यति गम्यादयः | भविष्यतोद्यनद्यतन उपसंख्यानम् P. III.3.3 Vart.l : confer, compare also the words भविष्यत्काल, भविष्यत्प्रतिषेध, भविष्यदधिकार.
bhaviṣyantīancient term for the future tense in general; confer, compare परिदेवने श्वस्तनी भविष्यन्त्यर्थे P. III.3.15. Vart.1; confer, compare also Kat. III.1.15; Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III. 3.15.
bhāgavata hariśāstrīa modern scholar of grammar who has written a commentary named Vakyarthacandrika on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesa; he lived in the first half of the eighteenth century.
bhāva(1)becoming; existence. The word is used many times in the sense of धात्वर्थthe sense of a root which is 'incomplete activity' or 'process of evolving'; confer, compare तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातु: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 5; confer, compare also षड् भावविकारा भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 36; पूर्वापरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेन आचष्टे व्रजतिपचतीत्युपक्रमप्रभृति अपवर्गपर्यन्तम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1 ; (2) activity as opposed to instruments ( साधन or कारक ); confer, compare भावगर्हायाम् । धात्वर्थगर्हायाम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.24; confer, compare also भावः क्रिया, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम् P. II. 3.37; (3) completed action which is shown, not by a verb, but by a verbal derivative noun; confer, compare धात्वर्थश्च धातुनैवोच्यते | यस्तस्य सिद्धता नाम धर्मस्तत्र घञादयः प्रत्यया विधीयन्ते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on 'भावे' P. III. 3.18; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.19, III. 1.67, IV. 1.3, V. 4.19; confer, compare also भावस्त्वेक: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.67; (4) the radical factor for the use of a word; प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त; confer, compare भवतोत्मादभिधानप्रत्ययौ इति भावः | शब्दस्य प्रवृत्तिनिमित्तं भावशब्देनोच्यते | अश्वत्वम् , अश्वता | Kāś, on P. 5.1.119; (5) thing, object cf सिद्धशब्दः कूटस्थेषु भावेष्वविचालिषु वर्तते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Āhnika l; (6) transformation, substitution; change into the nature of another; confer, compare तत्र प्रथमास्तृतीयभावम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 4. confer, compare also the words मूर्धन्यभाव, अभिनिधानभाव et cetera, and others {7) possession of the qualities, nature; तदर्थस्य भाव: तादर्थ्यम्: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.13; (8) relationship; confer, compare गुणप्रधानभाव, प्रकृतिविकृतिभाव et cetera, and others
bhāveprayeāgaimpersonal form of a sentence when there is no activity mentioned on the part of the agent nor resulting upon the object, but there is a mere mention of verb-activity.
bhāṣāspoken language as opposed to the archaic Vedic Language; confer, compare भाषायां सदवसश्रुवः;P.III2.108;प्रत्यये भाषायां नित्यम् . P. VIII. 4, 45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 ; confer, compare also Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 96, 212; cf also नेति प्रतिषेधार्थीयो भाषायाम् , उभयमन्वध्यायम् Nirukta of Yāska.I.4.
bhāṣāvṛttia short gloss on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini in the l2th century by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva, a reputed scholar belonging to the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bengal and Behar in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, The gloss is very useful for beginners and it has given a clear explanation of the different sūtras without going into difficult niceties and discussions. The treatise does not comment upon Vedic portions or rules referring to Vedic Language because, as the legend goes, king Lakṣmaṇa Sena, for whom the gloss was written, was not qualified to understand Vedic Language; confer, compare वैदिकभाषानर्हत्वात् Com. on Bhāṣāvṛtti by Sṛṣṭidhara. There is a popular evaluation of the Bhāṣāvṛtti given by the author himself in the stanza "काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत्सिद्धान्तं बोद्धुमस्ति धीः ! तदा विचिन्त्यतां भ्रातर्भाषावृत्तिरियं मम " at the end of his treatise; for details see पुरुषोत्तमदेव.
bhāṣikabelonging to, or used in spoken language as contrasted with the Vedic Language or निगम; confer, compare अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nirukta of Yāska.II.2.
bhāṣitapuṃskaa word or a noun-base which has the same sense in the masculine gender as in the neuter gender: generally words of quality or adjectives like शुचि, मधु et cetera, and others fall in this category;cf तृतीयादिषु भाषितपुंस्कं पुंवद्गालवस्य P. VII. 1. 74; confer, compare also भाषितः पुमान् यस्मिन्नर्थे प्रवृत्तिानिमित्ते स भाषितपुंस्कशब्देनोच्यते । तद्योगादभिधेयमपि यन्नपुसकं तदपि भाषितपुंस्कम् | तस्य प्रतिपादकं यच्छब्दरूपं तदपि भाषितपुंस्कम् | Kāś. on VII.1.74.
bhāṣyaa learned commentary on an original work, of recognised merit and scholarship, for which people have got a sense of sanctity in their mind; generally every Sūtra work of a branch of technical learning (or Śāstra) in Sanskrit has got a Bhāṣya written on it by a scholar of recognised merit. Out of the various Bhāṣya works of the kind given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., the Bhāṣya on the Vyākaraṇa sūtras of Pāṇini is called the Mahābhāṣya, on the nature of which possibly the following definition is based "सूत्रार्थो वर्ण्यते यत्र पदैः सूत्रानुकारिभिः| स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः ।" In books on Sanskrit Grammar the word भाष्य is used always for the Mahābhāṣya. The word भाष्य is sometimes used in the Mahābhāṣya of Patanjali (confer, compare उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये III.3.19, IV.4.67) where the word may refer to a work like लघुभाष्य which Patañjali may have written, or may have got available to him as written by somebody else, before he wrote the Mahābhāṣya.
bhāskaraśāstrīsurnamed Abhyankar (1785-1870) a great grammarian in the line of the pupils of Nāgeśa who was educated at Poona and lived at Sātārā. He taught many pupils, a large number of whom helped the spread of Vyākaraṇa studies even in distant places of the country, such as Vārāṇasi and others. For details see Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona. pp. 27-29, D. E. Society's Edition.
bhidādia class of roots headed by the root भिद् to which the kṛt affix अ (always in the feminine. gender as अा ) is added in the sense of verbal activity: exempli gratia, for example भिदा, गुह्या, श्रद्धा, मेघा et cetera, and others cf Kāś. on P. III. 3.104.
bhisaffix of the instrumental plural before which the base is looked upon as a Pada and sometimes split up in the Padapāṭha, especially when the preceding word has got no change for its last letter or syllable.
bhīmabhaṭṭawriter of the commentary, named भैमी after him, on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa.
bhūtaliterally what has become or happened, The word is used in books on grammar in the sense of past tense in general, which has been subdivided into (a) unseen past (परीक्षभूत or लिट् ), (b) past, not of today (अनद्यतनभूत or लङ् ) and (c) past in general (सामान्यभूत or लुङ्),confer, compare भूते P.III.2.84, परोक्षे लिट् P.III.2.116 and अनद्यतने लङ् P.III.2.111.
bhūtapūrvagatiliterally denotation of something which formerly was existing; a consideration of that form of a word which was formerly present. The word is used frequently by commentators when they try to apply a rule of grammar to a changed wording under the plea that the wording required by the rule was formerly there; confer, compareभूतपूर्वगत्या (पकारलोपे कृतेपि ) दाप् भविष्यति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.20 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.56, VII.1.9 and VII.3.103; confer, comparealso सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Par. Śeḵ. Pari. 76.
bhūmādithe limited senses भूमन् (plurality) and others in which भतुप् and other possessive taddhita affixes should take place, and not in the general sense of the 'presence at one place' as also 'the possession by some one individual;' confer, compare भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेतिशायने । संसर्गेस्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 2.94.
bhūvādilit headed by भू , or headed by भू and वा as some scholars like to explain; the term means roots; in general, which have भू as the first root in Pāṇini's list of roots; confer, compare भूवादयो धातव: P. I. 3.1; The word भूवादि denoting roots stands in contrast with the word भ्वादि which stands for the roots of the first conjugation. भूवादीनां वकारोयं मङ्गलार्थः प्रयुज्यते | भुवो वार्थं वदन्तीति भ्वर्था वा वादयः स्मृता: Kāś. on P. I. 3.1.
bhedaka(1)literallydistinguishing; differentiating; cf भेदकत्वात्स्वरस्य | भेदका उदात्तादय: | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 13; (2) adjective; confer, compare भेदकं विशेषणं भेद्यं विशेष्यम् Kāś. on P. II: 1.57; (3) variety; kind; confer, compare सामान्यस्य विशेषो भेदकः प्रकार: Kāś. on P.V. 3.23; (4) indicating, suggesting, as contrasted with वाचक; confer, compare संबन्धस्य तु भेदक: Vākyapadīya.
bhaimīname of a commentary on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa written by Bhīmabhaṭṭa in the latter half of the eighteenth century.
bhairavīname given to a commentary in general written by Bhairavamiśra, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The commentary on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara is more popularly known as Bhairavī.
bhoganirtaddhita affix. affix भोगीनर् suggested by the Vārttikakāra to form words like राजभोगीन, अाचार्यभोगीन which are derived by the rule आत्मन्विश्वजनभोगोत्तरपदात् ख: P. V. 1.9.
bhojathe well-known king of Dhārā who was very famous for his charities and love of learning. He flourished in the eleventh century A.D. He is said to have got written or himself written several treatises on various śāstras. The work Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa which is based on the Astādhyāyi of Pāṇini, but which has included in it the Vārttikas and Paribhāṣās also, has become in a way a Vyākaraṇa or a general work in grammar and can be styled as Bhoja-Vyākaraṇa.
bhrājastray or spurious verses or stanzas whose authorship cannot be traced, but which are commonly quoted by scholars; confer, compare भ्राजा नाम श्लेाका: M.Bh. on I.1 Āhnika 1; the word भ्राज is explained as 'composed by Kātyāyana' by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa in his Uddyota.
mañjūṣāa popular name given to the work परमलघुमञ्जूषा of Nāgeśa on अर्थप्रक्रिया (science or method of interpretation) in Vyākaraṇa, which is generally read by advanced students. Nāgeśa has also written a bigger work on the same subject लघुमञ्जूषा which sometimes is also referred to by the word मञ्जूषा.
matuptaddhita affix. affix मत् changed in some cases to वत् (cf मादुपधायाश्च मतोर्वोऽयवादिभ्यः P. VIII. 2.9), applied to any noun or substantive in the sense of 'who possesses that,' or 'which contains it,' or in the sense of possession as popularly expressedition The affix is called possessive affix also, and is very commonly found in use; e. g. गोमान्, वृक्षवान् , यवमान् , et cetera, and others confer, compare तदस्यास्त्यस्मिन्निति मतुप् P. V. 2.94. The very general sense of 'possession' is limited to certain kinds of possession by the Vārttikakāra in the following stanza; भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेतिशायने | संसर्गेऽस्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: confer, compare Kāś. on P. V. 2.94. There are other taddhita affix. affixes prescribed in the same sense as मतुप्, such as the affixes लच् (V. 2.96-98), इलच् (99, 100, 105, 117), श and न (100), ण (101), विनि (102, 121, 122), इनि (102, 115, 116, 128, 129-137), अण् (103, 104), उरच् (106), र (107), म (108), व ( 109, 110), ईरन् and ईरच् (111), वलच् (112, 113), ठन् (115, 116), ठञ् (118, 119), यप् (120), युस् (123, 138, 140), ग्मिनि (124), आलच् and आटच् (125), अच् (127), and ब, भ, यु, ति, तु, त and यस् each one applied to specifically stated words. मतुप् is also specially prescribed after the words headed by रस (confer, compare रसादिभ्यश्च P. V. 2.95) in supersession of some of the other affixes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. which would take place in such cases, if मतुप् were not prescribed by the rule रसादिभ्यश्च. The portion of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. prescribing the possessive affixes is named मतुबधिकार (P. V. 2.92 to 140).
matvarthasense in which the affix मतु ( मतुप् ) is affixed; the sense of 'possession' in general; see the word मतुप् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
madhyapatitaliterally fallen in the middle; the word is used generally in the sense of an augment which is inserted in the middle of a word. Sometimes an affix too, like अकच् or a conjugational sign like श्रम्, is placed in the middle of a word. Such a middling augment is technically ignored and a word together with it is taken as the original word for grammatical operations; exempli gratia, for example उच्चकै:, नीचकै: et cetera, and others cf तन्मध्यपतितस्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यते Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 89.
madhyamapadalopaliterally the dropping of the middle word or member ( of a compound generally) as for instance in शाकपार्थिक for शाकप्रियपार्थिव; the word मध्यमपदलोप is also used in the sense of a compound. The compounds which have the middle word dropped are enumerated by the Vārttikakāra under the Vārttika शाकपार्थिवादीनां मध्यमपदलेापश्च Bh. Vṛ. II.1.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).; cf also Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.6.30.
madhyepavādaa rule forming an exception to other general rules being placed between them, one or many of which are placed before and the others afterwards. Such a rule sets aside the previous rules and not the succeeding ones. The statement laying down this dictum is मध्येपवादाः पूर्वान् विधीन् बाधन्ते नोत्तरान् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa.Pari. 60, also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.VI.4.148 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5.
man(1)the affix मनिन् generally found in Vedic Literature added to roots ending in अा and preceded by a noun; exempli gratia, for example सुदामा, अश्वत्थामा; confer, compare आतो मनिन्कनिब्वनिपश्च P.III.2.74,75; (2) Uṇādi affix in ओद्म; confer, compare औद्म इति उन्देरौणादिके मन्प्रत्यये नलोपो गुणश्च निपात्यते Kāś. on P. VI.4.29.
manoramā(1)the popular name given to the commentary प्रौढमनेारमा on the Siddhāntakaumudī of भट्टोजीदीक्षित by the author himself the commentary is a scholarly one and very extensive; and its first portion only upto the end of Kāraka is generally read in the Sanskrit Pāṭhaśālās;(2) name of a commentary on the Madhyasiddhāntakaumudī by Rāmasarman; (3) name given to a treatise discussing roots given in the Kātantra Grammar written by रमानाथशर्मा in the sixteenth century. The work is called कातन्त्रधातुवृत्ति also.
mantudevaknown also as मन्नुदेव, a famous grammarian of the eighteenth century who has written a commentary named दर्पणा on the Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra of Koṇḍabhaṭṭa and a commentary named दोषोद्धरण on Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
mayataddhita affix. affix मयट् (1) in the sense of proceeding therefrom (तत आगत: P. IV.3.92) added to words showing cause or meaning human being; exempli gratia, for example सममयम्, देवदत्तमयम्: (2) in the sense of product (विकार) or part (अवयव) added optionally with अण् to any word, exempli gratia, for example अश्ममयम् , आश्मनम् मूर्वामयम् मौर्वम्, and necessarily to words beginning with आ, ऐ and औ, words of the class headed by the word शर and the words गो, पिष्ट, व्रीहि, तिल and some others: confer, compare P. IV. 3. 143-150; (3) in the sense of proportion, added to a numeral; e. g. द्विमयमुदश्विद्यवानाम्; confer, compare P. V. 2.47; (4) in the sense of "made up of' added to the thing of which there is a large quantity; exempli gratia, for example अन्नमयम्, अपूपमयम् cf; तत्प्रकृतवचने मयट् P.V.4.21,22.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahābhāṣyadīpikāa very learned old commentary on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali written by the reputed grammarian Bhartrhari or Hari in the seventh century A. D. The commentary has got only one manuscript preserved in Germany available at present, of which photostat copies or ordinary copies are found here and there. The first page of the manuscript is missing and it is incomplete also, the commentary not going beyond the first seven Aahnikas. For details see page 383 Vol. VII Vyaakarana Mahabhasya D. E. Society's edition.
mahābhāṣyapradīpaa very scholarly commentary on Patanjali's MahabhaSya written by Kaiyatabhatta in the eleventh century, The commentary has so nicely explained every difficult and obscure point in the Mahabhasya, and has so thoroughly explained each sentence that the remark of later grammarians that the torch of the Mahabhasya has been kept burning by the Pradipa appears quite apt and justifiedition Kaiyata's commentary has thrown much additional light on the original arguments and statements in the Mahabhasya. There is a learned commentary on the Pradipa written by Nagesabhatta which is named vivarana by the author but which is well known by the name 'Uddyota' among students and teachers of Vyakarana. For details see pp. 389, 390 Vol VII, Patanjala Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition.
mahābhāṣyapradīpavivaraṇa(1)original name of the learned commentary on the 'Pradipa' of Kaiyata written by Nagesabhatta, a stalwart and epoch-making grammarian of the 18th century. The commentary is known popularly by the name 'Uddyota' or Pradipoddyota; (2) name of the commentary on Kaiyata's Pradipa by Nityaananda Parvatiya. The commentary is also known by the name दीपप्रभा.
mācākīyaan ancient writer of a Pratisakhya work, who is quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya as one, holding the view that य and व् preceded by अ and followed by उ and ओ respectively, are dropped provided they stand at the beginning of a Pada ( word ). माचाकीय, who belonged to the Yajurveda school, is said to have held this view which is generally held by the followers of the Rgveda: confer, compare उकारौकारपरौ लुप्यते माचाकी यस्य(Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.X.29) on which the commentator adds वह्वृचानामयं पक्षः.
mārkaṇḍeyaan old grammarian, who wrote a grammar of Praakrta languages which is known by the name प्राकृतसर्वस्व.
mūlaprakṛtithe original base of the word used in language; the root and the praatipadika; the word परमप्रकृति , is also used in the same sense.
metreyarakṣitaa recognised scholar of Paninis' grammar who belonged to the Eastern part of India and fourished in the beginning of the twelfth century. As it appears from the name Maitreya Raksita he appears to have been a Buddhist grammarian. Subsequent writers in their works refer to him by the name Raksita alone, as also by the name Maitreya, but very rarely by the name Maitreya Raksita.He wrote many works on grammar of which the 'tantrapradipa'a learned commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Nyasa on Kasika was a reputed one, which, although available in a fragmentary manuscript form today, has been profusely quoted by prominent grammarians after him.
yatna(1)effort in the utterance of a letter: the word which is generally used for such an effort is प्रयत्न. This effort is described to be oftwo kinds अाभ्यन्तर internal id est, that is below the root of the tongue and बाह्य a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the root of the tongue id est, that is inside the mouth; confer, compare यत्नं द्विधा | अाभ्यन्तरो बाह्यश्च | S. K. on P. I. 1.9; (2) specific effort, by adding a word to a rule for drawing some inference, with a view to removing some technical difficulty: cf तेन पये धावतीत्यादौ यत्नान्तरमास्थेयम् Kaas. on P. VIII. 2. 25. The phrase कर्तव्योत्र यत्न: often occurs in the Mahaabhaasya.
yathāgṛhītaṃas they are actually found in Vedic recital with some irregularties of euphonic changes,lengthening of the vowel and the like. Specimens of such phrases are given in R.Pr.II.33 to 39.
yathālakṣaṇaṃas formed according to rules. The phrase यथालक्षणमप्रयुक्ते is very often found in the Mahaabhaasya as a general guiding remark that noun-forms or wordforms which are not found in use in the language of the people or in literature should be understood as they are derived by observing all the rules that are applicable.
yathāvatas it is in the original Samahitpaatha without any change of accent, et cetera, and others when cited in the यद्वत lifeminine. a word formed from यत्: a Padapaatha: the word अव्ययवत् (not allowing any change or reduction) is given by Uvvata in explanation of यथावत्: confer, compare दृश्यते पदं यथावत् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI.31.
yayshort term (प्रत्याहार) for sonants beginning with य् ( in हयवरट्) and ending before the ; mute letter य् ( in कपय् ) id est, that is all consonants except! श्, ष्, स्, and ह्; confer, compare अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः P.VIII 4. 58 by which an anusvara is changed into a cognate letter of the following which is a letter included in यय्.
yara short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) for any consonant except ह् standing at the end of a word is optionally changed to the nasal consonant of its class if followed by a nasal letter; confer, compare यरोनुनासिकेनुनासिकेा वा P. VIII.4.45: and (2) is doubled if preceded by र् or ह् as also if preceded by a vowel but not followed by a vowel; exempli gratia, for example अर्क्कः, दद्धयत्र: confer, compare अन्वॊ रहाभ्यां द्वे; अनचिच P. VIII.4.46,47.
yalopadropping of the consonant य् which prevents the validity of a changed letter ( स्थानिवद्भाव ); confer, compare न पदान्तद्विर्वचनवरेयलोप......विधिषु P.I.1.58.
yavādia class of words headed by the word यव, the taddhita affix मत् after which does not get the consonant मृ changed into व् although the affix मत् be added to a word ending in म् or अ, or having म् or अ as the penultimate letter; e. g. यवमान् , ऊर्मिमान् , भूमिमान् et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VIII.2.9. This यवादिगण is looked upon as आकृतिगण
yastaddhita affix. affix य with mute स् to indicate the application of the term पद् to the preceding base as a consequence of which the final म् of the words कम् and शम्, after which यस् is prescribed, gets changed into anusvara e. g. कंयु:, दंयु:: cf P.W.2.138.
yaskādiwords headed by the word यस्क, the affixes in the sense of ’a descendant' placed after which are elided and the words are to be used in the plural number in the masculine gender; e. g. यस्का:; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.4.63.
yājakādeia class of words headed by the words याजक, पूजक, परिचारक and others with which a word in the genitive case is compounded, in spite of the prohibition of compounds with such words, laid down by the rule कर्तरि च P. II. 2.16; exempli gratia, for exampleब्राह्मणयाजकः. ब्राह्मणपूजक: et cetera, and others: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.2.9. These words, याजक and others standing as the second members of compounds have their last vowel accented acute;confer, compareP.VI . 2.151.
yāṭaugment या prefixed to the caseaffixes marked with the mute letter ङ् (i,e. the dative case singular. the ablative case. sing the genitive case singular. and the loc singular.) after a feminine base ending in आ; e. g. रमायै, रमाया:, रमायाम्: cf याडापः P.VII.3.113.
yiṭaugment य् prefixed to the taddhita affix. affix इष्ठ when it is applied to the word बहु,in which case बहु is changed intoभू: exempli gratia, for example भूयिष्ठ: cf बहोर्लोपो भू च बहोः; इष्ठस्य यिट् व; P. VI. 4.168,159.
yugeneral wording including the affixes युच्, युट्, ट्युत्, ट्युट् and ण्युट् of which only यु remains as the affix, which is changed into अन by the rule युवोरनाकौ P.VII.1.1.
yuktavadbhāvaliterally behaviour like the original base. The term is used in the sense of possession of, or getting, the same gender and number as was possessed by the base to which the taddhita affix. affix was added and subsequently dropped by a rule of Panini in which the word लुप् is put in the sense of dropping: e. g. कुरयः देश: or अङ्गाः देश: in the sense of कुरूणां or अङ्गानां निवासो जनपदः confer, compare जनपदे लुप् P. IV.3.81 and लुपि युक्तवद् व्यक्तिवचने P.I.2.51;confer, compare also M.Bh. on P. I. 2.51 and 52.
yuktārohyādia class of compound words headed by the word युक्तारोही which have their initial vowel accented acute in spite of the general dictum that a compound word except a Bahuvrihi compound word, has its last vowel accented acute: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V I. 2.81.
yugapadadhikaraṇavacanatādenotation of two or more things by one single member by virtue of their being put together in a dvandva compound of two or more words; the grammarians advocate this doctrine stating that in a dvandva compound such as घटपटौ or घटपटम् , the word घट has the capacity of expressing the sense of both घट and पट, which in a sentence घटः पटश्च, it does not possess. Similarly पट also has the capacity of conveying the sense of both पट and घट. Possibly this theory is advocated by grarnmarians, on the analogy of words like पितरौ or मातरौ for मातापितरौ, द्यावा for द्यावापृथिवी and so on; confer, compare सिद्धं तु युगपदधिकरणवचने द्वन्द्ववचनात् P. II 2.29 Vart. 2. For details see Vyakaranamahabhasya on चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II. 2.29.
yugapadvacanatāexpression of the senses of two words together by one word confer, compare बिग्रहे खल्वपि युगपद्वचनता दृश्यते । द्यावा ह क्षामा | द्यावा चिदस्मै पृथिवी नमेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.29 Vart 6.
yuckrt affix यु changed into अन, (1) applied in the sense of 'a habituated agent' to intransitive roots in the sense of movement or utterance, to Atmanepadi roots beginning with a consonant, to the roots जु, चेकम् सृ, शुच्, कुघ्, as also to roots in the sense of decoration: exempli gratia, for example चलन:, शब्दन:: cf P.III. 2. 148-15I: (2) applied to causal roots, as also to the roots आस् श्रन्थ् and others in the sense of verbal activity when the word so formed has always the feminine gender; exempli gratia, for example कारणा, हृरणा, आसना, घट्टना,वेदना et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.3.107 and the Varttikas thereon; (3) applied to roots ending in अा and preceded by the indeclinables ईषद्, दुस् or सु in the sense of easy or difficult for obtainment and, wherever seen to any root in the Vedic language, as also to some other roots as found in actual use in the classical literature; e. g. ईषद्दानो गौर्मवता, दु्ष्पानः, सुपान: et cetera, and others सूपसदन:, दुर्योधनः, दुर्मर्षण: et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.III.8.128-130.
yogavibhāgadivision of a rule which has been traditionally given as one single rule, into two for explaining the formation of certain words, which otherwise are likely to be stamped as ungrammatical formations. The writer of the Varttikas and the author of the Mahabhasya have very frequently taken recourse to this method of योगविभाग; confer, compare P.I.1.3 Vart. 8, I.1.17 Vart.1,I.1.61, Vart. 3; I. 4.59 Vart. 1, II. 4. 2. Vart.2, III.1.67 Vart. 5, III.4.2. Vart. 6, VI.I. I Vart. 5, VI.1.33 Vart.1 et cetera, and others Although this Yogavibhaga is not a happy method of removing difficulties and has to be followed as a last recourse, the Varttikakara has suggested it very often, and sometimes a sutra which is divided by the Varttikakara into two,has been recognised as a couple of sutras in the Sutrapatha which has come down to us at present.
yogāpekṣaconcerning only that particular rule to which it refers. The word is many times used in connection with a deduction ( ज्ञापक ) which is not to be applied in general, but which is restricted to the functions of that rule from which the deduction is drawn; confer, compare योगोपक्षं ज्ञापकम् M.Bh. on P. I.1.23 Vart.10, P.III.1.95 Vart.2.,P.IV. 1.87 Vart. 2, confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.62 and V.1.1.
yojakacausal instrument or causal agent; the word is used in the sense of प्रयोजक in the Jainendra grammar; confer, compare.]ain.I.2.125.
yoṣāa woman; the word is used in the sense of feminine as applicable to gender.
r(1)second letter of the यण् class ( semi-vowels ) which has got the properties नादभागित्व, घोषवत्त्व,' संवृतत्व and अल्पप्राणता i. e. it is a sonant, inaspirate consonant. Regarding its स्थान or place of production, there is a difference of opinion : generally the consonant र् is looked upon as a cerebral or lingual letter (मूर्धन्य); cf ऋटुरषाणां मूर्धा, S.K.also Pāṇini. Siksa; but it is called by some as दन्त्य or दन्तमूलीय: cf रेफस्तु दस्त्ये दन्तमूले वा RT. 8, by others as दन्तमूलीय and and by still others as वर्स्त्य gingival. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya it is described as दन्तमूलीय: cf रो दन्तमूल I. 68, while in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya it is said to be produced by the touch of the middle part of the tip of the tongue just a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the root of the teeth;confer, compare रेफे जिह्वाग्रमध्येन प्रत्यग्दन्तमूलेभ्यः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 41; (2) substitute र् (रेफ ) for the final letter of the word अहन्, as also for the final of अम्रस्, ऊधस्, अवस् and भुवस् optionally with रु, which ( रु) is dropped before vowels, and changed to ओ before अ and soft consonants, while it is changed into visarga before hard consonants and surds.exempli gratia, for example अम्नरेव, अम्र एवः ऊधरेव, ऊधएव: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII, 2-70: (3) the consonants र् (technically) called र् in Panini's grammar ) which is substituted for the consonant स् and for the consonant न् of the word अहन् when the consonant स् or न् stands at the end of a word. This substitute रु, unlike the substitute र् is liable to be changed into visarga, or the consonant य्, or the vowel उ by P. VIII.3.15, 17, VI.1.113, 114.
r(1)the consonant र, generally cited as रेफ; the vowel अ is added to र् for facility of utterance: confer, compare T. Pr.' I.21 ; (2) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) for र् and ल्; confer, compare उरण् रपरः, P. I. 1.51: (3) krt affix र applied to the roots नम्रः, कम्प्रः et cetera, and others in the sense of agent who is habituated to, or expert in the action expressed by the root; e. g, नम्रः, कम्प्र:; confer, compare नमिकम्पिस्म्यजसकमहिंसदीपो रः P. III. 2. 167; (4) taddhita affix. affix र as a Caturarthika affix applied to the words headed by अश्मन्: e. g. अश्मरः; confer, compare वुञ्छण् P. IV. 2. 80; (5) tad affix र in the sense of possession affixed to the words ऊष, सुषि, मुष्क, मधु, and तमस् with अ of तमस् changed to इ: e. g. ऊषरम्, सुषिरम्, मधुर:, तमिस्रा: confer, compare Kas on. P.V. 2.107 and 114: (6) taddhita affix. affix र in the sense of diminution affixed to the words कुटी, शमी and शुण्डा: exempli gratia, for example कुटीर:, शमीर, शुण्डार:: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3. 88: (7) taddhita affix. affix रक् which see below; (8) krt affix रक् which see below; (9) a term for द्विगुसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
raktaliterally coloured id est, that iscoloured by nasalization: a term used by ancient grammarians for a nasaIized letter ( अनुनासिक ); cf रक्तसंज्ञो नुनासेकः R.Pr.r.17on which Uvvata comments :-अनुनासिको वणो . रक्त इत्युच्यते; also confer, compare अरक्तसंध्येत्यपवाद्यते पदं R. Pr, XI. 18, where unnasalized अा is stated as अरक्तसंधि and illustrated by the commentator by quoting the passage मन्द्रमावरेण्यम् as contrasted with अभ्र औ अषः ।
rapratyāhārakhaṇḍanaa small article showing that the short term र for the consonants र् and ल् need not be advocated as done by the learned old grammarians.The treatise was Written by Vaidyanatha Paya-gunde, the prominent pupil of Nagesabhatta.
rāmacandra(1)रामन्वन्द्राचार्य (son of कृष्णाचार्य) the well-known author of the Prakriyakaumudi. He belonged to the Sesa family and the latter half of the fifteenth century is assigned as his date. He is believed to have been a resident of Andhra. His work, the Prakriyakaumudi, was a popular grammar treatise for some time before Bhattoji's SiddhantaKaumudi got its hold, and it had a number of commentaries written upon it especially by his descendants and members of his family which became well-known as the Sesa family of grammarians. The Prakriyakaumudi is named कृष्णर्किकरप्राक्रिया also. (2) There was a grammarian named Ramacandra who wrote a small treatise on grammar named विदग्धबोध. (3) There was another grammarian of the same name who was a pupil of Nagesabhatta of the eighteenth century and who wrote a small commentary called वृतिसंग्रह on Panini's Astadhyayi. (4) There was also another Ramacandra who was a scholar of Vedic grammar and who wrote the commentary named ज्योत्स्ना on the Vjasaneyi-Pratisakhya.
rāmacandrabhaṭṭa tāreone of the senior pupils of Nagesabhatta who was a teacher of Vaidyanatha Payagunde. He wrote a small gloss on the Astadhyayi which is named पाणिनिसूत्रवृत्ति He lived in the first half of the eighteenth century and taught several pupils at Varnasi.
rāmasiṃhṛvarmāpossibly the same king of Sringaberapura who patronised Nagesabhatta. He is said to have written some Small comments on " the Ramayana and a small grammar work named धातुरत्नमञ्जरी.
rit(1)characterized by the mute consonant र् signifying the acute accent for the penultimate vowel;confer, compare उपोत्तमं रिति P. VI. I. 217; ( 2 ) the same as रिफित or रेफि, a visarga which is changeable into र् when euphonically combined; confer, compare विसर्जनीयो रिफितः V.Pr.I.160; confer, compare also भाव्युपधं च रिद्विसर्जनीयान्तानि रेफेण ; V.Pr. VII.9. The terms रिफित, रेफि and रित् are given in the Padapatha to a पद or word which ends in a Visarga which has originated from र् in the Samhitapatha; e. g. the Visarga in कः, प्रात: et cetera, and others; confer, compare R.Pr.I.30 to 32.
riltaddhita affix. affix रैि added optionally with रिष्टात् to the word ऊर्ध्व which becomes changed into उप; exempli gratia, for exampleउपरि, उपरिष्टात् ; confer, compare ऊर्ध्वस्य उपभावो रिल्रिष्टातिलौ च P.V.3.31 Vart. 1.
ru(1)substitute र् for the consonant स् at the end of a word as also for the ष् of सजुत्र् , न् of अहन् and optionally with र् for the final स् of अम्नस्, ऊधस् and अवस् in Veda; exempli gratia, for example अग्निरत्र, वायुरत्र, सजूर्देवोभिः confer, compare P.VIII.2.66; the र् of this रु (as contrasted with the substitute र् which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) is further changed into उ before a soft consonant and before the vowel अ provided it is preceded by the vowel अ, while र् , prescribed as substitute र (which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.), remains unchanged; e g. शिवोर्च्यः, शिवो वन्द्य: as contrasted with अहरत्र, अहर्गण:; (2) substitute र् for the final ज् of अवयज् (e. g, अवयाः), for ह् of श्वेतवह् (exempli gratia, for example श्वेतवाः), and for श् of पुरोडाश् (exempli gratia, for example पुगेडा:) before the case affix सु ; confer, compareP.VIII.4.67;(3)substitute र् (or द्) for the final स् or द् of a verb-form ending with the personal ending सिप् of the 2nd person. sing; confer, compare P. VIII.2.74,75;(4)substitute र् for the final न् of words ending with the affix मत् or वस् in Veda; exempli gratia, for example मरुत्व: हरिवः ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VIII.3.1; (5) substitute र् for the final न् at the end of a word when it is followed by a छव् letter id est, that is the first or a second consonant excepting ख् and फ्; exempli gratia, for example भवांश्चिनोति; confer, compare P.VIII. 3.7; (6) substitute र् for the final न् of नॄन् before the letter प् as also for the final न् of स्वतवान् and कान् under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VIII.3. 10.12.
rūḍhiconvention; usage; custom. The word रूढि is given along with योग ( derivation ) as the basis of the use of words which are described to be of four kinds; see रूढ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. confer, compare नैगमरूढिभवं हि सुसाधु P. III 3. 1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1.
rūpaptaddhita affix. affix in the sense of 'praise' which is, in fact, possessed by the word to which the affix रूपप् is added, without making any change in the sense of the word, the affix being called 'स्वार्थे' i. e. an affix in the sense of the base or प्रकृति confer, compareस्वार्थिकाः प्रत्ययाः प्रकृत्यर्थविशेषस्य द्योतका भवन्ति | प्रशस्तो वैयाकरणो वैयाकरणरूपः | याज्ञिकरूप: । प्रकृत्यर्थस्य वैशिष्ट्ये प्रशंसा भवति | वृषलरूपोयं य: पलाण्डुना सुरां पिबति | चोररूप: | Kāś. on P. V. 3.66.
rūpamālā(1)an elementary work on Sanskrit grammar composed by Vimalasarasvatī, in which the Sūtras of Pāņini are arranged in different topics many of which are called माला, such as अजन्तमाला, हलन्तमाला, छान्दसमाला, अव्ययमाला and so on.(2) the name रूपमाला is also found given to a work giving collections of formed words written by Puņyanandana.
rūpya(1)a taddhita affix. affix applied to a word meaning 'a cause' or expressing 'a human being' in the sense of 'proceeding therefrom' exempli gratia, for example समादागतं समरूप्यम्; देवदत्तरूप्यम् ; confer, compare हेतुमनुष्येभ्येन्यतरस्यां रूप्यः P. IV. 3.81 ; (2) a taddhita affix. affix applied to a word in the genitive case in the sense of भूतपूर्व, 'formerly belonging to' ; e. g. देवदत्तस्य भूतपूर्वो गौः देवदत्तरूप्य:; confer, compare Kāś. on षष्ठया रूप्य च P. V. 3.54.
rephathe consonant र्; generally the word रेफ is used for र and not रकार; confer, compare वर्णात्कार: । रादिफं: P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3,4. The consonant र is described as one pronounced like the tearing of a piece of cloth and resembling a snarl or a growl: confer, compare रिफ्यते विपाटथते वस्त्रादिपाटनध्वनिवदुच्चार्यते इति रेफ: |
rhil(1)a taddhita affix. affix termed also विभक्ति which is applied to the word इदभ् in the sense of the locative case, the word इदम् being changed into एत; e. g. एतर्हि; confer, compare इदमो र्हिल् P. V. 3.16 and एतेतौ रथो: P. V. 3.4. (2) taddhita affix. affix applied in Veda to तत् and other pronouns: exempli gratia, for exampleतर्हि, कर्हि, यर्हि, confer, compare P. V. 3.20, 21.
l(1)a consonant of the dental class which is a semi-vowel ( यण् ) with liquid contact in the mouth, and which is inaspirate ( अल्पप्राण ),voiced ( घोष ) and both nasalised and unnasalised; (2) name in general ( लकार ) given to the personal endings applied to roots in the ten tenses and moods which take different substitutes ति, त:, अन्ति et cetera, and others and have various modifications and augments in the different tenses and moods; (3) substituted as a semi-vowel ( यण् ) for the vowel ऌ followed by any other vowel in the euphonic combinations; (4)applied at the beginning of nontaddhita affixes as a mute letter indicating the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare लिति; P. VI. 1.193; ( 5 ) substituted for त्, थ्, द्, घ् or न् before ल्, confer, compare P.VIII.4. 60; (6) substituted under certain conditions for the consonant र् (a) of the root कृप्, (b) of prefixes प्र and परा before the root अय्, (c) of the root गॄ in frequentative forms and optionally before affixes beginning with a vowel, and (d ) of the word परि before घ and अङ्क; confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 18 to 22. _ ल (1) consonant ल्; see ल् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.' (2) a general term usually used by ancient grammarians to signifyलोप (elision or disappearance) of a letter or a syllable or a word; confer, compare सर्वसादेर्द्विगोश्च ल: | सवार्तिक:, द्वितन्त्र: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.2.60; (3) taddhita affix. affix ल added to the word क्लिन्न when चिल् and पिल् are substituted for the word क्लिन्न; e.g, चिल्लः, पिल्ल: confer, compare P. V. 2.33 Vārt 2.
lakṣaṇapratipadoktaa short term used for the well-known Paribhāşā लक्षणप्रतिपदोक्तयोः प्रतिपदोक्तस्यैव ग्रहणम् Par. Sek. Pari. I05, laying down that when a question arises as to which of the two words लक्षणोक्त (arrived at by certain changes or modifications) and प्रतिपदोक्त, (directly expressed) be accepted, the latter should be preferredition
lakṣmīnṛsiṃhaa grammarian of the eighteenth century who has written (1) Siddhāntakaumudīvilāsa, a commentary on the Siddhāntakaumudī and (2)Triśikhā, a commentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāşenduśekhara.
lakṣyaliterally target; illustration; example of a grammatical rule; confer, compare लक्ष्ये लक्षणं सकृदेव प्रवर्तते Paribhāşā; also लक्ष्यानुसारि व्याख्यानमेव शरणम् Paribhāşenduśekhara; confer, compare also शब्दो लक्ष्य: सूत्रं लक्षणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 14.
laghukaumudīknown as लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी also, an abridged work based upon the Siddhāntakaumudi of Bhațțojī Dīkşita, written by Bhațțojī's pupil Varadarāja. The work is very valuable and helpful to beginners in grammar. It has got the same topics as the Siddhāntakaumudī, but arranged differently. The work, named सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी is the same as लघुसिध्दान्तकौमुदी. Possibly सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी was the original name given by the author.
laghuprakriyāname of a grammar treatise based on the Sabdānuśāsana of Hemacandra written by Vinayavijaya where the sūtras of Hemacandra are arranged in different topics as in the Siddhāntakaumudī of Bhoțțojī.
ghumañjūṣāname of an independent work on the meaning of words and their interpretation written by Nāgeśa of which the परमलघुमञ्जूषा is a popular short extract by the author himselfeminine.
laghuśabdaratnaname of a commentary on Bhațțoji's Manoramā by his grandson Hari Dīkşita, which is generally read together with the Manoramā, by students upto the end of the Kāraka Chapter after they have completely read and mastered the Siddhāntakaumudī. The commentary is called लघुशब्दरत्न which dlfferentiates it from the बृहच्छब्दरत्न written by the same author viz. Hari Dīkşita.
laghuśabdenduśekharaname of a commentary on Bhațțojī's Siddhāntakaumudī written by Nāgeśa Bhațța, the stalwart Grammarian of the eighteenth century. The work is named लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर which differentiates it from the author's another work बृहच्छब्देन्दुशेखर of which the former is an abridgment. As the study of the Laghuśabdenduśekhara is very common and as the Bŗhatśabdenduśekhara is seldom studied, it is always the Laghuśabdenduśekhara that is understood by the simple and popular name Śekhara.
laṭgeneral personal ending applied to roots (1 ) to show the present time for which the personal endings ति त:...महि are substituted for the formation of verbs and अत् ( शतृ ) and आन or मान ( शानच् ) for the formation of the present participle; (2) to show past time when the indeclinable स्म is used in the sentence along with the verbal form or when the indeclinables ननु, न, नु, पुरा, यावत्, कदा, कर्हि et cetera, and others are used along with the verbal form under specific conditions; e. g. कटं करोति देवदत्त:, यजति स्म युधिष्ठिर:, अहं नु करोमि, वसन्तीह पुरा छात्रा:, यावद् भुङ्क्ते et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. III. 2.118-123, III. 3.4-9.
latvachange of र् into ल्. See ल a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
lasārvadhātukaa personal ending substituted for ल् which in certain cases gets the grave accent in, spite of the general rule that affixes ( which include personal endings ) are acute; confer, compare तास्यनुदात्तेन्डिद्दुपदेशाल्लसार्वधातुकमह्न्विङोः P. VI. 1. 186.
lāghavanyāyalaw of minimisation, parsimony in the use of words or parsimony in expression, followed generally by the Sūtra writers.
lālavihārina grammarian of the nineteenth century who wrote a gloss on Nāgeśa's Paribhāșenduśekhara.
liṅgeneral term for the affixes called लिङ् (optative) which includes the potential ( विधिलिङ् ) and the conditional ( अाशीर्लिङ् ) affixes; .confer, compare विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्र्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ् and अाशिषि लिङ्लोटौ P. III. 3.161 and 173.
liṅga(1)sign or characteristic mark; generally the mute letter prefixed or suffixed to roots,affixes, or augments and their substitutes with a specific purpose; confer, compare किंचिल्लिङ्गमासज्य वक्ष्यामि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on I.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).7, अवयवे कृतं लिङ्ग समुदायस्य विशेषकं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.62 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5; (2) proof, evidence ( प्रमाण ); the word is often used in the Paribhāșendușekhara and other works in connection with a rule or part of a rule quoted as an evidence to deduce some general dictum or Paribhāșā; (3) gender; confer, compare लिङ्ग स्त्रीलिङ्गपुंलिङ्गनपुंसकानि Kāś. on P. II. 3. 46; confer, compare also प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम्. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa.Pari.71.The gender of a word in Sanskrit language does not depend on any specific properties of a thing; it simply depends on the current usage; confer, compare लोकाश्रयत्वाल्लिङ्गस्य which is often quoted in the Mahābhāsya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.36, II.2.29, II.4.12, IV. 1.3, V.3.66, V.4.68, VIII.1.15. For details see Mahābhāșya on P.IV.1. 3 where after a long enlightening discussīon the definition संस्त्यानप्रसवौ लिङ्गम् is given.
liṅganirṇayabhūṣaṇaa work on genders by a southern grammarian अण्णौयाचार्य.
liṅgaviśiṣṭagrahaṇainclusion of the feminine form of a word when a word in the masculine gender is used in a rule, for certain operations such as the application of affixes and the like;confer, compare the usual dictum regarding this practice viz. the Paribhāșā प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 71. as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1. 1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5 to Vārt, 15 for places of the application of the dictum and those of its rejection.
liṅgaviśiṣṭaparibhāṣāthe dictum to include the feminine form of a word when in a rule the word is used in the masculine gender : प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 71. See लिङ्गविदिाग्रहण.
liṅgavyatyayatransposition of genders, as noticed often in Vedic language; e. g. मधोर्गृह्लाति or मधोस्तृप्ताः for मधुन:; confer, compare M.Bh. on P. I. 4.9.
liṅgānuśāsanaliterally science of genders; a short comprehensive old treatise on the gender of words attributed to Pāņini as its author. Other works with the same designation are attributed to वामन, दुर्गोत्तम and others.
liṭan affix of the perfect tense; confer, compare परोक्षे लिट् P.III.2.115 for which the specific affixes णल्, अतुस् उस् et cetera, and others are substituted after roots which take Parasmaipada affixes. Before the lit affixes, a monosyllabic root is reduplicated while dissyllabic roots and denominative and other secondary roots, formed by adding an affix to an original root,take the affix अाम् after which all 'liț' personal endings are dropped and the forms of the roots कृ,भू and अस् with the necessary personal-endings, are placed immediately after the word ending in अाम् , but often with the intervention of a word or more in the Vedic language and rarely in the classical language; confer, compare तं पातयां प्रथममास पपात पश्चात् ; confer, compare कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि P.III.I. 35 to 42.
luṅan affix applied to a root, showing action of immediate past time as contrasted with affixes called लिट् or लङ्. The affix लुङ् is found used, however, in the sense of the past time in general, and irrespective of time in Vedic Literature; confer, compare छन्दसि लुङ्लङ्लिटः P. III. 4.6. The conjugational affixes ति, त:, et cetera, and others are substituted for लुङ् as for the lakāras of other tenses and moods and the distinguishing sign or विकरण is added to a root before the affix called लुङ्; confer, compare च्लि लुङि and the following P. III. 1.43 et cetera, and others
luṭgeneral name for affixes of the first future which are added to roots when the future time is not the present day, but the next and the succeeding ones; confer, compare अनद्यतने लुट् P. III. 3.15. The affixes ति, त: et cetera, and others replace the affix लुट् in accordance with the number and person in view; confer, compare तिप्तस्झिसिप् .... P. III. 4 78.
lupdisappearance ( लुप्यते इति लुप् ); a term used by Pāņini with reference to the disappearance of an affix or its part under specified conditions by the express mention of the word लुप्. Although after the disappearance of an affix no operation for the base before, can take place as conditioned by the affix, i. e. although there is no प्रत्ययलक्षण, still, when the disappearanee is mentioned as लुप्, the base gets the gender and number of that original form of it which existed before the affix, which has disappeared, was applied; confer, compare कुरव: दश:, चञ्चेव पुरुष: चञ्चा; confer, compare लुपि युक्तवद् व्यक्तिवचने. P. I. 2.51 and Kāśikā thereon.
lṛṅgeneral term for the personal affixes of the conditional, which are applied to a root to show the happening of an action only if there was another preceding action, both the actions being expressed by लृङ् or conditional affixes; exempli gratia, for example देवश्चेदवर्षिष्यत् सुभिक्षमभविष्यत्; confer, compare लिङ्निमित्ते लृङ् क्रियातिपत्तौ P. III.3. 139, 140. लृङ् is also used under certain other conditions when some specific partīcles are used; confer, compare P.III.3.141-146, 151.
lṛṭa general term for the general affix ल् of the second future which is applied in the sense of future time in general, without any specific conditions, the affixes ति, त:, अन्ति being substituted for the ल् and the sign (vikaraņa) स्य being added to the root; confer, compare P.III.3.13 and III. 3. 133. The terminations अत् and अान are substituted for the affix लृट् to form future participles; exempli gratia, for example भविष्यत्, एधिष्यमाण, confer, compare लृट; सद्वा P.III.3.14.
leṭa general term for the affixes of the Vedic subjunctive, the usual personal-endings ति, तस् et cetera, and others being substituted for लेट् as in the case of other tenses and moods. The augments अट् and आट् are sometimes prefixed to the लेट् affix and the sign ( विकरण ) स् ( सिप् ) is sometimes added to the roots. The forms of लेट् are to be arrived at as they are found actually used in Vedic language, even by placing personal-endings of a person or number different from what is actually requiredition
laiṅgaa grammatical operation or a rule of grammar concerning gender; confer, compare यदि तर्हि कृत्स्नः पदार्थोभिधीयते लैङ्गाः सांख्याश्र्च विधयो न सिध्यन्ति M.Bh.on P.II.2.24 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, 9.
lokaa term used in the Mahābhāșya in contrast with the term वेद, signifying common people speaking the language correctly; the term लोक is also used in contrast with the term शास्त्र or its technique; confer, compare यथा लोके or लोकतः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.VII. 1. 9, I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; also confer, compare न यथा लोके तथा व्याकरणे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7.
lokāśrayatvadependence upon the people for the use.The phrase लोकाश्रयत्वाल्लिङ्गस्य, referring to the fixation of gender depending entirely on the people's usage, is very common in the Mahābhāșya; confer, compare M.Bh. on P. II.1.36, II.2.29, et cetera, and others
lopabalīyastvathe superior strength or superiority of elision as a grammatical operation in contrast with other operations, by virtue of which the elision, which is prescribed, takes place first and then other operations get a scope for their application; confer, compare सर्वविधिभ्यो लोपविधिर्बलीयान् Par.Śek. Pari. 93.
lohitādi(1)a class of words headed by लोहित to which the affix क्यव् ( य ) is added in the sense of 'becoming', to form a denominative root-base which gets the verb-endings of both the padas; e. g. लोहितायति, लोहितायते; निद्रायति, निद्रायते; the class लोहितादि is considered as अाकृतिगण so that similar denominative verb-bases could be explained; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.1. 13; (2) a class of words headed by लेहित, to which the feminine. affix ष्फ ( अायनी ) is added after they have got the taddhita affix यञ् added to them in the sense of 'a grandchild'; e. g. लौहित्यायनी, कात्यायनी et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.18.
lyapkrt affix य substituted for the gerund termination क्त्वा when the root,to which त्वा has been applied, is preceded by a prefix with which it (the root with the affix) is comcompounded; confer, compare समासेऽनत्र्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1. 37.
lyukrt affix यु changed into अन in the sense of an agent applied to the root नन्द् and others (after which it is seen actually used in language); exempli gratia, for example नन्दनः, दूषण:, साधन:, रोचन: confer, compare नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यच: P.III.1.134.
lvādia class of roots, headed by the root लू, the past. passive voice.participle. affix त placed after which becomes changed into न; exempli gratia, for example लून:, लूनवान्; जीन:, जीनवान्; et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VII. 2.44.
vaṃśādia class of words headed by the word वंश, the word भार placed after which gets the taddhita affixes added to it, as prescribed in the senses 'takes it', 'carries it' or 'produces it'; exempli gratia, for example वांशभारिकः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 1.50. The taddhita affix. affixes as prescribed in the senses mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are added to the words वंश et cetera, and others and not to भार according to some commentators; exempli gratia, for exampleवांशिकः, कौटजिकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 1.50.
vaktavyathat which ought to be stated or prescribed; the word is frequently found used by the Varttikakāra when he suggests any addition to, or modification in Panini's rules. Sometimes,the word is added by the author of the Mahabhasya in the explanation of a Varttika after stating what is lacking in the Varttika.