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     Grammar Search "divi" has 3 results.
     
divi: masculine locative singular stem: div
divi: neuter locative singular stem: div
divi: feminine locative singular stem: div
     Amarakosha Search  
4 results
     
     Monier-Williams
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64 results for divi
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
divim. the blue jay (equals kikīdiv/i-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divi locative case of 3. d/iv- in compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divicara(div/i--) mfn. moving in the sky (as a planet) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divicārinmfn. idem or '(div/i--) mfn. moving in the sky (as a planet) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divicārinm. an inhabitant of the sky View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dividhuvaka Name (also title or epithet) of a tree, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divigamanam. "sky-traveller", a planet, star View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divigamanaratnan. "star-jewel", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divigatamfn. being in heaven View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divigatam. a god View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divijamfn. () heaven-born, celestial View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divijam. a god View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divimfn. "sky-born" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divijātamfn. idem or 'mfn. "sky-born" ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divijātam. Name of a son of purū-ravas- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divikṣayamfn. heaven-dwelling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divikṣitmfn. idem or 'mfn. heaven-dwelling ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
diviram. a husband's brother (equals devara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
diviram. chief clerk or secretary (also -pati-) Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divirakiśoram. Name of a poetry or poetic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
diviratham. Name of several men (varia lectio diva--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
diviṣadmfn. sitting or dwelling in heaven View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
diviṣadm. a god View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divisadand equals -ṣ/ad- and -ṣṭha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
diviṣadadhvanm. the gods' path, atmosphere, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divispṛśmfn. heaven-touching View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divispṛśatmfn. idem or 'mfn. heaven-touching ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
diviśritmfn. going to heaven View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
diviṣṭambhamfn. resting on the sky View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
diviṣṭhamfn. dwelling in heaven, celestial View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
diviṣṭi(d/iv--.) f. longing for heaven, devotion, worship, sacrifice (generally locative case plural) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divitmfn. going to the sky View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divitmatmfn. going in or to the sky, heavenly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divitmatāind. instrumental case heavenwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
diviyajmfn. praying to heaven View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
diviyoni(div/i--) mfn. sky-born (agni-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādivipulāf. Name of an āryā- metre. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ahardivi(/ahar--) ind. day by day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedavādividāriṇīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmayajñādividhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cediviṣayam. the country of the cedi-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
didivi equals dīdivi-, the sky View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divimfn. shining, bright View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divimfn. risen (as a star) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divim. a Name of bṛhas-pati-, the planet Jupiter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divim. heaven, final emancipation (see didivi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divimn. boiled rice, food (see didīvi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divimn. equals artha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīkṣāmāsādivicāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jinādivijayam. Name of the author of a gloss on the 3rd upāṅga- (of the jaina-s). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kikidivim. a blue jay View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kikīdivim. idem or 'm. idem or 'f. idem or 'm. a blue jay ' ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
manudivi(?) , Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandivivardhanamfn. equals -vardhana- mfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityahomādividhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradiviind. at all times, always, ever View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasracaṇḍyādividhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatacaṇḍīsahasracaṇḍyādividhānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrāddhādividhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stambhanādividhim. Name of a mantra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tridivinm. a god, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divinodam. Name of work by śaṃkara-- miśra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedivimānan. equals -māna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛkṣādividyāf. the science of trees etc., botany View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
2 results
     
divi दिविः The Chāṣa bird (also दिवः).
divi दीदिवि a. 1 shining; राजन्तमध्वराणां गोपाभृतस्य दीदिविम् Rv.1.1.8. -2 Risen (as a star). -विः 1 Boiled rice. -2 Heaven. -3 An epithet of (1) Agni; (2) Bṛihaspati. -4 Final emancipation.
     Macdonell Vedic Search  
2 results
     
divisprś divi-spṛ́ś, a. touching the sky, v. 11, 1; x. 168, 1 [diví L. of div + spṛś touch].
divi dí̄divi, a. shining, i. 1, 8 [dī shine].
     Macdonell Search  
4 results
     
divigata pp. celestial; -kara, a. moving in heaven; -kârin, a. id.; m. celestial.
divira m. scribe.
diviṣad a. dwelling in heaven; m. god: -adhvan, m. path of the gods, sky.
divi a. shining.
       Bloomfield Vedic
         Concordance  
83 results
     
divi kṣamā ca manmahe RV.5.52.3d.
divi kṣayantā rajasaḥ pṛthivyām RV.7.64.1a; AB.5.20.8; KB.26.15; Aś.8.11.1. P: divi kṣayantā śś.10.11.5.
divi kṣitibhyo apsv ā RV.3.13.4d.
divi kṣipadbhyo apsu yā AVP.15.21.8d.
divi candramasi śritam SMB.1.5.11b; PG.1.11.9b; 16.17b; ApMB.2.13.3b; HG.2.3.8b (bis); VārG.2.6b; KBU.2.8b.
divi ca smaidhi pārye na indra RV.6.17.14d.
divi jātaḥ samudrajaḥ (AVP. samudrataḥ) AVś.4.10.4a; AVP.4.25.6a.
divi jātā apsu jātāḥ TB.3.7.12.6a. P: divi jātāḥ TA.2.3.1.
divi jyotir ajaram (MS. uttamam) ārabhetām (MS. -thām) MS.1.4.3d: 51.5; TB.3.7.5.11d; Apś.3.9.10d. See dive jyotir.
divi tāro na rocante RV.8.55 (Vāl.7).2b.
divi te janma paramam VS.11.12c; TS.4.1.2.1c; MS.2.7.2c: 75.1; 3.1.3: 3.12; KS.16.1c; śB.6.3.2.2.
divi te tūlam oṣadhe AVP.11.12.3a. See divi te mūlam.
divi te nābhā paramo ya ādade RV.9.79.4a.
divi te badbadhe śavaḥ RV.1.80.13d.
divi te bṛhad bhāḥ (KS. bhās svāhā) TS.3.4.2.2; 3.6; KS.13.11d,12.
divi te mūlam oṣadhe AVś.19.32.3a. See divi te tūlam.
divi tvātrir adhārayat AVś.13.2.12a; GB.1.2.17.
divi divyāni santv antarikṣe vayāṃsi pṛthivyāṃ pārthivāni KS.28.1.
divi divyān dṛṃhāntarikṣe antarikṣyān (KS. adds dṛṃha) pṛthivyāṃ pārthivān (KS. adds dṛṃha) MS.1.3.15: 36.8; 4.6.6: 88.3; KS.35.7. See divi devān dṛṃhā-.
divi devā atharvāṇaḥ AVś.11.6.13b. Cf. devā daivā.
divi devā iva śritāḥ AVś.6.80.2b. Cf. divi vātā.
divi devā diviśritāḥ AVś.11.7.23d--27d.
divi devā nāsatyā RV.5.74.2b.
divi devān dṛṃha mayi prajām Lś.1.7.10.
divi devān dṛṃhāntarikṣe vayāṃsi pṛthivyāṃ pārthivān TS.3.2.8.6. See divi divyān dṛṃhā-.
divi devāsa āsate RV.1.19.6b; AVP.6.17.6b.
divi devāḥ sūryam āditeyam RV.10.88.11b; MS.4.14.14b: 239.17; N.7.29b.
divi deveṣu yajñam erayemam MS.4.10.3: 151.9; TB.3.5.9.1; 6.13.1; 14.3; Aś.1.8.7. Metrical.
divi deveṣu hotrā yacha TS.1.3.13.1; MS.4.5.3: 66.10; TA.5.6.7; KA.2.111.
divi dyām iva dṛṃhatu AVś.6.69.3d; ArS.3.1d.
divi dhā imaṃ yajñam VS.38.11; MS.4.9.9: 129.1; śB.14.2.2.17; TA.4.9.3; 5.8.3; KA.2.130. P: divi dhāḥ Kś.26.6.5; Mś.4.3.22. See under imaṃ yajñaṃ divi dhāḥ.
divi dhāḥ KA.2.131.
divi na ketur adhi dhāyi haryataḥ RV.10.96.4a; AVś.20.30.4a.
divi panthāś carācaraḥ RV.10.85.11d; AVś.14.1.11d.
divi paśyasi sūryam AVś.18.2.50b.
divi pṛṣṭo arocata VS.33.92a; KB.26.17; Aś.8.10.3a; śś.10.11.9a; N.7.23.
divi pṛṣṭo yajatas sūryatvak KA.1.100a; 2.100. See under divi spṛṣṭo yajataḥ.
divi pravācyaṃ kṛtaḥ RV.1.105.16b.
divi pravācyaṃ kṛtam RV.2.22.4c; SV.1.466c.
divi preṅkhaṃ hiraṇyayaṃ śubhe kam RV.7.87.5d.
divi baddho hiraṇyayaḥ AVP.12.7.5b.
divi bṛhatā tvopastabhnomi TB.3.7.10.1; Apś.14.31.7.
divi mūrdhānaṃ dadhiṣe svarṣām (TSṭB. suvarṣām) RV.10.8.6c; VS.13.15c; 15.23c; TS.4.4.4.1c; MS.2.7.15c: 98.3; KS.16.15c; TB.3.5.7.1c.
divi me anyaḥ pakṣaḥ RV.10.119.11a.
divi yad u draviṇaṃ yat pṛthivyām RV.4.5.11d.
divi rukma ivopari RV.5.61.12c.
divi rudrāso adhi cakrire sadaḥ RV.1.85.2b.
divi vātā iva śritāḥ RV.1.187.4c; AVP.6.16.4c; KS.40.8c. Cf. divi devā iva.
divi viṣṇur vyakraṃsta jāgatena chandasā VS.2.25; śB.1.9.3.10,12; śś.4.12.2. P: divi viṣṇuḥ Kś.3.8.11. See under jāgatena chandasā divam.
divi śilpam etc. see divaḥ etc.
divi śukraṃ yajataṃ sūryasya RV.10.7.3d; KB.25.10.
divi śukro vi rājati SV.2.1175b. Cf. divi ṣañ.
divi śrayasva TS.5.6.1.4; MS.2.13.1: 153.4; KS.39.1; Apś.16.33.3; Mś.6.1.6.20 (21).
divi śravāṃsy uttamāni dhiṣva RV.1.91.18d; ArS.3.2d; VS.12.113d; TS.4.2.7.4d; MS.2.7.14d: 96.10; KS.16.14d; 37.5d; śB.7.3.1.46; Kauś.68.10d.
divi śravo 'jaram ā tatāna RV.1.126.2d.
divi śravo dadhire yajñiyāsaḥ RV.1.73.7b; TB.2.7.12.6b.
divi śravo dadhiṣe nāma vīraḥ RV.10.28.12d.
divi śravo dadhīmahi RV.5.35.8d.
divi ṣañ (AVś. ṣaṃ; SV. saṃ) chukra ātataḥ RV.6.2.6b; AVś.18.4.59b; SV.1.83b. Cf. divi śukro.
divi ṣad etc. see divi sad.
divi ṣyāma pārye goṣatamāḥ RV.6.33.5d.
divi saṃ etc. see divi ṣañ.
divi sad (RV. ṣad) bhūmy ā dade RV.9.61.10b; SV.1.467b; 2.22b; VS.26.16b; JB.1.81,116; 3.40.
divi sīda KS.39.5; Apś.16.30.1.
divi sīda pṛthivyām antarikṣe TB.3.7.6.10c; Apś.4.7.2c.
divi sūryaṃ vipaścitam AVś.13.1.39d.
divi sūryam adadhāt somam adrau RV.5.85.2d; VS.4.31d; TS.1.2.8.2d; MS.1.2.6d: 15.10; KS.2.6d; 4.9d; śB.3.3.4.7. Fragments: divi sūryam ... somam adrau TS.6.1.11.3,4.
divi sūryam ivājaram RV.5.27.6d.
divi sūryo arocata RV.8.56 (Vāl.8).5e.
divi somo adhi śritaḥ RV.10.85.1d; AVś.14.1.1d; ApMB.1.6.1d.
divi stomaṃ manāmahe RV.5.35.8e.
divi spṛśanti bhānavaḥ RV.1.36.3d.
divi spṛṣṭo yajataḥ sūryatvak AVś.2.2.2a. See diva spṛṣṭo etc., and divi pṛṣṭo yajatas etc.
divi svano yatate bhūmyopari RV.10.75.3a.
divikṣayaṃ yajataṃ barhir āsade RV.5.46.5b.
divikṣayo nabhasā ya eti TA.3.11.8b.
divispṛg yāty aruṇāni kṛṇvan RV.10.168.1c. See divaspṛg ety.
divispṛṅ mā hiṃsīḥ MS.4.9.7: 128.3; TA.4.8.4; 5.7.8. P: divispṛk Mś.4.3.20.
divispṛśaṃ yajñam asmākam aśvinā RV.10.36.6a.
divispṛśy āhutaṃ juṣṭam agnau RV.10.88.1b; N.7.25b.
diviṣṭambhena (AVP. divi ṣṭambhena, so also mss. of AVś.) śaśvad it AVś.19.32.7b; AVP.11.12.7b.
divitaḥ pṛthivīm avaḥ (AVP. ava) AVP.14.3.1b; NīlarU.1b.
diviś ca mā jāgṛviś ca paścād gopāyetām # PG.3.4.16. Cf. under gopāyaṃś ca.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
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     KV Abhyankar
"divi" has 119 results.
     
tadādividhia convention similar to the तदन्तविधि of Panini,laid down by the Varttikakara laying down that in case an operation is prescribed for something followed by a single letter, that single letter should be taken to mean a word beginning with that single letter: confer, compare यस्मिन्विधिस्तदादावल्ग्रहणे P.I.1.72 Vart. 29: Par. Sek. Pari. 33.
tyadādividhia specific operation prescribed for the pronouns headed by त्यद् e. g. the substitution of अ for the final letter; confer, compare त्यदादिविधौ च प्रयोजनम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1. 27 Vart. 6.
padādividhia grammatical operation specifically prescribed for the initial letter of a word.
akarmakaintransitive, without any object, (said with regard to roots which cannot possess an object or whose object is suppressed or ignored). The reasons for suppression are briefly given in the well-known stanza ; धातोरर्थान्तरे वृत्तेर्धात्वर्थेनोपसंग्रहात् । प्रसिद्धेरविवक्षातः कर्मणोऽकर्मिकाक्रिया ॥ In the case of intransitive roots, the verbal activity and its fruit are centred in one and the same individual viz. the agent or कर्ता confer, compare फलव्यापारयोरेकनिष्ठतायामकर्मकः Vāk. Pad.
akṣarapaṅktiname given to the dvipada virāj verses divided into padās of five syllables. cf विराजो द्विपदाः केचित् सर्वा आहुश्चतुष्पदाः । कृत्वा पञ्चाक्षरान्पादांस्तास्तथाSक्षरपङ्क्तयः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII. 50.
aṇ(1)token term ( प्रत्याहार ) for all vowels and semivowels which, when prescribed for an operation, include all such of their sub-divisions as are caused by length, protraction accent or nasalization. cf अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.60;(2) token term for the vowels अ, इ and उ in all Pānini's rules except in the rule I.1.69 given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. e.g see ढ्रलोपे पूर्वस्य दीर्घोणः P.VI.3. 111, केऽणः P.VII.4.13. and अणोऽ प्रगृह्यस्य. P.VIII.4.57: (3) tad, affix. a ( अ ) prescribed generally in the various senses such as 'the offspring', 'dyed in,' 'belonging to' et cetera, and others except in cases where other specific affixes are prescribed cf प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् P. IV.1.83; (4) kṛ. affix a ( अ ), applied, in the sense of an agent, to a root with an antecedent word (उपपद) standing as its object. e. g. कुम्भकारः, see P.III.2.1: काण्डलावः, see P.III.3.12.
anavayavaliterally having no parts; impartite; without any concern with the individual component parts; application in totality; confer, compare सिद्धं तु धर्मोपदेशने अनवयवविज्ञानाद्यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु P. VI. 1.84 Vārt 5 and the Bhāṣya thereon; अस्मिञ् शास्त्रे अनवयवेन शास्त्रार्थसंप्रत्ययः स्यात् । a rule in grammar applies to all cases where its application is possible; it cannot be said to have its purpose served by applying to a few cases only.
anudāttataraquite a low tone, completely grave; generally applied to the tone of that grave or anudātta vowel which is immediately followed by an acute ( उदात्त ) vowel. When the three Vedic accents were sub-divided into seven tones viz. उदात्त, उदात्ततर्, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितस्थोदात्त and एकश्रुति corresponding to the seven musical notes, the अनुदात्ततर was the name given to the lowest of them all. अनुदात्ततर was termed सन्नतर also; confer, compare उदात्तस्वरितपरस्य सन्नतरः P.I.2.40; confer, compare also M, Bh. on I.2.33.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
avagraha(1)separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; exempli gratia, for example पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originatedition The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. (Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; confer, compare also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।(Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.36); also confer, compare यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ exempli gratia, for example शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; confer, compare समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.
avyapavṛktaunseparated, undivided, inseparable, mixed; confer, compare नाव्यपवृक्तस्य अवयवे तद्विधिः यथा द्रव्येषु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva-sutra 4.V.9 whereon Kaiyaṭa remarks व्यपवृक्तं भेदः । अव्यपवृक्तं अभिन्नबुद्धिविषयमेकत्वालम्बनज्ञानग्राह्यं समुदायरूपम् ।
ākṛtiliterally form; individual thing; confer, compare एकस्या अाकृतेश्चरितः प्रयोगो द्वितीयस्यास्तृतीयस्याश्च न भवति M.Bh on III.1.40 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).6. The word is derived as आक्रियते सा आकृतिः and explained as संस्थानम्; confer, compare आक्रियते व्यज्यते अनया इति आकृतिः संस्थानमुच्यते Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on IV.1.63; (2) general form which, in a way, is equivalent to the generic notion or genus; confer, compare आकृत्युपदेशात्सिद्धम् । अवर्णाकृतिरुपदिष्टा सर्वमवर्णकुलं ग्रहीष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).I.1 Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 1; (3) notion of genus; cf also यत्तर्हि तद् भिन्नेष्वभिन्नं छिनेष्वच्छिन्नं सामान्यभूतं स शब्दः । नेत्याह । अाकृतिर्नाम सा. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya.1; (4) a metre consisting of 88 letters; confer, compare R. Prāt. XVI.56,57.
āgarvīyaa class of roots forming a subdivision of the Curādigaṇa or the tenth conjugation beginning with पद् and ending with गर्व् which are only ātmanepadin; exempli gratia, for example पदयते, मृगयते, अर्थयते, गर्वयते.
ādhṛṣīyaa sub-division of roots belonging to the चुरादिगण or tenth conjugation beginning with युज् and ending with धृष् which take the Vikaraṇa णिच् optionally id est, that is which are also conjugated like roots of the first conjugation; exempli gratia, for example यीजयति,योजयते, योजति;साहयति-ते, सहति.
āśvalāyanaprātiśākhyaan authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the Ṛksaṁhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa.
āsvadīyaa sub-division of the चुरादि (Xth conjugation) roots, beginning with the root ग्रस् and ending with the root स्वद्, which take the Vikaraṇa णिच् id est, that is which are conjugated like roots of the tenth conjugation, only if they are transitive in sense.
īyastad-affix ईयसुन् , showing superiority or excellence of one individual over another in respect of a quality, added to a substantive expresive of quality; when the substantive ends in the affix तृ, that affix तृ is removed: exempli gratia, for example पटीयान्, लघीयान्, गरीयान्, दोहीयसी (धेनुः) confer, compareP.V.3.57-64.
uṇādisūtradaśapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable.
uṇādisūtrapañcapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into five chapters which is possessed of a scholarly commentary written by Ujjvaladatta. There is a commentary on it by Bhaṭṭoji Dīkṣita also.
uṣṇih(उष्णिक्)name of the second of the main seven Vedic metres which are known by the name प्रजापतिच्छन्दस्. The Uṣṇik metre consists of 28 syllables divided into three padas of 8, 8 and 12 sylla bles. It has got many varieties such as पुरउष्णिह्, ककुभ् and others; for details see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI 20-26.
ekadravyaone and the same individual substance: cf the words एकद्रव्यसम-वायित्व Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.23, एकद्रव्याभिघान on P.VIII.1.51, एकद्रव्योपनिवेशिनी given as a definition of संज्ञा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.1.
ekapadamade up of one word; consisting of one word; confer, compare अथवा सन्त्येकपदान्यप्यवधारणानि । यथा अब्भक्षो वायुभक्षः । अप एव भक्षयति वायुमव भक्षयति । M.Bh. first Āhnika; (2) a continuous word paraphrased as अखण्डपद and समानपद by commentators; confer, compare तेनानन्तरा षष्ठयेकपदवत् V.Pr.II. 18: (3) every individual word: confer, compare बहुक्रमे क्रमेत तस्यैकपदानि नि:सृजन् R.Pr.XI.18.
ekavacanasingular number; affix of the singular numberin Pāṇini's grammar applied to noun-bases ( प्रातिपदिक) and roots when the sense of the singular number is to be conveyed; the singular sense can be of the form of an individual or collection or genus. The word एकवचन in the technical sense of singular number is found used in the Prātiśākhyas and Nirukta also.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
ekaśeṣanirdeśastatement by subsistence of one word out of many. The phrase is very often used in the Mahābhāṣya where the omission of an individual thing is explained by saying that the expression used is a composite one including the omitted thing along with the thing already expressed; confer, compare एकशेषनिर्देशोयम् । सर्वादीनि च सर्वादीनि च सर्वादीनि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.I.27, on I.1.59, I.2.39, as also on I.3.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5,I.4. 101 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19 et cetera, and others
aikasvaryahaving only one principal accent (Udātta or Svarita) for the whole compound word which is made up of two or more individual words confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.29.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantraparibhāṣāpāṭhaname given to a text consisting of Paribhāṣāsūtras, believed to have been written by the Sūtrakāra himself as a supplementary portion to the main grammar. Many such lists of Paribhāṣāsūtras are available, mostly in manuscript form, containing more than a hundred Sūtras divided into two main groups-the Paribhāṣā sūtras and the Balābalasūtras. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
gaṇapāṭhathe mention individually of the several words forming a class or gaṇa, named after the first word said to have been written by Pāṇini himself as a supplementary work to his great grammar called Aṣṭaka or Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., the Sikṣā,the Dhātupātha and the Lingānuśāsana being the other ones. Other grammarians such as शाकटायन, अापिशलि and others have their own gaṇapāthās. The gaṇapāthā is traditionally ascribed to Pāṇini; the issue is questioned, however, by modern scholars. The text of the gaṇapāṭha is metrically arranged by some scholars. The most scholarly and authoritative treatise on gaṇapāṭha is the Gaṇaratnamahodadhī of Vardhamāna.
grahaṇavatspecifically mentioned in a rule, individually mentioned; confer, compare ग्रहणवता प्रातिपदिकेन तदन्तविधिर्नास्ति Par. Sek.Pari.31. See the word ग्रहण.
cārthathe meaning of the indeclinable च to convey which, as existing in different individuals, the dvandva compound is prescribeditionOut of the four senses possessed by the inde clinable च, the Dvandva compound is prescribed in two senses viz.इतरेतरयोग and समाहार out of the four समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार: confer, compare कः पुनश्चेन कृतोर्थः समुच्चयोन्वाचय इतरेतरयोगः समाहार इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.2.29; confer, compare also Candra Vyakarana II.2.48
codaka(1)an objector; the word is common in the Commentary Literature where likely objections to a particular statement are raised, without specific reference to any individual objector, and replies are given, simply with a view to making matters clear; (2) repetition of a word with इति interposed: confer, compare चेदकः परिग्रहः इत्यनर्थान्तरम्. See अदृष्टवर्ण and परिग्रह.
jahatsvārthā( वृत्ति )a composite expression where the constituent members give up their individual sense. In compound words such as राजपुरुष in the sentence राजपुरुषमानय the word राजन् gives up its sense in as much as he, the king,is not brought; पुरुष also gives up its sense as every man is not brought. It is of course to be noted that although the sense is given up by cach word, it is not completely given up: cf जहदप्यसेो स्वार्थ नात्यन्ताय जहाति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 2. For detailed explanation see Mahabhasya on P. II. I. I. Vart. 2.
jātigenus; class;universal;the notion of generality which is present in the several individual objects of the same kindeclinable The biggest or widest notion of the universal or genus is सत्ता which, according to the grammarians, exists in every object or substance, and hence, it is the denotation or denoted sense of every substantive or Pratipadika, although on many an occasion vyakti or an individual object is required for daily affairs and is actually referred to in ordinary talks. In the Mahabhasya a learned discussion is held regarding whether जाति is the denotation or व्यक्ति is the denotation. The word जाति is defined in the Mahabhasya as follows:आकृतिग्रहणा जातिर्लिङ्गानां च न सर्वभाक् । सकृदाख्यातनिर्गाह्या गोत्रं च चरणैः सह ॥ अपर आह । ग्रादुभीवविनाशाभ्यां सत्त्वस्य युगपद्गुणैः । असर्वलिङ्गां बह्वर्थो तां जातिं कवयो विदुः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV. 1.63. For details see Bhartphari's Vakyapadiya.
ḍatarāṃdia class of words headed by the word डतर which stands for डतरान्त id est, that is words ending with the affix डतर; similarly the word डतम which follows डतर stands for डतमान्त. This class डतरादि is a subdivision of the bigger class called सर्वादि. and it consists of only five words viz. डतरान्त, डतमान्त, अन्य, अन्यतर and इतरः cf P. VII.1.25 and I.1.27.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
taittirīyaprātiśākhyacalled also कृष्णयजुःप्रातिशाख्य and hence representing possibly all the different branches or Sakhas of the कृष्णयजुर्वेद, which is not attributed definitely to a particular author but is supposed to have been revised from time to time and taught by various acaryas who were the followers of the Taittiriya Sakha.The work is divided into two main parts, each of which is further divided into twelve sections called adhyayas, and discusses the various topics such as letters and their properties, accents, euphonic changes and the like, just as the other Pratisakhya works. It is believed that Vararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya wrote Bhasyas on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, but at present, only two important commentary works on it are available(a) the 'Tribhasyaratna', based upon the three Bhasyas mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. as the title shows, written by Somayarya and (b) the 'Vaidikabharana' written by Gopalayajvan. For details see Introduction to 'Taittiriya Pratisakhya' edition Govt Oriental Library Series, Mysore.
dravyasubstance, as opposed to गुण property and क्रिया action which exist on dravya. The word सत्त्व is used by Yaska, Panini and other grammarians in a very general sense as something in completed formation or existence as opposed to 'bhava' or kriya or verbal activity, and the word द्रव्य is used by old grammarians as Synonymous with सत्त्व; confer, compare चादयोSसत्वे। चादयो निपातसंज्ञा भवन्ति न चेत्सत्वे वर्तन्ते, confer, compare Kas on P. I. 4.57; confer, compare S.K. also on P. I.4.57. (2)The word द्रव्य is also found used in the sense of an individual object, as opposed to the genus or generic notion ( अाकृति ); confer, compare द्रव्याभिधानं व्याडिः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64. Vart. 45.(3)The word द्रव्य is found used in the sense of Sadhana or means in Tait. Prati. confer, compare तत्र शब्दद्रव्याण्युदाहरिष्यामः । शब्दरूपाणि साधनानि वर्णयिष्यामः Tai, Pr. XXII. 8.
dravyapadārthikaa grammarian who maintains that 'dravya' or 'individual object' is the sense of words; confer, compare न ह्याकृतिपदार्थिकस्य द्रव्ये न पदार्थो, द्रव्यपदार्थिकस्य वाकृतिर्न पदार्थः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.64 Vart. 53. See द्रव्य.
dravyābhidhānadenotation of द्रव्य or individual object as the sense of words as opposed to आकृत्यभिधान i, e. denotation of the general form possessed by objects of the same class; of द्रव्याभिधानं व्याडिः P. I.2.64 Vart. 45. See द्रव्य.
dviguname of a compound with a numeral as the first member. The compound is looked upon as a subdivision of the Tatpurusa comPoundThe dvigu compound, having collection as its general sense, is declined in the neuter gender and singular number; when it ends in अ the feminine. affix ङी is added generally, e. g. पञ्चपात्रम्, त्रिभुवनम्, पञ्चमूली. The Dvigu comPound also takes place when a karmadharaya compound, having a word denoting a direction or a numeral as its first member, (a) has a taddhita affix. affix added to it exempli gratia, for example पञ्चकपाळः (पुरोडाशः), or (b) has got a word placed after it in a compound e. g. पशञ्चगवधनः or (c) has a collective sense exempli gratia, for example पञ्चपूली; confer, compare तद्वितार्थोत्तरपदसमाहारे च ( P. II.1.51 ) also, cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. and S. K. om P.II.1.51,52.
dhātaddhita affix.affix (l) applied to a numeral in the sense of a kind ( प्रकार ) or a division of time, exempli gratia, for exampleएकधा, द्विधा, त्रिधा et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.V.3.42, 43; (2) applied to बहु to show divisions of a short time;exempli gratia, for example बहुधा दिवसस्य भुङ्क्क्ते and बहुधा मासस्य भुङ्क्ते;confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.4.20.
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
nāmannoun, substantive; one of the four categories of words given in the Nirukta and other ancient grammer works; confer, compare चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्याते चोपसर्गनिपाताश्च, Nirukta of Yāska.I.1. The word is defined as सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि by standard grammarians; confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1.; confer, compare also सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII.8; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 49 and commentary thereon. Panini divides words into two categories only, viz. सुबन्त and तिङन्त and includes नामन् ,उपसर्ग and निपात under सुबन्त. The Srngarapraksa defines नामन् as follows-अनपेक्षितशब्दव्युत्पत्तीनि सत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायीनि नामानि। तानि द्विविधानि। आविष्टलिङ्गानि अनाविष्टलिङ्गानि च । The word नामन् at the end of a sasthitatpurusa compound signifies a name or Samjna e. g. सर्वनामन्, दिङ्नामन् , छन्दोनामन्; confer, compare also. Bhasavrtti on संज्ञायां कन्थोशीनरेषु P. II.4. 20 and संज्ञायां भृत्. P. III. 2.46 where the author of the work explains the word संज्ञायां as नाम्नि. The word is used in the sense of 'a collection of words' in the Nirukta, confer, compare अन्तरिक्षनामानि, अपत्यनामानि, ईश्वरनामानि, उदकनामानि, et cetera, and others
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padakāraliterally one who has divided the Samhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada-text. The term is applied to ancient Vedic Scholars शाकल्य, आत्रेय, कात्यायन and others who wrote the Padapātha of the Vedic Samhitās. The term is applied possibly through misunderstanding by some scholars to the Mahābhāsyakāra who has not divided any Vedic Samhitā,but has, in fact, pointed out a few errors of the Padakāras and stated categorically that grammarians need not follow the Padapāțha, but, rather, the writers of the Padapāțha should have followed the rules of grammar. Patañjali, in fact, refers by the term पदकार to Kātyāyana, who wrote the Padapātha and the Prātiśākhya of the Vājasaneyi-Samhitā in the following statement--न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम्। यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.1. 109; VI. 1. 207; VIII. 2.16; confer, compare also अदीधयुरिति पदकारस्य प्रत्याख्यानपक्षे उदाहरणमुपपन्नं भवति ( परिभाषासूचन of व्याडि Pari. 42 ) where Vyādi clearly refers to the Vārtika of Kātyāyana ' दीधीवेव्योश्छन्दोविषयत्वात् ' P. I. 1.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I. The misunderstanding is due to passages in the commentary of स्कन्दस्वामिन् on the Nirukta passage I. 3, उब्वटटीका on ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य XIII. 19 and others where the statements referred to as those of Patañjali are, in fact, quotations from the Prātiśākhya works and it is the writers of the Prātiśākhya works who are referred to as padakāras by Patañ jali in the Mahābhāsya.
padapāṭhathe recital of the Veda text pronouncing or showing each word separately as detached from the adjoining word. It is believed that the Veda texts were recited originally as running texts by the inspired sages, and as such, they were preserved by people by oral tradition. Later on after several centuries, their individually distinct words were shown by grammarians who were called Padakāras. The पदपाठ later on had many modifications or artificial recitations such as क्रम, जटा, घन et cetera, and others in which each word was repeated twice or more times, being uttered connectedly with the preceding or the following word, or with both. These artificial recitations were of eight kinds, which came to be known by the term अष्टविकृतयः.
padaprabhedalit, divisions of words: parts of speech. There are four parts of speech viz.नामन् , आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात given by ancient grammarians and the authors of the Prātiśākhya works, while there are given only two, सुबन्त and तिङन्त by Pāņini. For details see pp. 145, 146 Vol. VII. Mahābhāșya D. E. Society's edition.
padavāda or padavādipakṣaview that words are real and have an existence and individuality of their own. The view is advocated by the followers of both the Mīmāmsā schools and the logicians who believe that words have a real existence. Grammarians admit the view for practical purposes, while they advocate that the अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट alone is the real sense. confer, compare Vākyapadīya II.90 and the foll.
padasaṃskārapakṣaan alternative view with वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष regarding the formation of words by the application of affixes to crude bases. According to the Padasamskāra alternative, every word is formed independently, and after formation the words are syntactically connected and used in a sentence. The sense of the sentence too, is understood after the sense of every word has been understood; confer, compare सुविचार्य पदस्यार्थं वाक्यं गृह्णन्ति सूरयः Sira. on Pari. 22. According to the other alternative viz. वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष, a whole sentence is brought before the mind and then the constituent individual words are formed exempli gratia, for example राम +सु, गम् + अ + ति । Both the views have got some advantages and some defects; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 56.
padasphoṭaexpression of the sense by the whole word without any consideration shown to its division into a base and an affix. For instance, the word रामेण means 'by Rama' irrespective of any consideration whether न is the affix or इन is the affix which could be any of the two, or even one, different from the two; confer, compare उपायाः शिक्षमाणानां वालानामपलापनाः Vākyapadīya II.240.
padārthameaning of a word, signification of a word; that which corresponds to the meaning of a word; sense of a word. Grammarians look upon both-the generic notion and the individual object as Padārtha or meaning of a word, and support their view by quoting the sūtras of Pāņini जात्याख्यायामेकस्मिन् बहुवचनमन्यतरस्याम् I. 2.58 and सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ I. 2.64; confer, compare किं पुनराकृतिः पदार्थ अाहोस्विद् द्रव्यम् । उभयमित्याह । कथं ज्ञायते । उभयथा ह्याचार्येण सूत्राणि प्रणीतानि । अाकृतिं पदार्थे मत्वा जात्याख्यायामित्युच्यते | द्रव्यं पदार्थे मत्वा सरूपाणामित्येकशेष अारभ्यते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in I. 1. first Āhnika. In rules of grammar the meaning of a word is generally the vocal element or the wording, as the science of grammar deals with words and their formation; confer, compare स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा, P. I. 1. 68. The possession of vocal element as the sense is technically termed शब्दपदार्थकता as opposed to अर्थपदार्थकता; confer, compare सोसौ गोशब्दः स्वस्मात्पदार्थात् प्रच्युतो यासौ अर्थपदार्थकता तस्याः शब्दपदार्थकः संपद्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.44 V. 3. The word पदार्थ means also the categories or the predicaments in connection with the different Śāstrās or lores as for instance, the 25 categories in the Sāmkhyaśāstra or 7 in the Vaiśeșika system or 16 in the NyayaŚāstra. The Vyākaranaśāstra, in this way to state, has only one category the Akhandavākyasphota or the radical meaning given by the sentence in one strok
paramāṇua time-unit equal to one-half of the unit called अणु, which forms one-half of the unit called मात्रा which is required for the purpose of the utterance of a consonant; confer, compare परमाणु अर्धाणुमात्रा V. Pr.I.61. परमाणु, in short, is the duration of very infinitesimal time equal to the pause between two individual continuous sounds. The interval between the utterances of two consecutive consonants is given to be equivalent to one Paramanu; confer, compare वर्णान्तरं परमाणु R.T.34.
parāthe highest eternal voice or word, the highest and the most lofty of the our divisions of language (वाक), viz. परा,पश्यन्ती, मध्यमा and वैखरी, which, (परा), philosophically is identified with नाद ( व्रह्म ) or शब्दब्रह्म . It is described as वर्णादि -विशेषरहिता चेतनमिश्रा सृष्ट्युपयोगिनी जगदुपादानभूता कुण्डलिनीरूपेण प्राणिनां मूलाधारे वर्तते | कुण्डलिन्याः प्राणवायुसंयोगे परा व्यज्यते | इयं निःष्पन्दा पश्यन्त्यादयः सस्पन्दा अस्या विवर्तः । इयमेव सूक्ष्मस्फोट इत्युच्यते ।
parisamāptiapplication of the complete sense; the word is found used in the three alternative views about the application of the full sense of a sentence,collectively, individually or in both the ways, to the individuals concerned ; confer, compareप्रत्येकं वाक्यपरिसमाप्ति:, समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः, उभयथा वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः ; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.1 Vart12; ( 2 ) completion ; confer, compare वृत्करणं ल्वादीनां प्वादीनां च परिसमाप्त्यर्थमिति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VII. 3.80.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
pādaliterally foot; the term is applied to a fourth part of a section such as अध्याय, or of a verse which is divisible into four parts or lines; cf प्रकृत्यान्तःपादमव्यपरे P. VI.1.115, also गोः पादान्ते P. VII. 1.57.
prakṛtipratyayavibhāgadivision of a word (in use in a language) into the base and the affix, which is looked upon as the main function of grammar.
pragāthaa couple of Vedic hymns divided into three hymns for purposes of singing as Saman; confer, compare यत्र द्वे ऋचौ प्रग्रथनेन तिस्रः क्रियन्ते स प्रगाथनात् प्रकर्षगानाद्वा प्रगाथ इत्युच्यते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV 2.55.
praghaṭṭakaname given to the subdivisions of chapters or sections in certain books.
prapāṭhakaa term used for a division of a work by an ancient writer, as for instance in the case of the Atharvapratisakhya.
prabhedasmaller division, sub-division.
prayatna(1)effort; the word is used in connection with the effort made for producing sound; confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.1.1.9 these efforts are described to be of two kinds बाह्य and आभ्यन्तर of which the latter are considered in determining the cognate nature of letters ( सावर्ण्य ); confer, compareअाभ्यन्तरप्रयत्नाः सवर्णसंज्ञायामाश्रीयन्ते;Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.9; (2) specific measure taken for a particular purpose such as marking a letter with a particular tone or accent or dividing a rule, or laying down a modificatory rule or the like; confer, compare सैवाननुवृत्तिः शब्देनाख्यायते प्रयत्नाधिक्येन पूर्वसूत्रेपि संबन्धार्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.22.
prātipadikaliterallyavailable in every word. The term प्रातिपादिक can be explained as प्रतिपदं गृह्णाति तत् प्रातिपदिकम् cf P.IV. 4. 39. The term प्रातिपदिक, although mentioned in the Brahmana works, is not found in the Pratisakhya works probably because those works were concerned with formed words which had been actually in use. The regular division of a word into the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix ( प्रत्यय ) is available, first in the grammar of Panini, who has given two kinds of bases, the noun-base and the verb-base. The noun-base is named Pratipadika by him while the verb-base is named Dhatu. The definition of Pratipadika is given by him as a word which is possessed of sense, but which is neither a root nor a suffix; confer, compare अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् . P.I. 2.45. Although his definition includes, the krdanta words,the taddhitanta words and the compound words, still, Panini has mentioned them separately in the rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I. 2.45 to distinguish them as secondary noun-bases as compared with the primary noun-bases which are mentioned in the rule अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्, Thus,Panini implies four kinds of Pratipadikas मूलभूत, कृदन्त, तद्धितान्त and समास, The Varttikakara appears to have given nine kinds-गुणवचन, सर्वनाम, अव्यय, तद्धितान्त, कृदन्त, समास, जाति, संख्या and संज्ञा. See Varttikas 39 to 44 on P. I. 4. 1. Later on, Bhojaraja in his SringaraPrakasa has quoted the definition अर्थवदधातु given by Panini, and has given six subdivisions.: confer, compare नामाव्ययानुकरणकृत्तद्धितसमासाः प्रातिपदिकानि Sr. Prak. I. page 6. For the sense conveyed by a Pratipadika or nounbase, see प्रातिपदिकार्थ.
prātipadikārthadenoted sense of a Pratipadika or a noun-base. Standard grammarians state that the denotation of a pratipadika is five-fold viz. स्वार्थ, द्रव्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या and कारक. The word स्वार्थ refers to the causal factor of denotation or प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त which is of four kinds जाति, गुण, क्रिया and संज्ञा as noticed respectively in the words गौः, शुक्लः, चलः and डित्ः. The word द्रव्य refers to the individual object which sometimes is directly denoted as in अश्वमानय, while on some occasions it is indirectly denoted through the genus or the general notion as in ब्राह्मणः पूज्य:, लिङ्ग the gender, संख्या the number and कारक the case-relation are the denotations of the case-terminations, but sometimes as they are conveyed in the absence of a case-affix as in the words पञ्च, दश, and others, they are stated as the denoted senses of the Pratipadika, while the case-affixes are said to indicate them; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युः शब्दादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
bṛhatīa Vedic metre consisting of four padas and 36 syllables. There are three padas of eight syllables and the fourth has twelve syllables. It has got further subdivisions known as पुरस्ताद्बृहती, उपरिष्टाद्बृहती, न्यङ्कुसारिणी or उरोबृहती, ऊर्ध्वबृहती विष्टारबृहती, पिपीलिकमध्यमा and विषमपदा. For details see R.Pr. XVI. 31-37.
bhakti(1)name given to two of the five divisions of a Saman which are प्रस्तावभक्ति, उद्गीथ, प्रतिहार, उपद्रव and निधानभाक्ति; (2) the vowel portion surrounding, or placed after, the consonant र् or ल् which (consonant) is believed to be present in the vowel ऋ or ऌ respectively forming its important portion, but never separately noticed in it. The vowels ऋ and ऌ are made up of one matra each. It is contended by the grammarians that the consonants र् and ल् forming respectively the portion of ऋ and ऌ, make up halfa-matra, while the remaining half is made up of the भाक्ति of the vowel surrounding the consonant or situated after the consonant. The word which is generally used for this 'bhakti is 'ajbhakti' instead of which the word स्वरभक्ति is found in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare यत्तद्रेफात्परं भक्तेस्तेन व्यवहितत्वान्न प्राप्नेति | ...... यच्चात्र रेफात्परं भुक्तेर्न तत् क्वचिदपि व्यपवृक्तं दृश्यते | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VIII. 4.1 Vart 2; confer, compare स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गं Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 17; also confer, compare रेफात्स्वरोपहिताद् व्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णी स्वरभक्तिरुत्तरा ) Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 13.
bhartṛharia very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. confer, compare शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'.
bhūtaliterally what has become or happened, The word is used in books on grammar in the sense of past tense in general, which has been subdivided into (a) unseen past (परीक्षभूत or लिट् ), (b) past, not of today (अनद्यतनभूत or लङ् ) and (c) past in general (सामान्यभूत or लुङ्),confer, compare भूते P.III.2.84, परोक्षे लिट् P.III.2.116 and अनद्यतने लङ् P.III.2.111.
bhūmanplurality of the individuals referred to; confer, compare बहोर्नञ्वदुत्तरपदभूम्नि P. VI.2.175.
bhūmādithe limited senses भूमन् (plurality) and others in which भतुप् and other possessive taddhita affixes should take place, and not in the general sense of the 'presence at one place' as also 'the possession by some one individual;' confer, compare भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेतिशायने । संसर्गेस्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 2.94.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
yogavibhāgadivision of a rule which has been traditionally given as one single rule, into two for explaining the formation of certain words, which otherwise are likely to be stamped as ungrammatical formations. The writer of the Varttikas and the author of the Mahabhasya have very frequently taken recourse to this method of योगविभाग; confer, compare P.I.1.3 Vart. 8, I.1.17 Vart.1,I.1.61, Vart. 3; I. 4.59 Vart. 1, II. 4. 2. Vart.2, III.1.67 Vart. 5, III.4.2. Vart. 6, VI.I. I Vart. 5, VI.1.33 Vart.1 et cetera, and others Although this Yogavibhaga is not a happy method of removing difficulties and has to be followed as a last recourse, the Varttikakara has suggested it very often, and sometimes a sutra which is divided by the Varttikakara into two,has been recognised as a couple of sutras in the Sutrapatha which has come down to us at present.
rathaname of one of the eight kinds of recitals of the Veda Samhita by dividing it into the component words ( पद ) and reciting the component words by repeating them, in their regular order and reverse order too.
rekhātermed also 'लेखा '; one of the subdivisions of the krama-pāțha.
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
varṇānarthavattvathe view that letters do not possess the sense, as individually in every letter no separate sense ; is seen: confer, compare अनर्थकास्तु et cetera, and others Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 5, Vart.14 and 15.
varṇārthavattvathe theory or view that individual letters are severally possessed of different senses. For instance, the difference in the meanings of the words कूप, यूप, and सृप is due to the difference in their initial letter. The theory is not acceptable to the Vaiyakaranas nor the theory वर्णानर्थवत्व given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. They follow the theory of संघातार्थवत्त्व i. e. sense given by a group of words together. See M.Bh, on Siva Sutra 5, Varttikas 9 to 15.
varṇaukadeśaa part or a portion of a combined letter id est, that isसंयुक्तस्वर or संयुक्तव्यञ्जन. The diphthongs or संयुक्तस्वरs are divisible into two Svaras, for instance ऐ into अा and ए, औ into अा and ओ. Similarly double consonants like क्कू, च्च्, क्म्, क्त् et cetera, and others are also divisible. Regarding the point raised whether the individual parts can be looked upon as separate letters for undergoing or causing a grammatical operation,the decision of the grammarians is that they cannot be looked upon as separate, when they are completely mixed as the dipthongs; confer, compareनाक्यपवृक्तस्यावयवस्य तद्वधिर्यथा द्रव्येषु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 3, 4 Vart. 6.
vākyabhedaa serious fault of expression when a sentence is required to be divided into two sentences for the sake of its proper interpretation: cf केचिद्वा सुप्यापिशलेरित्यनुवर्तयन्ति तद्वाक्य भेदेन सुब्धातौ विकल्पं करोति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. onP.VI. 1.94: cf also तद्धि ( स्थानेग्रहणं ) तृतीयया विपरिणमय्य वाक्यभेदेन स्थानिन: प्रसङ्गे जायमानः et cetera, and others Par. Sek. on Pari. 13.
vākyasaṃskārapakṣathe grammarian's theory that as the individual words have practically no existence as far as the interpretation or the expression of sense is concerned, the sentence alone being capable of conveying the sense, the formation of individual words in a sentence' is explained by putting them in a sentence and knowing their mutual relationship. The word गाम् cannot be explained singly by showing the base गो and the case ending अम् unless it is seen in the sentence गाम् अानय; confer, compare यथा वाक्यसंस्कारपक्षे कृष्णादिसंबुद्धयन्त उपपदे ऋधेः क्तिनि कृते कृष्ण ऋध् ति इति स्थिते असिद्धत्वात्पूर्वमाद्गुणे कृते अचो रहाभ्यामिति द्वित्वं .. Pari. Bhaskara Pari. 99The view is put in alternation with the other view, viz. the पदसंस्कारपक्ष which has to be accepted in connection with the गौणमुख्यन्याय; cf पदस्यैव गौणार्थकत्वस्य ग्रहेण अस्य ( गौणमुख्यन्यायस्य) पदकार्यविषयत्वमेवोचितम् | अन्यथा वाक्यसंस्कारपक्षे तेषु तदनापत्तिः Par. Sek. on Pari. 15, The grammarians usually follow the वाक्यसंकारपक्ष.
vāc(1)expression from the mouth ; speech; series of sounds caused by expelling the air from the lungs through differently shaped positions of the mouth and the throat: cf स संघातादीन् प्राप्य वाग्भवति Vaj. Pr.I.9; see the word वाणी; (2) the sacred or divine utterance referring to the Veda: confer, compare त्रय्या वाचः परं पदम् ; (3) term used for उपपद in the Jainendra Vyākarana: confer, compare वाग्विभक्ते कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Jain Pari 104.
vājapyāyanaan ancient grammarian who holds the view that words denote always the jati i.e they always convey the generic sense and that the individual object or the case is understood in connection with the statement or the word,as a natural course,when the purpose is not served by taking the generic sense; confer, compare अाकृत्यभिधानाद्वा एकं शब्दं विभक्तौ वाजप्यायन अाचार्यो न्याय्यं मन्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.2.64 Vart. 35.
vārṣyāyaṇian ancient grammarian quoted in the Mahabhasya and the Nirukta in connection with the six-fold division of bhava or verbal activity; confer, compare षड् भावविकारा भवन्तीति वाप्यार्यणि: l जायते अस्ति विपरिणमते वर्धते अपक्षीयते विनश्यतीति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.
vikāryaliterally changeable; that which gets changed in its nature; a variety or subdivision of कर्म or the object confer, compare त्रिविधं कर्म । निर्वर्त्य विकार्य प्राप्यं चेति | Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 2.1. The विकार्यकर्म is explained as यस्य प्रकृत्युच्छेदो गुणान्तरं वा उत्पद्यते तद्विकार्यम् ! यथा भुक्त ओदन: | लूयमान: केद[र: | Srngaraprakasa II ; cf also, Vakyapadiya III. 7.78.
vigrahalit, separation of the two parts of a thing; the term is generally applied to the separation of the constituent words of a compound word: it is described to be of two kinds : ( a ) शास्त्रीयविग्रहृ or technical separation; e. g. राजपुरुष्: into राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु and ( 2 ) लौकिकविग्रहं or common or popular separation ; e. g. राजपुरूष: into राज्ञ: पुरुष:. It is also divided into two kinds according to the nature of the constituent words (a) स्वपदाविग्रह separation by means of the constituent words, exempli gratia, for example राजहितम् into राज्ञे हृितम्;(b) अस्वपदविग्रह, e. g. राजार्थम् into राज्ञे इदम् ;or exempli gratia, for example सुमुखीं into शोभनं मुखं अस्याः confer, compare M.Bh. on P.V.4.7. The compounds whose separation into constituent words cannot be shown by those words (viz. the constituent words) are popularly termed nityasamsa. The term नित्यसमास is explained as नित्यः समासो नित्यसमासः | यस्य विग्रहो नास्ति । M.Bh. on P.II.2.19 Vart. 4. The upapadasamsa is described as नित्यसमास. Sometimes especially in some Dvandva compounds each of the two separated words is capable of giving individually the senses of both the words exempli gratia, for example the words द्यावा and क्षामा of the compound द्यावाक्षामा. The word विग्रह is found used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the separate use of a word as contrasted with the use in a compound; cf अच्छेति विग्रहे प्लुतं भवति R.Pr.VII.1. विग्रहृ is defined as वृत्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः in the Siddhantakaumudi.
vibhaktiliterally division, separation; separation of the base id est, that is that factor which shows the base separately। The word विभक्ति is generally used in the sense of case affixes; but in Pāṇini's grammar the term विभक्ति is applied also to personal endings applied to roots to form verbs; confer, compareविभक्तिश्च । सुप्तिङौ विभक्तिसंज्ञौ स्तः S.K.on Pāṇ. I.4.104. The term is also applied to taddhita affix.affixes which are applied to pronouns, किम् and बहु, ending in the ablative or in the locative case or in other cases on rare occasions. Such affixes are तस् (तसिल् ), त्र, (त्रल्), ह, अत्, दा, ऋहिल्, दानीम्, था ( थाल् ) and थम् given in P.V.3.1 to V.3.26.The case affixes are further divided into उपपदविभक्ति affixes and कारकविभक्ति affixes. For details see P.II.3.1 to 73.
vibhāga(1)lit, division, splitting; the splitting of a sentence into its constituent parts viz. the words; , the splitting of a word into its constituent parts viz. the base, the affix, the augments and the like: (2) understanding or taking a thing separately from a group of two or more; confer, compareअवश्यं खल्वपि विभज्योपपदग्रहणं कर्तव्यं यो हि बहूनां विभागस्तदर्थम् ! सांकाश्यकेभ्यश्च पाटलिपुत्रकेभ्यश्च माथुरा अभिरूपतराः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.V.3.57: (3) splitting of a Saṁhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada text: confer, compare अथादावुत्तरे विभागे ह्रस्वं व्यञ्जनपरः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.III.l, where विभाग is explained as पदविभाग by the commentator confer, compare also R.Pr.XVII.15; (4) the capacity of the Kārakas (to show the sense) confer, compare कारकशक्तिः विभागः Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on Kāś.I.2.44.
vibhāṣāoptionally, alternatively; the word is explained by Pāṇini as नवा in the rule न वेति विभाषा (P.I.1.44)in consonance with its derivation from the root भाष् with वि; confer, compare नेति प्रतिषेधे वेति विकल्पस्तयोः प्रतिषेधविकल्पयोर्विभाषेत्ति संज्ञा भवति । विभाषाप्रदेशेषु प्रतिषेधविकल्पावुपतिष्ठते | तत्र प्रतिषेधेन समीकृते विषये प्रश्चाद्विकल्पः प्रवर्तते. The option (विभाषा) is further divided into three kind प्राप्ते विभाषा, अप्राप्ते विभाषा and उभयत्र विभाषा. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P. I.1.44.
virāmaan ancient term used in the Prātiśākhya works for a stop or : pause in general at the end of a word, or at the end of the first member of a compound, which is shown split up in the Padapāṭha, or inside a word, or at the end of a word, or at the end of a vowel when it is followed by another vowel. The duration of this virāma is different in different circumstances; but sometimes under the same circumstances, it is described differently in the different Prātiśākhyas. Generally,there is no pause between two consonants as also between a vowel and a consonant preceding or following it.The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya has given four kinds of विराम (a) ऋग्विराम,pause at the end of a foot or a verse of duration equal to three mātrās or moras, (b) पदविराम pause between two words of duration equal to two matras; e. g. इषे त्वा ऊर्जे त्वा, (c) pause between two words the preceding one of which ends in a vowel and the following begins with a vowel, the vowels being not euphonically combined; this pause has a duration of one matra e,g. स इधान:, त एनम् , (d) pause between two vowels inside a word which is a rare occurrence; this has a duration of half a mātrā;e.gप्रउगम्, तितउः; confer, compare ऋग्विरामः पदविरामो विवृत्तिविरामः समानपदविवृत्तिविरामस्त्रिमात्रो द्विमात्र एकमात्रोर्धमात्र इत्यानुपूर्व्येण Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 13. The word विवृत्ति is explained as स्वरयोरसंधिः. The vivṛttivirāma is further divided into वत्सानुसति which has the preceding vowel short and the succeeding long, वत्सानुसारिणी which has the preceding vowel a long one and the succeeding vowel a short one, पाकवती which has both the vowels short, and पिपीलिका which has got both , the vowels long. This fourfold division is given in the Śikṣā where their duration is given as one mātrā, one mātrā, three-fourths of a mātrā and one-fourth of a mātrā respectively. The duration between the two words of a compound word when split up in the पदपाठ is also equal to one mātrā; confer, compare R.Pr.I.16. The word विराम occurs in Pāṇini's rule विरामोs वसानम् P.I. 4.110 where commentators have explained it as absence; confer, compare वर्णानामभावोवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् S.K.on P. I.4.110: confer, compare also विरतिर्विरामः । विरम्यते अनेन इति वा विरामः Kāś. on P.I.4.110. According to Kāśikā even in the Saṁhitā text, there is a duration of half a mātrā between the various phonetic elements, even between two consonants or between a vowel and a consonant, which, however, is quite imperceptible; confer, compare परो यः संनिकर्षो वर्णानां अर्धमात्राकालव्यवधानं स संहितासंज्ञो भवति Kāś. on P. I.4.109 confer, compare also विरामे मात्रा R.T.35; confer, compare also R.Pr.I.16 and 17. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P.I.4.109 and I.4.110.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudīan extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita.
vyaktadistinctly perceived i e. perceived with reference to the individual referred to, which enables the speaker to apply the specific affixes in the sense of gender and number; cf, प्रातिपदिकं चाप्युपदिष्टुं सामान्यभूतेर्थे वर्तते | सामान्ये वर्तमानस्य व्यक्तिरुपजायते | व्यक्तस्य सतो लिङ्गसंख्याभ्यामन्वितस्य बाह्यनार्थेन यॊगॊ भवति । M.Bh. on P.I.1.57.
vyakti(1)literallydistinct manifestation, as for instance that of the generic features in the individual object; confer, compareसामान्ये वर्तमानस्य व्याक्तिरुपजायत, M.Bh. on P.I.1,57; (2) gender, which in fact, is the symbol of the manifestation of the generic property in the individual object; confer, compareहरीतक्यादिषु व्यक्ति: P.I.2.52 Vart. 3, as also लुपि युक्तवद् व्यक्तिवचने P. I.2.5I: (3) individual object; confer, compare व्यक्तिः पदार्थ:.
vyaktipadārthavādathe same as द्रव्यपदार्थवाद; the view that a word denotes the individual object and not the generic nature. The oldest grammarian referred to as holding this view, is व्याडि who preceded Patanjali.
vyapavarga(1)division of a single thing into its constituent elements; confer, compare स्थानिवद्भावाद् व्यपवर्ग: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII. 2.36, VII.3.44 Vart. 3; (2) distinct comprehension as possessed of a specific quality: cf न हि गौरित्युक्ते व्यपवर्गौ गम्यते शुक्ला नीला कपिला कपॊतेति। M.Bh, on P. I.2.64 Vart 37 ; (3) separation into parts, confer, compare कश्चिदेकेनैव प्रहारेण व्यपवर्गे करोति, M.Bh.on V.I.119 Vart 5; (4) distinct notion as a separate unit after the things have been combined confer, compare एकादेशे कृते व्यपवर्गाभावः संबुद्धिलोपो न प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI.1.69 Vart 3; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.1.80.
byāḍiname of an ancient grammarian with a sound scholarship in Vedic phonetics, accentuation,derivation of words and their interpretation. He is believed to have been a relative and contemporary of Panini and to have written a very scholarly vast volume on Sanskrit grammar named *Samgraha which is believed to have consisted of a lac of verses; confer, compare संग्रहो व्याडिकृतो लक्षसंख्ये ग्रन्थ: NageSa's Uddyota; confer, compare also इह पुरा पाणिनीये अस्मिन्व्याकरणे ब्याड्युपरचितं लक्षग्रन्थपरिमाणं निबन्धनमासीत् Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Tika. The work is not available at present. References to Vyadi or to his work are found in the Pratisakhya works, the Mahabhasya, the Varttikas, the Vakyapadiya and many subsequent treatises. A work on the Vyakarana Paribhasas, believed to have been written by Vyadi, is available by the name परिभाषासूचन which from its style and other peculiarities seems to have been written after the Varttikas, but before the Mahabhasya. Vyadi is well-known to have been the oldest exponent of the doctrine that words denote an individual object and not the genus. For details see pp. 136-8, Vol. 7 Vyakarana Mahabhasya DE. Society's Edition.
śakyawhich forms the object pointed out by means of the potentiality to the hearer by the word (id est, that is शब्द) which directly communicates the sense, in which case it is termed वाचक as contrasted with भेदक or द्योतक when the sense,which is of the type of संबन्ध is conveyed rather indirectly. This nice division into वाचकता and भेदकता was introduced clearly by भर्तृहरि: confer, compare Vakyapadtya Kanda 2.
śabdaliterally "sound" in general; confer, compare शब्दं कुरु शब्दं मा कार्षीः | ध्वनिं कुर्वनेवमुच्यते | M.Bh. in Ahnika I; confer, compare also शब्दः प्रकृतिः सर्ववर्णानाम् | वर्णपृक्तः: शब्दो वाच उत्पत्तिः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII.1, XXIII.3.In grammar the word शब्द is applied to such words only as possess sense; confer, compare प्रतीतपदार्थको लोके ध्वनि: शब्द: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika 1: confer, comparealso येनोच्चरितेन अर्थः प्रतीयते स शब्दः Sringara Prakasa I; confer, compare also अथ शब्दानुशासनम् M.Bh. Ahnika 1. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya, शब्द् is said to be constituted of air as far as its nature is concerned, but it is taken to mean in the Pratisakhya and grammar works in a restricted sense as letters possessed of sense, The vajasaneyiPratisakhya gives four kinds of words तिडू, कृत्, तद्धित and समास while नाम, आख्यात, निपात and उपसर्ग are described to be the four kinds in the Nirukta. As शब्द in grammar, is restricted to a phonetic unit possessed of sense, it can be applied to crude bases, affixes, as also to words that are completely formed with case-endings or personal affixes. In fact, taking it to be applicable to all such kinds, some grammarians have given tweive subdivisions of शब्द, vizप्रक्रुति, प्रत्यय,उपत्कार, उपपद, प्रातिपदिक, विभक्ति, उपसर्जन, समास, पद, वाक्य, प्रकरण and प्रबन्ध; confer, compare Sringara Prakasa I.
śāstrascientific treatment of a subject; a system of thoughts giving a scientific treatment of any subject. The word is applied to the rules of Panini and sometimes to an individual rule; confer, compare शास्त्रबाध or अशास्त्रबाध or विप्रतिषेधशास्त्र,frequently used by the commentators; confer, compare न हि संदेहादलक्षणं शास्त्रामित्यर्थः Nagesa's Par. Sek. on Pari. 1; confer, compare पदान्तादिष्वेव विकारशास्त्रम् R.Pr.II.2
śikhāone of the subdivisions of the artificial recitals of the Vedic texts.
śuklayajuḥprātiśākhyaname of the Pratisakhya treatise pertaining to the White Yajurveda which is also called the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. This work appears to be a later one as compared with the other PratiSakhya works and bears much similarity with some of the Sutras of Panini. It is divided into eight chapters by the author and it deals with letters, their origin and their classification, the euphonic and other changes when the Samhita text is rendered into the Pada text, and accents. The work appears to be a common work for all the different branches of the White Yajurveda, being probably based on the individually different Pratisakhya works of the different branches of the Shukla Yajurveda composed in ancient times. Katyayana is traditionally believed to be the author of the work and very likely he was the same Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini.
saṃghātārthacollective sense given by a combination of letters called पदार्थ. When the collective sense is given by a combination of words it is called पदार्थ, and when the idea is complete it is called वाक्यार्थ. Sometimes the meaning of a compound word is taken individually and not. collectively; such a meaning is called संघातविगृहीतार्थ confer, compare नामाख्यातग्रहणं संघातविगृहीतार्थं द्रष्टव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV. 3.72 Vart. 1.
saṃjñāa technical term; a short wording to convey ample sense; a term to know the general nature cf things; convention; confer, compare वृद्धिशब्द; संज्ञा; अादेच: संज्ञिन: M.Bh. on P.1-1.1. There are two main divisions of संज्ञा-कृत्रिमसंज्ञा or an artificial term such as टि, घु, or भ which is merely conventional, and अकृत्रिमसंज्ञा which refers to the literal sense conveyed by the word such as अव्यय, सर्वनाम and the like. Some grammar works such as the Candra avoid purely conventional terms, These samjhas are necessary for every scientific treatise. In Panini's grammar, there are the first two chapters giving and explaining the technical terms whose number exceeds well-nigh a hundredition
saṃjñāśabdaone of the four divisions of wordsजातिशब्द, गुणशब्द्ं, क्रियाशब्द and संज्ञाशब्द; the संज्ञाशब्द is called also यदृच्छाशब्द a word forming the name of a thing by virtue of a convention; See यदृच्छाशब्द.
sattāexistence, supreme or universal existence the Jati par excellence which is advocated to be the final sense of all words and expressions in the language by Bhartrhari and other grammarians after him who discussed the interpretation of words. The grammarians believe that the ultimate sense of a word is सत्ता which appears manifold and limited in our everyday experience due to different limitations such as desa, kala and others. Seen from the static viewpoint, सत्ता appears as द्रब्य while, from the dynamic view point it appears as a क्रिया. This सत्ता is the soul of everything and it is the same as शव्दतत्त्व or ब्रह्मन् or अस्त्यर्थ; confer, compare Vakyapadiya II. 12. The static existence, further, is . called व्यक्ति or individual with reference to the object, and जाति with reference to the common form possessed by individuals.
saptasvaralit, the seven accents; the term refers to the seven accents formed of the subdivisions of the three main Vedic accents उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित viz उदात्त, उदात्ततर, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितोदात्त,and एकश्रुति: cf त एते तन्त्रे तरनिर्देशे सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति ( उदात: । उदात्ततरः । अनुदात्तः ! अनुदात्ततरः । स्वरित: । स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः । एकश्रुतिः सप्तम: ॥ M. Bh on P. I. 2. 33. It is possible that these seven accents which were turned into the seven notes of the chantings of the samans developed into the seven musical notes which have traditionally come down to the present day known as सा रे ग म प ध नी; confer, compare उदात्ते निषादगान्धारौ अनुदात्ते ऋषभधैवतौ । स्वरितप्रभवा ह्येते षड्जमध्यमपञ्चमाः। Pāṇini. Siksa. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions the seven accents differently; confer, compare उदात्तादयः परे सप्त । यथा-अभिनिहितक्षैप्र-प्राशश्लिष्ट-तैरोव्यञ्जन-तैरोविराम-पादवृत्तताथाभाव्याः Uvvata on V.Pr.I.l l4.
samānādhikaraṇawords which have got the same individual object ( द्रव्य ) referred to by means of their own sense,and which are put in the same case; co-ordinate words; confer, compare तत्पुरुष: समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I. 2.42; confer, compare अधिकरणशब्द: अभिधेयवाची । समानाधिकरण: समानाभिधेयः । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I, 2.42.
samāsaplacing together of two or more words so as to express a composite sense ; compound composition confer, compare पृथगर्थानामेकार्थीभावः समासः। Although the word समास in its derivative sense is applicable to any wording which has a composite sense (वृत्ति), still it is by convention applied to the समासवृत्ति only by virtue of the Adhikarasutra प्राक् कडारात् समास: which enumerates in its province the compound words only. The Mahabhasyakara has mentioned only four principal kinds of these compounds and defined them; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थ प्रधानोव्ययीभावः। उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः। अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः । उभयपदार्थप्रधानो द्वन्द्वः । M.Bh. on P.II.1.6; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.II.1.20, II.1.49,II.2.6, II.4.26, V.1.9. Later grammarians have given many subdivisions of these compounds as for example द्विगु, कर्मधारय and तत्पुरुष (with द्वितीयातत्पुरुष, तृतीयातत्पुरुष et cetera, and othersas also अवयवतत्पुरुष, उपपदतत्पुरुष and so on) समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुवीहि, समाहारद्वन्द्व, इतरेतरद्वन्द्व and so on. समासचक्र a short anonymous treatise on compounds which is very popular and useful for beginners. The work is attributed to वररुचि and called also as समासपटल. The work is studied and committed to memory by beginners of Sanskrit ] studies in the PathaSalas of the old type.
samudāyaaggregate, totality, collection of individual members: confer, compare समुदाये प्रवृत्ताः शब्दाः क्वचिदवयवेष्वपि वर्तन्ते also confer, compare समुदाये व्याकरणशब्दः अवयवे नोपपद्यते M.Bh. Ahnika 1 Vart, 14: confer, compare also समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः।Par.Sek.Pari.108.
samuddeśaspecific individual mention or discussion; the term is used .in connection with the several second. tions of the third Kanda or book of Bhartrharis Vakyapadiya.
sāmānyābhidhānadenotation of the genus factor of a word, as contrasted with द्रव्याभिधान denotation of the individual object; confer, compare तद्यदा द्रव्याभिधानं तदा बहुवचने भविष्यति, यदा सामान्याभिधानं तदैकवचनं भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 58 Vart. 7.
sārvakālikadenoting time, irrespective of its divisions such as the past, the present and the future; e. g. the krt affixes prescribed by rules before P. III 2.84; confer, compare अतः सार्वकालिका विधयो वेदितव्याः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 2. 83.
svara(l)vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
svarabhaktia vowel part; appearance of a consonant as a vowel; the character of a vowel borne by a consonant. Many times a semivowel which consists of one letter has to be divided especially for purposes of metre, as also for accentuation into two letters or rather, has to be turned into two letters by inserting a vowel before it or after it, for instance य् is to be turned into इय् e. g, in त्रियम्बकं यजामहे, while र् or रेफ is to be turned into र् ऋ as for instance in कर्हि चित् which is to be uttered as कर् ऋ हृि चित्. This prefixing or suffixing of a vowel is called स्वरभक्तिः confer, compare स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गं द्राघीयसी सार्धमात्रेतरे च | अधोनान्या ( Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 32.35; confer, compare also न संयोगं स्वरभाक्तिर्विहृान्ति Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 35; confer, compare also रेफात् खरोपहिताद् व्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णा स्वरभक्तिरुत्तरा: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 46. In Panini's grammar, however, the word अज्भाक्त, which means the same is used for स्वरभक्ति; cf ऋति ऋ वा लृति लृ वा इत्युभयत्रापि विधेयं वर्णद्वयं द्विमात्रम् | अाद्यस्य मध्ये द्वौ ; रेफौ तयोरेकां मात्रा । अभितेाज्भक्तेरपरा। S. K. on VI. 1.101.
haritādia class of words headed by the word इरित to which the taddhita affix फक् ( अायन ) is added in the sense of a descendant after the affix अ ( अञ् ) has already been added to them by P. IV. 1. 104, the word so formed possessing the sense of the great grandchild (युवापत्य) of the individuals denoted by इरित and others; e. g. हारितायनः; confer, compare इह् तु गोत्राधिकारेपि सामर्थ्याद् यूनि प्रत्ययोभिघीयते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, IV.1.100
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divi during the daytimeSB 3.11.15
divi high in the skySB 2.7.27
divi in heavenBG 9.20
SB 10.70.44
divi in heavenSB 10.70.44
SB 10.83.36
SB 11.16.5
SB 11.21.33-34
SB 11.31.7
divi in outer spaceSB 4.15.8
divi in the abode of the demigodsMM 6
divi in the heavenly planetsSB 10.25.32
SB 10.37.32
SB 3.17.3
SB 4.1.54-55
divi in the heavenly regionSB 10.47.15
divi in the heavensSB 10.25.31
SB 3.11.11
divi in the higher planetary systemBG 18.40
SB 8.20.19
divi in the higher planetary systemsSB 4.9.60
SB 7.9.23
divi in the skyBG 11.12
SB 1.14.17
SB 1.19.18
SB 10.16.12
SB 10.64.12
SB 10.70.18
SB 10.75.16
SB 10.77.37
SB 10.83.27
SB 10.88.36
SB 11.30.4
SB 12.10.3
SB 12.2.27-28
SB 3.27.12
SB 4.10.14
SB 4.5.12
SB 6.12.27-29
SB 7.10.68
SB 8.7.12
SB 9.7.5-6
divi in the upper planetary systemsSB 6.11.22
divi on the heavenly planetsSB 7.3.6
divi the skySB 10.50.50-53
divi-ja of those born in the heavenly planetsSB 5.2.6
divi-ja of those born in the heavenly planetsSB 5.2.6
divi-jaiḥ by the residents of heavenSB 10.55.25
divi-jaiḥ by the residents of heavenSB 10.55.25
divi-spṛśat touching the skySB 7.8.19-22
divi-spṛśat touching the skySB 7.8.19-22
divi-spṛśau touching the skySB 3.17.17
divi-spṛśau touching the skySB 3.17.17
divi-sthān situated in the skySB 4.23.22
divi-sthān situated in the skySB 4.23.22
divijaiḥ the denizens of the heavenly planetsSB 8.3.31
divirathaḥ DivirathaSB 9.23.6
     DCS with thanks   
17 results
     
divi noun (masculine) the blue jay (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24204/72933
divicārin noun (masculine) a god an inhabitant of the sky (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 54445/72933
diviga adjective moving in the sky
Frequency rank 54444/72933
divija adjective celestial (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
heaven-born (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 54447/72933
divija noun (neuter) yellow sandal
Frequency rank 54446/72933
diviratha noun (masculine) name of a king; son of Dadhivāhana name of several men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24205/72933
divisaṃsthitā noun (feminine) [rel.] name of Devī
Frequency rank 54448/72933
divispṛś adjective
Frequency rank 35667/72933
divispṛśa adjective
Frequency rank 54449/72933
diviṣad noun (masculine) a god (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35666/72933
diviṣṭha adjective celestial (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dwelling in heaven (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17986/72933
kīṭalūtādiviṣapratiṣedha noun (masculine) name of Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā, Utt. 37
Frequency rank 49512/72933
tīrthayātrādividhānaviśeṣakathana noun (neuter) name of Skandapurāṇa, Revākhaṇḍa, 227
Frequency rank 53636/72933
dūtādivijñānīya noun (masculine) name of Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā, Śār. 6
Frequency rank 55074/72933
dravyādivijñānīya noun (neuter) name of chapter 9 of AHS
Frequency rank 55116/72933
nāgādivividhaviṣaharamantranirūpaṇa noun (neuter) name of Garuḍapurāṇa, 1.27
Frequency rank 55833/72933
mahākauśikamantrakṛtyādivivaraṇa noun (neuter) name of Garuḍapurāṇa, 1.134
Frequency rank 61675/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
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aklāri

Plant double coconut; dried endosperm of Lidoicea maldivica; L. seychellarum.

ardhāvabhedaka

dividing into half; hemicrania; headache affecting one side of the head.

aśvinau

twin celestial physicians; divine physicians.

brahmakāya

divine body; a person with godly traits like adhering to cleanliness and good conduct, belief in existence of god, reverence of elders and preceptors, hospitality and celebration of religious sacrifices and reader of vedas.

daivabalapravṛttavyādhi

(daiva.bala.pravṛtta.vyādhi) diseases caused by divine will or providence.

devadundhubhi

1. divine drum; 2. Plant holy basil with red flowers.

dina

day; divided.

jīvātma

individual soul; vital principle.

jyotiṣa

astrology; knowledge of movement of heavenly bodies and divisions of time dependant thereon; one of the vedāngas.

matsya

fish. matsyakāya pisces person; an individual with traits similar to a fish: unsteadiness, idiotism, excess desire for water and quarrelsome.

nakṣatra

1. star; 2. lunar mansion or one of the 27 divisions of the sky represented by a prominent star.

veda

a large body of texts in pre-Panini Sanskrit belonging to ancient Indian literature. The vedic verses were divided into 4 sections Ṛgveda, Yajurveḍa, Sāmaveda and Atharvaveḍa. Some verses are recited in religious functions.

     Wordnet Search "divi" has 5 results.
     

divi

devaḥ, devatā, suraḥ, amaraḥ, nirjaraḥ, tridaśaḥ, suparvā, sumanāḥ, tridiveśaḥ, divaukāḥ, āditāyaḥ, diviṣat, lekhaḥ, aditinandanaḥ, ṛbhuḥ, amartyaḥ, amṛtāndhāḥ, barhirmukhā, kratubhuk, gīrvāṇaḥ, vṛndārakaḥ, danujāriḥ, ādityaḥ, vibudhaḥ, sucirāyuḥ, asvapnaḥ, animiṣaḥ, daityāriḥ, dānavāriḥ, śaubhaḥ, nilimpaḥ, svābābhuk, danujadviṭ, dyuṣat, dauṣat, svargī, sthiraḥ, kaviḥ   

hindudharmānusārī yaḥ sarvabhūtebhyaḥ pūjanīyāḥ।

asmin devālaye naikāḥ devatāḥ santi।

divi

dyumat, dyutikar, dyutimat, dyotana, dyoti, dyotamāna, ujvala, kāntimat, kiraṇamaya, utprabha, ullasa, ullasita, prakāśavat, prakāśaka, prakāśamāna, prakāśat, prakāśin, citra, tejasvat, tejasvin, tejomaya, taijasa, añjimat, atiśukra, abhirucira, abhivirājita, abhiśobhita, abhīṣumat, amanda, avabhāsita, avabhāsin, ābhāsvara, ārocana, ābhāsura, iddha, utprabha, udīrṇadīdhiti, uddyota, uddyotita, kanakatālābha, kanakaprabha, kanala, kāśī, kāśīṣṇu, ketu, taijasa, dīdi, dīdivi, dīpta, dīptimat, dyotamāna, dhauta, punāna, prakhya, prabhāvat, bṛhajjyotis, bhāskara, bhāsura, bhāsvara, bhāsvat, bhāsayat, rukmābha, rucita, rucira, rucya, ruśat, roca, rocana, rocamāna, rociṣṇu, varcasvin, vidyotamāna, virukmat, vicakṣaṇa, virājamāna, śuklabhāsvara, śundhyu, śubhāna, śubhra, śubhri, śumbhamāna, śobha, śobhamāna, sutāra, suteja, sudīpta, sudyotman, supraketa, suprabha, suruk, suvibhāta, sphurat, hiraṇyanirṇij, hiraṇyanirṇig   

yasmin dīptiḥ asti athavā yasya varṇaḥ ābhāyuktaḥ asti।

prācyadeśāt āgatena tena dūtena tat dyumat ratnaṃ rājasabhāyāṃ rājñe samarpitam।

divi

prāṇividyā, jīvajantuvidyā, paśvādividyā, paśvādiśāstram   

tat śāstraṃ yasmin jīvajantūnām utpattisvarūpādīnāṃ vivecanam asti।

suśāntāya prāṇividyā iti viṣayaḥ atīva rocate।

divi

pratidinam, pratidivasam, anuvāsaram, ahardivi, aharahar, ahaśśaḥ, pratyaham, ahardivam   

dine dine।

maheśasya ārogyaṃ pratidinaṃ duṣyati।

divi

udbhidvidyā, oṣadhividyā, vṛkṣalatātṛṇādividyā, vṛkṣāyurvedaḥ   

tat śāstraṃ yasmin vṛkṣakṣupādīnām adhyayanaṃ kurvanti।

saṃyogitā udbhidvidyāyāḥ prādhyāpikā asti।









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