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Results for din
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
āsravaḥ2.4.29MasculineSingularkleśaḥ, ādīnavaḥ
bhūḥ2.1.2-3FeminineSingularkṣmā, mahī, dhātrī, kumbhinī, ratnagarbhā, bhūmiḥ, rasā, dharā, kṣoṇī, kṣitiḥ, vasudhā, gotrā, pṛthvī, medinī, gahvarī, ilā, bhūtadhātrī, sāgarāmbarā, anantā, sthirā, dharaṇī, kāśyapī, vasumatī, vasundharā, pṛthivī, avaniḥ, vipulā, gauḥ, kṣamā, jagatī, acalā, viśvambharā, dharitrī, jyā, sarvaṃsahā, urvī, kuḥ
dīnaḥ3.1.48MasculineSingularniḥsvaḥ, durvidhaḥ, daridraḥ, durgataḥ
dināntaḥMasculineSingularsāyaḥevening
gairikam3,.3.12NeuterSingularsāṣṭaṃśataṃsuvarṇam, hema, urobhūṣaṇam, palam, dīnāraḥ
gajabhakṣyāFeminineSingularsuvahā, hlādinī, surabhī, rasā, maheraṇā, kundurukī, sallakī
ghasraḥMasculineSingulardinam, ahaḥ, divasaḥ, vāsaraḥday
kumudvatī1.10.38FeminineSingularkumudinīa place abounding in water-lillies
nadī1.10.29-30FeminineSingularkūlaṅkaṣā, sravantī, dhunī, śaivalinī, rodhovakrā, apagā, dvīpavatī, hradinī, taraṅgiṇī, nirjhariṇī, nimnagā, srotasvatī, taḍinī, sarit, sarasvatīa river
padāyatā2.10.31FeminineSingularanupadīnā
sakhyam2.8.12NeuterSingularsāptapadīnam
śampā1.3.9FeminineSingularcañcalā, taḍit, hrādinī, vidyut, kṣaṇaprabhā, śatahradā, capalā, saudāminī, airāvatīlighting
sṛṇikā2.6.67FeminineSingularlālā, syandinī
sūraḥ1.3.28-30MasculineSingularsahasrāṃśuḥ, raviḥ, chāyānāthaḥ, jagaccakṣuḥ, pradyotanaḥ, lokabāndhavaḥ, aryamā, dhāmanidhiḥ, divākaraḥ, braghnaḥ, bhāsvān, haridaśvaḥ, arkaḥ, aruṇaḥ, taraṇiḥ, virocanaḥ, tviṣāṃpatiḥ, haṃsaḥ, savitā, tejasāṃrāśiḥ, karmasākṣī, trayītanuḥ, khadyotaḥ, sūryaḥ, bhagaḥ, dvādaśātmā, abjinīpatiḥ, ahaskaraḥ, vibhākaraḥ, saptāśvaḥ, vikartanaḥ, mihiraḥ, dyumaṇiḥ, citrabhānuḥ, grahapatiḥ, bhānuḥ, tapanaḥ, padmākṣaḥ, tamisrahā, lokabandhuḥ, dinamaṇiḥ, inaḥ, ādityaḥ, aṃśumālī, bhāskaraḥ, prabhākaraḥ, vivasvān, uṣṇaraśmiḥ, mārtaṇḍaḥ, pūṣā, mitraḥ, vibhāvasuḥ, aharpatiḥ(53)the sun
svarṇakāraḥ2.10.8MasculineSingularnāḍindhamaḥ, kalādaḥ, rūkmakārakaḥ
vādyaprabhedāḥMasculinePluralpaṇavaḥ, ḍamaruḥ, maḍḍuḥ, ḍiṇḍimaḥ, jharjharaḥ, mardavaḥa sort of small drum shaped like an hour-glass and generally used by kaapaalikas
hlādinīFeminineSingulardambholiḥ, śatakoṭiḥ, kuliśam, śambaḥ, paviḥ, vajram, aśaniḥ, svaruḥ, bhiduramthe thunderbolt of indra
durdinamNeuterSingulara cloudy day
citraśikhaṇḍinaḥMasculinePluralsaptarṣayaḥursa major
āmodin1.5.11MasculineSingularmukhavāsanaḥa perfume for the mouth made up in the form of a camphor pill etc.
parivādinī1.7.3FeminineSingulara lute with seven strings
āprapadīnam2.6.120MasculineSingular
nītivedināṃ trivargaḥ2.8.19MasculineSingular
dinaḥ3.3.114MasculineSingularkeśaḥ
hrādinī3.3.119FeminineSingularkṛtyaḥ, ketuḥ, upanimantraṇam
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Results for din
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
dinamfn. ( do-) cut, divided, mowed (see svayaṃ--). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dina(3. -). See a-saṃ-- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dina(accented only ) mn.(gaRa ardharcādi-,only occurring as n.) a day etc. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' also in Vedic texts) in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-). [ confer, compare Latin peren-dinus,nUndinusetc.; Got.sin-teins; Lit.de0na; O.Pr. accusative sg. deinan; Slavonic or Slavonian dr2ni1.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinabalam. "day-strength", Name of the 5th-8th, 11th and 12th signs of the zodiac collectively View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinabandhum. "day-friend", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinabhartṛm. equals -nātha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinacaryāf. daily-work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinacchidrān. change of moon at the beginning or end of a half-day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinacchidrān. a day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinacchidrān. a constellation or a lunar mansion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinādhinātha m. "day-lord", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinādhīśam. "day-lord", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinādim. daybreak, dawn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinaduḥkhitamfn. "afflicted by day" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinaduḥkhitam. the cakra-vāka- bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dināgamam. day-break View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinagaṇam. equals ahar-- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinagaṇitan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinagraham. day-planet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinaikam. one day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinajyotisn. daylight, sunshine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakaramf(ī-)n. making day or light View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakaram. the sun etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakaram. Name of an āditya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakaram. of the author of the work candrārkī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakaram. of a Scholiast or Commentator on (miśra-d-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakaram. of other men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakarabhaṭṭam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakarabhaṭṭīyan. his work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakaradevam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakaratanayam. "son of the sun", the planet Saturn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakaraṭippanīf. Name of a commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakarātmajam. "daughter of the sun" patronymic of the yamunā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakarīf. (scilicet ṭīkā-) Name of commentator or commentary on the and siddhānta-muktāvalī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakarīyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakaroddyotam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakartavyan. "day-duty", ceremonies to be performed daily View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakartṛm. "day-maker", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakāryan. equals -kartavya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakesara(also written śara-) m. "day-hair", darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakeśava m. "day-hair", darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakṛtm. equals -kartṛ- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakṛtsutam. equals -karatanaya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakṛtyan. equals -kartavya- (printed diva-k-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakṣayam. "day-decline", evening View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakṣayam. equals tithi-- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinakṣayam. Name of a chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinamalan. "day-refuse (?)", a month View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinamaṇim. "day-jewel", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinamaṇisārathim. the sun's charioteer, aruṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinammanyāf. a full-moon night, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinamukhan. "day-face", daybreak View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinamūrdhanm. "day-head", the eastern mountain (see uday/a-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinanaktamind. by day and night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinanātham. "day-lord", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dināṇḍan. "day-egg" (id est day-veil or day-cover) , darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinaniśf. dual number day and night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinānśa m. "day-portion", day-time View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinānśakam. "day-portion", day-time View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dināntam. "day-end", sunset, evening View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dināntakam. "day-destroyer", darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinapam. the regent of a week-day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinapākinmfn. being digested within a day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinapatim. idem or 'm. the regent of a week-day ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinapatim. "day-lord", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinapāṭikāf. a day's wages (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinaprabhāf. equals -jyotis- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinapraṇīm. "day-leader", the sun (see tithi--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinarājam. "day king", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinārambham. daybreak View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinarāśim. a term of days (see ahar-gaṇa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinaratnan. equals -maṇi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinārdham. "day-half", noon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinārdham. half a day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinārdham. half the days or time View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinasaṃcayam. equals -rāśi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinaspriśn. a lunar day coinciding with three week-days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dināstran. "day-missile", Name of a magical formula View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinaugham. equals dina-rāśi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinavāram. week-day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dināvasānan. "day-close", evening View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinavyāsadalan. "day-radius", the radius of a circle made by an asterism in its daily revolution
dindimam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dineśam. equals na-pati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dineśātmajam. "son of the Sun", the planet Saturn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dineśvaram. equals na-tha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinikāf. a day's wages View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinīkṛto reduce to days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinnaprob. equals diṇṇa- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinnāgrāmam. Name of a village (see dharma--.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinnāram. () idem or 'f. (), () idem or 'm.' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinnasūrim. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinodayam. daybreak, dawn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinopavāsinmfn. fasting by day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinv cl.1 P. dinvati-, to gladden, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhedinmfn. not different View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhimardinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') oppressing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhimardinmfn. one who devastates. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhinandinmfn. rejoicing at, wishing, desiring (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiṣyandin mfn. oozing, trickling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiṣyandinmfn. laxative View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiṣyandinmfn. causing defluxions or serious effusions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiṣyandinsyandinmfn. oozing, trickling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiṣyandinsyandinmfn. laxative View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiṣyandinsyandinmfn. causing defluxions or serious effusions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhivādinmfn. telling, enunciating, describing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhivādinm. an explainer, interpreter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ācchādinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' covering, concealing
adhidinan. an intercalated day. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhikadinan. a redundant id est an intercalated day (see adhi-dina-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādin( ad-) mfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' eating, devouring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādināntamind. till the close of day, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādinātham. Name of ādibuddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādinātham. of a jina- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādinātham. of an author. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādinavan. (probably) misfortune, want of luck in dice (see ādīnava-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādinavadarśamfn. having in view (another's) misfortune View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adrinandinīf. Name of pārvatī-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
advaitavadinm. (also) Name (also title or epithet) of śaṃkara-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
advaitavadinof buddha-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
advaitavādinm. one who asserts the doctrine of non-duality. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
advayavādinm. one who teaches advaya-, or identity, a buddha-, a jaina-, (see advaita-vadin-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adyadina m. n. the present day. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āgatanandin([or -gata-nardin- ]) mfn. (gaRa yuktārohy-ādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agnivādinm. "fire-asserter", worshipper of fire. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agnyutsādinmfn. one who lets the sacred fire go out. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aguṇavādinmfn. fault-finding, censorious, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ahaṃvādinmfn. "speaking of one's self, presumptuous", See an-ahaṃv-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ahetuvādinm. an adherent of it, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ahīnavādinmfn. a witness capable of giving evidence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āhlādinmfn. causing joy or delight, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ājñāsampādinmfn. executing orders, submissive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akhedinmfn. not wearisome, unwearied. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākrandinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' invoking in a weeping tone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alpavādinmfn. speaking little, taciturn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āmardinmfn. crushing, pressing, handling roughly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āmodinmfn. fragrant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āmodinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' fragrant or perfumed with exempli gratia, 'for example' kadambāmodin-, perfumed with kadamba-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āmodinm. a perfume for the mouth made up in the form of a camphor pill etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amoghanandinīf. Name of a śikṣā--text. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anādinmfn. not sounding. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anādinidhanamfn. having neither beginning nor end, eternal. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anahaṃvādinmfn. equals an-ahaṃkṛta-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānandinmfn. delightful, blissful, happy, cheerful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānandinmfn. gladdening, making happy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānandinmfn. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ananyavandinmfn. not praising anybody else, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anekāntavādinm. a sceptic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anekāntavādinm. a jaina-, an arhat- of the jaina-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anekātmavādinmfn. asserting a plurality of souls, Sa1m2khyas., Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṅgadinmfn. wearing a bracelet, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṅgamardinm. a servant who shampoos his master's body View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṅgamardinm. aṅgamarda- also rheumatism View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṅgārakadinam. n. a festival of Mars on the fourteenth of the latter half of caitra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anīśvaravādinm. "one who denies a supreme ruler of the universe", an atheist.
annādin([ ]) mfn. eating food. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anṛtavādinmfn. speaking untruth. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anudinamind. every day. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anugādinmfn. repeating another's words View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anumodinmfn. causing pleasure to (genitive case), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anunādinmfn. resounding, echoing, resonant. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupadinm. a searcher, an inquirer, one who follows or seeks for View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṇuvādinmfn. one who believes in and teaches atomism. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuvādinmfn. repeating with comment and explanation, corroborative, concurrent, conformable, in harmony with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuvādinmfn. (the masculine of the last is also the name of any one of the three notes of the gamut.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuvādinīf. a lute, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyathāvādinmfn. (or anya-vādin-) speaking differently View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyathāvādinm. (ī-) speaking inconsistently View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyathāvādinm. (in law) prevaricating or a prevaricator. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyūnārthavādinmfn. adequately expressive, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpādinmfn. falling into, incurring (compound), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apavādinmfn. blaming View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apramādinmfn. careful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aprativādinmfn. not contradicting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apriyavādin([ ]) . mfn. speaking unkindly or harshly. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aravindinīf. (gaRa puṣkarādi- q.v) an assemblage of lotus flowers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arbudinmfn. afflicted with a swelling or tumour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arkadinan. a solar day. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arthavādinmfn. "relating facts" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asaṃdinamfn. idem or 'mfn. unbound, unrestrained ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asatkāryavādinm. one who (like a naiyāyika-) holds that an effect is nonexistent in its cause before production. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asatyavādinmfn. speaking falsely, a liar. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
askandinmfn. not coagulating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āskandinmfn. jumping upon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āskandinmfn. assailing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āskandinmfn. causing to jump away, giving away, granting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āskandinmfn. a robber View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvasādinm. idem or 'm. a horseman ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvavṛndinmfn. consisting of a large number of horses, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimadhyandinan. high noon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ativādinmfn. very talkative. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātmanepadinmfn. taking the terminations of the middle voice commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātodinmfn. striking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātodinand ā-todya- See ā-tud-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avabhedinmfn. splitting, dividing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avādinmfn. (gaRa grāhy-ādi- q.v) not speaking, not disputing, peaceable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaskandinmfn. "covering (a cow)" See gaurāv- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaskandinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' attacking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avedinmfn. having no knowledge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āvedinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' announcing, declaring. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aviṣādinmfn. intrepid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avisaṃvādinmfn. not contradictory, coinciding, agreeing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avivādinmfn. not quarrelling with (abhi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āyurvedinm. idem or 'm. acquainted or familiar with medical science, a physician ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
baddhagudinmfn. suffering from it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhubhedinm. "arm-breaker", Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahuvādinmfn. talking much, garrulous, babbling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahvādinmfn. eating much, a great eater View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhyārthavādavādinmfn. maintaining the reality of the external world,ib. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bālavinodinīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balīvardinm. Name of a man gaRa śubhrādi-- ( baliv-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balīvardineyam. metron. fr. balīvardī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bālīvardineyam. patronymic fr. balīvardin- gaRa śubhrādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bālīvardineyam. metron. fr. balīvardī- gaRa kalyāṇy-ādi- (see balīvardineya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bandinm. (also written vandin- q.v,and metri causa di-) a praiser, bard, herald (who sings the praises of a prince in his presence or accompanies an army to chant martial songs;these bards are regarded as the descendants of a kṣatriya- by a śūdra- female) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bandinm. (also written vandin-) a prisoner, captive, slave View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bandinm. plunder, spoil (See -grāha-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāṣpadurdinamfn. clouded by tears View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāṣpadurdinākṣamf(ā-,or ī-)n. having eyes clouded by tears View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadravādinmfn. uttering auspicious cries (said of a bird) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhānudinan. Sunday (see -vāra-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāskaradinan. Sunday, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāskaranandinm. the son of the god of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāṭṭadinakaram. Name of work (and bhāṭṭadinakarīya rīya- n.), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāṭṭadinakarīyan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāṭṭadinakarīyan. bhāṭṭadinakara
bhavanandinm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaviṣyadvādinmfn. predicting future events, prophesying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedābhedavādinm. a maintainer of the doctrine both of the difference and the identity of God and the Universe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedavādinm. one who maintains the duality of God and the Universe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedavādinm. Name of commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedinmfn. breaking, splitting, piercing, perforating etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedinmfn. beating or knocking out (See dvi-netra-bh-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedinmfn. shaking, penetrating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedinmfn. causing to flow (as juice) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedinmfn. loosening (the bowels), cathartic, purgative View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedinmfn. breaking, violating (an agreement etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedinmfn. interrupting (devotion) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedinmfn. disturbing (a country) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedinmfn. dividing, separating from (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedinmfn. (fr. bheda-) having a distinction or division View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedinmfn. (in philosophy) one who separates spirit and matter or holds the doctrine of dualism View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedinm. Rumex Vesicarius View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedinīf. (with tāntrika-s) Name of a particular śakti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhinnamaryādin() mfn. whose course is broken, separated from the right way, uncontrolled, unrestrained, regardless, disrespectful. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhovādinmfn. saying bhoḥ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhrādinīf. (in music) a particular śruti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhrūbhedinmfn. frowning, attended with frowns View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūdinan. () () a civil day. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūmibhedinmfn. differing from (what exists on) earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtavādinmfn. telling the real fact or truth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmadinan. a day of brahmā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmanandin m. Name of two authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmānandinm. brahmānanda
brahmavādinmfn. discoursing on sacred texts, a defender or expounder of the veda- etc. (f inī-. ; brahmavāditva di-tva- n. )
brahmavādinmfn. one who asserts that all things are to be identified with brahma-, a vedāntin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmavedinmfn. equals -vid-, acquainted with the veda- or spiritual knowledge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhadvādinmfn. boasting, a boaster View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
budhadinan. bhaṭṭotpala-'s (or the planet Mercury's) day, Wednesday View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakrabhedinīf. "dividing the cakra-(-va1ka) couples (see -bāndhava-) ", night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakramedinīfor -bhedinī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cāruvādinmfn. sounding beautifully. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvedinmfn. equals -vidya- (in Prakrit). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvyūhavādinm. "asserting the 4 forms (of puruṣottama-, viz. vāsudeva-, saṃkarṣaṇa-, pradyumna-, aniruddha-)", a vaiṣṇava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cedinagarīf. equals tri-purī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chadinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' covering, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chadinmfn. "having leaves" See daśa-- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chadinmfn. having wheels (pattra- equals dhārā- Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chādinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' hiding, obscuring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chādinīf. the skin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chedinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' cutting off, tearing asunder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chedinmfn. removing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinmfn. giving, a giver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dainaṃdinamf(ī-)n. happening daily, quotidian View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dainaṃdinadānakāṇḍamn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dainaṃdinasadācāradarpaṇam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dānadinakaram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daṇḍavādinmfn. pronouncing judicial reprimand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daṇḍavādinm. a door-keeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daśacchadinmfn. ten-leaved, , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dāśanandinīf. the fisherman's daughter, Name of satyavatī- (mother of vyāsa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dāsanandinīSee dāśa--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dauhṛdinī() equals daurhṛ- (See daur-under dauḥ-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dauhṛdinīf. a woman with two hearts (id est a pregnant woman, = dvihṛdayā-; > confer, compare dohada-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daurhṛdinīf. a pregnant women View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dehātmavādinm. materialist, cārvāka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devadinnam. idem or 'm. corrupt form for -datta- ' , Name of a son of devadatta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devanandinm. "rejoicing the gods", Name of one of indra-'s doorkeepers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devanandinm. of a grammarian View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhanurvedinmfn. versed in archery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhanurvedinm. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmadinf. (pāli- equals dattā-) "given by religion", Name of a female View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmanandinm. Name of a Buddhist author. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmavādinmfn. discussing law or duty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhātuvādinm. assayer, metallurgist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhṛṣṭavādinmfn. speaking boldly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhvanamodinm. "delighting by its sound", a bee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohadinmfn. eagerly longing for (locative case or compound), Vssav. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohadinm. the aśoka- tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dravyavādinmfn. equals prec. (opp. to jāti--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
duddādinmfn. giving pain, cruel, wicked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durdinan. a rainy or cloudy day, bad weather View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durdinamfn. cloudy, rainy, dark View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durdinagrastabhāskaramfn. having the sun obscured by dark clouds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durdināyaNom. A1. yate-, to become covered with clouds Va1rtt. 1 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durdyūtavedinm. (prob. wrong reading for devin-) Name of śakuni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durmadinm. drinker, drunkard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dūṣaṇatāvādinm. opponent, adversary (in a disputation) commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvaitavādinm. "dualist", assertor of dualism (a philosopher who asserts the 2 principles or the existence of the human soul as separate from the Supreme Being) (see a-dv-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvayavādinmfn. double-tongued, insincere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvinetrabhedinmfn. knocking out a person's 2 eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvivedinmfn. equals -veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekānnanaktabhojinādinmfn. eating food given by only one person View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gadinmfn. (fr. da-) sick View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gadinmfn. (fr. -) armed with a club (said of kṛṣṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gadinm. Name of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gajādināmāf. "named by gaja- and other names of an elephant " equals ja-pippalī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gambhīravedinmfn. "deeply sensitive", restive (an elephant) Introd. 9 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gambhīravedinmfn. inscrutable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhamādinīf. "strong-scented", lac View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhamādinīf. (equals danī-) a sort of perfume View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhamādinīf. equals dhottamā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāndinīf. Name of a princess of kāśi- (wife of śvaphalka- and mother of a-krūra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāndinīf. (gāndī-) 2115 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāndinīf. Name of gaṅgā- (varia lectio ndhinī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāndinīsutam. "son of gāndinī-", a-krūra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāndinīsutam. (equals gāṅgāyani-) bhīṣma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
garbhavedinīf. equals dana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gardabhanādinmfn. braying like an ass View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
garhyavādinmfn. speaking ill or vilely or inaccurately View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gatadinan. the past day, yesterday View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gatadinamind. yesterday View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehenardinmfn. "shouting defiance at home", idem or 'mfn. "insolent at home" idem or 'mfn. "overbearing at home" idem or 'mfn. "scorching and burning at home", idem or 'mfn. "blustering at home", a house-hero, coward gaRa pātresamitādi- and yuktārohy-ādi-.' ' ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
girinandinīf. "mountain-daughter", a mountain-torrent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
girinandinīf. equals -duhitṛ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gītamodinm. "gladdening with songs", a kiṃnara- or celestial chorister View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
govatsādinm. "calf-eater", a wolf View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
govindinīf. Name of a fragrant plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāmyavādinm. a village bailiff View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhabhedinmfn. prying into domestic affairs, causing family quarrels View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇavādinmfn. pointing out any one's merits View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇavedinmfn. knowing the properties or qualities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇavedinmfn. knowing the merits of (in compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gurudinan. Thursday, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haṃsanādinmfn. making a noise like a goose or swan, cackling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haṃsanādinīf. a graceful woman (one of the various classes into which women are divided) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hārdinmfn. feeling affection for (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haribodhadinan. Name of a festival day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haridinan. "day sacred to viṣṇu-", the 11th day in a fortnight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haridinatilakam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harinandinm. a proper N. gaRa kṣubhnādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetuvādinm. a disputant, sceptic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
himadurdinan. a snowy day, cold and bad weather View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hīnavādinmfn. defeated or worsted (in a lawsuit) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hīnavādinmfn. making a defective statement, insufficient or inadmissible (as a witness;See hīna-above ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hīnavādinmfn. contradictory, prevaricating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hīnavādinmfn. destitute of speech, speechless, dumb View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hiraṇyakaśipucchedin() m. Name of viṣṇu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hitavādinmfn. speaking good counsel or friendly advice, a friendly counsellor or adviser, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hlādinmfn. refreshing, comforting, gladdening, exhilarating ( hlāditva di-tva- n.) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hlādinmfn. very noisy or loud (varia lectio hrādin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hlādinīf. (see hrādi--) lightning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hlādinīf. indra-'s thunderbolt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hlādinīf. the incense-tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hlādinīf. a particular śakti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hlādinīf. a mystical Name of the sound d- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hlādinīf. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hradinmfn. abounding in pools or in water (as a river)
hrādinmfn. (for 2.See column 2) equals hradin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hrādinmfn. (for 1.See column 1) sounding, noisy, very loud View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hradinīf. a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hrādinīf. a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hrādinīf. Name of a river (varia lectio hradinī-) (Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hrādinīf. lightning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hrādinīf. indra-'s thunderbolt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hṛdayonmādinīf. (in music) a particular śruti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hyastanadinan. the day just past, yesterday View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indindirāf. a large bee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indramedin(/indra-) mfn. one whose friend or ally is indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indudinan. a lunar day. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
iṣṭasaṃpādinmfn. effecting anything desired or wished for View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaladhinandinīf. equals -- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jambhabhedinm. " jambha--destroyer", indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
janakanandinif. equals -tanayā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
janapadinm. "country-ruler", a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
janavādinm. a talker, newsmonger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
janmadinan. equals -tithi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jumaranandinm. idem or 'm. see jaum-.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jūmaranandinm. equals jum-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kadindriyan. plural bad organs of sense View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kadindriyamfn. having bad organs of sense View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kadindriyagaṇam. and mfn. idem or 'mfn. having bad organs of sense ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kakubhādinīf. "tasting like kakubha-" ([ ]),a kind of perfume (see nalī-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kakudinm. a bull, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalānunādinm. "giving out a low note", a sparrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalānunādinm. the cātaka- bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalānunādinm. a kind of bee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kālānunādinfor kal- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalindanandinīf. idem or 'f. idem or 'f. Name (also title or epithet) of the river yamunā-, ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmaśaronmādinīf. Name of a surāṅganā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmavādinmfn. speaking according to pleasure, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmonmādinīf. Name of a surāṅganā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāñcanāṅgadinmfn. wearing a golden bracelet (aṅgada-) on the upper arm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kandinm. Amorphophallus Campanulatus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyāvedinm. a son-in-law View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapardinmfn. wearing braided and knotted hair (like the cowrie shell) (said of rudra-, pūṣan-, etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapardinmfn. shaggy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapardinm. Name of śiva- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapardinm. of one of the eleven rudra-s
kapardinm. of a yakṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapardinm. of an author on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapardinīf. Name of a goddess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāraṇavādinm. "cause-declarer", a complainant, plaintiff View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karmandinm. one who studies karmanda-'s work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karmandinm. a beggar (equals bhikṣu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karuṇavedinmfn. compassionate, sympathizing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāruṇyavedinmfn. compassionate etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kavitāvedinmfn. "understanding poesy", wise, learned View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kavitāvedinmfn. a poet, genius View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kevalādinmfn. eating by one's self alone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khādinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' eating (= ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khādinmfn. decorated with bracelets or rings (as the marut-s) (perhaps equals khād/i-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khanyavādinm. a mineralogist, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kharanādinmfn. braying like an ass View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kharanādinm. Name of a man gaRa bāhv-ādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kharanādinm. of a ṛṣi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kharanādinīf. a kind of perfume or drug View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khedinmfn. tired (see a-kheditva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khedinīf. the creeper Marsilea quadrifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khedinīf. another plant (aśana-parṇī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kimīdinm. Name of a class of evil spirits View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kimīdinīf. idem or 'm. Name of a class of evil spirits ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kledinmfn. moistening, wet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kledinīf. Name of a plant (varia lectio ketakī-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kokanadinīf. the red water-lily View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
koṇavādinm. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kosalānandinīf. Name (also title or epithet) of ayodhyā-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kriyāvādinm. one who states the arguments in a law-suit commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kriyāvādinm. a plaintiff View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛṣṇanandinm. Name (also title or epithet) of a poet, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛtavedinmfn. (equals -jña-) one who acknowledges past benefits or services, grateful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛtavedinmfn. observant of propriety View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣaṇabhaṅgavādinmfn. one who asserts that doctrine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣāntivādin mfn. praising patience, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣāntivādinm. Name of a ṛṣi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣāntivarṇavādinmfn. praising patience, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣepadinan. equals kṣayāha- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣitidinan. a common or sāvana- day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣititanayadinan. Tuesday View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣuramardinm. a barber View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kudinan. an evil day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kudinan. a rainy day. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kudinan. (equals kṣiti-d-) a civil day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kudinaSee 2. ku-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuḍyacchedinm. a housebreaker, thief View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kujadinan. "the day of Mars" id est Tuesday View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumudinīf. (gaRa puṣkarādi-) an assemblage of kumuda-s or a place abounding in them etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumudinīf. Name of the daughter of a daitya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumudinīf. of the mother of raghu-deva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumudinīnāyakam. (equals kumuda-bandhu-) the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumudinīpatim. idem or 'm. (equals kumuda-bandhu-) the moon ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumudinīvadhūvaram. idem or 'm. idem or 'm. (equals kumuda-bandhu-) the moon ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumudinīvanitāf. a loved woman fancifully represented as an assemblage of lotus flowers. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuṇḍabhedinmfn. "breaking pots", clumsy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuṇḍabhedinm. Name of a son of dhṛtarāṣṭra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kundinīf. an assemblage of jasmines View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuṣīdinm. Name of a teacher (for kuśīti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kusīdinm. idem or 'mf(ī-). a usurer ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kusīdinm. (See kuśīti-) Name of a descendant of kaṇva- (author of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kusīdinm. of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lagnadinan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lapsudinmfn. having a beard, bearded (said of a goat) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lattādinirṇayam. Name of work by govinda-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokottaravādinm. plural Name of a Buddhist school (prob. so called from their pretending to be superior to or above the rest of the world) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
loṣṭamardinmfn. crushing or breaking clods View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madadin gaRa pragady-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madadurdinan. large exudation of temple-juice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhusyandinm. a particular stringed instrument, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyadinafor madhyaṃ-dina- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyaṃdinam. (madhy/a--) (n. ) midday, noon etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyaṃdinam. the midday offering (savana- or pavamāna-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyaṃdinam. Bassia Latifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyaṃdinam. Name of a disciple of yājñavalkya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyaṃdinan. Midday (personified as a son of puṣpārṇa- by prabhā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyaṃdinamfn. equals mādhyaṃdina- (q.v)
mādhyaṃdinamf(ī-)n. (m/ādh-) (fr. madhyaṃ-dina-) belonging to midday, meridional etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdinam. equals mādhyaṃdinaḥ pavanaḥ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdinam. plural Name of a branch of she vājasaneyin-s etc. (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdinam. of an astronomy school who fixed the starting-point of planetary movements at noon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdinam. of a family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdinan. equals mādhyaṃdinaṃ savanam- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdinan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyaṃdinagatamfn. having reached the meridian (as the sun) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdinagṛhyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdināraṇyakavyākhyāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyaṃdinārkasaṃtaptamfn. burnt by the midday-sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdinaśākhāf. the school of the mādhyaṃdina-s ( mādhyaṃdinaśākhīya khīya-. mfn.belonging to it) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdinaśākhīyamfn. mādhyaṃdinaśākhā
madhyaṃdinasamayam. midday-time, noon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdinasaṃdhiyāprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdinasaṃhitāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdinavatind. as at the midday oblation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdināyanam. (prob. fr. madhyaṃ-dina-) Name of a teacher, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdineyam. plural the school of the mādhyaṃdina-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdinīf. (with śikṣā-), Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdinim. (fr. idem or 'm. (prob. fr. madhyaṃ-dina-) Name of a teacher, ') Name of a grammarian, on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyaṃdinīyamfn. meridional, meridian, belonging to noon or midday View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdinīyamf(ā-)n. (fr. mādhyaṃdina-) usual at the midday oblation (also yaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhyaṃdinīyamf(ā-)n. belonging to the school of the mādhyaṃdina-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madinmfn. intoxicating, exhilarating, delighting, lovely (Comparative degree din-tara-,superl. din-tama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinmfn. intoxicating, stupefying (See gandha-mādinī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinīf. hemp View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
magadinmfn. gaRa pragady-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahābhisyandinmfn. (bh-) generating hypertrophy (superl. di-tama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahādevabhaṭṭadinakaram. Name of learned men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahādevadvivedinm. Name of author. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahānandinm. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāsahasrapramardinīf. equals prec. f. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvādinm. a great controversialist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maheśanandinm. Name of author. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahiṣamardinīf. "crusher of mahiṣa-", Name of durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahiṣamardinīf. a prayer addressed to durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahiṣamardinītantran. Name of a tantra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahiṣāsuramardinīf. equals -ghātinī- ( mahiṣāsuramardinīstotra dinī-stotra- n.Name of a stotra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahiṣāsuramardinīstotran. mahiṣāsuramardinī
mahiṣāsurārdinīf. () equals -ghātinī-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
malabhedinīf. (prob.) Helleborus Niger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māṃsacchedinm. idem or 'm. "flesh-cutter", Name of a mixed caste (f(ī-).) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māṃsādinmfn. idem or 'mfn. idem or 'mfn. flesh-eating, carnivorous ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mananādinighaṇṭum. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānasanayanaprasādinīf. Name of commentator or commentary on it. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandārakadinan. Name of a particular day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandinmfn. delighting, exhilarating, inspiriting (said of soma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandinmfn. delighted, cheerful, inspirited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandin mandira- etc. See above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṅgalavādinmfn. pronouncing a benediction, expressing congratulations
maṇimañjarīchedinīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mañjunandinm. Name (also title or epithet) of a poet, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mañjuvādinmfn. idem or '() mfn. equals -bhāṣin-.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mañjuvādinīf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mañjuvādinīf. of a metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
manohlādinmfn. gladdening the heart View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
manoramākucamardinīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantravādinm. a reciter of sacred text or spells, enchanter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mardinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') crushing, grinding, pounding, destroying etc. (see ripu--and loṣṭa-m-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mardinīf. a kind of musical composition (see medinī-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
marmabhedinmfn. equals -cchid- (literally and figuratively) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
marmabhedinm. an arrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
marmacchedinmfn. equals -cchid- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
marmāvaraṇabhedinmfn. penetrating a coat of mail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
marmavibhedinmfn. equals -bhedin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maryādinmfn. having or keeping within bounds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maryādinmfn. a neighbour, borderer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māsādinirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mātṛnandinm. a species of karañja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinmfn. having medas-, possessing vigour or energy (= medasāyukta- equals bala-vat-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinm. "one who is unctuous or sticks close (?)", a friend, companion, partner, ally View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinf. See next. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīf. "having fatness or fertility", the earth, land, soil, ground etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīf. a place, spot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīf. a kind of musical composition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīf. Gmelina Arborea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīf. equals medā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīf. Name of a lexicon (also -kośa-or medini-k-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīdānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīdharam. "earth-supporter", a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīdinan. a natural day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīdravam. dust View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinījam. "earth-born", the planet Mars View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīkaram. Name of the author of the medinī-kośa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīkośam. See above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīnandanam. equals -ja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīpatim. "earth-lord", a king, prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīśam. (śa-) idem or 'm. "earth-lord", a king, prince ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medinīśatantran. Name of a tantra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
meghanādinmfn. sounding like thunder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
meghanādinmfn. crying (with joy) at the appearance of clouds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
meghanādinm. a car which rumbles View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
meghanādinm. Name of a dānava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
meghānandinm. "rejoicing in clouds", a peacock (see megha-suhṛd-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
meghaskandinm. the fabulous animal sarabha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
merubalapramardinm. Name of a king of the yakṣa-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
miśradinakaram. Name of a Scholiast or Commentator on śiśupāla-vadha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mithyāpravādinmfn. speaking falsely, lying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
modamodinīf. Eugenia Jambolana (prob. wrong reading for megha-m-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
modinmfn. rejoicing, glad, cheerful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
modinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') gladdening, delighting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
modinīf. Jasminum Zambac or Auriculatum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
modinīf. equals aja-modā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
modinīf. musk (see modana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
modinīf. an intoxicating drink View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
modinīśan. Name of a tantra-, (see medinīśa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛdinīf. good earth or soil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛṣāvādinmfn. speaking falsely, a liar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛṣāvādinm. a false accuser View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūlasarvāstivādinm. plural Name of a Buddhist school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinmfn. sounding, resonant, howling, roaring etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' equals prec. etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinmfn. pronounced with sound, sonant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinm. Name of a dānava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinm. of a Brahman changed into an antelope View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naganandinīf. "mountain-daughter", Name of durgā- (daughter of himālaya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nagaramardinm. "town-crusher", Name of a man gaRa bāhv-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakhakhādinmfn. biting (literally eating) the nail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naktaṃdinan. sg. night and day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naktaṃdinamind. equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nānātmavādinm. one who so asserts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinmfn. (initial n-cannot be cerebralized gaRa kṣubhnādi-) rejoicing, gladdening (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinmfn. delighting in, liking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinm. son (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound'; see bhāskara-n-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinm. the speaker of a prologue (see nāndin- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinm. Name of several plants (the Indian fig-tree, Thespesia Opulneoides etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinm. a particular form of temple (see ndi-vardhana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinm. Name of an attendant of śiva- etc. (see nandi-, ndīśa-, ndikeśvara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinm. of śiva-'s bull View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinm. of several authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāndinm. equals ndī-kara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandināgarakamfn. Name of a particular written character View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandināgarīf. a particular kind of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinīf. a daughter etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinīf. a husband's sister (equals nanāndṛ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinīf. Name of durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinīf. of gaṅgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinīf. of the river bāṇa-nāśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinīf. of one of the mātṛ-s attending on skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinīf. of a fabulous cow (mother of surabhi- and property of the sage vasiṣṭha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinīf. of the mother of vyāḍi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinīf. Name of several plants (equals tulasī-, jaṭāmāṃsī-etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinīf. a kind of perfume (reṇukā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinīf. a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinīf. (in music) a particular composition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinīf. Name of a locality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinīf. of commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinīputram. metron. of kaṇāda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinīsutam. equals -tanaya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinītanayam. metron. of vyāḍi- (see above) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandinītīrthan. Name of a sacred bathing-place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nārācadurdinan. a shower (literally bad weather id est storm) of arrows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāradinm. Name of a son of viśvā-mitra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nardinmfn. roaring, sounding (see gehe-n-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanaprasādinīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayavedinmfn. equals -vid- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nigādinmfn. reciting, telling, speaking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nihnavavādinm. a defendant or witness who prevaricates or tries to hide the truth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nihrādinmfn. sounding, pealing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ninādinmfn. sounding, resounding, crying, resonant with (instrumental case or compound) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ninādinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' causing to sound, playing (a musical instrument) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nindinmfn. blaming, censuring, reproaching (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nīradinmfn. cloudy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirbhedinmfn. splitting, piercing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirdurdinamfn. "free from bad weather", serene, bright View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirhrādinmfn. sounding, humming, roaring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirīśvaravādinmfn. holding atheistic doctrine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣādinmfn. sitting down, sitting or lying or resting on or in View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣādinm. an elephant-keeper or driver (see ṣādita-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣādinm. Name of eka--lavya View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niśāvedinm. "night-knower", a cock View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niśumbhamardinīf. "destroyer of ni-śumbha-", Name of durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nisyandin(or ṣy-) mfn. flowing or dripping down or out, (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') flowing with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nītivedinmfn. equals -jña- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nitodinmfn. piercing, penetrating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nivedinmfn. knowing, aware of (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nivedinmfn. communicating, reporting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nivedinmfn. offering, presenting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nodinmfn. driving away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nṛśaṃsavādinmfn. using low speech View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyāyavādinmfn. speaking properly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pādaprasvedinmfn. suffering from it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padavedinm. "acquainted with words", a linguist or philologist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinmfn. footed, having feet (See m) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinmfn. having pāda-s (as a, stanza) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinmfn. claiming or receiving a fourth part View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinm. a footed aquatic or amphibious animal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinm. the heir to a fourth part of an estate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padmanandinm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paiśunyavādinmfn. paiśunya
pāñcajanyanādinm. Name of kṛṣṇa- (see above-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṇḍitāhlādinīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṇḍitavādinmfn. pretending to be wise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvarāstitvavādinm. one who asserts the existence of God View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapravādinm. a false teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parārthavādinmfn. speaking for another, a mediator, a substitute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parāskandinm. "assailing another", a thief, robber View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasmaipadinmfn. taking those terminations View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparādinmfn. consuming one another or one's own kind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparākrandinmfn. calling to one another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravādinm. an opponent, controversialist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parihāsavedinm. a jester, a witty person View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parikledinmfn. wetting or wet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paripadinm. an enemy (wrong reading for parin-?) .
pariṣyandin mfn. flowing, streaming View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parisyandinmfn. flowing, streaming View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parivādinmfn. speaking ill of, abusing, blaming View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parivādinmfn. crying, screaming View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parivādinmfn. censured, abused View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parivādinm. an accuser, a plaintiff, complainant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parivādinf. a lute with 7 strings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parivedinmfn. knowing, shrewd View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parivedinīf. the wife of a parivettṛ- (See above) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parṇabhedinīf. the priyaṅgu- tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārthivanandinīf. the daughter of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paruṣavādinmfn. = speaking unkindly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṣāṇabhedinm. idem or 'm. idem or 'm. equals bheda- ' or Lycopodium Imbricatum ' or Coleus Aniboinicus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pauruṣeyavedavādinm. one who asserts the human origin of the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pauṣadhadinan. pauṣadha
pīluvādinm. one who asserts the eternity of atoms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pitṛdinan. the day of new moon (see -tithi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pittagadinmfn. suffering from bilious complaints, bilious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracodinmfn. driving forward, urging View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracodinīf. Solanum Jacquini View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradhānavādinm. one who asserts the sāṃkhya- doctrine (of pradhāna-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prahlādinmfn. delighting, refreshing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prajñaptivādinm. plural Name of a Buddhist school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prākāramardinm. "wall-crusher", Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakledinmfn. idem or 'mfn. moistening, wetting ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakledinmfn. fusing, liquefying, resolving ( prakleditva ditva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramādinmfn. negligent, careless, incautious, indifferent etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramādinmfn. drunken, intoxicated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramādinmfn. insane View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramādinmfn. ( pramāditā -- f. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramādinn. Name of the 47th (21st) year of a 60 years' cycle of Jupiter (see pra-nāthin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramāṇādinirūpaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāmāṇyavādinmfn. one who affirms or believes in proof View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramardinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') crushing, destroying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramodinmfn. causing excessive joy, delighting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramodinmfn. delighted, happy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramodinm. a kind of rice (equals modaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramodinīf. Odina Wodier (equals jiṅginī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prapannadinacaryāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasādinmfn. clear, serene, bright (as nectar, the eyes, face etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasādinmfn. clear, perspicuous (as a poem), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasādinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') calming, soothing, gladdening, pleasing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasādinmfn. showing favour, treating with kindness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praskandinmfn. leaping into (compound). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praskandinmfn. attacking, daring, bold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praskandinm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśnavādinm. a fortune-teller, astrologer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasvedinmfn. sweating, covered with perspiration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasyandinmfn. oozing forth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasyandinmfn. shedding (tears) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasyandinm. a shower of rain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātardinan. the early part of the day, forenoon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātarmādhyaṃdinasavanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātarṇādinm. "crowing in morning", a cock View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prathamadarśanadinan. the first day of seeing any one (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratidinam ind. day by day, daily, every day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikūlavādinmfn. equals -bhāṣin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratisaṃvādin(?), m. an adversary (probably for prati-- vādin-), . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratisaṃvedinmfn. feeling, experiencing, being conscious of anything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prativādinmfn. contradicting, disobedient (See /a-prativ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prativādinmfn. answering, rejoining. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prativādinm. an opponent, adversary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prativādinm. a defendant, respondent ( prativāditā di-- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prativedinmfn. experiencing, knowing, (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prativedinSee prati-vid-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratodinSee śroṇi-pratodin-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyabhinandinmfn. receiving thankfully (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyakṣavādinmfn. "asserting perception by the senses", one who admits of no other evidence than perception by the senses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyakṣavādinm. a Buddhist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravādinmfn. giving forth a sound, uttering a cry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravādinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') stating, declaring, reporting, speaking of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravādinmfn. (fr. vāda-), being in some grammatical form or case View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravedinmfn. knowing well or accurately View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pretakṛtyādinirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
priyavādinmfn. speaking kindly or agreeably, flattering, a flatterer etc. ( priyavāditā di-- f. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
priyavādinm. () or (inī-) f. () a kind of bird, Gracula Religiosa. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pṛthagvādinmfn. each saying something different View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punaruktavādinmfn. repeating the same things, talking idly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
purīṣabhedinmfn. "loosening the feces", relaxing the bowels View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrṇabhedinīf. a species of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrṇimādinan. the day of full moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
purudinan. plural many days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puruṣāntaravedinmfn. puruṣāntara
pūrvadinan. the earlier part of the day, forenoon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvakarmakṛtavādinm. one who asserts that only preceding actions determine the following View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvāparadinan. forenoon and afternoon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvasārasārāsvādinīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvavādinm. "speaking first","making the first statement of a case", a complainant, plaintiff View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣkarasādinm. equals -sāda-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrādinīf. equals putra-jagdhī- (when used literally spelt with two t-'s exempli gratia, 'for example' puttrādinīvyāghrī-,"a tigress eating her young") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putraputrādinīf. an unnatural mother (See putra-jagdhī-and Va1rtt. 2 ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rabhasanandinm. Name of a Buddhist author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rādhābhedinm. Name of arjuna- (see -vedhin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
radinm. "tusked", an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rahasanandin m. Name of a grammarian View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rahasānandinm. Name of a grammarian View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāhubhedinm. "severing (the body of) rāhu-", Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājabandinm. Name of a man (printed -vandin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājavandinSee -bandin-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raṅgopamardinm. "injuring the stage", an actor who dresses like rāvaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāsabhavandinīf. Arabian jasmine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasabhedinmfn. of different taste or flavour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasabhedinmfn. discharging juice (said of fruits which burst with ripeness) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasāsvādinm. "juice-sipper", a bee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāṣṭrabhedinm. "subverter of a kingdom", a rebel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratnādinandinm. Name of a muni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rātrivedinm. "night-knower", a cock View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ravidinan. day of the sun, Sunday View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ravijaputradinan. Saturday, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛgvedinmfn. conversant with the ṛg-- veda-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛgyajuḥsāmavedinmfn. conversant with the above three veda-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ripumardinmfn. harassing or destroying enemies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛtavādinmfn. saying right, speaking the truth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudranandinm. () Name of author. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rūkṣavādinmfn. speaking roughly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdabhedinmfn. equals -vedhin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdabhedinm. an arrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdabhedinm. Name of arjuna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdabhedinm. the anus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdinmfn. sounding, noisy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') resounding with (varia lectio -nādin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sabhāprapādinmfn. frequenting assemblies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaḍbhāvavādinm. a maintainer of the theory of the six bhāva-s (viz. dravya-, guṇa-, karman-, sāmānya-, viśeṣa-, samavāya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣāḍguṇyaguṇavedinmfn. acquainted with the virtues of the six measures View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadhamādinmfn. equals -mad- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sādhuvādinmfn. speaking rightly or justly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sādhuvādinmfn. applauding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sādhuvādinmfn. wrong reading for -vāhin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinmfn. any one sitting or riding on (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinm. a horseman, charioteer etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinm. (fr. Causal) exhausting, wearying, destroying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadurdinamfn. enveloped in clouds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadvādinmfn. true-speaking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāgaranandinm. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sakalavedinmfn. all-knowing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktivādinm. one who asserts the śakti--doctrine, an adherent of śiva--doctrine, a śākta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samabhiṣyandinmfn. causing hypertrophy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samādhibhedinmfn. one who interrupts meditation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samāvadindriyamfn. = View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samayabhedinmfn. breaking an agreement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃhlādinmfn. refreshing, cheering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃhrādinmfn. sounding together, tumultuous, noisy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃhrādinm. Name of a rākṣasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃkhyayogavadinm. an adherent of the theistical sāṃkhya-yoga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkrāntivādinm. plural a particular Buddhist school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sammadinmfn. gladdening, exhilarating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sammardinmfn. pressing thoroughly, rubbing, crushing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampadinm. Name of a grandson of aśoka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampādinmfn. coinciding with, fit or suitable for (instrumental case or compound)
sampādinmfn. effecting, accomplishing, procuring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃśayacchedinmfn. clearing all doubt, decisive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃśayocchedinmfn. resolving doubts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃsvedinmfn. perspiring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtodinmfn. striking, stinging View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃvādinmfn. conversing, talking, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃvādinmfn. agreeing or harmonizing with, corresponding to (genitive case or compound), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāñjhanandinm. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptadina (in the beginning of a compound) 7 days, a week View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptavādinm. Name of the jaina-s (see -bhaṅgin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāradinmfn. autumnal, belonging to autumn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaradurdinan. a shower of arrows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārāsvadinīf. Name of a vedānta- work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvāstitvavādinm. equals sti-vādin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvāstivādinmfn. or m. an adherent of the above doctrine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvasukhaduḥkhanirabhinandinm. a particular samādhi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvaśūnyatvavādinm. sarvaśūnyatva
sarvatūryaninādinm. "playing all instruments", śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvavādinm. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvavedinmfn. omniscient View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvavedinmfn. knowing all the veda-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvorutrivedinm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaṣṭidinamfn. relating to or lasting a period of 6o days, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstravādinm. a teacher of the śāstra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satkāryavādinm. an adherent of the above doctrine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satyabhedinmfn. violating truth, promise-breaking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satyakāruṇyavedinmfn. possessing truth and tenderness and the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satyavādinmfn. equals -vācaka- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satyavādinm. Name of kauśika- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satyavādinm. Name of a goddess of the bodhi--tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satyavādinīf. a form of dākṣāyaṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saunandinm. "having saunanda-", Name of balarāma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śauryonmādinmfn. "intoxicated by heroic", foolhardy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauvarṇabhedinīf. the plant priyaṅgu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
savitṛsutadinan. Saturday View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
setubhedinmfn. breaking down barriers, removing obstructions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
setubhedinm. Croton Polyandrum or Tiglium View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhanandinm. Name of a grammarian View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siṃhanādanādinm. Name of a bodhi-sattva-
siṃhanādinm. Name of a māra-putra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siṃhanardinmfn. roaring like a lion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
skandinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') effusing, shedding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
skandinmfn. coagulating (See a-sk-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
skandinmfn. leaping, jumping View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
skandinmfn. bursting out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślakṣṇavādinmfn. speaking softly or gently View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślīpadinmfn. having a swelled leg, suffering from elephantiasis
ślīpadinm. a club-footed man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanandinm. Name of one of śiva-'s attendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanandinm. of a grammarian View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
spandinmfn. quivering, throbbing, pulsating, tremulous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrāddhadinan. the day of a śrāddha-, anniversary of the death of a near relative View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śravaṇānandinīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīdharanandinm. Name of author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śṛṅgotpādinīf. Name of a yakṣiṇī- (producing horns and changing men into animals) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śṛṅkhalatodinm. Name of a man gaRa bāhv-ādi- (see śārṅkhalatodi-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śroṇipratodinmfn. kicking the hinder parts or posteriors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrotravādinmfn. willing to hear, obedient View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutanigadinmfn. able to recite what has once been heard ( śrutanigaditva di-tva- n. Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutinigadinmfn. equals śruta-n- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
strīśūdrādidinacaryākramam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śubhadinan. an auspicious or lucky day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudhāsyandinmfn. flowing with nectar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinmfn. streaming, overflowing (see sūda-vat-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudinamf(ā-)n. clear, bright (as a day or morning) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudinan. a clear or fine or auspicious day etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudinan. happy time, happiness (equals sukha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudinan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudināhan. a bright fine day on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudinatāf. clear weather View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudinatvan. state of fine weather, an auspicious time View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudināyaNom. A1. yate-, to become a fine day, clear up Va1rtt. 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūdrāvedinmfn. marrying a śūdra- woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukandinm. Amorphophallus Campanulatus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukandinm. Arum Campanulatum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukavihṛdayānandinīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śukradinan. Friday, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śumbhamardinīf. " śumbha--destroying", Name of a durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sunandinīf. a kind of plant with fragrant leaves View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sunandinīf. a species of the ati-jagatī-, metre (equals mañju-bhāṣiṇī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūnyavādinm. the affirmer of a void (id est of the non-existence of any Spirit, divine or human) , a Buddhist, atheist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūryānuvādinīf. Name of commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvarṇamedinīf. the earth represented in gold ( suvarṇamedinīdāna -dāna- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvarṇamedinīdānan. suvarṇamedinī
svabdinmfn. (prob.) roaring, panting (equals svabhūta-śabda-, śabdaṃ kurvat- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svabhāvavādinm. one who maintains the above doctrine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svādinmfn. tasting, enjoying (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svayaṃdinamfn. (See 1. dina-) self-cut, self-torn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svedinmfn. sweating, perspiring (in a-sv-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
syādvādavādinm. equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
syādvādinm. idem or 'm. an adherent of the jaina- doctrine ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
syādvādinm. Name of a jaina- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
syandinmfn. flowing, running View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
syandinmfn. emitting liquid, oozing, trickling, dropping (compound) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
syandinmfn. going, moving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
syandinīf. saliva View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
syandinīf. a cow bearing two calves at once View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taddinan. that, day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taddinamind. on a certain day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taddinamind. during the day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taddinamind. every day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tathāvādinmfn. telling the exact truth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tathāvādinmfn. professing to be so View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tathyavādinmfn. speaking the truth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tindinīf. equals du- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tridinaspṛśm. conjunction of 3 lunations with one solar day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trikapardinmfn. wearing 3 braids of hair View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trivedinmfn. familiar with the 3 veda-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trivedinmfn. equals trayīmūrti-mat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tṛṇacchedinmfn. one who plucks grass, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding iv, 71 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tulyanaktaṃdinamfn. having equal days and nights View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tulyanaktaṃdinamfn. not distinguishing between day and night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tundinmfn. idem or 'mfn. equals dika- ' , 117. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgasādinm. a horseman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tvaksārabhedinīf. the plant kṣudra-cañcu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ubhayapadinmfn. (fr. ubhaya-pada-), having both parasmai-pada- and ātmane-pada-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ucchedavādinm. an adherent of the above doctrine, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ucchedinmfn. destroying, resolving (doubts or difficulties) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uddinan. midday View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udinakṣ (anomalous Desiderative of nakṣ-) P. (parasmE-pada -/inakṣat-) to wish or endeavour to obtain or reach ; to strive after, pretend to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uditānuvādinmfn. one who repeats what is said by others View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unmādinmfn. insane, mad, intoxicated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unmādinmfn. causing madness, bewitching View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unmādinintoxicating, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unmādinm. Name of a merchant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unmādinīf. Name of a princess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upalabhedinm. Name of a plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upamardinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' destroying, annulling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaniṣādinmf(inī-)n. staying or sitting near at hand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upapādinmfn. = daka-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upavādinmfn. censuring, blaming View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utkledinmfn. wet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utkledinmfn. wetting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utkrodinmfn. exulting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utpādinmfn. produced, born View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utpādinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') bringing forth, producing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utsādinmfn. See agny-utsād/in-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttaravādinm. a replicant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttaravādinm. a defendant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttaravādinm. one whose claims are of later date than another's View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vadāvadinmfn. idem or 'mfn. (prob. an old Intensive; see carācara-, calācala-etc.) speaking much or well, a speaker Va1rtt. 6 (see a-vadāvada-).' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vādavādinSee syād-vāda-vādin-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinmfn. saying, discoursing, speaking, talking, speaking or talking about (often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' or sometimes with accusative of object), declaring, proclaiming, denoting, designating (or sometimes = designated as, addressed by a title etc.) etc.
dinmfn. producing sounds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinm. a speaker, asserter, (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') the teacher or propounder, or adherent of any doctrine or theory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinm. a disputant etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinm. a plaintiff, accuser, prosecutor (dual number plaintiff and defendant) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinm. an alchemist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinm. a player on any musical instrument, musician (See f.), the leading or key-note View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinm. Name of buddha- (as"the disputant") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinm. (prob.) Name of a commentator or commentary on the amara-koṣa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dinīf. a female musician View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāgvādinīf. Name of a goddess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāgvādinīstotran. Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaibhājyavādin wrong reading for vibhajya-vādin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vakratodinmfn. stinging or pricking treacherously View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vakṣaḥsammardinīf. a wife (as"pressing or reclining on her husband's breast") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaktrabhedinmfn. "mouth-cutting", pungent, bitter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vandinmfn. praising, honouring (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') (see 1. bandin-,"a praiser","bard") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vandinīkā f. Name of dākṣāyaṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vandinīyāf. Name of dākṣāyaṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārāvaskandinmfn. (said of agni-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varcobhedinmfn. suffering from it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varṇabhedinīf. millet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varṇavādinm. a speaker of praise, panegyrist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastrabhedinm. a clothes-cutter, tailor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātaghnatvādinirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedāgnyutsādinmfn. one who neglects (recitation of) the veda- and (maintenance of) the sacred fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedanindinm. equals -nindaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedāntācāryadinacaryāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedāntavādinmfn. one who asserts the vedānta- doctrine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedāntavedinm. equals -vid- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedavādinmfn. versed in Vedic discussion or in Vedic lore discussion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedinmfn. (for 2. 3.See column 3) knowing, acquainted with or versed in (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') etc. (see sarva-v-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedinmfn. feeling, perceiving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedinmfn. announcing, proclaiming View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedinm. Name of brahmā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedinmfn. marrying (See śūdrā-v-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedinn. a species of plant (equals ambaṣṭha-) (see 2. vedi-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedinīf. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhajyavādinm. an adherent of the above doctrine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhedinmfn. piercing, rending (See marma-bh-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhedinmfn. dispelling, destroying (with genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vicchedinmfn. breaking, destroying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vicchedinmfn. having breaks or intervals View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viḍbhedinmfn. laxative View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viḍbhedinn. (prob.) equals -lavaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidhudinan. a lunar day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidvaccittaprasādinīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidvanmodinīf. Name of a commentator or commentary on by rāmabhadra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vihradinmfn. (perhaps) making pools View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijayanandinm. Name of authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijñānāstitvamātravādinmfn. equals na-vādin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijñānavādinmfn. one who affirms that only intelligence has reality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijñānavādinm. a yogācāra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijñānavinodinīṭīkāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimardinmfn. crushing to pieces, destroying, removing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimarśavādinmfn. uttering discussions, one who reasons, a reasoner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinadinmfn. roaring, thundering, grumbling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinādinmfn. sounding forth, crying out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinardinmfn. roaring (applied to a particular method of chanting the sāma-veda-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinayanandinm. Name of the leader of a jaina- sect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinodāpapādinmfn. causing pleasure or delight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinodinmfn. driving away, dispelling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinodinmfn. amusing, diverting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipramādinmfn. ( mad-) heeding nothing, thoroughly heedless (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣādinmfn. (for 2.See under vi-ṣad-, column 3) swallowing poison View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣādinmfn. (for 1.See column 1) dejected, dismayed, disconsolate, sad etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣamardinīf. "destroying poison", a species of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
visaṃvādinmfn. breaking one's word, disappointing, deceiving (See di--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
visaṃvādinmfn. contradicting, disagreeing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣāpavādinmfn. curing poison by charms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣāpavādinīf. a magical formula curing poison View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśeṣavādinm. an adherent of that doctrine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśiṣṭādvaitavādinm. one who asserts the doctrine of qualified non-duality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣṇuśayanabodhadinan. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') the day of viṣṇu-'s lying down and of his awaking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣuvaddinan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣuvadinan. the day of the equinox View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvamedinīf. Name of a lexicon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣyandin(or sy-) mfn. liquid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitathavādinmfn. () speaking a falsehood, lying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivādinmfn. disputing, contending View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivādinmfn. a litigant, party in a lawsuit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vrandinmfn. becoming soft View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhavādinm. a jina- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhavādinm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛkṣabhedinm. "tree-splitting", a carpenter's chisel, hatchet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛkṣādinīf. Vanda Roxburghii View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛndinmfn. containing a multitude of (in aśva-vṛ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛṣabhānunandinīf. patronymic of rādhā-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛṣāmodinīf. enjoying the male View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛṣanādinmfn. roaring like a bull View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛthāvādinmfn. speaking falsely or untruly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttasādinmfn. destroying established usage, worthless, mean, vile View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāghrādinīf. Ipomoea Turpethum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajurvedinmfn. familiar with the yajur-veda- on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yāmanādinm. "proclaiming the watches", a cock (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yathoktavādinmfn. speaking as told, reporting accurately what has been said View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yathopapādinmfn. the first that appears to be the best View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuddhamedinīf. equals -bhū- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuktavādinmfn. speaking properly or suitably View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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dinaḥ दिनः नम् [द्युति तमः, दो दी वा नक् ह्रस्व; Uṇ.2.49.] 1 Day (opp. रात्रि); दिनान्ते निहितं तेजः सवित्रेव हुताशनः R.4.1; यामिनयन्ति दिनानि च सुखदुःखवशीकृते मनसि K.P.1; दिनान्ते निलयाय गन्तुम् R.2.15. -2 A day (including the night), a period of 24 hours; दिने दिने सा परिवर्धमाना Ku.1.25; सप्त व्यतीयुस्त्रिगुणानि तस्य दिनानि R.2.25. -Comp. -अंशः any portion of a day, i. e. an hour, a watch, &c. -अण्डम् darkness. -अत्ययः, -अन्तः, -अवसानम् evening, sunset; R.2.15,45; दिनान्तरभ्यो$भ्युपशान्तमन्मथः Ṛs.1.1; Ki.9.8. -अधीशः the sun. -अर्धः mid-day, noon. -अन्तकः darkness. -आगमः, -आदिः, -आरम्भः daybreak, morning; Ki.11.52. -ईशः, ईश्वरः the sun. ˚आत्मजः 1 an epithet of Saturn. -2 of Karṇa. -3 of Sugrīva. -करः, -कर्तृ, -कृत् m. the sun; तुल्योद्योगस्तव दिनकृतश्चाधिकारो मतो नः V.2.1; दिनकरकुलचन्द्र चन्द्रकेतो U.6. 8; R.9.23. ˚तनयः N. of (1) Saturn; (2) Sugrīva; (3) Karṇa; (4) Yama. ˚तनया N. of (1) the river Yamunā, (2) the river Tāptī. -कर्तव्यम्, -कार्यम्, -कृत्यम् ceremonies to be performed daily; Ks. -केशरः, -केसरः, -केशवः darkness. -क्षयः, -पातः evening. -चर्या daily occupation, daily routine of business. -च्छिद्रम् 1 a constellation or lunar mansion. -2 a change of the moon at the beginning or end of a half-day; Hch. -ज्योतिस् n. sunshine. -दुःखितः the Chakravāka bird. -नक्तम् ind. by day and night. -नाथः, -पः, -पतिः, -बन्धः, -प्रणीः, -मणिः, -मयूखः, -रत्नम् the sun; दिनमणिमण्डलमण्डन Gīt.; पस्पृशुर्न पृथिवीं तुरङ्गमाः स्पर्धयेव दिननाथवाजिनाम् Vikr.14.64;11.1. -पाटिका a day's wages; Vet.4. -बलम् N. of the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, eleventh, and twelfth signs of the zodiac taken collectively. -मलम् a month. -मुख morning; तुल्यतां दिनमुखेन दिनान्तः Ki.9.8; दिनमुखानि रविर्हिमनिग्रहै- र्विमलयन् मलयं नगमत्यजत् R.9.25. -मूर्द्धन् m. the eastern mountain behind which the sun is supposed to rise. -यौवनम् mid-day, noon (the youth of day). -वारः a week-day. -व्यास-दलम् the radius of a circle made by an asterism in its daily revolution; Sūrya S.2.6. -स्पृश् n. a lunar day coinciding with 3 week-days; Hch.
dinikā दिनिका A day's wages.
dinv दिन्व् 1 P. (दिन्वति) 1 To be glad, or to gladden. -2 To please, or to be pleased.
akhedin अखेदिन् a.. Not wearisome, not fatigued, ˚त्वम् continuous flow of speech regarded as one of the वाग्गुणs of the Jainas.
ativādin अतिवादिन् a. Talkative, very eloquent; exclusively establishing one's own assertion; प्राणो ह्येष यः सर्वभूतैर्विभाति विजानन्विद्वान्भवते नातिवादी Muṇḍ.3.1.4.
anahaṃvādin अनहंवादिन् a. Prideless, modest; मुक्तसङ्गो$नहंवादी... (सात्त्विक उच्यते) Bg.18.26.
anugādin अनुगादिन् a. [गद्-णिनि] Repeating, following in speaking, echoing. (P.V.4.13).
anudinam अनुदिनम् दिवसम् ind. Daily, day after day; पारावतः खलु शिलाकणमात्रभोजी कामी भवेदनुदिनं वद को$त्र हेतुः Udb.; अनुदिवसं पिरहीयसे$ङ्गैः Ś.3.
anunādin अनुनादिन् a. Echoing, sounding, resonant. तस्या- स्फोटितशब्देन महता चानुनादिना । पेतुर्विहङ्गा गगनादुच्चैश्चेदमघोषयन् ॥ Rām.5.42.32.
anupadin अनुपदिन् a. [अनुपद्-इनि P.V.2.9] Following, seeking after or for a searcher, inquirer; अनुपदमन्वेष्टा गवामनुपदी Sk.; क्षणदाकरे$नुपदिभिः प्रयये Śi.9.7; मृगस्यानुपदी रामो जगाम गजविक्रमः Bk.5.5.
abhinandin अभिनन्दिन् a. (At the end of comp.) Rejoicing at, approving, praising &c.
abhivādin अभिवादिन् a. 1 Saluting respectfully. -2 Describing, referring to; तदभिवादिनी एषा ऋग्भवति Nir. अभिवाद्य abhivādya वादनीय vādanīya अभिवाद्य वादनीय pot p. To be respectfully saluted. -द्यः N. of Śiva.
aravindinī अरविन्दिनी 1 A lotus plant; प्रपीतमधुका भृङ्गैः सुदिवेवार- विन्दिनी Bk.5.7. -2 An assemblage of lotus flowers. -3 A place abounding in lotus flowers.
arbudin अर्बुदिन् a. Afflicted with swelling or tumour.
ātodin आतोदिन् a. Ved. Striking, pushing, pricking; आतो- दिनौ नितोदिनावथो संतोदिनावुत (अपि नह्यामि) Av.7.95.3.
ādin आदिन् a. [अत्तीति अद् णिनि] Eating (in comp.); परस्परादिनः Ms.12.59.
ānandin आनन्दिन् a. [आ-नन्द्-णिनि] 1 Happy, joyful, delighted. -2 Pleasing, giving delight. रसह्येवायं लब्ध्वा$नन्दी भवति T. Up.2.7.
āmardin आमर्दिन् a. Crushing, pressing.
āmodin आमोदिन् a. 1 Happy, delighted. -2 Fragrant; fragrant or perfumed with; oft. at the end of comp.; नवकुटजकदम्बामोदिनो गन्धवाहाः Bh.1.35. m. (-दी) A perfume for the mouth (made in the form of a pill of camphor &c.).
āvedin आवेदिन् a. 1 Declaring, announcing. -2 Giving orders.
āskandin आस्कन्दिन् a. 1 Jumping upon, assailing, attacking; न हि सिंहो गजास्कन्दी भयाद्गिरिगुहाशयः R.17.52. -2 Causing to flow. -3 Granting. -4 Spending.
ālhādin आल्हादिन् a. 1 Delighted, glad. -2 Giving delight, gladdening.
indindiraḥ इन्दिन्दिरः A large bee; लोभादिन्दिन्दिरेषु निपतत्सु Bv.2.183.
ucchedin उच्छेदिन् a. Destroying.
utkledin उत्क्लेदिन् a. 1 Wet. -2 Making wet or moist.
utpādin उत्पादिन् a. Produced, born; सर्वमुत्पादि भङ्गुरम् H.1.28. -2 Bringing forth, causing, producing (in comp.).
uddinam उद्दिनम् Midday.
unmādin उन्मादिन् a. Mad, intoxicated. उन्मादिनो मातुलपुत्रकस्य कथं सहामो वनकण्टकित्वम् Udb.
upaniṣādin उपनिषादिन् a. 1 Sitting at the feet (of another, such as a preceptor). -2 Subjected.
upavādin उपवादिन् a. Censuring, blaming; अल्पाः कलहिनः पिशुना उपवादिनः Ch. Up.7.6.1.
kakudin ककुदिन् a. Chief, superior; आस्यं विवृत्य ककुदी पाणिना प्राक्षिपच्छनैः Mb.12.289.19.
kandin कन्दिन् a. Having a bulbous root. m. An esculent root.
kapardin कपर्दिन् a. [कपर्द-इनि] 1 Shaggy. -2 Wearing braided and matted hair. -m. N. of Śiva; पुष्पोपहारं शनकैः करिष्यामि कपर्दिनः Rām.7.31.34.
karmandin कर्मन्दिन् m. P.IV.4.111 An ascetic, a religious mendicant.
kundinī कुन्दिनी A multitude of lotuses.
kumudinī कुमुदिनी 1 A water-lily with white lotus flowers; यथेन्दावानन्दं व्रजति समुपोढे कुमुदिनी U.5.26.; Śi.9.34. -2 A collection of lotuses. -3 A place abounding in lotuses. -Comp. -नायकः, -पतिः -m. The moon; दृष्ट्वा कुमुद्वन्तमखण्डमण्डलम् Bhāg.1.29.
khedin खेदिन् a. 1 Tiring, exhausting. -2 Disturbing, afflicting, troubling.
gadin गदिन् a. (नी f.) [गद-इनि] 1 Armed with a club; किरीटिनं गदिनं चक्रिणं च Bg.11.17. -2 Affected with sickness, diseased. -m. [गदा अस्त्यस्य इनि] An epithet of Viṣṇu. -Comp. गदिसिंहः N. of a grammarian.
gāndinī गान्दिनी 1 An epithet of the Ganges. -2 N. of a princess of Kāśi, wife of Śvaphalka and mother of Akrūra; Bhāg.9.24.15. -Comp. -सुतः an epithet (1) of Bhīṣma; (2) of Kārtikeya; (3) of Akṛūra.
chedin छेदिन् a. 1 Cutting or tearing off, dividing; लोष्ठमर्दी तृणच्छेदी Ms.4.71. -2 Destroying, removing.
dohadin दोहदिन् a. Eagerly longing for, ardently desirous of.
dauhṛdinī दौहृदिनी A pregnant woman.
nandin नन्दिन् a. [नन्द्-णिनि] 1 Happy, pleased, glad, delighted. -2 Making happy, gladdening, giving delight; अद्याप्यानन्दयति मां त्वं पुनः क्वासि नन्दिनी U.3.14. -3 Delighting in, liking. -m 1 A son. -2 The speaker of a prelude or benediction in a drama. -3 N. of the door-keeper of Śiva, his chief attendant, or of the bull which he rides; लतागृहद्वारगतो$थ नन्दी Ku.3.41; Māl.1.1. -4 An epithet of Viṣṇu. -5 The Indian fig-tree. -नी 1 A daughter; तेषां कुले त्वमसि नन्दिनि पार्थिवानाम्; U.1.9. -2 A husband's sister. -3 A fabulous cow, daughter of Surabhi, yielding all desires (कामधेनु) and in the possession of the sage Vasisṭha; अनिन्द्या नन्दिनी नाम धेनुराववृते वनात् R.1.82;2.69. -4 An epithet of the Ganges; नन्दिनी नलिनी सीता मालती च मलापहा । विष्णुपादाब्जसंभूता गङ्गा त्रिपथगमिनी ॥ -5 The holy basil. -Comp. -तनयः, -सुतः the sage Vyāḍi.
nardin नर्दिन् a. Sounding, roaring, bellowing.
din नादिन् a. 1 Sounding, resonant; अम्बुदवृन्दनादी रथः Mb.; R.3.59;19.5. -2 Bellowing, roaring; खर˚, सिंह˚ &c.
ninādin निनादिन् a. 1 Sounding, ringing. -2 Causing to sound, playing (as a musical instrument).
niṣādin निषादिन् a. (-नी f.) Sitting or lying down, resting, reclining; आतपात्ययसंक्षिप्तनीवारासु निषादिभिः R.1.52;4.2. -m. An elephant-driver; Śi.5.41. निषादिनुन्नाः करिणः Śiva B.
nisyandin निस्यन्दिन् a. 1 Trickling or flowing down, oozing. -2 Dropping or pouring down; कनकरसनिस्यन्दी सानुमाना- लोक्यते Ś.7.
parāskandin परास्कन्दिन् m. A thief.
parivādin परिवादिन् a. 1 Reviling, censuring, abusing, slandering. -2 Accusing. -3 Screaming, crying aloud. -4 Censured, slandered. -m. An accuser, a plaintiff, complainant. -नी A lute (वीणा) of seven strings; Śi.6. 9; R.8.35; N.15.44; महतीं परिवादिनीं च कांचिद् भुजपाशै- स्तपनीयपारिहार्यैः Bu. Ch.5.54.
din पादिन् a. 1 Footed, having feet. -2 Having four parts, as a stanza. -3 Receiving or entitled to a fourth part; चतुर्थांशाश्च पादिनः Ms.8.21. -m. 1 An amphibious animal. -2 A heir to a fourth part of an estate; ŚB. on MS.6.7.2.
dinaḥ पादिनः A fourth part.
pracodin प्रचोदिन् a. Driving on, urging &c. -नी 1 A prickly nightshade. -2 N. of a plant; Solanum Indicum or Solanum Jacquini (Mar. रिंगणी).
prativādin प्रतिवादिन् a. 1 Answering, replying. -2 Contradicting. -m. 1 A defendant, respondent (in law); कारणे प्रतिवादिनि Y. -2 An opponent in general.
pramādin प्रमादिन् a. 1 Careless, inattentive, negligent; सर्वत्र प्रमादी वैधेयः V.2; एकः प्रमादी स कथं न हन्यते Udb. -2 Insane, mad. -3 Intoxicated, drunk. -m. N. of a year.
pramodin प्रमोदिन् a. 1 Delighting, making happy. -2 Delighted, happy.
pravādin प्रवादिन् a. 1 Uttering a sound; speaking, reporting. -2 Being in some grammatical form or case.
prasyandin प्रस्यन्दिन् a. Shedding tears. -m. A shower of rain.
bandin बन्दिन् See बन्धिन्. A bard, herald; धर्मच्छेदात् पटुतरगिरो बन्दिनो नीलकण्ठाः V.4.13.
bhedin भेदिन् a. [भिद्-णिनि] 1 Breaking, dividing, distinguishing &c. -2 One who holds the doctrine of dualism. भेदिरम् bhēdiram भेदुरम् bhēduram भेदिरम् भेदुरम् A thunderbolt.
bhrādinī भ्रादिनी A particular Śruti (in music).
madhyaṃdina मध्यंदिन a. 1 Middle, central. -2 Meridional, belonging to noon (also मध्यंदिनीय). -नम् 1 The midday (the third division of the day out of five); अथ यत् संप्रति मध्यंदिने Ch. Up.2.9.5. -2 The time of the day between 16 to 2 Ghaṭakās; मध्यंदिने विष्णुररीन्द्रपाणिः Bhāg.6.8.2.
mardinī मर्दिनी A kind of musical composition.
maryādin मर्यादिन् a. Keeping within bounds. -m. A neighbour, borderer; Nir.4.2.
mādhyaṃdina माध्यंदिन a. (-नी f.) 1 Midday, meridional. -2 Middle, central. -नः 1 N. of a branch of Vājasaneyins. -2 N. of an astronomical school which fixed the starting point of planetary movements at noon. -नम् A branch of the शुक्ल or white Yajurveda (followed by the Mādhyandinas).
mṛdinī मृदिनी Good or soft earth.
medinī मेदिनी 1 The earth; न मामवति सद्वीपा रत्नसूरपि मेदिनी R.1.65; चञ्चलं वसु नितान्तमुन्नता मेदिनीमपि हरन्त्यरातयः Ki.13. 52; (मधुकैटभयोरासीन्मेदसैव परिप्लुता । तेनेयं मेदिनीनाम्ना सर्वतः परिकीर्तिता ॥). -2 Ground, land, soil. -3 Spot, place. -4 N. of a lexicon (मेदिनीकोश). -Comp. -ईशः, -पतिः a king. -जः the planet Mars. -दिनम् a natural day. -द्रवः dust. -धरः a mountain.
modin मोदिन् a. [मुद्-णिनि] 1 Glad, pleased, cheerful. -2 Gladdening, delighting. -नी 1 N. of various plants (अजमोदा, मल्लिका, यूथिका). -2 Musk. -3 An intoxicating or spirituous liquor.
vandin वन्दिन् m. A panegyrist, bard, an encomiast, a herald; धर्मच्छेदात् पटुतरगिरो वन्दिनो नीलकण्ठाः V.4.13; (the bards form a distinct caste sprung from a Kṣatriya father and a Śūdra mother). -2 A captive, prisoner.
din वादिन् a. [वद्-णिनि] 1 Speaking, talking, discoursing. -2 Asserting. -3 Disputing. -4 Designating, designated as; यत्र यत्र वनोद्देशे सत्त्वाः पुरुषवादिनः । वृक्षाः पुरुष- नामानस्ते सर्वे स्त्रीजनाभवन् ॥ Rām.7.87.13. -5 Talking pleasantly; Rām.2.36.3 (com. वादिन्यः परचित्ता- कर्षकवचनचतुराः). -m. 1 A speaker. -2 A disputant, an antagonist; तस्याङ्गीकरणेन वादिन इव स्यात् स्वामिनो निग्रहः Mu.5.1; R.12.92. -3 An accuser, a plaintiff. -4 An expounder, a teacher. -5 (In music) The leading or key-note. -6 An alchemist.
vinardin विनर्दिन् a. Roaring (applied to a kind of mode of chanting Sāman); विनर्दि साम्नो वृणे पशव्यम् Ch. Up.2.22.1.
vivādin विवादिन् a. 1 Disputing, contending, disputatious, quarrelling. -2 Litigating. -m. A litigant, party in a law suit.
viṣādin विषादिन् a. Dejected, dismayed, sad, disconsolate.
visaṃvādin विसंवादिन् a. 1 Disappointing, deceiving. -2 Inconsistent, contradictory. -3 Differing, disagreeing; वयोवेष- विसंवादि रामस्य च तयोस्तदा R.15.67. -4 Disputing, contesting. -5 False, untrue. -6 Fraudulent, crafty. विसंष्ठु visaṃṣṭhu (स्थु sthu) ल l विसंष्ठु (स्थु) ल a. 1 Unsteady, agitated; Māl.7. -2 Uneven; ततो$भवज्जरासन्धः किंचित्क्रमविसंस्थुलः Bm.2.11.
vedin वेदिन् a. [विद्-णिनि] 1 Knowing; as in कृतवेदिन्. -2 Marrying. -m. 1 A knower. -2 A teacher. -3 A learned Brāhmaṇa. -4 An epithet of Brahman.
ślīpadin श्लीपदिन् m. A club-footed man.
saṃvādin संवादिन् a. 1 Speaking, conversing. -2 Like, similar, resembling, corresponding to; षड्जसंवादिनीः केकाः R.1.39; अस्मदङ्गसंवादिन्याकृतिः U.6.
sadurdina सदुर्दिन a. Enveloped in clouds.
din सादिन् a. [सद्-णिनि] 1 Sitting down. -2 Exhausting, destroying &c. -3 Any one sitting or riding on; प्रतिप्रहाराक्षममश्वसादी R.7.47. -m. 1 A horseman; ततो रथद्विपभटसादिनायकैः करालया परिवृत आत्मसेनया Bhāg.1.71. 14. -2 One riding on an elephant or seated in a car. -3 A charioteer; ततो वररथारूढाः कुमाराः सादिभिः सह Mb. 1.138.8.
saunandin सौनन्दिन् m. An epithet of Balarāma.
syandin स्यन्दिन् a. (-नी f.) 1 Oozing, flowing, trickling; बाहुरैन्दवमयूखचुम्बितस्यन्दिचन्द्रमणिहारविभ्रमः Māl.8.3; U.1. 35. -2 Rushing. -3 Going.
syandinī स्यन्दिनी 1 Saliva. -2 A cow bearing two calves at the same time.
hārdin हार्दिन् n. Anything greatly liked or desired.
hradinī ह्रदिनी 1 A river; सुशीततोयां विस्तीर्णां ह्रदिनीं वेतसैर्वृताम् Mb.3.64.12; Bhāg.2.7.28;1.21.9. -2 A lightning.
hrādin ह्रादिन् a. Sounding, roaring.
hrādinī ह्रादिनी 1 The thunderbolt of Indra. -2 Lightning. -3 A river. -4 The tree called शल्लकी.
hlādin ह्लादिन् a. 1 Delighting, pleasing &c. -2 Very noisy or loud.
hlādinī ह्लादिनी See ह्रादिनी.
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añjasā áñjas-ā, adv. straightway, vi. 54, 1 [inst. of áñjas ointment: = with gliding motion].
aditi Á-diti, f. name of a goddess, viii. 48, 2 [unbinding, freedom, from 3. dā bind].
anukāmam anu-kāmám, (acc.) adv. according to desire, viii. 48, 8.
anuvrata ánu-vrata, a. devoted, x. 34, 2 [acting according to the will (vratá) of another].
aram ár-am, adv. in readiness; with kṛ do service to (dat.), vii. 86, 7.
arvant ár-vant, m. steed, ii. 33, 1; vii. 54, 5 [speeding: ṛ go].
avasāna ava-sá̄na, n. resting place, x. 14, 9 [unbinding, giving rest: áva + sā = si tie].
ācya á̄c-ya, gd. bending, x. 15, 6 [á̄ + ac bend].
inv i-nv go, I. P. ínvati [secondary root from i go according to class v.: i-nu]. sam- bring, i. 160, 5.
iṣṭavrata iṣṭá-vrata, a. (Bv.) accordant with desired ordinances, iii. 59, 9.
upakṣiyant upa-kṣiyánt, pr. pt. abiding by (acc.), iii. 59, 3 [kṣi dwell].
urukrama uru-kramá, a. (Bv.) wide-striding, i. 154, 5 [kráma, m. stride].
uruvyacas uru-vyácas, a. (Bv.) far-extending, i. 160, 2 [vyácas, n. extent].
etaśa éta-śa, m. steed of the Sun, vii. 63, 2 [éta speeding, from i go].
oṣadhī óṣa-dhī, f. plant, v. 83, 1. 4. 5. 10; vii. 61, 3 [áv(a)s-a nurture (av further) + dhī holding, from dhāhold].
kila kíla, adv. emphasizing preceding word, indeed, ii. 12, 15 [180].
guhā gúhā, adv. in hiding, v. 11, 6; with kṛ, cause to disappear, ii. 12, 4 [from guhá̄, inst. of gúhconcealment, w. adverbial shift of accent].
gūhant gú̄h-ant, pr. pt. hiding, iv. 51, 9 [guh hide].
ghṛtavant ghṛtá-vant, a. accompanied with ghee, iii. 59, 1; abounding in ghee, x. 14, 14.
jagmi jágm-i, n. nimble, speeding, i. 85, 8 [from red. stem jag(a)m of gam go].
taraṇi tar-áṇi, a. speeding onward, vii. 63, 4 [tṝ cross].
dharman dhár-man, n. ordinance, law, i. 160, 1; x. 90, 16 [that which holds or is established: dhṛ hold].
dhāman dhá̄-man, n. power, i. 85, 11; ordinance, vii. 61, 4; 63, 3 [dhā put, establish].
dhuneti dhunéti, a. (Bv.) having a resounding gait, iv. 50, 2 [dhuna + iti].
dhenu dhe-nú, f. cow, i. 160, 3; ii. 35, 7 [yielding milk: dhe = dhā suck].
nitodin ni-todín, a. piercing, x. 34, 7.
paprathāna paprath-āná, pf. pt. Ā. spreading oneself, iv. 51, 8 [prath spread].
yathāvaśam yathā-vaśám, adv. according to (thy, his) will, x. 15, 14; 168, 4 [váśa, m. will].
raghuṣyad raghu-ṣyád, a. swift-gliding, i. 85, 6 [raghú swift + syand run].
vīravattama vīrá-vat-tama, spv. a. most abounding in heroes, i. 1, 3.
vrata vra-tá, n. will, ordinance, iii. 59, 2. 3; v. 83, 5; viii. 48, 9; service, vi. 54, 9 [vṛ choose].
śiśriyāṇa śiśriy-āṇá, pf. pt. Ā. abiding, v. 11, 6 [śri resort].
satyadharman satyá-dharman, a. (Bv.) whose ordinances are true, x. 34, 8.
sukṣatra su-kṣatrá, a. (Bv.) wielding fair sway, iii. 59, 4.
sudugha su-dúgha, a. (Bv.) yielding good milk, ii. 35, 7 [dúgha milking: dugh = duh].
sumedhas su-medhás, a. (Bv.) having a good understanding, wise, viii. 48, 1.
suretas su-rétas, a. (Bv.) abounding in seed, i. 160, 3.
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dina n. day: -kara, m. (day-making), sun; N.; -kartavya, n. daily observance; -kartri, m. (day-maker), sun; -kârya, n. daily observance; -krit, m. sun; -kritya, n. =-kârya; -kshaya, m. decline of day, even ing; -naktam, ad. day and night; -nâtha, m. (lord of day), sun; -pati, m. id.; -bhartri, m. id.; -mani, m. id. (gem of day); -mukha, n. day-break.
dina pp. of √ 2. dâ.
dināgama m. day-break; -½âdi, m. id.; -½adhinâtha, m. sun; -½adhîsa, m. sun; -½anta, m. evening; -½ardha, midday; -½avasâna, n. close of day, evening.
dineśa m. sun; -½îsvara, m. id.
dinnāgrāma m. N. of a village.
dinodaya m. day-break.
adyadina m. the present day.
anirhrādin a. not resonant, low.
anupadin a. pursuing, search ing.
ahaṃvādin a. talking egotistic ally.
ādināntam ad. up to the end of the day.
ādin a. eating.
ānandin a. joyful; delighting.
ālhādin a. refreshing, delighting.
ekānnādin a. eating the food of one only.
evaṃvādin a. speaking thus; -víd, a., -vidvás, pt. knowing thus, having such knowledge; well instructed, knowing what is right; -vidha, a. of such sort, such-like; -vishaya, a. directed to orrelating to this; -vritta, pp. behaving thus; of such a kind; in this condition; -vritti, a. id.
kumudinī f. night lotus; group of night lotuses: -nâyaka, -vadhûvara, m. lover of lotuses, ep. of the moon.
kusīdin m. usurer.
gadin a. bearing a club.
dohadin a. having a violent longing for (lc., --°ree;).
dvinetrabhedin a. knocking out both eyes.
nandinī f. daughter; ep. of Durgâ; N. of a fabulous cow.
nandin a. (--°ree;) rejoicing in; glad dening; m. son (--°ree;); ep. of Siva; N. of an attendant of Siva; N. of Siva's bull.
nitodin a. goading, piercing.
niṣādin a. sitting, lying, on or in (lc., --°ree;); m. elephant driver.
nīradin a. covered with clouds.
bandin m. 1. prisoner, slave; 2. bard of a prince; panegyrist (-i-tâ, f. abst. n.).
bhūdina n. civil day; -divasa, m. id.; -deva, m. god on earth, Brâhman; N.; -dhara, a. supporting the earth; m. moun tain: -ga, m. (mountain-born), tree, -tâ, f. habit of sustaining the earth, -½îsvara,m. lord of mountains, ep. of the Himavat.
nodin a. dispelling (--°ree;).
bhedin a. breaking, cleaving, pierc ing; putting out (eyes); violating (an agreement etc.); dividing, separating from (ab.); creating discord in or among; interrupting (medita tion); -ya, fp. to be split; capable of being pierced; refutable; to be betrayed; corrupti ble, to be drawn off from his allies; that is differentiated or determined; n. substantive.
bhedavādin m. maintainer of the doctrine of dualism (the difference be tween God and the world); -saha, a. capable of seduction, corruptible; -½abheda-vâdin, m. maintainer of the doctrine both of the differ ence and the identity of God and the world.
mañjuvādin a. speaking sweet ly: -î, f. N.; -srî, f. N. of a celebrated Bodhi sattva of the Northern Buddhists.
madin a. (V.) gladdening, intoxi cating; lovely.
madhyaṃdina m. midday, noon; midday offering (savana).
mandin a. (RV.) gladdening; joyful.
maryādin m. frontier neighbour; a. keeping within bounds.
mādhyaṃdina a. (î) belonging to midday; m. pl. N. of a school, a branch of the White Yagur-veda: -sâkhâ, f. the school of the Mâdhyamdinas.
medinī f. [having fatness or fer tility: meda, √ mid], earth; ground, soil; land, country, realm; spot, place: -ga, m. son of earth, planet Mars; -dhara, m. supporter of earth, mountain; -nandana,m. son of earth, planet Mars; -pati, m. lord of earth, king; -½îsa, m. id.
medin m. companion, associate, ally (V.).
ravidina n. Sunday; -nandana, m. son of the sun, planet Saturn; -bimba, n. disc of the sun; -mani, m. sun-stone; -manda la, n. disc of the sun; -ratna, n. sun-stone; -vamsa, m. solar race; -vâra, m., -vâsara, m. n. Sunday; -samkrânti, f. entrance of the sun into a sign of the zodiac; -suta, m. son of the sun=planet Saturn or the monkey Sugrîva; -soma-sama-prabha, a. having lustre resembling that of the sun and moon.
lagudin a. provided with a staff.
lapsudin a. bearded (goat; V.).
din a. saying, speaking, talking (often --°ree;); speaking or talking about (--°ree;); declaring, proclaiming, announcing (--°ree;); expressing, indicating, designated as, addressed by (a title, --°ree;); m. speaker; teacher of (--°ree;); propounder or adherent of a theory; disputant; prosecutor.
viṣādin a. swallowing poi son; -½anna, n. poisoned food; -½apaha, a. destroying poison; -½amrita-maya, a. (î) hav ing the nature of poison and nectar (girl).
viṣādin a. id.: (-i)-tâ, f., -tva, n. dejection, despondency, dismay, despair.
vṛndin a. containing a multitude of (--°ree;).
vṛṣanādin a. roaring like a bull.
vrandin a. growing slack (RV.2).
ślīpadin a. suffering from ele phantiasis.
din a. riding, m. rider, on (--°ree;).
sudina a. (RV.) clear, bright (day, morning); n. (V., C.) bright sky, fine day, clear weather; good day, happy time: -tâ, f. clear weather, -tva, n. brightness (of days), fig. happy time (RV.); -dív, a.shining brightly (Agni; RV.); -divá, n. beautiful day (AV.); -divasa, n. id. (C.); -dîtí, f. bright flame (RV.); a. brilliant, flaming (RV.); -dîrgha, a. very long (of time and space); -duhkha, a. very laborious or diffi cult, to (inf.): -m, ad. very sorrowfully; -duhkhita, pp. greatly afflicted, very unhappy; -dukûla, a. made of very fine ma terial; -dúgha, a. (V.) milking well (cow); nourishing, bountiful: â, f. good milch-cow (V.); -durgaya, a.very hard to overcome or conquer; m. kind of military array; -dur bala, a. extremely weak; -durbuddhi, a. very foolish; -durmanas, a. very despon dent; -durlabha, a. very hard to obtain; very difficult to (inf.); -duskara, a. very inaccessible; very hard to perform (penance); -duhsrava, a. very unpleasant to hear; -dushprasâdhya, fp. very hard to over come; -dustara, a. very difficult to cross; very hard to perform; -duhsaha, a.very difficult to bear; invincible; -duha, a. willingly milked (cow); -dûra, a. very distant: -m or °ree;--, ad. very far; greatly, altogether, very; ab. from afar; (sú)-dridha, pp. very firm or strong; -retentive (memory); vehe ment, intense; -dris, a. (f. C. id.; V. -î) keen-sighted (V., C.); fair, considerable (RV.); fair-eyed, gnly. f. (fair-eyed) woman (C.); -drishta, a. keen-sighted; -devá, m. good or true god (V.); a. (V.) favoured by the gods; meant for the right gods; m. N.; -devyã, n. host of the good gods (RV.); -dyút, a. shin ing brightly (RV.); -dyumná, a. id. (RV.1); m. (C.) N.; -dviga, a. having beautiful teeth; -dhánvan, a. having an excellent bow; m. a mixed caste (offspring of outcast Vaisya); N.; assembly hall of the gods; -dharman, a. practising justice; m. assembly hall of the gods; -dharmâ, f. id.
skandin a. shedding (--°ree;).
svādin a. [√ svad] tasting, en joying (--°ree;); -i-man, m. savouriness, sweet ness; -ishtha, spv. sweetest, pleasantest (V., C.); sweeter than (ab., C.); -îyas, cpv. (V., C.) sweeter, more savoury, than (ab.).
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aṃśu Name of a protege of the Asvins in the Rigveda. Dhanamjayya, pupil of Amavasya Sandilyayana, according to the Vamsa Brahmana.
akra In several passages of the Rigveda this word means, according to Geldner ‘horse.’ Roth suggests that ‘riding horse ’ is the precise sense. Cf, Aśva
akṣa This word occurs frequently, from the Rigveda onwards, both in the singular and plural, meaning ‘ die ’ and ‘ dice.’ Dicing, along with horse-racing, was one of the main amusements of the Vedic Indian ; but, despite the frequent mention of the game in the literature, there is considerable difficulty in obtaining any clear picture of the mode in which it was played. (i) The Material.—The dice appear normally to have been made of Vibhīdaka nuts. Such dice are alluded to in both the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda, hence being called ‘brown’ {babhru), and ‘ born on a windy spot.’ In the ritual game of dice at the Agnyādheya and the Rājasūya ceremonies the material of the dice is not specified, but it is possible that occasionally gold imitations of Vibhīdaka nuts were used. There is no clear trace in the Vedic literature of the later use of cowries as dice. (2^ The Number In the Rigveda the dicer is described as leader of a great horde ’ (senānīr mahato gaiiasya), and in another passage the number is given as tri-pañcāśah, an expression which has been variously interpreted. Ludwig, Weber, and Zimmer render it as fifteen, which is grammatically hardly possible. Roth and Grassmann render it as ‘ con¬sisting of fifty-three.’ Liiders takes it as ‘consisting of one hundred and fifty,’ but he points out that this may be merely a vague expression for a large number. For a small number Zimmer cites a reference in the Rigveda to one who fears ‘ him who holds four’ (caturaś cid dadamānāt), but the sense of that passage is dependent on the view taken of the method of playing the game. (3) The Method of Play.—In several passages of the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas lists are given of expressions con¬nected with dicing. The names are Krta, Tretā, Dvāpara, Áskanda, and Abhibhū in the Taittirīya Samhitā.16 In the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, among the victims at the Purusamedha, the kitava is offered to the Aksarāja, the ādinava-darśa to the Krta, the kalpin to the Tretā, the adhi-kalpin to the Dvāpara, the sabhā-sthānu to the Áskanda. The lists in the parallel version of the Taittirīya Brāhmana are kitava, sabhāvin, ādinava- darśa, bahih-sad, and sabhā-sthānu, and Aksarāja, Krta, Tretā, Dvāpara, and Kali. From the Satapatha Brāhmana it appears that another name of Kali was Abhibhū, and the parallel lists in the Taittirīya and Vājasaneyi Samhitās suggest that Abhibhū and Aksarāja are identical, though both appear in the late Taittirīya Brāhmana list. The names of some of these throws go back even to the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda. Kali occurs in the latter, and Luders shows that in a considerable number of passages in the former Krta means a * throw ’ (not ‘ a stake ’ or * what is won ’ ), and this sense is clearly found in the Atharvaveda. Moreover, that there were more throws (ayāh) than one is proved by a passage in the Rigveda, when the gods are compared to throws as giving or destroying wealth. The nature of the throws is obscure. The St. Petersburg Dictionary conjectures that the names given above were applied either to dice marked 4, 3, 2, or 1, or to the sides of the dice so marked, and the latter interpretation is supported by some late commentators. But there is no evidence for the former interpretation, and, as regards the latter, the shape of the Vibhīdaka nuts, used as dice, forbids any side being properly on the top. Light is thrown on the expressions by the descrip- tion of a ritual game at the Agnyādheya and at the Rājasūya ceremonies. The details are not certain, but it is clear that the game consisted in securing even numbers of dice, usually a number divisible by four, the Krta, the other three throws then being the Tretā, when three remained over after division by four; the Dvāpara, when two was the remainder; and the Kali, when one remained. If five were the dividing number, then the throw which showed no remainder was Kali, the Krta was that when four was left, and so on. The dice had no numerals marked on them, the only question being what was the total number of the dice themselves. There is no reason to doubt that the game as played in the Rigveda was based on the same principle, though the details must remain doubtful. The number of dice used was certainly large, and the reference to throwing fours, and losing by one, points to the use of the Krta as the winning throw. The Atharvaveda, on the other hand, possibly knew of the Kali as the winning throw. In one respect the ordinary game must have differed from the ritual game. In the latter the players merely pick out the number of dice required—no doubt to avoid ominous errors, such as must have happened if a real game had been played. In the secular game the dice were thrown, perhaps on the principle suggested by Luders: the one throwing a certain number on the place of playing, and the other then throwing a number to make up with those already thrown a multiple of four or five. This theory, at any rate, accounts for the later stress laid on the power of computation in a player, as in the Nala. No board appears to have been used, but a depression on which the dice were thrown (adhi-devana, devana,dδ irina36), was made in the ground. No dice box was used, but reference is made to a case for keeping dice in (aksā-vapanaZ7). The throw was called graha or earlier grābhaP The stake is called vij. Serious losses could be made at dicing: in the Rigveda a dicer laments the loss of all his property, including his wife. Luders finds a different form of the game Upanisad.
akṣata In one passage of the Atharvaveda,dealing with the Jayanya, mention is made of a remedy for sores designated both Aksita and Suksata, or, according to the reading of the Kausika Sutra, Aksata and Suksata, while Sayana has Aksita and Suksita. Bloomfield renders ' not caused by cutting ' and ' caused by cutting.' Formerly he suggested 'tumour' or 'boil.' Whitney thinks that two varieties of Jayanya are meant. Ludwig reads with Sayana aksita, which he renders by ' not firmly established ' in the invalid. Zimmer finds in it a disease Ksata.
agāra to in the Brāhmanas, though the exact details and significance of the legend are variously treated by Oldenberg, Sieg, Hertel,8and von Schroeder.He also appears in a strange dialogue with Lopāmudrā in the Rigveda, which appears to show him as an ascetic who finally yields to temptation. Von Schroeder regards it as a ritual drama of vegetation magic.In another passage of the Rigveda he appears as helping in the Aśvins’ gift of a leg to Viśpalā. Sāyana holds that he was the Purohita of Khela, and Sieg accepts this view, while Pischel thinks that Khela is a deity, Vivasvant. Geldner shows from the Rigveda that Agastya, as brother of Vasistha—both being miraculous sons of Mitra and Varuna —introduces Vasistha to the Trtsus. There are two other references to Agastya in the Rigveda, the one including him in a long list of persons, the other alluding to his sister’s sons (nadbhyah), apparently Bandhu, etc. In the Atharvaveda he appears as connected with witchcraft, and in a long list of sages. In the Maitrāyanī Samhitā cows, with a peculiar mark on their ears (vistya-karnyah), are associated with him. This rare word is found as ‘house’ in the Kausītaki Upanisad.
agnidagdha This epithet (‘ burnt with fire ’) applies to the dead who were burned on the funeral pyre. This is one of the two normal methods of disposing of the dead, the other being burial (an-agnidagdhāh, ‘ not burnt with fire ’).The Atharvaveda adds two further modes of disposal to those— viz., casting out (paroptāh), and the exposure of the dead (uddhitāh). The exact sense of these expressions is doubtful. Zimmer considers that the former is a parallel to the Iranian practice of casting out the dead to be devoured by beasts, and that the latter refers to the old who are exposed when helpless.Whitney refers the latter expression to the exposure of the dead body on a raised platform of some sort. Burial was clearly not rare in the Rigvedic period: a whole hymn describes the ritual attending it. The dead man was buried apparently in full attire, with his bow in his hand, and probably at one time his wife was immolated to accompany him, in accordance with a practice common among savage tribes. But in the Vedic period both customs appear in a modified form: the son takes the bow from the hand of the dead man, and the widow is led away from her dead husband by his brother or other nearest kinsman. A stone is set between the dead and the living to separate them. In the Atharvaveda, but not in the Rigveda, a coffin (vrksa) is alluded to. In both Samhitās occur other allusions to the ‘ house of earth ’ (bhūmi-grha). To remove the apparent discrepancy between burning and burial, by assuming that the references to burial are to the burial of the burned bones, as does Oldenberg, is unnecessary and improbable, as burning and burial subsisted side by side in Greece for many years. Burning was, however, equally usual, and it grew steadily in frequency, for in the Chāndogya Upanisad the adornment
agniśāla This term, which designates part of the sacrificial apparatus, is applied in the Atharvaveda to a part of an ordinary house, presumably the central hall where the fire¬place was.
aghā In the wedding hymn of the Rigveda it is said that cows are slain in the Aghās, and the wedding takes place at the Arjunīs (dual). The Atharvaveda has the ordinary Maghās instead. It is impossible to resist the conclusion that the read­ing of the Rigveda was deliberately altered because of the con­nection of the slaughter of kine with sin (agha)—possibly, too, with a further desire to emphasize the contrast with aghnyā, a name for ‘cow.’ Moreover, in the Taittirīya Brāhmana occurs the formula ‘ Svāhā to the Maghās, Svāhā to the Anaghās.’ See also Naksatra.
aja This is the ordinary name for goat in the Rigveda and the later literature. The goat is also called Basta, Chāga, Chagala. Goats and sheep (ajāvayah) are very frequently mentioned together. The female goat is spoken of as pro­ducing two or three kids, and goat’s milk is well known. The goat as representative of Pūsan plays an important part in the ritual of burial. The occupation of a goatherd (ajapāla) was a recognized one, being distinguished from that of a cow­herd and of a shepherd.
ajaśṛṅgī This plant (‘goat’s horn’), equated by the com­mentator with Visānin (the Odina pinnata), is celebrated as a demon-destroyer in the Atharvaveda. Its other name is Arāṭakī. Weber suggests that it is the Prosopis spicigera or Mimosa suma.
atṛṇāda This term (‘ not eating grass ’) was applied, ac­cording to the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, to a newborn calf.
atyaṃhas aruṇi According to the Taittirīya Brāhmana, this teacher sent a pupil to question Plaksa Dayyāmpati as to the Sāvitra (a form of Agni). For this impertinence his pupil was severely rebuked.
atharvan The name in the singular denotes the head of a semi-divine family of mythical priests, of whom nothing his­torical can be said. In the plural the family as a whole is meant. In a few places an actual family seems to be referred to. Thus, for instance, they are mentioned as recipients of gifts in the Dānastuti (‘ Praise of Gifts ’), of Aśvattha’s generosity; their use of milk mingled with honey in the ritual is referred to f and a cow that miscarries (ava-tokā) from accident is dedicated to the Atharvans, according to the Taittirīya Brāhmana.
atharvāṅgirasaḥ This is the collective name of the Athar­vaveda in several passages of the later Brāhmanas. It occurs once in the Atharvaveda itself, while the term Atharvaveda is not found before the Sūtra period. The compound seems, according to Bloomfield, to denote the two elements which make up the Atharvaveda. The former part refers to the aus­picious practices of the Veda (bhesajāni) ; the latter to its hostile witchcraft, theyātu or abhi-cāra. This theory is supported by the names of the two mythic personages Ghora Añgirasa and Bhisaj Atharvana, as well as by the connection of Atharvānah and Atharvanāni with healing (bhesaja) in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Moreover, the term bhesajā (‘remedies’) designates in the Atharvaveda that Veda itself, while in the śatapatha Brāhmana yātu (‘ sorcery ’) conveys the same meaning. The evidence, however, being by no means convincing, it remains probable that there existed no clear differentiation between the two sages as responsible for the Atharvaveda as a whole.
adhidevana The place where the dice were thrown is thus designated in the Atharvaveda and the Satapatha Brāhmana, according to Luders. Roth, followed by Whitney, takes it to mean ‘ gambling-board.’ See Aksa.
adhiṣavaṇa The two Adhisavanas are usually understood, as by Roth and Zimmer, to designate the two boards between which the Soma was pressed. Hillebrandt, however, shows from the ritual that the boards were not placed one over the other, but were placed one behind the other, the two serving as a foundation upon which the Soma was pressed by a stone. This theory seems to account best for the etymological sense of the name ‘ over-press,’ as well as for the use of the word as an adjective (‘ used for pressing upon ’). But according to the procedure as witnessed by Haug in the Deccan, the shoots of the plant are first placed on the skin, one of the boards being then laid over them and pounded with a stone. The shoots are then taken out and placed upon the board, the second board being then laid over them.
anas This is the term used to designate the draft wagon, as opposed to the chariot (ratha) for war or sport, with which it is sometimes expressly contrasted, though Indra is once said to be *seated in a wagon’ (anar-viś)B instead of on a chariot. Though Usas, Goddess of Dawn, sometimes rides on a chariot (ratha), the wagon is her characteristic vehicle. Of its con­struction we know little. The bridal wagon on which Sūryā, the daughter of the Sun, was borne in the marriage hymn in the Rigveda had a covering (Chadis).The axle-box (Kha) is also mentioned.In the Atharvaveda Vipatha appears to denote a rough vehicle used for bad tracks.The wagon was usually drawn by oxen (Anadvāh), as in wedding processions.The wagon of Dawn is described as drawn by ruddy cows or bulls.
anukṣattṛ This word occurs in the list of victims at the Purusamedha, and means, according to Mahīdhara, ‘an attendant on the door-keeper,’ and, according to Sāyana, ‘an attendant on the charioteer ’ (sārathi). See also Ksattr.
anuśāsana In the plural denotes in the śatapatha Brāhmana some form of literature; according to Sāyana, the Vedāñgas
anyataḥplakṣā ('with wave-leafed fig-trees on one side only ’) is the name of a lake in Kuruksetra according to the śatapatha Brāhmana,where it occurs in the story of Purū- ravas and Urvaśī. Pischel places it somewhere in Sirmor.
abhyagrii aitaśāyana This man was, according to the Aitareya Brāhmana, unfortunate enough to quarrel with his father, Aitaśa. The result was that he and his progeny were called the worst of the Aurvas. In the version of the Kausītaki Brāhmana, the Aitaśāyana Ajāneyas take the place of the Abhyagnis and the Bhrgris of the Aurvas, the latter being probably a .branch of the former family.
abhyāvartin cāyamāna Appears in a Dānastuti (‘ Praise of Gifts ’) in the Rigveda,and as conqueror of the Vrcīvants under the leader Varaśikha. It is probable, though not abso­lutely certain, that he is identical with the Srñjaya Daivavāta, mentioned in the same hymn as having the Turvaśas and Vrcīvants defeated for him by Indra. In this case he would be prince (samrāj) of the Syñjayas. Daivavāta is mentioned elsewhere as a worshipper of Agni. Abhyāvartin is also referred to as a Pārthava. Ludwig and Hillebrandt maintained that he is thus a Parthian, the latter using the evidence of the two places mentioned in the descrip¬tion of Daivavāta’s victories, Hariyūpīyā and Yavyāvatī, as proofs for the western position of Abhyāvartin’s people in Arachosia, in Iran. But Zimmer is probably right in holding that the name Pārthava merely means ‘ a descendant of Prthu,’ and that its similarity to the Iranian Parthians is only on a par with the numerous other points of identity between the Indian and Iranian cultures
amājur is an epithet denoting maidens ‘who grow old at home ’ without finding husbands, or, as they are elsewhere called, 'who sit with their father ’ (pitr-sad). A well-known example of such was Ghosā
amitra tapana suṣmiṇa saibya Is the name of him who killed Atyarāti Jānamtapi, according to the Aitareya Brāhmana
aritra Denotes the ‘oar’ by which boats were propelled. The Rigveda and the Vājasaneyi Samhitā speak of a vessel with a hundred oars, and a boat (nau) is said to be * propelled by oars’ (aritra-parana). In two passages of the Rigveda the term, according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, denotes a part of a chariot. The rower of a boat is called aritr. See Nau.
arcant Is possibly, as Ludwig thinks, the name of the author of a hymn of the Rigveda; but the word may be merely the ordinary participle ‘praising.’
arcanānas In one passage of the Rigveda the gods Mitra- Varuna are besought to protect Arcanānas. He is also in­voked with Syāvāśva and several other ancestors enumerated in the Atharvaveda. He appears as father of śyāvāśva in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. The later tradition makes him play a part in the legend of his son’s wedding, which Sieg endeavours to show is known to the Rigveda.
aryamṇaḥ panthā Aryaman’s Way,’ an expression which occurs in the Brāhmanas, denotes, according to Weber, ‘ the milky way,’ but, according to Hillebrandt, ‘the ecliptic.
alāṇḍu This is the reading in the text of the Atharvaveda of the name of a species of worm. Bloomfield shows reason to adopt the reading Algandu as the correct form of the word.
aśva Is the commonest word for ‘horse’ in the Vedic literature. The horse is also called ‘the runner' (atya), ‘the swift’ (arvant), ‘the strong,’ for pulling ([vājin), ‘the runner’ (sapti), and ‘ the speeding ’ (haya). The mare is termed aśvā, atyā, arvatī, vadavā, etc. Horses of various colour were known, dun (harita, hart), ruddy (aruna, arusa, piśañga, rohita), dark brown (śyāυa), white (śveta), etc. A white horse with black ears is mentioned in the Atharvaveda as of special value. Horses were highly prized, and were not rare, as Roth thought, for as many as four hundred mares are mentioned in one Dānastuti (‘Praise of Gifts’). They were on occasion ornamented with pearls and gold. Mares were preferred for drawing chariots because of their swiftness and sureness. They were also used for drawing carts, but were not ordinarily so employed. No mention is made of riding in battle, but for other purposes it was not unknown. Horses were often kept in stalls, and fed there. But they were also allowed to go out to grass, and were then hobbled. They were watered to cool them after racing. Their attendants are frequently referred to (aśva-pāla,u aśva-pa,15 aśva-pati).16 Stallions were frequently castrated (vadhri). Besides reins (;mśmayah), reference is made to halters (aśvābhidhānī),18 and whips (aśvājani).19 See also Ratha. Horses from the Indus were of special value,20 as also horses from the Sarasvatī.
aśvattha (‘Horse-stand ’) is one of India’s greatest trees, the Ficus religiosa, later called pippala (now Peepal). Vessels made of the wood of the Aśvattha are mentioned in the Rigveda, and the tree itself is constantly referred to later. Its hard wood formed the upper of the two pieces of wood used for kindling fire, the lower being of Samī It planted its roots in shoots of other trees, especially the Khadira, and destroyed them ; hence it is called ‘ the destroyer ’ (vaibādha). Its berries are referred to as sweet, and as eaten by birds. The gods are said to sit under it in the third heaven. It and Nyagrodha are styled the ‘crested ones’ (śikhandin).
asamāti rāthaprauṣṭha The story of the quarrel between Asamāti, the Iksvāku prince of the Rathaprostha family, and his priests, the Gaupāyanas, is found only in the later Brāhmanas. It appears to be based on a misreading of the Rigveda, where asamdti is merely an adjective. The later story is that the king was induced to abandon his family priests by two Asuras, Kirāta and Ákuli, who by their magic com¬passed the death of Subandhu, one of the brother priests, and that the others revived him by the use of the hymns.
asita varṣagaṇa is a pupil of Harita Kaśyapa according to the Vamśa or Genealogy in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad
ahan ‘Day.’ Like other peoples, the Indians used night as a general expression of time as well as day, but by no means predominantly.Night is also termed the dark (krsna), as opposed to the light (arjuna), day. Aho-rātra is a regular term for ‘ day and night ’ combined.The day itself is variously divided. In the Atharvaveda a division into ‘ the rising sun ’ (udyan sūryah), ‘ the coming together of the cows’ (sam-gava), ‘midday’ (madhyam-dina),*afternoon ’ (aparāhna), and ‘ sunset ’ (astam-yan) is found. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana the same series appears with ‘ early ’ (prātar) and ‘ evening ’ (sāyāhna) substituted for the first and last members, while a shorter list gives prātar, samgava, sāyam. In the Maitrāyanī Samhitā there is the series ‘ dawn ’ (usas), samgava, madhyamdina, and aparāhna. The morning is also, according to Zimmer, called api-śarvara, as the time when the dark is just past. It is named svasara, as the time when the cows are feeding, before the -first milking at the samgava, or when the birds are awakening. It is also called pra-pitva, according to Zimmer. But Geldner points out that that term refers to the late midday, which also is called api-śarvara, as bordering on the coming night, being the time when day is hastening to its close, as in a race. From another point of view, evening is called abhi-pitva, the time when all come to rest. Or again, morning and evening are denoted as the dawning of the sun (uditā sūryasya)i or its setting (ni-mruc). The midday is regularly madhyam ahnām, madhye, or madhyamdina. Samgava16 is the forenoon, between the early morning (prātar) and midday (madhyamdina). The divisions of time less than the day are seldom precisely given. In the śatapatha Brāhmana, however, a day and night make up 30 muhūrtas; 1 muhūrta=ι5 ksipra; 1 ksipra — 15 etarhi; 1 etarhi= 15 idāni; 1 idāni = 15 breathings; 1 breath¬ing =1 spiration; 1 spiration = ι twinkling (nimesa), etc. In the śānkhāyana Áranyaka the series is dhvamsayo, nimesāh, kāsthāh, kalāh, ksanā, muhūrtā, ahorātrāh. A thirtyfold division of day as well as of night is seen in one passage of the Rigveda by Zimmer, who compares the Babylonian sixty¬fold division of the day and night. But the expression used— thirty Yojanas—is too vague and obscure—Bergaigne refers it to the firmament—to build any theory upon with safety.
āgniveśya Several teachers of this name are mentioned in the Vamśas or Genealogies of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. In the Mādhyandina recension Ágniveśya is a pupil of Saitava. In the Kānva recension he is a pupil of Sāndilya and Anabhimlāta in one Vamśa, and of Gārgya in the second Vamśa.
ājakeśin Is the name of a family in which, according to the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana, Baka used violence against Indra
āji Aji is constantly used in the Rigveda and the later literature to express the sense of a race,’ and only seldom denotes ‘ a battle.’ Horse-racing was one of the favourite amusements of the Vedic Indian, the other being dicing. (Aksa). The racecourse, called Kāsthā or Áji itself, appears from the Atharvaveda to have been a quasi-circular one to a mark (kārsman ) and back again. In the Rigveda the course is described as broad (urυī), and the distance as measured out (apāvrktā aratnayah). Prizes (dhana) were offered (dhā), and eagerly competed for. Other words for victory and the prize are kāra and bhara; and to ‘run a race ’ is described by the expressions ājim aj, i, dhāv, sr. The person who instituted a race is referred to as āji-srt, • and Indra is called āji-krtls (‘race-maker’), and āji-patiu (‘lord of the race ’). The swift steeds (vājin, atya) used for the races were often washed and adorned. According to Pischel the name of one swift mare is preserved—viz., Viśpalā, whose broken leg was replaced by the Aśvins in a race; but the interpretation is very doubtful. Geldner has also found a comic picture of a horse-chariot race in the Mudgala hymn in the Rigveda, but Bloomfield has shown that that interpretation is un¬sound. Pischel also seeks to show that races were run in honour cf gods, but the evidence for the theory is inadequate. A formal race, however, is a feature of the ritual of the Rājasūya or royal consecration
āṇi This word, which is found in the Rigveda,but rarely later, appears to be best taken with Roth and Zimmer4 as denoting the part of the axle of the chariot which is inserted into the nave of the wheel. Sāyana renders it as lynch-pin, and this sense is accepted by Leumann, being apparently also found in the Nirukta. In one place in the Rigveda the word appears by synecdoche to denote the whole chariot, but the passage is, according to Geldner, completely obscure.
āti an aquatic bird. The Apsarases in the legend of Purūravas and Urvaśī appear to him like Atis, probably swans. The birds appear also in the list of animals in the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’), where Mahīdhara renders them as the later Adi (Turdus ginginianus), and Sāyana quotes a view, according to which the Áti was the Cāsa, or blue jay (Coracias indica).
āyudha ‘weapon/ in its widest sense covers the whole of a Ksatriya’s warlike equipment, which in the Aitareya Brāhmana is summed up as horse-chariot (aśva-ratha), bow and arrows (isu-dhanva), and corselet (kavaca). As the bow and arrow (isu, dhanvan) were essential as the main weapons of the Vedic fighter, they are probably meant when Áyudha is used specifically of weapons, as often from the Rigveda onwards. The battle hymn in the Rigveda confirms this view, as it presents to us the warrior armed with bow and arrow on his chariot, and clad in armour (Varman), with a guard (Hastaghna) on the left arm to avoid the friction of the bow-string. The corselet was not a single solid piece of metal, but consisted of many pieces fitted together (syūta); it may have been made either of metal plates or, as is more likely, of some stiff material plated with metal. In addition the warrior wore a helmet (Siprā). There is no trace of the use of a shield, nor is there any clear record of the employment of greaves or other guard for the feet. Skill in the use of weapons is referred to in the Rigveda. It is doubtful whether sling stones (Adri, Aśani) were in ordinary use. The hook (ankiáa) also is merely a divine weapon, and the axe (svadhiti, vāśī, paraśu) does not occur in mortal combats. For the use of the spear see Rsti, Rambhinī, Sakti, Saru; of the sword, Asi, Krti. Neither weapon can be considered ordinary in warfare, nor was the club (Vajra) used. For the modes of warfare see Samgrāma.
ārjīka And Arjīkīyā2 (masc.), Arjīkīyā3 (fem.).—The two masculine forms probably denote the people or land, while the feminine word designates the river of the land. Hillebrandt locates the country in or near Kaśmir, as Arrian mentions Arsaces, brother of Abhisares, who presumably took his name from his people, and Abhisāra bordered on Kaśmir. Pischel accepts Arjīka as designating a country, which he, however, thinks cannot be identified. But neither Roth nor Zimmer recognizes the word as a proper name. On the other hand, all authorities agree in regarding Arjīkīyā as the name of ariver. Roth9 does so in one passage10 only, elsewhere seeing references to Soma vessels; but it seems necessary to treat the word alike in all passages containing it. Zimmer does not locate the river, and Pischel denies the possibility of its identification. Hillebrandt thinks it may have been the Upper Indus, or the Vitastā (the Jhelum), or some other stream. Grassmann follows Yāska in identifying it with the the Vipāś (Beás), but this is rendered improbable by the position of the name in the hymn in praise of rivers (nadī- stuti). Brunnhofer identifies it with the Arghesan, a tributary of the Arghanab.
āla Appears to mean ‘ weed ’ in the Atharvaveda, and to form part of three other words, denoting, according to Sāyana, grass-creepers (sasya-vallī)—viz., Alasālā, Silañjālā, and Nīlā- galasāla. Whitney, however, does not think that the words can be given any determinate sense.
ālambāyanīputra Mentioned in a Vamśa or Genealogy of the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Alambl-putra. In the Mādhyandina recension the relation is reversed, for there he is teacher of Álambī-putra and pupil of Jāyantī-putra.
ālambiputra Is a pupil of Jāyantī-putra according to a Vamśa in the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad but of ^lambāyanī-putra according to the Mādhy­andina
āśvatara āśvi These two expressions are used as patronymics of Budila, denoting, according to Sāyana, that he was son of Asva, and descendant of Aśvatara.
aṣādhi sauśromateya According to the Satapatha Brāh­mana, he was ruined because the heads were put on at the Agniciti in a certain manner, and not correctly.
āsaṅga plāyogi Is a king who appears in a Dānastuti (‘Praise of Gifts’) in the Rigveda as a generous patron. Owing, however, to the addition of a curious phallic verse to the hymn, and its early misunderstanding, a legend was invented that he lost his manhood and became a woman, but by the intercession of Medhyātithi was transformed into a man, much to the delight of his wife, Saśvatī, whose existence is based on a misunderstanding of the phrase * every woman ’ (saśvatī nārī) in the added verse. Another misunderstanding of the Dānastuti4 gives him a son Svanad-ratha, really a mere epithet, and makes him a descendant of Yadu.
āsandī This is a generic term for a seat of some sort, occurring frequently in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas, but not in the Rigveda. In the Atharvaveda the settle brought for the Vrātya is described at length. It had two feet, length­wise and cross-pieces, forward and cross-cords, showing that it was made of wood and also cording. It was also covered with a cushion (Ástarana) and a pillow (Upabarhana), had a seat (Asāda) and a support (Upaśraya). Similar seats are described in the Kausītaki Upanisad and the Jaiminīya Brāhmana. The seat for the king at the royal consecration is described in very similar terms in the Aitareya Brāhmana, where the height of the feet is placed at a span, and the lengthwise and cross-pieces are each to be a cubit, while the interwoven part (vivayana) is to be of Muñja grass, and the seat of Udumbara wood. In another passage of the Atharvaveda Lanman seems to take the seat meant as a ‘ long reclining chair.’ There also a cushion (Upadhāna) and coverlet (Upavāsana) are mentioned. The śatapatha Brāhmana repeatedly describes the Ásandī in terms showing that it was an elaborate seat. In one place8 it is said to be made of Khadira wood, perforated (vi-trnnā), and joined with straps (vardhra-yutā) like that of the Bhāratas. At the Sautrāmanī rite (an Indra sacrifice) the seat is of Udumbara wood, is knee-high, and of unlimited width and depth, and is covered with plaited reed-work. The imperial seat10 is to be shoulder-high, of Udumbara wood, and wound all over with cords of Balvaja grass (.Eleusina indica). Elsewhere11 the seat is a span high, a cubit in width and depth, of Udumbara wood, and covered with reed-grass cords, and daubed with clay.
āsthātṛ The warrior in the chariot is once thus desig­nated (as ‘ standing on the car ’) in the Rigveda. Normally he is named Rathin or Rathesthā.
ikṣvāku In the Rigveda this name occurs but once, and in a doubtful context. It is clear, however, that it denotes a prince ; later interpretations make Asamāti, whose name is read into the hymn, an Iksvāku prince. In the Atharvaveda also the name is found in only one passage, where it is uncertain whether a descendant of Iksvāku, or Iksvāku himself, is referred to; in either case he seems to be regarded as an ancient hero. In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana mention is made of Tryaruna Traidhātva Aiksvāka, who is identical with the Tryaruna Traivrsna of the Brhaddevatā, and with Tryaruna Trasa- dasyu in the Rigveda. The connection of Trasadasyu with the Iksvākus is confirmed by the fact that Purukutsa was an Aiksvāka, according to the śatapatha Brāhmana. Thus the Iksvāku line was originally a line of princes of the Pūrus. Zimmer places them on the upper Indus, but they may well have been somewhat further east. Later Iksvāku is connected with Ayodhyā.
iṭa Appears as Ṛṣi and protege of Indra in one hymn of the Rigveda. Roth however thinks that the word is really part of a verb meaning to 'to err, wander',and that the name is a mere misunderstanding. It is already so regarded in the Anukramanī, but not apparently in the Brhaddevatā
ibha Is a word of somewhat doubtful sense and inter­pretation. It is found only in the Samhitās, and especially in the Rigveda. According to Roth and Ludwig the sense is ‘retainer,’ and Zimmer thinks that it includes not only dependants and servants, but also the royal family and the youthful cadets of the chief families. In the opinion of Pischel and Geldner® it denotes ‘elephant.’ This view is supported by the authority of the commentators Sāyana and Mahīdhara; the Nirukta, too, gives ‘elephant’ as one of the senses of the word. Megasthenes and Nearchos tell us that elephants were a royal prerogative, and the derivative word Ibhya may thus be naturally explained as denoting merely ‘ rich ’ (lit., ‘ possessor of elephants ’).
iṣudhi (‘ arrow-holder ’) is the name of the quiver which was carried by every bowman. The word is common from the Rigveda onwards. No trace is to be found in Vedic literature of the later practice of carrying two quivers. According to Pischel, the curious expression iṣu-kṛt in the Rigveda means quiver.
ugra In one passage of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad seems to have a technical force, denoting ‘ man in authority,’ or according to Max Muller’s rendering, ‘policeman.’ Roth compares a passage in the Rigveda, where, however, the word has simply the general sense of ‘ mighty man.’ Bǒhtlingk, in his rendering of the Upaniṣad, treats the word as merely adjectival.
uttāna āṅgirasa Is mentioned in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as a quasi-mythical person who received all good things, and yet was not harmed, as he was really a form of the earth, according to Sāyaṇa’s explanation. His name occurs also in the Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, and the Taittirīya Araṇyaka.
udaṅka śaulbāyana His views on Brahman, which he identified with the vital airs (prāṇa), are mentioned in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad. He would thus have been a contemporary of Janaka of Videha. He is also mentioned in the Taittirīya Samhitā as holding that the Daśarātra ceremony was the prosperity or best part of the Sattra (4 sacrificial session ’).
udīcyas The Brāhmanas of the northern parts are referred to in the śatapatha Brāhmana as engaging, with Svaidāyana Saunaka as their spokesman, in a dispute with the Kurupañcāla Brāhmana Uddālaka Aruni, and as vanquishing him. Their relation to the Kurupañcālas appears also from the fact that in the same Brāhmana reference is made to the speech of the north being similar to that of the Kurupañcālas. The speech of the Northerners was also celebrated for purity; hence Brāhmanas used to go to the north for purposes of study, according to the Kausītaki Brāhmana, while in the Buddhist texts the school of Taksaśilā (in Gandhāra) is famous as a resort of students. Possibly, too, Sanskrit was specially developed in Kaśmīr, as suggested by Franke. See also Kuru.
uddālaka aruṇi Uddālaka, son of Aruna, is one of the most prominent teachers of the Vedic period. He was a Brāh­mana of the Kurupañcālas, according to the śatapatha Brāh­mana. This statement is confirmed by the fact that he was teacher of Proti Kausurubindi of Kauśāmbī, and that his son Svetaketu is found disputing among the Pañcālas. He was a pupil of Aruna, his father, as well as of Patañcala Kāpya, of Madra, while he was the teacher of the famous Yājñavalkya Vājasaneya and of Kausītaki, although the former is represented elsewhere as having silenced him. He overcame in argument Prācīnayogya śauceya, and apparently also Bhadrasena Ajāta- śatrava, though the text here seems to read the name as Arani. He was a Gautama, and is often alluded to as such. As an authority on questions of ritual and philosophy, he is repeatedly referred to by his patronymic name Aruni in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, the Chāndogya Upanisad, and occasionally in the Aitareya, the Kausītaki, and the Sadvimśa Brāhmanas, as well as the Kausītaki Upanisad. In the Maitrāyanī Samhitā he is not mentioned, according to Geldner, but only his father Aruna; his name does not occur, according to Weber, in the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, but in the Kāthaka Samhitā he is, as Aruni, known as a contemporary of Divodāsa Bhaimaseni, and in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana he is mentioned as serving Vāsistha Caikitāneya. In the Taittirīya tradition he seldom appears. There is an allusion in the Taittirīya Samhitā to Kusurubinda Auddālaki, and according to the Taittirīya Brāhmana, Naciketas was a son of Vājaśravasa Gautama, who is made out to be Uddālaka by Sāyana. But the episode of Naciketas, being somewhat unreal, cannot be regarded as of historical value in proving relationship. Aruna is known to the Taittirīya Samhitā. A real son of Uddālaka was the famous śvetaketu, who is expressly reported by Apastamba to have been in his time an Avara or later authority, a statement of importance for the date of Aruni.
udra Is the name of an animal occurring only in the list of sacrificial victims at the Aśvamedha given in the Samhitās of the Yajurveda. According to Mahīdhara it was a crab; but as the commentary on the Taittirīya Samhitā calls it a water- cat, there can be no doubt that it was an otter.
uddhi Denotes some part of a chariot, probably the seat, but, according to Roth, the frame resting on the axle.
upajihvikā Are all forms of one word denoting a species of ant. To these ants is attributed in the Atharvaveda the power of penetrating to water which possesses curative properties. They were accordingly used in all sorts of spells against poisoning. The belief in their healing qualities was no doubt due to the well-known properties of the earth of ant-heaps which contains their water.
upadhi occurs once each in the Rigveda and the Athar­vaveda, in conjunction with Pradhi, denoting part of the wheel of a chariot. It is impossible to decide exactly what part is meant. Roth, Zimmer and Bloomfield, agree in thinking that the word denotes the spokes collectively. Whitney, considering this improbable, prefers to see in it the designation of a solid wheel, Pradhi being presumably the rim and Upadhi the rest. Other possibilities are that the Upadhi is a rim beneath the felly, or the felly itself as compared with the tire (ordinarily Pavi).
upamanyu Is, according to Ludwig, the name of a person in the Rigveda, but is more probably explained by Roth as a mere epithet.
upamaśravas Is mentioned in a hymn of the Rigveda as a son of Kuruśravana, and grandson of Mwifeātithi. The ΛΛ t T/t A *■* exact force of the reference to him is, however, uncertain. " - According to the Brhaddevatā, followed by Ludwig, and by Lanman, the poet in the hymn consoles Upamaśravas for the death of his grandfather, Medhātithi. Geldner, on the other hand, thinks that the poet, who was Kavasa Ailūsa, was ill-treated by his patron’s son, Upamaśravas, and cast into a ditch or well, where he uttered his complaint and appeal for mercy. But of this there is no adequate evidence, and the tradition of the Brhaddevatā seems sound.
upara Which, according to Pischel, means ‘ stone ’ in general, is the technical name of the stone on which the Soma plant was laid in order to be pounded for the extraction of the juice by other stones (adri, grāvan). The word is rare, occur­ring only thrice in the Rigveda, and once in the Atharvaveda.
upalaprakṣiṇī occurs once in the Rigveda, where it desig­nates the occupation of a woman, as opposed to that of her son, who is a poet (kām), and to that of his father, who is a physician (bhisaj). Yāska renders the word by ‘maker of groats ’ (saktu-kārikā), and Roth, Grassmann, Zimmer, as well as others, connect it with the operation of grinding corn. Pischel, however, who points out that corn was not ground between two stones, but beaten on a stone with a pestle (drsad), considers that Upala-praksinī denotes a woman that assisted at the crushing of Soma (cf. Upara). Von Schroeder, who more correctly points out that there is no objection to regarding upala as the mortar in which the corn was placed and then beaten with the pestle, renders the word literally as ‘ one who fills the (lower) stone (with corn).’
upavāka occurs in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Brāh­manas as a description of a species of grain, the Wrightia antidysenterica, known later as Indra-yava. The commentator Mahīdhara simply glosses it with the more general term Yava. According to the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, it formed the essential element of gruel (karambha), and Upavāka groats (saktavah) are mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmana
upaśrī Are two readings of the same term. The former is found in one recension of the Kausītaki Upanisad, while the latter is probably the reading of the other recension of the Upanisad, and certainly the reading in one passage of the Atharvaveda,though the text has apaśrayah, which is accepted as possible by Roth. In both cases the term clearly means something connected with a couch (Ásandī in the Atharvaveda, Paryañka in the Kausītaki Upanisad). Aufrecht, Roth, and Max Miiller render it as ‘coverlet’ or ‘cushion,’ but Whitney seems evidently right in holding that it must mean a ‘ support ’ or something similar.
upasti Denotes both in the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda a ‘dependent,’ just as later in the Epic the subordination of the Vaiśya to the two superior castes is expressed by the verb upa-sthā, ‘stand under,’ support.’ The word also appears, with the same sense, in the form of Sti, but only in the Rigveda. The exact nature of the dependence connoted by the term is quite uncertain. Zimmer conjectures that the *dependents ’ were the members of defeated Aryan tribes who became clients of the king, as among the Greeks, Romans, and Germans, the term possibly including persons who had lost their freedom through dicing. The evidence of the Athar¬vaveda shows that among the Upastis were included the chariot-makers (ratha-kāra), the smiths (taksan), and the charioteers (sūta), and troop-leaders (grāma-nī), while the Rigveda passages negative the possibility of the subjects ’ (s&‘) being the whole people. It is therefore fair to assume that they were the clients proper of the king, not servile, but attached in a special relation to him as opposed to the ordinary population. They may well have included among them not only the classes suggested by Zimmer, but also higher elements, such as refugees from other clans, as well as ambitious men who sought advancement in the royal service. Indeed, the Sūta and the Grāmanī were, as such, officers of the king’s house¬holdkingmakers, not themselves kings, as they are described in the Atharvaveda. The use of the word in the Taittirīya Samhitā, the Taittirīya Brāhmana, and the Kāthaka, is purely metaphorical, as well as in the one passage of the Rigveda in which it occurs. In the Paippalāda recension of the Atharvaveda,Vaiśya, Sūdra, and Arya are referred to as Upastis, perhaps in the general sense of ‘subject.’
upahvara Denotes, in one passage of the Rigveda, according to Geldner, the body of a chariot (upa-stha).
ubhayādant Having incisors in both jaws,’ is an expression employed to distinguish, among domestic animals, the horse,the ass, etc., from the goat, the sheep, and cattle. The distinction occurs in a late hymn of the Rigveda, and is several times alluded to in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas. In one passage of the Taittirīya Samhitā man is classed with the horse as ubhciyā-dant. The opposite is anyato-dant, * having incisors in one jaw only,’ a term regularly applied to cattle, the eight incisors of which are, in fact, limited to the lower jaw. The ass is styled ubhayā-dant in the Atharvaveda. In one passage of the Atharvaveda, however, the epithet is applied to a ram ; but the sense here is that a marvel occurs, just as in the Rigveda a ram destroys a lioness. Bloomfield suggests in the Atharvaveda passage another reading which would mean ‘ horse.’ A parallel division of animals is that of the Taittirīya and Vājasaneyi Samhitās into * whole-hoofed ’ (eka-śapha) and ‘ small ’ (ksudra). Zimmer seeks to show from the Greek άμψώδοντα and the Latin ambidens that the Indo-European was familiar with the division of the five sacrificial animals into the two classes of man and horse on the one hand, and cattle, sheep, and goats on the other. But this supposition is not necessary.
urukakṣa Occurs in only one passage of the Rigveda, where the sense of the word is much disputed. The reading of the text is imih kakso na gāñgyah, which may refer to a man, Urukaksa, ‘dwelling on the Ganges, or to a man, son of Gañgā, or to a wood so called, or may simply denote the ‘ broad thicket on the Ganges.
urvarā Is with Ksetra the regular expression, from the Rigveda onwards, denoting a piece of ‘ploughland’ (άρουρα). Fertile (apnasvatī) fields are spoken of as well as waste fields (ārtanā). Intensive cultivation by means of irrigation is clearly referred to both in the Rigveda and in the Atharva­veda, while allusion is also made to the use of manure. The fields (iksetra) were carefully measured according to the Rigveda. This fact points clearly to individual ownership in land for the plough, a conclusion supported by the reference of Apālā, in a hymn of the Rigveda, to her father's field (urvarā), which is put on the same level as his head of hair as a personal possession. Consistent with this are the epithets ‘winning fields ’ (urvarā-sā, urvarā-jit, ksetra-sā), while ‘ lord of fields ’ used of a god is presumably a transfer of a human epithet (urvarā-pati). Moreover, fields are spoken of in the same connexion as children, and the conquest of fields (ksetrāni sam-ji) is often referred to in the Samhitās. Very probably, as suggested by Pischel, the ploughland was bounded by grass land (perhaps denoted by Khila, Khilya) which in all likelihood would be joint property on the analogy of property elsewhere. There is no trace in Vedic literature of communal property in the sense of ownership by a community of any sort, nor is there mention of communal cultivation. Individual property in land seems also presumed later on. In the Chāndogya Upanisad the things given as examples of wealth include fields and houses («ūyatanāni). The Greek evidence also points to individual ownership. The precise nature of the ownership is of course not determined by the expression ‘ individual ownership.’ The legal relationship of the head of a family and its members is nowhere explained, and can only be conjectured (see Pitr). Very often a family may have lived together with undivided shares in the land. The rules about the inheritance of landed property do not occur before the Sūtras. In the Satapatha Brāhmana the giving of land as a fee to priests is mentioned, but with reproof: land was no doubt even then a very special kind of property, not lightly to be given away or parted with. On the relation of the owners of land to the king and others see Grāma; on its cultivation see Krsi.
ulūka Is the ordinary word for ‘owl’ from the Rigveda onwards. The bird was noted for its cry, and was deemed the harbinger of ill-fortune (nairγta). Owls were offered at the horse sacrifice to the forest trees, no doubt because they roosted there.
ūrdara This word occurs once in the Rigveda, when reference is made to filling Indra with Soma as one fills an Urdara with grain (Yava). Sāyana renders it ‘ granary,’ but Roth and Zimmer seem more correct in simply making it a measure for holding grain, or * garner.’
ṛjiśvan Is mentioned several times in the Rigveda, but always in a vague manner, as if very ancient. He assists Indra in fights against demoniac figures like Pipru and the dusky brood (kγsna-garbhāh). According to Ludwig, he was called Ausija’s son, but this is doubtful. He is twice clearly called Vaidathina, or descendant of Vidathin.
ṛtu ‘Season,’ is a term repeatedly mentioned from the Rigveda onwards. Three seasons of the year are often alluded to, but the names are not usually specified. In one passage of the Rigveda spring (vasanta), summer (grīsma), and autumn (sarad) are given. The Rigveda knows also the rainy season (prā-vrs) and the winter (hitnā, hemanta). A more usual division (not found in the Rigveda is into five seasons,vasanta, grīsma, varsā, sarad, hemanta-śiśira; but occasionally the five are otherwise divided, varsā-śarad being made one season. Sometimes six seasons are reckoned, hemanta and śiśira being divided, so that the six seasons can be made parallel to the twelve months of the year. A still more artificial arrangement makes the seasons seven, possibly by reckoning the intercalary month as a season, as Weber and Zimmer hold, or more probably because of the predilection for the number seven, as Roth suggests. Occasionally the word rtu is applied to the months. The last season, according to the Satapatha Brāhmana, is hemanta. The growth of the division of the seasons from three to five is rightly explained by Zimmer as indicating the advance of the Vedic Indians towards the east. It is not Rigvedic, but dominates the later Samhitās. Traces of an earlier division of the year into winter and summer do not appear clearly in the Rigveda, where the appropriate words himā and samā are merely general appellations of the year, and where śarad is commoner than either as a designation of the year, because it denotes the harvest, a time of overwhelming importance to a young agricultural people. The division of the year in one passage of the Atharvaveda into two periods of six months is merely formal, and in no way an indication of old tradition.
ṛtvij Is the regular term for ‘ sacrificial priest,’ covering all the different kinds of priests employed at the sacrifice. It appears certain that all the priests were Brāhmanas. The number of priests officiating at a sacrifice with different functions was almost certainly seven. The oldest list, occurring in one passage of the Rigveda, enumerates their names as Hotr, Potr, Nestr, Agnīdh, Praśāstr, Adhvaryu, Brahman, besides the institutor of the sacrifice. The number of seven probably explains the phrase ‘ seven Hotrs ’ occurring so frequently in the Rigveda, and is most likely connected with that of the mythical ‘ seven Rsis.’ It may be compared with the eight of Iran. The chief of the seven priests was the Hotr, who was the singer of the hymns, and in the early times their composer also. The Adhvaryu performed the practical work of the sacrifice, and accompanied his performance with muttered formulas of prayer and deprecation of evil. His chief assist­ance was derived from the Agnīdh, the two performing the smaller sacrifices without other help in practical matters. The Praśāstr, Upavaktr, or Maitrāvaruna, as he was variously called, appeared only in the greater sacrifices as giving in­structions to the Hotr, and as entrusted with certain litanies. The Potr, Nestr, and Brahman belonged to the ritual of the Soma sacrifice, the latter being later styled Brāhmanāc- chamsin to distinguish him from the priest who in the later ritual acted as supervisor. Other priests referred to in the Rigveda are the singers of Sāmans or chants, the Udgātr and his assistant the Prastotr, while the Pratihartr, another assistant, though not mentioned, may quite well have been known. Their functions undoubtedly represent a later stage of the ritual, the development of the elaborate series of sacrificial calls on the one hand, and on the other the use of long hymns addressed to the Soma plant. Other priests, such as the Achāvāka, the Grāvastut, the Unnetr, and the Subrahmanyan were known later in the developed ritual of the Brāhmanas, making in all sixteen priests, who were technically and artificially classed in four groups : Hotr, Maitrāvaruna, Achāvāka, and Grāvastut; Udgātr, Prastotr, Pratihartr, and Subrahmanya; Adhvaryu, Pratisthātr, Nestr, and Unnetr; Brahman, Brāhmanācchamsin, Agnīdhra, and Poty. Apart from all these priests was the Purohita, who was the spiritual adviser of the king in all his religious duties. Geldner holds that, as a rule, when the Purohita actually took part in one of the great sacrifices he played the part of the Brahman, in the sense of the priest who superintended the whole conduct of the ritual. He sees evidence for this view in a considerable number of passages of the Rigveda and the later literature, where Purohita and Brahman were combined or identified. Oldenberg, however, more correctly points out that in the earlier period this was not the case: the Purohita was then normally the Hotr, the singer of the most important of the songs; it was only later that the Brahman, who in the capacity of overseer of the rite is not known to the Rigveda, acquired the function of general supervision hitherto exercised by the Purohita, who was ex officio skilled in the use of magic and in guarding the king by spells which could also be applied to guarding the sacrifice from evil demons. With this agrees the fact that Agni, pre-eminently the Purohita of men, is also a Hotr, and that the two divine Hotrs of the Aprī hymns are called the divine Purohitas. On the other hand, the rule is explicitly recognized in the Aitareya Brāhmana that a Ksatriya should have a Brahman as a Purohita; and in the Taittirīya Samhitā the Vasistha family have a special claim to the office of Brahman-Purohita, perhaps an indi¬cation that it was they who first as Purohitas exchanged the function of Hotys for that of Brahmans in the sacrificial ritual. The sacrifices were performed for an individual in the great majority of cases. The Sattra, or prolonged sacrificial session, was, however, performed for the common benefit of the priests taking part in it, though its advantageous results could only be secured if all the members actually engaged were consecrated (ιdīksita). Sacrifices for a people as such were unknown. The sacrifice for the king was, it is true, intended to bring about the prosperity of his people also; but it is characteristic that the prayer16 for welfare includes by name only the priest and the king, referring to the people indirectly in connexion with the prosperity of their cattle and agriculture.
ṛṣi ‘Seer,’ is primarily a composer of hymns to the gods. In the Rigveda reference is often made to previous singers and to contemporary poets. Old poems were inherited and refurbished by members of the composer’s family, but the great aim of the singers was to produce new and approved hymns. It is not till the time of the Brāhmanas that the composition of hymns appears to have fallen into disuse, though poetry was still produced, for example, in the form of Gāthās, which the priests were required to compose them¬selves and sing to the accompaniment of the lute at the sacrifice. The Rsi was the most exalted of Brāhmanas, and his skill, which is often compared with that of a carpenter, was regarded as heaven-sent. The Purohita, whether as Hotr or as Brahman (see Rtvij), was a singer. No doubt the Rsis were normally attached to the houses of the great, the petty kings of Vedic times, or the nobles of the royal household. Nor need it be doubted that occasionally the princes them¬selves essayed poetry: a Rājanyarsi, the prototype of the later Rājarsi or * royal seer,’ who appears in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, though he must be mythical as Oldenberg points out, indicates that kings cultivated poetry just as later they engaged in philosophic disputations. Normally, how¬ever, the poetical function is Brahminical, Viśāmitra and others not being kings, but merely Brāhmanas, in the Rigveda. In the later literature the Rsis are the poets of the hymns preserved in the Samhitās, a Rsi being regularly16 cited when a Vedic Samhitā is quoted. Moreover, the Rsis become the representatives of a sacred past, and are regarded as holy sages, whose deeds are narrated as if they were the deeds of gods or Asuras. They are typified by a particular group of seven, mentioned four times in the Rigveda, several times in the later Samhitās, and enumerated in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as Gotama, Bharadvāja, Viśvāmitra, Jamadagni, Vasistha, Kaśyapa, and Atri. In the Rigveda itself Kutsa, Atri, Rebha, Agastya, the Kuśikas, Vasistha, Vyaśva, and others appear as Rsis; and the Atharvaveda contains a long list, including Añgiras, Agasti, Jamadagni, Atri, Kaśyapa, Vasistha, Bharadvāja, Gavisthira, Viśvāmitra, Kutsa, Kaksīvant, Kanva, Medhātithi, Triśoka, Uśanā Kāvya, Gotama, and Mudgala. Competition among the bards appears to have been known. This is one of the sides of the riddle poetry (Brahmodya) that forms a distinctive feature of the Vedic ritual of the Aśva¬medha, or horse sacrifice. In the Upanisad period such competitions were quite frequent. The most famous was that of Yājñavalkya, which was held at the court of Janaka of Videha, as detailed in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, and which was a source of annoyance to Ajātaśatru of Kāśī. According to an analogous practice, a Brāhmana, like Uddālaka Aruni, would go about disputing with all he came across, and compete with them for a prize of money.
etaśa Is in several passages of the Rigveda, according to Roth the name of a protege whom Indra helped against the sun-god Sūrya. But in all these passages Etaśa seems merely to designate the horse of the sun.
aitihāsika This term was applied to the people who explained the Vedic hymns by treating them as legendary history (Itihāsa), as Sieg shows by the passages of the Nirukta, where their views are opposed to those of the Nairuktas, who relied rather on etymology. Sieg also seems right in finding them in the Naidānas of the Nirukta: it is possible that their textbook was called the Nidāna.
oṣadhi Roughly speaking, the vegetable world is divided in Vedic literature between Osadhi or Vīrudh ‘plants’ and Vana or Vrksa ‘trees.’ Osadhi is employed in opposition to Vīrudh to denote plants as possessing a healing power or some other quality useful to men, while Vīrudh is rather a generic term for minor vegetable growths, but sometimes, when occur­ring beside Osadhi, signifies those plants which do not possess medicinal properties. A list of the minor parts of which a plant is made up is given in the later Samhitās. It comprises the root 0mfdd), the panicle (tfda), the stem (kāηda), the twig (valśa), the flower (puspa), and the fruit (phala), while trees have, in addition, a corona (skaηdha), branches [śākhā), and leaves (parηa). The Atharvaveda gives an elaborate, though not very intelligible, division of plants into those which expand (pra-strηatīh), are bushy (stambiηīh), have only one sheath (eka-śtmgāh), are creepers (pra-taηvatīh), have many stalks (amśumatīh), arejointed (kāndinīh), or have spreading branches (vi-śākhāh). In the Rigveda plants are termed ‘ fruitful ’ (phalinīh), blossom¬ing ’ (puspavatīh), and ‘ having flowers ’ (pra-sūvarīh).
audamaya Is Weber’s reading of the name of the Atreya. who was Purohita of Añg*a Vairocana, according to the Aitareya Brāhmana. Aufrecht, however, in his edition more probably takes the correct form of the name to be Udamaya.
aurṇavābha ‘Descendant of Urnavābhi.’ This is the ^name of · a pupil of Kaundinya mentioned in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. A teacher of this name is frequently referred to in the Nirukta. His explanations in two passages agree with those of the Nairuktas or etymological school of interpreters of the Rigveda. In other passages3 he appears rather to belong to the school of the Aitihāsikas, who relied on traditional legends. He was thus probably, as Sieg suggests, an eclectic.
aulāna Is a word occurring in a single passage of the Rigveda, where it may possibly be a patronymic of Samtanu as a ‘descendant of Ula.’ Ludwig, however, conjectures that the reading should be ‘ Kaulāna.’ Sieg regards Aulāna as a later descendant4 of śamtanu, who utilized the story of Devapi’s rain-making as an introduction to his rain hymn.
auśija ‘Descendant of Uśij,’ is a patronymic clearly applied to Kaksīvant in the Rigveda. It is also applied to Rjiśvan, but Ludwig thinks that the correct reading of the passage in question is auśijasyarjiśvā, * Rjiśvan, son of Auśija.’ In one verse Auśija and Kaksīvant are both mentioned, but in such a way that two different persons must apparently be meant. In other passages where the patronymic occurs alone, it is doubtful who is meant, or whether a proper name at all is intended. Kaksīvant Auśija appears also in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana and elsewhere.
kakuṭha A word occurring in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, presumably denotes some kind of animal. According to Bohtlingk, it is identical with Kakkata.
kaṅkata Is the name of an animal mentioned once in the Rigveda. According to Sāyana it is a destructive beast; perhaps, as Grassmann renders it, a ‘ scorpion.
kaṅkaparvan (‘heron-jointed’?), a term occurring once in the Atharvaveda, is applied to a snake, meaning perhaps scorpion.’ As the Paippalāda recension has a different reading (añga-parvanah), the passage may be corrupt.
kaparda ‘braid,’ Kapardin, * wearing braids.’ These words refer to the Vedic custom of wearing the hair in braids or plaits. Thus a maiden is said to have her hair in four plaits (catus-kapardā), and the goddess Sinīvālī is described as * wear­ing fair braids ’ (;sitrkapardā). Men also wore their hair in this style, for both Rudra and Pūsan are said to have done so, while the Vasisthas were distinguished by wearing their hair in a plait on the right (daksinatas-kaparda). The opposite was to wear one’s hair ‘ plain ’ (pulasti). See also Opaśa.
kapi Is, according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, another name for Luśa Khārgali in the Kāthaka Samhitā, but the name appears rather to be Luśākapi.
kapila Appears in the śvetāśvatara Upanisad as a teacher, according to Weber and Garbe, who think that the expres­sion kapila rsih there refers to the founder of the Sāñkhya philosophy. But this is doubtful.
karikrata Denotes, according to Zimmer, a snake in the Atharvaveda.
karkandhu Is the ordinary word for ‘jujube,’ the tree (Zizyphus jujuba) and the fruit, from the Yajurveda Samhitās onwards. The berry is red (:rohita). Compare Kuvala and Badara, which denote the fruit.
karkī may denote in one passage of the Atharvaveda a ‘ white cow,’ according to the suggestion of Roth.
kavaṣa Is mentioned in a hymn of the Rigveda as one of those whom, together with the Druhyu king, Indra overthrew for the Trtsus. The Anukramanī (Index) also attributes to him the authorship of several hymns of the Rigveda, including two that deal with a prince Kuruśravana and his descendant Upamaśravas. There seems no reason to doubt this attribution, which is accepted by both Zimmer and Geldner. The former holds that Kavasa was the Purohita of the joint tribes named Vaikarna, in whom he sees the Kuru- Krivi (Pañcāla) peoples, and that Kavasa in that capacity is mentioned in the Rigveda as representative of those peoples. He also suggests that the language of Rigveda is best explained by the reduced position in which the Kuru-Krivis found themselves on their defeat by the Trtsus. Ludwig, on the other hand, thinks that Kavasa was the priest of the five peoples. Geldner holds that Kavasa was the Purohita of Kuruśravana, by whose son, Upamaśravas, he was ill-treated, and that he composed Rigveda to deprecate the anger of his royal master. Hopkins thinks that he was a king. In the Brāhmanas of the Rigveda mention is made of Kavasa Ailūsa, who was a Brāhmana born of a female slave, and was reproached on this ground by the other Esis. He is possibly identical with the Kavasa of the Rigveda.
kaśipu Denotes a ‘ mat ’ or ‘ cushion ’ made, according to the Atharvaveda, by women from reeds (nada), which they crushed for the purpose by means of stones. On the other hand, the Satapatha Brāhmana refers to a mat as made of gold.
kaśyapa Is the name of a sage who is mentioned only once in the Rigveda, but is a common figure in the later Samhitās. He is always of a mythical character, as belonging to the distant past. According to the Aitareya Brāhmana, he anointed King Viśvakarman Bhauvana, and in the Upanisads he is mentioned as a Rsi. The Kaśyapas appear in connexion with Janam- ejaya in the Aitareya Brāhmana.
kāmapri (‘ descendant of Kāmapra ’) is the patronymic of Marutta in the Aitareya Brāhmana. In the St. Petersburg Dictionary it is suggested that the reading in this passage should be kāmapre, ‘ fulfilling desires,’ as an epithet of the sacrifice (yajñe). Kamalāyana (‘ descendant of Kamala ’) is the patronymic of Upakosala in the Chāndogya Upanisad.
kāmpīla In one passage of the Yajurveda Samhitās1 the epithet Kāmpīla-vāsinī is applied to a woman, perhaps the king’s Mahisī or chief wife, whose duty it was to sleep beside the slaughtered animal at the horse sacrifice (Aśvamedha). The exact interpretation of the passage is very uncertain, but both Weber and Zimmer agree in regarding Kāmpīla as the name of the town known as Kāmpīlya in the later literature, and the capital of Pañcāla in Madhyadeśa.
kārīradi Kārīradi is the name of persons mentioned in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana as holding a special view of the Udgītha (Sāmaveda Chant).
kārśakeyīputra (‘son of Kārśakeyī ’) is the name of a man mentioned in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadā­ranyaka Upanisad. In the Kānva recension he is a pupil of Prācīnayogīputra; in the Mādhyamdina recension his teacher’s name is Prāśnīputra Asurivāsin.
kāla The generic expression for ‘time,’ first occurs in the Rigveda, where, however, it is used only once, in the late tenth book. It is known to the Atharvaveda, where Kāla has already developed the sense of time as fate. The word is frequent in the Brāhmanas, superseding the earlier use of Rtu. The more general division of time is into past ’ (bhūta), ‘ present ’ (bhavat), and ‘ future ’ (bhavisyat). For other divisions see Ahan, Māsa, Samvatsara.
kāśa Roth finds this word, which denotes a species of grass (Saccharum spontaneum) used for mats, etc., in one passage of the Rigveda, but the reading is uncertain. The word has this sense in the Taittirīya Aranyaka.
kāṣāyaṇa Kāsāyana is mentioned in the second Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a teacher, pupil of Sāya- kāyana according to the Kānva, of Saukarāyana according to the Mādhyamdina recension.
kiṃśuka Is the name of a tree (Butea frondosa) mentioned in the wedding hymn of the Rigveda, the bridal car being described as adorned with its blossoms (su-kimiuka).
kikidīvi Denotes some kind of bird, perhaps the blue j'ay. According to the commentator, it means ‘ partridge * (tittiri) in the Taittirīya Samhitā.
kitava ‘ the gambler/ is frequently referred to in the Rig­veda and later. A father is represented as chastising his son for gambling. The gambler seems at times to have fallen, along with his family, into servitude, presumably by selling himself to pay his debts.Technical names for different sorts of gamblers given in the Yajurveda Samhitās are Adinava-darśa, Kalpin, Adhi-kalpin, and Sabhā-sthānu. None of these can be safely explained, though the last has usually been taken as a satirical name derived from the gambler’s devotion to the dicing place (Sabhā), pillar of the dicing hall.’ The first literally means seeing ill-luck,’ and may refer to the quickness of the dicer to note an error on the part of his antagonist, or to his eagerness to see the defeat of his rival.
kiyāmbu Is the name of one of the water-plants which are to grow, according to a funeral hymn in the Rigveda, on the place where the body of the dead was burned. The word seems to mean having some water,’ possibly by popular etymology.
kirāta In the story of Asamāti there appear, as the two priests who are opposed to the Gaupāyanas, Kirāta and Akuli according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, or Kilāta and Akuli according to the śatapatha Brāhmana. No doubt the name is chosen, not as that of a historic person, but as a suitable designation of a hostile priest; for it is probably identical with the name of the mountaineers described in the preceding article.
kiśmīla Denotes, according to Bohtlingk, a certain disease in the Paippalāda recension of the Atharvaveda.
kuṭaru Is, according to the commentator Mahīdhara, synonymous with Kukkuta, ‘cock.’ The word is found in the Yajurveda Samhitās only.
kutsa Is the name of a hero frequently mentioned in the Rigveda, which, however, gives practically no information about him, for he was no doubt already a figure of the mythic past. He is several times called Arjuneya, ‘descendant of Arjuna,’ and is usually associated with Indra in the exploit of defeating the demon Susna and winning the sun. He is said to have defeated Smadibha, Tugra, and the Vetasus, but, on the other hand, he is several times mentioned with Atithigva and Ayu as being vanquished by Indra, his defeat in one passage being attributed to Tūrvayāna. Elsewhere he appears with Atithigva as a friend of Indra’s. In the later literature he is seldom mentioned except in connexion with the myth of his binding Indra, which is found in the Brāhmanas, and which is based on an obscure verse in the Rigveda. The Kutsas, or descendants of Kutsa, are mentioned in one hymn of the Rigveda.
kutsa aurava (‘son of Uru’) is mentioned in the Pañca­vimśa Brāhmana as having murdered his domestic priest (purohita), Upagu Sauśravasa, because the father of the latter insisted on paying homage to Indra. This fact may be com­pared with the hostility to Indra of Kutsa according to certain passages of the Rigveda.
kurīra Like Opaśa and Kumba, denotes some sort of female head ornament in the description of the bride’s adornment in the wedding hymn of the Rigveda and in the Atharvaveda. According to the Yajurveda Samhitās, the goddess Sinīvālī is described by the epithets su-kapardā, su-kurīra, sv-opaśā, as wearing a beautiful head-dress. According to Geldner, the word originally meant ‘ horn but this is uncertain, as this sense is not required in any passage in which the term occurs.
kuru The Kurus appear as by far the most important people in the Brāhmana literature. There is clear evidence that it was in the country of the Kurus, or the allied Kuru- Pañcālas, that the great Brāhmanas were composed. The Kurus are comparatively seldom mentioned alone, their name being usually coupled with that of the Pañcālas on account of the intimate connexion of the two peoples. The Kuru-Pañcālas are often expressly referred to as a united nation. In the land of the Kuru-Pañcālas speech is said to have its particular home ; the mode of sacrifice among the Kuru-Pañcālas is proclaimed to be the best ; the Kuru-Pañcāla kings perform the Rājasūya or royal sacrifice ; their princes march forth on raids in the dewy season, and return in the hot season Later on the Kuru-Pañcāla Brahmins are famous in the Upanisads. Weber and Grierson have sought to find traces in Vedic literature of a breach between the two tribes, the latter scholar seeing therein a confirmation of the theory that the Kurus belonged to the later stream of immigrants into India, who were specially Brahminical, as opposed to the Pañcālas, who were anti-Brahminical. In support of this view, Weber refers to the story in the Kāthaka Samhitā of a dispute between Vaka Dālbhya and Dhrtarāstra Vaicitravīrya, the former being held to be by origin a Pañcāla, while the latter is held to be a Kuru. But there is no trace of a quarrel between Kurus and Pañcālas in the passage in question, which merely preserves the record of a dispute on a ritual matter between a priest and a prince: the same passage refers to the Naimisīya sacrifice among the Kuru-Pañcālas, and emphasizes the close connexion of the two peoples. Secondly, Weber conjectures in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā that Subhadrikā of Kāmpīla was the chief queen of the king of a tribe living in the neighbour¬hood of the clan, for whose king the horse sacrifice described in the Samhitā was performed. But the interpretation of this passage by Weber is open to grave doubt ; and in the Kānva recension of the Samhitā a passage used at the Rājasūya shows that the Kuru-Pañcālas had actually one king. More¬over, there is the evidence of the Satapatha Brāhmana that the old name of the Pañcālas was Krivi. This word looks very like a variant of Kuru, and Zimmer plausibly conjectures that the Kurus and Krivis formed the Vaikarna of the Rigveda, especially as both peoples are found about the Sindhu and the Asikni.The Kurus alone are chiefly mentioned in connexion with the locality which they occupied, Kuruksetra. We are told, however, of a domestic priest (Purohita) in the service of both the Kurus and the Srñjayas, who must therefore at one time have been closely connected. In the Chāndogya Upanisad reference is made to the Kurus being saved by a mare (aśvā), and to some disaster which befel them owing to a hailstorm. In the Sūtras, again, a ceremony (Vājapeya) of the Kurus is mentioned. There also a curse, which was pronounced on them and led to their being driven from Kuruksetra, is alluded to. This possibly adumbrates the misfortunes of the Kauravas in the epic tradition. In the Rigveda the Kurus do not appear under that name as a people. But mention is made of a prince, Kuruśravana (‘ Glory of the Kurus ^, and of a Pākasthāman Kaurayāna. In the Atharvaveda there occurs as a king of the Kurus Pariksit, whose son, Janamejaya, is mentioned in the śata¬patha Brāhmana as one of the great performers of the horse sacrifice.It is a probable conjecture of Oldenberg’s that the Kuru people, as known later, included some of the tribes referred to by other names in the Rigveda. Kuruśravana, shown by his name to be connected with the Kurus, is in the Rigveda called Trāsadasyava, * descendant of Trasadasyu,’ who is well known as a king of the Pūrus. Moreover, it is likely that the Trtsu- Bharatas, who appear in the Rigveda as enemies of the Pūrus, later coalesced with them to form the Kuru people. Since the Bharatas appear so prominently in the Brāhmana texts as a great people of the past, while the later literature ignores them in its list of nations, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that they became merged in some other tribe. Moreover, there is evidence that the Bharatas occupied the territory in which the Kurus were later found. Two of them are spoken of in a hymn of the Rigveda as having kindled fire on the Drsadvatī, the Apayā, and the Sarasvatī—that is to say, in the sacred places of the later Kuruksetra. Similarly, the goddess Bhāratī (‘ belonging to the Bharatas ’) is constantly mentioned in the Aprī (‘ propitiatory ’) hymns together with Sarasvatī. Again, according to the śatapatha Brāhmana, one Bharata king was victorious over the Kāśis, and another made offerings to Gañgā and Yamunā, while raids of the Bharatas against the Satvants are mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmana. Nor is it without importance that the Bharatas appear as a variant for the Kuru-Pañcālas in a passage of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, and that in the list of the great performers of the horse sacrifice the names of one Kuru and two Bharata princes are given without any mention of the people over which they ruled, while in other cases that information is specifically given.The territory of the Kuru-Pañcālas is declared in the Aitareya Brāhmana to be the middle country (Madhyadeśa). A group of the Kuru people still remained further north—the Uttara Kurus beyond the Himālaya. It appears from a passage of the śatapatha Brāhmana that the speech of the Northerners— that is, presumably, the Northern Kurus—and of the Kuru- Pañcālas was similar, and regarded as specially pure. There seems little doubt that the Brahminical culture was developed in the country of the Kuru-Pañcālas, and that it spread thence east, south, and west. Traces of this are seen in the Vrātya Stomas (sacrifices for the admission of non - Brahminical Aryans) of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, and in the fact that in the śāñkhāyana Áranyaka it is unusual for a Brahmin to dwell in the territory of Magadha. The repeated mention of Kuru- Pañcāla Brahmins is another indication of their missionary activity. The geographical position of the Kuru-Pañcālas renders it probable that they were later immigrants into India than the Kosala-Videha or the Kāśis, who must have been pushed into their more eastward territories by a new wave of Aryan settlers from the west. But there is no evidence in Vedic literature to show in what relation of time the immigration of the latter peoples stood to that of their neighbours on the west. It has, however, been conjectured, mainly on the ground of later linguistic phenomena, which have no cogency for the Vedic period, that the Kurus were later immigrants, who, coming by a new route, thrust themselves between the original Aryan tribes which were already in occupation of the country from east to west. Cf. also Krtvan. For other Kuru princes see Kauravya.
kurukṣetra (‘ land of the Kurus ’) is always regarded in the Brāhmana texts as a particularly sacred country. Within its boundaries flowed the rivers Drsadvatī and Sarasvatī, as well as the Apayā. Here, too, was situated Saryanāvant, which appears to have been a lake, like that known to the Satapatha Brāhmana by the name of Anyatah-plaksā. According to Pischel, there was also in Kuruksetra a stream called Pastyā, which he sees in certain passages of the Rigveda. The boun¬daries of Kuruksetra are given in a passage of the Taittirīya Áranyaka as being Khāndava on the south, the Tūrghna on the north, and the Parīnah on the west. Roughly speaking, it corresponded to the modern Sirhind.
kulyā in two passages of the Rigveda, according to Muir, possibly refers to artificial watercourses flowing into a reservoir (hrada). See Avata.
kuśara Is mentioned with Sara and other grasses in one hymn of the Rigveda as affording lurking places for serpents.
kuṣītaka Denotes, according to the commentary on the one passage of the Taittirīya Samhitā in which it is found, the sea crow (.samudra-kāka).
kṛṣi ‘ploughing.’ The cultivation of the soil was no doubt known to the Indians before they separated from the Iranians, as is indicated by the identity of the expressions yavam krs and sasya in the Rigveda with yao karesh and hahya in the Avesta, referring to the ploughing in of the seed and to the grain which resulted. But it is not without significance that the expressions for ploughing occur mainly in the first and tenth books of the Rigveda, and only rarely in the so-called ‘ family ’ books (ii.-vii.). In the Atharvaveda Prthī Vainya is credited with the origination of ploughing, and even in the Rigveda the Aśvins are spoken of as concerned with the sowing of grain by means of the plough. In the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas ploughing is repeatedly referred to. Even in the Rigveda there is clear proof of the importance attached to agriculture. In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana the Vrātyas, Hindus without the pale of Brahminism, are de¬scribed as not cultivating the soil.The plough land was called Urvarā or Ksetra; manure (Sakan, Karīsa) was used, and irrigation was practised (Khani- tra). The plough (Lāñgala, Sira) was drawn by oxen, teams of six, eight, or even twelve being employed. The operations of agriculture are neatly summed up in the śatapatha Brāhmana as ‘ ploughing, sowing, reaping, and threshing ’ (
kṛṣṇa devakīputra Is mentioned in the Chāndogya Upanisad as a pupil of the mythical Ghora Angirasa. Tradition, and several modern writers like Grierson, Garbe, and von Schroeder, recognize in him the hero Krsna, who later is deified. In their view he is a Ksatriya teacher of morals, as opposed to Brahminism. This is extremely doubtful. It appears better either to regard the coincidence of name as accidental, or to suppose that the reference is a piece of Euhemerism. To identify this Krsna with the preceding, as does the St. Petersburg Dictionary, seems to be quite groundless.
kṛṣṇala Denotes the berry of the A brus precatorius, used as a weight according to the later authorities, one Māsa (‘ bean ’) being equated to four Krsnalas. In the sense of a weight it occurs in the Taittirīya and other Samhitās, and later.
keśin dārbhya (* descendant of Darbha ’) is a somewhat enigmatic figure. According to the Satapatha Brāh¬mana and the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana he was a king, sister’s son of Uccaihśravas, according to the latter authority. His people were the Pañcālas, of whom the Keśins must there¬fore have been a branch, and who are said to have been threefold (tvyanīka). A story is told of his having a ritual dispute wτith ṣandika in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā ; this appears in another form in the śatapatha Brāhmana. He was a contemporary of a fellow sage, Keśin Sātyakāmi, according to the Maitrā¬yanī and Taittirīya Samhitās. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmana attributes to him a Sāman or chant, and the Kausītaki Brāh¬mana tells how he was taught by a golden bird. In view of the fact that the early literature always refers to Dārbhya as a sage, it seems doubtful whether the commentator is right in thinking that the śatapatha refers to a king and a people, when a sage alone may well be meant, while the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana is of no great authority. The latter work may have assumed that the reference in the Kāthaka Samhitā to the Keśin people signifies kingship, but this is hardly necessary.
kauṇḍinī See Pārāśarīkaundinīputra.
kauṇḍinya Is mentioned as a pupil of Sāndilya in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. See also Vidarbhīkaundinya, and the following.
kauṇḍinyāyana Is mentioned in the first Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Mādhyamdina recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Kaundinya, pupil of Kaundinya and Agniveśya; in the second as a pupil of the two Kaundinyas, pupils of Aurnavābha, pupil of Kaundinya, pupil of Kaundinya, pupil of Kaundinya and Agniveśya. Neither Vamśa is of much value.
kautsīputra (‘son of a female descendant of Kutsa ’) is mentioned as a pupil of Baudhīputra in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad in the Mādhyamdina recension.
kaurava Is the reading of the text of the Khilas and of some manuscripts of the Sāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra for the Kaurama of the Atharvaveda, who appears in a Dānastuti (‘ Praise of Gifts ’) as a generous donor among the Ruśamas.
kaulāla Is a word denoting a hereditary potter (‘ son of a kulāla or potter ’) according to the commentator Mahīdhara on the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. The other Samhitās have Kulāla.
kauśāmbeya Is the patronymic (‘ descendant of Kuśāmba ’) of a teacher Proti in the Satapatha Brāhmana according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary: a view supported by the fact that Kūśāmba actually occurs as the name of a man in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. It is, however, possible that the word means a ‘ native of the town Kauśāmbī ’ as understood by Harisvāmin in his commentary on the Satapatha Brāhmana.
kauśika Is an epithet of Indra as connected with the Kuśikas,’ and also of Viśvāmitra as ‘son of Kuśika. A teacher named Kauśika is mentioned as a pupil of Kaundinya in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
kauṣītaki (‘ descendant of Kusītaka ’) is the patronymic of a teacher, or series of teachers, to whom the doctrines set forth in the Kausītaki Brāhmana and in the śāñkhāyana Áranyaka, and the śrauta and Grhya Sūtras, are referred. He is rarely mentioned elsewhere. The doctrine of Kausītaki is called the Kausītaka. The pupils of Kausītaki are known as the Kausī- takis in the Nidāna Sūtra, and in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana they with Kusītaka are stated to have been cursed by Luśākapi. Elsewhere they are called Kausītakins. If the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka can be trusted, there were among them at least two leading teachers, Kahoda and Sarvajit, the former of whom is mentioned elsewhere.
kratuvid jānaki (* descendant of Janaka ’) is mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmana as having learned a certain doctrine regarding Soma from Agni.
kruñc añgirasa Is in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana the name of the seer of a Sāman or Chant called the Krauñca. It is doubtless invented to explain the name of the Chant on the ordinary principle that Sāmans are called after their authors, though this rule has many exceptions.
kvala Is a substance, perhaps identical with Kuvala, the fruit of the jujube, used to coagulate milk according to the Taittirīya Samhitā.
kṣatra Seems to be the name of a man mentioned with others, including Manasa, Yajata, and Avatsāra, in one quite obscure passage of the Rigveda.
kṣatriya As the origin of caste, the relation of the castes, intermarriage, and cognate matters may most conveniently be discussed under Varna, this article will be confined to deter­mining, as far as possible, the real character of the class called Ksatriyas, or collectively Ksatra. The evidence of the Jātakas points to the word Khattiya denoting the members of the old Aryan nobility who had led the tribes to conquest, as well as those families of the aborigines who had managed to maintain their princely status in spite of the conquest. In the epic also the term Ksatriya seems to include these persons, but it has probably a wider signification than Khattiya, and would cover all the royal military vassals and feudal chiefs, expressing, in fact, pretty much the same as the barones of early English history. Neither in the Jātakas nor in the epic is the term co-extensive with all warriors; the army contains many besides the Ksatriyas, who are the leaders or officers, rather than the rank and file.In the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas the Ksatriya stands as a definite member of the social body, distinct from the priest, the subject people, and the slaves, Brāhmana, Vaiśya, and Sūdra. It is significant that Rājanya is a variant to Ksatriya, and an earlier one. Hence it is reasonable to suppose that the Ksatriya and Rājanya are both of similar origin, being princely or connected with royalty. Moreover, the early use of Ksatriya in the Rigveda is exclusively con-nected with royal authority or divine authority. It is impossible to say exactly what persons would be in¬cluded in the term Ksatriya. That it covered the royal house and the various branches of the royal family may be regarded as certain. It, no doubt, also included the nobles and their families: this would explain the occasional opposition of Rājanya and Ksatriya, as in the Aitareya Brāhmana,8 where a Rājanya asks a Ksatriya for a place for sacrifice (deυa-yajana). Thus, when strictly applied, Ksatriya would have a wider denotation than Rājanya. As a rule, however, the two expressions are identical, and both are used as evidence in what follows. That Ksatriya ever included the mere fighting man has not been proved: in the Rigveda9 and later10 others than Ksatriyas regularly fought; but possibly if the nobles had retinues as the kings had, Ksatriya would embrace those retainers who had military functions. The term did not apply to all members of the royal entourage; for example, the Grāmanī was usually a Vaiśya. The connexion of the Ksatriyas with the Brahmins was very close. The prosperity of the two is repeatedly asserted to be indissolubly associated, especially in the relation of king (Rājan) and domestic priest (Purohita). Sometimes there was feud between Ksatriya and Brahmin. His management of the sacrifice then gave the Brahmin power to ruin the Ksatriya by embroiling him with the people or with other Ksatriyas. Towards the common people, on the other hand, the Ksa¬triya stood in a relation of well-nigh unquestioned superiority. There are, however, references to occasional feuds between the people and the nobles, in which no doubt the inferior numbers of the latter were compensated by their superior arms and prowess. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Vaiśya is described as tributary to another (anyasya bali-krt), to be devoured by another (anyasyādya), and to be oppressed at will (yathākāma-jyeya). Probably these epithets apply most strictly to the relation of the king and his people, but the passage shows that the people were greatly at the mercy of the nobles. No doubt the king granted to them the right, which may have been hereditary, to be supported by the common people, whose feudal superiors they thus became. In return for these privileges the Kṣatriyas had probably duties of protection to perform, as well as some judicial functions, to judge from an obscure passage of the Kāthaka Samhitā. The main duty of the Ksatriya in the small states of the Vedic period was readiness for war. The bow is thus his special attribute, just as the goad is that of the agriculturist; for the bow is the main weapon of the Veda. Whether the Ksatriyas paid much attention to mental occupations is uncertain. In the latest stratum of the Brāhmana literature there are references to learned princes like Janaka of Videha, who is said to have become a Brahmin (brahmā), apparently in the sense that he had the full knowledge which a Brahmin possessed. Other learned Ksatriyas of this period were Pravāhana Jaivali, Aśvapati Kaikeya, and Ajātaśatru Garbe, Grierson, and others believe they are justified in holding the view that the Ksatriyas developed a special philosophy of their own as opposed to Brahminism, which appears later as Bhakti, or Faith. On the other hand, there is clear evidence that the opinion of Ksatriyas on such topics were held in little respect, and it must be remembered that to attribute wisdom to a king was a delicate and effective piece of flattery. There are earlier references to royal sages (rājan- yarsi) but it is very doubtful if much stress can be laid on them, and none can be laid on the later tradition of Sāyana. Again, the Nirukta gives a tradition relating how Devāpi, a king’s son, became the Purohita of his younger brother Samtanu; but it is very doubtful if the story can really be traced with Sieg in the Rigveda itself. In any case, the stories refer only to a few selected Ksatriyas of high rank, while there is no evidence that the average Ksatriya was concerned with intellectual pursuits. Nor is there any reference to Ksatriyas engaging in agriculture or in trade or commerce. It may be assumed that the duties of administration and war were adequate to absorb his atten¬tion. On the other hand, we do hear of a Rājanya as a lute player and singer at the Aśvamedha or horse sacrifice. Of the training and education of a Ksatriya we have no record; presumably, as in fact if not in theory later on, he was mainly instructed in the art of war, the science of the bow, and the rudimentary administrative functions which would devolve on him. At this early state of the development of the nobility which appears to be represented in the Rigveda, it was probably not unusual or impossible for a Vaiśya to become a Ksatriya; at least, this assumption best explains the phrase ‘claiming falsely a Ksatriya’s rank ’ (ksatriyam mithuyā dhārayantam). The king and the Ksatriyas must have stood in a particularly close relation. The former being the Ksatriya par excellence, it is to him rather than to the ordinary Ksatriya that we must refer passages like that in the Satapatha Brāhmana, where it is said that the Ksatriya, with the consent of the clansmen, gives a settlement to a man : clearly a parallel to the rule found among many peoples that the chief, but only with the consent of the people, can make a grant of unoccupied land. In the same Brāhmana it is said that a Ksatriya consecrates a Ksatriya, a clear reference, as the commentator explains, to the practice of the old king consecrating the prince (kumāra) who is to succeed him ; and again, the Ksatriya and the Purohita are regarded as alone complete in contrast with other people, the parallel with the Purohita here suggesting that the Ksatriya par excellence is meant. On the other hand, the king is sometimes con¬trasted with the Rājanya. The Sūtra literature contains elaborate rules for the education and occupations of Ksatriyas, but their contents cannot always be traced in the Brāhmana literature, and their value is questionable.
kṣura Occurs three times in the Rigveda. The word appears to have the general sense of ‘ blade in one passage, possibly also in another, where it is said that the hare swallowed a Ksura, and where the sense ‘ blade ’ is adequate. In the third passage4 there seems to be a reference to the sharpening of a razor on a grindstone (bhurijos, the dual denoting precisely, as Pischel6 points out, the two sides of the apparatus, between which the stone revolved like the modern grindstone). But Muir, following another view of Roth, adopts the sense the edge of scissors/ which, however, hardly suits the other passage, one in the Atharvaveda, where a Ksura is described as moving about on the bhurijos, as the tongue on the lip. The meaning razor ’ is perfectly clear in the Atharvaveda, where shaving by means of it is mentioned; in many other passages either sense is adequate. A ksuro bhrjvān occurs in the Yajur¬veda: it seems to denote, as Bloomfield suggests, a razor with a strop (in the shape of a small grinding apparatus). Ksura-dhār denotes ‘the edge of a razor,’ like ksurasya dhārā. In the Upanisads a razor-case (Ksura-dhāna) is mentioned. See also Smaśru.
kṣetra Field.’ The use of this word in the Rigveda points clearly to the existence of separate fields carefully measured off, though in some passages the meaning is less definite, indicating cultivated land generally. In the Atharvaveda and later the sense of a separate field is clearly marked, though the more general use is also found. The deity Ksetrasya Pati, ‘Lord of the Field,’ should probably be understood as the god presiding over each field, just as Vāstos Pati presides over each dwelling. It is a fair conclusion from the evidence that the system of separate holdings already existed in early Vedic times. See also Urvarā, Khilya.
kṣoṇī This word, when used in the plural, denotes, according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary and Ludwig, in several passages of the Rigveda, the free retainers of the king. Geldner at one time thought it referred to the wives of the king, pointing to polygamy; but later he concluded that it means certain divine wives.
khaḍga Is the reading in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā of the name of an animal which, in the text of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, variously appears as Khañga and Khadga. The rhinoceros seems clearly to be meant. In the Sāñkhāyana Srauta Sūtra a rhinoceros hide is mentioned as the covering of a chariot.
khila Appear to have the same meaning. According to Roth, these terms denote the waste land lying between cultivated fields; but he admits that this sense does not suit the passage of the Rigveda in which it is said that the god places the worshipper on an unbroken Khilya (abhiηηe khilye), and he accordingly conjectures the reading akhilya- bhiηηe, ‘land unbroken by barren strips.’ Pischel thinks that the meaning intended is broad lands, which were used for the pasturing of the cattle of the community, and were not broken up by cultivated fields. Oldenberg,6 however, points out that the sense is rather the land which lay between cultivated fields, but which need not be deemed to have been unfertile, as Roth thought. This agrees with the fact that in Vedic times separate fields were already known : see Ksetra.
khila As a designation of certain hymns appended to the received text of the Rigveda occurs only in the Sūtra period. The term is a metaphorical application of the preceding word, ‘a space not filled up,’ a supplement.’
gabhasti Denotes, according to Roth, the pole of a chariot in the epithet syūma-gabhasti, * having reins as a pole,’ used of the car of the gods in the Rigveda, and independently in the plural in the Taittirīya Brāhmana. The meaning is, however, doubtful. Roth himself suggests that syūma-gabhasti may refer to a sort of double reins.
gardabha The ass,’ is mentioned in the Rigveda as inferior to the horse. In the Taittirīya Samhitā he again appears as inferior to the horse, but at the same time as the best bearer of burdens (bhāra-bhāritama) among animals. The same authority styles the ass dvi-retas, ‘having double seed,’ in allusion to his breeding with the mare as well as the she-ass. The smallness of the young of the ass, and his capacity for eating, are both referred to. The disagreeable cry of the animal is mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and in allusion to this the term ‘ ass ’ is applied opprobriously to a singer in the Rigveda. A hundred asses are spoken of as a gift to a singer in a Vālakhilya hymn. The mule (aśvatara) is the offspring of an ass and a mare, the latter, like the ass, being called dvi- retas, ‘ receiving double seed,’ for similar reasons. The male ass is often also termed Rāsabha. The female ass, Gardabhī, is mentioned in the Atharvaveda and the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
garmut Is the name of a kind of wild bean mentioned in the Taittirīya Samhitā. The Kāthaka Samhitā has the form Ganmut, which is probably a false reading. The adjective gārmuta, ‘ made from the Garmut bean,’ is found in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā.
gavyūti In the Rigveda means, according to Roth, grass land for the pasturing of cattle, in which sense Gavya is also found. Thence it derives the sense of a measure of distance found in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Geldner, on the other hand, takes the original meaning to be ‘ road,’ real or meta­phorical, thence a measure of distance, and finally land.’
gāthā In the Rigveda usually means only ‘song,’ ‘verse,’ like Gātu. In one passage, however, it already has a more special sense, as it is classed with Nārāśamsī and Raibhī, a collocation repeatedly found later. The commentators identify the three terms with certain verses of the Atharvaveda, but Oldenberg has shown that this identification is incorrect for the Rigveda. Gāthās are often mentioned elsewhere, and are referred to as metrical in the Aitareya Áranyaka, where the Rc, Kumbyā, and Gāthā are classed as forms of verse. The Aitareya Brāhmana distinguishes between Rc and Gāthā as divine and human respectively. According to the usage of the Brāhmanas and the liturgical literature, as stated by the St. Petersburg Dictionary, the Gāthās are, though religious in content, distinguished from Rc, Yajus, and Sāman as non- Vedic—that is, are not Mantras. This view is consistent with the fact that the phrase Yajña-gāthā, meaning a verse summarizing a sacrificial usage, is not rare. The Satapatha Brāhmana preserves several Gāthās, which generally accord with this description as epitomizing the sacrifices of famous kings, and the Maitrāyanī Samhitā states that a Gāthā is sung at a wedding. Sometimes Gāthā is qualified as Nārāśamsī, where it must be a eulogy of a generous donor.
gāthina The sons of Viśvāmitra are described in the Aitareya Brāhmana as Gāthinas, or descendants of Gāthin, who, according to tradition, was their grandfather ; and Viśvāmitra himself is styled Gāthina in the Sarvānukramanī.
gārgīputra Son of Gargī,’ occurs as the name of three teachers in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Mādhyamdina recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. The earliest of these three was the pupil of Bādeyīputra and the teacher of the second Gārgīputra. The latter was the teacher of Pārāśarīkaundinīputra, the teacher of the third Gārgīputra.
gārgyāyaṇi Descendant of Gārgya,’ is a variant reading for Gāñgyāyani as the patronymic of Citra in the Kausītaki Upanisad.
gālava Is mentioned as a pupil of Vidarbhīkaundinya in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. It is possibly the same man that is referred to regarding a point of ritual in the Aitareya Aranyaka. A grammarian of this name is mentioned in the Nirukta.
giri Mountain ’ or * height,’ is a word that occurs repeatedly in the Rigveda. Thus reference is made to the trees on the hills, hence called ‘tree-haired’ (vrksa-keśāh), and to the streams proceeding from the hills to the sea (samudra,)? The term is frequently coupled with the adjectival parvata. The Rigveda mentions the waters from the hills, and the Athar­vaveda6 refers to the snowy mountains. Actual names of mountains, as Mūjavant, Trikakud, Himavant, are very rare. References to Krauñca, Mahāmeru, and Maināg-a, are confined to the Taittirīya Aranyaka, while Nāvaprabhramśana can no longer be considered a proper name.
girija bābhravya Descendant of Babhru/ is mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmana (vii. i) as having been taught by Srauta the method of dividing the sacrificial animal (paśorvibhakti).
gṛha Is used in the singular, or oftener in the plural, to denote the ‘ house ’of the Vedic Indian. Dama or Dam has the same sense, while Pastyā and Harmya denote more especially the home with its surroundings, the family settle¬ment. The house held not only the family, which might be of considerable size, but also the cattle and the sheep at night. It was composed of several rooms, as the use of the plural indicates, and it could be securely shut up. The door (Dvār, Dvāra) is often referred to, and from it the house is called Durona. In every house the fire was kept burning. Very little is known of the structure of the house. Presum¬ably stone was not used, and houses were, as in Megasthenes’ time, built of wood. The hymns of the Atharvaveda give some information about the construction of a house, but the details are extremely obscure, for most of the expressions used do not recur in any context in which their sense is clear. According to Zimmer, four pillars (Upamit) were set up on a good site, and against them beams were leant at an angle as props (Pratimit). The upright pillars were connected by cross beams (Parimit) resting upon them. The roof was formed of ribs of bamboo cane (vamśa), a ridge called Visūvant, and a net (Aksu), which may mean a thatch’ed covering over the bamboo ribs. The walls were filled up with grass in bundles (palada), and the whole structure was held together with ties of various sorts (nahana, prānāha, samdamśa, parisvañjalya).13 In connexion with the house, mention is made of four terms which, though primarily sacrificial in meaning, seem to designate parts of the building: Havirdhāna, ‘oblation-holder’; Agniśāla, ‘ fire¬place Patnīnām Sadana, wives’ room ’; and Sadas, ‘ sitting room.’ Slings or hanging vessels (Sikya) are also mentioned. Reedwork (ita) is spoken of, no doubt as part of the finishing of the walls of the house. The sides are called Paksa. The door with its framework was named Atā.
go ‘ox’ or ‘cow.’ These were among the chief sources of wealth to the Vedic Indian, and are repeatedly referred to from the Rigveda onwards. The milk (Ksīra) was either drunk fresh or made into butter (Ghrta) or curds (Dadhi), or was mixed with Soma or used for cooking with grain (Ksīraudana).The cows were milked thrice a day, early (prātar-doha), in the forenoon (Samgava), and in the evening (.sāyam-doha). Thrice a day they were driven out to graze, according to the Taittirīya Brāhmana (prātah, saφgave, say am). The first milking was productive, the last two scanty. According to the Aitareya Brāhmana, among the Bharatas the herds in the evening are in the Gostha, at midday in the Samgavinī. This passage Sāyana expands by saying that the herds go home to the Sālā, or house for animals, at night so far as they consist of animals giving milk, while the others stayed out in the Gostha, or open pasturage ; but both were together in the cattle-shed during the heat of the day. The time before the Samgava, when the cows were grazing freely on the pastureland, was called Svasara. When the cows were out feeding they were separated from the calves, which were, how¬ever, allowed to join them at the Samgava, and sometimes in the evening. While grazing the cattle were under the care of a herdsman (Gopā, Gopāla) armed with a goad, but they were liable to all sorts of dangers, such as being lost, falling into pits, breaking limbs, and being stolen. The marking of the ears of cattle was repeatedly adopted, no doubt, to indicate ownership. Large herds of cattle were well-known, as is shown by the Dānastutis, or ‘ praises of gifts,’ in the Rigveda, even when allowances are made for the exaggeration of priestly gratitude. The importance attached to the possession of cattle is shown by the numerous passages in which the gods are asked to prosper them, and by the repeated prayers for wealth in kine. Hence, too, forays for cattle (Gavisti) were well known; the Bharata host is called the ‘ horde desiring cows ’ (gavyan grāmak) in the Rigveda j and a verbal root gup, ‘ to protect,’ was evolved as early as the Rigveda from the denominative go-pāya, ‘ to guard cows.’ The Vedic poets do not hesitate to compare their songs with the lowing of cows, or to liken the choir of the singing Apsarases to cows. The cattle of the Vedic period were of many colours: red (:rohita), light (śakra), dappled (prśni), even black (krsna). Zimmer sees a reference to cows with blazes on the face in one passage of the Rigveda, but this is uncertain. Oxen were regularly used for ploughing or for drawing wágons (anadvāh), in which case they were, it seems, usually castrated. Cows were not properly used for drawing carts, though they at times did so. The flesh of both cows and bulls was sometimes eaten (Māmsa). Cattle were certainly the objects of individual ownership, and they formed one of the standards of exchange and valuation (see Kraya). The term Go is often applied to express the products of the cow. It frequently means the milk, but rarely the flesh of the animal. In many passages it designates leather used as the material of various objects, as a bowstring, or a sling, or thongs to fasten part of the chariot, or reins,or the lash of a whip. See also Carman, with which Go is sometimes synonymous.
gāvaḥ Means the stars of heaven in two passages of the Rigveda, according to Roth.
gotra Occurs several times in the Rigveda in the account of the mythic exploits of Indra. Roth interprets the word as cowstall,’ while Geldner thinks ‘ herd ’ is meant. The latter sense seems to explain best the employment which the term shows in the later literature as denoting the £ family or £ clan,’ and which is found in the Chāndogya Upanisad. In the Grhya Sūtras stress is laid on the prohibition of marriage within a Gotra, or with a Sapinda of the mother of the bridegroom—that is to say, roughly, with agnates and cognates. Senart has emphasized this fact as a basis of caste, on the ground that marriage within a curia, phratria, or caste (Varna) was Indo-European, as was marriage outside the circle of agnates and cognates. But there is no evidence at all to prove that this practice was Indo-European, while in India the Satapatha expressly recognizes marriage within the third or fourth degree on either side. According to Sāyana, the Kānvas accepted marriage in the third degree, the Saurāstras only in the fourth, while the scholiast on the Vajrasūcī adds to the Kānvas the Andhras and the Dāksinātyas, and remarks that the Vājasaneyins forbade marriage with the daughter of the mother’s brother. All apparently allowed marriage with the daughter of a paternal uncle, which later was quite excluded. Change of Gotra was quite possible, as in the case of Sunah- śepa and Grtsamada, who, once an Añgirasa, became a Bhārgava.
gomatī ‘Possessing cows,’ is mentioned as a river in the Nadī-stuti, or ‘Praise of Rivers,’ in the tenth Mandala of the Rigveda. In that hymn a river flowing into the Indus must be meant, and its identification with the Gomal, a western tributary of the Indus, cannot be doubted. In one other passage of the Rigveda the accentuation of Gomati shows that a river is meant. It is possible that in a third passage the reading should be changed to gomaiir from gomatīr. Geldner suggests that in the two last passages the Gumti, or rather its four upper arms (hence the use of the plural) is meant: this accords well with the later use of the name and with the general probability of the river here intended being in Kuruksetra, as the centre of Vedic civilization.
goṣṭha ‘Standing-place for cows,’ denotes not so much a ‘cowstall ’ as the 'grazing ground of cows,’ as Geldner1 shows from a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmana and from a note of Mahīdhara on the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. This sense suits adequately all the passages of the Rigveda where it occurs, and it greatly improves the interpretation of a hymn of the Atharvaveda, besides being acceptable elsewhere. See also Go.
gautamīputra (‘Son of a female descendant of Gotama ’) is mentioned in the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Bhāradvājīputra. In the Mādhyamdina a Gautamīputra is a pupil of Atreyī- putra, pupil of a Gautamīputra, pupil of Vātsīputra. See also Gotamīputra.
gaurivīti śāktya (‘Descendant of śakti’) or Gaurīviti, as the name is also spelt, is the Rsi, or Seer, of a hymn of the Rigveda, and is frequently mentioned in the Brāhmanas. According to the Jaiminīya Brāhmana, he was Prastotr at the Sattra, or sacrificial session, celebrated by the Vibhindukīyas and mentioned in that Brāhmana.
gauṣūkti Is the name of a pupil of Isa śyāvāśvi according to the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana in a Vamśa (list of teachers).It is also the name, in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, of a teacher who appears to have been needlessly invented to explain the Gausūkta Sāman (chant), which is really the Sāman of Gosūktin.
graha (‘Seizing ’) is a term applied to the sun in the śata­patha Brāhmana, most probably not in the later sense of ‘ planet,’ but to denote a power exercising magical influence. The sense of ‘ planet ’ seems first to occur in the later literature, as in the Maitrāyanī Upanisad. The question whether the planets were known to the Vedic Indians is involved in obscurity. Oldenberg recognizes them in the Adityas, whose number is, he believes, seven : sun, moon, and the five planets. But this view, though it cannot be said to be impossible or even unlikely, is not susceptible of proof, and has been rejected by Hillebrandt, Pischel, von Schroeder,Macdonell, and Bloom­field, among others. Hillebrandt sees the planets in the five Adhvaryus mentioned in the Rigveda, but this is a mere con­jecture. The five bulls (uksānah) in another passage of the Rigveda have received a similar interpretation with equal uncertainty, and Durga, in his commentary on the Nirukta, even explains the term bhūmija, ‘ earth-born,’ which is only men­tioned by Yāska, as meaning the planet Mars.Thibaut, who is generally sceptical as to the mention of planets in the Veda, thinks that Brhaspati there refers to Jupiter; but this is extremely improbable, though in the Taittirīya Samhitā Brhaspati is made the regent of Tisya. A reference to the planets is much more probable in the seven suns (sapta sūryāh) of the late Taittirīya Áranyaka. On the other hand, Ludwig’s efforts to find the five planets with the sun, the moon, and the twenty-seven Naksatras (lunar mansions) in the Rigveda, as corresponding to the number thirty-four used in connexion with light19 (jyotis) and the ribs of the sacrificial horse, is far¬fetched. See also Sukra, Manthin, Vena.
grāma The primitive sense of this word, which occurs frequently from the Rigveda onwards, appears to have been village.’ The Vedic Indians must have dwelt in villages which were scattered over the country, some close together, some far apart, and were connected by roads.The village is regularly contrasted with the forest (
ghṛṇīvant Is the name of some animal in the list of victims at the Aśvamedha, or horse sacrifice, in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. In the parallel passage of the Maitrāyanī Samhitā Ghrnāvant is the reading. Elsewhere the word is adjectival.
ghṛta The modern Ghee or ‘clarified butter,’ is repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda and later both as in ordinary use and as a customary form of sacrifice. According to a citation in Sāyana’s commentary on the Aitareya Brāhmana, the dis­tinction between Ghrta and Sarpis consisted in the latter being butter fully melted, while the former was butter melted and hardened (ghanī-bhūta), but this distinction cannot be pressed. Because the butter was thrown into the fire, Agni is styled ‘butter-faced’ (ghrta-pratīka), * butter-backed ’ (ghrta-prstha), and ‘ propitiated with butter ’ (ghrta-prasatta) ,β and ‘ fond of butter ’ (ghrta-prī). Water was used to purify the butter: the waters were therefore called butter-cleansing ’ (ghrta-pū). In the Aitareya Brāhmana it is said that Ajya, Ghrta, Ayuta, and Navanīta pertain to gods, men, Pitrs, and embryos respectively.
ghṛtakauśika Is mentioned in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Mādhyamdina recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Pārāśaryāyana.
ghora angirasa Is the name of a mythical teacher in the Kausītaki Brāhmana and the Chāndogya Upanisad,where he is teacher of the strange Krsna Devakīputra. That the name is certainly a mere figment is shown by the fact that this ‘dread descendant of the Añgirases' has a counterpart in Bhisaj Atharvana, ‘the healing descendant of the Atharvans,’ while in the Rigveda Sūtras the Atharvāno vedah is connected with bhesajam and the Añgiraso vedah with ghoram. He is accordingly a personification of the dark side of the practice of the Atharvaveda. He is also mentioned in the Aśvamedha section of the Kāthaka Samhitā.
ghoṣā Is mentioned as a protśgáe of the Aśvins in two passages of the Rigveda,probably as the recipient of a husband, who is perhaps referred to in another passage as Arjuna, though this is not likely. Sāyana finds a reference there to a skin disease, which is considered in the later tradition of the Brhaddevatā to have been the cause of her remaining unwed, but this view is not tenable. According to Sāyana, her son, Suhastya, is alluded to in an obscure verse of the Rigveda; Oldenberg, however, here sees a reference to Ghosā herself, while Pischel thinks that the form (ghose) is not a noun at all, but verbal.
cakṣus eye.’The ‘ evil eye * (ghoram caksus) was well known in the Atharvaveda, which contains spells to counteract its influence.As remedies against it are mentioned salve from Mount Trikakubh and the Jañgida plant. In the wedding ceremony the wife is entreated not to have the evil eye (aghora- caksus). The structure of the eye, and its division into white (śukla), dark (krsna), and the pupil (kanīnakā) are repeatedly referred to in the later Brāhmanas. The disease Alaji appears to have been an affection of the eyes.
camasa Denotes a drinking vessel,’ usually as employed for holding Soma at the sacrifice. It is frequently mentioned from the Rigveda onwards. It was made of wood (vrksa), and is hence called dm. According to the śatapatha Brāhmana, it was made of Udumbara wood.
camū Is a term of somewhat doubtful sense occurring repeatedly in the Rigveda, and connected with the preparation of Soma. Zimmer considers that in the dual it denotes the two boards between which, in his opinion, the Soma was crushed (cf. Adhisavana). Roth, however, appears to be right in taking the normal sense to designate a vessel into which the Soma was poured from the press, and Hillebrandt shows clearly that when it occurs in the plural it always has this sense, corresponding to the Graha-pātras of the later ritual, and that sometimes it is so used in the singular or dual also. In some cases, however, he recognizes its use as denoting the mortar in which the Soma was pressed: he may be right here, as this mode of preparation was probably Indo-Iranian. In a derivative sense Camū appears in the śatapatha Brāh¬mana to denote a trough, either of solid stone or consisting of bricks, used by the Eastern people to protect the body of the dead from contact with the earth, like modern stone-lined graves or vaults.
cākṣuṣa A word occurring once only in the Atharvaveda, is, according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, a patronymic (of Suyāman, a personification). Whitney treats it as probably a simple adjective (‘ of sight ’).
cāturmāsya ‘Four-monthly,’ denotes the festival of the Vedic ritual held at the beginning of the three seasons of four months each, into which the Vedic year was artificially divided. It is clear that the sacrifices commenced with the beginning of each season, and it is certain that the first of them, the Vaiśvadeva, coincided with the Phālgunī full moon, the second, the Varuna-praghāsas, with the AsadhI full moon, and the third, the Sāka-medha, with the Kārttikī full moon. There were, however, two alternative datings: the festivals could also be held in the Caitri, the Srāvanī, and Agrahāyanī (Mārgaśīrsī) full moons, or in the Vaiśākhī, Bhādrapadī, and Pausī full moons. Neither of the later datings is found in a Brāhmana text, but each may well have been known early, since the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana both recognize the full moon in the month Caitra as an alternative to the full moon in the month Phālguna, for the beginning of the year. Jacobi considers that the commencement of the year with the full moon in the asterism Phālgunī, which is supported by other evidence, indicates that the year at one time began with the winter solstice with the moon in Phālgunī, corresponding to the summer solstice when the sun was in Phālgunī. These astronomical conditions, he believes, existed in the time of the Rigveda, and prevailed in the fourth millennium B.C. The alternative dates would then indicate periods when the winter solstice coincided with the Caitrī or the Vaiśākhī full moon. But Oldenberg and Thibaut seem clearly right in holding that the coincidence of Phālgunī with the beginning of spring, which is certain, is fatal to this view, and that there is no difficulty in regarding this date as consistent with the date of the winter solstice in the new moon of Māgha, which is given by the Kausītaki Brāhmana, and which forms the basis of the calculations of the Jyotisa. The full moon in Phālguna would be placed about one month and a half after the winter solstice, or, say, in the first week of February, which date, according to Thibaut, may reasonably be deemed to mark the beginning of a new season in India about 800 B.C. At the same time it must be remembered that the date was necessarily artificial, inasmuch as the year was divided into three seasons, each of four months, and the Indian year does not in fact consist of three equal seasons. The variations of the other datings would then not be unnatural if any school wished to defer its spring festival, the Vaiśvadeva, to the time when spring had really manifested itself. See also Samvatsara.
citraratha (‘Having a brilliant car ’) is the name of two persons. (a) It designates an Aryan prince, who, with Arna, was defeated by Indra for the Turvaśa-Yadus on the Sarayu (perhaps the modern Sarju in Oudh), according to the Rigveda. The locality would accord with the close connexion of Turvaśa and Krivi or Pañcāla. (b) Citraratha is also the name of a king for whom the Kāpeyas performed a special kind of sacrifice (dvirātra), with the result, according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, that in the Caitrarathi family only one member was a Ksatra-pati, the rest dependents. Apparently this must mean that the Caitrarathis were distinguished from other families of princes by the fact that the chief of the clan received a markedly higher position than in most cases, in which probably the heads of the family were rather an oligarchy than a monarch and his dependents. See Rājan.
caikitāneya (‘Descendant of Cekitāna’) is mentioned as a teacher in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana. The Caikitā- neyas are also referred to there in connexion with the Sāman which they worshipped. Brahmadatta Caikitāneya is brought into connexion with the Sāman in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, and Vāsistha Caikitāneya is known to the Sadvimśa and Vamśa Brāhmanas. The word is a patronymic, formed from Caikitāna, according to śañkara, but more probably from Cekitāna, a name found in the Epic.
cyavana Are variant forms of the name of an ancient Ṛṣi, or seer. The Rigveda represents him as an old decrepit man, to whom the Aśvins restored youth and strength, making him acceptable to his wife, and a husband of maidens. The legend is given in another form in the śatapatha Brāh¬mana, where Cyavana is described as wedding Sukanyā, the daughter of śaryāta. He is there called a Bhrgu or Añgirasa, and is represented as having been rejuvenated by immersion in a pond—the first occurrence of a motive, later very common in Oriental literature. Another legend about Cyavāna is apparently alluded to in an obscure hymn of the Rigveda, where he seems to be opposed to the Paktha prince Tūrvayāna, an Indra worshipper, while Cyavāna seems to have been specially connected with the Aśvins. This explanation of the hymn, suggested by Pischel, is corroborated by the Jaiminīya Brāhmana, which relates that Vidanvant, another son of Bhrgu, supported Cyavana against Indra, who was angry with him for sacrificing to the Aśvins; it is also note¬worthy that the Aśvins appear in the śatapatha Brāhmana as obtaining a share in the sacrifice on the suggestion of Sukanyā. But a reconciliation of Indra and Cyavana must have taken place, because the Aitareya Brāhmana relates the inauguration of śāryāta by Cyavana with the great Indra consecration (aindrena mahābhisekena). In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaça Cyavana is mentioned as a seer of Sāmans or Chants.
chandas Occurs in one passage of the Atharvaveda in the adjectival compound brhac-chandas, which is used of a house, and must mean ‘having a large roof.’ Bloomfield accepts the reading as correct, but Whitney considers emendation to Chadis necessary.
chandoga ‘metre-singing,’ is the term applied to reciters of the Sāmans, no doubt because these chants were sung according to their order in the Chandaārcika of the Sāmaveda. It is only found in the Satapatha Brāhmana, and often in the Sūtras.
chardis occurs often in the Rigveda,1 and occasionally later,2 denoting a secure dwelling-place. The word appears to be incorrectly written, because the metre shows that the first syllable is always short. Roth3 accordingly suggested that Chadis should be read instead. But Chadis means ‘ roof,’ while Chardis never has that sense. Bartholomae4 is therefore prob­ably right in suggesting some other form, such as Chadis.
jana Besides meaning * man’ as an individual, with a tendency to the collective sense, commonly denotes a * people ’ or tribe ’ in the Rigveda and later. Thus, the five tribes ’(Panca Janāh or Janāsah) are frequently referred to, and in one hymn of the Rigveda the people of Yadu ’ (yādva jana) and the Yadus (yādvāh) are synonymous. Again, the king (rājan) is described as protector (gopā) of the people (janasya),’and there are other references to king and Jana. The people of the Bharatas (bhārata jana) is also mentioned ; there is no ground to assume with Hopkins that Jana in this case means a clan or horde (Grāma), as distinguished from a people. It is difficult to say exactly how a people was divided. Zimmer argues from a passage in the Rigveda that a people was divided into cantons (Viś), cantons into joint families or clans, or village communities (Grāma, Vrjana), and these again into single families. He thinks that the four divisions are reflected in the passage in question by Jana, Viś, Janman, and Putrālj, or sons, and argues that each village community was originally founded on relationship. But it is very doubtful whether this precise division of the people can be pressed. The division of the Jana into several Viś may be regarded as probable, for it is supported by the evidence of another passage of the Rigveda, which mentions the Viś as a unit of the fighting men, and thus shows that, as in Homeric times and in ancient Germany, relationship was deemed a good principle of military arrangement. But the subdivision of the Viś into several Gramas is very doubtful. Zimmer admits that neither Grāma nor Vrjana11 has the special sense of a subdivision of the Viś when used for war, for both words only denote generally an armed host. He finds other designations of the village host in Vrā12 and in Vrāja,13 but it is sufficient to say that the former passage is of extremely doubtful import,14 and that the latter has no reference to war at all. It is therefore impossible to state in what exact relation the Grāma in Vedic times stood to the Viś or to the family (Kula or Gotra). The confusion is increased by the vagueness of the sense of both Grāma and Viś. If the latter be regarded as a local division, then no doubt the Grāma must have been a part of a district; but if a Viś was a unit of relationship, then a Grāma may have contained families of different Viśes, or may have sometimes coincided with a Viś, or have contained only a part of a Viś. But in any case the original state of affairs must have been greatly modified by the rise of the system of caste, and the substitu¬tion of a hierarchical for a political point of view. The elements of the people were represented by the family—either as an individual family inhabiting one home (Kula), and con¬sisting often, no doubt, of a joint family of brothers, or as a patriarchal family of sons who still lived with their father—and by the clan, the later Gotra, which included all those who claimed a common ancestor. The Gotra may be regarded as roughly corresponding to the Latin gens and the Greek yevos, and possibly the Viś may be the equivalent of the curia and φprjτpη, and the Jana of the tribus and φυXov or φv\η.i These three divisions may also be seen in the Viś, Zantu, and Daqyu of the Iranian world, where the use of Viś suggests that in the Indian Viś a relationship based on blood rather than locality is meant—and perhaps even in the vicus, pagus, and ciυitas of the old German polity described in the Germania of Tacitus. The family in some form appears as the third element of the Jana in a passage of the Rigveda, where the house {grha) is contrasted with the Jana and the Viś. Possibly, too, another passage contrasts the adhvam, or family sacrifice, with that of the Jana or Viś, rather than, as Zimmer thinks, the village with the two larger units. But it is significant of the particu¬larism of the Vedic Indians that while the king maintained a fire which might be regarded as the sacred fire of the tribe, there is no sure trace of any intermediate cult between that of the king and that of the individual householder. The real elements in the state are the Gotra and the Jana, just as ultimately the gens and tribtis, the γei>oç and ψv\ov, are alone important. It may be that Viś sometimes represents in the older texts what later was known as the Gotra. See Viś. This appears clearly when the constitution of society in the Brāhmana period is considered. The tribe or people still exists, and is presupposed, but the division into Viś disappears. The real division is now the separate castes (Varna), but the numerous sections into which each of them is divided appear to be based in part on the ancient Gotra.
janamejaya (‘Man-impelling’) is the name of a king, a Pāriksita, famous towards the end of the Brāhmana period. He is mentioned in the Satapatha Brāhmana as owning horses which when wearied were refreshed with sweet drinks, and as a performer of the Aśvamedha, or horse sacrifice. His capital, according to a Gāthā quoted in the śatapatha and the Aitareya Brāhmanas, was Asandīvant. His brothers Ugrasena, Bhīmasena, and Srutasena are mentioned as having by the horse sacrifice purified themselves from sin. The priest who performed the sacrifice for him was Indrota Daivāpi Saunaka. On the other hand the Aitareya Brāhmana, which also mentions his Aśvamedha, names Tura Kāvaseya as his priest. It also contains an obscure tale stating that at one sacrifice of his he did not employ the Kaśyapas, but the Bhūtavīras, being, however, induced by the Asitamygas to have recourse to the Kaśyapas again. He was a Kuru prince; see Pariksit. The Gopatha Brāhmana tells an absurd tale about him, evidently as of an ancient hero.
jayanta Is the name of several teachers in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana: (a) Jayanta Pārāśarya (‘descendant of Parāśara’) is mentioned as a pupil of Vipaśeit in a Vamśa (list of teachers). (b) Jayanta Vārakya (‘ descendant of Varaka’) appears in the same Vamśa as a pupil of Kubera Vārakya. His grandfather is also mentioned there as a pupil of Kamsa Vārakya. A Jayanta Vārakya, pupil of Suyajña Sāndilya, perhaps identical with the preceding, is found in another Vamśa. (d)Jayanta is a name of Yaśasvin Lauhitya. See also Daksa Jayanta Lauhitya.
jarābodha A word occurring only once in the Rigveda, is of doubtful meaning. It is held by Ludwig to be the name of a seer. Roth regards it as a mere adjective meaning ‘ attending to the invocation,’ which is perhaps the most probable interpretation. Oldenburg, however, thinks that the word is a‘ proper name, the literal sense being ‘alert in old age.’
jarāyu Is found once in the Atharvaveda in the sense of a serpent’s skin.’ Usually it denotes the outer covering (chorion) of the embryo, as opposed to the ulva, the inner covering (amnion). Living things are occasionally classified according to their mode of origin. In the Chāndogya Upanisad they are divided into (a) āηda-ja, egg-born ’; (b) jīva-ja, * born alive,’ or born from the womb; (c) udbhij-ja, ‘ propagated by sprouts.’ In the Aitareya Áranyaka4 the division is fourfold: (a) āηda-ja; (b) jāru-ja, that is, jarāyu-ja (found in the Atharvaveda, and needlessly read here by Bohtlingk); (c) udbhij-ja; and (d) sveda-ja, ‘sweat-born,’ explained as ‘insects.’
jaritṛ According to Sieg, mention is made in one hymn of the Rigveda of Jaritr, one of the śārñgas. That hymn he seeks to bring into connexion with the epic tradition of the Rsi Mandapāla, who wedded Jaritā, a female Sārñga bird—apparently a hen sparrow (catakā)—and had four sons. These being abandoned by him and exposed to the danger of being consumed by a forest fire, prayed to Agni with the hymn Rigveda. This interpretation is very doubtful, though Sāyana appears to have adopted it.
jahnu Occurs only in the plural in the legend of Sunahśepa, who is said to have obtained, as Devarāta, both the lordship of the Jahnus and the divine lore of the Gāthins. A Jāhnava, or descendant of Jahnu, was, according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, Viśvāmitra, who is said, by means of a certain catū-rātra or four-night ’ ritual, to have secured the kingdom for the Jahnus in their conflict with the Vrcīvants. He is here described as a king. Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmana, Viśvāmitra is addressed as a rāja-putra, ‘prince,’ and Bharata- rsabha, ‘bull of the Bharatas.’ It is therefore clear that the Brāhmanas, though not the Samhitās, saw in him at once a priest and a prince by origin, though there is no trace whatever of their seeing in him a prince who won Brahmanhood as in the version of the later texts.A Jahnāvī is mentioned twice in the Rigveda, being either the wife of Jahnu, or, as Sāyana thinks, the race of Jahnu. The family must clearly once have been a great one, later merged in the Bharatas.
jātūkarṇya ‘Descendant of Jātūkarna,’ is the patronymic of several persons. (a) A pupil of Asurāyana and Yāska bears this name in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad in the Kānva recension. In the Mādhyamdina he is a pupil of Bhāradvāja. (b) A Kātyāyanī-putra, ‘son of Kātyāyanī,’ bears this name in the Sāñkhāyana Áranyaka. (c) A Jātūkarnya is mentioned in the Kausītaki Brāhmana as a contemporary of Alīkayu Vācaspatya and other sages. (d) Jātūkarnya is in the Sūtras5 frequently a patronymic of teachers whose identity cannot be determined. The same person or different persons may here be meant.
jānaka ‘Descendant of Janaka,’ is the patronymic of Kratuvid in some MSS. of the Aitareya Brāhmana. In the Taittirīya Samhitā the name appears instead as Kratujit Jānaki. Jānaka is also, according to some manuscripts of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, the patronymic of Ayasthūna, but is here no doubt a misreading of Jānaki.
jābālāyana ‘Descendant of Jābāla,’ is the patronymic of a teacher, a pupil of Mādhyamdināyana, who is mentioned in the second Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
jāmi A word which appears originally to have meant ‘ related in blood,’ is not rarely used as an epithet of ‘ sister ’ (Svasr), and sometimes even denotes ‘ sister ’ itself, the emphasis being on the blood-relationship. So it appears in a passage of the Atharvaveda, where ‘ brotherless sisters’ (abhrātara iva jāmayah) are referred to. The word is similarly used in the dispute occurring in the Aitareya Brāhmana as to the precedence of Rākā, or of the wives of the gods, in a certain rite. One party is there described as holding that the sister should be preferred (jāmyai vai pūrva-peyam)—apparently at a ceremonial family meal—to the wife, presumably as being of one blood with the husband, while the wife is not (being anyo- daryā, ‘of another womb’). In the neuter the word means ‘ relationship,’ like jāmi-tva, which also occurs in the Rigveda.
jīvagṛbh ‘Seizing alive,’ is, according to Roth, the term, for a police official in the Rigveda. But although this sense is rendered possible by the mention of Madhyamaśī, perhaps ‘ arbitrator,’ in the same passage, it is neither necessary nor probable.
jaitrāyaṇa sahojit Is apparently in the Kāthaka Samhitā the name of a prince who celebrated the Rājasūya, or ‘ royal consecration.’ Von Schroeder quotes in support of Jaitrā­yana as a proper name the derivative Jaitrāyani, ‘descendant of Jaitra/ formed according to the Gana harηādi, which is referred to by Pānini; but it should be noted that in the parallel passage of the Kapisthala Samhitā the reading is different, and no proper personal name appears, the subject being Indra, the god. This reading seems much more probable, for the verse should be general, and suit every king performing the rite.
jyeṣṭha Ordinarily meaning ‘ greatest,’ has further the specific sense of ‘ eldest ’ brother in the Rigveda. It also means the eldest among sons, which is another side of the same sense.
jhaṣa Is mentioned in the story of Manu told in the śata­patha Brāhmana, where it means a ‘ great fish ’ (mahā-matsya) according to the commentator. Eggeling suggests that a horned fish is meant, because in the Taittirīya Samhitā the Idā, or personified libation, is represented as a cow, and this may have brought in the idea of a horned fish in the later form of an old legend. But cf. Jasa.
takṣan ‘Carpenter/ is mentioned in the Rigveda and often later. He was employed to do all sorts of work in wood, such as the making of chariots (Ratha) and wagons (Anas). Carved work of a finer type seems also to have fallen to his lot. The axe is mentioned as one of his tools, and perhaps the Bhurij, a word which is, however, uncertain in sense. In one passage of the Rigveda6 reference seems to be made to the pains of the carpenter in bending over his work. That the carpenters were a low caste, or formed a separate class of the people, is certainly not true of Vedic times.
tarku ‘Spindle,’ is known only in Vedic literature from the mention of it in Yāska’s Nirukta as an example of the transposition of letters, the word being derived, according to him, from the root kart, ‘to spin.’
tarya Is according to Sāyana, the name of a man in one passage of the Rigveda. But the verse is hopelessly obscure.
tāyu Was another name for thief, perhaps of a less distinguished and more domestic character than the highway­man, for though he is referred to as a cattle-thief, he is also alluded to as a stealer of clothes (vastra-mathi)u and as a debtor. In one passage the Tāyus are said to disappear at the coming of dawn (which is elsewhere called yāvayad-dvesas driving away hostile beings,’ and rta-pā, ‘ guardian of order ’), like the stars of heaven (naksatra). In the Satarudriya litany of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā Rudra is called lord of assailers (ā-vyādhin), thieves (stena), robbers (taskara), pickpockets (stāyu), stealers (musnant), and cutters (1vi-krnta); and designations of sharpers (grtsa) and bands (gana, vrāta), apparently of robbers, are mentioned. It is therefore not surprising that the Rigveda should contain many prayers for safety at home or on the way, or that the Atharvaveda should devote several hymns to night chiefly for protection against the evil doings of thieves and robbers. Pischel suggests that in one passage of the Rigveda Vasistha is represented as a burglar, but he admits that, since Vasistha was attacking the house of his father Varuna, he was only seeking to obtain what he may have regarded as his own. But the interpretation of the hymn is not certain. Sayana’s explanation of one passage of the Rigveda, as referring to professional cattle-trackers, like the Khojis of the Panjab, seems quite probable.The punishment of thieves appears primarily to have been left to the action of the robbed. The practice of binding them in stocks seems clearly referred to. But later, at any rate— and in all probability earlier also, as in other countries—a more severe penalty could be exacted, and death inflicted by the king. There is no hint in Vedic literature of the mode of conviction; a fire ordeal is not known to the Atharvaveda, and the ordeal known to the Chāndogya Upanisad is not said to be used in the case of theft. No doubt the stolen property was recovered by the person robbed if he could obtain it. Nothing is known as to what happened if the property had passed from the actual thief into the possession of another person.
tāṇḍya Is the name of a teacher in the śatapatha Brāhmana, quoted on a point bearing on the Agniciti, or piling of the sacred fire. He is also mentioned in the Vamśa Brāhmana. The Tāndya Mahābrāhmana or Pañcavimśa Brāhmana of the Sāmaveda represents the school of the Tāndins.
tānva Appears to be a patronymic, 'descendant of Tanva,' in a verse of the Rigveda. Ludwig thinks that it is the patronymic of Duḥśīma, who is mentioned in the preceding verse, but this is uncertain.
tārukṣya Is the name of a teacher in the Aitareya and śāñkhāyana Aranyakas. In the former passage Tārksya is a variant reading, and in the latter Tārksya is read, but this is probably only due to confusion with Tārksya, the reputed author of a Rigvedic hymn.
tiraśca Is read in some manuscripts of the Atharvaveda in the description of the Vrātya's throne (Asandi), meaning ‘the cross-pieces.’ But the reading should be tiraścye, which is adjectival, and is used in the same sense.
tiraścī Is, according to the Anukramanī, the author of a Rigvedic hymn in which he appeals to Indra to hear his call. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmana adopts this view of the name, and mentions a Tiraścī Añgirasa. But Roth thinks that the word is not a proper name at all.
tugra Appears in the Rigveda as the name of the father of Bhujyu, a protege of the Aśvins, who is accordingly called Tugrya or Taugrya. A different Tugra seems to be referred to in other passages of the Rigveda as an enemy of Indra.
turvaśa Occurs frequently in the Rigveda as the name of a man or of a people, usually in connexion with Yadu. The two words usually occur in the singular without any connecting particle, Turvaśa Yadu or Yadu Turvaśa. In a plural form the name Turvaśa occurs once with the Yadus, and once alone in a hymn in which the singular has already been used. In one passage the dual Turvaśā-Yadñ actually occurs, and in another Yadus Turvaś ca, ‘Yadu and Turva.’ In other passages Turvaśa appears alone, while in one Turvaśa and Yādva occur. From these facts Hopkins deduces the erroneousness of the ordinary view, according to which Turvaśa is the name of a tribe, the singular denoting the king, and regards Turvaśa as the name of the Yadu king. But the evidence for this is not conclusive. Without laying any stress on the argument based on the theory that the five peoples’ of the Rigveda are the Anus, Druhyus, Turvaśas, Yadus, and Pūrus, it is perfectly reasonable to hold that the Turvaśas and Yadus were two distinct though closely allied tribes. Such they evidently were to the seers of the hymns which mention in the dual the Turvaśā-Yadū and speak of Yadus Turvaś ca. This explanation also suits best the use of the plural of Turvaśa in two Rigvedic hymns. In the Rigveda the chief exploit of Turvaśa was his partici¬pation in the war against Sudās, by whom he was defeated. Hopkins suggests that he may have been named Turvaśa because of his fleet (tura) escape from the battle. His escape may have been assisted by Indra, for in some passages Indra’s aid to Turvaśa (and) Yadu is referred to; it is also significant that the Anu, and apparently the Druhyu, kings are mentioned as having been drowned in the defeat, but not the Turvaśa and Yadu kings, and that Turvaśa appears in the eighth book of the Rigveda as a worshipper of Indra with the Anu prince, the successor, presumably, of the one who was drowned. Griffith, however, proposes to refer these passages to a defeat by Turvaśa and Yadu of Arna and Citraratha on the Sarayu ; but the evidence for this is quite inadequate. Two passages of the Rigveda seem to refer to an attack by Turvaśa and Yadu on Divodāsa, the father of Sudās. It is reasonable to suppose that this was an attack of the two peoples on Divodāsa, for there is some improbability of the references being to the Turvaśa, who was concerned in the attack on Sudās, the son. Zimmer considers that the Turvaśas were also called Vrcī- vants. This view is based on a hymn in which reference is made to the defeat of the Vrcīvants on the Yavyāvatī and Hariyūpīyā in aid of Daivarāta, and of Turvaśa in aid of Srñjaya, the latter being elsewhere clearly the son of Deva- rāta. But as this evidence for the identification of the Turvaśas with the Vrcīvants is not clear, it seems sufficient to assume that they were allies. Later, in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Turvaśas appear as allies of the Pañcālas, Taurvaśa horses, thirty-three in number, and armed men, to the number of 6,ooo, being mentioned. But otherwise the name disappears: this lends probability to Oldenberg’s conjecture that the Turvaśas became merged in the Pañcāla people. Hopkins considers that in the śatapatha passage the horses were merely named from the family of Turvaśa; but this view is less likely, since it ignores the difficulty involved in the reference to the men. It is impossible to be certain regarding the home of the Turvaśas at the time of their conflict with Sudās. They apparently crossed the Parusnī, but from which side is dis¬puted. The view of Pischel and Geldner, that they advanced from the west towards the east, where the Bharatas were (see Kuru), is the more probable.
turvīti Is mentioned several times in the Rigveda, both in association with Vayya and alone. In three passages reference is made to Indra aiding him over a flood. Ludwig has conjectured that he was king of the Turvaśas and Yadus. But there is no sufficient evidence for this view, though presumably he was of the Turvaśa tribe.
tulā ‘Scales,’ is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. The śatapatha Brāhmana also speaks of the balance in con­nexion with the weighing of a man’s good and evil deeds in the next and in this world. This differs very considerably from the later balance ordeal, in which a man was weighed twice, and was pronounced guilty or innocent according as, on the second occasion, he was more or less heavy than on the first. It is not possible to read the later practice into the earlier.
tṛtsu Occurs in the Rigveda, once in the singular and several times in the plural, as a proper name. The Trtsus were clearly helpers of Sudās in the great battle against the ten kings, Simyu, the Turvaśa, the Druhyu, Kavasa, the Pūru, the Anu, Bheda, Sambara, the two Vaikarnas, and perhaps the Yadu, who led with them as allies the Matsyas, Pakthas, Bhalānas, Alinas, Visānins, Sivas, Ajas, Sigrus, and perhaps Yaksus. The defeat of the ten kings is celebrated in one hymn of the Rigveda, and is evidently alluded to in two others. The great battle took place on the Parusnī, but there was also a fight on the Yamunā with Bheda, the Ajas, Sigrus, and Yaksus. As the Yamunā and the Parusnī represent opposite ends of the territory of the Trtsus (for we cannot with Hopkins safely identify the streams), it is difficult to see exactly how the ten kings could be confederated, but it should be noted that the references to the ten kings occur in the two later hymns, and not in the hymn describing the battle itself; besides, absolute numerical accuracy cannot be insisted upon.It is difficult exactly to determine the character of the Trtsus, especially in their relation to the Bharatas, who under Visvamitra’s guidance are represented as prospering and as advancing to the Vipāś and Sutudrī. Roth ingeniously brought this into connexion with the defeat of his enemies by Sudās, which is celebrated in the seventh book of the Rigveda—a book attributed to the Vasistha family—and thought that there was a reference in one verse to the defeat of the Bharatas by Sudās. But it seems certain that the verse is mistranslated, and that the Bharatas are really represented as victors with Sudās. Ludwig accordingly identifies the Trtsus and the Bharatas. Oldenberg, after accepting this view at first, later expressed the opinion that the Trtsus were the priests of the Bharata people, and therefore identical with the Vasisthas. This view is supported by the fact that in one passage the Trtsus are clearly described as wearing their hair in the peculiar manner affected by the Vasisthas, and would in that passage thus seem to represent the Vasisthas. But Geldner has suggested with great probability that Trtsu, who is once mentioned in the singular, means the Trtsu king—that is, Sudās. This explanation alone justifies the description of the Bharatas as Trtsūnām viśah, ‘ subjects of the Trtsus,’ meaning the Trtsu Gotra or family, for the people could not be said to be subjects of a body of priests. The Vasisthas might be called Trtsus because of their close con¬nexion with the royal house of that people. The reverse process is also quite possible, but is rendered improbable by the fact that the Pratrdah are referred to as receiving Vasistha. This name of the Trtsu dynasty is probably older than its connexion with Vasistha in the time of Sudās, a conclusion supported by the name of Pratardana, who is mentioned later as a descendant of Divodāsa, an ancestor of Sudās. The Trtsu dynasty could therefore hardly have been referred to as Vasisthas. For the further history of the dynasty and its relation with Vasistha and Viśvāmitra, see Sudās. If the Trtsus and their subjects, the Bharatas, were in the Rigvedic period at war with the tribes on either side of the territory between the Parusnī and the Yamunā, it is clear that later on they coalesced with the Pūrus and probably others of those tribes to form the Kuru people. Already in the Rigveda the Trtsus are allied with the Srñjayas, and in the śatapatha Brāhmana one Purohita serves both Kurus and Srñjayas. Hillebrandt considers that the Trtsus cannot be identified with the Bharatas, but that Sudās and the Bharatas represent an invading body, which, however, became allied with the Trtsus and the Vasistha priests. He also thinks that the Rigveda reveals a time when Divodāsa, the grandfather or ancestor of Sudās, was living in Arachosia, on the Sarasvatī, and warring against the Panis, whom he identifies with the Parnians. But this conjecture cannot be regarded as probable. In the Sarasvatī it is not necessary to see any other river than the later Sarasvatī, in the middle country, which flowed within the boundaries of the Trtsus: it is also significant that there are references to contests between Turvaśa Yadu and Atithigva or Divodāsa. Thus there is no reason to doubt that Divodāsa and the Bharatas were in the middle country, and not in Iran.
taula The reading of the text of the Atharvaveda, and a form which is otherwise unknown and cannot be satis­factorily explained, must doubtless be meant for Taila.
trasadasyu Son of Purukutsa, is mentioned in the Rigveda as king of the Pūrus. He was born to Purukutsa by his wife, Purukutsānī, at a time of great distress; this, according to Sāyana, refers to Purukutsa’s captivity: possibly his death is really meant. Trasadasyu was also a descendant of Giriksit and Purukutsa was a descendant of Durgaha. The genealogy, therefore, appears to be: Durgaha, Giriksit, Purukutsa, Trasa­dasyu. Trasadasyu was the ancestor of Tpksi, and, according to Ludwig, had a son Hiranin. Trasadasyu’s chronological position is determined by the fact that his father, Purukutsa, was a contemporary of Sudās, either as an opponent or as a friend. That Purukutsa was an enemy of Sudās is more probable, because the latter’s predecessor, Divodāsa, was apparently at enmity with the Pūrus, and in the battle of the ten kings Pūrus were ranged against Sudās and the Trtsus. Trasadasyu himself seems to have been an energetic king. His people, the Pūrus, were settled on the Sarasvatī, which was, no doubt, the stream in the middle country, that locality according well with the later union of the Pūrus with the Kuru people, who inhabited that country. This union is exemplified in the person of Kuruśravana, who is called Trāsadasyava, ‘ descendant of Trasadasyu,’ in the Rigveda, whose father was Mitrātithi, and whose son was Upamaśravas. The relation of Mitrātithi to Trksi does not appear. Another descendant of Trasadasyu was Tryaruna Traivrsna, who is simply called Trasadasyu in a hymn of the Rigveda. He was not only a 4 descendant of Trivrsan,’ but, according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, he was also Traidhātva, descendant of Tridhātu.’ The order of these two predecessors of Tryaruna cannot be determined in any way from Vedic literature. According to the later tradition, a prince named Tridhanvan preceded Tryaruna in the succession. Vedic tradition further fails to show in what precise relation Trasadasyu stood to Trivrsan or Tryaruna.
trikadruka A term used in the plural only, appears to denote three vessels of some kind for holding Soma.
triplakṣa masc. plur., ‘The three fig-trees,’ is the name of the place where the Drsadvatī disappeared, near the Yamunā, according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana.
triveda kṛṣṇarāta lauhitya (‘Descendant of Lohita ’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of śyāmajayanta Lauhitya, according to a Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana
traivaṇi Is mentioned as a pupil of Aupacandhani or Aupa- jandhani in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. In the Madhyamdina recension his name occurs twice in the second Vamśa, in both cases as a pupil of Aupajandhani.
tryāśir With three admixtures,’ is an epithet of Soma in the Rigveda. According to Sāyana this means mixed with, curds (Dadhi), meal (Saktu), and milk (Payas). More accurately it would seem to denote the milk (gavāsir), the barley (yavāśir), and the curds (dadhyāśir), which were used to mix with the Soma.
tvac ‘Skin,’ ‘hide,’ (a) denotes specially in the Rigveda1 the hide used in the process of extracting the Soma juice from the plant. The Soma was pounded with stones (adri) upon the skin laid on the pressing boards (adhisavaηe phalake), which, however, are not mentioned in the Rigveda. Or if a pestle and mortar were used, the skin was still placed underneath them to catch the drops of juice, not above, as Pischel thought. (b) Tvac also denotes the rind of the Soma plant that remains after the juice has been extracted. (c) Metaphorically the term krsnā tvac, ‘ the black skins,’ is applied to the aboriginal enemies of the invading Aryans.
tsārin Denotes, in one passage of the Rigveda, a hunter ’ engaged in the chase of the takva (an unknown beast), according to Ludwig and Max Muller. But this explanation is quite conjectural.
daṇḍa ‘Staff.’ (a) This word is often mentioned in the ordinary sense; for example, when used for driving cattle (go-ajaηāsah), or as a weapon. A staff was given to a man on consecration for driving away demons, according to the śatapatha Brāhmana.3 The staff also played a part in the initiation (upaηayaηa) of a youth on attaining manhood. In a modified sense the word is used to denote the handle of a ladle or similar implement. (b) The ‘staff’ as the symbol of temporal power, implying punishment, is applied by the king (rāja-presito dandah). The king, in modern phraseology, was the source of criminal law ; and he clearly retained this branch of law in his own hands even in later times. The punishment of the non-guilty (a-dandya) is given as one of the characteristics of the non- Brahminical Vrātyas in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. See also Dharma.
dant ‘Tooth,’ is frequently mentioned from the Rigveda onwards. Cleansing (dhāv) the teeth was an ordinary act, especially in preparation for a sacrifice, and accompanied bathing, shaving of the hair and beard (keśa-śmaśru), and the cutting of the nails. A hymn of the Atharvaveda celebrates the appearance of the first two teeth of a child, though its exact interpretation is doubtful. In the Aitareya Brāhmana there is a reference to a child’s first teeth falling out. The word seems in the Rigveda once to denote an elephant’s tusk. Whether dentistry was practised is doubtful. The occurrence in the Aitareya Aranyaka of Hiranya-dant, ‘gold-toothed,’ as the name of a man, is perhaps significant, especially as it is certain that the stopping of teeth with gold was known at Rome as early as the legislation of the Twelve Tables.
dama ‘House,’ is a word that occurs several times in the Rigveda. It denotes, according to Roth, the place in which a man wields uncontrolled power (from the root dam, ‘control ’).
daśadyu Appears twice in the Rigveda as the name of a hero, but nothing can be made out regarding him or his relation to Vetasu, who is mentioned in one passage along with him.
daśan ‘Ten,’ forms the basis of the numerical system of the Vedic Indians, as it does of the Aryan people generally. But it is characteristic of India that there should be found at a very early period long series of names for very high numerals, whereas the Aryan knowledge did not go beyond 1,000. In the Vājasaneyi Samhitā the list is 1 ; 10; 100; 1,000 ; ιο,οοο {ayuta) \ ιοο,οοο (ηiyuta); ι,οοο,οοο(prayuta); 10,000,000 {arbuda); 100,000,000 (ηyarbuda)', 1,000,000,000 (samudra); 10,000,000,000 (madhya); ιοο,οοο,οοο,οοο (aηta); 1,000,000,000,000 {parārdha). In the Kāthaka Samhitā the list is the same, but ηiyuta and prayuta exchange places, and after ηyarbuda a new figure (badva) intervenes, thus increasing samudra to ιο,οοο,οοο,οοο, and so on. The Taittirīya Samhitā has in two places exactly the same list as the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. The Maitrāyanī Samhitā has the list ayuta, prayuta, then ayuta again, arbuda, ηyarbuda, samudra, madhya, aηta, parārdha. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmana has the Vājasaneyi list up to ηyarbuda inclusive, then follow ηikharvaka, badva, aksita, and apparently go = ι,οοο,οοο,οοο,οοο. The Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana list replaces nikharvaka by nikharva, badva by padma, and ends with aksitir vyomāntah. The śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra con¬tinues the series after nyarbuda with nikharvāda, samudra, salila, antya, ananta (=10 billions).But beyond ayuta none of these numbers has any vitality. Badva, indeed, occurs in the Aitareya Brāhmana, but it cannot there have any precise numerical sense j and later on the names of these high numerals are very much confused. An arithmetical progression of some interest is found in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, where occurs a list of sacrificial gifts in which each successive figure doubles the amount of the preceding one. It begins with dvādaśa-mānam hiranyam, * gold to the value of 12 ’ (the unit being uncertain, but probably the Krsnala18), followed by ‘to the value of 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1,536, 3072/ then dve astāvimśati-śata-māne, which must mean 2 x 128 X 24 (the last unit being not a single māna, but a number of 24 mānas) = 6,144, then 12,288, 24,576, 49,152, 98,304, 196,608, 393,216. With these large numbers may be compared the minute theoretical subdivision of time found in the śatapatha Brāhmana, where a day is divided into 15 muhūrtas—1 muhūrta =15 ksipras, 1 ksipra =15 etarhis, I etarhi = 15 idānis, 1 idāni =15 prānas. The śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra15 has a decimal division of the day into 15 muhūrtas—• i muhūrta = 10 nimesas, 1 nimesa = 10 dhvamsis. Few fractions are mentioned in Vedic literature. Ardha, pāda, śapha, and kalā denote J, J, TV respectively, but only the first two are common. Trtīya denotes the third part.16 In the Rigveda Indra and Visnu are said to have divided ι,οοο by 3, though how they did so is uncertain. Tri-pād denotes 4 three-fourths.’ There is no clear evidence that the Indians of the Vedic period had any knowledge of numerical figures, though it is perfectly possible.
daśavṛkṣa Is the name of a tree, according to Roth, in the Atharvaveda. But Whitney treats the word as a mere adjective meaning ‘ of ten trees.’
daśonasi Is the name of a kind of snake in the Atharvaveda. The reading of the Paippalāda recension is Naśonaśī.
dasyave saha Is,according to Roth, the name of a man or a clan in the Rigveda. But he admits that the words may be an epithet of Agni. This is the interpretation given to them by Oldenberg.
dasyu A word of somewhat doubtful origin, is in many passages of the Rigveda clearly applied to superhuman enemies. On the other hand, there are several passages in which human foes, probably the aborigines, are thus designated. This may be regarded as certain in those passages where the Dasyu is opposed to the Aryan, who defeats him with the aid of the gods. The great difference between the Dasyus and the Aryans was their religion : the former are styled 4 not sacrificing,’ 4 devoid of rites,’ 4 addicted to strange vows,’ ‘ god- hating,’ and so forth. As compared with the Dāsa, they are less distinctively a people: no clans (viśah) of the Dasyus are mentioned, and while Indra’s dasyu-hatya,. slaughter of the Dasyus,’ is often spoken of, there is no corresponding use of dāsa-hatya. That the Dasyus were real people is, however, shown by the epitdet anās applied to them in one passage of the Rigveda. The sense of this word is not absolutely certain : the Pada text and Sāyana both take it to mean 4 without face ’ (an-ās), but the other rendering, 4 noseless ’ (a-nās), is quite possible, and would accord well with the flat-nosed aborigines of the Dravidian type, whose language still persists among the Brahuis, who are found in the north-west. This interpretation would receive some support from Vrtra’s being called * broken-nosed ’ if this were a correct explanation of the obscure word rujānās. The other epithet of the Dasyus is mrdhra-vāc, which occurs with anās, and which has been rendered ‘of stam¬mering, or unintelligible speech.’ This version is by no means certain, and since the epithet is elsewhere applied to Aryans, its correct meaning is more probably ‘of hostile speech.’ Dasyu corresponds with the Iranian dañliu, daqyu, which denotes a ‘ province.’ Zimmer thinks that the original meaning was ‘enemy,’ whence the Iranians developed the sense of ‘hostile country,’ ‘conquered country,’ ‘province,’ while the Indians, retaining the signification of ‘ enemy,’ extended it to include demon foes. Roth considers that the meaning of human enemy is a transfer from the strife of gods and demons. Lassen16 attempted to connect the contrast daqyu: dasyu with that of daeva : deva, and to see in it a result of the religious differences which, according to Haug’s theory, had separated the Iranians and the Indians. The word may have originally meant 4 ravaged land ’ as a result of invasion ;hence ‘enemies’ country,’ then ‘hostile people,’ who as human foes were more usually called by the cognate name of Dāsa. Individual Dasyus are Cumuri, Sambara, Susna, etc. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the word has, as later, the sense of uncivilized peoples generally.
dāya Occurs in the Rigveda only in the sense of ‘reward’ of exertion (śrama), but later it means ‘inheritance’—that is, a father’s property which is to be divided among his sons either during his lifetime or after his death. The passages all negative the idea that the property 0/ the family was legally family property: it is clear that it was the property of the head of the house, usually the father, and that the other members of the family only had moral claims upon it which the father could ignore, though he might be coerced by his sons if they were physically stronger. Thus Manu is said in the Taittirīya Samhitā to have divided his property among his sons. He omitted Nābhānedistha, whom he afterwards taught how to appease the Añgirases, and to procure cows. This is a significant indication that the property he divided was movable property, rather than land (Urvarā). In the Aitareya Brāhmana the division is said to have been made during Manu’s lifetime by his sons, who left only their aged father to Nābhānedistha. According to the Jaiminīya Brāhmana, again, four sons divided the inheritance while their old father, Abhipratārin, was still alive. It is, of course, possible to regard Dāya as denoting the heritable property of the family, but the developed patria potestas of the father, which was early very marked, as shown by the legend of Sunahśepa, is inconsistent with the view that the sons were legally owners with their father, unless and until they actually insisted on a division of the property. Probably— there is no evidence of any decisive character—land was not divided at first, but no doubt its disposal began to follow the analogy of cattle and other movable property as soon as the available supply of arable land became limited. As for the method of division, it is clear from the Taittirīya Samhitā that the elder son was usually preferred; perhaps this was always the case after death. During the father’s life¬time another might be preferred, as appears from a passage of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Women were excluded from partition or inheritance, according to the śatapatha Brāhmana and the Nirukta. They were, no doubt, supported by their brothers; but if they had none they might be reduced to prostitution. Detailed rules of inheritance appear in the Sūtras.
dāva ‘forest fire,’ is mentioned in the Atharvaveda and the Satapatha Brāhmana. In the latter work such fires are referred to as occurring in spring. According to Sieg, a hymn of the Rigveda describes a forest fire. Watchers were employed to guard against surprise from such conflagrations (dāva-pa).
dāsa Like Dasyu, sometimes denotes enemies of a demoniac character in the Rigveda, but in many passages the word refers to human foes of the Aryans. The Dāsas are described as having forts (purafy), and their clans {viśah) are mentioned. It is possible that the forts, which are called ‘ autumnal ’ (śāradīh), may be mythical, but it is not essential, for the epithet may allude to their being resorted to in the autumn season. The Dāsa colour (Varna)6 is probably an allusion to the black skin of the aborigines, which is also directly mentioned. The aborigines (as Dasyus) are called anās, ‘nose¬less’ (?), and mrdhra-vāc, ‘ of hostile speech/9 and are probably meant by the phallus-worshippers (śiśna-devāh, ‘whose deity is a phallus ’) of the Rigveda. It is significant that constant. reference is made to the differences in religion between Arya and Dāsa or Dasyu. Since the Dāsas were in many cases reduced to slavery, the word Dāsa has the sense of * slave ’ in several passages of the Rigveda. Dāsī, the feminine, always has this sense from the Atharvaveda onwards. Aboriginal women were, no doubt, the usual slaves, for on their husbands being slain in battle they would naturally have been taken as servants. They would sometimes also become concubines; thus Kavasa was taunted with being the son of a female slave (dāsyāh putrah) in the Aitareya Brāhmana. Ludwig considers that in some passages Dāsa is applied, in the sense of enemy,’ to Aryan foes, but this is uncertain. Zimmer and Meyer think that Dāsa originally meant enemy in general, later developing in Iran into the name of the Dahae of the Caspian steppes, and in India into a desig¬nation of the aborigines. On the other hand, Hillebrandt argues that, as the Dāsas and the Panis are mentioned together, they must be deemed to be closely related tribes, identifying the Panis with the Parnians and the Dāsas of the Rigveda with the Dahae. This view, of course, necessitates a transfer of the scenes of the Rigveda, where Dāsas are prominent, and especially those in which Divodāsa—‘ the heavenly Dāsa’—plays an important part, to the far west. Hillebrandt justifies this by regarding the scene of the sixth book of the Rigveda as quite different from that of the seventh and third, in which Sudās, the Bharatas, Vasistha, and Viśvāmitra appear. The Sarasvatī of the sixth book he locates in Arachosia, that of the seventh in the Middle Country.’ It is, however, extremely doubtful whether this theory can be upheld. That Divodāsa should have been a Dāsa, and yet have fought against other Dāsas, is not in itself likely, especially when his son Sudās appears as a protagonist of Aryan civilization. It also seems unreasonable to seek in Arachosia for the river Sarasvatī, which it is natural to locate in the Middle Country. ’The wealth of the Dāsas was no doubt considerable, but in civilization there is no reason to suppose that they were ever equal to the invaders. Leading Dāsas were Ilībiśa, Cumuri and Dhuni, Pipru, Varcin, Sambara. For names of aboriginal tribes, see Kirāta, Kīkata, Candāla, Parnaka, Simyu.
dāsya Occurs once in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad (iv. 2, 30 Mādhyamdina = 23 Kānva) in the sense of‘slavery.’
div ‘Sky.’ The world as a whole is regarded as divided into the three domains of ‘earth/ ‘air’ or ‘atmosphere,’ and ‘heaven’ or ‘sky’ (div) or alternatively into ‘heaven and earth’ (dyāvā-prthivī), which two are then considered as com­prising the universe, the atmosphere being included in the sky. Lightning, wind, and rain belong to the atmosphere, solar and The shape of the earth is compared with a wheel in the Rigveda, and is expressly called * circular ’ (pari-mandala) in the Satapatha Brāhmana. When earth is conjoined with heaven, the two are conceived as great bowls (camvā) turned towards each other. In the Aitareya Aranyaka the two are regarded as halves of an egg. The distance of heaven from the earth is given by the Atharvaveda as a thousand days’ journey for the sun-bird, by the Aitareya Brāhmana as a thousand days’ journey for a horse, while the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana whimsically estimates the distance as equivalent to a thousand cows standing one on the top of the other.According to Zimmer, the Vedic poets conceived the atmosphere to be above the earth in its upper division only, but below it in its lower stratum. The evidence, however, for the latter assumption is quite insufficient. The theory of the Aitareya Brāhmana is that the sun merely reverses its bright side at night, turning its light on the stars and the moon while it retraverses its course to the east; and it has been shown that this is probably the doctrine of the Rigveda also. See also Sūrya and Candramās. For the Vedic knowledge of the planets, see Graha. There is no geographical division of the earth in Vedic literature. The Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana states that the centre of the earth is a span north of the Plaksa Prāsravanā, and that the centre of the sky is the constellation of the seven Esis, the Great Bear. For the quarters, see Diś.
divodāsa atithigva Is one of the leading princes of the early Vedic age. He was a son of Vadhryaśva, and father, or more probably grandfather, of Sudās, the famous king of the Trtsu family, among the Bharatas. Probably Pijavana was the son and Sudās the grandson. Divodāsa was naturally a Bharata, and, like Sudās, was an opponent of the Turvaśas and Yadus. His great enemy was śambara, the Dāsa, who was apparently chief of a mountain people, and whom he repeatedly defeated. He was also, it seems, like his father Vadhryaśva, an energetic supporter of the fire ritual, for Agni is once called by his name in the Rigveda. On the other hand, he was defeated, with Ayu and Kutsa, by Indra’s aid. In several passages he seems closely connected with the singer family, the Bharadvājas. From one passage, where Divodāsa is said to have fought against the Panis, the Pārāvatas, and Brsaya, Hillebrandt has inferred that he was engaged in conflicts with the tribes of Arachosia, and interpreting the name as the ‘heavenly Dāsa’ conjectures that he was himself a Dāsa. This conclusion is not probable, for the Sarasvatī on which the battle in question took place, and which can hardly be the Haraqaiti of Arachosia, would naturally designate the later Sarasvatī, while the Pārāvatas are mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, as in the east, about the Yamunā. Bergaigne’s opinion that Divodāsa and Atithigva were different people cannot be supported in view of the complete parallelism in the acts of the two persons. See also Pratardana. The people of Divodāsa are referred to in a hymn of the Rigveda.
divya ‘Ordeal,’ is a term not found until the later literature, but several references to the practice of ordeals have been seen in Vedic literature. The fire ordeal seen in the Atharvaveda1 by Schlagintweit, Weber, Ludwig, Zimmer, and others, has been disproved by Grill, Bloomfield, and Whitney. But such an ordeal appears in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, and an ordeal with a glowing axe occurs in the Chāndogya Upanisad as applied in an accusation of theft. Geldner suggests that this usage is referred to even in the Rigveda, but this is most improbable. Ludwig and Griffith discover in another passage of the Rigveda references to Dīrghatamas’ having been subjected to the fire and water ordeals, but this view cannot be supported. According to Weber the 'balance’ ordeal is referred to in the śatapatha Brāhmana, but see Tulā.
dīrghatamas (‘ Long darkness ’) Māmateya (* son of Mamatā ’) Aucathya (‘son of Ucatha’) is mentioned as a singer in one hymn of the Rigveda, and is referred to in several passages by his metronymic, Māmateya, alone. He is said, both in the Rigveda and in the Sāñkhāyana Áranyaka, to have attained the tenth decade of life. In the Aitareya Brāhmana he appears as the priest of Bharata. The Brhaddevatā contains a preposterous legend made up of fragments of the Rigveda,® according to which Dīrghatamas was born blind, but recovered his sight; in old age he was thrown into a river by his servants, one of whom, Traitana, attacked him, but killed himself instead. Carried down by the stream, he was cast up in the Añga country, where he married Uśij, a slave girl, and begot Kaksīvant. The two legends here combined are not even con­sistent, for the second ignores Dīrghatamas’ recovery of sight. To attach any historical importance to them, as does Pargiter, would seem to be unwise.
dīrghaśravas (‘ Far-famed ’) is the name of a royal seer who, according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, having been banished from his kingdom, and suffering from actual hunger, ‘saw’ a certain Sāman (chant), and thus obtained food. In one passage of the Rigveda an Auśija, a merchant (vanij), is mentioned as dīrgha-śravas, which may be a proper name, as Sāyana holds, or an adjective, as it is understood by Roth.
dīrghāpsas Used in the Rigveda as an epithet of a chariot, means, according to Roth, ‘ having a long front part.’
dughā ‘Yielding milk,’ denotes cow ’ in a few passages in the Samhitās.
duṣṭarītu ‘Hard to defeat,’ is the name of a king of the Srñjayas, who was deposed from a principality that had existed for ten generations, but was re-instated by Cākra Sthapati in spite of the resistance of Balhika Prātipīya, according to the Satapatha Brāhmana.
dṛbhīka Is the name of a man or a demon, who, according to the Rigveda, was slain by Indra.
devakīputra Son of Devakī,’ is the metronymic of Kpsija in the Chāndogya Upanisad. According to the Epic, a Devaka was father of Devakī, Krsna’s mother ; the St. Peters­burg Dictionary suggests that he was the ‘ king of the Gandh­arvas’, also referred to in the Epic.
devatyā Occurs in the text of the Atharvaveda, where it must, if the reading is correct, denote some animal. But the reading should no doubt be rohiηī-devatyās, * having the red one as deity.’
devāpi arṣṭiṣeṇa (‘Descendant of Rstisena ’) is mentioned in a hymn of the Rigveda and in the Nirukta. According to the latter source there were two brothers, Devāpi and Santanu, princes of the Kurus. The elder was Devāpi, but śantanu got himself anointed king, whereupon no rain fell for twelve years. The drought being attributed by the Brahmins to his having superseded his elder brother, Santanu offered the kingdom to Devāpi. The latter, however, refused, but acting as Purohita, or domestic priest, for his brother, obtained rain. The Brhad­devatā tells much the same tale, but adds that the reason for Devapi’s exclusion from the throne was the fact that he suffered from a skin disease. The Epic and later legends further develop the story, presenting two somewhat discrepant accounts. According to the one version, the ground of Devāpi's being passed over was leprosy, while in the other his devoting himself to asceticism in his youth was the cause of his brother’s taking his place. The Epic, moreover, treats him as a son of Pratīpa, and names as his brothers Bāhlīka6 and Arstisena, who is a new figure developed from the patronymic of Devāpi. Possibly Sieg is right in holding that two stories, those of Devāpi, Pratlpa’s son, and of Devāpi, Estisena’s son, have been confused; but in any case it is impossible to extract history from them. The Rigvedic hymn certainly appears to represent Devāpi as sacrificing for Santanu, who seems to be called Aulāna. But there is no trace in it of the brotherhood of the two men, nor is there anything to show that Devāpi was not a Brahmin, but a Ksatriya. Sieg, who interprets the hymn by the Nirukta, thinks that he was a Ksatriya, but on this occasion was enabled by the favour of Brhaspati to officiate as priest, and that the hymn shows clear recognition of the unusual character of his action ; but this view seems very improbable.
devṛ Is a rare word denoting the wife’s ‘brother-in-law’ (that is, the husband’s brother). He is included with the sisters of the husband among those over whom the wife of the husband—his elder brother—rules ; at the same time the wife is to be devoted to him, and friendly to him. After the death of the husband the Devr could perform the duty of begetting a son for him. No word occurs for the wife’s brother corresponding to Devr.
daiyāṃpāti Descendant of Dayāmpāta,’ is the name of a teacher of the east, who was instructed by Sāçdilyāyana* according to the Satapatha Brāhmana in the lore of the construction of the fire-altar. The same patronymic is given, in the form of Dayyāmpāti, to Plaksa, the contemporary of Atyamhas in the Taittirīya Brāhmana.
daivavāta Descendant of Devavāta,’ is the patronymic of Srñjaya, probably the Srñjaya king, in the Rigveda. He is mentioned as a devotee of the fire cult, and as victorious over the Turvaśa king and the Vrcīvants. According to Zimmer, his name was Abhyāvartin Cāyamāna Pārthava (‘ descendant of Prthu ’), but Hillebrandt4 recognizes this as doubtful, though he none the less places the Srñjayas to the west of the Indus with Divodāsa. What is more important is to note that the name suggests connexion with the Bharata Devavāta, and as Kurus and Srñjayas were closely connected this is not immaterial.
dyumna According to Pischel, denotes * raft’ in one passage of the Rigveda.
dyotana Is, according to Sāyana, the name of a prince in the Rigveda. This is probably correct, though the word may also be interpreted as denoting 'glorification*; but it is not clear what relation existed between Dyotana and the other persons mentioned in the same passage, Vetasu, Daśoni, Tūtuji, and Tugra.
drapsa Is a common word from the Rigveda onwards for a drop’: according to Sāyana, a ‘thick drop’ as opposed to stoka, a * small drop.’ Hence there frequently occurs the ex­pression dadfyi-drapsa,’ drop of curds.’In the Rigveda the word normally denotes the thick drops of Soma or the Soma itself. In two passages Roth sees the sense of‘banner,’ which is adopted by Oldenberg. Geldner, on the other hand, considers that ‘ dust * is meant, but this interpretation is not very probable. Max Muller9 renders the word ‘rain-drop’ in one of the passages.
droṇa Denotes in the Rigveda a wooden trough,’ and more specifically it designates in the plural vessels used for holding Soma. The great wooden reservoir for Soma is called a Drona-kalaśa. The altar was sometimes made in the form of a Drona.
dvibandhu Is in an obscure hymn of the Rigveda, according to Roth and Grassmann, the name of a man, while Ludwig renders it as a simple adjective meaning of double kinship.’
dvīpa ‘Island,’ is mentioned in the Rigveda and later. But there is no reason to imagine that the islands referred to were other than sandbanks in the great rivers, Indus or Ganges. Vedic literature knows nothing of the system of geography according to which the earth consists of four, seven, or thirteen Dvīpas grouped round Mount Meru.
dhanu (fem.), ‘sandbank,’ occurs several times in the Rig­veda, but only metaphorically of the clouds in the atmosphere. Dhanū is found in the Atharvaveda, where it seems to denote a sandbag used to prevent bleeding. Cf Dhanvan.
dhanus The ‘ bow,’ frequently mentioned in the Rigveda and later, was the chief weapon of the Vedic Indian. The last act of the funeral rite included the removal of the bow from the right hand of the dead man. The weapon was composed of a stout staff bent into a curved shape (vakra), and of a bowstring (Jyā) made of a strip of cowhide which joined the ends. The tips of the bow, when the string was fastened, were called Ártnī. Relaxed when not in actual use, the bow was specially strung up when needed for shooting. The stages of the process are given in detail in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā : the stringing (ā-tan) of the bow, the placing (prati-dhā) of the arrow, the bending (<ū-yam) of the bow, and the shooting (as). The arrow was discharged from the ear, and is hence called karna-yoni, having the ear as its point of origin.’ The making of bows was a regular profession (dhanus-kāra, dhanus-krt). For the arrow see Isu, and for the handguard Hastaghna.
dharma Are the regular words, the latter in the Rigveda, and both later, for ‘ law ’ or ‘ custom.’ But there is very little evidence in the early literature as to the administra­tion of justice or the code of law followed. On the other hand, the Dharma Sūtras contain full particulars.Criminal Law.—The crimes recognized in Vedic literature vary greatly in importance, while there is no distinction adopted in principle between real crimes and what now are regarded as fanciful bodily defects or infringements of merely conventional practices. The crimes enumerated include the slaying of an embryo (