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bhekaḥMasculineSingularmaṇḍūkaḥ, varṣābhūḥ, śālūraḥ, plavaḥ, darduraḥa frog
42 results for dard
dardaramfn. broken, burst View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dardaram. "having caves", a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dardaram. a ravine (?) (B) iv, 43, 27 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dardaram. a kind of drum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dardarāmram. a sort of sauce View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dardarāmram. Name of a tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dardarīf. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dardarīkam. a frog View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dardarīkam. a cloud View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dardarīkam. Name of a musical instrument (also rvar-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dardarīkan. any musical instrument View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dardrum. Name of a bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dardrum. See dadr-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dardSee dadr-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dardruṇaSee dadr-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dardruṇaSee dadr-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dardūSee dadru-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darduram. a frog (see kūpa--) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darduram. a flute (see jala--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darduram. the sound of a drum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darduram. a cloud View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darduram. a kind of rice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darduram. Name of a southern mountain (often named with Malaya) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darduram. of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darduram. of a singing master View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darduram. equals raka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darduran. a kind of talc View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darduran. an assemblage of villages View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darduranf(ā-, ī-). durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darduracchadāf. the plant brāhmī-
dardurakam. Name of a gamester View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dardurāmram. equals dar- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darduraparṇīf. id. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dardurapuṭam. the mouth of a pipe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādardiraSee ā-dṝ-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādardiramfn. crushing, splitting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaladarduram. a water-pipe (musical instrument) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kūpadarduram. equals -kacchapa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tadardhikamfn. half as much View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udardP. -ardati-, to swell, rise ; to undulate, wave View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udardam. (in medicine) erysipelas View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udarddham. ( ṛdh-), scarlet fever View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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dardara दर्दर a. Cracked, broken. -रः 1 A mountain. -2 A jar slightly broken. -3 A band of music. (-री) Robbing of grains. -Comp. -आम्रः A sort of sauce.
dardarīkaḥ दर्दरीकः 1 A frog. -2 A cloud. -3 A kind of musical instrument. -कम् A musical instrument in general.
dardru दर्द्रु (र्द्रू) ण a. Herpetic. दर्पः darpḥ दर्पण darpaṇa दर्पित darpita दर्पः दर्पण दर्पित &c. See under दृप्.
dardruḥ दर्द्रुः (र्द्रूः) f. A kind of leprosy.
darduḥ दर्दुः (= दद्रुः q. v.).
darduraḥ दर्दुरः [दृणाति कर्णौ शब्देन उरच् नि˚ Tv.] 1 A frog; पङ्कक्लिन्नमुखाः पिबन्ति सलिलं धाराहता दर्दुराः Mk.5.14. -2 A cloud. -3 A kind of musical instrument such as a flute. -4 A mountain; (दर्दुरोमलयसंनिकृष्टश्चन्दनगिरिः Rām.2. 15.34. com.). -5 N. of a mountain in the south (associated with Malaya); स्तनाविव दिशस्तस्याः शैलौ मलयदर्दुरौ R. 4.51. -6 The sound of a drum. -7 A sort of rice. -8 A demon; L. D. B. -रा, -री N. of Durgā. -रम् A group or assembly of villages, district, province. -Comp. -पुटः the mouth of a pipe; शैलस्य दर्दुरपुटानिव वादयन्तः Śi.5.9.
ādardira आदर्दिर a. Ved. Crushing, splitting open; आदर्दिरासो अद्रयो न विश्वहा Rv.1.78.6.
udardaḥ उदर्दः [अर्द्-अर्च्] (In Medic.) Erysipelas (विसर्प).
udardhaḥ उदर्धः Scarlet fever.
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dṛ dṛ pierce, int. dardarṣi, ii. 12, 15.
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dardura m. [intv. √ drî] frog; flute; N. of a mountain-range in the South; N.: -ka, m. N. of a gambler.
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     KV Abhyankar
"dard" has 27 results.
aṇuthe minimum standard of the guantity of sound, which is not perceived by the senses, being equal to one-fourth of a Mātrā; confer, compare अणोस्तु तत्प्रमाणं स्यात् मात्रा तु चतुराणवात् ॥ see T.Pr. 21.3, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1.60, A.Pr. III.65. Ṛk. tantra, however, defines अणु as half-a-mātrā. confer, compare अर्धमणु ( R.T. 1.41 ).
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
apabhraṃśadegraded utterance of standard correct forms or words: corrupt form: e. g. गावी, गोणी and the like, of the word गो, confer, compare गौः इत्यस्य शब्दस्य गावी गोणी गोता गोपोतलिका इत्येवमादयः अपभ्रंशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.l.l ; cf शब्दसंस्कारहीनो यो गौरिति प्रयुयुक्षिते । तमपभ्रंशमिच्छन्ति विशिष्टार्थनिवेशिनम् Vāk. Pad I.149: सर्वस्य हि अपभ्रंशस्य साधुरेव प्रकृतिः commentary on Vāk. Pad I. 149.
aprayeāga(1)non-employment of a word in spite of the meaning being available: confer, compare संभावनेलमिति चेत्सिद्धाप्रयोगे P.III.3.154; (2) non-employment confer, compare उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः a standard dictum of grammar not allowing superfluous words which is given in M.Bh. on P.I.1.4 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 16 and stated in Cāndra and other grammars as a Paribhāṣā.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
avacūria short gloss or commentary on a standard work.
uṇādiprātipadikaword form or crude base, ending with an affix of the uṇ class, which is looked upon as practically underived, the affixes un and others not being looked upon as standard affixes applied with regular meanings attached to them and capable of causing operations to the preceding base as prescribed by rules of grammar; confer, compare उणादयोS व्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि । व्युत्पन्नानीति शाकटायनरीत्या । पाणिनेस्त्वव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष एवेति शब्देन्दुशेखरे निरूपितम्. Pari. Śek. on Paribhāṣa 22.
upamānastandard of comparison. The word is found in the Pāṇinisūtra उपमानानि सामान्यवचनैः P.II.I.55 where the Kāśikāvṛtti explains it as उपमीयतेऽनेनेत्युपमानम् ।
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
kuṇaravāḍavaname of an ancient granmarian who lived possibly after Pāṇini and before Patañjali and who is referred to in the Mahābhāṣya as giving an alternative forms for the standard form of certain words; confer, compare कुणरवाडवस्त्वाह नैषां शंकरा शंगरैषा M.Bh. on III.2.14; cf also कुणरवस्त्वाह नैष वहीनरः । कस्तर्हि । विहीनर एषः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.3.1.
kyacdenominative affix ( विकरण ) in the sense of desiring for oneself, added to nouns to form denomitive roots; exempli gratia, for example पुत्रीयति; क्यच् is also added to nouns that are upamānas or standards of comparison in the sense of (similar) behaviour: exempli gratia, for example पुत्रीयति च्छात्रम्: confer, compare Kāś. on P. III.1.8, 10. It is also added in the sense of 'doing' to the words नमस्, वरिवस् and चित्र; e. g. नमस्यति देवान्, वरिवस्यति गुरून् , चित्रीयते ; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1.19.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
dyotakaindicative, suggestive; not directly capable of expressing the sense by denotation; the nipatas and upasargas are said to be 'dyotaka' and not 'vacaka' by standard grammarians headed by the Varttikakara; confer, compare निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P.I.2.45 Varttika 12; confer, compare Kaiyata also on the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf also निपाता द्योतकाः केचित्पृथगर्थाभिधायिनः Vakyapadiya II.194;, गतिवाचकत्वमपि तस्य ( स्थाधातोः ) व्यवस्थाप्यते, उपसर्गस्तु तद्योतक एव commentary on Vakyapadiya II. 190; confer, compare पश्चाच्छ्रोतुर्बोधाय द्योतकोपसर्गसंबन्ध: Par. Sek. on Pari. 50; cf also इह स्वरादयो वाचकाः चादयो द्योतका इति भेदः Bhasa Vr. om P.I.1.37.The Karmapravacaniyas are definitely laid down as dyotaka, confer, compare क्रियाया द्योतको नायं न संबन्धस्य वाचकः । नापि क्रियापदाक्षेपीं संबन्धस्य तु भेदकः Vakyapadiya II.206; the case affixes are said to be any way, 'vacaka' or 'dyotaka'; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युर्द्वित्त्वादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya II. 165.
nāmannoun, substantive; one of the four categories of words given in the Nirukta and other ancient grammer works; confer, compare चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्याते चोपसर्गनिपाताश्च, Nirukta of Yāska.I.1. The word is defined as सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि by standard grammarians; confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1.; confer, compare also सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII.8; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 49 and commentary thereon. Panini divides words into two categories only, viz. सुबन्त and तिङन्त and includes नामन् ,उपसर्ग and निपात under सुबन्त. The Srngarapraksa defines नामन् as follows-अनपेक्षितशब्दव्युत्पत्तीनि सत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायीनि नामानि। तानि द्विविधानि। आविष्टलिङ्गानि अनाविष्टलिङ्गानि च । The word नामन् at the end of a sasthitatpurusa compound signifies a name or Samjna e. g. सर्वनामन्, दिङ्नामन् , छन्दोनामन्; confer, compare also. Bhasavrtti on संज्ञायां कन्थोशीनरेषु P. II.4. 20 and संज्ञायां भृत्. P. III. 2.46 where the author of the work explains the word संज्ञायां as नाम्नि. The word is used in the sense of 'a collection of words' in the Nirukta, confer, compare अन्तरिक्षनामानि, अपत्यनामानि, ईश्वरनामानि, उदकनामानि, et cetera, and others
nyāsa(1)literally position, placing;a word used in the sense of actual expression or wording especially in the sūtras; confer, compare the usual expression क्रियते एतन्न्यास एव in the Mahābhāșya, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.11, 1.1.47 et cetera, and others; (2) a name given by the writers or readers to works of the type of learned and scholarly commentaries on vŗitti-type-works on standard sūtras in a Śāstra; e. g. the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. is given to the learned commentaries on the Vŗtti on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśasana as also on the Paribhāşāvŗtti by Hemahamsagani. Similarly the commentary by Devanandin on Jainendra grammar and that by Prabhācandra on the Amoghāvŗtti on Śākatāyana grammar are named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. In the same way, the learned commentary on the Kāśikāvŗtti by Jinendrabuddhi, named Kāśikāvivaranapaňjikā by the author, is very widely known by the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. This commentary Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. was written in the eighth century by the Buddhist grammarian Jinendrabuddhi, who belonged to the eastern school of Pānini's Grammar. This Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. has a learned commentary written on it by Maitreya Rakșita in the twelfth century named Tantrapradipa which is very largely quoted by subsequent grammarians, but which unfortunately is available only in a fragmentary state at present. Haradatta, a well-known southern scholar of grammar has drawn considerably from Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. in his Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta., which also is well-known as a scholarly work.
nyāsoddyotaa learned commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Mallinātha, the standard commentator of prominent Sanskrit classics.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
prātipadikārthadenoted sense of a Pratipadika or a noun-base. Standard grammarians state that the denotation of a pratipadika is five-fold viz. स्वार्थ, द्रव्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या and कारक. The word स्वार्थ refers to the causal factor of denotation or प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त which is of four kinds जाति, गुण, क्रिया and संज्ञा as noticed respectively in the words गौः, शुक्लः, चलः and डित्ः. The word द्रव्य refers to the individual object which sometimes is directly denoted as in अश्वमानय, while on some occasions it is indirectly denoted through the genus or the general notion as in ब्राह्मणः पूज्य:, लिङ्ग the gender, संख्या the number and कारक the case-relation are the denotations of the case-terminations, but sometimes as they are conveyed in the absence of a case-affix as in the words पञ्च, दश, and others, they are stated as the denoted senses of the Pratipadika, while the case-affixes are said to indicate them; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युः शब्दादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya.
bāhulakathe application of a grammatical rule as a necessity to arrive at some forms in literature especially in the Vedic Literature as also in the works of standard writers, which cannot be explained easily by the regular application of the stated rules; confer, compare सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिदनराणां कालहलच्स्वरकर्तृयङां च । व्यत्ययमिच्छति शास्त्रकृदेषां सोपि च सिध्यति बाहुलकेन M.Bh. on P. III. 1.85; also confer, compare बाहुलकं प्रकृतेस्तनुदृष्टेः प्रायसमुच्चयनादपि तेषाम् । कार्यसशेषविधेश्च तदुक्तं नैगमरूढिभवं हि सुसाधु M.Bh. on P. III.3.1. In many sutras, Panini has put the word बहुलम् to arrive at such forms; e.g see P.II.1.32,57; II.3.62. II.4.39,73,76,84 et cetera, and others
vaidyanāthaVaidyanatha Payagunde, a famous grammarian of the eighteenth century, who was one of the chief pupils of Nagesa and who prepared a line of pupils at Varanasi. He has written learned commentaries on standard works on grammar, the principal ones being the Prabha on the Sabdakaustubha, the Bhavaprakasika on the Brhaccabdendusekhara, the Cidasthimala on the LaghuSabdendusekhara, the Kasika or Gada on the Paribhasendusekhara and an independent short treatise named Rapratyaya-khandana
vyavasthitavibhāṣāan option which does not apply universally in all the instances of a rule which prescribes an operation optionally, but applies necessarily in : some cases and does not apply at all in the other cases, the total result being an option regarding the conduct of the rule. The rules अजेर्व्यघञपॊ: P. II. 4.56, लट: शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे III. 2.124 and वामि I. 4.5 are some of the rules which have got an option described as व्यवस्थितविभाषा. The standard instances of व्यवस्थितविभाषा are given in the ancient verse देवत्रातो गलो ग्राहः इतियोगे च सद्विधिः | मिथस्ते न विभाष्यन्ते गवाक्षः संशितव्रतः|| M. Bh, on P, III. 3.156; VII.4.41.
vyāghrādia class of words headed by व्याघ्र which, as standards of comparison, are compounded with words showing objects of comparison provided the common property is not mentioned: exempli gratia, for example पुरुषव्याघ्र:, नृसिंहः et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. onP.II. 1.56.
śabdparavipratiṣedhacl,. comparatively superior strength possessed by a word, which in the text of a particular sutra is later than another word, which is put in earlier in the Sutra. This शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधे is contrasted with the standard शास्त्रपरविप्रतिषेध which is laid down by Panini in his rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् and which lays down the superior strength of that rule which is put by Panini later on in his Astadhyayi: e. g. in the rule विभाषा गमहनविदविशाम्,it is not the word हन् although occuring earlier, but the word विश् occuring later in the rule, which helps us to decide which विद् should be taken confer, compareज्ञानार्तस्य सत्यपि विदरूपत्वे अर्थस्य भेदकत्वेन रूपवदाश्रयणात्प्रतिषेधाभावः | यद्यपि हन्तिना साहचर्ये विदेरस्ति तथापि शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधाद् विशिर्व्यवस्थाहेतुर्न हान्तिः ! Kaiyata on P. VII.2.18:confer, compare also, P.VI.1.158 V.12.
śabdānuśāsanaliterally science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentence. The word is used in connection with standard works on grammar which are complete and self-sufficient in all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned features. Patanjali has begun his Mahabhasya with the words अथ शब्दानुशासनम् referring possibly to the vast number of Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and hence the term शब्दानुशासन according to him means a treatise on the science of grammar made up of the rules of Panini with the explanatory and critical varttikas written by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras.The word शब्दानुशासन later on, became synonymons with Vyakarana and it was given as a title to their treatises by later grammarians, or was applied to the authoritative treatise which introduced a system of grammar, similar to that of Panini. Hemacandra's famous treatise, named सिद्धहैमचन्द्र by the author,came to be known as हैमशब्दानुशासन. Similarly the works on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्तिशाकटायन and देवनन्दिन् were called शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and जैनेन्द्र' शब्दानुशासन respectively.
sadhīnartad, affix अधीन proposed by the Varttikakara in the sense of 'something in that or from that'; exempli gratia, for example राजनीदं राजाधीनं; confer, compare तस्मातत्रेदमिति सधीनर् P. V. 4.7 Vart. 2. The standard affix in such cases is ख ( ईन ) by the rule अषडक्ष अध्युत्तरपदात् ख; P. V. 4.7.
siddhāntaestablished tenet or principle or conclusion, in the standard works of the different Shastras.
hṛradattaname of a reputed grammarian of Southern India who wrote a very learned and scholarly commentary, named पदमञ्जरी, on the Kasikavrtti which is held by grammarians as the standard vrtti or gloss on the Sutras of Panini,and studied especially in the schools of the southern grammarians. Haradatta was a Dravida Brahmana, residing in a village on the Bank of Kaveri. His scholarship in Grammar was very sound and he is believed to have commented on many grammarworks.The only fault of the scholar was a very keen sense of egotism which is found in his work, although it can certainly be said that the egotism was not ill-placed and could be justified: confer, compare एवं प्रकटितोस्माभिर्भाष्ये परिचय: पर:। तस्य निःशेषतो मन्ये प्रतिपत्तापि दुर्लभः॥ also प्रक्रियातर्कगहने प्रविष्टो हृष्टमानसः हरदत्तहरिः स्वैरं विहरन् ! केन वार्यते | Padamajari, on P. I-13, 4. The credit of popularising Panini's system of grammar in Southern India goes to Haradatta to a considerable extent.
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dardara adjective broken (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
burst (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35596/72933
dardura noun (masculine) a flute (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a frog (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of rice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cloud (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lead name of a man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a singing master (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a southern mountain (often named with Malaya) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sound of a drum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9385/72933
dardura noun (masculine neuter) an assemblage of villages (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of alchemical preparation a kind of poison a kind of rasaka a kind of talc (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7003/72933
darduraka noun (masculine) name of a gamester (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 54252/72933
dardurā noun (feminine) a kind of plant Durgā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 54251/72933
udarda noun (masculine) (in medic.) erysipelas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Rotlauf Wundrose
Frequency rank 16576/72933
udarditva noun (neuter) Wundrose (?)
Frequency rank 47281/72933
paścādardha noun (neuter) the latter half
Frequency rank 57617/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
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means of acquiring certain knowledge, proof; epistemological standards.

     Wordnet Search "dard" has 11 results.


veṇuḥ, vaṃśaḥ, vaṃśī, muralī, sāneyī, sāneyikā, vivaranālikā, darduraḥ, nandaḥ, sānikā, śāṇikā   

vādyaviśeṣaḥ- vaṃśanālikayā nirmitaṃ suṣiravādyam।

śyāmaḥ veṇuṃ vādayati।


laghuveṇuḥ, laghuvaṃśaḥ, laghuvaṃśī, laghumuralī, laghusāneyī, laghusāneyikā, laghuvivaranālikā, laghudarduraḥ, laghunandaḥ, laghusānikā, laghuśāṇikā   

vādyaviśeṣaḥ- laghuvaṃśanālikayā nirmitaṃ suṣiravādyam।

paṇḍitena hariprasāda-caurasiyā-mahodayena laghuveṇuṃ vādayitvā sabhā anurañjitā।


nāsikaveṇuḥ, nāsikavaṃśaḥ, nāsikavaṃśī, nāsikamuralī, nāsikasāneyī, nāsikasāneyikā, nāsikavivaranālikā, nāsikadarduraḥ, nāsikanandaḥ   

vādyaviśeṣaḥ- vaṃśanālikayā nirmitaṃ tad suṣiravādyam yad aśiyākhaṇḍe keṣucana rāṣṭreṣu nāsikayā vādayati।

saḥ nāsikaveṇoḥ vādane nipuṇaḥ asti।


meghaḥ, abhramam, vārivāhaḥ, stanayitnuḥ, balābakaḥ, dhārādharaḥ, jaladharaḥ, taḍitvān, vāridaḥ, ambubhṛt, ghanaḥ, jīmūtaḥ, mudiraḥ, jalamuk, dhūmayoniḥ, abhram, payodharaḥ, ambhodharaḥ, vyomadhūmaḥ, ghanāghanaḥ, vāyudāruḥ, nabhaścaraḥ, kandharaḥ, kandhaḥ, nīradaḥ, gaganadhvajaḥ, vārisuk, vārmuk, vanasuk, abdaḥ, parjanyaḥ, nabhogajaḥ, madayitnuḥ, kadaḥ, kandaḥ, gaveḍuḥ, gadāmaraḥ, khatamālaḥ, vātarathaḥ, śnetanīlaḥ, nāgaḥ, jalakaraṅkaḥ, pecakaḥ, bhekaḥ, darduraḥ, ambudaḥ, toyadaḥ, ambuvābaḥ, pāthodaḥ, gadāmbaraḥ, gāḍavaḥ, vārimasiḥ, adriḥ, grāvā, gotraḥ, balaḥ, aśnaḥ, purubhojāḥ, valiśānaḥ, aśmā, parvataḥ, giriḥ, vrajaḥ, caruḥ, varāhaḥ, śambaraḥ, rauhiṇaḥ, raivataḥ, phaligaḥ, uparaḥ, upalaḥ, camasaḥ, arhiḥ, dṛtiḥ, odanaḥ, vṛṣandhiḥ, vṛtraḥ, asuraḥ, kośaḥ   

pṛthvīstha-jalam yad sūryasya ātapena bāṣparupaṃ bhūtvā ākāśe tiṣṭhati jalaṃ siñcati ca।

kālidāsena meghaḥ dūtaḥ asti iti kalpanā kṛtā


maṇḍūkaḥ, bhekaḥ, plavaḥ, plavagaḥ, plavagatiḥ, plavaṅgamaḥ, darduraḥ, vyaṅgaḥ, varṣābhūḥ, varṣāghoṣaḥ, vṛṣṭibhūḥ, dardarīkaḥ, gūḍhavarccā, alimakaḥ, ajihvaḥ, śallaḥ, śālūraḥ, sālūraḥ, hariḥ   

saḥ prāṇī yaḥ ubhayacaraḥ tathā ca yaḥ varṣāṛtau jalāśayasya samīpe dṛśyate।

varṣāṛtau naike maṇḍūkāḥ sthāne-sthāne plavante।


maṇḍūkaḥ, plavaḥ, plavagaḥ, plavaṃgamaḥ, plavakaḥ, ajambhaḥ, ajihmaḥ, ajihvaḥ, alimakaḥ, kaṭuravaḥ, kokaḥ, jihmamohanaḥ, tarantaḥ, toyasarpikā, dardarikaḥ, darduraḥ, nandakaḥ, nandanaḥ, nirjihvaḥ, bhekaḥ, maṇḍaḥ, marūkaḥ, mahāravaḥ, mudiraḥ, meghanādaḥ, rekaḥ, lūlukaḥ, varṣābhūḥ, varṣāhūḥ, vṛṣṭibhūḥ, vyaṅgaḥ, śallaḥ, śāluḥ, śālūkaḥ, śālūraḥ, hariḥ   

saḥ catuṣpādaḥ yaḥ kārdame vasati tathā ca yaḥ jale bhūmau ca dṛśyate।

bālakaḥ maṇḍūkaḥ maṇḍūkī ca etayoḥ madhye bhedaṃ kartum asamarthaḥ।



ekaṃ vādyam ।

dardarīkasya ullekhaḥ kośe vartate



ekaḥ vṛkṣaḥ ।

dardarāmrasya ullekhaḥ kośe vartate



ekā nadī ।

dardar‍yāḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate



ekaḥ kitavaḥ ।

dardurakaḥ mṛcchakaṭike parigaṇitaḥ



ekaḥ khagaḥ ।

dardruḥ carakeṇa parigaṇitaḥ

Parse Time: 0.753s Search Word: dard Input Encoding: IAST: dard