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"cur" has 1 results.
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"cur" has 1 results.
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√चुर्curburning / dāha477/2Cl.4
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Results for cur
prasūtam3.1.62MasculineSingularbhūyaḥ, puru, bahulam, pracuram, sphiram, puruham, adabhram, bhūri, bhūyiṣṭham, bahu, prājyam
Results for cur48 results for cur
cur cl.10. corayati- (rarely te- ; Aorist acūcurat- ; cl.1. corati- ), to steal etc. ; to rob any one (accusative) ; to cause to disappear (1. sg. cūrayāmi-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
curāf. theft gaRa chattrādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
curādithe class of roots beginning with cur- on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
curaṇyaNom. yati-, to steal. gaRa kaṇḍv-ādi-.
curcuraind., in compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
curcuradhvanim. gnashing (the teeth) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
curcuraśabdam. idem or 'm. gnashing (the teeth) ' , 58. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
curīf. equals cuṇṭī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
curum. a particular worm in the bowels View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
curucurāf. (onomatopoetic (i.e. formed from imitation of sounds)) See karṇe--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apracuramfn. little, few. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cañcuram. equals cu-pattra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cañcura(?) . See puṇya--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cuñcurīf. a kind of game played with tamarind seeds instead of dice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hiṃsāprāṇipracuramfn. abounding in noxious animal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kacurāyam. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalacurim. Name of a royal family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalacurisaṃvatsara(= cedi-- saṃvat-), a year of the kalacuri- (or cedi-) era (beginning on September 5, D. 348). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karṇecuracurā f. whispering into the ear, tale-bearing gaRa pātre-samitādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karṇecurucurāf. whispering into the ear, tale-bearing gaRa pātre-samitādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mecurudi(?) , Name of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nārāyaṇacurṇaSee above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nātipracurapadyavatmfn. containing not too many verses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracuramf(ā-)n. much, many, abundant (opp. to alpa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracuramf(ā-)n. plenteous, plentiful, frequent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracuramf(ā-)n. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') abounding in, filled with etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracuram. a thief View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracuracandanan. much sandal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracuracchalamfn. hidden in manifold disguises View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracuralomamfn. having too much hair View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracuranityadhanāgamamfn. receiving many and constant supplies of money View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracurapādapamfn. abounding with trees View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracuraparibhavam. frequent humiliation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracurapuruṣamfn. abounding with men, populous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracurapuruṣam. a thief. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracuraratnadhanāgamamfn. having a large income of gems and money View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracuratāf. () abundance, multitude. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracuratvan. ( etc.) abundance, multitude. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracurīin compound for ra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracurībhūto become abundant, increase View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracurīkaraṇan. making abundant, augmenting, increasing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracurīkṛtamfn. augmented, increased View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prācuryan. (fr. -cura-) multitude, abundance, plenty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prācuryan. amplitude, prolixity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prācuryan. prevalence, currency View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prācuryeṇaind. in a mass, fully, mostly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prācuryeṇaind. in detail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vecurāmam. Name of two authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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cur चुर् 1 U. (चोरयति-ते, चोरित) 1 To rob, steal; Ms.8.333; V.3.17. -2 (Fig.) To bear, have, possess, take, assume; अचूचुरच्चन्द्रमसो$भिरामताम् Śi.1.16.
cura चुर a. Stealing, robbing &c.
curā चुरा Theft.
curaṇam चुरणम् Robbing, theft.
curiḥ चुरिः री f. 1 A small well. -2 Theft; ततो दैवयोगेन राजभवने चौराश्श्चुरीं कृत्वा ... Vet.
karṇecuracurā कर्णेचुरचुरा f. A secret whispering in the ear.
cañcura चञ्चुर a. Clever, expert.
carcuram चर्चुरम् Grinding noise of teeth; मिश्रं दधद्दशनचर्चुरशब्द- मश्वः Śi.5.58.
cuñcurī चुञ्चुरी A game played with tamarind seeds instead of dice.
pracura प्रचुर a. 1 Much, ample, abundant, plentiful; नित्य- व्यया प्रचुरनित्यधनागमा च Bh.2.47; Śi.12.72; महात्मनां वः प्रचुरः समागमः Bhāg. -2 Great, large, extensive; प्रचुर- पुरन्दरधनुः Gīt.2. -3 (At the end of comp.) Abounding in, filled or replete with. -रः A thief. -Comp. -परिभवः frequent humiliation. -पुरुष a. populous. (-षः) a thief.
pracuratā प्रचुरता त्वम् 1 Abundance, plenty, copiousness. -2 Multitude, quantity.
pracurīkaraṇam प्रचुरीकरणम् Adding to, increasing.
pracurīkṛta प्रचुरीकृत a. Augmented, increased.
pracurībhū प्रचुरीभू 1 P. To become plentiful, increase.
prācuryam प्राचुर्यम् 1 Abundance, copiousness, plenty. -2 Multitude.
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acitra a-citrá, n. darkness, obscurity, iv. 51, 3.
vibhīdaka vi-bhí̄daka, m. a nut used as a die for gambling, vii. 86, 6; x. 34, 1 [probably from ví-bhid split asunder, but the meaning here applied is obscure].
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Results for cur3 results
curādi m. pl. list of verbs of the tenth class beginning with kur.
curcuradhvani m. sound of gnashing (the teeth); -sabda, m. id.
prācurya n. copiousness, abun dance, plenty; amplitude, prolixity; preva lence, currency: in. for the most part; in detail.
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"cur" has 133 results.
curādia class or group of roots headed by the root चुर्, familiarly known as the tenth conjugation.
akālaka(1)not limited by any time-factors for its study such as certain periods of the day or the year. (2) not characterized by any technical terms expressive of time such as adyatanī, parokṣā occurring in the ancient Prātiśākhya and grammar works. The term akalika is used by the writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti in connection with the grammar of Pāṇini. confer, compare “पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम्” Kās. on P. II.4.21 explained by the writer of the Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. as पूर्वाणि व्याकरणानि अद्यतनादिकालपरिभाषायुक्तानि तद्रहितम् ।
aṅkitanot possessing the mute letter k (क्) or g (ग्) orṅ ( ङ् ) and hence not preventing the guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes for the preceding vowel, if they occur. e. g. मृजेर ङ्कित्सु प्रत्ययेषु मृजिप्रसङगे मार्जिः साधुर्भुवति M.Bh. on P. I.I.I Vart.10.
atiśāyanaexcellence, surpassing; the same as अतिशय in Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V. 2 confer, compare अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ P. V. 3.55, also confer, compare भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेऽतिशायने । संसर्गेऽ स्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.2.94, where अतिशायन means अतिशाय. Patañjali, commenting on P. V.3.55 clearly remarks that for अतिशय, or for अतिशयन, the old grammarians, out of fancy only, used the term अतिशायन as it was a current term in popular usage; confer, compare देश्याः सूत्रनिबन्धाः क्रियन्ते यावद् ब्रूयात् प्रकर्षे अतिशय इति तावदतिशायन इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on , P. V.3.55.
adoṣaabsence of fault; absence of inconvenience. The expression सोप्यदोषो भवति often occurs in the Mahābhāṣya: confer, compare MBh. on I. 3.62; I. 4.108, et cetera, and others
adyatanītech. term of ancient grammarians signifying in general the present time of the day in question, the occurrence of the immediate past or future events in which is generally expressed by the aorist (लुड्) or the simple future ( लृट् ); the other two corresponding tenses imperfect and first future (viz. लड् and लुट्) being used in connection with past and future events respectively, provided the events do not pertain to that day which is in question; confer, compare 'वा चाद्यतन्याम्' M.Bh. P.III.2.102 Vār.6, वादृतन्याम् P, VI.4.114. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (2) term for the tense showing immediate past time called लुङ् in Pāṇini's grammar e. g. मायोगे अद्यतनी । मा कार्षीत् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.III. 1.22, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III. 3.11.
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
anabhidhānainability to express the meaning desiredition The expression न वा अनभिधानात् frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya referring to such words or phrases as could be formed by rules of grammar or could be used according to rules but,are not found in current use recognized by learned persons or scholars; confer, compare तच्चानभिधानं यत्राप्तैरुक्तं तत्रैव, अन्यत्र तु यथालक्षणं भवत्येव Padamañj. on III. 2.1;also confer, compare अनभिधानाद् व्यधिकरणानां बहुव्रीहिर्न भविष्यति । यत्र त्वभिधानमस्ति तत्र वैयधिकरण्येपि भवत्येव समासः, कण्ठेकाल इति; Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on II. 2.24: for examples of अनभिधान, sec also M.Bh.अभिधानलक्षणाः कृत्तद्धितसमासाः अनभिधानान्न भविष्यन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.3.19. also on III. 2.1. V.5, IV.2.1. See Kāś. on III,1.22, III.3.158.
anikṛt affix in the sense of curse, exempli gratia, for example अजीवनिस्ते शठ भूयात्; confer, compareआक्रोशे नञि अनिः P.III.3.112. This affix अनि gets its न् changed into ण् after ऋ or रेफ of the preceding preposition as in अप्रयाणिः;confer, compare Kāś, on VIII.4.29.
anitya(1)not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or paribhāṣā whose application is voluntary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obligatory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be usedition On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
anukramaṇaenumeration (in the right order as.opposed to व्युत्क्रम ); e. g. अथ किमर्थमुत्तरत्र एवमादि अनुक्रमणं क्रियते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.58; also on IV. 2.70; verbal forms of the root क्रम् with अनु occur in this sense very frequently; exempli gratia, for example यदित ऊर्ध्वं अनुक्रमिष्यामः; so also the past passive participle. अनुक्रान्तं occurs frequently in the same sense. अनुतन्त्र literally that which follows Tantra id est, that is Śāstra which means the original rules of a Śāstra; technical term for Vartika used by Bhartṛhari;confer, compare सूत्राणां सानुतन्त्राणां भाष्याणां च प्रणेतृभिः Vāk. Pad. I.23, where the word अनुतन्त्र is explained as Vārtika by the commentator.
anuvartanacontinuation or recurrence of a word from the preceding to the succeeding rule; the same as anuvṛtti; confer, compare अनुवर्तन्ते नाम विधयः । न चानुवर्तनादेव भवन्ति। किं तर्हि । यत्नाद्भवन्तीति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3.
anuvṛttirepetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the subsequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intended interpretation. The word is of common use in books on Pāṇini's grammar. This recurrence is generally continuous like the stream of a river ( गङ्गास्रोतोवत् ); sometimes however, when it is not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवृत्ति. In rare cases it is taken backwards in a sūtra work from a subsequent rule to a previous rule when it is called अपकर्ष.
antaḥstha,antaḥsthāfeminine., also writen as अन्तस्थ, अन्तस्था feminine., semivowel; confer, compare अथान्तस्थाः । यिति रेिन लेिति वितिः; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII.14-15: confer, compare चतस्रोन्तस्थाः explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शोषमणामन्तः मध्ये तिष्ठन्तीति अन्तस्थाः R.Pr.I.9, also पराश्चतन्नान्तस्थाः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 8. The ancient term appears to be अन्तस्थाः feminine. used in the Prātiśākhya works. The word अन्तःस्थानाम् occurs twice in the Mahābhāṣya from which it cannot be said whether the word there is अन्तःस्थ m. or अन्तःस्था feminine. The term अन्तस्थ or अन्तस्था is explained by the commentators on Kātantra as स्वस्य स्वस्य स्थानस्य अन्ते तिष्ठन्तीति ।
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
antaraṅgabalīyastvathe strength which an antaraṅga rule or operation possesses by virtue of which it supersedes all other rules or operations,excepting an apavāda rule, when or if they occur simultaneously in the formation of a word.
antaraṅgalakṣaṇacharacterized by the nature of an antaraṅga operation which gives that rule a special strength to set aside other rules occurring together with it.
aprayuktanot found in popular or current use, exempli gratia, for example the words ऊष, तेर, चक्र et cetera, and others यद्यप्यप्रयुक्ता अवश्यं दीर्घसत्त्रवल्लक्षणेनानुविधेयाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1, also यथालक्षणमप्रयुक्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.I.24
aprāpti(i)non-occurrence for nonrealization of a grammatical operation or ruleअप्रतिषेधः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8; (2) prohibition of the occurrence of a rule or operation, confer, compare अप्राप्तेर्वा । अथवानन्तरा या प्राप्तिः सा प्रतिषिध्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.I.43, I.1.63.
abhidhānadesignation, denotation, expression of sense by a word which is looked upon as the very nature of a word. The expression अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम् ( denotation of sense is only a natural characteristic of a word ) frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on 1.2.64 Vārt 93, II.1.1, confer, compare नपुसकं यदूष्मान्तं तस्य बह्वभिधानजः ( Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII.7 ) where the word बह्वभिधान means बहुवचन.
alpataranot of frequent occurence in the spoken language or literature the term is used in connection with such words as are not frequently used; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः । व्रंततिर्दम्नाः जाटय आट्णारो जागरूको द्विर्धिहोमीति Nir I.14.
alpāpekṣaam operation requiring a smaller number of causes, which merely on that account cannot be looked upon as अन्तरङ्ग. The antaraṅga operation has its causes occurring earlier than those of another operation which is termed बहिरङ्ग confer, compare बहिरङगान्तरङश्ङ्गशब्दाभ्यां बह्वपेक्षत्वाल्पापेक्षत्वयोः शब्दमर्यादयाsलाभाच्च । तथा सति असिद्धं बह्वपेक्षमल्पापेक्ष इत्येव वदेत् ॥ Par.Śek. Pari. 50.
avaśiṣṭaliṅga(v.1. अविशिष्टलिङ्ग)a term occurring in the liṅgānuśāsana meaning 'possessed of such genders as have not been mentioned already either singly or by combination' id est, that is possessed of all genders.Under अवशिष्टलिङ्ग are mentioned indeclinables, numerals ending in ष् or न् , adjectives, words ending with kṛtya affixes id est, that is potential passive participles, pronouns, words ending with the affix अन in the sense of an instrument or a location and the words कति and युष्मद् (See पाणिनीय-लिङ्गानुशासन Sūtras 182-188).
aṣṭādhyāyīname popularly given to the Sūtrapāṭha of Pāṇini consisting of eight books (adhyāyas) containing in all 3981 Sūtras,as found in the traditional recital, current at the time of the authors of the Kāśika. Out of these 398l Sūtras, seven are found given as Vārtikas in the Mahābhāṣya and two are found in Gaṇapāṭha.The author of the Mahābhāṣya has commented upon only 1228 of these 3981 sūtras. Originally there were a very few differences of readings also, as observed by Patañjali ( see Mbh on I.4.1 ); but the text was fixed by Patañjali which, with a few additions made by the authors of the Kāśika,as observed a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., has traditionally come down to the present day. The Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is believed to be one of the six Vedāṅga works which are committed to memory by the reciters of Ṛgveda. The text of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is recited without accents. The word अष्टाध्यायी was current in Patañjali's time; confer, compare शिष्टज्ञानार्था अष्टाध्यायी Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 3.109.
asaṃbhavaImpossibility of occurrence (used in connection with an operation); cf नावश्यं द्विकार्ययोग एव विप्रतिषेधः । किं तर्हि । असंभवेपि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (2) impossibility of a statement, mention, act et cetera, and others confer, compare असंभवः खल्वपि अर्थादेशनस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.1.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
aspaṣṭaless in contact with the vocal organ than the semi-vowels; the term occurs in Hemacandra's Grammar (Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. I.3.25) and is explained by the commentator as 'ईषत्स्पृष्टतरौ प्रत्यासत्तेर्यकारवकारौ. अस्पष्ट stands for the letters य and व which are substituted for the vowels ए ऐ and ओ औ when followed by a vowel; cf, also Śāk I.I.154.
ātideśikaapplied by extension or transfer of epithet as opposed to औपदेशिक. See the word अतिदेश; the term is often used in connection with rules or operations which do not apply or occur by the direct expression of the grammarian; confer, compare यदि आतिदेशिकेन कित्वेन औपदेशिकं कित्वं बाध्येत. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.1.; confer, compare also अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् Par.Śek. Pari. 93.6.
ānupūrvīserial order, successive order of grammatical operations or the rules prescribing them as they occur; confer, compare अानुपूर्व्या सिद्धमेतत् M.Bh. on V.3.5; confer, compare also ययैव चानुपूर्व्या अर्थानां प्रादुर्भावस्तयैव शब्दानामपि । तद्वत् कार्यैरपि भवितव्यम् M.Bh. on. P.I.1.57.
uddeśadescription; mention of qualities; confer, compare गुणैः प्रापणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on I. 3.2: the word is used in contrast with उपदेश or direct mention; confer, compare कः पुनुरुद्देशोपदेशयोर्विशेषः । प्रत्यक्षमाख्यानमुपदेशो गुणैः प्रापणमुद्देशः । प्रत्यक्षं तावदाख्यानमुपदेशः तद्यथा । अगोज्ञाय कश्चिद्गां सक्थनि कर्णे वा गृहीत्वोपदिशति । अयं गौरिति । स प्रत्यक्षमाख्यातमाह । उपदिष्टो मे गौरिति । गुणैः प्रापणमुद्देशः । तद्यथा । कश्चित्कंचिदाह । देवदत्तं मे भवानुद्दिशतु इति । स इहस्थः पाटलिपुत्रस्थं देवदत्तमुद्दिशति । अङ्गदी कुण्डली किरीटी...ईदृशो देवदत्त इति । स गुणैः प्राप्यमाणमाह । उद्दिष्टो मे दवदत्त इति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.2; (2) spot, place, passage of occurrence: उद्देश उपदेशदेशः; confer, compare यथोद्देशं संज्ञापरिभाषम् Pari.Śek. Pari. 2.
upagrahaa term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मनेपदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेशव्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.
upacāra(1)taking a secondary sense; implication; literally moving for a sense which is near about; the same as लक्षणा. The word आचार is explained as उपचार, employment or current usage, by Patañjali; confer, compare आचारात् । आचार्याणामुपचारात् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; ( 2 ) substitution of the letter सं for विसर्ग : confer, compare प्रत्ययग्रहणोपचारेषु च, P.IV.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7.
upajīvyaa term used by later grammarians in connection with such a rule on which another rule depends confer, compare उपजीव्यादन्तरङ्गाच्व प्रधानं प्रबलम् Pari. Śekh. on Pari. 97, as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on हेतुमति च P. III.1.26. The relationship known as उपजीव्योपजीवकभाव occurs several times in grammar which states the inferiority of the dependent as noticed in the world.
upadeśivadbhāvaoccurrence in the original statement before the application of any affixes et cetera, and others, confer, compare एवमप्युपदेशिवद्भावो वक्तव्यः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.56, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 23.
upadeśivadvacanastatement to the effect that a word should be looked upon as occurring in the original instruction although it is not there. See उपदेश.confer, compare नुम्विधावुपदेशिवद्वचनं प्रत्ययविध्यर्थम् P. VII.1.58. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1.
upanyāsaproposition, statement, The remark 'विषम उपन्यासः' is of frequent occurrence in the Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya in connection with statements that are defective and have to be refuted or corrected; confer, compare M.Bh. on P.1.1.21,46,50; I.2.5 et cetera, and others
upasaṃyoga(1)union;confer, compare नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति prepositions are signs to show that such a union with another sense has occurred in the case of the noun or verb to which they are prefixed, Nirukta of Yāska.I.3.; (2) addition; confer, compare अक्रियमाणे हि संज्ञाग्रहणे गरीयानुपसंयोगः कर्तव्यः स्यात् M.Bh. on P. IV.2.21. Vārt, 2.
upasthānaoccurrence: prescnce by virtue of anuvṛtti i. e. recurrence or continuation of a word in the rules that follow; confer, compare शब्देन चाप्यधिकृतेन कोन्यो व्यापारः शक्योवगन्तुमन्यदतो योगे योग उपस्थानात् M.Bh. on 1.3.11 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1.
upasthitaa word used father technically in the sense of the word इति which is used in the Krama and other recitals when Vedic reciters show separately the two words compounded together by uttering the compound word first, then the word इति and then the two compound words, exempli gratia, for example सुश्लोक ३ इति सु-श्लोक। विभावसो इति विभा-वसो. The Kāśikā defines the word उपस्थित as समुदायादवच्छिद्य पदं येन स्वरूपे अवस्थाप्यते तद् उपस्थितम् । इतिशब्दः । Kāś.on VI.1.129. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya explains the word rather differently, but in the same context.The word after which इति is placed is called upasthita exempli gratia, for example the word बाहू in बाहू इति or विभावसौ in विभावसो इति as contrasted with स्थित id est, that is the word without इति exempli gratia, for example बाहू or विभावसो, as also contrasted with स्थितोपस्थित id est, that is the whole word विभावसो इति विभाsवसो which is also called संहित or मिलित; (2) occurring, present; cf कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् . यत्र कार्यं तत्रोपस्थितं द्रष्टव्यम् । Par.Śek. Pari.3.
ubhayadīrghāa hiatus or a stop which occurs between two long-vowelled syllables; the term उभयदीर्घा is a conventional term in the Prātiśākhya literature. The term उभयह्रस्वा is similarly used in connection with short vowels.
ubhayaprāptia case or a matter in which both the alternatives occur, as for instance, the genitive case for the subject and the object of a verbal derivative noun (कृदन्त); confer, compare उभयप्राप्तौ कर्मणि । उभयोः प्राप्तिः यस्मिन् कृति सोयमुभयप्राप्तिः तत्र कर्मण्येव षष्ठी स्यात् न कर्तरि । आश्चर्यो गवां दोहः अगोपालकेन Kāś. on P. II.3.66.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
kaskādia class of compound-words headed by कस्क in which the visarga occurring at the end of the first member is noticed as changed into स् against the usual rules e. g. कस्क:, कौतस्कुतः भ्रातुष्पुत्रः, सद्यस्कालः, धनुष्कपालम् and others; confer, compare P. VIII.3.48. As this कस्कादिगण is said to be अाकृतिगण, similar words can be said to be in the कस्कादिगण although they are not actually mentioned in the गणपाठ.
kāryakālaalong with the operation; confer, compare कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् , rules laying down technical terms and regulating rules are to be interpreted along with the rules that prescribe or enjoin operations ( provided the technical terms occur in those rules, or, the regulating rules concern those rules). See Pari. Śek. Pari 3.
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
kṛtākṛtaprasaṅgia definition of the term नित्य in the sense of a rule which occurs after certain another rule is applied as well as before that rule is applied: confer, compare कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि नित्यम् । तद्विपरीतमनित्यम् । Pari, Sek. Pari. 42; cf also कंथं पुनरयं नित्यः । कृताकृतप्रसङ्गित्वात् l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 4. 62.
kṛdgrahaṇamention of a kṛt id est, that is of a word ending with a kṛt affix. The word mainly occurs in the Paribhāṣā कृद्ग्रहणे गतिकारकपूर्वस्यापि ग्रहणम् which occurs first as an expression of the Vārttikakāra (P.I.4.13 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9) and has been later on given as a Paribhāṣā by later grammarians (Pari. Śek. Pari.28).The Paribhāṣā is referred to as वृद्ब्रह्मणपरिभाषा in later grammar works especially commentary works.
gatyarthaa root denoting motion; the word frequently occurs in the Sūtras of Pāṇini and the Mahābhāṣya in connection with some special operations prescribed for roots which are गत्यर्थ. There is also a conventional expression सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्था: meaning 'roots denoting motion denote also knowledge'; confer, compare Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. Pari. 121 .
galatpadathe word occurs in the Prātiśākhya works in connection with the definition of संक्रम, in the kramapātha. The word संक्रम means bringing together two words when they are combined according to rules of Samdhi. (See the word संक्रम). In the Kramapātha, where each word occurs twice by repetition, a word occurring twice in a hymn or a sentence is not to be repeated for Kramapātha, but it is to be passed over. The word which is passed over in the Kramapātha is called गलत्पद; e. g. दिशां च पतये नमो नमो वृक्षेभ्यो हरिकेशेभ्यः पशूनां पतये नमो नमः सस्पिञ्जराय त्विषीमतॆ पथीनां पतये नमः । In the Kramapātha पतये नमः and नमः are passed over and पशूनां is to be connected with सस्पिञ्जराय. The words पतये नमः and नमः are called galatpada; confer, compare गलत्पदमतिक्रम्य अगलता सह संधानं संक्रम; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 197. There is no गलत्पद in पदपाठ.
gonardīyaliterally inhabitant of Gonarda which was the name of a district. in the province of Oudh in the days of the Mahabhasyakara according to some scholars. Others believe that Gonarda was the name of the district named Gonda at present The expression गोनर्दीय अाह occurs four times in the Mahabhasya where it refers to a scholar of grammar in Patafijali's time; cf M.Bh. on I. 1.21 ; I. 1.29; III. I.92; VII. 2.101. As Kaiyata paraphrases the words गेानर्दीयस्त्वाह as भाष्यकारस्त्वाह, scholars say that गेीनर्दीय was the name taken by the Mahabhasyakara himself who was a resident of Gonarda. Hari Diksita, however, holds that गोनर्दीय was the term used for the author of the . Varttikas; confer, compare Brhacchabdaratna.
gauṇamukhyanyāyathe maxim that the primary sense occurs to the mind earlier than the secondary sense, and hence words used in the primary sense should be always taken for grammatical operations in preference to words in a secondary sense. See the word गेोण.
ghastad, affix इय, occurring in Vedic Literature,applied to the word ऋतु, exempli gratia, for example अयं ते योनिऋत्वीयः; confer, compare Kās on P. V.1.106.
chandas(1)Vedic Literature in general as found in the rule बहुलं छन्दसि which has occurred several times in the Sutras of Panini, confer, compare छन्दोवत्सूत्राणि भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1, and I.4.3; confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 1, 4; (2) Vedic Samhita texts as contrasted with the Brahmana texts; confer, compareछन्दोब्राह्मणानि च तद्विषयाणि P, IV.2.66; () metre, metrical portion of the Veda.
jñāpanaa conclusion or inference, drawn from a word or words in a Sūtra, with a view to assign a purpose to that or to those words which otherwise would have been without a purpose. The word is sometimes used in the sense of ज्ञापक, and refers to the word or words supposed to be without any purpose and therefore looked upon as a reason or हेतु for the desired conclusion to be drawn. The words किमेतस्य ज्ञापने प्रयोजनम् occur very frequently in the Mahābhāșya: cf, M.Bh. on P. Ι. I. 11, 14,19, 55, 68, Ι. 2.41 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others
(1)fifth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties, नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्यः (2) the mute letter ण् indicating the substitution of vrddhi ( confer, compare P. VII. 2. 115-117) when attached to affixes; (3) the consonant ण् at the beginning of roots which is changed into न्; the roots, having ण् at the beginning changeable to न्, being called णोपदेशः (4) ण् as a substitute for न् following the letters ऋ, ॠ, र्, and ष् directly, or with the intervention of consonants of the guttural and labial classes, but occurring in the same word, Such a substitution of ण् for न् is called णत्व; confer, compare P.VIII.4. I-39. For णत्व in Vedic Literature; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)V.20-28, T.Pr.VII.1-12. V.Pr.III.84-88;(5) the consonant ण् added as an augment to a vowel at the beginning of a word when it follows the consonant ण् at the end of the previous word; confer, compare P. VIII. 3. 32. In the Vedic Pratisakhyas this augment ण् is added to the preceding ण् and looked upon as a part of the previous word.
ṇyatkrtya affix य which causes vrddhi and which has the circurmflex accent (1) applied to a root ending with ऋ or any consonant to form the pot. passive voice.participle: e. g. कार्यम्, हार्यम् , वाक्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare Kas on P. IV. 1.124; (2) applied to a root ending in उ if a necessity of the activity is to be indicated, e. g. अवश्यलाव्यम् , अवश्यपान्यम् confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.125; (3) taddhita affix. affix य applied to the word षण्मास्र optionally with यप् and ठञ् affixes: e. g. षाण्मास्यः, षण्मास्यः, षाण्मासिकः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 1.84.
ṇvuckrt affix अक seen always with the feminine. affix अा applied to a root when the sense conveyed is ' a turn ' or ' a deserving thing ' or ' debt ' or ' occurrence;' e. g. भवतः शायिका, अर्हति भवान् इक्षुभक्षिकाम्, ओदनभोजिकां धारयसि, इक्षुभक्षिका उदपादि ; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.1 1 1.
tatkālaprāptikaoccurring or presenting itself at the same time or simultaneously.
tadantavidhia peculiar feature in the interpretation of the rules of Panini, laid down by the author of the Sutras himself by virtue of which an adjectival word, qualifying its principal word, does not denote itself, but something ending with it also; confer, compare येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य P.I.1.72.This feature is principally noticed in the case of general words or adhikaras which are put in a particular rule, but which Occur in a large number of subsequent rules; for instance, the word प्रातिपदिकात्, put in P.IV.1.1, is valid in every rule upto the end of chapter V and the words अतः, उतः, यञः et cetera, and others mean अदन्ताद् , उदन्तात् , यञन्तात् et cetera, and others Similarly the words धातोः (P.III.1.91) and अङ्गस्य (P.VI. 4.1 ) occurring in a number of subsequent rules have the adjectival words to them, which are mentioned in subsequent rules, denoting not only those words,but words ending with them. In a large number of cases this feature of तदन्तविधि is not desirable, as it, goes against arriving at the desired forms, and exceptions deduced from Panini's rules are laid down by the Varttikakara and later grammarians; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 16,23, 31 : also Mahabhasya on P.I.1.72.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
tātiltaddhita affix. affix ताति in the very sense of the word to which it is applied occurring in Vedic Literature after the words सर्व and देव, as also after शिव, शम् and अरिष्ट in the sense of 'bringing about' and in the sense of भाव (presence) after the same words शिव, शम् and अरिष्ट; exempli gratia, for example सर्वतातिः, देवतातिः, शिवतातिः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.4.142-144.
tāthābhāvyaname given to the grave (अनुदात्त) vowel which is अवग्रह id est, that is which occurs at the end of the first member of a compound and which is placed between two acute vowels id est, that is is preceded by and followed by an acute vowel; exempli gratia, for example तनूSनप्त्रे, तनूSनपत्: confer, compare उदाद्यन्तो न्यवग्रहस्ताथाभाव्यः । V.Pr.I.120. The tathabhavya vowel is recited as a kampa ( कम्प ) ; confer, compare तथा चोक्तमौज्जिहायनकैर्माध्यन्दिनमतानुसारिभिः'अवग्रहो यदा नीच उच्चयॊर्मध्यतः क्वचित् । ताथाभाव्यो भवेत्कम्पस्तनूनप्त्रे निदर्शनम्'. Some Vedic scholars hold the view that the ताथाभाव्य vowel is not a grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel, but it is a kind of स्वरित or circumflex vowel. Strictly according to Panini "an anudatta following upon an udatta becomes Svarita": confer, compare P.VIII.4.66, V.Pr. IV. 1.138: cf also R.Pr.III. 16.
triruktarepeated thrice, occurring thrice; a term used in the PratiSakhya works in respect of a word which is repeated in the krama and other artificial recitations.
deśya(1)taddhita affix. affix in the sense of almost similar; see देशीयर् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; (2) (words) current in popular use or language, although not sanctioned by rules of grammar; confer, compare देश्याः सूत्रनिबन्धाः क्रियन्ते M.Bh. on P. V. 3.55: confer, compare देश्या देष्टव्याः साधुत्वेन प्रतिपाद्या:, Kaiyata on V. 3.55; probably Kaiyata had a difficulty in explaining the word देश्य in the old way meaning ' current in use', as many words called bad words, introduced from other languages were current at his time which he was reluctant to term देश्य.
kāryayogasimultaneous occurrence of two grammatical operations resulting into a conflict and creating a doubt as to which of the two should take place first; confer, compareद्विकार्ययोगो हि विप्रतिषेधः M.Bh. on P.I.1.3 Vart. 6; I.1.12; et cetera, and others The term विप्रतिषेध occurring in the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I.4.2 is evidently defined in this way by the word द्विकार्ययोग in the Mahabhsya.
dvitvadoubling, reduplication prescribed for (I) a root in the perfect tense excepting the cases where the affix अाम् is added to the root before the personal ending: exempli gratia, for example बभूव, चकार, ऊर्णुनाव et cetera, and others cf P. VI. 1.1,2; (2) a root before the vikarana affixes सन्, यङ्, श्लु and चङ् e. g. बुभूषति, चेक्रीयते, चर्करीति, जुहोति, अचीकरत् et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VI. 1.9l l ; (3) a word ending in अम् . ( णमुल् ) in the sense of repetition, e. g. स्मारं स्मारं वक्ष्ये, भोजं भोजं व्रजति confer, compare आभीक्ष्ण्ये द्वे भवतः P. VIII. 1.12 Vart. 7; (4) any word (a) in the sense of constant or frequent action, (b) in the sense of repetition, (c) showing reproach, or scorn, or quality in the sense of its incomplete possess-, ion, or (d) in the vocative case at the beginning of a sentence in some specified senses; reduplication is also prescribed for the prepositions परि, प्र, सम्, उप, उद्, उपरि, अधि, अघस् in some specified senses confer, compare P. VIII. 1.1 to 15. A letter excepting हृ and र्, is also repeated, if so desired, when (a) it occurs after the letter ह् or र् , which is preceded by a vowel e g. अर्क्कः अर्द्धम् et cetera, and others cf VIII. 4.46; or when (b) it is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant e. g. दद्ध्यत्र, म्द्धवत्र confer, compare P. VIII. 4.47. For details see Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VIII. 4.46-52. The word द्वित्व is sometimes used in the sense of the dual number; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.2.51. The words द्वित्व, द्विर्वचन and द्विरुक्त are generally used as synonymanuscript. Panini generally uses the word द्वे. For द्वित्व in Vedic Literature confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1.4; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 1-8 V, Pr. IV. 101-118.
dhuṭ(1)the augment ध् prefixed to the consonant स् following upon the consonant ड् or न् occurring at the end of a word; exempli gratia, for example श्वलिट्त्साये, महान्त्साये et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII.3.29; (2) technical short term for धातु (root); the technical term is धुष् , but the nominative case. singular. used is धुट्; (3) a technical term standing for cononants excepting semi-vowels and nasals; confer, compare धुटश्च धुटि Kat. III.6.51. The term is used in the Katantra Vyakarana. It corresponds to the term झर् of Panini.
dhruva(1)fixed,stationary, as contrasted with moving (ध्रुव) which is termed अपादान and hence put in the ablative case; cf ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् P. I. 4.24; (2) repeated sound ( नाद ) of a third or a fourth consonant of the class consonants when it occurs at the end of the first word of a split up compound word; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. II and XI. 24.
nāvyavadhānanecessary intervention; confer, compare येन नाव्यवधानं तेन व्यवहितेपि वचनप्रामाण्यात्, a statement which is looked upon as a general statement of the ' nature of Paribhasa occurring in the Mahabhasya on P. VII. 2.3.
nirastaa fault of pronunciation when a vowel is harshly pronounced and hence is not properly audible; confer, compare निरस्तं निष्ठुरम् Pradipa on M.Bh. I. 1. Ahn. 1. The fault occurs when the place and the means of utterance are pressed and drawn in;confer, compare निरस्तं स्थानकरणापकर्षे Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 2.
nirākṛta(1)set aside; answered; the word is frequently used in connection with faults which are stated to occur or present themselves if a particular explanation is given; (2) prevailed over by another; confer, compare तदा न रूपं लभते निराकृतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI. 30, where Uvvata paraphrases निराकृत as विस्मृत.
nivṛtti(1)cessation of recurrence of a word or words from a rule to a subsequent rule or rules; non-application of a rule consequent upon the cessation of recurrence or anuvrtti cf; न ज्ञायते केनाभिप्रायेण प्रसजति केन निवृत्तिं करोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. 1.1.44 Vart.8. confer, compare also एकयोगनिर्दिष्टानां सह वा प्रवृत्तिः सह वा निवृत्तिः Kat. Par. Vr. Pari. 9; (2) cessation or removal; confer, compare न च संज्ञाया निवृत्तिरुच्यते । स्वभावतः संज्ञा संज्ञिन; प्रत्याय्य निवर्तन्ते । तेन अनुबन्धानामपि निवृत्तिर्भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.1. Vart. 7; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1. 3 et cetera, and others; confer, compare also the usual word उदात्तनिवृत्तिस्वरः.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
para(l)subsequent,as opposed to पूर्व or prior the word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a rule or an operation prescribed later on in a grammar treatise; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; ( 2 ) occurring after ( something ); confer, compare प्रत्ययः परश्च P. III. 1.1 and 2; confer, compare also तत् परस्वरम् T.Pr. XXI.2.(3)The word पर is sometimes explained in the sense of इष्ट or desired, possibly on the analogy of the meaning श्रेष्ठ possessed by the word. This sense is given to the word पर in the rule विप्रातिषेधे परं कार्यं with a view to apply it to earlier rules in cases of emergency; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवति M.Bh. on I.1.3.Vārt, 6; परशब्दः इष्टवाची M.Bh. on I. 2.5, I. 4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7; II. 1.69 et cetera, and others
paravipratiṣedhathe conflict between two rules (by occurrence together) when the latter prevails over the former and takes place by. Virtue of the dictum विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I. 4.2; confer, compare कथं ये परविप्रतिषेधाः M.Bh. on I.4.2.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
parjanyavallakṣaṇapravṛttithe application of a grammatical rule or operation like the rains which occur on dry land as also on the sea surface: confer, compare कृतकारि खल्वपि शास्त्रं पर्जन्यवत् । तद्यथा । पर्जन्यो यावदूनं पूर्णे च सर्वमभिवर्षति । M.Bh. on P.I. 1.29 ; VI. 1.127: cf also यथा पर्जन्यः यावदूनं पूर्णे वाभिवर्षति एवं लक्षणमपि दीर्घस्य दीर्घत्वम् । चिचीषति, बुभूषति। Vyaadi. Pari. 58, confer, compare कृतकारि शास्त्रं मेघवत् न चाकृतकारि दहनवत् Puruso. Pari. 86.
paspaśācalled also पस्पशाह्निक; name given to the first or introductory chapter ( अाह्निक ) of the Maahabhaasya of Patanjali. The word occurs first in the SiSupaalavadha of Maagha. The word is derived from पस्पश् , the frequentative base of स्पर्श to touch or to see (ancient use). Possibly it may be explained as derived from स्पश् with अप; cf . शब्दबिद्येव नो भाति राजनीतिरपस्पशा Sis.II.112. Mallinatha has understood the word पस्पश m. and explained it as introduction to a Saastra treatise; confer, compare पस्पशः शास्त्रारम्भसमर्थक उपेद्वातसंदर्भग्रन्थः । Mallinaatha on SiS. II.112.
pākṣikaalternative; occurring optionally or alternatively; confer, compare पाक्षिक एष दोषः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.3.46 Vaart. 8; VI. 1.6I Vart. 4, confer, compare also पाक्षिक एक्श्रुत्यविधिर्भवति Kaas. on P. I.2.36.
pāṇinisūtracalled also by the name अष्टक or पाणिनीय-अष्टक; name given to the SUtras of Paanini comprising eight adhyaayaas or books. The total number of SUtras as commented upon by the writers of the Kasika and the Siddhaantakaumudi is 3983. As nine sUtras out of these are described as Vaarttikas and two as Ganasutras by Patanjali, it is evident that there were 3972 SUtras in the Astaka of Paanini according to Patanjali. A verse current among Vaiyakarana schools states the number to be 3996; confer, compare त्रीणि सूत्रसहस्राणि तथा नव शतानि च । षण्णवतिश्च सूत्राणां पाणिनिः कृतवान् स्वयम् । The traditional recital by Veda Scholars who look upon the Astadhyayi as a Vedaanga, consists of 3983 Sutras which are accepted and commented upon by all later grammarians and commentators. The SUtras of Paanini, which mainly aim at the correct formation of words, discuss declension, conjugation, euphonic changes, verbal derivatives, noun derivatives and accents. For details see Vol.VII, Vyaakarana Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's edition pp. 152-162.
punaḥprasaṅgavijñānaoccurrence or possibility of the application of a preceding grammatical rule or operation a second time again, after once it has been set aside by a subsequent opposing rule or rules in conflict; confer, compare पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्धम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 39; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 4.2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7; confer, comparealso Puru. Pari. 40.
punarvṛttioccurrence of the same operation again after it has once occurred and has been superseded; confer, compare अङ्गवृत्ते पुनवृत्ताद​विधिः, M.Bh. on VI. 4.160;VII. I.30 et cetera, and others
pum.or पुंस् masculine. It appears that both पुभ्, and पुंस् were current terms meaning 'masculine ' in ancient days. confer, compare पुमः खय्यम्परे P.VIII. 3.12. and पुंसोसुङ् P. VII. 1.89. Although पुभ् is changed to पुंस् before a word beginning with a hard consonant, still पुंस् is given as an independent word derived from the root पा confer, compare पातेर्डुम्सुन् Unādi S IV. 177; confer, compare also the expressions पुंवचन, पुंलिङ्ग and पुंयोग.
purastātoccurring beforehand, preceding: confer, compare पुरस्तादपवादा अनन्तरान् विधीन् बाध​न्ते , नोत्तरान् Par. Sek. Pari. 59, also M.Bh. on VII. 2.100; confer, compare also the expression पुरस्तादुपकर्ष which means the same as अपकर्ष which is opposed to अनुवृत्ति.
prayogaratnamālāname of a recognised treatise on grammar written by पुरुषोत्तमविद्यावागीश of Bengal in the fourteenth century. The treatise explains many words which, although current in language and literature, cannot be easily formed by rules of grammar. The author has tried to form them by applying rules of grammar given in the grammatical systems of Panini and Katantra. The alphabet given in this treatise is according to the system of the Tantra Sastra which shows a scholarship of the author in that branch The grammar was studied much in Bengal and Assam.
prācyāvaiyākaraṇaan eastern grammarian; the term प्राच्य (eastern) being a relative term, the east is to be taken with respect to the place in the context. The word प्राचां occurs many times in Panini's Sutras and the term प्राक् may refer to countries east of the river शरावती or सरस्वती in the Punjab. See प्राग्देश a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. प्राचां is understood by some commentators as referring to time, in which case, the word may refer to ancient grammarians आपिशलि, शाकटायन, इन्द्र and others who lived before Panini; confer, compare प्राचीनवैयाकरणतन्त्रे वाचनिकानि ...Par. Sek. Pari. 1. The word प्राचीन is, of course, mostly used in the sense of ancient, rather than the word प्राच्. For specific peculiarities of the eastern grammarians see pp. 148-149 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's Edition.
prāptiapplication of a rule, arrival at a particular form; incidence, occurrence of a particular rule;confer, compare अनन्तरा या प्राप्तिः सा प्रतिषिध्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.43.
prāptijñaa person who knows only the application of a rule and the realization from it of the form that can be arrived at, as opposed to one who knows the form that is desired or current; cf प्राप्तिज्ञो देवानांप्रियः न त्विष्टिज्ञः इष्यते एतदूपमिति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 4. 56 Vart. l ; confer, compare also किरतिं चर्करीतान्तं पचतीत्यत्र यो नयेत् । प्रातिज्ञं तमहं मन्ये प्रारब्धस्तेन संग्रहः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII. 4.92.
prāmādikafaulty, uttered or expressed with a fault; inaccurate.
plākṣian ancient writer of a Pratisakhya work quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya.See प्लाक्षायण a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The words प्लाक्षि and प्लाक्षायण as also प्लाक्षी ( feminine ) occur in the Mahabhasya also, but not in the Ganapatha of Panini.
balīyastvarelative superiority in strength possessed by rules of grammar or by operations based on rules of grammar. This Superiority is decided generally on any one or more of the four recognised criteria such as परत्व, नित्यत्व, अन्तरङ्गत्व and अपवादत्व. The phrase अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् very frequently occurs in the varttikas and in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare M.Bh. on P. III. 1.67, VI.i.17, 85 Vart. 15, VI. 4.62 and VII.1.1.
bahiraṅgaa rule or operation which is बहिरङ्ग (literally external); the word बहिरङ्ग is used in grammar in connection with a rule or operation, the cause ( निमित्त )of which occurs later in place or time than the cause of the other which is called अन्तरङ्ग. For the various kinds of बहिरङ्गत्व see the word अन्तरङ्ग where the kinds of अन्तरङ्गत्व are given.
bahiraṅgāsiddhatvainvalidity i. e. nonoccurrence or non-application of a bahiranga rule or operation before the antaranga operation which is looked upon as stronger occurring earlier to the mind, or in the wording, as it does.
bahvacmultisyllabled, a word which contains three, or more than three vowels; the word occurs many times in the sutras of Panini. confer, compare P. II. 4.66, IV. 2.73, IV. 2.109, IV. 3.67; V. 3.78, VI. 2.83, VI. 3.118.
bhāṣyakāraPatañjali, the author of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya; the term, in this sense, frequently occurs in works on Grammar. See भाष्य.
mantraname given to the Samhitā portion of the Veda works especially of the Ṛgveda and the Yajurveda as different from the Brāhmaṇa, Āraṇyaka and other portions of the two Vedas as also from the other Vedas; confer, compare मन्त्रशब्द ऋक्शब्दे च यजु:शब्दे च; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.68 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4. The word मन्त्र occurs several times in the rules of Pāṇini ( confer, compare P. II. 4. 80, III.2.71, III.3.96, VI. 1. 151, VI.1.210, VI.3.131, VI.4.53, VI. 4.141) and a few times in the Vārttikas. (confer, compare I. 1. 68 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4, IV.3.66 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5 and VI. 4. 141 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1). It is, however, doubtful whether the word was used in the limited sense by Pāṇini and Kātyāyana. Later on, the word came to mean any sacred text or even any mystic formula, which was looked upon as sacredition Still later on, the word came to mean a secret counsel. For details see Goldstūcker's Pāṇini p. 69, Thieme's 'Pāṇini and the Veda ' p. 38.
mahābhāṣyapradīpaa very scholarly commentary on Patanjali's MahabhaSya written by Kaiyatabhatta in the eleventh century, The commentary has so nicely explained every difficult and obscure point in the Mahabhasya, and has so thoroughly explained each sentence that the remark of later grammarians that the torch of the Mahabhasya has been kept burning by the Pradipa appears quite apt and justifiedition Kaiyata's commentary has thrown much additional light on the original arguments and statements in the Mahabhasya. There is a learned commentary on the Pradipa written by Nagesabhatta which is named vivarana by the author but which is well known by the name 'Uddyota' among students and teachers of Vyakarana. For details see pp. 389, 390 Vol VII, Patanjala Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition.
yatna(1)effort in the utterance of a letter: the word which is generally used for such an effort is प्रयत्न. This effort is described to be oftwo kinds अाभ्यन्तर internal id est, that is below the root of the tongue and बाह्य a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the root of the tongue id est, that is inside the mouth; confer, compare यत्नं द्विधा | अाभ्यन्तरो बाह्यश्च | S. K. on P. I. 1.9; (2) specific effort, by adding a word to a rule for drawing some inference, with a view to removing some technical difficulty: cf तेन पये धावतीत्यादौ यत्नान्तरमास्थेयम् Kaas. on P. VIII. 2. 25. The phrase कर्तव्योत्र यत्न: often occurs in the Mahaabhaasya.
yamanvāan obscure term found used in the Phit-sUtras राजाविशेषस्य यमन्वा चेत् ( आद्युदात्ते भेवति ) Phi-sUtra II. 42, where the word यमन्वा is explained as वृद्ध by the commentator for the meaning of वृद्ध, see वृद्धिर्यस्याचामादिस्तद् वृद्धम् P. 1.1.73.
yukti(1)argumentation: reasoning; (2) current maxim: confer, compare युक्तिसिद्धमेतत्.
yaugapadyasimultaneity of occurrence; simultaneous possibility of the application of two rules which evidently cannot apply simultaneously, but scope has to be given to one of the two, the priority being decided on the criteria of परत्व, नित्यत्व, अन्तरङ्गत्व and अपवादत्व;confer, compare न चास्ति यौगपदद्येन संभव: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.57; cf also M.Bh. on I. 4.1 , I. 4.2, II. 1.3 et cetera, and others
liṅga(1)sign or characteristic mark; generally the mute letter prefixed or suffixed to roots,affixes, or augments and their substitutes with a specific purpose; confer, compare किंचिल्लिङ्गमासज्य वक्ष्यामि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on I.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).7, अवयवे कृतं लिङ्ग समुदायस्य विशेषकं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.62 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5; (2) proof, evidence ( प्रमाण ); the word is often used in the Paribhāșendușekhara and other works in connection with a rule or part of a rule quoted as an evidence to deduce some general dictum or Paribhāșā; (3) gender; confer, compare लिङ्ग स्त्रीलिङ्गपुंलिङ्गनपुंसकानि Kāś. on P. II. 3. 46; confer, compare also प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम्. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa.Pari.71.The gender of a word in Sanskrit language does not depend on any specific properties of a thing; it simply depends on the current usage; confer, compare लोकाश्रयत्वाल्लिङ्गस्य which is often quoted in the Mahābhāsya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.36, II.2.29, II.4.12, IV. 1.3, V.3.66, V.4.68, VIII.1.15. For details see Mahābhāșya on P.IV.1. 3 where after a long enlightening discussīon the definition संस्त्यानप्रसवौ लिङ्गम् is given.
lokavijñānause or understanding of a word current among the people; confer, compare अन्तरेणैव वचनं लोकविज्ञानात्सिद्धमेतत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.2I Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5.
vācanikaexpressly cited by a वचन or a statement of the authors of the Sutra, the Varttika and the Mahabhasya, as contrasted with what naturally occurs or is inferred from their statements; confer, compare नेदं वाचनिकसलिङ्गता असंख्यता च ( अव्ययानाम् ) ( स्वाभाविकमेतत् M.Bh. on P.I. 1.38 Vart. 5 and P. II.2.6, confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.I.2.64 Vart. 53.
vijñeyaa matter of special understanding; the phrase अवश्यं चैतद्विज्ञेयम् very frequently occurs in the Mahabhasya; cf M.Bh. on P.I.1.1, 3, 5, 22, I.2.47, 48, 64, I.4.23 et cetera, and others
virāmaan ancient term used in the Prātiśākhya works for a stop or : pause in general at the end of a word, or at the end of the first member of a compound, which is shown split up in the Padapāṭha, or inside a word, or at the end of a word, or at the end of a vowel when it is followed by another vowel. The duration of this virāma is different in different circumstances; but sometimes under the same circumstances, it is described differently in the different Prātiśākhyas. Generally,there is no pause between two consonants as also between a vowel and a consonant preceding or following it.The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya has given four kinds of विराम (a) ऋग्विराम,pause at the end of a foot or a verse of duration equal to three mātrās or moras, (b) पदविराम pause between two words of duration equal to two matras; e. g. इषे त्वा ऊर्जे त्वा, (c) pause between two words the preceding one of which ends in a vowel and the following begins with a vowel, the vowels being not euphonically combined; this pause has a duration of one matra e,g. स इधान:, त एनम् , (d) pause between two vowels inside a word which is a rare occurrence; this has a duration of half a mātrā;e.gप्रउगम्, तितउः; confer, compare ऋग्विरामः पदविरामो विवृत्तिविरामः समानपदविवृत्तिविरामस्त्रिमात्रो द्विमात्र एकमात्रोर्धमात्र इत्यानुपूर्व्येण Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 13. The word विवृत्ति is explained as स्वरयोरसंधिः. The vivṛttivirāma is further divided into वत्सानुसति which has the preceding vowel short and the succeeding long, वत्सानुसारिणी which has the preceding vowel a long one and the succeeding vowel a short one, पाकवती which has both the vowels short, and पिपीलिका which has got both , the vowels long. This fourfold division is given in the Śikṣā where their duration is given as one mātrā, one mātrā, three-fourths of a mātrā and one-fourth of a mātrā respectively. The duration between the two words of a compound word when split up in the पदपाठ is also equal to one mātrā; confer, compare R.Pr.I.16. The word विराम occurs in Pāṇini's rule विरामोs वसानम् P.I. 4.110 where commentators have explained it as absence; confer, compare वर्णानामभावोवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् S.K.on P. I.4.110: confer, compare also विरतिर्विरामः । विरम्यते अनेन इति वा विरामः Kāś. on P.I.4.110. According to Kāśikā even in the Saṁhitā text, there is a duration of half a mātrā between the various phonetic elements, even between two consonants or between a vowel and a consonant, which, however, is quite imperceptible; confer, compare परो यः संनिकर्षो वर्णानां अर्धमात्राकालव्यवधानं स संहितासंज्ञो भवति Kāś. on P. I.4.109 confer, compare also विरामे मात्रा R.T.35; confer, compare also R.Pr.I.16 and 17. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P.I.4.109 and I.4.110.
visargaaspiration, leaving of the breath generally at the completion of the utterance of a word when there is a pause; the term विसर्जनीय was in use in ancient times. Although not mentioned in his alphabet by Pāṇini, this Phonetic element, visarga, is looked upon as a letter; it is mentioned as one of the letters in the Śikṣā and the Prātiśākhya works and Patañjali has advised its inclusion in the alphabet. As visarga cannot be found in use independently of another letter (which is any vowel after which it occurs) it is called अयोगवाह.
visarjanīyasame as विसर्ग which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare विसृज्यते पुनर्वर्णैर्न संबध्यते इति विसर्गः; Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. on Kat. I. 1. 16. The term विसृष्ट is also used in the same sense. The visarjanīya has the same position (स्थान) in the mouth as the vowel after which it occurs. It is a glottal sound; the Ṛk-Prātiśākhya says that some scholars describe visarjanīya as a chest sound: confer, compare कण्ठयोकार:प्रथमपञ्चमौ च द्वावूष्माणौ केचिदेतावुरस्यौ | Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I 18: confer, compare also उरसि विसर्जनीयो वा Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 3.
vṛta word signifying the end of a particular group of words; the word frequently occurs in the Dhātupāṭha of Pāṇini but not necessarily at the end of each class or group therein; exempli gratia, for example टुओश्चि गतिवृद्धयोः । वृत् | अयं वदतिश्च उदात्तौ परस्मैभाषौ | Dhātupāṭha at the end of the First Conjugation. Similarly वृत् is used at the end of the fourth, fifth, and sixth conjugations.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
vyatyayaoccurrence of one for another transposition: confer, compare सुतिङुपग्रहृ ... व्यत्ययमिच्छति शास्त्रकृदेषां ... Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.III. 1.85. See विपर्यय.
vyartha(l)useless, serving no purpose, superfluous; the word is usually used in the sense of useless or futile in connection with a rule or its part, which serves no purpose, its purpose or object being served otherwise; such words or rules have never been condemned as futile by commentators, but an attempt is made invariably by them to deduce something from the futile wording and show its necessity; confer, compare व्यर्थे सज्ज्ञापयति a remark which is often found in the commentary literature; confer, compare अन्यथा अन्तरङ्गत्वाद्दीर्घे कृत एव प्रत्ययप्राप्त्या तद्यर्थता स्पष्टैव । Par. Sek. Pari. 56; (2) possessed of various senses such as the words अक्षा: माषा: et cetera, and others: confer, compare व्यर्थेषु च मुक्तसंशयम् । M.Bh.on P.I.2.64 Vart. 52. The word व्यर्थ possibly stands for विविधार्थ in such cases. It appears that the word व्यर्थ in the sense of futile was rarely used by ancient grammarians; the word अनर्थक appears to have been used in its placcusative case. See Mahabhasya in which the word व्यर्थ does not occur in this sense while the word अनर्थक occurs at several places.
vyavadhāna(I)intervention; the word is used in connection with the intervention or occurrence of letters or phonetic units between the cause ( निमित्त ) of an operation and the operatee (विधिभाक् ); cf लोपे कृते नास्ति व्यवधानम् | स्थानिवद्भावाद् व्यवधानमेव | The word is used also in the sense of intervention in , general, which separates the two connected things; व्यवधानं च भवति वाक्ये राज्ञ ऋद्धस्य पुरुषः; the word व्यवाय is used in the same sense; confer, compare अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेपि; (2) an inserted letter or phonetic element; confer, compare व्यवधानः अन्त्यविकारे T, Pr. 185, 186.
vyākaraṇamahābhāṣyagūḍhārthadīpinīa brief commentary on the Mahabhasya, written by Sadasiva, son of Nilakantha and pupil of Kamalakara Diksita. The gloss confines itself to the explanations of obscure and difficult passages in the Mahabhasya and criticizes Kaiyata's explanations.
śabdparavipratiṣedhacl,. comparatively superior strength possessed by a word, which in the text of a particular sutra is later than another word, which is put in earlier in the Sutra. This शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधे is contrasted with the standard शास्त्रपरविप्रतिषेध which is laid down by Panini in his rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् and which lays down the superior strength of that rule which is put by Panini later on in his Astadhyayi: e. g. in the rule विभाषा गमहनविदविशाम्,it is not the word हन् although occuring earlier, but the word विश् occuring later in the rule, which helps us to decide which विद् should be taken confer, compareज्ञानार्तस्य सत्यपि विदरूपत्वे अर्थस्य भेदकत्वेन रूपवदाश्रयणात्प्रतिषेधाभावः | यद्यपि हन्तिना साहचर्ये विदेरस्ति तथापि शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधाद् विशिर्व्यवस्थाहेतुर्न हान्तिः ! Kaiyata on P. VII.2.18:confer, compare also, P.VI.1.158 V.12.
śabdavācyatvaexpression of its sense by a word which occurs to the mind of the hearer as soon as a word is heard.
ślokavārtikaVarttika or supplementary rule to Panini's rules laid down by scholars of grammar immediately after Panini, composed in verse form. These Slokavarttikas are quoted in the Mahabhasya at various places and supposed to have been current in the explanations of Panini's Astadhyayi in the days of Patanjali. The word is often used by later commentators.
ṣatvachange of the consonant स् into ष् in certain conditions in the formation of a word, or after prepositions in the case of verbs beginning with स्. This cerebralization of स् was a peculiar phonetic change which naturally occurred when स् in utterance came after a vowel excepting अ. Some of the Pratisakhya works have exhaustively treated this change and Panini has also mentioned many rules in connection with it.
saṃkrama(1)joining with a subsequent word after omitting a word or two occurring between; cf, गलत्पदमतिक्रम्य अगलता सह संधानं संक्रम:; e. g. शूद्रे अर्ये for शूर्द्रे यदर्ये where यत् is passed over in the krama and other recitals; cf Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 77, 165, 194; (2) a term used in ancient grammars for such affixes and others which do not allow the substitution of guna or vrddhi for the preceding vowel; the term is also used for the letters क्, ग् and ङ् when they are mute, serving only the purpose of preventing guna or vrddhi; confer, compare मृजेरजादौ संक्रमे विभाषा वृद्धिमारभन्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.3. Vart. 10.
saṃneiyogaoccurrence together of two or more words in one sentence or in one grammatical rule; confer, compare संनियोगशिष्टानामन्यतरापाये उभयोरप्यपाय: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV 1.36 Vart. 4; confer, compare also एष एव न्यायो यदुत संनियोगशिष्टानामन्यतरापाये उभयोरप्यभावः। तद्यथा देवदत्तयज्ञदत्ताभ्यामिदं ! कर्तव्यमिति देवदत्तापाये यज्ञदत्तोपि न करोति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 1.64 and 76.
saṃpradhāraṇāsimultaneous occurrence. अल्लोपस्य च यणादेशस्य नास्ति संप्रधारणा, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 4.2 Vart. 9; cf also सिद्धासिद्धयोश्च नास्ति संप्रधारणा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI, 1.9. Vart. 7.
saṃprasāraṇaliterally extension; the process of changing a semi-vowel into a simple vowel of the same sthana or place of utterance; the substitution of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ for the semi-vowels य्, व् , र् and ल् respectively; cf इग्यणः संप्रसारणम् P. 1.1.45. The term संप्रसारण is rendered as a 'resultant vowel' or as 'an emergent vowel'. The ancient term was प्रसारण and possibly it referred to the extension of य् and व्, into their constituent parts इ +अ, उ+अ et cetera, and others the vowel अ being of a weak grade but becoming strong after the merging of the subseguent vowel into it exempli gratia, for example confer, compare सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P. III. 2.8 Vart.1. For the words taking this samprasarana change, see P. VI. 1 .13 to .19. According to some grammarians the term संप्रसारण is applied to the substituted vowels while according to others the term refers to the operation of the substitution: confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.15. The substitution of the samprasarana vowel is to be given preference in the formation of a word; , confer, compare संप्रसारणं तदाश्रयं च कार्यं बलवत् Pari. Sek. Pari. 1 19. संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्व the relative superior strength of the samprasarana change in comparison with other operations occurring simultaneotisly. The phrase न वा संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्वात् is often used in the Mahabhasya which is based upon the dictum of the superior strength of the samprasarana substitution, which is announced by the writer of the Varttikas; P. VI. 1.17 Vart, 2. , See संप्रसारण.
saṃbhavaiit. possibility. The word is used in the general sense of the possibility of the application of a rule or of the occurrence of a rule; confer, compare विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान् .Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI, 4.49 Vart.: Pari. Sek. Pari. 100; confer, compare also असति संभवे बाधनं भवति | अास्ति च संभवो यदुभयं स्यात् | Siradeva Pari. 35.
satiśiṣṭaprescribed subsequently; occurring after the preceding has taken place; confer, compare सति शिष्टोपि विकरणस्वरः सार्वधातुकस्वरं न बाधते; although the words सति and शिष्टः are separate still it is habitual to take them combined in an adjectival sense and make the word सतिशिष्ट an adjective to the word स्वर as in the dictum सतिशिष्टस्वरबलीयस्त्वं च P. VI. 1. 158 Vart. 9.
satsaptamīthe locative case prescribed by the rule यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम् P. II.3.37 as scen in गोषु दुह्यमानासु गतः; confer, compare लुकि इति नैषा परसप्तमी । का तर्हि । सत्सप्तमी । लुकि सति इति . M, Bh. on P.I.2.49 Vart. 2. On account of the frequent occurrence of the word सति in a large number of examples of this locative absolute, the term सतिसप्तमी is used by modern grammarians for the better word सत्सप्तमी in the Mahabhasya: confer, compare M.Bh. on P,VI.4.23 as also on P.VIII. 3.61...
samayathe omission of words which have already occurred before in the recital of the Pada and other Pathas or recitals, with a view to avoiding an unnecessary repetition; confer, compareदृष्टक्रमत्वात्समयान् संदध्यात् सर्वशः क्रमे। पदेन व पदाभ्यां च प्रागवस्येदतीत्य च R.Pr.X.12.
samānāśrayahaving got the same wording to operate on; the word is used in connection with operations which occur in the same word or wording as contrasted with व्याश्रय;confer, compareसमानाश्रये कार्ये तदसिद्धं स्यात् S. K. on P. VI. 4.22: confer, compare also अत्रेति समानाश्रयप्रतिपत्त्यर्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VI,4,22.
sahacaritagoing together: occurring together; e. g. विपराभ्यां जेः ( where परा is taken as the preposition परा and not the pronoun परा which is the feminine. base of पर on account of the paribhasa सहचरितासहचरितयोः सहृचरितस्यैव ग्रहणम्): confer, compare Pari.Sek.Pari.103.
sāṃgrahasūtrikaa student of संग्रहसूत्र; the word occurs in the Mahabhasya along with वार्तिकसूत्रिक, and it may therefore mean a student of the stupendous work named the Samgraha of व्याडि which is believed to have consisted of small numerous sutralike assertions, with an exhaustive gloss thereon. See संग्रह.
sāti(l)taddhita affix. affix in the sense of entirety with respect to the occurrence of a thing where it was not before e. g. उदकसाद्भवति लवणम्, अग्निसाद् भवति confer, compare P. V. 4.52, 53: (2) taddhita affix.affix in the sense of 'handing over' or 'entrusting'; exempli gratia, for exampleराजसाद् भवति, ब्राह्मणसात् करोति, confer, compare P. V. 4.55.
sārasvataname of a grammar work which was once very popular on account of its brevity, believed to have been written in the sutra form by an ancient grammarian named Narendra who is said to have composed 700 sutras under the inspiration of Sarasvati.The exposition of these Sutras by a reputed grammarian named Anubhutisvarupacarya who possibly flourished in the thirteenth century A. D., is known by the name सारस्वतप्रक्रिया which has remained as a text book on grammar to the present day in some parts of India. This प्रक्रिया is popularly known as सारस्वतव्याकरण. The technical terms in this grammar are the current popular ones.
svara(l)vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
svaritapratijñāthe conventional dictum that a particular rule or part of a rule, is marked with the accent स्वरित which enables the grammarians to decide that that rule or that part of a rule is to occur in each of the subsequent Sutras, the limit of continuation being ascertained from convention. It is possible that Panini in his original recital of the Astadhyayi recited the words in the rules with the necessary accents; probably he recited every word, which was not to proceed further, with one acute or with one circumflex vowel, while, the words which were to proceed to the next rule or rules, were marked with an actual circumflex accent ( स्वरित ), or with a neutralization of the acute and the grave accents (स्वरितत्व), that is, probably without accents or by एकश्रुति or by प्रचय; cf स्वरितेनाधिकार: P. I.3.II and the Mahabhasya thereon.
     Vedabase Search  
49 results
curi stealCC Madhya 4.133
CC Madhya 4.174
CC Madhya 4.20
curi stealingCC Madhya 16.33
CC Madhya 8.278
curi stealing or coveringCC Antya 19.95
curi the concealmentCC Madhya 3.71
curi theftCC Adi 17.199
curi tricksCC Madhya 13.58
curi kare stealsCC Antya 9.90
curi kare stealsCC Antya 9.90
curi kari' stealingCC Adi 14.40
curi kari' stealingCC Adi 14.40
CC Antya 19.49
curi kari' stealingCC Antya 19.49
CC Madhya 8.102
curi kari' stealingCC Madhya 8.102
kene curi kara why do You stealCC Adi 14.42
kṣīra-curi-kathā the narration of the stealing of the condensed milkCC Madhya 1.97
mana curi stealing of the mindCC Antya 19.99
kṣīra-curira varṇana a description of Gopīnātha's stealing condensed milk at RemuṇāCC Madhya 25.246
kene curi kara why do You stealCC Adi 14.42
kṣīra-curi-kathā the narration of the stealing of the condensed milkCC Madhya 1.97
kene curi kara why do You stealCC Adi 14.42
kṣīra-curi-kathā the narration of the stealing of the condensed milkCC Madhya 1.97
kṣīra-curira varṇana a description of Gopīnātha's stealing condensed milk at RemuṇāCC Madhya 25.246
likhiyāchena pracura has written profuselyCC Madhya 19.118
mādhurya-prācurya the extensive quantity of sweetness in devotional serviceCC Madhya 25.277
mana curi stealing of the mindCC Antya 19.99
pāṣaṇḍa-pracure mostly atheismSB 12.2.12-16
pracura enoughCC Adi 8.29-30
pracura plentifulCC Madhya 3.48
pracura sufficientCC Madhya 4.182
pracura a large quantityCC Madhya 8.304
likhiyāchena pracura has written profuselyCC Madhya 19.118
pracura abundantCC Madhya 19.220
pracura deepCC Madhya 23.12
pracura without limitationCC Antya 4.34
pracura muchCC Antya 6.262
pracuraḥ too muchSB 1.18.43
pracuraḥ abundantSB 5.13.21
pracuram abundantlySB 10.51.42
pracuram abundantSB 10.52.8
pāṣaṇḍa-pracure mostly atheismSB 12.2.12-16
prācurya abundanceCC Madhya 21.118
mādhurya-prācurya the extensive quantity of sweetness in devotional serviceCC Madhya 25.277
prācuryeṇa very widelySB 5.26.3
prācuryeṇa as expansive as possibleSB 9.1.7
kṣīra-curira varṇana a description of Gopīnātha's stealing condensed milk at RemuṇāCC Madhya 25.246
     DCS with thanks   
Results for cur10 results
cur noun (masculine) [gramm.] root cur
Frequency rank 52419/72933
curu noun (masculine) a particular worm in the bowels (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35012/72933
curā noun (feminine) theft (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 52420/72933
apracura adjective few (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
little (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 43837/72933
aprācurya noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 43989/72933
cuñcura noun (masculine) Name einer Pflanze
Frequency rank 52412/72933
pracura adjective abounding in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
abundant (opp. to alpa) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
filled with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
frequent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
many (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
much (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
plenteous (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
plentiful (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7317/72933
pracuratara adjective very much
Frequency rank 58644/72933
pracurībhū verb (class 1 ātmanepada) to be augmented to be numerous
Frequency rank 58645/72933
prācurya noun (neuter) abundance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
amplitude (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
currency (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
multitude (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
plenty (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prevalence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prolixity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37449/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
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an acute kind of fever where all three humors participate; fever that is difficult to cure with various signs and symptoms similar to swine flu, typhoid et Century It is one of the 4 subtypes of tridoṣaja fevers.


fever due to curse of elders, gods etc; stress induced fever.


goat; ajāpancaka urine, feces, milk, curds and ghee of goat.


1. immortal, eternal, deathless; 2. quicksilver or mercury; 3. Plant a species of pine.


curing diseases that arise due to vāta.


incurable; intractable.


1. whorl, lock of hair that curls; 2. lethal point above the eye. 3. Plant east Indian screw tree, Helecteres isora.


external liquefication (of mercury).


digestion-external (of mercury)


a crucible filled with mercury is sealed and kept in a pit and covered with cow-dung discs and heated for specific time to make a rasauṣadha.


seed; semen; element; mercury.


1. teaching or enlightening; 2. burning incense; 3. awakening of mercury.


a metal treated with mercury or other metals attains whitenss or yellowness.


1. movement of mercury; 2. feet.




1. ladle; 2. collyrium prepared from curcuma aromatica or xanthorrhiza for eyes.


stream, current; one of the Keraliya therapies; medicalted liquid is dropped over forehead drop by drop.


1. ingestion; intake of food; promoting digestion; 2. Plant root of crape jasmine. 3. stimulation (in science of mercury).


internal liquefication (of mercury); internal digestion; liquefication of conusmed substance within mercury.


swallowing; lower metals swallowed by mercury.


cinnabar; vermillion; important mineral of mercury.




roasting; oxidizing metals; amalgamation of mercury; assimilation; digestion of metals by mercury.


tumor/adenoma on the palate; kaccapayantra an instrument used to make jārana of mercury and sulfur.


black mercurial; black sulphide of mercury; sulphur added to mercury and triturated without adding any liquid till it becomes fine black powder.


Plant curry leaves, Murraya koenigii.


coverings of mercury; women’s upper garment.


vernal keratoconjunctivitis or spring catarrh: a recurrent, bilateral, and selflimiting inflammation of conjunctiva, having a periodic seasonal incidence.


leaping of mercury.


bird curlew.


disease curable with great difficulty.


duration of an action, rise and falls of humors in the body: accumulation (sancaya), aggravation (prakopa), flow (prasara), translocation (sthānasamsraya), manifestation (vyaktībhāva), becoming chronic and incurable (bheda).


Plant curry leaves, Murraya koenigii.


mulk-curds hypothesis about the transformation of tissues.


1. sparrow; a commin bird; 2. safflower; 3. any fruit; 4. curl on the forehead.


1. symptomatogy, 2. calcinated mercury in the shape of phallus; 3. penis.


primary alchemical substances, mercury (pādarasa), vermillion (hingulīka), mica (abhraka), loadstone (kāntaloha), iron pyrites (vimala), pyrites (mākṣika), tourmaline (vaikrānta), conch (śankha).


crocodile; makaradhvaja cupid mercurial, mercurial preparation using mercury, gold and sulfur in different ratios for rejuvenation.


1. whey, watery part of the curds, liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained, 2. sour cream; 3. Lens culinaris.


small pox, measles, eruption of lentil shaped pastules, lentil, mosquito curtain, chicken pox.


1. mercury, 2. mixer.


swooning or stupefying (of mercury); calcining quicksilver with sulphur.


restraining, binding; cure, keeping down.


restraining (mercury), act of subduing.


one of the four tridoṣaja fevers, difficult to cure.


milk, curd, ghee, urine, dung of cow.


equal quantities of (cow’s) milk, curd, ghee & honey, sugar.


mercury, pāradaśodhana purification of mercury; pāradamāraṇa killing of mercury.


crust, hardened exterior, black sulfide of mercury prepared into a thick film (kajjali) and adding different ingredients one after the other in triturition in a khalva, ex: pancāmṛta parpati.


a quarter part gold and one part of mercury together mixed and pounded.


1. taste, flavour; 2. mercury; 3. essence of digested food that produces blood; 4. nutritive juice; 5. chyme or chyle; 6. gold.


immobalizing mercury, a process in medicinal alchemy.


calomel; sublimate of mercury.


1. curds mixed with sugar and spices; 2. mango tree; 3. sugar cane; 4. kind of grass.


1. ruby-like-chemical, 2. mercury based preparation used in skin diseases.


mercurial mud; black sulfide of mercury or kajjali ground with liquids.


scaly mercurial.


grinded mercurial; twelve parts of mercury and one part of sulphur are grounded in a mortar in sunshine, milk may also be mixed.


red mercurial, red oxide of mercury, red sulphide of mercury.


coagulation of mercury; mercury with water and saindhavalavaṇa kept for three days.


rasasindhūra (a mercurial preparation) prepared from six parts sulfur and one part mercury.


curable (disease).


1. renunciation, 2. coma; 3. putting sealed pot containing mercury and other medicines on the furnace.


one of the four tridoṣaja fevers, difficult to cure.


pushing, stretching out (mercury).


application of mercury.


curds, fruits, cinnamon tvak, cardamom ela, honey madhu, ghee ājyam, pepper marīcam and crystal sugar śarkara are well mixed, churned and strained through a white cloth and kept in a vessel scented with camphor is known as śikhariṇi; eminent or excellent woman.


vermillion, red mercuric oxide


scorbutic gingivitis; spongy gums; scurvy; an early stage of periodontal disease.


1. vinegar, fermented liquors. 2. treacle, 3. honey, 4. fermented rice gruel and watery substance above the curds are kept in a new and clean vessel underneath a bushel of paddy for three days.(Dalhana).


Plant curry leaves, leaves of Murraya koenigii.


copper pyrites or chalcopyrites; copper iron sulfide, occuring as brass-yellow crystals or masses.


gold or silver converted to ashes along with mercury and sulphur and regained several times.


1. causing to perspire, diphoretic, sudation or fomenting; 2. steaming, sudation therapy; 3. one of eighteen purification processes of mercury.


buttermilk, liquid obtained by adding equal quantity of water to curd and decanting by churning; takrakūrcika inspissated buttermilk.




two containers for mercury and sulfur for jārana or roasting.


curved bones like ribs.


gout and arthritis; a kind of arthritis that occurs when uric acid builds up in blood and causes joint inflammation.


occurring in wind and sunshine; a rejuvenating therapy.


transmutation of mercury.


a device to purify mercury; two earthern pots, one over the other, are sealed and heated on fire with mercury in the lower pot and water in the upper pot.


1. clear, figurative expression; 2. sauce; 3. seasoning; 4. dry curry.


diseases that are difficult to cure but not life-threatening, unimportant, trifling.


a crucible used for extraction of mercury.


(yuvāni.piḍika) pimples occuring during adolescence

     Wordnet Search "cur" has 17 results.


kaṇṭakita, kaṇṭakin, sakaṇṭaka, bahukaṇṭaka, pracurakaṇṭaka   

kaṇṭakaiḥ yuktaḥ।

bilvaḥ kaṇṭakitaḥ vṛkṣaḥ asti।


tārākīrṇa, tārākin, tārākita, tārāmaya, nakṣatramaya, nakṣatrākīrṇa, tārākīrṇa, nakṣatrīya, nakṣatramaya, nakṣatrākīrṇa, nakṣatravat, nakṣatravyāpta, bahunakṣatravyāpta, bahunakṣatra, pracuratāra   

yad nakṣatraiḥ vyāptam।

cintane lagnaḥ śyāmaḥ tārākīrṇam ākāśaṃ paśyati।


aprācuryam, nyūnatā, alpatā, kṣīṇatā, alpatvam, ayatheṣṭatā, hīnatā   

alpasya avasthā bhāvo vā।

samayasya aprācuryāt aham tatra gantum aśaknavam।


cauryam, steyam, cauram, caurikā, stainyam, stainam, curā, tāskaryam, taskaratā, muṣṭam, muṣṭiḥ, apahāraḥ   

sandhiṃ chitvā anyasya vastunaḥ grahaṇasya kriyā bhāvo vā।

rāmaḥ cauryaṃ karoti।


pracura, vipula, prabhūta, prajya, bhūyiṣṭha   

atyantam adhikam।

muralīlāla mahodayasya pārśve pracuraṃ dhanam asti।


prācuryam, pracuratā, vipulatā, bāhulyam, atyadhikatā, atiśayatā, ādhikyam   

adhikasya avasthā bhāvo vā।

śarīre śarkarāyāḥ prācuryāt madhumehaḥ udbhavati।


suvarṇam, svarṇam, kanakam, hiraṇyam, hema, hāṭakam, kāñcanam, tapanīyam, śātakumbham, gāṅgeyam, bharmam, karvaram, cāmīkaram, jātarūpam, mahārajatam, rukmam, kārtasvaram, jāmbunadam, aṣṭāpadam, śātakaumbham, karcuram, rugmam, bhadram, bhūri, piñjaram, draviṇam, gairikam, cāmpeyam, bharuḥ, candraḥ, kaladhautam, abhrakam, agnibījam, lohavaram, uddhasārukam, sparśamaṇiprabhavam, mukhyadhātu, ujjvalam, kalyāṇam, manoharam, agnivīryam, agni, bhāskaram, piñajānam, apiñjaram, tejaḥ, dīptam, agnibham, dīptakam, maṅgalyam, saumañjakam, bhṛṅgāram, jāmbavam, āgneyam, niṣkam, agniśikham   

dhātuviśeṣaḥ-pītavarṇīyaḥ dhātuḥ yaḥ alaṅkāranirmāṇe upayujyate।

suvarṇasya mūlyaṃ vardhitam।


paryāptam, yatheṣṭam, yatheṣṭaḥ, yatheṣṭā, pracuraḥ, pracurā, pracuram, vipulaḥ, vipulam, vipulā   

yāvad vāñcchitaṃ tāvad athavā kvacid vāñcchitād adhikam api।

śatānāṃ kṛte paryāptaṃ bhojanaṃ pacatu। / bhoḥ, yatheṣṭaṃ bhuktaṃ mayā adhunā kaṇamātram api bhakṣitum asamarthaḥ aham।


cur, apahṛ, hṛ, muṣ, parimuṣ, pramuṣ, sten, cauryaṃ kṛ, steyaṃ kṛ   

chalena kasya api vastunaḥ āharaṇānukūlavyāpāraḥ।

ko'pi mama syūtam acorayat।


adhaḥcaraḥ, apahārakaḥ, apahārikā, apahārakam, avahāraḥ, avāvan, avāvarī, ākhanikaḥ, ākhuḥ, āmoṣī, āmoṣi, kapāṭaghnaḥ, kapāṭaghnā, kapāṭaghnam, kambū, kalamaḥ, kavāṭaghnaḥ, kumbhīrakaḥ, kusumālaḥ, kharparaḥ, coraḥ, cauraḥ, corī, corakaḥ, caurī, caurikā, taḥ, takvān, taskaraḥ, tāyu, tṛpuḥ, dasmaḥ, dasmā, dasraḥ, drāvakaḥ, dhanaharaḥ, dhanahṛt, dhanahṛd, naktacāriḥ, naktacārī, nāgarakaḥ, parāskandī, parāskandi, parimoṣī, parimoṣiḥ, paṭaccaraḥ, pāṭṭacaraḥ, puraṃdaraḥ, pracuraḥ., pracurapuruṣaḥ, pratirodhakaḥ, pratirodhī, bandīkāraḥ, malimluḥ, malimluc, mallīkara, mācalaḥ, mīḍhuṣtamaḥ, mumuṣiṣuḥ, muṣkaḥ, mūṣakaḥ, moṣaḥ, moṣakaḥ, moṣṭā, rajanīcaraḥ, rātricaraḥ, rātryāṭaḥ, rikvān, ritakvān, ribhvān, rihāyaḥ, rerihāṇaḥ, laṭaḥ, luṇṭākaḥ, vaṭaraḥ, vanarguḥ, viloḍakaḥ, viloptā, stenaḥ, stainyaḥ, stāyuḥ, steyakṛt, steyakṛd, steyī, staunaḥ, styenaḥ, styainaḥ, srotasyaḥ, harikaḥ, hartā, hārakaḥ, hārītaḥ   

adatsya paradhanasya apahārakaḥ।

rakṣakaḥ corān daṇḍayati।


pravṛddha, parivṛddha, samupārūḍa, vardhita, abhivṛddha, abhyuccita, āpī, āpyāna, āpyāyita, ucchrita, udagra, udita, udīrita, udīrṇa, udbhūta, udrikta, unnaddha, unnamita, upasṛṣṭa, ṛddha, edhita, jṛmbhita, paribṛṃhita, paripuṣṭa, parivardhita, pyāyita, bahulīkṛta, bahulita, bṛṃhita, pracurīkṛta, prathita, rūḍha, vejita, vivardhita, vivṛddha, śūna, sādhika, sahaskṛta, samārūḍha, samedhita, sampraviddha, saṃrabdha, samuddhata, samukṣita, samunnīta, saṃvṛddha, sāndrīkṛta, sātirikta, sphītīkṛta, ucchūna   

yaḥ avardhata।

pravṛddhena mūlyena janāḥ pīḍitāḥ।



karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

mama grāmaḥ gulabargānagarasya rāyacūranagarasya ca madhye asti।



bhāratadeśasya maṇipurarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

curācāndapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ curācāndapuranagare asti।



bhāratadeśasya maṇipurarājye vartamānaṃ nagaram।

kathañcit saḥ curācāndapuranagaram prāpnot।



lekhakanāmaviśeṣaḥ ।

vecurāmaḥ iti dvayoḥ lekhakayoḥ nāma vartate



ekaṃ rājakulam ।

kalacureḥ ullekhaḥ bālarāmāyaṇe asti



ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

kacurāyasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

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